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Sample records for 11-years follow-up study

  1. Sedentary behavior in adolescents: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dumith, Samuel C; Hallal, Pedro C; Menezes, Ana M B; Araújo, Cora Luiza

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of sedentary behavior and investigate associated factors in adolescents 11 years of age from the 1993 birth cohort in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Sedentary behavior was investigated with a questionnaire, and was defined as spending more than two hours per day watching television, playing videogames, or using the computer. Of the 4,452 adolescents interviewed, 98% reported watching television, 44% playing videogames, and 22% using the computer. The average time spent on each of these electronic media was 197, 36, and 17 minutes per day, respectively. Prevalence of sedentary behavior was 79.7% (95%CI: 78.6; 80.9) and showed a positive association with socioeconomic level and nutritional status and a negative association with well-being. These 11-year-olds spent extensive time at TV viewing, videogames, and the computer. Special attention should be given to the most exposed groups of adolescents, including the more affluent, overweight, and those with limited schooling. PMID:20963290

  2. Nutritional status of adolescents: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Cora Luiza; Dumith, Samuel C.; Menezes, Ana M. B.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Vieira, Maria de Fátima A.; Madruga, Samanta W.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the influence of demographic, socioeconomic, and maternal variables on the nutritional status of adolescents aged 11 years. We conducted a prospective cohort study including 4,452 adolescents born in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1993, accounting for 87.5% of the original cohort. Nutritional status was evaluated based on World Health Organization criteria. Subjects were classified according to nutritional status into thin, normal, overweight and obese. Independent variables analyzed included skin color, socioeconomic status, maternal schooling, and maternal body mass index (BMI). Analyses were stratified by sex, and multivariable regression was performed using the multinomial logistic approach. Overall, 7% of adolescents were classified as thin, 11.6% as overweight, and 11.6% as obese. Among boys, thinness was inversely associated with maternal schooling and maternal BMI. Among girls, thinness was directly associated with maternal BMI. Overweight and obesity were directly associated with socioeconomic status and maternal BMI, the former showing the strongest association with nutritional status among adolescents. PMID:20963286

  3. Patterns and correlates of attempted suicide amongst heroin users: 11-year follow-up of the Australian treatment outcome study cohort.

    PubMed

    Darke, Shane; Ross, Joanne; Marel, Christina; Mills, Katherine L; Slade, Timothy; Burns, Lucy; Teesson, Maree

    2015-06-30

    Lifetime and recent rates of attempted suicide and suicidal ideation amongst the Australian Treatment Outcome Study cohort of heroin users at 11-year follow-up were examined. The mean elapsed time since heroin initiation was 20.4 years. At 11-year follow-up, 42.2% of the cohort reported ever having made a suicide attempt, 11.1% having made a first attempt subsequent to baseline. In the year preceding 11-year follow-up, 1.6% had made an attempt, suicidal ideation was reported by 10.4%, and 4.2% had a current suicide plan. After controlling for other variables, past 12 month attempts, current ideation or plans were independently associated with a current diagnosis of Major Depression (odds ratios (OR) 1.67) and more extensive polydrug use (OR 1.39), while each standard deviation higher on the SF12 physical health scale (reflecting better health) was associated with reduced odds (OR 0.66). Suicide and suicidal ideation remained a significant clinical issue for heroin users, some 20 years after their heroin use commenced. PMID:25908265

  4. Course of HIV-I infection in a cohort of homosexual and bisexual men: an 11 year follow up study.

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, G W; Lifson, A R; Hessol, N A; Darrow, W W; O'Malley, P M; Buchbinder, S P; Barnhart, J L; Bodecker, T W; Cannon, L; Doll, L S

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To characterise the natural history of sexually transmitted HIV-I infection in homosexual and bisexual men. DESIGN--Cohort study. SETTING--San Francisco municipal sexually transmitted disease clinic. PATIENTS--Cohort included 6705 homosexual and bisexual men originally recruited from 1978 to 1980 for studies of sexually transmitted hepatitis B. This analysis is of 489 cohort members who were either HIV-I seropositive on entry into the cohort (n = 312) or seroconverted during the study period and had less than or equal to 24 months between the dates of their last seronegative and first seropositive specimens (n = 177). A subset of 442 of these men was examined in 1988 or 1989 or had been reported to have developed AIDS. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Development of clinical signs and symptoms of HIV-I infection, including AIDS, AIDS related complex, asymptomatic generalised lymphadenopathy, and no signs or symptoms of infection. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Of the 422 men examined in 1988 or 1989 or reported as having AIDS, 341 had been infected from 1977 to 1980; 49% (167) of these men had died of AIDS, 10% (34) were alive with AIDS, 19% (65) had AIDS related complex, 3% (10) had asymptomatic generalised lymphadenopathy, and 19% (34) had no clinical signs or symptoms of HIV-I infection. Cumulative risk of AIDS by duration of HIV-I infection was analysed for all 489 men by the Kaplan-Meier method. Of these 489 men, 226 (46%) had been diagnosed as having AIDS. We estimated that 13% of cohort members will have developed AIDS within five years of seroconversion, 51% within 10 years, and 54% within 11.1 years. CONCLUSION--Our analysis confirming the importance of duration of infection to clinical state and the high risk of AIDS after infection underscores the importance of continuing efforts both to prevent transmission of HIV-I and to develop further treatments to slow or stall the progression of HIV-I infection to AIDS. PMID:2261554

  5. Physical activity and all-cause mortality among older Brazilian adults: 11-year follow-up of the Bambuí Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramalho, Juciany RO; Mambrini, Juliana VM; César, Cibele C; de Oliveira, César M; Firmo, Josélia OA; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Peixoto, Sérgio V

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between physical activity (eg, energy expenditure) and survival over 11 years of follow-up in a large representative community sample of older Brazilian adults with a low level of education. Furthermore, we assessed sex as a potential effect modifier of this association. Materials and methods A population-based prospective cohort study was conducted on all the ≥60-year-old residents in Bambuí city (Brazil). A total of 1,606 subjects (92.2% of the population) enrolled, and 1,378 (85.8%) were included in this study. Type, frequency, and duration of physical activity were assessed in the baseline survey questionnaire, and the metabolic equivalent task tertiles were estimated. The follow-up time was 11 years (1997–2007), and the end point was mortality. Deaths were reported by next of kin during the annual follow-up interview and ascertained through the Brazilian System of Information on Mortality, Brazilian Ministry of Health. Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were estimated by Cox proportional-hazard models, and potential confounders were considered. Results A statistically significant interaction (P<0.03) was found between sex and energy expenditure. Among older men, increases in levels of physical activity were associated with reduced mortality risk. The hazard ratios were 0.59 (95% CI 0.43–0.81) and 0.47 (95% CI 0.34–0.66) for the second and third tertiles, respectively. Among older women, there was no significant association between physical activity and mortality. Conclusion It was possible to observe the effect of physical activity in reducing mortality risk, and there was a significant interaction between sex and energy expenditure, which should be considered in the analysis of this association in different populations. PMID:25931817

  6. Incidence of and Factors for Self-reported Fragility Fractures Among Middle-aged and Elderly Women in Rural Korea: An 11-Year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Soon-Ki; Kam, Sin; Chun, Byung-Yeol

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This community-based cohort study was performed to investigate the incidence of and factors related to self-reported fragility fractures among middle-aged and elderly women living in rural Korea. Methods: The osteoporosis cohort recruited 430 women 40 to 69 years old in 1999, and 396 of these women were followed over 11 years. In 1999, questionnaires from all participants assessed general characteristics, medical history, lifestyle, menstrual and reproductive characteristics, and bone mineral density. In 2010, self-reported fractures and the date, site, and cause of these fractures were recorded. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs). Results: Seventy-six participants among 3949.7 person-years experienced fragility fractures during the 11-year follow-up. The incidence of fragility fractures was 1924.2 per 100 000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 1491.6 to 2356.8). In the multivariate model, low body mass index (HR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.13 to 6.24), a parental history of osteoporosis (HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.18 to 3.49), and postmenopausal status (HR, 3.50; 95% CI, 1.05 to 11.67) were significantly related to fragility fracture. Conclusions: Fracture prevention programs are needed among postmenopausal, rural, Korean women with a low body mass index and parental history of osteoporosis Korea. PMID:25274003

  7. Early Predictors of Language and Social Communication Impairments at Ages 9-11 Years: A Follow-up Study of Early-Referred Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiat, Shula; Roy, Penny

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to evaluate hypotheses that early sociocognition will predict later social communication and early phonology will predict later morphosyntax in clinically referred preschoolers. Method: Participants were 108 children ages 9-11 years who had been referred to clinical services with concerns about language at…

  8. Intake of fat and fiber-rich foods according to socioeconomic status: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Neutzling, Marilda B.; Araújo, Cora Luiza; Vieira, Maria de Fátima A.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Menezes, Ana M. B.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the food intake of adolescents participating in the 1993 birth cohort from Pelotas, Southern Brazil, according to socioeconomic position. We carried out a cross-sectional analysis of data collected in the 2004-2005 follow-up visit. Food intake in the previous year was evaluated using the Block questionnaire. Socioeconomic status was evaluated based on an assets index, divided into quintiles. Foods with the highest frequency of daily intake were white bread (83%), butter or margarine (74.6%), beans (66.4%) and milk (48.5%). Intake of butter or margarine, bread, and beans was more frequent among poorer adolescents, and the inverse was true for milk. Intake of fruits and vegetables was low in all socioeconomic strata, but particularly low among the poor. In early adolescence, all socioeconomic groups showed high consumption of foods rich in fat and low consumption of foods rich in fiber. PMID:20963287

  9. Paternal involvement, maternal employment, and adolescents' academic achievement: an 11-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Williams, E; Radin, N

    1993-04-01

    An 11-year follow-up study explored the effects of paternal involvement in child rearing and maternal employment in prior years on grades and educational expectations of a group of white, middle-class adolescents from intact families. Past maternal employment was found to be a more powerful predictor of children's academic performance and expectations than was amount of father involvement. Part-time maternal employment appeared to be optimal for children's academic expectations. PMID:8484436

  10. Hospital admissions from birth to early adolescence and early-life risk factors: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Ana M. B.; Noal, Ricardo B.; Cesar, Juraci A.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Araújo, Cora Luiza; Dumith, Samuel C.; Barros, Fernando C.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this prospective analysis was to describe the cumulative incidence of hospital admissions in the first year of life and between 1 and 11 years of age and to explore associated factors. Hospital admissions were collected through regular monitoring in the first year of life, and through maternal report on admissions between 1 and 11 years. Analyses were stratified by sex and adjusted for confounding factors. 18.1% of children were hospitalized in the first year of life, and 30.7% between ages 1 and 11 years. Among boys, hospital admission in the first year was associated with low family income, paternal smoking during pregnancy, preterm delivery, and low birthweight. Among girls, in addition to the variables described for boys, black/mixed skin color was also a risk factor for hospital admission. For admissions between 1 and 11 years of age, low family income and gestational age ≥ 37 weeks were found to be significant risk factors. PMID:20963296

  11. A Neurophysiological Marker of Impaired Preparation in an 11-Year Follow-Up Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doehnert, Mirko; Brandeis, Daniel; Schneider, Gudrun; Drechsler, Renate; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Background: This longitudinal electrophysiological study investigated the course of multiple impaired cognitive brain functions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adulthood by comparing developmental trajectories of individuals with ADHD and typically developing controls. Methods: Subjects with ADHD ("N"…

  12. Concurrent determinants of blood pressure among adolescents: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Ana M. B.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Araújo, Cora Luiza; Barros, Fernando C.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate concurrent risk factors for high blood pressure in adolescents. This is a prospective cohort study including 4,452 adolescents born in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 1993. Blood pressure was measured before and after the interview, and the mean value was used in the analyses. Mean systolic blood pressure was 101.9mmHg (SD = 12.3) and mean diastolic pressure was 63.4mmHg (SD = 9.9). Adolescents with black skin had higher blood pressure than those with white skin. Mean systolic pressure among subjects in the top quartile of body mass index (BMI) was 11.6mmHg higher than among those in the lowest quartile. Mean systolic pressure among postmenarcheal girls was 5.4mmHg higher than among premenarcheal girls. Similar trends were found for diastolic arterial pressure. Our findings suggest that blood pressure control must begin already in childhood and adolescence. PMID:20963295

  13. A case of dissociative fugue and general amnesia with an 11-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Helmes, Edward; Brown, Julie-May; Elliott, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Dissociative fugue refers to loss of personal identity, often with the associated loss of memories of events (general amnesia). Here we report on the psychological assessment of a 54-year-old woman with loss of identity and memories of 33 years of her life attributed to dissociative fugue, along with a follow-up 11 years later. Significant levels of personal injury and stress preceded the onset of the amnesia. A detailed neuropsychological assessment was completed at a university psychology clinic, with a follow-up assessment there about 11 years later with an intent to determine whether changes in her cognitive status were associated with better recall of her life and with her emotional state. Psychomotor slowing and low scores on measures of attention and both verbal and visual memory were present initially, along with significant psychological distress associated with the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder. Although memories of her life had not returned by follow-up, distress had abated and memory test scores had improved. The passage of time and a better emotional state did not lead to recovery of lost memories. Contrary to expectations, performance on tests of executive functions was good on both occasions. Multiple stressful events are attributed as having a role in maintaining the loss of memories. PMID:25365262

  14. Does telomere length predict decline in physical functioning in older twin sisters during an 11-year follow-up?

    PubMed

    Sillanpää, Elina; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantanen, Taina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2016-04-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is known to be associated with mortality, but its association with age-related decline in physical functioning and the development of disability is less clear. This study examined the associations between LTL and physical functioning, and investigated whether LTL predicts level of physical functioning over an 11-year follow-up. Older mono- (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin sisters (n = 386) participated in the study. Relative LTL was measured by qPCR at baseline. Physical functioning was measured by 6-min walking distance and level of physical activity (PA). Walking distance was measured at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. PA was assessed by questionnaire at baseline and at 3- and 11-year follow-ups. The baseline analysis was performed with path models, adjusted with age and within-pair dependence of twin pairs. The longitudinal analysis was performed with a repeated measures linear model adjusted for age and longitudinal within-pair dependence. A nonrandom missing data analysis was utilized. At baseline, in all individuals, LTL was associated with PA (est. 0.14, SE 0.06, p = 0.011), but not with walking distance. Over the follow-up, a borderline significant association was observed between LTL and walking distance (est. 0.14, SE 0.07, p = 0.060) and a significant association between LTL and PA (est. 0.19, SE 0.06, p = 0.001). The results suggest that LTL is associated with PA and may, therefore, serve as a biomarker predicting the development of disability. Longitudinal associations between LTL and PA were observed only when nonrandom data missingness was taken into account in the analysis. PMID:26940017

  15. Floating shoulders: Clinical and radiographic analysis at a mean follow-up of 11 years

    PubMed Central

    Pailhes, ReÌ gis; Bonnevialle, Nicolas; Laffosse, JeanMichel; Tricoire, JeanLouis; Cavaignac, Etienne; Chiron, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Context: The floating shoulder (FS) is an uncommon injury, which can be managed conservatively or surgically. The therapeutic option remains controversial. Aims: The goal of our study was to evaluate the long-term results and to identify predictive factors of functional outcomes. Settings and Design: Retrospective monocentric study. Materials and Methods: Forty consecutive FS were included (24 nonoperated and 16 operated) from 1984 to 2009. Clinical results were assessed with Simple Shoulder Test (SST), Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS), Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), Short Form-12 (SF12), Disabilities of the Arm Shoulder and Hand score (DASH), and Constant score (CST). Plain radiographs were reviewed to evaluate secondary displacement, fracture healing, and modification of the lateral offset of the gleno-humeral joint (chest X-rays). New radiographs were made to evaluate osteoarthritis during follow-up. Statistical Analysis Used: T-test, Mann-Whitney test, and the Pearson's correlation coefficient were used. The significance level was set at 0.05. Results: At mean follow-up of 135 months (range 12-312), clinical results were satisfactory regarding different mean scores: SST 10.5 points, OSS 14 points, SANE 81%, SF12 (50 points and 60 points), DASH 14.5 points and CST 84 points. There were no significant differences between operative and non-operative groups. However, the loss of lateral offset influenced the results negatively. Osteoarthritis was diagnosed in five patients (12.5%) without correlation to fracture patterns and type of treatment. Conclusions: This study advocates that floating shoulder may be treated conservatively and surgically with satisfactory clinical long-term outcomes. However, the loss of gleno-humeral lateral offset should be evaluated carefully before taking a therapeutic option. PMID:23960364

  16. Instrumented spondylodesis in degenerative spondylolisthesis with bioactive glass and autologous bone: a prospective 11-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Frantzén, Janek; Rantakokko, Juho; Aro, Hannu T; Heinänen, Jyrki; Kajander, Sami; Gullichsen, Eero; Kotilainen, Esa; Lindfors, Nina C

    2011-10-01

    A prospective long-term follow-up study of bioactive glass (BAG)-S53P4 and autogenous bone (AB) used as bone graft substitutes for posterolateral spondylodesis in treatment of degenerative spondylolisthesis during 1996 to 1998 was conducted. The surgical procedure was a standardized instrumented posterolateral fusion that used USS/VAS. BAG was implanted on the left side of the fusion bed and AB on the right side. The operative outcome was evaluated on x-rays and computed tomography scans, and a clinical examination was also performed. Seventeen patients (12 women, 5 men) participated in the 11-year follow-up. The mean Oswestry Disability Index score at the follow-up was 21 (range 0 to 52), compared with 49 (range 32 to 64) at the preoperative time. A solid bony fusion was seen on computed tomography scans on the AB side in all patients and on the BAG side in 12 patients. The fusion rate of all fusion sites (n=41) for BAG as a bone substitute was 88% at the L4/5 level and 88% at the L5/S1 level. The use of BAG as a bone graft extender can be considered as a good alternative in spinal surgery in the future. PMID:21909036

  17. High school Tay-Sachs disease carrier screening: 5 to 11-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Curd, Helen; Lewis, Sharon; Macciocca, Ivan; Sahhar, Margaret; Petrou, Vicki; Bankier, Agnes; Lieberman, Sari; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Delatycki, Martin B

    2014-04-01

    The Melbourne high school Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) carrier screening program began in 1997. The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes of this screening program among those who had testing more than 5 years ago, to evaluate the long-term impact of screening. A questionnaire was used for data collection and consisted of validated scales and purposively designed questions. Questionnaires were sent to all carriers and two non-carriers for each carrier who were screened in the program between 1999 and 2005. Twenty-four out of 69 (34.8 %) carriers and 30/138 (21.7 %) non-carriers completed the questionnaire. Most participants (82 %) retained good knowledge of TSD and there was no evidence of a difference in knowledge between carriers and non-carriers. Most participants (83 %) were happy with the timing and setting of screening and thought that education and screening for TSD should be offered during high school. There was no difference between carriers and non-carriers in mean scores for the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and Decision Regret Scale. This evaluation indicated that 5-11 years post high school screening, those who were screened are supportive of the program and that negative consequences are rare. PMID:23893770

  18. Follow-up Cost Study. TEX-SIS FOLLOW-UP SC5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugh, Ronald C.

    This report presents data on the costs of follow-up studies, based on 29 separate follow-up studies conducted by eight public community/junior colleges in Texas. The purpose of this study, conducted by Navarro College as a subcontractor of Project FOLLOW-UP, was to provide data and information regarding the cost of follow-up studies that would be…

  19. 1984 Graduate Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John Tyler Community Coll., Chester, VA. Office of Institutional Research.

    A follow-up study is conducted of each graduating class of John Tyler Community College (JTCC) to document student successes in the job market and in pursuit of advanced studies, provide feedback to administrators and faculty for upgrading educational offerings and services, and provide a summary of student opinions to improve services. A…

  20. Follow-up studies in oral leukoplakia

    PubMed Central

    Sugár, L.; Bánóczy, J.

    1969-01-01

    Of the precancerous conditions of the mouth, leukoplakia is the most common, and it was considered likely that the long-term follow-up of patients would yield valuable information for the control and treatment of the condition. A study of the histories of 324 patients, in whom leukoplakia had been diagnosed sometime during the previous 23 years, showed that there was a relationship between smoking and the frequency of leukoplakia. Alcohol, mechanical irritants and electric potential difference in the mouth were also important etiological factors, particularly in combination. Many of the cases with mild symptoms improved when the etiological agent was removed. The cases were classified into groups according to whether there were signs of keratinized mucosa, verrucous proliferations or ulcerated white lesions. The more severe cases more frequently developed carcinomas and were treated by surgery. PMID:5308702

  1. Adult Basic Education Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Ruth

    The Gateway Technical Institute's followup study on former adult basic education (ABE) students is examined in this report, which focuses primarily on the process of the study. Since the Gateway study complemented objective measures of program effectiveness with a perspective that is often missing in program evaluations, namely, former…

  2. Follow-up study of alcoholic hallucinosis

    PubMed Central

    Perme, Bojir; Vijaysagar, Kommu John; Chandrasekharan, R.

    2003-01-01

    Alcoholic hallucinosis is a pathological mental state characterized by an acute onset of predominant auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. In this study, 52 patients with a diagnosis of Psychotic disorder predominantly hallucinatory associated with alcohol use (F 10.52) were evaluated after a period of three years. Past history of withdrawal hallucinations was associated with alcoholic hallucinosis The study has found a wide spectrum of outcome confirming the earlier observations that alcoholic hallucinosis is a heterogeneous disorder. PMID:21206866

  3. Food Service Follow-up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David C.

    Bakersfield City College reports on a followup study done to evaluate their Food Service Management Program. The program offers courses in three areas: certification and skill updating for those already employed in school cafeteria work, an A.A. degree program, and avocational courses for extended day students. Identical questionnaires were sent…

  4. 1978 Entrant Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinley, John W.

    In spring 1982, a study was conducted to evaluate the success of Harford Community College (HCC), Maryland, in assisting students in achieving their educational goals, in preparing for transfer to a four-year college or university, and in career development. A sample of 650 students, selected from the 1,155 students who enrolled at HCC for the…

  5. Nursing Education Follow-up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David C.

    This report discusses a study made to obtain information that would improve the quality of the Bakersfield College nursing-education program and lead to a better match between supply and demand in the nursing labor market in the Bakersfield area. The five parts of the report are: 1. Methodology; 2. Results of Responses to Questionnaire Items; 3.…

  6. Respiratory poliomyelitis: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Alcock, A J; Hildes, J A; Kaufert, P A; Kaufert, J M; Bickford, J

    1984-05-15

    Data from the medical records of 113 patients living in Manitoba who had contracted respiratory poliomyelitis between 1952 and 1959 were compared with information obtained from interviews with these patients in 1980. The study was designed to determine whether the patients' respiratory function, mobility, ability to perform daily tasks, and employment, residential and marital status had changed between 1 year after the onset of polio and 1980. The patients' dependence on mechanical aids and other people was also studied. More than half (56%) of the patients perceived their respiratory impairment to be the same as it was 1 year after the onset of polio, 27% perceived the impairment to be increased, and 17% perceived it to be decreased. There was an association between level of respiratory function, mobility and ability to perform daily tasks. The 69 patients who lived at home had better respiratory function, mobility and ability to perform daily tasks than the 24 patients who were assisted by a home care program and the 20 who lived in hospital. The latter group had the lowest levels of respiratory and functional ability. PMID:6586273

  7. Long-term follow-up (11 years plus) results of JRI (Furlong) total hip arthroplasty in young patients: cause for concern regarding acetabular cup?

    PubMed

    Sharma, D K; Brooks, Stuart

    2006-10-01

    We describe the clinical and radiological long-term outcomes of 77 primary total hip replacements in 69 patients using the fully hydroxyapatite-coated JRI (Furlong) total hip replacement. The total cases followed up were 77 hips, performed at a mean duration of 11 years and 2 months. Twelve hips could not be followed up for various reasons, which are discussed in the results section. The mean Harris hip score was 89. Seventeen acetabular cups were revised for aseptic loosening. Only one femoral stem was revised, for fracture. By Engh's criteria there were a further two unstable cups with no symptoms, and all femoral stems were stable. Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis revealed a survival of 98.8% for the femoral stem, 78.7% for the acetabular cup, and a combined survival of 77.8% for both components. Our findings suggest that the JRI (Furlong) hip gives a durable femoral stem implant fixation, whereas the prosthesis-bone interface achieved with the acetabular component is questionable. PMID:16761147

  8. A Study of Vocational Education Follow-Up Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterbauer, Nancy; Manning, Doris E.

    A study of Arizona vocational education follow-up systems was designed to survey problems in and promising practices for developing information systems to provide useful data for decision making. Interviews with state, county, college, and school district personnel revealed that the major problem faced by those conducting follow-up studies at both…

  9. Graduate Follow-Up Studies: How Useful Are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smedley, Rande H.; Olson, George H.

    Follow-up surveys may fall prey to several sources of bias and error, among them lack of control over independent variables, lack of item validity and reliability, sampling biases, and observation bias. Two follow-up studies have been dissected to expose inherent limitations: the Texas Education Product Study (TEPS) and Project TALENT. The…

  10. Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi TcII and TcI in free-ranging population of lion tamarins (Leontopithecus spp): an 11-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Lisboa, Cristiane Varella; Monteiro, Rafael Veríssimo; Martins, Andreia Fonseca; Xavier, Samantha Cristina das Chagas; Lima, Valdirene dos Santos; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a review of the dataset resulting from the 11-years follow-up of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in free-ranging populations of Leontopithecus rosalia (golden lion tamarin) and Leontopithecus chrysomelas (golden-headed lion tamarin) from distinct forest fragments in Atlantic Coastal Rainforest. Additionally, we present new data regarding T. cruzi infection of small mammals (rodents and marsupials) that live in the same areas as golden lion tamarins and characterisation at discrete typing unit (DTU) level of 77 of these isolates. DTU TcII was found to exclusively infect primates, while TcI infected Didelphis aurita and lion tamarins. The majority of T. cruzi isolates derived from L. rosalia were shown to be TcII (33 out 42) Nine T. cruzi isolates displayed a TcI profile. Golden-headed lion tamarins demonstrated to be excellent reservoirs of TcII, as 24 of 26 T. cruzi isolates exhibited the TcII profile. We concluded the following: (i) the transmission cycle of T. cruzi in a same host species and forest fragment is modified over time, (ii) the infectivity competence of the golden lion tamarin population fluctuates in waves that peak every other year and (iii) both golden and golden-headed lion tamarins are able to maintain long-lasting infections by TcII and TcI. PMID:25946156

  11. Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi TcII and TcI in free-ranging population of lion tamarins (Leontopithecus spp): an 11-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lisboa, Cristiane Varella; Monteiro, Rafael Veríssimo; Martins, Andreia Fonseca; Xavier, Samantha Cristina das Chagas; Lima, Valdirene Dos Santos; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2015-05-01

    Here, we present a review of the dataset resulting from the 11-years follow-up of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in free-ranging populations of Leontopithecus rosalia (golden lion tamarin) and Leontopithecus chrysomelas (golden-headed lion tamarin) from distinct forest fragments in Atlantic Coastal Rainforest. Additionally, we present new data regarding T. cruzi infection of small mammals (rodents and marsupials) that live in the same areas as golden lion tamarins and characterisation at discrete typing unit (DTU) level of 77 of these isolates. DTU TcII was found to exclusively infect primates, while TcI infected Didelphis aurita and lion tamarins. The majority of T. cruzi isolates derived from L. rosalia were shown to be TcII (33 out 42) Nine T. cruzi isolates displayed a TcI profile. Golden-headed lion tamarins demonstrated to be excellent reservoirs of TcII, as 24 of 26 T. cruzi isolates exhibited the TcII profile. We concluded the following: (i) the transmission cycle of T. cruzi in a same host species and forest fragment is modified over time, (ii) the infectivity competence of the golden lion tamarin population fluctuates in waves that peak every other year and (iii) both golden and golden-headed lion tamarins are able to maintain long-lasting infections by TcII and TcI. PMID:25946156

  12. The transitioning from trials to extended follow-up studies

    PubMed Central

    Drye, Lea T.; Casper, Anne S.; Sternberg, Alice L.; Holbrook, Janet T.; Jenkins, Gabrielle; Meinert, Curtis L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Investigators may elect to extend follow-up of participants enrolled in a randomized clinical trial after the trial comes to its planned end. The additional follow-up may be initiated to learn about longer term effects of treatments including adverse events, costs related to treatment, or for reasons unrelated to treatment such as to observe the natural course of the disease using the established cohort from the trial. Purpose We examine transitioning from trials to extended follow-up studies when the goal of additional follow-up is to observe longer term treatment effects. Methods We conducted a literature search in selected journals from 2000–2012 to identify trials that extended follow-up for the purpose of studying longer term treatment effects and extracted information on the operational and logistical issues in the transition. We also draw experience from three trials coordinated by the Johns Hopkins Coordinating Centers that made transitions to extended followup: the Alzheimer’s Disease Anti-inflammatory Prevention Trial (ADAPT); Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment (MUST) trial; and Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP). Results Transitions are not uncommon in multicenter clinical trials, even in trials that continued to the planned end of the trial. Transitioning usually necessitates new participant consents. If study infrastructure is not maintained during the transition, participants will be lost and re-establishing the staff and facilities will be costly. Merging data from the trial and follow-up study can be complicated by changes in data collection measures and schedules. Limitations Our discussion and recommendations are limited to issues that we have experienced in transitions from trials to follow-up studies. Discussion We discuss issues such as maintaining funding, IRB and consent requirements, contacting participants, and combining data from the trial and follow-up phases. We conclude with a list of recommendations to facilitate transitions from a trial to an extended follow-up study. PMID:25115882

  13. Implementing "Starting Points": A Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgen, William A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a follow-up study of the implementation of a group-based needs assessment program for unemployed people titled "Starting Points." Study uses focus group methodology to identify and categorize participant statements into 15 themes. The themes generated suggest that the program was successful in connecting clients with needed resources.

  14. FOLLOW UP STUDY OF CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Follow-Up Study involves locating and interviewing a group of young adults who, as 10-year-old children, were included in the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Study, an investigation of the prevalence and risk factors for developmental disabilities that was con...

  15. Diabetes after infectious hepatitis: a follow-up study.

    PubMed Central

    Oli, J M; Nwokolo, C

    1979-01-01

    Eleven patients (nine men, one woman, and one girl) aged 11-62 years who developed diabetes mellitus after an attack of infectious hepatitis during the Eastern Nigerian epidemic of 1970-2 were followed up for two to nine years. One patient aged 60 years remained diabetic after the original illness. In the remaining 10 patients the diabetes remitted after three to nine months (mean 6.7 months) but in four it recurred after a remission lasting one and a half to four years (mean 2.6 years). Results of this follow-up study seem to confirm that the pancreas is sometimes permanently damaged during infectious hepatitis. PMID:435884

  16. Follow-Up Study on the Adjustment of ADHD Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wacks, Julie M.; Gilman, David Alan

    A follow-up investigation evaluated the adolescent outcomes of 10 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who had been treated 5 or more years earlier at a university school clinic with a multimodal treatment program called the Cognitive Academic Social Treatment program. The study hypothesized that adolescents and parents would…

  17. The Doctorate in Education. Volume IV, Follow-UP Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlow, H. Glenn; And Others

    A study was conducted (follow-up to SP 004 600) of the 1,186 recipients of the Ed.D. and Ph.D. degrees in education in the United States in 1958. Questionnaire data was collected to investigate 5-year career development and job satisfaction plus ability and achievement (as measured by high school graduating class rank, intelligence test scores,…

  18. Ute Unit: Study Guide and Follow Up Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Conejos School District, Capulin, CO.

    The study guide and follow-up activities were designed primarily to give students a feeling of Ute life in the San Luis Valley in Colorado. The unit begins with six Southern Ute stories about the wolf and coyote, the race between the skunk and the coyote, the frog and the eagle, why the frog croaks, the bear (Que Ye Qat), and the two Indian…

  19. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONNAIRE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Follow-up questionnaire data set contains information concerning the activities within the household during the sampling week. The information is from 402 follow-up questionnaires for 80 households across 6 cycles. The Follow-up Questionnaire specifically addressed the time ...

  20. +Gz-related neck pain: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hämäläinen, O; Vanharanta, H; Bloigu, R

    1994-01-01

    This epidemiologic study was aimed at detecting determinants of acute inflight neck pain. It followed a cohort of 66 student fighter pilots from 1 to 3 years. These pilots were frequently exposed to high +Gz forces. The number of flight hours, strenuousness of work, job satisfaction, symptoms suggesting psychologic distress, smoking habits, and the frequency of muscle strength, muscle endurance, and aerobic training were investigated by questionnaires at the beginning and end of the follow-up period. Physical examination, consisting of measurement of height, body weight, body mass index, head and neck circumference, passive cervical range of motion, grip strength, and isometric strength of neck muscles was done only at the beginning of the study. The cumulative incidence of acute inflight neck pain was 37.9%. The number of flight hours was found to be the only significant determinant of acute inflight neck pain. PMID:8117219

  1. Mortality in achondroplasia study: a 42-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Julia; King, Terri M; Gambello, Michael J; Waller, D Kim; Hecht, Jacqueline T

    2007-11-01

    Achondroplasia (ACH) is the most common dwarfing condition having a prevalence of 1/25,000 live births. An increase in overall mortality, age specific mortality up to age 34 years and heart disease-related mortality was first reported in a 1987 study of a large population of ACH individuals. Since this study, concern about premature death, particularly in young adults, has persisted in the ACH population. The present study was undertaken to follow-up the patterns of mortality in a more contemporaneous ACH population. The vital status of 718 ACH individuals from the original study and 75 new ACH individuals was determined through the search of two computerized mortality database. The results showed that the overall mortality and age-specific mortality at all ages remained significantly increased. Rates of death were similar across all 42 years of follow-up suggesting that higher death rates were still occurring in the contemporary ACH population. Accidental, neurological, and heart disease-related deaths were increased in adults. Heart disease-related mortality, between ages 25 and 35, was more than 10 times higher than the general population. Overall survival and the average life expectancy for this ACH population were decreased by 10 years. These results demonstrate that despite advances in the knowledge of the natural history of ACH and health care needs of this population, mortality remains significantly increased. The high rate of heart disease related deaths illustrates the need to identify risk factors in the ACH population and develop treatment interventions accordingly. PMID:17879967

  2. Follow-up Studies and Teacher Education Program Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwanke, Dean

    1980-01-01

    This annotated bibliography deals with problem areas cited most frequently by educators. A brief review of follow-up research reveals that teachers' most frequent complaints about inadequate preparation relate to classroom management and discipline. (JN)

  3. Cohort Profile: The Manitoba Follow-up Study (MFUS).

    PubMed

    Tate, Robert B; Cuddy, T Edward; Mathewson, Francis Al

    2015-10-01

    The Manitoba Follow-up Study (MFUS) is Canada's longest running study of cardiovascular disease and ageing. The MFUS cohort consists of 3983 men recruited from the Royal Canadian Air Force at the end of World War II. At entry to the study, 1 July 1948, their mean age was 31 years, with 90% between ages 20 and 39 years. All study members were free of clinical evidence of ischaemic heart disease. The protocol of MFUS was to obtain routine medical examinations from these men at regular intervals over time. The research goal of the study was to examine the role that any abnormalities detected on routine electrocardiograms from apparently healthy men might play in the prediction of subsequent diagnoses of cardiovascular disease. Over the course of 65 years, about 35% of the cohort has documented evidence of ischaemic heart disease. The research focus was expanded in 1996 to explore the roles of physical, mental and social functioning in support of healthy and successful ageing. On 1 July 2013, 429 original cohort members were alive with a mean age of 92 years. Collaborative research with others outside the in-house team is welcomed. PMID:25064641

  4. Follow up study of workers manufacturing chrysotile asbestos cement products.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, M J; Winter, P D; Pannett, B; Powell, C A

    1986-01-01

    A cohort study has been carried out of 2167 subjects employed between 1941 and 1983 at an asbestos cement factory in England. The production process incorporated the use of chrysotile asbestos fibre only, except for a small amount of amosite during four months in 1976. Measured airborne fibre concentrations available since 1970 from personal samplers showed mean levels below 1 fibre/ml, although higher levels had probably occurred previously in certain areas of the factory. No excess of lung cancer was observed in the mortality follow up by comparison with either national or local death rates, and analyses of subgroups of the workforce by job, exposure level, duration of employment, duration since entry, or calendar years of employment gave no real suggestion of an asbestos related excess for this cause of death. There was one death from pleural mesothelioma and one with asbestosis mentioned as an associated cause on the death certificate, but neither is thought to be linked to asbestos exposure at this factory. Other suggested asbestos related cancers, such as laryngeal and gastrointestinal, did not show raised risks. Although the durations of exposure were short in this study, the findings are consistent with two other studies of workers exposed to low concentrations of chrysotile fibre in the manufacture of asbestos cement products which reported no excess mortality. PMID:3024695

  5. A Follow-Up Study of the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, P. A.; Reich, C. M.

    Followed up through interviews and questionnaires were 278 former students, average age 28 years, of two residential schools and one day school for the deaf in Ontario. Data was collected on the degree of hearing loss, use of a hearing aid, educational and occupational history, social integration, methods of communication, and attitudes toward…

  6. The Minnesota Couple Communication Program: A Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wampler, Karen Smith; Sprenkle, Douglas H.

    1980-01-01

    The Minnesota Couple Communication Program had a positive effect on the couple's use of open-style communication and on perceived quality of the couple's relationship immediately after training. Only the positive changes in perceived quality of relationship persisted at the follow-up. (Author)

  7. Latex allergy: a follow up study of 1040 healthcare workers

    PubMed Central

    Filon, F Larese; Radman, G

    2006-01-01

    Background Natural rubber latex allergy can cause skin and respiratory symptoms The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and incidence of latex related symptoms and sensitisation among a large group of healthcare workers in Trieste hospitals, followed for three years before and after the introduction of powder?free gloves with low latex release. Methods In the years 199799 the authors evaluated 1040 healthcare workers exposed to latex allergen for latex related symptoms and sensitisation by means of a questionnaire, a medical examination, skin prick tests, and IgE specific antibody assay. The second evaluation was carried out in the years 200002, subsequent to the changeover to a powder?free environment. Results Glove related symptoms were seen in 21.8% of the nurses (227), mostly consisting of mild dermatitis: 38 (3.6%) complaining of contact urticaria and 24 (2.3%) of asthma and/or rhinitis. These symptoms were significantly related to skin prick tests positive to latex (OR?=?9.70; 95% CI 5.5 to 17) and to personal atopy (OR?=?2.29; 95% CI 1.6 to 3.2). Follow up was completed in 960 subjects (92.3%): 19 new subjects (2.4%) complained of itching erythema when using gloves, but none was prick positive to latex. Symptoms significantly improved and in most cases disappeared (p<0.0001). Conclusions Simple measures such as the avoidance of unnecessary glove use, the use of non?powdered latex gloves by all workers, and use of non?latex gloves by sensitised subjects can stop the progression of latex symptoms and can avoid new cases of sensitisation. PMID:16421390

  8. A Follow-up Study: The Registered Nurses Program, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondwros, Jerry M.

    Twenty-seven (77.1%) of the thirty-five 1977 graduates of the South Georgia Colleges' Division of Nursing responded to a follow-up survey, producing the following information: (1) 17 were employed full-time, two were employed part-time, and eight were unemployed; (2) 88.9% agreed they were prepared adequately for the state board examination; (3)…

  9. The long-term effects of exposure to low doses of lead in childhood. An 11-year follow-up report

    SciTech Connect

    Needleman, H.L.; Schell, A.; Bellinger, D.; Leviton, A.; Allred, E.N. )

    1990-01-11

    To determine whether the effects of low-level lead exposure persist, we reexamined 132 of 270 young adults who had initially been studied as primary school-children in 1975 through 1978. In the earlier study, neurobehavioral functioning was found to be inversely related to dentin lead levels. As compared with those we restudied, the other 138 subjects had had somewhat higher lead levels on earlier analysis, as well as significantly lower IQ scores and poorer teachers' ratings of classroom behavior. When the 132 subjects were reexamined in 1988, impairment in neurobehavioral function was still found to be related to the lead content of teeth shed at the ages of six and seven. The young people with dentin lead levels greater than 20 ppm had a markedly higher risk of dropping out of high school (adjusted odds ratio, 7.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.4 to 40.7) and of having a reading disability (odds ratio, 5.8; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.7 to 19.7) as compared with those with dentin lead levels less than 10 ppm. Higher lead levels in childhood were also significantly associated with lower class standing in high school, increased absenteeism, lower vocabulary and grammatical-reasoning scores, poorer hand-eye coordination, longer reaction times, and slower finger tapping. No significant associations were found with the results of 10 other tests of neurobehavioral functioning. Lead levels were inversely related to self-reports of minor delinquent activity. We conclude that exposure to lead in childhood is associated with deficits in central nervous system functioning that persist into young adulthood.

  10. Practices and Opinions Related to Follow-up Studies by Public Junior Colleges: An Empirical Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deem, Thomas E., Jr.

    This study proposed to identify and report current programs of student follow-up at 16 Illinois and 24 non-Illinois public junior colleges. Plans and recommendations are given for improving follow-up programs in Illinois. The author concluded that (1) the purpose of follow-up is to evaluate and improve the institution's performance; (2)…

  11. Completeness of Follow-Up Determines Validity of Study Findings: Results of a Prospective Repeated Measures Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Tevaearai, Hendrik T.; Kuemmerli, Christoph; Tinner, Christian; Carrel, Thierry P.; Schmidli, Juerg; Dick, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Background Current reporting guidelines do not call for standardised declaration of follow-up completeness, although study validity depends on the representativeness of measured outcomes. The Follow-Up Index (FUI) describes follow-up completeness at a given study end date as ratio between the investigated and the potential follow-up period. The association between FUI and the accuracy of survival-estimates was investigated. Methods FUI and Kaplan-Meier estimates were calculated twice for 1207 consecutive patients undergoing aortic repair during an 11-year period: in a scenario A the population’s clinical routine follow-up data (available from a prospective registry) was analysed conventionally. For the control scenario B, an independent survey was completed at the predefined study end. To determine the relation between FUI and the accuracy of study findings, discrepancies between scenarios regarding FUI, follow-up duration and cumulative survival-estimates were evaluated using multivariate analyses. Results Scenario A noted 89 deaths (7.4%) during a mean considered follow-up of 30±28months. Scenario B, although analysing the same study period, detected 304 deaths (25.2%, P<0.001) as it scrutinized the complete follow-up period (49±32months). FUI (0.57±0.35 versus 1.00±0, P<0.001) and cumulative survival estimates (78.7% versus 50.7%, P<0.001) differed significantly between scenarios, suggesting that incomplete follow-up information led to underestimation of mortality. Degree of follow-up completeness (i.e. FUI-quartiles and FUI-intervals) correlated directly with accuracy of study findings: underestimation of long-term mortality increased almost linearly by 30% with every 0.1 drop in FUI (adjusted HR 1.30; 95%-CI 1.24;1.36, P<0.001). Conclusion Follow-up completeness is a pre-requisite for reliable outcome assessment and should be declared systematically. FUI represents a simple measure suited as reporting standard. Evidence lacking such information must be challenged as potentially flawed by selection bias. PMID:26469346

  12. FINAL REPORT: NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY FOCUS GROUPS - FOLLOW-UP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this work assignment was to add to our knowledge of the issues that will affect

    recruitment and retention of pregnant women into the National Children's Study by conducting 14 focus

    groups comprised of pregnant women, couples, and parents of young chi...

  13. 3-Year Follow-up of the NIMH MTA Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Peter S.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swanson, James M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Abikoff, Howard B.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Hechtman, Lily; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Pelham, William E.; Wells, Karen C.; Conners, C. Keith; Elliott, Glen R.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Hoza, Betsy; March, John S.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Severe, Joanne B.; Wigal, Timothy; Gibbons, Robert D.; Hur, Kwan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: In the intent-to-treat analysis of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD (MTA), the effects of medication management (MedMgt), behavior therapy (Beh), their combination (Comb), and usual community care (CC) differed at 14 and 24 months due to superiority of treatments that used the MTA medication algorithm (Comb+MedMgt)…

  14. [Follow-up studies of resections of claws in cattle].

    PubMed

    Grisiger, M; Martig, J

    1996-11-01

    Between 1980 and 1991 205 partial resections on claws of cattle have been performed at our clinic, 111 of these cases could be included in a retrospective study. In 57.5% of these cases parts of the third phalange had to be resected (group 1), in 14.2% parts of the third phalange and the deep flexor tendon had to be removed (group 2); in 28.3% also the distal sesamoid bone and/or other structures were affected (group 3). The average duration of treatment (mean +/- s) was 6.9 +/- 4.5 weeks for group 1, 6.5 +/- 1.9 weeks and 9.3 +/- 3.9 weeks for group 2 and 3, respectively. There was a highly significant difference between the means of group 1 and 3 and a significant difference between group 2 and 3. Of 103 animals which were provided for pasturing 44.7% could meet this requirement not at all or only with limitations. This was true for 66.7% of animals of group 2 and 58.2% of animals of group 3. 84.5% of 84 animals, which could be evaluated in this respect, the normal milk production was regained after treatment. At the time the retrospective study was performed, 13 of the animals still were alive. The average survival time (mean +/- s) after surgical treatment of 74 animals, for which the date of slaughter was available, was 22.0 +/- 21.8 months. Recurring lameness from the treated or another leg was the reason for salvaging in 39.2% of the animals. A comparison with results of an earlier retrospective study of our clinic, dealing with cattle after amputation to the toe revealed that with the exception of cases with a well deliminated zone of necrosis in the third phalange for economical reasons the toe amputation should be performed rather than a partial resection. For cases, where slaughter would be the only alternative to the resection, this method can well be recommended. PMID:9081817

  15. Follow-up Study of Patients With Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Peter; Kohn, Jean G.

    1979-01-01

    Of 319 patients with cerebral palsy recalled for reevaluation 15 years after the initial visit, 10 percent had died. Of the living, 55 percent had spasticity, 32 percent had athetosis, 4 percent had ataxia and 9 percent had mixed spasticity and athetosis; 38 percent had an intelligence quotient (IQ) less than 50, 24 percent between 50 and 79, and 38 percent had IQ above 80. There was a high correlation between overall functional outcome and intellectual level. Severity of physical disability, as measured by hand use, mobility and speech, also correlated with dependence, in part because increased severity of the disability was associated with decreased intellectual capacity generally. Twenty-five years after the initial visit, parental attitudes and personality intactness were evaluated (using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [MMPI]) and were correlated with satisfaction with status in life in 28 persons predicted to be independent on the 15-year study. Twenty (72 percent) of the 28 were satisfied with their status in life and of these, 16 were evaluated (with the MMPI) with 70 percent scoring in the normal range; 13 (65 percent) had parents with a positive attitude. Positive attitude was defined as parental feelings that the handicapped child was a worthy, valuable person, to be encouraged and assisted but not isolated from the world of nonhandicapped people. Careful serial assessment by professional teams combined with repeated long-term counseling of families can result in optimal outcome for the disability level involved, due to the primary role parents play in the development of a child's character and behavior. PMID:154207

  16. Barriers to follow-up for pediatric cataract surgery in Maharashtra, India: How regular follow-up is important for good outcome. The Miraj Pediatric Cataract Study II

    PubMed Central

    Gogate, Parikshit; Patil, Shailbala; Kulkarni, Anil; Mahadik, Ashok; Tamboli, Rahin; Mane, Rekha; Borah, Rishiraj; Rao, G V

    2014-01-01

    Background: Regular follow up and amblyopia treatment are essential for good outcomes after pediatric cataract surgery. Aim: To study the regularity of follow-up after cataract surgery in children and to gauge the causes of poor compliance to follow up. Subjects: 262 children (393 cataracts) who underwent cataract surgery in 2004-8. Materials and Methods: The children were identified and examined in their homes and a “barriers to follow-up” questionnaire completed. Demographic data collected, visual acuity estimated, and ocular examination performed. Statistical Analysis: SPSS version 19. Results: Of the 262 children, only 53 (20.6%) had been regularly following up with any hospital, 209 (79.4%) had not. A total of 150 (57.3%) were boys and the average age was 13.23 years (Std Dev 5 yrs). Poor follow up was associated with the older age group (P < 0.001), less education of mother (P = 0.012), father's occupation (P = 0.031), how much money spent on travel (P = 0.033) and was it paid or free surgery (P = 0.001). It was not related to gender, numbers of children in family, ordinal status of child, and social strata. Distance and cost were major barriers, as was the inability of the eye care center to communicate the importance of follow up. A prospective follow-up visit showed that 93 children needed Nd: YAG LASER capsulotomy, 5 needed low vision aids, 4 contact lens, and 162 a change of spectacles. The average visual acuity improved in 150 (38.8%) eyes >1 line with regular follow-up. Conclusion: Regular follow-up is important and improves vision; eye care practitioners need to take special efforts to ensure better follow-up. PMID:24008794

  17. Client Follow-Up Studies: A Handbook on Program Evaluation for Chemical Dependency Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Steven E.; And Others

    This handbook outlines procedures for planning and conducting follow-up studies of clients involved in chemical dependency programs. It is organized into eight chapters. Chapter I discusses purposes and applications of client follow-up studies. Studies may be used in program evaluation, program design, and staff development. Also, the study itself

  18. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--FOOD FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONNAIRE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set includes responses for 163 food follow-up questionnaires. The food diary follow-up questionnaire was used to identify how the dietary patterns observed for study participants who had submitted duplicate diet samples and completed the associated food diary related to...

  19. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONNAIRE DATA (ALL MONITORING PERIODS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set includes responses for 249 participants with a total of 444 follow-up questionnaires. Some participants were studied for more than one monitoring period. The Follow-up Questionnaire was used to provide information on relatively infrequent (e.g., less than daily) ac...

  20. The RETHINK Parenting and Anger Management Program: A Follow-Up Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetsch, Robert J.; Yang, Raymond K.; Pettit, Matthew J.

    2008-01-01

    This study is the first follow-up assessment of the RETHINK Parenting and Anger Management Program. Parent participants (N = 168) reduced their anger, violence, and family conflict levels from posttest to follow-up, on average, at 2.5 months on 13 of 15 dependent variables. Current findings are consistent with a small, albeit growing body of…

  1. General practitioners’ attitudes toward follow-up after cancer treatment: A cross-sectional questionnaire study

    PubMed Central

    Brekke, Mette; Vistad, Ingvild

    2015-01-01

    Objective An increasing number of cancer patients place a significant workload on hospital outpatient clinics, and health authorities are considering alternative follow-up regimens. It has been suggested that follow-up of cancer patients could be provided by GPs. This study aimed to explore GPs’ experiences with the provision of follow-up care for cancer patients, and their views on assuming greater responsibility in the future. Design Electronic questionnaire study. Subjects GPs in seven regions in Norway. Results A total of 317 GPs responded. Many GPs reported experience in providing follow-up care to cancer patients, during the years following initial diagnosis primarily in collaboration with hospital specialists. More than half of the GPs were satisfied with their collaboration. Most GPs preferred to be involved at an early stage in follow-up care and, generally, GPs felt confident in their skills to provide this type of service. Fewer than 10% were willing to assume responsibility for additional cancer patients, citing potentially increased workload as the main reason. Conclusions GPs acknowledged the importance of providing follow-up care to cancer patients, and the majority felt confident in their own ability to provide such care. However, they were hesitant to assume greater responsibility primarily due to fears of increased workload.Key PointsIt has been suggested that follow-up of cancer patients can be provided by general practitioners (GPs). The viewpoints and attitudes of GPs regarding such follow-up were investigated.GPs reported broad experience in providing follow-up care to patients after active cancer treatment.GPs acknowledged the importance of follow-up care, and they felt confident in their own ability to provide such care.Fewer than 10% of GPs were willing to assume responsibility for additional cancer patients, citing potentially increased workload as the main reason. PMID:26649452

  2. Breast Cancer and the Environment on Long Island Follow-up Study

    Cancer.gov

    A follow-up study on women with breast cancer who participated in the parent population-based case-control study of Long Island women to determine whether environmental and other lifestyle factors influence breast cancer survival.

  3. Six Years of Denver VGI: A Follow-Up Evaluation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sease, William A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This article describes the Denver Vocational Guidance Institutes as they operated from 1966 to 1972, presents the results of a long-term follow-up study, and discusses the generalizability of the training format. (Author)

  4. Cohort Profile of the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study at Final Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Tamakoshi, Akiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Koji; Sakata, Kiyomi; Mori, Mitsuru; Kikuchi, Shogo; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2013-01-01

    The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk (JACC Study) was established in the late 1980s to evaluate the risk impact of lifestyle factors and levels of serum components on human health. During the 20-year follow-up period, the results of the study have been published in almost 200 original articles in peer-reviewed English-language journals. However, continued follow-up of the study subjects became difficult because of the retirements of principal researchers, city mergers throughout Japan in the year 2000, and reduced funding. Thus, we decided to terminate the JACC Study follow-up at the end of 2009. As a final point of interest, we reviewed the population registry information of survivors. A total of 207 (0.19%) subjects were ineligible, leaving 110 585 eligible participants (46 395 men and 64 190 women). Moreover, errors in coding date of birth and sex were found in 356 (0.32%) and 59 (0.05%) cases, respectively, during routine follow-up and final review. Although such errors were unexpected, their impact is believed to be negligible because of the small numbers relative to the large total study population. Here, we describe the final cohort profile at the end of the JACC Study along with selected characteristics of the participants and their status at the final follow-up. Although follow-up of the JACC Study participants is finished, we will continue to analyze and publish study results. PMID:23583921

  5. Er:YAG laser ablation: 5-11 years prospective study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Nemec, Michal; Sulc, Jan; Miyagi, Mitsunobu

    2005-03-01

    The Er:YAG laser at 2940 nm has been proposed for use in dental cavity preparation and removal of carious enamel and dentin. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of the Er:YAG laser ablation in treating dental caries after a period from 5 to 11 years. For this study, 133 cavities were chosen, and for their reparation of it the three restorative materials were used. Baseline examination was made in the following intervals: one week, 1 year, and from 5 to 11 years after cavity preparation and placement of filling material. Clinical assessments were carried out in accordance with the US Public Health Service System. The follow-up included: the marginal ridge, marginal adaptation, anatomic form, caries, color match, cavo surface margin discoloration, surface smoothness, and postoperative sensitivity. Er:YAG laser ablation is an excellent method for treating frontal teeth, i.e., incisors, canines, premolars, and initial occlusal caries of molars. However, visual control of non-contact therapy is necessary. Er:YAG laser ablation is safe, and it strongly reduces pain. The laser treatment markedly decreases the unpleasant sound and vibration.

  6. Living with faecal incontinence: a 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mary

    Faecal incontinence (FI) is a taboo subject, and people living with it can feel stigmatised. This article reports on a 10-year qualitative follow-up to an initial constructivist-grounded theory project, investigating living with FI. This article will also look back at the initial study and the 5-year follow-up study undertaken. The research examines the challenges associated with living with FI and different ways of managing the condition, including the importance of social support. PMID:25757581

  7. The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Mortality at 13 Years of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Schrder, Fritz H.; Hugosson, Jonas; Roobol, Monique J.; Tammela, Teuvo L.J.; Zappa, Marco; Nelen, Vera; Kwiatkowski, Maciej; Lujan, Marcos; Mttnen, Lissa; Lilja, Hans; Denis, Louis J.; Recker, Franz; Paez, Alvaro; Bangma, Chris H.; Carlsson, Sigrid; Puliti, Donella; Villers, Arnauld; Rebillard, Xavier; Hakama, Matti; Stenman, Ulf-Hakan; Kujala, Paula; Taari, Kimmo; Aus, Gunnar; Huber, Andreas; van der Kwast, Theo; van Schaik R, Ron H.N.; de Koning, Harry J.; Moss, Sue M.; Auvinen, Anssi

    2015-01-01

    Background The European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) is a randomized multi-center trial with a predefined centralized database, analysis plan and core age group (5569 years) evaluating prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing in eight European countries. Methods The present results are based on prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality truncated at 9, 11, and 13 years of follow-up in the intervention arm (offered PSA testing) relative to the control arm. A secondary analysis corrected for selection bias due to non-participation was performed. Because of incomplete follow-up, only incidence and no mortality data at 9 years follow-up are reported for the French centers. Findings The rate ratio (RR) of PCa incidence between the intervention and control arms was 1.91 after 9 years (1.64 including France), 1.66 after 11 years and 1.57 after 13 years. The RR of PCa mortality was 0.85, 0.78 and 0.79 at 9, 11 and 13 years respectively (95% confidence interval 13-year 0.690.91, p = 0.001). This corresponds to a relative risk reduction of 21% and an absolute risk reduction of death from PCa at 13 years of 0.11 per 1,000 person-years or 1.28 per 1,000 men randomized, which is equivalent to one PCa death averted per 781 men invited for screening or one per 27 additional PCa detected. PCa mortality reduction in screened men after adjustment for nonparticipation was 27%. Interpretation This update of ERSPC confirms a substantial PCa mortality reduction due to PSA testing, with a substantially increased absolute effect at 13 years compared to findings after 9 and 11 years. Funding All sources of funding per center are indicated in the Web extra material section. Trial identification This trial is registered under Current Controlled Trials number: ISRCTN49127736. PMID:25108889

  8. Automated Telecommunication to Obtain Longitudinal Follow-up in a Multicenter Cross-sectional COPD Study

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jeffrey I.; Moyle, Sarah; Criner, Gerard J.; Wilson, Carla; Tanner, Ron; Bowler, Russell P.; Crapo, James D.; Zeldin, Robert K.; Make, Barry J.; Regan, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Background It can be challenging to maintain longitudinal follow-up of subjects in clinical studies. COPDGene is a multicenter, observational study designed to identify genetic factors associated with COPD and to characterize COPD-related phenotypes. To obtain follow-up data on patient's vital status and outcomes, the COPDGene Longitudinal Follow-up (LFU) Program was developed to supplement its parent study. Methods/Results We used a telecommunication system that employed automated telephone contact or web-based questions to obtain longitudinal follow-up data in our subjects. A branching questionnaire asked about exacerbations, new therapies, smoking status, development of co-morbid conditions, and general health status. Study coordinators contacted subjects who did not respond to one of the automated methods. We enrolled 10,383 subjects in the COPDGene study. As of August 29, 2011, 7,959 subjects completed 19,955 surveys. On the first survey, 68.8% of subjects who completed their survey did so by electronic means, while 31.3% required coordinator phone follow-up. On each subsequent survey the number of subjects who completed their survey by electronic means increased, while the number of subjects who required coordinator follow-up decreased. Despite many of the patients in the cohort being chronically ill and elderly, there was broad acceptance of the system with over half the cohort using electronic response methods. Conclusions The COPDGene LFU Study demonstrated that telecommunications was an effective way to obtain longitudinal follow-up of subjects in a large multicenter study. Web-based and automated phone contacts are accepted by research subjects and could serve as a model for LFU in future studies. PMID:22676387

  9. Neuropsychiatric impairment in children with continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep: a long-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Margari, Lucia; Buttiglione, Maura; Legrottaglie, Anna R; Presicci, Anna; Craig, Francesco; Curatolo, Paolo

    2012-12-01

    A long-term follow-up study was conducted in patients affected by Continuous Spikes and Waves during slow Sleep (CSWS) to evaluate the long-term outcomes. Twenty-five patients (19 males, 6 females), from 2 to 16 years of age (mean age 6 years±3 SD), affected by CSWS syndrome, as defined by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE, 1989), were enrolled and followed for 11 years (mean duration of follow-up: 3.9 years). At the time of the appearance of CSWS, one or more neuropsychiatric disorders were present in 96% of the patients, such as behavioral problems in 54%, mental retardation in 37.5%, learning disabilities in 33%, developmental coordination disorder in 17%, language disorder in 12.5%, and pervasive developmental disorder in 8%. During the follow-up, neuropsychiatric dysfunctions remained unaltered in 52% of the patients, worsened in 24%, and improved in only 24%. Our data confirm that CSWS may be associated with a broad spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders and may promote their worsening over time. Moreover, the findings cannot be generalized to all cases of children with CSWS because most of the children in the subgroups with no change in outcome and worse outcome had symptomatic CSWS. PMID:23159378

  10. A follow-up study of neurobehavioral functions in welders exposed to manganese.

    PubMed

    Ellingsen, Dag G; Chashchin, Maxim; Bast-Pettersen, Rita; Zibarev, Evgenij; Thomassen, Yngvar; Chashchin, Valery

    2015-03-01

    Welders may be exposed to high amounts of manganese (Mn). In this study 63 welders and 65 referents were followed up with neurobehavioral tests approximately 6 years after the initial examination at baseline. The welders were exposed to the geometric mean (GM) Mn concentration of 116μg/m(3) at baseline and 148μg/m(3) at follow-up. Their mean duration of employments as welders was 19.5 years at follow-up. Being exposed as a welder was associated with a decline between baseline and follow-up in the performance on the Static Steadiness Test, Finger Tapping Test and Grooved Pegboard Test. However, the decline was also associated with having high concentrations of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in serum (sCDT), indicating high alcohol consumption. When subjects with sCDT above the upper reference limit of the laboratory (≥1.7%) were excluded from the analyses, no difference in the decline in performance was observed between welders and referents for any of the applied neurobehavioral tests. Three welders had developed bradykinesia at follow-up, as assessed by a substantial decline in their Finger Tapping Test performance. They had also experienced a severe decline in Foot Tapping, Grooved Pegboard and Postural Sway Test scores (while blindfolded), while postural tremor as assessed with the CATSYS Tremor 7.0 was normal. Their neurobehavioral test performance at baseline 6 years previously had been normal. PMID:25579701

  11. Adolescents' Declining Motivation to Learn Science: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedder-Weiss, Dana; Fortus, David

    2012-01-01

    This is a mix methods follow-up study in which we reconfirm the findings from an earlier study [Vedder-Weiss & Fortus [2011] "Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48(2)", 199-216]. The findings indicate that adolescents' declining motivation to learn science, which was found in many previous studies [Galton [2009] "Moving to secondary school:…

  12. Timing of Discharge Follow-up for Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Vinson, David R.; Ballard, Dustin W.; Huang, Jie; Rauchwerger, Adina S.; Reed, Mary E.; Mark, Dustin G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Historically, emergency department (ED) patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) have been admitted for several days of inpatient care. Growing evidence suggests that selected ED patients with PE can be safely discharged home after a short length of stay. However, the optimal timing of follow up is unknown. We hypothesized that higher-risk patients with short length of stay (<24 hours from ED registration) would more commonly receive expedited follow up (≤3 days). Methods This retrospective cohort study included adults treated for acute PE in six community EDs. We ascertained the PE Severity Index risk class (for 30-day mortality), facility length of stay, the first follow-up clinician encounter, unscheduled return ED visits ≤3 days, 5-day PE-related readmissions, and 30-day all-cause mortality. Stratifying by risk class, we used multivariable analysis to examine age- and sex-adjusted associations between length of stay and expedited follow up. Results The mean age of our 175 patients was 63.2 (±16.8) years. Overall, 93.1% (n=163) of our cohort received follow up within one week of discharge. Fifty-six patients (32.0%) were sent home within 24 hours and 100 (57.1%) received expedited follow up, often by telephone (67/100). The short and longer length-of-stay groups were comparable in age and sex, but differed in rates of low-risk status (63% vs 37%; p<0.01) and expedited follow up (70% vs 51%; p=0.03). After adjustment, we found that short length of stay was independently associated with expedited follow up in higher-risk patients (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.5; 95% CI [1.0–11.8]; p=0.04), but not in low-risk patients (aOR 2.2; 95% CI [0.8–5.7]; p=0.11). Adverse outcomes were uncommon (<2%) and were not significantly different between the two length-of-stay groups. Conclusion Higher-risk patients with acute PE and short length of stay more commonly received expedited follow up in our community setting than other groups of patients. These practice patterns are associated with low rates of 30-day adverse events. PMID:25671009

  13. Diagnosis delay and follow-up strategies in colorectal cancer. Prognosis implications: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Controversy exists with regard to the impact that the different components of diagnosis delay may have on the degree of invasion and prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer. The follow-up strategies after treatment also vary considerably. The aims of this study are: a) to determine if the symptoms-to-diagnosis interval and the treatment delay modify the survival of patients with colorectal cancer, and b) to determine if different follow-up strategies are associated with a higher survival rate. Methods/Design Multi-centre study with prospective follow-up in five regions in Spain (Galicia, Balearic Islands, Catalonia, Aragón and Valencia) during the period 2010-2012. Incident cases are included with anatomopathological confirmation of colorectal cancer (International Classification of Diseases 9th revision codes 153-154) that formed a part of a previous study (n = 953). At the time of diagnosis, each patient was given a structured interview. Their clinical records will be reviewed during the follow-up period in order to obtain information on the explorations and tests carried out after treatment, and the progress of these patients. Symptoms-to-diagnosis interval is defined as the time calculated from the diagnosis of cancer and the first symptoms attributed to cancer. Treatment delay is defined as the time elapsed between diagnosis and treatment. In non-metastatic patients treated with curative intention, information will be obtained during the follow-up period on consultations performed in the digestive, surgery and oncology departments, as well as the endoscopies, tumour markers and imaging procedures carried out. Local recurrence, development of metastases in the follow-up, appearance of a new tumour and mortality will be included as outcome variables. Actuarial survival analysis with Kaplan-Meier curves, Cox regression and competitive risk survival analysis will be performed. Discussion This study will make it possible to verify if the different components of delay have an impact on survival rate in colon cancer and rectal cancer. In consequence, this multi-centre study will be able to detect the variability present in the follow-up of patients with colorectal cancer, and if this variability modifies the prognosis. Ideally, this study could determine which follow-up strategies are associated with a better prognosis in colorectal cancer. PMID:20920369

  14. Inpatient psychiatric adolescents function better than expected after discharge. A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Pelkonen, M

    1990-04-01

    In order to evaluate and develop an inpatient program for adolescents, a follow-up study was carried out based on interviews with 58 adolescents discharged from the inpatient unit on average 7 years before. The mental status of these patients had been poor on admission. At the time of follow-up interviews, approximately 30% of patients appeared to have normal, socially varied lives. The results were better for patients whose treatment at the unit had lasted for more than 3 months and had included psychotherapy. Roughly 10% of the patients at the time of follow-up interviews had severe problems. The prognosis was worst for the patients who needed to be transferred from the adolescent unit to adult psychiatric treatment units because of suicidal and violent behavior. Young patients with severe disturbances need an individualized, multidisciplinary treatment approach, including individual psychotherapy and vocational training. The treatment should continue uninterrupted on an outpatient basis. PMID:2343757

  15. Extending a Community of Care beyond the Ninth Grade: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellerbrock, Cheryl R.; Kiefer, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative within-site case study ("N" = 10) is a follow-up study to a 2006-2007 investigation that analyzed how 1 high school created a community of care for its ninth-grade students through the implementation of a ninth-grade transition program--Freshman Focus. All participants were interviewed again 3 years later during…

  16. A Follow-up Study of Returning Students--A Concentration on Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotsky, Frances; Ohm, Susan

    The office of Services for Returning Students (SRS) at the University of Texas (U.T.) at Austin conducted a follow-up study of men and women students who had visited the office from February 1969 to the end of 1971. The study ascertained the average interval between periods of formal education, the fulfillment of educational goals, and the use of…

  17. Sources of Validity Evidence for Educational and Psychological Tests: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cizek, Gregory J.; Bowen, Daniel; Church, Keri

    2010-01-01

    This study followed up on previous work that examined the incidence of reporting evidence based on test consequences in "Mental Measurements Yearbook". In the present study, additional possible outlets for what has been called "consequential validity" evidence were investigated, including all articles published in the past 10 years in several…

  18. Perceived Levels of Cultural Competence for School Social Workers: A Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teasley, Martell L.; Archuleta, Adrian; Miller, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to report on findings from a follow-up study that examined the relationship among social work education programs, postgraduate professional development, and school social workers' perceived levels of cultural competence in practice with urban minority youth. The initial study demonstrated that African Americans…

  19. A Follow-Up Study on Word and Non-Word Reading Skills in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roch, Maja; Jarrold, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The current study was designed to trace changes in the relationship between non-word reading and irregular word reading on the one hand, and between phonological awareness and non-word reading on the other, through a follow-up study of a group of individuals with Down syndrome. Twelve individuals with Down syndrome, whose data were originally…

  20. Redder and Much Redder: A Follow-up Study to "The Red and The Black."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jellema, William W.

    This report is a follow-up study of a survey conducted to determine projected financial problems in private colleges and universities during the academic years of 1969-70 and 1970-71. The same 507 institutions were used in the present study and the findings of the survey show that during 1969-70, the actual deficit figures were 26% greater per…

  1. Ten Years Later: A Follow-Up Study of Professors Still Working after Age 70

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Lorraine T.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of the end of mandatory retirement on professors over the long term. This follow-up study investigated the ten-year experience of professors who chose not to retire from a major research university after the elimination of the age 70 mandatory retirement in 1994. The initial interview study was conducted in 1998…

  2. A Follow-Up Study on Word and Non-Word Reading Skills in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roch, Maja; Jarrold, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The current study was designed to trace changes in the relationship between non-word reading and irregular word reading on the one hand, and between phonological awareness and non-word reading on the other, through a follow-up study of a group of individuals with Down syndrome. Twelve individuals with Down syndrome, whose data were originally

  3. Pre-Placement Anxiety among Foundation-Year MSW Students: A Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal Gelman, Caroline; Lloyd, Chrishana M.

    2008-01-01

    This Field Note presents a follow-up to a pilot study that explored pre-field placement anxiety for 1st-year MSW students. Previous studies report that students experience significant anxiety as they anticipate their field placement, and research indicates that anxiety has the potential to affect learning. A sample of 204 students reported…

  4. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Follow-Up Study of Psychosocial Adjustment and Community Reintegration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T.; Whitfield, Theodore H.; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (ages 10-18; n = 156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the 2-year period of follow-up, youth who had wounded or killed

  5. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study Second Follow-up (BPS:90/94) Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Daniel J.; And Others

    This document provides a summary and evaluation of the methodological procedures and results of the full-scale implementation of the Beginning Postsecondary Student Longitudinal Study Second Follow-up, 1990-94 (BPS:90/94). The study was conducted for the National Center for Education Statistics by Research Triangle Institute with the assistance of…

  6. Personnel Needs in School Psychology: A 10-Year Follow-Up Study on Predicted Personnel Shortages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Jose M.; Curtis, Michael J.; Tan, Sim Yin

    2014-01-01

    Concerns regarding whether a sufficient supply of school psychologists exists have been evident for decades. Studies have predicted that school psychology would face a critical personnel shortage that would peak in 2010, but continue into the foreseeable future. The current study is a 10-year follow-up investigation based on previously published

  7. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Follow-Up Study of Psychosocial Adjustment and Community Reintegration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T.; Whitfield, Theodore H.; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (ages 10-18; n = 156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the 2-year period of follow-up, youth who had wounded or killed…

  8. Follow-up study using iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging in a patient with neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ikekubo, K.; Habuchi, Y.; Jeong, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Saiki, Y.; Ito, H.; Hino, M.; Higa, T.

    1986-11-01

    A new radiopharmaceutical, I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) was used to determine the location and to follow-up tumors in a 13-month-old girl with neuroblastoma. I-131 MIBG imaging revealed both a primary abdominal tumor and a distant metastatic orbital tumor. Follow-up study with I-131 MIBG imaging demonstrated significant resolution of tumors after external radiotherapy and chemotherapy. I-131 MIBG imaging is a simple, safe, and specific method of determining the location of tumors and also is clinically useful in the evaluation and management of patients with neuroblastoma.

  9. Dietary changes in Vietnamese marriage immigrant women: The KoGES follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ji-Yun; Lee, Hakim; Ko, Ahra; Han, Chan-Jung; Chung, Hye Won

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The immigrant population has grown considerably in South Korea since the early 1990s due to international marriages. Dietary changes in immigrants are an important issue, because they are related to health and disease patterns. This study was conducted to compare changes in dietary intake between baseline and follow-up periods. SUBJECTS/METHODS Two hundreds thirty three Vietnamese female married immigrants. Baseline data were collected during 2006-2009, and the follow-up data were collected during 2008 and 2010. Food consumption was assessed using a 1-day 24-hour recall. RESULTS The amount of the total food consumed (P < 0.001) including that of cereals (P = 0.004), vegetables (P = 0.003), and fruits (P = 0.002) decreased at follow-up compared to that at baseline, whereas consumption of milk and dairy products increased (P = 0.004). Accordingly, the overall energy and nutrient intake decreased at follow-up, including carbohydrates (P = 0.012), protein (P = 0.021), fiber (P = 0.008), iron (P = 0.009), zinc (P = 0.006), and folate (P = 0.002). Among various anthropometric and biochemical variables, mean skeletal muscle mass decreased (P = 0.012), plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol increased, (P = 0.020) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein decreased at follow-up (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS A long-term follow-up study is needed to investigate the association between changes in food and nutrient intake and anthropometric and biochemical variables in these Vietnamese female marriage immigrants. PMID:24944778

  10. Dr. Leary's Concord Prison Experiment: a 34-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Doblin, R

    1998-01-01

    This study is a long-term follow-up to the Concord Prison Experiment, one of the best-known studies in the psychedelic psychotherapy literature. The Concord Prison Experiment was conducted from 1961 to 1963 by a team of researchers at Harvard University under the direction of Timothy Leary. The original study involved the administration of psilocybin-assisted group psychotherapy to 32 prisoners in an effort to reduce recidivism rates. This follow-up study involved a search through the state and federal criminal justice system records of 21 of the original 32 subjects, as well as personal interviews with two of the subjects and three of the researchers: Timothy Leary, Ralph Metzner and Gunther Weil. The results of the follow-up study indicate that published claims of a treatment effect were erroneous. This follow-up study supports the emphasis in the original reports on the necessity of embedding psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy with inmates within a comprehensive treatment plan that includes post-release, nondrug group support programs. Despite substantial efforts by the experimental team to provide post-release support, these services were not made sufficiently available to the subjects in this study. Whether a new program of psilocybin-assisted group psychotherapy and post-release programs would significantly reduce recidivism rates is an empirical question that deserves to be addressed within the context of a new experiment. PMID:9924845

  11. Proportional hazards regression in epidemiologic follow-up studies: an intuitive consideration of primary time scale.

    PubMed

    Cologne, John; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Abbott, Robert D; Ohishi, Waka; Grant, Eric J; Fujiwara, Saeko; Cullings, Harry M

    2012-07-01

    In epidemiologic cohort studies of chronic diseases, such as heart disease or cancer, confounding by age can bias the estimated effects of risk factors under study. With Cox proportional-hazards regression modeling in such studies, it would generally be recommended that chronological age be handled nonparametrically as the primary time scale. However, studies involving baseline measurements of biomarkers or other factors frequently use follow-up time since measurement as the primary time scale, with no explicit justification. The effects of age are adjusted for by modeling age at entry as a parametric covariate. Parametric adjustment raises the question of model adequacy, in that it assumes a known functional relationship between age and disease, whereas using age as the primary time scale does not. We illustrate this graphically and show intuitively why the parametric approach to age adjustment using follow-up time as the primary time scale provides a poor approximation to age-specific incidence. Adequate parametric adjustment for age could require extensive modeling, which is wasteful, given the simplicity of using age as the primary time scale. Furthermore, the underlying hazard with follow-up time based on arbitrary timing of study initiation may have no inherent meaning in terms of risk. Given the potential for biased risk estimates, age should be considered as the preferred time scale for proportional-hazards regression with epidemiologic follow-up data when confounding by age is a concern. PMID:22517300

  12. Long-Term Follow-up Study of Children Developmentally Retarded by Early Environmental Deprivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujinaga, Tamotsu; And Others

    This paper reports on a 14-year follow-up study of two developmentally retarded Japanese children, a brother and sister, who had been kept shut up in a small shack before being rescued (at ages 5 and 6 respectively). Following birth they consistently suffered malnutrition, maternal deprivation, social isolation from adults, language deprivation,…

  13. Exploring "Successful" Outcomes of Entrepreneurship Education: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Laura; Kapasi, Isla; Whittam, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    During 2005-2006 entrepreneurship students in several UK universities completed a survey about their background and career intentions. This paper reports, eight years on, on a follow-up study with ten of these participants, with the aim of exploring the students' intentions and subsequent actions since graduating. Using a qualitative methodology,…

  14. Vocational Education in Ohio Correctional Institutions: A Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abram, Robert E.; Wheatley, Robert

    A follow-up study was conducted of released youth and adult offenders who had had vocational training while incarcerated in six Ohio correctional facilities. Structured personal interviews were administered to 185 students by counselors and counselor managers of the Bureau of Vocational Rehabilitation, Ohio Rehabilitation Services Commission.

  15. Secondary Preventive Interventions with Preschool Children: A Follow-up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickel, Annette U.; Dyhdalo, Louise L.

    The long term effects of a preschool intervention program for an experimental group of high-risk, black, low income children were assessed and compared to a high-risk placebo control group and low-risk "normal" controls. Seventy first grade children were involved in this 2-year follow-up study. Of these children, 42 were involved in the preschool

  16. A Follow-Up Study of Graduates of the Perceptual and Behavioural Special Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershman, Janis

    Investigated with a follow-up study of successful reintegration into regular classes in the Toronto system was the success of two special programs for elementary level students who were identified as having learning disabilities presumed to be organic, or whose learning disabilities were primarily emotional or behavioral in origin. The initial…

  17. Curiosity and Exploratory Behavior in Disadvantaged Children: A Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minuchin, Patricia P.

    In a follow-up study of curiosity and exploratory behavior, subjects were 18 disadvantaged inner-city black children who had been observed at age four in their first year of a Head Start program, and who were now finishing first grade. Data were obtained from teachers, observations in the classrooms, and an individual session with each child. Each…

  18. Follow-Up Study of Former Students of the Criminal Justice Program. Volume XVI, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, George; Lucas, John A.

    A follow-up study was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) of students who had completed several courses in the Criminal Justice Program to determine why students left the criminal justice field, examine Criminal Justice students' enrollment and course-taking patterns, and to analyze withdrawal and failure rates in the course,…

  19. The Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS) 6-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Mark A.; Yershova, Kseniya; Lazzaretto, Deborah; Paykina, Natalya; Yenokyan, Gayane; Greenhill, Laurence; Abikoff, Howard; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Tim; McCracken, James T.; Kollins, Scott H.; Murray, Desiree W.; Wigal, Sharon; Kastelic, Elizabeth; McGough, James J.; dosReis, Susan; Bauzo-Rosario, Audrey; Stehli, Annamarie; Posner, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical course of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom severity and diagnosis from ages 3 to 5 up to 9 to 12 years during a 6-year follow-up after the original Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS). Method: A total of 207 participants (75% male) from the original PATS, assessed at baseline (mean age,…

  20. A Follow-Up Study of the Oregon Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahti, Janet; And Others

    In 1973 the Children's Services Division (Oregon State) initiated a project to reduce the backlog of children in indeterminate status by developing more Permanent alternative placements. This follow-up study evaluates the placements of foster children who returned to their parents, were adopted, or remained in foster care. A literature review

  1. A Follow-up Study of the Effect of Pedagogical Training on Teaching in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postareff, Liisa; Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari; Nevgi, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The present follow-up study examines the effect of university teachers' pedagogical training on approaches to teaching and self-efficacy beliefs measured by Approaches to Teaching Inventory and an additional part measuring motivational strategies. The effect of pedagogical training on teaching is analysed among 35 teachers who had not participated…

  2. Follow-Up Study of 1992 Nursing Graduates. Volume XXII, Number 15, March 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, John A.; Meltesen, Cal

    In an attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of its nursing program, William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) (Illinois) conducted a follow-up study of 1992 nursing graduates or alumni. In spring 1993, a survey instrument, inquiring about employment status, future educational plans, and evaluation of their experience at WRHC, was mailed to all 142 WRHC…

  3. A Follow-Up Study of the ABRACADABRA Web-Based Literacy Intervention in Grade 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Stasio, Maria Rosaria; Savage, Robert; Abrami, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the follow-up of a randomised control trial study of the ABRACADABRA web-based literacy intervention that contrasted synthetic versus analytic phonics (Comaskey, Savage & Abrami, 2009) in kindergarten children from urban low-SES backgrounds. Participants who received a "synthetic" phonics+phoneme awareness training (n = 26) or…

  4. Follow-Up Study of Children Referred to Developmental Evaluation Services for Children (DESC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Judith A.; Hebbeler, Kathleen M.

    Developmental Evaluation Services for Children (DESC) provides in-depth medical and educational diagnostic services for children in Montgomery County, Maryland, who are under 6 years of age and who are suspected of having handicapping conditions in two or more areas of development. This follow-up study was designed to determine the progress of…

  5. Continuity and Change in Intrafamilial Agreement in Beliefs concerning the Adolescent: A Follow-up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alessandri, Steven M.; Wozniak, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    Forty-two families with children in transition to early and mid-adolescence were interviewed in a follow-up study of parent-child agreement in beliefs concerning the child, and of children's awareness of parental beliefs. Results indicate increases in accuracy of prediction of parental beliefs by children between the ages of 10 and 13. (RJC)

  6. Follow-up Study of Special Education Graduates: Class of 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Joseph A., Jr.

    The Montgomery County Public Schools, (MCPS), Maryland, annually surveys its graduating classes to help determine whether MCPS adequately prepares its graduates. This is the first follow-up study of MCPS's 10 special education schools' graduates (class of 1983). It investigates: (1) postsecondary education and employment activities; (2) students'…

  7. Exploring "Successful" Outcomes of Entrepreneurship Education: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Laura; Kapasi, Isla; Whittam, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    During 2005-2006 entrepreneurship students in several UK universities completed a survey about their background and career intentions. This paper reports, eight years on, on a follow-up study with ten of these participants, with the aim of exploring the students' intentions and subsequent actions since graduating. Using a qualitative methodology,

  8. A Follow-Up Study of Dually Diagnosed (Chemically Dependent) Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin-Shelley, Eric; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Conducted follow-up study of 13 dually diagnosed adolescents (original sample N=100), 22% of whom were estimated to be chemical free. Sample reported improvement on 21 of 29 program goals. Improvement was reported in chemical dependency, coping skills, relations with parents, dealing with reality, avoiding addictive people, problem solving,…

  9. A Follow-Up Study of Girls with Gender Identity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Kelley D.; Bradley, Susan J.; Peterson-Badali, Michele; Zucker, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided information on the natural histories of 25 girls with gender identity disorder (GID). Standardized assessment data in childhood (mean age, 8.88 years; range, 3-12 years) and at follow-up (mean age, 23.24 years; range, 15-36 years) were used to evaluate gender identity and sexual orientation. At the assessment in childhood, 60%…

  10. Five Year Follow-up Evaluation of a Faculty Development Program: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennill, Marcia Marie

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative follow-up evaluation explored the long-term impact of a faculty development program on participants who were five years post program. This study focused on 12 faculty members who participated in the University of Missouri's New Faculty Teaching Scholars program. The nine month program focused on creating a culture of teaching…

  11. The Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS) 6-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Mark A.; Yershova, Kseniya; Lazzaretto, Deborah; Paykina, Natalya; Yenokyan, Gayane; Greenhill, Laurence; Abikoff, Howard; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Tim; McCracken, James T.; Kollins, Scott H.; Murray, Desiree W.; Wigal, Sharon; Kastelic, Elizabeth; McGough, James J.; dosReis, Susan; Bauzo-Rosario, Audrey; Stehli, Annamarie; Posner, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical course of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom severity and diagnosis from ages 3 to 5 up to 9 to 12 years during a 6-year follow-up after the original Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS). Method: A total of 207 participants (75% male) from the original PATS, assessed at baseline (mean age,

  12. Leadership Challenges Converting a Large High School to Small Schools: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehring, James H.; Lohmeier, Jill H.

    2010-01-01

    This follow-up study presents findings from 11 structured interviews that were conducted with principals engaged in a conversion from a large comprehensive high school to six small schools. Key findings are (a) the greatest barrier to improvement was entrenched instructional patterns and (b) goals of college readiness and social/emotional…

  13. Follow-Up Study of 1988 Nursing Graduates. Volume XVIII, No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dincher, J.; Meltesen, Cal

    In 1989, a follow-up study of nursing program graduates was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) to examine their employment patterns, further education plans, and evaluate particular aspects of their WRHC experience. Questionnaires were mailed to 105 nursing students who graduated in 1988. Results were compared with previous surveys…

  14. Schizo-Affective Psychoses in Childhood: A Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggers, Christian

    1989-01-01

    The follow-up study examined 16 schizo-affective children after a mean of 16 years. In comparison to purely schizophrenic controls, subjects showed an increased incidence of affective psychoses, suicide in the ancestry, and more pre-morbidly well-adjusted personalities. The schizo-affective psychoses had mainly an acute-recurrent character.

  15. Follow-Up Study of 1983 Legal Technology Graduates. Volume 12, No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrandt, Sharrie; Lucas, John A.

    A follow-up study was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) to determine the employment and educational status of graduates of the Legal Technology (LTE) program 6 months after receiving their degree. Attempts were made to contact all 59 1983 LTE graduates for telephone interviews and compare their responses to findings from previous…

  16. Follow-Up Study of 1990 Dental Hygiene Graduates. Volume XX, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marianne; Lucas, John A.

    In a continuing effort to measure the quality of their Dental Hygiene program, explore the need for changes, and substantiate the program's goals for accreditation standards, a follow-up study was conducted of the 1990 Dental Hygiene program graduates from William Rainey Harper (WRHC) College in Palatine, Illinois. A survey was mailed to all 30…

  17. The Literacy Profile of Greek Precocious Readers: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tafa, Eufimia; Manolitsis, George

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this follow-up study was to examine the progress made by 13 Greek-speaking precocious readers in phonological awareness, reading and spelling from the fourth to sixth grades of primary education, and to compare their progress with that of 11 nonprecocious reader classmates. It was hypothesised that because of the linguistic…

  18. Alopecia Areata Increases the Risk of Stroke: a 3-year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jiunn-Horng; Lin, Herng-Ching; Kao, Senyeong; Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Chung, Shiu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The risk for stroke in alopecia areata (AA) patients is still unknown. This study aimed to investigate the risk for subsequent risk of a stroke in AA patients in a large-scale retrospective cohort study. We identified 3231 patients with AA included in the study group from 2004 to 2011 in the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 in Taiwan. We randomly selected 16,155 matched patients as the comparison group. We individually tracked each patient for a 3-year period to identify patients who had received a diagnosis of stroke during the follow-up period. We found that incidence rates of stroke during the 3-year follow-up periods were 5.44 (95% confidence interval (CI)?=?4.03?~?7.20) and 2.75 (95% CI?=?2.30?~?3.27) per 1000 person-years for patients with and those without AA, respectively. Cox proportional hazard regressions showed that the adjusted hazard ratio for stroke for those patients with AA was 1.61 (95% CI?=?1.13?~?2.30) within the follow-up period compared to the controls. We concluded that patients with AA were associated with a higher risk of stroke in the 3-year follow-up period. PMID:26114569

  19. Using Home Spirometry for Follow up of Lung Transplant Recipients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Fadaizadeh, Lida; Shafaghi, Shadi; Hosseini, Mahsa Sadat; Ghoroghi, Azadeh

    2013-01-01

    Background Lung transplantation is considered the ultimate treatment for some patients, but due to the specific condition of patients undergoing it, follow up is a major concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of home spirometry in follow up of lung transplant recipients and early detection of complications in these patients. Materials and Methods A PC-based portable spirometry set was used to evaluate the well being of two lung transplant recipients on a regular daily basis for a 6-month period. Patient satisfaction and compliance, and device sensitivity in detecting complications were evaluated. Results of follow up were compared with 2 matched control patients. Results Patient adherence to home spirometry was 80% in one and 61% in the other patient and both patients were satisfied with the method, although this satisfaction declined towards the end of the study period. The main reason for low adherence was insufficient internet access. This method succeeded in early detection of infectious complications. Conclusion Home spirometry seems to be a reliable method for follow up of lung transplant recipients, but further studies in a larger group of patients is recommended. PMID:25191451

  20. Methods used for successful follow-up in a large scale national cohort study in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ensuring successful follow-up is essential when conducting a prospective cohort study. Most existing literature reviewing methods to ensure a high response rate is based on experience in developed nations. Findings We report our 4-year follow-up success for a national cohort study examining the health transition underway in Thailand. We began the cohort study in 2005 with a baseline postal questionnaire sent to all 200,000 Thais enrolled as distance learning students at Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University and residing all over Thailand; 87,134 or 44% of the students responded. Subsequently we used University and national media to inform cohort members of study progress. Also, we prepared a health book with study results and health advice which was distributed to all cohort members. After 4 years we repeated the survey and achieved a 71% response rate. In this paper we report the methods used to achieve this response The initial follow-up mail-out generated a response rate of about 48% reflecting the extensive preparatory work between baseline and follow-up. After 4 rounds of telephone contact (more than 100,000 phone calls) and 4 related mail-out rounds progressively over 16 months an overall response rate was achieved of just over 71% (n = 60,774). The total cost was US$4.06/respondent - 19% for printing, 21% for postage, 14% for tape measures (included in mail-out), 18% for data processing 22% for prizes and 6% for telephone. Conclusions Many of the methods reported as effective for mail questionnaire and cohort response rates held true for Thailand. These included being associated with a university, incentivating cooperation, follow-up contact, providing a second copy of questionnaire where necessary, and assurance of confidentiality. Telephone contact with the cohort and the small prizes given to responders were particularly important in the Thai context as was Thai leadership of the research team. PMID:21615963

  1. High Risk Infants Follow-Up: A Case Study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Jodeiry, Behzad; Hosseini, Mohammad Baqer; Mirnia, Kayvan; Akrami, Forouzan; Habbibollahi, Abbas; Moazzen, Sara; Dastgiri, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Background. A follow-up program for high risk infants was initiated in Alzahra Maternity Hospital in Tabriz city, Iran, in 2013. The aim of this paper is to give a brief report of the program. Material and Methods. Two groups of high risk neonates were studied. The first group comprising 509 infants received services in Alzahra Maternity Hospital implemented by the follow-up program. This included a full package for family to look after high risk infant and periodic clinical evaluation at two and four weeks after birth and then two, three, four, five, and six months later again. The second group including 131 infants in Taleqani Maternity Hospital received routine services after birth with no specific follow-up care. Results. Some anthropometric indices showed a significant improvement in the intervention hospital compared to control group. These included the following: head circumference at first and second months; weight in the first, fourth, fifth, and sixth months; and height in sixth month only. Clinical evaluation of infants showed an improvement for some of the medical conditions. Conclusion. Follow-up care program for a minimum of six months after discharge from maternity hospitals may help to avoid adverse and life threatening consequences in high risk infants. PMID:26136787

  2. Follow-up evaluation of cognitive function in the randomized Alzheimer's Disease Anti-inflammatory Prevention Trial (ADAPT) and its Follow-up Study (ADAPT-FS)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Alzheimer's Disease Anti-Inflammatory Prevention Trial (ADAPT) and follow-up study (ADAPT-FS) examined effects of naproxen and celecoxib on cognition in the elderly. We report here results describing trajectories of cognitive evaluation test scores. Methods 2356 participants completed baseline and at least one follow-up cognitive evaluation between 2001-2004. Study treatments were discontinued in 2004, but participants were followed until 2007. 1537 participants were re-evaluated in 2010-2011. Outcomes include seven cognitive evaluations administered yearly in-person in ADAPT and three of these evaluations that were administered by telephone near the end of ADAPT and again in ADAPT-FS. Results There were no important differences over time by treatment group on any ADAPT cognitive measure, a global composite, or the three cognitive measures re-assessed in ADAPT-FS by telephone. Conclusions Treatment for 1 – 3 years with naproxen or celecoxib did not protect against cognitive decline in older adults with a family history of AD. PMID:25022541

  3. Longterm follow-up in European respiratory health studies – patterns and implications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Selection bias is a systematic error in epidemiologic studies that may seriously distort true measures of associations between exposure and disease. Observational studies are highly susceptible to selection bias, and researchers should therefore always examine to what extent selection bias may be present in their material and what characterizes the bias in their material. In the present study we examined long-term participation and consequences of loss to follow-up in the studies Respiratory Health in Northern Europe (RHINE), Italian centers of European Community Respiratory Health Survey (I-ECRHS), and the Italian Study on Asthma in Young Adults (ISAYA). Methods Logistic regression identified predictors for follow-up participation. Baseline prevalence of 9 respiratory symptoms (asthma attack, asthma medication, combined variable with asthma attack and/or asthma medication, wheeze, rhinitis, wheeze with dyspnea, wheeze without cold, waking with chest tightness, waking with dyspnea) and 9 exposure-outcome associations (predictors sex, age and smoking; outcomes wheeze, asthma and rhinitis) were compared between all baseline participants and long-term participants. Bias was measured as ratios of relative frequencies and ratios of odds ratios (ROR). Results Follow-up response rates after 10 years were 75% in RHINE, 64% in I-ECRHS and 53% in ISAYA. After 20 years of follow-up, response was 53% in RHINE and 49% in I-ECRHS. Female sex predicted long-term participation (in RHINE OR (95% CI) 1.30(1.22, 1.38); in I-ECRHS 1.29 (1.11, 1.50); and in ISAYA 1.42 (1.25, 1.61)), as did increasing age. Baseline prevalence of respiratory symptoms were lower among long-term participants (relative deviations compared to total baseline population 0-15% (RHINE), 0-48% (I-ECRHS), 3-20% (ISAYA)), except rhinitis which had a slightly higher prevalence. Most exposure-outcome associations did not differ between long-term participants and all baseline participants, except lower OR for rhinitis among ISAYA long-term participating smokers (relative deviation 17% (smokers) and 44% (10–20 pack years)). Conclusions We found comparable patterns of long-term participation and loss to follow-up in RHINE, I-ECRHS and ISAYA. Baseline prevalence estimates for long-term participants were slightly lower than for the total baseline population, while exposure-outcome associations were mainly unchanged by loss to follow-up. PMID:24739530

  4. Replication of genetic linkage by follow-up of previously studied pedigrees

    SciTech Connect

    Gershon, E.S.; Goldin, L.R. )

    1994-04-01

    Independent replication of linkage in previously studied pedigrees is desirable when genetic heterogeneity is suspected or when the illness is very rare. When the likelihood of the new data in this type of replication study is computed as conditional on the previously reported linkage results, it can be considered independent. The authors describe a simulation method using the SLINK program in which the initial data are fixed and newly genotyped individuals are simulated under [theta] = .01 and [theta] = .50. These give appropriate lod score criteria for rejection and acceptance of linkage in the follow-up study, which take into account the original marker genotypes in the data. An estimate of the power to detect linkage in the follow-up data is also generated. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Compilation of Case Studies: Exemplary Placement and Follow-Up Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Jack

    Examples of placement and follow-up conceptual models developed for a program of vocational education (kindergarten through university) are presented. Section 1 contains a historical overview of placement and follow-up activities in Florida and describes a comprehensive model. Section 2, describing a model for utilizing community resources for the…

  6. Surgical removal of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization in pathologic myopia: a 12-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hera, R; Chiquet, C; Romanet, J P

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the 12-year visual outcomes of patients who underwent surgical removal for subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) attributable to pathologic myopia. This retrospective study included 14 patients, with a mean age of 45.8 years, high myopia (>6 D) and classic subfoveal CNV. They were treated with pars plana vitrectomy and surgical removal of CNV. All patients were followed up every 3 months for 2 years, with visual acuity (VA), fundus examination, and fluorescein angiography and then every year for 5 years. Ten patients underwent a final visit with VA and fundus examination after a minimum 12-year follow-up. The main outcome measurement was VA and the secondary outcome measurement was the lesion size. After 12 years of follow-up, the mean VA did not significantly change over time, with a mean gain of 0.22 logMAR at 1 year, and 0.18, 0.12 and 0.05 at 2, 5 and 12 years, respectively. The anatomical evolution was characterized by a significant enlargement of the lesion size at 5 years. This study showed that final VA after surgical treatment with 12 years of follow-up was poor, due to the significant CNV scar enlargement over time. These results should prompt a prospective randomized study of other medical treatments, particularly anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. PMID:23539478

  7. Relapse After Methylprednisolone Oral Minipulse Therapy in Childhood Vitiligo: A 12-Month Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Majid, Imran; Imran, Saher

    2013-01-01

    Background: Oral minipulse (OMP) therapy with methylprednisolone is presently one of the most common oral treatments used for progressive vitiligo in children. The treatment is usually given for a period of 6 months during which majority of patients are reported to go into remission. However, there are no follow-up studies to comment upon what happens to the disease after OMP therapy is withdrawn. Aim of the study: To document the incidence of relapse over a period of 1 year after OMP therapy is stopped in children with vitiligo. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 180 patients of childhood vitiligo (<15 years of age) who had been on OMP therapy with oral methylprednisolone for at least 6 months and who had achieved a complete remission of their disease during the treatment period. The enrolled patients were followed up for a period of 1 year and examined clinically for any sign of reactivation of their disease over either the old lesions or at any new area of the body. Results: Forty-two patients were lost and could not complete the follow-up period of 1 year. Out of the 138 patients available at the end of 1 year, relapse was observed in 48 patients (34.8%). Rest of 90 patients remained in remission over the follow-up period of 1 year. Relapse was more common in patients below 10 years of age (47.4%) as compared with older children (25.9%). Conclusion: Relapse after using methylprednisolone OMP therapy in children with vitiligo is quite common especially in younger age groups. Studies are needed to see whether these relapses could be avoided by giving the treatment for a period longer than 6 months. PMID:23716799

  8. Selective mutism: follow-up study 1 year after end of treatment.

    PubMed

    Oerbeck, Beate; Stein, Murray B; Pripp, Are H; Kristensen, Hanne

    2015-07-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is generally considered the recommended approach for selective mutism (SM). Prospective follow-up studies of treated SM and predictors of outcome are scarce. We have developed a CBT home and school-based intervention for children with SM previously found to increase speech in a pilot efficacy study and in a randomized controlled treatment study. In the present report we provide outcome data 1 year after having completed the 6-month course of CBT for 24 children with SM, aged 3-9 years (mean age 6.5 years, 16 girls). Primary outcome measures were the teacher rated School Speech Questionnaire (SSQ) and diagnostic status. At follow-up, no significant decline was found on the SSQ scores. Age and severity of SM had a significant effect upon outcome, as measured by the SSQ. Eight children still fulfilled diagnostic criteria for SM, four were in remission, and 12 children were without diagnosis. Younger children improved more, as 78% of the children aged 3-5 years did not have SM, compared with 33% of children aged 6-9 years. Treatment gain was upheld at follow-up. Greater improvement in the younger children highlights the importance of an early intervention. PMID:25267381

  9. Additional follow-up telephone counselling and initial smoking relapse: a longitudinal, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lei; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Zuo, Fang; Liu, Qinghui; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Changxi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Smoking cessation services can help smokers to quit; however, many smoking relapse cases occur over time. Initial relapse prevention should play an important role in achieving the goal of long-term smoking cessation. Several studies have focused on the effect of extended telephone support in relapse prevention, but the conclusions remain conflicting. Design and setting From October 2008 to August 2013, a longitudinal, controlled study was performed in a large general hospital of Beijing. Participants The smokers who sought treatment at our smoking cessation clinic were non-randomised and divided into 2 groups: face-to-face individual counselling group (FC group), and face-to-face individual counselling plus telephone follow-up counselling group (FCF group). No pharmacotherapy was offered. Outcomes The timing of initial smoking relapse was compared between FC and FCF groups. Predictors of initial relapse were investigated during the first 180 days, using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results Of 547 eligible male smokers who volunteered to participate, 457 participants (117 in FC group and 340 in FCF group) achieved at least 24 h abstinence. The majority of the lapse episodes occurred during the first 2 weeks after the quit date. Smokers who did not receive the follow-up telephone counselling (FC group) tended to relapse to smoking earlier than those smokers who received the additional follow-up telephone counselling (FCF group), and the log-rank test was statistically significant (p=0.003). A Cox regression model showed that, in the FCF group, being married, and having a lower Fagerström test score, normal body mass index and doctor-diagnosed tobacco-related chronic diseases, were significantly independent protective predictors of smoking relapse. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that additional follow-up telephone counselling might be an effective strategy in preventing relapse. Further research is still needed to confirm our findings. PMID:27098825

  10. Long-term follow-up after callosotomy—A prospective, population based, observational study

    PubMed Central

    Stigsdotter-Broman, Lina; Olsson, Ingrid; Flink, Roland; Rydenhag, Bertil; Malmgren, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Objective Analyze the long-term outcome of callosotomies with regard to seizure types and frequencies and antiepileptic drug treatment. Methods This longitudinal observational study is based on data from the prospective Swedish National Epilepsy Surgery Register. Thirty-one patients had undergone callosotomy in Sweden 1995–2007 and had been followed for 2 and 5 or 10 years after surgery. Data on their seizure types and frequencies, associated impairments, and use of antiepileptic drugs have been analyzed. Results The median total number of seizures per patient and month was reduced from 195 before surgery to 110 two years after surgery and 90 at the long-term follow-up (5 or 10 years). The corresponding figures for drop attacks (tonic or atonic) were 190 before surgery, 100 2 years after surgery, and 20 at the long-term follow-up. Ten (56%) of the 18 patients with drop attacks were free from drop attacks at long-term follow-up. Three of the remaining eight patients had a reduction of >75%. At long-term follow-up, four were off medication. Only one of the 31 patients had no neurologic impairment. Significance The present population-based, prospective observational study shows that the corpus callosotomy reduces seizure frequency effectively and sustainably over the years. Most improvement was seen in drop attacks. The improvement in seizure frequency over time shown in this study suggests that callosotomy should be considered at an early age in children with intractable epilepsy and traumatizing drop attacks. PMID:24372273

  11. Minor head injury: impact on general health after 1 year. A prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Middleboe, T; Andersen, H S; Birket-Smith, M; Friis, M L

    1992-01-01

    A prospective follow-up study of 51 patients hospitalized due to minor head injury (MHI) was performed. After one year 28 patients answered the General Health Questionnaire, the Impact of Event Scale and a symptom checklist. A significant impact on general wellbeing attributed to head injury, was indicated. Half of the patients reported some sequelae from head injury, only 25% to a degree that resulted in a case score on General Health Questionnaire. Incidence of prominent post-traumatic stress symptoms was around 20%. Outcome seemed without correlation to trauma severity. Patients with sequelae after one year reported more symptoms at one week after trauma, and the results point to the magnitude of the health problems due to sequelae throughout follow-up. Aspects of prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:1546534

  12. The study on a telemedicine interaction mode for Deep Brain Stimulation postoperative follow-up.

    PubMed

    Yue Chen; Hongwei Hao; Hao Chen; Luming Li

    2015-08-01

    Since the development of information technology, telemedicine has been increasingly important in various medical activities. However, telemedicine application for Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) has not been sufficiently perceived by the public. In this study, we first made a primary exploration to identify the DBS tele-health requirements. According to our questionnaires, 31 participants (22 patients, 9 neurosurgeons) reported an urgent remote adjustment demand. Tele-program combined with video communication were a preferred communication pattern. Based on the requirements discovery, this paper proposed an appropriate interaction mode for DBS remote follow-up. System details were illustrated. Four clinical cases were done in China to test the functionality of the remote monitoring system. The results shows the interaction mode is feasible and efficient for DBS postoperative follow-up. PMID:26736231

  13. The Techa River Cohort: study design and follow-up methods.

    PubMed

    Kossenko, M M; Thomas, T L; Akleyev, A V; Krestinina, L Yu; Startsev, N V; Vyushkova, O V; Zhidkova, C M; Hoffman, D A; Preston, D L; Davis, F; Ron, E

    2005-11-01

    Residents living on the banks of the Techa River in the Southern Urals region of Russia were exposed to radioactive contamination from the Mayak plutonium production and separation facility that discharged liquid radioactive waste into this river. This paper describes the methods used to establish and follow the Extended Techa River Cohort (ETRC), which includes almost 30,000 people living along the Techa River who were exposed to a complex mixture of radionuclides, largely 90Sr and 137Cs. The system of regular follow-up allows ascertainment of vital status, cause of death and cancer incidence. With over 50 years of follow-up and over 50% deceased, the ETRC now provides a valuable opportunity to study a wide range of health effects, both early and late, associated with protracted internal and external radiation exposures. The wide range of doses allows analysis of the nature of the dose-response relationship based on internal comparisons. Other features of the cohort are the high proportion (40%) exposed under age 20, and the inclusion of both sexes. The limitations of the study include loss to follow-up due to difficulties in tracing some cohort members and migration and incomplete ascertainment of cause of death. PMID:16238436

  14. Follow-up studies by peroral small intestinal biopsies and necropsy in dogs with chronic diarrhea.

    PubMed

    van der Gaag, I; Happé, R P

    1990-09-01

    The results of follow-up studies in 82 dogs with clinical signs of chronic diarrhea are presented. Follow-up studies were performed by small intestinal biopsies only in 19 dogs, combined with necropsy in six dogs and follow-up necropsy only in 57 dogs. The times between the first and the last series of biopsies varied from 18 to 561 days, and from one to 656 days between the first series of biopsies and necropsy. From the 11 dogs with villous atrophy in the first series of biopsies, three also showed villous atrophy in the following biopsies or at necropsy, two had enteritis, one intestinal lymphangiectasia, one lymphosarcoma and four had no small intestinal lesions. Villous atrophy and enteritis found in 20 dogs in the initial biopsies were still present in 12 dogs in the following biopsies, in one only the villous atrophy remained in the following biopsies, in four lymphosarcoma was diagnosed, in one a colitis and in two changes outside the gastrointestinal tract were found at necropsy. In six of the seven dogs with enteritis in the initial biopsies this was diagnosed again, once with VA; in the seventh dog a hypertrophic gastritis was found. In five of the eight dogs with a diagnosis of lymphosarcoma in the initial biopsies a lymphosarcoma was found at necropsy, two had a villous atrophy with enteritis and in one only a differential diagnosis lymphosarcoma and/or enteritis could be made.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2123588

  15. Long-term results of viscocanalostomy and phacoviscocanalostomy: a twelve-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Gunenc, Uzeyir; Ozturk, Taylan; Arikan, Gul; Kocak, Nilufer

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety results of viscocanalostomy and phacoviscocanalostomy. METHODS The charts of 49 glaucoma patients who underwent viscocanalostomy or phacoviscocanalostomy surgery between February 1999 and August 2004 were reviewed retrospectively. Thirty-one eyes of 21 glaucoma patients who underwent filtering procedure with a postoperative follow-up of at least 5y were included in the study. Results of complete ophthalmologic examinations were recorded and statistically analyzed. Long-term surgical outcome was defined as an overall success when intraocular pressure (IOP) was found as ≤20 mm Hg with or without antiglaucomatous medication at the last follow-up visit, while it was defined as a complete success when IOP was measured ≤20 mm Hg without antiglaucomatous medication. RESULTS Mean age was 68.1±9.6y (range: 32-81y). Mean follow-up time was 101.5±27.3mo (range: 60-144mo). Viscocanalostomy was performed in 8 eyes (25.8%) and phacoviscocanalostomy was performed in 23 eyes (74.2%). The mean preoperative IOP was 23.1±7.6 mm Hg with 2.1±1.0 medications, while mean IOP was 16.8±3.8 mm Hg with 0.9±1.1 medication at the last follow-up visit. Both the IOP decrease and the reduction in the antiglaucomatous medication were statistically significant (P<0.001 and P<0.001). No case required further glaucoma surgery. Overall success and complete success were found as 87.1% and 51.6%, respectively. Complete success rate was statistically higher in phacoviscocanalostomy group compared with the viscocanalostomy group (P=0.031), however there was no significant difference in overall success rate between two groups (P=0.072). CONCLUSION Both viscocanalostomy and phacoviscocanalostomy provide good IOP reduction in the long-term period. PMID:26682166

  16. Stability of alexithymia in late adolescence: results of a 4-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Karukivi, Max; Pölönen, Tuukka; Vahlberg, Tero; Saikkonen, Suvi; Saarijärvi, Simo

    2014-10-30

    The aim of the present study was to assess the stability of alexithymia in adolescents and the effects of parental factors and social support thereon. The sample comprised 315 late adolescents, of whom 259 were female and 56 male. At baseline, the mean age of the subjects was 19 years (range 17-21 years). The follow-up period was 4 years (2008-2012). The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was used for the assessment of alexithymia both at baseline and follow-up. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) were used as measures at baseline. Regarding absolute stability, the changes in the TAS-20 total scores and two subscales (DIF and EOT) were statistically significant but the effect sizes for the changes were small (Cohen׳s d 0.21-0.24). The test-retest correlations for the TAS-20 total and subscale scores were high (ρ=0.50-0.64, P<0.001), indicating relative stability. While several parental and social support variables were associated with alexithymia at baseline, low social support from friends was the only to predict higher alexithymia at follow-up. Alexithymia is a stable personality trait also in late adolescence. Low social support from friends is related to alexithymia in young adulthood. PMID:24953425

  17. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CODING: FOLLOW UP QUESTIONNAIRE (UA-D-11.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to define the coding strategy for the Follow Up Questionnaire. This questionnaire was developed for use in the Arizona NHEXAS project and the "Border" study. Household and individual follow-up data were combined in a single Follow-up Questionnaire data...

  18. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONNAIRE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Follow-up Questionnaire data set provides information concerning the activities within the household during the sampling week. The information is from 201 Follow-up Questionnaires for 91 households. Medication and supplemental dietary information is provided. The Follow-up...

  19. CORONIS - International study of caesarean section surgical techniques: the follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The CORONIS Trial was a 2×2×2×2×2 non-regular, fractional, factorial trial of five pairs of alternative caesarean section surgical techniques on a range of short-term outcomes, the primary outcome being a composite of maternal death or infectious morbidity. The consequences of different surgical techniques on longer term outcomes have not been well assessed in previous studies. Such outcomes include those related to subsequent pregnancy: mode of delivery; abnormal placentation (e.g. accreta); postpartum hysterectomy, as well as longer term pelvic problems: pain, urinary problems, infertility. The Coronis Follow-up Study aims to measure and compare the incidence of these outcomes between the randomised groups at around three years after women participated in the CORONIS Trial. Methods/Design This study will assess the following null hypotheses: In women who underwent delivery by caesarean section, no differences will be detected with respect to a range of long-term outcomes when comparing the following five pairs of alternative surgical techniques evaluated in the CORONIS Trial: 1. Blunt versus sharp abdominal entry 2. Exteriorisation of the uterus for repair versus intra-abdominal repair 3. Single versus double layer closure of the uterus 4. Closure versus non-closure of the peritoneum (pelvic and parietal) 5. Chromic catgut versus Polyglactin-910 for uterine repair The outcomes will include (1) women’s health: pelvic pain; dysmenorrhoea; deep dyspareunia; urinary symptoms; laparoscopy; hysterectomy; tubal/ovarian surgery; abdominal hernias; bowel obstruction; infertility; death. (2) Outcomes of subsequent pregnancies: inter-pregnancy interval; pregnancy outcome; gestation at delivery; mode of delivery; pregnancy complications; surgery during or following delivery. Discussion The results of this follow-up study will have importance for all pregnant women and for health professionals who provide care for pregnant women. Although the results will have been collected in seven countries with limited health care resources (Argentina, Chile, Ghana, India, Kenya, Pakistan, Sudan) any differences in outcomes associated with different surgical techniques are likely to be generalisable throughout the world. Trial registration ISRCTN31089967 PMID:24261693

  20. Zolpidem Use and the Risk of Injury: A Population-Based Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Chun; Wang, Li-Hsuan; Kang, Jiunn-Horng

    2013-01-01

    Background While an association between zolpidem use and fracture and road accident was previously proposed, this study aimed to further explore the frequency and risk of a wide spectrum of injuries in subjects prescribed with zolpidem in Taiwan. Methods We identified 77,036 subjects who received Zolpidem treatment between 2005 and 2007. We randomly selected 77,036 comparison subjects who were frequency-matched based-on their demographic profiles. We individually tracked each subject for a 90-day period to identify those who subsequently suffered an injury. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to calculate the hazard ratio of injury between the two groups. Results The incidence rate of injury during the 90-day follow-up period for the total subjects was 18.11 (95% CI = 17.69–18.54) per 100 person-years; this was 24.35 (95% CI = 23.66–25.05) and 11.86 (95% CI = 11.39–12.36) for the study and comparison cohort, respectively. After adjusting for demographic variables, the hazard ratio (HR) of injury during the 90-day follow-up period for study subjects was 1.83 (95% CI = 1.73–1.94) that of comparison subjects. Additionally, compared to comparison subjects, the adjusted HR of injury during the 90-day follow-up period for study subjects who were prescribed Zolpidem for >30 days was as high as 2.17 (95% CI = 2.05–2.32). The adjusted HR of injury to blood vessels for study subjects was particularly high when compared to comparison subjects (HR = 6.34; 95% CI = 1.37–29.38). Conclusions We found that patients prescribed with Zolpidem were at a higher risk for a wide range of injuries. PMID:23826304

  1. Prospective follow-up study of 423 children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Bonduelle, M; Legein, J; Buysse, A; Van Assche, E; Wisanto, A; Devroey, P; Van Steirteghem, A C; Liebaers, I

    1996-07-01

    In order to evaluate the safety of the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) procedure, a prospective follow-up study of 423 children born after ICSI was carried out. The aim of this study was to compile data on karyotypes, congenital malformations, growth parameters and developmental milestones. Before starting the infertility treatment, couples were asked to participate in a follow-up study including genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis. The follow-up study of the child was based on a visit to the paediatrician-geneticist at birth or at 2 months of age, at 1 year and at 2 years of age when a physical examination for major and minor malformations and a psychomotoric evaluation were done. Between April 1991 and September 1994, 320 pregnancies obtained after ICSI led to the birth of 423 children (222 singletons, 186 twins and 15 triplets). Prenatal diagnosis determined a total of 293 karyotypes, one of which was abnormal (0.3%), and four were benign familial structural aberrations, all inherited from the paternal side. A total of 14 (3.3%) major malformations were observed, defined as those causing functional impairment or requiring surgical correlation. Neurological or developmental problems at the age of 2 months were found in 14 children, four of whom were multiples. Compared to most registers of children born after assisted reproduction and to registers of malformations in the general population, the figure of 3.3% major malformations is within the expected range. Before drawing any firm conclusion, further careful evaluations of the available data are necessary. PMID:8671504

  2. Learning, Memory, and Executive Function in New MDMA Users: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Daniel; Tkotz, Simon; Koester, Philip; Becker, Benjamin; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne; Daumann, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is associated with changes in neurocognitive performance. Recent studies in laboratory animals have provided additional support for the neurodegeneration hypothesis. However, results from animal research need to be applied to humans with caution. Moreover, several of the studies that examine MDMA users suffer from methodological shortcomings. Therefore, a prospective cohort study was designed in order to overcome these previous methodological shortcomings and to assess the relationship between the continuing use of MDMA and cognitive performance in incipient MDMA users. It was hypothesized that, depending on the amount of MDMA taken, the continued use of MDMA over a 2-year period would lead to further decreases in cognitive performance, especially in visual paired association learning tasks. Ninety-six subjects were assessed, at the second follow-up assessment: 31 of these were non-users, 55 moderate-users, and 10 heavy-users. Separate repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted for each cognitive domain, including attention and information processing speed, episodic memory, and executive functioning. Furthermore, possible confounders including age, general intelligence, cannabis use, alcohol use, use of other concomitant substances, recent medical treatment, participation in sports, level of nutrition, sleep patterns, and subjective well-being were assessed. The Repeated measures analysis of variance (rANOVA) revealed that a marginally significant change in immediate and delayed recall test performances of visual paired associates learning had taken place within the follow-up period of 2 years. No further deterioration in continuing MDMA-users was observed in the second follow-up period. No significant differences with the other neuropsychological tests were noted. It seems that MDMA use can impair visual paired associates learning in new users. However, the groups differed in their use of concomitant use of illicit drugs. Therefore, performance differences between the groups cannot completely ascribed to the use of MDMA. PMID:26696809

  3. Self-inflicted injury: a follow-up study of 43 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Sneddon, I; Sneddon, J

    1975-01-01

    Forty-three patients, 38 women and 5 men, with self-inflicted skin lesions were studied. Thirty-three were followed up for up to 22 years. In most cases dermatitis artefacta was only one incident in a long history of psychogenic illness. Of the 43 patients, 13 (30%), 12 women and one man, continued to produce lesions or were disabled with other psychiatric disorders more than 12 years after the onset of symptoms. Prognosis was difficult but recovery seemed to occur when the patient's life circumstances changed rather than as a result of treatment. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:1164617

  4. Optical Studies of Space Debris at GEO: Survey and Follow-up with Two Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seitzer, P.; Abercomby, K. J.; Rodriquez, H. M.; Barker, E. S.

    2007-01-01

    For 14 nights in March 2007, we used two telescopes at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile to study the nature of space debris at Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). In this project one telescope was dedicated to survey operations, while a second telescope was used for follow-up observations for orbits and colors. The goal was to obtain orbital and photometric information on every faint object found with the survey telescope. Thus we concentrate on objects fainter than R = 15th magnitude.

  5. Prehypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease in Chinese Population: Four-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junjuan; Gao, Jingsheng; Chen, Shuohua; Zhu, Hang; Wu, Shouling

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is a well established cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the effect of prehypertension on risk of CKD is controversial. The aim of this study is to determine whether prehypertension increases the risk of CKD events in the Chinese population. We enrolled 20,034 with prehypertension and 12,351 with ideal blood pressure in this prospective study. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min 1.73m2. The new occurrences of CKD events were collected during follow-up. Cumulative survival and freedom for the occurrence of new CKD events was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier approach. Multivariate Cox Regression was used to analyze the effect of prehypertension on CKD. The median follow-up time was 47 (interquartile range 44–51) months. 601 new onset CKD events occurred during the follow-up period. The cumulative incidence of new CKD events was higher in the prehypertensive population than that in the ideal blood pressure population (2.10% vs 1.46%, P = 0.0001). Multivariate Cox Regression showed that relative risks (RRs) for the new onset CKD events in the prehypertensive population were 1.69 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.41~2.04, P = 0.001) higher than those in the ideal blood pressure population. Similarly, the risks were 1.68 (95% CI: 1.33~2.13 P = 0.001) times higher in females and 2.14 (95% CI: 1.58~2.91 P = 0.001) times higher in males by adjustment for traditional CV risk factors. Our findings demonstrated prehypertension is an independent risk factor for the occurrence of new CKD events in the Chinese population. PMID:26670101

  6. Ultrasonographically detected gallbladder polyps: A reason for concern? A seven-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Kratzer, Wolfgang; Haenle, Mark M; Voegtle, Andrea; Mason, Richard A; Akinli, Atilla S; Hirschbuehl, Klaus; Schuler, Andreas; Kaechele, Volker

    2008-01-01

    Background The management of coincidental detected gallbladder polyps (GP) is still nebulous. There are few published data regarding their long-term growth. Objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and growth of gallbladder polyps in a survey of unselected subjects from the general population of a complete rural community. Methods A total of 2,415 subjects (1,261 women; 1,154 men) underwent ultrasound examination of the gallbladder, in November 1996 as part of a prospective study. Subjects in whom GP were detected at the initial survey underwent follow-up ultrasound examinations after 30 and 84 months. Results At the initial survey gallbladder polyps were detected in 34 subjects (1.4%; females: 1.1%, range 14 to 74 years; males: 1.7%, range 19 to 63 years). Median diameter was 5 ± 2.1 mm (range 2 to10 mm) at the initial survey, 5 mm ± 2.8 mm (range 2 to 12 mm) at 30 months and 4 ± 2.3 mm (range 2 to 9 mm) at 84 months. At the time of first follow-up no change in diameter was found in 81.0% (n = 17), reduction in diameter in 4.8% (n = 1) and increase in diameter in 14.3% (n = 3). At the time of second follow-up no increase in polyp diameter was found in 76.9% (n = 10) and reduction in diameter in 7.7% (n = 1). No evidence of malignant disease of the gallbladder was found. Conclusion Over a period of seven years little change was measured in the diameter of gallbladder polyps. There was no evidence of malignant disease of the gallbladder in any subject. PMID:18793401

  7. Acute heart failure in the emergency department: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Andrea; Marchesini, Giulio; Carbone, Giorgio; Cosentini, Roberto; Ferrari, Annamaria; Chiesa, Mauro; Bertini, Alessio; Rea, Federico

    2016-02-01

    Acute heart failure (AHF) is a major public health issue due to high incidence and poor prognosis. Only a few studies are available on the long-term prognosis and on outcome predictors in the unselected population attending the emergency department (ED) for AHF. We carried out a 1-year follow-up analysis of 1234 consecutive patients from selected Italian EDs from January 2011 to June 2012 for an episode of AHF. Their prognosis and outcome-associated factors were tested by Cox proportional hazard model. Patients' mean age was 84, with 66.0 % over 80 years and 56.2 % females. Comorbidities were present in over 50 % of cases, principally a history of acute coronary syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, valvular heart disease. Death occurred within 6 h in 24 cases (1.9 %). At 30-day follow-up, death was registered in 123 cases (10.0 %): 110 cases (89.4 %) died of cardiovascular events and 13 (10.6 %) of non-cardiovascular causes (cancer, gastrointestinal hemorrhages, sepsis, trauma). At 1-year follow-up, all-cause death was recorded in 50.1 % (over 3 out of 4 cases for cardiovascular origin). Six variables (older age, diabetes, systolic arterial pressure <110 mm/Hg, high NT pro-BNP, high troponin levels and impaired cognitive status) were selected as outcome predictors, but with limited discriminant capacity (AUC = 0.649; SE 0.015). Recurrence of AHF was registered in 31.0 %. The study identifies a cluster of variables associated with 1-year mortality in AHF, but their predictive capacity is low. Old age and the presence of comorbidities, in particular diabetes are likely to play a major role in dictating the prognosis. PMID:26506831

  8. Study of 2 years follow-up of referral patients with abnormal Pap smear

    PubMed Central

    Behnamfar, Fariba; Zafarbakhsh, Azam; Allameh, Taj-Alsadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abnormal Pap smear consists of premalignant or malignant cervical lesions. Many of premalignant cervical lesions will never progress to invasive malignancy, or even may regress over the time. Thus, there is always a risk of overtreatment of patients with an abnormal Pap smear. A long-term follow-up of these patients can reveal final events associated with each subtype of abnormal Pap smear, and, therefore, help us to prevent unnecessary interventions. The aim of our study was to present 2 years follow-up of referral patients with abnormal Pap smear. Materials and Methods: A total of 334 consecutive women aged more than 16 who were referred with an abnormal Pap smear were entered into the study. Patients were followed with biannual Pap smear and annual colposcopy and biopsy for 2 years. Results: At baseline, the majority of patients with abnormal Pap smear were normal on colposcopy and biopsy (68% and 86%, respectively). Six months after first abnormal Pap smear majority of patients in each group showed a significant regress to normal or less invasive lesion (P < 0.001). Twelve patients (4%) had no change in Pap smear, whereas 313 (94%) had at least one stage improvement. Only nine (3%) patients had deteriorated Pap smear after 6 months. All 308 patients who underwent colposcopy and biopsy had normal Pap smear 24 months after the first abnormal Pap smear. Conclusion: Pap smear is associated with a high rate of false-positive results. In addition, the majority of low-grade cervical lesions can spontaneously regress. A long-term follow-up of a patient with abnormal Pap smear can help us to avoid needless interventions. PMID:26958048

  9. A 4-year follow-up study of a rural community with endemic Chagas' disease*

    PubMed Central

    Puigbó, J. J.; Rhode, J. R. Nava; Barrios, H. García; Yépez, C. Gil

    1968-01-01

    The paper reports on a 4-year follow-up study that represents the continuation of a previous cross-sectional study on Chagas' disease carried out in a rural community (Belén) in Venezuela. The earlier study included 1210 persons all over 5 years of age out of a total of 1656 inhabitants and demonstrated a high prevalence of Chagas' infection (47.3%) and a high rate of Chagas' disease seropositivity among those with chronic myocardial heart disease (84.8%); heart disease was found in 17.3% of persons studied. The follow-up study was based on 812 persons and established that in the sample the frequency of Chagas' infection was 16.3% and that of heart disease 2.2%. Clinical, electrocardiographic and radiological analyses were made on patients with previous heart disease as well as on new patients. Different evolutive electrocardiographic patterns have been found, including variations ranging from normal to definitively abnormal. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:4974002

  10. Life expectancy of people with intellectual disability: a 35-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Patja, K; Iivanainen, M; Vesala, H; Oksanen, H; Ruoppila, I

    2000-10-01

    A 35-year follow-up study based on a nation-wide population study of the life expectancy of people with intellectual disability (ID) was undertaken. The study population consisted of a total of 60,969 person-years. A prospective cohort study with mortality follow-up for 35 years was used and the life expectancy of people with ID was calculated for different levels of intelligence. Proportional hazard models were used to assess the influence of level of intelligence and associated disorders on survival. People with mild ID did not have poorer life expectancy than the general population and subjects with mild ID did not have lower life expectancy in the first 3 decades of life. In cases with profound ID, the proportion of expected life lost was > 20% for almost all age groups. The female preponderance was manifested from the age of 60 years onwards, 25 years later than in the general population. Respectively, survival between sexes differed less. Epilepsy and/or hearing impairment increased the relative risk of death for all levels of ID. The prevalence of people with ID over 40 years was 0.4%. People with ID now live longer than previously expected, and the ageing of people with mild ID appears to be equal to that of the general population, posing new challenges to health care professionals. PMID:11079356

  11. [The NonaSantfeliu study. Baseline assessment and ten years of follow-up].

    PubMed

    Formiga, Francesc; Ferrer, Assumpta; Lombarte, Inés; Fernández, Coral

    2015-01-01

    NonaSantfeliu study: A review is presented of the studies that are part of the initial overall assessment and the studies performed during the 10 years of follow-up of a cohort of nonagenarians. It is a population-based study of 186 subjects, 76.5% women, mean age at baseline of 93.06 years, a quarter (26%) being institutionalized. The mean of baseline Barthel index was 60.8, and the mean for the Lobo's cognitive minimental was 21. Nonagenarian males with low comorbidity had more successful aging criteria than women with high comorbidity quantified with the Charlson Index. The survival rate at 10 years follow-up was very low, and 95.6% of the population had died. This represented an annual mortality rate of 9.5%. A common denominator on assessing all different annual cuts, is that the most important factors associated with mortality are those related to geriatric assessment, such as a function, cognition, dementia, and cumulative comorbidity and multiple medications, compared to more traditional risk factors described in younger populations. PMID:24854969

  12. The Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS) 6-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, Mark A.; Yershova, Kseniya; Lazzaretto, Deborah; Paykina, Natalya; Yenokyan, Gayane; Greenhill, Laurence; Abikoff, Howard; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Tim; McCracken, James T.; Kollins, Scott H.; Murray, Desiree W.; Wigal, Sharon; Kastelic, Elizabeth; McGough, James J.; dosReis, Susan; Bauzó-Rosario, Audrey; Stehli, Annamarie; Posner, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the clinical course of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom severity and diagnosis from ages 3–5 to 9–12 years during a 6-year follow-up after the original Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS). Method 207 participants (75% male) from the original PATS, assessed at Baseline (mean age 4.4 years, when all met criteria for ADHD) and 3-months later (prior to medication treatment), were re-evaluated in three follow-up assessment visits (Year 3, mean age 7.4 years; Year 4, 8.3 years and Year 6, 10.4 years). Parents and teachers rated symptom severity and clinicians established psychiatric diagnoses. Analyses examined longitudinal changes in symptom severity and ADHD diagnosis. Results Parent- and teacher-rated symptom severity decreased from Baseline to Year 3 but remained relatively stable and in the moderate-to-severe clinical range through Year 6. Girls showed generally steeper decreases in symptom T-scores. At Year 6, 89% (160/180) of remaining participants met ADHD symptom and impairment diagnostic criteria. Comorbidity of oppositional defiant disorder and/or conduct disorder was associated with a 30% higher risk of having an ADHD diagnosis at Year 6 in the multiple logistic model. Medication status during follow-up, on vs. off, did not predict symptom severity change from Year 3 to Year 6 after adjustment for other variables. Conclusions ADHD in preschoolers is a relatively stable diagnosis over a 6-year period. The course is generally chronic, with high symptom severity and impairment, in very young children with moderate-to-severe ADHD, despite treatment with medication. Development of more effective ADHD intervention strategies is needed for this age group. PMID:23452683

  13. Long-term follow-up of patients with unexplained syncope and negative electrophysiologic study.

    PubMed

    Raviele, A; Proclemer, A; Gasparini, G; Di Pede, F; Delise, P; Piccolo, E; Feruglio, G A

    1989-02-01

    Fifty-eight patients (29 M, 29 F, mean age 60.8 +/- 16 years) with unexplained syncope at the end of a complete clinical and electrophysiological evaluation, were followed for a mean period of 36.6 +/- 20.5 months (median: 30.5 months). Structural heart disease was present in 32 patients (55.2%). The standard ECG was normal in 24 (41.4%) and showed sinus bradycardia (greater than 40 m-1) and/or first degree AV block and/or intraventricular conduction disturbances in 29 patients (50%). During follow-up, recurrences of syncope were observed in 11 of 43 untreated patients (25.6%), three of seven electrically treated patients (42.9%) and two of eight pharmacologically treated patients (25%). The cause of these recurrences was cardiac in one (1.7%), non-cardiac in 10 (17.2%) and remained undetermined in five (8.6%). Sudden death occurred in only one patient (1.7%), who was receiving chronic amiodarone therapy. These results indicate that (1) syncopal recurrences may occur in an appreciable percentage of patients with unexplained syncope and a negative electrophysiologic study during a relatively long-term follow-up, (2) syncopal recurrences, when they occur, are generally due to a non-cardiac cause, (3) sudden death is an occasional and rare event in this patient population and (4) empirical prophylactic treatment with a permanent pacemaker or antiarrhythmic drugs does not usually prevent complications during the follow-up. PMID:2924782

  14. Testing for Mechanistic Interactions in Long-Term Follow-Up Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jui-Hsiang; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2015-01-01

    In follow-up studies, interactions are often assessed by including a cross-product term in a (multiplicative) Cox model. However, epidemiologists/clinicians often misinterpret a significant multiplicative interaction as a genuine mechanistic interaction. Though indices specific to mechanistic interactions have been proposed, including the ‘relative excess risk due to interaction’ (RERI) and the ‘peril ratio index of synergy based on multiplicativity’ (PRISM), these indices assume no loss to follow up and no competing death in a study. In this paper, the authors propose a novel ‘mechanistic interaction test’ (MIT) for censored data. Monte-Carlo simulation shows that when the hazard curves are proportional to, non-proportional to, or even crossing over one another, the proposed MIT can maintain reasonably accurate type I error rates for censored data. It has far greater powers than the modified RERI and PRISM tests (modified for censored data scenarios). To test mechanistic interactions in censored data, we recommend using MIT in light of its desirable statistical properties. PMID:25811982

  15. Long-term effectiveness of adolescent brief tobacco intervention: a follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Brief tobacco intervention has been used in promoting smoking cessation and preventing the initiation of smoking. We used a cohort born in 1979 (n = 2 586) from four cities in Finland. Those born on odd days received up to four brief tobacco interventions during their annual school dental check-ups in 1992-1994 (at the age of 13-15). Those who were born on even days were used as a control group. In 2008 a follow-up questionnaire was sent to the cohort. The aim of this study was to ascertain the long-term effectiveness of brief tobacco intervention given in dental health care during school age. Findings Responses were received from 529 people in the intervention group and 491 in the control group. In the intervention group and control group by the age of 29 there were 15.3% and 18.5% smokers respectively. This difference was not statistically significant. The difference between groups was similar to that observed when they were 14 years old. Conclusions Brief tobacco intervention performed in dental health care in adolescence did not show effectiveness in the long-term follow-up. This type of intervention alone is insufficient to prevent smoking but supports other anti-smoking activities. Trial Registration This study was registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01348646). PMID:22339943

  16. A 5-year follow-up study of an atypical case of myotonic dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Macniven, J A B; Graham, N L; Davies, R R; Wilson, B A

    2005-12-20

    This study presents 5-year follow-up data on NG, a woman with adult onset myotonic dystrophy and progressive cognitive decline who was first described by Wilson et al. The extent of the cognitive impairment is atypical of symptom-onset in adulthood and of paternal inheritance, both of which apply to this case. Together, the present and earlier studies report the results of regular neuropsychological assessments over a 16-year period. Severe impairment in executive functioning, episodic and semantic memory were apparent early in the history, while visuospatial skills and working memory were only mildly impaired after 16 years of follow-up. There was also a progressive dyslexia, initially characterized by the regularization errors typical of surface dyslexia, but subsequently dominated by visual/phonological reading errors. This pattern of impairment is not typical of myotonic dystrophy but resembles semantic dementia. Whilst the deficits may be attributable wholly to myotonic dystrophy pathology, the co-existence of a form of semantic dementia is also possible. It is noted that the aggregation of tau protein is a neuropathological feature common to both diseases. PMID:16286337

  17. Adipsin Is Associated with Multiple Sclerosis: A Follow-Up Study of Adipokines

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Renuka; Hagman, Sanna; Hämälainen, Mari; Leppänen, Tiina; Dastidar, Prasun; Moilanen, Eeva; Elovaara, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective. The role of adipokines in regulation of immune responses has been recognized, but very little is known about their impact on multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we analysed whether the major adipokines are differentially expressed in plasma of patients with different MS subtypes and clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and explored their association with major disease characteristics. Methods. The levels of adiponectin, adipsin, leptin, and resistin in the plasma of 80 patients with different subtypes of MS and CIS were followed up annually over the two years. The data obtained were correlated with disease activity, EDSS and volumes of T1-weighted lesions (T1-LV), and fluid attenuation inversion recovery lesions (FLAIR-LV) on MRI. Results. In MS group, a correlation was found between the level of adipsin and EDSS score at baseline (r = 0.506, p < 0.001). In RRMS, the levels of adipsin correlated with EDSS scores (r = 0.542, p = 0.002), T1-LV (r = 0.410, p = 0.034), and FLAIR-LV (r = 0.601, p = 0.0001) at baseline and an increase in the T1-LV over the follow-up (r = 0.582, p = 0.003). Associations with other adipokines were not detected. Conclusion. Our exploratory study provides novel insights on the impact of adipokines in MS and suggests that adipsin exerts predictive potential as a biomarker of neurodegeneration. PMID:26634156

  18. Follow-up studies by peroral gastric biopsies and necropsy in vomiting dogs.

    PubMed Central

    van der Gaag, I; Happé, R P

    1989-01-01

    The results of follow-up studies in 139 vomiting dogs are presented. Follow-up studies were performed by biopsies in 34 dogs, by biopsies and necropsy in six dogs and by necropsy only in 99 dogs. The times between the first and the last series of biopsies varied from three to 1042 days and from one to 656 days between the first series of biopsies and necropsy. From the 55 dogs with gastritis in the first series of biopsies, 35 also showed gastritis in the following biopsies or at necropsy. These were mainly severe types of gastritis such as diffuse, hypertrophic or atrophic. Ten dogs with superficial gastritis showed no gastric changes at necropsy, two dogs had edema only and three dogs had gastric changes other than gastritis, such as multiple polyps. In general, carcinoma and lymphosarcoma were found in the biopsies as well as at necropsy, but in three cases of terminal carcinoma only gastritis had been diagnosed initially. In 35 dogs the first series of gastric biopsies showed no pathological changes, but in 22 of these dogs gastritis, ulceration, fibrosis, atrophy, gastric dilation with local necrosis, and perforation or lymphosarcoma of the submucosa were found in the second series of biopsies or at necropsy. Several dogs which did not have gastric changes at necropsy had enteritis or intestinal lymphosarcoma. PMID:2590874

  19. A follow-up study of the community near the McColl waste disposal site.

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, J A; Goldman, L R; Satin, K P; Smith, D F; Vance, W A; Neutra, R R

    1991-01-01

    To assess the effect of interim clean-up measures on the current health of a community, we conducted a follow-up survey of 193 residents living near the McColl waste disposal site and a comparison area located approximately 5 miles from the site. Results from this survey were compared with results from a similar survey conducted 7 years earlier. Odors were detected at least once per week by 32.7% of "high-exposed" respondents in 1988 compared with 68.5% in 1981, but prevalence odds ratios (PORs) comparing symptom reporting between "high-exposed" and comparison-area respondents were greater than that of the 1981 survey for 89% of symptoms. PORs comparing symptom reporting between these two areas were greater than 2.0 for 64% of symptoms assessed in the current survey. Symptoms reported in excess did not represent a single organ system or suggest a mechanism of response. PORs comparing respondents who were very worried about the environment and those reporting no worry were greater than 2.0 for 86% of symptoms. These finding, along with environmental data from the area, suggest that living near the waste disposal site and being very worried about the environment, rather than a toxicologic effect of chemical from the site, explain excess symptom reporting found in this follow-up study. PMID:1954927

  20. What happens to quality in integrated homecare? A 15-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Paljärvi, Soili; Rissanen, Sari; Sinkkonen, Sirkka; Paljärvi, Leo

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To explore the impact of structural integration on homecare quality. Methods A case study in an organisation comprising a before–after comparison with baseline and four follow-up measurements during 1994–2009, using interviews with clients (n=66–84) and postal inquiries to relatives (n=73–78) and staff (n=68–136). Results Despite the organisational reform involving extensive mergers of health and social care organisations and cuts in staff and service provision, homecare quality remained at almost the same level throughout the 15-year follow-up. According to the clients, it even slightly improved in some homecare areas. Conclusions The results show that despite the structural integration and cuts in staff and service provision, the quality of homecare remained at a good level. Assuming that the potential confounders did have inhibiting effects, the results suggest that structural integration had a positive impact on homecare quality. To obtain firmer evidence to support this tentative conclusion, further research with a randomised comparison design is needed. PMID:21949487

  1. Participation as a leader in immersion weight loss treatment: a 1-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Anderson, L M; Schaumberg, K; Anderson, D A; Kirschenbaum, D S

    2016-02-01

    Non-overweight individuals may follow aggressive weight management approaches alongside overweight/obese friends or family members; thus, research has begun to evaluate subsequent effects among non-overweight populations. A prior study evaluated the short-term effects of an immersion weight loss programme on healthy young adult staff leaders. Results indicated that participation seemed to benefit, not harm, the young adults. The current investigation examined 1-year eating disorder and weight trajectories in this sample. The total sample (N = 244) consisted of staff leaders (44.3%) and demographically similar comparison participants who completed eating disorder and weight assessments across four time points: baseline, end of summer, 6-week follow-up and 1-year follow-up. Forty-seven per cent of the original sample responded to all time points (staff leaders n = 60; comparison n = 55). Over the course of 1 year, risk trajectories did not differ between groups. Staff leaders did not report significant changes in body mass index, suggesting that they maintained healthy weight over the course of 1 year. Participation as an immersion weight loss programme leader appeared to be protective against weight gain, without increasing eating disorder risk, for healthy young adults. This provides further support for using weight management interventions across a wide range of individuals. PMID:26638779

  2. Long-term follow-up study of compensated low-dose /sup 131/I therapy for Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Sridama, V.; McCormick, M.; Kaplan, E.L.; Fauchet, R.; DeGroot, L.J.

    1984-08-16

    We treated 187 patients who had Graves' disease with low-dose radioactive iodide (/sup 131/I), using a protocol that included a compensation for thyroid size. The incidence of early hypothyroidism (12 per cent) was acceptably low in the first year after /sup 131/I treatment, but we found a cumulative high incidence (up to 76 per cent) at the end of the 11th year. In contrast, the incidence of permanent hypothyroidism was relatively stable in 166 surgically treated patients, increasing from 19 to 27 per cent at the end of 11 years. Among 122 medically treated patients, only 40 per cent entered remission, and hypothyroidism developed in 2 per cent during the same period of follow-up. The long-term incidence of hypothyroidism in our patients treated with low-dose /sup 131/I therapy was much higher than that found in earlier studies using a comparable dose. Our study suggests that it will be difficult to modify therapy with /sup 131/I alone to produce both early control of thyrotoxicosis and a low incidence of hypothyroidism.

  3. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONNAIRE DATA (MONITORING PERIOD 1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set includes responses for 249 follow-up questionnaires collected during the first week-long monitoring period. The Follow-up Questionnaire was used to provide information on relatively infrequent (e.g., less than daily) activities during the sampling period to explain ...

  4. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--FOOD FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONNAIRE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Food Follow-up Questionnaire data set provides information on the eating patterns and the food identification and preparation methods that occurred during the period the food sample was taken. The information is for 86 Food Follow-up Questionnaires for 86 households. In the...

  5. Risky driving and recorded driving offences: a 24-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Summala, Heikki; Rajalin, Sirpa; Radun, Igor

    2014-12-01

    Permanent individual differences in driver behavior and accident risk have long been under active debate. Cognitive and personality factors have correlated with risky driving indicators in cross-sectional studies, and prospective cohort studies are now increasingly revealing early antecedents of risky behavior and injury mortality in adult age, with connections to stable personality traits. However, long-term stability in driver behavior or accident involvement has not been documented in a general driver population.This study reports 24-year follow-up data from a study that compared the recorded offenses between 134 drivers stopped by the police because of sustained risky driving and 121 control drivers stopped at the same locations at the same time in 1987 (Rajalin, 1994. Accid. Anal. Prev., 26, 555-562). Data were compiled from national driver records and accident statistics for the same drivers again 24 years later, and their yearly mileage and speed behavior was requested in a mail survey. The results showed that the two groups of drivers sampled on one trip a quarter of a century ago still differ from each other. The offenders still have more entries in their driver record, also when adjusted for age and mileage (OR=1.59, CI=1.03-2.46), they still report in the survey that they drive faster and overtake other cars more often. The results show that individual differences in driver behavior persist for decades, perhaps for life. However, in this on-road sample, the effect seems to be moderated by occupation which also presumably explains the lower mortality among the offenders during this 24-year follow-up. PMID:25171522

  6. Follicular mucinosis presenting as an acneiform eruption: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Brau-Javier, Cristina N; Santos-Arroyo, Aileen E; De Sanctis-González, Ivette M; Sánchez, Jorge L

    2013-12-01

    It has been proposed by many authors that follicular mucinosis is directly associated with mycosis fungoides (MF). Follicular mucinosis may be classified into 3 main clinical variants: a benign idiopathic form in children and young adults, which includes an acneiform presentation; an idiopathic form in older patients with a benign course; and a third variant that occurs in adults and is associated with MF. Our goal was to study the relationship between the acneiform variant of follicular mucinosis and MF. Eight patients previously diagnosed with the acneiform variant of follicular mucinosis were identified. Biopsy specimens were reviewed to evaluate the histopathologic attributes that characterize the disease and the infiltrate's immunohistochemistry. Also, patient follow-up was assessed to evaluate the clinical course of the disease. Median age of onset of disease was 29.5 years; 95% of lesions were located in the head and neck region. Biopsy specimens showed a moderate to dense perivascular, perifollicular, and interstitial infiltrate of lymphocytes with mucinous deposits within the follicular epithelium. On immunohistochemistry, the infiltrate showed prominent leukocyte common antigen (LCA) positivity and a CD3-positive and CD4-positive infiltrate with rare CD20-positive cells. None of the study patients showed evidence of MF after a mean follow-up of 3 years. The benign course of disease demonstrated in the study patients suggests that the acneiform variant of follicular mucinosis probably represents a subpopulation of the benign idiopathic form of the disease. However, given that histopathologically this variant cannot be distinguished from the lymphoma-associated variant of follicular mucinosis, longitudinal evaluation is still warranted in these patients. PMID:24257190

  7. Sleep and Sickness Absence: A Nationally Representative Register-Based Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Lallukka, Tea; Kaikkonen, Risto; Härkänen, Tommi; Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Rahkonen, Ossi; Koskinen, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: We aimed to examine various sleep measures as determinants of sickness absence while considering confounders. Design: Nationally representative Health 2000 Survey linked with sickness absence data from the Finnish Social Insurance Institution. Setting: Finland. Participants: Working-aged women (n = 1,875) and men (n = 1,885). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Insomnia-related symptoms, early morning awakenings, being more tired during daytime than other people of same age, use of sleeping pills, excessive daytime sleepiness, probable sleep apnea (4 items about snoring/apnea), and reporting that sleep duration varies between different seasons were examined as determinants of sickness absence over a 7.2 year follow-up. Poisson and gamma regression models were fitted. After adjusting age, all examined sleep disturbances except excessive daytime sleepiness were associated with sickness absence among men (RRs 1.3-2.5). Among women, after adjusting for age, insomnia-related symptoms, early morning awakenings, being more tired than others, and use of sleeping pills were associated with sickness absence (RRs 1.4-1.8). After further adjustments for education, working conditions, health behaviors, and objectively measured mental and somatic health, the associations somewhat attenuated but mainly remained. The optimal sleep duration with the lowest risk of sickness absence was 7.6 hours for women and 7.8 hours for men. Although persistence of other health problems could affect the estimates, direct costs due to sickness absence could decrease by up to 28% if sleep disturbances could be fully addressed. Conclusions: This study highlights the need for prevention of sleep disturbances and promotion of optimal sleep length to prevent sickness absence. Citation: Lallukka T, Kaikkonen R, Härkänen T, Kronholm E, Partonen T, Rahkonen O, Koskinen S. Sleep and sickness absence: a nationally representative register-based follow-up study. SLEEP 2014;37(9):1413-1425. PMID:25142569

  8. Clinical patterns of Crohn's disease in Greece: a follow-up study of 155 cases.

    PubMed

    Triantafillidis, J K; Emmanouilidis, A; Manousos, O; Nicolakis, D; Kogevinas, M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to elucidate the clinical features and natural history of Crohn's disease in Greece. One hundred and fifty-five Greek patients with definite diagnosis of Crohn's disease were followed-up for a mean period of 9.7 years and evaluated for clinical patterns and course of illness. The male/female ratio was 1.58:1. The peak incidence of the disease was observed between 20 and 30 years of age. The majority of patients were urban dwellers and of higher socio-economic level compared to the general population of Greece. In almost 50% of the patients symptoms of the disease started below the age of 30, although in almost one in every 5 cases, symptoms appeared after the age of 50. Familial clustering of inflammatory bowel disease was observed in 1. 3%. The pattern of anatomic involvement was: ileocolic 33.3%, colon 33.3% and small bowel 33.3%. The kind of predominant symptoms at the time of diagnosis was related to the anatomic location of the disease. At least one extraintestinal manifestation appeared in 42% of patients. Perianal disease was noticed in 21.3% with fistulae and abscesses being the most common manifestation. Fifty-one percent of patients were operated upon at least once during the follow-up period because of acute abdomen, bad response to conservative treatment and fistulae and abscesses. Emergency operation was required in 17.3% of the patients. Evolution to cancer was observed in 3 patients (2%). During the follow-up period of 9.7 +/- 6.5 years, 18 patients (11.6%) died. A considerable mortality was noticed in the surgically treated group of patients, while in the nonoperated group the disease was running with milder symptoms. It is concluded that some of the clinicoepidemiological characteristics of patients with Crohn's disease in Greece are in accordance with those reported from western as well as the neighboring Mediterranean countries. However, other parameters such as the higher incidence of the disease in males, the low incidence of familial clustering, and the low incidence of perianal disease, underline the importance of environmental, genetic and other factors on the evolution and behavior of the disease in different parts of the world. PMID:10705176

  9. Exposure therapy for emetophobia: a case study with three-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Maack, Danielle J; Deacon, Brett J; Zhao, Mimi

    2013-06-01

    Emetophobia, also referred to as a specific phobia of vomiting, is a largely under-researched and poorly understood disorder with prevalence estimates of ranging between 1.7 and 3.1% for men and 6 and 7% for women (Hunter & Antony, 2009; Philips, 1985). The current case study, therefore, sought to methodically apply exposure-based behavioral treatment to the treatment of a 26 year-old, Hispanic, female suffering from emetophobia. Although not as powerful as a randomized design, this description may still add to the existing emetophobia literature through the illustration of adaptation of published behavioral treatments for other specific phobias. The case presented was successful in terms of outcome, and includes a three-year follow up wherein treatment gains were measurably maintained. PMID:23973742

  10. Prognosis of inflammatory joint diseases. A three-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Nissil, M; Isomki, H; Kaarela, K; Kiviniemi, P; Martio, J; Sarna, S

    1983-01-01

    The prognosis 3 years after the onset of the disease was studied in 107 patients with definite rheumatoid arthritis, 161 with probable RA or non-specific arthritis, 84 with either ankylosing spondylitis, Reiter's disease or reactive arthritis, 14 with psoriatic arthritis and 10 with a systemic connective tissue disease. Prognosis was measured by clinical involvement of joints, radiological erosions in joints, deterioration in joint function, ESR, and working ability. A total of 44% of all patients were symptomless after 3 years. The prognosis was best in patients with an "HLA B 27-associated" disease and non-specific arthritis, and worst in RA. Two patients died during the follow-up of systemic connective tissue disease and one committed suicide with an overdose of hydroxychloroquine. Two HLA B27-positive patients developed systemic amyloidosis. PMID:6836238

  11. A follow-up study of gastro-intestinal diseases related to bacteriologically substandard drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Zmirou, D; Ferley, J P; Collin, J F; Charrel, M; Berlin, J

    1987-01-01

    In a prospective follow-up study conducted in 52 French alpine villages, one weekly water sample was taken in each village provided with untreated ground water and analyzed as to the presence of four indicator bacteria: total plate count, total coliforms, thermotolerant (fecal) coliforms, and fecal streptococci. Cases of acute gastro-intestinal disease (AGID) occurring among 29,272 inhabitants were reported through physicians, pharmacists, and primary school teachers. A loglinear model identified fecal streptococcus (FS) as the best predictor; the presence of fecal coliforms enhanced the effect of FS. The total bacteria count and the total coliforms had no independent contributions. A threshold analysis suggested that any level of indicator bacteria above zero was associated with an excess of AGID. PMID:3565651

  12. Body experience in eating disorders before and after treatment: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Probst, M; Vandereycken, W; Van Coppenolle, H; Pieters, G

    1999-10-01

    Since body dissatisfaction is an essential part of anorexia/bulimia nervosa, we wanted to assess the patients' body experience before and after intensive treatment. Body experience was studied in 290 eating disorder patients, admitted to a specialised unit, after six months and again after one year using the Body Attitude Test (BAT), the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), and the Eating Disorder Evaluation Scale (EDES). The clearly negative body experience of eating disorder patients evolved in a positive way after therapy and this improvement lasted for up to one year after admission. EDI scores and Body Mass Index at the time of admission appeared to be the strongest predictors of the total BAT score at follow-up. Although body dissatisfaction can be quite persistent in eating disorders, intensive treatment can substantially improve the patients' body experience. PMID:10572365

  13. Surgical management of neuroma pain: a prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Stokvis, Annemieke; van der Avoort, Dirk-Jan J C; van Neck, Johan W; Hovius, Steven E R; Coert, J Henk

    2010-12-01

    Painful neuromas can cause severe loss of function and have great impact on the daily life of patients. Surgical management remains challenging; despite improving techniques, success rates are low. To accurately study the success of surgical neuroma treatment and factors predictive of outcome, a prospective follow-up study was performed. Between 2006 and 2009, pre- and post-operative questionnaires regarding pain (VAS, McGill), function (DASH), quality of life (SF-36), symptoms of psychopathology (SCL-90), epidemiologic determinants and other outcome factors were sent to patients surgically treated for upper extremity neuroma pain. Pain scores after diagnostic nerve blocks were documented at the outpatient clinic before surgery. Thirty-four patients were included, with an average follow up time of 22 months. The mean VAS score decreased from 6.8 to 4.9 after surgery (p<0.01), 19 (56%) of patients were satisfied with surgical results. Upper extremity function improved significantly (p=0.001). Neuroma patients had significantly lower quality of life compared to a normal population. Employment status, duration of pain and CRPS symptoms were found to be prognostic factors. VAS scores after diagnostic nerve block were predictive of post-operative VAS scores (p=0.001). Furthermore, smoking was significantly related to worse outcome (relative risk: 2.10). The results could lead to improved patient selection and treatment strategies. If a diagnostic nerve block is ineffective in relieving pain, patients will most likely not benefit from surgical treatment. Patients should be encouraged to focus on activity and employment instead of their symptoms. Smoking should be discouraged in patients who will undergo surgical neuroma treatment. PMID:20974520

  14. Clinical profile and follow-up of 51 pediatric neurocysticercosis cases: A study from Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Shakya; Biswas, Prativa; Mondal, Tanushree

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Our present observational study attempted to evaluate the clinical profiles, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up results of 51 pediatric neurocysticercosis patients over a mean duration of five years (from January 2006 to December 2010). Materials and Methods: Diagnosis was mainly based on clinical features, computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging scan and exclusion of other causes. Patients with active, transitional cysts and seizure were treated with albendazole for 28 days, steroids and anticonvulsants. Results: A total of 38 patients completed this study. Mean age of the presentation was 8.47 ± 3.19 years 52.6% of the patients were female. Overall patients presented with generalized seizure in 55.3%, focal in 31.6%, headache ± vomiting in 63.2%, focal neurodeficit in 10.5% and combination of symptoms in 60.5% cases. Contrast CT brain showed a solitary lesion in 27 (71.1%) and multiple in the rest. At presentation lesions were transitional in 58.2%, inactive in 20% and mixed in 14.6%. After a mean of 2 years, seizure persisted in 9 (23.7%) and headache in 8 (21.1%) of whom six had normal electroencephalography (EEG) while one each showed focal slowing, generalized slowing and epileptiform discharges. During the follow-up, CT scan brain 44.7% lesions calcified, 31.6% disappeared, 10.5% regressed and the rest persisted. Conclusion: Solitary ring enhancing lesions (transitional stage) involving the parietal lobe was the commonest CT picture at presentation. Generalized tonic-clonic seizure was the most common type of seizure. Number of lesions, persistence of lesion, number of seizures, EEG abnormality at presentation were not found to be prognostically significant (P > 0.05). PMID:24339577

  15. Wilson's disease in southern Brazil: a 40-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    de Bem, Ricardo Schmitt; Muzzillo, Dominique Araujo; Deguti, Marta Mitiko; Barbosa, Egberto Reis; Werneck, Lineu César; Teive, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term data on the clinical follow-up and the treatment effectiveness of Wilson's disease are limited because of the low disease frequency. This study evaluated a retrospective cohort of Wilson's disease patients from southern Brazil during a 40-year follow-up period. METHODS: Thirty-six Wilson's disease patients, diagnosed from 1971 to 2010, were retrospectively evaluated according to their clinical presentation, epidemiological and social features, response to therapy and outcome. RESULTS: Examining the patients' continental origins showed that 74.5% had a European ancestor. The mean age at the initial symptom presentation was 23.3 ± 9.3 years, with a delay of 27.5 ± 41.9 months until definitive diagnosis. At presentation, hepatic symptoms were predominant (38.9%), followed by mixed symptoms (hepatic and neuropsychiatric) (30.6%) and neuropsychiatric symptoms (25%). Kayser-Fleischer rings were identified in 55.6% of patients, with a higher frequency among those patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms (77.8%). Eighteen patients developed neuropsychiatric features, most commonly cerebellar syndrome. Neuroradiological imaging abnormalities were observed in 72.2% of these patients. Chronic liver disease was detected in 68% of the patients with hepatic symptoms. 94.2% of all the patients were treated with D-penicillamine for a mean time of 129.9 ± 108.3 months. Other treatments included zinc salts, combined therapy and liver transplantation. After initiating therapy, 78.8% of the patients had a stable or improved outcome, and the overall survival rate was 90.1%. CONCLUSION: This study is the first retrospective description of a population of Wilson's disease patients of mainly European continental origin who live in southern Brazil. Wilson's disease is treatable if correctly diagnosed, and an adequate quality of life can be achieved, resulting in a long overall survival. PMID:21552664

  16. Early life bereavement and childhood cancer: a nationwide follow-up study in two countries

    PubMed Central

    Momen, Natalie C; Olsen, Jørn; Gissler, Mika; Cnattingius, Sven; Li, Jiong

    2013-01-01

    Objective Childhood cancer is a leading cause of child deaths in affluent countries, but little is known about its aetiology. Psychological stress has been suggested to be associated with cancer in adults; whether this is also seen in childhood cancer is largely unknown. We investigated the association between bereavement as an indicator of severe childhood stress exposure and childhood cancer, using data from Danish and Swedish national registers. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Denmark and Sweden. Participants All live-born children born in Denmark between 1968 and 2007 (n=2 729 308) and in Sweden between 1973 and 2006 (n=3 395 166) were included in this study. Exposure was bereavement by the death of a close relative before 15 years of age. Follow-up started from birth and ended at the first of the following: date of a cancer diagnosis, death, emigration, day before their 15th birthday or end of follow-up (2007 in Denmark, 2006 in Sweden). Outcome measures Rates and HRs for all childhood cancers and specific childhood cancers. Results A total of 1 505 938 (24.5%) children experienced bereavement at some point during their childhood and 9823 were diagnosed with cancer before the age of 15 years. The exposed children had a small (10%) increased risk of childhood cancer (HR 1.10; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.17). For specific cancers, a significant association was seen only for central nervous system tumours (HR 1.14; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.28). Conclusions Our data suggest that psychological stress in early life is associated with a small increased risk of childhood cancer. PMID:23793702

  17. Relationships in couples treated with sperm donation - a national prospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Long-term follow-up on relationship quality in couples who use sperm donation is scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to analyse changes over time in satisfaction with relationship in heterosexual couples who were scheduled for treatment with sperm donation and IVF couples treated with their own gametes and to compare the two groups undergoing different treatment for infertility. Method A prospective follow-up study in which data were collected twice on two groups; couples receiving sperm donation and IVF couples using their own gametes. The ENRICH instrument was used to gain information about the individuals’ subjective experience of their relationship at the time of acceptance for treatment and again 2–5 years later. Results At the time of acceptance for treatment the men and women in the two groups assessed their relationships as being very solid on all dimensions and that there were no differences between the two groups. At the second assessment there was a decline in the satisfaction scores on the dimensions “Children and parenting” and “Egalitarian”, while an increase in scores was observed on “Conception of life” and “Conflict resolution” both for men and woman and also for the two groups. For the couples that had a successful treatment and gave birth to a child/children there was a decrease in satisfaction of the relation in the sperm donation group as well as in the group of couples having IVF with own gametes. Conclusion In conclusion, the overall quality of relationship is stable in couples receiving donated sperm and does not differ from couples undergoing IVF-treatment with own gametes. PMID:25100133

  18. Is training in psychosocial interventions worthwhile? Report of a psychosocial intervention trainee follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Charlie; Saul, Carol; Robinson, Jeannie; King, Jenny; Dudley, Mike

    2003-09-01

    A follow-up study of psychosocial intervention (PSI) trainees from the Sheffield and Maudsley training centres was undertaken in three stages. In Stage 1, 141 students, at two PSI training centres, were sent a simple postal questionnaire to elicit career trajectory following PSI training. A response rate of 82% was achieved. The sub-group, who had been trained and who still engaged in clinical practice were identified and followed-up in more detail (n=96). The effect of PSI training in a range of domains was investigated. The impact of training may not be to equip students with formal technical skills in CBT and family work. What is more likely is that trainees acquired proficiency in: working effectively using a case management model; conveying 'therapeutic optimism'; enabling users to meet their own goals and helping them to develop better coping strategies; using 'stress vulnerability' and formal outcome measures as means of structuring this approach. The secondary aim of the study was to identify and prioritise the barriers that impede the effective implementation of PSI skills in routine service settings. For the second phase of the survey the response rate was again 82%. This group's service managers were identified and surveyed for the same information and 59% responded. The aim was to gather information about implementation issues from both the clinical and service perspectives. The results of the survey indicate that PSI training has a positive impact on the development of services for people with serious mental health problems although there are serious organisational hurdles for managers, trainees and organisations to overcome if PSI skills are to be properly implemented. Key factors that impact upon faithful implementation are related to resource issues (caseload size), organisational factors (the existence of an implementation plan and training strategy), and the extent to which the trainee's team is supportive. PMID:12965165

  19. Factors Associated with Caregiver Burden in Dementia: 1-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Sang Hong; Kang, Hyo Shin; Kim, Ji Hae

    2016-01-01

    Objective Dementia symptoms (cognitive function, daily-living function, and neuropsychiatric symptoms) become more serious over time, which is likely to increase caregiver burden. The aim of this study is to investigate which dementia-related symptoms, and how the progression of these symptoms, have influenced caregiver burden during a 1-year follow-up assessment. Methods A total of 110 patients with dementia were assessed for their cognitive function, daily-living function, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Caregivers were assessed for their caregiver burden. Bivariate analyses were conducted between caregiver burden and dementia patients' symptoms, in order to examine which particular symptoms were significantly associated with caregiver burden at the baseline. A multiple regression analysis was then conducted with each significantly associated variable with a view to identifying determinants, influencing caregiver burden. Additionally, bivariate analyses were conducted between the changes in caregiver burden and the changes in patients' symptoms, to investigate which patient variable could best describe caregiver burden from baseline to the 1-year follow-up. A multiple regression analysis was conducted with each significantly-associated change in symptom, in order to identify determinants that influence a change in caregiver burden. Results Neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as irritability, aberrant motor-behavior, delusions and disinhibition were found to be significant predictors of caregiver burden at baseline, according to multiple regression analysis. In addition, changes in neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as delusions, agitation and memory-related functioning in daily-living significantly predict a change in caregiver burden. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that neuropsychiatric symptoms and memory impairment in daily-living functions are significant predictors of an increase in caregiver burden. PMID:26766945

  20. Prognostic value of coronary CT angiography in diabetic patients: a 5-year follow up study.

    PubMed

    Nadjiri, Jonathan; Hausleiter, Jörg; Deseive, Simon; Will, Albrecht; Hendrich, Eva; Martinoff, Stefan; Hadamitzky, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) is high in diabetic patients while diagnosis of early stage of CAD remains demanding. This study evaluates prognostic value of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) for long-term outcome to predict cardiac events in oligosymptomatic diabetic patients. A cohort of 108 consecutive diabetic patients without angina pectoris or known CAD, undergoing CCTA was included. 1379 consecutive patients without diabetes were defined as a control group. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS), segment involvement score (SIS) and the segment stenosis score (SSS) were documented. The end point was a composite of cardiac events defined as all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization. Follow up period was 66.0 ± 14.2 month. 98 % of initially enrolled patient were followed. During follow-up period 10 cardiac events within the diabetic cohort and 48 within the non-diabetic cohort were observed. Annual event rate in diabetic and non-diabetic patients was 1.74 and 0.64 % respectively. In diabetic patients a multivariate analysis showed significant prognostic value over Framingham Score for SIS with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.98 (95 % CI 1.02, 8.72; p = 0.047) and SSS (HR 4.47, 95 % CI 1.21, 16.49; p = 0.025), while CACS did not add prognostic value in this cohort. Annual event rate was 0 % in diabetic patients with SIS = 0 and 3.9 % in diabetic patients with SIS ≥ 8. CCTA allows for improved risk prediction for subsequent cardiac events in oligosymptomatic diabetic patients. PMID:26454820

  1. What Affects Reintegration of Female Drug Users after Prison Release? Results of a European Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurhold, Heike; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Sanclemente, Cristina; Schmied, Gabriele; Shewan, David; Verthein, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this follow-up study is to explore factors influencing the success or failure of women in reintegrating after their release from prison. Female drug users in five European cities were tracked after being released from prison. Out of 234 female prisoners contacted in prisons, 59 were included in the follow-up study. Structured

  2. What Affects Reintegration of Female Drug Users after Prison Release? Results of a European Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurhold, Heike; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Sanclemente, Cristina; Schmied, Gabriele; Shewan, David; Verthein, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this follow-up study is to explore factors influencing the success or failure of women in reintegrating after their release from prison. Female drug users in five European cities were tracked after being released from prison. Out of 234 female prisoners contacted in prisons, 59 were included in the follow-up study. Structured…

  3. 75 FR 54965 - Proposed Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era... problems of Gulf War Veterans. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the proposed collection of...: Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans, VA Form 10-0488, and Consent...

  4. 75 FR 54445 - Proposed Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era... problems of Gulf War Veterans. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the proposed collection of...: Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans, VA Form 10-0488, and Consent...

  5. Semen quality improves marginally during young adulthood: a longitudinal follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Perheentupa, Antti; Sadov, Sergey; Rönkä, Riitta; Virtanen, Helena E.; Rodprasert, Wiwat; Vierula, Matti; Jørgensen, Niels; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Toppari, Jorma

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does semen quality improve during early adulthood? SUMMARY ANSWER Semen variables change little during the third decade of life, however some improvement in sperm morphology and motility may occur. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY A suspicion of deteriorating semen quality has been raised in several studies. The longitudinal development of semen quality in early adulthood is insufficiently understood. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A longitudinal follow-up of two cohorts of volunteer young adult Finnish men representing the general population was carried out. Cohorts A (discovery cohort, born 1979–1981, n = 336) and B (validation cohort, born 1983, n = 197) were followed up from the age of 19 years onward for 10 years. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Inclusion criteria included that both the men and their mothers were born in Finland. Semen analysis was performed in cohorts A and B at 2–4 year intervals over a period of 10 years. Semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, total motile count and morphology were the variables assessed in the analysis. A physical examination was carried out at each visit to detect any significant andrological abnormalities. The overall participation rate was 13.4%. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE During the follow-up, the percentage of sperm with normal morphology and the percentage of motile sperm increased significantly both in the discovery (A) (P < 0.001 at 19 versus 29 years for both) and validation (B) (P < 0.001 and P = 0.03 at 19 versus 29 years, respectively) cohort. Sperm concentration and total sperm count showed a significant increase with age only in cohort B (P = 0.03 at 21 versus 29 years, P = 0.009 at 19 versus 29 years, respectively). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION A limited number of men participated both in the first round and in the final fourth round (cohort A, n = 111 and cohort B, n = 90 men) and in all four rounds (cohort A, n = 61 and cohort B, n = 52). WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Almost full spermatogenic capacity is reached by the age of 19 years. However, the improvement in sperm motility and morphology during early adulthood may slightly improve male fecundity. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) This study was supported by the European Commission (QLK4-CT-1999-01422, QLK4-CT-2001-00269, QLK4-2002-0063, FP7/2008-2012: DEER 212844), The Danish Medical Research Council (9700833, 9700909), Danish Agency for Science (Technology and Innovation 09-067180), the Svend Andersen's Foundation, Velux Foundation, and Novo Nordisk Foundation, the Turku University Hospital, Sigrid Jusélius Foundation and the Academy of Finland. There are no conflicts of interest. PMID:26740579

  6. Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002) Third Follow-up Data File Documentation. NCES 2014-364

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; Pratt, Daniel J.; Alexander, Christopher P.; Jewell, Donna M.; Lauff, Erich; Mattox, Tiffany L.; Wilson, David

    2014-01-01

    This report provides guidance and documentation for users of the combined base-year to third follow-up data of the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002). ELS:2002 is sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) of the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. The base-year and follow-up studies…

  7. Asperger Syndrome and Autism: A Comparative Longitudinal Follow-Up Study More than 5 Years after Original Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederlund, Mats; Hagberg, Bibbi; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, I. Carina; Gillberg, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Prospective follow-up study of 70 males with Asperger syndrome (AS), and 70 males with autism more than 5 years after original diagnosis. Instruments used at follow-up included overall clinical assessment, the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders, Wechsler Intelligence Scales, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and Global…

  8. Childhood Predictors of Male Criminality: A Prospective Population-Based Follow-up Study from Age 8 to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sourander, Andre; Elonheimo, Henrik; Niemela, Solja; Nuutila, Ari-Matti; Helenius, Hans; Sillanmaki, Lauri; Piha, Jorma; Tamminen, Tuula; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Moilanen, Irma; Almqvist, Frederik

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study childhood predictors for late adolescence criminality. Method: The follow-up sample included 2,713 Finnish boys born in 1981. Information about the 8-year-old boys' problem behavior was obtained from parents, teachers, and the children themselves. The follow-up information about criminal offenses was based on the national…

  9. Relationships in oocyte recipient couples – a Swedish national prospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The long-term effect of treatment with donated oocytes on women’s and men’s perception of their relationship has been little studied. Thus the aim of this study was to analyse satisfaction with relationships in couples at the time of acceptance for treatment and 2–5 years after treatment with donated gametes and to compare them with IVF couples treated with their own gametes. Method A prospective follow-up study in which data were collected twice on two groups; cohabitating couples receiving oocyte donation and cohabitating IVF couples using their own gametes. A standardised instrument, the ENRICH inventory, was used to gain information about the couples’ subjective experience of their relationships. Results At acceptance for treatment the couples in the two groups assessed their relationships as being very solid on all dimensions and that the women receiving treatment with oocyte showed a higher satisfaction compared to women treated with own gametes. For couples that did have a child, the group of women who had been through the oocyte donating program reported a better quality of their relationship than women in the control group. There were no significant differences in perceived relationship quality between men in the different groups, whether they had a child or not. Conclusions From a long-term perspective couples using oocyte donation treatment have a balanced and solid view of their relationship and treatment, having children or not after treatment did not affect the nature of the relationships. PMID:24885541

  10. Cancer Related Follow-up Care among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Childhood Cancer Survivors: The Project Forward Study

    PubMed Central

    Milam, Joel; Meeske, Kathleen; Slaughter, Rhona; Sherman-Bien, Sandra; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Kuperberg, Aura; Freyer, David R.; Hamilton, Ann S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Follow-up care is critical for childhood cancer survivors (CCS) who are at high risk for co-morbidities and late effects of cancer treatments. Understanding factors associated with maintaining follow-up care is needed, especially for Hispanic CCS who are underrepresented in previous studies. Methods Risk and protective factors for receiving cancer-related follow-up care were examined among 193 Los Angeles County CCS diagnosed between 20002007 (54% Hispanic; mean age=19.9, SD=2.8; mean age at diagnosis=12.1, SD=3.0; mean years since diagnosis=7.8, SD=2.0). Self-report surveys assessed follow-up care, insurance status, demographics, clinical factors, and psychosocial risk (e.g., depression) and protective [e.g., self-efficacy (SE)] factors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with previous (in prior 2 years) and intent for future cancer-related follow-up care. Results Seventy-three percent of CCS reported a cancer follow-up visit in the prior 2 years, which was positively associated (ps<.05) with having health insurance, White ethnicity (vs. Hispanic), younger age and greater treatment intensity. Sixty-nine percent reported intent for follow-up care in the next two years, which was positively associated (ps<.05) with having health insurance and greater SE. Conclusions Hispanics and older CCS are more likely to lack previous follow-up care. Because health insurance was strongly associated with both previous follow-up care and intent to seek care, recent changes in health coverage may improve follow-up among CCS. Interventions targeting improved SE may help increase intent to receive follow-up care for this population. PMID:25345867

  11. A prospective follow-up study on transmission of Campylobacter from poultry to abattoir workers.

    PubMed

    Ellstrm, Patrik; Hansson, Ingrid; Sderstrm, Claes; Engvall, Eva Olsson; Rautelin, Hilpi

    2014-09-01

    Contact with poultry or poultry meat is a well-known risk factor for campylobacteriosis, but prospective studies on transmission of Campylobacter from chickens to humans during slaughter are scarce. In this study, we monitored transmission of Campylobacter from slaughtered chicken to originally culture-negative abattoir workers during the peak season of colonized chicken and human Campylobacter infection. Stool samples were obtained from 28 abattoir workers together with data on health status once a month between June and September 2010, with a follow-up sample collected in February 2011. Campylobacter-positive individuals and chicken flocks were identified by culture, and isolates were further characterized using molecular techniques. Campylobacter was isolated from seven asymptomatic individuals. Four of them had been newly employed and had not reported any previous Campylobacter infection. Four human isolates had matching genetic fingerprints with isolates from recently slaughtered chickens. Our results further support the role of chicken as the source of human Campylobacter infection but suggest that asymptomatic Campylobacter infection may occur even in individuals with only limited earlier exposure to Campylobacter. PMID:24885791

  12. Chronic vagus nerve stimulation in Crohn's disease: a 6-month follow-up pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bonaz, B; Sinniger, V; Hoffmann, D; Clarençon, D; Mathieu, N; Dantzer, C; Vercueil, L; Picq, C; Trocmé, C; Faure, P; Cracowski, J-L; Pellissier, S

    2016-06-01

    The vagus nerve (VN) is a link between the brain and the gut. The VN is a mixed nerve with anti-inflammatory properties through the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by its afferents and by activating the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway through its efferents. We have previously shown that VN stimulation (VNS) improves colitis in rats and that the vagal tone is blunted in Crohn's disease (CD) patients. We thus performed a pilot study of chronic VNS in patients with active CD. Seven patients under VNS were followed up for 6 months with a primary endpoint to induce clinical remission and a secondary endpoint to induce biological (CRP and/or fecal calprotectin) and endoscopic remission and to restore vagal tone (heart rate variability). Vagus nerve stimulation was feasible and well-tolerated in all patients. Among the seven patients, two were removed from the study at 3 months for clinical worsening and five evolved toward clinical, biological, and endoscopic remission with a restored vagal tone. These results provide the first evidence that VNS is feasible and appears as an effective tool in the treatment of active CD. PMID:26920654

  13. Dietary Acid-Base Balance in Adolescent Sprint Athletes: A Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Aerenhouts, Dirk; Deriemaeker, Peter; Hebbelinck, Marcel; Clarys, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sprinters are advised to include additional protein sources in their diet. Basal metabolism and vigorous physical activities generate hydrogen ions that need to be buffered. The present follow-up study estimates the dietary potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP) in adolescent sprint athletes. Seven-day food diaries and anthropometrics of 60 adolescent sprint athletes (mean age at start 14.7 ± 1.9 years) were collected every six months over a three year period. Comparisons were made between athletes with a negative (PRAL(−)) versus positive PRAL (PRAL(+)). For the entire sample, mean PRAL values of up to 6 mEq/day were slightly positive despite a relatively high protein intake of around 1.5 g/kg. The NEAP ranging between 42 and 46 mEq/day remained stable during the study period. Athletes with a PRAL(−) (−8 to −10 mEq/day) consumed significantly more fruit and fruit juice than athletes with a PRAL(+) (+9 to 14 mEq/day). Athletes with a PRAL(+) did not consume more meat, fish and poultry than athletes with a PRAL(−). Grains and dairy products were only discriminative between the two groups on one measurement occasion. Lowering the PRAL can be obtained by increasing the consumption of potatoes, fruits, vegetables and vegetable soup. PMID:22254092

  14. High-energy follow-up studies of gravitational wave transient events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razzano, Massimiliano; Branchesi, Marica; Cella, Giancarlo; Fidecaro, Francesco; Mapelli, Michela; Patricelli, Barbara; Pian, Elena; Stamerra, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Second-generation gravitational interferometers, such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo, will soon reach sensitivities sufficient to first detect gravitational waves and open a new era in the multimessenger investigations of the cosmos. The most violent and energetic astrophysical phenomena, including the mergers of compact objects or the core collapse of massive stars, are promising sources of gravitational waves, and are thought to be connected with transient phenomena such as Gamma Ray Bursts and supernovae. Combined observations of gravitational and electromagnetic signals from these events will thus provide an unique opportunity to unveil their progenitors and study the physics of compact objects. In particular, gamma-ray ground-based and space observatories such as Fermi or the Air Cherenkov Telescopes will be crucial to observe the high-energy electromagnetic counterparts of transient gravitational wave signals and provide a robust identification based on a precise sky localization. We will report on our studies of possible joint observation strategies carried on by gravitational interferometers and gamma-ray telescopes, with particular attention on the high-energy follow-up of Gamma Ray Bursts.

  15. Dietary acid-base balance in adolescent sprint athletes: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Aerenhouts, Dirk; Deriemaeker, Peter; Hebbelinck, Marcel; Clarys, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Sprinters are advised to include additional protein sources in their diet. Basal metabolism and vigorous physical activities generate hydrogen ions that need to be buffered. The present follow-up study estimates the dietary potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP) in adolescent sprint athletes. Seven-day food diaries and anthropometrics of 60 adolescent sprint athletes (mean age at start 14.7 ± 1.9 years) were collected every six months over a three year period. Comparisons were made between athletes with a negative (PRAL(-)) versus positive PRAL (PRAL(+)). For the entire sample, mean PRAL values of up to 6 mEq/day were slightly positive despite a relatively high protein intake of around 1.5 g/kg. The NEAP ranging between 42 and 46 mEq/day remained stable during the study period. Athletes with a PRAL(-) (-8 to -10 mEq/day) consumed significantly more fruit and fruit juice than athletes with a PRAL(+) (+9 to 14 mEq/day). Athletes with a PRAL(+) did not consume more meat, fish and poultry than athletes with a PRAL(-). Grains and dairy products were only discriminative between the two groups on one measurement occasion. Lowering the PRAL can be obtained by increasing the consumption of potatoes, fruits, vegetables and vegetable soup. PMID:22254092

  16. Course and moderators of emotional eating in anorectic and bulimic patients: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Fioravanti, Giulia; Castellini, Giovanni; Lo Sauro, Carolina; Ianni, Sirio; Montanelli, Luca; Rotella, Francesco; Faravelli, Carlo; Ricca, Valdo

    2014-04-01

    Emotion dysregulation has been found to be associated with specific eating attitudes and behavior in Eating Disorder (ED) patients. The present study evaluated whether emotional eating profile of ED patients changes over time and the possible effects of a psychotherapeutic intervention on the emotional eating dimension. One hundred and two ED patients (28 with Anorexia Nervosa restricting type [AN-R], 35 with Anorexia Nervosa binge/purging subtype [AN-B/P] and 39 with Bulimia Nervosa [BN]) were evaluated at baseline, at the end of a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, at 3 and 6 year follow-up. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Axis I Disorders, the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) and several self-reported questionnaires for eating specific and general psychopathology were applied. A control group of 86 healthy subjects was also studied, in order to compare psychopathological variables at baseline. A significant EES total score reduction was observed among AN-B/P and BN patients, whereas no significant change was found in the AN-R group. Mixed Models analyses showed that a significant effect on EES total score variation was found for cocaine or amphetamine abuse (b = .25; p < .01). Patients who assumed these substances reported no significant EES reduction across time, unlike other patients. The present results suggest that ED patients with a history of cocaine or amphetamine abuse represent a sub-population of patients with lasting dysfunctional mood modulatory mechanisms. PMID:24854803

  17. Radioactive iodine therapy and breast cancer. A follow-up study of hyperthyroid women

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, M.B.; Maloof, F.; Monson, R.R.; Aschengrau, A.; Cooper, D.S.; Ridgway, E.C.

    1988-05-01

    A follow-up study of 1762 hyperthyroid women who were treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital Thyroid Unit between 1946 and 1964 was conducted. The average length of follow-up was 17.2 years. A 1978 mailing address or a death certificate was located for 92% of the women, and 88% of 1058 living patients responded to a mail questionnaire. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for all causes of death was 1.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-1.4). The standardized mortality ratios for all malignant neoplasms and for breast cancer were 0.9 (95% CI 0.7-1.1) and 1.3 (95% CI 0.8-1.9), respectively. More deaths than expected were observed from endocrine and metabolic diseases (SMR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.7), circulatory system diseases (SMR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.3-1.6), and respiratory system diseases (SMR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.3-2.6). The standardized incidence ratios (SIR) for all malignant neoplasms and for breast cancer were 0.9 (95% CI 0.8-1.1) and 1.2 (95% CI 0.9-1.5), respectively. A nonsignificant excess breast cancer risk was observed 10 years after the onset of thyroid symptoms and was present at the end of 30 years of observation. A statistically significant excess number of pancreatic cancer cases (SIR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.0-3.7) and a nonsignificant excess of brain cancer cases (SIR = 2.3, 95% CI 0.7-5.3) were observed. Eighty per cent of the women were treated with radioactive iodine. When age at treatment and year of treatment were controlled, women who were ever treated with radioactive iodine had a standardized rate ratio for breast cancer of 1.9 (95% CI 0.9-4.1), compared with those who were never treated with radioactive iodine. Women who developed hypothyroidism as a result of their treatment for hyperthyroidism did not have an increased risk of developing breast cancer (SIR = 1.1, 95% CI 0.8-1.6).

  18. [Gender dysphoria in children and adolescents - treatment guidelines and follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Meyenburg, Bernd; Kröger, Anne; Neugebauer, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Treatment guidelines for transidentity in children and adolescents are presently under discussion. We present an overview of the various treatment modalities. Further, follow-up data on children and adolescents referred for gender-identity problems are presented. Of the 84 patients seen for the first time more than 3 years before follow-up, 37 mailed in the completed questionnaires. In addition, 33 patients agreed to answer some short follow-up questions. We assessed steps of treatment, gender role, psychopathology, and psychotherapy. We compared differences in psychopathology in patients with vs. without gender role change and in patients with intense vs. less intense psychotherapy. A total of 22 patients had completely changed gender role, and some had started hormonal treatment und sex reassignment surgery. Most patients were satisfied with the treatment results. All patients showed less psychopathology on follow-up, independent of role change or intensity of psychotherapy. In general, the patients reported little psychopathology. Our follow-up results support the present treatment approach. In patients with little psychopathology, low-frequency supportive treatment appears sufficient to obtain safe judgement on hormonal of surgical treatment. PMID:25536896

  19. Hearing in pop/rock musicians: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, A; Eliasson, A; Israelsson, B

    1995-06-01

    In 1975, the threshold hearing levels (HLs) of 83 Swedish and British pop/rock musicians were examined with pure tone audiometry. At that time we found 13% of the musicians with a hearing loss > 20 dB HL at a high frequency pure tone average (3, 4, 6, and 8 kHz). The aim of the present investigation was to conduct an audiometric follow-up study of these musicians 16 years after the first examination. Fifty-three of the 83 pop/rock musicians were retested in 1991 to 1992. They also filled in a questionnaire concerning occupational noise activities, leisure noise activities, general health problems and subjective symptoms related to loud music exposure. The median pure tone audiogram was within 20 dB HL at all test frequencies. On an individual basis, 63% had normal high high frequency pure tone average scores and another 15% had a very limited high frequency hearing loss (< or = 25 dB HL). It seems surprising that pop/rock musicians after performing for 26 years have such well-preserved hearing. There might be a protective effect by the generally positive attitude from the musicians toward their performance and their audience. Regarding the loud and more or less continuous sound levels over 85 dBA there might also be a protective effect from a continuous contraction of the stapedius muscle. PMID:7672473

  20. A follow-up study of cognitive impairment due to inferior capsular genu infarction.

    PubMed

    Madureira, S; Guerreiro, M; Ferro, J M

    1999-09-01

    Abulia, memory loss, other cognitive deficits, and behavioral changes consistent with dementia can follow an inferior capsular genu infarction, but only little is known about the time course of these disturbances. The present study describes the long-term outcome of cognitive defects in four patients with inferior capsular genu infarction who underwent a neuropsychological examination within 3 and 12 months of onset. Three patients had infarcts in the inferior genu of the left internal capsule and had similar symptoms in the acute phase: disorientation, memory loss, language impairment, and behavioral changes. The patient with right-side infarct showed memory impairment and behavioral changes. Three patients had deficits in one or more cognitive domains on the first assessment, but none was demented. By the second evaluation all subjects had improved. In two patients there were a moderate memory defect persisted and a language disturbance. Improvement in these disturbances during long-time follow-up demonstrates that there are alternative pathways that reestablish the functional connections damaged by the strategically located capsular genu infarct. Inferior capsular genu infarction is not a cause of persisting "strategic infarct dementia." PMID:10525972

  1. Cognitive impairment and negative symptoms in geriatric chronic schizophrenic patients: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Harvey, P D; Lombardi, J; Leibman, M; White, L; Parrella, M; Powchik, P; Davidson, M

    1996-12-15

    Cognitive impairment is increasingly recognized as an important aspect of schizophrenia. Since cognitive impairment has many features in common with the negative symptoms of the illness, it is possible that some of the characteristics attributed to negative symptoms are due to an association with cognitive impairments. In order to test this hypothesis, 174 chronically hospitalized geriatric schizophrenic patients were examined twice at a 1-year follow-up with ratings of the severity of their symptoms (using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale: PANSS) and assessments of cognitive functions with the Mini-Mental State Examination and a brief neuropsychological battery aimed at the typical impairments seen in dementia. Positive symptoms were unassociated with any of the cognitive variables, while negative symptom severity was correlated with each of the cognitive measures. In the cross-temporal analyses, cognitive impairments were more stable over time than negative symptom scores, but cognitive impairment did not predict the severity of any negative symptom over time. At each assessment, however, cognitive impairment was strongly correlated with each of the seven negative symptoms studied. These data indicate that cognitive impairments and negative symptoms are related, but discriminable, features in schizophrenia and that the considerable overlap between some negative symptoms and estimates of cognitive function may suggest a rethinking of the definition of some of these symptoms. PMID:9000319

  2. Immediate loading implants with mandibular overdenture: a 48-month prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Zancope, Karla; Simamoto Júnior, Paulo Cézar; Davi, Letícia Resende; Prado, Célio Jesus; Neves, Flávio Domingues das

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this prospective clinical study was to evaluate patient rehabilitation with two immediately loaded implants and bar-retained mandibular overdentures after 48 months of follow-up. Twenty patients were treated with two implants each; of these, 17 patients were re-evaluated for comparison. Gender, age, plaque index, gingival inflammation, keratinized mucosa, probing depth, bleeding, and implant loss data were recorded, and periapical radiographs were obtained for measurement of marginal bone loss. The results were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation test. To compare the data at baseline and after 48 months, a Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test was performed (α = 0.05). One implant failed (2.9%) during the first year and was replaced. A total of 35 implants were evaluated. Bone loss values were 0.52-2.89 mm (mean, 1.46 mm). Probing depth was 1.75-3.75 mm (mean, 2.22 mm). Correlations were found between bone loss and plaque index and between bone loss and gender, but bone loss did not correlate with gingival inflammation, keratinized mucosa, probing depth, or age. The overall survival rate of the implants was 97.1%. Based on these results, the use of two immediately loaded splinted interforaminal implants to retain an overdenture with a bar attachment is a clinically viable option with a high survival rate. PMID:25141015

  3. Clonazepam in the treatment of epilepsy. A clinical long-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Bang, F; Birket-Smith, E; Mikkelsen, B

    1976-09-01

    Sixty-eight patients with various types of epileptic seizures have been treated with clonazepam (Rivotril). Fifty-four patients could be evaluated. In 44 patients, clonazepam was used as a supplement to insufficient previous medication. Ten patients received clonazepam alone. The mean duration of treatment was 2 years and 7 months. Thirty-three patients are still on clonazepam, with a mean duration of treatment of 3 years and 4 months. In 34 patients (63%) a reduction of more than 50% was seen in the seizure frequency of the only type suffered by a patient, or of one of several types. No significant decrease in antiepileptic potency with time was observed. Medication was withdrawn in a total of 21 of the 54 patients because of freedom from seizures (2 patients), lack of effect (7 patients), increased frequency of seizures (3 patients), or lack of cooperation and/or side-effects (3 patients). In 5 patients, the drug may have provoked new types of epileptic seizure. This long-term follow-up study seems to substantiate the favorable antiepileptic properties of clonazepam. PMID:824124

  4. [A three years follow-up study on the blood pressures of 6111 children in Chengdu].

    PubMed

    Wang, J Y

    1989-04-01

    This paper reports the results of a follow-up study in blood pressures of 6111 children for 3 years in Chengdu city and the villages around. It was showed that the blood pressure for both the city and village children were elevated in overall with age. Among the city children, the rate of BP-rising varied in different periods of childhood and that of girls above 13 was not significant. Among village children, the rate of BP-rising for both male and female comparison to that of urban ones were significant (P less than 0.01). A comparison of BP-rising between these two groups revealed no significant differences. This result might be due to the rapid increase of body weight for the village children. It was demonstrated that heart rate, body weight and body height are the factors affecting blood pressure of which heart rate is something essential and is the test parameter for blood pressure research. PMID:2736619

  5. Pattern and motion-related visual-evoked potentials in neuroborreliosis: follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Szanyi, J; Kubová, Z; Kremláček, J; Langrová, J; Vít, F; Kuba, M; Szanyi, J; Plíšek, S

    2012-04-01

    Visual-evoked potentials (VEPs) were used for objective testing of visual functions during treatment courses of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) in adult patients in the Czech Republic. In 30 LNB patients with originally delayed VEP latencies, pattern-reversal (R-VEP) and motion onset (M-VEP) VEPs were repeatedly examined within 1 to 8 years. Six patients had Lyme optic neuritis (ON), five of them displayed prolonged latencies in both R-VEPs and M-VEPs, and one had only abnormal R-VEPs. The VEP recovery to normal latency values was in three of them. In the group of 24 LNB patients without ON, 14 patients displayed prolonged latencies only to motion stimuli, and 10 patients had abnormal latencies in both R-VEPs and M-VEPs. During the follow-up period, 7 patients displayed shortening to normal latencies. In 5 patients, VEPs latencies improved only partially, and in the remaining 12 patients, VEPs did not improve at all. This study provides objective evidence that in LNB, most of the patients without clinically manifesting ON display optic pathway involvement-predominantly magnocellular system/dorsal stream function changes. In patients with ON, however, mainly the parvocellular system is affected. About half of the patients without ON improved with a relatively long-time course of latency shortening. PMID:22469684

  6. Afterglow Population Studies from Swift Follow-Up Observations of Fermi LAT GRBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racusin, Judith L.; Oates, S. R.; McEnery, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Troja, E.; Gehrels, N.

    2010-01-01

    The small population of Fermi LAT detected GRBs discovered over the last year has been providing interesting and unexpected clues into GRB prompt and afterglow emission mechanisms. Over the last 5 years, it has been Swift that has provided the robust data set of UV/optical and X-ray afterglow observations that opened many windows into other components of GRB emission structure. We explore the new ability to utilize both of these observatories to study the same GRBs over 10 orders of magnitude in energy, although not always concurrently. Almost all LAT GRBs that have been followed-up by Swift within 1-day have been clearly detected and carefully observed. We will present the context of the lower-energy afterglows of this special subset of GRBs that has > 100 MeV emission compared to the hundreds in the Swift database that may or may not have been observed by LAT, and theorize upon the relationship between these properties and the origin of the high energy gamma-ray emission.

  7. Feasibility study and pilot randomised trial of an antenatal depression treatment with infant follow-up.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Jeannette; Holt, Charlene; Holt, Christopher J; Ross, Jessica; Ericksen, Jennifer; Gemmill, Alan W

    2015-10-01

    Substantial evidence links antenatal depression, anxiety and stress with negative effects on foetal development, resulting in enduring problems in child development. Despite this, there is a paucity of research on intervention programmes designed to address depression and anxiety, and none that include infant outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a brief treatment for maternal depression and anxiety in pregnancy in a sample of women with a diagnosed depressive disorder. We developed a cognitive behavioural therapy treatment for antenatal depression and anxiety and evaluated it in a feasibility trial. This was followed by a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) which collected data on the efficacy of the brief intervention and follow-up data on infants. The feasibility study (n = 25) yielded promising results for adherence, acceptability and improvements in depression and anxiety (Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory). The RCT (n = 54) again showed excellent adherence and acceptability and supported the efficacy of the treatment. Strong reductions in anxiety were observed during pregnancy, and improvements in depression were maintained at 9 months representing a moderately large effect size. Nine-month infant outcomes showed several medium to large effects favouring the intervention in domains including problem solving, self-regulation and stress reactivity, which were independent of maternal postnatal mood. Treating severe depression and anxiety during pregnancy with a brief cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) intervention appears feasible and worthwhile. To reliably detect clinically meaningful effects on infant outcomes, larger RCTs are likely to be required. PMID:25709044

  8. Follow up study of 70 patients with renal artery stenosis treated by percutaneous transluminal dilatation.

    PubMed Central

    Geyskes, G G; Puylaert, C B; Oei, H Y; Mees, E J

    1983-01-01

    Between April 1978 and April 1981, 70 patients with hypertension and renal artery stenosis were treated by percutaneous transluminal arterial dilatation. Selection of the patients was based solely on arteriographic criteria. Arteriography after dilatation showed considerable widening of the stenosed area in all patients. In 65 patients the effect of treatment on the blood pressure was assessed during follow up periods of one to four years. In 14 of these patients the hypertension was cured, in 29 it was improved, and in 22 there was no change. Patients with fibromuscular lesions benefited distinctly more than did those with atheromatous stenosis, only one of the 21 patients with fibromuscular lesions showing no change as compared with 21 of the 44 patients with atheromatous lesions. The only serious complication encountered was microcholesterol emboli, which developed in two patients with severe atheromatous lesions of the aorta. In the atheromatous group age and overall renal function had no influence on the blood pressure response. In the subgroup of patients with a unilateral lesion the renal vein renin ratios and asymmetrical curves obtained by renography had only a very limited predictive value. In experienced hands percutaneous transluminal arterial dilatation is relatively safe, and this study suggests that it should be attempted in all patients with renal artery stenosis. Only in patients with severe atheromatosis of the aorta should the risk associated with the catheterisation be weighed against the 50% or so chance of benefit from the procedure. PMID:6223685

  9. Hearing development in classical orchestral musicians. A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Kähäri, K R; Axelsson, A; Hellström, P A; Zachau, G

    2001-01-01

    Using pure tone audiometry in 1995, a hearing reassessment was made in 56 classical musicians who participated in Axelsson & Lindgren's study 16 years earlier, in 1979. This study focuses on hearing development in these classical orchestra musicians, active in Göteborg, Sweden. The aim of the study is to evaluate the risk of progressive hearing loss during work in a classical orchestra. Another aim is to study possible hearing differences in females and males and to compare the high frequency pure-tone average values found in the study with two normal materials. The main findings were that the male, compared to the female musicians, showed a tendency toward a more pronounced, although not significant, hearing reduction in the high frequency region and higher threshold distribution within the 90th percentile than the females. This was found most often in the left ear. The median audiogram for all females showed a notch configuration at 6 kHz, compared to the males who had a high-tone sloping configuration. When comparing high frequency pure-tone average (HFPTA) values with ISO 7029, the females are distributed around the ISO 7029 median and well within the 90th percentile. The average among the males was equal with the median. Comparison with Davis normal population "all the sample, overall occupational group" showed a more even distribution of the HFPTA values around the median for both females and males on both occasions. This follow-up study showed no extended negative progress of the pure-tone hearing threshold values in spite of an additional 16 years of musical noise exposure. PMID:11683452

  10. Telephone follow-up for cataract surgery: feasibility and patient satisfaction study.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jeremy J S L; Pelosini, Lucia

    2016-05-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of telephone follow-up (TFU) after uncomplicated cataract surgery in low-risk patients and patient satisfaction with this alternative clinical pathway. Design/methodology/approach - Prospective, non-randomised cohort study. A ten-point subjective ophthalmic assessment questionnaire and a six-point patient satisfaction questionnaire were administered to patients following routine cataract surgery at two to three weeks post-procedure. All patients were offered a further clinic review if required. Exclusion criteria comprised ophthalmic co-morbidities, hearing/language impairment and high risk of post-operative complications. Patient notes were retrospectively reviewed over the study period to ensure no additional emergency attendances took place. Findings - Over three months, 50 eyes of 50 patients (mean age: 80; age range 60-91; 66 per cent second eye surgery) underwent uncomplicated phacoemulsification surgery received a TFU at 12-24 days (mean: 16 days) post-operatively. Subjective visual acuity was graded as good by 92 per cent of patients; 72 per cent patients reported no pain and 20 per cent reported mild occasional grittiness. Patient satisfaction was graded 8.9 out of 10; 81.6 per cent defined TFU as convenient and 75.5 per cent of patients preferred TFU to routine outpatient review. No additional visits were required. Research limitations/implications - Non-randomised with no control group; small sample size. One patient was unable to be contacted. Practical implications - Post-operative TFU can be suitably targeted to low-risk patients following uncomplicated cataract surgery. This study demonstrated a high patient satisfaction. A larger, randomised study is in progress to assess this further. Originality/value - This is the first study reporting TFU results and patient satisfaction to the usual alternative two-week outpatient review. PMID:27142949

  11. Screening for celiac disease in 1st degree relatives: a 10-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although it is known that first degree relatives of celiac patients have an increased risk for celiac disease few studies are available on its incidence. We investigated the incidence of serologic conversion and of new cases of celiac disease among first degree relatives with negative results at a first screening. Methods From a total of 634 first degree relatives of 186 biopsy-proven celiac disease patients diagnosed between October 2000 and October 2010, 450 subjects agreed to participate in the study (Group I), and underwent serologic screening. Between January 2010 and October 2012, out of the initial group of 450, 205 previously sero-negative subjects consented to participate in a second stage of the study and undergo new serologic testing (Group II). All serologically positive individuals of both groups (I and II) were genotyped for celiac disease-predisposing alleles (HLA-DQ2/DQ8). Results 19 subjects (4.2%) out of the 450 subjects of Group I disclosed positive serologic results, presence of DQ2 and/or DQ8 alleles and celiac disease-compatible mucosal abnormalities. The 205 previously negative first degree relatives from Group II that underwent new serologic testing disclosed eight sero-converted subjects. Mucosal abnormalities in five of these patients confirmed the diagnosis of celiac disease. During the 10-year period of the study the incidence of sero-conversion was 8/205 and the incidence of biopsy-proven celiac disease cases was 5/205. Conclusions Our data are coincident with other works on this subject and confirm once again that relatives of celiac patients, especially first degree relatives are at high risk of developing celiac disease. In view of the relatively low incidence further studies are needed to try to establish a useful and cost-effective algorithm for follow-up of relatives of celiac patients. PMID:24552206

  12. Change in Depression Symptomatology and Cognitive Function in Twins: A 10-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Inge; McGue, Matt; Tan, Qihua; Christensen, Kaare; Christiansen, Lene

    2016-04-01

    A complex interrelation exists between change in depression symptomatology and cognitive decline. Studies indicate either that depression is a direct risk factor for cognitive change over time, or vice versa. Longitudinal twin studies provide the possibility to unravel cause and effect of correlated traits. Here, we have applied twin modeling approaches to shed light on the genetic correlation between both level and change of depression symptomatology and cognitive functioning, and to further explore the bidirectionality of any such correlation using assessments of both phenotypes at two occasions 10 years apart. The study included 2,866 Danish twins with a mean age of 56.8 years at intake (range: 45-68 years). Of these, 1,267 were intact pairs. A total number of 1,582 twins (55%), of whom 557 were intact pairs, participated in the follow-up survey. We found stable cross-sectional heritability estimates of approximately 60% for general cognitive abilities and 30% for affective depressive symptoms. There was a considerable decline in the mean cognitive performance over 10 years, whereas the mean affective depression symptoms score was stable and with no genetic contribution to any individual change. Additionally, we saw a small but significant cross-trait correlation at both occasions (-0.11 and -0.09, respectively), but cross-trait cross-occasion analysis revealed no evidence that either of the two traits predicts the other over a 10-year interval. Thus, our study was not able to detect any causal association between change in depressive symptomatology and cognitive decline in middle-aged and elderly people over a 10-year interval. PMID:26879845

  13. Mortality among oral contraceptive users: 20 year follow up of women in a cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Vessey, M. P.; Villard-Mackintosh, L.; McPherson, K.; Yeates, D.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To see whether the use of oral contraceptives influences mortality. DESIGN--Non-randomised cohort study of 17,032 women followed up on an annual basis for an average of nearly 16 years. SETTING--17 Family planning clinics in England and Scotland. SUBJECTS--Women recruited during 1968-74. At the time of recruitment each woman was aged 25-39, married, a white British subject, willing to participate, and either a current user of oral contraceptives or a current user of a diaphragm or intrauterine device (without previous exposure to the pill). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Overall mortality and cause specific mortality. RESULTS--238 Deaths occurred during the follow up period. The main analyses concerned women entering the study while using either oral contraceptives or a diaphragm or intrauterine device. The overall relative risk of death in the oral contraceptive users was 0.9 (95% confidence interval 0.7 to 1.2). Though the numbers of deaths were small in most individual disease categories, the trends observed were generally consistent with findings in other reports. Thus the relative risk of death in the oral contraceptive users was 4.9 (95% confidence interval 0.7 to 230) for cancer of the cervix, 3.3 (95% confidence interval 0.9 to 17.9) for ischaemic heart disease, and 0.4 (95% confidence interval 0.1 to 1.2) for ovarian cancer. There was a linear trend in the death rates from cervical cancer and ovarian cancer (in opposite directions) with total duration of oral contraceptive use. Death rates from breast cancer (relative risk 0.9; 95% confidence interval 0.5 to 1.4) and suicide and probable suicide (relative risk 1.1; 95% confidence interval 0.3 to 3.6) were much the same in the two contraceptive groups. In 1981 the relative risk of death in oral contraceptive users from circulatory diseases as a group was reported to be 4.2 (95% confidence interval 2.3 to 7.7) in the Royal College of General Practitioners oral contraception study. The corresponding relative risk in this study was only 1.5 (95% confidence interval 0.7 to 3.0). CONCLUSIONS--These findings contain no significant evidence of any overall effect of oral contraceptive use on mortality. None the less, only small numbers of deaths occurred during the study period and a significant adverse (or beneficial) overall effect might emerge in the future. Interestingly, the mortality from circulatory disease associated with oral contraceptive use was substantially less than that found in the Royal College of General Practitioners study. PMID:2514858

  14. A Six-month Follow-up Study of Maternal Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms among Japanese

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yuki; Kato, Tadaaki; Kakee, Naoko

    2008-01-01

    Background Maternal psychological distress has been widely studied, but epidemiologic data based on follow-up studies of maternal psychological distress remain insufficient in Japan. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among child-rearing women in Japan at two time-points after childbirth. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was delivered on two occasions to 2,657 women who had given birth in 2004: first when their infants were 3-4 months old and then again when their infants were 9-10 months old. The questionnaire included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS; Japanese version) to estimate the level of maternal psychological distress. Results The total percentage of women with anxiety symptoms as assessed by a HADS score of 8+ was 26.2 % at 3-4 months of age, and 26.1 % at 9-10 months. Among the women without anxiety symptoms at 3-4 months, 11.6 % showed anxiety symptoms at 9-10 months. The total percentage of depressive symptoms was 19.0 % at 3-4 months, and 24.0 % at 9-10 months. Among the women without depressive symptoms at 3-4 months, 14.0 % showed depressive symptoms at 9-10 months. Conclusion Anxiety symptoms in mothers appeared to persist from 3-4 months to 9-10 months after childbirth, while depressive symptoms tended to be more common at 9-10 months after childbirth. Nevertheless, the prevalence of anxiety symptoms was higher than that of depressive symptoms. PMID:18403858

  15. Follow-Up Study of a School-Based Scalds Prevention Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Julie; Morath, Karen; Harre, Niki

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the follow-up evaluation of a school-based scalds prevention programme designed to teach children about scalds hazards and encourage safe family practices. It involved two classroom sessions and a homework exercise that targeted five safety practices. The programme was taught to 28 classes in 14 schools in Waitakere City, New

  16. Improving Library Services to Satellite Campuses: A Follow-Up Study at the University of Lethbridge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eva, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to provide better service to the University of Lethbridge satellite campus locations, a survey was done of instructors on the northern campuses regarding their knowledge and use of the University of Lethbridge Library services available to them. This was a follow-up to a survey conducted in 2011, at which time it was found that many…

  17. Follow Up Study of Female Radio and TV Servicing Apprentices. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Society for Research on Women, Auckland (New Zealand).

    Female program completers and dropouts from a one-year course in radio and television servicing at Auckland Technical Institute (New Zealand) were followed up. Respondents included nine completers from the 1977 course, eight completers from the 1978 course, and three dropouts. Background information showed that 10 completers started the course…

  18. Follow-Up Study of Former Students of the Data Processing Program. Volume XVI, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rilki, Ernest; Lucas, John A.

    In spring 1987, a follow-up survey was conducted of former William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) students who had taken five or more data processing courses at the college between 1980 and 1986. The survey focused on the students' employment status and educational intent while attending WRHC, their present employment situation, and their evaluation…

  19. Communication Audits and the Effects of Increased Information: A Follow-up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargie, Owen; Tourish, Dennis; Wilson, Noel

    2002-01-01

    Considers how communication audits are typically presented as one-shot events, whose impact is not measured. Employs a follow-up audit to track the effects of an initial audit upon a major health care organization. Illustrates how the audit can play a useful role in an organization's communication strategy. (SG)

  20. A Survey of Instruments and Practices Associated with Teacher Education Follow-Up Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Christine Ann Baker

    2010-01-01

    Teacher education programs that are NCATE accredited are required to have an assessment system that includes follow-up on their graduates. This assessment system is guided by NCATE Standard 2 which judges how each unit uses external information from graduates and employers to refine their teacher education program. These programs use the collected…

  1. Improving Library Services to Satellite Campuses: A Follow-Up Study at the University of Lethbridge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eva, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to provide better service to the University of Lethbridge satellite campus locations, a survey was done of instructors on the northern campuses regarding their knowledge and use of the University of Lethbridge Library services available to them. This was a follow-up to a survey conducted in 2011, at which time it was found that many

  2. Suicide following the death of a sibling: a nationwide follow-up study from Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Rostila, Mikael; Saarela, Jan; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The death of a sibling can trigger grief and depression. Sibling deaths from external causes may be particularly detrimental, since they are often sudden. We aimed to examine the association between the death of an adult sibling from external causes and the risk of suicide among surviving siblings up to 18 years after bereavement. We adjusted for intrafamily correlation in death risks, which might occur because of shared genetics and shared early-life experiences of siblings in the same family. Design A follow-up study between 1981 and 2002 based on the total population. Setting Sweden. Participants Swedes aged 25–64 years (n=1 748 069). Primary and secondary outcome measures Suicide from the Swedish cause of death register. Results An increased risk of mortality from suicide was found among persons who had experienced the death of a sibling. In women, the suicide risk was 1.55 times that of non-bereaved persons (95% CI 0.99 to 2.44), and in men it was 1.28 times higher (95% CI 0.93 to 1.77). If one sibling committed suicide, the risk of the remaining sibling also committing suicide was 3.19 (95% CI 1.23 to 8.25) among women and 2.44 (95% CI 1.34 to 4.45) among men. Associations with other main causes of death—such as external other than suicide, cardiovascular diseases or cancer—were generally much smaller and statistically not significant in either sex. We found no clear support for a specific time pattern according to time since a sibling's death. Conclusions Our study provided evidence for suicide risk associated with the death of a sibling at adult age, revealing that bereaved persons’ risk of suicide is higher when siblings die from suicide, even when adjusting for intrafamily correlation in death risks. PMID:23624991

  3. Calcium and phosphorus intake and prostate cancer risk: a 24-y follow-up study123

    PubMed Central

    Shui, Irene M; Mucci, Lorelei A; Giovannucci, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Background: High calcium intake has been associated with an increased risk of advanced-stage and high-grade prostate cancer. Several studies have found a positive association between phosphorus intake and prostate cancer risk. Objective: We investigated the joint association between calcium and phosphorus and risk of prostate cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, with a focus on lethal and high-grade disease. Design: In total, 47,885 men in the cohort reported diet data in 1986 and every 4 y thereafter. From 1986 to 2010, 5861 cases of prostate cancer were identified, including 789 lethal cancers (fatal or metastatic). We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between calcium and phosphorus intake and prostate cancer, with adjustment for potential confounding. Results: Calcium intakes >2000 mg/d were associated with greater risk of total prostate cancer and lethal and high-grade cancers. These associations were attenuated and no longer statistically significant when phosphorus intake was adjusted for. Phosphorus intake was associated with greater risk of total, lethal, and high-grade cancers, independent of calcium and intakes of red meat, white meat, dairy, and fish. In latency analysis, calcium and phosphorus had independent effects for different time periods between exposure and diagnosis. Calcium intake was associated with an increased risk of advanced-stage and high-grade disease 12–16 y after exposure, whereas high phosphorus was associated with increased risk of advanced-stage and high-grade disease 0–8 y after exposure. Conclusions: Phosphorus is independently associated with risk of lethal and high-grade prostate cancer. Calcium may not have a strong independent effect on prostate cancer risk except with long latency periods. PMID:25527761

  4. Six-Month Follow-Up Study of Ultrarapid Opiate Detoxification With Naltrexone

    PubMed Central

    Forozeshfard, Mohammad; Hosseinzadeh Zoroufchi, Babak; Saberi Zafarghandi, Mohammad Bagher; Bandari, Razieh; Foroutan, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Illicit opiate use has an increasing incidence and prevalence, which increases mortality and morbidity, marginalization, and criminal behaviors, and causes major adverse effects on society. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate and follow the outcome of patients who underwent ultrarapid opiate detoxification (UROD) prospectively. Patients and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 64 patients who underwent UROD were evaluated. The opiate antagonist regimen of naloxone was administered intravenously under general anesthesia, and detoxification was confirmed by naloxone challenge test. All patients were cared in intensive care unit (ICU) for 24 hours, and oral naltrexone was prescribed the next day, after recovery and discharge. Patients were followed up for one month after the procedure. Relapse was considered if routine use of opiates (daily use for at least two weeks) was reported by the patient after detoxification. The data was analyzed by SPSS 16.5 and the study was performed using descriptive analysis and Chi square test. Results: All 64 participants were opiate-dependent males (ASA physical status of I or II) who aged over 18 years with a mean age of 31.11 ± 8.93 years at the time of UROD. One month after UROD, 48 patients (75%) reported relapse and 16 (25%) reported abstinence; however, four patients of the non-relapsed group reported one episode of opiate use. There was no significant difference between relapsed and non-relapsed patients regarding their marital status, level of education, and family history of opiate dependency (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Although UROD by naloxone is a safe and effective method of detoxification, if used alone, it has a very high relapse rate in long term. PMID:25741479

  5. Pro-/Antiinflammatory Dysregulation in Early Psychosis: Results from a 1-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Garca-Bueno, Borja; Bioque, Miquel; MacDowell, Karina S.; Santabrbara, Javier; Martnez-Cengotitabengoa, Mnica; Moreno, Carmen; Siz, Pilar A.; Berrocoso, Esther; Gass, Patricia; Fe Barcones, M.; Gonzlez-Pinto, Ana; Parellada, Mara; Bobes, Julio; Mic, Juan A.; Bernardo, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicated a systemic deregulation of the pro-/antiinflammatory balance in subjects after 6 months of a first psychotic episode. This disruption was reexamined 12 months after diagnosis to identify potential risk/protective factors and associations with symptom severity. Methods: Eighty-five subjects were followed during 12 months and the determination of the same pro-/antiinflammatory mediators was carried out in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk/protective factors. Multiple linear regression models were performed to detect the change of each biological marker during follow-up in relation to clinical characteristics and confounding factors. Results: This study suggests a more severe systemic pro-/antiinflammatory deregulation than in earlier pathological stages in first psychotic episode, because not only were intracellular components of the inflammatory response increased but also the majority of soluble elements. Nitrite plasma levels and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells are reliable potential risk factors and 15d-prostaglandin-J2 plasma levels a protection biomarker. An interesting relationship exists between antipsychotic dose and the levels of prostaglandin-E2 (inverse) and 15d-prostaglandin-J2 (direct). An inverse relationship between the Global Assessment of Functioning scale and lipid peroxidation is also present. Conclusions: Summing up, pro-/antiinflammatory mediators can be used as risk/protection biomarkers. The inverse association between oxidative/nitrosative damage and the Global Assessment of Functioning scale, and the possibility that one of the targets of antipsychotics could be the restoration of the pro-/antiinflammatory balance support the use of antiinflammatory drugs as coadjuvant to antipsychotics. PMID:25577666

  6. WHI and WHIMS follow-up and human studies of soy isoflavones on cognition.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liqin; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2007-11-01

    Recent follow-up analyses of the previous findings from the Women's Health Initiative and the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study confirmed some health benefits of estrogen-containing hormone therapy (HT) in women within 10 years from the onset of menopause. However, the potential risks associated with long-term administration of HT, such as breast cancer and stroke, remain a concern for therapy recipients, underlying the need for an alternative treatment that is functionally equivalent but with a greater safety profile. Owing to their structural and functional resemblance to mammalian estrogens and lack of evident adverse effects, research interest in plant-derived phytoestrogens has increased in the past decade. While multiple health-promoting benefits of phytoestrogens have been proposed from basic science, the clinical data remain inconclusive. This review provides a comparative analysis of human studies on the effects of soy-based isoflavones on cognition. Of the eight studies published in 2000-2007, seven were conducted in postmenopausal women, four of which revealed a positive impact of isoflavones on cognitive function. Multiple factors could have contributed to the discrepant outcomes across studies, such as variation in the composition of phytoestrogen interventions and the heterogeneous characteristics of the study population. Thus, a well-designed clinical study based on a standardized stable formulation in a well-characterized study population is required in order to reach a clinical consensus. A formulation composed of select estrogen receptor beta-selective phytoestrogens with a rationally designed composition would avoid the potential antagonism present in a mixture and thus enhance therapeutic efficacy. In addition, inclusion of equol in a study formulation offers a potential synergistic effect from equol in both equol-producing and nonproducing individuals, as well as added benefits for men. With respect to the design of study population, a clinically consistent effect could potentially be achieved by stratifying populations based on genotype, age, hormonal history and even diets. Development of an effective phytoestrogen formulation would benefit both women and men to prevent or treat hormone-dependent conditions and, most of all, to improve neurological health and reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:17997703

  7. Natural history of early gastric cancer: a non-concurrent, long term, follow up study

    PubMed Central

    Tsukuma, H; Oshima, A; Narahara, H; Morii, T

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUNDControversy has arisen on the natural history of early gastric cancer (EGC). While some emphasise the effectiveness of early detection in reducing mortality from gastric cancer, others insist that EGC is a pseudo-cancer.?AIMS/PATIENTS/METHODSTo elucidate the natural history of EGC, a non-concurrent, long term, follow up study was conducted in 71patients who were diagnosed endoscopically as having EGC, which was confirmed as cancer on biopsy, but in whom surgical resection was not conducted or delayed by more than six months.?RESULTSThe natural course of EGC was observed in 56cases. Over a period of 6-137 months, 20remained in the early stage while 36progressed to the advanced stage. The proportion remaining in the early stage consistently decreased with time. Median duration of those who remained in the early stage was estimated as 44months. The cumulative five year risk for progressing to the advanced stage was 63.0%. In 38cases there was no evidence for undergoing surgical resection for gastric cancer. The cumulative five year corrected survival was estimated as 62.8% among those unresected. Hazard rate ratio for gastric cancer mortality was 0.65(p=0.34) for screening detected versus non-screening detected. Hazard rate ratio for gastric cancer mortality was 0.51,significantly lower for patients whose operations were delayed compared with those unresected.?CONCLUSIONSAlthough EGC showed a relatively long natural history in general, it progressed to the advanced stage with time and led to death from gastric cancer for the most part if left untreated.???Keywords: early gastric cancer; natural history PMID:11034575

  8. Language exposure induced neuroplasticity in the bilingual brain: a follow-up fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Tu, Liu; Wang, Junjing; Abutalebi, Jubin; Jiang, Bo; Pan, Ximin; Li, Meng; Gao, Wei; Yang, Yuchen; Liang, Bishan; Lu, Zhi; Huang, Ruiwang

    2015-03-01

    Although several studies have shown that language exposure crucially influence the cerebral representation of bilinguals, the effects of short-term change of language exposure in daily life upon language control areas in bilinguals are less known. To explore this issue, we employed follow-up fMRI to investigate whether differential exposure induces neuroplastic changes in the language control network in high-proficient Cantonese (L1)-Mandarin (L2) early bilinguals. The same 10 subjects underwent twice BOLD-fMRI scans while performing a silent narration task which corresponded to two different language exposure conditions, CON-1 (L1/L2 usage percentage, 50%:50%) and CON-2 (L1/L2 usage percentage, 90%:10%). We report a strong effect of language exposure in areas related to language control for the less exposed language. Interestingly, these significant effects were present after only a 30-day period of differential language exposure. In detail, we reached the following results: (1) the interaction effect of language and language exposure condition was found significantly in the left pars opercularis (BA 44) and marginally in the left MFG (BA 9); (2) in CON-2, increases of activation values in L2 were found significantly in bilateral BA 46 and BA 9, in the left BA44, and marginally in the left caudate; and (3) in CON-2, we found a significant negative correlation between language exposure to L2 and the BOLD activation value specifically in the left ACC. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that even short periods of differential exposure to a given language may induce significant neuroplastic changes in areas responsible for language control. The language which a bilingual is less exposed to and is also less used will be in need of increased mental control as shown by the increased activity of language control areas. PMID:25461703

  9. Antecedents of teenage pregnancy from a 14-year follow-up study using data linkage

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many western nations continue to have high rates of teenage pregnancies and births, which can result in adverse outcomes for both mother and child. This study identified possible antecedents of teenage pregnancy using linked data from administrative sources to create a 14-year follow-up from a cross-sectional survey. Methods Data were drawn from two sources - the 1993 Western Australian Child Health Survey (WACHS), a population-based representative sample of 2,736 children aged 4 to 16 years (1,374 girls); and administrative data relating to all their subsequent births and hospital admissions. We used weighted population estimates to examine differences between rates for teenage pregnancy, motherhood and abortion. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to model risk for teenage pregnancy. Results There were 155 girls aged less than 20 years at the time of their first recorded pregnancy. Teenage pregnancy was significantly associated with: family type; highest school year completed by primary carer; combined carer income; whether the primary carer was a smoker; and whether the girl herself displayed aggressive and delinquent behaviours. An age-interaction analysis on the association with aggressive and delinquent behaviours found that while girls with aggressive and delinquent behaviours who were older at the time of the survey were at highest risk of teenage pregnancy, there was elevated risk for future teenage pregnancy across all ages. Conclusions Our findings suggest that interventions to reduce teenage pregnancy rates could be introduced during primary school years, including those that are focused on the prevention and management of aggressive and delinquent behaviour. PMID:20149221

  10. Fluoxetine in adolescents with comorbid major depression and an alcohol use disorder: a 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Jack R; Clark, Duncan B; Bukstein, Oscar G; Kelly, Thomas M; Salloum, Ihsan M; Wood, D Scott

    2005-05-01

    The goal of this 3-year follow-up evaluation was to determine whether the decreases in drinking and in depressive symptoms that were noted during our acute phase study with fluoxetine in comorbid adolescents persisted at a 3-year follow-up evaluation. At the 3-year follow-up evaluation, the group continued to demonstrate significantly fewer DSM criteria for an AUD and fewer BDI depressive symptoms and also consumed fewer standard drinks than they had demonstrated at the baseline of the acute phase study. However, 7 of the 10 participants demonstrated MDD at the 3-year follow-up assessment, and 4 demonstrated an AUD. The presence of a MDD was significantly correlated with the presence of an AUD at both the 1-year and the 3-year follow-up assessments. Four of the participants restarted SSRI medications during the follow-up period. Half of the subjects graduated from college during the 3-year assessment period, despite their residual depressive symptoms and drinking. We conclude that the long-term therapeutic effects of an acute phase trial of fluoxetine plus psychotherapy slowly decrease but did not disappear when fluoxetine is discontinued shortly after the acute phase trial. The high rate of MDD at follow-up suggests that longer term antidepressant medication treatment may be needed for at least some comorbid adolescents. PMID:15833583

  11. Patellofemoral arthroplasty: a multi-centre study with minimum 2-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Leadbetter, Wayne B.; Kolisek, Frank R.; Levitt, Richard L.; Brooker, Andrew F.; Zietz, Patrick; Marker, David R.; Bonutti, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, patellofemoral arthroplasty has attracted increased interest as a salvage treatment for isolated patellofemoral arthritis. However, there are very few reports of the experience with modern generation patellofemoral arthroplasties. This investigation describes a collective experience of four centres reporting on the outcome in patients of the use of one patellofemoral arthroplasty device. There were 70 patients (79 knees) who had failed an extensive non-operative treatment regimen and/or various conventional alternative surgical treatments. At a mean follow-up of three years (range: 2–6 years), there were 66 knees that had Knee Society Scores greater than 80 points (84%). Seventy-one knees (90%) functioned without pain in daily activity and stair climbing. Symptomatic isolated patellofemoral arthritis was successfully treated with a patellofemoral arthroplasty in the short term. We are encouraged by these excellent early results and await longer follow-up. PMID:19057900

  12. Six Year Follow-Up Study of 1976-1978 Alumni and Stopouts. Research Report Series Volume XIV, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, John A.

    In summer 1984, a follow-up study was conducted in Illinois at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) of the stopouts and transfer and career program alumni who left WRHC between 1976 and 1978. The study sought to assess the long-term impact of WRHC on its students. A mailed survey and follow-up telephone calls to 1,294 former students yielded a 50%…

  13. Work, Diabetes and Obesity: A Seven Year Follow-Up Study among Danish Health Care Workers

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Kjeld; Cleal, Bryan; Clausen, Thomas; Andersen, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The rise in prevalence of diabetes is alarming and research ascribes most of the increase to lifestyle. However, little knowledge exists about the influence of occupational factors on the risk for developing diabetes. This study estimates the importance of work and lifestyle as risk factors for developing diabetes mellitus among healthcare workers and explores the association of work factors and obesity, which is a risk factor for diabetes. Methods Questionnaire-based prospective cohort study among 7,305 health care workers followed for seven years in the Danish National Diabetes Register. We used bivariate comparisons to give an unadjusted estimate of associations, followed by adjusted survival analysis and logistic regression models to estimate the influences of potential risk factors related to job, health and lifestyle on diabetes and obesity. Results During seven years of follow up, 3.5% of participants developed diabetes, associated with obesity (HR  =  6.53; 95% CI 4.68–9.10), overweight (HR  =  2.89; CI 2.11–3.96) age 50–69 y (HR  =  2.27; 95% CI 1.57–3.43) and high quality of leadership (HR  =  1.60; CI 1.19–2.16). Obesity at baseline was most common among the youngest employees, and was mainly associated with developing diabetes (OR  =  3.84; CI 2.85–5.17), impaired physical capacity and physical inactivity. In the occupational setting, obesity was associated with shift work, severe musculoskeletal pain, low influence, but also by good management, fewer role conflicts and a positive work-life balance. Looking only at non-smokers, removed the influence of age and pain. However, non-smokers also had higher depression scores and more role conflicts. Conclusions Confirming obesity as the strongest risk factor for developing diabetes, the present study identified few occupational risk factors. However, obesity, the key risk factor for diabetes, had a more variable relation with work than did diabetes. PMID:25068830

  14. Predictive values of GPs’ suspicion of serious disease: a population-based follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Hjertholm, Peter; Moth, Grete; Ingeman, Mads Lind; Vedsted, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge is sparse on the prevalence of suspicion of cancer and other serious diseases in general practice. Likewise, little is known about the possible implications of this suspicion on future healthcare use and diagnoses. Aim To study the prevalence of GPs’ suspicions of cancer or other serious diseases and analyse how this suspicion predicted the patients’ healthcare use and diagnoses of serious disease. Design and setting Prospective population-based cohort study of 4518 patients consulting 404 GPs in a mix of urban, semi-urban and rural practices in Central Denmark Region during 2008–2009. Method The GPs registered consultations in 1 work day, including information on their suspicion of the presence of cancer or another serious disease. The patients were followed up for use of healthcare services and new diagnoses through the use of national registers. Results Prevalence of suspicion was 5.7%. Suspicion was associated with an increase in referrals (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.22 to 2.96), especially for diagnostic imaging (PR = 3.95, 95% CI = 2.80 to 5.57), increased risk of a new diagnosis of cancer or another serious disease within 2 months (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.93 to 4.62) — especially for cancer (HR = 7.55, 95% CI = 2.66 to 21.39) — and increased use of general practice (relative risk [RR] = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.24) and hospital visits (RR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.62 to 2.23). The positive predictive value of a GP suspicion was 9.8% (95% CI = 6.4 to 14.1) for cancer or another serious disease within 2 months. Conclusion A GP suspicion of serious disease warrants further investigation, and the organisation of the healthcare system should ensure direct access from the primary sector to specialised tests. PMID:24868072

  15. Integration of leprosy into GHS in India: a follow up study (2006-2007).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Aparna; Rathod, Harish

    2010-12-01

    In India leprosy services, were integrated into the General Health Services (GHS), in a phased manner, in different provinces, from 2001 to 2004. This study reports the findings from a follow-up operational research undertaken in 2006-2007, to assess the level of integration, on predetermined indicators related to: referral services, training of health functionaries, availability of diagnosis, treatment, MDT dispersal and counselling guidelines in health facilities, recording and reporting by GHS staff, MDT stock management and involvement of health sub-centres in different Indian provinces. Nine provinces, 18 districts, 88 health facilities and 108 sub-centres were selected, by using multistage stratified random sampling techniques. Reverse integration, as reflected by the training and deployment of vertical staff in GHS, was also assessed. Data was collected by medical officers experienced in leprosy, with the assistance of state health functionaries, and recorded on separate schedules for health facility and sub-centre levels. The study also touched on the issue of client perception towards MDT services by interviewing 149 under treatment/cured leprosy cases (who had completed treatment within the last year), in the community with the help of local interpreters. Results showed wide variations across the selected provinces in various parameters. District leprosy nuclei were understaffed in 12(66.7%) districts, and district hospitals were not working as referral institutions anywhere. The training status of medical officers and multi-purpose workers in leprosy was low in Andhra Pradesh (6.9 and 22.4%), Madhya Pradesh (26.3 and 14.5%), Rajasthan (19.7 and 40.9%) and Kerala (25.5 and 65.7%). MDT stock availability as per the National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP) guidelines was not adequate in all provinces. Availability of patient counseling guidelines was nil/low in Kerala, Karnataka, West Bengal, Orissa, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh. The involvement of sub-centres, in case referral, recording and dispensing MDT was nil Kerala and Rajasthan and poor in Andhra Pradesh. Ninety percent of clients in Kerala and 38.0% in Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh did not get MDT in the nearest health facilities or sub-centres. PMID:21313976

  16. Gamma-knife radiosurgery in acromegaly: a 4-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Attanasio, Roberto; Epaminonda, Paolo; Motti, Enrico; Giugni, Enrico; Ventrella, Laura; Cozzi, Renato; Farabola, Mario; Loli, Paola; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Arosio, Maura

    2003-07-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery by gamma-knife (GK) is an attractive therapeutic option after failure of microsurgical removal in patients with pituitary adenoma. In these tumors or remnants of them, it aims to obtain the arrest of cell proliferation and hormone hypersecretion using a single precise high dose of ionizing radiation, sparing surrounding structures. The long-term efficacy and toxicity of GK in acromegaly are only partially known. Thirty acromegalic patients (14 women and 16 men) entered a prospective study of GK treatment. Most were surgical failures, whereas in 3 GK was the primary treatment. Imaging of the adenoma and target coordinates identification were obtained by high resolution magnetic resonance imaging. All patients were treated with multiple isocenters (mean, 8; range, 3-11). The 50% isodose was used in 27 patients (90%). The mean margin dose was 20 Gy (range, 15-35), and the dose to the visual pathways was always less than 8 Gy. After a median follow-up of 46 months (range, 9-96), IGF-I fell from 805 micro g/liter (median; interquartile range, 640-994) to 460 micro g/liter (interquartile range, 217-654; P = 0.0002), and normal age-matched IGF-I levels were reached in 7 patients (23%). Mean GH levels decreased from 10 micro g/liter (interquartile range, 6.4-15) to 2.9 micro g/liter (interquartile range, 2-5.3; P < 0.0001), reaching levels below 2.5 micro g/liter in 11 (37%). The rate of persistently pathological hormonal levels was still 70% at 5 yr by Kaplan-Meier analysis. The median volume was 1.43 ml (range, 0.20-3.7). Tumor shrinkage (at least 25% of basal volume) occurred after 24 months (range, 12-36) in 11 of 19 patients (58% of assessable patients). The rate of shrinkage was 79% at 4 yr. In no case was further growth observed. Only 1 patient complained of side-effects (severe headache and nausea immediately after the procedure, with full recovery in a few days with steroid therapy). Anterior pituitary failures were observed in 2 patients, who already had partial hypopituitarism, after 2 and 6 yr, respectively. No patient developed visual deficits. GK is a valid adjunctive tool in the management of acromegaly that controls GH/IGF-I hypersecretion and tumor growth, with shrinkage of adenoma and no recurrence of the disease in the considered observation period and with low acute and chronic toxicity. PMID:12843150

  17. Seven-year follow-up of cardiovascular study and maximal exercise of Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Bruce, R A; Pao, Y L; Ting, N; Chiang, B N; Li, Y B; Alexander, E R; Beasley, R P; Fisher, L D; Chiang, S T

    1975-05-01

    A seven-year follow-up in 1973 of a prospective cardiovascular study of 1820 initially, healthy, middle-aged Chinese men of 40-59 years of age identified 1745 (95.9%) known survivors, 49 (2.7%) interim deaths, and 26 (1.4) who could not be traced. Of the survivors, 1462 (83.8%) were re-examined, 292 (16.7%) had another treadmill test of maximal exercise, and 283 (16.2%) failed to return for re-examination. On the basis of interim surveillance of hospital admissions, questionnaires and re-examination, a greater incidence of noncardiovascular events (338 or 18.6%) than evidence of cardiovascular disease (220 or 12.1%) was found while the majority (1021 or 56.1%) remained healthy. Total mortality was 0.29 for men under 50 and 0.76 per 100 person-years for men of 50 or more years of age. Only nine, or 18.4% of the deaths were due to cardiovascular causes, and unexpectedly for this population sample, only three were attributed to stroke. When cardiovascular morbidity was related to presence of ST depression after maximal exercise, to hypertension at rest by WHO criteria, to both findings, or to absence of either on initial intake examination, incidence increased from 2.3% for NEITHER group, to 5.7% for ST group, to 11.9% for HT group, and to 25.0% for BOTH groups. Re-examination revealed more evidence of cardiovascular disease than did surveillance of hospital admissions. Additional to effects of aging and mild adiposity, longitudinal changes in blood pressure and ST depression, increasing in the NEITHER group, but less frequent in the other groups, showed some evidence of regression toward the mean, as well as emerging disease and the confounding effects of uncontrolled treatment of hypertension in many. The potential for prediction of subsequent cardiovascular morbidity or mortality appeared stronger for hypertension than for postexertional ST depression, although the two were additive in this population, which is more prone to hypertension and stroke but now is developing clinical manifestations of coronary heart disease more frequently. PMID:123487

  18. Oligometastases Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy: Long-Term Follow-Up of Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Milano, Michael T.; Katz, Alan W.; Zhang Hong; Okunieff, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To analyze the long-term survival and tumor control outcomes after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for metastases limited in number and extent. Methods and Materials: We prospectively analyzed the long-term overall survival (OS) and cancer control outcomes of 121 patients with five or fewer clinically detectable metastases, from any primary site, metastatic to one to three organ sites, and treated with SBRT. Freedom from widespread distant metastasis (FFDM) was defined as metastatic disease not amenable to local therapy (i.e., resection or SBRT). Prognostic variables were assessed using log-rank and Cox regression analyses. Results: For breast cancer patients, the median follow-up was 4.5 years (7.1 years for 16 of 39 patients alive at the last follow-up visit). The 2-year OS, FFDM, and local control (LC) rate was 74%, 52%, and 87%, respectively. The 6-year OS, FFDM, and LC rate was 47%, 36%, and 87%, respectively. From the multivariate analyses, the variables of bone metastases (p = .057) and one vs. more than one metastasis (p = .055) were associated with a fourfold and threefold reduced hazard of death, respectively. None of the 17 bone lesions from breast cancer recurred after SBRT vs. 10 of 68 lesions from other organs that recurred (p = .095). For patients with nonbreast cancers, the median follow-up was 1.7 years (7.3 years for 7 of 82 patients alive at the last follow-up visit). The 2-year OS, FFDM, and LC rate was 39%, 28%, and 74%, respectively. The 6-year OS, FFDM, and LC rate was 9%, 13%, and 65%, respectively. For nonbreast cancers, a greater SBRT target volume was significantly adverse for OS (p = .012) and lesion LC (p < .0001). Patients whose metastatic lesions, before SBRT, demonstrated radiographic progression after systemic therapy experienced significantly worse OS compared with patients with stable or regressing disease. Conclusions: Select patients with limited metastases treated with SBRT are long-term survivors. Future research should address the therapeutic benefit of SBRT for these patients.

  19. The course of thyroid abnormalities during lithium treatment: a two-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Bocchetta, A; Bernardi, F; Burrai, C; Pedditzi, M; Loviselli, A; Velluzzi, F; Martino, E; Del Zompo, M

    1992-07-01

    A total of 116 patients on lithium treatment were followed up for 2 years to determine the course and the clinical relevance of thyroid abnormalities. Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations were transitory in most patients, except those with serum antithyroid antibodies. The patients who initially had microsomal antibodies remained positive, with an increase in titre in two-thirds of cases. Three young patients of both sexes developed thyroid autoimmunity early in the treatment. The risk of developing hypothyroidism was higher in women, especially in the presence of antibodies. TSH concentrations were significantly lower when carbamazepine was combined with lithium. PMID:1414397

  20. Geleophysic dysplasia: 7-year follow-up study of a patient with an intermediate form.

    PubMed

    Titomanlio, L; Della Casa, R; Lecora, M; Farina, V; Sebastio, G; Andria, G; Parenti, G

    1999-09-01

    Geleophysic dysplasia (MIM *231050) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by short stature with short limbs, brachydactyly, joint contractures, and a good-natured facial appearance. Infiltration of liver and cardiac leaflets has been reported in some patients. Based on the clinical picture and the detection of lysosome-like inclusions in hepatocytes, tracheal mucosa, chondrocytes, and skin fibroblasts, the underlying cause of the conditions is considered to be a generalized lysosomal storage defect. We report on a new case born to consanguineous parents, first observed at age 8 months, and for whom a 7-year follow-up is available. PMID:10440835

  1. Long-term follow-up study of gastroduodenal lesions after radioembolization of hepatic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Lago, Iago; Carretero, Cristina; Herráiz, Maite; Subtil, José C; Betés, Maite; Rodríguez-Fraile, Macarena; Sola, Jesús J; Bilbao, José I; Muñoz-Navas, Miguel; Sangro, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the long-term natural history of the gastroduodenal lesions secondary to extrahepatic embolization with Ytrium 90 (90Y) spheres. METHODS: From September 2003 to January 2012, 379 procedures of liver radioembolization (RE) using resin microspheres loaded with 90Y were performed in our center. We have retrospectively compiled the data from 379 RE procedures performed in our center. We report a comprehensive clinical, analytical, endoscopic and histologic long-term follow-up of a series of patients who developed gastroduodenal lesions after the treatment. RESULTS: Six patients (1.5%) developed gastrointestinal symptoms and had gastrointestinal lesions as shown by upper endoscopy in the next 12 wk after RE. The mean time between RE and the appearance of symptoms was 5 wk. Only one patient required endoscopic and surgical treatment. The incidence of gastrointestinal ulcerations was 3.75% (3/80) when only planar images were used for the pre-treatment evaluation. It was reduced to 1% (3/299) when single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images were also performed. The symptoms that lasted for a longer time were nausea and vomiting, until 25 mo after the treatment. CONCLUSION: All patients were free from severe symptoms at the end of follow-up. The routine use of SPECT has decreased the incidence of gastrointestinal lesions due to unintended deployment of 90Y particles. PMID:23704826

  2. Speech, language, and cognitive dysfunction in children with focal epileptiform activity: A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Rejnö-Habte Selassie, Gunilla; Hedström, Anders; Viggedal, Gerd; Jennische, Margareta; Kyllerman, Mårten

    2010-07-01

    We reviewed the medical history, EEG recordings, and developmental milestones of 19 children with speech and language dysfunction and focal epileptiform activity. Speech, language, and neuropsychological assessments and EEG recordings were performed at follow-up, and prognostic indicators were analyzed. Three patterns of language development were observed: late start and slow development, late start and deterioration/regression, and normal start and later regression/deterioration. No differences in test results among these groups were seen, indicating a spectrum of related conditions including Landau-Kleffner syndrome and epileptic language disorder. More than half of the participants had speech and language dysfunction at follow-up. IQ levels, working memory, and processing speed were also affected. Dysfunction of auditory perception in noise was found in more than half of the participants, and dysfunction of auditory attention in all. Dysfunction of communication, oral motor ability, and stuttering were noted in a few. Family history of seizures and abundant epileptiform activity indicated a worse prognosis. PMID:20493782

  3. Day Hospital Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa: A 12-Month Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Marzola, Enrica; De-Bacco, Carlotta; Buzzichelli, Sara; Brustolin, Annalisa; Campisi, Stefania; Amianto, Federico; Migliaretti, Giuseppe; Fassino, Secondo

    2015-09-01

    Day hospitals (DHs) represent a treatment option for anorexia nervosa (AN), a mental disorder that is difficult to treat and has no evidence-based treatments available. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of a DH treatment that was specifically focused on the emotions of severe AN patients. Body mass index and eating psychopathology were the primary outcome measures. Fifty-six adult patients with AN were assessed upon admission, at the end of treatment (EOT) and at a 12-month follow-up evaluation (T18) using Eating Disorders Inventory-2, Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and Brief Social Phobia Scale. All participants received a multidisciplinary treatment programme that focused on psychodynamic psychotherapy. Seventy-eight per cent of participants reported positive outcomes at EOT and 68% at T18. Moreover, 82.1% and 65.4% of long-standing patients showed positive outcomes at EOT and T18, respectively. All measures of psychopathology were significantly improved at EOT and were maintained at follow-up. Our DH was effective at treating severe AN patients; however, further investigations of the processes of change are warranted. PMID:25974364

  4. GuLF Study: The Gulf Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... Radio Hear about the launch of the largest oil spill health study. Transcript Speaker: Dale Sandler, Ph.D., ... on the potential health effects associated with an oil spill, with nearly 33,000 participants. The GuLF STUDY ...

  5. Maintaining Superior Follow-Up Rates in a Longitudinal Study: Experiences from the College Life Study

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Kathryn B.; Kasperski, Sarah J.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal studies are often considered to be a gold standard for research, but the operational management of such studies is not often discussed in detail; this paper describes strategies used to track and maintain high levels of participation in a longitudinal study involving annual personal interviews with a cohort of 1,253 undergraduates (first-time, first-year students at time of enrollment) at a large public mid-Atlantic university. PMID:22247739

  6. SLUDGE BATCH 4 FOLLOW-UP QUALIFICATION STUDIES TO EVALUATE HYDROGEN GENERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Pareizs, J; David Koopman, D; Dan Lambert, D; Cj Bannochie, C

    2007-08-23

    Follow-up testing was conducted to better understand the excessive hydrogen generation seen in the initial Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) qualification Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank/Slurry Mix Evaporator (SRAT/SME) simulation in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells. This effort included both radioactive and simulant work. The initial SB4 qualification test produced 0.59 lbs/hr hydrogen in the SRAT, which was just below the DWPF SRAT limit of 0.65 lbs/hr, and the test produced over 0.5 lbs/hr hydrogen in the SME cycle on two separate occasions, which were over the DWPF SME limit of 0.223 lbs/hr.

  7. Follow-up study of children with cerebral coordination disturbance (CCD, Vojta).

    PubMed

    Imamura, S; Sakuma, K; Takahashi, T

    1983-01-01

    713 children (from newborn to 12-month-old) with delayed motor development were carefully examined and classified into normal, very light cerebral coordination disturbance (CCD, Vojta), light CCD, moderate CCD, severe CCD, suspected cerebral palsy (CP) and other diseases at their first visit, and were followed up carefully. Finally, 89.0% of very light CCD, 71.4% of light CCD, 56.0% of moderate CCD and 30.0% of severe CCD developed into normal. 59.5% of moderate CCD and 45.5% of severe CCD among children who were given Vojta's physiotherapy developed into normal. The classification of cases with delayed motor development into very light, light, moderate and severe CCD based on the extent of abnormality in their postural reflexes is useful and well correlated with their prognosis. Treatment by Vojta's method seems to be efficient and helpful for young children with delayed motor development. PMID:6614390

  8. Cast brace treatment of proximal tibia fractures. A ten-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    DeCoster, T A; Nepola, J V; el-Khoury, G Y

    1988-06-01

    The long-term outcome of tibial plateau fractures treated by cast bracing was observed in 29 patients sustaining 30 tibial plateau fractures more than ten years after injury. Clinical and roentgenographic evaluation was performed and showed 61% good results overall. Range of motion averaged 117 degrees. Iowa knee score averaged 71 of 100 possible points. Thirty-two percent of the patients developed moderate or severe roentgenographic posttraumatic degenerative arthritis. Minimally displaced fractures were observed to do very well clinically without roentgenographic evidence of degenerative joint disease after a ten-year follow-up period. Seventy percent of displaced bicondylar fractures developed degenerative joint disease in clinical and roentgenographic evaluation. Cast bracing of minimally displaced fractures gave satisfactory results, whereas cast bracing of more complex fractures produced variable functional results. PMID:3370874

  9. Confabulation and delusional misidentification: a four year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Mattioli, F; Miozzo, A; Vignolo, L A

    1999-06-01

    We describe a patient, AZ, who showed, in addition to an amnesic syndrome which eventually improved, longstanding confabulation and delusional misidentification following bilateral frontal and right temporal post-traumatic lesions. Confabulation appeared in personal recollections and on long-term verbal memory testing. Misidentification concerned mainly his wife and house. During the four year follow-up AZ's confabulation progressively shrinked so as to become restricted to verbal memory tasks. By contrast, misidentification persisted. General semantic memory was unimpaired throughout, while performance on frontal tests was initially poor and partly improved in time. We argue that confabulation and misidentification, though often intermingled and occurring after similar lesion pattern, should be considered as different neuropsychological entities. PMID:10440078

  10. Recidivistic offending and mortality in alcoholic violent offenders: a prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Tikkanen, Roope; Holi, Matti; Lindberg, Nina; Tiihonen, Jari; Virkkunen, Matti

    2009-06-30

    Predictive data supporting prevention of violent criminality are scarce. We examined risk factors for recidivism and mortality among non-psychotic alcoholic violent offenders, the majority having antisocial or borderline personality disorders, or both, which is a group that commits the majority of violent offences in Finland. Criminal records and mortality data on 242 male alcoholic violent offenders were analysed after a 7- to 15-year follow-up, and compared between themselves and with those of 1210 age-, sex- and municipality-matched controls. Recidivism and mortality rates were high. The risk of recidivistic violence was increased by antisocial or borderline personality disorder, or both, childhood maltreatment, and a combination of these. A combination of borderline personality disorder and childhood maltreatment was particularly noxious, suggesting an additive risk increase for a poor outcome. Accurate diagnosis and careful childhood interview may help to predict recidivism and premature death. PMID:19467714

  11. Maxillonasal dysplasia (Binder's syndrome) and its treatment with costal cartilage graft: A follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Yogesh C.; Vyas, Kinnari A.; Tandale, Mangesh S.; Panse, Nikhil S.; Bakshi, Harpreet S.; Srivastava, Rajat K.

    2008-01-01

    Maxillonasal dysplasia or Binder's syndrome is an uncommon congenital condition characterized by a retruded mid-face with an extremely flat nose. We report here six patients with maxillonasal dysplasia whose noses were corrected with onlay costal cartilage grafts using a combined oral vestibular and external rhinoplasty approach for nasal dorsal augmentation, columellar lengthening, and premaxillary augmentation. The cartilage graft was dipped in a solution of 100 ml 0.9% NaCl and one vial (80mg) gentamicin for 30 min to prevent warping. L struts made for nasal augmentation, columellar lengthening, and premaxillary augmentation were fixed to one another by slots made in the graft. This technique has been used in children, adults, and for secondary cases with promising results. All patients were of class I dental occlusion. The nasal and premaxillary augmentation which was monitored by serial photography was found to be stable over a follow-up period of three years. PMID:19753255

  12. The University of Manitoba Follow-up Study. A Prospective Investigation of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mathewson, F. A. L.; Brereton, C. C.; Keltie, W. A.; Paul, G. I.

    1965-01-01

    The relationship of selected physical and electrocardiographic factors to the occurrence of coronary heart disease was examined in a cohort of 3983 healthy North American males followed up for 15 years. Variations in build or mean heart rate were not found to be related to the occurrence of coronary heart disease. The risk of coronary heart disease rose progressively as blood pressure increased. With readings of 160/95 mm. Hg or higher the risk was 1.77 times that of the population as a whole. Non-specific S-T and/or T wave changes in the electrocardiogram were associated with three times the risk of developing coronary heart disease. Individuals with the combination of a blood pressure of 160/95 mm. Hg and nonspecific T wave changes exhibited an augmented susceptibility to coronary heart disease, the risk being four times that of the whole population. PMID:14282154

  13. Anemia after gastrectomy for early gastric cancer: Long-term follow-up observational study

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chul-Hyun; Kim, Sang Woo; Kim, Won Chul; Kim, Jin Soo; Cho, Yu Kyung; Park, Jae Myung; Lee, In Seok; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Song, Kyo-Young; Jeon, Hae Myung; Park, Cho-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To identify the incidence and etiology of anemia after gastrectomy in patients with long-term follow-up after gastrectomy for early gastric cancer. METHODS: The medical records of those patients with early gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent curative gastrectomy between January 2006 and October 2007 were reviewed. Patients with anemia in the preoperative workup, cancer recurrence, undergoing systemic chemotherapy, with other medical conditions that can cause anemia, or treated during follow up with red cell transfusions or supplements for anemia were excluded. Anemia was defined by World Health Organization criteria (Hb < 12 g/dL in women and < 13 g/dL in men). Iron deficiency was defined as serum ferritin < 20 μg/dL. Vitamin B12 deficiency was defined as serum vitamin B12 < 200 pg/mL. Iron deficiency anemia was defined as anemia with concomitant iron deficiency. Anemia from vitamin B12 deficiency was defined as megaloblastic anemia (mean cell volume > 100 fL) with vitamin B12 deficiency. The profile of anemia over 48 mo of follow-up was analyzed. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-one patients with gastrectomy for early gastric cancer were analyzed. The incidence of anemia was 24.5% at 3 mo after surgery and increased up to 37.1% at 48 mo after surgery. The incidence of iron deficiency anemia increased during the follow up and became the major cause of anemia at 48 mo after surgery. Anemia of chronic disease and megaloblastic anemia were uncommon. The incidence of anemia in female patients was significantly higher than in male patients at 12 (40.0% vs 22.0%, P = 0.033), 24 (45.0% vs 25.0%, P = 0.023), 36 (55.0% vs 28.0%, P = 0.004), and 48 mo (52.0% vs 31.0%, P = 0.022) after surgery. Patients with total gastrectomy showed significantly higher incidence of anemia than patients with subtotal gastrectomy at 48 mo after surgery (60.7% vs 31.3%, P = 0.008). The incidence of iron deficiency was significantly higher in female patients than in male patients at 6 (35.4% vs 13.3%, P = 0.002), 12 (45.8% vs 16.8%, P < 0.001), 18 (52.1% vs 22.3%, P < 0.001), 24 (60.4% vs 20.9%, P < 0.001), 36 (62.5% vs 29.2%, P < 0.001), and 48 mo (66.7% vs 34.7%, P = 0.001) after surgery. CONCLUSION: Anemia was frequent after gastrectomy for early gastric cancer, with iron deficiency being the major cause. Evaluation for anemia including iron status should be performed after gastrectomy and appropriate iron replacement should be considered. PMID:23155340

  14. Social Relationships and Depression: Ten-Year Follow-Up from a Nationally Representative Study

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Alan R.; Choi, HwaJung; Valenstein, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    Background Social network characteristics have long been associated with mental health, but their longitudinal impact on depression is less known. We determined whether quality of social relationships and social isolation predicts the development of depression. Methods The sample consisted of a cohort of 4,642 American adults age 2575 who completed surveys at baseline in 19951996 and at ten-year follow-up. Quality of relationships was assessed with non-overlapping scales of social support and social strain and a summary measure of relationship quality. Social isolation was measured by presence of a partner and reported frequency of social contact. The primary outcome was past year major depressive episode at ten-year follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted, adjusting for the presence of potential confounders. Results Risk of depression was significantly greater among those with baseline social strain (OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.472.70), lack of social support (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.372.35), and poor overall relationship quality (OR 2.60; 95% CI, 1.843.69). Those with the lowest overall quality of social relationships had more than double the risk of depression (14.0%; 95% CI, 12.016.0; p<.001) than those with the highest quality (6.7%; 95% CI, 5.38.1; p<.001). Poor quality of relationship with spouse/partner and family each independently increased risk of depression. Social isolation did not predict future depression, nor did it moderate the effect of relationship quality. Conclusions Quality of social relationships is a major risk factor for major depression. Depression interventions should consider targeting individuals with low quality of social relationships. PMID:23646128

  15. [Epidemiological study of very preterm infants at Rouen University Hospital: changes in mortality, morbidity, and care over 11 years].

    PubMed

    Pinto Cardoso, G; Abily-Donval, L; Chadie, A; Guerrot, A-M; Pinquier, D; Marret, S

    2013-02-01

    The very preterm birth rate has increased in the past few years. Despite advances in neonatal medicine, neurodevelopmental sequelae have not decreased, despite a perinatal plan published in France in 1994. We conducted an epidemiological comparative survey at Rouen University Hospital in order to analyze morbidity, mortality, and care of very of premature infants by comparing the years 2000, 2005, and 2010. This hospital draws on an area of 17,000 births per year. Our survey was a single-center prospective, descriptive, and comparative study. The three cohorts had the same characteristics and the mortality rate was constant for 11 years. Use of medically assisted procreation and maternal age increased over this period. Chorioamnionitis halved, whereas duration of intrapartum antibiotic therapy increased. Neonatal morbidity was stable for hyaline membrane disease, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, maternofetal or nosocomial infections, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Regarding neurological complications, intraventricular hemorrhages decreased and white matter lesions remained constant. The rate of severe retinopathy remained low. The duration of parenteral nutrition and assisted ventilation, use of postnatal corticosteroids, and length of hospitalization decreased. The breastfeeding rate has increased since 2000 in parallel with postnatal growth restriction : 39% of the premature infants had a weight under the 10th percentile at hospital discharge. Our study allowed us to follow up the changes in neonatal epidemiological characteristics, the mortality and morbidity of extreme premature infants over a period of 11 years and showed few significant changes. Knowledge of medical practices is essential to improve the short- and long-term outcome of premature infants. PMID:23266166

  16. Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction: A Longitudinal Study Comparison of 2 Techniques with 2 and 5-Years Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Astur, Diego C; Gouveia, Gustavo B; Borges, José H. de Souza; Astur, Nelson; Arliani, Gustavo G; Kaleka, Camila C; Cohen, Moises

    2015-01-01

    Background : The purpose of this study was to compare the results of two popular surgical techniques for medial patellofemoral ligament MPFL reconstruction with a minimum of two-year follow-up. Methods : Fifty-eight patients with traumatic tear of the medial patellofemoral ligament were included in one of the two surgical groups. Group 1 MPFLs were reconstructed through graft endobutton fixation and Group 2 through graft anchor fixation into the patella. After two to five-year follow-up, patients were asked to answer knee function questionnaires (Fulkerson and Kujala) as well as the SF-36 life quality score. Results : There were no statistical difference among postoperative Kujala, Fulkerson, and SF-36 questionnaires scores between Groups 1 and 2. There were statistical significant differences favorable to patients in Group 1 with a shorter follow-up length (2-5 years) compared to those with a longer period of 5-10 years for both Kujala and Fulkerson scores and no difference for group 2. Conclusion : Both medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction techniques had similar results in a two to ten-year follow-up according to functions and life quality questionnaires. Furthermore, endobutton fixation for the patellar edge of the graft had better results in patients with 2 years of follow-up than those with 5 years. Gender was not significant for surgical results. Moreover, group 1 patients had higher number of complications. PMID:26161157

  17. Need for tele follow-up--a study at a public sector quaternary referral hospital in India.

    PubMed

    Pathni, Rajiv K; Satpathy, Sidhartha; Kailash, Subramaniam

    2009-01-01

    The All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) is the apex super-specialty, quaternary referral hospital of India. Its outpatient departments (OPDs) handle over 2.5 million patients every year, a large proportion of whom travel up to 2500 km for treatment because specialist facilities are not available in their regions. We conducted a descriptive study of 58 AIIMS faculty staff members, using a self-administered questionnaire followed by interviews with selected faculty members. During the year 2006, a total of 2,566,492 patients attended the various OPDs at the AIIMS, of whom 1,427,466 (56%) were old patients, i.e. they attended the OPD for follow-up. The questionnaire responses revealed that 55 (95%) of the respondents routinely provided follow-up medical advice to their patients using the telephone, email and/or letters. Only 3 (5%) respondents stated that they did not use any such means for follow-up of their patients. Most of the respondents identified benefits in the use of telemedicine and did not envisage any major difficulties in using it for the follow-up of patients. If appropriate tele follow-up facilities were available, probably more than one million OPD visits could be avoided annually at the AIIMS. PMID:19590032

  18. Mortality and cancer incidence in Vietnamese refugees in England and Wales: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Swerdlow, A j

    1991-03-01

    Mortality and cancer incidence were analysed in follow-up of a cohort of 3327 Vietnamese refugees who came to Britain after the end of the Vietnam war. Overall mortality of the refugees was very low compared to expectations based on England and Wales national rates: the all-cause standardized mortality ratio for males was 64 (95% confidence interval 52-77) and for females was 56 (95% confidence interval 44-71). This resulted particularly from very low mortality from ischaemic heart disease and colorectal cancer in each sex, and breast cancer in women. Mortality in the refugees was greatly increased for tuberculosis, cancer of the stomach in both sexes, cancers of the nasopharynx and liver in males, and peptic ulcer in females. Cancer incidence data showed in addition an excess of cancer of the penis. Despite the great trauma and stress of their flight, the only indication of a possible effect of the migration on the mortality of the refugees who survived to reach Britain was the excess of peptic ulcer deaths in women. PMID:2066210

  19. New polyethylenes in total hip replacement: A ten- to 12-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    García-Rey, E; García-Cimbrelo, E; Cruz-Pardos, A

    2013-03-01

    Between 1999 and 2001, 90 patients underwent total hip replacement using the same uncemented acetabular and femoral components with a 28 mm metallic femoral head but with prospective randomisation of the acetabular liner to either Durasul highly cross-linked polyethylene or nitrogen-sterilised Sulene polyethylene. We assessed 83 patients at a minimum follow-up of ten years. Linear penetration of the femoral head was estimated at six weeks, six and 12 months and annually thereafter, using the Dorr method, given the non-spherical shape of the acetabular component. There was no loosening of any component; only one hip in the Sulene group showed proximal femoral osteolysis. The mean penetration of the femoral head at six weeks was 0.08 mm (0.02 to 0.15) for the Durasul group and 0.16 mm (0.05 to 0.28) for the Sulene group (p = 0.001). The mean yearly linear penetration was 64.8% lower for the Durasul group at 0.05 mm/year (sd 0.035) for the Sulene group and 0.02 mm/year (sd 0.016) for the Durasul (p < 0.001). Mean linear femoral head penetration at ten years was 61% less in the Durasul than Sulene group. Highly cross-linked polyethylene gives excellent results at ten years. PMID:23450015

  20. Advancing Health and Environmental Disease Tracking: A 5-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Litt, Jill S.; Wismann, Andrea; Resnick, Beth; Dawson, Rebecca Smullin; Hano, Mary; Burke, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. Our goal was to gain an understanding of the extent to which environmental public health tracking (EPHT) has progressed since the release of the 2000 Pew Environmental Health Commission report examining the nation’s EPHT infrastructure. Methods. As a follow-up to the Pew Commission report, we conducted a telephone survey of state practitioners in an effort to assess EPHT trends and changes in state-level capacities and activities over the past several years. Results. We found that new and enhanced federal–state partnerships; improved surveillance, data analysis, and communication capacities; and enhanced support of tracking personnel have provided a foundation for progress in the area of EPHT. Also, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s support of EPHT has strengthened the national environmental public health infrastructure and capacity to track environmental hazards, exposures, and health. Conclusions. Improved funding, data access, and translation of data to prevention activities are critical to sustaining progress in EPHT and developing the evidence base necessary for assessing the longer-term impacts and efficacy of EPHT and related environmental health improvements. PMID:17267714

  1. Scintigraphic follow up of autologous splenic grafts: An experimental and clinical study

    SciTech Connect

    Reilmann, H.; Creutzig, H.; Pabst, R.; Kamran, D.

    1984-01-01

    The risk of overwhelming sepsis in splenectomized patients is well known and autotransplantation of splenic tissue might be considered as a prophylactic approach. Little is known, however, of the success of grafting in man. In six patients with autologous grafts after emergency splenectomy the ''trapping function'' (TF) was measured by sequential scintigraphy with heat damaged red cells every third month. To correlate TF with blood flow and histology, different experiments were done in pigs: ligation of the splenic artery or partial splenectomy or total splenectomy with grafting of fragments either subfascially or in the greater momentum. TF, blood flow with Rb-86 and immune response was measured at different times after surgery. Remnants left at the main vessels did not grow, while splenic tissue left at smaller vessels increased in size. There were great differences in blood flow per gram splenic tissue, but a significant correlation between TF and blood flow. All experimental grafts showed a normal function both of the white and the red pulp. In patients there was a growth of grafts in four, while in two no TF could be measured. TF is an indicator of relative blood flow to splenic grafts and therefore useful in the follow up of grafted patients.

  2. Hepatitis B immunity in teenagers vaccinated as infants: an Italian 17-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Spada, E; Romanò, L; Tosti, M E; Zuccaro, O; Paladini, S; Chironna, M; Coppola, R C; Cuccia, M; Mangione, R; Marrone, F; Negrone, F S; Parlato, A; Zamparo, E; Zotti, C M; Mele, A; Zanetti, A R

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the persistence of hepatitis B surface antigen antibody (anti-HBs) and immune memory in a cohort of 571 teenagers vaccinated against hepatitis B as infants, 17 years earlier. Vaccinees were followed-up in 2003 and in 2010 (i.e. 10 years and 17 years after primary vaccination, respectively). When tested in 2003, 199 vaccinees (group A) had anti-HBs <10 mIU/mL and were boosted, 372 (group B) were not boosted because they had anti-HBs ≥10 mIU/mL (n = 344) or refused booster (n = 28) despite anti-HBs <10 mIU/mL. In 2010, 72.9% (416/571) of participants had anti-HBs ≥10 mIU/mL (67.3% in group A vs. 75.8% in group B; p 0.03). The geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were similar in both groups. Between 2003 and 2010, anti-HBs concentrations in previously boosted individuals markedly declined with GMC dropping from 486 to 27.7 mIU/mL (p <0.001). Fifteen vaccinees showed a marked increase of antibody, possibly due to natural booster. In 2010, 96 individuals (37 of group A and 59 of group B) with anti-HBs <10 mIU/mL were boosted; all vaccinees of the former group and all but two of the latter had an anamnestic response. Post-booster GMC was higher in group B (895.6 vs. 492.2 mIU/mL; p 0.039). This finding shows that the immune memory for HBsAg persists beyond the time at which anti-HBs disappears, conferring long-term protection. PMID:24528380

  3. Seeing the Same: A Follow-Up Study on the Portrayals of Disability in Graphic Novels Read by Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Marilyn; Moeller, Robin

    2012-01-01

    A 2010 study of the portrayal of disabilities in graphic novels selected by librarians as the "Best" revealed that disabilities were present in less than half of the sample, and the majority of those depictions were of negative stereotypes (Irwin and Moeller 2010). This follow-up study looked at a best seller list of graphic novels to answer the…

  4. A Follow-up Study of Early Onset Psychosis: Comparison between Outcome Diagnoses of Schizophrenia, Mood Disorders, and Personality Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Jon M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study of 95 youths previously diagnosed with psychotic disorders found that at follow-up, 24 had a diagnosis of schizophrenia, 9 with psychotic mood disorders, 5 with personality disorders, and 1 with schizo-affective disorder. The study confirmed findings regarding early onset schizophrenia and psychotic mood disorders and emphasized the

  5. Child Development Centers 1977 Evaluation Report. Volume II: A Follow-Up Study. Report No. 78-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Geraldine T.

    This report summarizes the results of a study of the Child Development Centers (CDC), a program operated by the Seattle, Washington public schools to provide social services to students from four to eight years old. Preliminary results from a long-term follow-up study of students successfully terminated from the CDC program between 1973 and 1977…

  6. Using Facebook to Maximize Follow-Up Response Rates in a Longitudinal Study of Adults Who Use Methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Bolanos, Franklin; Herbeck, Diane; Christou, Dayna; Lovinger, Katherine; Pham, Aurora; Raihan, Adnan; Rodriguez, Luz; Sheaff, Patricia; Brecht, Mary-Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the process and effects of using facebook (FB) to locate and re-contact study participants targeted for follow up in a longitudinal study of adult methamphetamine users (N = 649). A follow-up interview was conducted in 2009–11 approximately 8 years after previous study participation. Our paper describes re-contact efforts involving FB, including IRB regulatory issues and the effectiveness of using FB compared to mailings and phone calls. A total of 48 of the 551 surviving non-incarcerated participants who agreed to be contacted for follow up studies were contacted via FB, of whom 11 completed the follow-up interview. Those contacted through FB were more likely to be younger, female, relocated out-of-state, and reported somewhat higher rates of anxiety and cognitive problems compared to those not located on FB. Although participants contacted through FB are likely to differ demographically from those contacted by phone or mail, FB provides a potentially effective means to expand conventional methods of correspondence for contacting hard to reach participants. PMID:22879750

  7. Using facebook to maximize follow-up response rates in a longitudinal study of adults who use methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Bolanos, Franklin; Herbeck, Diane; Christou, Dayna; Lovinger, Katherine; Pham, Aurora; Raihan, Adnan; Rodriguez, Luz; Sheaff, Patricia; Brecht, Mary-Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the process and effects of using facebook (FB) to locate and re-contact study participants targeted for follow up in a longitudinal study of adult methamphetamine users (N = 649). A follow-up interview was conducted in 2009-11 approximately 8 years after previous study participation. Our paper describes re-contact efforts involving FB, including IRB regulatory issues and the effectiveness of using FB compared to mailings and phone calls. A total of 48 of the 551 surviving non-incarcerated participants who agreed to be contacted for follow up studies were contacted via FB, of whom 11 completed the follow-up interview. Those contacted through FB were more likely to be younger, female, relocated out-of-state, and reported somewhat higher rates of anxiety and cognitive problems compared to those not located on FB. Although participants contacted through FB are likely to differ demographically from those contacted by phone or mail, FB provides a potentially effective means to expand conventional methods of correspondence for contacting hard to reach participants. PMID:22879750

  8. Methods and Measures Used for Follow-up at 15 Years of the English and Romanian Adoptee (ERA) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This chapter covers the methods and measures used in the ERA study, with a special focus on age 15 outcomes. First, the authors outline the sample participation rate for the 15-year follow-up--the percentages in all cases referring to the numbers at the time of initial sample contact. They then describe the measures used in this monograph,…

  9. Educational Goal Attainment: A Three-Year Follow-Up Study of Nonreturning 1985-86 JCCC Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson County Community Coll., Overland Park, KS. Office of Institutional Research.

    In 1989, a follow-up study of non-returning students who had attended Johnson County Community College (JCCC) during fall 1985, spring 1986, or summer 1986 was conducted to assess the former students' achievement of their educational goals. A target population of 7,910 long-term leavers was surveyed regarding their opinions and perceptions of…

  10. Occupational Physical Activity, Overweight, and Mortality: A Follow-Up Study of 47,405 Norwegian Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Selmer, Randi; Sorensen, Marit; Skurtveit, Svetlana

    2007-01-01

    This population-based 24-year follow-up study evaluated the association of occupational physical activity (OPA) with overweight and mortality in 47,405 men and women, healthy at baseline, and reporting OPA as sedentary (reference), light, moderately heavy, or heavy. The adjusted odds ratio for overweight was slightly less than 1 for all categories…

  11. Third National Even Start Evaluation: Follow-Up Findings from the Experimental Design Study. NCEE 2005-3002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricciuti, Anne E., St.Pierre, Robert G.; Lee, Wang; Parsad, Amanda

    2004-01-01

    Citation: Ricciuti, A.E., R.G. St.Pierre, W. Lee, A. Parsad & T. Rimdzius. Third National Even Start Evaluation: Follow-Up Findings From the Experimental Design Study. U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance. Washington, D.C., 2004. Background: The Even Start…

  12. Life Satisfaction, Illness Behaviour, and Rehabilitation Outcome: Results of a One Year Follow-Up Study with Cardiac Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myrtek, Michael

    1987-01-01

    Follow-up study one year after an inpatient cardiac rehabilitation program of 83 male cardiac patients found reported life satisfaction generally lower with increased physical complaints and emotional lability. Of patients originally identified as having high life satisfaction, 90 percent were back at work compared to 66 percent of patients with

  13. Does Training in Table Creation Enhance Table Interpretation? A Quasi-Experimental Study with Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karazsia, Bryan T.; Wong, Kendal

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative and statistical literacy are core domains in the undergraduate psychology curriculum. An important component of such literacy includes interpretation of visual aids, such as tables containing results from statistical analyses. This article presents results of a quasi-experimental study with longitudinal follow-up that tested the…

  14. A 3-Year Early Home Intervention Follow-Up Study with Low Birthweight Infants and Their Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera, Maria E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This follow-up study of low birthweight children at the age of 4-5 found that 14 control children (who did not participate in early home intervention) scored lower than 31 preterm treatment children and 22 full-term controls on expressive language, comprehension, personal-social skills, visual-motor skills, and home environment. (Author/JDD)

  15. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study: First Follow-Up 1996-98 (BPS:96/98) Methodology Report. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wine, Jennifer S.; Whitmore, Roy W.; Heuer, Ruth E.; Biber, Melissa; Pratt, Daniel J.

    This report describes the methods and procedures used for the full-scale data collection effort of the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study First Follow-Up 1996-98 (BPS:96/98). These students, who started their postsecondary education during the 1995-96 academic year, were first interviewed during 1996 as part of the National…

  16. Analysis of U.S. Government Printing Office Documents Depository Survey Items. Follow-Up Study Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tae Moon

    A follow-up study to a February 1978 report concerning the inadequate annotations on depository survey item cards issued by the Superintendent of Documents of the U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO), this report presents an analysis of 65 new survey items received by each of six selective depository libraries for the 3-month period, March…

  17. Communication Development and Characteristics of Influencing Factors: A Follow-Up Study from 8 to 36 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haapsamo, Helena; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Ebeling, Hanna; Larinen, Katja; Penninkilampi-Kerola, Varpu; Soini, Hannu; Moilanen, Irma

    2013-01-01

    In this follow-up study, we evaluated children's communication development at the ages of 8 ("n" ?= ?50), 18 ("n" ?=? 46), 24 ("n"? = ?44) and 36 months ("n"? = ?36) using the Finnish version of the "MacArthur Communicative Developmental Inventories" (MCDI). A sample of children ("n"? = ?14) received family-based intervention 10 times in five…

  18. Communication Development and Characteristics of Influencing Factors: A Follow-Up Study from 8 to 36 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haapsamo, Helena; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Ebeling, Hanna; Larinen, Katja; Penninkilampi-Kerola, Varpu; Soini, Hannu; Moilanen, Irma

    2013-01-01

    In this follow-up study, we evaluated children's communication development at the ages of 8 ("n" ?= ?50), 18 ("n" ?=? 46), 24 ("n"? = ?44) and 36 months ("n"? = ?36) using the Finnish version of the "MacArthur Communicative Developmental Inventories" (MCDI). A sample of children ("n"? = ?14) received family-based intervention 10 times in five

  19. Neuropsychological functioning and social anhedonia: Three-year follow-up data from a longitudinal community high risk study

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alex S.; Couture, Shannon M.; Blanchard, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Social anhedonia is a promising vulnerability marker for schizophrenia-spectrum pathology. Prior research has demonstrated that individuals with psychometrically-defined social anhedonia show a range of “schizophrenia-like” neurocognitive abnormalities. However, this research is limited in that it is based largely on the study of college students. The present article reports findings from a longitudinal study of social anhedonia recruited from a community sample. As part of this study, a neurocognitive battery was administered at baseline and at three-year follow-up sessions to participants with (n = 78) vs. without (n = 77) social anhedonia. Additional measures of global functioning and schizotypal, schizoid and paranoid schizophrenia-spectrum symptoms were also administered. Across groups, subjects showed significant improvement in neurocognitive functioning over time. Compared to controls, at follow-up, individuals with social anhedonia showed significantly poorer attentional vigilance and simple processing speed, but failed to evidence impairments in immediate or delayed verbal memory, immediate or delayed visual memory, visual or verbal working memory, olfaction or executive abilities. At follow-up, within the social anhedonia group, schizoid (and to a lesser extent, schizotypal) symptom severity was associated with a range of neurocognitive impairments. Neurocognitive impairments were generally not associated with paranoid symptoms or global functioning. Baseline neurocognitive performance was not significantly predictive of follow-up symptom severity or functioning. Collectively, these findings suggest that neurocognitive dysfunctions only characterize a subset of individuals with social anhedonia. PMID:22507637

  20. Long-Term Ultrasonography Follow-Up of Thyroid Colloid Cysts at the Health Center: A Single-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Rho, Myung Ho; Kim, Dong Wook

    2015-01-01

    Objective. No previous study has employed long-term follow-up ultrasonography (US) examinations for evaluating thyroid colloid cysts (TCCs) in the general population. This study aimed to assess the interval changes of TCCs at the health center by evaluating long-term US follow-up examinations. Methods. For evaluation of the thyroid gland at our health center from 2006 to 2010, 3692 individuals underwent 4 or more thyroid US examinations at an interval of 1 year or 2 years. We assessed the interval changes of TCCs ≥ 5 mm on US follow-up examinations. Results. Of the 3692 subjects, only 115 (3.1%) showed TCCs ≥ 5 mm on one or more thyroid US examinations. The interval changes in TCCs, as shown by the thyroid US examinations performed during the study period, were classified as follows: no interval change (n = 60), gradual increase (n = 37), gradual decrease (n = 6), positive fluctuation (n = 10), negative fluctuation (n = 0), and disappearance (n = 2). No subject reported any relevant symptom pertaining to TCCs. Conclusions. Overall, follow-up US examinations showed various interval changes in TCCs, but a majority of TCCs showed no interval change or a gradual increase in size. PMID:26579197

  1. Body Structures and Physical Complaints in Upper Limb Reduction Deficiency: A 24-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Postema, Sietke G.; van der Sluis, Corry K.; Waldenlöv, Kristina; Norling Hermansson, Liselotte M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe upper body structures associated with upper limb reduction deficiency and the development of these structures over time, to examine the presence of physical complaints in this population, and to compare body structures and complaints between groups based on prosthesis use. Design Prospective cohort study with a follow-up period of 24 years, with matched able-bodied controls. Subjects Twenty-eight patients with unilateral below-elbow reduction deficiency fitted with myoelectric prostheses, aged 8–18 years at inclusion. Method Measurements of upper arm, trunk and spine were performed and study-specific questionnaires were answered at baseline and follow-up; the Brief Pain Inventory and the Quick Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaires were answered at follow-up. Results Both at baseline and follow-up, within-subjects differences in structures of the arm and trunk were shown in patients but not in controls. Spinal deviations, although small, were greater in patients compared to controls. Self-reported disability was higher in patients compared to controls. Differences in back pain and effect of prostheses use could not be shown. Conclusions Patients with unilateral below-elbow reduction deficiency have consistent differences in upper body structures. Deviations of the spine, probably of functional origin, do not progress to clinically relevant scoliosis. PMID:23226218

  2. Barriers and facilitators for participation in health promotion programs among employees: a six-month follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health promotion programs (HPPs) are thought to improve health behavior and health, and their effectiveness is increasingly being studied. However, participation in HPPs is usually modest and effect sizes are often small. This study aims to (1) gain insight into the degree of participation of employees in HPPs, and (2) identify factors among employees that are associated with both their intention to participate and actual participation in HPPs. Methods Employees of two organizations were invited to participate in a six-month follow-up study (n?=?744). Using questionnaires, information on participation in HPPs was collected in two categories: employees intention at baseline to participate and their actual participation in a HPP during the follow-up period. The following potential determinants were assessed at baseline: social-cognitive factors, perceived barriers and facilitators, beliefs about health at work, health behaviors, and self-perceived health. Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for demographics and organization, were used to examine associations between potential determinants and intention to participate, and to examine the effect of these determinants on actual participation during follow-up. Results At baseline, 195 employees (26%) expressed a positive intention towards participation in a HPP. During six months of follow-up, 83 employees (11%) actually participated. Participants positively inclined at baseline to participate in a HPP were more likely to actually participate (OR = 3.02, 95% CI: 1.88-4.83). Privacy-related barriers, facilitators, beliefs about health at work, social-cognitive factors, and poor self-perceived health status were significantly associated with intention to participate. The odds of employees actually participating in a HPP were higher among participants who at baseline perceived participation to be expected by their colleagues and supervisor (OR = 2.87, 95% CI: 1.17-7.02) and among those who said they found participation important (OR = 2.81, 95% CI: 1.76-4.49). Conclusions Participation in HPPs among employees is limited. Intention to participate predicted actual participation in a HPP after six months of follow-up. However, only 21% of employees with a positive intention actually participated during follow-up. Barriers, facilitators, beliefs about health at work, social-cognitive factors, and a poor self-perceived health status were associated with intention to participate, but hardly influenced actual participation during follow-up. PMID:24909151

  3. Cognitive predictors of psychosocial functioning outcome in schizophrenia: a follow-up study of subjects participating in a rehabilitation program.

    PubMed

    Prouteau, Antoinette; Verdoux, Hélène; Briand, Catherine; Lesage, Alain; Lalonde, Pierre; Nicole, Luc; Reinharz, Daniel; Stip, Emmanuel

    2005-09-15

    The aims of this prospective study were to explore in subjects with psychosis participating in a rehabilitation program whether cognitive performances at baseline predicted (i) psychosocial functioning over a 15-16 month follow-up; (ii) improvement in psychosocial functioning over the rehabilitation program. Visuo-spatial tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were administered to assess cognitive performance in 55 subjects with schizophrenia spectrum disorders who completed a rehabilitation program. The Multnomah Community Ability Scale (MCAS) was used to measure dimensions of community functioning. One subscale of the Client's Assessment of Strengths, Interests, and Goals (CASIG) provided a measure of subjective quality of life (QoL). Improvement was defined as a 15% or more increase in psychosocial scores between baseline and follow-up. Worse baseline sustained attention predicted better self-rated quality of life, and better baseline visual memory predicted better community functioning over the rehabilitation follow-up period, in particular, higher autonomy in activities of daily living, and less physical and psychiatric symptoms that could interfere with rehabilitation. Baseline cognitive performances predicted community functioning improvement during the follow-up period: visual memory predicted improvement in daily living autonomy and in social competence; sustained attention predicted improvement in behavioral problems (such as medication compliance, collaboration with treatment providers or impulse control) and social competence; planning performances predicted improvement in social competence. These cognitive functions could be specifically targeted in a rehabilitation program aimed at enhancing functioning in those particular dimensions. PMID:16085207

  4. Cognitive Performance and Long-Term Social Functioning in Psychotic Disorder: A Three-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Claudia J. P.; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A.; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Studies have linked cognitive functioning to everyday social functioning in psychotic disorders, but the nature of the relationships between cognition, social cognition, symptoms, and social functioning remains unestablished. Modelling the contributions of non-social and social cognitive ability in the prediction of social functioning may help in more clearly defining therapeutic targets to improve functioning. Method In a sample of 745 patients with a non-affective psychotic disorder, the associations between cognition and social cognition at baseline on the one hand, and self-reported social functioning three years later on the other, were analysed. First, case-control comparisons were conducted; associations were subsequently further explored in patients, investigating the potential mediating role of symptoms. Analyses were repeated in a subsample of 233 patients with recent-onset psychosis. Results Information processing speed and immediate verbal memory were stronger associated with social functioning in patients than in healthy controls. Most cognition variables significantly predicted social functioning at follow-up, whereas social cognition was not associated with social functioning. Symptoms were robustly associated with follow-up social functioning, with negative symptoms fully mediating most associations between cognition and follow-up social functioning. Illness duration did not moderate the strength of the association between cognitive functioning and follow-up social functioning. No associations were found between (social) cognition and follow-up social functioning in patients with recent-onset psychosis. Conclusions Although cognitive functioning is associated with later social functioning in psychotic disorder, its role in explaining social functioning outcome above negative symptoms appears only modest. In recent-onset psychosis, cognition may have a negligible role in predicting later social functioning. Moreover, social cognition tasks may not predict self-reported social functioning. PMID:27082629

  5. Oral health follow-up studies in the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study: methodology and principal results

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Marco A.; Barros, Aluísio Jardim; Peres, Karen Glazer; Araújo, Cora Luiza; Menezes, Ana M. B.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe oral health follow-up studies nested in a birth cohort. A population-based birth cohort was launched in 1993 in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Two oral health follow-up studies were conducted at six (n = 359) and 12 (n = 339) years of age. A high response rate was observed at 12 years of age; 94.4% of the children examined at six years of age were restudied in 2005. The mean DMF-T index at age 12 was 1.2 (SD = 1.6) for the entire sample, ranging from 0.6 (SD = 1.1) for children that were caries-free at age six, 1.3 (SD = 1.5) for those with 1-3 carious teeth at six years, and 1.8 (SD = 1.8) for those with 4-19 carious teeth at six years (p < 0.01). The number of individuals with severe malocclusions at 12 years was proportional to the number of malocclusions at six years. Oral health problems in early adolescence were more prevalent in individuals with dental problems at six years of age. PMID:20963297

  6. The changing demographics of traumatic spinal cord injury: An 11-year study of 831 patients

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Cynthia; Mutch, Jennifer; Parent, Stefan; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Context/objective Traumatic spinal cord injuries (T-SCI) have a devastating impact and place a significant financial burden on the healthcare system. The incidence of T-SCI ranges from 10.4 to 83 cases per million and varies with age, sex, or geographical region. This study describes the epidemiology and demographic characteristics of patients treated for T-SCI in our region over 11 years. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Single Level-I trauma center in Québec, Canada. Participants Patients who sustained T-SCI between 1 April 2000 and 31 March 2011. Interventions None. Outcome measures Data concerning T-SCI patients was retrieved from the Québec Trauma Registry. Information on age, sex, trauma, level of injury, type and severity of neurological deficit (ASIA scale), and treatment was extracted. Annual, age-standardized rates of T-SCI were calculated and trends over time were examined. Results Eight hundred and thirty-one patients with T-SCI were identified. The incidence of T-SCI did not change over time but there was a 13-year increase in age between 2002 and 2010. More than 60% of patients aged 55 years or more were injured following a fall and 80% became tetraplegic. These patients were more likely to have central cord syndrome (CCS) and incomplete neurological injury, compared to younger patients. The incidence of CCS increased from 25 to 37% over 11 years. Conclusions The T-SCI population is aging and is more frequently sustaining injuries associated with CCS, incomplete neurological deficits and tetraplegia. PMID:25096709

  7. Exploring the “Legacy” of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study: A Follow-up Study From the Tuskegee Legacy Project

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Ralph V.; Green, B. Lee; Kressin, Nancy R.; James, Sherman A.; Wang, Min Qi; Claudio, Cristina; Russell, Stephanie Luise

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this follow-up 2003 3-City Tuskegee Legacy Project (TLP) Study was to validate or refute our prior findings from the 1999–2000 4 City TLP Study, which found no evidence to support the widely acknowledged “legacy” of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study (TSS), ie, that blacks are reluctant to participate in biomedical studies due to their knowledge of the TSS. The TLP Questionnaire was administered in this random-digit-dial telephone survey to a stratified random sample of 1162 black, white, and Puerto Rican Hispanic adults in 3 different US cities. The findings from this current 3-City TLP Study fail to support the widely acknowledged “legacy” of the TSS, as awareness of the TSS was not statistically associated with the willingness to participate in biomedical studies. These findings, being in complete agreement with our previous findings from our 1999–2000 4-City TLP, validate those prior findings. PMID:19378637

  8. A Follow-up Study on U.S.-Trained Iranian Faculty Members: Satisfactions and Dissatisfactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arasteh, Hamidreza

    2009-01-01

    Iran was one of the major contributors to the international student population in the United States. For some years, the number of Iranian students studied in America mounted such that there were more Iranians studying at colleges and universities in the United States than from any other foreign country. This study examined the satisfaction of…

  9. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in youth with an autism spectrum disorder: A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Selles, Robert R; Arnold, Elysse B; Phares, Vicky; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

    2015-07-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in youth with an autism spectrum disorder appears efficacious; however, maintenance of treatment gains has not yet been studied. Using a sample of 32 youth who had benefited at least minimally from a past trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in autism spectrum disorder, this study assessed anxiety symptoms in youth 10-26 months following treatment completion. Compared to baseline, follow-up scores were associated with large effects for treatment. Relative to post-treatment, a small effect for return in symptoms was present and significantly fewer individuals were rated as responders at follow-up. Future studies should investigate factors associated with poor treatment maintenance and modifications or additions to treatment that may help maintain treatment gains. PMID:24923895

  10. Early risk factors for depressive symptoms among Korean adolescents: a 6-to-8 year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyoung Min; Cho, Sun-Mi; Shin, Yun Mi; Park, Kyung Soon

    2013-11-01

    Depression during adolescence is critical to the individual's own development. Hence, identifying individuals with high-risk depression at an early stage is necessary. This study aimed to identify childhood emotional and behavioral risk factors related to depressive symptoms in Korean adolescents through a longitudinal study. The first survey took place from 1998 to 2000, and a follow-up assessment conducted in 2006, as the original participants reached 13-15 yr of age. The first assessment used the Korean version of Child Behavior Checklist and a general questionnaire on family structure, parental education, and economic status to evaluate the participants. The follow-up assessment administered the Korean Children's Depression Inventory. Multiple regression analysis revealed that childhood attention problems predicted depressive symptoms during adolescence for both boys and girls. For boys, family structure also predicted adolescent depressive symptoms. This study suggests that adolescents with attention problems during childhood are more likely to experience depressive symptoms. PMID:24265533

  11. A Follow-Up Note on Prescriptive Statements in Nonintervention Research Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Shana M.; Walls, Stephen M.; Dacy, Breana Sylvester; Levin, Joel R.; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2010-01-01

    Robinson, Levin, Thomas, Pituch, and Vaughn (2007) examined 74 articles reporting nonintervention studies (i.e., studies with no researcher-manipulated variables) that appeared in 5 educational journals in 1994. Of these articles, 22 contained prescriptive statements (e.g., if teachers or students did X, then student outcome Y would result). In…

  12. Predictors of Trauma Symptomatology in Sexually Abused Adolescents: A 6-Month Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Sarah; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Crombez, Geert; Van Oost, Paulette

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the natural course of trauma-specific symptoms 6 months after disclosure. Furthermore, this study investigates whether severity and type of abuse (intrafamilial or extrafamilial sexual abuse), negative appraisals, coping strategies, and crisis support measured at time of disclosure can be predictive of trauma symptoms 6 months…

  13. The Bounce Back Retention Program: One-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanger, Maria Andujo; Goldenson, Julie; Weinberg, Marsha; Schmitz-Sciborski, Amy; Monzon, Reynaldo

    2012-01-01

    This study provides results regarding the effectiveness of the Bounce Back Retention Program (BBRP), a semester-long voluntary course for students on academic probation (AP). This is the first phase of a longitudinal study of spring 2007 freshmen at San Diego State University (SDSU). Results were analyzed for three samples: 1) "AP BBRP-Credit"…

  14. Students' Thinking and Alternative Conceptions of Transport Systems in Plants: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jing-Ru

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore students' alternative conceptions and their associative thinking regarding internal transport in plants through administration of a refined diagnostic test. Questions of associative thinking and explanation were added to form a third tier of the previous two-tier test. The study found three terms related to…

  15. Soft Skills for Information Technology Professionals in Recruitment Advertisements: A Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Cynthia J. Moore

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine if the use of soft skills requirements in job posting advertisements for information technology professional positions has increased since the dissertation study by G. K. Tannnahill in 2007, titled "Study of Soft Skills for IT Workers in Recruitment Advertising," to support prior research…

  16. An Analysis of Gender Differences on Performance Assessment in Mathematics--A Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liru; Wilson, Linda; Manon, Jon

    To add to previous research on gender differences in mathematics ability and achievement, this study was designed to investigate gender differences in problem-solving strategies for two extended constructed-response mathematics questions in grade 3. It is a followup to a study of gender differences on constructed-response and multiple-choice items…

  17. The Status of Service Learning in Departments of Communication: A Follow-Up Study. Brief Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oster-Aaland, Laura; Sellnow, Timothy; Nelson, Paul; Pearson, Judy

    2004-01-01

    While service learning in communication appears to be gaining in acceptance, few previous empirical studies examine changes in its availability and implementation over time. The present study compared a 1995 (Sellnow & Oster, 1997) and a 2001 survey of department chairs to reveal how service learning fared in communication departments. The survey…

  18. Soft Skills for Information Technology Professionals in Recruitment Advertisements: A Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Cynthia J. Moore

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine if the use of soft skills requirements in job posting advertisements for information technology professional positions has increased since the dissertation study by G. K. Tannnahill in 2007, titled "Study of Soft Skills for IT Workers in Recruitment Advertising," to support prior research

  19. Potential Sources of Bias in Substance Abuse Treatment Follow-Up Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert A.; Gerstein, Dean R.

    Large multi-site followup studies of treatment clients comprise a major source of evidence on the effectiveness of substance abuse treatment in the United States. This report considers challenges to the validity of results in treatment effectiveness studies due to four factors: (1) nonrandom entry to treatment from the population needing…

  20. Adjustment to University and Academic Performance: Brief Report of a Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Il-haam; Louw, Johann; Dumont, Kitty; Malope, Nomxolisi

    2010-01-01

    This study presents data that extend an earlier analysis of predictors of academic performance from one to three years. None of the adjustment and other psychosocial variables (help-seeking, academic motivation, self-esteem, perceived stress and perceived academic overload) could predict success at university at the end of three years of study.…

  1. The Safe Passage Study: Design, Methods, Recruitment, and Follow-Up Approach

    PubMed Central

    Dukes, Kimberly A.; Burd, Larry; Elliott, Amy J.; Fifer, William P.; Folkerth, Rebecca D.; Hankins, Gary D.V.; Hereld, Dale; Hoffman, Howard J.; Myers, Michael M.; Odendaal, Hein J.; Signore, Caroline; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Willinger, Marian; Wright, Colleen; Kinney, Hannah C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Safe Passage Study is a large, prospective, multidisciplinary study designed to (1) investigate the association between prenatal alcohol exposure, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and stillbirth, and (2) determine the biological basis of the spectrum of phenotypic outcomes from exposure, as modified by environmental and genetic factors that increase the risk of stillbirth, SIDS, and in surviving children, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Methods The results provided are based on an interim assessment of 6004 women enrolled, out of the 12 000 projected, from the Northern Plains, US, and Cape Town, South Africa, areas known to be of high risk for maternal drinking during pregnancy. Research objectives, study design, and descriptive statistics, including consent, recruitment, and retention information, are provided. Results Overall visit compliance is 87%, and includes prenatal, delivery/newborn, and postnatal contacts through 1 year post-delivery. Pregnancy outcome ascertainment is 98% prior to medical chart review; less than 2% of women withdraw. Consent for the use of DNA and placental tissue exceed 94%, and consent to participate in the autopsy portion of the study is 71%. Conclusions The Safe Passage Study is the first multi-site study of SIDS and stillbirth to integrate prospectively collected exposure information with multidisciplinary biological information in the same maternal and fetal/ infant dyad using a common protocol. Essential components of the study design and its success are close ties to the community and rigorous systems and processes to ensure compliance with the study protocol and procedures. PMID:25131605

  2. Follow-Up Study of Fiscal Year 2001 Occupational Program Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    Results of a new statewide study on the benefits of the Illinois Community College System by economists document that community colleges have a strong positive impact on the state. The study found that investing in the completion of an associate degree translates into more than $345,000 in additional income over the remainder of a person's career,…

  3. A 24-Year Follow-Up Study of Blood Pressure Tracking from Childhood to Adulthood in Korea: The Kangwha Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myung Ha; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Ahn, Song Vogue; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A number of longitudinal studies have tracked blood pressure over time in children and adults. Although there are a few blood pressure tracking studies for Asian populations, they are all relatively short-term studies with around only 10 years of follow-up. Accordingly, we assessed the stability of blood pressure tracking from childhood to adulthood over a 24-year follow-up period among participants in the Kangwha Study. Materials and Methods The Kangwha Study was a community-based prospective cohort study that started in 1986 in Kangwha County, South Korea. The study dataset included 14 blood pressure measurements over a 24-year period from 266 (123 male and 143 female) participants who completed the 2010 examination. All participants were 7 years old when the study began and were followed for the next 24 years. Results The tracking coefficient (95% confidence interval) for systolic blood pressure was 0.81 (0.52-1.11) in men and 0.72 (0.51-0.92) in women; diastolic blood pressure was 0.53 (0.26-0.80) in men and 0.33 (0.15-0.52) in women. After adjusting for body mass index, the tracking coefficient for systolic blood pressure was 0.68 (0.39-0.97) in men and 0.67 (0.44-0.89) in women; diastolic blood pressure was 0.51 (0.24-0.78) in men and 0.33 (0.15-0.51) in women. All tracking coefficients were statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusion In this 24-year longitudinal study, we confirmed the stability of blood pressure tracking from childhood to adulthood for participants in the Kangwha Study. PMID:24532504

  4. Treatment Compliance of Adolescents after Attempted Suicide: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Craig D.; Cortell, Ranon; Wagner, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates compliance with mental health treatments among suicidal adolescents. Results show that child psychopathology and parental attitudes toward treatment plays an important part in increasing compliance with mental health treatment for adolescent suicide attempters.

  5. How to Establish and Follow up a Large Prospective Cohort Study in the 21st Century - Lessons from UK COSMOS

    PubMed Central

    Toledano, Mireille B.; Smith, Rachel B.; Brook, James P.; Douglass, Margaret; Elliott, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale prospective cohort studies are invaluable in epidemiology, but they are increasingly difficult and costly to establish and follow-up. More efficient methods for recruitment, data collection and follow-up are essential if such studies are to remain feasible with limited public and research funds. Here, we discuss how these challenges were addressed in the UK COSMOS cohort study where fixed budget and limited time frame necessitated new approaches to consent and recruitment between 2009-2012. Web-based e-consent and data collection should be considered in large scale observational studies, as they offer a streamlined experience which benefits both participants and researchers and save costs. Commercial providers of register and marketing data, smartphones, apps, email, social media, and the internet offer innovative possibilities for identifying, recruiting and following up cohorts. Using examples from UK COSMOS, this article sets out the dos and don’ts for today's cohort studies and provides a guide on how best to take advantage of new technologies and innovative methods to simplify logistics and minimise costs. Thus a more streamlined experience to the benefit of both research participants and researchers becomes achievable. PMID:26147611

  6. Can Contrast Effects Regulate Emotions? A Follow-Up Study of Vital Loss Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xianyun; Luo, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Although many studies focus on the how contrast effects can impact cognitive evaluations, the question of whether emotions are regulated by such contrast effects is still the subject of considerable debate, especially in the study of loss-related decisions. To address this gap in the literature, we designed three decision making loss conditions: (i) both losses are trivial (TT), (ii) one loss is trivial and the other loss is vital (TV), or (iii) one loss is trivial and the other loss is routine (TR). In study 1, which compared the difference between the negative emotion ratings in TT and TV, we found that negative emotions were affected by the contrast effects. In study 2, which compared the difference between the importance of trivial options in TT and TV, we found that the contrast effects differentially changed the importance of trivial options in the two conditions, which in turn down-regulated negative emotions. In study 3, the impact of decision difficulty was controlled by predetermining the items to be lost. In this study, we found that, when comparing the differences between the negative emotions of losing trivial options in TV and TR, the contrast effects still modulated the loss-related emotions. We concluded that the contrast effects could down-regulate emotions. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that contrast effects can alleviate negative affect in loss-related decision making. This study will enrich and extend the literature on emotion regulation theory, and it will provide a new cost-effective mitigation strategy for regulating negative emotions. PMID:22905170

  7. Genome-wide linkage and follow-up association study of postpartum mood symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, PB; Payne, JL; MacKinnon, DF; Mondimore, FM; Goes, FS; Schweizer, B; Jancic, D; Coryell, WH; Holmans, PA; Shi, J; Knowles, JA; Scheftner, WA; Weissman, MM; Levinson, DF; DePaulo, JR; Zandi, PP; Potash, JB

    2013-01-01

    Objective Family studies have suggested that postpartum mood symptoms might have a partly genetic etiology. The authors used a genome-wide linkage analysis to search for chromosomal regions that harbor genetic variants conferring susceptibility for such symptoms. The authors then fine-mapped their best linkage regions, assessing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genetic association with postpartum symptoms. Method Subjects were ascertained from two studies: the NIMH Genetics Initiative Bipolar Disorder project and the Genetics of Recurrent Early-Onset Depression. Subjects included women with a history of pregnancy, any mood disorder, and information about postpartum symptoms. In the linkage study, 1,210 women met criteria (23% with postpartum symptoms), and 417 microsatellite markers were analyzed in multipoint allele sharing analyses. For the association study, 759 women met criteria (25% with postpartum symptoms), and 16,916 SNPs in the regions of the best linkage peaks were assessed for association with postpartum symptoms. Results The maximum linkage peak for postpartum symptoms occurred on chromosome 1q21.3-q32.1, with a chromosome-wide significant likelihood ratio Z score (ZLR) of 2.93 (permutation p=0.02). This was a significant increase over the baseline ZLR of 0.32 observed at this locus among all women with a mood disorder (permutation p=0.004). Suggestive linkage was also found on 9p24.3-p22.3 (ZLR=2.91). In the fine-mapping study, the strongest implicated gene was HMCN1 (nominal p=0.00017), containing four estrogen receptor binding sites, although this was not region-wide significant. Conclusions This is the first study to examine the genetic etiology of postpartum mood symptoms using genome-wide data. The results suggest that genetic variations on chromosomes 1q21.3-q32.1 and 9p24.3-p22.3 may increase susceptibility to postpartum mood symptoms. PMID:19755578

  8. The clinical profile of patients with anorexia nervosa in Singapore: a follow-up descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Kuek, Angeline; Utpala, Ranjani; Lee, Huei Yen

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The prevalence rate of anorexia nervosa is lower in Asia than in the West, although studies have found that it is on the rise in Asia. This study aims to present the clinical profile of patients presenting with anorexia nervosa in Singapore. METHODS The present study used archival data from the Eating Disorder Programme registry of the Department of Psychiatry, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore. Patient records from 2003 to 2010 were collected and analysed. Presenting characteristics of the patients were also compared with those of another local study conducted eight years earlier. RESULTS From 2003 to 2010, a total of 271 patients were diagnosed with anorexia nervosa by a psychiatrist in our hospital. Of these, 251 (92.6%) were female and 238 (87.8%) were Chinese. Our patients had a lower mean weight (36.83 kg, p < 0.001) and a lower mean body mass index (BMI) (14.43 kg/m2, p < 0.001) than patients from the previous local study. Almost half of all our patients (n = 135, 49.8%) were diagnosed with at least one psychiatric comorbidity and 50 (18.5%) had a history of self-harm. CONCLUSION The presenting characteristics of our study cohort were similar to those of the Western population. However, the lower presenting weight and BMI in our cohort indicates that cases seen today are more severe than those seen eight years ago. Therefore, it is important to put in place prevention programmes to help adolescents cultivate a healthy body image as well as early intervention programmes to improve detection rates and treatment outcomes. PMID:26106239

  9. A Five-Years Follow-up Study on Cognitive Development in Grade-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauh, Hellgard

    In this study an attempt was made to obtain a developmental dimension for estimating longitudinal development on the basis of cross-sectional data. To check the validity of this approach, the cross-sectional data were compared with true longitudinal data. Forty-three public school children were given a series of conservation tasks in four…

  10. The University Experience: Follow-up...1967 Freshmen in 1973. A Biography of a Class Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoelcle, Larene N.

    This report is the second in a projected series reporting data from a 10-year longitudinal study of a random sample of 100 students in the 1967 entering freshman class at the State University of New York at Buffalo (SUNY/B). The report is based on responses to a questionnaire administered in 1973, six years after the project was initiated.…

  11. The University Experience. Follow-up...1966 Freshmen in 1971. A Biography of a Class Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoelcle, Larene Nichols

    Those who design educational policy, as well as those who plan to go to college, need to know what societal benefits derive from higher education, for whom the college experience is effective, and what aspects of the experience are valuable to what students. To investigate such concerns, a study was initiated in 1964: (1) to describe to faculty,…

  12. Physical Fitness of Adults with an Intellectual Disability: A 13-Year Follow-up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Andrew; Reid, Greg

    2000-01-01

    Examined changes in physical fitness of middle-aged adults with mental retardation over 13 years. The subjects had participated in a physical fitness study in 1983. They were re-evaluated for cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. Fitness levels declined over the 13 years and were low…

  13. Pubertal Timing and Substance Use in Middle Adolescence: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Marttunen, Mauri; Frojd, Sari

    2011-01-01

    Earlier research has associated early puberty with emotional and behavioral symptoms particularly among girls, while among boys, findings have been contradictory as to whether risks are associated with early or late pubertal timing. We studied the association between pubertal timing and substance use behaviors in middle adolescence in a 2-year

  14. Motor Development in Children at Risk of Autism: A Follow-Up Study of Infant Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Hayley C.; Bedford, Rachael; Charman, Tony; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Johnson, Mark H.; Hill, Elisabeth L.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, evidence of poor or atypical motor skills in autism spectrum disorder has led some to argue that motor impairment is a core feature of the condition. The current study uses a longitudinal prospective design to assess the development of motor skills of 20 children at increased risk of developing autism spectrum disorder, who were…

  15. COMPREHENSIVE VOCATIONALLY ORIENTED PSYCHOTHERAPY FOR ADOLESCENT DELINQUENT BOYS--A FOLLOW-UP STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MASSIMO, JOSEPH L.; SHORE, MILTON F.

    THIS ARTICLE REPORTED A 2- AND 3-YEAR FOLLOWUP STUDY OF 20 DELINQUENT MALE DROPOUTS, HALF OF WHOM RECEIVED 10 MONTHS OF A COMPREHENSIVE, VOCATIONALLY ORIENTED PSYCHOTHERAPY PROGRAM, HALF OF WHOM DID NOT. METROPOLITAN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS AND THEMATIC STORIES WERE USED IN ASSESSMENTS. A SHORT INTERVIEW OBTAINED DATA ON JOB HISTORY, LEGAL AND MARITAL…

  16. Early Predictors of Career Development: A 10-Year Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Joaquim Armando; Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Fonseca, Antonio C.; Haase, Richard F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents empirical findings from a 10-year longitudinal study of the educational and occupational socialization of 445 participants who were about 7 years old when first tested, and about 17 years old at the fourth time of measurement. In addition to collecting psychological measurements from the participants, behavioral reports were

  17. A Follow-up Study of Adult Graduates of the University of Wisconsin System. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishler, Carol

    A study surveyed University of Wisconsin System adult graduates (age 29 and over at graduation) from traditional campus programs to determine the impact of a bachelor's degree on their lives and work three to five years after graduation. The main interest was job changes experienced by adult graduates. Of 441 adults surveyed, 254 returned the…

  18. New Teachers' Perceptions on Their Preparation: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Kristi J.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated new public school teachers' perceptions of their level of preparation in the area classroom management and how prepared they were during their first year of teaching to handle various classroom and discipline issues. The study updated research done on this topic that used a 1999-2000 public school teacher dataset…

  19. 1994 Follow-Up Study of Fiscal Year 1993 Occupational Program Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    In March 1994, a study was conducted to determine the perspectives of Illinois community college graduates regarding their preparation for employment, their continuing education goals, and their satisfaction with their major and college services. A total of 6,245 occupational program graduates, including graduates of agriculture; conservation and…

  20. Student Engagement: A CCSSE Follow-Up Study to Improve Student Engagement in a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, Deryn M.; Liu, Lu; Hao, Lan; Stallard, Claire

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative case study at a two-year community college investigated the reasons behind a persistent gap in the college students' engagement level in several key areas such as active and collaborative learning and student-faculty interaction as demonstrated in the longitudinal Community College Survey of Student Engagement (CCSSE) and the…

  1. A Follow-Up Study of Junior College Hotel and Restaurant Education in Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almarode, Richard L.

    This study examines hospitality programs from the enabling legislation in 1961, which provided for an advisory committee to the Hotel and Restaurant Commission on education. Its purpose was to employ a director of the programs and two field representatives or consultants to offer on-the-job assistance to managers and employees in the state's…

  2. Motor Development in Children at Risk of Autism: A Follow-Up Study of Infant Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Hayley C.; Bedford, Rachael; Charman, Tony; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Johnson, Mark H.; Hill, Elisabeth L.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, evidence of poor or atypical motor skills in autism spectrum disorder has led some to argue that motor impairment is a core feature of the condition. The current study uses a longitudinal prospective design to assess the development of motor skills of 20 children at increased risk of developing autism spectrum disorder, who were

  3. Empowering Visuo-Spatial Ability in Primary School: Results from a Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fastame, Maria Chiara; Callai, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The current study was primarily aimed at verifying the effect of a combined computer-assisted and pencil-and-paper training that was developed to empower visuo-spatial abilities in primary school pupils. One hundred and twenty third grade (mean average: eight years old) and fourth grade (mean age: nine years old) students attending several Italian

  4. Empowering Visuo-Spatial Ability in Primary School: Results from a Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fastame, Maria Chiara; Callai, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The current study was primarily aimed at verifying the effect of a combined computer-assisted and pencil-and-paper training that was developed to empower visuo-spatial abilities in primary school pupils. One hundred and twenty third grade (mean average: eight years old) and fourth grade (mean age: nine years old) students attending several Italian…

  5. Adjustment to Spinal Cord Injury: A Comprehensive Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Daniel; And Others

    This document reports a comprehensive followup study to describe postservice life status of former vocational rehabilitation clients and to develop an empirical index of postservice adjustment to spinal cord injury. Significant findings, conclusions, and implications are found at the beginning. The introduction section summarizes followup studies…

  6. Emotional Psychopathology and Increased Adiposity: Follow-Up Study in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aparicio, Estefania; Canals, Josefa; Voltas, Nuria; Hernandez-Martinez, Carmen; Arija, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Based on data from a three-year longitudinal study, we assess the effect, according to gender, of emotional psychopathology in preadolescence on anthropometric and body composition parameters in adolescence (N = 229). Psychopathology was assessed using the "Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders, the Children's Depression…

  7. STAR Follow-Up Studies, 1996-1997: The Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio (STAR) Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate-Bain, Helen; Boyd-Zaharias, Jayne; Cain, Van A.; Word, Elizabeth; Binkley, M. Edward

    The Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio (STAR) Project first investigated the effect of small class size on student achievement with over 6,000 Tennessee primary students in 1985 through 1989. The study found a consistent and significant benefit of small classes for all students, with the greatest advantages for minority, inner-city students from…

  8. Cognitive Deficits Associated with Acquired Amusia after Stroke: A Neuropsychological Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkamo, Teppo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Soinila, Seppo; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M.; Laine, Matti; Hietanen, Marja

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence on amusia suggests that our ability to perceive music might be based on the same neural resources that underlie other higher cognitive functions, such as speech perception and spatial processing. We studied the neural correlates of acquired amusia by performing extensive neuropsychological assessments on 53 stroke patients with a

  9. A Follow-Up Study of Auditorially, Visually, and Orthopedically Handicapped Pupils in Cincinnati. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prisuta, Richard

    A followup study of aurally, visually, and physically handicapped graduates of the Cincinnati Public Schools was investigated for use in future educational planning for handicapped children. A random selection of 24 aurally handicapped, 15 visually handicapped and 34 physically handicapped graduates were interviewed. Twenty nine of the group met…

  10. Follow-Up Study of Rural Schools Implementing CSR Programs in the Southwest. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Robert V.

    Case studies of five small and isolated rural schools in the Southwest focused on their ability to fully implement Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration (CSR) programs over the 3-year period of their federal grants. Data were gathered via interviews with school personnel, classroom observations, document reviews, and telephone interviews with…

  11. A Historical and Current Follow-Up Study of Oklahoma Vocational-Technical Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, J. B.; And Others

    The report presents the findings of followup surveys of secondary and postsecondary graduates of vocational-technical programs in Oklahoma from 1970 to 1974. The purpose of this study was to examine the post-training experiences of vocational-technical graduates the first, third, and fifth year after completing the training program. The…

  12. FOLLOW UP STUDY OF CAREER-ORIENTED CURRICULUMS 1968--PHASE I, JOB ENTRY OR TRANSFER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suffolk County Community Coll., Selden, NY.

    PHASE ONE OF THIS STUDY IS A FOLLOWUP, BEGINNING MARCH 1968, OF GRADUATES OF OCCUPATIONAL CURRICULUMS. OF THE 429 GRADUATES QUESTIONED, 211 (49.18 PERCENT) REPLIED. INFORMATION WAS SOUGHT ON THE JOBS THEY TOOK, THE SALARY RANGES, THE KIND OF FIRMS HIRING THEM, HOW MANY WENT ON TO 4-YEAR SCHOOLS, WHICH SCHOOLS THEY WENT TO, AND WHETHER ON A FULL-…

  13. Follow-up Study of 1983-84 Community College Vocational Program Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    A study gathered followup information on the 1983-84 graduates of Oregon community college vocational students. Of the 83 percent of the graduates who were either employed or pursuing further education, 73 percent were doing so in areas related to the training they had received while enrolled in the community college program. Female graduates…

  14. A FOLLOW-UP STUDY OF INTELLIGENCE CHANGES IN CHILDREN WHO PARTICIPATED IN PROJECT HEADSTART.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CONNERS, C. KEITH; WALLER, DAVID A.

    IN A STUDY TO ASSESS THE VALUE OF A 1965 SUMMER HEAD START PROGRAM IN BALTIMORE, 83 PARTICIPATING CHILDREN WERE TESTED ON THE PEABODY PICTURE VOCABULARY TEST (PPVT) AND THE DRAW-A-PERSON (DAP), AND THEIR SCORES WERE COMPARED WITH THOSE OF A MATCHED GROUP OF CONTROL NON-HEAD START CHILDREN. ALL WERE TESTED IN SEPTEMBER 1965 (AT THE BEGINNING OF THE…

  15. A Follow-up Report on: Language and Education of the Deaf; Policy Study 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederer, Joseph

    Repercussions of "Language and Education of the Deaf" by Herbert R. Kohl are examined as a followup. The original study described the education and achievement of profoundly deaf individuals in America, presented a critique of the literature that had grown around the problems of the deaf, and focused on the relative failure of deaf education.…

  16. A Follow-up Study of Children with Phonologic Disorders of Unknown Origin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Kwiatkowski, Joan

    1988-01-01

    This study reviewed the exceptional educational needs histories of 36 children who had received preschool speech services at a phonology clinic. Findings indicated that 75-80 percent of children continued to have speech/language and other special education needs as they neared middle school and beyond. (Author/DB)

  17. Where Are They Now? Lessons from a Single District Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Diehm, Kendra L.; Benz, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the postsecondary outcomes of students with and without disabilities in the four major outcomes areas of post-secondary education, employment, independent living, and recreation and leisure. The target population included students graduating from one mid-sized school district from a southern state. A stratified random sample of…

  18. A 30-Year Follow-Up Study of Actual Applied Music Practice Versus Estimated Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Clifford K.

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if adults are able to remember how much time they actually spent practicing during a past time period of their lives where detailed daily records were kept of actual number of minutes practiced. It also addressed how past practice time relates to their highest level of musical performance across the 30 years on…

  19. Emotional Psychopathology and Increased Adiposity: Follow-Up Study in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aparicio, Estefania; Canals, Josefa; Voltas, Nuria; Hernandez-Martinez, Carmen; Arija, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Based on data from a three-year longitudinal study, we assess the effect, according to gender, of emotional psychopathology in preadolescence on anthropometric and body composition parameters in adolescence (N = 229). Psychopathology was assessed using the "Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders, the Children's Depression

  20. Early Predictors of Career Development: A 10-Year Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Joaquim Armando; Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Fonseca, Antonio C.; Haase, Richard F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents empirical findings from a 10-year longitudinal study of the educational and occupational socialization of 445 participants who were about 7 years old when first tested, and about 17 years old at the fourth time of measurement. In addition to collecting psychological measurements from the participants, behavioral reports were…

  1. Measuring the Effectiveness of Business Training: A Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Margaret G.

    In 1989, a study was conducted at Orange County Community College to measure the effectiveness of business training provided by the college's Institute for Business, Industry, and Government (IBIG). Between September 1988 and February 1989, IBIG offered 27 business training programs and 6 customized firm-specific programs. In May 1989, 80

  2. The Longitudinal Assessment Study (LAS): Eighteen Year Follow-Up. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Christopher M.

    Premised on the view that students with more years of Montessori education (MEY) would possess to a higher degree those qualities emphasized in the Montessori environment and that Montessori students would be as successful as students more traditionally educated, this report presents the final assessment for the Longitudinal Assessment Study,…

  3. A Follow-Up Study of Eco Education's Environmental Service-Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobert, Thomas Milton

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine student views of the influence of the Eco Education Urban Stewards program's impact on their involvement in community environmental initiatives. Eco Education is a non-profit organization in St. Paul that facilitates an urban, environmental, year-long science curriculum delivered in middle schools in…

  4. Pubertal Timing and Substance Use in Middle Adolescence: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Marttunen, Mauri; Frojd, Sari

    2011-01-01

    Earlier research has associated early puberty with emotional and behavioral symptoms particularly among girls, while among boys, findings have been contradictory as to whether risks are associated with early or late pubertal timing. We studied the association between pubertal timing and substance use behaviors in middle adolescence in a 2-year…

  5. Follow-Up Study of Fiscal Year 1997 Occupational Program Graduates, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    This report provides information from graduates of selected occupational programs regarding the effectiveness of their Illinois community college experience. The study surveyed a pool of 2,190 occupational program graduates, which yielded a usable response rate of 58.6%. The majority of graduate respondents (64.5%) came from programs in four…

  6. Natural History of Thyroid Function in Adults with Down Syndrome--10-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V.; Gomez, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome (DS) is unknown. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with DS over a 10-year period. Results: Transient and persistent thyroid dysfunction was common. The 5- and 10-year incidence of definite hypothyroidism was 0.9%-1.64% and…

  7. Cognitive Deficits Associated with Acquired Amusia after Stroke: A Neuropsychological Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkamo, Teppo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Soinila, Seppo; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M.; Laine, Matti; Hietanen, Marja

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence on amusia suggests that our ability to perceive music might be based on the same neural resources that underlie other higher cognitive functions, such as speech perception and spatial processing. We studied the neural correlates of acquired amusia by performing extensive neuropsychological assessments on 53 stroke patients with a…

  8. Measuring the Effectiveness of Business Training: A Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Margaret G.

    In 1989, a study was conducted at Orange County Community College to measure the effectiveness of business training provided by the college's Institute for Business, Industry, and Government (IBIG). Between September 1988 and February 1989, IBIG offered 27 business training programs and 6 customized firm-specific programs. In May 1989, 80…

  9. Are Graduate Students Better Self Regulated Learners Than Undergraduates? A Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindner, Reinhard W.; And Others

    Two studies concerning the self-regulated learning of graduate students are reported. In the first, the responses of 96 graduate students in education to an inventory of self-regulated learning were compared to those of 294 undergraduates previously assessed. It was found, contrary to expectation, that the graduate students scored lower on the…

  10. Follow-Up Study of Schools Implementing Comprehensive School Reform in the Southwest. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) programs were implemented in 1998 in five states working with the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL). SEDL's five-state region includes Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. This study examined the implementation status of CSR programs since funding ended. Two hundred and

  11. A Follow-Up Study to Compare Success Rates of Developmental Math Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Teresa; Burkett, Sexton

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a study that compared the success rates of students in Arithmetic (MTH 02), Algebra I (MTH 03), and Algebra II (MTH 03) when they were offered at Southwest Virginia Community College (SWCC) for three credits versus five credits. The authors' findings showed no significant differences in the success rates of students who were…

  12. National Transition Follow-Up Study of Youth Identified as Deafblind: Parent Perspectives. NTAC Briefing Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petroff, Jerry G.

    This study surveyed the parents/guardians of 97 youth (ages 18-24) throughout the United States who are deaf-blind and who left school in June 1996. The survey was conducted 18 months after these youth had left school. Following an introduction, this report first presents findings related to characteristics of the youth in the areas of…

  13. Measuring Phonological Development: A Follow-Up Study of Five Children Acquiring Finnish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saaristo-Helin, Katri

    2009-01-01

    This study applies the Phonological Mean Length of Utterance measurement (PMLU; Ingram & Ingram, 2001; Ingram, 2002) to the data of five children acquiring Finnish and evaluates their phonological development longitudinally at four different age points: 2;0, 2;6, 3;0, and 3;6. The children's results on PMLU and related measures are discussed…

  14. Effect of Breastfeeding Duration on Cognitive Development in Infants: 3-Year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the association between breastfeeding and cognitive development in infants during their first 3 years. The present study was a part of the Mothers’ and Children’s Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, which was a multi-center birth cohort project in Korea that began in 2006. A total of 697 infants were tested at age 12, 24, and 36 months using the Korean version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (K-BSID-II). The use and duration of breastfeeding and formula feeding were measured. The relationship between breastfeeding and the mental development index (MDI) score was analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis. The results indicated a positive correlation between breastfeeding duration and MDI score. After adjusting for covariates, infants who were breastfed for ≥ 9 months had significantly better cognitive development than those who had not been breastfed. These results suggest that the longer duration of breastfeeding improves cognitive development in infants. PMID:27051242

  15. A psychosocial follow-up study of deaf preschool children using cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Preisler, G; Tvingstedt, A-L; Ahlström, M

    2002-09-01

    The aim of the study was to explore patterns of communication between 22 children with cochlear implants (CI) and their parents, teachers and peers in natural interactions over a 2-year period. The children, between 2 and 5 years old when implanted, had used the implant between 1 and 3.5 years at the end of the study. Analyses of videorecorded interactions showed that meaningful oral communication was more easily obtained in the home setting than in the preschool setting. Patterns of communication between parent-child, content and complexity of dialogues, quality of peer interactions, communicative styles of adults, and the use of sign language in communication turned out to be important factors when explaining the result of the CI on the individual child's development. The children with the best oral skills were also good signers. PMID:12296875

  16. Longitudinal Follow-Up of Mirror Movements after Stroke: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsuka, Hiroyuki; Matsuzawa, Daisuke; Ishii, Daisuke; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Mirror movement (MM), or visible involuntary movements of a relaxed hand during voluntary fine finger movements of an activated opposite hand, can be observed in the hand that is on the unaffected side of patients with stroke. In the present study, we longitudinally examined the relationship between voluntary movement of the affected hand and MM in the unaffected hand in a single case. We report a 73-year-old woman with a right pontine infarct and left moderate hemiparesis. MM was observed as an extension movement of the unaffected right index finger during extension movement of the affected left index finger. The affected right index movement was found to increase, while MM of the unaffected left index finger was observed to decrease with time. These results indicate that the assessment of MM might be useful for studying the process of motor recovery in patients with stroke. PMID:26649211

  17. Effect of Breastfeeding Duration on Cognitive Development in Infants: 3-Year Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyungmin; Park, Hyewon; Ha, Eunhee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Ha, Mina; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Lee, Boeun; Lee, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Kyung Yeon; Kim, Ja Hyeong; Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Kim, Yangho

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the association between breastfeeding and cognitive development in infants during their first 3 years. The present study was a part of the Mothers' and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, which was a multi-center birth cohort project in Korea that began in 2006. A total of 697 infants were tested at age 12, 24, and 36 months using the Korean version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (K-BSID-II). The use and duration of breastfeeding and formula feeding were measured. The relationship between breastfeeding and the mental development index (MDI) score was analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis. The results indicated a positive correlation between breastfeeding duration and MDI score. After adjusting for covariates, infants who were breastfed for ≥ 9 months had significantly better cognitive development than those who had not been breastfed. These results suggest that the longer duration of breastfeeding improves cognitive development in infants. PMID:27051242

  18. Health Care Finance Executive Personalities Revisited: A 10-Year Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Lieneck, Cristian; Nowicki, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic health care industry continues to call upon health care leaders to possess not one but multiple competencies. Inherent personality characteristics of leaders often play a major role in personal as well as organizational success to include those in health care finance positions of responsibility. A replication study was conducted to determine the Myers-Briggs personality-type differences between practicing health care finance professionals in 2014, as compared with a previous 2003 study. Results indicate a significant shift between both independent samples of health care finance professionals over the 10-year period from original high levels of introversion to that of extraversion, as well as higher sensing personality preferences, as compared with the original sample's high level of intuition preferences. Further investigation into the evolving role of the health care finance manager is suggested, while continued alignment of inherent, personal characteristics is suggested to meet ongoing changes in the industry. PMID:26217992

  19. Prediction of Parkinson's disease subsequent to severe depression: a ten-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Walter, Uwe; Heilmann, Robert; Kaulitz, Lara; Just, Tino; Krause, Bernd Joachim; Benecke, Reiner; Höppner, Jacqueline

    2015-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with an increased risk of subsequent Parkinson's disease (PD) in case-control and cohort studies. However, depression alone is unlikely to be a useful marker of prodromal PD due to its low specificity. In this longitudinal observational study, we assessed whether the presence of other potential markers of prodromal PD predicts the subsequent development of PD in MDD patients. Of 57 patients with severe MDD but no diagnosis of PD who underwent a structured interview, olfactory and motor investigation and transcranial sonography at baseline, 46 (36 women; mean age 54.9 ± 11.7 years) could be followed for up to 11 (median, 10) years. Three patients (2 women; age 64, 65 and 70 years) developed definite PD after 1, 7, and 9 years, respectively. The combined finding of mild asymmetric motor slowing, idiopathic hyposmia, and substantia nigra hyperechogenicity predicted subsequent PD in all patients who could be followed for longer than 1 year. Out of the whole study cohort, only the subjects with subsequent PD presented with the triad of asymmetric motor slowing, idiopathic hyposmia, and substantia nigra hyperechogenicity in combination with at least two out of four reportable risk factors (family history of PD, current non-smoker, non-coffee drinker, constipation) at baseline investigation. Post-hoc analysis revealed that additional rating of eye and eye-lid motor abnormalities might further improve the prediction of PD in larger cohorts. Findings of this pilot-study suggest that MDD patients at risk of subsequent PD can be identified using an inexpensive non-invasive diagnostic battery. PMID:25217967

  20. ADULT STATUS OF CHILDREN WITH CONTRASTING EARLY LIFE EXPERIENCES, A FOLLOW-UP STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SKEELS, HAROLD M.

    TO STUDY EFFECTS OF EARLY INTERVENTION ON CHILDREN, AN EXPERIMENTAL GROUP OF 13 SUBJECTS (AGED 7 TO 30 MONTHS, IQ 35 TO 89) WAS TRANSFERRED FROM AN ORPHANAGE TO THE INTENSE STIMULATION OF A MOTHER SURROGATE AT AN INSTITUTION FOR THE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED. A CONTRAST GROUP OF 12 SUBJECTS (AGED 11.9 TO 21.8 MONTHS, IQ 50 TO 103) REMAINED AT THE…

  1. Stereotactic limbic leucotomy—a follow-up study of thirty patients

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Desmond; Mitchell-Heggs, Nita

    1973-01-01

    This prospective study reports the results of stereotactic limbic leucotomy at a mean of 17 months following surgery. Clinical improvement had occurred in twenty-four (80%) of the patients, fifteen (50%) of them being symptom free or much improved. Fourteen of sixteen patients suffering from obsessional neurosis were improved, as were five of seven with chronic anxiety and the degree of improvement at 17 months was superior to that at 6 weeks. Psychometric scores of anxiety, obsessions and neuroticism were all significantly reduced at 17 months. The mean depression scores were also significantly reduced and this result was superior to that reported in a previous study of ‘free-hand’ operations. Adverse effects were not a problem following limbic leucotomy. Emotional blunting, disinhibition, post-operative epilepsy and excessive weight gain were not encountered, and intelligence was unaffected by the operation. Limbic leucotomy is a much more limited and precise procedure than older ‘free-hand’ operations which we have studied, but its therapeutic effects are comparable and in obsessional neurosis, superior. PMID:4618906

  2. Posttraumatic stress disorder in African Americans: A two year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Benítez, Carlos I. Pérez; Sibrava, Nicholas J.; Wood, Laura Kohn; Bjornsson, Andri S.; Zlotnick, Caron; Weisberg, Risa; Keller, Martin B.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was a prospective, naturalistic, longitudinal investigation of the two year course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of African Americans with anxiety disorders. The study objectives were to examine the two year course of PTSD and to evaluate differences between African Americans with PTSD and anxiety disorders and African Americans with anxiety disorders but no PTSD with regard to comorbidity, psychosocial impairment, physical and emotional functioning, and treatment participation. The participants were 67 African Americans with PTSD and 98 African Americans without PTSD (mean age 41.5 years, 67.3% female). Individuals with PTSD were more likely to have higher comorbidity, lower functioning, and they were less likely to seek treatment than those with other anxiety disorders but no PTSD. The rate of recovery from PTSD over two years was .10 and recovery from comorbid Major Depressive Disorder was .55. PTSD appears to be persistent over time in this populattion. The rates of recovery were lower than what has been reported in previous longitudinal studies with predominantly non-Latino Whites. It is imperative to examine barriers to treatment and factors related to treatment engagement for this population. PMID:25086766

  3. The long-term course of autistic disorders: update on follow-up studies.

    PubMed

    Nordin, V; Gillberg, C

    1998-02-01

    The majority of children with autism show deviance and socially or psychiatrically handicapping conditions throughout life. Only a small proportion of those with classical childhood autism lead independent adult lives. Others, particularly those with 'high-functioning' autism and so-called Asperger syndrome will improve enough to live an independent adult life. The level of mental retardation and other comorbid conditions (such as medical syndromes and other neuropsychiatric disorders, including epilepsy) is important in predicting outcome. An IQ below 50 around school age predicts severe restriction of social and adaptive functioning in adult life. The absence of communicative speech at 5-6 years of age is indicative of a poorer long-term overall outcome. There is a clear co-variation between IQ and level of communication, but probably there is some prognostic factor in language development apart from this. Measures of flexibility and cognitive shifting abilities tend to be good predictors of social outcome in a few studies. There is a continued need for prospective, longitudinal studies of children with autism spectrum disorders, particularly in Asperger syndrome. The role of interventions of various kinds needs to be addressed in such studies. PMID:9517902

  4. Long-term follow-up of adolescent depression. A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Bohman, Hannes; Jonsson, Ulf; Päären, Aivar; von Knorring, Anne-Liis; Olsson, Gunilla; von Knorring, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent depression is common. Earlier studies indicate that relapses and recurrences are common. But many questions are still unanswered. The aim of the present study has been to follow subjects with adolescent depressions, identified in a population-based study, over a 15-year period. Subjects with adolescent depression (n = 362) and a comparison group (n = 250) were followed in the National Swedish registers. The formerly depressed females had significantly more out-patient visits, and a significantly higher proportion (78.4% versus 69.6%) had at least one out-patient visit. Among the males, no significant differences were found as concerns out-patient visits. The formerly depressed females had significantly more in-patient stays (3.6 versus 2.4) and a significantly higher total number of in-patient days (27.4 versus 10.1). A significantly higher proportion had in-patient days due to mental disorders (9.5% versus 4.6%), in particular anxiety disorders (4.9% versus 1.0%). As concerns the males, a significantly higher proportion had in-patient days due to mental disorders (16.5% versus 1.8%), in particular alcohol and drug abuse (7.6% versus 0%). Among the formerly depressed females there were no significant differences against the comparison group as concerns the proportion of being a mother, number of children per woman, or age at first child. However, a significantly higher proportion of the formerly depressed females had had different, usually mild, disorders related to pregnancy (8.6% versus 0.6%). The children of the women with adolescent depressions were not affected. PMID:20095923

  5. The Capodimonte Deep Field. Presentation of the survey and first follow-up studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcalá, J. M.; Pannella, M.; Puddu, E.; Radovich, M.; Silvotti, R.; Arnaboldi, M.; Capaccioli, M.; Covone, G.; Dall'Ora, M.; De Lucia, G.; Grado, A.; Longo, G.; Mercurio, A.; Musella, I.; Napolitano, N.; Pavlov, M.; Rifatto, A.; Ripepi, V.; Scaramella, R.

    2004-12-01

    We present the Capodimonte Deep Field (OACDF), a deep field covering an area of 0.5 ° 2 in the B, V, R optical bands plus six medium-band filters in the wavelength range 773-913 nm. The field reaches the following limiting magnitudes: BAB˜ 25.3, VAB˜ 24.8 and RAB˜25.1 and contains ˜50 000 extended sources in the magnitude range 18 ≤RAB ≤25.0. Hence, it is intermediate between deep pencil beam surveys and very wide but shallow surveys. The main scientific goal of the OACDF is the identification and characterization of early-type field galaxies at different look-back times in order to study different scenarios of galaxy formation. Parallel goals include the search for groups and clusters of galaxies and the search for rare and peculiar objects (gravitational lenses, QSOs, halo White Dwarfs). In this paper we describe the OACDF data reduction, the methods adopted for the extraction of the photometric catalogs, the photometric calibration and the quality assessment of the catalogs by means of galaxy number counts, spectroscopic and photometric redshifts and star colors. We also present the first results of the search for galaxy overdensities. The depth of the OACDF and its relatively large spatial coverage with respect to pencil beam surveys make it a good tool for further studies of galaxy formation and evolution in the redshift range 0-1, as well as for stellar studies. Based on observations carried out at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile under proposals numbers 63.O-0464(A), 64.O-0304(A), 65.O-0298(A) and 67.B-0457(A). Tables A.1-A.3 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/428/339

  6. Covariance study to evaluate the influence of optical follow-up strategies on estimated orbital parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordelli, E.; Vananti, A.; Schildknecht, T.

    2016-05-01

    An in-depth study, using simulations and covariance analysis, is performed to identify the optimal sequence of observations to obtain the most accurate orbit propagation. The accuracy of the results of an orbit determination/improvement process depends on: tracklet length, number of observations, type of orbit, astrometric error, time interval between tracklets and observation geometry. The latter depends on the position of the object along its orbit and the location of the observing station. This covariance analysis aims to optimize the observation strategy taking into account the influence of the orbit shape, of the relative object-observer geometry and the interval between observations.

  7. Follow up study of radiocesium contamination in a Greek forest ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Clouvas, A; Xanthos, S; Takoudis, G; Antonopoulos-Domis, M; Alifrangis, D A; Zhiyanski, M; Sokolovska, M

    2007-10-01

    Radiocesiun distribution in the different parts of a Quercus conferta Kit ecosystem in Northern Greece was measured in 2005-2006, twenty years after the Chernobyl accident. The comparison between the results of this study and those previously measured (1993-1995) in the same ecosystem gives information about the long-term behavior of 137Cs in forest ecosystems. The major part of the 137Cs inventory is still in the upper layers of the soil. The radiocesium distribution in soil is fixed and has been in equilibrium at least since 1993, when the first measurements were performed. The major contamination mechanism of leaves and wood is root uptake. PMID:17846528

  8. Tunnel restorations in permanent teeth. A 7 year follow up study.

    PubMed

    Hasselrot, L

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to perform a long-time evaluation of tunnel restorations made in a general dental practice concerning survival time and type of failures. 267 Class I (87%) and II (13%) tunnel restorations in permanent teeth on 193 patients--mostly teenagers and young adults--were evaluated at annual recalls. The observation time-span was 1-7 years. The restoration material was a conventional glass ionomer cement in Class I tunnels and a silver cermet glass ionomer cement in Class II tunnels. The yearly failure rate was 7% and the 50% survival time was 6 years. The reasons for replacement were: marginal ridge fracture (41%), recurrent caries (40%) and cavitation in approximal enamel (19%). No differences in failure rate between Class I and II tunnels could be seen, but recurrent caries was more frequent in Class I tunnels. Restorations made during the second year of the study were more successful, indicating a learning effect. Class I tunnel restorations in general practice can be an alternative to conventional Class II restorations with narrow indications, i.e. patients with relatively low caries activity, small approximal lesions in combination with small demineralization zones in the enamel wall. PMID:9646387

  9. A 35-year follow-up study on burnout among Finnish employees.

    PubMed

    Hakanen, Jari J; Bakker, Arnold B; Jokisaari, Markku

    2011-07-01

    This three-wave 35-year prospective study used the Job Demands-Resources model and life course epidemiology to examine how life conditions in adolescence (1961-1963) through achieved educational level and working conditions in early adulthood (1985) may be indirectly related to job burnout 35 years later (1998). We used data (N = 511) from the Finnish Healthy Child study (1961-1963) to investigate the hypothesized relationships by employing structural equation modeling analyses. The results supported the hypothesized model in which both socioeconomic status and cognitive ability in adolescence (1961-1963) were positively associated with educational level (measured in 1985), which in turn was related to working conditions in early adulthood (1985). Furthermore, working conditions (1985) were associated with job burnout (1998) 13 years later. Moreover, adult education (1985) and skill variety (1985) mediated the associations between original socioeconomic status and cognitive ability, and burnout over a 35-year time period. The results suggest that socioeconomic, individual, and work-related resources may accumulate over the life course and may protect employees from job burnout. PMID:21728440

  10. Measurement of pelvic osteolytic lesions in follow-up studies after total hip arthroplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaneda, Benjamin; Tamez-Pena, Jose G.; Totterman, Saara; O'Keefe, Regis; Looney, R. John

    2006-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the plausibility of using volumetric computerized tomography to provide an accurate representation and measurement of volume for pelvic osteolytic lesions following total hip joint replacement. These studies have been performed manually (or computed-assisted) by expert radiologists with the disadvantage of poor reproducibility of the experiment. The purpose of this work is to minimize the effect of user interaction in these experiments by introducing Laplacian level set methods in the volume segmentation process and using temporal articulated registration in order to follow the evolution of a lesion over time. Laplacian level set methods reduce the inter and intra-observer variability by attaching the segmented contour to edges defined in the image while keeping smoothness. The registration process allows the information of the lesion from the first visit to be used in the segmentation process of the current visit. This work compares the automated results on 7 volunteers versus the volume measured manually. Results have shown that the proposed technique is able to track osteolytic lesions and detect changes in volume over time. Intra-reader and inter-observer variabilities were reduced.

  11. Prospective study of treatment outcome of implant retained mandibular overdenture: Two years follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Vimal; Kumar, Dinesh; Legha, V. S.; Arun Kumar, K. V.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the treatment outcome of immediately loaded Implants in the interforaminal region of anterior mandible. Materials and Methods: A total of 15 completely edentulous patients aged between 50 and 70 years were selected satisfying certain inclusion and exclusion criteria. Two implants were placed in 33 and 43 region (B and D location) and the implants were loaded immediately by mandibular overdenture retained with O-ring attachments. The implants were evaluated for various clinical parameters at 6 months, 1 year, 1.5 years, and 2 years intervals after initial placement. Results: There was increased marginal bone loss around implants during the 1st year after that the bone loss was insignificant. Clinical stability of immediately loaded implants was lower initially for 6 months, but improved by the end of 1st year. Survival rate for immediately loaded implants was 96.6% at the end of the period of study. Conclusion: Immediate loading of interforaminal mandibular implants demonstrated a highly acceptable clinical success at the end of 2 years. However, initially the marginal bone level and clinical stability were significantly lower which showed improvement with time. PMID:24963237

  12. The effects on hearing from portable cassette players: A follow-up study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellström, P. A.

    1991-12-01

    The high-frequency hearing loss (3-8 kHz) in 230 male and 238 female subjects (age 16) was compared concerning their habits of listening to portable cassette players (PCPs). In the group that listened to PCPs daily, we found fewer subjects with high-frequency hearing loss compared to the group that never listened to PCPs. In a temporary threshold shift (TTS) study, three groups of subjects with different listening habits to music were exposed to {1}/{3} octave band noise (2 kHz). These groups participated in a TTS study on another occasion, on which they listened to music from PCPs at a high but comfortable level for 1 hour. Together with the music exposure, the sound pressure level ( SPL) was measured in the external auditory canal with a probe-provided mini-microphone (MMP). There was no significant difference in TTS between groups from the noise exposure. There were significant differences in listening levels and in the resulting TTS between groups. The noise exposure resulted in significantly higher TTS than the music exposure at comparable exposure levels.

  13. Anxiety and depression in patients with head and neck cancer: 6-month follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yi-Shan; Lin, Pao-Yen; Chien, Chih-Yen; Fang, Fu-Min; Chiu, Nien-Mu; Hung, Chi-Fa; Lee, Yu; Chong, Mian-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess psychiatric morbidities of patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) in a prospective study at pretreatment, and 3 and 6 months after treatment, and to compare their health-related quality of life (HRQL) between those with and without depressive disorders (depression). Materials and methods Patients with newly diagnosed HNC from a tertiary hospital were recruited into the study. They were assessed for psychiatric morbidities using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. Their HRQL was simultaneously evaluated using the quality of life questionnaire of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer with a specific module for head and neck cancer; and depressed and nondepressed HNC patients were compared by using the generalized mixed-effect model for repeated measurements. Results A total of 106 patients were recruited into this study. High rates of anxiety were found at pretreatment, but steadily declined over time (from 27.3% to 6.4%, and later 3.3%). A skew pattern of depression was observed, with prevalence rates from 8.5% at pretreatment to 24.5% and 14% at 3 and 6 months, respectively, after treatment. We found that loss of sense (P=0.001), loss of speech (P<0.001), low libido (P=0.001), dry mouth (P<0.001), and weight loss (P=0.001) were related to depression over time. The depressed patients had a higher consumption of painkillers (P=0.001) and nutrition supplements (P<0.001). The results showed that depression was predicted by sticky saliva (P<0.001) and trouble with social contact (P<0.001) at 3 months, and trouble with social eating (P<0.001) at 6 months. Conclusion Patients with HNC experienced different changes in anxiety and depression in the first 6 months of treatment. Dysfunction in salivation, problems with eating, and problems with social contacts were major risk factors for depression. PMID:27175080

  14. Mineral trioxide aggregate as pulp capping agent for primary teeth pulpotomy: 2 year follow up study.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Priya; Konde, Sapna; Mathew, Somy; Sugnani, Sony

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clinically and radiographically evaluate Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) as an agent for pulpotomy in primary teeth and to compare it with that of formocresol (FC) pulpotomy. Nineteen children between the ages of 6 to 8 years with 40 carious primary molars were treated with pulpotomy using either FC or MTA. All the molars were evaluated clinically and radiographically at regular intervals over a twenty four month period. The observations were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Eighty five percent success was observed with FC pulpotomy whereas MTA showed 95% success. MTA showed a higher clinical and radiographic success rate than FC. MTA may be a favorable material for pulpotomy in primary teeth whose pulps have been compromised by a carious or mechanical pulp exposure. PMID:19725237

  15. Mood and cognition after electrical injury: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Aase, Darrin M; Fink, Joseph W; Lee, Raphael C; Kelley, Kathleen M; Pliskin, Neil H

    2014-03-01

    Individuals who have experienced an electrical injury have been reported to demonstrate both acute and delayed cognitive and psychiatric symptoms. The present study assessed 20 electrically injured patients who underwent neuropsychological evaluations twice following their injury. Time since injury, time between assessments, and longitudinal mood changes were evaluated for their potential impact on simple and complex attention outcomes. As an overall group, there was little change over time from low average to average baseline attention/concentration performance. However, results indicated that longitudinal increases in depressive symptoms were consistently associated with poorer performance on a measure of simple and complex attention. Loss of consciousness, litigation status, baseline injury status (acute vs. post-acute), and time between evaluations were not significant predictors of changes in cognitive performance. Implications for the treatment of comorbid psychiatric issues and for future research on victims of electrical trauma are discussed. PMID:24395352

  16. The impact of ectopic pregnancy: a 16-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lasker, Judith N; Toedter, Lori J

    2003-03-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is a potentially life-threatening event that represents the loss of a pregnancy and also may have longer-term consequences for fertility. Despite this triple threat to a woman's well-being, almost no systematic research exists on the psychological impact of ectopic pregnancy. We sought to reinterview 18 women who had been interviewed 2 months following an ectopic pregnancy as part of a longitudinal study of pregnancy loss 16 years previously. Thirteen of these women responded to questions about the long-term impact of the ectopic pregnancy on their lives in the intervening years. For many of the women, the ectopic pregnancy was a traumatic experience that impaired their fertility, strained their marriages, and led to a crisis of faith. Yet, despite the trauma of the event, overall the women found ways to interpret it positively and to use it as a source of meaning in their lives. PMID:12746012

  17. Apical Closure of Nonvital Permanent Teeth: 15 Months Follow-up Study of Four Cases

    PubMed Central

    Umashetty, Girish; Patil, Basanagouda; Rao, Nandan; Ajgaonkar, Nishant

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining a complete seal of the root canal system is a major problem in performing root canal treatment in nonvital teeth with incomplete root development and wide open apices. The aim was to study apexification using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), clinically and radiographically over a period of 15 months. MTA was used in four cases of teeth with incomplete root development in order to achieve an apical seal and the remaining canal was obturated with gutta-percha. Clinical and radiographic assessments of teeth were done. The clinical and radiographic results indicated that apexification procedure was predictable by using MTA. The total number of patients’ visits and the total time duration required to obtain an apical barrier using MTA was markedly less than that of conventional techniques using calcium hydroxide. PMID:26028910

  18. Thymomas associated with pure red cell aplasia. Histologic and follow-up studies.

    PubMed

    Masaoka, A; Hashimoto, T; Shibata, K; Yamakawa, Y; Nakamae, K; Iizuka, M

    1989-11-01

    Seventeen cases of pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) with thymoma were studied clinically, histologically, and immunologically. Two cases were associated with myasthenia gravis (MG), and three with hypogammaglobulinemia. Coombs test and antinucleus antibody test were positive in five cases. All thymomas were spindle cell types, and the adjacent thymuses had no germinal center, but showed epithelial clusters frequently. All patients, except one whose tumor was unresectable, had thymo-thymomectomy. The operation was effective in six cases (37.5%), and the effects were not different between two operative procedures (simple and extended thymectomy). Myasthenic symptoms in two patients remitted after the operation, but effects on hypogammaglobulinemia were conincident with those on PRCA. PMID:2507126

  19. Microfracture in the hip: a matched-control study with average 3-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lodhia, Parth; Gui, Chengcheng; Chandrasekaran, Sivashankar; Suarez-Ahedo, Carlos; Vemula, S Pavan; Domb, Benjamin G

    2015-12-01

    There is a paucity of literature regarding microfracture surgery in the hip. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes in patients undergoing hip arthroscopy predominantly for labral tears with focal full thickness chondral damage on the acetabulum or femoral head treated with microfracture and a matched control group that did not have focal full thickness chondral damage. A prospective matched-control study was performed examining four patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores: modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), non-arthritic hip score, Hip Outcome Score-Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL), and Hip Outcome Score-Sports Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS) at minimum 2 years post-operatively between 35 patients undergoing microfracture for chondral defects during hip arthroscopy and 70 patients in a control group that did not have chondral defects. The patients were matched based on gender, age within 7 years, Workman's compensation claim, labral treatment and acetabular crossover percentage less than or greater than 20. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in PRO scores preoperatively between the groups. Both groups demonstrated significant improvement (P < 0.05) in all post-operative PRO scores at all time points. There was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in post-operative PRO scores between the microfracture and control groups, except for HOS-ADL and the visual analog scale (VAS) score, both of which were superior in the control group (P < 0.05). Patient satisfaction was 6.9 for the microfracture group and 7.7 for the control group (P > 0.05). Arthroscopic microfracture of the hip during treatment of labral tears results in favorable outcomes that are similar to the results arthroscopic treatment of labral tears in patients without full thickness chondral damage. PMID:27011867

  20. Comparative clinical study of the effectiveness of different dental bleaching methods - two year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    MONDELLI, Rafael Francisco Lia; de AZEVEDO, Juliana Felipi David e Góes; FRANCISCONI, Ana Carolina; de ALMEIDA, Cristiane Machado; ISHIKIRIAMA, Sérgio Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated color change, stability, and tooth sensitivity in patients submitted to different bleaching techniques. Material and methods In this study, 48 patients were divided into five groups. A half-mouth design was conducted to compare two in-office bleaching techniques (with and without light activation): G1: 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) (Lase Peroxide - DMC Equipments, São Carlos, SP, Brazil) + hybrid light (HL) (LED/Diode Laser, Whitening Lase II DMC Equipments, São Carlos, SP, Brazil); G2: 35% HP; G3: 38% HP (X-traBoost - Ultradent, South Jordan UT, USA) + HL; G4: 38% HP; and G5: 15% carbamide peroxide (CP) (Opalescence PF - Ultradent, South Jordan UT, USA). For G1 and G3, HP was applied on the enamel surface for 3 consecutive applications activated by HL. Each application included 3x3' HL activations with 1' between each interval; for G2 and G4, HP was applied 3x15' with 15' between intervals; and for G5, 15% CP was applied for 120'/10 days at home. A spectrophotometer was used to measure color change before the treatment and after 24 h, 1 week, 1, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. A VAS questionnaire was used to evaluate tooth sensitivity before the treatment, immediately following treatment, 24 h after and finally 1 week after. Results Statistical analysis did not reveal any significant differences between in-office bleaching with or without HL activation related to effectiveness; nevertheless the time required was less with HL. Statistical differences were observed between the results after 24 h, 1 week and 1, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months (intergroup). Immediately, in-office bleaching increased tooth sensitivity. The groups activated with HL required less application time with gel. Conclusion All techniques and bleaching agents used were effective and demonstrated similar behaviors. PMID:23032205

  1. Cytogenetic effects of radioiodine therapy: a 20-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Gordon K; Khvostunov, Igor K; Gregoire, Eric; Barquinero, Joan-Francesc; Shi, Lin; Tashiro, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cytogenetic data in a patient before and after treatment with radioiodine to evaluate the assays in the context of biological dosimetry. We studied a 34-year-old male patient who underwent a total thyroidectomy followed by ablation therapy with (131)I (19.28 GBq) for a papillary thyroid carcinoma. The patient provided blood samples before treatment and then serial samples at monthly intervals during the first year period and quarterly intervals for 5 years and finally 20 years after treatment. A micronucleus assay, dicentric assay, FISH method and G-banding were used to detect and measure DNA damage in circulating peripheral blood lymphocytes of the patient. The results showed that radiation-induced cytogenetic effects persisted for many years after treatment as shown by elevated micronuclei and chromosome aberrations as a result of exposure to (131)I. At 5 years after treatment, the micronucleus count was tenfold higher than the pre-exposure frequency. Shortly after the treatment, micronucleus counts produced a dose estimate of 0.47 ± 0.09 Gy. The dose to the patient evaluated retrospectively using FISH-measured translocations was 0.70 ± 0.16 Gy. Overall, our results show that the micronucleus assay is a retrospective biomarker of low-dose radiation exposure. However, this method is not able to determine local dose to the target tissue which in this case was any residual thyroid cells plus metastases of thyroidal origin. PMID:27015828

  2. Late-Emerging and Resolving Dyslexia: A Follow-Up Study from Age 3 to 14.

    PubMed

    Torppa, Minna; Eklund, Kenneth; van Bergen, Elsje; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2015-10-01

    This study focuses on the stability of dyslexia status from Grade 2 to Grade 8 in four groups: (a) no dyslexia in either grade (no-dyslexia, n = 127); (b) no dyslexia in Grade 2 but dyslexia in Grade 8 (late-emerging, n = 18); (c) dyslexia in Grade 2 but not in Grade 8 (resolving, n = 15); and (d) dyslexia in both grades (persistent-dyslexia, n = 22). We examined group differences from age 3.5 to age 14 in (a) reading, vocabulary, phonology, letter knowledge, rapid naming, IQ, verbal memory; (b) familial and environmental risk and supportive factors; and (c) parental skills in reading, phonology, rapid naming, verbal memory, and vocabulary. Our findings showed group differences both in reading and cognitive skills of children as well as their parents. Parental education, book-reading frequency, and children's IQ, however, did not differentiate the groups. The children in the persistent-dyslexia group exhibited widespread language and cognitive deficits across development. Those in the resolving group had problems in language and cognitive skills only prior to school entry. In the late-emerging group, children showed clearly compromised rapid naming. Additionally, their parents had the most severe difficulties in rapid naming, a finding that suggests strong genetic liability. The findings show instability in the diagnosis of dyslexia. The members of the late-emerging group did not have a distinct early cognitive profile, so late-emerging dyslexia appears difficult to predict. Indeed, these children are at risk of not being identified and not receiving required support. This study suggests the need for continued monitoring of children's progress in literacy after the early school years. PMID:25772426

  3. Microfracture in the hip: a matched-control study with average 3-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Lodhia, Parth; Gui, Chengcheng; Chandrasekaran, Sivashankar; Suarez-Ahedo, Carlos; Vemula, S. Pavan; Domb, Benjamin G.

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of literature regarding microfracture surgery in the hip. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes in patients undergoing hip arthroscopy predominantly for labral tears with focal full thickness chondral damage on the acetabulum or femoral head treated with microfracture and a matched control group that did not have focal full thickness chondral damage. A prospective matched-control study was performed examining four patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores: modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), non-arthritic hip score, Hip Outcome Score—Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL), and Hip Outcome Score—Sports Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS) at minimum 2 years post-operatively between 35 patients undergoing microfracture for chondral defects during hip arthroscopy and 70 patients in a control group that did not have chondral defects. The patients were matched based on gender, age within 7 years, Workman’s compensation claim, labral treatment and acetabular crossover percentage less than or greater than 20. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in PRO scores preoperatively between the groups. Both groups demonstrated significant improvement (P < 0.05) in all post-operative PRO scores at all time points. There was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in post-operative PRO scores between the microfracture and control groups, except for HOS-ADL and the visual analog scale (VAS) score, both of which were superior in the control group (P < 0.05). Patient satisfaction was 6.9 for the microfracture group and 7.7 for the control group (P > 0.05). Arthroscopic microfracture of the hip during treatment of labral tears results in favorable outcomes that are similar to the results arthroscopic treatment of labral tears in patients without full thickness chondral damage. PMID:27011867

  4. Hygienic and health characteristics of donkey milk during a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Pilla, Rachel; Daprà, Valentina; Zecconi, Alfonso; Piccinini, Renata

    2010-11-01

    For its characteristics, donkey milk has been proposed as an alternative to goat or artificial milk to feed allergic infants. Therefore, it is important to increase our knowledge on health and immunological characteristics of donkey milk. Ten donkeys, bred as companion animals, were enrolled in this study and sampled once a month, for eight months. Milk (10 ml) was collected from each half udder for somatic cell count (SCC), bacteriological analysis and total bacteria count (TBC). The major pathogens were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, and Staphylococcus aureus isolates were further genotyped by nanoarray analysis. Whey lysozyme and NAGase (NAG) activities were also assessed. Overall, 101 half-udder milk samples were taken. They showed very low values of TBC (<250 cfu/ml) and SCC (<50 000 cells/ml) and a minor prevalence of pathogens: Staph. aureus was isolated only from 5 milk samples (3 animals), Streptococcus equi from 2 samples and Str. equisimilis from a single sample. All the isolates were sensitive to all antibiotic classes used in veterinary medicine. None of the Staph. aureus isolates were shown to harbour genes coding for any enterotoxin, toxic-shock syndrome toxin or antibiotic resistance. Lysozyme levels were always very high (4000-5000 U/ml), while NAG values were mostly low (<50 U/ml), out of the last part of lactation. The results of this study confirmed the low prevalence of intramammary infections in donkey and the absence of food-borne pathogens, suggesting that donkey milk could be a safe food, if the mammary gland is healthy and the animals are milked in proper hygienic conditions. PMID:20883563

  5. Hepatobiliary complications of alveolar echinococcosis: A long-term follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Graeter, Tilmann; Ehing, Franziska; Oeztuerk, Suemeyra; Mason, Richard Andrew; Haenle, Mark Martin; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Seufferlein, Thomas; Gruener, Beate

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the long-term hepatobiliary complications of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) and treatment options using interventional methods. METHODS: Included in the study were 35 patients with AE enrolled in the Echinococcus Multilocularis Data Bank of the University Hospital of Ulm. Patients underwent endoscopic intervention for treatment of hepatobiliary complications between 1979 and 2012. Patients’ epidemiologic data, clinical symptoms, and indications for the intervention, the type of intervention and any additional procedures, hepatic laboratory parameters (pre- and post-intervention), medication and surgical treatment (pre- and post-intervention), as well as complications associated with the intervention and patients‘ subsequent clinical courses were analyzed. In order to compare patients with AE with and without history of intervention, data from an additional 322 patients with AE who had not experienced hepatobiliary complications and had not undergone endoscopic intervention were retrieved and analyzed. RESULTS: Included in the study were 22 male and 13 female patients whose average age at first diagnosis was 48.1 years and 52.7 years at the time of intervention. The average time elapsed between first diagnosis and onset of hepatobiliary complications was 3.7 years. The most common symptoms were jaundice, abdominal pains, and weight loss. The number of interventions per patient ranged from one to ten. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was most frequently performed in combination with stent placement (82.9%), followed by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage (31.4%) and ERCP without stent placement (22.9%). In 14.3% of cases, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography was performed. A total of eight patients received a biliary stent. A comparison of biochemical hepatic function parameters at first diagnosis between patients who had or had not undergone intervention revealed that these were significantly elevated in six patients who had undergone intervention. Complications (cholangitis, pancreatitis) occurred in six patients during and in 12 patients following the intervention. The average survival following onset of hepatobiliary complications was 8.8 years. CONCLUSION: Hepatobiliary complications occur in about 10% of patients. A significant increase in hepatic transaminase concentrations facilitates the diagnosis. Interventional methods represent viable management options. PMID:25945006

  6. Adult student satisfaction in an accelerated RN-to-BSN program: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Boylston, Mary T; Jackson, Christina

    2008-01-01

    This mixed-method study revealed accelerated RN-to-BSN (bachelor of science in nursing) students' levels of satisfaction with a wide range of college services in a small university. Building on seminal research on the topic [Boylston, M. T., Peters, M. A., & Lacey, M. (2004). Adult student satisfaction in traditional and accelerated RN-to-BSN programs. Journal of Professional Nursing, 20, 23-32.], the Noel-Levitz Adult Student Priorities Survey (ASPS) and qualitative interview data revealed primary factors involved in nontraditional (adult) accelerated RN-to-BSN student satisfaction. The ASPS assesses both satisfaction with and importance of the following factors: academic advising effectiveness, academic services, admissions and financial aid effectiveness, campus climate, instructional effectiveness, registration effectiveness, safety and security, and service excellence. Of these factors, participants considered instructional effectiveness and academic advising effectiveness as most important and concomitantly gave high satisfaction ratings to each. In contrast, convenience of the bookstore, counseling services, vending machines, and computer laboratories were given low importance ratings. The participants cited convenience as a strong marketing factor. Loss of financial aid or family crisis was given as a reason for withdrawal and, for most students, would be the only reason for not completing the BSN program. Outcomes of this investigation may guide faculty, staff, and administrators in proactively creating an educational environment in which a nontraditional student can succeed. PMID:18804082

  7. [Religiosity and intensity of endogenous depression symptoms. A follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Zieba, A; Dudek, D; Wróbel, A; Jawor, M; Szymaczek, M

    1999-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine if the quality of remission in unipolar affective disorder correlates with patient's religiosity. We have investigated 63 patients who were hospitalised in the Department of Psychiatry CMUJ between 1991 and 1997. The quality of remission has been assessed by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RS), Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ), Hopelessness Scale (HS). Religiosity has been tested by the Scale of Individual Religiosity, and Religious Life Inventory. Patients were also assessed with the use of our own questionnaire, answering the following questions: 1. Do you believe?, 2. Does the disease influence the faith?, 3. Does your faith help in the disease?. Religiosity did not correlate with the quality of remission in depression in a statistically significant manner. There is only one statistically significant correlation: patients who answered positively the question number 3 (41 patients), have better remission. It is impossible to describe simple correlation between religiosity and remission in unipolar affective disorder. Patients who found their faith helpful have better remission. PMID:10786249

  8. Prenatal exposure to virilizing progestins: an adult follow-up study of twelve women.

    PubMed

    Money, J; Mathews, D

    1982-02-01

    Psychological data were collected on 12 young women, aged 16 to 27 years, with a history of prenatal progestin exposure. In 11 cases, this exposure had induced virilization of the external genitalia. The 12th woman was an anatomically unaffected sister of one of the other women. The sample was composed of 10 women reported on as children by Ehrhardt and Money (1967), Money and Ehrhardt, (1972) as well as two others who were added to this group because they conformed to the original selection criteria for the Money and Ehrhardt studies. Of the 12 women, 10 had completed high school; of these, 7 were in college, 2 were in graduate school, and was raising a family full-time. None of the 12 had a history of difficulty in establishing friendships or dating relationships. Despite childhood characterizations as "tomboys" and avid interest in high school sports, none of the women pursued sports as a career or major pastime. Because of difficulties in personally contacting all 12 women, data on erotic behavior are available for only 6. Only one of these 6, the youngest, reported no erotic experience, and the remaining 5 reported exclusively heterosexual erotic experience and imagery. PMID:7073470

  9. [Follow-up study of periodontal tissues around the abutment teeth in Konus telescope denture].

    PubMed

    Yoshie, H; Asazuma, Y; Hara, K; Simakura, M; Nakajima, T; Matuzaki, M; Kusakari, H

    1988-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the periodontal tissues around the 47 abutment teeth in patients with advanced periodontitis for 5 years maintenance periods. The periodontal and prosthetic treatment were carried out and 16 Konus telescope dentures were applied for 11 patients. During 5 years maintenance therapy, periodontal conditions were observed once a year assessing probing depth, attachment level, tooth mobility index, gingival index, marginal alveolar bone height, width of periodontal ligament and loss of lamina dura. The results showed that increase of probing depth in 0.61 mm and attachment loss in 0.78 mm were observed for 5 years. A slight gingival inflammation occurred and tooth mobility increased in some extent. Enlargement of periodontal ligament space and loss of lamina dura in 40% of abutment teeth were observed for 5 years. There were six decayed teeth, six teeth, from which a intracoronal crown was removed, and two extracted teeth in 47 abutment teeth. In conclusion, the periodontal tissues around abutment teeth in Konus telescope denture changed slightly at one year after denture placement, after which, the periodontal tissues were well maintained. PMID:3078004

  10. Natural Infection of Pregnant Cows with Schmallenberg Virus – A Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Schirrmeier, Horst; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV), an orthobunyavirus discovered in European livestock in late 2011 for the first time, causes premature or stillbirth and severe fetal malformation when cows and ewes are infected during pregnancy. Therefore, cattle of two holdings in the initially most affected area in Germany were closely monitored to describe the consequence for fetuses and newborn calves. Seventy-one calves whose mothers were naturally infected during the first five months of pregnancy were clinically, virologically, and serologically examined. One calve showed typical malformation, another one, born without visible abnormalities, was dead. Two cows aborted during the studied period; spleen and brain samples or meconium swabs were tested by real-time PCR, in none of the fetuses SBV-specific RNA was detectable and the tested fetal sera were negative in a commercially available antibody ELISA. In contrast, in nine clinically healthy calves high SBV-antibody titers were measurable before colostrum intake, and in meconium swabs of six of these animals viral RNA was present as well. The mothers of all nine seropositive calves were presumably infected between days 47 and 162 of gestation, which is within the critical timeframe for fetal infection suggested for SBV and related viruses. PMID:24853555

  11. Lung structure and function in elastase-treated rats: A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Szabari, M V; Tolnai, J; Maár, B A; Parameswaran, H; Bartolák-Suki, E; Suki, B; Hantos, Z

    2015-08-15

    Structural and functional longitudinal alterations of the lungs were followed in an emphysema model. Rats were treated with porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE, n=21) or saline (controls, C, n=19). Before the treatment and 3, 10, 21 and 105 days thereafter, absolute lung volumes (FRC, TLC and RV) and tissue mechanical parameters (elastance: H; damping: G) were determined. At 3, 21 and 105 days the lungs were fixed in subgroups of rats. From histological samples the equivalent diameter of airspaces (Dalv), elastin (Mec) and collagen densities were assessed. In the PPE group, FRC and RV were higher from 3 days after treatment compared to controls (p<0.001), while TLC exhibited a delayed increase. H and G decreased in the PPE group throughout the study (p<0.001). Higher Mec (p<0.001) and late-phase inflammation were observed at 105 days. We conclude that during the progression of emphysema, septal failures increase Dalv which decreases H; this reveals a strong structure-function relationship. PMID:25896285

  12. Papillary glioneuronal tumour: clinicopathological and biochemical study of one case with 7-year follow up.

    PubMed

    Bouvier-Labit, C; Daniel, L; Dufour, H; Grisoli, F; Figarella-Branger, D

    2000-03-01

    Among the mixed glioneuronal tumours, a new variant called papillary glioneuronal tumour has recently been delineated. A case occurring in a 23-year-old man is reported. The tumour was cystic with a mural nodule enhanced by gadolinium injection. It was located within the left parieto-occipital lobe. Surgical excision showed a greyish friable tumour with cystic areas. Histopathological examination revealed a pseudopapillary component comprising a single layer of regular cells, arranged around hyalinised vessels. These cells were immunoreactive with anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein and HNK1 antibodies. A neurocytoma-like component coexisted with round blind cells and focal fibrillary rosettes. These cells were immunostained by anti-neuron-specific enolase and anti-synaptophysin antibodies. Neither mitoses nor ganglioid cells were seen. HNK1, the three isoforms of NCAM, and the L1 adhesion molecule were detected by Western blot analysis. Ultrastructural study showed three different types of cells. The first contained gliofilaments, the second showed long processes with true synapses, and the third was poorly differentiated. However, all had identical nuclei and contained dense bodies. These findings suggest a common origin for the tumour cells derived from a bipotential neuroglial progenitor. As for other mature mixed neuroglial tumours, the prognosis is good. Our patient is free of disease 7 years after complete surgical treatment. PMID:10663977

  13. Sustainability of Key Maine Youth Overweight Collaborative Improvements: A Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Joan; O'Brien, Liam M.; Rogers, Victoria W.; Fanburg, Jonathan; Gortmaker, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Primary care is an opportune setting to contribute to obesity prevention and treatment. However, there is limited evidence for effective and sustainable interventions in primary care. The Maine Youth Overweight Collaborative (MYOC) successfully affected office systems, provider behavior, and patient experience. The current study evaluates the effect of MYOC on provider knowledge, beliefs, practices, patient experience, and office systems, in 2012, three years postintervention. Methods: A quasi-experimental field trial was used with all seven original MYOC intervention sites that participated in MYOC between 2004 and 2009 and two non-MYOC control sites. Data from immediately post-MYOC in 2009 served as the baseline comparison. Main outcome measures included rates of recording of BMI percentile in chart, weight classification, use of the 5210 behavioral screening tool, parental reports of counseling received on 5210 topics, and clinician reports of changes in knowledge, beliefs, and practices. Results: Many key MYOC improvements were sustained or improved 3 years postintervention and demonstrated improvements, as compared to control sites. Conclusion: In an environment where obesity has become a priority for healthcare providers and systems, we demonstrate sustainable improvements in clinical decision support and family management of risk behaviors within a primary-care–based approach to addressing overweight risk among children and youth. Some declines were observed for more-complex behavioral and system outcomes. Many opportunities for office system and provider improvements remain. PMID:25046206

  14. Neurotoxic sequelae of mercury exposure: an intervention and follow-up study in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Fillion, Myriam; Philibert, Aline; Mertens, Frédéric; Lemire, Mélanie; Passos, Carlos José Sousa; Frenette, Benoit; Guimarães, Jean Rémy Davée; Mergler, Donna

    2011-06-01

    Since 1995, the Caruso Project used an Ecosystem Approach to Human Health to examine mercury (Hg) exposure in fish-eating communities in the Brazilian Amazon and develop interventions to maximise nutrition from traditional diet and minimise toxic risk. In 1995, 2000 and 2006, this study followed fish consumption, Hg levels, and visual and motor functions in 31 villagers. Questionnaires gathered information on socio-demographics and diet. Hair Hg (H-Hg) levels were measured. Visual acuity, colour vision, manual dexterity and grip strength were assessed. Data was analysed using general linear models of repeated measures. Total fish consumption, similar in 1995 and 2000, decreased in 2006. Carnivorous fish consumption initially decreased and then remained stable, whereas non-carnivorous fish consumption first increased and then decreased. H-Hg declined from 17.6 to 7.8 μg/g. Visual functions showed a significant decrease over time, with those with H-Hg ≥ 20 μg/g in 1995 showing greater loss. Motor functions showed initial improvement and then returned to the 1995 performance level. Decrease in Hg exposure is attributed to the intervention and socio-economic changes in the village. While there may be a certain reversibility of motor deficits, visual capacities may decrease progressively with respect to exposure prior to the intervention. PMID:22160443

  15. Raynaud phenomenon and mortality: 20+ years of follow-up of the Charleston Heart Study cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nietert, Paul J; Shaftman, Stephanie R; Silver, Richard M; Wolf, Bethany J; Egan, Brent M; Hunt, Kelly J; Smith, Edwin A

    2015-01-01

    Background Raynaud phenomenon (RP) is a temporary vasoconstrictive condition that often manifests itself in the fingers in response to cold or stress. It often co-occurs with certain chronic diseases that impact mortality. Our objective was to determine whether RP has any independent association with survival. Methods From 1987–1989, a total of 830 participants of the Charleston Heart Study cohort completed an in-person RP screening questionnaire. Two definitions of RP were used: a broad definition that included both blanching (pallor) and cyanotic color changes and a narrow definition that included only blanching. All-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality were compared between subjects with and without RP using race-specific survival models that adjusted for age, sex, baseline CVD, and 10-year risk of coronary heart disease. Results Using the narrow RP definition, we identified a significant interaction between older age and the presence of RP on all-cause mortality. In the broad RP definition model, the presence of RP was not associated with CVD mortality among blacks; however, among whites, the presence of RP was associated with a 1.6-fold increase in the hazard associated with CVD-related death (hazard ratio: 1.55, 95% confidence interval: 1.10–2.20, P=0.013). Conclusion RP was independently associated with mortality among older adults in our cohort. Among whites, RP was associated with increased CVD-related death. It is possible that RP may be a sign of undiagnosed vascular disease. PMID:25678814

  16. Breast safety and efficacy of genistein aglycone for postmenopausal bone loss: a follow-up study.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Marini H; Bitto A; Altavilla D; Burnett BP; Polito F; Di Stefano V; Minutoli L; Atteritano M; Levy RM; D'Anna R; Frisina N; Mazzaferro S; Cancellieri F; Cannata ML; Corrado F; Frisina A; Adamo V; Lubrano C; Sansotta C; Marini R; Adamo EB; Squadrito F

    2008-12-01

    CONTEXT: Genistein aglycone improves bone metabolism in women. However, questions about the long-term safety of genistein on breast as well as its continued efficacy still remain.OBJECTIVE: We assessed the continued safety profile of genistein aglycone on breast and endometrium and its effects on bone after 3 yr of therapy.DESIGN: The parent study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 389 osteopenic, postmenopausal women for 24-months. Subsequently, a subcohort (138 patients) continued therapy for an additional year.PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Participants received 54 mg of genistein aglycone daily (n = 71) or placebo (n = 67). Both treatment arms received calcium and vitamin D(3) in therapeutic doses.MAIN OUTCOMES: Mammographic density was assessed at baseline, 24 and 36 months by visual classification scale and digitized quantification. BRCA1 and BRCA2, sister chromatid exchange, and endometrial thickness were also evaluated. Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density were also assessed. Secondary outcomes were biochemical levels of bone markers.RESULTS: After 36 months, genistein did not significantly change mammographic breast density or endometrial thickness, BRCA1 and BRCA2 expression was preserved, whereas sister chromatid exchange was reduced compared with placebo. Bone mineral density increases were greater with genistein for both femoral neck and lumbar spine compared to placebo. Genistein also significantly reduced pyridinoline, as well as serum carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide and soluble receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand while increasing bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, IGF-I, and osteoprotegerin levels. There were no differences in discomfort or adverse events between groups.CONCLUSIONS: After 3 yr of treatment, genistein exhibited a promising safety profile with positive effects on bone formation in a cohort of osteopenic, postmenopausal women.

  17. A new modified technique of laparoscopic needle catheter jejunostomy: a 2-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Peng; Zeng, Liping; Sun, Fenghao; An, Zhou; Li, Zhoubin; Hu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to establish a modified technique for performing laparoscopic needle catheter jejunostomy. Methods From May 2011 to October 2013, laparoscopic needle catheter jejunostomy was performed in 21 patients with esophageal cancer. During the procedure, jejunal inflation was performed via a percutaneous 20-gauge intravenous catheter to facilitate the subsequent puncture of the jejunal wall by the catheter needle. The success rate, procedure time, complications, and short-term outcomes were evaluated. Results All laparoscopic needle catheter jejunostomies were technically successful, with no perioperative mortality or conversion to a laparotomy. The operation required a mean time of 51.4±14.2 (range 27–80) minutes, and operative bleeding range was 5–20 mL. There was one reoperation required for one patient on postoperative day 5, because the feeding tube was accidentally pulled out during sleep, by patient himself, and the second laparoscopic jejunostomy for this patient was performed successfully. One patient had puncture site pain and was successfully treated with oral analgesics. Other complications, such as gastrointestinal bleeding, intestinal perforation, intestinal obstruction, tube dysfunction, pericatheter leakage, and infection at the skin insertion site, were not observed. The 30-day mortality rate was 4.8% (one out of 21), which was not attributed to the procedure. Enteral nutrition was gradually administered 24–48 hours after operation. Conclusion The novel modified technique of laparoscopic needle catheter jejunostomy is a technically feasible, with a high technical success rate and low complication rate. Its specific advantage is simplicity and safety, and this modified approach can be considered for routine clinical use after long-term outcome evaluation. PMID:26869794

  18. Human-Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) reciprocity: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Péron, Franck; Thornburg, Luke; Thornberg, Luke; Gross, Brya; Gray, Suzanne; Pepperberg, Irene M

    2014-07-01

    In a previous study (Péron et al. in Anim Cogn, doi: 10.1007/s10071-012.05640 , 2012), Grey parrots, working in dyads, took turns choosing one of four differently coloured cups with differing outcomes: empty (null, non-rewarding), selfish (keeping reward for oneself), share (sharing a divisible reward), or giving (donating reward to other). When the dyads involved three humans with different specific intentions (selfish, giving, or copying the bird's behaviour), birds' responses only tended towards consistency with human behaviour. Our dominant bird was willing to share a reward with a human who was willing to give up her reward, was selfish with the selfish human, and tended towards sharing with the copycat human; our subordinate bird tended slightly towards increased sharing with the generous human and selfishness with the selfish human, but did not clearly mirror the behaviour of the copycat. We theorized that the birds' inability to understand the copycat condition fully-that they could potentially maximize reward by choosing to share-was a consequence of their viewing the copycat's behaviour as erratic compared with the consistently selfish or giving humans and thus not realizing that they were indeed being mirrored. We suggested that copycat trials subsequently be performed as a separate experiment, without being contrasted with trials in which humans acted consistently, in order to determine if results might have differed. We have now performed that experiment, and shown that at least one Grey parrot--our dominant--responded in a manner suggesting that he deduced the appropriate contingencies. PMID:24474186

  19. Cognitive performance in recreational ecstasy polydrug users: a two-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    de Sola Llopis, S; Miguelez-Pan, M; Pea-Casanova, J; Poudevida, S; Farr, M; Pacifici, R; Bhm, P; Abanades, S; Verdejo Garca, A; Langohr, K; Zuccaro, P; de la Torre, R

    2008-07-01

    There is important preclinical evidence of long lasting neurotoxic and selective effects of ecstasy MDMA on serotonin systems in non-human primates. In humans long-term recreational use of ecstasy has been mainly associated with learning and memory impairments. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuropsychological profile associated with ecstasy use within recreational polydrug users, and describe the cognitive changes related to maintained or variable ecstasy use along a two years period. We administered cognitive measures of attention, executive functions, memory and learning to three groups of participants: 37 current polydrug users with regular consumption of ecstasy and cannabis, 23 current cannabis users and 34 non-users free of illicit drugs. Four cognitive assessments were conducted during two years. At baseline, ecstasy polydrug users showed significantly poorer performance than cannabis users and non-drug using controls in a measure of semantic word fluency. When ecstasy users were classified according to lifetime use of ecstasy, the more severe users (more than 100 tablets) showed additional deficits on episodic memory. After two years ecstasy users showed persistent deficits on verbal fluency, working memory and processing speed. These findings should be interpreted with caution, since the possibility of premorbid group differences cannot be entirely excluded. Our findings support that ecstasy use, or ecstasy/cannabis synergic effects, are responsible for the sub-clinical deficits observed in ecstasy polydrug users, and provides additional evidence for long-term cognitive impairment owing to ecstasy consumption in the context of polydrug use. PMID:18208910

  20. Predictors for health improvement in patients with fibromyalgia: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    van Eijk-Hustings, Yvonne; Kroese, Mariëlle; Boonen, Annelies; Bessems-Beks, Monique; Landewé, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) has a high impact on all aspects of health. The effect from interventions is usually small and characterized by uncertainty. Better insight in predictors for improved health is essential. The present study aimed to understand predictors for patient global impression of change and changes in overall health. Data from a longitudinal cohort of recently diagnosed FM patients (n = 203) were used. Within this cohort, patients were pre-randomized to either a multidisciplinary (n = 108) or an, aerobic exercise (n = 47) program, or usual care (n = 48). Only a limited number of patients started with the programs (n = 86) or participated fully, i.e., attended >70 % of the scheduled sessions (n = 68). Patients completed questionnaires covering all components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) bio-psycho-social model of health, which was used as a framework to structure potential predictors. Principal component analysis was used to reduce the number of potential predictors. Regression analyses were used to explore associations with the outcome variables. Principal component analysis yielded five factors representing areas that covered different ICF components and chapters. "Being employed" and "full participation in a program" were independently associated with a better global impression of change. A longer duration of FM-related symptoms and more limitations in physical areas of body functions were independently associated with a worse impression of overall health. Higher levels of perceived limitations in physical and mental activities were associated with "starting to participate in a program" and with "full participation in a program." Recently diagnosed FM patients that report fewer physical limitations may experience more improvement in health if they are at work and have a positive attitude towards participating in an offered health-care intervention. These findings give support to an active rather than to a care-avoiding attitude of health-care workers in their contacts to these patients. PMID:23975362

  1. Blackfoot disease in Taiwan: a 30-year follow-up study

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, W.P.

    1989-06-01

    Blackfoot disease is an endemic peripheral vascular disease found among the inhabitants of a limited area on the southwest coast of Taiwan, where artesian well water with a high concentration of arsenic has been used for more than eighty years. The natural history of blackfoot disease, based on a prospective study of 1,300 patients, is presented. The overall male/female ratio was 1.5:1. Although the clinical onset was usually insidious, it may be quite sudden and almost always begins with numbness or coldness in one or more extremities, usually the feet. Ultimately, rest pain develops and progresses to gangrene. In this series, 68% of the patients underwent spontaneous or operative amputation, and the reamputation rate was 23.3%. Lower extremity involvement in blackfoot disease was observed in 97.7% of the cases. The average annual rate for major amputation was 3.81 per 100 patient-years. The factors influencing the prognosis, such as amputation in relation to age and disease onset, are analyzed. The case fatality rate was 66.5% during thirty years; 44% of these were cardiovascular deaths. The annual death rate was 4.84 per 100 patient-years. Other reported case fatality rates for vascular insufficiency are reviewed. A dose-response relationship between blackfoot disease and the duration of water intake was also noted. The survival rates after the onset of blackfoot disease were: five years, 76.0%; ten years, 59.5%; twenty years, 38.2%; thirty years, 28.6%. The 50% survival point was 13.5 years after onset of the disease.

  2. Mortality rates by occupation in Korea: a nationwide, 13-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Chung, Yun Kyung; Kang, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Eun-A

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study sought to identify inequalities in cause-specific mortality across different occupational groups in Korea. Methods The cohort included Korean workers enrolled in the national employment insurance programme between 1995 and 2000. Mortality was determined by matching death between 1995 and 2008 according to a nationwide registry of the Korea National Statistical Office. The cohort was divided into nine occupational groups according to the Korean Standard Occupational Classification (KSOC). Age-standardised mortality rates of each subcohort were calculated. Results The highest age-standardised mortality rate was identified in KSOC 6 (agricultural, forestry and fishery workers; male (M): 563.0 per 100 000, female (F): 206.0 per 100 000), followed by KSOC 9 (elementary occupations; M: 499.0, F: 163.4) and KSOC 8 (plant, machine operators and assemblers; M: 380.3, F: 157.8). The lowest rate occurred in KSOC 2 (professionals and related workers; M: 209.1, F: 93.3). Differences in mortality rates between KSOC 2 and KSOC 9 (M: 289.9, F: 70.1) and the rate ratio of KSCO9 to KSCO2 (M: 2.39, F: 1.75) were higher in men. The most prominent mortality rate difference was observed in external causes of death (M: 96.9, F: 21.6) and liver disease in men (38.3 per 100 000). Mental disease showed the highest rate ratio (M: 6.31, F: 13.00). Conclusions Substantial differences in mortality rates by occupation were identified. Main causes of death were injury, suicide and male liver disease. Development of policies to support occupations linked with a lower socioeconomic position should be prioritised. PMID:26920855

  3. Neospora caninum infection in dogs from Southern Romania: coproparasitological study and serological follow-up.

    PubMed

    Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Enachescu, Violeta; Ionita, Mariana

    2013-04-01

    Neospora caninum is an important cause of bovine abortion worldwide for which dogs are the definitive host. The present study was aimed at investigating the exposure to N. caninum infection based on lifestyle categories of dogs from southern Romania. For this purpose, randomly selected rural and urban dogs were examined for fecal N. caninum -like oocysts and were serologically tested for the presence of anti- N. caninum IgG antibodies. Of the 386 dog fecal samples, N. caninum -like oocysts were found in 19 (4.9%; 95% CI = 2.89-7.59) as follows: rural guard dogs (4/41; 9.8%), cattle farm dogs (6/118; 5.1%), and stray dogs (9/192; 4.7%) (P > 0.05). None of the 35 urban guard dogs was positive. Serum samples (n = 84) from all of the 19 N. caninum -like oocysts-positive dogs and another 65 randomly selected canines (15 cattle farm dogs, 21 rural guard dogs, and 29 strays) were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). None of these dogs exhibited any symptoms of clinical neosporosis. However, IgG antibodies against N. caninum were detected in 17/84 (20.2%) (P < 0.05) serum samples. The highest prevalence was registered in cattle farm dogs (38.1%) followed by strays (18.4%) and rural guard dogs (8.0%). The seropositivity to N. caninum increased significantly with age (P < 0.05), reaching 66.7% in dogs >10 yr of age, suggesting post-natal exposure to N. caninum is the predominant mechanism of N. caninum recruitment. PMID:22931541

  4. Predictors of Risk-based Medical Follow-up: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study1

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Jeanne R.; Wall, Melanie; Salkowski, Nicholas; Mitby, Pauline; Kawashima, Toana; Yeazel, Mark W.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Robison, Leslie L.; Mertens, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To conduct an intervention study designed to assess the effectiveness of using a newsletter to increase medical follow-up in pediatric cancer survivors at risk of selected treatment complications. Methods Survivors participating in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study who were at least 25 years of age and at risk of cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, or osteoporosis related to previous cancer treatment were randomly assigned to receive a newsletter featuring brief health risk information or a newsletter including an insert providing more comprehensive health risk information. A follow-up survey distributed 24 months after the newsletter intervention assessed predictors of medical follow-up. Results Overall there were no differences found among the groups in terms of access to a treatment summary, medical follow-up, discussion of childhood cancer health risks, and medical screening for the targeted health behaviors. One exception, indicating borderline significance was that women at risk for osteoporosis who received the newsletter insert were more likely to have discussed their risk with a doctor than those who only received the brief information (10.1% vs. 4.0% p=0.05). Discussion of breast cancer (OR=2.14; 95% CI=1.73–2.65), heart disease (OR=5.54; 95% CI=4.67–6.57) and osteoporosis (OR=7.87; 95% CI=6.34–9.78) risk with physician significantly predicted report of undergoing screening for targeted behavior in previous 2 years as did physician access to treatment summary. Conclusions More detailed content in a newsletter had minimal effect on recommended screening. However, survivor’s discussion of cancer-related risks with one’s doctor significantly influenced participation in health screening. These results highlight the integral role of communication in health behavior. PMID:23568405

  5. Costs of remote monitoring vs. ambulatory follow-ups of implanted cardioverter defibrillators in the randomized ECOST study

    PubMed Central

    Guédon-Moreau, Laurence; Lacroix, Dominique; Sadoul, Nicolas; Clémenty, Jacques; Kouakam, Claude; Hermida, Jean-Sylvain; Aliot, Etienne; Kacet, Salem

    2014-01-01

    Aims The Effectiveness and Cost of ICD follow-up Schedule with Telecardiology (ECOST) trial evaluated prospectively the economic impact of long-term remote monitoring (RM) of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). Methods and results The analysis included 310 patients randomly assigned to RM (active group) vs. ambulatory follow-ups (control group). Patients in the active group were seen once a year unless the system reported an event mandating an ambulatory visit, while patients in the control group were seen in the ambulatory department every 6 months. The costs of each follow-up strategy were compared, using the actual billing documents issued by the French health insurance system, including costs of (i) (a) ICD-related ambulatory visits and transportation, (b) other ambulatory visits, (c) cardiovascular treatments and procedures, and (ii) hospitalizations for the management of cardiovascular events. The ICD and RM system costs were calculated on the basis of the device remaining longevity at the end of the study. The characteristics of the study groups were similar. Over a follow-up of 27 months, the mean non-hospital costs per patient-year were €1695 ± 1131 in the active, vs. €1952 ± 1023 in the control group (P = 0.04), a €257 difference mainly due to device management. The hospitalization costs per patient-year were €2829 ± 6382 and €3549 ± 9714 in the active and control groups, respectively (P = 0.46). Adding the ICD to the non-hospital costs, the savings were €494 (P = 0.005) or, when the monitoring system was included, €315 (P = 0.05) per patient-year. Conclusion From the French health insurance perspective, the remote management of ICD patients is cost saving. Clinical trials registration NCT00989417, www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:24614572

  6. Photorefractive keratectomy in patients with mild to moderate stable keratoconus: a five-year prospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Chelala, Elias; Rami, Hala El; Dirani, Ali; Fadlallah, Ali; Fakhoury, Omar; Warrak, Elias

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual outcome of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in patients with mild to moderate stable keratoconus and to assess the risk of progression of the disease after the excimer laser procedure. Methods In this prospective study, carried out at the Clemenceau Medical Center, an affiliate of Johns Hopkins International, in Beirut, Lebanon, 119 eyes from 72 patients with grade 1–2 keratoconus (Amsler–Krumeich classification) underwent PRK. Forty-seven patients had both eyes treated and 25 patients had one eye treated. The procedure was done using the Wavelight Eye Q Excimer laser. Uncorrected and best-corrected visual acuity, corneal topography, and pachymetry were assessed before the procedure and 3, 6, 12, 36, and 60 months after the procedure. Results Mean uncorrected visual acuity showed a statistically significant improvement (P < 0.05) at one, 3, and 5 years follow-up. One hundred and seventeen eyes (98.3%) showed no progression while two eyes (1.7%) showed progression of the disease at 5 years follow-up, as documented by corneal topography and pachymetry. These two eyes were treated with corneal collagen crosslinking. Conclusion PRK in mild to moderate keratoconus is a safe and effective procedure for improving uncorrected vision in patients with mild refractive errors. However, close follow-up of patients is needed to detect any progression of the disease. Longer follow-up is needed to assess the overall effect of this procedure on progression of the disease. PMID:24109172

  7. Reexamination of Total Fluid Intake and Bladder Cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiachen; Smith, Scott; Giovannucci, Edward; Michaud, Dominique S.

    2012-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that high fluid intake may reduce contact time between carcinogens and bladder epithelium and consequently reduce carcinogenesis. Epidemiologic studies examining fluid intake and bladder cancer have been extremely inconsistent, ranging from strong inverse to strong positive associations. The authors reevaluated the association between fluid intake and bladder cancer among 47,909 participants in the prospective Health Professionals Follow-up Study over a period of 22 years. During follow-up (1986–2008), 823 incident bladder cancer cases were diagnosed. Information on fluid intake was collected by using the food frequency questionnaire at baseline and every 4 years thereafter. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to adjust for risk factors for bladder cancer. Total fluid intake was inversely associated with bladder cancer when the analysis was based on the baseline diet (relative risk = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.60, 0.97), comparing the highest total daily fluid intake quintile (>2,531 mL/day) with the lowest quintile (<1,290 mL/day) (Ptrend = 0.01). However, no association was detected when the analysis was based on recent diet or cumulative updated diet. The updated analysis for total fluid intake and bladder cancer was attenuated compared with the original findings from the first 10-year follow-up period. PMID:22355034

  8. Higher blood hematocrit predicts hyperuricemia: a prospective study of 62897 person-years of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Chao; Wei, Jie; Yang, Tuo; Li, Hui; Xiao, Wen-feng; Luo, Wei; Gao, Shu-guang; Li, Yu-sheng; Xiong, Yi-lin; Lei, Guang-hua

    2015-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to investigate the relationship between higher hematocrit (Hct) level and hyperuricemia (HU) incidence. A total of 27540 subjects were included. Baseline Hct was classified into four categories based on the quartile distribution of the study population. A cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate the risk of HU incidence across the Hct quartiles after adjusting a number of potential confounding factors. Out of the 62897 person-years of follow-up, 2745 new cases of HU were developed. In models adjusted for known risk factors of HU, higher Hct was used to predict HU incidence independently in a graded manner (p = 0.02): compared with subjects in the lowest quartile, subjects in the highest quartile of Hct (hazard ratio = 1.20; 95% confidence interval: 1.03–1.41) were n20% more likely to develop HU. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the hazard ratios increased with the extension of the minimum follow-up interval. When the minimum follow-up interval was restricted to 4 years, subjects in the highest quartile of Hct were 70% more likely to develop HU, compared with the lowest quartile. Higher Hct, a routinely measured inexpensive biomarker was independently associated with the incidence of HU even within the normal range. PMID:26337238

  9. MMPI-2 personality profiles and suicidal ideation and behavior in victims of bullying at work: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Luciano; Balducci, Cristian; Quintarelli, Emanuele; Riolfi, Andrea; Pelizza, Luisa; Serpelloni, Andrea; Tisato, Silvia; Perbellini, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate longitudinally the personality profile and suicidal ideation and behavior in victims of bullying at work in relation to the evolution of the victimization. Forty-eight victims were evaluated by means of medical and psychological assessment including the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). A follow up session was carried out after an average of 22 months. At first evaluation, the average MMPI-2 personality profile of victims showed abnormal elevations on scales Hs (Hypochondria), D (Depression), Hy (Hysteria), and Pa (Paranoia), which were strikingly similar to that found in previous studies. Furthermore, suicidal ideation and behavior were common among victims. At follow-up, 26 victims reported that the degree of bullying had remained the same or had even worsened, whereas 22 said that the situation had improved or had been resolved. Although there was a trend toward normalization in the MMPI-2 profile for all victims, the profile of the "static" group was still abnormal at follow up. On the contrary, the profile of the "improved" group was entirely within normal range. Suicidal ideation and behavior decreased in all victims, but only to a significant degree in the improved group. Results are discussed in the light of the bullying process. PMID:24547677

  10. A 10 year follow-up study after Roux-Elmslie-Trillat treatment for cases of patellar instability

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A retrospective study concerning patients presenting with patella instability, treated using a Roux-Elmslie-Trillat reconstruction operation and followed up for 10 years following surgery, is presented. Methods Pre-operative and follow-up radiographic evaluation included the weight-bearing anteroposterior and merchant views. Evaluation was carried out using the Insall-Salvati index, sulcus and congruence angle. The Roux-Elmslie-Trillat reconstruction operation was performed on 18 patients. The clinical evaluation at follow-up was performed using the Knee-Society-Score (KSS) and Tegner-Score. Results Subjective results of the operation were classed as excellent or good in 16 of the 18 patients ten years after surgery; persistent instability of the patella was recorded in only one of the 18 patients. The majority of patients returned to the same level of sporting activity after surgery as they had participated in before injury. Conclusions The Roux-Elmslie-Trillat procedure could be recommended in cases presenting with an increased q-angle, trochlea dysplasia or failed soft tissue surgery. In the present study the majority of patients report a return to previous sporting activity ten years after surgery. PMID:21329530

  11. New follow-up study of the atmosphere of GJ1214b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabath, P.; Cáceres, C.; Hoyer, S.; Ivanov, V. D.; Rojo, P.; Girard, J. H.; Kempton, E. M.-R.; Fortney, J. J.; Minniti, D.

    2014-03-01

    GJ1214b is an extremely interesting 6.55Mearth and 2.6 Earth radii sub-Neptune planet orbiting a M-dwarf host. Its proximity, only 14pc, makes it an excellent target for studies of exoplanetary atmospheres (Charbonneau et al. 2009). Furthermore, the sub-Neptunes/Super Earth-sized planets are only one step between Jupiter-sized and habitable Earth-sized planets with a biosphere. Due to favorable parameters of GJ1214 system, we posses great coverage of many wavelengths in planetary transmission spectra from optical to NIR regions (Miller-Ricci & Fortney 2009). However, the scenarios for the atmospheric compositions are still open. Based on the available measurements, the solar composition (hydrogen rich) atmosphere can be most probably ruled out. That is given by fact that we observe rather a flat spectrum than the absorption features in the hydrogen rich model. Thus, currently more plausible models are atmosphere composed of heavy elements such as water or atmosphere covered by clouds (Bean, Desert, Kabath et al. 2011). Here, we present our spectrophotometric and photometric measurements obtained with SOI and OSIRIS instruments (both SOAR telescope) and SOFI (ESO NTT). We observed 5 transit events of GJ1214b and determined the Rp/Rs ratios for every measured wavelength (Caceres, Kabath, Hoyer et al. 2013). Our photometric measurements at 0.8 micron (Bessel-I) and at 2.14 micron (NIR narrow band) correlate with the flat transmission spectrum, therefore strongly supporting the water or cloudy atmosphere. Our spectrophotometric measurements in the H+K region do not posses the sufficient precision in the Rp/Rs ratios. We conclude that the hydrogen rich model is less probable. However, to be able to decide if the planetary atmosphere is hidden in clouds or if we encountered a water world, we still need more measurements with extremely high accuracy. Here, literally, every new point counts. Finally, we would like to present preliminary results obtained from our 2013 campaign focused at another small exoplanet GJ436b as a demonstration of potential and limitations for ground based transmission spectroscopy.

  12. Lumbar total disc replacement using ProDisc II: a prospective study with a 2-year minimum follow-up.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sung Soo; Lee, Chong Suh; Kang, Chang Seok

    2006-08-01

    A lumbar total disc replacement (TDR) is believed to be a promising substitute in the surgical treatment for lumbar degenerative disc disease. The purpose of this study is to report the clinical and radiographic outcomes of 36 consecutive patients who underwent lumbar TDR using ProDisc II, and the factors associated with a better clinical outcome after a 2-year minimum follow-up. At the time of the latest follow-up, the success rate was 94% of 36 patients according to the criteria of the US Food and Drug Administration. Of the 10 patients unable to work preoperatively, 7 patients returned to work. Moreover, mean score on the visual analog scale for low back and leg pain improved significantly from 7.5 and 4.7 to 3.0 and 1.2, respectively (P<0.001). In addition, mean Oswestry disability index scores improved significantly from 69.2 to 21.0 (P<0.001). Mean disc height at the operative level increased significantly from 9.0 to 17.6 mm, and mean range of motion increased significantly from 9.7 to 12.7 degrees (P<0.01). Statistical analysis showed that the factors associated with a better clinical outcome were single level, and a higher postoperative segmental ROM at the operative level. At a minimum follow-up of 2 years, the lumbar TDR using ProDisc II showed excellent clinical and radiographic outcomes without any significant complication. However, future efforts need to be directed toward the evaluation of a larger number of patients with longer follow-up. PMID:16891976

  13. Life situation and posttraumatic symptoms: a follow-up study of refugees from the former Yugoslavia living in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kivling-Bodén, G; Sundbom, E

    2001-01-01

    Posttraumatic symptoms were assessed by means of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire among 27 severely traumatized refugees from the former Yugoslavia in psychiatric treatment and then 3 years later, after an average of 5.5 years in Sweden. At follow-up the subjects also answered a questionnaire about their life situations. No significant change in average symptom level had taken place at follow-up. Seventeen subjects met the DSM IV criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at both times. However, five subjects who met the PTSD criteria in the first study did not at follow-up, and the opposite was true for another five subjects. Fifteen subjects reported contact with psychiatric care during the past year. Unemployment and dependence on social welfare were high at follow-up. The unemployment rate of 32% was almost six times greater than that for the regular Swedish labor force but comparable to that of the whole Bosnian labor force in Sweden. Social contacts with the majority population were as common as with compatriots, but two-thirds of the subjects expressed a wish for more social contacts outside the family. Positive factors in the subjects' life situations were the housing situation and the fact that most subjects had at least reasonable knowledge of the majority language. However, a minority of the group still had no formal competence in Swedish, with negative consequences for labor market integration and social contact with Swedes. Two-thirds of the group had made no definite decision to stay in Sweden. PMID:11839133

  14. Thin-Section CT Characteristics and Longitudinal CT Follow-up of Chemotherapy Induced Interstitial Pneumonitis: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han Na; Kim, Mi Young; Koo, Hyun Jung; Kim, Sung-Soo; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Lee, Jae Cheol; Song, Jin Woo

    2016-01-01

    To describe the computed tomography (CT) features of chemotherapy-induced interstitial pneumonitis (CIIP) with longitudinal follow-up.The study was approved by the local ethics committee. One hundred consecutive patients with CIIP between May 2005 and March 2015 were retrospectively enrolled. The initial CT was reviewed by 2 independent chest radiologists and categorized into 1 of 4 CT patterns in accordance with the 2013 guidelines for idiopathic interstitial pneumonia: nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), organizing pneumonia (OP), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) mimicking desquamative interstitial pneumonitis, and diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). We assessed semiquantitative analysis on a 5% scale to assess the extent of parenchymal abnormalities (emphysema, reticulation, ground-glass opacity, consolidation, honeycombing cyst) and their distribution on initial (n = 100), subsequent (n = 87), and second follow-up CT (n = 48). Interval changes in extent on follow-up CT were compared using paired t test. The clinic-radiologic factors were compared between Group 1 (NSIP and OP patterns) and Group 2 (HP and DAD patterns) using χ and independent t tests.The most common pattern of CIIP on the initial CT was HP (51%), followed by NSIP (23%), OP (20%), and DAD (6%). Diffuse ground-glass opacity was the most common pulmonary abnormality. The predominant distribution was bilateral (99%) and symmetric (82%), with no craniocaudal (60%) or axial (79%) dominance. Subsequent and second follow-up CTs showed decreased extent of total pulmonary abnormalities (P < 0.001, respectively). In comparison with Group 1 CIIP, Group 2 CIIP was more likely to be caused by molecularly targeted drugs (P = 0.030), appeared earlier (P = 0.034), and underwent more complete resolution (P < 0.001). Use of a CT pattern-recognition approach to CIIP is appropriate and practical in interpreting radiological findings. PMID:26765442

  15. Correlates of weight status among Norwegian 11-year-olds: The HEIA study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The underlying mechanisms of overweight and obesity in adolescents are still not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate modifiable and non-modifiable correlates of weight status among 1103 Norwegian 11-year-old adolescents in the HEalth in Adolescents (HEIA) study, including demographic factors such as gender and parental education, and behavioral factors such as intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, snacks and breakfast consumption, watching TV and playing computer games, physical activity and sedentary time. Methods Weight and height were measured objectively, body mass index (BMI) was calculated and International Obesity Task Force cut-offs were used to define weight status. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured by accelerometers. Other behavioral correlates and pubertal status were self-reported by questionnaires. Parental education was reported by the parents on the consent form for their child. Associations were investigated using logistic regressions. Results There were gender differences in behavioral correlates of weight status but not for weight status itself. Adolescents with parents in the highest education category had a 46% reduced odds of being overweight compared to adolescents with parents in the lowest education category. Adolescents with parents with medium education had 42% lower odds of being overweight than adolescents with parents with the lowest education category. Level of parental education, breakfast consumption and moderate to vigorous physical activity were positively associated with being normal weight, and time watching TV was positively associated with being overweight for the total sample. Gender differences were detected; boys had a doubled risk of being overweight for every additional hour of watching TV per week, while for girls there was no association. Conclusions The present study showed a social gradient in weight status in 11-year-olds. Both breakfast consumption and moderate to vigorous physical activity were inversely associated with weight status. No associations were found between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks, playing computer games and weight status. Watching TV was positively associated with weight status for boys but not for girls. Interventions are needed to gain more insight into the correlates of change in weight status. PMID:23216675

  16. Retrobulbar Hemodynamics and Visual Field Progression in Normal Tension Glaucoma: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Kuerten, D.; Fuest, M.; Koch, E. C.; Koutsonas, A.; Plange, N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Vascular risk factors are important factors in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. The purpose of this research was to investigate retrobulbar hemodynamics and visual field progression in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG). Patients and Methods. 31 eyes of 16 patients with NTG were included in a retrospective long-term follow-up study. Colour Doppler imaging was performed at baseline to determine various CDI parameters in the different retrobulbar vessels. The rate of visual field progression was determined using the Visual Field Index (VFI) progression rate per year (in %). To be included in the analysis, patients had at least 4 visual field examinations with a follow-up of at least 2 years. Results. Mean follow-up was 7.6 ± 4.1 years with an average of 10 ± 5 visual field tests. The mean MD (mean defect) at baseline was −7.61 ± 7.49 dB. The overall VFI progression was −1.14 ± 1.40% per year. A statistical significant correlation between VFI progression and the RI of the NPCA and PSV of the CRA was found. Conclusion. Long-term visual field progression may be linked to impaired retrobulbar hemodynamics in patients with NTG only to a limited degree. Interpretation of the data for an individual patient seems to be limited due to the variability of parameters. PMID:26557652

  17. Shifting Coresidence Near the End of Life: Comparing Decedents and Survivors of a Follow-Up Study in China

    PubMed Central

    ZIMMER, ZACHARY; KORINEK, KIM

    2010-01-01

    What we know about transitions in coresidence of elders in China is based on panel data involving survivors. This article examines the tendency to and determinants of shifts in coresidence with adult children among the very old, comparing survivors of an intersurvey period with those who died (decedents). Data come from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. Baseline and follow-up surveys indicate shifts in coresidence, defined as change from not living with an adult child to living in the same household as an adult child, and the converse. Rates of shifting are adjusted for time to follow-up. Regressions examine predictors of shifts among four groups: baseline coresident and noncoresident survivors and decedents. Decedents and noncoresidents are more likely to shift than survivors and coresidents. Covariates related to physical and material need as well as marital status are the strongest predictors of shift. Thus, the needs of a very old person dominate coresidential shifts and stability, lending support to an altruistic notion of living arrangement decision making. In the end, we conclude that the period nearing the end of life is a time of flux in living situation and that coresidential shifts are underestimated when those who die during a follow-up study are ignored. PMID:20879676

  18. Gender differences in outcomes in people with schizophrenia in rural China: 14-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Mao-Sheng; Mao, Wen-Jun; Chan, Cecilia Lai-Wan; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai; Conwell, Yeates

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about gender differences in the long-term outcomes of people with schizophrenia living in the community. Aims To explore gender differences in the 14-year outcome of people with schizophrenia in rural China. Method A 14-year follow-up study among a 1994 cohort (n = 510) of participants with schizophrenia was conducted in Xinjin County, Chengdu, China. All participants and their informants were followed up in 2004 and 2008 using the Patients Follow-up Schedule. Results Compared with female participants, male participants were significantly younger, had significantly higher rates of mortality, suicide and homelessness, and poorer family and social support. There was no significant gender difference in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores, previous suicide attempts, those never treated, previous hospital admission or inability to work. Longer duration of illness was associated with functional decline and comparatively poorer family economic status. Conclusions The long-term outcomes of men with schizophrenia is worse than those of women with the disorder in rural China. Higher mortality, suicide and homelessness rates in men may contribute partly to the higher prevalence of schizophrenia in women in China. Policies on social and family support and gender-specific intervention strategies for improving long-term outcomes should be developed for people with this disorder. PMID:25573398

  19. The posterior bone block procedure in posterior shoulder instability: a long-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Meuffels, D E; Schuit, H; van Biezen, F C; Reijman, M; Verhaar, J A N

    2010-05-01

    We present the long-term outcome, at a median of 18 years (12.8 to 23.5) of open posterior bone block stabilisation for recurrent posterior instability of the shoulder in a heterogenous group of 11 patients previously reported on in 2001 at a median follow-up of six years. We found that five (45%) would not have chosen the operation again, and that four (36%) had further posterior dislocation. Clinical outcome was significantly worse after 18 years than after six years of follow-up (median Rowe score of 60 versus 90 (p = 0.027)). The median Western Ontario Shoulder Index was 60% (37% to 100%) at 18 years' follow-up, which is a moderate score. At the time of surgery four (36%) had glenohumeral radiological osteoarthritis, which was present in all after 18 years. This study showed poor long-term results of the posterior bone block procedure for posterior instability and a high rate of glenohumeral osteoarthritis although three patients with post-traumatic instability were pleased with the result of their operations. PMID:20436001

  20. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CODING: FOLLOW UP QUESTIONNAIRE (UA-D-11.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to define the coding strategy for the Follow Up Questionnaire. This questionnaire was developed for use in the Arizona NHEXAS project and the Border study. Household and individual follow-up data were combined in a single Follow-up Questionnaire data f...

  1. Home versus hospital deliveries: follow up study of matched pairs for procedures and outcome. Zurich Study Team.

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann-Liebrich, U.; Voegeli, T.; Günter-Witt, K.; Kunz, I.; Züllig, M.; Schindler, C.; Maurer, M.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess procedures and outcomes in deliveries planned at home versus those planned in hospital among women choosing the place of delivery. DESIGN: Follow up study of matched pairs. SETTING: Antenatal clinics and reference hospitals in Zurich between 1989 and 1992. SUBJECTS: 489 women opting for home delivery and 385 opting for hospital delivery; the women comprised all those attending members of the study team for antenatal care and those attending the reference hospital for antenatal care who could be matched with the women planning home confinement. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Need for medication and incidence of interventions during delivery (caesarean section, forceps, vacuum extraction, episiotomy), duration of labour, occurrence of severe perineal lesions, maternal blood loss, and perinatal morbidity and death. RESULTS: All women were followed up from their first antenatal visit till three months after delivery. Referrals during pregnancy (n = 37) and labour (70), changes of mind (15 home to hospital, eight hospital to home), and 17 miscarriages resulted in 369 births occurring at home and 486 in hospital. During delivery the home birth group needed significantly less medication and fewer interventions whereas no differences were found in durations of labour, occurrence of severe perineal lesions, and maternal blood loss. Perinatal death was recorded in one planned hospital delivery and one planned home delivery (overall perinatal mortality 2.3/1000). There was no difference between home and hospital delivered babies in birth weight, gestational age, or clinical condition. Apgar scores were slightly higher and umbilical cord pH lower in home births, but these differences may have been due to differences in clamping and the time of transportation. CONCLUSION: Healthy low risk women who wish to deliver at home have no increased risk either to themselves or to their babies. PMID:8942694

  2. 10-year follow-up of diabetes incidence and weight loss in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background In the 2·8 years of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) randomised clinical trial, diabetes incidence in high-risk adults was reduced by 58% with intensive lifestyle intervention and by 31% with metformin, compared with placebo. We investigated the persistence of these effects in the long term. Methods All active DPP participants were eligible for continued follow-up. 2766 of 3150 (88%) enrolled for a median additional follow-up of 5·7 years (IQR 5·5–5·8). 910 participants were from the lifestyle, 924 from the metformin, and 932 were from the original placebo groups. On the basis of the benefits from the intensive lifestyle intervention in the DPP, all three groups were offered group-implemented lifestyle intervention. Metformin treatment was continued in the original metformin group (850 mg twice daily as tolerated), with participants unmasked to assignment, and the original lifestyle intervention group was offered additional lifestyle support. The primary outcome was development of diabetes according to American Diabetes Association criteria. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00038727. Findings During the 10·0-year (IQR 9·0–10·5) follow-up since randomisation to DPP, the original lifestyle group lost, then partly regained weight. The modest weight loss with metformin was maintained. Diabetes incidence rates during the DPP were 4·8 cases per 100 person-years (95% CI 4·1–5·7) in the intensive lifestyle intervention group, 7·8 (6·8–8·8) in the metformin group, and 11·0 (9·8–12·3) in the placebo group. Diabetes incidence rates in this follow-up study were similar between treatment groups: 5·9 per 100 person-years (5·1–6·8) for lifestyle, 4·9 (4·2–5·7) for metformin, and 5·6 (4·8–6·5) for placebo. Diabetes incidence in the 10 years since DPP randomisation was reduced by 34% (24–42) in the lifestyle group and 18% (7–28) in the metformin group compared with placebo. Interpretation During follow-up after DPP, incidences in the former placebo and metformin groups fell to equal those in the former lifestyle group, but the cumulative incidence of diabetes remained lowest in the lifestyle group. Prevention or delay of diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin can persist for at least 10 years. Funding National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). PMID:19878986

  3. Review of 1953-2003 ORAU Follow-Up Studies on Science Education Programs: Impacts on Participants' Education and Careers

    SciTech Connect

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities

    2006-06-01

    Through sponsorship of science education programs for undergraduates and graduates, such as research participation programs and fellowships, the Department of Energy (DOE) encouraged the development of adequate numbers of qualified science and engineering (S&E) personnel to meet its current and future research and development (R&D) needs. This retrospective study summarizes impacts of selected programs on these participants. The summary data are from follow-up studies conducted from 1953 through 2003 by Oak Ridge Associated Universities and its predecessor, the Oak Ridge Institute for Nuclear Studies (ORINS).

  4. 75 FR 62132 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; GuLF Worker Study: Gulf Long-Term Follow-Up Study for Oil...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ...: Gulf Long-Term Follow-Up Study for Oil Spill Clean-Up Workers and Volunteers SUMMARY: In compliance.... Proposed Collection: Title: Gulf Worker Study: Gulf Long-Term Follow-Up Study for Oil Spill Clean-Up... associated with oil spill clean-up activities and exposures surrounding the Deepwater Horizon disaster;...

  5. After the diabetes care trial ends, now what? A 1-year follow-up of the RxING study

    PubMed Central

    Al Hamarneh, Yazid N; Sauriol, Luc; Tsuyuki, Ross T

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is strong evidence that pharmacist care improves patients’ glycaemic control. However, the sustainability and durability of such interventions beyond the research period is not known. RxING was the first trial of pharmacist prescribing in diabetes and it showed an improvement in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) of 1.8% over 6 months. Objective 1° objective: To evaluate glycaemic control in the RxING study patients 12 months after the end of the formal study follow-up. 2° objective: To assess the patients’ risk of cardiovascular events in the next 10 years. Methods We contacted the participating pharmacists to check if the patients who participated in the RxING study are still taking insulin, the dose of insulin they are taking, and their HbA1c. There were no mandated follow-up visits with the pharmacist after the study completion. Results A total of 100 patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes were enrolled in the original RxING study; 93 of them completed the study, while 83 participated in the 12-month follow-up. Seventy-five patients were still taking insulin, with the average dose increasing from 31.1 units (SD 18.4) at study completion to 37.4 units (SD 30.8) (95% CI −13.3 to 0.88, p=0.085). HbA1c was reduced from 9.1% (SD 1) at baseline to 7.3% (SD 0.9) at study completion (95% CI 1.4 to 2, p <0.001), and increased to 8.1% (SD 1.3) 12 months later (95% CI −1.1 to −0.5, p <0.001 vs study completion). Conclusions Twelve months after completing the intervention, approximately half of the glycaemic control gains were lost. This highlights the importance of structured follow-up with the pharmacist in this patient population. Trial registration number clinicaltrials.gov; Identifier: NCT01335763. PMID:26270946

  6. Associations of sitting behaviours with all-cause mortality over a 16-year follow-up: the Whitehall II study

    PubMed Central

    Pulsford, Richard M; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Britton, Annie R; Brunner, Eric J; Hillsdon, Melvyn

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sitting behaviours have been linked with increased risk of all-cause mortality independent of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Previous studies have tended to examine single indicators of sitting or all sitting behaviours combined. This study aims to enhance the evidence base by examining the type-specific prospective associations of four different sitting behaviours as well as total sitting with the risk of all-cause mortality. Methods: Participants (3720 men and 1412 women) from the Whitehall II cohort study who were free from cardiovascular disease provided information on weekly sitting time (at work, during leisure time, while watching TV, during leisure time excluding TV, and at work and during leisure time combined) and covariates in 1997–99. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate prospective associations between sitting time (h/week) and mortality risk. Follow-up was from date of measurement until (the earliest of) death, date of censor or July 31 2014. Results: Over 81 373 person-years of follow-up (mean follow-up time 15.7 ± 2.2 years) a total of 450 deaths were recorded. No associations were observed between any of the five sitting indicators and mortality risk, either in unadjusted models or models adjusted for covariates including MVPA. Conclusions: Sitting time was not associated with all-cause mortality risk. The results of this study suggest that policy makers and clinicians should be cautious about placing emphasis on sitting behaviour as a risk factor for mortality that is distinct from the effect of physical activity. PMID:26454871

  7. Outcome of Preterm Infants With Postnatal Cytomegalovirus Infection via Breast Milk: A Two-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Jim, Wai-Tim; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Ho, Che-Sheng; Shu, Chyong-Hsin; Chang, Jui-Hsing; Hung, Han-Yang; Kao, Hsin-An; Chang, Hung-Yang; Peng, Chun-Chih; Yui, Bey-Hwa; Chuu, Chih-Pin

    2015-10-01

    Approximately 15% of preterm infants may develop postnatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection from seropositive mothers via breast milk and are at risk for neurological sequelae in childhood. The aims of this study were to assess the effects and outcomes on growth, neurodevelopmental status, and hearing in very low birth weight (VLBW) premature infants with postnatal CMV infection via breast milk at the corrected age of 12 and 24 months.The prospective follow-up study population comprised all living preterm children (n = 55) with a birth weight ≤1500 g and gestational age of ≤35 weeks, who had been participated in our "postnatal CMV infection via breast milk" studies in 2000 and 2009, respectively. The cohort of children was assessed at 12 and 24 months. Clinical outcomes were documented during hospitalization and after discharge. Long-term outcomes included anthropometry, audiologic tests, gross motor quotient, Infant International Battery, and neurodevelopmental outcomes; all were assessed at postcorrected age in 12 and 24 months during follow-up visits.Of the 55 infants enrolled in the study (4 noninfected infants were excluded because their parents did not join this follow-up program later), 14 infants postnatally acquired CMV infection through breast-feeding (infected group) and were compared with 41 infants without CMV infection (control group). No significant differences were observed between the groups with regard to baseline characteristics, clinical outcomes, anthropometry, or psychomotor and mental development on the Bayley scale of infant development. None of the infants had CMV-related death or permanent sensorineural hearing loss.Transmission of CMV from seropositive mother via breast milk to preterm infants does not appear at this time to have major adverse effects on clinical outcomes, growth, neurodevelopmental status, and hearing function at 12 and 24 months corrected age. PMID:26512588

  8. Persistent financial hardship, 11-year weight gain, and health behaviors in the Whitehall II study

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Annalijn I; Forouhi, Nita G; Brunner, Eric J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To ascertain prospectively gender-specific associations between types and amounts of financial hardship and weight gain, and investigate potential behavioral mechanisms. Methods Prospective study of 3701 adult British civil servants with repeated measures of difficulty paying bills or insufficient money to afford adequate for food/clothing (1985-1988; 1989-1990; 1991-1993; 1997-1999), and weight (1985-1988; 1997-1999). Results Persistent hardships were associated with adjusted mean weight change in women over 10.9 years, but no consistent pattern was seen in men. During follow-up, 46% of women gained ≥5 kg. Women reporting persistent insufficient money for food/clothing had a significantly greater odds of gaining ≥5 kg (1.42 [1.05, 1.92]) compared to no hardship history, which remained after socioeconomic status (SES) adjustment (1.45 [1.05, 2.01]). The association between persistent difficulty paying bills and odds of excess weight gain was also significant (1.42 [1.03, 1.97]) but attenuated after considering SES (1.39 [0.98, 1.97]). Four health behaviors as single measures or change variables did not attenuate associations. Conclusions Results suggested strategies to tackle obesity must address employed women's everyday financial troubles which may influence weight through more biological pathways than classical correlates of economic disadvantage and weight. PMID:25155547

  9. Mortality and incidence of cancer in a cohort of Swedish chimney sweeps: an extended follow up study.

    PubMed Central

    Evanoff, B A; Gustavsson, P; Hogstedt, C

    1993-01-01

    Despite 200 years of efforts to regulate safety in this occupation, chimney sweeps have increased mortality from cancer, ischaemic heart disease, and respiratory disease. Mortality and incidence of cancer were examined in a cohort of 5542 Swedish chimney sweeps employed through their national trade union at any time between 1918 and 1980. Previous studies of this cohort found increased risks of ischaemic heart disease, respiratory disease, accidental deaths, and various neoplasms. By increasing follow up, we sought to increase the power of the study and examine disease time trends. Mortality analysis was extended 7.5 years to cover the period 1951-90; cancer incidence analysis was extended six years to cover the period 1958-87. New findings include increased incidence and mortality of prostate cancer (SMR 169, 95% CI 106-256, 22 observed) and increased incidence of total haematolymphatic cancers (SIR 151, 95% CI 106-209, 36 observed). When only the most recent follow up period was analysed, previously observed risks persisted for total lung cancer (SIR 178, 95% CI 99-293), oat cell lung cancer (SIR 240, 95% CI 103-472), bladder cancer (SIR 247, 95% CI 131-422), and oesophageal cancer (Obs/Exp = 2/1.1). Mortality from ischaemic heart disease (SMR 98, 95% CI 76-123) and respiratory disease (SMR 111, 95% CI 56-199) declined during recent follow up, although significant excess mortality remained during analysis of the entire study period (ischaemic heart disease SMR 128, 95% CI 112-145; respiratory disease SMR 159, 95% CI 115-213). In analyses of the entire study period, risks of ischaemic heart disease and lung, bladder, and oesophageal cancer were adjusted for smoking; oesophageal cancer was also adjusted for use of alcohol. All risks remained significantly raised. Exposure-response analyses showed significant positive associations between duration of employment and risks for mortality from lung, oesophageal, and total cancer. Chimney sweeps remain at increased risk for cancers of the lung, oesophagus, and bladder. Our study supports a casual role for exposure to chimney soot, which contains carcinogens including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Extended follow up of this cohort now shows increased risks of prostate and haematolymphatic cancers. PMID:8507598

  10. Physical activity and change in quality of life during menopause -an 8-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives The aim of this study was to study the role of menopausal status and physical activity on quality of life. Methods A total of 1,165 Finnish women aged 45-64 years from a national representative population-based study were followed up for 8 years. Study participants completed the Health 2000 study questionnaire and follow-up questionnaire in 2008. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to measure the effect of menopausal status on global quality of life (QoL). Other variables included in the analyses were age, education, change of physical activity as assessed with metabolic equivalents, change of weight and hormone therapy (HRT) use. Results Peri- and postmenopausal women increased their physical activity (28% and 27%) during the eight-year follow up period slightly more often than premenopausal (18%) women (p = 0.070). Menopausal status was not significantly correlated with change of QoL. QoL of the most highly educated women was more likely to improve than among the less educated (eb = 1.28, 95%CI 1.08 to 1.51 p = 0.002). Women whose physical activity increased or remained stable had greater chances for improved QoL than women whose physical activity decreased (eb = 1.49, 95%CI 1.23 p < 0.001 to 1.80, eb = 1.46, 95%CI 1.24 to 1.73 p < 0.001 respectively). Women whose weight remained stable during follow-up also improved their QoL compared to women who gained weight (eb = 1.26, 95%CI 1.07 to 1.50 p > 0.01). Women who had never used HRT had 1.26 greater odds for improved QoL (95%CI 1.02 to 1.56 p = < 0.05). Conclusion Improvement of global QoL is correlated with stable or increased physical activity, stable weight and high education, but not with change in menopausal status. PMID:22269072

  11. Follow-Up Genotoxic Study: Chromosome Damage Two and Six Years after Exposure to the Prestige Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    Hildur, Kristin; Templado, Cristina; Zock, Jan-Paul; Giraldo, Jesús; Pozo-Rodríguez, Francisco; Frances, Alexandra; Monyarch, Gemma; Rodríguez-Trigo, Gema; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Emma; Souto, Ana; Gómez, Federico P.; Antó, Josep M.; Barberà, Joan Albert; Fuster, Carme

    2015-01-01

    Background The north-west coast of Spain was heavily contaminated by the Prestige oil spill, in 2002. Individuals who participated in the clean-up tasks showed increased chromosome damage two years after exposure. Long-term clinical implications of chromosome damage are still unknown. Objective To realize a follow-up genotoxic study to detect whether the chromosome damage persisted six years after exposure to the oil. Design Follow-up study. Setting Fishermen cooperatives in coastal villages. Participants Local fishermen who were highly exposed (n = 52) and non-exposed (n = 23) to oil seven years after the spill. Measurements Chromosome damage in circulating lymphocytes. Results Chromosome damage in exposed individuals persists six years after oil exposure, with a similar incidence than those previously detected four years before. A surprising increase in chromosome damage in non-exposed individual was found six years after Prestige spill vs. those detected two years after the exposure. Limitations The sample size and the possibility of some kind of selection bias should be considered. Genotoxic results cannot be extrapolated to the approximately 300,000 individuals who participated occasionally in clean-up tasks. Conclusion The persistence of chromosome damage detected in exposed individuals six years after oil exposure seems to indicate that the cells of the bone marrow are affected. A surprising increase in chromosome damage in non-exposed individuals detected in the follow-up study suggests an indirect exposition of these individuals to some oil compounds or to other toxic agents during the last four years. More long-term studies are needed to confirm the presence of chromosome damage in exposed and non-exposed fishermen due to the association between increased chromosomal damage and increased risk of cancer. Understanding and detecting chromosome damage is important for detecting cancer in its early stages. The present work is the first follow-up cytogenetic study carried out in lymphocytes to determine genotoxic damage evolution between two and six years after oil exposure in same individuals. PMID:26221948

  12. The health of female Iranian immigrants in Sweden: a qualitative six-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Sharareh, Akhavan; Carina, Bildt; Sarah, Wamala

    2007-04-01

    Immigration affects life and health in many different ways. The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze female Iranian immigrants' perception of various factors that influence their health over time. Data collection was based on semistructured interviews with 10 female Iranian immigrants. Baseline interviews were conducted in 1996, with follow-up interviews in 2002. The results suggest that during the first decade after migration, female immigrants may overcome some health-related factors such as experiences of traumatic events. Other health determinants such as unemployment or experiences of discrimination and racism, however, were observed even two decades after migration. PMID:17454182

  13. Do Participants With Different Patterns of Loss to Follow-Up Have Different Characteristics? A Multi-Wave Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Saiepour, Nargess; Ware, Robert; Najman, Jake; Baker, Peter; Clavarino, Alexandra; Williams, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Background To identify patterns of loss to follow-up and baseline predictors of each pattern. Methods The Mater-University Study of Pregnancy collected baseline information for 7718 pregnant women who attended Mater Hospital in Brisbane, Australia, from 1981 through 1983. Follow-up data for 6753 eligible participants were collected at 6 months, 5 years, 14 years, 21 years, and 27 years after giving birth. Participants were partitioned into groups of ‘Always Responders’, ‘Returners’, ‘Leavers’, ‘Intermittents’, and ‘Never Responders’. Multinomial logistic regression was used to simultaneously compare baseline characteristics of the last four groups with ‘Always Responders’. Results Being younger, less educated, having no partner, and living in rented housing were associated with being a ‘Returner’. Not owning housing, receiving welfare benefits, and being younger, less educated, not married, a smoker, an Aboriginal/Islander, and born in a non-English-speaking country were associated with being a ‘Leaver’, an ‘Intermittent’, or a ‘Never-responder’. Having higher mental health score and drinking before pregnancy were associated with being a ‘Leaver’ or an ‘Intermittent’. Being unemployed and not physically active were associated with being a ‘Leaver’ or ‘Never Responder’. The groups ‘Leavers’ and ‘Never Responders’ were the most different from the ‘Always Responders’. The group that was most similar to ‘Always Responders’ was the ‘Returners’. Conclusions Patterns of loss to follow-up should be considered in the application of missing data techniques, where researchers make assumptions about the characteristics of those subjects who do not respond to assess the type of missing data. This information can be used to prevent individuals who are at high risk of dropping out of a study from doing so. PMID:26321060

  14. Adherence to International Follow-Up Guidelines in Type 2 Diabetes: A Longitudinal Cohort Study in Luxembourg

    PubMed Central

    Renard, Laurence M.; Bocquet, Valery; Vidal-Trecan, Gwenaelle; Lair, Marie-Lise; Blum-Boisgard, Claudine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Type 2 diabetes is associated with severe micro- and macro-vascular complications. Physicians’ and patients’ adherence to follow-up guidelines permits postponing or reducing these complications. The objectives were to assess the level of adherence to fundamental follow-up guidelines and determine patients’ characteristics associated with this level of adherence in the context of Luxembourg, where no guidelines were implemented. Study population The exhaustive residing population treated for type 2 diabetes in Luxembourg during the 2000-2006 period (N = 21,068). Methods Seven fundamental criteria were extracted from international guidelines (consultation with the treating physician, HbA1c tests, electrocardiogram, retinal, dental, lipid and renal check-ups). The factors associated with the level of adherence to those criteria were identified using a partial proportional odds model. Results In 2006, despite 90% of the patients consulted at least 4 times their treating physician, only 0.6% completed all criteria; 55.0% had no HbA1c test (−8.6 points since 2000) and 31.1% had a renal check-up (+21.6 points). The sex (ORmale: 0.87 [95%CI, 0.83−0.92]), the nationality (ORNonEU: 0.64 [0.52−0.78]), the type of antidiabetic treatment (ORoral: 1.48 [1.35−1.63], ORmixed: 1.35 [1.20−1.52]) and the type of treating physician (ORG-ID: 0.47 [0.42−0.53]) were the main factors associated with the level of adherence in 2006 (3 or more criteria). Conclusion A large percentage of patients were not provided with a systematic annual follow-up between 2000 and 2006. This study highlighted the necessity to promote guidelines in Luxembourg, education for physicians and to launch a national discussion on a disease management program for diabetic patients. PMID:24244637

  15. Follow-up of pediatric celiac disease: value of antibodies in predicting mucosal healing, a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In diagnosing celiac disease (CD), serological tests are highly valuable. However, their role in following up children with CD after prescription of a gluten-free diet is unclear. This study aimed to compare the performance of antibody tests in predicting small-intestinal mucosal status in diagnosis vs. follow-up of pediatric CD. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study at a tertiary-care center. 148 children underwent esophohagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsies either for symptoms ± positive CD antibodies (group A; n = 95) or following up CD diagnosed ≥ 1 year before study enrollment (group B; n = 53). Using biopsy (Marsh ≥ 2) as the criterion standard, areas under ROC curves (AUCs) and likelihood-ratios were calculated to estimate the performance of antibody tests against tissue transglutaminase (TG2), deamidated gliadin peptide (DGP) and endomysium (EMA). Results AUCs were higher when tests were used for CD diagnosis vs. follow-up: 1 vs. 0.86 (P = 0.100) for TG2-IgA, 0.85 vs. 0.74 (P = 0.421) for TG2-IgG, 0.97 vs. 0.61 (P = 0.004) for DPG-IgA, and 0.99 vs. 0.88 (P = 0.053) for DPG-IgG, respectively. Empirical power was 85% for the DPG-IgA comparison, and on average 33% (range 13–43) for the non-significant comparisons. Among group B children, 88.7% showed mucosal healing (median 2.2 years after primary diagnosis). Only the negative likelihood-ratio of EMA was low enough (0.097) to effectively rule out persistent mucosal injury. However, out of 12 EMA-positive children with mucosal healing, 9 subsequently turned EMA-negative. Conclusions Among the CD antibodies examined, negative EMA most reliably predict mucosal healing. In general, however, antibody tests, especially DPG-IgA, are of limited value in predicting the mucosal status in the early years post-diagnosis but may be sufficient after a longer period of time. PMID:24524430

  16. The course and outcome of alcohol use disorders in men in Goa: A population- based follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Nadkarni, Abhijit; Bhat, Bhargav; Ebrahim, Shah; Patel, Vikram

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research on the natural history and long-term outcomes of alcohol use disorders (AUD) is important to guide health policy. However, attrition is a major challenge in longitudinal studies and can affect validity of findings. Materials and Methods: A 4-year follow-up study was conducted on a randomly selected subgroup of a sample of men in rural and urban communities in Goa to assess attrition, preliminary estimates of AUD outcomes, and chronic disease risk factors. Results: Overall attrition rate was 16.7% with a higher attrition in AUD compared to abstainers or casual drinkers. Incidence of AUD at 4 years was 12.8% while the persistence rate of AUD was 53.9%. A trend for poorer health and health behaviors and higher blood pressure was observed in AUD. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest a relatively low attrition rate despite the long follow-up period and support the feasibility of conducting a definitive cohort study with the entire sample. PMID:24459310

  17. Follow-up study on lead exposure in children living in a smelter community in northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To study the changes of children lead exposure in the city of Torreon during the last five years, after environmental and public health interventions, using the timeline of lead in blood concentration as the biomarker of exposure and its relation to lead in soil concentrations. Methods This follow-up study started in 2001 and consisted of 232 children living in nine neighborhoods in Torreon. Children were tested at 0, 6, 12 and 60 months. Lead in blood concentrations, Hemoglobin, Zinc-Protoporphyrin, anthropometric measures and socioeconomic status questionnaire was supplied to the parents. Results Median and range of lead in blood concentrations obtained at 0, 6, 12, 60 months were: 10.12 μg/dl (1.9 - 43.8), 8.75 μg/dl (1.85 - 41.45), 8.4 μg/dl (1.7 - 35.8) and 4.4 μg/dl (1.3 - 30.3), respectively. The decrease of lead in blood levels was significantly related to ages 0, 6, 12 and 60 months of the follow-up study. The timeline of B-Pb was associated with the timeline of lead in soil concentrations. Conclusions B-Pb levels have significantly decreased in the group of children studied. This could be explained by a) environmental interventions by authorities and the smelter companies, b) normal changes in hygienic habits as children age and c) lead redistribution from blood to hard tissues. PMID:21767395

  18. Weight Fluctuation and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Komaroff, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to investigate if weight fluctuation is an independent risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer (PBC) among women who gained weight in adult years. Methods. NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study (NHEFS) database was used in the study. Women that were cancers-free at enrollment and diagnosed for the first time with breast cancer at age 50 or greater were considered cases. Controls were chosen from the subset of cancers-free women and matched to cases by years of follow-up and status of body mass index (BMI) at 25 years of age. Weight fluctuation was measured by the root-mean-square-error (RMSE) from a simple linear regression model for each woman with their body mass index (BMI) regressed on age (started at 25 years) while women with the positive slope from this regression were defined as weight gainers. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression models. Results. A total of 158 women were included into the study. The conditional logistic regression adjusted for weight gain demonstrated positive association between weight fluctuation in adult years and postmenopausal breast cancers (odds ratio/OR = 1.67; 95% confidence interval/CI: 1.06–2.66). Conclusions. The data suggested that long-term weight fluctuation was significant risk factor for PBC among women who gained weight in adult years. This finding underscores the importance of maintaining lost weight and avoiding weight fluctuation. PMID:26953120

  19. STOPPIT Baby Follow-Up Study: The Effect of Prophylactic Progesterone in Twin Pregnancy on Childhood Outcome

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Helen Christine; Wood, Rachael; Chalmers, James; Marlow, Neil; Norrie, John; MacLennan, Graeme; McPherson, Gladys; Boachie, Charles; Norman, Jane Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the long-term effects of in utero progesterone exposure in twin children. Methods This study evaluated the health and developmental outcomes of all surviving children born to mothers who participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of progesterone given for the prevention of preterm birth in twin pregnancies (STOPPIT, ISRCTN35782581). Follow-up was performed via record linkage and two parent-completed validated questionnaires, the Child Development Inventory and the Health Utilities Index. Results Record linkage was successfully performed on at least one record in 759/781 (97%) children eligible for follow-up. There were no differences between progesterone-exposed and placebo-exposed twins with respect to incidence of death, congenital anomalies and hospitalisation, nor on routine national child health assessments. Questionnaire responses were received for 324/738 (44%) children. The mean age at questionnaire follow-up was 55.5 months. Delay in at least one developmental domain on the Child Development Inventory was observed in 107/324 (33%) children, with no evidence of difference between progesterone-exposed and placebo-exposed twins. There was no evidence of difference between the progesterone and placebo groups in global health status assessed using the Health Utilities Index: 89% of children were rated as having ‘excellent’ health and a further 8% as having ‘very good’ health. Conclusions In this cohort of twin children there was no evidence of a detrimental or beneficial impact on health and developmental outcomes at three to six years of age due to in utero exposure to progesterone. PMID:25881289

  20. No efficacy of annual gynaecological screening in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers; an observational follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Hermsen, B B J; Olivier, R I; Verheijen, R H M; van Beurden, M; de Hullu, J A; Massuger, L F; Burger, C W; Brekelmans, C T; Mourits, M J; de Bock, G H; Gaarenstroom, K N; van Boven, H H; Mooij, T M; Rookus, M A

    2007-01-01

    BRCA1/2 mutation carriers are offered gynaecological screening with the intention to reduce mortality by detecting ovarian cancer at an early stage. We examined compliance and efficacy of gynaecological screening in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. In this multicentre, observational, follow-up study we examined medical record data of a consecutive series of 888 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers who started annual screening with transvaginal ultrasonography and serum CA125 between 1993 and 2005. The women were annually screened for 75% of their total period of follow-up. Compliance decreased with longer follow-up. Five of the 10 incident cancers were interval tumours, diagnosed in women with a normal screening result within 310 months before diagnosis. No difference in stage distribution between incident screen-detected and interval tumours was found. Eight of the 10 incident cancers were stage III/IV (80%). Cancers diagnosed in unscreened family members had a similar stage distribution (77% in stage III/IV). The observed number of cases detected during screening was not significantly higher than expected (Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR): 1.5, 95% confidence interval: 0.72.8). For the subgroup that was fully compliant to annual screening, a similar SIR was found (1.6, 95% confidence interval: 0.53.6). Despite annual gynaecological screening, a high proportion of ovarian cancers in BRCA1/2 carriers are interval cancers and the large majority of all cancers are diagnosed in advanced stages. Therefore, it is unlikely that annual screening will reduce mortality from ovarian cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. PMID:17426707

  1. Association between serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and eating disorders outcome: a 6-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Castellini, Giovanni; Ricca, Valdo; Lelli, Lorenzo; Bagnoli, Silvia; Lucenteforte, Ersilia; Faravelli, Carlo; Sorbi, Sandro; Nacmias, Benedetta

    2012-07-01

    Eating disorder patients show different long-term outcomes, and trait-related alterations of serotonergic function, which might be related with the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene. We studied the relationships between 5-HTTLPR polymorphism, eating specific and general psychopathology and the long-term outcome of anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) patients. We evaluated the distribution of the functional 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in a series of 201 Italian, Caucasian, eating disorder patients (113 with AN and 88 with BN binge/purging (BP subtype) and in 150 Caucasian unrelated controls. Prior to starting an individual cognitive behavior therapy, a clinical assessment was performed by means of the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis I disorders and several self-report questionnaires. This assessment was repeated at the end of treatment, 3 years after the end of treatment and 3 years after the first follow-up. Diagnostic changes between AN and BN were frequent (28.3%), and the presence of depressive disorders was associated with a higher rate of diagnostic crossover during the follow-up period. The S-allele of the 5-HTTLPR genotype increases the risk susceptibility for both depressive comorbidity (OR = 4.23; 95% CI, 1.45-12.37) and diagnostic crossover during the follow-up period in AN patients (OR = 5.04; 95% CI, 1.69-14.98). Logistic regression analyses confirmed these findings, when the interaction between genotype and psychiatric comorbidity as predictors of diagnostic instability in AN patients were taken into account. No significant association was found between 5-HTTLPR genotype and recovery. The S-allele of the 5-HTTLPR genotype increases the risk for depressive disorders comorbidity, and moderates the long-term outcome of anorectic patients. PMID:22488946

  2. The Course of Positive Affective and Cognitive States in Borderline Personality Disorder: A 10-year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Lawrence Ian; Fitzmaurice, Garrett; Zanarini, Mary C.

    2013-01-01

    This study had two aims. The first was to identify and define the course of positive affective and cognitive states present in borderline personality disorder (BPD) and compare them to those of comparison subjects with other personality disorders. The second was to compare the positive affective and cognitive states of borderline patients who recovered from BPD to those who did not. Two hundred ninety patients with BPD and 72 non-borderline axis II subjects (OPD) completed the Positive Affect Scale (PAS), a 50-item self-report measure designed to assess positive states thought to be common among and characteristic of BPD over a 10-year course of prospective follow-up. Affective, cognitive, and mixed PAS items were separately analyzed, based on respective subscores. Borderline patients reported positive affective, cognitive, and mixed states less frequently than OPD subjects. Additionally, affective, and cognitive subscores increased significantly for both groups taken together over 10-years of follow-up though at greater rates among borderline patients. Mixed subscores showed a significant increase over time and at similar rates for both groups. Within the BPD group, recovered patients reported more positive affective, cognitive, and mixed states compared to non-recovered patients. Results also showed a significant increase in affective and cognitive states at similar rates for both groups taken together over 10-years of follow-up. Mixed subscores also showed a significant increase for both groups taken over time, though at greater rates among recovered borderline patients. Taken together, these results suggest a characteristic profile of positive states within borderline patients that is far lower than those reported by axis II comparison subjects. They also suggest that this characteristic profile is predictive of recovery of BPD over time. PMID:23606922

  3. Genetic Susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity: Follow-Up of Findings from Genome-Wide Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Kevin J.; Johnson, Matthew E.; Xia, Qianghua; Grant, Struan F. A.

    2014-01-01

    Elucidating the underlying genetic variations influencing various complex diseases is one of the major challenges currently facing clinical genetic research. Although these variations are often difficult to uncover, approaches such as genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been successful at finding statistically significant associations between specific genomic loci and disease susceptibility. GWAS has been especially successful in elucidating genetic variants that influence type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity/body mass index (BMI). Specifically, several GWASs have confirmed that a variant in transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) confers risk for T2D, while a variant in fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) confers risk for obesity/BMI; indeed both of these signals are considered the most statistically associated loci discovered for these respective traits to date. The discovery of these two key loci in this context has been invaluable for providing novel insight into mechanisms of heritability and disease pathogenesis. As follow-up studies of TCF7L2 and FTO have typically lead the way in how to follow up a GWAS discovery, we outline what has been learned from such investigations and how they have implications for the myriad of other loci that have been subsequently reported in this disease context. PMID:24719615

  4. [The Pordenone study on the precursors of atherosclosis in childhood. A 10-year follow-up. Cigarette smoking].

    PubMed

    Canterin, A A; Zanata, G; Canterin, F A; Donadon, V; Cignacco, G B; Marchesini, F; Rovere, M; Marin, M; Bomben, P; Dal Palù, C

    1991-06-01

    We have studied smoking habit in the sample enrolled in the ten year follow-up of the "Pordenone Study on the Precursors of Atherosclerosis in Childhood". The response rate at ten year follow-up was very high (about 90%). Prevalence of smoking is 45.1% among males and 25.6% among females. Males and females aged 23 present a prevalence of smokers higher than the other groups while the group aged 26 smoke less. Males began to smoke at 16.4 years, females at 16.7. Mean daily consumption is 12.6 cigarettes among males, and 5.0 among females. Juvenile experimentation with cigarettes and juvenile smoking habit are strong predictors to smoke ten years later; while parental smoking behaviour is not so influential. Therefore we conclude that smoking habit acquired in youngs has a high probability to be maintained in adults, remarking the importance of planning a preventive intervention as early as possible. PMID:1838506

  5. Childhood predictors of persistent ADHD in early adulthood: Results from the first follow-up study in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qian; Qian, Ying; He, Xiao-Xiao; Sun, Li; Chang, Wei-Li; Li, Yue-Ling; Cao, Qing-Jiu; Wang, Yu-Feng; Qian, Qiu-Jin

    2015-12-30

    It is known that childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persists into adulthood. Previous studies have demonstrated that gender, ADHD symptoms, functional impairment severity, medication treatment, IQ, comorbid with oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder and follow-up periods were associated with ADHD persistence in longitudinal samples of western population. In this study, we attempted to widely investigate the predictors particularly in a Chinese Han ADHD cohort. 399 children who met DSM-IV ADHD criteria were followed up into early adulthood. Ordinal logistic regression combined with survival analysis were conducted to examine the association of retrospectively reported childhood factors with adult ADHD persistence based on both categorical indicators and quantitative traits. 46.37% of the participants still met ADHD criteria in adulthood. Logistic models and survival analyses indicated that ADHD combined type appeared as a significant risk factor for ADHD persistence while superior IQ played a protective role even after controlling for the other potential confounders. When quantitative traits were applied, a number of hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms and IQ still made significant contributions. In conclusion, our results indicated the syndromic continuity of ADHD. Further, a number of hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms were a risk factor while higher IQ was protective for ADHD persistence. PMID:26614011

  6. Genetics of skin color variation in Europeans: genome-wide association studies with functional follow-up.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fan; Visser, Mijke; Duffy, David L; Hysi, Pirro G; Jacobs, Leonie C; Lao, Oscar; Zhong, Kaiyin; Walsh, Susan; Chaitanya, Lakshmi; Wollstein, Andreas; Zhu, Gu; Montgomery, Grant W; Henders, Anjali K; Mangino, Massimo; Glass, Daniel; Bataille, Veronique; Sturm, Richard A; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hofman, Albert; van IJcken, Wilfred F J; Uitterlinden, André G; Palstra, Robert-Jan T S; Spector, Timothy D; Martin, Nicholas G; Nijsten, Tamar E C; Kayser, Manfred

    2015-08-01

    In the International Visible Trait Genetics (VisiGen) Consortium, we investigated the genetics of human skin color by combining a series of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in a total of 17,262 Europeans with functional follow-up of discovered loci. Our GWAS provide the first genome-wide significant evidence for chromosome 20q11.22 harboring the ASIP gene being explicitly associated with skin color in Europeans. In addition, genomic loci at 5p13.2 (SLC45A2), 6p25.3 (IRF4), 15q13.1 (HERC2/OCA2), and 16q24.3 (MC1R) were confirmed to be involved in skin coloration in Europeans. In follow-up gene expression and regulation studies of 22 genes in 20q11.22, we highlighted two novel genes EIF2S2 and GSS, serving as competing functional candidates in this region and providing future research lines. A genetically inferred skin color score obtained from the 9 top-associated SNPs from 9 genes in 940 worldwide samples (HGDP-CEPH) showed a clear gradual pattern in Western Eurasians similar to the distribution of physical skin color, suggesting the used 9 SNPs as suitable markers for DNA prediction of skin color in Europeans and neighboring populations, relevant in future forensic and anthropological investigations. PMID:25963972

  7. Radiation Therapy Following Total Keloidectomy: A Retrospective Study over 11 Years

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyuhee; Kim, Jinhee

    2015-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy treatment after keloidectomy is known to be an effective method for reducing the rate of recurrence. However, to date, the appropriate total radiation dose and fractionation have not yet been confirmed. The authors performed a retrospective analysis to identify the appropriate radiation dose and fractionation in post-keloidectomy radiotherapy. Methods From May 2000 to February 2011, postoperative radiotherapy was performed on 39 lesions in 28 patients after total keloidectomy. The keloid lesions were confined to the ear lobes. Between May 2000 and May 2004, 14 keloids were treated with surgical excision, followed by a total radiation dose of 1,200 cGy in three fractions over four to five days (group 1). Between June 2004 to February 2011, 25 keloids were treated with surgical excision, followed by a total radiation dose of 1,500 cGy in three fractions over four to five days (group 2). Patients were given a survey asking them to report their experiences regarding reoperation, recurrence of symptoms, recurrence of the lesion, and satisfaction with the operation. Results Of the 28 patients who were treated, 20 underwent follow-up. Group 2 had more cases showing elevation with erythematous changes, whereas group 1 had more cases showing progressive stages of elevation than group 2. These differences were statistically significant. Moreover, a correlation was observed between the level of keloid elevation and the extent of symptoms. Conclusions We suggest 1,500 cGy of radiation in three fractions following keloidectomy for ear lobe keloids. A further randomized study is needed to assess the recurrence of keloids after radiotherapy. PMID:26430630

  8. Follow-up study investigating the benefits of phonological awareness intervention for children with spoken language impairment.

    PubMed

    Gillon, Gail T

    2002-01-01

    The efficacy of phonological awareness intervention for children at risk for reading disorder has received increasing attention in the literature. This paper reports the follow-up data for participants in the Gillon (2000a) intervention study. The performance of twenty, 5-7-year-old New Zealand children with spoken language impairment, who received phonological awareness intervention, was compared with the progress made by 20 children from a control group and 20 children with typical language development approximately 11 months post-intervention. The children with spoken language impairment all had expressive phonological difficulties and demonstrated delay in early reading development. Treatment effects on strengthening phoneme-grapheme connections in spelling development were also investigated. The results suggested that structured phonological awareness intervention led to sustained growth in phoneme awareness and word-recognition performance. At the follow-up assessment, the majority of the children who received intervention were reading at, or above, the level expected for their age on a measure of word recognition. The phonological awareness intervention also significantly strengthened phoneme-grapheme connections in spelling as evidenced by improved non-word spelling ability. In contrast, the control group of children with spoken language impairment who did not receive phonological awareness intervention showed remarkably little improvement in phoneme awareness over time and the majority remained poor readers. The results highlight the important role speech-language therapists can play in enhancing the early reading and spelling development of children with spoken language impairment. PMID:12396840

  9. A follow-up study of chronic fatigue syndrome in children and adolescents: symptom persistence and school absenteeism.

    PubMed

    Sankey, Alison; Hill, Catherine M; Brown, Josie; Quinn, Louise; Fletcher, Anna

    2006-01-01

    This is a follow-up study of 28 young people aged between 7 and 17 meeting the Oxford criteria for the diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome treated in a specialist paediatric/psychiatric service. Retrospective case note analysis revealed a wide range and duration of symptoms together with high levels of school absenteeism prior to the diagnosis. The mean follow-up interval after discharge from the specialist service was 3 years and although most of the young people regarded themselves as fully recovered by this time, improvement was variable and about one third were still experiencing disabling symptoms. The illness had impacted on the education or career plans of all the young people to some extent with 15 experiencing difficulty returning to school. This article highlights the need for early recognition and diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome in young people and the importance of continuing paediatric support to reduce symptom persistence in the sensitive recovery period. Maintaining school attendance by close liaison between health and education services both before and after diagnosis and treatment is also vital if long-term morbidity is to be reduced. PMID:17087490

  10. Acute fatty liver of pregnancy: Over six months follow-up study of twenty-five patients

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Hao-Feng; Liu, Jing-Yuan; Guo, Li-Min; Li, Xing-Wang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prognosis of patients with acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) 6 mo or longer after discharge. METHODS: The records of pregnant patients diagnosed with AFLP at Beijing Ditan Hospital over a 16-year period were reviewed in November 2012. Patients were monitored using abdominal ultrasound, liver and kidney functions, and routine blood examination. RESULTS: A total of 42 patients were diagnosed with AFLP during the study period, and 25 were followed. The mean follow-up duration was 54.5 mo (range: 6.5-181 mo). All patients were in good physical condition, but one patient had gestational diabetes. The renal and liver functions normalized in all patients after recovery, including in those with pre-existing liver or kidney failure. The ultrasound findings were normal in 12 patients, an increasingly coarsened echo-pattern and increased echogenicity of the liver in 10 patients, and mild to moderate fatty liver infiltration in 3 patients. Cirrhosis or liver nodules were not observed in any patient. CONCLUSION: Acute liver failure and acute renal failure in AFLP patients is reversible. Patients do not require any specific long-term follow-up after recovery from AFLP if their liver function tests have normalized and they remain well. PMID:25684961

  11. Enzyme replacement therapy in classical infantile pompe disease: results of a ten-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Klinge, L; Straub, V; Neudorf, U; Voit, T

    2005-02-01

    Infantile Pompe disease (IPD) is a fatal, autosomal recessive muscle-wasting disorder. Due to a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase patients develop a generalized myopathy, diaphragmatic weakness, and cardiomyopathy leading to death usually within the first year of life. So far there is no therapy available. We report on the safety and efficacy of transgenically derived recombinant human precursor acid alpha-glucosidase (rhGAA) in a 10-month follow-up study in two children with IPD who previously completed a 48-week course of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with the same medication at the same dose in a phase II clinical trial. Under this therapy cardiac status and muscle strength had improved, leading to survival beyond the age of one year. These results, together with data from two other phase II clinical trials encouraged further evaluation of the long-term safety and efficacy of enzyme replacement therapy in patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease. During the 10-month follow-up period, ERT was well-tolerated and neither patient experienced a single infusion-associated reaction. The initial improvements in cardiac size and function, as measured by left ventricular mass index and the fractional shortening, were maintained in both patients, and a continued improvement of motor function, as measured by the Alberta infant motor scale, was observed. PMID:15776317

  12. A retrospective cohort mortality study on workers of two thermoelectric power plants: fourteen-year follow-up results.

    PubMed

    Petrelli, G; Menniti-Ippolito, F; Taroni, F; Raschetti, R; Magarotto, G

    1989-03-01

    Although many studies have been performed to evaluate the environmental impact of coal energy production, few studies are available on the health risk for the people working in coal power plants. A retrospective cohort study was performed on the workers of two power plants near Venice (which use coal since 1968) in order to test the association between exposure to coal dust and ashes and mortality for all causes, all cancers, and respiratory and digestive cancer. One thousand three hundred seven male workers were followed up from 1968 to 1984. During this period 41 workers died; causes of death were collected from the local Mortality Registers and/or from the Hospital Records. The observed mortality of the study cohort was compared with the mortality expected from the Italian death rates in the same period. No Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR) was found in excess in the working cohort with respect to the standard population for any of the investigated effects. PMID:2707397

  13. Health-related quality of life after vertebral or hip fracture: a seven-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Hallberg, Inger; Bachrach-Lindström, Margareta; Hammerby, Staffan; Toss, Göran; Ek, Anna-Christina

    2009-01-01

    Background The negative impact of vertebral and hip low-energy fractures on health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) has been demonstrated previously, but few prospective long-term follow-up studies have been conducted. This study aims to (i) investigate the changes and long-term impact of vertebral or hip fracture and between fracture groups on HRQOL in postmenopausal women prospectively between two and seven years after the inclusion fracture, (ii) compare HRQOL results between fracture and reference groups and (iii) study the relationship between HRQOL and physical performance, spinal deformity index and bone mineral density at seven-year follow-up. Methods Ninety-one women examined two years after a low-energy vertebral or hip fracture were invited to a new examination seven years after the diagnosis. HRQOL was examined using the SF-36 questionnaire and was compared with an age and sex-matched reference group. Physical function was assessed using tests and questionnaires. Bone mineral density was measured. Radiographs of the spine were evaluated using the visual semiquantitative technique. A longitudinal and cross-sectional design was used in this study. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, Student's t-tests, ANCOVA, and partial correlation. Results Sixty-seven women participated. In the 42 women (mean age 75.8, SD 4.7) with vertebral fracture as inclusion fracture, bodily pain had deteriorated between two and seven years and might be explained by new fracture. Remaining pronounced reduction of HRQOL was seen in all domains except general health and mental health at seven-year follow-up in women with vertebral fractures compared to the reference group (p < 0.05). All 25 women (mean age 75.0, SD 4.7) with hip fracture as inclusion fracture had no significant changes in HRQOL between two and seven years and did not differ from the reference group regarding HRQOL after seven years. The vertebral group had significantly lower values for bodily pain, vitality, role-emotional function and mental health compared to the hip group. HRQOL showed a positive relationship between physical activity, static balance and handgrip strength. Conclusion The long-term reduction of HRQOL in women with vertebral fracture emerged clearly in this study. The relationships between HRQOL and physical performance in women with vertebral and hip fracture raise questions for more research. PMID:19886998

  14. Conclusions for mammography screening after 25-year follow-up of the Canadian National Breast Cancer Screening Study (CNBSS).

    PubMed

    Heywang-Köbrunner, S H; Schreer, I; Hacker, A; Noftz, M R; Katalinic, A

    2016-02-01

    Twenty-five-year follow-up data of the Canadian National Breast Cancer Screening Study (CNBSS) indicated no mortality reduction. What conclusions should be drawn? After conducting a systematic literature search and narrative analysis, we wish to recapitulate important details of this study, which may have been neglected: Sixty-eight percent of all included cancers were palpable, a situation that does not allow testing the value of early detection. Randomisation was performed at the sites after palpation, while blinding was not guaranteed. In the first round, this "randomisation" assigned 19/24 late stage cancers to the mammography group and only five to the control group, supporting the suspicion of severe errors in the randomisation process. The responsible physicist rated mammography quality as "far below state of the art of that time". Radiological advisors resigned during the study due to unacceptable image quality, training, and medical quality assurance. Each described problem may strongly influence the results between study and control groups. Twenty-five years of follow-up cannot heal these fundamental problems. This study is inappropriate for evidence-based conclusions. The technology and quality assurance of the diagnostic chain is shown to be contrary to today's screening programmes, and the results of the CNBSS are not applicable to them. Key Points • The evidence base of the Canadian study (CNBSS) has to be questioned.• Severe flaws in the randomization process and test methods occurred. • Problems were criticized during and after conclusion of the trial by experts.• The results are not applicable to quality-assured screening programs. • The evidence base of this study must be re-analyzed. PMID:26017741

  15. Long-term patterns in interpersonal behaviour amongst psychopathic patients in secure inpatient treatment: A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Draycott, Simon; Short, Roxanna; Kirkpatrick, Tim

    2015-05-01

    Psychopathy is a disorder that is partly defined by with maladaptive interpersonal behaviour and has significant effects on treatment outcomes. A previous study (Draycott et al., ) found that higher levels of psychopathy led to a specific interpersonal 'trajectory' amongst patients in a secure psychiatric treatment programme during the first 9 months of their admission. In that programme, more psychopathic patients became increasingly dominant over time, and less psychopathic patients became increasingly hostile. This study is a longer-term follow-up and extension of that study, extending the window of observation to 33 months of treatment. It was found that the more psychopathic patients' increased dominance returned to baseline levels by 33 months, as did the less psychopathic patients' increased hostility. This suggests that treatment for this group is not idiopathic but leaves unanswered the question as to what these divergent trajectories represent. PMID:25622564

  16. Ginkgo Biloba Extract and Long-Term Cognitive Decline: A 20-Year Follow-Up Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Amieva, Hélène; Meillon, Céline; Helmer, Catherine; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Dartigues, Jean François

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have looked at the potential benefits of various nootropic drugs such as Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761®; Tanakan®) and piracetam (Nootropyl®) on age-related cognitive decline often leading to inconclusive results due to small sample sizes or insufficient follow-up duration. The present study assesses the association between intake of EGb761® and cognitive function of elderly adults over a 20-year period. Methods and Findings The data were gathered from the prospective community-based cohort study ‘Paquid’. Within the study sample of 3612 non-demented participants aged 65 and over at baseline, three groups were compared: 589 subjects reporting use of EGb761® at at least one of the ten assessment visits, 149 subjects reporting use of piracetam at one of the assessment visits and 2874 subjects not reporting use of either EGb761® or piracetam. Decline on MMSE, verbal fluency and visual memory over the 20-year follow-up was analysed with a multivariate mixed linear effects model. A significant difference in MMSE decline over the 20-year follow-up was observed in the EGb761® and piracetam treatment groups compared to the ‘neither treatment’ group. These effects were in opposite directions: the EGb761® group declined less rapidly than the ‘neither treatment’ group, whereas the piracetam group declined more rapidly (β = −0.6). Regarding verbal fluency and visual memory, no difference was observed between the EGb761® group and the ‘neither treatment’ group (respectively, β = 0.21 and β = −0.03), whereas the piracetam group declined more rapidly (respectively, β = −1.40 and β = −0.44). When comparing the EGb761® and piracetam groups directly, a different decline was observed for the three tests (respectively β = −1.07, β = −1.61 and β = −0.41). Conclusion Cognitive decline in a non-demented elderly population was lower in subjects who reported using EGb761® than in those who did not. This effect may be a specific medication effect of EGb761®, since it was not observed for another nootropic medication, piracetam. PMID:23326356

  17. Challenges Related to Discovery, Follow-up, and Study of Small High Area-to-mass Ratio Objects at GEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildknecht, T.; Musci, R.; Flohrer, T.

    A significant population of faint debris with high area-to-mass ratios (AMR) in the range of 1 to 50 m2/kg exists in GEO. The team of the authors discovered the population several years ago using the ESA 1-m Space Debris Telescope in Tenerife. Individual groups, partly in the context of internationally coordinated projects, have undertaken significant observational effort to investigate the properties of this new class of debris objects during the past two years. The current consensus is that these objects may be fragments of multi-layer insulation blankets. The orbital elements of these high AMR objects heavily vary mainly due to solar radiation pressure. In particular the eccentricity and the inclination change significantly on time scales of a few days. It became moreover evident, that even the effective AMR of some individual objects is changing considerably. The study of the characteristics of high AMR objects is supported by immediate follow-up observations shortly after the discovery, as well as by regular re-observation (tracking). Both are mandatory tasks, which involve some technical and practical challenges. This paper describes challenges related to discovering and to following-up high AMR objects using several observing sites and coordinated telescopes. We will in particular address the near real-time orbit determination and scheduling of follow-up observations and the hand-over of objects between the ESA 1-m telescope in Tenerife and the 1-m ZIMLAT telescope of the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) in Zimmerwald, Switzerland. The discussion will also include the data exchange with international co-operating partners like the Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (KIAM) in Moscow and NASA. The continuous monitoring of high AMR objects allows further studies using technologies and approaches that imply the availability of accurate and up-to-date sets of orbital elements. As an example of recent studies, the investigation of optical properties by acquiring color photometry and light curves is presented. The paper concludes by summarizing additional recent results from the ESA and the AIUB telescopes.

  18. Predictors for Progression of Sleep Disordered Breathing among Public Transport Drivers: A 3-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Yu; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Chang, Cheng-Ping; Chou, Tzu-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle crashes. This study aimed to understand SDB progression and related factors among professional drivers. Methods: A total of 524 professional male drivers from a transportation company were included in this study. These drivers completed overnight in-home pulse oximetry studies both in 2006 and in 2009. Participants with abnormal results (oxygen desaturation index [ODI] ≥ 10 events/h) comprised the SDB group. Data included questionnaire information on demographics, medical history, SDB symptoms, and anthropometric measurements. Results: A total of 318 male workers were recruited for further analysis. Fifty of these workers belonged to the SDB group. Workers with untreated SDB significantly progressed to a more severe state after three years. Baseline body mass index (BMI), baseline ODI, and change in BMI were all significant positive predictors of SDB progression (β = 0.823, 0.242, and 1.626; p = 0.047, 0.013, and 0.004, respectively). Compared with non-SDB drivers, SDB subjects showed a greater proportion of newly diagnosed cardiovascular disease (38.0%) at follow-up. Conclusions: Untreated SDB was a gradually progressive disorder in professional drivers over a three-year period. Subjects with high BMI and moderate to severe SDB should be closely monitored to allow for early detection of worsening SDB. Weight control should be highlighted in the management of SDB. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 409. Citation: Lin CY, Shih TS, Liou SH, Lin MH, Chang CP, Chou TC. Predictors for progression of sleep disordered breathing among public transport drivers: a 3-year follow-up study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(4):419–425. PMID:25766707

  19. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CLEANING: FOLLOW UP QUESTIONNAIRE (UA-D-22.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to define the steps involved in cleaning the electronic data generated from data entry of the Follow Up Questionnaire. It applies to electronic data corresponding to the Follow Up Questionnaire that was scanned and verified by the Data Staff during the...

  20. Skin cancer in patients with psoriasis treated with coal tar. A 25-year follow-up study

    SciTech Connect

    Pittelkow, M.R.; Perry, H.O.; Muller, S.A.; Maughan, W.Z.; O'Brien, P.C.

    1981-08-01

    For many years, crude coal tar has been used for the treatment of psoriasis. The possible carcinogenic effect of crude coal tar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Goeckerman regimen), considered individually or in combination, has been of some concern to physicians. A 25-year follow-up study was completed on 280 patients with psoriasis who were hospitalized and treated with crude coal tar and UV radiation at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn, during the years 1950 through 1954. The results of this study suggest that the incidence of skin cancer is not appreciably increased above the expected incidence for the general population when patients are treated with coal tar ointments. It seems that the Goeckerman regimen (topical crude coal tar combined with UV radiation) can be used with minimal risk for skin cancer in the treatment of psoriasis.

  1. A fast alignment method for breast MRI follow-up studies using automated breast segmentation and current-prior registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Strehlow, Jan; Rühaak, Jan; Weiler, Florian; Diez, Yago; Gubern-Merida, Albert; Diekmann, Susanne; Laue, Hendrik; Hahn, Horst K.

    2015-03-01

    In breast cancer screening for high-risk women, follow-up magnetic resonance images (MRI) are acquired with a time interval ranging from several months up to a few years. Prior MRI studies may provide additional clinical value when examining the current one and thus have the potential to increase sensitivity and specificity of screening. To build a spatial correlation between suspicious findings in both current and prior studies, a reliable alignment method between follow-up studies is desirable. However, long time interval, different scanners and imaging protocols, and varying breast compression can result in a large deformation, which challenges the registration process. In this work, we present a fast and robust spatial alignment framework, which combines automated breast segmentation and current-prior registration techniques in a multi-level fashion. First, fully automatic breast segmentation is applied to extract the breast masks that are used to obtain an initial affine transform. Then, a non-rigid registration algorithm using normalized gradient fields as similarity measure together with curvature regularization is applied. A total of 29 subjects and 58 breast MR images were collected for performance assessment. To evaluate the global registration accuracy, the volume overlap and boundary surface distance metrics are calculated, resulting in an average Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) of 0.96 and root mean square distance (RMSD) of 1.64 mm. In addition, to measure local registration accuracy, for each subject a radiologist annotated 10 pairs of markers in the current and prior studies representing corresponding anatomical locations. The average distance error of marker pairs dropped from 67.37 mm to 10.86 mm after applying registration.

  2. Statin Use and the Risk of Kidney Disease With Long-Term Follow-Up (8.4-Year Study).

    PubMed

    Acharya, Tushar; Huang, Jian; Tringali, Steven; Frei, Christopher R; Mortensen, Eric M; Mansi, Ishak A

    2016-02-15

    Few studies have examined long-term effects of statin therapy on kidney diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the association of statin use with incidence of acute and chronic kidney diseases after prolonged follow-up. In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed data from the San Antonio area military health care system from October 2003 through March 2012. Statin users were propensity score matched to nonusers using 82 baseline characteristics including demographics, co-morbidities, medications, and health care utilization. Study outcomes were acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and nephritis/nephrosis/renal sclerosis. Of the 43,438 subjects included, we propensity score matched 6,342 statin users with 6,342 nonusers. Statin users had greater odds of acute kidney injury (odds ratio [OR] 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14 to 1.48), CKD (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.52), and nephritis/nephrosis/renal sclerosis (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.73). In a subset of patients without co-morbidities, the association of statin use with CKD remained significant (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.85). In a secondary analysis, adjusting for diseases/conditions that developed during follow-up weakened this association. In conclusion, statin use is associated with increased incidence of acute and chronic kidney disease. These findings are cautionary and suggest that long-term effects of statins in real-life patients may differ from shorter term effects in selected clinical trial populations. PMID:26742473

  3. The associations between psychosocial working conditions and changes in common mental disorders: a follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Common mental disorders (CMD) are prevalent in working populations and have adverse consequences for employee well-being and work ability, even leading to early retirement. Several studies report associations between psychosocial working conditions and CMD. However, there is a lack of longitudinal research within a broad framework of psychosocial working conditions and improvement in CMD. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between several psychosocial working conditions and deteriorating and improving CMD among ageing employees over a five-to-six-year follow-up period. Methods The study is based on the Helsinki Health Study baseline survey in 2001–2002 and a follow-up in 2007 (N = 4340, response rate 83%) conducted among 40-60-year-old female and male employees. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to measure common mental disorders. Psychosocial working conditions were measured in terms of job strain, organisational justice, work-family interface, social support and workplace bullying. The covariates included sociodemographic and health factors. Results Following adjustment for all the covariates, family-to-work (OR 1.41, 95% Cl 1.04-1.91) and work-to-family conflicts (OR 1.99, 95% Cl 1.42-2.78) and workplace bullying (OR 1.40, 95% Cl 1.09-1.79) were associated with deterioration, and family-to-work conflicts (OR 1.65, 95% Cl 1.66-2.34) and social support (OR 1.47, 95% Cl 1.07-2.00) with improvement in CMD. Conclusions Adverse psychosocial working conditions contribute to poor mental health among employees. Preventing workplace bullying, promoting social support and achieving a better balance between work and family may help employees to maintain their mental health. PMID:24916716

  4. Use of dietary supplements in Olympic athletes is decreasing: a follow-up study between 2002 and 2009

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of use of dietary supplements (DS) among large sample of elite Finnish athletes and to describe possible changes in dietary supplement use between the years 2002 and 2009. Methods A prospective follow-up study was conducted on Olympic athletes. The first survey was conducted on Olympic athletes in 2002 (N = 446) and the follow-up study was conducted between May 2008 and June 2009 (N = 372). Results In 2002, a total of 81% of the athletes used dietary supplements (a mean of 3.37 ± 3.06 DS per user) and in 2009, a total of 73% of the athletes (a mean of 2.60 ± 2.69 per DS user) used them. After adjusting for age-, sex- and sport type, the OR (95% confidence interval, CI) for use of any dietary supplement was significantly less in 2009 as compared with 2002 results (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.43-0.90). Decrease in DS use was observed in all supplement subgroups (vitamins, minerals, nutritional supplements). Athletes in speed and power events and endurance events reported use of any dietary supplement significantly more often than team sport athletes both in 2002 and 2009. In year 2009, the frequency of all dietary supplement use increased when athlete's age increased and the increase was significant in older age groups: of the athletes under 21 years 63%, 21-24 years 83% and over 24 years 90% consumed nutritional supplements. Conclusions Based in our study, there seems to be a lowering trend of dietary supplement use among elite Finnish athletes although differences between sport subgroups and age groups are considerable. PMID:21294857

  5. Personality and the risk of cancer: a 16-year follow-up study of the GAZEL cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lemogne, Cédric; Consoli, Silla M.; Geoffroy-Perez, Béatrice; Coeuret-Pellicer, Mireille; Nabi, Hermann; Melchior, Maria; Limosin, Frédéric; Zins, Marie; Ducimetière, Pierre; Goldberg, Marcel; Cordier, Sylvaine

    2013-01-01

    Objective Large-scale prospective studies do not support an association between neuroticism and extroversion with cancer incidence. However, research on other personality constructs is inconclusive. This longitudinal study examined the associations between four personality measures, Type 1 “suppressed emotional expression,” Type 5 “rational/anti-emotional,” hostility and Type A with cancer incidence. Methods Personality measures were available for 13,768 members in the GAZEL cohort study (baseline assessment in 1993). Follow-up for diagnoses of primary cancers was obtained from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 2009. Associations between personality and cancer incidence were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards analyses and adjusted for potential confounders. Results During a median follow-up of 16.0 years [range: 9 days-16 years], 1,139 participants received at least one diagnosis of primary cancer. The mean duration between baseline and cancer diagnosis was 9.3 years. Type 1 personality was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer [hazard ratio (HR) per standard deviation: 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.68–0.97, p=.02]. Type 5 personality was not associated with prostate, breast, colorectal or smoking-related cancers, but was associated with other cancers (HR per standard deviation: 1.17, 95% CI = 1.04–1.31, p=.01). Hostility was associated with an increased risk of smoking-related cancers, which was explained by smoking habits, and Type A was not associated with any of the cancer end-points. Conclusions Several personality measures were prospectively associated with the incidence of selected cancers. These links may warrant further epidemiological studies and investigations about potential biobehavioral mechanisms. PMID:23513238

  6. Hemodialysis decreases carotid-brachial and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocities: A 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Cabrera Fischer, Edmundo I; Bia, Daniel; Galli, Cintia; Valtuille, Rodolfo; Zócalo, Yanina; Wray, Sandra; Armentano, Ricardo L

    2015-07-01

    Aortic stiffness is a prognostic parameter associated with patient mortality. Vascular access creation has been shown to have effects on arterial stiffness both in the aorta and in the upper limb arteries in chronically hemodialyzed patients (CHPs). However, no longitudinal studies have been conducted in order to characterize the evolution of arterial stiffness in CHPs. The aims of this work were (a) to measure baseline pulse wave velocity (PWV) in the carotid-femoral and in right and left carotid-brachial pathways in a cohort of CHP and (b) to conduct a 5-year prospective study on the same cohort to determine possible time-related differences. Pulse wave velocity was measured both in the carotid-femoral and in the carotid-brachial pathways, and clinical and biochemical parameters were collected in 25 CHPs, which were followed up after a 5-year lapse. Right and left carotid-brachial pathway PWV values showed significant decreases after the 5-year follow-up, independently of the presence of the vascular access (P < 0.001). Additionally, baseline carotid-brachial PWV was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than values measured 5 years later for upper limbs with vascular access (11.97 ± 2.97 m/sec vs. 6.76 ± 1.48 m/sec, respectively) and without vascular access (12.25 ± 2.38 m/sec vs. 7.18 ± 1.88 m/sec, respectively). Similarly, PWV values in the carotid-femoral pathway decreased significantly (P < 0.001) over the same period (13.27 ± 2.96 m/sec vs. 9.75 ± 2.99 m/sec, respectively). The 5-year follow-up of PWV showed significant decreases in both carotid-brachial and carotid-femoral pathways. The general changes in arterial stiffness could be related to the vascular access creation, hemodialysis therapy, and to the improvement of arterial pressure management. PMID:25645625

  7. Five-year follow-up study of multi-domain cognitive training for healthy elderly community members

    PubMed Central

    FENG, Wei; LI, Chunbo; CHEN, You; CHENG, Yan; WU, Wenyuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Cognitive training, a safe non-pharmacological intervention, may help mitigate cognitive decline and prevent the development of dementia in elderly individuals. Objective Evaluate the long-term effects of cognitive training among healthy elderly community members. Methods Healthy individuals 70 years of age or older from one urban community in Shanghai were screened and the 151 individuals who met inclusion criteria were assigned either to an intervention group (n=90) or a control group (n=61). The intervention involved twice-weekly training in reasoning, memory, and strategy that continued for 12 weeks (a total of 24 sessions). Participants were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks, and 5 years after enrollment using the Chinese versions of the Neuropsychological Test Battery for Elderly persons (NTBE), the Stroop Color-Word Test, and a general health questionnaire. Results Forty-nine (54%) intervention group subjects and 33 (54%) control group subjects completed the 5-year follow-up. There were few differences in the baseline neurocognitive measures of those who did and did not complete the 5-year follow-up, and there were few differences between those who dropped out of the intervention group compared to those who dropped out of the control group. At the 5-year follow-up, individuals in the intervention group performed better than those in the control group on only 5 measures (in the Trails Making A Test and the Cancellation Test 3) of the 61 measures assessed by NTBE and the Stroop tests, but none of these differences met the pre-determined required level of statistical significance (p=0.0008). Conclusion We do not confirm the results of previous studies that report long-term benefits of brief cognitive training courses for elderly community residents. Our failure to identify differences in cognitive functioning five years after cognitive training is not likely due to differential dropout between the intervention and control groups but may be related to the relatively small sample and the large number of measures being assessed. Future intervention studies for cognitive training in the elderly should be hypothesis driven (i.e., focused on a single outcome measure of interest), use much larger samples, and include regular booster sessions as part of the cognitive training package. PMID:25114479

  8. Persistence, clearance and reinfection regarding six high risk human papillomavirus types in Colombian women: a follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The design of new healthcare schemes which involve using molecular HPV screening means that both persistence and clearance data regarding the most prevalent types of HR-HPV occurring in cities in Colombia must be ascertained. Methods This study involved 219 HPV positive women in all of whom 6 types of HR-HPV had been molecularly identified and quantified; they were followed-up for 2 years. The Kaplan-Meier survival function was used for calculating the time taken for the clearance of each type of HPV. The role of a group of independent variables concerning the time taken until clearance was evaluated using a Cox proportional-hazards regression model or parametric (log-logistic) methods when necessary. Regarding viral load, the Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for measuring the difference of medians for viral load for each type, according to the state of infection (cleared or persistent). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for evaluating the change in the women’s colposcopy findings at the start of follow-up and at the end of it (whether due to clearance or the end of the follow-up period). Results It was found that HPV-18 and HPV-31 types had the lowest probability of becoming cleared (1.76 and 2.75 per 100 patients/month rate, respectively). Women from Colombian cities other than Bogotá had a greater probability of being cleared if they had HPV-16 (HR 2.58: 1.51–4.4 95% CI) or HPV-58 (1.79 time ratio: 1.33-2.39 95% CI) infection. Regarding viral load, HPV-45-infected women having 1 × 106 to 9.99 × 109 viral copies had better clearance compared to those having greater viral loads (1.61 time ratio: 1.01-2.57 95% CI). Lower HPV-31 viral load values were associated with this type’s persistence and changes in colposcopy findings for HPV-16 gave the worst prognosis in women having low absolute load values. Conclusions HPV infection clearance in this study was related to factors such as infection type, viral load and the characteristics of the cities from which the women came. Low viral load values would indicate viral persistence and a worse prognosis regarding a change in colposcopy findings. PMID:25030273

  9. Valvular Abnormalities Detected by Echocardiography in 5-Year Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Helena J. van der; Caron, Huib N.; Kremer, Leontien C.; Dalen, Elvira C. van

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of valvular abnormalities after radiation therapy involving the heart region and/or treatment with anthracyclines and to identify associated risk factors in a large cohort of 5-year childhood cancer survivors (CCS). Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of all 626 eligible 5-year CCS diagnosed with childhood cancer in the Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center between 1966 and 1996 and treated with radiation therapy involving the heart region and/or anthracyclines. We determined the presence of valvular abnormalities according to echocardiograms. Physical radiation dose was converted into the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}). Using multivariable logistic regression analyses, we examined the associations between cancer treatment and valvular abnormalities. Results: We identified 225 mainly mild echocardiographic valvular abnormalities in 169 of 545 CCS (31%) with a cardiac assessment (median follow-up time, 14.9 years [range, 5.1-36.8 years]; median attained age 22.0 years [range, 7.0-49.7 years]). Twenty-four CCS (4.4%) had 31 moderate or higher-graded abnormalities. Most common abnormalities were tricuspid valve disorders (n=119; 21.8%) and mitral valve disorders (n=73; 13.4%). The risk of valvular abnormalities was associated with increasing radiation dose (using EQD{sub 2}) involving the heart region (odds ratio 1.33 per 10 Gy) and the presence of congenital heart disease (odds ratio 3.43). We found no statistically significant evidence that anthracyclines increase the risk. Conclusions: Almost one-third of CCS treated with potentially cardiotoxic therapy had 1 or more asymptomatic, mostly mild valvular abnormalities after a median follow-up of nearly 15 years. The most important risk factors are higher EQD{sub 2} to the heart region and congenital heart disease. Studies with longer follow-up are necessary to investigate the clinical course of asymptomatic valvular abnormalities in CCS.

  10. Combined therapy with bevacizumab and photodynamic therapy for myopic choroidal neovascularization: A one-year follow-up controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Saviano, Sandro; Piermarocchi, Rita; Leon, Pia E.; Mangogna, Alessandro; Zanei, Andrea; Cavarzeran Sc, Fabiano; Tognetto, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a combined treatment for myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV) using photodynamic therapy (PDT) and intravitreal bevacizumab and to compare it with intravitreal bevacizumab monotherapy. METHODS Thirty-four eyes with angiographic evidence of myopic CNV were randomly divided into two groups: 17 were treated with one intravitreal bevacizumab injection (1.25 mg) and low-fluence-rate PDT within seven days of the injection (Group A). The other 17 received monotherapy with bevacizumab injections (Group B). Clinical evidence of complications, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and fluorescein leakage were evaluated. BCVA and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were evaluated monthly. The timepoints follow-up was established at 6 and 12mo. All patients were retreated following a PRN protocol. RESULTS A total of 34 eyes of 34 patients (26 women and 8 men) with a mean age of 62.35 years were included. In Group A (17 eyes) the mean BCVA increased from 0.55±0.13 logMAR before the treatment to 0.40±0.09 logMAR at the 12mo follow-up (P<0.01). In Group B (17 eyes) the mean BCVA increased from 0.60±0.11 logMAR before the treatment to 0.55±0.12 logMAR at the 12mo follow-up (P<0.01). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of LogMar visual acuity. In Group A the mean number of combined treatments was 1.8±0.11 per patient; in Group B the mean number of intravitreal bevacizumab injections was 3.1±0.08 per patient. The number of treatments was significantly fewer in Group A (P<0.01). No local or systemic side effects occurred among any of the patients treated in this study. CONCLUSION The combination of anti-angiogenic injections and PDT appears to be a safe and effective option for myopic CNV treatment and allows for a significant reduction of intravitreal injections. PMID:24790881

  11. Weight reduction and aortic stiffness in obese children and adolescents: a 1-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hvidt, K N; Olsen, M H; Ibsen, H; Holm, J-C

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the effect of weight reduction on aortic stiffness and especially so in the young. The present study investigates whether weight reduction influences aortic stiffness in obese children and adolescents. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and augmentation index at heart rate 75 (AIx@HR75) were measured in 72 obese patients aged 10-18 years at baseline and after 1-year of lifestyle intervention (follow-up). We found that although the degree of obesity decreased (Δbody mass index z-score: -0.24±0.45, P<0.0001), cfPWV was higher at follow-up (ΔcfPWV: 0.27±0.47 m s(-1), P<0.0001), which was explained by the increase in age (β=0.12 ms(-1)  per year, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.17, P<0.0001) and partly by changes in mean arterial pressure and heart rate. Changes in cfPWV were not related to changes in obesity measures. No significant change was found in AIx@HR75 (ΔAIx@HR75: 2.10±9.73%, P=0.072), but changes in AIx@HR75 were related to changes in abdominal fat (Δwaist/height ratio: β=50.3, 95% CI 6.7-94.0, P=0.02) and changes in total body fat percent by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan (Δtotal body fat (%): β=0.7, 95% CI 0.1-1.3, P=0.02) when adjusted for gender and relevant baseline confounders. In conclusion, no clear effect of weight reduction was found on aortic stiffness, although changes in AIx@HR75 were associated with changes in both abdominal fat and total body fat percent. The higher cfPWV at follow-up was related to the older age. PMID:25589213

  12. Ten-Year Follow-Up Study of PTSD Diagnosis, Symptom Severity, and Psychosocial Indices in Aging Holocaust Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Schmeidler, James; Labinsky, Ellen; Bell, Amanda; Morris, Adam; Zemelman, Shelly; Grossman, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We performed a longitudinal study of Holocaust survivors with and without PTSD by assessing symptoms and other measures at two intervals, approximately 10 years apart. Method The original cohort consisted of 63 community-dwelling subjects, of whom 40 were available for follow-up. Results There was a general diminution in PTSD symptom severity over time. However, in 10% of the subjects (n=4), new instances of Delayed Onset PTSD developed between the Time 1 and Time 2. Self-report ratings at both assessments revealed a worsening of trauma related symptoms over time in persons without PTSD at Time 1, but an improvement in those with PTSD at Time 1. Conclusion The findings suggest that a nuanced characterization of PTSD trajectory over time is more reflective of PTSD symptomatology than simple diagnostic status at one time. The possibility of Delayed Onset trajectory complicates any simplistic overall trajectory summarizing the longitudinal course of PTSD. PMID:18785948

  13. Parenteral Pethidine for labour pain relief and substance use disorder: 20-year follow-up cohort study in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Kanhai, Humphrey; Rosendaal, Frits; van Dommelen, Paula; Swaab, Dick; Rodrigues Pereira, Erik; van de Wetering, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether use of intrapartum Pethidine pain analgesia increases the risk for substance use disorder in adult offspring. Design Analysis of data from a cohort study. Setting Academic hospital in Leiden, the Netherlands. Participants 133 cases and 164 control individuals, aged 18–20 years at follow-up. Main outcome measure Incidence of substance use disorder or use of alcohol and tobacco. Results The lifetime use of addictive substances in children exposed to intrapartum Pethidine analgesia was 45% of 133 children versus 48% of 164 not-exposed subjects (adjusted OR=0.79, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.29). Recent use of alcohol, tobacco and hard drugs showed no statistical difference either. Conclusion Pethidine for labour pain medication appears not to be associated with substance misuse or smoking in later life. PMID:22649173

  14. Band ligation vs. N-Butyl-2-cyanoacrylate injection in acute gastric variceal bleeding: a prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Tantau, Marcel; Crisan, Dana; Popa, Daniel; Vesa, Stefan; Tantau, Alina

    BACKGROUND. Treatment of gastric varices (GV) implies a number of several difficulties and sometimes entails complications. The best endoscopic success rate was attributed until now to the use of tissue adhesives(N-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylate) and band ligation. AIM. To assess the therapeutic efficacy and safety of cyanoacrylate injection compared to band ligation in patients with acute GV hemorrhage. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Thirty-seven patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding from GV were included in the study, treated with cyanoacrylate injection (GVO)-19 patients or band ligations (GVL)-18 patients. They were followed up for overall results, complications and survival rate. RESULTS. The mean age of the study group was 60.22 ± 9.34 years, with a male/female ratio of 21:16. The mean follow-up period was 427.26 ± 214.16 days in the GVO group and 406.21 ± 213.23 days in the GVL group (p = 0.76). Initial hemostasis was achieved in all patients treated with cyanoacrylate and in 88.88% from the GVL group (p = 0.43). Rebleeding occurred in 72.22% of the GVL group and in 31.57% of the GVO patients (p = 0.03). Patients in the GVO group had a significantly larger rebleeding-free period(p = 0.006). No difference was found in survival rates(p = 0.75). The Child Class (p = 0.003 for Class C) and treatment method (p = 0.01) were independently associated with the rate of rebleeding. No differences were found regarding the rate of complications. CONCLUSION. The use of cyanoacrylate in acute GV bleeding had better results when compared with band ligation in terms of controlling the hemorrhage and recurrence of bleeding. The overall survival rate was not influenced by the method used for the treatment of complicated GV. PMID:24378269

  15. Associations of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior with Academic Skills – A Follow-Up Study among Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Haapala, Eero A.; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Tompuri, Tuomo; Lintu, Niina; Väistö, Juuso; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.; Laaksonen, David E.; Lindi, Virpi; Lakka, Timo A.

    2014-01-01

    Background There are no prospective studies that would have compared the relationships of different types of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with academic skills among children. We therefore investigated the associations of different types of PA and SB with reading and arithmetic skills in a follow-up study among children. Methods The participants were 186 children (107 boys, 79 girls, 6–8 yr) who were followed-up in Grades 1–3. PA and SB were assessed using a questionnaire in Grade 1. Reading fluency, reading comprehension and arithmetic skills were assessed using standardized tests at the end of Grades 1–3. Results Among all children more recess PA and more time spent in SB related to academic skills were associated with a better reading fluency across Grades 1–3. In boys, higher levels of total PA, physically active school transportation and more time spent in SB related to academic skills were associated with a better reading fluency across the Grades 1–3. Among girls, higher levels of total PA were related to worse arithmetic skills across Grades 1–3. Moreover, total PA was directly associated with reading fluency and arithmetic skills in Grades 1–3 among girls whose parents had a university degree, whereas these relationships were inverse in girls of less educated parents. Conclusions Total PA, physically active school transportation and SB related to academic skills may be beneficial for the development of reading skills in boys, whereas factors that are independent of PA or SB may be more important for academic skills in girls. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01803776 PMID:25207813

  16. Long-term outcome of head injuries: a 23 year follow up study of children with head injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Klonoff, H; Clark, C; Klonoff, P S

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the 23 year follow up study was to determine the relationship between trauma variables including measures of head injury and very long-term sequelae. The study included 159 individuals with a mean age 31.40 years, of whom approximately 90% were admitted to hospital with a mild head injury during childhood (mean age 7.96). Extent of head injury was determined by unconsciousness, neurological status, skull fracture, EEG, post-traumatic seizures and a composite measure. The composite measure of neurological variables was the best predictor of long-term outcome. In addition, IQ recorded in the post-acute phase was a reliable predictor of long-term outcome. Of the sample, 32.7% reported physical complaints and 17.6% reported current psychological/psychiatric problems unrelated to the head injury. Subjective sequelae (physical, intellectual and emotional) specified as due to the head injury were reported by 31% of the sample, and the sequelae were found to be related to the extent of the head injury and initial IQ. There were no discernible relationships between attribute variables including premorbid status and age with subjective sequelae. There were, however, significant relationships between subjective sequelae and objective, psychosocial measures of adaptation including educational lag, unemployment, current psychological/psychiatric problems and relationships with family members. Finally, there appeared to be continuity of complaints elicited during the five year follow up of the original project and current sequelae. The severity of the head injury was identified as the primary contributory factor in the reconstitution process and in the prediction of long term outcomes. PMID:8482963

  17. Long-term follow-up of study participants from prophylactic HIV vaccine clinical trials in Africa.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Claudia; Jaoko, Walter; Omosa-Manyonyi, Gloria; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Mpendo, Juliet; Nanvubya, Annet; Karita, Etienne; Bayingana, Roger; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Chomba, Elwyn; Kilembe, William; Nchabeleng, Maphoshane; Nyombayire, Julien; Stevens, Gwynn; Chetty, Paramesh; Lehrman, Jennifer; Cox, Josephine; Allen, Susan; Dally, Len; Smith, Carol; Fast, Patricia E

    2014-01-01

    Long-term safety is critical for the development and later use of a vaccine to prevent HIV/AIDS. Likewise, the persistence of vaccine-induced antibodies and their impact on HIV testing must be established. IAVI has sponsored several Phase I and IIA HIV vaccine trials enrolling healthy, HIV-seronegative African volunteers. Plasmid DNA and viral vector based vaccines were tested. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. After completion of vaccine trials conducted between 2001-2007, both vaccine and placebo recipients were offered enrolment into an observational long-term follow-up study (LTFU) to monitor potential late health effects and persistence of immune responses. At scheduled 6-monthly clinic visits, a health questionnaire was administered; clinical events were recorded and graded for severity. Blood was drawn for HIV testing and cellular immune assays. 287 volunteers were enrolled; total follow-up after last vaccination was 1463 person years (median: 5.2 years). Ninety-three (93)% of volunteers reported good health at their last LTFU visit. Infectious diseases and injuries accounted for almost 50% of the 175 reported clinical events, of which over 95% were mild or moderate in severity. There were 30 six pregnancies, six incident HIV infections and 14 volunteers reported cases of social harm. Persistence of immune responses was rare. No safety signal was identified. No potentially vaccine-related medical condition, no immune mediated disease, or malignancy was reported. HIV vaccines studied in these trials had a low potential of induction of persisting HIV antibodies. PMID:24374365

  18. Combined performance of physical examination, mammography, and ultrasonography for breast cancer screening among Chinese women: a follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Y.; Kang, M.; Li, H.; Li, J.Y.; Zhang, J.Y.; Liu, L.H.; Liu, X.T.; Zhao, Y.; Wang, Q.; Li, C.C.; Lee, H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We aimed to determine which combination of physical examination (pe), mammography (mam), and ultrasonography (us) would optimize breast cancer detection in China. Methods We conducted a trial of screening with pe, mam, and us among Chinese women 25 years of age and older. All initial screenings using the three modalities were completed within 30 days of each other, and subjects were followed approximately 1 year later. The performances of the three screening methods used alone, in parallel, or in series were compared. Data were analyzed using exact confidence intervals (cis) and the McNemar test. Results Between March 2009 and July 2011, 3028 eligible women completed all study examinations. At a mean follow-up of 1.3 years, 33 breast cancers were identified in the study population. Mammography detected 28 cancers; us, 24 cancers; and pe, 22 cancers. During the follow-up period, 2 false-negative cases occurred clinically. The highest sensitivity for breast cancer screening (93.9%) was achieved by paralleling mam with us, but came at the cost of a higher recall rate (12.15%). Using us alone at the first stage, followed by mam when indicated, offered high specificity (99.4%) and the lowest recall rate (1.82%), which were not reached at the expense of sensitivity (84.8%). Used in series, us and mam achieved a sensitivity similar to that for the same modalities used in parallel (McNemar p > 0.05). Conclusions Taking limited health resources into consideration, the strategy of screening with us alone at the first stage, followed by mam when indicated, may optimize breast cancer detection in most regions of China. PMID:22876165

  19. Long-term follow-up of study participants from prophylactic HIV vaccine clinical trials in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Claudia; Jaoko, Walter; Omosa-Manyonyi, Gloria; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Mpendo, Juliet; Nanvubya, Annet; Karita, Etienne; Bayingana, Roger; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Chomba, Elwyn; Kilembe, William; Nchabeleng, Maphoshane; Nyombayire, Julien; Stevens, Gwynn; Chetty, Paramesh; Lehrman, Jennifer; Cox, Josephine; Allen, Susan; Dally, Len; Smith, Carol; Fast, Patricia E

    2014-01-01

    Long-term safety is critical for the development and later use of a vaccine to prevent HIV/AIDS. Likewise, the persistence of vaccine-induced antibodies and their impact on HIV testing must be established. IAVI has sponsored several Phase I and IIA HIV vaccine trials enrolling healthy, HIV-seronegative African volunteers. Plasmid DNA and viral vector based vaccines were tested. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. After completion of vaccine trials conducted between 2001–2007, both vaccine and placebo recipients were offered enrolment into an observational long-term follow-up study (LTFU) to monitor potential late health effects and persistence of immune responses. At scheduled 6-monthly clinic visits, a health questionnaire was administered; clinical events were recorded and graded for severity. Blood was drawn for HIV testing and cellular immune assays. 287 volunteers were enrolled; total follow-up after last vaccination was 1463 person years (median: 5.2 years). Ninety-three (93)% of volunteers reported good health at their last LTFU visit. Infectious diseases and injuries accounted for almost 50% of the 175 reported clinical events, of which over 95% were mild or moderate in severity. There were 30 six pregnancies, six incident HIV infections and 14 volunteers reported cases of social harm. Persistence of immune responses was rare. No safety signal was identified. No potentially vaccine-related medical condition, no immune mediated disease, or malignancy was reported. HIV vaccines studied in these trials had a low potential of induction of persisting HIV antibodies. PMID:24374365

  20. The Gap between Individual Perception and Compliance: A Qualitative Follow-Up Study of the Surgical Safety Checklist Application

    PubMed Central

    Sendlhofer, Gerald; Lumenta, David Benjamin; Leitgeb, Karina; Kober, Brigitte; Jantscher, Lydia; Schanbacher, Monika; Berghold, Andrea; Pregartner, Gudrun; Brunner, Gernot; Tax, Christa; Kamolz, Lars Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background “The Surgical Safety Checklist (SSC) is important, but we don’t use it adequately” is a well-suited statement that reflects the SSC's application in hospitals. Our aim was to follow up on our initial study on compliance (2014) by analysing differences between individual perception and compliance with the SSC. Methods We conducted a follow-up online survey to assess healthcare professionals’ individual perception of, as well as satisfaction and compliance with the SSC three years following its thorough implementation. Results 171 (19.5%) of 875 operating team members completed the online survey. 99.4% confirmed using the SSC. Self-estimated subjective knowledge about the intention of the checklist was high, whereas objective knowledge was moderate, but improved as compared to 2014. According to an independent audit the SSC was used in 93.1% of all operations and among the SSCs used the completion rate was 57.2%. The use of the SSC was rated as rather easy [median (IQR): 7 (6–7)], familiar [7 (6–7)], generally important [7 (7–7)], and good for patients [7 (6–7)] as well as for employees [7 (7–7)]. Only comfort of use was rated lower [6 (5–7)]. Conclusion There is a gap between individual perception and actual application of the SSC. Despite healthcare professionals confirming the importance of the SSC, compliance was moderate. The introduction of SSCs in the health care sector remains a constant challenge and requires continuous re-evaluation as well as a sensible integration into existing workflows in hospitals. PMID:26925579

  1. Recurrent falls in Parkinson's disease after one year of follow-up: A nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Gazibara, Tatjana; Tepavcevic, Darija Kisic; Svetel, Marina; Tomic, Aleksandra; Stankovic, Iva; Kostic, Vladimir S; Pekmezovic, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare clinical and fall characteristics of single and recurrent falls among persons with PD and to evaluate factors associated with recurrent falls. A total of 120 consecutive persons with PD, who denied having fallen in the past 6 months, were recruited. Occurrence of falling was registered during one year. Each person was given a "fall diary" with the aim at writing characteristics of the fall and contacted by telephone each month. Over one year of follow-up 42 persons with PD (35.0%) reported falling. Of 42 persons, 19 (45.2%) went on to become single and 23 (54.8%) went on to become recurrent fallers. Indoor falls were more common among single fallers, whilst outdoor falls were more common among recurrent fallers (p=0.017). Slipping and freezing of gait was more common among single fallers (p=0.035 and p=0.024, respectively). Lower extremity weakness was more frequent among recurrent fallers (p=0.023). The most common injury both among single and recurrent fallers was the soft-tissue contusion. The only factor associated with recurrent falling among persons with PD, who did not fall in past 6 months before the start of follow-up, was worse motor performance as measured by the UPDRS III score (odds ratio [OR]=1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.11, p=0.022). These results could be used in selection of persons with PD to enroll in fall prevention programs. PMID:26921677

  2. Major adverse cardiovascular events in adult congenital heart disease: a population-based follow-up study from Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to identify the long-term major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in adult congenital heart disease (ConHD) patients in Taiwan. Methods From the National Health Insurance Research Database (1997-2010), adult patients (≥18 years) with ConHD were identified and compared to non-ConHD control patients. The primary end point was the incidence of MACE. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute hazard ratios as estimates for multivariate adjusted relative risks with or without adjusting for age and sex. Results A total of 3,267 adult patients with ConHD were identified between 2000 and 2003 with a median follow-up of 11 years till December 31, 2010. The five most common types of ConHD were atrial septal defects, ventricular septal defects, patent ductus arteriosus, tetralogy of Fallot, and pulmonary stenosis. Overall, the incidence of MACE was 4.0-fold higher in the ConHD group compared with the controls. After adjustment for age and gender, the patients with ConHD had an increased risk of heart failure, malignant dysrhythmia, acute coronary syndrome, and stroke. The adult ConHD patients had a decreased life-long risk of MACE if they received surgical correction, especially in the patients with atrial septal defects. Conclusions After a median of 11 years of follow-up, the Taiwanese patients with ConHD were at an increased risk of life-long cardiovascular MACE, including heart failure, stroke, acute coronary syndrome, and malignant dysrhythmia. Surgical correction may help to decrease long-term MACE in ConHD patients, especially those with ASD. PMID:24655794

  3. Acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis: a clinicopathological study on 46 patients including histochemistry of bone marrow biopsies and follow-up.

    PubMed

    Thiele, J; Kvasnicka, H M; Zerhusen, G; Vardiman, J; Diehl, V; Luebbert, M; Schmitt-Graeff, A

    2004-08-01

    Controversy continues whether acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis (APMF) exists as a well-defined clinicopathological entity. Following exclusion of overt acute myeloid leukemia (AML), especially the megakaryoblastic subtype, a retrospective study was performed on 46 patients with clinical and morphological features suggesting the diagnosis of APMF. All patients had a bone marrow (BM) biopsy performed at onset, and 13 had follow-up examinations. Enzyme histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques were applied and BM features evaluated by a semiquantitative scoring system. Clinical findings consisted of pancytopenia associated with a left-shifted differential count of the peripheral blood (less than 5% blasts) and no or minor splenomegaly. During follow-up (median survival 9 months) 35 patients developed severe BM insufficiency and 10 transformed into overt AML. Although myelofibrosis was a characteristic finding, other BM features proved to be heterogeneous. Cellularity was reduced in 13 and increased in 25 specimens. Most prominent was a left-shifted, often macrocytic erythropoiesis and a maturation defect of the neutrophil series. In 15 patients an increase (less than 20%) in CD34+ progenitors, immature myelomonocytic cells, and megakaryoblasts was noted. Abnormalities of megakaryocytes (atypical microforms, clustering, dysplasia) were regularly present. The stroma showed an inflammatory reaction (perivascular plasmacytosis, lymphoid nodules, many macrophages, iron deposits) in about 50% of the samples. Sequential BM biopsies revealed an accumulation of lysozyme-expressing myelomonocytic and CD34+ progenitor cells suggesting an increase in blasts. In conclusion, APMF may not be a distinct entity, but includes hyperfibrotic myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) either primary or secondary, a rare form of initial AML with fibrosis, and even cases of toxic myelopathy. PMID:15173958

  4. Prospective study of the cementless "New Wave" total knee mobile-bearing arthroplasty: 8-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Normand, Xavier; Pinçon, Jean-Louis; Ragot, Jean-Marie; Verdier, Régis; Aslanian, Thierry

    2015-02-01

    One of the main factors affecting the survival of a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the fixation method. The constraints placed on the bone-implant interface of a mobile-bearing TKA must be taken in account during the design and evaluation phases. For more than two decades, calcium phosphate ceramics, particularly hydroxyapatitis, have been used in Europe to accelerate the bone integration of cementless implants. A prospective study of patients continuously recruited by three senior surgeons at three French private hospitals has been carried out. There were no exclusion criteria. Eighty-four (84) cementless mobile-bearing total knee prosthesis of the brand "New Wave" were implanted in 74 patients over a 2-year period (2004-2005). Implant survival at 8 years was 95% [with a confidence interval of 95%: 80.2-96.4%] when revision for any cause was defined as the endpoint. Five implants required surgical revision to exchange all or part of the implant: two for aseptic loosening of tibial component, one for osteolysis, one for persistent flessum (30°) and one for tibial periprosthetic fracture. Completely integrated implants and event-free outcomes were recorded in 91.4% of the cases at eight-year follow-up. The Hospital for Special Surgery score significantly improved from 56.8/100 points before the surgery to 83.9/100 points at the last follow-up (p < 0.05). Radiologically, only one patient had radiolucent lines around the tibial and femoral components. This cementless total knee prosthesis yielded good medium-term survival. Cementless arthroplasty can generate solid and durable bone fixation in this total weight-bearing implant, and it seems that the hidroxyapathitis surface in this series stimulate the bone integration at the bone-implant interface. PMID:24858380

  5. Central nervous system involvement in Whipple disease: clinical study of 18 patients and long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Compain, Caroline; Sacre, Karim; Puéchal, Xavier; Klein, Isabelle; Vital-Durand, Denis; Houeto, Jean-Luc; De Broucker, Thomas; Raoult, Didier; Papo, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Whipple disease (WD) is a rare multisystemic infection with a protean clinical presentation. The central nervous system (CNS) is involved in 3 situations: CNS involvement in classic WD, CNS relapse in previously treated WD, and isolated CNS infection. We retrospectively analyzed clinical features, diagnostic workup, brain imaging, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) study, treatment, and follow-up data in 18 patients with WD and CNS infection. Ten men and 8 women were included with a median age at diagnosis of 47 years (range, 30-56 yr). The median follow-up duration was 6 years (range, 1-19 yr). As categorized in the 3 subgroups, 11 patients had classic WD with CNS involvement, 4 had an isolated CNS infection, and 3 had a neurologic relapse of previously treated WD. CNS involvement occurred during prolonged trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) treatment in 1 patient with classic WD. The neurologic symptoms were various and always intermingled, as follows: confusion or coma (17%) related to meningo-encephalitis or status epilepticus; delirium (17%); cognitive impairment (61%) including memory loss and attention defects or typical frontal lobe syndrome; hypersomnia (17%); abnormal movements (myoclonus, choreiform movements, oculomasticatory myorhythmia) (39%); cerebellar ataxia (11%); upper motor neuron (44%) or extrapyramidal symptoms (33%); and ophthalmoplegia (17%) in conjunction or not with progressive supranuclear palsy. No specific pattern was correlated with any subgroup. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a unique focal lesion (35%), mostly as a tumorlike brain lesion, or multifocal lesions (23%) involving the medial temporal lobe, midbrain, hypothalamus, and thalamus. Periventricular diffuse leukopathy (6%), diffuse cortical atrophy (18%), and pachymeningitis (12%) were observed. The spinal cord was involved in 2 cases. MRI showed ischemic sequelae at diagnosis or during follow-up in 4 patients. Brain MRI was normal despite neurologic symptoms in 3 cases. CSF cytology was normal in 62% of patients, whereas Tropheryma whipplei polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was positive in 92% of cases with tested CSF. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive cells were identified in cerebral biopsies of 4 patients. All patients were treated with antimicrobial therapy for a mean duration of 2 years (range, 1-7 yr) with either oral monotherapy (TMP-SMX, doxycycline, third-generation cephalosporins) or a combination of antibiotics that sometimes followed parenteral treatment with beta-lactams and aminoglycosides. Eight patients also received hydroxychloroquine. At the end of follow-up, the clinical outcome was favorable in 14 patients (78%), with mild to moderate sequelae in 9. Thirteen patients (72%) had stopped treatment for an average time of 4 years (range, 0.7-14 yr). Four patients had clinical worsening despite antimicrobial therapy; 2 of those died following diffuse encephalitis (n = 1) and lung infection (n = 1). In conclusion, the neurologic manifestations of WD are diverse and may mimic almost any neurologic condition. Brain involvement may occur during or after TMP-SMX treatment. CSF T. whipplei PCR analysis is a major tool for diagnosis and may be positive in the absence of meningitis. Immune reconstitution syndrome may occur in the early months of treatment. Late prognosis may be better than previously reported, as a consequence of earlier diagnosis and a better use of antimicrobial therapy, including hydroxychloroquine and doxycycline combination. PMID:24145700

  6. Climate Literacy: Climate.gov Follow-Up Evaluation—A Study of the Four NOAA Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niepold, F., III; Sullivan, S. B.; Gold, A. U.; Lynds, S. E.; Kirk, K.

    2014-12-01

    NOAA Climate.gov provides science and information for a climate-smart nation. Americans' health, security, and economic well-being are closely linked to climate and weather. NOAA Climate.gov's goals are to promote public understanding of climate science and climate-related events, to make our data products and services easy to access and use, to support educators in improving the nations climate literacy, and to serve people making climate-related decisions with tools and resources that help them answer specific questions.The Climate.Gov Follow-Up Study of the four NOAA Audiences (climate interested public, educators, scientists, policy-makers) built upon the previous literature review and evaluation study conducted by Mooney and Phillips in 2010 and 2012, http://tinyurl.com/ma8vo83. The CIRES Education and Outreach team at the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at University of Colorado at Boulder and the NOAA Climate.gov team will present results of the new study that used the Quality of Relationship index (awareness, trust, satisfaction, usability, and control mutuality). This index was developed in the previous study and places a new emphasis on the experience of individual users from the four audiences in their regular work or home setting. This new evaluation project used mixed methods, including an online survey, usability studies, phone interviews, and web statistics, providing multiple lines of evidence from which to draw conclusion and recommendations.In the session, we will explore how the NOAA Climate.gov teams used the literature review and new CIRES research to address underlying challenges to achieving the portal's goals. The research in these studies finds that people seek information in ways that are complex and that they do so by consulting a vast array of technologies. Improved and different modes of access to information have, throughout history, been led by technological innovation, but human behavior tends to be constant. The NOAA Climate.gov portal improved its design informed by the first literature review and evaluation. We will discuss how the follow-up study will inform continual audience-focused design and innovation for maximizing the effectiveness of the multiple audience portal.

  7. Cilazapril Treatment in a Cohort of Seven Patients with Congestive Heart Failure: A Seven-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Demirel, Şeref; Erk, Osman; Ünal, Mehmet; Vatansever, Sezai; Oflaz, Hüseyin; Yücesir, İlker; Florinalı, Nursal; Adalet, Kamil

    2003-01-01

    Background: Although angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) have been shown to prolong life in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), the prognosis of these patients remains poor. Objective: The purpose of the study was to reevaluate a cohort of patients with CHF after 7 years of follow-up with cilazapril therapy to assess the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), anatomic and functional capacity of the heart, and aldosterone escape. Methods: Surviving patients from a cohort hospitalized for CHF between January 1994 and December 1994 who were treated with cilazapril in our center were included in this study. Exercise testing was carried out using the Kattus protocol, and breath-by-breath oxygen analysis, echocardiography, and hormonal analysis were done. Results: Seven patients (5 men, 2 women; mean [SD] age, 70.6 [4.4]) were included in the study. Compared with the early effects (at 15 days) of cilazapril therapy, only mean (SD) peak exercise time decreased significantly at the 7-year follow-up (8.9 [2.4] minutes vs 5.1 [1.9] minutes; P = 0.02). Mean (SD) anaerobic threshold (AT) oxygen consumption and AT ratio increased slightly from 15 days, although these changes were not statistically significant (12.86 [3.5] mL/kg·min vs 13.57 [2.6] mL/kg·min; 70.3% [7.7%] vs 78.9% [9.8%], respectively). Compared with the early effect of therapy, patients had slightly lower mean (SD) ejection fractions (EFs), but the decrease did not reach statistical significance (52% [4%] vs 48% [4%]). Aldosterone levels were within normal limits in all patients, and 2 patients had increased RAS activity. Conclusions: In this study, the observed lack of aldosterone escape, as well as patient survival during ACEI therapy, may be due to selection bias of the surviving patients, who had better EFs and lack of aldosterone escape. Therefore, the remaining issue seems to be the selection of patients who will not show aldosterone escape during chronic ACEI treatment. PMID:24944363

  8. Do loss to follow-up and death rates from ART care vary across primary health care facilities and hospitals in south Ethiopia? A retrospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Teshome, Wondu; Belayneh, Mehretu; Moges, Mathewos; Mekonnen, Emebet; Endrias, Misganu; Ayele, Sinafiksh; Misganaw, Tebeje; Shiferaw, Mekonnen; Tesema, Tigist

    2015-01-01

    Background Decentralization and task shifting has significantly improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Many studies conducted to determine the attrition rate in Ethiopia have not compared attrition rates between hospitals and health centers in a relatively recent cohort of patients. This study compared death and loss to follow-up (LTFU) rates among ART patients in hospitals and health centers in south Ethiopia. Methods Data routinely collected from patients aged older than 15 years who started ART between July 2011 and August 2012 in 20 selected health facilities (12 being hospitals) were analyzed. The outcomes of interest were LTFU and death. The data were entered, cleaned, and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0 and Stata version 12.0. Competing-risk regression models were used. Results The service years of the facilities were similar (median 8 and 7.5 for hospitals and health centers, respectively). The mean patient age was 33.7±9.6 years. The median baseline CD4 count was 179 (interquartile range 93–263) cells/mm3. A total of 2,356 person-years of observation were made with a median follow-up duration of 28 (interquartile range 22–31) months; 24.6% were either dead or LTFU, resulting in a retention rate of 75.4%. The death rates were 3.0 and 1.5 and the LTFU rate were 9.0 and 10.9 per 100 person-years of observation in health centers and hospitals, respectively. The competing-risk regression model showed that the gap between testing and initiation of ART, body mass index, World Health Organization clinical stage, isoniazid prophylaxis, age, facility type, and educational status were independently associated with LTFU. Moreover, baseline tuberculous disease, poor functional status, and follow-up at a health center were associated with an elevated probability of death. Conclusion We observed a higher death rate and a lower LTFU rate in health centers than in hospitals. Most of the associated variables were also previously documented. Higher LTFU was noticed for patients with a smaller gap between testing and initiation of treatment. PMID:26064071

  9. National Longitudinal Study (NLS) of the High School Class of 1972: Base Year (1972) through Fourth Follow-up (1979) [machine-readable data file].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Triangle Inst., Durham, NC. Center for Educational Research and Evaluation.

    The "National Longitudinal Study (NLS) of the High School Class of 1972: Base Year (1972) through Fourth Follow-up (1979)" machine-readable data file (MRDF) is a single merged file of student responses to the original interviews or tests in 1972 and the mail follow-up surveys of 1973, 1974, 1976, and 1979. The 1972 data were gathered by the…

  10. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CODING: FOOD DIARY FOLLOW UP (UA-D-10.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to define the coding strategy for the Food Diary Follow Up Questionnaire. This questionnaire was developed for use in the Arizona NHEXAS project and the "Border" study. Keywords: data; coding; food diary follow up questionnaire.

    The National Human Ex...

  11. The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS-72), Fifth Follow-Up (1986) Data File [machine-readable data file].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    This machine-readable data file (MDRF) contains information from the fifth follow-up survey of the National Longitudinal Survey of the High School Class of 1972. The survey was carried out along with the third survey of the High School and Beyond Study. The fifth follow-up data file consists of 12,841 records. The data tape contains information on…

  12. Mortality among young injection drug users in San Francisco: a 10-year follow-up of the UFO study.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jennifer L; Tsui, Judith I; Hahn, Judith A; Davidson, Peter J; Lum, Paula J; Page, Kimberly

    2012-02-15

    This study examined associations between mortality and demographic and risk characteristics among young injection drug users in San Francisco, California, and compared the mortality rate with that of the population. A total of 644 young (<30 years) injection drug users completed a baseline interview and were enrolled in a prospective cohort study, known as the UFO ("U Find Out") Study, from November 1997 to December 2007. Using the National Death Index, the authors identified 38 deaths over 4,167 person-years of follow-up, yielding a mortality rate of 9.1 (95% confidence interval: 6.6, 12.5) per 1,000 person-years. This mortality rate was 10 times that of the general population. The leading causes of death were overdose (57.9%), self-inflicted injury (13.2%), trauma/accidents (10.5%), and injection drug user-related medical conditions (13.1%). Mortality incidence was significantly higher among those who reported injecting heroin most days in the past month (adjusted hazard ratio = 5.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 24.3). The leading cause of death in this group was overdose, and primary use of heroin was the only significant risk factor for death observed in the study. These findings highlight the continued need for public health interventions that address the risk of overdose in this population in order to reduce premature deaths. PMID:22227793

  13. Physical and mental development of children after levonorgestrel emergency contraception exposure: a follow-up prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Ye, Weiping; Yu, Wen; Cheng, Linan; Shen, Lixiao; Yang, Zujing

    2014-07-01

    Levonorgestrel (LNG), a dedicated emergency contraception (EC) product, has been available over-the-counter in China for more than 14 yr. Although LNG-EC is considered to have no effects on the developing fetus if the contraceptive fails and pregnancy occurs, there have been a few studies specifically examining this issue. The purpose of this study was to compare the physical and mental development of children born after LNG-EC failure with that of a cohort of children born to mothers with no history of exposure to LNG or any teratogenic substances. A group of 195 children who were exposed to LNG-EC during their mothers' conception cycle (study group) were matched to a group of 214 children without exposure to LNG (control group). The physical and mental development of the children were evaluated and compared over a 2-yr period. There were four congenital malformations in the study group and three in the control group (2.1% vs. 1.4%, respectively, P > 0.05). Over the 2-yr follow-up period, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to children's weight, height, head circumference, and intelligence scores, and the values of all parameters of both groups were similar to those of the national standards. In summary, LNG-EC has no effect on the physical growth, mental development, or occurrence of birth defects in children born from pregnancies in which EC failed. PMID:24899575

  14. Sleep and resilience: a longitudinal 37-year follow-up study of Vietnam repatriated prisoners of war.

    PubMed

    Segovia, Francine; Moore, Jeffrey L; Linnville, Steven; Hoyt, Robert E; Hain, Robert E

    2013-02-01

    This study examined sleep histories associated with resilience after trauma defined as a continuous lack of psychiatric illness across 37 years. Data were drawn from a 37-year follow-up examination of the effects of the Vietnam prisoner of war (POW) experience. The Robert E. Mitchell Center for POW Studies is a unique institution holding the only longitudinal study of the effects of the American POW experience in existence. The study used a sample of 440 Vietnam repatriated prisoners of war (RPWs). Psychiatric disorders were assessed at repatriation (1973) and were continued annually by a psychiatrist or clinical psychologist. Sleep issues before, during, and after captivity were assessed upon repatriation during medical examinations. Odds ratios examining presence of sleep symptoms show resilient RPWs reporting fewer symptoms compared to nonresilient RPWS before, during, and after captivity. Logistic regression comparing before, during, and after indicates fewer reported sleep disturbance symptoms after captivity was the strongest predictor of resilience (b = -0.82, Wald chi2 (1) = 16.70, p < 0.000). Reporting fewer sleep complaints, but not necessarily an absence of them before, during, and after the trauma predicts resilience across time. PMID:23495465

  15. Incidence and Effects of Polypharmacy on Clinical Outcome among Patients Aged 80+: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Li; Gao, Dewei; Liang, Zhiru; He, Jing; Gong, Weiqin; Gao, Linggen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Polypharmacy is a problem of growing interest in geriatrics with the increase in drug consumption in recent years, is defined according to the WHO criteria as the, ‘‘concurrent use of five or more different prescription medication”. We investigated the clinical characteristics of polypharmacy and identified the effects of polypharmacy on clinical outcome among patients aged 80+ admitted to Chinese PLA general hospital. Methods Older men aged ≥80 years (n = 1562) were included in this study. The included participants attended a structured clinical examination and an interview carried out by a geriatrician and trained nurses. A follow-up survey in 2014 was carried out on survivors in the same way as in 2009. The clinical outcome measured were adverse drug reactions, falls, frailty, disability, cognitive impairment, mortality. The association between polypharmacy and clinical outcome was assessed by logistic regression. Results The mean (range) age of the included participants was 85.2 (80–104) years. Medication exposure was reported by 100% of the population. Mean number of medications reported in this population was 9.56±5.68. The prevalence of polypharmacy (≥6 medications) in the present study was 70%. At the time of the follow-up survey, an increase in the number of taken medicines had occurred among half of the survivors. The risk of different outcomes in relation to number of medications rises significantly, the odds ratios were 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI]1.17–1.28) for adverse drug reactions, 1.18 (95% CI 1.10–1.26) for falls, 1.16 (95% CI 1.09–1.24) for disability, and 1.19 (95% CI 1.12–1.23) for mortality. There was no association between increasing number of medications and cognitive impairment. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that polypharmacy is very common in the very old patients, and observed that number of medications was a factor associated with difference clinical outcome independently of the age, type of medications prescribed and accompanied comorbidities. PMID:26554710

  16. Body size across the life course and prostate cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Mller, Elisabeth; Wilson, Kathryn M; Batista, Julie L; Mucci, Lorelei A; Blter, Katarina; Giovannucci, Edward

    2016-02-15

    Current evidence of an association between body size and prostate cancer is conflicting, possibly due to differential effects of body size across the lifespan and the heterogeneity of the disease. We therefore examined childhood and adult body size in relation to total incident prostate cancer and prognostic subtypes in a prospective cohort of 47,491 US men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We assessed adult height, body mass index (BMI) in early and middle-to-late adulthood, adult waist circumference, and body shape at age 10. With follow-up from 1986 to 2010, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of prostate cancer using Cox proportional hazards models. We identified 6,183 incident cases. Tallness was associated with increased risk of advanced-stage tumors, particularly fatal disease (RR?=?1.66, 95% CI 1.23-2.23, highest vs. lowest quintile, ptrend ?65 years. Adult waist circumference was weakly inversely associated with less aggressive disease. Childhood obesity was unclearly related to risk. Our study confirms tall men to be at increased risk of fatal and advanced prostate cancer. The influence of adiposity varies by prognostic disease subtype and by age. The relationship between body size and prostate cancer is complex. Body size changes progressively throughout life and consequent effects on prostate cancer risk may be associated with related changes in hormonal and metabolic pathways. This large prospective study examined potential associations between the risk of various prostate cancer subtypes and multiple anthropometric measures at different ages in men. Tallness was confirmed to be associated with an elevated risk of advanced prostate cancer, particularly fatal disease. The extent to which body weight influenced risk varied according to factors such as age and disease subtype. PMID:26355806

  17. Stability and relationships between trait or state anhedonia and schizophrenic symptoms in schizophrenia: a 13-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Loas, Gwenolé; Monestes, Jean Louis; Ingelaere, Audrey; Noisette, Carole; Herbener, Ellen S

    2009-04-30

    The aim of the present study was to explore the stability of anhedonia and its relationships with schizophrenic symptoms across a 13-year study period. We tested the hypothesis that trait anhedonia, rated by the Physical Anhedonia Scale (PAS), was stable and independent of schizophrenic symptoms across this period, while measures of state anhedonia were not. Sixty schizophrenic subjects were evaluated at two time points, at hospital admission or during an ambulatory psychiatric consultation and 13 years later. Trait anhedonia was assessed using the Chapman Physical Anhedonia Scale, while state anhedonia was assessed with a subscale extracted from the Beck Depression Inventory. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to rate schizophrenic symptomatology. Unlike trait anhedonia, state anhedonia decreased significantly over time. Based on results from multiple regressions, negative and depressive dimensions were significant predictors of state anhedonia. Trait anhedonia was not associated with negative symptoms, but was associated with severity of disorganization symptoms at baseline and with our state measure of anhedonia at follow-up. In the current study, state and trait anhedonia were correlated, but depressive symptoms in general were not associated with physical anhedonia. The results indicated that trait anhedonia, in contrast to state anhedonia, had absolute stability, was independent of the negative dimension, as measured by the PANSS, of schizophrenic symptomatology and correlated with specific aspects of depressive anhedonia. PMID:19272653

  18. Unplanned pregnancy after ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation of uterine fibroids: A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Bing-Song, Zhang; Jing, Zhang; Zhi-Yu, Han; Chang-Tao, Xu; Rui-Fang, Xu; Xiu-Mei, Li; Hui, Liu

    2016-01-01

    A follow-up study was performed with 169 women of childbearing age who underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (UPMWA) therapy for symptomatic uterine fibroids in the Chinese PLA General Hospital from June 2007 to December 2014. This study aimed to observe the incidence of unplanned pregnancies in these women after UPMWA treatment in order to evaluate its effect on natural conception. Ten unplanned pregnancies in nine women were occurred. Of the nine patients, six did not want the pregnancy and chose for induced abortion to end the pregnancy at an early stage. Three chose to continue with the pregnancy and gave birth to a healthy term infant delivered by cesarean section (of these three patients, two had been previously diagnosed as infertility). None of the patients had any serious obstetric complications. After UPMWA treatment for uterine fibroids, patients may conceive naturally, the impact of the procedure on fertility and pregnancy outcomes is worthy of further prospective study in larger sample. PMID:26733265

  19. When do natural language metaphors influence reasoning? A follow-up study to Thibodeau and Boroditsky (2013).

    PubMed

    Steen, Gerard J; Reijnierse, W Gudrun; Burgers, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we offer a critical view of Thibodeau and Boroditsky who report an effect of metaphorical framing on readers' preference for political measures after exposure to a short text on the increase of crime in a fictitious town: when crime was metaphorically presented as a beast, readers became more enforcement-oriented than when crime was metaphorically framed as a virus. We argue that the design of the study has left room for alternative explanations. We report four experiments comprising a follow-up study, remedying several shortcomings in the original design while collecting more encompassing sets of data. Our experiments include three additions to the original studies: (1) a non-metaphorical control condition, which is contrasted to the two metaphorical framing conditions used by Thibodeau and Boroditsky, (2) text versions that do not have the other, potentially supporting metaphors of the original stimulus texts, (3) a pre-exposure measure of political preference (Experiments 1-2). We do not find a metaphorical framing effect but instead show that there is another process at play across the board which presumably has to do with simple exposure to textual information. Reading about crime increases people's preference for enforcement irrespective of metaphorical frame or metaphorical support of the frame. These findings suggest the existence of boundary conditions under which metaphors can have differential effects on reasoning. Thus, our four experiments provide converging evidence raising questions about when metaphors do and do not influence reasoning. PMID:25490704

  20. When Do Natural Language Metaphors Influence Reasoning? A Follow-Up Study to Thibodeau and Boroditsky (2013)

    PubMed Central

    Steen, Gerard J.; Reijnierse, W. Gudrun; Burgers, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we offer a critical view of Thibodeau and Boroditsky who report an effect of metaphorical framing on readers' preference for political measures after exposure to a short text on the increase of crime in a fictitious town: when crime was metaphorically presented as a beast, readers became more enforcement-oriented than when crime was metaphorically framed as a virus. We argue that the design of the study has left room for alternative explanations. We report four experiments comprising a follow-up study, remedying several shortcomings in the original design while collecting more encompassing sets of data. Our experiments include three additions to the original studies: (1) a non-metaphorical control condition, which is contrasted to the two metaphorical framing conditions used by Thibodeau and Boroditsky, (2) text versions that do not have the other, potentially supporting metaphors of the original stimulus texts, (3) a pre-exposure measure of political preference (Experiments 1–2). We do not find a metaphorical framing effect but instead show that there is another process at play across the board which presumably has to do with simple exposure to textual information. Reading about crime increases people's preference for enforcement irrespective of metaphorical frame or metaphorical support of the frame. These findings suggest the existence of boundary conditions under which metaphors can have differential effects on reasoning. Thus, our four experiments provide converging evidence raising questions about when metaphors do and do not influence reasoning. PMID:25490704