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Sample records for 11-years follow-up study

  1. Prevention of marital instability and distress. Results of an 11-year longitudinal follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hahlweg, Kurt; Richter, Diana

    2010-05-01

    Divorce and destructive couple conflict are major risk factors for many forms of dysfunction and psychopathology in the family. Couple relationship education has been offered in an attempt to reduce those risks and enhance couple outcomes. The current effectiveness study had two aims: to assess (a) the long-term effects of relationship education and (b) the ability of partners to remember the skills typically taught during the communication skills training. One hundred and one couples from two studies, in which the effectiveness of the EPL (Ein Partnerschaftliches Lernprogramm für Paare [A Learning Program for Married Couples]) was investigated, were followed-up 11 years after the training. In the first study, EPL-takers had a significantly lower divorce and separation rate (27.5%) than non-EPL-takers (52.6%). This finding was replicated in a second study, showing a 20% dissolution rate in EPL-takers. For those couples still together, the rate of happy relationships was 80% at the eleven-year follow-up - thus, there is optimism for longer married couples who are willing to focus on improving their relationships. Only about 55% of the partners could remember at least one speaker skill whereas 70% remembered at least one listening skill taught during EPL. Consequences for prevention programs in the couple domain are discussed. PMID:20053393

  2. Medicine use among adolescents: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bertoldi, Andréa D; Tavares, Noemia U L; Hallal, Pedro C; Araújo, Cora Luiza; Menezes, Ana M B

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate medicine use and associated factors among adolescents. This was a prospective cohort study including 4,452 adolescents born in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 1993. Information on medicine use in the 15 days prior to the interviews was collected from the mothers. Overall prevalence of medicine use was 30.9%, and 64.7% of the medicines had been prescribed by a physician. The most frequently used pharmacological groups were medicines for the nervous (35.9%) and respiratory systems (25.7%). Medicine use was directly associated with socioeconomic status, maternal schooling, complications during pregnancy or delivery, and neonatal problems resulting in the need for intensive care. Underweight and obese adolescents were more likely to use medicines as compared to those with normal body mass index. A direct association was observed between maternal use of hypnotic drugs and sedatives and adolescent medicine use. It is essential to implement educational policies aimed at promoting rational use of medicines by adolescents. PMID:20963292

  3. Physical activity and all-cause mortality among older Brazilian adults: 11-year follow-up of the Bambuí Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramalho, Juciany RO; Mambrini, Juliana VM; César, Cibele C; de Oliveira, César M; Firmo, Josélia OA; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Peixoto, Sérgio V

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between physical activity (eg, energy expenditure) and survival over 11 years of follow-up in a large representative community sample of older Brazilian adults with a low level of education. Furthermore, we assessed sex as a potential effect modifier of this association. Materials and methods A population-based prospective cohort study was conducted on all the ?60-year-old residents in Bambuí city (Brazil). A total of 1,606 subjects (92.2% of the population) enrolled, and 1,378 (85.8%) were included in this study. Type, frequency, and duration of physical activity were assessed in the baseline survey questionnaire, and the metabolic equivalent task tertiles were estimated. The follow-up time was 11 years (1997–2007), and the end point was mortality. Deaths were reported by next of kin during the annual follow-up interview and ascertained through the Brazilian System of Information on Mortality, Brazilian Ministry of Health. Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were estimated by Cox proportional-hazard models, and potential confounders were considered. Results A statistically significant interaction (P<0.03) was found between sex and energy expenditure. Among older men, increases in levels of physical activity were associated with reduced mortality risk. The hazard ratios were 0.59 (95% CI 0.43–0.81) and 0.47 (95% CI 0.34–0.66) for the second and third tertiles, respectively. Among older women, there was no significant association between physical activity and mortality. Conclusion It was possible to observe the effect of physical activity in reducing mortality risk, and there was a significant interaction between sex and energy expenditure, which should be considered in the analysis of this association in different populations. PMID:25931817

  4. Early Predictors of Language and Social Communication Impairments at Ages 9-11 Years: A Follow-up Study of Early-Referred Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiat, Shula; Roy, Penny

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to evaluate hypotheses that early sociocognition will predict later social communication and early phonology will predict later morphosyntax in clinically referred preschoolers. Method: Participants were 108 children ages 9-11 years who had been referred to clinical services with concerns about language at…

  5. Metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty - five- to 11-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Vassilios S; Petit, Alain; Debiparshad, Kevin; Huk, Olga L; Zukor, David J; Antoniou, John

    2011-01-01

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been introduced in an attempt to reduce the wear rate and the consequent osteolysis around implants. The aim of this study was to present the intermediate to long-term clinical and radiological outcomes and to investigate the metal ion levels in the blood of patients who had undergone primary uncemented MoM THA in our institution. Between July 1997 and November 2003, 166 patients (193 hips), with a mean age of 50 years (range, 18-65 years), underwent primary MoM THA. Clinical data, radiographs, and blood samples were obtained at regular follow-up visits. Cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), and molybdenum (Mo) ions were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) from the patient's whole blood. All patients were prospectively followed for a minimum of 5 years (mean, 7 years; range, 5-11 years). The mean Harris hip score (HHS) and the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) activity score at the latest follow-up was 88 ± 11 and 7 ± 1.8 points, respectively. Thirteen hips have been revised. Ten acetabular components had early failure, due to factory manufacturing problems. All other implants have been found stable, with no signs of aseptic loosening. The probability of survival at 11 years, if the hips that were revised due to manufacturing problems were excluded, was 98.4%. The Co and Cr metal ion levels, after increasing significantly during the first 4 to 5 years post-surgery, remained stable, with a tendency to decrease thereafter, but not significantly. During the same follow-up period, Mo ion levels remained stable. In this 5-to-11 year follow-up study of MoM THA patients, excellent survivorship, with low complications rates, was found. Results of longer follow-up studies are necessary to clarify the possible long-term effects of metal ion release. PMID:22035490

  6. A Neurophysiological Marker of Impaired Preparation in an 11-Year Follow-Up Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doehnert, Mirko; Brandeis, Daniel; Schneider, Gudrun; Drechsler, Renate; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Background: This longitudinal electrophysiological study investigated the course of multiple impaired cognitive brain functions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adulthood by comparing developmental trajectories of individuals with ADHD and typically developing controls. Methods: Subjects with ADHD ("N"…

  7. A case of dissociative fugue and general amnesia with an 11-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Helmes, Edward; Brown, Julie-May; Elliott, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Dissociative fugue refers to loss of personal identity, often with the associated loss of memories of events (general amnesia). Here we report on the psychological assessment of a 54-year-old woman with loss of identity and memories of 33 years of her life attributed to dissociative fugue, along with a follow-up 11 years later. Significant levels of personal injury and stress preceded the onset of the amnesia. A detailed neuropsychological assessment was completed at a university psychology clinic, with a follow-up assessment there about 11 years later with an intent to determine whether changes in her cognitive status were associated with better recall of her life and with her emotional state. Psychomotor slowing and low scores on measures of attention and both verbal and visual memory were present initially, along with significant psychological distress associated with the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder. Although memories of her life had not returned by follow-up, distress had abated and memory test scores had improved. The passage of time and a better emotional state did not lead to recovery of lost memories. Contrary to expectations, performance on tests of executive functions was good on both occasions. Multiple stressful events are attributed as having a role in maintaining the loss of memories. PMID:25365262

  8. High school Tay-Sachs disease carrier screening: 5 to 11-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Curd, Helen; Lewis, Sharon; Macciocca, Ivan; Sahhar, Margaret; Petrou, Vicki; Bankier, Agnes; Lieberman, Sari; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Delatycki, Martin B

    2014-04-01

    The Melbourne high school Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) carrier screening program began in 1997. The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes of this screening program among those who had testing more than 5 years ago, to evaluate the long-term impact of screening. A questionnaire was used for data collection and consisted of validated scales and purposively designed questions. Questionnaires were sent to all carriers and two non-carriers for each carrier who were screened in the program between 1999 and 2005. Twenty-four out of 69 (34.8 %) carriers and 30/138 (21.7 %) non-carriers completed the questionnaire. Most participants (82 %) retained good knowledge of TSD and there was no evidence of a difference in knowledge between carriers and non-carriers. Most participants (83 %) were happy with the timing and setting of screening and thought that education and screening for TSD should be offered during high school. There was no difference between carriers and non-carriers in mean scores for the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and Decision Regret Scale. This evaluation indicated that 5-11 years post high school screening, those who were screened are supportive of the program and that negative consequences are rare. PMID:23893770

  9. Follow-up Cost Study. TEX-SIS FOLLOW-UP SC5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugh, Ronald C.

    This report presents data on the costs of follow-up studies, based on 29 separate follow-up studies conducted by eight public community/junior colleges in Texas. The purpose of this study, conducted by Navarro College as a subcontractor of Project FOLLOW-UP, was to provide data and information regarding the cost of follow-up studies that would be…

  10. 1984 Graduate Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John Tyler Community Coll., Chester, VA. Office of Institutional Research.

    A follow-up study is conducted of each graduating class of John Tyler Community College (JTCC) to document student successes in the job market and in pursuit of advanced studies, provide feedback to administrators and faculty for upgrading educational offerings and services, and provide a summary of student opinions to improve services. A…

  11. Teacher Education Follow-Up Study, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelazek, John R.; Williams, Wayne W.; McAdams, Charles; Palmer, Kyle

    This report represents the eighth Follow-Up Study by the Teacher Education Assessment Committee (TEAC) at Central Missouri State University (Central). TEAC is a centralized system of data collection and assessment that conducts and publishes results of periodic assessments and evaluations of Central's teacher education programs by soliciting input…

  12. TEXAS A&M ARSENIC WATER FOLLOW UP STUDY Arsenic Follow Up Study Codebook 2/19/07

    E-print Network

    Shaw, W. Douglass

    TEXAS A&M ARSENIC WATER FOLLOW UP STUDY Arsenic Follow Up Study Codebook 2/19/07 Page 1 ARSENIC&M ARSENIC WATER FOLLOW UP STUDY Arsenic Follow Up Study Codebook 2/19/07 Page 2 A6 About what percent of all) A10_6 Don't know #12;TEXAS A&M ARSENIC WATER FOLLOW UP STUDY Arsenic Follow Up Study Codebook 2

  13. Surgery Patients Like Online Follow-Up, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_154881.html Surgery Patients Like Online Follow-up, Study Finds But sometimes ... over in-person care by a majority of patients who have routine, uncomplicated surgery, a new study ...

  14. The transitioning from trials to extended follow-up studies

    PubMed Central

    Drye, Lea T.; Casper, Anne S.; Sternberg, Alice L.; Holbrook, Janet T.; Jenkins, Gabrielle; Meinert, Curtis L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Investigators may elect to extend follow-up of participants enrolled in a randomized clinical trial after the trial comes to its planned end. The additional follow-up may be initiated to learn about longer term effects of treatments including adverse events, costs related to treatment, or for reasons unrelated to treatment such as to observe the natural course of the disease using the established cohort from the trial. Purpose We examine transitioning from trials to extended follow-up studies when the goal of additional follow-up is to observe longer term treatment effects. Methods We conducted a literature search in selected journals from 2000–2012 to identify trials that extended follow-up for the purpose of studying longer term treatment effects and extracted information on the operational and logistical issues in the transition. We also draw experience from three trials coordinated by the Johns Hopkins Coordinating Centers that made transitions to extended followup: the Alzheimer’s Disease Anti-inflammatory Prevention Trial (ADAPT); Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment (MUST) trial; and Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP). Results Transitions are not uncommon in multicenter clinical trials, even in trials that continued to the planned end of the trial. Transitioning usually necessitates new participant consents. If study infrastructure is not maintained during the transition, participants will be lost and re-establishing the staff and facilities will be costly. Merging data from the trial and follow-up study can be complicated by changes in data collection measures and schedules. Limitations Our discussion and recommendations are limited to issues that we have experienced in transitions from trials to follow-up studies. Discussion We discuss issues such as maintaining funding, IRB and consent requirements, contacting participants, and combining data from the trial and follow-up phases. We conclude with a list of recommendations to facilitate transitions from a trial to an extended follow-up study. PMID:25115882

  15. A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral stress management in breast cancer: survival and recurrence at 11-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Stagl, Jamie M; Lechner, Suzanne C; Carver, Charles S; Bouchard, Laura C; Gudenkauf, Lisa M; Jutagir, Devika R; Diaz, Alain; Yu, Qilu; Blomberg, Bonnie B; Ironson, Gail; Glück, Stefan; Antoni, Michael H

    2015-11-01

    Non-metastatic breast cancer patients often experience psychological distress which may influence disease progression and survival. Cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM) improves psychological adaptation and lowers distress during breast cancer treatment and long-term follow-ups. We examined whether breast cancer patients randomized to CBSM had improved survival and recurrence 8-15 years post-enrollment. From 1998 to 2005, women (N = 240) 2-10 weeks post-surgery for non-metastatic Stage 0-IIIb breast cancer were randomized to a 10-week, group-based CBSM intervention (n = 120) or a 1-day psychoeducational seminar control (n = 120). In 2013, 8-15 years post-study enrollment (11-year median), recurrence and survival data were collected. Cox Proportional Hazards Models and Weibull Accelerated Failure Time tests were used to assess group differences in all-cause mortality, breast cancer-specific mortality, and disease-free interval, controlling for biomedical confounders. Relative to the control, the CBSM group was found to have a reduced risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 0.21; 95 % CI [0.05, 0.93]; p = .040). Restricting analyses to women with invasive disease revealed significant effects of CBSM on breast cancer-related mortality (p = .006) and disease-free interval (p = .011). CBSM intervention delivered post-surgery may provide long-term clinical benefit for non-metastatic breast cancer patients in addition to previously established psychological benefits. Results should be interpreted with caution; however, the findings contribute to the limited evidence regarding physical benefits of psychosocial intervention post-surgery for non-metastatic breast cancer. Additional research is necessary to confirm these results and investigate potential explanatory mechanisms, including physiological pathways, health behaviors, and treatment adherence changes. PMID:26518021

  16. FOLLOW UP STUDY OF CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Follow-Up Study involves locating and interviewing a group of young adults who, as 10-year-old children, were included in the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Study, an investigation of the prevalence and risk factors for developmental disabilities that was con...

  17. 1982-83 Graduate Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nienkamp, Roger L.

    In fall 1983, a follow-up study was conducted of all 1982-83 graduates of St. Louis Community College at Forest Park. Questionnaires were sent to 610 graduates of transfer programs and 1- and 2-year career programs soliciting information on graduates' current location, employment status, postsecondary educational experiences, reactions to the…

  18. Employer Follow-Up Study: North Carolina Community College System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allred, Marcus D.; Wingfield, Julian C., Jr.

    A follow-up study was conducted by the North Carolina Department of Community Colleges in summer 1981 to obtain employer evaluations of the performance of occupational curriculum students who were enrolled in college in the 1979-80 school year, but did not return in 1980-81. Drawing from employment information obtained during the first statewide…

  19. A retrospective follow-up study of body dysmorphic disorder#

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Katharine A.; Grant, Jon E.; Siniscalchi, Jason M.; Stout, Robert; Price, Lawrence H.

    2006-01-01

    Background Although research on body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is increasing, no follow-up studies of this disorder’s course of illness have been published. Methods The status of 95 outpatients with BDD treated in a clinical practice was assessed by chart review. Standard scales were used to rate subjects at baseline and the most recent clinic visit (mean duration of follow-up, 1.7 ± 1.1; range, 0.5–6.4 years). Ratings were also done at 6-month intervals over the first 4 years of follow-up. Results Allowing for censoring, life table analysis estimated that the proportion of subjects who achieved full remission from BDD at the 6-month and/or 12-month assessment was 24.7%; the proportion who attained partial or full remission at 6 months and/or 12 months was 57.8%. After 4 years of follow-up, 58.2% had experienced full remission, and 83.8% had experienced partial or full remission, at one or more 6-month assessment points. Of those subjects who attained partial or full remission at one or more assessment points, 28.6% subsequently relapsed. Between baseline and the most recent assessment, BDD severity and functioning significantly improved: at the most recent assessment, 16.7% of subjects were in full remission, 37.8% were in partial remission, and 45.6% met full criteria for BDD. Greater severity of BDD symptoms and the presence of major depression or social phobia at baseline were associated with more severe BDD symptoms at study end point. All subjects received at least one medication trial, and 34.3% received some type of therapy during the follow-up period. Conclusions A majority of treated patients with BDD improved, although improvement was usually partial. Prospective longitudinal studies are needed to further elucidate the course of BDD. PMID:16122530

  20. Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi TcII and TcI in free-ranging population of lion tamarins (Leontopithecus spp): an 11-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lisboa, Cristiane Varella; Monteiro, Rafael Veríssimo; Martins, Andreia Fonseca; Xavier, Samantha Cristina das Chagas; Lima, Valdirene Dos Santos; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2015-05-01

    Here, we present a review of the dataset resulting from the 11-years follow-up of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in free-ranging populations of Leontopithecus rosalia (golden lion tamarin) and Leontopithecus chrysomelas (golden-headed lion tamarin) from distinct forest fragments in Atlantic Coastal Rainforest. Additionally, we present new data regarding T. cruzi infection of small mammals (rodents and marsupials) that live in the same areas as golden lion tamarins and characterisation at discrete typing unit (DTU) level of 77 of these isolates. DTU TcII was found to exclusively infect primates, while TcI infected Didelphis aurita and lion tamarins. The majority of T. cruzi isolates derived from L. rosalia were shown to be TcII (33 out 42) Nine T. cruzi isolates displayed a TcI profile. Golden-headed lion tamarins demonstrated to be excellent reservoirs of TcII, as 24 of 26 T. cruzi isolates exhibited the TcII profile. We concluded the following: (i) the transmission cycle of T. cruzi in a same host species and forest fragment is modified over time, (ii) the infectivity competence of the golden lion tamarin population fluctuates in waves that peak every other year and (iii) both golden and golden-headed lion tamarins are able to maintain long-lasting infections by TcII and TcI. PMID:25946156

  1. Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi TcII and TcI in free-ranging population of lion tamarins (Leontopithecus spp): an 11-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Lisboa, Cristiane Varella; Monteiro, Rafael Veríssimo; Martins, Andreia Fonseca; Xavier, Samantha Cristina das Chagas; Lima, Valdirene dos Santos; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a review of the dataset resulting from the 11-years follow-up of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in free-ranging populations of Leontopithecus rosalia (golden lion tamarin) and Leontopithecus chrysomelas (golden-headed lion tamarin) from distinct forest fragments in Atlantic Coastal Rainforest. Additionally, we present new data regarding T. cruzi infection of small mammals (rodents and marsupials) that live in the same areas as golden lion tamarins and characterisation at discrete typing unit (DTU) level of 77 of these isolates. DTU TcII was found to exclusively infect primates, while TcI infected Didelphis aurita and lion tamarins. The majority of T. cruzi isolates derived from L. rosalia were shown to be TcII (33 out 42) Nine T. cruzi isolates displayed a TcI profile. Golden-headed lion tamarins demonstrated to be excellent reservoirs of TcII, as 24 of 26 T. cruzi isolates exhibited the TcII profile. We concluded the following: (i) the transmission cycle of T. cruzi in a same host species and forest fragment is modified over time, (ii) the infectivity competence of the golden lion tamarin population fluctuates in waves that peak every other year and (iii) both golden and golden-headed lion tamarins are able to maintain long-lasting infections by TcII and TcI. PMID:25946156

  2. Ute Unit: Study Guide and Follow Up Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Conejos School District, Capulin, CO.

    The study guide and follow-up activities were designed primarily to give students a feeling of Ute life in the San Luis Valley in Colorado. The unit begins with six Southern Ute stories about the wolf and coyote, the race between the skunk and the coyote, the frog and the eagle, why the frog croaks, the bear (Que Ye Qat), and the two Indian…

  3. A follow-up study of attempted railway suicides.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, I; Arthur, A J; Farmer, R D

    1994-02-01

    This paper reports the subsequent mortality of 94 persons who attempted suicide by jumping in front of London Underground trains between 1977 and 1979. The follow-up period was 10 yr. Despite the apparent seriousness of the method, completion of suicide was not found to be higher than in previous studies of attempted suicide by other methods. By the end of the follow-up period 18 persons had died, nine of natural causes. Coroners' inquests were held for the unnatural deaths. Seven verdicts of suicide and two of accidental death were recorded. Of the nine unnatural deaths four were from multiple injuries, three from drowning, one from asphyxia and one from acute narcotic poisoning. All four multiple injury deaths were women, three of these were from repeated incidents involving London Underground trains. The time interval between the index attempt and eventual death for the suicide/accident group ranged from 1 day to 43 months. For ethical reasons it was not possible to follow-up attempted suicides who were presumed to have remained alive. PMID:8153748

  4. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONNAIRE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Follow-up questionnaire data set contains information concerning the activities within the household during the sampling week. The information is from 402 follow-up questionnaires for 80 households across 6 cycles. The Follow-up Questionnaire specifically addressed the time ...

  5. A follow-up study of agricultural chemical production workers

    SciTech Connect

    Sathiakumar, N.; Delzell, E.; Austin, H.; Cole, P. )

    1992-01-01

    This retrospective follow-up study evaluated the mortality experience of 4,323 men employed at a plant in Alabama (AL) that manufactures agricultural and other chemicals. On average, there were 18 years of follow-up per subject during the study period of 1951 to 1987. The observed numbers of deaths among cohort members were compared with the numbers expected on the basis of United States (US) and AL general population mortality rates. The all causes standardized mortality ratio (SMR), computed using US rates as the referent, was 97 (233 observed/240 expected deaths) for whites and 68 (47/69) for blacks. White subjects had more than expected deaths from buccal cavity and pharynx (BCP) cancer (SMR = 388; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 125-905) and from esophageal cancer (SMR = 417; 112-1,067). Their lung cancer mortality rate was 50% higher than the rate of US white men and 14% higher than the rate of AL white men. Each of these three cancers has strong nonoccupational determinants, the roles of which were not assessed and which may have been responsible in whole or in part for the observed increases. The excesses of lung and esophageal cancer were concentrated among short-term employees, an observation which also argues against a causal link with occupational factors. Black men experienced no increased mortality from BCP, esophageal or lung cancer, but results for blacks were imprecise. For white and black subjects combined, there were 3 observed versus 0.62 expected deaths due to soft tissue sarcoma (p = 0.05). The job histories of subjects with this type of cancer did not suggest any shared occupational exposure.

  6. A follow-up study of 69 discharged SARS patients.

    PubMed

    Han, Yun; Geng, Hui; Feng, Weibin; Tang, Xiangjiang; Ou, Aihua; Lao, Yingrong; Xu, Yinji; Lin, Hao; Liu, Hui; Li, Yongwen

    2003-09-01

    Sixty-nine patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) discharged from Guangdong Provincial TCM Hospital were followed up from January to April 2003 during which the patients were asked to fill the questionnaire form and at the same time received blood routine examination, hepatic, renal, pulmonary and immune function tests, and spiral computerized tomography (CT) of the chest, color B-ultrasonography of the heart with the collected data treated by descriptive analysis and deductive analysis. The results showed that in the 69 followed-up patients, impairment of the hepatic function was found in 5 cases, hypoimmune state in 18, impediment of ventilation in the distal air passages with normal major air passages in 15, increased residual volume in 40, mild disturbance of pulmonary diffusion function in 14, incomplete absorption of inflammatory exudates, focal or multiple interstitial lesions, pulmonary interstitial fibrosis and pleural adhesion in 24; increased resistance or mild systolic hypertension in the pulmonary circulation, and segmental ischemia of the left myocardium in 34; and decreased visual acuity in 2. According to TCM differentiation 24 cases belonged to the type of deficiency of both qi and yin, 8 deficiency of both the heart and spleen, 37 depression of the liver and deficiency of the spleen, 18 intermingling with damp-heat, and 7 intermingling with stagnant blood. Some patients still had psychological problems. The study indicates that though clinically cured and discharged from hospital, some SARS patients have functional impairment of the heart, lung and liver, hypoimmune state as well as psychological problems, and need to be treated accordingly for a complete recovery. A rationale for suggested TCM treatment is expounded. PMID:14535196

  7. Benzene-induced chromosome aberrations: A follow-up study

    SciTech Connect

    Forni, A.

    1996-12-01

    To study the evolution of cytogenetic damage from past exposure to high concentrations of benzene and its health significance, chromosome aberrations (CA) in lymphocytes were reinvestigated after approximately 20 years in four subjects with past severe hemopathy and in seven controls studied in the late 1960s. Increased chromosome-type aberrations were still present up to 30 years after benzene toxicity, but blood counts were normal. The vital status at the end of 1993 was ascertained for 32 subjects with a history of benzene toxicity and for 31 controls studied for CA from 1965 to 1970, who differed significantly for CA rates. Of the 32 benzene-exposed subjects, 1 was lost to follow-up, 20 were still alive, and 11 had died at ages 36 to 83, between 1 and 20 years after the last CA study. Five deaths were from neoplasia (acute erythroleukemia, brain tumor, cancer of lung, paranasal cavity, esophagus). The deceased subjects had significantly higher rates of chromosome-type aberrations than those alive, and those who died of neoplasia had the highest rates of these aberrations in the last study before death or diagnosis of cancer. Out of the 31 controls, 12 had died from 4 to 23 years after the CA study. Three deaths were from neoplasia (two lung cancer, one brain tumor). Even if this is a small sample, the results suggest a higher risk of cancer for the benzene-exposed cohort, who had persistently high CA rates in lymphocytes. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. Follow up study of workers manufacturing chrysotile asbestos cement products.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, M J; Winter, P D; Pannett, B; Powell, C A

    1986-01-01

    A cohort study has been carried out of 2167 subjects employed between 1941 and 1983 at an asbestos cement factory in England. The production process incorporated the use of chrysotile asbestos fibre only, except for a small amount of amosite during four months in 1976. Measured airborne fibre concentrations available since 1970 from personal samplers showed mean levels below 1 fibre/ml, although higher levels had probably occurred previously in certain areas of the factory. No excess of lung cancer was observed in the mortality follow up by comparison with either national or local death rates, and analyses of subgroups of the workforce by job, exposure level, duration of employment, duration since entry, or calendar years of employment gave no real suggestion of an asbestos related excess for this cause of death. There was one death from pleural mesothelioma and one with asbestosis mentioned as an associated cause on the death certificate, but neither is thought to be linked to asbestos exposure at this factory. Other suggested asbestos related cancers, such as laryngeal and gastrointestinal, did not show raised risks. Although the durations of exposure were short in this study, the findings are consistent with two other studies of workers exposed to low concentrations of chrysotile fibre in the manufacture of asbestos cement products which reported no excess mortality. PMID:3024695

  9. A Follow-up Study: The Registered Nurses Program, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondwros, Jerry M.

    Twenty-seven (77.1%) of the thirty-five 1977 graduates of the South Georgia Colleges' Division of Nursing responded to a follow-up survey, producing the following information: (1) 17 were employed full-time, two were employed part-time, and eight were unemployed; (2) 88.9% agreed they were prepared adequately for the state board examination; (3)…

  10. Completeness of Follow-Up Determines Validity of Study Findings: Results of a Prospective Repeated Measures Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Tevaearai, Hendrik T.; Kuemmerli, Christoph; Tinner, Christian; Carrel, Thierry P.; Schmidli, Juerg; Dick, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Background Current reporting guidelines do not call for standardised declaration of follow-up completeness, although study validity depends on the representativeness of measured outcomes. The Follow-Up Index (FUI) describes follow-up completeness at a given study end date as ratio between the investigated and the potential follow-up period. The association between FUI and the accuracy of survival-estimates was investigated. Methods FUI and Kaplan-Meier estimates were calculated twice for 1207 consecutive patients undergoing aortic repair during an 11-year period: in a scenario A the population’s clinical routine follow-up data (available from a prospective registry) was analysed conventionally. For the control scenario B, an independent survey was completed at the predefined study end. To determine the relation between FUI and the accuracy of study findings, discrepancies between scenarios regarding FUI, follow-up duration and cumulative survival-estimates were evaluated using multivariate analyses. Results Scenario A noted 89 deaths (7.4%) during a mean considered follow-up of 30±28months. Scenario B, although analysing the same study period, detected 304 deaths (25.2%, P<0.001) as it scrutinized the complete follow-up period (49±32months). FUI (0.57±0.35 versus 1.00±0, P<0.001) and cumulative survival estimates (78.7% versus 50.7%, P<0.001) differed significantly between scenarios, suggesting that incomplete follow-up information led to underestimation of mortality. Degree of follow-up completeness (i.e. FUI-quartiles and FUI-intervals) correlated directly with accuracy of study findings: underestimation of long-term mortality increased almost linearly by 30% with every 0.1 drop in FUI (adjusted HR 1.30; 95%-CI 1.24;1.36, P<0.001). Conclusion Follow-up completeness is a pre-requisite for reliable outcome assessment and should be declared systematically. FUI represents a simple measure suited as reporting standard. Evidence lacking such information must be challenged as potentially flawed by selection bias. PMID:26469346

  11. Childhood membranous nephropathy, circulating antibodies to the 58-kD TIN antigen, and anti-tubular basement membrane nephritis: an 11-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Iványi, B; Haszon, I; Endreffy, E; Szenohradszky, P; Petri, I B; Kalmár, T; Butkowski, R J; Charonis, A S; Túri, S

    1998-12-01

    Childhood membranous nephropathy (MNP) with anti-tubular basement membrane (anti-TBM) nephritis is a rare disorder that may have extrarenal manifestations. This article describes a new case to be added to the 10 previously reported. A renal biopsy specimen from a 1-year-old white boy with nephrotic syndrome, microhematuria, and hypertension showed MNP (granular global IgG, IgA and C3, and segmental IgM and C1q) associated with hypercellularity and granular deposits of IgM and C1q in the mesangium, arteriolar IgA, and linear TBM IgG, IgA, and C3. A biopsy at age 4 years showed MNP (IgG and C3) and linear IgG and C3 along the TBM. Six months later, temporary glucosuria suggested a mild tubular dysfunction. Biopsy at age 8 years showed sclerosing MNP (IgG and C3), linear TBM IgG and C3, and chronic active tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN). Indirect immunofluorescence showed circulating anti-TBM antibodies, and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) approach verified strong reactivity with the 58-kd TIN antigen. Despite trials with steroids, chlorambucil, azathioprine, and cyclosporine, end-stage renal disease developed by the age of 9 years. At age 10 years, the patient received a cadaveric kidney transplant. With the patient now aged 12 years, the graft is still functioning well, without any clinical evidence of disease recurrence. Neurological, ocular, and abdominal symptoms, including nonbacterial diarrhea, were observed during the follow-up period. The pathophysiology of these extrarenal symptoms remains unclear. Serotyping and genotyping of HLA antigens (A2, A10, B12, B41, DR5 [1101, 1103-4, 1106 or 1108-1113], DR6 [1303, 1312, or 1413], DRB3 [*0101 and 0201-2 or 0301], DQA1 [*0501 homozygous], and DQB1 [*0301 homozygous]) did not indicate any HLA association similar to those described previously in childhood MNP with anti-TBM nephritis (HLA-B7 in four patients, HLA-DR8 in two patients). The presented case is the fifth in the literature that displays reactivity with the 58-kd TIN antigen, and for which data on HLA antigens are reported. PMID:9856526

  12. Long-term follow-up study of patients with refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Ross, Stephen; Fallon, Brian A; Petkova, Eva; Feinstein, Suzanne; Liebowitz, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    The authors prospectively followed patients with treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Between 1988 and 1995, 56 patients with a history of inadequate response to oral clomipramine received 14 infusions of intravenous clomipramine. The follow-up period ranged from 4 to 11 years after treatment. Of the 44 subjects interviewed at follow-up, 70.5% had current OCD and 29.5% had sub-threshold OCD. Almost half reported feeling much improved or very much improved compared to their state prior to treatment with intravenous clomipramine. PMID:19196930

  13. A Follow-Up Study of Abused Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, James T.

    1976-01-01

    Investigated in a followup study of 219 NAT (non-accidental trauma) children and 159 NEG (gross neglect) children were the specific effects of abusive environments on psychosocial development and the possible reversibility of these effects with intervention through foster home placement. Available from: EC 090 265. (Author/IM)

  14. Dropout and Violence Needs Assessment: A Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltich, Aimee P.; Hunt, Mary Helen; Meyers, Joel

    2004-01-01

    The current study investigated a needs assessment survey designed to measure perceptions of causes of dropout and school violence and related interventions. The needs assessment was conceptualized as a first step to be taken by schools to facilitate program planning, school-based implementation and acceptability of programs designed to prevent…

  15. Morning Star Students: A Follow-up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Leroy V.

    Findings of two followup studies of Morning Star (a 2-year Native teacher education program established in 1975 at the Blue Quills Native Education Centre, leading to a Bachelor of Education degree from the University of Alberta) are examined in relation to the program's assumptions, organization, and delivery systems. The teacher certification of…

  16. Oregon High School Follow-up Study. Statewide Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Thomas R.

    A followup study collected data from and concerning 1981 high school graduates and early leavers from 19 schools throughout Oregon in order to determine the effects of vocational training on employment and further education beyond high school. Data from 1,296 former students, 672 of whom had taken at least one year of vocational cluster courses,…

  17. FINAL REPORT: NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY FOCUS GROUPS - FOLLOW-UP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this work assignment was to add to our knowledge of the issues that will affect

    recruitment and retention of pregnant women into the National Children's Study by conducting 14 focus

    groups comprised of pregnant women, couples, and parents of young chi...

  18. Barriers to follow-up for pediatric cataract surgery in Maharashtra, India: How regular follow-up is important for good outcome. The Miraj Pediatric Cataract Study II

    PubMed Central

    Gogate, Parikshit; Patil, Shailbala; Kulkarni, Anil; Mahadik, Ashok; Tamboli, Rahin; Mane, Rekha; Borah, Rishiraj; Rao, G V

    2014-01-01

    Background: Regular follow up and amblyopia treatment are essential for good outcomes after pediatric cataract surgery. Aim: To study the regularity of follow-up after cataract surgery in children and to gauge the causes of poor compliance to follow up. Subjects: 262 children (393 cataracts) who underwent cataract surgery in 2004-8. Materials and Methods: The children were identified and examined in their homes and a “barriers to follow-up” questionnaire completed. Demographic data collected, visual acuity estimated, and ocular examination performed. Statistical Analysis: SPSS version 19. Results: Of the 262 children, only 53 (20.6%) had been regularly following up with any hospital, 209 (79.4%) had not. A total of 150 (57.3%) were boys and the average age was 13.23 years (Std Dev 5 yrs). Poor follow up was associated with the older age group (P < 0.001), less education of mother (P = 0.012), father's occupation (P = 0.031), how much money spent on travel (P = 0.033) and was it paid or free surgery (P = 0.001). It was not related to gender, numbers of children in family, ordinal status of child, and social strata. Distance and cost were major barriers, as was the inability of the eye care center to communicate the importance of follow up. A prospective follow-up visit showed that 93 children needed Nd: YAG LASER capsulotomy, 5 needed low vision aids, 4 contact lens, and 162 a change of spectacles. The average visual acuity improved in 150 (38.8%) eyes >1 line with regular follow-up. Conclusion: Regular follow-up is important and improves vision; eye care practitioners need to take special efforts to ensure better follow-up. PMID:24008794

  19. Follow-up Study of Patients With Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Peter; Kohn, Jean G.

    1979-01-01

    Of 319 patients with cerebral palsy recalled for reevaluation 15 years after the initial visit, 10 percent had died. Of the living, 55 percent had spasticity, 32 percent had athetosis, 4 percent had ataxia and 9 percent had mixed spasticity and athetosis; 38 percent had an intelligence quotient (IQ) less than 50, 24 percent between 50 and 79, and 38 percent had IQ above 80. There was a high correlation between overall functional outcome and intellectual level. Severity of physical disability, as measured by hand use, mobility and speech, also correlated with dependence, in part because increased severity of the disability was associated with decreased intellectual capacity generally. Twenty-five years after the initial visit, parental attitudes and personality intactness were evaluated (using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [MMPI]) and were correlated with satisfaction with status in life in 28 persons predicted to be independent on the 15-year study. Twenty (72 percent) of the 28 were satisfied with their status in life and of these, 16 were evaluated (with the MMPI) with 70 percent scoring in the normal range; 13 (65 percent) had parents with a positive attitude. Positive attitude was defined as parental feelings that the handicapped child was a worthy, valuable person, to be encouraged and assisted but not isolated from the world of nonhandicapped people. Careful serial assessment by professional teams combined with repeated long-term counseling of families can result in optimal outcome for the disability level involved, due to the primary role parents play in the development of a child's character and behavior. PMID:154207

  20. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONNAIRE DATA (ALL MONITORING PERIODS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set includes responses for 249 participants with a total of 444 follow-up questionnaires. Some participants were studied for more than one monitoring period. The Follow-up Questionnaire was used to provide information on relatively infrequent (e.g., less than daily) ac...

  1. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--FOOD FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONNAIRE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set includes responses for 163 food follow-up questionnaires. The food diary follow-up questionnaire was used to identify how the dietary patterns observed for study participants who had submitted duplicate diet samples and completed the associated food diary related to...

  2. Career Program Completers. 1989-90 Long-Term Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson County Community Coll., Overland Park, KS. Office of Institutional Research.

    In summer 1994, a long-term follow-up study was conducted of 1989-90 graduates of career programs at Johnson County Community College (JCCC) in Kansas. A survey was mailed to 536 graduates, certificate holders, and students who left JCCC with marketable skills to assess their satisfaction with JCCC and their jobs. With telephone follow-up, a…

  3. Breast Cancer and the Environment on Long Island Follow-up Study

    Cancer.gov

    A follow-up study on women with breast cancer who participated in the parent population-based case-control study of Long Island women to determine whether environmental and other lifestyle factors influence breast cancer survival.

  4. Study Protocol, Sample Characteristics, and Loss to Follow-Up: The OPPERA Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bair, Eric; Brownstein, Naomi C.; Ohrbach, Richard; Greenspan, Joel D.; Dubner, Ron; Fillingim, Roger B.; Maixner, William; Smith, Shad; Diatchenko, Luda; Gonzalez, Yoly; Gordon, Sharon; Lim, Pei-Feng; Ribeiro-Dasilva, Margarete; Dampier, Dawn; Knott, Charles; Slade, Gary D.

    2013-01-01

    When studying incidence of pain conditions such as temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), repeated monitoring is needed in prospective cohort studies. However, monitoring methods usually have limitations and, over a period of years, some loss to follow-up is inevitable. The OPPERA prospective cohort study of first-onset TMD screened for symptoms using quarterly questionnaires and examined symptomatic participants to definitively ascertain TMD incidence. During the median 2.8-year observation period, 16% of the 3,263 enrollees completed no follow-up questionnaires, others provided incomplete follow-up, and examinations were not conducted for one third of symptomatic episodes. Although screening methods and examinations were found to have excellent reliability and validity, they were not perfect. Loss to follow-up varied according to some putative TMD risk factors, although multiple imputation to correct the problem suggested that bias was minimal. A second method of multiple imputation that evaluated bias associated with omitted and dubious examinations revealed a slight underestimate of incidence and some small biases in hazard ratios used to quantify effects of risk factors. Although “bottom line” statistical conclusions were not affected, multiply-imputed estimates should be considered when evaluating the large number of risk factors under investigation in the OPPERA study. Perspective These findings support the validity of the OPPERA prospective cohort study for the purpose of investigating the etiology of first-onset TMD, providing the foundation for other papers investigating risk factors hypothesized in the OPPERA project. PMID:24275220

  5. Living with faecal incontinence: a 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mary

    Faecal incontinence (FI) is a taboo subject, and people living with it can feel stigmatised. This article reports on a 10-year qualitative follow-up to an initial constructivist-grounded theory project, investigating living with FI. This article will also look back at the initial study and the 5-year follow-up study undertaken. The research examines the challenges associated with living with FI and different ways of managing the condition, including the importance of social support. PMID:25757581

  6. Adolescents' Declining Motivation to Learn Science: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedder-Weiss, Dana; Fortus, David

    2012-01-01

    This is a mix methods follow-up study in which we reconfirm the findings from an earlier study [Vedder-Weiss & Fortus [2011] "Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48(2)", 199-216]. The findings indicate that adolescents' declining motivation to learn science, which was found in many previous studies [Galton [2009] "Moving to secondary school:…

  7. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Follow-up Study of Psychosocial Adjustment and Community Reintegration

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T.; Whitfield, T. Hatch; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (n=156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the two-year period of follow up, youth who had wounded or killed others during the war demonstrated increases in hostility. Youth who survived rape had higher levels of anxiety and hostility, but also demonstrated greater confidence and prosocial attitudes at follow up. Of the potential protective resources examined, improved community acceptance was associated with reduced depression at follow up and improved confidence and prosocial attitudes regardless of levels of violence exposure. Retention in school was also associated with greater prosocial attitudes. PMID:20636683

  8. A Follow-Up Study on Word and Non-Word Reading Skills in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roch, Maja; Jarrold, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The current study was designed to trace changes in the relationship between non-word reading and irregular word reading on the one hand, and between phonological awareness and non-word reading on the other, through a follow-up study of a group of individuals with Down syndrome. Twelve individuals with Down syndrome, whose data were originally…

  9. Sources of Validity Evidence for Educational and Psychological Tests: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cizek, Gregory J.; Bowen, Daniel; Church, Keri

    2010-01-01

    This study followed up on previous work that examined the incidence of reporting evidence based on test consequences in "Mental Measurements Yearbook". In the present study, additional possible outlets for what has been called "consequential validity" evidence were investigated, including all articles published in the past 10 years in several…

  10. Personnel Needs in School Psychology: A 10-Year Follow-Up Study on Predicted Personnel Shortages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Jose M.; Curtis, Michael J.; Tan, Sim Yin

    2014-01-01

    Concerns regarding whether a sufficient supply of school psychologists exists have been evident for decades. Studies have predicted that school psychology would face a critical personnel shortage that would peak in 2010, but continue into the foreseeable future. The current study is a 10-year follow-up investigation based on previously published…

  11. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Follow-Up Study of Psychosocial Adjustment and Community Reintegration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T.; Whitfield, Theodore H.; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (ages 10-18; n = 156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the 2-year period of follow-up, youth who had wounded or killed…

  12. Follow-up study using iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging in a patient with neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ikekubo, K.; Habuchi, Y.; Jeong, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Saiki, Y.; Ito, H.; Hino, M.; Higa, T.

    1986-11-01

    A new radiopharmaceutical, I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) was used to determine the location and to follow-up tumors in a 13-month-old girl with neuroblastoma. I-131 MIBG imaging revealed both a primary abdominal tumor and a distant metastatic orbital tumor. Follow-up study with I-131 MIBG imaging demonstrated significant resolution of tumors after external radiotherapy and chemotherapy. I-131 MIBG imaging is a simple, safe, and specific method of determining the location of tumors and also is clinically useful in the evaluation and management of patients with neuroblastoma.

  13. [Peculiarities of social adaptation in adolescents with schizoid personality disorder: a follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Borisova, D Iu

    2007-01-01

    A sample of 63 adolescents with schizoid personality disorder, aged 15-17 years, 58 males and 5 females, was followed up for a period of 3-8 years and re-examined at the age of 20-25. The patients were examined in a psychoneurologic out-patient center due to social maladaptation. The follow-up study revealed the improvement of social adaptation with an extremely low percent (5%) of schizophrenia manifestations. A number of clinical factors significant for the future social functioning of schizoid adolescents was found. A strategy of psychocorrection and sociotherapeutic care for the patients is worked out. PMID:18379484

  14. Dietary changes in Vietnamese marriage immigrant women: The KoGES follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ji-Yun; Lee, Hakim; Ko, Ahra; Han, Chan-Jung; Chung, Hye Won

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The immigrant population has grown considerably in South Korea since the early 1990s due to international marriages. Dietary changes in immigrants are an important issue, because they are related to health and disease patterns. This study was conducted to compare changes in dietary intake between baseline and follow-up periods. SUBJECTS/METHODS Two hundreds thirty three Vietnamese female married immigrants. Baseline data were collected during 2006-2009, and the follow-up data were collected during 2008 and 2010. Food consumption was assessed using a 1-day 24-hour recall. RESULTS The amount of the total food consumed (P < 0.001) including that of cereals (P = 0.004), vegetables (P = 0.003), and fruits (P = 0.002) decreased at follow-up compared to that at baseline, whereas consumption of milk and dairy products increased (P = 0.004). Accordingly, the overall energy and nutrient intake decreased at follow-up, including carbohydrates (P = 0.012), protein (P = 0.021), fiber (P = 0.008), iron (P = 0.009), zinc (P = 0.006), and folate (P = 0.002). Among various anthropometric and biochemical variables, mean skeletal muscle mass decreased (P = 0.012), plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol increased, (P = 0.020) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein decreased at follow-up (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS A long-term follow-up study is needed to investigate the association between changes in food and nutrient intake and anthropometric and biochemical variables in these Vietnamese female marriage immigrants. PMID:24944778

  15. Schizo-Affective Psychoses in Childhood: A Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggers, Christian

    1989-01-01

    The follow-up study examined 16 schizo-affective children after a mean of 16 years. In comparison to purely schizophrenic controls, subjects showed an increased incidence of affective psychoses, suicide in the ancestry, and more pre-morbidly well-adjusted personalities. The schizo-affective psychoses had mainly an acute-recurrent character.…

  16. Follow-Up Study of 1983 Legal Technology Graduates. Volume 12, No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrandt, Sharrie; Lucas, John A.

    A follow-up study was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) to determine the employment and educational status of graduates of the Legal Technology (LTE) program 6 months after receiving their degree. Attempts were made to contact all 59 1983 LTE graduates for telephone interviews and compare their responses to findings from previous…

  17. Exploring "Successful" Outcomes of Entrepreneurship Education: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Laura; Kapasi, Isla; Whittam, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    During 2005-2006 entrepreneurship students in several UK universities completed a survey about their background and career intentions. This paper reports, eight years on, on a follow-up study with ten of these participants, with the aim of exploring the students' intentions and subsequent actions since graduating. Using a qualitative methodology,…

  18. Follow-Up Study of 1990 Nursing Graduates. Volume XX, No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, J.; Meltesen, C.

    In 1990, a follow-up study of nursing program graduates was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) in Palatine, Illinois, to examine their employment patterns, further education plans, and evaluate particular aspects of their WRHC experience. All 98 nursing students who earned 48 credit hours in 1990 were mailed questionnaires 1 year…

  19. Follow-Up Study of 1986 Nursing Graduates. Volume XVI, No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dincher, J.; Flaherty, A.

    In spring 1987, a follow-up study of nursing program graduates was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) to examine employment patterns, further education plans, and graduates' evaluation of particular aspects of their WRHC experience. Questionnaires were mailed to 112 nursing students who graduated with an associate degree in 1986.…

  20. Follow-Up Study of 1988 Nursing Graduates. Volume XVIII, No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dincher, J.; Meltesen, Cal

    In 1989, a follow-up study of nursing program graduates was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) to examine their employment patterns, further education plans, and evaluate particular aspects of their WRHC experience. Questionnaires were mailed to 105 nursing students who graduated in 1988. Results were compared with previous surveys…

  1. Colorado Even Start Follow-Up Study: Trinidad State Junior College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Beckie

    Even Start family literacy programs are integrated adult education, early childhood education, and parent support components intended to break the intergenerational cycle of poverty and low literacy. In Spring of 2002, a follow-up study of one Even Start project was conducted to assess the long-term effects of Even Start programming for families.…

  2. Handbook of Instructions for Conducting Follow-Up Studies of High School Graduates. Book I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Evelyn T. Comp.; And Others

    This handbook is designed to enable high schools to conduct follow-up studies on their graduates for 5 years after graduation. The information gathered should give schools pertinent data about: (1) post high school activities of graduates; (2) reactions of graduates to counseling and guidance opportunities; (3) reactions of graduates to…

  3. A Follow-Up Study of Girls with Gender Identity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Kelley D.; Bradley, Susan J.; Peterson-Badali, Michele; Zucker, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided information on the natural histories of 25 girls with gender identity disorder (GID). Standardized assessment data in childhood (mean age, 8.88 years; range, 3-12 years) and at follow-up (mean age, 23.24 years; range, 15-36 years) were used to evaluate gender identity and sexual orientation. At the assessment in childhood, 60%…

  4. Self-Assessment for Career Change: Does It Really Work? A Follow-up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiant, Allen A.; Hutchinson, Ronald C.

    To examine the impact of evaluating one's transferable skills on subsequent employment experiences, a follow-up study compared past participants in Columbia University's Deep Investigation of Growth (DIG) program with a group of non-participants and a pre-program group. The program guides participants through a self-analysis process to identify…

  5. Follow-up Study of the Finances of Chemistry and Physics

    E-print Network

    Crowther, Paul

    Follow-up Study of the Finances of Chemistry and Physics Departments in UK Universities An Institute of Physics and Royal Society of Chemistry report | June 2010 #12;Acknowledgements I would like to thank all of the staff in the chemistry and physics departments and the staff in central finance

  6. Follow-Up Study of Former Students of the Criminal Justice Program. Volume XVI, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, George; Lucas, John A.

    A follow-up study was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) of students who had completed several courses in the Criminal Justice Program to determine why students left the criminal justice field, examine Criminal Justice students' enrollment and course-taking patterns, and to analyze withdrawal and failure rates in the course,…

  7. Secondary Preventive Interventions with Preschool Children: A Follow-up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickel, Annette U.; Dyhdalo, Louise L.

    The long term effects of a preschool intervention program for an experimental group of high-risk, black, low income children were assessed and compared to a high-risk placebo control group and low-risk "normal" controls. Seventy first grade children were involved in this 2-year follow-up study. Of these children, 42 were involved in the preschool…

  8. Reversible Autism among Congenitally Blind Children? A Controlled Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, R. Peter; Lee, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Background: Atypical forms of autism may yield insights into the development and nature of the syndrome. Methods: We conducted a follow-up study of nine congenitally blind and seven sighted children who, eight years earlier, had satisfied formal diagnostic criteria for autism and had been included in groups matched for chronological age and verbal…

  9. Alopecia Areata Increases the Risk of Stroke: a 3-year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jiunn-Horng; Lin, Herng-Ching; Kao, Senyeong; Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Chung, Shiu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The risk for stroke in alopecia areata (AA) patients is still unknown. This study aimed to investigate the risk for subsequent risk of a stroke in AA patients in a large-scale retrospective cohort study. We identified 3231 patients with AA included in the study group from 2004 to 2011 in the “Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000” in Taiwan. We randomly selected 16,155 matched patients as the comparison group. We individually tracked each patient for a 3-year period to identify patients who had received a diagnosis of stroke during the follow-up period. We found that incidence rates of stroke during the 3-year follow-up periods were 5.44 (95% confidence interval (CI)?=?4.03?~?7.20) and 2.75 (95% CI?=?2.30?~?3.27) per 1000 person-years for patients with and those without AA, respectively. Cox proportional hazard regressions showed that the adjusted hazard ratio for stroke for those patients with AA was 1.61 (95% CI?=?1.13?~?2.30) within the follow-up period compared to the controls. We concluded that patients with AA were associated with a higher risk of stroke in the 3-year follow-up period. PMID:26114569

  10. Observational study on Takotsubo-like cardiomyopathy: clinical features, diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Cacciotti, Luca; Passaseo, Ilaria; Marazzi, Giuseppe; Camastra, Giovanni; Campolongo, Giuseppe; Beni, Sergio; Lupparelli, Fabrizio; Ansalone, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The present study attempts to identify appropriate elements that may contribute to clarify the broad clinical features (diagnosis, care, complication and prognosis) of Takotsubo-like cardiomyopathy for improving its management. Design study Observational study. Setting Primary level of care referred to the emergency department of Vannini Hospital, Rome, Italy. Participants The study population consisted of 75 patients, 72 of the them were women and 3 were men with a mean age of 71.9±9.6?years. Methods From February 2004 to November 2010, prospectively included 84 consecutive patients diagnosed for suspected Takotsubo-like cardiomyopathy. To be eligible, patients had to meet all the Mayo clinic criteria in the absence of neurological trauma or intracranial haemorrhage. Moreover, those patients that at follow-up still presented alteration of acute phase at ECG and echocardiogram were excluded. Thus, 75 patients comprised the study population. To follow-up 19 patients were lost. Results None of 75 patients died in acute phase. All patients were promptly discharged (8.4±4.4?days), since they recovered their normal functional status without symptoms. Follow-up information was available for 56 patients. At a mean follow-up time of 2.2±2?years (range, 0.1–6.8?years) two octogenarian patients (2.6%) died because of sudden cardiac death and pulmonary embolism, respectively. The Takotsubo-like cardiomyopathy recurred in one patient. Conclusions The results of this study support the previous reports about the good prognosis, also in critically ill patients, of Takotsubo-like cardiomyopathy. Further assessment will be needed to determine a careful and sustained follow-up for choosing the best care and foreseeing the recurrences of this emerging condition. PMID:23065445

  11. Methods used for successful follow-up in a large scale national cohort study in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ensuring successful follow-up is essential when conducting a prospective cohort study. Most existing literature reviewing methods to ensure a high response rate is based on experience in developed nations. Findings We report our 4-year follow-up success for a national cohort study examining the health transition underway in Thailand. We began the cohort study in 2005 with a baseline postal questionnaire sent to all 200,000 Thais enrolled as distance learning students at Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University and residing all over Thailand; 87,134 or 44% of the students responded. Subsequently we used University and national media to inform cohort members of study progress. Also, we prepared a health book with study results and health advice which was distributed to all cohort members. After 4 years we repeated the survey and achieved a 71% response rate. In this paper we report the methods used to achieve this response The initial follow-up mail-out generated a response rate of about 48% reflecting the extensive preparatory work between baseline and follow-up. After 4 rounds of telephone contact (more than 100,000 phone calls) and 4 related mail-out rounds progressively over 16 months an overall response rate was achieved of just over 71% (n = 60,774). The total cost was US$4.06/respondent - 19% for printing, 21% for postage, 14% for tape measures (included in mail-out), 18% for data processing 22% for prizes and 6% for telephone. Conclusions Many of the methods reported as effective for mail questionnaire and cohort response rates held true for Thailand. These included being associated with a university, incentivating cooperation, follow-up contact, providing a second copy of questionnaire where necessary, and assurance of confidentiality. Telephone contact with the cohort and the small prizes given to responders were particularly important in the Thai context as was Thai leadership of the research team. PMID:21615963

  12. High Risk Infants Follow-Up: A Case Study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Jodeiry, Behzad; Hosseini, Mohammad Baqer; Mirnia, Kayvan; Akrami, Forouzan; Habbibollahi, Abbas; Moazzen, Sara; Dastgiri, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Background. A follow-up program for high risk infants was initiated in Alzahra Maternity Hospital in Tabriz city, Iran, in 2013. The aim of this paper is to give a brief report of the program. Material and Methods. Two groups of high risk neonates were studied. The first group comprising 509 infants received services in Alzahra Maternity Hospital implemented by the follow-up program. This included a full package for family to look after high risk infant and periodic clinical evaluation at two and four weeks after birth and then two, three, four, five, and six months later again. The second group including 131 infants in Taleqani Maternity Hospital received routine services after birth with no specific follow-up care. Results. Some anthropometric indices showed a significant improvement in the intervention hospital compared to control group. These included the following: head circumference at first and second months; weight in the first, fourth, fifth, and sixth months; and height in sixth month only. Clinical evaluation of infants showed an improvement for some of the medical conditions. Conclusion. Follow-up care program for a minimum of six months after discharge from maternity hospitals may help to avoid adverse and life threatening consequences in high risk infants. PMID:26136787

  13. Replication of genetic linkage by follow-up of previously studied pedigrees

    SciTech Connect

    Gershon, E.S.; Goldin, L.R. )

    1994-04-01

    Independent replication of linkage in previously studied pedigrees is desirable when genetic heterogeneity is suspected or when the illness is very rare. When the likelihood of the new data in this type of replication study is computed as conditional on the previously reported linkage results, it can be considered independent. The authors describe a simulation method using the SLINK program in which the initial data are fixed and newly genotyped individuals are simulated under [theta] = .01 and [theta] = .50. These give appropriate lod score criteria for rejection and acceptance of linkage in the follow-up study, which take into account the original marker genotypes in the data. An estimate of the power to detect linkage in the follow-up data is also generated. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CODING: FOLLOW UP QUESTIONNAIRE (UA-D-11.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to define the coding strategy for the Follow Up Questionnaire. This questionnaire was developed for use in the Arizona NHEXAS project and the "Border" study. Household and individual follow-up data were combined in a single Follow-up Questionnaire data...

  15. A web-based image viewer for multiple PET-CT follow-up studies.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Daiki; Kim, Jinman; Kumar, Ashnil; Constantinescu, Liviu; Wen, Lingfeng; Feng, David Dagan

    2011-01-01

    There exist many viewers for single-modal medical images that are efficient and are equipped with powerful analysis tools. However, there is a distinct lack of efficient image viewers for multi-modality images, particularly for displaying multiple follow-up studies that depict a patient's response to treatment over time. Such viewers would be required to display large amounts of image data. In this study, we present the TAGIGEN viewer--a web-based image viewer designed specifically for the visualisation of multi-modality follow-up studies. We innovate by defining a series of dynamically generated image grid layouts that display sets of related images together in order to improve the ability to compare and assimilate the myriad images. We adopted a web-based client-server image streaming technology, thus enabling interactive navigation of the images in a computationally efficient manner. Furthermore, our web-based approach is interoperable and requires no software installation. We evaluated the ability of our viewer in displaying and understanding a patient's follow-up images in a case study with combined positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET-CT) follow-up scans. We conducted a usability survey on 10 participants to measure the usefulness of our viewer, used as an outpatient viewer e.g. viewer designed for use by the patients, in tracking a patient's disease state across four PET-CT studies. Our initial results suggest that our viewer was able to efficiently visualise the patient data over time, and that the web-based implementation was fast (loading on average within 5.6 seconds with real-time navigation) and easy to use (overall survey score higher than 4 / 5). PMID:22255529

  16. Compilation of Case Studies: Exemplary Placement and Follow-Up Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Jack

    Examples of placement and follow-up conceptual models developed for a program of vocational education (kindergarten through university) are presented. Section 1 contains a historical overview of placement and follow-up activities in Florida and describes a comprehensive model. Section 2, describing a model for utilizing community resources for the…

  17. Changes in occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity: a follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity is known to have health benefits across population groups. However, less is known about changes over time in socioeconomic differences in leisure-time physical activity and the reasons for the changes. We hypothesised that class differences in leisure-time physical activity would widen over time due to declining physical activity among the lower occupational classes. We examined whether occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity change over time in a cohort of Finnish middle-aged women and men. We also examined whether a set of selected covariates could account for the observed changes. Methods The data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study cohort mail surveys; the respondents were 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki at baseline in 2000-2002 (n = 8960, response rate 67%). Follow-up questionnaires were sent to the baseline respondents in 2007 (n = 7332, response rate 83%). The outcome measure was leisure-time physical activity, including commuting, converted to metabolic equivalent tasks (MET). Socioeconomic position was measured by occupational class (professionals, semi-professionals, routine non-manual employees and manual workers). The covariates included baseline age, marital status, limiting long-lasting illness, common mental disorders, job strain, physical and mental health functioning, smoking, body mass index, and employment status at follow-up. Firstly the analyses focused on changes over time in age adjusted prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. Secondly, logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for covariates of changes in occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity. Results At baseline there were no occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity. Over the follow-up leisure-time physical activity increased among those in the higher classes and decreased among manual workers, suggesting the emergence of occupational class differences at follow-up. Women in routine non-manual and manual classes and men in the manual class tended to be more often physically inactive in their leisure-time (<14 MET hours/week) and to be less often active (>30 MET hours/week) than those in the top two classes. Adjustment for the covariates did not substantially affect the observed occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity at follow-up. Conclusions Occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity emerged over the follow-up period among both women and men. Leisure-time physical activity needs to be promoted among ageing employees, especially among manual workers. PMID:21362168

  18. Developing COPD: a 25 year follow up study of the general population

    PubMed Central

    Løkke, A; Lange, P; Scharling, H; Fabricius, P; Vestbo, J

    2006-01-01

    Background Smokers are more prone to develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) than non?smokers, but this finding comes from studies spanning 10?years or less. The aim of this study was to determine the 25?year absolute risk of developing COPD in men and women from the general population. Methods As part of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, 8045 men and women aged 30–60?years with normal lung function at baseline were followed for 25?years. Lung function measurements were collected and mortality from COPD during the 25?year observation period was analysed. Results The percentage of men with normal lung function ranged from 96% of never smokers to 59% of continuous smokers; for women the proportions were 91% and 69%, respectively. The 25?year incidence of moderate and severe COPD was 20.7% and 3.6%, respectively, with no apparent difference between men and women. Smoking cessation, especially early in the follow up period, decreased the risk of developing COPD substantially compared with continuous smoking. During the follow up period there were 2912 deaths, 109 of which were from COPD. 92% of the COPD deaths occurred in subjects who were current smokers at the beginning of the follow up period. Conclusion The absolute risk of developing COPD among continuous smokers is at least 25%, which is larger than was previously estimated. PMID:17071833

  19. Retrospective follow-up study of foundry and engine plant workers.

    PubMed

    Rotimi, C; Austin, H; Delzell, E; Day, C; Macaluso, M; Honda, Y

    1993-10-01

    A retrospective follow-up study of 21,013 workers employed at a foundry and two engine manufacturing plants was conducted to determine if these workers had an unusual mortality experience. A total of 2,235 deaths occurred during the follow-up period of 1970-1987. Mortality from all causes was lower than expected. Men experienced a 6-13% excess of lung cancer deaths, depending on the choice of the comparison group. The data displayed evidence of a positive trend between lung cancer mortality and increasing duration of employment (p = 0.008). White men experienced a statistically significant excess of deaths from stomach cancer (standardized mortality ratio [SMR] = 158; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 101-234). Black men had increased mortality from pancreatic cancer, especially among engine plant workers (SMR = 303; CI = 121-624), and an excess of prostate cancer, concentrated among foundry workers (SMR = 234; CI = 112-430). PMID:8250066

  20. A 2-year follow-up study of discharged psychiatric patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyang; Chen, Chao; Qiu, Bin; Yang, Guang

    2014-08-15

    This study investigated medication compliance, disease recurrence and the recovery of social function in discharged psychiatric patients with bipolar disorder. A 2-year follow-up was conducted on all patients with bipolar disorder, who were hospitalized in our psychiatric department between June 2010 and May 2011. Risk factors for recurrence were analyzed based on a self-designed questionnaire. Of the 252 patients in the study, 210 had complete information (83.3%) for the 2-year follow-up: 170 cases of bipolar I disorder and 40 cases of bipolar II disorder. The 1-year and 2-year full-compliance rates were 41.0% and 35.7%, respectively. The 1-year and 2-year recurrence rates were 42.4% and 61.0%, respectively. Statistically significant differences in rates were found between the bipolar subtypes for 1-year full compliance, 1-year non-compliance, 2-year recurrence, and 2-year readmission. Logistic regression identified different sets of independent variables that were risk factors for recurrence, and protective factors for recurrence at 1 year and 2 years after hospital discharge. The results of the follow-up indicated that the situation of patients with bipolar disorder after discharge is not optimistic, because of high recurrence rates, high non-compliance rates and low recovery rates. Clinical and social experts should pay more attention to the situation. PMID:24794029

  1. Some field problems in follow-up surveys: a study of IUD acceptor.

    PubMed

    Talwar, P P; Singh, R P

    1978-01-01

    This paper deals with problems encountered in an attempt to conduct a follow-up study of Lippe's Loop insertion (among women who were reported to have had insertions between April 1977 and June 1978) in rural and urban areas of Lucknow, India. The problems in the rural areas included: 1) difficulty in deciphering handwritten addresses, 2) difficulty in locating clients without a member of local health center staff present, 3) lack of information on "caste" of husband of client, 4) biased reports given in the presence of health center staff. In the urban areas, similar difficulties were encountered with handwritten addresses, as well as problems in locating clients due to greater mobility in urban centers. It was also found that many cases were nonexistent and had been invented to increase a particular center's achievements. Some cases were found to have another form of IUD rather than Lippe's Loop. The authors recommend several improvements in follow-up study techniques, including: 1) clearer address records, 2) inclusion of "caste" on information care in rural areas, 3) name of hamlet in rural areas, 4) current as opposed to permanent address in urban centers. A table is provided to show how many clients were located for the follow-up and reasons for difficulty in locating clients. PMID:12233602

  2. Long-term results of viscocanalostomy and phacoviscocanalostomy: a twelve-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Gunenc, Uzeyir; Ozturk, Taylan; Arikan, Gul; Kocak, Nilufer

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety results of viscocanalostomy and phacoviscocanalostomy. METHODS The charts of 49 glaucoma patients who underwent viscocanalostomy or phacoviscocanalostomy surgery between February 1999 and August 2004 were reviewed retrospectively. Thirty-one eyes of 21 glaucoma patients who underwent filtering procedure with a postoperative follow-up of at least 5y were included in the study. Results of complete ophthalmologic examinations were recorded and statistically analyzed. Long-term surgical outcome was defined as an overall success when intraocular pressure (IOP) was found as ?20 mm Hg with or without antiglaucomatous medication at the last follow-up visit, while it was defined as a complete success when IOP was measured ?20 mm Hg without antiglaucomatous medication. RESULTS Mean age was 68.1±9.6y (range: 32-81y). Mean follow-up time was 101.5±27.3mo (range: 60-144mo). Viscocanalostomy was performed in 8 eyes (25.8%) and phacoviscocanalostomy was performed in 23 eyes (74.2%). The mean preoperative IOP was 23.1±7.6 mm Hg with 2.1±1.0 medications, while mean IOP was 16.8±3.8 mm Hg with 0.9±1.1 medication at the last follow-up visit. Both the IOP decrease and the reduction in the antiglaucomatous medication were statistically significant (P<0.001 and P<0.001). No case required further glaucoma surgery. Overall success and complete success were found as 87.1% and 51.6%, respectively. Complete success rate was statistically higher in phacoviscocanalostomy group compared with the viscocanalostomy group (P=0.031), however there was no significant difference in overall success rate between two groups (P=0.072). CONCLUSION Both viscocanalostomy and phacoviscocanalostomy provide good IOP reduction in the long-term period. PMID:26682166

  3. Changes in leisure-time physical activity after transition to retirement: a follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Retirement is a major life change that is likely to affect lifestyles. The aim of this study was to examine changes in leisure-time physical activity of moderate and vigorous intensity among ageing employees facing transition to retirement over a follow-up of 5-7 years. Methods The baseline data were collected by questionnaire surveys in 2000-2002 among 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki. A follow-up survey was conducted among the baseline respondents in 2007 (n = 7332, response rate 83%). Those who were on disability retirement at the follow-up were distinguished from old-age retirees. Leisure-time physical activity was measured using similar questions in both surveys. Results Old-age retirees increased significantly their time spent in moderate-intensity physical activity: women 31 minutes per week and men 42 minutes per week on average. Such changes were not found among disability retirees or those remaining employed. There were no changes in vigorous activity. Leisure-time physical inactivity at follow-up was lower among old-age retirees compared with employees of nearly the same age. Adjustments made for potential baseline covariates had no effects on these findings. Conclusions Transition to old-age retirement was associated with an increase in moderate-intensity leisure-time physical activity and a decrease in the proportion of inactive. Encouraging people to leisure-time physical activity after retirement is worthwhile as the increase in free time brings new possibilities for it. PMID:21513555

  4. Patient relationship management: an overview and study of a follow-up system.

    PubMed

    Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Räisänen, Teppo; Hummastenniemi, Niko

    2008-01-01

    Customer relationship management research is utilized to explain the need for a more patient-oriented support in patient care. This article presents a European study on how various hospital units of a single healthcare organization have utilized a patient relationship management system--in particular a patient treatment follow-up system--and how it affects patient care and the knowledge work performed by the medical staff. Eight physicians were interviewed at a university hospital on whether patient treatment was improved through a follow-up system that had been in use in the case organization for three years. The interviewees represented various hospital units, and all of them had used the system at their own unit. The results indicate that it is possible to improve patient care through more personalized treatment. The follow-up treatment system seems to be a tool to create and maintain better communication with the patients rather than just a technological solution. It may help better understand and analyze both individual patients and patient groups. For individual physicians it provides a way to reflect professional skills. The system was lacking in its support for one-to-one communication with patients. Nevertheless, the system is an example of patient relationship management which may help healthcare units to move towards a more patient-oriented care. PMID:19267028

  5. Breast cancer survivorship--intersecting gendered discourses in a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Norberg, Monika; Magnusson, Eva; Egberg Thyme, Karin; Åström, Sture; Lindh, Jack; Öster, Inger

    2015-01-01

    In this article the authors present a follow-up study of women's interview narratives about life 5 to 7 years after a breast cancer operation. The women had taken part in a study during the 6-month postoperation period. Art therapy contributed to well-being, including strengthening personal boundaries. In the new study, interview analysis informed by critical discursive psychology indicated three problematic discourses that the women still struggled with several years after the operation: the female survivor, the "good woman," and individual responsibility. We concluded that many women with a history of breast cancer need support several years after their medical treatment is finished. PMID:25692802

  6. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONNAIRE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Follow-up Questionnaire data set provides information concerning the activities within the household during the sampling week. The information is from 201 Follow-up Questionnaires for 91 households. Medication and supplemental dietary information is provided. The Follow-up...

  7. Prospective follow-up study of 423 children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Bonduelle, M; Legein, J; Buysse, A; Van Assche, E; Wisanto, A; Devroey, P; Van Steirteghem, A C; Liebaers, I

    1996-07-01

    In order to evaluate the safety of the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) procedure, a prospective follow-up study of 423 children born after ICSI was carried out. The aim of this study was to compile data on karyotypes, congenital malformations, growth parameters and developmental milestones. Before starting the infertility treatment, couples were asked to participate in a follow-up study including genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis. The follow-up study of the child was based on a visit to the paediatrician-geneticist at birth or at 2 months of age, at 1 year and at 2 years of age when a physical examination for major and minor malformations and a psychomotoric evaluation were done. Between April 1991 and September 1994, 320 pregnancies obtained after ICSI led to the birth of 423 children (222 singletons, 186 twins and 15 triplets). Prenatal diagnosis determined a total of 293 karyotypes, one of which was abnormal (0.3%), and four were benign familial structural aberrations, all inherited from the paternal side. A total of 14 (3.3%) major malformations were observed, defined as those causing functional impairment or requiring surgical correlation. Neurological or developmental problems at the age of 2 months were found in 14 children, four of whom were multiples. Compared to most registers of children born after assisted reproduction and to registers of malformations in the general population, the figure of 3.3% major malformations is within the expected range. Before drawing any firm conclusion, further careful evaluations of the available data are necessary. PMID:8671504

  8. Learning, Memory, and Executive Function in New MDMA Users: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Daniel; Tkotz, Simon; Koester, Philip; Becker, Benjamin; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne; Daumann, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is associated with changes in neurocognitive performance. Recent studies in laboratory animals have provided additional support for the neurodegeneration hypothesis. However, results from animal research need to be applied to humans with caution. Moreover, several of the studies that examine MDMA users suffer from methodological shortcomings. Therefore, a prospective cohort study was designed in order to overcome these previous methodological shortcomings and to assess the relationship between the continuing use of MDMA and cognitive performance in incipient MDMA users. It was hypothesized that, depending on the amount of MDMA taken, the continued use of MDMA over a 2-year period would lead to further decreases in cognitive performance, especially in visual paired association learning tasks. Ninety-six subjects were assessed, at the second follow-up assessment: 31 of these were non-users, 55 moderate-users, and 10 heavy-users. Separate repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted for each cognitive domain, including attention and information processing speed, episodic memory, and executive functioning. Furthermore, possible confounders including age, general intelligence, cannabis use, alcohol use, use of other concomitant substances, recent medical treatment, participation in sports, level of nutrition, sleep patterns, and subjective well-being were assessed. The Repeated measures analysis of variance (rANOVA) revealed that a marginally significant change in immediate and delayed recall test performances of visual paired associates learning had taken place within the follow-up period of 2 years. No further deterioration in continuing MDMA-users was observed in the second follow-up period. No significant differences with the other neuropsychological tests were noted. It seems that MDMA use can impair visual paired associates learning in new users. However, the groups differed in their use of concomitant use of illicit drugs. Therefore, performance differences between the groups cannot completely ascribed to the use of MDMA. PMID:26696809

  9. Prehypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease in Chinese Population: Four-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junjuan; Gao, Jingsheng; Chen, Shuohua; Zhu, Hang; Wu, Shouling

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is a well established cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the effect of prehypertension on risk of CKD is controversial. The aim of this study is to determine whether prehypertension increases the risk of CKD events in the Chinese population. We enrolled 20,034 with prehypertension and 12,351 with ideal blood pressure in this prospective study. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min 1.73m2. The new occurrences of CKD events were collected during follow-up. Cumulative survival and freedom for the occurrence of new CKD events was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier approach. Multivariate Cox Regression was used to analyze the effect of prehypertension on CKD. The median follow-up time was 47 (interquartile range 44–51) months. 601 new onset CKD events occurred during the follow-up period. The cumulative incidence of new CKD events was higher in the prehypertensive population than that in the ideal blood pressure population (2.10% vs 1.46%, P = 0.0001). Multivariate Cox Regression showed that relative risks (RRs) for the new onset CKD events in the prehypertensive population were 1.69 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.41~2.04, P = 0.001) higher than those in the ideal blood pressure population. Similarly, the risks were 1.68 (95% CI: 1.33~2.13 P = 0.001) times higher in females and 2.14 (95% CI: 1.58~2.91 P = 0.001) times higher in males by adjustment for traditional CV risk factors. Our findings demonstrated prehypertension is an independent risk factor for the occurrence of new CKD events in the Chinese population. PMID:26670101

  10. Back posture education in elementary schoolchildren: a 2-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Geldhof, Elisabeth; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; De Clercq, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    Within the scope of primary prevention regarding back functioning in children, research on the stability of intervention effects is indispensable. Along this line, the transition from childhood to adolescence is an important phase to evaluate the potential stability of intervention effects because of the typically mechanical and psychological demands related to adolescence. The main aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of a back education program at 2-year follow-up, in youngsters aged 13–14 years, on back posture knowledge, fear-avoidance beliefs and self-reported pain. An additional purpose was to evaluate which aspects of postural behavior were integrated in youngsters’ lifestyles. At 2-year follow-up, the study sample included 94 secondary schoolchildren in the intervention group (mean age 13.3 ± 0.8 years) and 101 controls (mean age 13.2 ± 0.7 years). The back posture program that had been implemented for two school years consisted of back education and the stimulation of postural dynamism in the class through support and environmental changes. A questionnaire was completed comparable to the pretest, posttest and follow-up evaluations. The current study demonstrated at 2-year follow-up stability of the improved general (F = 1.590, ns) and specific (F = 0.049, ns) back posture knowledge in children who had received early back posture education. Back posture education did not result in increased fear-avoidance beliefs (F = 1.163, ns) or mounting back and/or neck pain reports (F = 0.001, ns). Based on self-reports for postural behavior, youngsters who had received the back posture program in the elementary school curriculum integrated crucial sitting and lifting principles conform to biomechanical favorable postural behavior. The steady intervention effects 2-year post-intervention demonstrated that intensive back posture education through the elementary school curriculum is effective till adolescence. Future research on the impact of early school-based back posture promotion in relation to the integration of back posture principles according to a biomechanical favorable lifestyle and back pain prevalence later in life is essential. PMID:17013655

  11. Asthma and risk of lethal prostate cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Platz, Elizabeth A; Drake, Charles G; Wilson, Kathryn M; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Kenfield, Stacey A; Mucci, Lorelei A; Stampfer, Meir J; Willett, Walter C; Camargo, Carlos A; Giovannucci, Edward

    2015-08-15

    Inflammation, and more generally, the immune response are thought to influence the development of prostate cancer. To determine the components of the immune response that are potentially contributory, we prospectively evaluated the association of immune-mediated conditions, asthma and hayfever, with lethal prostate cancer risk in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We included 47,880 men aged 40-75 years with no prior cancer diagnosis. On the baseline questionnaire in 1986, the men reported diagnoses of asthma and hayfever and year of onset. On the follow-up questionnaires, they reported new asthma and prostate cancer diagnoses. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate relative risks (RRs). In total, 9.2% reported ever having been diagnosed with asthma. In all, 25.3% reported a hayfever diagnosis at baseline. During 995,176 person-years of follow-up by 2012, we confirmed 798 lethal prostate cancer cases (diagnosed with distant metastases, progressed to distant metastasis or died of prostate cancer [N = 625]). Ever having a diagnosis of asthma was inversely associated with risk of lethal (RR = 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]?= 0.51-1.00) and fatal (RR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.42-0.96) disease. Hayfever with onset in the distant past was possibly weakly positively associated with risk of lethal (RR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.92-1.33) and fatal (RR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.91-1.37) disease. Men who were ever diagnosed with asthma were less likely to develop lethal and fatal prostate cancer. Our findings may lead to testable hypotheses about specific immune profiles in the etiology of lethal prostate cancer. PMID:25648070

  12. Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS): Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer in Men and Women

    Cancer.gov

    The grant provides for continued follow-up for and research on the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) of 51,529 men who completed an extensive dietary questionnaire first in 1986 and again in 1990, 1994,1998, 2002, 2006, and 2010. The program project grant also supports the food composition database and nutrient analysis system used by the Nurses' Health Study, Nurses' Health Study II, and many other studies.

  13. Adipsin Is Associated with Multiple Sclerosis: A Follow-Up Study of Adipokines

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Renuka; Hagman, Sanna; Hämälainen, Mari; Leppänen, Tiina; Dastidar, Prasun; Moilanen, Eeva; Elovaara, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective. The role of adipokines in regulation of immune responses has been recognized, but very little is known about their impact on multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we analysed whether the major adipokines are differentially expressed in plasma of patients with different MS subtypes and clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and explored their association with major disease characteristics. Methods. The levels of adiponectin, adipsin, leptin, and resistin in the plasma of 80 patients with different subtypes of MS and CIS were followed up annually over the two years. The data obtained were correlated with disease activity, EDSS and volumes of T1-weighted lesions (T1-LV), and fluid attenuation inversion recovery lesions (FLAIR-LV) on MRI. Results. In MS group, a correlation was found between the level of adipsin and EDSS score at baseline (r = 0.506, p < 0.001). In RRMS, the levels of adipsin correlated with EDSS scores (r = 0.542, p = 0.002), T1-LV (r = 0.410, p = 0.034), and FLAIR-LV (r = 0.601, p = 0.0001) at baseline and an increase in the T1-LV over the follow-up (r = 0.582, p = 0.003). Associations with other adipokines were not detected. Conclusion. Our exploratory study provides novel insights on the impact of adipokines in MS and suggests that adipsin exerts predictive potential as a biomarker of neurodegeneration. PMID:26634156

  14. Testing for mechanistic interactions in long-term follow-up studies.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jui-Hsiang; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2015-01-01

    In follow-up studies, interactions are often assessed by including a cross-product term in a (multiplicative) Cox model. However, epidemiologists/clinicians often misinterpret a significant multiplicative interaction as a genuine mechanistic interaction. Though indices specific to mechanistic interactions have been proposed, including the 'relative excess risk due to interaction' (RERI) and the 'peril ratio index of synergy based on multiplicativity' (PRISM), these indices assume no loss to follow up and no competing death in a study. In this paper, the authors propose a novel 'mechanistic interaction test' (MIT) for censored data. Monte-Carlo simulation shows that when the hazard curves are proportional to, non-proportional to, or even crossing over one another, the proposed MIT can maintain reasonably accurate type I error rates for censored data. It has far greater powers than the modified RERI and PRISM tests (modified for censored data scenarios). To test mechanistic interactions in censored data, we recommend using MIT in light of its desirable statistical properties. PMID:25811982

  15. A follow up study on the efficacy of metadoxine in the treatment of alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Guerrini, Irene; Gentili, Claudio; Nelli, Gloria; Guazzelli, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Background We carried out a three months follow-up study on the efficacy of metadoxine in a cohort of alcoholics admitted to the Alcohol misuse Long-term Treatment (ALT) Unit – University of Pisa (Italy). We analyzed the clinical data, psychometric tests and blood tests of 160 alcoholics on admission and after 3 months of treatment. We compared 58 pts treated with metadoxine (MET) with 102 pts who did not receive (NULL) any drug as an adjunct to the psycho-educational interventions provided by the ALT Unit. Results At follow-up, the patients in treatment with metadoxine showed a significant improvement in the rate of complete abstinence (44.8% vs. 21.6%; chi square: 8.45, df = 1, p < 0.0037). Furthermore, the number of drop-outs at three months of treatment was also significantly lower in the MET than in the NULL group (17% vs. 57%; chi square of 23.22, df = 1, p < 0.001). Conclusion Our findings support the use of metadoxine in the management of alcohol dependence. However, randomized clinical trials are necessary to confirm and replicate them. This study raises the importance of identifying new pharmacological compounds effective on the outcome of alcoholism in order to help patients to best adhere to treatment programs and to prevent the development of mental and physical complications due to chronic and heavy use of alcohol. PMID:17176456

  16. Optic neuritis in Hong Kong: a 1-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lau, Patrick P K; Yau, Gordon S K; Lee, Jacky W Y; Wong, Winnie W Y; Tam, Victor T Y; Chan, Eric Y T; Tse, Doris M W; Yuen, Can Y F

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the etiology and prevalence of optic neuritis in a Chinese population. This was a single centre prospective cohort study. Consecutive patients with either a first or recurrent attack of optic neuritis from November 2010 to December 2011 were recruited from a district hospital in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. All patients underwent serology testing for NMO (neuromyelitis optica) IgG; oligoclonal bands from lumbar puncture; computer tomography and contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and orbit as well as visual field; and optical coherence tomography testing. Patients were followed up for 1 year after the initial attack. 30 optic neuritis subjects were recruited. 73.3 % (22/30) remain as clinical isolated syndrome (CIS) after 1-year follow-up. 10 % (3/30) patients developed multiple sclerosis. 10 % (3/30) were diagnosed with NMO and 6.7 % (2/30) with NMO-spectrum disorder. The majority of acute unilateral optic neuritis in Chinese was CIS in origin although a fraction does progress to develop MS or NMO-related disorders. Clinicians should be aware of the associations and offer appropriate systemic workups. PMID:24728535

  17. Unilateral proptosis in thyroid eye disease with subsequent contralateral involvement: retrospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this retrospective follow-up study is to evaluate the prevalence of patients with thyroid eye disease presenting with apparent unilateral proptosis and determine the occurrence of exophthalmos in contralateral non-proptotic eye over the time. Associated features with this event were evaluated. Methods A cohort of 655 consecutive patients affected by thyroid eye disease with a minimum follow-up of 10 years was reviewed. Exophthalmos was assessed by using both Hertel exophthalmometer and computed tomography (CT). The influence of age, gender, hormonal status and of different therapies such as corticosteroids, radiotherapy and surgical decompression on this disease progression was evaluated. Results A total of 89 patients (13.5%) (95% confidence interval [CI] 15%-10%) had clinical evidence of unilateral exophthalmos at the first visit. Among these, 13 patients (14%) (95% CI 22%-7%) developed subsequent contralateral exophthalmos. The increase of protrusion ranged from 2 to 7 mm (mean of 4.2). The time of onset varied from 6 months to 7 years (mean time: 29 months). Smoking status, young age and surgical decompression are significantly associated with development of contralateral proptosis (p< .05). Conclusions Asymmetric thyroid eye disease with the appearance of unilateral exophthalmos at the initial examination is a fairly frequent event, while subsequent contralateral proptosis occurs less commonly. However, physicians should be aware that young patients, particularly if smokers, undergoing orbital decompression in one eye may need further surgery on contralateral side over time. PMID:23721066

  18. Memory self-efficacy predicts memory performance: results from a 6-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Valentijn, Susanne A M; Hill, Robert D; Van Hooren, Susan A H; Bosma, Hans; Van Boxtel, Martin P J; Jolles, Jelle; Ponds, Rudolf W H M

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between memory self-efficacy (MSE) and a 6-year follow-up assessment of memory functioning in a sample of Dutch older adults. MSE was assessed by a Dutch abridged version of the Metamemory in Adulthood questionnaire (MIA; R. A. Dixon, D. F. Hultsch, & C. Hertzog, 1988; C. Hertzog, D. F. Hultsch, & R. A. Dixon, 1989; R. W. H. M. Ponds & J. Jolles, 1996). The total MSE score predicted memory performance at 6 years, as measured by the Visual Verbal Learning Task (VVLT; N. Brand & J. Jolles, 1985). A separate analysis of the different MSE subscales indicated that the MIA Change score was the most salient domain-specific MSE predictor of subsequent memory performance after 6 years. An extreme groups analysis of the MIA Change score revealed a pattern of performance for those who perceived that their memory was worsening, performing less well on the 3 trials of the VVLT when these were readministered at the 6-year follow-up. PMID:16594801

  19. Conservative Treatment Protocol for Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour: a Follow-up Study of 3 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Gülsün; Ataoglu, Hanife; Kalayci, Abdullah; Kucuk, Korhan; Esen, Alparslan

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The keratocystic odontogenic tumour is classified as a developmental cyst derived from the enamel organ or from the dental lamina. The treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumour of the jaw remains controversial. The aim of this study was to report the outcome of our conservative treatment protocol for keratocystic odontogenic tumour. Methods Three patients with different complaints referred to Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic, Faculty of Dentistry, Selçuk University. Initial biopsy was carried out in all patients and keratocystic odontogenic tumours was diagnosed subsequent to histopathological examination. The patients with keratocystic odontogenic tumours were treated by enucleation followed by open packing. This conservative treatment protocol was selected because of existing young aged patients. The average follow-up duration of the cases was 2 years. Results Out of 3 cases, 2 lesions were present in mandible and 1 lesion in maxilla. There was no evidence of recurrence during follow-up. All the cases were monitored continuously with panoramic radiographs, computed tomography and clinical evaluations. Conclusions This conservative treatment protocol for keratocystic odontogenic tumours, based on enucleation followed by open packing would be a possible choice with a view of offering low recurrence rate and low morbidity rate particularly in young patients. PMID:24421977

  20. [Follow-up study on physical and mental development in small-for-gestational age infants].

    PubMed

    Xu, S X

    1993-02-01

    A follow-up study on physical and mental development was carried out in 35 small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and 35 appropriated-for-gestational age (AGA) infants. Excluded for congenital abnormality, intrauterine infection, and neonatal asphyxia SGA and AGA infants were similar in maternal education level, infant sex, illness, and feeding history. The results revealed that the body weight (8.09 +/- 0.73kg), height (69.55 +/- 2.49 cm), head circumference (43.27 +/- 1.67cm), Kaup index (16.17 +/- 1.05), and development quotient (96.37 +/- 5.76, Gesell diagnostic method) level at 40 weeks of age in SGA infants was lower than that in AGA infants (P < 0.001), and the development quotient (DQ) in SGA infants was especially low in language and receptive regions. Cord serum insulin level was significantly correlated with follow-up body weight, height, and DQ level (P < 0.01). This article proposed that infants with intrauterine growth retardation have a physical development delay at 40 weeks of age, and which could be predicted by measuring cord insulin level. PMID:8344083

  1. Follow-Up Study to Assess the Use and Performance of Household Filters in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Peletz, Rachel; Simuyandi, Michelo; Simunyama, Martin; Sarenje, Kelvin; Kelly, Paul; Clasen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Effective household water treatment can improve drinking water quality and prevent disease if used correctly and consistently over time. One year after completion of a randomized controlled study of water filters among households in Zambia with children < 2 years old and mothers who were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive, we conducted a follow-up study to assess use and performance of new filters distributed at the conclusion of the study; 90% of participating households met the criteria for current users, and 75% of participating households had stored water with lower levels of fecal contamination than source water. Microbiologically, the filters continued to perform well, removing an average of 99.0% of fecal indicator bacteria. Although this study provides some encouraging evidence about the potential to maintain high uptake and filter performance, even in the absence of regular household visits, additional research is necessary to assess whether these results can be achieved over longer periods and with larger populations. PMID:24100635

  2. Effect of Safe Water on Arsenicosis: A Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Kunal K.; Ghose, Aloke; Ghose, Nilima; Biswas, Anirban; Mazumder, D.N. Guha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Arsenic pollution in groundwater, used for drinking purposes, has been envisaged as a problem of global concern. Treatment options for the management symptoms of chronic arsenicosis are limited. Mitigation option available for dealing with the health problem of ground water arsenic contamination rests mainly on supply of arsenic safe water in arsenic-endemic region of Indo-Bangladesh subcontinent. Limited information is available regarding the long-term effect of chronic arsenic toxicity after stoppage of consumption of arsenic-containing water. Objective: The current study was, therefore, done to assess, objectively, the effect of drinking arsenic safe water (<50 ?g/L) on disease manifestation of arsenicosis. Results: Manifestations of various skin lesions and systemic diseases associated with chronic arsenic exposure were ascertained initially by carrying on baseline study on 208 participants in Nadia (Cohort-I, with skin lesion and Cohort-II, without skin lesion) using a scoring system, as developed by us, and compared objectively at the end of each year for 3 year follow-up period. All the participants who had arsenic contaminated drinking water source in their houses were supplied with arsenic removal filters for getting arsenic-free water during the follow-up period. In participants belonging to Cohort-I, the skin score was found to improve significantly at the end of each year, and it was found to be reduced significantly from 2.17 ± 1.09 to 1.23 ± 1.17; P < 0.001 at the end of 3 year's intervention study indicating beneficial effect of safe water on skin lesions. The systemic disease symptom score was also found to improve, but less significantly, at the end of 3 years in both the cohorts. Most important observation during the follow-up study was persistence of severe symptoms of chronic lung disease and severe skin lesion including Bowen's disease in spite of taking arsenic-safe water. Further, death could not be prevented to occur because of lung cancer and severe lung disease. Conclusion: It is, therefore, an urgent need to make arrangement for availability of safe water source among the arsenic-affected people in the district. Many of the people in the affected villages are not aware of contamination of their home tube wells with arsenic. Awareness generation and motivation of the people for testing their drinking water sources for arsenic and environmental interventions like rain water harvesting, ground water recharge, and restricting excessive use of ground water for domestic and agricultural purposes are also important to prevent further exposure of arsenic to these people. PMID:25161968

  3. What Affects Reintegration of Female Drug Users after Prison Release? Results of a European Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurhold, Heike; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Sanclemente, Cristina; Schmied, Gabriele; Shewan, David; Verthein, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this follow-up study is to explore factors influencing the success or failure of women in reintegrating after their release from prison. Female drug users in five European cities were tracked after being released from prison. Out of 234 female prisoners contacted in prisons, 59 were included in the follow-up study. Structured…

  4. Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002) Third Follow-up Data File Documentation. NCES 2014-364

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; Pratt, Daniel J.; Alexander, Christopher P.; Jewell, Donna M.; Lauff, Erich; Mattox, Tiffany L.; Wilson, David

    2014-01-01

    This report provides guidance and documentation for users of the combined base-year to third follow-up data of the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002). ELS:2002 is sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) of the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. The base-year and follow-up studies

  5. 75 FR 70365 - Agency Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Agency Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans...-New (10-0488).'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Titles: Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War... collected on VA Form 10-0488, will help VA to assess the health of Gulf War veterans who were exposed to...

  6. Risky driving and recorded driving offences: a 24-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Summala, Heikki; Rajalin, Sirpa; Radun, Igor

    2014-12-01

    Permanent individual differences in driver behavior and accident risk have long been under active debate. Cognitive and personality factors have correlated with risky driving indicators in cross-sectional studies, and prospective cohort studies are now increasingly revealing early antecedents of risky behavior and injury mortality in adult age, with connections to stable personality traits. However, long-term stability in driver behavior or accident involvement has not been documented in a general driver population.This study reports 24-year follow-up data from a study that compared the recorded offenses between 134 drivers stopped by the police because of sustained risky driving and 121 control drivers stopped at the same locations at the same time in 1987 (Rajalin, 1994. Accid. Anal. Prev., 26, 555-562). Data were compiled from national driver records and accident statistics for the same drivers again 24 years later, and their yearly mileage and speed behavior was requested in a mail survey. The results showed that the two groups of drivers sampled on one trip a quarter of a century ago still differ from each other. The offenders still have more entries in their driver record, also when adjusted for age and mileage (OR=1.59, CI=1.03-2.46), they still report in the survey that they drive faster and overtake other cars more often. The results show that individual differences in driver behavior persist for decades, perhaps for life. However, in this on-road sample, the effect seems to be moderated by occupation which also presumably explains the lower mortality among the offenders during this 24-year follow-up. PMID:25171522

  7. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--FOOD FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONNAIRE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Food Follow-up Questionnaire data set provides information on the eating patterns and the food identification and preparation methods that occurred during the period the food sample was taken. The information is for 179 Food Follow-up Questionnaires for 179 households. In t...

  8. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONNAIRE DATA (MONITORING PERIOD 1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set includes responses for 249 follow-up questionnaires collected during the first week-long monitoring period. The Follow-up Questionnaire was used to provide information on relatively infrequent (e.g., less than daily) activities during the sampling period to explain ...

  9. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--FOOD FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONNAIRE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Food Follow-up Questionnaire data set provides information on the eating patterns and the food identification and preparation methods that occurred during the period the food sample was taken. The information is for 86 Food Follow-up Questionnaires for 86 households. In the...

  10. Sleep and Sickness Absence: A Nationally Representative Register-Based Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Lallukka, Tea; Kaikkonen, Risto; Härkänen, Tommi; Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Rahkonen, Ossi; Koskinen, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: We aimed to examine various sleep measures as determinants of sickness absence while considering confounders. Design: Nationally representative Health 2000 Survey linked with sickness absence data from the Finnish Social Insurance Institution. Setting: Finland. Participants: Working-aged women (n = 1,875) and men (n = 1,885). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Insomnia-related symptoms, early morning awakenings, being more tired during daytime than other people of same age, use of sleeping pills, excessive daytime sleepiness, probable sleep apnea (4 items about snoring/apnea), and reporting that sleep duration varies between different seasons were examined as determinants of sickness absence over a 7.2 year follow-up. Poisson and gamma regression models were fitted. After adjusting age, all examined sleep disturbances except excessive daytime sleepiness were associated with sickness absence among men (RRs 1.3-2.5). Among women, after adjusting for age, insomnia-related symptoms, early morning awakenings, being more tired than others, and use of sleeping pills were associated with sickness absence (RRs 1.4-1.8). After further adjustments for education, working conditions, health behaviors, and objectively measured mental and somatic health, the associations somewhat attenuated but mainly remained. The optimal sleep duration with the lowest risk of sickness absence was 7.6 hours for women and 7.8 hours for men. Although persistence of other health problems could affect the estimates, direct costs due to sickness absence could decrease by up to 28% if sleep disturbances could be fully addressed. Conclusions: This study highlights the need for prevention of sleep disturbances and promotion of optimal sleep length to prevent sickness absence. Citation: Lallukka T, Kaikkonen R, Härkänen T, Kronholm E, Partonen T, Rahkonen O, Koskinen S. Sleep and sickness absence: a nationally representative register-based follow-up study. SLEEP 2014;37(9):1413-1425. PMID:25142569

  11. Techniques to increase the response rate in follow-up studies: results of a pilot test.

    PubMed

    McCaul, L A; Cooper, P G

    1979-12-01

    As a part of the design and implementation of a caseload weighting system, Arkansas Rehabilitation Services is adopting a revised client data system. To assess the validity of the data collected in the new system a follow-up survey for recently closed clients has been designed; and to insure the adequacy of the survey design several issues were considered. These included overall survey and questionnaire design. The process, designed to maximize useful information collected with limited resources, resulted in a telephone survey augmented by mail and personal interviews. The survey procedures and instrumentation were pilot tested for two months with 629 clients. This resulted in major modifications in questionnaire design and brought to light easily adopted procedural improvements resulting in less ambiguity, improved readibility, increased response rate and reduced response bias. Using the described survey methods the investigators observed an overall response rate of 50.8% which compares very favorably with that reported in other studies similar in nature. PMID:536066

  12. Why patients fail to attend psychiatric outpatient follow-up: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lim, L E; Poo, K P; Lein, T; Chew, S K

    1995-08-01

    Patients who failed to attend psychiatric outpatient follow-up were compared with a group of comprising regular attenders. There were 71 defaulters out of 1,664 appointments given during the study period. Schizophrenia was the most common diagnosis. The defaulters did not differ from the controls in terms of age, sex, ethnicity, occupational or marital status. The unemployed were not more likely to be regular, instead, the better educated, shorter intervals between appointments and those given morning appointments were. Those solely on oral medication were more likely to default. The largest proportion gave reasons of work commitments and of not being free to attend; others claimed they had forgotten their appointments or had lost their appointment cards. Patients who said they did not come because they felt well or still had medication were cause for concern because of possible lack of insight and non-compliance with their medication. PMID:8919157

  13. Prevalence of celiac disease in Germany: A prospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Kratzer, Wolfgang; Kibele, Monika; Akinli, Atilla; Porzner, Marc; Boehm, Bernhard O; Koenig, Wolfgang; Oeztuerk, Suemeyra; Mason, Richard A; Mao, Ren; Haenle, Mark H

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of celiac disease in a randomly selected population sample. METHODS: A total of 2157 subjects (1036 males; 1121 females) participating in a population-based cross-sectional study underwent laboratory testing for tissue transglutaminase and antibodies to immunoglobulin A, endomysium and antigliadin. In a second step, all subjects who had been examined serologically were surveyed using a questionnaire that included questions specific to celiac disease. Subjects with positive antibody titers and those with histories positive for celiac disease then underwent biopsy. At the first follow up, antibody titers were again determined in these subjects and subjects were questioned regarding symptoms specific for celiac disease and disorders associated with celiac disease. The second follow up consisted of a telephone interview with subjects positive for celiac disease. RESULTS: Antibody tests consistent with celiac disease were reported in eight subjects, corresponding to an overall prevalence of 1:270 (8/2157). The prevalence among women was 1:224 and 1:518 in men. Classical symptoms were observed in 62.5% of subjects. Atypical celiac disease was present in 25.0%, and transient celiac disease in 12.5%. False-negative test results were returned in three subjects. This yields a sensitivity and specificity of 62.5% and 50.0%, respectively, for tissue transglutaminase immunoglobulin-A antibody; of 62.5% and 71.4% respectively, for endomysium antibody; and of 62.5% and 71.4%, respectively, for antigliadin antibody. CONCLUSION: The prevalence rate in our collective lies within the middle tertile of comparable studies in Europe. The use of a single antibody test for screening purposes must be called into question. PMID:23674868

  14. Popularity of less frequent follow up for breast cancer in randomised study: initial findings from the hotline study.

    PubMed Central

    Gulliford, T.; Opomu, M.; Wilson, E.; Hanham, I.; Epstein, R.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the experiences of patients with breast cancer who were conventionally monitored with those in whom routine follow up was restricted to the time of mammography. DESIGN: Randomisation to conventional schedule of clinic visits or to visits only after mammography. Both cohorts received identical mammography and were invited to telephone for immediate appointments if they detected symptoms. SETTING: Combined breast clinic, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital. SUBJECTS: 211 eligible outpatients with a history of breast cancer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Acceptability of randomisation, interim use of telephone and general practitioner, satisfaction with allocation to follow up. RESULTS: Of 211 eligible patients, 196 (93%) opted for randomisation in the study. Of these, 55 were under 50 years, 78 were diagnosed fewer than five years before, 90 had stage T2-4 tumours, and 71 had involved axillary nodes. Patients who did not participate were more likely to be under 50 years, to be two to five years after diagnosis, and to have had aggressive primary disease. Twice as many patients in both groups expressed a preference for reducing rather than increasing follow up. No increased use of local practitioner services or telephone triage was apparent in the cohort randomised to less frequent follow up by specialists. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing the frequency of routine follow up has so far proved popular among patients with breast cancer at standard risk in this cohort. A multicentre study is needed to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of routine follow up with respect to disease outcomes. PMID:9022429

  15. Childhood Predictors of Male Criminality: A Prospective Population-Based Follow-up Study from Age 8 to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sourander, Andre; Elonheimo, Henrik; Niemela, Solja; Nuutila, Ari-Matti; Helenius, Hans; Sillanmaki, Lauri; Piha, Jorma; Tamminen, Tuula; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Moilanen, Irma; Almqvist, Frederik

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study childhood predictors for late adolescence criminality. Method: The follow-up sample included 2,713 Finnish boys born in 1981. Information about the 8-year-old boys' problem behavior was obtained from parents, teachers, and the children themselves. The follow-up information about criminal offenses was based on the national…

  16. Return to work following unintentional injury: a prospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Hepp, Urs; Schnyder, Ulrich; Hepp-Beg, Sofia; Friedrich-Perez, Josefina; Stulz, Niklaus; Moergeli, Hanspeter

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to predict time off work following unintentional injuries due to accidents leading to hospital admission. Design Prospective 6-month follow-up study. Setting Department of Trauma Surgery of a University Hospital. Participants Consecutively recruited victims of unintentional injuries (n=221) hospitalised for a minimum of 32?h including two consecutive nights. All the participants were aged 18–65?years and were able to participate in an assessment within 30?days of the accident. Main outcome measures Interview-assessed number of days off work during the 6?months immediately following the accident. Results The patients’ subjective appraisals of (1) accident severity and (2) their ability to cope with the resulting injury and its job-related consequences predicted time off work following the accident beyond the impact of the objective severity of their injury and the type of accident involved. Conclusions The patients’ subjective appraisals of the accident severity and of their ability to cope with its consequences are highly relevant for return to work after accidents. Extending the findings from previous studies on severely injured and otherwise preselected accident victims, this seems to apply to the whole spectrum of patients hospitalised with unintentional injuries. PMID:24327361

  17. Intake of fried meat and risk of cancer: a follow-up study in Finland.

    PubMed

    Knekt, P; Steineck, G; Järvinen, R; Hakulinen, T; Aromaa, A

    1994-12-15

    It has been suggested that mutagens in fried meat may be involved in the cancer process. Therefore the relationships between intake of fried meat and subsequent risk of cancers at different sites were studied among 9,990 Finnish men and women, 15-99 years of age and initially free of cancer. The baseline study was carried out in 1966-1972, and cases of cancer were identified through data linkage with the Finnish Cancer Registry. During a 24-year follow-up, 853 cancer cases were diagnosed. The intake of fried meat was estimated from a dietary history interview covering the total diet of the participants during the previous year. There was a positive association between fried meat intake and the risk of female-hormone-related cancers, i.e., cancer of the breast, endometrium and ovary combined. The relative risk of these cancers combined between persons in the highest and lowest tertiles of daily intake of fried meat adjusted for age, personal characteristics and intake of other main food groups was 1.77 (95% confidence interval = 1.11-2.84). Pancreatic and nervous system cancers also presented non-significant suggestive associations. No associations were observed with respect to other single cancer sites studied or to all sites of cancer combined. Further epidemiological efforts are needed to ascertain the potential link between fried-food mutagens and cancer risk. PMID:7989114

  18. Measurement of Disability and Its Predictors Among Trauma Patients: A Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Abedzadeh-Kalahroudi, Masoumeh; Razi, Ebrahim; Sehat, Mojtaba; Asadi Lari, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Globally more than a billion people, 15% of the population, lives with disability and most of disabilities are caused by injuries. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of disability and its predictors at 1 and 3 months post-injury in Kashan City during 2014 - 2015. Patients and Methods: In this longitudinal follow-up study, 400 injured patients 15 - 65 years referred to Shahid Beheshti hospital in Kashan and hospitalized more than 24 hours were assessed for disability status with the WHODAS II 12-item instrument at 1 and 3-months post-injury. Patients based on their disability scores were divided into 5 groups: none, mild, moderate, severe and very severe. Work status was assessed at the 3-month follow-up with one question “Are you back at work following your injury”. Also, demographic characteristics and information about injury were gathered by a checklist. Data were analyzed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal Wallis, Pearson correlation coefficient and logistic regression by SPSS software. The significance level was set at P < 0.05. Results: The mean disability scores at 1 and 3 months post-injury was 30.3 (9.2) and 18.8 (8.3), respectively and there was a statistical significant difference between disability status at 1 and 3 months after trauma (P < 0.0001). The rates of return to work in 262 employed patients at 1 and 3 months after injury were 29% and 55.4%, respectively. The disability score showed a statistically significant correlation with Injury Severity Score (ISS) (P < 0.0001), work return (P = 0.033), intensive care unit transfer (P < 0.0001), trauma type (P = 0.001) and age (P = 0.004). Also, age, ISS, duration of hospital stay and injury to extremities were predictors of disability. Conclusions: More than half of the patients were disabled after 3 months of trauma. Elderly patients, patient with severe trauma, and long hospitalization and patients with extremity injuries were high risk for disability. PMID:26566513

  19. Inpatient rehabilitation for hip or knee osteoarthritis: 2 year follow up study

    PubMed Central

    Weigl, M; Angst, F; Stucki, G; Lehmann, S; Aeschlimann, A

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the course of pain, physical function, and other health dimensions after a comprehensive inpatient rehabilitation intervention in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip or knee. Methods: An observational, prospective cohort study with assessments at baseline (entry into clinic), 1 (discharge from inpatient rehabilitation), 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 months after baseline. Consecutively referred patients to an inpatient rehabilitation centre fulfilling the inclusion criteria were studied. 3–4 week comprehensive rehabilitation intervention, including strengthening exercise, flexibility training, endurance training, relaxation strategies, and consultations for preventive measures, was carried out. Individual home rehabilitation programmes were taught. Generic health status was measured using the SF-36, condition specific health was measured with the WOMAC questionnaire. Effects were analysed with sensitivity statistics (effect size, ES) and non-parametric tests. Results: Data from 128 patients with complete follow up data were analysed. Both pain and physical function improved moderately (WOMAC pain: ES = 0.56, WOMAC function ES = 0.44) until discharge. Although the effect in pain reduction remained significant by month 24 (WOMAC: ES = 0.26), physical function deteriorated close to baseline values after 12 months. Conclusions: Comprehensive inpatient rehabilitation of patients with OA of the hip or knee may improve pain and physical function in the mid-term, and pain in the long term. PMID:15020328

  20. A prospective follow-up study on transmission of Campylobacter from poultry to abattoir workers.

    PubMed

    Ellström, Patrik; Hansson, Ingrid; Söderström, Claes; Engvall, Eva Olsson; Rautelin, Hilpi

    2014-09-01

    Contact with poultry or poultry meat is a well-known risk factor for campylobacteriosis, but prospective studies on transmission of Campylobacter from chickens to humans during slaughter are scarce. In this study, we monitored transmission of Campylobacter from slaughtered chicken to originally culture-negative abattoir workers during the peak season of colonized chicken and human Campylobacter infection. Stool samples were obtained from 28 abattoir workers together with data on health status once a month between June and September 2010, with a follow-up sample collected in February 2011. Campylobacter-positive individuals and chicken flocks were identified by culture, and isolates were further characterized using molecular techniques. Campylobacter was isolated from seven asymptomatic individuals. Four of them had been newly employed and had not reported any previous Campylobacter infection. Four human isolates had matching genetic fingerprints with isolates from recently slaughtered chickens. Our results further support the role of chicken as the source of human Campylobacter infection but suggest that asymptomatic Campylobacter infection may occur even in individuals with only limited earlier exposure to Campylobacter. PMID:24885791

  1. High-energy follow-up studies of gravitational wave transient events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razzano, Massimiliano; Branchesi, Marica; Cella, Giancarlo; Fidecaro, Francesco; Mapelli, Michela; Patricelli, Barbara; Pian, Elena; Stamerra, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Second-generation gravitational interferometers, such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo, will soon reach sensitivities sufficient to first detect gravitational waves and open a new era in the multimessenger investigations of the cosmos. The most violent and energetic astrophysical phenomena, including the mergers of compact objects or the core collapse of massive stars, are promising sources of gravitational waves, and are thought to be connected with transient phenomena such as Gamma Ray Bursts and supernovae. Combined observations of gravitational and electromagnetic signals from these events will thus provide an unique opportunity to unveil their progenitors and study the physics of compact objects. In particular, gamma-ray ground-based and space observatories such as Fermi or the Air Cherenkov Telescopes will be crucial to observe the high-energy electromagnetic counterparts of transient gravitational wave signals and provide a robust identification based on a precise sky localization. We will report on our studies of possible joint observation strategies carried on by gravitational interferometers and gamma-ray telescopes, with particular attention on the high-energy follow-up of Gamma Ray Bursts.

  2. Involvement in bullying and suicidal ideation in middle adolescence: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Hanna-Kaisa; Väänänen, Juha; Helminen, Mika; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2013-02-01

    The objective of the study was to ascertain whether involvement in bullying increases the risk for subsequent suicidal ideation. A total of 2,070 Finnish girls and boys aged 15 were surveyed in the ninth grade (age 15) in schools, and followed up 2 years later in the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study. Involvement in bullying was elicited at age 15 by two questions focusing on being a bully and being a victim of bullying. Suicidal ideation was elicited by one item of the short Beck Depression Inventory at age 17. Baseline depressive symptoms and externalizing symptoms, age and sex were controlled for. Statistical analyses were carried out using cross-tabulations with Chi-square/Fisher's exact test and logistic regression. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was 3-4 times more prevalent among those who had been involved in bullying at age 15 than among those not involved. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was most prevalent among former victims of bullying. Being a victim of bullying at age 15 continued to predict subsequent suicidal ideation when depressive and externalizing symptoms were controlled for. Being a bully at age 15 also persisted as borderline significantly predictive of suicidal ideation when baseline symptoms were controlled for. Findings indicate adolescent victims and perpetrators of bullying alike are at long-term risk for suicidal ideation. PMID:23053774

  3. Fluoxetine in adolescents with comorbid major depression and an alcohol use disorder: a 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Jack R; Clark, Duncan B; Bukstein, Oscar G; Kelly, Thomas M; Salloum, Ihsan M; Wood, D Scott

    2005-05-01

    The goal of this 3-year follow-up evaluation was to determine whether the decreases in drinking and in depressive symptoms that were noted during our acute phase study with fluoxetine in comorbid adolescents persisted at a 3-year follow-up evaluation. At the 3-year follow-up evaluation, the group continued to demonstrate significantly fewer DSM criteria for an AUD and fewer BDI depressive symptoms and also consumed fewer standard drinks than they had demonstrated at the baseline of the acute phase study. However, 7 of the 10 participants demonstrated MDD at the 3-year follow-up assessment, and 4 demonstrated an AUD. The presence of a MDD was significantly correlated with the presence of an AUD at both the 1-year and the 3-year follow-up assessments. Four of the participants restarted SSRI medications during the follow-up period. Half of the subjects graduated from college during the 3-year assessment period, despite their residual depressive symptoms and drinking. We conclude that the long-term therapeutic effects of an acute phase trial of fluoxetine plus psychotherapy slowly decrease but did not disappear when fluoxetine is discontinued shortly after the acute phase trial. The high rate of MDD at follow-up suggests that longer term antidepressant medication treatment may be needed for at least some comorbid adolescents. PMID:15833583

  4. The man-made mineral fiber European historical cohort study. Extension of the follow-up.

    PubMed

    Simonato, L; Fletcher, A C; Cherrie, J; Andersen, A; Bertazzi, P A; Charnay, N; Claude, J; Dodgson, J; Estève, J; Frentzel-Beyme, R

    1986-01-01

    The study concentrated on 21,967 workers producing rock wool/slag wool, glass wool or continuous filament in 13 European factories. The expected deaths and incident cancer cases were derived from multiplying the accumulated person-years by national reference rates across sex, age, and calendar-year strata, correction factors for regional lung cancer mortality also being used. Exposure assessment was based on the results of a historical environmental investigation reported elsewhere. There were 189 deaths (151.2 expected), and for rock-wool/slag-wool and glass-wool workers the standardized mortality ratios for lung cancer showed a pattern of increasing mortality with time since first exposure but not duration of employment. There was an excess of lung cancer among rock-wool/slag-wool workers employed during an early technological phase before the introduction of dust-suppressing agents, and fiber exposure, either alone on in combination with other exposures, may have contributed to the elevated risk. No excess of the same magnitude was evident for glass-wool production, and the follow-up of the continuous filament cohort was too short to allow for an evaluation of possible long-term effects. There was no evidence of an increased risk for pleural tumors or nonmalignant respiratory diseases. PMID:3798052

  5. Follow up study of 70 patients with renal artery stenosis treated by percutaneous transluminal dilatation.

    PubMed Central

    Geyskes, G G; Puylaert, C B; Oei, H Y; Mees, E J

    1983-01-01

    Between April 1978 and April 1981, 70 patients with hypertension and renal artery stenosis were treated by percutaneous transluminal arterial dilatation. Selection of the patients was based solely on arteriographic criteria. Arteriography after dilatation showed considerable widening of the stenosed area in all patients. In 65 patients the effect of treatment on the blood pressure was assessed during follow up periods of one to four years. In 14 of these patients the hypertension was cured, in 29 it was improved, and in 22 there was no change. Patients with fibromuscular lesions benefited distinctly more than did those with atheromatous stenosis, only one of the 21 patients with fibromuscular lesions showing no change as compared with 21 of the 44 patients with atheromatous lesions. The only serious complication encountered was microcholesterol emboli, which developed in two patients with severe atheromatous lesions of the aorta. In the atheromatous group age and overall renal function had no influence on the blood pressure response. In the subgroup of patients with a unilateral lesion the renal vein renin ratios and asymmetrical curves obtained by renography had only a very limited predictive value. In experienced hands percutaneous transluminal arterial dilatation is relatively safe, and this study suggests that it should be attempted in all patients with renal artery stenosis. Only in patients with severe atheromatosis of the aorta should the risk associated with the catheterisation be weighed against the 50% or so chance of benefit from the procedure. PMID:6223685

  6. Afterglow Population Studies from Swift Follow-Up Observations of Fermi LAT GRBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racusin, Judith L.; Oates, S. R.; McEnery, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Troja, E.; Gehrels, N.

    2010-01-01

    The small population of Fermi LAT detected GRBs discovered over the last year has been providing interesting and unexpected clues into GRB prompt and afterglow emission mechanisms. Over the last 5 years, it has been Swift that has provided the robust data set of UV/optical and X-ray afterglow observations that opened many windows into other components of GRB emission structure. We explore the new ability to utilize both of these observatories to study the same GRBs over 10 orders of magnitude in energy, although not always concurrently. Almost all LAT GRBs that have been followed-up by Swift within 1-day have been clearly detected and carefully observed. We will present the context of the lower-energy afterglows of this special subset of GRBs that has > 100 MeV emission compared to the hundreds in the Swift database that may or may not have been observed by LAT, and theorize upon the relationship between these properties and the origin of the high energy gamma-ray emission.

  7. Do neuroleptic drugs hasten cognitive decline in dementia? Prospective study with necropsy follow up.

    PubMed Central

    McShane, R.; Keene, J.; Gedling, K.; Fairburn, C.; Jacoby, R.; Hope, T.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the contribution of neuroleptic drugs to cognitive decline in dementia. DESIGN: Two year prospective, longitudinal study consisting of interviews every four months, with necropsy follow up. SETTING: Community settings in Oxfordshire. SUBJECTS: 71 subjects with dementia, initially living at home with informant. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cognitive function (score from expanded minimental state examination); behavioural problems (physical aggression, hallucinations, persecutory ideas, and disturbance of diurnal rhythm); and postmortem neuropathological assessment (cortical Lewy body pathology). RESULTS: The mean (SE) decline in cognitive score in the 16 patients who took neuroleptics was twice that in the patients who did not (20.7 (2.9) v 9.3 (1.3), P = 0.002). An increased rate of decline was also associated with aggression, disturbed diurnal rhythm, and persecutory ideas. However, only use of neuroleptics and severity of persecutory ideas were independently associated with more rapid cognitive decline when all other variables were adjusted for. The start of neuroleptic treatment coincided with more rapid cognitive decline: median rate of decline was 5 (interquartile range 8.5) points per year before treatment and 11 (12) points per year after treatment (P = 0.02). Cortical Lewy body pathology did not account for association between neuroleptic use and more rapid decline. CONCLUSIONS: Neuroleptic drugs that are sometimes used to treat behavioural complications of dementia may worsen already poor cognitive function. Randomised controlled trials are needed to confirm a causal relation. PMID:9022490

  8. A Follow-up Study of Men Exposed to Cadmium Oxide Fume

    PubMed Central

    Bonnell, J. A.; Kazantzis, G.; King, E.

    1959-01-01

    The results of a follow-up study of 100 men first examined in 1953 after exposure to cadmium oxide fume are presented and discussed. In 1953 there were 19 cases of chronic cadmium poisoning amongst these men. Twenty-four new cases are now described. The first signs of chronic cadmium poisoning could be seen after a latent interval after exposure had ended. Respiratory function tests showed a greater deterioration in performance with increase in age in the exposed groups compared with the control group. The results in individual cases of clinical and radiological examination and of the respiratory function tests showed a deterioration in the condition of those men with emphysema in the original survey, and took place despite the fact that the majority of the men with chronic cadmium poisoning were not further exposed to cadmium after 1953. Eighteen of the 24 new cases had proteinuria only. The evidence that chronic cadmium poisoning is associated with renal damage is discussed. PMID:13651557

  9. Long term functioning in early onset psychosis: Two years prospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There were few studies on the outcome of schizophrenia in developing countries. Whether the outcome is similar to or different from developed world is still a point for research. The main aim of the current study was to know if patients with early onset non affective psychosis can behave and function properly after few years from start of the illness or not. Other aims included investigation of possible predictors and associated factors with remission and outcome. Method The study prospectively investigated a group of 56 patients with onset of psychosis during childhood or adolescence. Diagnosis made according to DSM-IV criteria and included; schizophrenia, psychotic disorder not otherwise specified and acute psychosis. Severity of psychosis was measured by PANSS. Measures of the outcome included; remission criteria of Andreasen et al 2005, the children's global assessment scale and educational level. Results Analysis of data was done for only 37 patients. Thirty patients diagnosed as schizophrenia and 7 with Psychotic disorder not otherwise specified. Mean duration of follow up was 38.4 +/- 16.9 months. At the end of the study, 6 patients (16.2%) had one episode, 23(62.1%) had multiple episodes and 8 (21.6%) continuous course. Nineteen patients (51.4%) achieved full remission, and only 11(29.7%) achieved their average educational level for their age. Twenty seven percent of the sample had good outcome and 24.3% had poor outcome. Factors associated with non remission and poor outcome included gradual onset, low IQ, poor premorbid adjustment, negative symptoms at onset of the illness and poor adherence to drugs. Moreover, there was tendency of negative symptoms at illness start to predict poor outcome. Conclusion Some patients with early onset non affective psychosis can behave and function properly after few years from the start of the illness. Although remission is a difficult target in childhood psychosis, it is still achievable. PMID:21801438

  10. Work, Diabetes and Obesity: A Seven Year Follow-Up Study among Danish Health Care Workers

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Kjeld; Cleal, Bryan; Clausen, Thomas; Andersen, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The rise in prevalence of diabetes is alarming and research ascribes most of the increase to lifestyle. However, little knowledge exists about the influence of occupational factors on the risk for developing diabetes. This study estimates the importance of work and lifestyle as risk factors for developing diabetes mellitus among healthcare workers and explores the association of work factors and obesity, which is a risk factor for diabetes. Methods Questionnaire-based prospective cohort study among 7,305 health care workers followed for seven years in the Danish National Diabetes Register. We used bivariate comparisons to give an unadjusted estimate of associations, followed by adjusted survival analysis and logistic regression models to estimate the influences of potential risk factors related to job, health and lifestyle on diabetes and obesity. Results During seven years of follow up, 3.5% of participants developed diabetes, associated with obesity (HR ?=? 6.53; 95% CI 4.68–9.10), overweight (HR ?=? 2.89; CI 2.11–3.96) age 50–69 y (HR ?=? 2.27; 95% CI 1.57–3.43) and high quality of leadership (HR ?=? 1.60; CI 1.19–2.16). Obesity at baseline was most common among the youngest employees, and was mainly associated with developing diabetes (OR ?=? 3.84; CI 2.85–5.17), impaired physical capacity and physical inactivity. In the occupational setting, obesity was associated with shift work, severe musculoskeletal pain, low influence, but also by good management, fewer role conflicts and a positive work-life balance. Looking only at non-smokers, removed the influence of age and pain. However, non-smokers also had higher depression scores and more role conflicts. Conclusions Confirming obesity as the strongest risk factor for developing diabetes, the present study identified few occupational risk factors. However, obesity, the key risk factor for diabetes, had a more variable relation with work than did diabetes. PMID:25068830

  11. Selection Bias Due to Loss to Follow Up in Cohort Studies.

    PubMed

    Howe, Chanelle J; Cole, Stephen R; Lau, Bryan; Napravnik, Sonia; Eron, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Selection bias due to loss to follow up represents a threat to the internal validity of estimates derived from cohort studies. Over the past 15 years, stratification-based techniques as well as methods such as inverse probability-of-censoring weighted estimation have been more prominently discussed and offered as a means to correct for selection bias. However, unlike correcting for confounding bias using inverse weighting, uptake of inverse probability-of-censoring weighted estimation as well as competing methods has been limited in the applied epidemiologic literature. To motivate greater use of inverse probability-of-censoring weighted estimation and competing methods, we use causal diagrams to describe the sources of selection bias in cohort studies employing a time-to-event framework when the quantity of interest is an absolute measure (e.g., absolute risk, survival function) or relative effect measure (e.g., risk difference, risk ratio). We highlight that whether a given estimate obtained from standard methods is potentially subject to selection bias depends on the causal diagram and the measure. We first broadly describe inverse probability-of-censoring weighted estimation and then give a simple example to demonstrate in detail how inverse probability-of-censoring weighted estimation mitigates selection bias and describe challenges to estimation. We then modify complex, real-world data from the University of North Carolina Center for AIDS Research HIV clinical cohort study and estimate the absolute and relative change in the occurrence of death with and without inverse probability-of-censoring weighted correction using the modified University of North Carolina data. We provide SAS code to aid with implementation of inverse probability-of-censoring weighted techniques. PMID:26484424

  12. Pro-/Antiinflammatory Dysregulation in Early Psychosis: Results from a 1-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    García-Bueno, Borja; Bioque, Miquel; MacDowell, Karina S.; Santabárbara, Javier; Martínez-Cengotitabengoa, Mónica; Moreno, Carmen; Sáiz, Pilar A.; Berrocoso, Esther; Gassó, Patricia; Fe Barcones, M.; González-Pinto, Ana; Parellada, Mara; Bobes, Julio; Micó, Juan A.; Bernardo, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicated a systemic deregulation of the pro-/antiinflammatory balance in subjects after 6 months of a first psychotic episode. This disruption was reexamined 12 months after diagnosis to identify potential risk/protective factors and associations with symptom severity. Methods: Eighty-five subjects were followed during 12 months and the determination of the same pro-/antiinflammatory mediators was carried out in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk/protective factors. Multiple linear regression models were performed to detect the change of each biological marker during follow-up in relation to clinical characteristics and confounding factors. Results: This study suggests a more severe systemic pro-/antiinflammatory deregulation than in earlier pathological stages in first psychotic episode, because not only were intracellular components of the inflammatory response increased but also the majority of soluble elements. Nitrite plasma levels and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells are reliable potential risk factors and 15d-prostaglandin-J2 plasma levels a protection biomarker. An interesting relationship exists between antipsychotic dose and the levels of prostaglandin-E2 (inverse) and 15d-prostaglandin-J2 (direct). An inverse relationship between the Global Assessment of Functioning scale and lipid peroxidation is also present. Conclusions: Summing up, pro-/antiinflammatory mediators can be used as risk/protection biomarkers. The inverse association between oxidative/nitrosative damage and the Global Assessment of Functioning scale, and the possibility that one of the targets of antipsychotics could be the restoration of the pro-/antiinflammatory balance support the use of antiinflammatory drugs as coadjuvant to antipsychotics. PMID:25577666

  13. [The factors influencing posttraumatic epilepsy; multicentric cooperative study. Japan Follow-up Group for Posttraumatic Epilepsy].

    PubMed

    1991-12-01

    A multicentric cooperative study was performed to investigate the factors influencing posttraumatic epilepsy. The patients with fresh head injury from 1983 through 1990 were entered in this study. The cases were divided into two groups and followed-up for five years; the patients with severe head injury and who satisfied the criteria belonged to group I. Those with mild head injury were classified into group II. The criteria for group I was that the patients had one or more of the following risks; disturbance of consciousness, bloody cerebrospinal fluid, focal neurological sign, depressed fracture or basal fracture, abnormal CT, dural tear, early convulsion and/or linear fracture. After drop-out cases were excluded, 191 cases out of 241 were analyzed. The number of cases was 126 (66.0%) for group I and 65 (34.0%) for group II. Sixteen patients (12.7%) of group I developed seizure, whereas nobody of group II experienced seizure. The difference between the patients with and without seizures was analyzed. The statistical significant difference was discovered in the following factors; disturbance of consciousness (GCS and the duration), focal and generalized neurological sign, abnormal CT, multiple risks, intracerebral hematoma, surgery, alcohol drinking and abnormal EEG a month after the injury. The relative risk rates were calculated. The highest risk for posttraumatic seizure was disturbance of consciousness extending over more than one month. This was followed by five other indicators of risk; abnormal EEG at one month, surgery, focal neurological sign, alcohol drinking, generalized neurological sign, and intracerebral hematoma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1766540

  14. Follow up study of moderate alcohol intake and mortality among middle aged men in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, J. M.; Ross, R. K.; Gao, Y. T.; Henderson, B. E.; Yu, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of death associated with various patterns of alcohol intake. DESIGN: Prospective study of mortality in relation to alcohol consumption at recruitment, with active annual follow up. SETTING: Four small, geographically defined communities in Shanghai, China. SUBJECTS: 18,244 men aged 45-64 years enrolled in a prospective study of diet and cancer during January 1986 to September 1989. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cause mortality. RESULTS: By 28 February 1995, 1198 deaths (including 498 from cancer, 269 from stroke, and 104 from ischaemic heart disease) had been identified. Compared with lifelong non-drinkers, those who consumed 1-14 drinks a week had a 19% reduction in overall mortality (relative risk 0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.94) after age, level of education, and cigarette smoking were adjusted for. This protective effect was not restricted to any specific type of alcoholic drink. Although light to moderate drinking (28 or fewer drinks per week) was associated with a 36% reduction in death from ischaemic heart disease (0.64; 0.41 to 0.998), it had no effect on death from stroke, which is the leading cause of death in this population. As expected, heavy drinking (29 or more drinks per week) was significantly associated with increased risks of death from cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, hepatic cirrhosis, and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Regular consumption of small amounts of alcohol is associated with lower overall mortality including death from ischaemic heart disease in middle aged Chinese men. The type of alcoholic drink does not affect this association. PMID:9001474

  15. Follow-Up Study of Former Students of the Data Processing Program. Volume XVI, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rilki, Ernest; Lucas, John A.

    In spring 1987, a follow-up survey was conducted of former William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) students who had taken five or more data processing courses at the college between 1980 and 1986. The survey focused on the students' employment status and educational intent while attending WRHC, their present employment situation, and their evaluation…

  16. Follow-Up Study of a School-Based Scalds Prevention Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Julie; Morath, Karen; Harre, Niki

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the follow-up evaluation of a school-based scalds prevention programme designed to teach children about scalds hazards and encourage safe family practices. It involved two classroom sessions and a homework exercise that targeted five safety practices. The programme was taught to 28 classes in 14 schools in Waitakere City, New…

  17. Improving Library Services to Satellite Campuses: A Follow-Up Study at the University of Lethbridge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eva, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to provide better service to the University of Lethbridge satellite campus locations, a survey was done of instructors on the northern campuses regarding their knowledge and use of the University of Lethbridge Library services available to them. This was a follow-up to a survey conducted in 2011, at which time it was found that many…

  18. A twenty-five year follow-up study of ten exceptionally creative adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Cangelosi, D M; Schaefer, C E

    1991-02-01

    A 25-yr. follow-up of 10 women identified as highly creative during adolescence indicated that most believed they had actualized their creative potential to a moderately high degree. However, only one woman stated that creative expression was a dominant life theme and primary commitment. Factors that facilitate and inhibit creativity over a lifetime are discussed. PMID:2034770

  19. The Effect of Clozapine on Hematological Indices: A 1-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jimmy; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Fervaha, Gagan; Powell, Valerie; Bhaloo, Amaal; Bies, Robert; Remington, Gary

    2015-10-01

    Clozapine is the antipsychotic of choice for treatment-resistant schizophrenia and is linked to a need for mandatory hematological monitoring. Besides agranulocytosis, other hematological aberrations have resulted in premature termination in some cases. Considering clozapine's role in immunomodulation, we proceeded to investigate the impact of clozapine on the following 3 main hematological cell lines: red blood cells, platelets, white blood cells (WBCs), and its differential counts. Data were extracted from patients initiated on clozapine between January 2009 and December 2010 at a single hospital. Patients with a preclozapine complete blood count, who were receiving clozapine during the 1-year follow-up period, were included in the present investigation. Counts of red blood cells, platelets, WBC, and its differential including neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils were extracted and trajectories plotted. One hundred one patients were included in this study and 66 remained on clozapine at the end of 1 year. There was a synchronized but transient increase in WBC, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and platelets beginning as early as the first week of clozapine treatment. There were no cases of agranulocytosis reported in this sample, and five developed neutropenia. A spike in neutrophils immediately preceded the onset of neutropenia in three of the five. The cumulative incidence rates were 48.9% for neutrophilia, 5.9% for eosinophilia, and 3% each for thrombocytosis and thrombocytopenia. Early hematological aberrations are visible across a range of cell lines, primarily of the myeloid lineage. These disturbances are transient and are probably related to clozapine's immunomodulatory properties. We do not suggest discontinuing clozapine as a consequence of the observed aberrations. PMID:26267420

  20. Femtosecond lenticule extraction for correction of myopia: a 6 month follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Demirok, Ahmet; Agca, Alper; Ozgurhan, Engin Bilge; Bozkurt, Ercument; Celik, Ugur; Demircan, Ali; Guleryuz, Nimet Burcu; Cankaya, Kadir ?lker; Yilmaz, Omer Faruk

    2013-01-01

    Aims To report our initial experience with femtosecond lenticule extraction (FLEX) compared with femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Settings and design This was a prospective pilot study carried out at the Refractive Surgery Department of the Beyoglu Eye Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. Materials and methods Surgery was performed on both eyes of 14 consecutive patients with myopia or myopic astigmatism. Patients underwent FLEX in one eye and femtosecond LASIK (FemtoLASIK) in the other eye. The primary outcome was based on uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, and spherical equivalent of the subjective manifest refraction, at 1 week, 1 month, and 6 months postsurgery. Statistical analyses were performed using PAWS Statistics 18. Unpaired Student’s t-test was used to compare the groups. Results During the last follow-up visit (6 months postsurgery), the mean spherical was ?0.37 ± 0.60 diopters (D) (range ?1.00 to 0.50) (P < 0.001) and ?0.25 ± 0.41 D (range ?0.88 to 0.12 D) (P < 0.001) in the FLEX and FemtoLASIK eyes, respectively. The spherical was within ± 0.50 D of the intended correction in ten (72%) of the FLEX eyes and 12 (86%) of the FemtoLASIK eyes (P > 0.05). No complications occurred during surgery or the postoperative period. Conclusion FLEX is a safe, effective, and predictable procedure for surgical correction of myopia. Refractive results were stabilized within the first postoperative week, and visual acuities were stabilized within the first month, comparable to FemtoLASIK. PMID:23766626

  1. One-year follow-up of Chinese people with spinal cord injury: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Sam Chi Chung; Chan, Alice Po Shan

    2013-01-01

    Background A tertiary spinal cord injury (SCI) center was established in the northern region of Hong Kong, China and a multidisciplinary SCI rehabilitation program was developed to reintegrate patients into the community. Objective To investigate functional outcomes for Chinese people with SCI across a 1-year period. Design Longitudinal prospective design. Methods Thirty community-dwelling participants with traumatic SCI were recruited. Functional status was measured using functional independence measure (FIM) on admission, upon discharge, 1-month, 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year post-discharge. Information on use of assistive devices and life role were also obtained. Results Twenty-three (76.67%) participants were men. Seventeen participants (10 with tetraplegia and 7 with paraplegia) were classified ASIA A, B, or C; 13 (7 with tetraplegia and 6 with paraplegia) were classified as ASIA D. Significant differences in FIM motor scores were only found between the tetraplegia group and three other diagnostic groups using Bonferroni post-hoc tests of repeated measure ANOVA (analysis of variance) (P < 0.05). Longitudinally, contrast tests of repeated measure ANOVA showed significant differences during the hospitalization period for all diagnostic groups. People in the ASIA D group showed significant functional improvement even after 1-year post-discharge (P < 0.05). At 1-year post-discharge, only two participants were engaged in either remunerative employment or academic pursuit. Conclusion Despite functional status improvement, few people with traumatic SCI were re-engaged in productive life role 1 year after discharge. Studies with longer follow-up would be beneficial. PMID:23433330

  2. [Discitis in childhood: integrated neuroradiological imaging in diagnosis and follow-up study of one case].

    PubMed

    Giuffrè, M; Amato, G M; Manfrè, L; Morello, A

    1997-03-01

    Discitis is an inflammatory disease of the intervertebral disc which has usually a benign evolution in childhood. It often recognizes an infectious etiology. Still discussed however is the possibility of a primitive discal involvement (not secondary to a vertebral inflammation) or of a non infectious etiology and the subsequent more correct diagnostic-therapeutic procedures. We report a case of a girl with discitis diagnosed early and treated with antibiotics and orthopedic corset, whose follow-up shows a benign evolution. We underline the importance of modern neuroradiological imaging: in particular, MR plays a major role in the inflammatory diseases of the column, both in diagnosis and in follow-up. MR scans of the involved disc allow frequent controls without radiogenic risks and with a good resolution because of the multiplanarity typical of the method. PMID:9198729

  3. Mirtazapine in Comorbid Major Depression and Alcohol Use Disorder: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Jack R.; Douaihy, Antoine B.; Clark, Duncan B.; Daley, Dennis C.; Chung, Tammy A.; Wesesky, Maribeth A.; Wood, D. Scott; Salloum, Ihsan

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objective To date, pharmacotherapy trials of depressed alcoholics (MDD/AUD) have focused on SSRI medications, with disappointing results, so effective treatments for that comorbid population are lacking. Mirtazapine is an FDA-approved medication for treating MDD with a unique pharmacological profile whose efficacy may exceed that of SSRIs. Results from our recent open label study suggest robust acute phase efficacy for mirtazapine for decreasing both the depression and the drinking of that population. However, to date, no studies have evaluated the longer-term efficacy of mirtazapine in that population. We now report findings from a first long-term (two-year) naturalistic follow-up evaluation involving subjects from the acute phase trial. We hypothesized that the improvements would persist at follow-up. Methods An eight-week open label study of mirtazapine and motivation therapy was conducted involving persons 18 to 55 years of age with DSM-IV diagnoses of comorbid MDD/AD. Two years after entry into the acute phase study, a long-term evaluation was conducted using the same instruments that had been used at baseline to assess whether the improvements seen during the acute phase trial had persisted. Results Ten of the twelve patients who entered the acute phase study participated in the follow-up study. The large magnitude improvements (p<.01) in depressive symptoms (BDI), drinking (TLFB), and sleep disturbance (HDRS) persisted at the follow-up evaluation. Two of the subjects demonstrated MDD on structured interview at follow-up, while all ten had demonstrated MDD at baseline. Six of the ten used antidepressants during the follow-up period. At baseline, three were employed, while at follow-up seven were employed. Conclusions These findings suggest long-term efficacy for mirtazapine for decreasing the drinking and depression of depressed alcoholics. Double-blind, placebo-controlled studies are warranted to clarify the efficacy of mirtazapine in depressed alcoholics. PMID:25374892

  4. Multicentre European study of thalamic stimulation in essential tremor: a six year follow up

    PubMed Central

    Sydow, O; Thobois, S; Alesch, F; Speelman, J

    2003-01-01

    Background: Thalamic stimulation is an efficient treatment for disabling essential tremor, as previously shown, but follow up has mostly been short term. Objectives: To see whether good results can be maintained in the longer term. Methods: 37 patients with essential tremor had implantation of a thalamic stimulator, either unilaterally or bilaterally. The results at one year have been reported earlier. After six years, 19 patients were available for follow up. The main instrument for evaluation was the essential tremor rating scale. The patients were examined with pulse generators turned on and off. Results: In the majority of patients, the very good results with stimulation seen at one year were maintained after a mean of 6.5 years. The reduction in tremor scores and improvement in activities of daily living were highly significant compared with baseline and with the stimulation turned off. There were few serious adverse events. Minor side effects related to stimulation were common. Few device related complications were observed and most could be resolved. Conclusions: Good reduction in tremor can be maintained for more than six years in the majority of these severely disabled patients. Thalamic stimulation can be recommended in essential tremor where there is insufficient response to drug treatment. Surgical procedures and follow up should be concentrated in relatively few centres, which will thereby acquire a high degree of expertise. PMID:14570831

  5. Effectiveness of a tinnitus management programme: a 2-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Gudex, Claire; Skellgaard, Preben H; West, Torben; Sørensen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Background Tinnitus impairs the possibility of leading a normal life in 0.5–1% of the population. While neither medical nor surgical treatment appears effective, counselling may offer some relief. An intervention combining counselling and hearing devices is offered to clients referred to the Centre for Help Aids and Communication (CHC) in southern Denmark. The aims of this exploratory study were to examine i) the characteristics of CHC's clients and their tinnitus, ii) the effectiveness of the treatment, and iii) whether particular client groups benefit more than others. Methods One hundred new clients presenting with tinnitus completed the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) three times – before their first consultation, after one month and after 1–2 years. The scores were tested for significant differences over time using tests for paired data. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with a clinically important difference (i.e. THI score improvement of at least 20 points). Results At final follow-up, total THI score was significantly lower than baseline, i.e. 29.8 (CI 25.5–34.2) vs. 37.2 (CI 33.1–37.2), p < 0.01. The programme achieved a clinically important difference for 27% and 24% of the clients one month and 1–2 years after the first consultation, respectively. It appeared that greater improvement in THI score was related to higher baseline THI score and possibly also to treatment by a particular CHC therapist. The absolute reduction in mean THI score after 1–2 years for clients with moderate and severe handicap was 14 and 20 points, respectively, i.e. similar to that previously reported for TRT (14–28 points). The cost of the current programme was approximately 200 EUR per client. Conclusion The tinnitus management programme appeared to provide significant benefit to many clients at a relatively low cost. It would be useful to conduct a randomised controlled study comparing the current programme with alternative forms of combination counselling/sound therapy approaches. PMID:19558680

  6. Oligometastases Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy: Long-Term Follow-Up of Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Milano, Michael T.; Katz, Alan W.; Zhang Hong; Okunieff, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To analyze the long-term survival and tumor control outcomes after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for metastases limited in number and extent. Methods and Materials: We prospectively analyzed the long-term overall survival (OS) and cancer control outcomes of 121 patients with five or fewer clinically detectable metastases, from any primary site, metastatic to one to three organ sites, and treated with SBRT. Freedom from widespread distant metastasis (FFDM) was defined as metastatic disease not amenable to local therapy (i.e., resection or SBRT). Prognostic variables were assessed using log-rank and Cox regression analyses. Results: For breast cancer patients, the median follow-up was 4.5 years (7.1 years for 16 of 39 patients alive at the last follow-up visit). The 2-year OS, FFDM, and local control (LC) rate was 74%, 52%, and 87%, respectively. The 6-year OS, FFDM, and LC rate was 47%, 36%, and 87%, respectively. From the multivariate analyses, the variables of bone metastases (p = .057) and one vs. more than one metastasis (p = .055) were associated with a fourfold and threefold reduced hazard of death, respectively. None of the 17 bone lesions from breast cancer recurred after SBRT vs. 10 of 68 lesions from other organs that recurred (p = .095). For patients with nonbreast cancers, the median follow-up was 1.7 years (7.3 years for 7 of 82 patients alive at the last follow-up visit). The 2-year OS, FFDM, and LC rate was 39%, 28%, and 74%, respectively. The 6-year OS, FFDM, and LC rate was 9%, 13%, and 65%, respectively. For nonbreast cancers, a greater SBRT target volume was significantly adverse for OS (p = .012) and lesion LC (p < .0001). Patients whose metastatic lesions, before SBRT, demonstrated radiographic progression after systemic therapy experienced significantly worse OS compared with patients with stable or regressing disease. Conclusions: Select patients with limited metastases treated with SBRT are long-term survivors. Future research should address the therapeutic benefit of SBRT for these patients.

  7. Follow-Up Study of the Use of Refrigerated Homogenous Bone Transplants in Orthopaedic Operations

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Philip Duncan Wilson was born in Columbus, Ohio. His father was a family physician who held the Chair of Obstetrics in the Sterling Medical School [1]. The young Philip graduated from Harvard College in 1909 and then served as President of his graduating class at Harvard Medical School. He spent two years as a surgical intern at MGH, after which he returned to Columbus to practice. During WWI he was invited back to Boston to join the Harvard Unit under Harvey Cushing, and served with that unit when it was housed in the Lycée Pasteur. (The members of that unit included Marius Smith-Petersen, who also spent many years at the Massachusetts General Hospital and also became AAOS President.) He rejoined MGH on the staff in 1919. In 1925 he published an influential monograph with W.A. Cochrane (formerly of the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary), entitled, “Fractures and Dislocations” [5]. Toward the end of his years in Boston he helped found the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. In 1934 he was appointed as Surgeon-in-Chief at the Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled in New York City. Dr. Wilson was active in many organizations, and reorganized and renamed the hospital he served (Hospital for Special Surgery), oversaw the building of a new hospital at its current site on the Cornell University medical campus, and raised money for a large research building. His zest inspired generations, and he was known for his gracious hospitality. Dr. Wilson was one of three of the first fifteen Presidents (the others being Drs. John C. Wilson, Sr. and Melvin Henderson) whose son (Dr. Philip D. Wilson, Jr.) succeeded him as a President of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Dr. Wilson had a long interest in bone grafting and wrote numerous research papers, a few of which are referenced here [2–4]. In the article reprinted in this issue [3], he described the rapid increase in use of a bone bank he developed at the Hospital for Special Surgery in 1946: 19 operations using grafts in 1946, 48 in 1947, 106 in 1948, 134 in 1949, and 259 in 1950. He describes his animal experiments with autogenous grafts in which grafts rapidly incorporated. He further describes biopsies of previously implanted autogenous and homogenous bone transplants in patients undergoing serial fusions for scoliosis. The pathologist (Dr. Milton Helpern) commented they found “...no evidence that the cells in the bone transplants survived...” Autogenous grafts, his evidence suggested, incorporated more rapidly that homogenous grafts, but “...in the end the results are the same.” His followup studies suggested successful incorporation of graft in 210 of 248 cases. Philip Duncan Wilson, MD is shown. Photograph is reproduced with permission and ©American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Fifty Years of Progress, 1983. References Philip Duncan Wilson, MD 1886–1969. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1969;51:1445–1447. Wilson PD. Experiences with a bone bank. Ann Surg. 1947;126:932–945. Wilson PD. Experience with the use of refrigerated homogenous bone. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1951;33:301–315. Wilson PD. Follow-up study of the use of refrigerated homogenous bone grafts in orthopaedic operations. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1951;33:307–323. Wilson PD, Cochrane WA. Fractures and Dislocations. Philadelphia, PA: JB Lippincott; 1925. PMID:18196370

  8. Diabetes and cognitive decline in elderly African Americans: a 15 year follow up study

    PubMed Central

    Wessels, A.M.; Lane, K.A.; Gao, S.; Hall, K.S.; Unverzagt, F.W.; Hendrie, H.C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment and vascular factors appear to play a role in this relationship. In a sample of elderly African Americans, with a follow up duration of 15 years, we tested the hypothesis that diabetes accelerates cognitive decline and explored possible mediating mechanisms. Methods A total of 1702 subjects, of which 441 had diabetes, were given the Community Screening Interview for Dementia (CSI-D) to measure cognitive functioning at 6 time points, over 15 years. Mixed effects models with repeated measures were used to examine the association of diabetes, and vascular risk factors with cognitive scores over time. Results African Americans with diabetes were shown to have significantly accelerated cognitive decline compared with those without diabetes (p=0.046) when controlling for basic demographics and baseline co morbid conditions (heart disease, hypertension, stroke and depression). Adjusting for incident heart disease, and especially stroke weakened this association (p=0.098) indicating a mediating effect of stroke on the association of diabetes and cognitive decline. However when incident stroke is incorporated into the model, the effect for participants with diabetes is greatly increased (p=0.007) Conclusions Diabetes, mediated by cerebrovascular pathology, accelerates cognitive decline in an African American sample with a follow up duration of 15 years. PMID:21784353

  9. Day Hospital Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa: A 12-Month Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Marzola, Enrica; De-Bacco, Carlotta; Buzzichelli, Sara; Brustolin, Annalisa; Campisi, Stefania; Amianto, Federico; Migliaretti, Giuseppe; Fassino, Secondo

    2015-09-01

    Day hospitals (DHs) represent a treatment option for anorexia nervosa (AN), a mental disorder that is difficult to treat and has no evidence-based treatments available. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of a DH treatment that was specifically focused on the emotions of severe AN patients. Body mass index and eating psychopathology were the primary outcome measures. Fifty-six adult patients with AN were assessed upon admission, at the end of treatment (EOT) and at a 12-month follow-up evaluation (T18) using Eating Disorders Inventory-2, Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and Brief Social Phobia Scale. All participants received a multidisciplinary treatment programme that focused on psychodynamic psychotherapy. Seventy-eight per cent of participants reported positive outcomes at EOT and 68% at T18. Moreover, 82.1% and 65.4% of long-standing patients showed positive outcomes at EOT and T18, respectively. All measures of psychopathology were significantly improved at EOT and were maintained at follow-up. Our DH was effective at treating severe AN patients; however, further investigations of the processes of change are warranted. PMID:25974364

  10. GuLF Study: The Gulf Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Radio Hear about the launch of the largest oil spill health study. Transcript Speaker: Dale Sandler, Ph.D., ... on the potential health effects associated with an oil spill, with nearly 33,000 participants. The GuLF STUDY ...

  11. Predictors of Retention in an Online Follow-up Study of Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Khosropour, Christine M

    2011-01-01

    Background In the past 10 years, the Internet has emerged as a venue for men who have sex with men (MSM) to meet sex partners. Because online sex seeking has increased among MSM, Internet-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention interventions are of interest. However, few online studies to date have demonstrated an ability to retain study participants, specifically MSM of color, in longitudinal online studies. Objective The current analysis examines data from a 3-month online prospective study of MSM to determine the association of race and incentive level with two retention outcomes: (1) agreeing to participate in a follow-up survey and providing an email address and (2) linking into the follow-up survey at the follow-up time point. Methods Internet-using MSM were recruited through banner advertisements on MySpace.com. White, black, and Hispanic participants from 18 to 35 years of age were randomized to an offer of enrollment in an online follow-up survey at four levels of incentive (US $0, US $5, US $10, and US $20). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds of the two outcome measures of interest controlling for additional independent factors of interest. Results Of eligible participants, 92% (2405/2607) agreed to participate in the follow-up survey and provided an email address. Hispanic men had decreased odds (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-0.92) of agreeing to participate in the follow-up survey compared with white men. Men reporting unprotected anal intercourse with a male sex partner in the past 12 months had increased odds of agreeing to participate in the follow-up survey (adjusted OR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.05-1.93). Of the participants who provided an email address, 22% (539/2405) linked into the follow-up survey at the 3-month follow-up time point. The odds of linking into the follow-up survey for black men were approximately half the odds for white men (adjusted OR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.35-0.63). Participants who were offered an incentive had increased odds of linking into the follow-up survey (adjusted OR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.02-1.62). Email addresses provided by participants that were used for online financial management and email accounts that were checked daily were associated with increased odds of linking into the follow-up survey (adjusted OR = 1.97, 95% CI 1.54-2.52; adjusted OR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.22-1.87, respectively). Conclusions This analysis identified factors that predicted retention in an online, prospective study of MSM. Hispanic and black study participants were less likely to be retained in the study compared with white study participants. Because these men bear the greatest burden of HIV incidence among MSM in the United States, it is critical that new research methods be developed to increase retention of these groups in online research studies. PMID:21745792

  12. Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction: A Longitudinal Study Comparison of 2 Techniques with 2 and 5-Years Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Astur, Diego C; Gouveia, Gustavo B; Borges, José H. de Souza; Astur, Nelson; Arliani, Gustavo G; Kaleka, Camila C; Cohen, Moises

    2015-01-01

    Background : The purpose of this study was to compare the results of two popular surgical techniques for medial patellofemoral ligament MPFL reconstruction with a minimum of two-year follow-up. Methods : Fifty-eight patients with traumatic tear of the medial patellofemoral ligament were included in one of the two surgical groups. Group 1 MPFLs were reconstructed through graft endobutton fixation and Group 2 through graft anchor fixation into the patella. After two to five-year follow-up, patients were asked to answer knee function questionnaires (Fulkerson and Kujala) as well as the SF-36 life quality score. Results : There were no statistical difference among postoperative Kujala, Fulkerson, and SF-36 questionnaires scores between Groups 1 and 2. There were statistical significant differences favorable to patients in Group 1 with a shorter follow-up length (2-5 years) compared to those with a longer period of 5-10 years for both Kujala and Fulkerson scores and no difference for group 2. Conclusion : Both medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction techniques had similar results in a two to ten-year follow-up according to functions and life quality questionnaires. Furthermore, endobutton fixation for the patellar edge of the graft had better results in patients with 2 years of follow-up than those with 5 years. Gender was not significant for surgical results. Moreover, group 1 patients had higher number of complications. PMID:26161157

  13. SLUDGE BATCH 4 FOLLOW-UP QUALIFICATION STUDIES TO EVALUATE HYDROGEN GENERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Pareizs, J; David Koopman, D; Dan Lambert, D; Cj Bannochie, C

    2007-08-23

    Follow-up testing was conducted to better understand the excessive hydrogen generation seen in the initial Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) qualification Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank/Slurry Mix Evaporator (SRAT/SME) simulation in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells. This effort included both radioactive and simulant work. The initial SB4 qualification test produced 0.59 lbs/hr hydrogen in the SRAT, which was just below the DWPF SRAT limit of 0.65 lbs/hr, and the test produced over 0.5 lbs/hr hydrogen in the SME cycle on two separate occasions, which were over the DWPF SME limit of 0.223 lbs/hr.

  14. [Sorin-Pericarbon pericardial bioprosthesis. A 4-year follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Wallnberger, E; Jault, F; Fontanel, M; Nataf, P; Cantoni, M; Pavie, A; Cabrol, C; Gandjbakhch, I

    1994-03-01

    Between January 1986 and December 1986, 106 Sorin-Pericarbon (new prostheses made of bobine pericardium) valves were implanted by our group: the object of this paper is to report the medium-term results of this new bioprosthesis. The probability of degeneration-free function at 4 years was 96.5 +/- 3.7% in patients with aortic valve replacement; the probability of reoperation-free survival for all patients was 95.2 +/- 3.3% and 96.5 +/- 3.7% for patients with aortic valve replacement with this prosthesis. The results of this new Sorin-Pericarbon bioprosthesis at medium-term are satisfactory and need to be confirmed at long-term by further follow-up. PMID:7832619

  15. Obstructive sleep apnea treated with uvulopalatopharyngoplasty: a systematic follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Reimao, R; Lemmi, H; Akiskal, H; Cocke, E

    1986-09-01

    We evaluated ten consecutive cases of obstructive sleep apnea treated with uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP). The preoperative all-night polysomnograms were compared to those done one to three months after surgery. Excessive daytime sleepiness, the main complaint of every patient, partially improved in three and was completely abolished in seven. The lowest oxygen saturation levels were below 80% in nine cases before UPPP and in only three afterward. The number of apneic episodes per hour of sleep, or apnea index, decreased in every patient and reached normal levels in five. Improvement of other sleep indices was not statistically detectable and may require large numbers of patients and longer follow-up for documentation. PMID:3749988

  16. A Follow-up Study of Early Onset Psychosis: Comparison between Outcome Diagnoses of Schizophrenia, Mood Disorders, and Personality Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Jon M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study of 95 youths previously diagnosed with psychotic disorders found that at follow-up, 24 had a diagnosis of schizophrenia, 9 with psychotic mood disorders, 5 with personality disorders, and 1 with schizo-affective disorder. The study confirmed findings regarding early onset schizophrenia and psychotic mood disorders and emphasized the…

  17. Follow-Up Study of Dietetic Tech Graduates 1986 and 1987 [and] 1983 and Prior. Volume XVII, Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Toni

    In spring 1988, a study was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC), Illinois, to gather follow-up information about graduates of the college's Dietetic Technician program. Questionnaires were mailed to the 16 students who graduated from the program in 1986 and 1987 and to the 76 former students who graduated prior to 1984. Information…

  18. Third National Even Start Evaluation: Follow-Up Findings from the Experimental Design Study. NCEE 2005-3002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricciuti, Anne E., St.Pierre, Robert G.; Lee, Wang; Parsad, Amanda

    2004-01-01

    Citation: Ricciuti, A.E., R.G. St.Pierre, W. Lee, A. Parsad & T. Rimdzius. Third National Even Start Evaluation: Follow-Up Findings From the Experimental Design Study. U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance. Washington, D.C., 2004. Background: The Even Start…

  19. Long-Term Follow-Up Study of Legal Tech Graduates, 1984-1988. Volume XVIII, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, John A.; Hildebrandt, Sharrie

    In order to provide information for the 1989-90 program review at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) and to fulfill American Bar Association accreditation guidelines, a long-term, follow-up study was conducted of all Legal Tech program alumni who graduated between 1984 and 1988. A telephone survey generated usable responses from 106 (73%) of the…

  20. Follow-Up Study of Former Computer Information Systems Students, 1986-1990. Volume XX, No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Virginia; And Others

    In fall 1991, a follow-up study was conducted of former Computer Information System (CIS) program students at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC), in Palatine, Illinois, in an effort to evaluate and provide future direction for the program. All students who had taken four or more CIS courses between summer 1986 and spring 1990, but were not…

  1. Rural Adolescent Drinking Behavior: Three Year Follow-up in the New Hampshire Substance Abuse Prevention Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Marguerite M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A 3-year follow-up study of alcohol prevention among 4,406 children showed that neither a comprehensive school curriculum nor a community intervention was successful in preventing adolescent drinking. Predictor variables for drinking are examined and the importance of tolerance and encouragement of drinking by adult role models are noted. (Author)

  2. 75 FR 54965 - Proposed Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... Proposed Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans... information needed to assist in VA's efforts to address the health concerns and problems of Gulf War Veterans... of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans, VA Form 10-0488, and Consent Form for Release of Medical...

  3. 75 FR 54445 - Proposed Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... Proposed Information Collection (Follow-Up Study of a National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans... information needed to assist in VA's efforts to address the health concerns and problems of Gulf War Veterans... of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans, VA Form 10-0488, and Consent Form for Release of Medical...

  4. Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative: A one-year follow up study using tensor-based morphometry correlating degenerative

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    , using a subset of the ADNI dataset consisting of 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 40 healthyAlzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative: A one-year follow up study using tensor. Trojanowskie, Adam S. Fleisherf, Danielle Harveyg, John Kornakh, Norbert Schuffi, Gene E. Alexanderk, Michael W

  5. Communication Development and Characteristics of Influencing Factors: A Follow-Up Study from 8 to 36 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haapsamo, Helena; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Ebeling, Hanna; Larinen, Katja; Penninkilampi-Kerola, Varpu; Soini, Hannu; Moilanen, Irma

    2013-01-01

    In this follow-up study, we evaluated children's communication development at the ages of 8 ("n" ?= ?50), 18 ("n" ?=? 46), 24 ("n"? = ?44) and 36 months ("n"? = ?36) using the Finnish version of the "MacArthur Communicative Developmental Inventories" (MCDI). A sample of children ("n"? = ?14) received family-based intervention 10 times in five…

  6. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study: First Follow-Up 1996-98 (BPS:96/98) Methodology Report. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wine, Jennifer S.; Whitmore, Roy W.; Heuer, Ruth E.; Biber, Melissa; Pratt, Daniel J.

    This report describes the methods and procedures used for the full-scale data collection effort of the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study First Follow-Up 1996-98 (BPS:96/98). These students, who started their postsecondary education during the 1995-96 academic year, were first interviewed during 1996 as part of the National…

  7. Psychological Vulnerability in Children Next-Born after Stillbirth: A Case-Control Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turton, Penelope; Badenhorst, William; Pawlby, Susan; White, Sarah; Hughes, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Background: Case studies and anecdotal accounts suggest that perinatal loss may impact upon other children in the family, including those born subsequent to loss. However, there is a dearth of systematically collected quantitative data on this potentially vulnerable group. Methods: Case-controlled follow-up of 52 mothers with history of stillbirth…

  8. Occupational Physical Activity, Overweight, and Mortality: A Follow-Up Study of 47,405 Norwegian Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Selmer, Randi; Sorensen, Marit; Skurtveit, Svetlana

    2007-01-01

    This population-based 24-year follow-up study evaluated the association of occupational physical activity (OPA) with overweight and mortality in 47,405 men and women, healthy at baseline, and reporting OPA as sedentary (reference), light, moderately heavy, or heavy. The adjusted odds ratio for overweight was slightly less than 1 for all categories…

  9. Lane Community College Student Follow-Up Study, Spring 2001. 1999-2000 Students: One Year Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoz, Sylvia J.

    This 2001 follow-up study conducted in the spring of 2001 and reported in the fall of 2001,targeted 2 groups of former Lane Community College (LCC) (Oregon) students. Surveys were mailed to all 1990-2000 graduates (students who earned a degree or certificate). The second group contacted were students who had achieved no formal award (NFA). These…

  10. Reading, Metacognition and Motivation: A Follow-Up Study of German Students in Grades 7 and 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeschl-Heils, Annette; Schneider, Wolfgang; van Kraayenoord, Christina E.

    2003-01-01

    This follow-up study to van Kraayenoord and Schneider (1999) examined the performance in reading, metacognition and motivation related to reading of students in Grades 7 and 8. Results showed significant correlations between all of the variables. A multivariate analysis of variance showed that "good" and "poor" readers differed in reading…

  11. Testing the Oregon delinquency model with 9-year follow-up of the Oregon Divorce Study.

    PubMed

    Forgatch, Marion S; Patterson, Gerald R; Degarmo, David S; Beldavs, Zintars G

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents experimental tests of the Oregon delinquency model applied within a randomized design of an at-risk sample of single mothers and their elementary school-aged sons. In the theoretical model, ineffective parenting practices and deviant peer association serve as the primary mechanisms for growth in adolescent delinquent behavior and early arrests. Multiple-method assessments of 238 mothers and sons include delinquency as measured by teacher reports and official arrest records, parenting skills measured by observations of parent-child interactions, and deviant peer association as reported by focal boys. Analyses of the 9-year follow-up data indicate that the Oregon model of parent management training significantly reduced teacher-reported delinquency and police arrests for focal boys. As hypothesized, the experiments demonstrated that improving parenting practices and reducing contacts with deviant peers served as mediating mechanisms for reducing rates of adolescent delinquency. As predicted, there was also a significant delay in the timing of police arrests for youth in the experimental as compared to the control group. PMID:19338702

  12. Long-Term Ultrasonography Follow-Up of Thyroid Colloid Cysts at the Health Center: A Single-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Rho, Myung Ho; Kim, Dong Wook

    2015-01-01

    Objective. No previous study has employed long-term follow-up ultrasonography (US) examinations for evaluating thyroid colloid cysts (TCCs) in the general population. This study aimed to assess the interval changes of TCCs at the health center by evaluating long-term US follow-up examinations. Methods. For evaluation of the thyroid gland at our health center from 2006 to 2010, 3692 individuals underwent 4 or more thyroid US examinations at an interval of 1 year or 2 years. We assessed the interval changes of TCCs ? 5?mm on US follow-up examinations. Results. Of the 3692 subjects, only 115 (3.1%) showed TCCs ? 5?mm on one or more thyroid US examinations. The interval changes in TCCs, as shown by the thyroid US examinations performed during the study period, were classified as follows: no interval change (n = 60), gradual increase (n = 37), gradual decrease (n = 6), positive fluctuation (n = 10), negative fluctuation (n = 0), and disappearance (n = 2). No subject reported any relevant symptom pertaining to TCCs. Conclusions. Overall, follow-up US examinations showed various interval changes in TCCs, but a majority of TCCs showed no interval change or a gradual increase in size. PMID:26579197

  13. A follow-up study of respiratory function in workers exposed to acid aerosols in a food-processing industry.

    PubMed

    Zuskin, E; Mustajbegovic, J; Schachter, E N; Pavicic, D; Budak, A

    1997-01-01

    A follow-up investigation was performed on 49 female workers studied 2 years earlier in a vegetable-pickling plant. Acute and chronic respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity measurements were recorded during the original and the follow-up studies. Maximal expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curves were recorded during the Monday morning work shift. The forced vital capacity (FVC), 1-s forced expiratory volume (FEV1), and flow rates at 50% and the last 25% of the FVC (FEF50, FEF25) were measured. There were small increases in the prevalence of chronic symptoms between the two studies for both smokers and nonsmokers, but these did not reach statistical significance. Five workers at the time of the initial study had a diagnosis of occupational asthma; only one of these was still working at the time of follow-up. Workers lost to the follow-up had lower lung function than those seen at follow-up. In workers who were followed, larger than expected mean annual declines were noted for all ventilatory capacity parameters in both smokers (FVC 0.070 1, FEV1 0.070 1; FEF50 0.3551/s, FEF25 0.270 1/s) and nonsmokers (FVC 0.045 1, FEV1 0.045 1, FEF50 0.285 1/s; FEF25 0.130 1/s). The decrease was particularly pronounced for FEF50 and FEF25. The accelerated decline in ventilatory capacity tests noted in the female nonsmokers suggests an independent effect on lung function of work exposure in this environment. Our data confirm that work in the pickling industry, particularly in small, poorly regulated plants, has deleterious effects on respiratory function. PMID:9439989

  14. Implementing guidelines for follow-up after surgery with ventilation tube in the tympanic membrane in Norway: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background When clinical guidelines are being changed a strategy is required for implementation. St. Olavs University Hospital in Norway modified their guidelines for the follow-up care of children after insertion of ventilation tubes (VT) in the tympanic membrane, transferring the controls of the healthiest children to General Practitioners (GPs). This study evaluates the implementation process in the hospital and in general practice by exploring two issues: 1) Whether the hospital discharged the patients they were supposed to and 2) whether the children consulted a GP for follow-up care. Methods A retrospective observational study was performed at St. Olavs University Hospital, Norway and general practice in Mid-Norway. Children under the age of 18 who underwent insertion of VT between Nov 1st 2007 and Dec 31st 2008 (n?=?136) were included. Degree of guideline adherence at the hospital and in general practice was measured. Results The hospital adhered to the guidelines in two-thirds (68.5%) of the patients, planning more patients for follow-up by their GP than recommended in the guidelines (25.8% vs. 12.4%). All except one contacted their GP for control. In total 60% were referred back to specialist health services within two years. Conclusions The methods for guideline implementation were successful in securing consultations for follow-up care in general practice. Lack of guideline adherence in the hospital can partly be explained by the lack of quality of the guideline. Further studies are needed to evaluate the quality of controls done by the GPs in order to consider implications for follow-up after VT surgery. PMID:23295016

  15. Physical inactivity is associated with chronic musculoskeletal complaints 11 years later: results from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Holth, Helene Sulutvedt; Werpen, Hanne Kine Buchardt; Zwart, John-Anker; Hagen, Knut

    2008-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is associated with several diseases, but studies evaluating the association between chronic musculoskeletal complaints (MSCs) and physical exercise have shown conflicting results. The aim of this large-scale prospective population-based study was to investigate the association between self-reported physical exercise at baseline and the prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal complaints (MSCs) 11 years later. Methods The results are based upon two consecutive public health studies conducted within the county of Nord-Trøndelag, Norway (The HUNT studies). A total of 39,520 (83%) out of 47,556 adults who participated in HUNT 1 and HUNT 2 responded to questions about physical exercise at baseline in 1984–86, and to questions about musculoskeletal complaints 11 years later (1995–97). Chronic MSCs was defined as MSCs ? 3 months during the past year, and chronic widespread MSCs such as pain ? 15 days during the last month from the axial region, above the waist, and below the waist. Associations were assessed using multiple logistic regression, estimating prevalence odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All the final analyses were adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, smoking and education level. Results At follow-up 20,223 (51%) reported chronic MSCs, and among these 2,318 (5.9%) reported chronic widespread MSCs. Individuals who exercised at baseline were less likely to report chronic MSCs 11 years later (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.85–0.97) than inactive persons. Among individuals who exercised more than three times per week, chronic widespread MSCs were 28% less common (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.59–0.88) compared to inactive individuals. Conclusion In this large-scale population-based study, physical exercise was associated with lower prevalence of chronic MSCs, in particular chronic widespread MSCs. Future studies should try to clarify whether chronic MSCs are a cause or a consequence of inactivity. PMID:19046448

  16. Adulthood Weight Change and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Song, Mingyang; Hu, Frank B; Spiegelman, Donna; Chan, Andrew T; Wu, Kana; Ogino, Shuji; Fuchs, Charles S; Willett, Walter C; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the association between adulthood weight change and colorectal cancer risk in a prospective study with 24 to 34 years of follow-up among 90,988 women and 46,679 men. The primary exposures included weight change from early adulthood (age = 18 years for women, 21 years for men) to baseline enrollment (median age = 43 years for women, 52 years for men), and from baseline to present. In the secondary analyses, we also assessed 4-year weight change during follow-up, and during premenopausal (from age 18 years to menopause) and postmenopausal (from menopause to present) periods in women. Compared to men maintaining their weight from age 21 to baseline, those who gained 20 kg or more were at a higher risk of colorectal cancer (relative risk [RR], 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-2.35, Ptrend < 0.001), whereas those who lost 8 kg or more had a lower risk (RR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.30-1.22, Ptrend = 0.003). Similar but weaker associations were found in women and the corresponding RRs were 1.38 (95% CI, 1.13-1.69, Ptrend < 0.001) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.58-1.09, Ptrend = 0.21). Weight change from baseline to present was not associated with colorectal cancer risk. Four-year weight change during follow-up was positively associated with colorectal cancer risk in men (Ptrend = 0.03) but not in women (Ptrend = 0.42). In addition, in women, weight change before, but not after, menopause was associated with colorectal cancer risk. Our findings provide further scientific rationale for recommendations to maintain a healthy body weight during adulthood. A potential differential association according to sex and timing of weight change warrants further investigation. PMID:25930050

  17. Follow-up barium study after a negative water-soluble contrast examination for suspected esophageal leak: is it necessary?

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Thomas R; Holz, Grant S; Corwin, Michael T; Wood, Robert J; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the value of follow-up barium esophogram in diagnosing esophageal injury or leak if the initial water-soluble contrast examination of the esophagus is normal. An institutional review board (IRB)-approved retrospective review of all pediatric patients less than 18 years old referred to the radiology department for evaluation of esophageal injury or leak was performed for a 9-year period from 2005 to 2014. The majority of patients had unexplained pneumomediastinum, chest trauma (gunshot or puncture wound), or foreign body ingestion as the reason for the referral. Forty-nine patients (age range 10 days to 17 years) underwent an initial water-soluble esophogram immediately followed by a barium esophogram. Forty-six studies were negative on both water-soluble contrast and barium studies. Two studies were both positive on the initial water-soluble contrast and subsequent barium studies. A single study showed the esophageal leak only in the water-soluble study, with the follow-up barium exam being normal. The result of this study indicates that a single-contrast water-soluble esophogram alone is sensitive in the diagnosis of esophageal injury or leak. It has a 100 % sensitivity and negative predictive value. A follow-up barium esophogram only increases the study time and radiation dose to the patient. PMID:26076944

  18. Is ‘Pure’ Dhat Syndrome a Stable Diagnostic Entity? A Naturalistic Long Term Follow Up Study from a Tertiary Care Centre

    PubMed Central

    Sameer, Moideen; Chandrasekaran, Ramamurthy

    2015-01-01

    Background Very little is known about the long term diagnostic stability of Dhat (semen loss) syndrome owing to a dearth of follow up studies on this condition. Aim The aim of the study was to assess the diagnostic stability and naturalistic long term outcomes in a group of pure Dhat syndrome cases. Materials and Methods The study was carried out in the outpatient psychiatry department of a tertiary care hospital in South India, using a retrospective cohort design. Forty one cases of ‘pure’ Dhat syndrome (with no other concurrent diagnosis) were selected by a chart review of patients attending the outpatient Psychiatry department. Out of this initial cohort, follow up interviews were held for 36 patients. Direct clinical interviews were held with all participants to assess change in diagnosis. Those who no longer qualified for Dhat syndrome were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) to generate other diagnoses. For analysis, the patients were divided into two groups – those who positively endorsed symptoms of Dhat syndrome at follow up (DSP group) and those who no longer did (DSN group). These groups were compared using chi-square test for categorical variables and student t-test for continuous variables to look for significant differences. Frequencies and percentages were used to depict socio-demographic data and the follow up diagnoses. Statistical Analysis Data was analysed using SPSS for Windows, Version 16.0 (Chicago, SPSS Inc.) Results The mean duration of follow up was 6±3.5 years. Nearly two-thirds of the sample no longer fulfilled criteria for Dhat syndrome in follow up. The most common revisional diagnosis in these patients was somatoform disorders. Age, marital status and literacy distinguished the two groups. About a quarter of the sample (26.07%) was in complete remission. Conclusion Even the purest variety of Dhat syndrome is not a stable diagnosis in the majority of patients. The condition may be better conceptualized as a subtype of somatoform disorder with culturally determined explanation for somatic symptoms. Clinicians should look at explanations of semen loss as fluid cultural idioms of distress rather than as a standalone diagnostic entity. PMID:26436025

  19. How to Establish and Follow up a Large Prospective Cohort Study in the 21st Century - Lessons from UK COSMOS

    PubMed Central

    Toledano, Mireille B.; Smith, Rachel B.; Brook, James P.; Douglass, Margaret; Elliott, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale prospective cohort studies are invaluable in epidemiology, but they are increasingly difficult and costly to establish and follow-up. More efficient methods for recruitment, data collection and follow-up are essential if such studies are to remain feasible with limited public and research funds. Here, we discuss how these challenges were addressed in the UK COSMOS cohort study where fixed budget and limited time frame necessitated new approaches to consent and recruitment between 2009-2012. Web-based e-consent and data collection should be considered in large scale observational studies, as they offer a streamlined experience which benefits both participants and researchers and save costs. Commercial providers of register and marketing data, smartphones, apps, email, social media, and the internet offer innovative possibilities for identifying, recruiting and following up cohorts. Using examples from UK COSMOS, this article sets out the dos and don’ts for today's cohort studies and provides a guide on how best to take advantage of new technologies and innovative methods to simplify logistics and minimise costs. Thus a more streamlined experience to the benefit of both research participants and researchers becomes achievable. PMID:26147611

  20. Early and late posttraumatic seizures following traumatic brain injury: A five-year follow-up survival study

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Mohammad Reza; Tabesh, Homayoun; Hosseini, Hamid; Akbari, Mojtaba; Najafi, Mohammad Amin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main objective of this study was to determine the incidence, time to event, and risk factors for posttraumatic seizures (PTS) following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in a five-year follow-up survival design. Materials and Methods: In a cohort study, between September 2008 and October 2013, 411 traumatic brain injury patients referring to the Emergency Units (EUs) of the Isfahan University Hospitals, who met the inclusion criteria, entered the study. Follow-up evaluations were conducted by telephone conversation or clinical examination, if needed. The patients were followed for up to five years after TBI or until a first seizure event if it occurred prior to the five-year anniversary. The survival rate data were collected and measured for all patients under follow-up. Survival analysis on PTS and its related predictors was done using the Kaplan-Meier curves and the Cox proportional hazards regression. All analyses were done using STATA and SPSS statistical software, and P-values smaller than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: The median duration of follow-up was 36 months (Interquartile range: 23-50). A significantly greater number of first seizures occurred in the first year after injury than all other years (57.7%). The overall incidence of posttraumatic seizures, in this study population, was 6.33% (95% CI: 3.96-8.69). Among the participants, the incidence rates for early and late posttraumatic seizures were 1.95 and 4.38%, respectively. The result of the Cox regression analysis showed that the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and trauma severity were associated with PTS. Conclusion: All in all, the present study highlighted the role of the trauma severity and GCS as effective factors in the incidence of seizure in patients with TBI. Particular care is advised for patients with these risk factors during the primary handling in the Emergency Units. PMID:26015908

  1. Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Physical Therapists: A Prospective Cohort Study With 1-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Marc; Weiser, Sherri; Koenig, Karen L; Nordin, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Background: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) have a significant impact on physical therapists, but few studies have addressed the issue. Research is needed to determine the scope of the problem and the effects of specific risk factors. Objectives: The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the 1-year incidence rate of WMSDs in physical therapists and (2) to determine the effects of specific risk factors. Design: This was a prospective cohort study with 1-year follow-up. Methods: Subjects were randomly selected American Physical Therapy Association members (N=882). Exposure assessment included demographic data, physical risk factors, job strain, and specific physical therapy tasks. The primary outcome was WMSDs, with a severity rating of at least 4/10 and present at least once a month or lasting longer than a week. Results: The response rate to the baseline questionnaire was 67%. Ninety-three percent of the subjects who responded to the baseline questionnaire responded to the follow-up questionnaire. The 1-year incidence rate of WMSDs was 20.7%. Factors that increased the risk for WMSDs included patient transfers, patient repositioning, bent or twisted postures, joint mobilization, soft tissue work, and job strain. Limitations: The primary limitation of this study was the number of therapists who had a change in their job situation during the follow-up year. Conclusions: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are prevalent in physical therapists. Physical therapy exposures, patient handling, and manual therapy, in particular, increase the risk for WMSDs. PMID:18276935

  2. Reexamination of Total Fluid Intake and Bladder Cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiachen; Smith, Scott; Giovannucci, Edward; Michaud, Dominique S.

    2012-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that high fluid intake may reduce contact time between carcinogens and bladder epithelium and consequently reduce carcinogenesis. Epidemiologic studies examining fluid intake and bladder cancer have been extremely inconsistent, ranging from strong inverse to strong positive associations. The authors reevaluated the association between fluid intake and bladder cancer among 47,909 participants in the prospective Health Professionals Follow-up Study over a period of 22 years. During follow-up (1986–2008), 823 incident bladder cancer cases were diagnosed. Information on fluid intake was collected by using the food frequency questionnaire at baseline and every 4 years thereafter. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to adjust for risk factors for bladder cancer. Total fluid intake was inversely associated with bladder cancer when the analysis was based on the baseline diet (relative risk = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.60, 0.97), comparing the highest total daily fluid intake quintile (>2,531 mL/day) with the lowest quintile (<1,290 mL/day) (Ptrend = 0.01). However, no association was detected when the analysis was based on recent diet or cumulative updated diet. The updated analysis for total fluid intake and bladder cancer was attenuated compared with the original findings from the first 10-year follow-up period. PMID:22355034

  3. Higher blood hematocrit predicts hyperuricemia: a prospective study of 62897 person-years of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Chao; Wei, Jie; Yang, Tuo; Li, Hui; Xiao, Wen-feng; Luo, Wei; Gao, Shu-guang; Li, Yu-sheng; Xiong, Yi-lin; Lei, Guang-hua

    2015-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to investigate the relationship between higher hematocrit (Hct) level and hyperuricemia (HU) incidence. A total of 27540 subjects were included. Baseline Hct was classified into four categories based on the quartile distribution of the study population. A cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate the risk of HU incidence across the Hct quartiles after adjusting a number of potential confounding factors. Out of the 62897 person-years of follow-up, 2745 new cases of HU were developed. In models adjusted for known risk factors of HU, higher Hct was used to predict HU incidence independently in a graded manner (p?=?0.02): compared with subjects in the lowest quartile, subjects in the highest quartile of Hct (hazard ratio?=?1.20; 95% confidence interval: 1.03–1.41) were n20% more likely to develop HU. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the hazard ratios increased with the extension of the minimum follow-up interval. When the minimum follow-up interval was restricted to 4 years, subjects in the highest quartile of Hct were 70% more likely to develop HU, compared with the lowest quartile. Higher Hct, a routinely measured inexpensive biomarker was independently associated with the incidence of HU even within the normal range. PMID:26337238

  4. MMPI-2 personality profiles and suicidal ideation and behavior in victims of bullying at work: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Luciano; Balducci, Cristian; Quintarelli, Emanuele; Riolfi, Andrea; Pelizza, Luisa; Serpelloni, Andrea; Tisato, Silvia; Perbellini, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate longitudinally the personality profile and suicidal ideation and behavior in victims of bullying at work in relation to the evolution of the victimization. Forty-eight victims were evaluated by means of medical and psychological assessment including the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). A follow up session was carried out after an average of 22 months. At first evaluation, the average MMPI-2 personality profile of victims showed abnormal elevations on scales Hs (Hypochondria), D (Depression), Hy (Hysteria), and Pa (Paranoia), which were strikingly similar to that found in previous studies. Furthermore, suicidal ideation and behavior were common among victims. At follow-up, 26 victims reported that the degree of bullying had remained the same or had even worsened, whereas 22 said that the situation had improved or had been resolved. Although there was a trend toward normalization in the MMPI-2 profile for all victims, the profile of the "static" group was still abnormal at follow up. On the contrary, the profile of the "improved" group was entirely within normal range. Suicidal ideation and behavior decreased in all victims, but only to a significant degree in the improved group. Results are discussed in the light of the bullying process. PMID:24547677

  5. Photorefractive keratectomy in patients with mild to moderate stable keratoconus: a five-year prospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Chelala, Elias; Rami, Hala El; Dirani, Ali; Fadlallah, Ali; Fakhoury, Omar; Warrak, Elias

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual outcome of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in patients with mild to moderate stable keratoconus and to assess the risk of progression of the disease after the excimer laser procedure. Methods In this prospective study, carried out at the Clemenceau Medical Center, an affiliate of Johns Hopkins International, in Beirut, Lebanon, 119 eyes from 72 patients with grade 1–2 keratoconus (Amsler–Krumeich classification) underwent PRK. Forty-seven patients had both eyes treated and 25 patients had one eye treated. The procedure was done using the Wavelight Eye Q Excimer laser. Uncorrected and best-corrected visual acuity, corneal topography, and pachymetry were assessed before the procedure and 3, 6, 12, 36, and 60 months after the procedure. Results Mean uncorrected visual acuity showed a statistically significant improvement (P < 0.05) at one, 3, and 5 years follow-up. One hundred and seventeen eyes (98.3%) showed no progression while two eyes (1.7%) showed progression of the disease at 5 years follow-up, as documented by corneal topography and pachymetry. These two eyes were treated with corneal collagen crosslinking. Conclusion PRK in mild to moderate keratoconus is a safe and effective procedure for improving uncorrected vision in patients with mild refractive errors. However, close follow-up of patients is needed to detect any progression of the disease. Longer follow-up is needed to assess the overall effect of this procedure on progression of the disease. PMID:24109172

  6. [Follow-up of persons on long-term sick-leave. A cohort study in the city of Moss].

    PubMed

    Bjørndal, A

    1994-10-10

    Follow-up of people on long-term sickness leave has been a priority for central and local authorities for a number of years. In this study we have followed a cohort of such people from the city of Moss. We wanted to find out how many returned to work, and who these were. The cohort consisted of 1,975 persons. Median age was 45 years (25-75 percentile: 35-54 years). 55% were women. Median follow-up time was two years and four months. Incidence of long-term sickness leave (more than eight weeks off sick) was 4.2 per month per 1,000 persons between 16 and 66 years of age. Less than half (47%) of those who had been off sick for more than eight weeks were working at follow-up. Few people were recruited to active rehabilitation programmes; for instance new education and on-the-job training. Age, especially from 45 years and upwards, many earlier sickness leaves and diagnosis (persons with psychiatric and other diagnoses did worst) influenced the result towards inactivity. When tested by multivariate analysis these variables explained little of the total variation in re-entry to the job market. A separate study of a random sample who were offered more time and indepth counselling showed no effect on job status at follow-up. Most probably, the success or lack of success are dominated by two factors which we could not measure directly; the seriousness of the medical condition and the climate on the labour market. PMID:7998036

  7. Late outcomes of laparoscopic pyeloplasty: a single institution study with follow-up longer than 5 years

    PubMed Central

    Apozna?ski, Wojciech; Janczak, Dariusz; Panek, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although most urologists agree that failures after laparoscopic pyeloplasty occur usually within a year after the operation, late failures are also reported. Aim To assess late results of laparoscopic pyeloplasty. Material and methods Seventy-eight of ninety-five patients who had been operated on between November 2001 and September 2009 were notified about the possibility of diuretic renography (DR). Excluded from the study were 3 patients who failed within 1 year after surgery, 2 others with late recurrences at 1.5 and 2.5 years postoperatively, 8 patients who were lost to follow-up immediately after the operation, 2 patients with equivocal DR after pyeloplasty and 2 cases with open conversion. Twenty-six (33.3%) patients responded to the notification. Mean follow-up was 89 months. In all patients DR, ultrasound, serum creatinine concentration, estimatated glomerular filtration rate and the assessment of symptoms were carried out. Success was defined as T1/2 ? 12 min and improved or stable differential renal function on DR. Results Diuretic renography revealed no obstruction in 25/26 (96%) patients. One woman was not appropriately hydrated, which rendered the result of the investigation unreliable. Mean half time to tracer clearance was 6.74 min. Mean split renal function on the operated side was 44.62%. Mean pain strength according to the VAS scale was 1.54. Conclusions Our study seems to indicate that recurrence after laparoscopic pyeloplasty in the follow-up period longer than 5 years is very unlikely. However, until more data are available, patients should undergo long-term follow-up to receive the benefit of the operation. PMID:26649088

  8. Retrobulbar Hemodynamics and Visual Field Progression in Normal Tension Glaucoma: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Kuerten, D.; Fuest, M.; Koch, E. C.; Koutsonas, A.; Plange, N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Vascular risk factors are important factors in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. The purpose of this research was to investigate retrobulbar hemodynamics and visual field progression in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG). Patients and Methods. 31 eyes of 16 patients with NTG were included in a retrospective long-term follow-up study. Colour Doppler imaging was performed at baseline to determine various CDI parameters in the different retrobulbar vessels. The rate of visual field progression was determined using the Visual Field Index (VFI) progression rate per year (in %). To be included in the analysis, patients had at least 4 visual field examinations with a follow-up of at least 2 years. Results. Mean follow-up was 7.6 ± 4.1 years with an average of 10 ± 5 visual field tests. The mean MD (mean defect) at baseline was ?7.61 ± 7.49?dB. The overall VFI progression was ?1.14 ± 1.40% per year. A statistical significant correlation between VFI progression and the RI of the NPCA and PSV of the CRA was found. Conclusion. Long-term visual field progression may be linked to impaired retrobulbar hemodynamics in patients with NTG only to a limited degree. Interpretation of the data for an individual patient seems to be limited due to the variability of parameters. PMID:26557652

  9. Shifting Coresidence Near the End of Life: Comparing Decedents and Survivors of a Follow-Up Study in China

    PubMed Central

    ZIMMER, ZACHARY; KORINEK, KIM

    2010-01-01

    What we know about transitions in coresidence of elders in China is based on panel data involving survivors. This article examines the tendency to and determinants of shifts in coresidence with adult children among the very old, comparing survivors of an intersurvey period with those who died (decedents). Data come from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. Baseline and follow-up surveys indicate shifts in coresidence, defined as change from not living with an adult child to living in the same household as an adult child, and the converse. Rates of shifting are adjusted for time to follow-up. Regressions examine predictors of shifts among four groups: baseline coresident and noncoresident survivors and decedents. Decedents and noncoresidents are more likely to shift than survivors and coresidents. Covariates related to physical and material need as well as marital status are the strongest predictors of shift. Thus, the needs of a very old person dominate coresidential shifts and stability, lending support to an altruistic notion of living arrangement decision making. In the end, we conclude that the period nearing the end of life is a time of flux in living situation and that coresidential shifts are underestimated when those who die during a follow-up study are ignored. PMID:20879676

  10. Testing the predictive power of cognitive atypicalities in autistic children: evidence from a 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2013-08-01

    This follow-up study investigated the predictive power of early cognitive atypicalities. Specifically, it examined whether early individual differences in specific cognitive skills, including theory of mind, executive function, and central coherence, could uniquely account for variation in autistic children's behaviors-social communication, repetitive behaviors, and interests and insistence on sameness-at follow-up. Thirty-seven cognitively able children with an autism spectrum condition were assessed on tests tapping verbal and nonverbal ability, theory of mind (false-belief prediction), executive function (planning ability, cognitive flexibility, and inhibitory control), and central coherence (local processing) at intake and their behavioral functioning (social communication, repetitive behaviors and interests, insistence on sameness) 3 years later. Individual differences in early executive but not theory of mind skills predicted variation in children's social communication. Individual differences in children's early executive function also predicted the degree of repetitive behaviors and interests at follow-up. There were no predictive relationships between early central coherence and children's insistence on sameness. These findings challenge the notion that distinct cognitive atypicalities map on to specific behavioral features of autism. Instead, early variation in executive function plays a key role in helping to shape autistic children's emerging behaviors, including their social communication and repetitive behaviors and interests. PMID:23495146

  11. The Safe Passage Study: Design, Methods, Recruitment, and Follow-Up Approach

    PubMed Central

    Dukes, Kimberly A.; Burd, Larry; Elliott, Amy J.; Fifer, William P.; Folkerth, Rebecca D.; Hankins, Gary D.V.; Hereld, Dale; Hoffman, Howard J.; Myers, Michael M.; Odendaal, Hein J.; Signore, Caroline; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Willinger, Marian; Wright, Colleen; Kinney, Hannah C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Safe Passage Study is a large, prospective, multidisciplinary study designed to (1) investigate the association between prenatal alcohol exposure, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and stillbirth, and (2) determine the biological basis of the spectrum of phenotypic outcomes from exposure, as modified by environmental and genetic factors that increase the risk of stillbirth, SIDS, and in surviving children, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Methods The results provided are based on an interim assessment of 6004 women enrolled, out of the 12 000 projected, from the Northern Plains, US, and Cape Town, South Africa, areas known to be of high risk for maternal drinking during pregnancy. Research objectives, study design, and descriptive statistics, including consent, recruitment, and retention information, are provided. Results Overall visit compliance is 87%, and includes prenatal, delivery/newborn, and postnatal contacts through 1 year post-delivery. Pregnancy outcome ascertainment is 98% prior to medical chart review; less than 2% of women withdraw. Consent for the use of DNA and placental tissue exceed 94%, and consent to participate in the autopsy portion of the study is 71%. Conclusions The Safe Passage Study is the first multi-site study of SIDS and stillbirth to integrate prospectively collected exposure information with multidisciplinary biological information in the same maternal and fetal/ infant dyad using a common protocol. Essential components of the study design and its success are close ties to the community and rigorous systems and processes to ensure compliance with the study protocol and procedures. PMID:25131605

  12. Soft Skills for Information Technology Professionals in Recruitment Advertisements: A Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Cynthia J. Moore

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine if the use of soft skills requirements in job posting advertisements for information technology professional positions has increased since the dissertation study by G. K. Tannnahill in 2007, titled "Study of Soft Skills for IT Workers in Recruitment Advertising," to support prior research…

  13. A Follow-Up Note on Prescriptive Statements in Nonintervention Research Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Shana M.; Walls, Stephen M.; Dacy, Breana Sylvester; Levin, Joel R.; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2010-01-01

    Robinson, Levin, Thomas, Pituch, and Vaughn (2007) examined 74 articles reporting nonintervention studies (i.e., studies with no researcher-manipulated variables) that appeared in 5 educational journals in 1994. Of these articles, 22 contained prescriptive statements (e.g., if teachers or students did X, then student outcome Y would result). In…

  14. Adjustment to Spinal Cord Injury: A Comprehensive Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Daniel; And Others

    This document reports a comprehensive followup study to describe postservice life status of former vocational rehabilitation clients and to develop an empirical index of postservice adjustment to spinal cord injury. Significant findings, conclusions, and implications are found at the beginning. The introduction section summarizes followup studies

  15. The Bounce Back Retention Program: One-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanger, Maria Andujo; Goldenson, Julie; Weinberg, Marsha; Schmitz-Sciborski, Amy; Monzon, Reynaldo

    2012-01-01

    This study provides results regarding the effectiveness of the Bounce Back Retention Program (BBRP), a semester-long voluntary course for students on academic probation (AP). This is the first phase of a longitudinal study of spring 2007 freshmen at San Diego State University (SDSU). Results were analyzed for three samples: 1) "AP BBRP-Credit"…

  16. Follow-Up Study on Guidance 7, College Success Students at Columbia College, 1989-90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Elsie M.

    In 1989, a study was conducted at Columbia College (CC) in California to determine the effects of CC's "College Success" course (Guidance 7) on student attitudes, performance, and retention; and to determine ways in which the course could be improved. College Success, which focuses on techniques for effective reading, studying, memorizing, test…

  17. Adjustment to University and Academic Performance: Brief Report of a Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Il-haam; Louw, Johann; Dumont, Kitty; Malope, Nomxolisi

    2010-01-01

    This study presents data that extend an earlier analysis of predictors of academic performance from one to three years. None of the adjustment and other psychosocial variables (help-seeking, academic motivation, self-esteem, perceived stress and perceived academic overload) could predict success at university at the end of three years of study.…

  18. The Development of Adopted Children after Institutional Care: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorria, Panayiota; Papaligoura, Zaira; Sarafidou, Jasmin; Kopakaki, Maria; Dunn, Judy; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Kontopoulou, Antigoni

    2006-01-01

    Background: Research suggests that institutional care has long-lasting effects on children. However, no study has longitudinally studied infants in an institution and their subsequent development at age four. Methods: Sixty-one adopted children aged four years who had spent their first two years of life in an institution were compared to 39…

  19. Students' Thinking and Alternative Conceptions of Transport Systems in Plants: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jing-Ru

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore students' alternative conceptions and their associative thinking regarding internal transport in plants through administration of a refined diagnostic test. Questions of associative thinking and explanation were added to form a third tier of the previous two-tier test. The study found three terms related to…

  20. 75 FR 77880 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; GuLF Worker Study: Gulf Long-Term Follow-Up Study for Oil...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ...Long-Term Follow-Up Study for Oil Spill Clean-Up Workers and Volunteers...Long-Term Follow-Up Study for Oil Spill Clean-Up Workers and Volunteers...long-term health effects associated with oil spill clean-up activities and...

  1. 75 FR 62132 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; GuLF Worker Study: Gulf Long-Term Follow-Up Study for Oil...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ...Long-Term Follow-Up Study for Oil Spill Clean-Up Workers and Volunteers...Long-Term Follow-Up Study for Oil Spill Clean-Up Workers and Volunteers...long-term health effects associated with oil spill clean-up activities and...

  2. A follow-up study of Non-teacher certified Agricultural Education Department graduates 

    E-print Network

    Dailey, Amber Lynn

    1999-01-01

    The Agricultural Education field is expanding daily and Non-teaching Agricultural Education is highly regarded in this area of study. If the curriculum of Non-teaching Agricultural Education is to uphold its reputation and grow successfully...

  3. Can Contrast Effects Regulate Emotions? A Follow-Up Study of Vital Loss Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xianyun; Luo, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Although many studies focus on the how contrast effects can impact cognitive evaluations, the question of whether emotions are regulated by such contrast effects is still the subject of considerable debate, especially in the study of loss-related decisions. To address this gap in the literature, we designed three decision making loss conditions: (i) both losses are trivial (TT), (ii) one loss is trivial and the other loss is vital (TV), or (iii) one loss is trivial and the other loss is routine (TR). In study 1, which compared the difference between the negative emotion ratings in TT and TV, we found that negative emotions were affected by the contrast effects. In study 2, which compared the difference between the importance of trivial options in TT and TV, we found that the contrast effects differentially changed the importance of trivial options in the two conditions, which in turn down-regulated negative emotions. In study 3, the impact of decision difficulty was controlled by predetermining the items to be lost. In this study, we found that, when comparing the differences between the negative emotions of losing trivial options in TV and TR, the contrast effects still modulated the loss-related emotions. We concluded that the contrast effects could down-regulate emotions. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that contrast effects can alleviate negative affect in loss-related decision making. This study will enrich and extend the literature on emotion regulation theory, and it will provide a new cost-effective mitigation strategy for regulating negative emotions. PMID:22905170

  4. The clinical profile of patients with anorexia nervosa in Singapore: a follow-up descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Kuek, Angeline; Utpala, Ranjani; Lee, Huei Yen

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The prevalence rate of anorexia nervosa is lower in Asia than in the West, although studies have found that it is on the rise in Asia. This study aims to present the clinical profile of patients presenting with anorexia nervosa in Singapore. METHODS The present study used archival data from the Eating Disorder Programme registry of the Department of Psychiatry, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore. Patient records from 2003 to 2010 were collected and analysed. Presenting characteristics of the patients were also compared with those of another local study conducted eight years earlier. RESULTS From 2003 to 2010, a total of 271 patients were diagnosed with anorexia nervosa by a psychiatrist in our hospital. Of these, 251 (92.6%) were female and 238 (87.8%) were Chinese. Our patients had a lower mean weight (36.83 kg, p < 0.001) and a lower mean body mass index (BMI) (14.43 kg/m2, p < 0.001) than patients from the previous local study. Almost half of all our patients (n = 135, 49.8%) were diagnosed with at least one psychiatric comorbidity and 50 (18.5%) had a history of self-harm. CONCLUSION The presenting characteristics of our study cohort were similar to those of the Western population. However, the lower presenting weight and BMI in our cohort indicates that cases seen today are more severe than those seen eight years ago. Therefore, it is important to put in place prevention programmes to help adolescents cultivate a healthy body image as well as early intervention programmes to improve detection rates and treatment outcomes. PMID:26106239

  5. Pubertal Timing and Substance Use in Middle Adolescence: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Marttunen, Mauri; Frojd, Sari

    2011-01-01

    Earlier research has associated early puberty with emotional and behavioral symptoms particularly among girls, while among boys, findings have been contradictory as to whether risks are associated with early or late pubertal timing. We studied the association between pubertal timing and substance use behaviors in middle adolescence in a 2-year…

  6. A Follow-Up Study of Junior College Hotel and Restaurant Education in Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almarode, Richard L.

    This study examines hospitality programs from the enabling legislation in 1961, which provided for an advisory committee to the Hotel and Restaurant Commission on education. Its purpose was to employ a director of the programs and two field representatives or consultants to offer on-the-job assistance to managers and employees in the state's…

  7. Cognitive Deficits Associated with Acquired Amusia after Stroke: A Neuropsychological Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkamo, Teppo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Soinila, Seppo; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M.; Laine, Matti; Hietanen, Marja

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence on amusia suggests that our ability to perceive music might be based on the same neural resources that underlie other higher cognitive functions, such as speech perception and spatial processing. We studied the neural correlates of acquired amusia by performing extensive neuropsychological assessments on 53 stroke patients with a…

  8. Psychological Disturbance and Child Sexual Abuse: A Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calam, Rachel; Horne, Louise; Glasgow, David; Cox, Antony

    1998-01-01

    A study of 144 English children who had been sexually abused investigated risk factors for the development of psychological disturbance in sexually abused children. Results found age, gender, abuse, and perpetrator characteristics did not show strong effects initially. Children involved in criminal proceedings were at particular risk. (Author/CR)

  9. Measuring Phonological Development: A Follow-Up Study of Five Children Acquiring Finnish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saaristo-Helin, Katri

    2009-01-01

    This study applies the Phonological Mean Length of Utterance measurement (PMLU; Ingram & Ingram, 2001; Ingram, 2002) to the data of five children acquiring Finnish and evaluates their phonological development longitudinally at four different age points: 2;0, 2;6, 3;0, and 3;6. The children's results on PMLU and related measures are discussed…

  10. National Transition Follow-Up Study of Youth Identified as Deafblind: Parent Perspectives. NTAC Briefing Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petroff, Jerry G.

    This study surveyed the parents/guardians of 97 youth (ages 18-24) throughout the United States who are deaf-blind and who left school in June 1996. The survey was conducted 18 months after these youth had left school. Following an introduction, this report first presents findings related to characteristics of the youth in the areas of…

  11. Measuring the Effectiveness of Business Training: A Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Margaret G.

    In 1989, a study was conducted at Orange County Community College to measure the effectiveness of business training provided by the college's Institute for Business, Industry, and Government (IBIG). Between September 1988 and February 1989, IBIG offered 27 business training programs and 6 customized firm-specific programs. In May 1989, 80…

  12. Empowering Visuo-Spatial Ability in Primary School: Results from a Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fastame, Maria Chiara; Callai, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The current study was primarily aimed at verifying the effect of a combined computer-assisted and pencil-and-paper training that was developed to empower visuo-spatial abilities in primary school pupils. One hundred and twenty third grade (mean average: eight years old) and fourth grade (mean age: nine years old) students attending several Italian…

  13. A Follow-Up Study to Compare Success Rates of Developmental Math Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Teresa; Burkett, Sexton

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a study that compared the success rates of students in Arithmetic (MTH 02), Algebra I (MTH 03), and Algebra II (MTH 03) when they were offered at Southwest Virginia Community College (SWCC) for three credits versus five credits. The authors' findings showed no significant differences in the success rates of students who were…

  14. Natural History of Thyroid Function in Adults with Down Syndrome--10-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V.; Gomez, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome (DS) is unknown. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with DS over a 10-year period. Results: Transient and persistent thyroid dysfunction was common. The 5- and 10-year incidence of definite hypothyroidism was 0.9%-1.64% and…

  15. Emotional Psychopathology and Increased Adiposity: Follow-Up Study in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aparicio, Estefania; Canals, Josefa; Voltas, Nuria; Hernandez-Martinez, Carmen; Arija, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Based on data from a three-year longitudinal study, we assess the effect, according to gender, of emotional psychopathology in preadolescence on anthropometric and body composition parameters in adolescence (N = 229). Psychopathology was assessed using the "Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders, the Children's Depression…

  16. The Impact of Arbitration Intervention Services on Psychosocial Functioning: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Poythress, Norman G.; Cook, Brittany; Schmeidler, James

    2006-01-01

    We report the impact of case management services on drug use and self-reported delinquency for youths involved in a clinical trial of the Juvenile Arbitration program. The project evaluated an innovative intervention service providing 16 weeks of intensive case management services to youths and their families. The present study examines interview…

  17. New Teachers' Perceptions on Their Preparation: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Kristi J.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated new public school teachers' perceptions of their level of preparation in the area classroom management and how prepared they were during their first year of teaching to handle various classroom and discipline issues. The study updated research done on this topic that used a 1999-2000 public school teacher dataset…

  18. Discharged Elderly Nursing Home Care Unit Patients: A Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Lori; And Others

    The success of rehabilitative nursing homes has been measured by their ability to return patients to their homes. The rates of reinstitutionalization after discharge are less studied but are basic to the role of alternative levels of care. This research examines the relationship of predischarge factors with long term outcomes of patients…

  19. Tetrabenazine for tardive tremor in elderly adults: a prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Kertesz, Diana Paleacu; Swartz, Marnina Vanetik; Tadger, Shelly; Plopski, Igor; Barak, Yoram

    2015-01-01

    Tardive tremor (TT) is a rare neuroleptic-induced tardive syndrome. It is mainly postural and action associated rather than resting tremor without other parkinsonian features and resistant to most therapeutic interventions. Tetrabenazine (TBZ) is a possible option for treating TT.This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of TBZ in elderly patients with TT. Patients (N = 10) received TBZ (25-150 mg/d) for 6 weeks. Five subjects completed the study. Mean TBZ dose at study end was 57.5 ± 37.3 mg/d. Mean Abnormal Involuntary Movement score was 13.3 ± 6.6, mean Tremor Scale score was 2.3 ± 0.9, mean Clinical Global Impression-Change was 3.6 ± 2.2, and mean Geriatric Depression Score was 5.2 ± 4.9; all not significantly changed from baseline. Five patients suffered side effects, including depression (n = 3), parkinsonism (n = 2), akathisia (n = 1), and mild stroke (n = 1).This prospective study does not support TBZ treatment for TT in elderly psychiatric patients. PMID:25580924

  20. Follow-Up Study of Fiscal Year 1997 Occupational Program Graduates, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    This report provides information from graduates of selected occupational programs regarding the effectiveness of their Illinois community college experience. The study surveyed a pool of 2,190 occupational program graduates, which yielded a usable response rate of 58.6%. The majority of graduate respondents (64.5%) came from programs in four…

  1. Motor Development in Children at Risk of Autism: A Follow-Up Study of Infant Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Hayley C.; Bedford, Rachael; Charman, Tony; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Johnson, Mark H.; Hill, Elisabeth L.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, evidence of poor or atypical motor skills in autism spectrum disorder has led some to argue that motor impairment is a core feature of the condition. The current study uses a longitudinal prospective design to assess the development of motor skills of 20 children at increased risk of developing autism spectrum disorder, who were…

  2. Educational Goal Attainment: A One-Year Follow-up Study of Nonreturning JCCC Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Karen A.

    In 1989, Johnson County Community College (JCCC, Kansas) conducted studies of "leavers"--students who had been enrolled at JCCC during a specific period of time and had not graduated, earned a certificate, transferred to another college or university, or left the college with marketable skills developed in one of JCCC's career programs. Results of…

  3. Public University Baccalaureate Follow-Up Study. May 2011 [Revised Feb 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the results of analysis of more than 40,000 students who received baccalaureate degrees from the public baccalaureate institutions in Washington during the 2005-06 and 2006-07 academic years. The purpose of this study was to follow students after graduation to determine the extent to which degree recipients were able to secure…

  4. STAR Follow-Up Studies, 1996-1997: The Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio (STAR) Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate-Bain, Helen; Boyd-Zaharias, Jayne; Cain, Van A.; Word, Elizabeth; Binkley, M. Edward

    The Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio (STAR) Project first investigated the effect of small class size on student achievement with over 6,000 Tennessee primary students in 1985 through 1989. The study found a consistent and significant benefit of small classes for all students, with the greatest advantages for minority, inner-city students from…

  5. Early Predictors of Career Development: A 10-Year Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Joaquim Armando; Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Fonseca, Antonio C.; Haase, Richard F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents empirical findings from a 10-year longitudinal study of the educational and occupational socialization of 445 participants who were about 7 years old when first tested, and about 17 years old at the fourth time of measurement. In addition to collecting psychological measurements from the participants, behavioral reports were…

  6. A Follow Up Study of Bowling Green Learning Center Students. PREPS Research Project, 1980-1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abram, Marie J.; Esters, George

    A study was conducted to evaluate the Adult Learning Center (ALC) of the Bowling Green (Kentucky) School System. The ALC is the part of the Bowling Green School System responsible for educating adults and teenagers with special circumstances which make enrollment in the regular public schools inappropiate. The program is individualized, with…

  7. The geologic study of Taiwan area following up the acquisition of Taiwan SLAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. K.

    1984-06-01

    The general uses of SLAR imagery is investigated. Additional geologic data of the Central Mountain Range of Taiwan is presented. (1) The potential applications and related factors and parameters are studied and discussed in detail; an interpretation chart is worked out. Two main programs and four subroutines are set up to assist the analysis of SLAR lineaments and drainages. (2) SLAR lineaments reveal that there are four major sets of geologic structures on Taiwan Area, i.e., N29 deg E, N72 deg E, N30 deg W, and N66 deg W; nevertheless, only the N29 deg E trend was known previously. Through this study, the regional stress direction is concluded to be 125 deg in azimuth. Two tectonic patterns are discovered, the circular patterns surrounding Peikang Basement High and the NW/SE shear zone crossing the middle part of Taiwan Island.

  8. Follow up study of near infrared (1100 to 1319 nm) retinal damage thresholds and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pocock, Ginger M.; Oliver, Jeff W.; Noojin, Gary D.; Schuster, Kurt J.; Stolarski, David; Shingledecker, Aurora; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2010-02-01

    A study of retinal damage thresholds in non-human primates (NHP) in the near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths of 1110, 1130, 1150, and 1319 nm has recently been reported. The progression of damage in retinal areas that received exposures below, greater than, and at threshold values for each respective wavelength are compared. Subjects were imaged using an Adaptive Optics (AO) enhanced Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomographer (SD-OCT) a year post laser exposure to examine damage characteristics and localization. The subject's retinas within the study exhibited a delayed response to NIR exposures in that many of the lesions that were not visible at the 1-hour observation period continued to grow in size over the 24-hour period and or became visible. Thermal lensing is believed to play a significant role in the formation or retinal lesions in the NIR and may explain the delayed response.

  9. Longitudinal Follow-Up of Mirror Movements after Stroke: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsuka, Hiroyuki; Matsuzawa, Daisuke; Ishii, Daisuke; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Mirror movement (MM), or visible involuntary movements of a relaxed hand during voluntary fine finger movements of an activated opposite hand, can be observed in the hand that is on the unaffected side of patients with stroke. In the present study, we longitudinally examined the relationship between voluntary movement of the affected hand and MM in the unaffected hand in a single case. We report a 73-year-old woman with a right pontine infarct and left moderate hemiparesis. MM was observed as an extension movement of the unaffected right index finger during extension movement of the affected left index finger. The affected right index movement was found to increase, while MM of the unaffected left index finger was observed to decrease with time. These results indicate that the assessment of MM might be useful for studying the process of motor recovery in patients with stroke. PMID:26649211

  10. Review of 1953-2003 ORAU Follow-Up Studies on Science Education Programs: Impacts on Participants' Education and Careers

    SciTech Connect

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities

    2006-06-01

    Through sponsorship of science education programs for undergraduates and graduates, such as research participation programs and fellowships, the Department of Energy (DOE) encouraged the development of adequate numbers of qualified science and engineering (S&E) personnel to meet its current and future research and development (R&D) needs. This retrospective study summarizes impacts of selected programs on these participants. The summary data are from follow-up studies conducted from 1953 through 2003 by Oak Ridge Associated Universities and its predecessor, the Oak Ridge Institute for Nuclear Studies (ORINS).

  11. Is cognitive stability in Parkinson's disease a predictable phenomenon? A 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Di Battista, Maria Elena; Rubino, Alfonso; Valente, Marcella; Giustini, Patrizia; Vanacore, Nicola; Meco, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive disturbances are integral to the course of PD but the rate of cognitive decline remains largely unpredictable. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical features associated with "cognitive stability". Fifty-four patients (32 with normal cognition and 22 featuring MCI) were recruited in 2009 and re-evaluated after a mean time of 4.7 years; all patients underwent a detailed neuropsychological and clinical evaluation. A proportion of 61 % of patients (19 with normal cognition and 14 with MCI) remained cognitive stable, whereas 39 % had reduced cognitive reserve. After multivariate analysis, only the preservation of visuo-spatial domain was predictive of cognitive stability. PMID:26315579

  12. Sutureless femtosecond anterior lamellar keratoplasty: A 1-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Rohit; Nagaraja, Harsha; Veluri, Himabindu; Shivanna, Yathish; Kugar, Thungappa; Nujits, Rudy; Shetty, Bhujang

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To study the safety and efficacy of sutureless femtosecond anterior lamellar keratoplasty (FALK) in patients with corneal stromal opacities. Materials and Methods: Eleven eyes of 11 consecutive patients with corneal stromal opacities involving < 250 ? due to various pathologies were included in the study. Preoperatively, all underwent anterior segment imaging with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) (Bioptigen Inc., Durham, North Carolina, USA) to measure the depth of the stromal opacity. All patients underwent FALK, and bandage contact lens was placed for a period of 2 weeks. Postoperatively, uncorrected visual acuity, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and SD-OCT evaluation were performed. Results: All patients showed significant improvement in BCVA. The mean postoperative BCVA (in decimals) improved from 0.11 ± 0.06 preoperatively to 0.59 ± 0.08. There were no intraoperative or significant postoperative complications that were noticed. Conclusion: FALK is a safe and effective alternative to deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty or penetrating keratoplasty in the treatment of anterior stromal opacities. PMID:25370393

  13. Sports injuries in floorball: a prospective one-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Snellman, K; Parkkari, J; Kannus, P; Leppälä, J; Vuori, I; Järvinen, M

    2001-10-01

    Two hundred and ninety-five licensed floorball players from Finnish premier to fifth division were observed prospectively for one season to study the incidence, nature, causes and severity of floorball injuries. During the study period, 100 out of the 295 (34 %) players sustained 120 injuries. Thirty-seven percent (73/199) of the male players and 28 % (27/96) of the females suffered from an injury. The injury rate was 1.0 per 1000 practice hours for both sexes. The injury rates per 1000 game hours were 23.7 for men and 15.9 for women. One hundred injuries (83 %) were acute and the remaining 20 (17 %) were overuse injuries. Sprain was the most common type of injury in men while overuse injuries were the most frequent injury type in women. The lower extremity was involved in 62 %, spine or trunk in 19 % and upper extremity in 10 % of the injuries. The most commonly injured sites were the knee and ankle (22 % and 20 % of all injuries), followed by head and neck (8 %). In both sexes the majority of injuries were minor, level II, injuries. Ten of the knee injuries (38 %) were serious, level IV injuries, of which seven were ACL ruptures. In conclusion, the individual risk of injury in floorball is relatively low in game practice while rather high during the game itself. Before initiation of clinical trials on prevention of floorball injuries, an exact knowledge of the risk factors and mechanisms of floorball injuries are needed. PMID:11590481

  14. Two-year follow-up study of primary and transitional progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ingle, G T; Stevenson, V L; Miller, D H; Leary, S M; Rovaris, M; Barkhof, F; Brochet, B; Dousset, V; Filippi, M; Montalban, X; Kalkers, N F; Polman, C H; Rovira, A; Thompson, A J

    2002-04-01

    This study documents changes in clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics in a large cohort of patients with primary and transitional progressive multiple sclerosis (PP and TPMS) over 2 years. Patients with PPMS and TPMS were recruited from six European centres and underwent clinical and MRI examination at three time points: baseline, year one and year two. Of the 190 patients recruited clinical data were available on 125 patients (66%, five centres) and MRI data were available on 113 patients (59%, four centres) at 2 years. Significant increases were seen in T2 load and T1 hypointensity, while brain and cord volume decreased. In PPMS significantly higher lesion loads were found in those who presented with non-cord syndromes when compared to cord presentation and there was a trend to greater brain atrophy in those who deteriorated clinically over the course of the study compared to those who remained stable. Significant cord atrophy was only seen in those with a cord presentation. Measurable changes in MRI parameters can be detected in PPMS patients over a relatively short period of time. MRI quantification is likely to be useful in elucidating disease mechanisms in PPMS and in the execution of clinical trials. PMID:11990866

  15. Patients' experiences after bariatric surgery: a qualitative study at 12-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Susana Sofia Pereira; Maia, Ângela da Costa

    2013-12-01

    This study used a qualitative approach to understand patients' experiences in post-surgery adaptation related to bariatric surgery, 12 months after this procedure. The study population included 30 obese adults, with a mean age of 40.17 years, who were interviewed 12 months after bariatric surgery. Individual interviews, using open-ended questions, were audiotaped, transcribed and coded according to the grounded theory methodology. The data showed that the subjects described themselves as belonging to one of two opposite and separate groups: success or failure. In both groups, two core categories emerged from the data: outcomes and treatment. Previous expectations were reached by the patients who described themselves as successful, with some remaining concerns related to future weight maintenance and aesthetics issues. The failure group emphasized their unmet expectations and the expectancy that surgery would change their lives remained. Treatment in the successful cases integrated lifestyle changes and bariatric surgery, highlighting the personal commitment required to achieve the objectives. The failure group emphasized bariatric surgery without personal commitment, and healthy eating behaviour was understood as a sacrifice. The post-surgical adaptation experiences were diverse: the cases that were described as a success highlighted lifestyle changes, personal efforts and commitment with the global treatment process. External understanding and the desire for a miracle surgery characterized the cases described as a failure. According to these results, it is necessary to promote adequate information about the whole process and skills required to ensure commitment in all treatment dimensions. PMID:25586735

  16. Beta2-Microglobulin as a Diagnostic Marker in Cerebrospinal Fluid: A Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Svato?ová, Jana; Bo?ecká, Klára; Adam, Pavel; Lánská, V?ra

    2014-01-01

    Beta2-Microglobulin (?2-m) is a low molecular weight protein occurring in all body fluids. Its concentration increases in various pathologies. Increased values in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are ascribed to an activation of immune system. Using immunoturbidimetry, we examined concentrations of beta2-microglobulin in cerebrospinal fluid in a large group of 6274 patients with defined neurological diseases. Cell counts, total protein, albumin, glucose, lactic acid, immunoglobulins concentrations, and isofocusing (IEF) were also evaluated. We found substantial changes of CSF ?2-m concentrations in purulent meningitis, leptomeningeal metastasis, viral meningitis/encephalitis, and neuroborreliosis, while in multiple sclerosis these changes were not significant. Intrathecal synthesis and immune activation were present in these clinical entities. A new normative study enables better understanding of beta2-microglobulin behavior in CSF. PMID:24895473

  17. Apical Closure of Nonvital Permanent Teeth: 15 Months Follow-up Study of Four Cases

    PubMed Central

    Umashetty, Girish; Patil, Basanagouda; Rao, Nandan; Ajgaonkar, Nishant

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining a complete seal of the root canal system is a major problem in performing root canal treatment in nonvital teeth with incomplete root development and wide open apices. The aim was to study apexification using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), clinically and radiographically over a period of 15 months. MTA was used in four cases of teeth with incomplete root development in order to achieve an apical seal and the remaining canal was obturated with gutta-percha. Clinical and radiographic assessments of teeth were done. The clinical and radiographic results indicated that apexification procedure was predictable by using MTA. The total number of patients’ visits and the total time duration required to obtain an apical barrier using MTA was markedly less than that of conventional techniques using calcium hydroxide. PMID:26028910

  18. Late-Emerging and Resolving Dyslexia: A Follow-Up Study from Age 3 to 14.

    PubMed

    Torppa, Minna; Eklund, Kenneth; van Bergen, Elsje; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2015-10-01

    This study focuses on the stability of dyslexia status from Grade 2 to Grade 8 in four groups: (a) no dyslexia in either grade (no-dyslexia, n?=?127); (b) no dyslexia in Grade 2 but dyslexia in Grade 8 (late-emerging, n?=?18); (c) dyslexia in Grade 2 but not in Grade 8 (resolving, n?=?15); and (d) dyslexia in both grades (persistent-dyslexia, n?=?22). We examined group differences from age 3.5 to age 14 in (a) reading, vocabulary, phonology, letter knowledge, rapid naming, IQ, verbal memory; (b) familial and environmental risk and supportive factors; and (c) parental skills in reading, phonology, rapid naming, verbal memory, and vocabulary. Our findings showed group differences both in reading and cognitive skills of children as well as their parents. Parental education, book-reading frequency, and children's IQ, however, did not differentiate the groups. The children in the persistent-dyslexia group exhibited widespread language and cognitive deficits across development. Those in the resolving group had problems in language and cognitive skills only prior to school entry. In the late-emerging group, children showed clearly compromised rapid naming. Additionally, their parents had the most severe difficulties in rapid naming, a finding that suggests strong genetic liability. The findings show instability in the diagnosis of dyslexia. The members of the late-emerging group did not have a distinct early cognitive profile, so late-emerging dyslexia appears difficult to predict. Indeed, these children are at risk of not being identified and not receiving required support. This study suggests the need for continued monitoring of children's progress in literacy after the early school years. PMID:25772426

  19. Energy and macronutrient intake in adolescent sprint athletes: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Aerenhouts, Dirk; Deriemaeker, Peter; Hebbelinck, Marcel; Clarys, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Macronutrient intake, height, weight, and body composition of 60 adolescent sprint athletes were estimated every 6 months over 3 years. Seven-day food records were analysed based on the Belgian and Dutch food databanks. The age of participants at the start of the 3-year study was 14.8 ± 1.6 years for female athletes and 14.7 ± 1.9 years for male athletes. Girls and boys gained height (3.4 ± 4.6 cm and 5.9 ± 6.6 cm respectively) and weight (5.6 ± 3.5 kg and 8.7 ± 5.5 kg respectively), whereas percent body fat remained unchanged in both girls and boys (around 17.0% and 8.5% respectively). Mean protein intake of around 1.5 g · kg?¹ body weight was within recommendations on each occasion for both sexes. Carbohydrate intakes between 5 and 7 g · kg?¹ body weight support a training programme of moderate intensity. Total and saturated fat intakes were high at the start of the study (girls: 31.8 ± 3.5% and 12.2 ± 2.0% of energy intake; boys: 30.3 ± 4.6% and 12.0 ± 1.9% of energy intake) and it appeared to be difficult to achieve and maintain lower intakes. Consistent low fluid intakes around 40 ml · kg?¹ body weight were observed. General non-stringent advice for improvement of the diet resulted in significant favourable changes only for the consumption of wholegrain bread, vegetables, and soft drinks. Dietary habits of adolescent sprint athletes are not always according to guidelines and are relatively stable but repeated advice can induce moderate improvements. PMID:21086211

  20. A follow-up study on extracorporeal fixation of condylar fractures using vertical ramus osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Yong; Im, Jae Hyoung; Yoon, Seong Hoe

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to report the results of extracorporeal fixation in patients with mandibular condylar fractures and compare them with the clinical results of conservative treatment. Materials and Methods The medical records of 92 patients (73 male [M] : 19 female [F], age 13-69 years, mean 33.1 years) treated for condylar fractures at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Sun Dental Hospital (Daejeon, Korea) from 2007 to 2012 were reviewed. Patients were divided into three groups: group A (23 patients; M : F=18 : 5, age 21-69 years, mean 32.6 years), treated with extracorporeal fixation; group B (30 patients; M : F=24 : 6, age 16-57 years, mean 21.1 years), treated by conventional open reduction; and group C (39 patients; M : F=31 : 8, age 16-63 years, mean 34.4 years), treated with the conservative method ('closed' reduction). Clinical and radiographic findings were evaluated and analyzed statistically. Results Occurrence of postoperative condylar resorption correlated with certain locations and types of fracture. In this study, patients in group A (treated with extracorporeal fixation) did not demonstrate significant postoperative complications such as malocclusion, mandibular hypomobility, temporomandibular disorder, or complete resorption of condyle fragments. Conclusion In superiorly located mandibular condyle fractures, exact reconstruction of condylar structure with the conventional open reduction technique can be difficult due to the limited surgical and visual fields. In such cases, extracorporeal fixation of the condyle using vertical ramus osteotomy may be a better choice of treatment because it results in anatomically accurate reconstruction and low risk of complications. PMID:24868504

  1. Parent-Reported Executive Functioning in Post-Institutionalized Children: A Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Merz, Emily C.; McCall, Robert B.; Groza, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study compared parent-rated executive functioning (EF) in 6- to 18-year-old children adopted from psychosocially depriving institutions to that in children adopted from severely or “globally” depriving institutions. Individual continuity in EF over two years was examined in children adopted from psychosocially depriving institutions. Method There were 471 children adopted from psychosocially depriving Russian institutions which provided adequate physical resources but failed to provide a consistent set of responsive caregivers. There were 111 children adopted in the early 1990s from globally depriving Romanian institutions which were characterized by physical deprivation as well as profound psychosocial neglect. Adoptive parents completed a background questionnaire and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Results Children adopted from globally depriving institutions had significantly higher levels of EF difficulties than children adopted from psychosocially depriving institutions. For both groups, adoption after 18 months of age was associated with higher levels of EF difficulties. Children adopted from globally depriving institutions had higher levels of EF difficulties than the BRIEF standardization sample at younger ages at adoption. There was moderate to strong continuity in EF difficulties over two years in children adopted from psychosocially depriving institutions. Conclusions These findings suggest that more severe early deprivation may lead to a higher risk of later EF difficulties, which may persist over time. PMID:23413815

  2. Sustainability of Key Maine Youth Overweight Collaborative Improvements: A Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Joan; O'Brien, Liam M.; Rogers, Victoria W.; Fanburg, Jonathan; Gortmaker, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Primary care is an opportune setting to contribute to obesity prevention and treatment. However, there is limited evidence for effective and sustainable interventions in primary care. The Maine Youth Overweight Collaborative (MYOC) successfully affected office systems, provider behavior, and patient experience. The current study evaluates the effect of MYOC on provider knowledge, beliefs, practices, patient experience, and office systems, in 2012, three years postintervention. Methods: A quasi-experimental field trial was used with all seven original MYOC intervention sites that participated in MYOC between 2004 and 2009 and two non-MYOC control sites. Data from immediately post-MYOC in 2009 served as the baseline comparison. Main outcome measures included rates of recording of BMI percentile in chart, weight classification, use of the 5210 behavioral screening tool, parental reports of counseling received on 5210 topics, and clinician reports of changes in knowledge, beliefs, and practices. Results: Many key MYOC improvements were sustained or improved 3 years postintervention and demonstrated improvements, as compared to control sites. Conclusion: In an environment where obesity has become a priority for healthcare providers and systems, we demonstrate sustainable improvements in clinical decision support and family management of risk behaviors within a primary-care–based approach to addressing overweight risk among children and youth. Some declines were observed for more-complex behavioral and system outcomes. Many opportunities for office system and provider improvements remain. PMID:25046206

  3. Retrobulbar blood flow changes in eyes with diabetic retinopathy: a 10-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Neudorfer, Meira; Kessner, Rivka; Goldenberg, Dafna; Lavie, Anat; Kessler, Ada

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We sought to assess long-term changes in the flow parameters of retrobulbar vessels in diabetic patients. Methods The retrobulbar circulation of 138 eyes was evaluated between 1994 and 1995 and 36 eyes were reevaluated between 2004 and 2008 (study group). They were divided into four groups: eyes of diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy (DR), eyes with nonproliferative DR, eyes with proliferative DR, and eyes of nondiabetic patients (controls). Color Doppler imaging was used to assess the flow velocities in the major retrobulbar vessels. The resistive index (RI) was calculated and compared among the groups and between the two time periods. Results RI values of the central retinal artery and posterior ciliary artery had increased in the two non-DR groups and in the nonproliferative DR group, with a surprising decrease measured in eyes with proliferative DR (P= nonsignificant [NS]). Combining the nonproliferative DR and proliferative DR groups resulted in a milder increase of the RI of the posterior ciliary artery (P= NS) and the central retinal artery (P=0.02) in the DR group compared to the other groups. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that an increase of the resistance in the retrobulbar vessels, as a part of DR, can lessen over time and may even be reversed. PMID:25473257

  4. After the diabetes care trial ends, now what? A 1-year follow-up of the RxING study

    PubMed Central

    Al Hamarneh, Yazid N; Sauriol, Luc; Tsuyuki, Ross T

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is strong evidence that pharmacist care improves patients’ glycaemic control. However, the sustainability and durability of such interventions beyond the research period is not known. RxING was the first trial of pharmacist prescribing in diabetes and it showed an improvement in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) of 1.8% over 6?months. Objective 1° objective: To evaluate glycaemic control in the RxING study patients 12?months after the end of the formal study follow-up. 2° objective: To assess the patients’ risk of cardiovascular events in the next 10?years. Methods We contacted the participating pharmacists to check if the patients who participated in the RxING study are still taking insulin, the dose of insulin they are taking, and their HbA1c. There were no mandated follow-up visits with the pharmacist after the study completion. Results A total of 100 patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes were enrolled in the original RxING study; 93 of them completed the study, while 83 participated in the 12-month follow-up. Seventy-five patients were still taking insulin, with the average dose increasing from 31.1 units (SD 18.4) at study completion to 37.4 units (SD 30.8) (95% CI ?13.3 to 0.88, p=0.085). HbA1c was reduced from 9.1% (SD 1) at baseline to 7.3% (SD 0.9) at study completion (95% CI 1.4 to 2, p <0.001), and increased to 8.1% (SD 1.3) 12?months later (95% CI ?1.1 to ?0.5, p <0.001 vs study completion). Conclusions Twelve months after completing the intervention, approximately half of the glycaemic control gains were lost. This highlights the importance of structured follow-up with the pharmacist in this patient population. Trial registration number clinicaltrials.gov; Identifier: NCT01335763. PMID:26270946

  5. Raynaud phenomenon and mortality: 20+ years of follow-up of the Charleston Heart Study cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nietert, Paul J; Shaftman, Stephanie R; Silver, Richard M; Wolf, Bethany J; Egan, Brent M; Hunt, Kelly J; Smith, Edwin A

    2015-01-01

    Background Raynaud phenomenon (RP) is a temporary vasoconstrictive condition that often manifests itself in the fingers in response to cold or stress. It often co-occurs with certain chronic diseases that impact mortality. Our objective was to determine whether RP has any independent association with survival. Methods From 1987–1989, a total of 830 participants of the Charleston Heart Study cohort completed an in-person RP screening questionnaire. Two definitions of RP were used: a broad definition that included both blanching (pallor) and cyanotic color changes and a narrow definition that included only blanching. All-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality were compared between subjects with and without RP using race-specific survival models that adjusted for age, sex, baseline CVD, and 10-year risk of coronary heart disease. Results Using the narrow RP definition, we identified a significant interaction between older age and the presence of RP on all-cause mortality. In the broad RP definition model, the presence of RP was not associated with CVD mortality among blacks; however, among whites, the presence of RP was associated with a 1.6-fold increase in the hazard associated with CVD-related death (hazard ratio: 1.55, 95% confidence interval: 1.10–2.20, P=0.013). Conclusion RP was independently associated with mortality among older adults in our cohort. Among whites, RP was associated with increased CVD-related death. It is possible that RP may be a sign of undiagnosed vascular disease. PMID:25678814

  6. Longevity of fixed metal ceramic bridge prostheses: a clinical follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Näpänkangas, R; Salonen-Kemppi, M A M; Raustia, A M

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors that influence the longevity of fixed metal ceramic bridge prostheses, including the length of the bridge as well as the basic circumstances of the mouth. A total of 132 patients attended the clinical examination. There were 84 women (64%) and 48 men (36%). Patients had altogether 195 bridges, which included 157 short bridges (3-5 units) and 47 long bridges (6 and more units). The overall clinical examination was performed including the intra-oral radiographs. The salivary findings of the patient at baseline [flow rate of stimulated saliva, scores of mutans streptococci (SM) and lactobacilli (LB)] were registered from the patient files. In addition, the patient files were examined to receive further information concerning the complications treated in our clinic. On the basis of severe and extensive complications, the overall survival after 10 years was 84%. Long bridges had lower survival than the shorter ones (P=0.04). A low secretion of saliva recorded before the prosthetic treatment decreased the survival of the bridges (P=0.12) and the survival of the bridges was likewise reduced by high scores of LB and SM (P=0.07). Age of the patient did not influence the survival. It was shown here that long bridges (5 and more units) have a lower survival than the short bridges. It can be concluded, however, that the low secretion of saliva and the high scores of lactobacilli and SM have a remarkable influence on complications and these facts should therefore be taken into careful consideration in choosing the patients for the prosthetic treatment with fixed prosthodontics. PMID:11856392

  7. Associations of sitting behaviours with all-cause mortality over a 16-year follow-up: the Whitehall II study

    PubMed Central

    Pulsford, Richard M; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Britton, Annie R; Brunner, Eric J; Hillsdon, Melvyn

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sitting behaviours have been linked with increased risk of all-cause mortality independent of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Previous studies have tended to examine single indicators of sitting or all sitting behaviours combined. This study aims to enhance the evidence base by examining the type-specific prospective associations of four different sitting behaviours as well as total sitting with the risk of all-cause mortality. Methods: Participants (3720 men and 1412 women) from the Whitehall II cohort study who were free from cardiovascular disease provided information on weekly sitting time (at work, during leisure time, while watching TV, during leisure time excluding TV, and at work and during leisure time combined) and covariates in 1997–99. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate prospective associations between sitting time (h/week) and mortality risk. Follow-up was from date of measurement until (the earliest of) death, date of censor or July 31?2014. Results: Over 81?373 person-years of follow-up (mean follow-up time 15.7?±?2.2 years) a total of 450 deaths were recorded. No associations were observed between any of the five sitting indicators and mortality risk, either in unadjusted models or models adjusted for covariates including MVPA. Conclusions: Sitting time was not associated with all-cause mortality risk. The results of this study suggest that policy makers and clinicians should be cautious about placing emphasis on sitting behaviour as a risk factor for mortality that is distinct from the effect of physical activity. PMID:26454871

  8. Outcome of Preterm Infants With Postnatal Cytomegalovirus Infection via Breast Milk: A Two-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Jim, Wai-Tim; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Ho, Che-Sheng; Shu, Chyong-Hsin; Chang, Jui-Hsing; Hung, Han-Yang; Kao, Hsin-An; Chang, Hung-Yang; Peng, Chun-Chih; Yui, Bey-Hwa; Chuu, Chih-Pin

    2015-10-01

    Approximately 15% of preterm infants may develop postnatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection from seropositive mothers via breast milk and are at risk for neurological sequelae in childhood. The aims of this study were to assess the effects and outcomes on growth, neurodevelopmental status, and hearing in very low birth weight (VLBW) premature infants with postnatal CMV infection via breast milk at the corrected age of 12 and 24 months.The prospective follow-up study population comprised all living preterm children (n?=?55) with a birth weight ?1500?g and gestational age of ?35 weeks, who had been participated in our "postnatal CMV infection via breast milk" studies in 2000 and 2009, respectively. The cohort of children was assessed at 12 and 24 months. Clinical outcomes were documented during hospitalization and after discharge. Long-term outcomes included anthropometry, audiologic tests, gross motor quotient, Infant International Battery, and neurodevelopmental outcomes; all were assessed at postcorrected age in 12 and 24 months during follow-up visits.Of the 55 infants enrolled in the study (4 noninfected infants were excluded because their parents did not join this follow-up program later), 14 infants postnatally acquired CMV infection through breast-feeding (infected group) and were compared with 41 infants without CMV infection (control group). No significant differences were observed between the groups with regard to baseline characteristics, clinical outcomes, anthropometry, or psychomotor and mental development on the Bayley scale of infant development. None of the infants had CMV-related death or permanent sensorineural hearing loss.Transmission of CMV from seropositive mother via breast milk to preterm infants does not appear at this time to have major adverse effects on clinical outcomes, growth, neurodevelopmental status, and hearing function at 12 and 24 months corrected age. PMID:26512588

  9. Follow-Up Genotoxic Study: Chromosome Damage Two and Six Years after Exposure to the Prestige Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    Hildur, Kristin; Templado, Cristina; Zock, Jan-Paul; Giraldo, Jesús; Pozo-Rodríguez, Francisco; Frances, Alexandra; Monyarch, Gemma; Rodríguez-Trigo, Gema; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Emma; Souto, Ana; Gómez, Federico P.; Antó, Josep M.; Barberà, Joan Albert; Fuster, Carme

    2015-01-01

    Background The north-west coast of Spain was heavily contaminated by the Prestige oil spill, in 2002. Individuals who participated in the clean-up tasks showed increased chromosome damage two years after exposure. Long-term clinical implications of chromosome damage are still unknown. Objective To realize a follow-up genotoxic study to detect whether the chromosome damage persisted six years after exposure to the oil. Design Follow-up study. Setting Fishermen cooperatives in coastal villages. Participants Local fishermen who were highly exposed (n = 52) and non-exposed (n = 23) to oil seven years after the spill. Measurements Chromosome damage in circulating lymphocytes. Results Chromosome damage in exposed individuals persists six years after oil exposure, with a similar incidence than those previously detected four years before. A surprising increase in chromosome damage in non-exposed individual was found six years after Prestige spill vs. those detected two years after the exposure. Limitations The sample size and the possibility of some kind of selection bias should be considered. Genotoxic results cannot be extrapolated to the approximately 300,000 individuals who participated occasionally in clean-up tasks. Conclusion The persistence of chromosome damage detected in exposed individuals six years after oil exposure seems to indicate that the cells of the bone marrow are affected. A surprising increase in chromosome damage in non-exposed individuals detected in the follow-up study suggests an indirect exposition of these individuals to some oil compounds or to other toxic agents during the last four years. More long-term studies are needed to confirm the presence of chromosome damage in exposed and non-exposed fishermen due to the association between increased chromosomal damage and increased risk of cancer. Understanding and detecting chromosome damage is important for detecting cancer in its early stages. The present work is the first follow-up cytogenetic study carried out in lymphocytes to determine genotoxic damage evolution between two and six years after oil exposure in same individuals. PMID:26221948

  10. The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid fine needle aspirates: A cytologic study with histologic follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Santosh Kumar; Sinha, Simanti; Basak, Bijan; Roy, Dipanwita Nag; Sinha, Swapan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology represents a major step towards standardization, reproducibility, improved clinical significance, and greater predictive value of thyroid fine needle aspirates (FNAs). Aims: To elucidate the utility of the Bethesda system in reporting thyroid FNAs. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed thyroid FNAs between April 2009 and March 2012, classified them using the Bethesda system, found out the distribution of cases in each Bethesda category, and calculated the malignancy risk for each category by follow-up histopathology. Results: Of the 1020 FNAs, 1.2% were non-diagnostic, 87.5% were benign, 1% were atypical follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AFLUS), 4.2% were suspicious for follicular neoplasm (SFN), 1.4% were suspicious for malignancy (SM), and 4.7% malignant. Of 69 cases originally interpreted as non-diagnostic, 12 remained non-diagnostic after re-aspiration. In 323 cases, data of follow-up histopathologic examination (HPE) were available. Rates of malignancy reported on follow-up HPE were non-diagnostic 0%, benign 4.5%, AFLUS 20%, SFN 30.6%, SM 75%, and malignant 97.8%. Conclusions: Reviewing the thyroid FNAs with the Bethesda system allowed a more specific cytological diagnosis. In this study, the distribution of cases in the Bethesda categories differed from some studies, with the number of benign cases being higher and the number of non-diagnostic and AFLUS cases being lower. The malignancy risk for each category correlated well with other studies. The Bethesda system thus allows standardization in reporting, improves perceptions of diagnostic terminology between cytopathologists and clinicians, and leads to more consistent management approaches. PMID:23833397

  11. Gender differences and determinants of health related quality of life in coronary patients: a follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The role of gender differences in Health Related Quality Life (HRQL) in coronary patients is controversial, so understanding the specific determinants of HRQL in men and women might be of clinical importance. The aim of this study was to know the gender differences in the evolution of HRQL at 3 and 6 months after a coronary event, and to identify the key clinical, demographic and psychological characteristics of each gender associated with these changes. Methods A follow-up study was carried out, and 175 patients (112 men and 63 women) with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or unstable angina were studied. The SF-36v1 health questionnaire was used to assess HRQL, and the GHQ-28 (General Health Questionnaire) to measure mental health during follow-up. To study the variables related to changes in HRQL, generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were performed. Results Follow-up data were available for 55 men and 25 women at 3 months, and for 35 men and 12 women at 6 months. Observations included: a) Revascularization was performed later in women. b) The frequency of rehospitalization between months 3 and 6 of follow-up was higher in women c) Women had lower baseline scores in the SF-36. d) Men had progressed favourably in most of the physical dimensions of the SF-36 at 6 months, while at the same time women's scores had only improved for Physical Component Summary, Role Physical and Social Functioning; e) the variables determining the decrease in HRQL in men were: worse mental health and angina frequency; and in women: worse mental health, history of the disease, revascularization, and angina frequency. Conclusions There are differences in the evolution of HRQL, between men and women after a coronary attack. Mental health is the determinant most frequently associated with HRQL in both genders. However, other clinical determinants of HRQL differed with gender, emphasizing the importance of individualizing the intervention and the content of rehabilitation programs. Likewise, the recognition and treatment of mental disorders in these patients could be crucial. PMID:21619566

  12. High dairy fat intake related to less central obesity: A male cohort study with 12 years’ follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To study associations between dairy fat intake and development of central obesity. Design A prospective population-based cohort study with two surveys 12 years apart. Setting Nine municipalities selected from different parts of Sweden representing the rural areas in the country. Subjects 1782 men (farmers and non-farmers) aged 40–60 years at baseline participated in a baseline survey (participation rate 76%) and 1589 men participated at the follow-up. 116 men with central obesity at baseline were excluded from the analyses. Main outcome measures Central obesity at follow-up defined as waist hip ratio ? 1. Results 197 men (15%) developed central obesity during follow-up. A low intake of dairy fat at baseline (no butter and low fat milk and seldom/never whipping cream) was associated with a higher risk of developing central obesity (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.05–2.24) and a high intake of dairy fat (butter as spread and high fat milk and whipping cream) was associated with a lower risk of central obesity (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.33–0.83) as compared with medium intake (all other combinations of spread, milk, and cream) after adjustment for intake of fruit and vegetables, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, age, education, and profession. The associations between dairy fat intake and central obesity were consistent across body mass index categories at baseline. Conclusion A high intake of dairy fat was associated with a lower risk of central obesity and a low dairy fat intake was associated with a higher risk of central obesity. PMID:23320900

  13. Do Participants With Different Patterns of Loss to Follow-Up Have Different Characteristics? A Multi-Wave Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Saiepour, Nargess; Ware, Robert; Najman, Jake; Baker, Peter; Clavarino, Alexandra; Williams, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Background To identify patterns of loss to follow-up and baseline predictors of each pattern. Methods The Mater-University Study of Pregnancy collected baseline information for 7718 pregnant women who attended Mater Hospital in Brisbane, Australia, from 1981 through 1983. Follow-up data for 6753 eligible participants were collected at 6 months, 5 years, 14 years, 21 years, and 27 years after giving birth. Participants were partitioned into groups of ‘Always Responders’, ‘Returners’, ‘Leavers’, ‘Intermittents’, and ‘Never Responders’. Multinomial logistic regression was used to simultaneously compare baseline characteristics of the last four groups with ‘Always Responders’. Results Being younger, less educated, having no partner, and living in rented housing were associated with being a ‘Returner’. Not owning housing, receiving welfare benefits, and being younger, less educated, not married, a smoker, an Aboriginal/Islander, and born in a non-English-speaking country were associated with being a ‘Leaver’, an ‘Intermittent’, or a ‘Never-responder’. Having higher mental health score and drinking before pregnancy were associated with being a ‘Leaver’ or an ‘Intermittent’. Being unemployed and not physically active were associated with being a ‘Leaver’ or ‘Never Responder’. The groups ‘Leavers’ and ‘Never Responders’ were the most different from the ‘Always Responders’. The group that was most similar to ‘Always Responders’ was the ‘Returners’. Conclusions Patterns of loss to follow-up should be considered in the application of missing data techniques, where researchers make assumptions about the characteristics of those subjects who do not respond to assess the type of missing data. This information can be used to prevent individuals who are at high risk of dropping out of a study from doing so. PMID:26321060

  14. Follow-up study on lead exposure in children living in a smelter community in northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To study the changes of children lead exposure in the city of Torreon during the last five years, after environmental and public health interventions, using the timeline of lead in blood concentration as the biomarker of exposure and its relation to lead in soil concentrations. Methods This follow-up study started in 2001 and consisted of 232 children living in nine neighborhoods in Torreon. Children were tested at 0, 6, 12 and 60 months. Lead in blood concentrations, Hemoglobin, Zinc-Protoporphyrin, anthropometric measures and socioeconomic status questionnaire was supplied to the parents. Results Median and range of lead in blood concentrations obtained at 0, 6, 12, 60 months were: 10.12 ?g/dl (1.9 - 43.8), 8.75 ?g/dl (1.85 - 41.45), 8.4 ?g/dl (1.7 - 35.8) and 4.4 ?g/dl (1.3 - 30.3), respectively. The decrease of lead in blood levels was significantly related to ages 0, 6, 12 and 60 months of the follow-up study. The timeline of B-Pb was associated with the timeline of lead in soil concentrations. Conclusions B-Pb levels have significantly decreased in the group of children studied. This could be explained by a) environmental interventions by authorities and the smelter companies, b) normal changes in hygienic habits as children age and c) lead redistribution from blood to hard tissues. PMID:21767395

  15. Joint association of physical activity and body weight with subsequent physical and mental functioning: a follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity and overweight are major threats to public health. However, it is not well understood to what extent physical activity might counteract the harmful effects of overweight on functioning. Thus, we examined the joint associations of leisure-time physical activity and body mass index (BMI) with subsequent physical and mental functioning over a follow-up of five to seven years. Methods The data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study, which is a cohort study among employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland. The baseline postal survey data were collected among 40-60-year-old employees in 2000–02 (n?=?8960, response rate 67%), and the follow-up data in 2007 among all baseline survey respondents (n?=?7332, response rate 83%). We divided the participants into six groups according to their amount of physical activity (inactive, moderately active and highly active) and their relative weight (normal weight and overweight). Highly active normal-weight participants were used as a reference group in all the analyses. Poor functioning was defined as the lowest quartile of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) health survey’s physical and mental component summaries, with the follow-up cut-off point also applied at baseline. We used logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, baseline functioning, smoking, alcohol use, marital status, socioeconomic position and working conditions. Results At baseline 48% of the participants were overweight and 11% were inactive. After adjustments inactivity was associated with poor physical functioning at follow-up both among the normal-weight (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.09-2.10) and overweight (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.56-2.63) groups. Being overweight regardless of activity level was associated with poor physical functioning. Poor physical functioning was practically equally common among the highly active overweight group and the inactive normal-weight group. After adjustments, for mental functioning, only inactivity among the overweight was associated with poor mental functioning (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.08-1.80). Conclusions Physical activity is likely to be beneficial for physical and mental functioning among both those with overweight and normal weight. However, maintaining normal weight is also important for good physical functioning. Therefore, efforts should be made to recommend people to engage in physical activity regardless of weight. PMID:23497094

  16. Can a routine follow-up blood culture be justified in Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia? a retrospective case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The need for mandatory confirmation of negative conversion in Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia (KpB) has not been adequately addressed. We conducted a retrospective case–control study of adult patients with KpB over a 5-year period in two tertiary-care hospitals to determine the risk factors for persistent bacteremia and to reevaluate the necessity of follow-up blood culture in KpB. Methods Persistent KpB is defined as the finding of K. pneumoniae in more than two separate blood-culture samples for longer than a two-day period in a single episode. The case- and control-groups were patients with persistent and non-persistent KpB, respectively, and they were matched 1-to-3 according to age and gender. Results Among 1068 KpB episodes analyzed after excluding polymicrobial infection and repeated KpB, follow-up blood cultures were performed in 862 cases (80.7%), 62 of which (7.2%) were persistent. Independent risk factors for persistence were intra-abdominal infection, higher Charlson’s comorbidity weighted index score, prior solid organ transplantation, and unfavorable treatment response, which was defined as positivity for at least two parameters among fever, leukocytosis, and no decrease of C-reactive protein on the second day after initial culture. A proposed scoring system using four variables, namely, intra-abdominal infection, nosocomial KpB, fever and lack of C-reactive protein decrease, the last two being assessed on the second day after the initial blood culture, showed that only 4.9% of the patients with no risk factors or with only intra-abdominal infection had persistent KpB. Conclusions Though persistent KpB is uncommon, follow-up blood culture was performed in as many as 80% of the cases in this study. A more careful clinical assessment is warranted to reduce the cost and patient inconvenience involved in follow-up blood culture. PMID:23914899

  17. Brief cognitive-behavioral therapy for weight loss in midlife women: a controlled study with follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, Filipa; Leal, Isabel; Maroco, João; Ramos, Catarina

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has proven to be effective in weight reduction. This study explores whether individual, 8-session CBT can promote weight loss in midlife women. Methods Anthropometric (weight, abdominal perimeter, and body mass index calculation), psychological (health-related and sexual quality of life, stress, anxiety, and depression), and behavioral measures (binge eating disorder and restrained, external, and emotional eating) were assessed at baseline (T1), posttreatment (T2), and 4-month follow-up (T3), for a total of 21 women at baseline; the CBT group (n = 11) and the control group (n = 10; waiting list) were compared. Results Statistically significant effects that were dependent on the intervention were observed on weight (F = 4.402; P = 0.035; ?p2 = 0.404; ? = 0.652) and body mass index (F = 3.804; P = 0.050; ?p2 = 0.369; ? = 0.585); furthermore, marginally significant effects were observed on external eating (F = 2.844; P = 0.095; ?p2 = 0.304; ? = 0.461). At follow-up, women in the CBT group presented with lower weight, abdominal perimeter, body mass index, and external eating; higher health-related quality-of-life and restrained eating were also observed in this group. Most differences identified were at a marginally significant level. Moreover, at follow-up, none of the participants of the CBT group met the criteria for binge eating disorder, whereas the number of women with binge eating disorder in the control group remained the same through all three assessments. Conclusion An effective, though small, weight loss was achieved. Changes in quality of life were also observed. Moreover, changes in external eating behavior were successful. PMID:23091402

  18. Weight reduction and aortic stiffness in obese children and adolescents: a 1-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hvidt, K N; Olsen, M H; Ibsen, H; Holm, J-C

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the effect of weight reduction on aortic stiffness and especially so in the young. The present study investigates whether weight reduction influences aortic stiffness in obese children and adolescents. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and augmentation index at heart rate 75 (AIx@HR75) were measured in 72 obese patients aged 10-18 years at baseline and after 1-year of lifestyle intervention (follow-up). We found that although the degree of obesity decreased (?body mass index z-score: -0.24±0.45, P<0.0001), cfPWV was higher at follow-up (?cfPWV: 0.27±0.47?m?s(-1), P<0.0001), which was explained by the increase in age (?=0.12?ms(-1)? per year, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.17, P<0.0001) and partly by changes in mean arterial pressure and heart rate. Changes in cfPWV were not related to changes in obesity measures. No significant change was found in AIx@HR75 (?AIx@HR75: 2.10±9.73%, P=0.072), but changes in AIx@HR75 were related to changes in abdominal fat (?waist/height ratio: ?=50.3, 95% CI 6.7-94.0, P=0.02) and changes in total body fat percent by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan (?total body fat (%): ?=0.7, 95% CI 0.1-1.3, P=0.02) when adjusted for gender and relevant baseline confounders. In conclusion, no clear effect of weight reduction was found on aortic stiffness, although changes in AIx@HR75 were associated with changes in both abdominal fat and total body fat percent. The higher cfPWV at follow-up was related to the older age. PMID:25589213

  19. Childhood predictors of persistent ADHD in early adulthood: Results from the first follow-up study in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qian; Qian, Ying; He, Xiao-Xiao; Sun, Li; Chang, Wei-Li; Li, Yue-Ling; Cao, Qing-Jiu; Wang, Yu-Feng; Qian, Qiu-Jin

    2015-12-30

    It is known that childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persists into adulthood. Previous studies have demonstrated that gender, ADHD symptoms, functional impairment severity, medication treatment, IQ, comorbid with oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder and follow-up periods were associated with ADHD persistence in longitudinal samples of western population. In this study, we attempted to widely investigate the predictors particularly in a Chinese Han ADHD cohort. 399 children who met DSM-IV ADHD criteria were followed up into early adulthood. Ordinal logistic regression combined with survival analysis were conducted to examine the association of retrospectively reported childhood factors with adult ADHD persistence based on both categorical indicators and quantitative traits. 46.37% of the participants still met ADHD criteria in adulthood. Logistic models and survival analyses indicated that ADHD combined type appeared as a significant risk factor for ADHD persistence while superior IQ played a protective role even after controlling for the other potential confounders. When quantitative traits were applied, a number of hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms and IQ still made significant contributions. In conclusion, our results indicated the syndromic continuity of ADHD. Further, a number of hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms were a risk factor while higher IQ was protective for ADHD persistence. PMID:26614011

  20. Cancer mortality following cardiac catheterization: a preliminary follow-up study on 4,891 irradiated children

    SciTech Connect

    Spengler, R.F.; Cook, D.H.; Clarke, E.A.; Olley, P.M.; Newman, A.M.

    1983-02-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted on the risk of radiation-induced cancer mortality following cardiac catheterization. The study included 4,891 children with congenital heart disease who were assessed by cardiac catheterization during 1946 to 1968 at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto. The cohort was matched against the Ontario cancer death file from 1950 to 1975. The average period of follow-up was 13 years and more than 66,000 person-years have been accrued from the cohort. No deaths from breast cancer or thyroid cancer were identified. Five cancer deaths were observed and compared with 4.8 expected deaths based on Ontario cancer death rates. The five cancer deaths resulted from three leukemias, one Wilms' tumor, and one unspecified nervous system tumor. The preliminary findings did not demonstrate a significant leukemia risk arising from diagnostic cardiac catheterizations. Continued follow-up of this cohort is required to evaluate the risk of breast and thyroid cancers which can occur more than 20 years following radiation exposure.

  1. Cancer mortality following cardiac catheterization: a preliminary follow-up study on 4,891 irradiated children

    SciTech Connect

    Spengler, R.F.; Cook, D.H.; Clarke, E.A.; Olley, P.M.; Newman, A.M.

    1983-02-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted on the risk of radiation-induced cancer mortality following cardiac catheterization. The study included 4,891 children with congenital heart disease who were assessed by cardiac catheterization during 1946 to 1968 at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto. The cohort was matched against the Ontario cancer death file from 1950 to 1975. The average period of follow-up was 13 years and more than 66,000 person-years have been accrued from the cohort. No deaths from breast cancer or thyroid cancer were identified. Five cancer deaths were observed and compared with 4.8 expected deaths based on Ontario cancer death rates. The five cancer deaths resulted from three leukemias, one Wilms tumor, and one unspecified nervous system tumor. The preliminary findings did not demonstrate a significant leukemia risk arising from diagnostic cardiac catheterizations. Continued follow-up of this cohort is required to evaluate the risk of breast and thyroid cancers which can occur more than 20 years following radiation exposure.

  2. Prognosis of shoulder tendonitis in repetitive work: a follow up study in a cohort of Danish industrial and service workers

    PubMed Central

    Bonde, J; Mikkelsen, S; Andersen, J; Fallentin, N; Baelum, J; Svendsen, S; Thomsen, J; Frost, P; Thomsen, G; Overgaard, E; Kaergaard, A; the, P

    2003-01-01

    Methods: In a follow up study of musculoskeletal disorders in industrial and service workers, 113 employees were identified with a history of shoulder pain combined with clinical signs of shoulder tendonitis. The workers had yearly reexaminations up to three times. Quantitative estimates of duration, repetitiveness, and forcefulness of current tasks were obtained from video recordings. Perception of job demands, decision latitude, and social support was recorded by a job content questionnaire. Recovery of shoulder tendonitis was analysed by Kaplan-Meier survival technique and by logistic regression on exposure variables and individual characteristics in models, allowing for time varying exposures. Results: Some 50% of workers recovered within 10 months (95% CI 6 to 14 months). Higher age was strongly related to slow recovery, while physical job exposures were not. Perception of demands, control, and social support at the time when the shoulder disorder was diagnosed, were associated with delayed recovery, but these psychosocial factors did not predict slow recovery in incident cases identified during follow up. Conclusion: The median duration of shoulder tendonitis in a cross sectional sample of industrial and service workers was in the order of 10 months. This estimate is most likely biased towards too high a value. Recovery was strongly reduced in higher age. Physical workplace exposures and perceived psychosocial job characteristics during the period preceding diagnosis seem not to be important prognostic factors. PMID:12937204

  3. Brief Report: The KIDSCREEN Follow-Up Study on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in Spanish Children and Adolescents. Pilot Test and Representativeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacio-Vieira, J. A.; Villalonga-Olives, E.; Alonso, J.; Valderas, J. M.; Herdman, M.; Espallargues, M.; Berra, S.; Rajmil, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Spanish KIDSCREEN follow-up study reassessed the Spanish baseline sample (n = 840) of the European KIDSCREEN study 3 years later (2006). The aims of this paper were to describe the KIDSCREEN follow-up study and the pilot test, and to analyze participation rates and representativeness. Instruments included the KIDSCREEN-52 HRQoL measure and a…

  4. Long-term effectiveness of a back education programme in elementary schoolchildren: an 8-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Dolphens, Mieke; Cagnie, Barbara; Danneels, Lieven; De Clercq, Dirk; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term effectiveness of a spine care education programme conducted in 9- to 11-year-old schoolchildren. The study sample included 96 intervention subjects and 98 controls (9- to 11-year-olds at baseline). Intervention consisted of a 6-week school-based back education programme (predominantly biomechanically oriented) and was implemented by a physical therapist. Self-reported outcomes on back care knowledge, spinal care behaviour, self-efficacy towards favourable back care behaviour, prevalence of back and neck pain during the week and fear-avoidance beliefs were evaluated by the use of questionnaires. Post-tests were performed within 1 week after programme completion, after 1 year and after 8 years. Whereas the educational back care programme resulted in increased back care knowledge up to adulthood (P < 0.001), intervention did not change spinal care behaviour or self-efficacy. Pain prevalence figures increased less in the experimental group compared to the controls over the 8-year time span, yet statistical significance was not reached. Dropout analysis revealed spinal pain prevalence rates to be different in both groups throughout the study, including at baseline. Back education at young age did not reinforce fear-avoidance beliefs up to adulthood. Predominantly biomechanical oriented back education in elementary schoolchildren is effective in improving the cognitive aspect of back care up to adulthood, yet not in changing actual behaviour or self-efficacy. The current study does not provide evidence that educational back care programmes have any impact on spinal pain in adulthood. The true long-term impact of school-based spinal health interventions on clinically relevant outcome measures merits further attention. PMID:21647724

  5. Predictors for Progression of Sleep Disordered Breathing among Public Transport Drivers: A 3-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Yu; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Chang, Cheng-Ping; Chou, Tzu-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle crashes. This study aimed to understand SDB progression and related factors among professional drivers. Methods: A total of 524 professional male drivers from a transportation company were included in this study. These drivers completed overnight in-home pulse oximetry studies both in 2006 and in 2009. Participants with abnormal results (oxygen desaturation index [ODI] ? 10 events/h) comprised the SDB group. Data included questionnaire information on demographics, medical history, SDB symptoms, and anthropometric measurements. Results: A total of 318 male workers were recruited for further analysis. Fifty of these workers belonged to the SDB group. Workers with untreated SDB significantly progressed to a more severe state after three years. Baseline body mass index (BMI), baseline ODI, and change in BMI were all significant positive predictors of SDB progression (? = 0.823, 0.242, and 1.626; p = 0.047, 0.013, and 0.004, respectively). Compared with non-SDB drivers, SDB subjects showed a greater proportion of newly diagnosed cardiovascular disease (38.0%) at follow-up. Conclusions: Untreated SDB was a gradually progressive disorder in professional drivers over a three-year period. Subjects with high BMI and moderate to severe SDB should be closely monitored to allow for early detection of worsening SDB. Weight control should be highlighted in the management of SDB. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 409. Citation: Lin CY, Shih TS, Liou SH, Lin MH, Chang CP, Chou TC. Predictors for progression of sleep disordered breathing among public transport drivers: a 3-year follow-up study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(4):419–425. PMID:25766707

  6. Residual Sleep Disturbances in Patients Remitted From Major Depressive Disorder: A 4-Year Naturalistic Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shirley X.; Lam, Siu P.; Chan, Joey W. Y.; Yu, Mandy W. M.; Wing, Yun-Kwok

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and clinical, psychosocial, and functional correlates of residual sleep disturbances in remitted depressed outpatients. Design: A 4-yr prospective observational study in a cohort of psychiatric outpatients with major depressive disorder was conducted with a standardized diagnostic psychiatric interview and a packet of questionnaires, including a sleep questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, NEO personality inventory, and Short Form-12 Health Survey. Settings: A university-affiliated psychiatric outpatient clinic. Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Four hundred twenty-one depressed outpatients were recruited at baseline, and 371 patients (mean age 44.6 ± 10.4 yr, female 81.8%; response rate 88.1%) completed the reassessments, in which 41% were classified as remitted cases. One year prevalence of frequent insomnia at baseline and follow-up in remitted patients was 38.0% and 19.3%, respectively. One year prevalence of frequent nightmares at baseline and follow-up was 24.0% and 9.3%, respectively. Remitted patients with residual insomnia were more likely to be divorced (P < 0.05) and scored higher on the anxiety subscale (P < 0.05). Remitted patients with residual nightmares were younger (P < 0.05) and scored higher on neuroticism (P < 0.05) and anxiety subscales (P < 0.01). Residual insomnia and nightmares were associated with various aspects of impaired quality of life. Residual nightmares was associated with suicidal ideation (odds ratio = 8.40; 95% confidence interval 1.79-39.33). Conclusions: Residual sleep disturbances, including insomnia and nightmares, were commonly reported in remitted depressed patients with impaired quality of life and suicidal ideation. A constellation of psychosocial and personality factors, baseline sleep disturbances, and comorbid anxiety symptoms may account for the residual sleep disturbances. Routine assessment and management of sleep symptoms are indicated in the integrated management of depression. Citation: Li SX; Lam SP; Chan JWY; Yu MWM; Wing YK. Residual sleep disturbances in patients remitted from major depressive disorder: a 4-year naturalistic follow-up study. SLEEP 2012;35(8):1153-1161. PMID:22851811

  7. Skin cancer in patients with psoriasis treated with coal tar. A 25-year follow-up study

    SciTech Connect

    Pittelkow, M.R.; Perry, H.O.; Muller, S.A.; Maughan, W.Z.; O'Brien, P.C.

    1981-08-01

    For many years, crude coal tar has been used for the treatment of psoriasis. The possible carcinogenic effect of crude coal tar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Goeckerman regimen), considered individually or in combination, has been of some concern to physicians. A 25-year follow-up study was completed on 280 patients with psoriasis who were hospitalized and treated with crude coal tar and UV radiation at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn, during the years 1950 through 1954. The results of this study suggest that the incidence of skin cancer is not appreciably increased above the expected incidence for the general population when patients are treated with coal tar ointments. It seems that the Goeckerman regimen (topical crude coal tar combined with UV radiation) can be used with minimal risk for skin cancer in the treatment of psoriasis.

  8. Ophthalmological long term follow up of preterm infants: a population based, prospective study of the refraction and its development

    PubMed Central

    Holmstrom, G; el Azazi, M; Kugelberg, U

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Numerous studies have reported an increased risk of refractive errors in prematurely born infants, but only few have been long term and strictly population based.?METHODS—A 3.5 year ophthalmological long term follow up of 248 preterm infants was performed. The infants had been included in a previous epidemiological study of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (birth weight ? 1500 grams). The incidence of refractive errors and development of refraction were studied, based on retinoscopies at 6 and 30 months of corrected age.?RESULTS—The overall incidence of myopia was 8% at 6 months, of which 35% was transient, and 10% at 30 months. Of the cryotreated infants, 30-40% were myopic at both retinoscopies. The incidence of astigmatism was 52% at 6 months and 26% at 30 months. Astigmatism was associated with ROP, but not with cryotreated ROP itself. Astigmatism "against the rule" was commoner than astigmatism "with the rule". Anisometropia occurred in 6.5% of the infants at 6 months and in 8.4% at 30 months. The incidence of anisometropia was higher in eyes with ROP, particularly in cryotreated eyes, which tended to have high and persistent anisometropia.?CONCLUSION—The risk of refractive errors is higher in preterm infants than in infants born at term, and also prematurely born infants without ROP do run an increased risk of having myopia and anisometropia. We recommend follow up examinations with retinoscopy for all infants included in screening programmes for ROP.?? Keywords: prematurity; prospective study; retinopathy of prematurity; refraction PMID:9924330

  9. The associations between psychosocial working conditions and changes in common mental disorders: a follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Common mental disorders (CMD) are prevalent in working populations and have adverse consequences for employee well-being and work ability, even leading to early retirement. Several studies report associations between psychosocial working conditions and CMD. However, there is a lack of longitudinal research within a broad framework of psychosocial working conditions and improvement in CMD. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between several psychosocial working conditions and deteriorating and improving CMD among ageing employees over a five-to-six-year follow-up period. Methods The study is based on the Helsinki Health Study baseline survey in 2001–2002 and a follow-up in 2007 (N?=?4340, response rate 83%) conducted among 40-60-year-old female and male employees. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to measure common mental disorders. Psychosocial working conditions were measured in terms of job strain, organisational justice, work-family interface, social support and workplace bullying. The covariates included sociodemographic and health factors. Results Following adjustment for all the covariates, family-to-work (OR 1.41, 95% Cl 1.04-1.91) and work-to-family conflicts (OR 1.99, 95% Cl 1.42-2.78) and workplace bullying (OR 1.40, 95% Cl 1.09-1.79) were associated with deterioration, and family-to-work conflicts (OR 1.65, 95% Cl 1.66-2.34) and social support (OR 1.47, 95% Cl 1.07-2.00) with improvement in CMD. Conclusions Adverse psychosocial working conditions contribute to poor mental health among employees. Preventing workplace bullying, promoting social support and achieving a better balance between work and family may help employees to maintain their mental health. PMID:24916716

  10. Personality and the risk of cancer: a 16-year follow-up study of the GAZEL cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lemogne, Cédric; Consoli, Silla M.; Geoffroy-Perez, Béatrice; Coeuret-Pellicer, Mireille; Nabi, Hermann; Melchior, Maria; Limosin, Frédéric; Zins, Marie; Ducimetière, Pierre; Goldberg, Marcel; Cordier, Sylvaine

    2013-01-01

    Objective Large-scale prospective studies do not support an association between neuroticism and extroversion with cancer incidence. However, research on other personality constructs is inconclusive. This longitudinal study examined the associations between four personality measures, Type 1 “suppressed emotional expression,” Type 5 “rational/anti-emotional,” hostility and Type A with cancer incidence. Methods Personality measures were available for 13,768 members in the GAZEL cohort study (baseline assessment in 1993). Follow-up for diagnoses of primary cancers was obtained from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 2009. Associations between personality and cancer incidence were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards analyses and adjusted for potential confounders. Results During a median follow-up of 16.0 years [range: 9 days-16 years], 1,139 participants received at least one diagnosis of primary cancer. The mean duration between baseline and cancer diagnosis was 9.3 years. Type 1 personality was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer [hazard ratio (HR) per standard deviation: 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.68–0.97, p=.02]. Type 5 personality was not associated with prostate, breast, colorectal or smoking-related cancers, but was associated with other cancers (HR per standard deviation: 1.17, 95% CI = 1.04–1.31, p=.01). Hostility was associated with an increased risk of smoking-related cancers, which was explained by smoking habits, and Type A was not associated with any of the cancer end-points. Conclusions Several personality measures were prospectively associated with the incidence of selected cancers. These links may warrant further epidemiological studies and investigations about potential biobehavioral mechanisms. PMID:23513238

  11. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CLEANING: FOLLOW UP QUESTIONNAIRE (UA-D-22.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to define the steps involved in cleaning the electronic data generated from data entry of the Follow Up Questionnaire. It applies to electronic data corresponding to the Follow Up Questionnaire that was scanned and verified by the Data Staff during the...

  12. Five-year follow-up study of multi-domain cognitive training for healthy elderly community members

    PubMed Central

    FENG, Wei; LI, Chunbo; CHEN, You; CHENG, Yan; WU, Wenyuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Cognitive training, a safe non-pharmacological intervention, may help mitigate cognitive decline and prevent the development of dementia in elderly individuals. Objective Evaluate the long-term effects of cognitive training among healthy elderly community members. Methods Healthy individuals 70 years of age or older from one urban community in Shanghai were screened and the 151 individuals who met inclusion criteria were assigned either to an intervention group (n=90) or a control group (n=61). The intervention involved twice-weekly training in reasoning, memory, and strategy that continued for 12 weeks (a total of 24 sessions). Participants were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks, and 5 years after enrollment using the Chinese versions of the Neuropsychological Test Battery for Elderly persons (NTBE), the Stroop Color-Word Test, and a general health questionnaire. Results Forty-nine (54%) intervention group subjects and 33 (54%) control group subjects completed the 5-year follow-up. There were few differences in the baseline neurocognitive measures of those who did and did not complete the 5-year follow-up, and there were few differences between those who dropped out of the intervention group compared to those who dropped out of the control group. At the 5-year follow-up, individuals in the intervention group performed better than those in the control group on only 5 measures (in the Trails Making A Test and the Cancellation Test 3) of the 61 measures assessed by NTBE and the Stroop tests, but none of these differences met the pre-determined required level of statistical significance (p=0.0008). Conclusion We do not confirm the results of previous studies that report long-term benefits of brief cognitive training courses for elderly community residents. Our failure to identify differences in cognitive functioning five years after cognitive training is not likely due to differential dropout between the intervention and control groups but may be related to the relatively small sample and the large number of measures being assessed. Future intervention studies for cognitive training in the elderly should be hypothesis driven (i.e., focused on a single outcome measure of interest), use much larger samples, and include regular booster sessions as part of the cognitive training package. PMID:25114479

  13. Quantifying and Adjusting for Disease Misclassification Due to Loss to Follow-Up in Historical Cohort Mortality Studies.

    PubMed

    Scott, Laura L F; Maldonado, George

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to quantify and adjust for disease misclassification from loss to follow-up in a historical cohort mortality study of workers where exposure was categorized as a multi-level variable. Disease classification parameters were defined using 2008 mortality data for the New Zealand population and the proportions of known deaths observed for the cohort. The probability distributions for each classification parameter were constructed to account for potential differences in mortality due to exposure status, gender, and ethnicity. Probabilistic uncertainty analysis (bias analysis), which uses Monte Carlo techniques, was then used to sample each parameter distribution 50,000 times, calculating adjusted odds ratios (ORDM-LTF) that compared the mortality of workers with the highest cumulative exposure to those that were considered never-exposed. The geometric mean ORDM-LTF ranged between 1.65 (certainty interval (CI): 0.50-3.88) and 3.33 (CI: 1.21-10.48), and the geometric mean of the disease-misclassification error factor (eDM-LTF), which is the ratio of the observed odds ratio to the adjusted odds ratio, had a range of 0.91 (CI: 0.29-2.52) to 1.85 (CI: 0.78-6.07). Only when workers in the highest exposure category were more likely than those never-exposed to be misclassified as non-cases did the ORDM-LTF frequency distributions shift further away from the null. The application of uncertainty analysis to historical cohort mortality studies with multi-level exposures can provide valuable insight into the magnitude and direction of study error resulting from losses to follow-up. PMID:26501295

  14. Quantifying and Adjusting for Disease Misclassification Due to Loss to Follow-Up in Historical Cohort Mortality Studies

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Laura L. F.; Maldonado, George

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to quantify and adjust for disease misclassification from loss to follow-up in a historical cohort mortality study of workers where exposure was categorized as a multi-level variable. Disease classification parameters were defined using 2008 mortality data for the New Zealand population and the proportions of known deaths observed for the cohort. The probability distributions for each classification parameter were constructed to account for potential differences in mortality due to exposure status, gender, and ethnicity. Probabilistic uncertainty analysis (bias analysis), which uses Monte Carlo techniques, was then used to sample each parameter distribution 50,000 times, calculating adjusted odds ratios (ORDM-LTF) that compared the mortality of workers with the highest cumulative exposure to those that were considered never-exposed. The geometric mean ORDM-LTF ranged between 1.65 (certainty interval (CI): 0.50–3.88) and 3.33 (CI: 1.21–10.48), and the geometric mean of the disease-misclassification error factor (?DM-LTF), which is the ratio of the observed odds ratio to the adjusted odds ratio, had a range of 0.91 (CI: 0.29–2.52) to 1.85 (CI: 0.78–6.07). Only when workers in the highest exposure category were more likely than those never-exposed to be misclassified as non-cases did the ORDM-LTF frequency distributions shift further away from the null. The application of uncertainty analysis to historical cohort mortality studies with multi-level exposures can provide valuable insight into the magnitude and direction of study error resulting from losses to follow-up. PMID:26501295

  15. Posterior Mini-Incision With Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Nine to Ten Year Follow Up Study.

    PubMed

    Yukizawa, Yohei; Dorr, Lawrence D; Ward, Jeri A; Wan, Zhinian

    2016-01-01

    The question has been raised as to whether small incision surgery will compromise long term results of total hip arthroplasty. We report nine to ten years' outcome with posterior mini-incision. Radiographs were measured for component position, polyethylene wear, fixation, and osteolysis. Sixty-two of the original 86 patients (76 of 100 hips) were alive and available for study with 17 patients deceased (with known results) and seven (8%) lost to follow-up. The result was rated as excellent in 70 of 75 remaining hips (93%). Eighty-nine of 93 hips (96%) with known results had the original implants. Radiographically, wear was a mean 0.015 ± 0.009 mm/year, and no hip had impending failure. There were four revisions, 2 for dislocation, 1 for fracture, and 1 for loose cup. PMID:26271541

  16. The significance of molecular studies in the long-term follow-up of children with beckwith- wiedemann syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gizewska, Maria; Wilk, Malgorzata; Patalan, Michal; Mackay, Deborah; Peregud-Pegorzelski, Jaroslow; Gawrych, Elzbieta; Walczak, Mieczyslaw; Petriczko, Elzbieta; Brodkiewicz, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a congenital disorder of imprinting caused by epimutations and mutations affecting two imprinted loci on chromosome 11p15. Its clinical features are heterogeneous, including macrosomia, macroglossia, hemihyperplasia, abdominal wall defects, neonatal hypoglycemia, and increased risk of embryonal tumors such as Wilms tumor, adrenocortical carcinoma, hepatoblastoma, and neuroblastoma. The molecular and clinical heterogeneity of BWS makes the diagnosis challenging, but essential, since different etiologies of BWS have different clinical prognoses - most crucially, patients with gain of maternal methylation at imprinting control region type 1 (ICR1) are at significant risk of Wilms tumor or hepatoblastoma. We present three cases of BWS with different symptomatology and two different molecular diagnoses. The authors emphasize the importance of molecular studies in the long-term follow-up of children with BWS, including refinement of phenotype-genotype correlation and its connection with optimal management and tumor surveillance. PMID:24911853

  17. Local and regional adverse reactions to BCG-SSI vaccination: a 12-month cohort follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Dommergues, M A; de La Rocque, F; Guy, C; Lécuyer, A; Jacquet, A; Guérin, N; Fagot, J P; Boucherat, M; d'Athis, Ph; Cohen, R

    2009-11-23

    In a 12-month cohort follow-up study of 2435 children vaccinated in 2007 by Statens Serum Institute BCG strain (BCG SSI, 17.8% had an adverse event (AE): erythema 12.4%, induration 12.2%, abscesses 2.5%, ulceration 0.9%, lymphadenitis 0.1%. The factors associated with a lower risk of AE were: age at vaccination <1 year compared to age >1 year (OR=0.35 [0.2-0.6] for age <28 days, 0.29 [0.2-0.42] for age 29 days to 2 months, and 0.53 [0.37-0.74] for age 3-11 months), a visible papule (OR=0.48 [0.36-0.63]), and a low vaccine dose (OR=0.42 [0.31-0.58]). AE to BCG SSI vaccination were frequent but rarely severe. PMID:19800440

  18. About the relationship between basic numerical processing and arithmetics in early Alzheimer's disease--a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Liane; Montanes, Patricia; Jacquier, Martine; Matallana, Diana; Eibl, Günther; Delazer, Margarete

    2002-01-01

    We studied the relationship between basic numerical knowledge and arithmetics (facts and procedures) in early Alzheimer's Disease (AD). In most patients, basic numerical knowledge was found to be preserved, as reflected by low error rates, distance effect in number comparison, and subitizing in naming numerosities. However, within arithmetics, AD patients exhibited decreased fact and procedural knowledge. Interestingly, double dissociations were found not only between facts and procedures but also between basic numerical knowledge and arithmetics. Thus, our results suggest that basic numerical knowledge need not be a prerequisite for the maintenance of arithmetics, but rather corroborate calculation models that postulate the functional independence of its components. Further, we found patient specific error types which might serve to identify early AD. The follow-up about one year later indicated significant qualitative, but only marginal quantitative performance changes. PMID:12030476

  19. How Should We Follow-Up Asymptomatic Metal-on-Metal Hip Resurfacing Patients? A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Low, Adrian K; Matharu, Gulraj S; Ostlere, Simon J; Murray, David W; Pandit, Hemant G

    2016-01-01

    Current surveillance for metal-on-metal hip resurfacing (MoMHR) patients is not evidence based. This study established changes that occurred in 152 asymptomatic MoMHRs using repeat ultrasound and patient-reported outcomes. Factors associated with (1) ultrasound progression and (2) developing new pseudotumors were analyzed. Patients underwent repeat assessments 4.3 years later. Ultrasound progression was observed in 19% (n = 29), with 10% (n = 15) developing new pseudotumors. Key predictors of ultrasound progression included high blood cobalt (P = .00013) and chromium (P = .00065), and high initial ultrasound grade (P = .003) and volume (P = .036). No asymptomatic MoMHRs with initially normal metal ions (<2 ?g/L) and normal ultrasounds (33% of cohort) developed new pseudotumors. This patient subgroup does not require repeat follow-up within 5 years. PMID:26439179

  20. A Spiderless Arachnophobia Therapy: Comparison between Placebo and Treatment Groups and Six-Month Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Granado, Laura Carmilo; Ranvaud, Ronald; Peláez, Javier Ropero

    2007-01-01

    We describe a new arachnophobia therapy that is specially suited for those individuals with severe arachnophobia who are reluctant to undergo direct or even virtual exposure treatments. In this therapy, patients attend a computer presentation of images that, while not being spiders, have a subset of the characteristics of spiders. The Atomium of Brussels is an example of such an image. The treatment group (n = 13) exhibited a significant improvement (time × group interaction: P = .0026) when compared to the placebo group (n = 12) in a repeated measures multivariate ANOVA. A k-means clustering algorithm revealed that, after 4 weeks of treatment, 42% of the patients moved from the arachnophobic to the nonarachnophobic cluster. Six months after concluding the treatment, a follow-up study showed a substantial consolidation of the recovery process where 92% of the arachnophobic patients moved to the nonarachnophobic cluster. PMID:17713595

  1. Persistence of MRI hyperintensity of the globus pallidus in cirrhotic patients: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Kulisevsky, J; Pujol, J; Deus, J; Junqué, C; Balanzó, J; Avila, A; Capdevila, A

    1995-05-01

    We investigated the long-term persistence and short-term stability of globus pallidus (GP) hyperintensity on T1-weighted MRI in 19 cirrhotic patients. After a mean interval of 25.8 months, the hyperintensity of the GP persisted in 17 patients. Hyperintensity disappeared in two patients with hepatocarcinoma, indicating that hyperintensity can revert to normal in circumstances other than liver transplants. Ten patients participated in a 6-month study with repeated evaluations of GP signal intensity, plasma ammonia levels, and selected neuropsychological tests. The GP signal was fairly stable during the follow-up, and the variables considered maintained significant relationships. GP hyperintensity appears as a stable indicator of the functional status of cirrhotic patients. PMID:7746423

  2. Cognitive function after transapical aortic valve implantation: a single-centre study with 3-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Knipp, Stephan C.; Kahlert, Philipp; Jokisch, Daniel; Schlamann, Marc; Wendt, Daniel; Weimar, Christian; Jakob, Heinz; Thielmann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Reports on adverse neurological events following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) have focused on strokes, while more subtle postoperative cognitive decline has not yet been systematically investigated. In this study, we prospectively examined neurological and cognitive outcomes in patients undergoing transapical (TA) and surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR). METHODS A total of 64 patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis were investigated between January 2008 and July 2009. Clinical neurological examination and comprehensive neuropsychological testing were performed before and after the procedure, at discharge and at 3-month follow-up. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) was applied to detect morphological brain injury. RESULTS TA-TAVI patients (n = 27) were older and at higher surgical risk compared with surgical AVR patients (n = 37; mean age 82.2 ± 4.7 vs 67.5 ± 8.9 years; log EuroSCORE 36.4 ± 13.2 vs 2.6 ± 8.5%, both P <0.001). There was one stroke in each group (3.7 vs 2.7%, P = 0.49), both classified as embolic based on imaging characteristics. After TA-TAVI, cognitive tests showed no decline during follow-up, while, after AVR, 7 of 11 tests showed a decline early after surgery. Similarly, with-in patient analysis showed that the rate of individuals with clinically relevant cognitive decline was increased early after AVR (TA-TAVI vs AVR: 18 vs 46% at discharge [P = 0.03]; 28 vs 6% at 3 months [P = 0.04]). New focal ischaemic cerebral lesions were detected on DW-MRI in 58% (7 of 12) of patients after TA-TAVI vs 34% (12 of 35) after AVR (P = 0.13). The number of brain lesions per patient and cumulative embolic load per patient were similar between groups. An association between postoperative cerebral ischaemia and cognitive dysfunction was not found (odds ratio 2.37, 95% confidence interval 0.05–113.75, P = 0.66). CONCLUSIONS Cognitive function was only mildly impaired after TA-TAVI when compared with a marked, albeit transient, decline after surgical AVR. Focal embolic brain injury tended to occur more frequently after TA-TAVI, but this was not related to cognitive decline during the 3-month follow-up. PMID:23148084

  3. Quality of life in patients with breast cancer before and after diagnosis: an eighteen months follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Montazeri, Ali; Vahdaninia, Mariam; Harirchi, Iraj; Ebrahimi, Mandana; Khaleghi, Fatemeh; Jarvandi, Soghra

    2008-01-01

    Background Measuring quality of life in breast cancer patients is of importance in assessing treatment outcomes. This study examined the impact of breast cancer diagnosis and its treatment on quality of life of women with breast cancer. Methods This was a prospective study of quality of life in breast cancer patients. Quality of life was measured using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and its breast cancer supplementary measure (QLQ-BR23) at three points in time: baseline (pre diagnosis), three months after initial treatment and one year after completion of treatment (in all 18 months follow-up). At baseline the questionnaires were administered to all suspected identified patients while both patients and the interviewer were blind to the final diagnosis. Socio-demographic and clinical data included: age, education, marital status, disease stage and initial treatment. Repeated measure analysis was performed to compare quality of life differences over the time. Results In all, 167 patients diagnosed with breast cancer. The mean age of breast cancer patients was 47.2 (SD = 13.5) years and the vast majority (82.6%) underwent mastectomy. At eighteen months follow-up data for 99 patients were available for analysis. The results showed there were significant differences in patients' functioning and global quality of life at three points in time (P < 0.001). Although there were deteriorations in patients' scores for body image and sexual functioning, there were significant improvements for breast symptoms, systematic therapy side effects and patients' future perspective (P < 0.05). Conclusion The findings suggest that overall breast cancer patients perceived benefit from their cancer treatment in long-term. However, patients reported problems with global quality of life, pain, arm symptoms and body image even after 18 months following their treatments. In addition, most of the functional scores did not improve. PMID:19014435

  4. Benchmark concentrations for methyl mercury obtained from the 9-year follow-up of the Seychelles Child Development Study.

    PubMed

    van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Beck, Christopher; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Cernichiari, Elsa; Davidson, Philip W; Myers, Gary J; Clarkson, Thomas W

    2006-09-01

    Methyl mercury (MeHg) is highly toxic to the developing nervous system. Human exposure is mainly from fish consumption since small amounts are present in all fish. Findings of developmental neurotoxicity following high-level prenatal exposure to MeHg raised the question of whether children whose mothers consumed fish contaminated with background levels during pregnancy are at an increased risk of impaired neurological function. Benchmark doses determined from studies in New Zealand, and the Faroese and Seychelles Islands indicate that a level of 4-25 parts per million (ppm) measured in maternal hair may carry a risk to the infant. However, there are numerous sources of uncertainty that could affect the derivation of benchmark doses, and it is crucial to continue to investigate the most appropriate derivation of safe consumption levels. Earlier, we published the findings from benchmark analyses applied to the data collected on the Seychelles main cohort at the 66-month follow-up period. Here, we expand on the main cohort analyses by determining the benchmark doses (BMD) of MeHg level in maternal hair based on 643 Seychellois children for whom 26 different neurobehavioral endpoints were measured at 9 years of age. Dose-response models applied to these continuous endpoints incorporated a variety of covariates and included the k-power model, the Weibull model, and the logistic model. The average 95% lower confidence limit of the BMD (BMDL) across all 26 endpoints varied from 20.1 ppm (range=17.2-22.5) for the logistic model to 20.4 ppm (range=17.9-23.0) for the k-power model. These estimates are somewhat lower than those obtained after 66 months of follow-up. The Seychelles Child Development Study continues to provide a firm scientific basis for the derivation of safe levels of MeHg consumption. PMID:16806480

  5. MMP-2 and sTNF-R1 Variability in Patients with Essential Hypertension: 1-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Carpena, Núria; Roselló-Lletí, Esther; Calabuig, Jose R.; Tarazón, Estefanía; González-Juanatey, Jose R.; Martínez-Dolz, Luis; Salvador, Antonio; Grigorian, Lilian; Orosa, Plácido; Portolés, Manuel; Rivera, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze MMP-2 and sTNF-R1 variability, potent predictors of cardiovascular events, in stable hypertensive patients during a 12-month followup. 234 asymptomatic patients (age 60 ± 13, 136 male) out of 252 patients with essential hypertension were followed up. MMP-2 and sTNF-R1 were measured at baseline and after 12 months (stage I). To compare MMP-2 and sTNF-R1 levels over time interval, we used the statistical method of Bland-Altman. MMP-2 and sTNF-R1 reproducibility was good in our patients for the two intervals with a coefficient of reproducibility of 8.2% and 11.3%, respectively. The percentages of patients within 1.96 × standard deviation of the mean were 93.6% and 92.7%. An elevated coefficient of correlation was obtained for MMP-2, basal versus stage I (r = 0.55, P < 0.0001) and for sTNF-R1 (r = 0.75, P < 0.0001). There is good stability in MMP-2 and sTNF-R1 levels in a followup study of patients with stable hypertension. As a consequence, assessment of its concentrations may be a useful tool for monitoring the follow-up of these patients. Measured variations in MMP-2 and sTNF-R1 levels, exceeding 8.2% and 11.3%, respectively, may indicate an increase in cardiovascular risk, thus, could be used to optimizing treatment than blood pressure control alone. PMID:23008783

  6. Associations of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior with Academic Skills – A Follow-Up Study among Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Haapala, Eero A.; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Tompuri, Tuomo; Lintu, Niina; Väistö, Juuso; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.; Laaksonen, David E.; Lindi, Virpi; Lakka, Timo A.

    2014-01-01

    Background There are no prospective studies that would have compared the relationships of different types of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with academic skills among children. We therefore investigated the associations of different types of PA and SB with reading and arithmetic skills in a follow-up study among children. Methods The participants were 186 children (107 boys, 79 girls, 6–8 yr) who were followed-up in Grades 1–3. PA and SB were assessed using a questionnaire in Grade 1. Reading fluency, reading comprehension and arithmetic skills were assessed using standardized tests at the end of Grades 1–3. Results Among all children more recess PA and more time spent in SB related to academic skills were associated with a better reading fluency across Grades 1–3. In boys, higher levels of total PA, physically active school transportation and more time spent in SB related to academic skills were associated with a better reading fluency across the Grades 1–3. Among girls, higher levels of total PA were related to worse arithmetic skills across Grades 1–3. Moreover, total PA was directly associated with reading fluency and arithmetic skills in Grades 1–3 among girls whose parents had a university degree, whereas these relationships were inverse in girls of less educated parents. Conclusions Total PA, physically active school transportation and SB related to academic skills may be beneficial for the development of reading skills in boys, whereas factors that are independent of PA or SB may be more important for academic skills in girls. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01803776 PMID:25207813

  7. Long-term follow-up of study participants from prophylactic HIV vaccine clinical trials in Africa.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Claudia; Jaoko, Walter; Omosa-Manyonyi, Gloria; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Mpendo, Juliet; Nanvubya, Annet; Karita, Etienne; Bayingana, Roger; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Chomba, Elwyn; Kilembe, William; Nchabeleng, Maphoshane; Nyombayire, Julien; Stevens, Gwynn; Chetty, Paramesh; Lehrman, Jennifer; Cox, Josephine; Allen, Susan; Dally, Len; Smith, Carol; Fast, Patricia E

    2014-01-01

    Long-term safety is critical for the development and later use of a vaccine to prevent HIV/AIDS. Likewise, the persistence of vaccine-induced antibodies and their impact on HIV testing must be established. IAVI has sponsored several Phase I and IIA HIV vaccine trials enrolling healthy, HIV-seronegative African volunteers. Plasmid DNA and viral vector based vaccines were tested. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. After completion of vaccine trials conducted between 2001-2007, both vaccine and placebo recipients were offered enrolment into an observational long-term follow-up study (LTFU) to monitor potential late health effects and persistence of immune responses. At scheduled 6-monthly clinic visits, a health questionnaire was administered; clinical events were recorded and graded for severity. Blood was drawn for HIV testing and cellular immune assays. 287 volunteers were enrolled; total follow-up after last vaccination was 1463 person years (median: 5.2 years). Ninety-three (93)% of volunteers reported good health at their last LTFU visit. Infectious diseases and injuries accounted for almost 50% of the 175 reported clinical events, of which over 95% were mild or moderate in severity. There were 30 six pregnancies, six incident HIV infections and 14 volunteers reported cases of social harm. Persistence of immune responses was rare. No safety signal was identified. No potentially vaccine-related medical condition, no immune mediated disease, or malignancy was reported. HIV vaccines studied in these trials had a low potential of induction of persisting HIV antibodies. PMID:24374365

  8. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CODING: FOOD DIARY FOLLOW UP (UA-D-10.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to define the coding strategy for the Food Diary Follow Up Questionnaire. This questionnaire was developed for use in the Arizona NHEXAS project and the "Border" study. Keywords: data; coding; food diary follow up questionnaire.

    The National Human Ex...

  9. Autism after Adolescence: Population-Based 13- to 22-Year Follow-Up Study of 120 Individuals with Autism Diagnosed in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Carina; Gillberg, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Background: Prospective population-based follow-up study of 120 individuals with autism followed from childhood to adulthood. Methods: Individuals with autism, diagnosed in childhood, were followed prospectively for a period of 13-22 years and re-evaluated at ages 17-40 years. The instruments used at follow-up were the DISCO, WAIS-R, WISC-III,…

  10. Professional Teacher Education Module Series. Conduct a Student Follow-Up Study, Module A-10 of Category A--Program Planning, Development, and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This tenth in a series of eleven learning modules on program planning, development, and evaluation is designed to acquaint secondary and postsecondary vocational teachers with student follow-up procedures and help them to develop skill in planning and conducting a student follow-up study. Introductory sections relate the competencies dealt with…

  11. Photoselective vaporization of prostate vs. transurethral resection of prostate: A prospective, randomized study with one year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Nayan K.; Vasudeva, Pawan; Kumar, Anup; Prakash, Sanjay; Jain, Manoj; Arora, Rajender P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate in a prospective, randomized study, the efficacy and safety profile of photoselective vaporization of prostate (PVP) using a 80W potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser when compared to standard transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic enlargement (BPE). Materials and Methods: Between February 2009 and August 2009, 117 patients satisfying the eligibility criteria underwent surgery [60 PVP{Group A}; 57 TURP{Group B}]. The groups were compared for functional outcome (both subjective and objective parameters), perioperative parameters and complications, with a follow up of one year. P value<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The baseline characteristics of the two groups were comparable. Mean age was 66.68 years and 65.74 years, mean IPSS score was 19.98 and 20.88, mean prostate volume was 44.77 cc and 49.02 cc in Group A and B, respectively. Improvements in IPSS, QOL, prostate volume, Q max and PVRU at 12 months were similar in both groups. PVP patients had longer operating time, lesser perioperative blood loss, shorter catheterization time and a higher dysuria rate when compared to TURP patients. The overall complication rate was similar in the two groups. Conclusions: In patients with LUTS due to BPE, KTP-PVP is an equally efficacious alternative to TURP with durable results at one year follow up with additional benefits of lesser perioperative blood loss, lesser transfusion requirements and a shorter catheterization time. Long term comparative data is awaited to clearly define the role of KTP-PVP in such patients. PMID:23204660

  12. Lead exposure and growth in the early preschool child: A follow-up report from the Cincinnati Lead Study

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, R.; Dietrich, K.N.; Bornschein, R.L.; Berger, O.; Hammond, P.B. )

    1991-11-01

    This report is a follow-up of an earlier study of the effects of low to moderate prenatal and postnatal lead exposure on children's growth in stature. Two hundred thirty-five subjects were assessed every 3 months for lead exposure (blood lead level) and stature (recumbent length) up to 33 months of age. Fetal lead exposure was indexed by maternal blood lead level during pregnancy. The adverse effects of lead on growth during the first year of life were reported previously. This analysis covers essentially the second and third years of life. The results indicate that mean blood lead level during this period was negatively associated with attained height at 33 months of age (P = .002). This association was, however, evidenced only among those children who had mean blood lead levels greater than the cohort median (greater than or equal to 10.77 micrograms/dL) during the 3- to 15-month interval. The results also suggest that the effect of lead exposure (both in utero as well as during the first year of life) are transient provided that subsequent exposure to lead is not excessive. It appears that maintaining an average blood lead level of 25 micrograms/dL or more during the second and third year of life was detrimental to the child's attained stature at 33 months of age. Approximately 15% of this cohort experienced these levels of lead exposure. Continued follow-up of this cohort will reveal whether these lead-related deficits persist and whether they continue to be dependent on the level of exposure in an earlier period.

  13. Climate Literacy: Climate.gov Follow-Up Evaluation—A Study of the Four NOAA Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niepold, F., III; Sullivan, S. B.; Gold, A. U.; Lynds, S. E.; Kirk, K.

    2014-12-01

    NOAA Climate.gov provides science and information for a climate-smart nation. Americans' health, security, and economic well-being are closely linked to climate and weather. NOAA Climate.gov's goals are to promote public understanding of climate science and climate-related events, to make our data products and services easy to access and use, to support educators in improving the nations climate literacy, and to serve people making climate-related decisions with tools and resources that help them answer specific questions.The Climate.Gov Follow-Up Study of the four NOAA Audiences (climate interested public, educators, scientists, policy-makers) built upon the previous literature review and evaluation study conducted by Mooney and Phillips in 2010 and 2012, http://tinyurl.com/ma8vo83. The CIRES Education and Outreach team at the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at University of Colorado at Boulder and the NOAA Climate.gov team will present results of the new study that used the Quality of Relationship index (awareness, trust, satisfaction, usability, and control mutuality). This index was developed in the previous study and places a new emphasis on the experience of individual users from the four audiences in their regular work or home setting. This new evaluation project used mixed methods, including an online survey, usability studies, phone interviews, and web statistics, providing multiple lines of evidence from which to draw conclusion and recommendations.In the session, we will explore how the NOAA Climate.gov teams used the literature review and new CIRES research to address underlying challenges to achieving the portal's goals. The research in these studies finds that people seek information in ways that are complex and that they do so by consulting a vast array of technologies. Improved and different modes of access to information have, throughout history, been led by technological innovation, but human behavior tends to be constant. The NOAA Climate.gov portal improved its design informed by the first literature review and evaluation. We will discuss how the follow-up study will inform continual audience-focused design and innovation for maximizing the effectiveness of the multiple audience portal.

  14. A 4-Year Follow-up Cohort Study of the Respiratory Functions in Toner-handling Workers

    PubMed Central

    Yanagi, Nobuaki; Kitamura, Hiroko; Mizuno, Mitsuhito; Hata, Koichi; Uchiyama, Tetsuro; Kuga, Hiroaki; Matsushita, Tetsuhiro; Kurosaki, Shizuka; Uehara, Masamichi; Ogami, Akira; Higashi, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Background Focusing on the respiratory function for health effect indices, we conducted a cross-sectional study on workers who did and did not handle toner to compare the longitudinal changes. Methods Among 116 individuals who worked for a Japanese business equipment manufacturer and participated in the study, the analysis included 69 male workers who we were able to follow up for 4 years. We categorized the 40 workers engaged in toner-handling work as the exposed group and the 29 workers not engaged in these tasks as the referent group, and compared their respiratory function test results: peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), vital capacity (VC), predicted vital capacity (%VC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and forced expiratory volume in 1 second as a percent of forced vital capacity (FEV1%). Results The cross-sectional study of the respiratory function test results at the baseline and at the 5th year showed no statistically significant differences in PEFR, VC, %VC, FEV1, and FEV1% between the exposed and referent workers. Also, respiratory function time-course for 4 years was calculated and compared between the groups. No statistically significant differences were shown. Conclusion Our study does not suggest any toner exposure effects on respiratory function. However, the number of subjects was small in our study; studies of larger populations will be desired in the future. PMID:25516816

  15. Do loss to follow-up and death rates from ART care vary across primary health care facilities and hospitals in south Ethiopia? A retrospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Teshome, Wondu; Belayneh, Mehretu; Moges, Mathewos; Mekonnen, Emebet; Endrias, Misganu; Ayele, Sinafiksh; Misganaw, Tebeje; Shiferaw, Mekonnen; Tesema, Tigist

    2015-01-01

    Background Decentralization and task shifting has significantly improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Many studies conducted to determine the attrition rate in Ethiopia have not compared attrition rates between hospitals and health centers in a relatively recent cohort of patients. This study compared death and loss to follow-up (LTFU) rates among ART patients in hospitals and health centers in south Ethiopia. Methods Data routinely collected from patients aged older than 15 years who started ART between July 2011 and August 2012 in 20 selected health facilities (12 being hospitals) were analyzed. The outcomes of interest were LTFU and death. The data were entered, cleaned, and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0 and Stata version 12.0. Competing-risk regression models were used. Results The service years of the facilities were similar (median 8 and 7.5 for hospitals and health centers, respectively). The mean patient age was 33.7±9.6 years. The median baseline CD4 count was 179 (interquartile range 93–263) cells/mm3. A total of 2,356 person-years of observation were made with a median follow-up duration of 28 (interquartile range 22–31) months; 24.6% were either dead or LTFU, resulting in a retention rate of 75.4%. The death rates were 3.0 and 1.5 and the LTFU rate were 9.0 and 10.9 per 100 person-years of observation in health centers and hospitals, respectively. The competing-risk regression model showed that the gap between testing and initiation of ART, body mass index, World Health Organization clinical stage, isoniazid prophylaxis, age, facility type, and educational status were independently associated with LTFU. Moreover, baseline tuberculous disease, poor functional status, and follow-up at a health center were associated with an elevated probability of death. Conclusion We observed a higher death rate and a lower LTFU rate in health centers than in hospitals. Most of the associated variables were also previously documented. Higher LTFU was noticed for patients with a smaller gap between testing and initiation of treatment. PMID:26064071

  16. Mortality Among Young Injection Drug Users in San Francisco: A 10-Year Follow-up of the UFO Study

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Jennifer L.; Tsui, Judith I.; Hahn, Judith A.; Davidson, Peter J.; Lum, Paula J.; Page, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This study examined associations between mortality and demographic and risk characteristics among young injection drug users in San Francisco, California, and compared the mortality rate with that of the population. A total of 644 young (<30 years) injection drug users completed a baseline interview and were enrolled in a prospective cohort study, known as the UFO (“U Find Out”) Study, from November 1997 to December 2007. Using the National Death Index, the authors identified 38 deaths over 4,167 person-years of follow-up, yielding a mortality rate of 9.1 (95% confidence interval: 6.6, 12.5) per 1,000 person-years. This mortality rate was 10 times that of the general population. The leading causes of death were overdose (57.9%), self-inflicted injury (13.2%), trauma/accidents (10.5%), and injection drug user-related medical conditions (13.1%). Mortality incidence was significantly higher among those who reported injecting heroin most days in the past month (adjusted hazard ratio = 5.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 24.3). The leading cause of death in this group was overdose, and primary use of heroin was the only significant risk factor for death observed in the study. These findings highlight the continued need for public health interventions that address the risk of overdose in this population in order to reduce premature deaths. PMID:22227793

  17. Feasibility study for a long-term follow-up in a historical cohort of Brazilian coal miners.

    PubMed

    Veiga, L H S; Melo, V P; Amaral, E C S; Koifman, S

    2007-09-01

    The first Brazilian historical mortality cohort study on miners was conducted. The cohort consisted of 3224 workers in the underground coal mining industry in southern Brazil. This industry has been operating since 1942 without compliance with any regulatory standards, since there were no relevant national regulations. Over almost 60 years, about 5000 workers were exposed to high levels of radiation. However, later radiation exposure was significantly reduced, particularly that due to radon exposure. Recent radon concentration measurements indicated an average annual exposure to radon progeny of 2.1 WLM, ranging from 0.2 to 7.2 WLM. As radon exposure in the past was unknown, it can be suggested that mine workers have not been working safely as regards the health hazard related to radon and radon progeny exposure. The cohort inclusion criteria are as follows: (a) all male employees who had worked for at least one year at the coal mine; (b) workers with complete workplace information (underground and surface); (c) employment hiring between 1945 and 1997 and (d) the worker must have been alive on 1 January 1979. Through multiple strategies of search it was possible to follow up the members of the cohort with a success rate of 92%. This paper presents the characteristics of the study population and provides information about the feasibility of conducting a retrospective mortality study in Brazil, taking into account the methodological and logistical difficulties of conducting such a study in a developing country. PMID:17768333

  18. Mortality among young injection drug users in San Francisco: a 10-year follow-up of the UFO study.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jennifer L; Tsui, Judith I; Hahn, Judith A; Davidson, Peter J; Lum, Paula J; Page, Kimberly

    2012-02-15

    This study examined associations between mortality and demographic and risk characteristics among young injection drug users in San Francisco, California, and compared the mortality rate with that of the population. A total of 644 young (<30 years) injection drug users completed a baseline interview and were enrolled in a prospective cohort study, known as the UFO ("U Find Out") Study, from November 1997 to December 2007. Using the National Death Index, the authors identified 38 deaths over 4,167 person-years of follow-up, yielding a mortality rate of 9.1 (95% confidence interval: 6.6, 12.5) per 1,000 person-years. This mortality rate was 10 times that of the general population. The leading causes of death were overdose (57.9%), self-inflicted injury (13.2%), trauma/accidents (10.5%), and injection drug user-related medical conditions (13.1%). Mortality incidence was significantly higher among those who reported injecting heroin most days in the past month (adjusted hazard ratio = 5.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 24.3). The leading cause of death in this group was overdose, and primary use of heroin was the only significant risk factor for death observed in the study. These findings highlight the continued need for public health interventions that address the risk of overdose in this population in order to reduce premature deaths. PMID:22227793

  19. Incidence and Effects of Polypharmacy on Clinical Outcome among Patients Aged 80+: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Li; Gao, Dewei; Liang, Zhiru; He, Jing; Gong, Weiqin; Gao, Linggen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Polypharmacy is a problem of growing interest in geriatrics with the increase in drug consumption in recent years, is defined according to the WHO criteria as the, ‘‘concurrent use of five or more different prescription medication”. We investigated the clinical characteristics of polypharmacy and identified the effects of polypharmacy on clinical outcome among patients aged 80+ admitted to Chinese PLA general hospital. Methods Older men aged ?80 years (n = 1562) were included in this study. The included participants attended a structured clinical examination and an interview carried out by a geriatrician and trained nurses. A follow-up survey in 2014 was carried out on survivors in the same way as in 2009. The clinical outcome measured were adverse drug reactions, falls, frailty, disability, cognitive impairment, mortality. The association between polypharmacy and clinical outcome was assessed by logistic regression. Results The mean (range) age of the included participants was 85.2 (80–104) years. Medication exposure was reported by 100% of the population. Mean number of medications reported in this population was 9.56±5.68. The prevalence of polypharmacy (?6 medications) in the present study was 70%. At the time of the follow-up survey, an increase in the number of taken medicines had occurred among half of the survivors. The risk of different outcomes in relation to number of medications rises significantly, the odds ratios were 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI]1.17–1.28) for adverse drug reactions, 1.18 (95% CI 1.10–1.26) for falls, 1.16 (95% CI 1.09–1.24) for disability, and 1.19 (95% CI 1.12–1.23) for mortality. There was no association between increasing number of medications and cognitive impairment. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that polypharmacy is very common in the very old patients, and observed that number of medications was a factor associated with difference clinical outcome independently of the age, type of medications prescribed and accompanied comorbidities. PMID:26554710

  20. A follow-up study on the physique, body composition, physical fitness, and isokinetic strength of female collegiate Taekwondo athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Bae; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Chai, Joo-Hee; Lee, Eun-Jae

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze changes in physique, body composition, physical fitness, and isokinetic strength in female collegiate taekwondo athletes. The study included 14 subjects, of whom 8 were followed up throughout the study. Anthropometric characteristics included body weight, height, sitting height, circumferences, and bone width. Physical fitness parameters included flexibility, agility, muscle strength, muscular endurance, power, speed, and cardiorespiratory endurance. Peak torque, mean power, and H/Q ratio were analyzed by using Cybex 770. All data were analyzed by using the SAS statistical program. Paired t test was performed, with 0.05 as the significance level. The results indicated significant changes in body weight, and upper arm and flexed upper arm circumferences during the experimental period. Test scores for plate tapping, and sit and reach significantly increased, but that for power decreased. In addition, the peak power of right flexion at 180°/sec was significantly increased, as well as the mean power of right and left flexion, and the H/Q ratio at 180°/sec. PMID:25830145

  1. When Do Natural Language Metaphors Influence Reasoning? A Follow-Up Study to Thibodeau and Boroditsky (2013)

    PubMed Central

    Steen, Gerard J.; Reijnierse, W. Gudrun; Burgers, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we offer a critical view of Thibodeau and Boroditsky who report an effect of metaphorical framing on readers' preference for political measures after exposure to a short text on the increase of crime in a fictitious town: when crime was metaphorically presented as a beast, readers became more enforcement-oriented than when crime was metaphorically framed as a virus. We argue that the design of the study has left room for alternative explanations. We report four experiments comprising a follow-up study, remedying several shortcomings in the original design while collecting more encompassing sets of data. Our experiments include three additions to the original studies: (1) a non-metaphorical control condition, which is contrasted to the two metaphorical framing conditions used by Thibodeau and Boroditsky, (2) text versions that do not have the other, potentially supporting metaphors of the original stimulus texts, (3) a pre-exposure measure of political preference (Experiments 1–2). We do not find a metaphorical framing effect but instead show that there is another process at play across the board which presumably has to do with simple exposure to textual information. Reading about crime increases people's preference for enforcement irrespective of metaphorical frame or metaphorical support of the frame. These findings suggest the existence of boundary conditions under which metaphors can have differential effects on reasoning. Thus, our four experiments provide converging evidence raising questions about when metaphors do and do not influence reasoning. PMID:25490704

  2. Unplanned pregnancy after ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation of uterine fibroids: A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Bing-Song, Zhang; Jing, Zhang; Zhi-Yu, Han; Chang-Tao, Xu; Rui-Fang, Xu; Xiu-Mei, Li; Hui, Liu

    2016-01-01

    A follow-up study was performed with 169 women of childbearing age who underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (UPMWA) therapy for symptomatic uterine fibroids in the Chinese PLA General Hospital from June 2007 to December 2014. This study aimed to observe the incidence of unplanned pregnancies in these women after UPMWA treatment in order to evaluate its effect on natural conception. Ten unplanned pregnancies in nine women were occurred. Of the nine patients, six did not want the pregnancy and chose for induced abortion to end the pregnancy at an early stage. Three chose to continue with the pregnancy and gave birth to a healthy term infant delivered by cesarean section (of these three patients, two had been previously diagnosed as infertility). None of the patients had any serious obstetric complications. After UPMWA treatment for uterine fibroids, patients may conceive naturally, the impact of the procedure on fertility and pregnancy outcomes is worthy of further prospective study in larger sample. PMID:26733265

  3. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy vs cryoultrasound therapy in the treatment of chronic lateral epicondylitis. One year follow up study

    PubMed Central

    Vulpiani, Maria Chiara; Nusca, Sveva Maria; Vetrano, Mario; Ovidi, Serena; Baldini, Rossella; Piermattei, Cristina; Ferretti, Andrea; Saraceni, Vincenzo Maria

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background the purpose of this study is to compare the therapeutic effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) to those of cryoultrasound (Cryo-US) therapy in chronic lateral epicondylitis during a 12-month period. Methods single-blinded, randomized, controlled study of 80 participants treated for chronic LE with 3 ESWT sessions at 48/72-hours intervals (n=40) or 12 Cryo-US therapy sessions (4 sessions per week) (n=40). VAS and satisfactory results, considered as the sum of excellent and good scores in the Roles and Maudsley score, were used as outcome measures at baseline and 3, 6 and 12 months post-treatment. Results the results show statistically significant differences in VAS between the two groups at 6 (p<0.001) and 12 months (p<0.001) in favour of the ESWT Group. At 12 months, a difference of more than 2 points in the VAS between the two groups is demonstrated in favour of the ESWT Group. Considering satisfactory results, significant differences between the two groups are observed at 6 (p=0.003) and 12 months (p <0.001) in favour of the ESWT Group where patients achieve a satisfactory rate over 50%. Conclusions ESWT has better clinical therapeutic results at 6- and 12-month follow-up as compared to Cryo-US therapy. Level of Evidence 1B. PMID:26605190

  4. HPV clearance in postpartum period of HIV-positive and negative women: a prospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HPV persistence is a key determinant of cervical carcinogenesis. The influence of postpartum on HPV clearance has been debated. This study aimed to assess HPV clearance in later pregnancy and postpartum among HIV-positive and negative women. Methods We conducted a follow-up study with 151 HPV-positive women coinfected with HIV, in 2007–2010. After baseline assessment, all women were retested for HPV infection using PCR in later pregnancy and after delivery. Multivariable logistic regressions assessed the putative association of covariates with HPV status in between each one of the successive visits. Results Seventy-one women (47%) have eliminated HPV between the baseline visit and their second or third visits. HIV-positive women took a significantly longer time (7.0?±?3.8 months) to clear HPV, compared to those not infected by HIV (5.9?±?3.0 months). HPV clearance was significantly more likely to take place after delivery than during pregnancy (84.5% x 15.5%). Conclusions Both HIV-positive and negative women presented a significant reduction in HPV infection during the postpartum period. HIV-positive status was found to be associated with a longer period of time to clear HPV infection in pregnant women. PMID:24289532

  5. Leisure-time physical activity and disability pension: 9 years follow-up of the HUNT Study, Norway.

    PubMed

    Fimland, M S; Vie, G; Johnsen, R; Nilsen, T I L; Krokstad, S; Bjørngaard, J H

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to prospectively examine the association between leisure-time physical activity and risk of disability pension, as well as risk of disability pension because of musculoskeletal or mental disorders in a large population-based cohort. Data on participants aged 20-65 years in the Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 1995-1997 (HUNT2) were linked to the National Insurance Database. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for disability pension across physical activity categories. During a follow-up of 9.3 years and 235?657 person-years, 1266 of 13?823 men (9%) and 1734 of 14?531 women (12%) received disability pension. Compared with individuals in the inactive group, those in the highly active group had a 50% lower risk of receiving disability pension (HR for men: 0.50, 0.40-0.64; women: 0.50, 0.39-0.63). After comprehensive adjustment for potential confounders, the risk remained 32-35% lower (HR for men: 0.68, 0.53-0.86; women: 0.65, 0.51-0.83). The associations were stronger for disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorders than mental disorders. In summary, we observed strong inverse associations between leisure-time physical activity and disability pension. Our findings strengthen the hypothesis that leisure-time physical activity may be important for occupational health in reducing disability pension. PMID:25487654

  6. Evaluating conditional release in not guilty by reason of insanity acquittees: a prospective follow-up study in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Vitacco, Michael J; Vauter, Rebecca; Erickson, Steven K; Ragatz, Laurie

    2014-08-01

    Detailed research on treatment and risk management approaches with not guilty by reason of insanity acquittees (NGRI) during their conditional release is needed as states increasingly use community-based services for these individuals. Grounded in case law, and supported by follow-up studies demonstrating low recidivism rates, states have been encouraged in their efforts to conditionally release NGRI acquittees. The authors evaluated a state-wide sample of 127 NGRI acquittees released into the community after spending a mean of 61.63 months (SD = 76.54) in the hospital. One hundred individuals were committed to the hospital for lengthier treatment (M hospital time = 77.23 months, SD = 79.84), but 27 individuals were released to the community after a relatively short hospital stay (M hospital time = 5.60 months, SD = 3.01). Regarding release, 96 individuals (75.6%) maintained their conditional release. After evaluating a host of demographic and standardized risk data, the following variables predicted revocation on conditional release: previous failure on conditional release, nonadherence with hospital treatment, dangerousness to others, and previous violent charges. A multivariate survival analysis determined criminal behavior and previous failure on conditional release predicted time to revocation. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of considering standardized risk variables in the community-based management of forensic patients. In addition, the data are supportive of continued attempts at moving insanity acquittees from the hospital to the community via conditional release. PMID:24377912

  7. New-generation filler based on cross-linked carboxymethylcellulose: study of 350 patients with 3-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Leonardis, Mauro; Palange, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In recent years there has been a growing interest in nonsurgical procedures for facial rejuvenation. Hyaluronic acid is currently the most widely used dermal filler for the treatment of facial wrinkles. However, new products with interesting features are being introduced into the market. Cross-linked carboxymethylcellulose is one of these and represents a new alternative for the correction of wrinkles and facial defects. Patients and methods The retrospective, multicenter, open-label study on nasolabial folds reported here was carried out between January 2010 and April 2014 on 350 subjects between 22 and 67 years of age for a 36-month follow-up period in order to consistently and extensively assess the safety and performance of this treatment. Results The study revealed effective and durable correction of nasolabial wrinkles for periods of 9–12 months. Product reapplication over a 36-month period did not lead to an increase in adverse effects, which always remained rare and of little clinical significance, usually consisting of bruising and redness. Conclusion Cross-linked carboxymethyl cellulose has been shown to be a safe and effective alternative to the resorbable products currently on the market. PMID:25609932

  8. Long-term duodenal levodopa infusion in Parkinson's disease: a 3-year motor and cognitive follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Zibetti, Maurizio; Merola, Aristide; Ricchi, Valeria; Marchisio, Alice; Artusi, Carlo Alberto; Rizzi, Laura; Montanaro, Elisa; Reggio, Dario; De Angelis, Claudio; Rizzone, Mario; Lopiano, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Duodenal infusion of levodopa/carbidopa gel (Duodopa) is an effective treatment option for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Long-term clinical experience up to 16 years suggests that the safety of this procedure is acceptable, while several observational studies showed that Duodopa reduces motor fluctuations and dyskinesias improving patients' quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study is to investigate the long-term motor and cognitive outcome of Duodopa treatment in advanced PD patients and its' impact on the QoL. Twenty-five consecutive PD patients were assessed using the Unified PD rating scale (UPDRS), a battery of neuropsychological tests, and the PD questionnaire (PDQ-39) at baseline and after a mean period of three years of Duodopa treatment. Seventeen out of 25 patients reached the follow-up evaluation; five patients discontinued Duodopa and three patients died of causes unrelated to drug infusion. Duodopa improved motor complications (UPDRS-IV) and quality of life (PDQ-39). A sub-group of subjects (41 %) developed a significant deterioration of cognitive functions over time. The most common adverse events were dislocation and the kinking of the intestinal tube. In conclusion, Duodopa therapy is effective in the long-term treatment of advanced PD patients. Continuous enteral levodopa infusion achieves a reduction of motor fluctuations and dyskinesias improving patients' QoL, despite the progression of PD motor symptoms and a significant decline in cognitive functions in a sub-group of patients. PMID:22772358

  9. Outrunning major weight gain: a prospective study of 8,340consistent runners during 7 years of follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-06

    Background: Body weight increases with aging. Short-term,longitudinal exercise training studies suggest that increasing exerciseproduces acute weight loss, but it is not clear if the maintenance oflong-term, vigorous exercise attenuates age-related weight gain inproportion to the exercise dose. Methods: Prospective study of 6,119 maleand 2,221 female runners whose running distance changed less than 5 km/wkbetween their baseline and follow-up survey 7 years later. Results: Onaverage, men who ran modest (0-24 km/wk), intermediate (24-48 km/wk) orprolonged distances (>_48 km/wk) all gained weight throughage 64,however, those who ran ?48 km/wk had one-half the average annual weightgain of those who ran<24 km/wk. Age-related weight gain, and itsreduction by running, were both greater in younger than older men. Incontrast, men s gain in waist circumference with age, and its reductionby running, were the same in older and younger men. Women increased theirbody weight and waist and hip circumferences over time, regardless ofage, which was also reduced in proportion to running distance. In bothsexes, running did not attenuate weight gain uniformly, but ratherdisproportionately prevented more extreme increases. Conclusion: Men andwomen who remain vigorously active gain less weight as they age and thereduction is in proportion to the exercise dose.

  10. [The Schroth scoliosis-specific back school--initial results of a prospective follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Weiss, H R

    1995-01-01

    The prospective study reported here was instituted in 1987 to obtain more detailed data on the efficacy of scoliosis-specific spinal rehabilitation after Schroth. Inclusion criteria were 1) idiopathic scoliosis, 2) Risser stage < 4, 3) no treatment with corset or electrical stimulation, 4) first examination between 1 and 3 years postoperatively, 5) usable total X-rays taken with the patient standing not more than 6 months prior to admission. A total of 181 scoliosis patients with an average age of 12.76 years and an average Cobb angle of 27 degrees were included in the study. The average Risser's sign was 1.4 and the average follow-up period was 33 months. No cases of relative progression (annual increase in curvature of 5 degrees or more) were observed. For the purpose of comparison with the spontaneous course, the patients were grouped by age and severity of scoliosis. Both the absence of any relative progression as well as direct comparison of the development of scoliosis under therapy with the spontaneous course confirmed the efficacy of the stationary rehabilitation programme notably in cases with poor prognosis, i.e. with large scoliosis angles and unfavourable curvatures. PMID:7754656

  11. Spousal Loss and Cognitive Function in Later Life: A 25-year Follow-up in the AGES-Reykjavik Study

    PubMed Central

    Vidarsdottir, Halldora; Fang, Fang; Chang, Milan; Aspelund, Thor; Fall, Katja; Jonsdottir, Maria K.; Jonsson, Palmi V.; Cotch, Mary Frances; Harris, Tamara B.; Launer, Lenore J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between loss of a life partner and the development of dementia and decline in cognitive function in later life. We used an Icelandic cohort of 4,370 participants in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study who were living as married in 1978 (born in 1907–1935) and were either still married (unexposed cohort) or widowed (exposed cohort) at follow-up (in 2002–2006). We ascertained history of marital status and spouse's death by record linkage to the Registry of the Total Population, Statistics Iceland. The outcome measures were as follows: 1) dementia and mild cognitive impairment; and 2) memory, speed of processing, and executive function. During the observation period, 3,007 individuals remained married and 1,363 lost a spouse through death. We did not find any significant associations between loss of a spouse and our outcome variables, except that widowed women had poorer executive function (mean = ?0.08) during the first 2 years after their husbands’ deaths compared with still-married women (mean = 0.09). Our findings do not support the notion that the risk of dementia is increased following the loss of a spouse, yet women demonstrate a seemingly temporary decline in executive function following the death of a partner. PMID:24444551

  12. Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Treated Periodontitis: A Population-Based Follow-Up Study from Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Shing-Hsien; Tung, Ying-Chang; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Wu, Lung-Sheng; Lin, Chia-Pin; Liou, Eric Jein-Wein; Chang, Chee-Jen; Kung, Suefang; Chu, Pao-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to identify the long-term major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in treated periodontitis patients in Taiwan. Methods From the National Health Insurance Research Database (2001-2010), adult patients (? 18 years) with treated periodontitis were identified. Comparison was made between patients with mild form and severe form of treated periodontitis after propensity score matching. The primary end point was the incidence of MACE. Results A total of 32,504 adult patients with treated periodontitis were identified between 2001 and 2010. After propensity score matching, 27,146 patients were preserved for comparison, including 13,573 patients with mild form and 13,573 patients with severe form of treated periodontitis. During follow-up, 728 individuals in mild treated periodontitis group and 1,206 individuals in severe treated periodontitis group had at least 1 MACE event. After adjustment for gender, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus, severe treated periodontitis was associated with a mildly but significantly increased risk of MACE among older patients > 60 years of age (incidence rate ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.08–1.46). No association was found among younger patients ? 60 years of age. Conclusions Severe form of treated periodontitis was associated with an increased risk of MACE among older Taiwanese patients, but not among younger Taiwanese patients. We should put more efforts on the improvement of periodontal health to prevent further MACE. PMID:26114433

  13. [Use of pulmonary function tests and biomarkers studies to diagnose and follow-up interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Hua-Huy, T; Rivière, S; Tiev, K P; Dinh-Xuan, A T

    2014-12-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is becoming one of the main causes of death of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The prevalence of ILD associated with SSc (SSc-ILD) varies from 33% to 100% according to diagnostic methods. Clinical features such as dyspnea on exertion, dry cough, and chest pains are not specific and usually late-appearing, implying more specific tests in the diagnostic, prognosis, and follow-up of ILD in patients with SSc. High resolution thoracic CT scanner (HRCT) is more sensitive than chest X-ray in the detection of SSc-ILD. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) are non-invasive and periodically used to assess the impacts of SSc on respiratory function. Diagnostic values of bronchoalveolar lavage and histological examination on lung biopsy are controversial. However, these techniques are essential for studying cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of SSc-ILD. Several biomarkers such as surfactant-A (SP-A), -D (SP-D), mucin-like high molecular weight glycoprotein (KL-6), and chemokine CCL-18 have been implicated in SSc-PID. Serum levels of these proteins are correlated with the severity of SSc-ILD, as assessed by HRCT and/or PFT. Finally, alveolar concentration of exhaled nitric oxide can be used to screen SSc patients with high risk of deterioration of respiratory function, in whom immunosuppressant treatment could be useful in preventing the evolution to irreversible lung fibrosis. PMID:25457218

  14. Objective outcome evaluation using inertial sensors in subacromial impingement syndrome: a five-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Körver, R J P; Senden, R; Heyligers, I C; Grimm, B

    2014-04-01

    Shoulder-related dysfunction is the second most common musculoskeletal disorder and is an increasing burden on health-care systems. Commonly used clinical questionnaires suffer from subjectivity, pain dominance and a ceiling effect. Objective functional measurement has been identified as a relevant issue in clinical rehabilitation. Inertia based motion analysis (IMA) is a new generation of objective outcome assessment tool; it can produce objective movement parameters while being fast, cheap and easy to operate. In this prospective study, an inertial sensor comprising a three-dimensional accelerometer and gyroscope is attached at the humerus to measure shoulder movements during two motion tasks in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome at baseline and at five-year after treatment. One hundred healthy subjects served as healthy reference database and 15 patients were measured pre- and post-treatment. IMA was better able to detect improvement in shoulder movements compared to the clinical questionnaires (Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and Simple Shoulder Test (SST); p < 0.05) and was hardly correlated with the clinical questionnaires (Pearson R = 0.39). It may therefore add an objective functional dimension to outcome assessment. The fast assessment (t < 5 min) of a simple motion test makes it suitable for routine clinical follow-up. PMID:24622109

  15. Trypanosoma-Cruzi Cross-Reactive Antibodies Longitudinal Follow-Up: A Prospective Observational Study in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Esber S.; Gueyffier, Lucie; Danjoy, Marie-Laure; Vanhems, Philippe; Pozzetto, Bruno; Sobh, Mohamad; Pottel, Hans; Michallet, Mauricette; Zrein, Maan A.

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies named TcCRA “Trypanosoma cruzi Cross Reactive Antibodies” were detected in 47% of blood donors from French population unexposed to the parasite. In order to evaluate the passive or active transmissibility of TcCRA and further characterize its role and etiology, we have conducted a study in a cohort of 47 patients who underwent allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantations (allo-HSCT). Donors and recipients were tested for TcCRA prior to transplantation. Recipients were further tested during follow-up after transplantation. Demographical, clinical and biological data were collected. Our primary end-point was to assess the risk of TcCRA acquisition after transplantation. During this initial analysis, we observed no seroconversion in patients receiving cells from TcCRA negative donors (n = 23) but detected seroconversion in 4 out of 24 patients who received hematopoietic stem cells from positive donors. Here, we are discussing possible scenarios to explain TcCRA-immune status in recipient after transplantation. PMID:26351849

  16. Initial experience with linear focused shockwave treatment for erectile dysfunction: a 6-month follow-up pilot study.

    PubMed

    Reisman, Y; Hind, A; Varaneckas, A; Motil, I

    2015-01-01

    Low-intensity shockwaves (LISW) are known to produce revascularization and have been in evaluation and in use to treat erectile dysfunction (ED). The present single-arm pilot study is aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of a dedicated shockwave device (Renova) on vasculogenic ED patients. Fifty-eight patients with mild to severe ED were treated by LISW and their erectile function was evaluated by the International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function Domain (IIEF-EF), Sexual Encounter Profile and Global Assessment Questions questionnaires, at baseline and at 1, 3 and 6 months post treatment. The average IIEF-EF increased significantly from 14.78 at baseline to 21.93 at 3 months post treatment and stabilized at 22.26 at 6 months post treatment. Out of 58 patients, 47 (81%) had a successful treatment. No adverse events were reported during the treatment and the follow-up duration. In conclusion, it suggests that the performance of LISW could add a new advanced treatment for ED. PMID:25471316

  17. A Follow-up Study on the Persistence of Savings from the Retrocommissioning of Ten Buildings on a University Campus: Preliminary Results 

    E-print Network

    Claridge, D. E.; Toole, C.

    2007-09-11

    A study has been initiated to provide follow-up analysis on the persistence of savings achieved from the retrocommissioning of ten buildings on a university campus. The buildings were originally commissioned in 1996, and the energy savings achieved...

  18. Observational Follow-up Study on a Cohort of Children with Severe Pneumonia after Discharge from a Day-care Clinic in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Nur H.; Chisti, Mohammod J.; Salam, Mohammed A.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Gyr, Niklaus

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Compliance, morbidity, mortality, and hospitalization during fortnightly follow-up were evaluated by an observational study on a cohort of children with severe and very severe pneumonia after day-care treatment at an urban clinic. The primary outcome measures were proportions of success (compliance) and failure (non-compliance) of follow-up visits at the day-care clinic. In total, 251 children were followed up, with median (IQR) age of 5.0 (3.0-9.0) months, and their compliance dropped from 92% at the first to 85% at the sixth visit. Cough (28%), fever (20%), and rapid breathing (13%) were common morbidities. Successful follow-up visits were possible in 180 (95.2%) and 56 (90.3%) of the children with severe and very severe pneumonia respectively. Eleven (4.4%) needed hospitalization, and four (1.6%) died. Majority (?90%) of the children could be successfully followed up; some failed to attend their scheduled follow-up visits due to hospitalization and death. The common morbidities indicate the importance of follow-up for detecting medical problems and early treatment, thus reducing risk of death. PMID:25076656

  19. A genome-wide association study follow-up suggests a possible role for PPARG in systemic sclerosis susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) comprising a French cohort of systemic sclerosis (SSc) reported several non-HLA single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showing a nominal association in the discovery phase. We aimed to identify previously overlooked susceptibility variants by using a follow-up strategy. Methods Sixty-six non-HLA SNPs showing a P value <10-4 in the discovery phase of the French SSc GWAS were analyzed in the first step of this study, performing a meta-analysis that combined data from the two published SSc GWASs. A total of 2,921 SSc patients and 6,963 healthy controls were included in this first phase. Two SNPs, PPARG rs310746 and CHRNA9 rs6832151, were selected for genotyping in the replication cohort (1,068 SSc patients and 6,762 healthy controls) based on the results of the first step. Genotyping was performed by using TaqMan SNP genotyping assays. Results We observed nominal associations for both PPARG rs310746 (PMH?=?1.90?×?10-6, OR, 1.28) and CHRNA9 rs6832151 (PMH?=?4.30?×?10-6, OR, 1.17) genetic variants with SSc in the first step of our study. In the replication phase, we observed a trend of association for PPARG rs310746 (P value?=?0.066; OR, 1.17). The combined overall Mantel-Haenszel meta-analysis of all the cohorts included in the present study revealed that PPARG rs310746 remained associated with SSc with a nominal non-genome-wide significant P value (PMH?=?5.00?×?10-7; OR, 1.25). No evidence of association was observed for CHRNA9 rs6832151 either in the replication phase or in the overall pooled analysis. Conclusion Our results suggest a role of PPARG gene in the development of SSc. PMID:24401602

  20. Lung function reduction and chronic respiratory symptoms among workers in the cement industry: a follow up study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There are only a few follow-up studies of respiratory function among cement workers. The main aims of this study were to measure total dust exposure, to examine chronic respiratory symptoms and changes in lung function among cement factory workers and controls that were followed for one year. Methods The study was conducted in two cement factories in Ethiopia. Totally, 262 personal measurements of total dust among 105 randomly selected workers were performed. Samples of total dust were collected on 37-mm cellulose acetate filters placed in closed faced Millipore-cassettes. Totally 127 workers; 56 cleaners, 44 cement production workers and 27 controls were randomly selected from two factories and examined for lung function and interviewed for chronic respiratory symptoms in 2009. Of these, 91 workers; 38 cement cleaners (mean age 32 years), 33 cement production workers (36 years) and 20 controls (38 years) were examined with the same measurements in 2010. Results Total geometric mean dust exposure among cleaners was 432 mg/m3. The fraction of samples exceeding the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 10 mg/m3 for the cleaners varied from 84-97% in the four departments. The levels were considerably lower among the production workers (GM = 8.2 mg/m3), but still 48% exceeded 10 mg/m3. The prevalence of all the chronic respiratory symptoms among both cleaners and production workers was significantly higher than among the controls. Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) and FEV1/Forced Vital Capacity (FEV1/FVC) were significantly reduced from 2009 to 2010 among the cleaners (p < 0.002 and p < 0.004, respectively) and production workers (p < 0.05 and p < 0.02, respectively), but not among the controls. Conclusions The high prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms and reduction in lung function is probably associated with high cement dust exposure. Preventive measures are needed to reduce the dust exposure. PMID:22067264

  1. Testing the anniversary reaction: causal effects of bereavement in a nationwide follow-up study from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Rostila, Mikael; Saarela, Jan; Kawachi, Ichiro; Hjern, Anders

    2015-03-01

    Lingering grief associated with the death of a loved one has been hypothesized to precipitate acute health events among survivors on anniversary dates. We sought to study excess mortality risk in parents around the death date and birth date of a deceased child as an indication of a "bereavement effect". We conducted a population based follow-up study using Swedish registries including links between children and parents. All biological and Swedish-born parents who experienced the death of a minor child born were observed during the period 1973-2008 (n = 48,666). An increased mortality risk was found during the week of a child's death among mothers who lost a child aged 0-17 years (SMRR = 1.46, 95% CI 0.98-2.17). The association was stronger among mothers who lost a child aged 1-17 years (SMRR = 1.89, 95% CI 0.97-3.67) as compared to those who lost an infant (SMRR = 1.29, 95% CI 0.78-2.12). Cardiovascular diseases and suicides were overrepresented as causes of death in mothers who died around the anniversary. We found no significant increase in the mortality risk around the date of child's birth, nor any suggestion of excess mortality risk among fathers, but rather a depression of paternal death (SMRR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.34-1.03). Our study indicates an anniversary reaction among mothers who lost a young child. These results suggest that bereavement per se could have an effect on health and mortality which should be acknowledged by public health professionals working with bereaved people. PMID:25595319

  2. Autonomic Cardiovascular Responses in Acclimatized Lowlanders on Prolonged Stay at High Altitude: A Longitudinal Follow Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Priyanka; Sharma, Vijay K.; Hota, Kalpana B.; Das, Saroj K.; Hota, Sunil K.; Srivastava, Ravi B.; Singh, Shashi B.

    2014-01-01

    Acute exposure to hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude is reported to cause sympathetic dominance that may contribute to the pathophysiology of high altitude illnesses. The effect of prolonged stay at high altitude on autonomic functions, however, remains to be explored. Thus, the present study aimed at investigating the effect of high altitude on autonomic neural control of cardiovascular responses by monitoring heart rate variability (HRV) during chronic hypobaric hypoxia. Baseline electrocardiography (ECG) data was acquired from the volunteers at mean sea level (MSL) (<250 m) in Rajasthan. Following induction of the study population to high altitude (4500–4800 m) in Ladakh region, ECG data was acquired from the volunteers after 6 months (ALL 6) and 18 months of induction (ALL 18). Out of 159 volunteers who underwent complete investigation during acquisition of baseline data, we have only included the data of 104 volunteers who constantly stayed at high altitude for 18 months to complete the final follow up after 18 months. HRV parameters, physiological indices and biochemical changes in serum were investigated. Our results show sympathetic hyperactivation along with compromise in parasympathetic activity in ALL 6 and ALL 18 when compared to baseline data. Reduction of sympathetic activity and increased parasympathetic response was however observed in ALL 18 when compared to ALL 6. Our findings suggest that autonomic response is regulated by two distinct mechanisms in the ALL 6 and ALL 18. While the autonomic alterations in the ALL 6 group could be attributed to increased sympathetic activity resulting from increased plasma catecholamine concentration, the sympathetic activity in ALL 18 group is associated with increased concentration of serum coronary risk factors and elevated homocysteine. These findings have important clinical implications in assessment of susceptibility to cardio-vascular risks in acclimatized lowlanders staying for prolonged duration at high altitude. PMID:24404157

  3. Prevalence and co-occurrence of addictive behaviors among former alternative high school youth: A longitudinal follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Steve; Pokhrel, Pallav; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Recent work has studied addictions using a matrix measure, which taps multiple addictions through single responses for each type. This is the first longitudinal study using a matrix measure. Methods We investigated the use of this approach among former alternative high school youth (average age = 19.8 years at baseline; longitudinal n = 538) at risk for addictions. Lifetime and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of 11 addictions reviewed in other work was the primary focus (i.e., cigarettes, alcohol, hard drugs, shopping, gambling, Internet, love, sex, eating, work, and exercise). These were examined at two time-points one year apart. Latent class and latent transition analyses (LCA and LTA) were conducted in Mplus. Results Prevalence rates were stable across the two time-points. As in the cross-sectional baseline analysis, the 2-class model (addiction class, non-addiction class) fit the data better at follow-up than models with more classes. Item-response or conditional probabilities for each addiction type did not differ between time-points. As a result, the LTA model utilized constrained the conditional probabilities to be equal across the two time-points. In the addiction class, larger conditional probabilities (i.e., 0.40?0.49) were found for love, sex, exercise, and work addictions; medium conditional probabilities (i.e., 0.17?0.27) were found for cigarette, alcohol, other drugs, eating, Internet and shopping addiction; and a small conditional probability (0.06) was found for gambling. Discussion and Conclusions Persons in an addiction class tend to remain in this addiction class over a one-year period. PMID:26551909

  4. Mental Health Problems and Educational Attainment in Adolescence: 9-Year Follow-Up of the TRAILS Study

    PubMed Central

    Veldman, Karin; Bültmann, Ute; Stewart, Roy E.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examines if mental health problems at age 11 and changes in mental health problems between age 11 and 16 predict educational attainment of adolescents at age 19, overall and stratified by gender. Methods Data from 1711 adolescents (76.8% from initial cohort) of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a Dutch prospective cohort study with 9year follow-up, were used. Mental health problems (externalizing, internalizing and attention problems) were measured by the Youth Self Report and the Child Behavior Checklist at ages 11 and 16. Difference scores for mental health problems between age 11 and 16 were calculated. Educational attainment was assessed at age 19. Results Externalizing, internalizing and attention problems at age 11 were significantly associated with low educational attainment at age 19 (crude model). When adjusted for demographic variables and the other mental health problems, only the association for attention problems remained significant (odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval: 3.19, 2.11–4.83). Increasing externalizing problems between age 11 and 16 also predicted low educational attainment at age 19 (OR 3.12, 1.83–5.32). Among girls, increasing internalizing problems between age 11 and 16 predicted low educational attainment (OR 2.21, 1.25–3.94). For boys, no significant association was found for increasing internalizing problems and low educational attainment. For increasing attention problems between age 11 and 16 no significant association with low educational attainment was found. Conclusions Externalizing, internalizing and attention problems at age 11 and an increase of these problems during adolescence predicted low educational attainment at age 19. Early treatment of these mental health problems may improve educational attainment, and reduce socioeconomic health differences in adulthood. PMID:25047692

  5. Prevalence and co-occurrence of addictive behaviors among former alternative high school youth: A longitudinal follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Steve; Pokhrel, Pallav; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2015-09-01

    Background and Aims Recent work has studied addictions using a matrix measure, which taps multiple addictions through single responses for each type. This is the first longitudinal study using a matrix measure. Methods We investigated the use of this approach among former alternative high school youth (average age = 19.8 years at baseline; longitudinal n = 538) at risk for addictions. Lifetime and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of 11 addictions reviewed in other work was the primary focus (i.e., cigarettes, alcohol, hard drugs, shopping, gambling, Internet, love, sex, eating, work, and exercise). These were examined at two time-points one year apart. Latent class and latent transition analyses (LCA and LTA) were conducted in Mplus. Results Prevalence rates were stable across the two time-points. As in the cross-sectional baseline analysis, the 2-class model (addiction class, non-addiction class) fit the data better at follow-up than models with more classes. Item-response or conditional probabilities for each addiction type did not differ between time-points. As a result, the LTA model utilized constrained the conditional probabilities to be equal across the two time-points. In the addiction class, larger conditional probabilities (i.e., 0.40-0.49) were found for love, sex, exercise, and work addictions; medium conditional probabilities (i.e., 0.17-0.27) were found for cigarette, alcohol, other drugs, eating, Internet and shopping addiction; and a small conditional probability (0.06) was found for gambling. Discussion and Conclusions Persons in an addiction class tend to remain in this addiction class over a one-year period. PMID:26551909

  6. The FRAX(®) as a predictor of mortality in Japanese incident hemodialysis patients: an observational, follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Toshihide; Joki, Nobuhiko; Tanaka, Yuri; Iwasaki, Masaki; Kubo, Shun; Asakawa, Takasuke; Matsukane, Ai; Takahashi, Yasunori; Imamura, Yoshihiko; Hirahata, Koichi; Hase, Hiroki

    2015-11-01

    The World Health Organization Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX(®)) was recently developed to estimate the 10-year absolute risk of osteoporotic fracture among the general population. However, the evidence for its use in chronic kidney disease patients has been lacking, and the association between the FRAX(®) and mortality is unknown. Therefore, a hospital-based, prospective, cohort study was conducted to evaluate the predictive ability of the FRAX(®) for mortality in hemodialysis patients. A total of 252 patients who had been started on maintenance hemodialysis, 171 men and 81 women, with a mean age of 67 ± 14 years, was studied. The endpoint was defined as all-cause death. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios and 95 % confidence intervals. During the mean follow-up period of 3.4 ± 2.7 years, 61 deaths occurred. The median (interquartile range) of the FRAX(®) for major osteoporotic fracture was 6.9 (4.6-12.0)  % in men and 19.0 (7.6-33.0)  % in women. Cumulative survival rates at 5 years after starting dialysis, with the FRAX(®) levels above and below the median, were 51.9 and 87.9 %, respectively, in men and 67.4 and 83.7 %, respectively, in women. Overall, in men, the multivariate Cox regression analyses revealed that the log-transformed FRAX(®) remained an independent predictor of death after adjusting by confounding variables. However, in women, the significant association between the FRAX(®) value and the outcome was eliminated if age was put into these models. Among Japanese hemodialysis patients, the FRAX(®) seems to be useful for predicting death, especially in men. PMID:25691284

  7. Criterion validity of a competency-based assessment center in medical education – a 4-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Rotthoff, Thomas; Ostapczuk, Martin S.; Kröncke, Klaus D.; Zimmerhofer, Alexander; Decking, Ulrich; Schneider, Matthias; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Core competencies have progressively gained importance in medical education. In other contexts, especially personnel selection and development, assessment centers (ACs) are used to assess competencies, but there is only a limited number of studies on competency-based ACs in medical education. To the best of our knowledge, the present study provides the first data on the criterion-related validity of a competency-based AC in medical education. Methods We developed an AC tailored to measure core competencies relevant to medical education (social-ethical, communicative, self, and teaching) and tested its validity in n=30 first-year medical students using 3- to 4-year follow-up measures such as (a) objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE) on basic clinical skills (n=26), (b) OSCE on communication skills (n=21), and (c) peer feedback (n=18). The AC contained three elements: interview, group discussion, and role play. Additionally, a self-report questionnaire was provided as a basis for the interview. Results Baseline AC average score and teaching competency correlated moderately with the communication OSCE average score (r=0.41, p=0.03, and r=0.38, p=0.04, respectively). Social-ethical competency in the AC showed a very strong convergent association with the communication OSCE average score (r=0.60, p<0.01). The AC total score also showed a moderate correlation with the overall peer feedback score provided in Year 4 (r=0.38, p=0.06). In addition, communicative competency correlated strongly with the overall peer feedback (r=0.50, p=0.02). We found predominantly low and insignificant correlations between the AC and the OSCE on basic clinical skills (r=?0.33 to 0.30, all p's>0.05). Conclusion The results showed that competency-based ACs can be used at a very early stage of medical training to successfully predict future performance in core competencies. PMID:25219931

  8. Asenapine in the Treatment of Acute Mania: A Real-World Observational Study With 6 Months Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Ostinelli, Edoardo Giuseppe; Cavallotti, Simone; Castelnovo, Anna; Guanella, Ester; Gambini, Orsola; D'Agostino, Armando

    2015-10-01

    Asenapine is a second-generation antipsychotic with a unique pharmacological profile that was recently approved for the treatment of moderate/severe manic episodes. Real-world data on rapidity of action in inpatient settings are lacking.The aims of the current real-world observational study were to evaluate: (i) short-term efficacy of asenapine after 7 days (T0-T1) in patients hospitalized for a manic episode in the course of bipolar I disorder or schizoaffective disorder (group A), (ii) differences in length of stay (LoS), and (iii) rehospitalization compared to a control population (group B) with a 6-month follow-up.Twenty patients were included in each group. The mean total Young Mania Rating Scale score decreased by 12.6 (SD ±10.3; t(17) = 5.2, P < 0.005), implying a mean 37.8% improvement. A statistically significant reduction was observed for all Young Mania Rating Scale items, except for "sexual interest." The mean total BPRS score decreased by 17.2 (SD ±14.9; t(17) = 4.9, P < 0.005). A statistically significant reduction was observed for several items, including "conceptual disorganization," "grandiosity," "unusual thought content," and "excitement". Length of stay was 17.9 (SD ±9.0) days for group A and 14.7 (SD ±12.7) days for group B; the result of the Kruskal-Wallis test showed no significant differences (? = 2.199, P = 0.138). Despite a high discontinuation rate, only 17.7% of patients in group A were rehospitalized in the following 6 months compared to 41.2% of those in group B (relative risk = 0.43, 95% confidence interval, 0.13-1.39).Findings from this small, preliminary study at least partially support the results of previous trials, confirming effectiveness and tolerability in the context of comorbidity and polypsychopharmacology. PMID:26252438

  9. Treatment of Adjustment Disorder with Anxiety: A September 11, 2001, Case Study with a 1-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Shawn; McCone, Dave

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the application of cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of a 20-year-old White male manifesting an adjustment disorder with anxiety, who initially presented on September 11, 2001, following the terrorist attacks. The initial treatment regime lasted 8 weeks. In addition, follow-up sessions at 6, 11, and 12 months…

  10. Optimal follow-up duration for evaluating objective response to radiotherapy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Moonkyoo; Hong, Seong Eon

    2015-01-01

    The time to complete or partial (objective) response to radiotherapy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is variable; thus, the reported frequency of these responses depends on the length of follow-up. However, the optimum follow-up duration is unknown. We sought to determine the optimal follow-up duration by analyzing the medical records of 25 patients with 39 HCC lesions who received definitive helical tomotherapy at a daily dose of 2 to 4 Gy at 5 fractions per week, for a total dose of 40 to 60 Gy, between January 2008 and January 2013. We determined the time to objective treatment response and local recurrence after radiotherapy and assessed several predictors of delayed treatment response. The median follow-up duration was 15.2 months (range, 7.8 to 52.1 months). Among all 39 lesions, objective responses were observed for 36 (92.3%). The median time to objective response was 3.9 months (range, 1.5 to 9.8 months). The objective response rates increased over time from 15.4% at 3 months to 71.8% at 6 months and 87.2% at 9 months. Age 60 years old or older and post-radiotherapy ?-fetoprotein concentrations higher than pre-radiotherapy concentrations predicted delayed treatment response. The objective response rate continued to increase over 9 months. Therefore, to fully evaluate the treatment response of HCC, we recommend continuous observation for at least 9 months after radiotherapy. PMID:25418189

  11. Adult neurobehavioral outcome of hyperbilirubinemia in full term neonates—a 30 year prospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Launes, Jyrki; Michelsson, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Background. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (HB) may cause severe neurological damage, but serious consequences are effectively controlled by phototherapy and blood exchange transfusion. HB is still a serious health problem in economically compromised parts of the world. The long term outcome has been regarded favorable based on epidemiological data, but has not been confirmed in prospective follow-up studies extending to adulthood. Methods. We studied the long term consequences of HB in a prospective birth cohort of 128 HB cases and 82 controls. The cases are part of a neonatal at-risk cohort (n = 1196) that has been followed up to 30 years of age. HB cases were newborns ? 2500 g birth weight and ? 37 weeks of gestation who had bilirubin concentrations > 340 µmol/l or required blood exchange transfusion. Subjects with HB were divided into subgroups based on the presence (affected HB) or absence (unaffected HB) of diagnosed neurobehavioral disorders in childhood, and compared with healthy controls. Subjects were seen at discharge, 5, 9 and 16 years of life and parent’s and teacher’s assessments were recorded. At 30 years they filled a questionnaire about academic and occupational achievement, life satisfaction, somatic and psychiatric symptoms including a ADHD self-rating score. Cognitive functioning was tested using ITPA, WISC, and reading and writing tests at 9 years of life. Results. Compared to controls, the odds for a child with HB having neurobehavioral symptoms at 9 years was elevated (OR = 4.68). Forty-five per cent of the HB group were affected by cognitive abnormalities in childhood and continued to experience problems in adulthood. This was apparent in academic achievement (p < 0.0001) and the ability to complete secondary (p < 0.0001) and tertiary (p < 0.004) education. Also, the subgroup of affected HB reported persisting cognitive complaints e.g., problems with reading, writing and mathematics. Childhood symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity (p < 0.0001) and inattention (p < 0.02) were more common in HB groups, but in adulthood the symptoms were equal. The affected HB had lower scores in parameters reflecting life satisfaction, less controlled drinking, but not increased substance abuse. Discussion. Our results indicate that neonatal HB has negative consequences in adult age. A prospectively collected cohort with strict inclusion criteria enables to control most of the bias factors involved with retrospective data. The control and HB groups were remarkably similar at birth in terms of medical data, and the growth environment of the children, as well as the parents’ social groups, education, size of family, type of housing at birth and at 9 years of age. Our findings bear resemblance to disorders of the fronto-striatal network, and also symptoms of the ADHD spectrum were frequent in the HB group suggesting a link of HB to other neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:24688870

  12. How head and neck consultants manage patients' emotional distress during cancer follow-up consultations: a multilevel study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuefang; Humphris, Gerry; Ghazali, Naseem; Friderichs, Simon; Grosset, David; Rogers, Simon N

    2015-09-01

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients suffer substantial emotional problems. This study aimed to explore how utterance-level variables (source, type and timing of emotional cues) and patient-level variables (e.g. age, gender and emotional well-being) relate to consultants' responses (i.e. reducing or providing space) to patient expressions of emotional distress. Forty-three HNC outpatient follow-up consultations were audio recorded and coded, for patients' expressions of emotional distress and consultants' responses, using the Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequence. Multilevel logistic regression modelled the probability of the occurrence of consultant-reduced space response as a function of patient distress cue expression, controlling for consultation and patient-related variables. An average of 3.5 cues/concerns (range 1-20) was identified per consultation where 84 out of 152 total cues/concerns were responded by reducing space. Cue type did not impact on response; likewise for the quality of patient emotional well-being. However, consultants were more likely to reduce space to cues elicited by patients, as opposed to those initiated by themselves. This reduced space response was more pronounced as the consultation continued. However, about 6 min into the consultation, this effect (i.e. tendency to block patients) started to weaken. Head and neck consultants' responses to negative emotions depended on source and timing of patient emotional expressions. The findings are useful for training programme development to encourage consultants to be more flexible and open in the early stages of the consultation. PMID:25078155

  13. Use of Ergonomic Measures Related to Musculoskeletal Complaints among Construction Workers: A 2-year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Boschman, Julitta S.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H.W.; van der Molen, Henk F.

    2015-01-01

    Background The physical work demands of construction work can be reduced using ergonomic measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of ergonomic measures related to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among construction workers. Methods A questionnaire was sent at baseline and 2 years later to 1,130 construction workers. We established (1) the proportion of workers reporting an increase in their use of ergonomic measures, (2) the proportion of workers reporting a decrease in MSDs, (3) the relative risk for an increase in the use of ergonomic measures and a decrease in MSDs, and (4) workers' knowledge and opinions about the use of ergonomic measures. Results At follow-up, response rate was 63% (713/1,130). The proportion of workers using ergonomic measures for vertical transport increased (34%, 144/419, p < 0.01); for measures regarding horizontal transport and the positioning of materials, no change was reported. The proportion of workers reporting shoulder complaints decreased (28%, 176/638, p = 0.02). A relationship between the use of ergonomic measures and MSDs was not found; 83% (581/704) of the workers indicated having sufficient knowledge about ergonomic measures. Lightening the physical load was reported to be the main reason for using them. Conclusion Only the use of ergonomic measures for vertical transport increased over a 2-year period. No relationship between the use of ergonomic measures and MSDs was found. Strategies aimed at improving the availability of ergonomic equipment complemented with individualized advice and training in using them might be the required next steps to increase the use of ergonomic measures. PMID:26106507

  14. Auditory and Cognitive Deficits Associated with Acquired Amusia after Stroke: A Magnetoencephalography and Neuropsychological Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Särkämö, Teppo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Soinila, Seppo; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M.; Laine, Matti; Hietanen, Marja; Pihko, Elina

    2010-01-01

    Acquired amusia is a common disorder after damage to the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. However, its neurocognitive mechanisms, especially the relative contribution of perceptual and cognitive factors, are still unclear. We studied cognitive and auditory processing in the amusic brain by performing neuropsychological testing as well as magnetoencephalography (MEG) measurements of frequency and duration discrimination using magnetic mismatch negativity (MMNm) recordings. Fifty-three patients with a left (n?=?24) or right (n?=?29) hemisphere MCA stroke (MRI verified) were investigated 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months after the stroke. Amusia was evaluated using the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA). We found that amusia caused by right hemisphere damage (RHD), especially to temporal and frontal areas, was more severe than amusia caused by left hemisphere damage (LHD). Furthermore, the severity of amusia was found to correlate with weaker frequency MMNm responses only in amusic RHD patients. Additionally, within the RHD subgroup, the amusic patients who had damage to the auditory cortex (AC) showed worse recovery on the MBEA as well as weaker MMNm responses throughout the 6-month follow-up than the non-amusic patients or the amusic patients without AC damage. Furthermore, the amusic patients both with and without AC damage performed worse than the non-amusic patients on tests of working memory, attention, and cognitive flexibility. These findings suggest domain-general cognitive deficits to be the primary mechanism underlying amusia without AC damage whereas amusia with AC damage is associated with both auditory and cognitive deficits. PMID:21152040

  15. Melt-metaphyseal and diphyseal osteotomy for correction of infantile Blount's disease: a long-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Cao, Lei; Guo, Shi-Fang; Xue, Wen; Chen, Zhi-Xin; Tai, Hui-Ping; He, Zong-Ru; Qian, Yao-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Blount's disease is an uncommon disorder of postero-medial proximal tibial physis. Blount described infantile and adolescent types. This study aims to describe using femur, tibia and fibula osteotomies to treat infantile Blount's disease. From May 1992 to May 2005, 7 patients of Blount's disease (3 males, 4 females) were included, whose age was range from 17 to 62 months. Femorotibial angle (FTA) was 31 ± 6° (range from 27° to 41°). Metaphyseal-diaphyseal angle (MDA) was 16 ± 4° (range from 13° to 24°). The femoral vara angle was 10 ± 4° (range from 2° to 23°). According to Langenskiold's classification, 3 patients were in stage II, 7 patients in stage III, and 2 patients in stage IV. Five cases were affected bilateral and 2 unilaterally, treated by famur, tibia and fibula valgus osteotomies, and a hip spica cast were used for 6 weeks after operation. Results indicated that all patients were followed up 3 to 16 years. FTA, MDA and femur diaphysis were measured, FTA was 2 ± 7°valgus (from 4° vara to 13° valgus). MDA was 1 ± 2°valgus (range from 0° to 12°). Femoral diaphyseal angle was 1 ± 3°valgus (range from 3° vara to 7° valgus). Six patients could walk without any knee pain, except for 1 patient with bilateral disorder feels his left genu uncomfortable after long time stand or work. His MDA was 12°, and FAT was -4°. In conclusion, femur, tibia and fibula osteotomies are useful for correction of Blount's disease. Recurrence and complication are less than those reported for Blount's disease. PMID:25932193

  16. Efficacy and safety of rituximab treatment in early primary Sjögren's syndrome: a prospective, multi-center, follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) is an autoimmune disorder affecting exocrine glands; however, a subgroup of pSS patients experience systemic extra-glandular involvement leading to a worsening of disease prognosis. Current therapeutic options are mainly empiric and often translated by other autoimmune diseases. In the last few years growing evidence suggests that B-cell depletion by rituximab (RTX) is effective also in pSS. Patients with early active disease appear to be those who could benefit the most from RTX. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of RTX in comparison to disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in early active pSS patients. Methods Forty-one patients with early pSS and active disease (EULAR Sjogren’s syndrome disease activity index, ESSDAI???6) were enrolled in the study. Patients were treated with either RTX or DMARDs in two different Rheumatology centers and followed up for 120 weeks. Clinical assessment was performed by ESSDAI every 12 weeks up to week 120 and by self-reported global disease activity pain, sicca symptoms and fatigue on visual analogic scales, unstimulated saliva flow and Schirmer’s I test at week 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120. Laboratory assessment was performed every 12 weeks to week 120. Two labial minor salivary gland (MSG) biopsies were obtained from all patients at the time of inclusion in the study and at week 120. Results Our study demonstrated that RTX treatment results in a faster and more pronounced decrease of ESSDAI and other clinical parameters compared to DMARDs treatment. No adverse events were reported in the two groups. We also observed that RTX is able to reduce glandular infiltrate, interfere with B/T compartmentalization and consequently with the formation of ectopic lymphoid structures and germinal center-like structures in pSS-MSGs. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study performed in a large cohort of early active pSS patients for a period of 120 weeks. We showed that RTX is a safe and effective agent to be employed in pSS patients with systemic, extra-glandular involvement. Furthermore, our data on pSS-MSGs provide additional biological basis to employ RTX in this disease. PMID:24286296

  17. Homeopathic treatment of patients with chronic sinusitis: A prospective observational study with 8 years follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Claudia M; Lüdtke, Rainer; Willich, Stefan N

    2009-01-01

    Background An evaluation of homeopathic treatment and the outcomes in patients suffering from sinusitis for ?12 weeks in a usual care situation. Methods Subgroup analysis including all patients with chronic sinusitis (ICD-9: 473.9; ?12 weeks duration) of a large prospective multicentre observational study population. Consecutive patients presenting for homeopathic treatment were followed-up for 2 years, and complaint severity, health-related quality of life (QoL), and medication use were regularly recorded. We also present here patient-reported health status 8 years post initial treatment. Results The study included 134 adults (mean age 39.8 ± 10.4 years, 76.1% women), treated by 62 physicians. Patients had suffered from chronic sinusitis for 10.7 ± 9.8 years. Almost all patients (97.0%) had previously been treated with conventional medicine. For sinusitis, effect size (effect divided by standard deviation at baseline) of complaint severity was 1.58 (95% CI 1.77; 1.40), 2.15 (2.38; 1.92), and 2.43 (2.68; 2.18) at 3, 12, and 24 months respectively. QoL improved accordingly, with SF-36 changes in physical component score 0.27 (0.15; 0.39), 0.35 (0.19; 0.52), 0.44 (0.23; 0.65) and mental component score 0.66 (0.49; 0.84), 0.71 (0.50; 0.92), 0.65 (0.39; 0.92), 0.74 (0.49; 1.00) at these points. The effects were still present after 8 years with SF-36 physical component score 0.38 (0.10; 0.65) and mental component score 0.74 (0.49; 1.00). Conclusion This observational study showed relevant improvements that persisted for 8 years in patients seeking homeopathic treatment because of sinusitis. The extent to which the observed effects are due to the life-style regulation and placebo or context effects associated with the treatment needs clarification in future explanatory studies. PMID:19635154

  18. Two-year follow up study of stress-related disorders among immigrants to Israel from the Chernobyl area.

    PubMed

    Cwikel, J; Abdelgani, A; Goldsmith, J R; Quastel, M; Yevelson, I I

    1997-12-01

    We report on findings from a 2-year follow-up study of immigrants originating from exposed areas around the site of the 1986 Chernobyl accident matched with comparison subjects emigrating from other republics in the Confederation of Independent States. In the initial study of 708 immigrants, the samples were matched by age, gender, and year of immigration. We assessed two exposure groups--high and low--by estimating levels of ground cesium contamination from the International Atomic Energy Agency maps. We reinterviewed 520 immigrants from the first wave of data collection (a reinterview rate of 73%), 87 from high-exposure areas, 217 from low-exposure areas, and 216 comparison subjects. This study examined the prevalence of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD), depression, somatization, anxiety, and physical effects (high blood pressure, acute symptoms, and chronic illness). The results obtained in the first wave conducted 8 years after the accident showed that psychological symptoms were significantly higher in exposed respondents than in the comparison group. During the second wave (10 years after the accident) we observed a decline in the prevalence of PTSD and related distress except for somatization, which remained at the same level. An association between exposure and high blood pressure was observed in the first wave of data, but was not still significant in the second wave of data collection. The proportion of those who reported three or more chronic health problems was 48.3% among the high-exposure group, 49.3% in the low-exposure group, and 30.6% in the comparison group (p = 0.0003). The most commonly reported problems were heart disease. problems with vision or hearing, migraine headaches, problems with the lymphatic system, and arthritis. Based on the results, it was concluded that the Chernobyl accident was a powerful stressor, having a strong impact on both mental and physical health. Since all respondents were engaged in the process of acculturation and accommodation to a new country after emigration, it is encouraging that this study shows that levels of psychological distress are waning as the new immigrants are absorbed into Israeli society. However, there still remains some independent effect on health associated with the experience of the Chernobyl accident. PMID:9467080

  19. Organ Dose Estimates for Hyperthyroid Patients Treated with (131)I: An Update of the Thyrotoxicosis Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Melo, Dunstana R; Brill, Aaron B; Zanzonico, Pat; Vicini, Paolo; Moroz, Brian; Kwon, Deukwoo; Lamart, Stephanie; Brenner, Alina; Bouville, André; Simon, Steven L

    2015-12-01

    The Thyrotoxicosis Therapy Follow-up Study (TTFUS) is comprised of 35,593 hyperthyroid patients treated from the mid-1940s through the mid-1960s. One objective of the TTFUS was to evaluate the long-term effects of high-dose iodine-131 ((131)I) treatment (1-4). In the TTFUS cohort, 23,020 patients were treated with (131)I, including 21,536 patients with Graves disease (GD), 1,203 patients with toxic nodular goiter (TNG) and 281 patients with unknown disease. The study population constituted the largest group of hyperthyroid patients ever examined in a single health risk study. The average number (±1 standard deviation) of (131)I treatments per patient was 1.7 ± 1.4 for the GD patients and 2.1 ± 2.1 for the TNG patients. The average total (131)I administered activity was 380 ± 360 MBq for GD patients and 640 ± 550 MBq for TNG patients. In this work, a biokinetic model for iodine was developed to derive organ residence times and to reconstruct the radiation-absorbed doses to the thyroid gland and to other organs resulting from administration of (131)I to hyperthyroid patients. Based on (131)I data for a small, kinetically well-characterized sub-cohort of patients, multivariate regression equations were developed to relate the numbers of disintegrations of (131)I in more than 50 organs and tissues to anatomical (thyroid mass) and clinical (percentage thyroid uptake and pulse rate) parameters. These equations were then applied to estimate the numbers of (131)I disintegrations in the organs and tissues of all other hyperthyroid patients in the TTFUS who were treated with (131)I. The reference voxel phantoms adopted by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were then used to calculate the absorbed doses in more than 20 organs and tissues of the body. As expected, the absorbed doses were found to be highest in the thyroid (arithmetic means of 120 and 140 Gy for GD and TNG patients, respectively). Absorbed doses in organs other than the thyroid were much smaller, with arithmetic means of 1.6 Gy, 1.5 Gy and 0.65 Gy for esophagus, thymus and salivary glands, respectively. The arithmetic mean doses to all other organs and tissues were more than 100 times less than those to the thyroid gland. To our knowledge, this work represents the most comprehensive study to date of the doses received by persons treated with (131)I for hyperthyroidism. PMID:26579944

  20. Implementing a nationwide criteria-based emergency medical dispatch system: A register-based follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A criteria-based nationwide Emergency Medical Dispatch (EMD) system was recently implemented in Denmark. We described the system and studied its ability to triage patients according to the severity of their condition by analysing hospital admission and case-fatality risks. Methods This was a register-based follow-up study of all 1-1-2 calls in a 6-month period that were triaged according to the Danish Index – the new criteria-based dispatch protocol. Danish Index data were linked with hospital and vital status data from national registries. Confidence intervals (95%) for proportions with binomial data were computed using exact methods. To test for trend the Wald test was used. Results Information on level of emergency according to the Danish Index rating was available for 67,135 patients who received ambulance service. Emergency level A (urgent cases) accounted for 51.4% (n?=?34,489) of patients, emergency level B for 46.3% (n?=?31,116), emergency level C for 2.1% (n?=?1,391) and emergency level D for 0.2% (n?=?139). For emergency level A, the median time from call receipt to ambulance dispatch was 2 min 1 s, and the median time to arrival was 6 min 11 s. Data concerning admission and case fatality was available for 55,270 patients. The hospital admission risk for emergency level A patients was 64.4% (95% CI?=?63.8-64.9). There was a significant trend (p?studies are needed to determine the degree of over- and undertriage and prognostic factors. PMID:23835246

  1. Effect of Intradiscal Methylene Blue Injection for the Chronic Discogenic Low Back Pain: One Year Prospective Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Hyun; Cho, Yun-Woo; Lee, Dong-Gyu

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of intradiscal methylene blue (MB) injection in patients with chronic discogenic low back pain. Method Twenty patients with discogenic low back pain (4 males, 16 females; mean age 45.6 years) refractory to conservative management were recruited. All subjects underwent MB injection in target lumbar intervertebral discs confirmed by provocative discography. The clinical outcome was assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI) at baseline and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after treatment. Successful outcome was described as minimum of 2 points reduction in pain intensity compared with the baseline. Results VAS and ODI significantly decreased after one injection. The average VAS and ODI were reduced significantly from 5.1 and 38.0 at baseline to 3.2 and 27.4 at 3 months after injection (p<0.05). However, the mean score of VAS at 12 month follow-up was 4.5 and we could not observe any difference between 12 months after injection and pretreatment. Eleven of twenty patients (55%) reported successful outcomes after intradiscal MB injection at 3 month follow up and the average VAS was reduced by 3.3±1.1 (p<0.05). At the time of 12 month follow up, pain had relapsed in 6 patients who have had satisfactory effect at 3 month follow up. Successful outcome was maintained in only 5 patients (20%) for 1 year. Conclusion The intradiscal MB injection is a short-term effective minimally invasive treatment indicated for discogenic back pain but it may lose its effectiveness long-term. PMID:23185730

  2. Examining the criminal history and future offending of child pornography offenders: an extended prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Eke, Angela W; Seto, Michael C; Williams, Jennette

    2011-12-01

    We examined police occurrence and criminal records data for a sample of 201 registered male child pornography offenders originally reported by Seto and Eke (Sex Abus J Res Treat 17:201-210, 2005), extending the average follow-up time for this sample to 5.9 years. In addition, we obtained the same data for another 340 offenders, increasing our full sample to 541 men, with a total average follow-up of 4.1 years. In the extended follow-up of the original sample, 34% of offenders had new charges for any type of reoffense, with 6% charged with a contact sexual offense against a child and an additional 3% charged with historical contact sex offenses (i.e., previously undetected offenses). For the full sample, there was a 32% any recidivism rate; 4% of offenders were charged with new contact sex offences, an additional 2% of offenders were charged with historical contact sex offenses and 7% of offenders were charged with a new child pornography offense. Predictors of new violent (including sexual contact) offending were prior offense history, including violent history, and younger offender age. Approximately a quarter of the sample was sanctioned for a failure on conditional release; in half of these failures, the offenders were in contact with children or used the internet, often to access pornography again. PMID:21088873

  3. Follow-up Methodology: A Comprehensive Study and Evaluation of Academic, Technical and Vocational Del Mar College Graduates from September 1, 1973, Through August 31, 1975, Including Ways, Means, Instruments, Relationships, and Methods of Follow-up. TEX-SIS FOLLOW-UP SC4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fite, Ronald S.

    This report details the research activities conducted by Del Mar College, as a subcontractor of Project FOLLOW-UP, in the design, development, and implementation of a graduate follow-up system. The activities included questionnaire design, development of manual and computerized record-keeping systems, student-graduate identification, and…

  4. Mesenteric blood flow is related to disease activity and risk of relapse in ulcerative colitis: a prospective follow up study

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, D; Wiener, S; Bruning, A; Schwarting, K; Jantschek, G; Fellermann, K; Stahl, M; Stange, E

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The diagnostic significance of increased splanchnic blood flow in ulcerative colitis is unclear. This prospective study was therefore undertaken to define the role of Doppler sonography in the assessment of disease activity and in the prediction of early relapse.?SUBJECTS/METHODS—Splanchnic flowmetry was performed in 76 patients with ulcerative colitis (47 with active disease and 29 in remission), six with infectious colitis, and 13 healthy controls during fasting and 30 minutes after ingestion of a standardised meal. Twenty seven of the patients with ulcerative colitis and all patients with infectious colitis were investigated during the active state as well as in clinical remission and followed up for six months. Flow velocity and pulsatility index (PI) of the superior (SMA) and inferior (IMA) mesenteric arteries and the portal vein were related to clinical (Truelove index), laboratory (C-reactive protein), and endoscopic (Sutherland index) parameters of disease activity.?RESULTS—The mean flow velocity of the IMA correlated closest with clinical activity (Truelove, r = 0.41, p<0.005), the PI with C-reactive protein (r = 0.30, p<0.05), and endoscopic activity (r = 0.45, p<0.001). All patients in remission after six months (14/14) or with infectious colitis (6/6) showed an increase in PI of the IMA compared with the initial measurement during active disease (mean increase for ulcerative colitis +36% and for infectious colitis +77%). In contrast, most patients with later relapse or surgery (11/13) had decreased PI during initial remission (mean decrease ?12%). The positive predictive value of this index for maintenance of remission was 0.77. Flow variables of the SMA and portal vein displayed weaker correlations.?CONCLUSIONS—Flow measurements in the IMA are closely related to clinical and endoscopic disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis. Repeated measurement of the PI allows estimation of the risk of recurrence.???Keywords: Doppler ultrasound; splanchnic haemodynamics; disease activity; ulcerative colitis; infectious colitis; inflammatory bowel disease PMID:10486363

  5. Is hypercapnia associated with poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? A long-term follow-up cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hui; Xiang, Pingchao; Zhang, Erming; Guo, Weian; Shi, Yanwei; Zhang, Shuo; Tong, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether hypercapnia may predict the prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Design Prospective cohort study comparing the survival of patients with COPD and normocapnia to those with chronic hypercapnia. Setting Patients with consecutive COPD were enrolled between 1 May 1993 and 31 October 2006 at two medical centres. Follow-up was censored on 31 October 2011. Participants A total of 275 patients with stable COPD and aged 40–85?years were enrolled. Diagnosis of hypercapnia was confirmed by blood gas analysis. Patients with near-terminal illness or comorbidities that affect PaCO2 (obstructive sleep apnoea, obesity-related hypoventilation, or neuromuscular disease) were excluded. The outcome of 98 patients with normocapnia and 177 with chronic hypercapnia was analysed. Outcome measures Overall survival. Results Median survival was longer in patients with normocapnia than in those with hypercapnia (6.5 vs 5.0?years, p=0.016). Multivariate COX regression analysis indicated that age (HR=1.043, 95% CI 1.012 to 1.076), Charlson Index, which is a measure of comorbidity (HR=1.172, 95% CI 1.067 to 1.288), use of medication (HR=0.565, 95% CI 0.379 to 0.842), body mass index (BMI) (HR=0.922, 95% CI 0.883 to 0.963), PaCO2 (HR=1.026, 95% CI 1.011 to 1.042), Cor pulmonale (HR=2.164, 95% CI 1.557 to 3.006), non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) (HR=0.615, 95% CI 0.429 to 0.881) and per cent of forced expiratory volume in 1?s (FEV1%) (HR=0.979, 95% CI 0.967 to 0.991), were independent risk factors for mortality. Conclusions Increased age, Charlson Index, chronic hypercapnia and Cor pulmonale, and decreased FEV1%, use of medication, BMI and NPPV, were associated with a poor prognosis in patients with COPD. PMID:26671953

  6. Extended follow-up and spatial analysis of the American Cancer Society study linking particulate air pollution and mortality.

    PubMed

    Krewski, Daniel; Jerrett, Michael; Burnett, Richard T; Ma, Renjun; Hughes, Edward; Shi, Yuanli; Turner, Michelle C; Pope, C Arden; Thurston, George; Calle, Eugenia E; Thun, Michael J; Beckerman, Bernie; DeLuca, Pat; Finkelstein, Norm; Ito, Kaz; Moore, D K; Newbold, K Bruce; Ramsay, Tim; Ross, Zev; Shin, Hwashin; Tempalski, Barbara

    2009-05-01

    We conducted an extended follow-up and spatial analysis of the American Cancer Society (ACS) Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II) cohort in order to further examine associations between long-term exposure to particulate air pollution and mortality in large U.S. cities. The current study sought to clarify outstanding scientific issues that arose from our earlier HEI-sponsored Reanalysis of the original ACS study data (the Particle Epidemiology Reanalysis Project). Specifically, we examined (1) how ecologic covariates at the community and neighborhood levels might confound and modify the air pollution-mortality association; (2) how spatial autocorrelation and multiple levels of data (e.g., individual and neighborhood) can be taken into account within the random effects Cox model; (3) how using land-use regression to refine measurements of air pollution exposure to the within-city (or intra-urban) scale might affect the size and significance of health effects in the Los Angeles and New York City regions; and (4) what exposure time windows may be most critical to the air pollution-mortality association. The 18 years of follow-up (extended from 7 years in the original study [Pope et al. 1995]) included vital status data for the CPS-II cohort (approximately 1.2 million participants) with multiple cause-of-death codes through December 31, 2000 and more recent exposure data from air pollution monitoring sites for the metropolitan areas. In the Nationwide Analysis, the influence of ecologic covariate data (such as education attainment, housing characteristics, and level of income; data obtained from the 1980 U.S. Census; see Ecologic Covariates sidebar on page 14) on the air pollution-mortality association were examined at the Zip Code area (ZCA) scale, the metropolitan statistical area (MSA) scale, and by the difference between each ZCA value and the MSA value (DIFF). In contrast to previous analyses that did not directly include ecologic covariates at the ZCA scale, risk estimates increased when ecologic covariates were included at all scales. The ecologic covariates exerted their greatest effect on mortality from ischemic heart disease (IHD), which was also the health outcome most strongly related with exposure to PM2.5 (particles 2.5 microm or smaller in aerodynamic diameter), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), and the only outcome significantly associated with exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2). When ecologic covariates were simultaneously included at both the MSA and DIFF levels, the hazard ratio (HR) for mortality from IHD associated with PM2.5 exposure (average concentration for 1999-2000) increased by 7.5% and that associated with SO4(2-) exposure (average concentration for 1990) increased by 12.8%. The two covariates found to exert the greatest confounding influence on the PM2.5-mortality association were the percentage of the population with a grade 12 education and the median household income. Also in the Nationwide Analysis, complex spatial patterns in the CPS-II data were explored with an extended random effects Cox model (see Glossary of Statistical Terms at end of report) that is capable of clustering up to two geographic levels of data. Using this model tended to increase the HR estimate for exposure to air pollution and also to inflate the uncertainty in the estimates. Including ecologic covariates decreased the variance of the results at both the MSA and ZCA scales; the largest decrease was in residual variation based on models in which the MSA and DIFF levels of data were included together, which suggests that partitioning the ecologic covariates into between-MSA and within-MSA values more completely captures the sources of variation in the relationship between air pollution, ecologic covariates, and mortality. Intra-Urban Analyses were conducted for the New York City and Los Angeles regions. The results of the Los Angeles spatial analysis, where we found high exposure contrasts within the Los Angeles region, showed that air pollution-mortality risks were nearly 3 times greater than those reported fro

  7. PLATINO, a nine-year follow-up study of COPD in the city of São Paulo, Brazil: the problem of underdiagnosis*

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Graciane Laender; Manzano, Beatriz Martins; Gazzotti, Mariana Rodrigues; Nascimento, Oliver Augusto; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Jardim, José Roberto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the underdiagnosis rate in new COPD cases at the end of a nine-year follow-up period-in the study designated "Projeto Latino-Americano de Investigação em Obstrução Pulmonar" (PLATINO, Latin-American Pulmonary Obstruction Investigation Project)-and compare that with the underdiagnosis rate during the initial phase of the study, as well as to identify the clinical features exhibited by the subjects who were not diagnosed until the end of the follow-up phase. METHODS: The study population comprised the 1,000 residents of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, who took part in the PLATINO study. Of those, 613 participated in the follow-up phase, during which the subjects were assessed with the same instruments and equipment employed in the initial phase of the study. We used the chi-square test or the independent sample t-test to analyze the underdiagnosis rate and to identify the characteristics of the subjects who were not diagnosed until the end of the follow-up phase. RESULTS: The underdiagnosis rate for new COPD cases at the end of the nine-year follow-up period was 70.0%. The underdiagnosis rate during the follow-up phase was 17.5% lower than that reported for the initial phase of the study. The subjects who were not diagnosed until the end of the follow-up phase presented with fewer respiratory symptoms, better pulmonary function, and less severe disease than did those previously diagnosed with COPD. CONCLUSIONS: The underdiagnosis rate for new COPD cases was lower in the follow-up phase of the study than in the initial phase. The subjects who were not diagnosed until the end of the follow-up phase of the PLATINO study presented with the same clinical profile as did those who were not diagnosed in the initial phase. These findings underscore the need for spirometry in order to confirm the diagnosis of COPD and provide early intervention. PMID:24626267

  8. Semiautomatic segmentation and follow-up of multicomponent low-grade tumors in longitudinal brain MRI studies

    SciTech Connect

    Weizman, Lior; Sira, Liat Ben; Joskowicz, Leo; Rubin, Daniel L.; Yeom, Kristen W.; Constantini, Shlomi; Shofty, Ben; Bashat, Dafna Ben

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Tracking the progression of low grade tumors (LGTs) is a challenging task, due to their slow growth rate and associated complex internal tumor components, such as heterogeneous enhancement, hemorrhage, and cysts. In this paper, the authors show a semiautomatic method to reliably track the volume of LGTs and the evolution of their internal components in longitudinal MRI scans. Methods: The authors' method utilizes a spatiotemporal evolution modeling of the tumor and its internal components. Tumor components gray level parameters are estimated from the follow-up scan itself, obviating temporal normalization of gray levels. The tumor delineation procedure effectively incorporates internal classification of the baseline scan in the time-series as prior data to segment and classify a series of follow-up scans. The authors applied their method to 40 MRI scans of ten patients, acquired at two different institutions. Two types of LGTs were included: Optic pathway gliomas and thalamic astrocytomas. For each scan, a “gold standard” was obtained manually by experienced radiologists. The method is evaluated versus the gold standard with three measures: gross total volume error, total surface distance, and reliability of tracking tumor components evolution. Results: Compared to the gold standard the authors' method exhibits a mean Dice similarity volumetric measure of 86.58% and a mean surface distance error of 0.25 mm. In terms of its reliability in tracking the evolution of the internal components, the method exhibits strong positive correlation with the gold standard. Conclusions: The authors' method provides accurate and repeatable delineation of the tumor and its internal components, which is essential for therapy assessment of LGTs. Reliable tracking of internal tumor components over time is novel and potentially will be useful to streamline and improve follow-up of brain tumors, with indolent growth and behavior.

  9. Social class inequalities in health among occupational cohorts from Finland, Britain and Japan: a follow up study.

    PubMed

    Lahelma, Eero; Pietiläinen, Olli; Rahkonen, Ossi; Kivimäki, Mika; Martikainen, Pekka; Ferrie, Jane; Marmot, Michael; Shipley, Martin; Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi; Lallukka, Tea

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether relative occupational social class inequalities in physical health functioning widen, narrow or remain stable among white collar employees from three affluent countries. Health functioning was assessed twice in occupational cohorts from Britain (1997-1999 and 2003-2004), Finland (2000-2002 and 2007) and Japan (1998-1999 and 2003). Widening inequalities were seen for British and Finnish men, whereas inequalities among British and Finnish women remained relatively stable. Japanese women showed reverse inequalities at follow up, but no health inequalities were seen among Japanese men. Health behaviours and social relations explained 4-37% of the magnitude in health inequalities, but not their widening. PMID:25545770

  10. Internet screening for anxiety disorders: Treatment-seeking outcomes in a three-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ameringen, Michael Van; Simpson, William; Patterson, Beth; Turna, Jasmine

    2015-12-15

    Although many people use the internet to diagnose mental health problems, little is known about the relationship between internet self-diagnosis and treatment-seeking. The MACSCREEN (a validated, self-report screening tool for anxiety and depression) was posted on our clinic homepage and respondents were invited to take an anxiety test. Three months after completing the MACSREEN and a variety of symptom severity scales, respondents were emailed a follow up questionnaire asking about treatment-seeking behaviours. Of the 770 MACSCREEN respondents, 103 completed the follow-up questionnaire. Of these, 100% met criteria for at least one anxiety or mood disorder diagnosis and 51% sought treatment after completing the MACSCREEN. In the 49% who did not seek treatment, fear of medication (57%), discomfort talking to their doctor about anxiety (28%) and the belief that symptoms were not severe enough (28%) were cited as barriers. Compared to non-seekers, treatment-seekers were significantly more likely to meet screening criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression. Higher Sheehan Disability Scale scores and being married (versus single) significantly increased the odds of treatment-seeking, suggesting that functional impairment and disease burden on the family may be stronger predictors of treatment seeking than overall severity of symptoms. PMID:26553144

  11. Different outcomes of never-treated and treated patients with schizophrenia: 14-year follow-up study in rural China.

    PubMed

    Ran, Mao-Sheng; Weng, Xue; Chan, Cecilia Lai-Wan; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai; Tang, Cui-Ping; Lin, Fu-Rong; Mao, Wen-Jun; Hu, Shi-Hui; Huang, Yue-Qin; Xiang, Meng-Ze

    2015-12-01

    BackgroundThe long-term outcome of never-treated patients with schizophrenia is unclear.AimsTo compare the 14-year outcomes of never-treated and treated patients with schizophrenia and to establish predictors for never being treated.MethodAll participants with schizophrenia (n = 510) in Xinjin, Chengdu, China were identified in an epidemiological investigation of 123 572 people and followed up from 1994 to 2008.ResultsThe results showed that there were 30.6%, 25.0% and 20.4% of patients who received no antipsychotic medication in 1994, 2004 and 2008 respectively. Compared with treated patients, those who were never treated in 2008 were significantly older, had significantly fewer family members, had higher rates of homelessness, death from other causes, being unmarried, living alone, being without a caregiver and poor family attitudes. Partial and complete remission in treated patients (57.3%) was significantly higher than that in the never-treated group (29.8%). Predictors of being in the never-treated group in 2008 encompassed baseline never-treated status, being without a caregiver and poor mental health status in 1994.ConclusionsMany patients with schizophrenia still do not receive antipsychotic medication in rural areas of China. The 14-year follow-up showed that outcomes for the untreated group were worse. Community-based mental healthcare, health insurance and family intervention are crucial for earlier diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation in the community. PMID:26382951

  12. Longitudinal health study of US 1991 Gulf War veterans: changes in health status at 10-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Mahan, Clare M; Kang, Han K; Eisen, Seth A; Engel, Charles C

    2011-10-01

    The authors assessed changes in the health status of US 1991 Gulf War-era veterans from a 1995 baseline survey to a 2005 follow-up survey, using repeated measurement data from 5,469 deployed Gulf War veterans and 3,353 nondeployed Gulf War-era veterans who participated in both surveys. Prevalence differences in health status between the 2 surveys were estimated for adverse health indices and chronic diseases for each veteran group. Persistence risk ratios and incidence risk ratios were calculated after adjustment for demographic and military service characteristics through Mantel-Haenszel stratified analysis. At 10-year follow-up, deployed veterans were more likely to report persistent poor health, as measured by the health indices (functional impairment, limitation of activities, repeated clinic visits, recurrent hospitalizations, perception of health as fair or poor, chronic fatigue syndrome-like illness, and posttraumatic stress disorder), than nondeployed veterans. Additionally, deployed veterans were more likely to experience new onset of adverse health (as measured by the indices) and certain chronic diseases than were nondeployed veterans. During the 10-year period from 1995 to 2005, the health of deployed veterans worsened in comparison with nondeployed veterans because of a higher rate of new onset of various health outcomes and greater persistence of previously reported adverse health on the indices. PMID:21795757

  13. Unexplained chest pain in patients with normal coronary arteriograms: a follow-up study of functional status.

    PubMed

    Ockene, I S; Shay, M J; Alpert, J S; Weiner, B H; Dalen, J E

    1980-11-27

    Approximately 10 per cent of patients referred for coronary arteriography because of chest pain have angiographically normal coronary arteries and no other heart disease. We examined the functional status of 57 patients who had undergone catheterization (23 men and 34 women), all of whom were told that their hearts were normal, that their pain was noncardiac, and that no limitation on activity was necessary. At a mean follow-up time of 16 +/- 7.7 months, 27 of the 57 patients (47 per cent) still described their activity as limited by chest pain (before catheterization, 42 of 57 or 74 per cent); 29 of 57 (51 per cent) were unable to work (before catheterization, 36 of 57 or 63 per cent); and 25 of 57 (44 per cent) still believed that they had heart disease (before catheterization, 45 of 57 or 79 per cent). Use of medical facilities was significantly reduced after catheterization (P < 0.001). At follow-up the physician was more likely than the patient to believe that the symptoms had improved. We conclude that many of these patients remain limited in activity and may benefit from further efforts at comunication and rehabilitation. PMID:7421961

  14. Revision hip arthroplasty using impacted cancellous bone and cement: a long-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Gowthaman; Nanjayan, Shashi Kumar; Quah, Conal; Wraighte, Philip; Howard, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Acetabular bone deficiency is one of the many challenging problems encountered in revision hip arthroplasty. A variety of surgical options and techniques are available including impaction bone grafting. We present our long-term experience of 68 consecutive cups in 64 patients, using impacted cancellous bone grafting with bone cement. With a mean follow-up of 10.5 year (IQR 7.5-12.9) after revision surgery, three implants had undergone further revision. Three patients had subsequent femoral peri-prosthetic fractures, and none of these three required further acetabular revision. Survival of the acetabular components was 95.5 % for all causes and 100 % for aseptic loosening as the end point, with a further four patients showing radiographic, but asymptomatic loosening. A significant correlation was found between previous revision and re-revision (early failure) (p = 0.01) as well as progression of lytic lesion and re-revision (p = 0.01). The median Harris hip score at final follow-up was 79.5 (IQR 67.9-80.4). The use of impacted morcellised allograft bone with a cemented cup is an effective technique to achieve longevity and restoration of bone stock in acetabular revision arthroplasty. Our series has shown good clinical and radiological outcome with survivorship of the prosthesis exceeding 95 % at 10 years. PMID:26399609

  15. Asymmetric dimethylarginine predicts decline of glucose tolerance in men with stable coronary artery disease: a 4.5-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Endothelial dysfunction, largely dependent on impaired nitric oxide bioavailability, has been reportedly associated with incident type 2 diabetes. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide formation, might be linked to future deterioration in glucose tolerance in stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods We studied 80 non-diabetic men (mean age 55?±?11 years) with stable angina who underwent successful elective complex coronary angioplasty and were receiving a standard medication according to practice guidelines. Plasma ADMA and its structural isomer symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) were measured prior to coronary angiography. An estimate of insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR index) was calculated from fasting insulin and glucose. Deterioration in glucose tolerance was defined as development of type 2 diabetes or progression from a normal glucose tolerance to impaired fasting glucose. Results Over a median follow-up of 55 months 11 subjects developed type 2 diabetes and 13 progressed to impaired fasting glucose. Incident deterioration of glucose tolerance was associated with ADMA (hazard ratio [HR] per 1-SD increment 1.64 [95% CI: 1.14–2.35]; P?=?0.007), log (HOMA-IR index) (HR?=?1.60 [1.16–2.20]; P?=?0.004) and body-mass index (HR?=?1.44 [0.95–2.17]; P?=?0.08) by univariate Cox regression. ADMA (HR?=?1.65 [1.14–2.38]; p?=?0.008) and log (HOMA-IR index) (HR?=?1.55 [1.10–2.17]; P?=?0.01) were multivariate predictors of a decline in glucose tolerance. ADMA and SDMA were unrelated to body-mass index, HOMA-IR index, insulin or glucose. Conclusions ADMA predicts future deterioration of glucose tolerance independently of baseline insulin resistance in men with stable CAD. Whether this association reflects a contribution of endothelial dysfunction to accelerated decline of insulin sensitivity, or represents only an epiphenomenon accompanying pre-diabetes, remains to be elucidated. The observed relationship might contribute to the well-recognized ability of ADMA to predict cardiovascular outcome. PMID:23578341

  16. How do stroke patients fare when discharged straight to their homes? A controlled study on the significance of hospital follow-up after one month.

    PubMed

    Ytterberg, C; Anderson Malm, S; Britton, M

    2000-06-01

    In our experience, stroke patients discharged straight to their homes sometimes showed marked deterioration. We investigated whether this negative course of events could be prevented by means of follow-up visits entailing extensive testing and resultant measures one month after discharge. The patients in our study included a selection of mild cases with a short length of hospital stay. Forty-six patients returned to the stroke unit on a follow-up visit, and 49 patients made up the control group. The groups were compared after 3 months, by means of questionnaires. The results did not show any definite difference between the groups. However, after 3 months we detected depressions in 13 patients in the study group and in 11 patients in the control group, most of them untreated. The study points to a need for follow-up aimed specifically at detecting depression. PMID:10853724

  17. Meaning in life and non-suicidal self-injury: A follow-up study with participants with Borderline Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Marco, José H; Garcia-Alandete, Joaquín; Pérez, Sandra; Guillen, Verónica; Jorquera, Mercedes; Espallargas, Pilar; Botella, Cristina

    2015-12-15

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is considered one of the defining features of people diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). Longitudinal studies are needed to identify factors predicting future NSSI in BPD participants. Several studies have shown that low meaning in life is associated with mental health problems, addiction problems, depression, hopelessness, and suicide. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether meaning in life predicts the frequency of NSSI behaviors during the one-year follow-up. The sample was composed up of 80 participants with a BPD diagnosis. We assessed the frequency of NSSI behaviors over a 12-month follow-up period. The results suggest that the participants who had low meaning in life had more frequency of NSSI, depression, and hopelessness at baseline, and more frequency of NSSI during the follow-up, than participants with high meaning in life. The predictor variables: Frequency of NSSI at base line, depression, hopelessness, and meaning in life, significantly predicted the frequency of NSSI during the one-year follow-up. Therefore, meaning in life was the only predictor of NSSI during the follow-up period. PMID:26493324

  18. Use of a run-in period to decrease loss to follow-up in the Contact Lens and Myopia Progression (CLAMP) study. | accrualnet.cancer.gov

    Cancer.gov

    A run-in period is a time of observation prior to randomization during which potential subjects can be screened for compliance with a treatment regimen. In this study, the run-in period increased the number of compliant participants, decreased losses to follow-up, improved the statistical power of the study, and did not limit the generalizability of the study results.

  19. Persistent financial hardship, 11-year weight gain, and health behaviors in the Whitehall II study

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Annalijn I; Forouhi, Nita G; Brunner, Eric J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To ascertain prospectively gender-specific associations between types and amounts of financial hardship and weight gain, and investigate potential behavioral mechanisms. Methods Prospective study of 3701 adult British civil servants with repeated measures of difficulty paying bills or insufficient money to afford adequate for food/clothing (1985-1988; 1989-1990; 1991-1993; 1997-1999), and weight (1985-1988; 1997-1999). Results Persistent hardships were associated with adjusted mean weight change in women over 10.9 years, but no consistent pattern was seen in men. During follow-up, 46% of women gained ?5 kg. Women reporting persistent insufficient money for food/clothing had a significantly greater odds of gaining ?5 kg (1.42 [1.05, 1.92]) compared to no hardship history, which remained after socioeconomic status (SES) adjustment (1.45 [1.05, 2.01]). The association between persistent difficulty paying bills and odds of excess weight gain was also significant (1.42 [1.03, 1.97]) but attenuated after considering SES (1.39 [0.98, 1.97]). Four health behaviors as single measures or change variables did not attenuate associations. Conclusions Results suggested strategies to tackle obesity must address employed women's everyday financial troubles which may influence weight through more biological pathways than classical correlates of economic disadvantage and weight. PMID:25155547

  20. A multiyear follow-up study examining the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral group therapy program on the recidivism of juveniles on probation.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Jeremy D; Malone, Michael D; Rose, Paul; Sturgeon, Dennis; Owens, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    The present study evaluated the long-term effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral group therapy program titled Community Opportunity Growth. This study monitored juvenile delinquents' recidivism across a 7-year time period, with the average length to follow-up being 39 months. It was hypothesized that program graduates (N = 178) would have a significantly lower recidivism rate than a control group (program nonstarters; N = 66) and program dropouts (whose predisposing factors may have influenced their program participation; N = 150). Analyses controlled for sex, ethnicity, age, prior petitions, highest class of prior petition, and months to follow-up. Results show a general trend indicating the long-term effectiveness of the program as graduates had a lower incidence of petitions at follow-up compared with dropouts and fewer petitions compared with the other two groups. PMID:24170185

  1. A Comparative Study of Nurses as Case Manager and Telephone Follow-up on Clinical Outcomes of Patients with Severe Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Malakouti, Seyed Kazem; Nojomi, Marzieh; Mirabzadeh, Arash; Mottaghipour, Yasaman; Zahiroddin, Alireza; Kangrani, Hamed Mohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Providing community-based mental health services is crucial and is an agreed plan between the Iranian Mental Health Office and the Regional Committee for the Eastern Mediterranean (affiliated with WHO). The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of home-visit clinical case-management services on the hospitalization rate and other clinical outcomes in patients with severe mental illness. Methods: A total of 182 patients were randomly allocated into three groups, namely, home-visit (n=60), telephone follow-up (n=61) and as-usual care (n=61) groups. Trained nurses as clinical case-managers provided home-visit services and the telephone follow-up tasks. Hospitalization rate as a measure of recurrence, as well as burden, knowledge, general health condition of caregivers with positive/negative symptoms, satisfaction, quality of life, and social skills of the consumers were assessed as the main and secondary outcomes, respectively. Results: Most clinical variables were improved in both intervention groups compared with the control group. During the one year follow-up, the rate of rehospitalization for the telephone follow-up and as-usual groups were respectively 1.5 and 2.5 times higher than the home-visit group. Conclusion: Trained clinical case-managers are capable of providing continuous care services to patients with severe mental illness. The telephone follow-up services could also have beneficiary outcome for the consumers, their caregivers, and the health system network. PMID:26722141

  2. Incident atrial fibrillation in the emergency department in Ontario: a population-based retrospective cohort study of follow-up care

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bing; Ivers, Noah; Rochon, Paula; Lee, Douglas S.; Schull, Michael J.; Austin, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Continuity of care has been shown to be poor following in-hospital discharge, and there are substantially fewer resources to facilitate follow-up care arrangements after discharge from an emergency department. Our objective was to assess the frequency, timeliness and predictors for obtaining follow-up care following discharge from an emergency department in Ontario with a new diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study involving all patients discharged from the 157 nonpediatric emergency departments in Ontario, who received a new diagnosis of atrial fibrillation between 2007 and 2012. We determined the frequency of follow-up care with a family physician, cardiologist or internist within 7 (timely) and 30 days of the emergency department visit, and assessed the association of emergency and family physician characteristics, including primary care model type, with obtaining timely follow-up care. Results Among 14 907 patients discharged from Ontario emergency departments with a new, primary diagnosis of atrial fibrillation, half (n = 7473) had timely follow-up care. At 30 days, 2678 patients (18.0%) still had not obtained follow-up care. Among emergency and family physician factors, lack of a family physician had the largest independent association with acquiring timely follow-up care (odds ratio [OR] 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50–0.69). Using patients with a family physician belonging to a primarily fee-for-service remuneration model as the comparison group, patients with a family physician belonging to a capitation-based Family Health Network, as part of a Family Health Team, were less likely to receive timely follow-up care (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.62–0.86), as were those whose family physician belonged to the same model type that was not part of a Family Health Team (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.60–0.97). Interpretation Only half of the patients who were discharged from an emergency department in Ontario with a new diagnosis of atrial fibrillation were seen within 7 days of discharge. The most influential factor was having a family physician; patients with a family physician being remunerated via primarily fee-for-service methods were more likely to be seen within 7 days than those who were reimbursed through a primarily capitation model. Systems-wide solutions are needed to ensure timely follow-up care is available for all patients with chronic diseases. PMID:26389096

  3. Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis—Review of the Literature with Follow-up Studies and Report of Two New Cases

    PubMed Central

    Summers, John E.

    1966-01-01

    In the period from 1958, when Rosen and coworkers first reported a condition in which the pulmonary alveoli are filled with an eosinophilic material, to the beginning of 1964, reports of 93 cases had accumulated in the world literature, including two cases included herein. The cause of this disease, which Rosen called “pulmonary alveolar proteinosis,” is not known, nor is there a known means of cure. The usual patient is a white man between 30 and 50 years of age who may do any kind of work. The first symptoms may be those of pulmonary infection or pulmonary insufficiency. Patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis are prone to nocardiosis and infection with other fungi. Diagnosis is made by lung biopsy. Twenty of the 93 patients reported upon were alive at the time of this review, 37 were dead and 36 had been lost to follow-up. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:5336559

  4. Diagnoses behind patients with hard-to-classify tremor and normal DaT-SPECT: a clinical follow up study

    PubMed Central

    Menéndez-González, Manuel; Tavares, Francisco; Zeidan, Nahla; Salas-Pacheco, José M.; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    The [123I]ioflupane—a dopamine transporter radioligand—SPECT (DaT-SPECT) has proven to be useful in the differential diagnosis of tremor. Here, we investigate the diagnoses behind patients with hard-to-classify tremor and normal DaT-SPECT. Therefore, 30 patients with tremor and normal DaT-SPECT were followed up for 2 years. In 18 cases we were able to make a diagnosis. The residual 12 patients underwent a second DaT-SPECT, were then followed for additional 12 months and thereafter the diagnosis was reconsidered again. The final diagnoses included cases of essential tremor, dystonic tremor, multisystem atrophy, vascular parkinsonism, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, fragile X–associated tremor ataxia syndrome, psychogenic parkinsonism, iatrogenic parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease. However, for 6 patients the diagnosis remained uncertain. Larger series are needed to better establish the relative frequency of the different conditions behind these cases. PMID:24744729

  5. Controlled five-year follow-up study of laser trabeculoplasty as primary therapy for open-angle glaucoma

    SciTech Connect

    Tuulonen, A.; Niva, A.K.; Alanko, H.I.

    1987-10-15

    We followed up 32 eyes of 32 patients with early glaucoma (22 with capsular glaucoma and ten with simple glaucoma) who received laser trabeculoplasty as a primary therapy. These eyes were compared with a matched control group of 32 eyes treated with medication initially. The success rate (intraocular pressure below 22 mm Hg with laser alone or medication alone) at five years was 50% (16 of 32 eyes) in the laser-treated group and 22% (seven of 32 eyes) in the control group (P less than .02). The control group required more modifications of their therapy to control intraocular pressure. The neuroretinal rim area in the control eyes decreased 2.5 times as much as in the laser group (P = .017). Changes in the Friedmann visual fields did not differ significantly between the two groups.

  6. Need-adapted treatment of schizophrenia: a five-year follow-up study from the Turku project.

    PubMed

    Lehtinen, K

    1993-02-01

    The five-year follow-up results of 28 first-contact schizophrenic patients are compared with an older patient series of 53 patients from the same district. The treatment of the new series followed the principles of the need-adapted model. The emphasis was on immediate initial crisis-oriented family interventions. The treatment of the old series followed psychodynamic principles with an emphasis on individual and milieu therapy. The patients in the new group manage better with half the number of hospital days and less outpatient treatment. The differences are most clear in men. The crisis orientation caused failure in sustaining longer treatment relationships. This was harmful for patients and families with a more chronic development. In future, better continuity of treatment must be emphasized. PMID:8447245

  7. [Cognitive-psychoeducational group programme for bipolar disorder: pilot study with two-year follow-up].

    PubMed

    Schaub, A; Neubauer, N; Bernhard, B; Born, C; Möller, H-J; Grunze, H

    2013-05-01

    52 patients with bipolar disorder were treated with psychopharmacotherapy and a cognitive psychoeducational group programme that was established at the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of the Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany. The programme covers psychoeducation, identifying and coping with depressive and manic symptoms, relapse prevention and establishing a stable life style. 96 % rated the group to be helpful and felt well informed about their illness. There were significant gains in knowledge (F = 25,714, p < 0.001) and improvements in the severity of the illness (CGI; F = 68,255, p < 0.001) post-treatment. With regard to sociodemographic and clinical variables, only the level of work qualification showed a differential treatment response: patients with higher qualifications had a more favourable course of the illness (F = 4,125, p = 0.048). At one and two year follow-up 25 % and, respectively, 30 % of the sample had to be readmitted. A higher number of previous hospitalisations (p = 0.010) and male sex (p = 0.031) turned out to be significant predictors of relapse (R² = 0.358, p = 0.004) at two year follow-up. This disorder-specific group programme represents a key component of treatment offering emotional support for patients and their relatives. Patients are to be involved in the treatment process and need information about the illness, its psychosocial and pharmacological treatment as well as help in learning practical skills to improve their living with the disease. Being integrated and committed to a supporting network may increase their quality of life. PMID:23681715

  8. Clinical Follow-Up of Responses to Treatment with Benznidazol in Amazon: A Cohort Study of Acute Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Ana Yecê das Neves; Valente, Vera da Costa; Coura, José Rodrigues; Valente, Sebastião Aldo da Silva; Junqueira, Angela Cristina Veríssimo; Santos, Laura Cristina; Ferreira, Alberto Gomes; de Macedo, Roberto Cavalleiro

    2013-01-01

    A total of 179 individuals with acute Chagas disease mainly transmitted by oral source, from Pará and Amapá State, Amazonian, Brazil were included during the period from 1988 to 2005. Blood samples were used to survey peripheral blood for T. cruzi hemoparasites by quantitative buffy coat (QBC), indirect xenodiagnosis, blood culture and serology to detection of total IgM and anti-T. cruzi IgG antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and indirect hemagglutination assay (HA). All assays were performed pre-treatment (0 days) and repeated 35 (±7) and 68 (±6) days after the initiation of treatment with benznidazol and every 6 months while remained seropositive. The endpoint of collection was performed in 2005. Total medium period of follow-up per person was 5.6 years. Also, a blood sample was collected from 72 randomly chosen treated patients to perform polimerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Proportions of subjects with negative or positive serology according to the number of years after treatment were compared. In the endpoint of follow-up we found 47 patients (26.7%) serologically negative, therefore considered cured and 5 (2.7%) exhibited mild cardiac Chagas disease. Other 132 patients had persistent positive serologic tests. The PCR carried out in 72 individuals was positive in 9.8%. Added, there was evidence of therapeutic failure immediately following treatment, as demonstrated by xenodiagnosis and blood culture methods in 2.3% and 3.5% of cases, respectively. There was a strong evidence of antibody clearing in the fourth year after treatment and continuous decrease of antibody titers. Authors suggest that control programs should apply operational researches with new drug interventions four years after the acute phase for those treated patients with persistently positive serology. PMID:23724050

  9. [Results of various operations for syndactylia (follow-up studies and statistical evaluation of 101 primary operations)].

    PubMed

    Neff, G; Plaue, R; Aulbach, D

    1978-01-01

    101 cases of syndactyly in 34 male and 14 female infants who were aged three months to seven years at the time of their initial surgery were reviewed one to 9.5 years thereafter. The web space was formed by a palmar and a dorsal flap; in 50% of all commissures the result was found satisfactory in the follow-up series. Straight incision - performed in two thirds of our cases - caused scar contractures and deformities of several fingers. In contrary, zig-zag or wavy incisions showed good results. Using almost exclusively full thickness skin grafts from the arm, the donor site looked poor because of non-cosmetic scares and keloids. After surgery two thirds of all patients used a special splint for finger abduction for an average of about one year; neither an amelioration of insufficient primary surgery was achieved nor reappearance of syndactylism could be avoided by this device. The mobility of joints was partially decreased regardless of the pre-operative condition. Combined functions in grasping, however, were not restricted to a considerable degree. There was no difference between cutaneous and osseous syndactylism with respect to the abduction ability. Even slight impairment of wound healing caused reappearance of syndactylism; reseparation of fingers was necessary 32 times during a ten year period of follow-up. Scar contractures - especially after necrosis of skin grafts and deep infections - required early correction, while slowly developing secondary webs had to be separated some years later. Disturbance of wound healing must, therefore, be treated adequately, or better should be avoided by precise surgery and careful management of postoperative dressing. PMID:211072

  10. Assessing the Long-Term Effects of EMDR: Results from an 18-Month Follow-Up Study with Adult Female Survivors of CSA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmond, Tonya; Rubin, Allen

    2004-01-01

    This 18-month follow-up study builds on the findings of a randomized experimental evaluation that found qualified support for the short-term effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in reducing trauma symptoms among adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The current study provides preliminary evidence…

  11. Continuity, Comorbidity and Longitudinal Associations between Depression and Antisocial Behaviour in Middle Adolescence: A 2-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritakallio, Minna; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated continuity, comorbidity and longitudinal associations between depression Beck depression inventory (RBDI) and antisocial behaviour Youth self-report (YSR) in middle adolescence. Data were used from a community sample of 2070 adolescents who participated in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. The results indicate that both…

  12. High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) First Follow-Up: A First Look at Fall 2009 Ninth-Graders in 2012. NCES 2014-360

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; Dalton, Ben

    2013-01-01

    This report provides a first look at selected findings from the first follow-up of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09). HSLS:09 focuses on understanding students' trajectories from the beginning of high school into higher education and the workforce. The core research questions for the study explore secondary to postsecondary…

  13. Who Is Physically Active? Cultural Capital and Sports Participation from Adolescence to Middle Age--A 38-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engstrom, Lars-Magnus

    2008-01-01

    Background: Many studies have found that there is a low-to-moderate association between exercise during adolescence and exercise habits in adulthood. A question that arises from these earlier studies, with a follow-up period of about five to 20 years, is how children's and adolescents' physical activity affects their inclination to exercise later…

  14. Excess Mortality and Causes of Death in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Follow up of the 1980s Utah/UCLA Autism Epidemiologic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilder, Deborah; Botts, Elizabeth L.; Smith, Ken R.; Pimentel, Richard; Farley, Megan; Viskochil, Joseph; McMahon, William M.; Block, Heidi; Ritvo, Edward; Ritvo, Riva-Ariella; Coon, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    This study's purpose was to investigate mortality among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) ascertained during a 1980s statewide autism prevalence study (n = 305) in relation to controls. Twenty-nine of these individuals (9.5 %) died by the time of follow up, representing a hazard rate ratio of 9.9 (95 % CI 5.7-17.2) in relation to…

  15. A Cognitive- Behavioral Therapeutic Program for Patients with Obesity and Binge Eating Disorder: Short- and Long- Term Follow-Up Data of a Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderlinden, Johan; Adriaensen, An; Vancampfort, Davy; Pieters, Guido; Probst, Michel; Vansteelandt, Kristof

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate the efficacy of a manualized cognitive-behavioral therapeutic (CBT) approach for patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) on the short and longer term. A prospective study without a control group consisting of three measurements (a baseline measurement and two follow-up assessments up to 5…

  16. A Six-Year Follow-Up Study of Social Network Changes among African-American, Caribbean, and U.S.-Born Caucasian Urban Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Francine; Magai, Carol; Jones, Samuel; Fiori, Katherine; Gillespie, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study explores dynamic changes in network size and composition by examining patterns of older adults' social network change over time, that is: types of movements; the reason for the loss of network members; and the relation of movement and composition in concert. This study is a 6-year follow up of changes in the social networks of U.S.-Born…

  17. The Effect of Correctional Education on Postrelease Employment and Recidivism: A 5-Year Follow-Up Study in the State of Indiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Susan; Nally, John M.; Ho, Taiping; Knutson, Katie

    2012-01-01

    Research has consistently revealed that released offenders, if unemployed and uneducated, would likely become recidivist offenders. This study was a 5-year follow-up study (2005-2009) of 6,561 offenders who were released from the Indiana Department of Correction (IDOC) to five metropolitan counties during the calendar year 2005. It examined the…

  18. Persistent financial hardship, 11-year weight gain and health behaviours in the Whitehall II study

    E-print Network

    Conklin, Annalijn I.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Brunner, Eric J.; Monsivais, Pablo

    2014-08-24

    for food or clothing were more likely to gain ?5 kg over 11 years, inde- pendent of SES. The independent association of cumulative hardship and excess weight gain was not explained by classical correlates of eco- nomic disadvantage and weight. Results...

  19. Black Women's Health Study (BWHS): A Follow-up Study for Causes of Illness in Black Women

    Cancer.gov

    The Black Women's Health Study (BWHS) cohort was established in 1995 when 59,000 black women ages 21 to 69 years from all regions of the United States completed mail questionnaires providing data on a wide range of factors.

  20. A Fifteen Year Follow Up Study of the North Kansas City Public Schools Work Study Graduates. 1966-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coonley, Pat; And Others

    Data were collected at a 15 year class reunion of 100 graduates of a work study program for educable mentally retarded students in the North Kansas City Public Schools. Ss were interviewed personally by one of their former teachers or the vocational adjustment coordinator. Among findings were the following: 64% had their own automobile; 56% lived…

  1. Coroner autopsy study of homicides in Rivers State of Nigeria: 11-year review.

    PubMed

    Obiorah, C C; Amakiri, C N

    2014-01-01

    As most developing countries, including Nigeria, grapple with economic crisis, poor human capital development and high levels of income inequality, violent crimes - especially homicides - continue to be a cause for concern. We studied the pathology and demographic distribution of homicides in Rivers State of Nigeria expecting that the findings would be useful in formulating preventive strategies. Reports of homicide autopsies in the state for 11 years were retrospectively scrutinized for age, gender, type of weapon, site of injury, circumstances, mechanisms and causes of death. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Homicides constituted 50.5% of the medicolegal autopsies. Although the overall male:female ratio was 12.4?:?1, there was variation with weapon. Deaths by firearm had the highest male:female ratio of 24.6?:?1. The mean and peak ages were 29.2?±?11.4 and 21-30 years, respectively, while the range was 1 to 96 years. Firearms were the most common weapons, at 68.9%, hemorrhagic shock and head injuries at 61.5% and 28.2% respectively were the most common mechanisms and causes of death. Armed robbery incidents were the most common circumstances, while the head was the most common site of injury at 48.8%. The homicide rate is high in our environment and most homicides are committed during armed robberies using firearms. Improving medical care and providing emergency medical services will reduce cases of deaths from homicides, most of which occur due to manageable hemorrhagic shock. Increasing the drive towards controlling illegal arms acquisition and possession will reduce the present carnage in the state. PMID:23945261

  2. Inquiry Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    It is exciting to see children display an interest in discovering the world through their actions. Those actions are the beginning of science inquiry, the process children use to develop knowledge and understanding of scientific ideas, including an understanding of how scientists study the natural world. This month's column features an activity…

  3. Radiation Therapy Following Total Keloidectomy: A Retrospective Study over 11 Years

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyuhee; Kim, Jinhee

    2015-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy treatment after keloidectomy is known to be an effective method for reducing the rate of recurrence. However, to date, the appropriate total radiation dose and fractionation have not yet been confirmed. The authors performed a retrospective analysis to identify the appropriate radiation dose and fractionation in post-keloidectomy radiotherapy. Methods From May 2000 to February 2011, postoperative radiotherapy was performed on 39 lesions in 28 patients after total keloidectomy. The keloid lesions were confined to the ear lobes. Between May 2000 and May 2004, 14 keloids were treated with surgical excision, followed by a total radiation dose of 1,200 cGy in three fractions over four to five days (group 1). Between June 2004 to February 2011, 25 keloids were treated with surgical excision, followed by a total radiation dose of 1,500 cGy in three fractions over four to five days (group 2). Patients were given a survey asking them to report their experiences regarding reoperation, recurrence of symptoms, recurrence of the lesion, and satisfaction with the operation. Results Of the 28 patients who were treated, 20 underwent follow-up. Group 2 had more cases showing elevation with erythematous changes, whereas group 1 had more cases showing progressive stages of elevation than group 2. These differences were statistically significant. Moreover, a correlation was observed between the level of keloid elevation and the extent of symptoms. Conclusions We suggest 1,500 cGy of radiation in three fractions following keloidectomy for ear lobe keloids. A further randomized study is needed to assess the recurrence of keloids after radiotherapy. PMID:26430630

  4. Protective effect of total and supplemental vitamin C intake on the risk of hip fracture - A 17-year follow-up from the Framingham Osteoporosis Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary antioxidants such as vitamin C may play a role in bone health. We evaluated associations of vitamin C intake (total, dietary and supplemental) with incident hip fracture and non-vertebral osteoporotic fracture, over a 15 to 17-y follow-up, in the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. 366 men and 59...

  5. Follow-Up Study of Ex-Students of a Residential School for Children with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornby, Garry; Witte, Chrystal

    2008-01-01

    A follow-up study was conducted on ex-students of a residential special school for children with emotional and behavioural difficulties in New Zealand. Previous research on post-school outcomes for students with emotional and behavioural difficulties has found low levels on quality of life indicators such as education, employment and community…

  6. Can We Alter Physician Behavior by Educational Methods? Lessons Learned from Studies of the Management and Follow-up of Hypertension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tu, Karen; Davis, Dave

    2002-01-01

    A literature review found 12 studies using educational interventions for physicians regarding hypertension. Interventions such as reminders improved follow-up care but were ineffective in changing blood pressure levels. The success of interventions may depend on the aspect to be changed and their feasibility in a particular setting. (Contains 35…

  7. EFFECTS OF LOW TO MODERATE LEAD EXPOSURE ON SLOW CORTICAL POTENTIALS IN YOUNG CHILDREN: TWO YEAR FOLLOW-UP STUDY (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A follow-up study of slow cortical potentials in children with elevated blood lead (PbB) histories was conducted two years after initial evaluation. An age x PbB interaction was again observed wherein slow wave (SW) voltage varied as a linear function of PbB with the slope of the...

  8. Observational follow-up study following two cohorts of children with severe pneumonia after discharge from day care clinic/hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Nur H; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Gyr, Niklaus

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare the features of relapse, morbidity, mortality and re-hospitalisation following successful discharge after severe pneumonia in children between a day care group and a hospital group and to explore the predictors of failures during 3?months of follow-up. Design An observational study following two cohorts of children with severe pneumonia for 3?months after discharge from hospital/clinic. Setting Day care was provided at the Radda Clinic and hospital care at a hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Participants Children aged 2–59?months with severe pneumonia attending the clinic/hospital who survived to discharge. Intervention No intervention was done except providing some medications for minor illnesses, if indicated. Primary outcome measures The primary outcome measures were the proportion of successes and failures of day care at follow-up visits as determined by estimating the OR with 95% CI in comparison to hospital care. Results The authors enrolled 360 children with a mean (SD) age of 8 (7)?months, 81% were infants and 61% were men. The follow-up compliance dropped from 95% at first to 85% at sixth visit. The common morbidities during the follow-up period included cough (28%), fever (17%), diarrhoea (9%) and rapid breathing (7%). During the follow-up period, significantly more day care children (n=22 (OR 12.2 (95% CI 8.2–17.8))) required re-hospitalisation after completion of initial day care compared with initial hospital care group (n=11 (OR 6.1 (95% CI 3.4–10.6))). The predictors for failure were associated with tachycardia, tachypnoea and hypoxaemia on admission and prolonged duration of stay. Conclusions There are considerable morbidities in children discharged following treatment of severe pneumonia like cough, fever, rapid breathing and diarrhoea during 3-month period. The findings indicate the importance of follow-up for early detection of medical problems and their management to reduce the risk of death. Establishment of an effective community follow-up would be ideal to address the problem of ‘non-compliance with follow-up’. Trial registration The original randomised control trial comparing day care with hospital care was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (identifier NCT00455468). PMID:22842561

  9. Late Relapses Following Reduced Intensity Allogeneic Transplantation in Patients with Multiple Myeloma: a long-term follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Sahebi, Firoozeh; Shen, Yan; Thomas, Sandra H.; Rincon, Amalia; Murata-Collins, Joyce; Palmer, Joycelynne; Krishnan, Amrita Y.; Karanes, Chatchada; Htut, Myo; Somlo, George; Forman, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY We analysed the long-term outcomes of 60 multiple myeloma patients who underwent reduced intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation between August 2000 and March 2008. Regimens included fludarabine and melphalan conditioning (flu-mel regimen) for allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) or a planned tandem regimen consisting of high-dose melphalan conditioning for autograft followed by low-dose total body irradiation conditioning for allogeneic HCT (auto-allo regimen). Donors included human leucocyte antigen-matched siblings (n=55) or matched unrelated donors (n=5). With a median follow-up of 9.8 years, 7-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 60% and 31%, respectively. By multivariate Cox regression analysis, disease status of complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) at transplant and the presence of chronic graft-versus-host disease were significantly associated with improved OS. Only disease status was significantly associated with improved PFS. We noted a surprising number of very late relapses, with six patients (10%) relapsing between 6 and 12 years post-transplant. Among the six late relapse patients, all were transplanted within 14 months of diagnosis, 5 had normal karyotypes, and 5 were in CR/PR. Our data provide additional evidence that, while survival may be extended by reduced intensity allogeneic transplant, ultimately, it may not offer a cure. PMID:23151215

  10. Late relapses following reduced intensity allogeneic transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma: a long-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Sahebi, Firoozeh; Shen, Yan; Thomas, Sandra H; Rincon, Amalia; Murata-Collins, Joyce; Palmer, Joycelynne; Krishnan, Amrita Y; Karanes, Chatchada; Htut, Myo; Somlo, George; Forman, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    We analysed the long-term outcomes of 60 multiple myeloma patients who underwent reduced intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation between August 2000 and March 2008. Regimens included fludarabine and melphalan conditioning (flu-mel regimen) for allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) or a planned tandem regimen consisting of high-dose melphalan conditioning for autograft followed by low-dose total body irradiation conditioning for allogeneic HCT (auto-allo regimen). Donors included human-leucocyte-antigen-matched siblings (n = 55) or matched unrelated donors (n = 5). With a median follow-up of 9·8 years, 7-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 60% and 31%, respectively. By multivariate Cox regression analysis, disease status of complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) at transplant and the presence of chronic graft-versus-host disease were significantly associated with improved OS. Only disease status was significantly associated with improved PFS. We noted a surprising number of very late relapses, with six patients (10%) relapsing between 6 and 12 years post-transplant. Among the six late relapse patients, all were transplanted within 14 months of diagnosis, five had normal karyotypes, and five were in CR/PR. Our data provide additional evidence that, while survival may be extended by reduced intensity allogeneic transplant, ultimately, it may not offer a cure. PMID:23151215

  11. The Yersinia enterocolitica infection in acute abdominal surgery. A clinical study with a 5-year follow-up period.

    PubMed

    Saebø, A

    1983-12-01

    By estimation of antibody titres or possibly isolation of the micro-organism, the role of the Yersinia enterocolitica as an etiological agent in mesenterial lymphadenitis, ileal inflammation, or abdominal colics was evaluated in 94 consecutive patients (25 operated upon and 69 treated conservatively) during a 1-year period from 1975-76. Eighty four patients (24 operated upon and 60 treated conservatively) were re-examined 5 years later. Among the 25 patients operated upon, three presented acute terminal ileitis, two of them in association with acute Y. enterocolitica infection. A substantial part of the 22 patients with other peroperative findings also presented trace or positive Y. enterocolitica antibody titres. Some of these patients experienced complaints attributable to the Y. enterocolitica infection over the following years. At re-examination, previously elevated Y. enterocolitica antibody titres had generally normalized, and in the two patients who in 1975 presented acute terminal ileitis associated with acute Y. enterocolitica infection, radiological examination now demonstrated normal terminal ileum. Among 69 patients treated conservatively for abdominal colics, 36 in 1975 presented trace or positive titres. During the 5-year follow-up period, abdominal pain and joint complaints were significantly more commonly experienced by patients with trace or positive titres than by patients with negative titres (p = 0.007 and p = 0.004, respectively). The Y. enterocolitica is an important cause of abdominal disease in our region, and the infection commonly gives symptoms of long duration. PMID:6639178

  12. The Yersinia enterocolitica infection in acute abdominal surgery. A clinical study with a 5-year follow-up period.

    PubMed Central

    Saebø, A

    1983-01-01

    By estimation of antibody titres or possibly isolation of the micro-organism, the role of the Yersinia enterocolitica as an etiological agent in mesenterial lymphadenitis, ileal inflammation, or abdominal colics was evaluated in 94 consecutive patients (25 operated upon and 69 treated conservatively) during a 1-year period from 1975-76. Eighty four patients (24 operated upon and 60 treated conservatively) were re-examined 5 years later. Among the 25 patients operated upon, three presented acute terminal ileitis, two of them in association with acute Y. enterocolitica infection. A substantial part of the 22 patients with other peroperative findings also presented trace or positive Y. enterocolitica antibody titres. Some of these patients experienced complaints attributable to the Y. enterocolitica infection over the following years. At re-examination, previously elevated Y. enterocolitica antibody titres had generally normalized, and in the two patients who in 1975 presented acute terminal ileitis associated with acute Y. enterocolitica infection, radiological examination now demonstrated normal terminal ileum. Among 69 patients treated conservatively for abdominal colics, 36 in 1975 presented trace or positive titres. During the 5-year follow-up period, abdominal pain and joint complaints were significantly more commonly experienced by patients with trace or positive titres than by patients with negative titres (p = 0.007 and p = 0.004, respectively). The Y. enterocolitica is an important cause of abdominal disease in our region, and the infection commonly gives symptoms of long duration. PMID:6639178

  13. FOLLOW-UP STUDIES OF THE PULSATING MAGNETIC WHITE DWARF SDSS J142625.71+575218.3

    SciTech Connect

    Green, E. M.; Dufour, P.; Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P. E-mail: dufourpa@astro.umontreal.ca E-mail: brassard@astro.umontreal.ca

    2009-09-10

    We present a follow-up analysis of the unique magnetic luminosity-variable carbon-atmosphere white dwarf SDSS J142625.71+575218.3. This includes the results of some 106.4 hr of integrated light photometry which have revealed, among other things, the presence of a new periodicity at 319.720 s which is not harmonically related to the dominant oscillation (417.707 s) previously known in that star. Using our photometry and available spectroscopy, we consider the suggestion made by Montgomery et al. that the luminosity variations in SDSS J142625.71+575218.3 may not be caused by pulsational instabilities, but rather by photometric activity in a carbon-transferring analog of AM CVn. This includes a detailed search for possible radial velocity variations due to rapid orbital motion on the basis of Multiple Mirror Telescope spectroscopy. At the end of the exercise, we unequivocally rule out the interacting binary hypothesis and conclude instead that, indeed, the luminosity variations are caused by g-mode pulsations as in other pulsating white dwarfs. This is in line with the preferred possibility put forward by Montgomery et al.

  14. Fractured rheumatoid elbow: treatment with Souter elbow arthroplasty--a clinical and radiologic midterm follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ikävalko, M; Lehto, M U

    2001-01-01

    We report the results in 26 patients who had 32 preoperative fractures treated with Souter elbow arthroplasty. All were rheumatoid patients with a mean disease duration of 29.7 years (range, 10 to 43). Six of the fractures were of the olecranon and 26 of the distal humerus. The time interval between fracture and arthroplasty was 9 months (mean; range, 0 to 48). Fragments were not excised, and osteosynthesis was performed. The follow-up was 2.6 years (mean; range, 0.5 to 8), when 20 of the fractures had united and 12 had not. K-wire fixation, either alone or in combination with cerclage or PDS suture, and bone grafting led to satisfactory results. Union was verified in 14 of 17 cases treated with this technique. There were no severe early complications. Six patients had late complications. In 3 cases, loosening of the humeral component was observed radiologically. One patient had a hematogenous deep infection 4 years after the operation, and 2 patients had avulsion rupture of the triceps tendon. Fracture in the badly destroyed elbow can be more reasonably treated with an arthroplasty than with an attempt of osteosynthesis before arthroplasty. If excision of the fragments is avoided, original, or near original, anatomy of the elbow joint can be better restored and acceptable outcome obtained with elbow arthroplasty. PMID:11408908

  15. Diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Clinical importance, surgical treatment, and follow-up study

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, Y.; Obara, T.; Ito, Y.; Kodama, T.; Aiba, M.; Yamaguchi, K. )

    1990-12-01

    A diffuse sclerosing variant is not very rare among papillary carcinomas of the thyroid when the patients are female and younger than 30 years of age. The variant is characterized by diffuse involvement of one or both thyroid lobes, with dense sclerosis, patchy lymphocytic infiltration, and abundant psammoma bodies. Controversy still exists concerning its prognosis. We reviewed our experience with 14 patients treated between 1958 and 1988. All patients were young females, their age being from 10 to 28 years with a mean of 19.6. Hashimoto's thyroiditis had been suspected in nine patients before they came to our clinic. Nowadays the diagnosis of this cancer is possible when we have this entity in mind and detect abundant psammoma bodies either by ultrasonography or by soft-tissue roentgenography of the neck. Total thyroidectomy with modified neck dissection was carried out in eight patients, subtotal thyroidectomy with neck dissection in five, and lobectomy with neck dissection in one. All of them are alive and well without distant metastasis at a mean follow-up of 16 years. Because most of the patients with this variant of papillary carcinoma are young women and the prognosis is favorable, a complete resection without causing later recurrence, but also cosmetic and complication-free surgery, should be considered.

  16. Impact of eLearning course on nurses' professional competence in seclusion and restraint practices: 9-month follow-up results of a randomized controlled study (ISRCTN32869544).

    PubMed

    Kontio, R; Hätönen, H; Joffe, G; Pitkänen, A; Lahti, M; Välimäki, M

    2013-04-01

    eLearning may facilitate continuing vocational education, but data on the long-term effects of an eLearning course are lacking. The aim of this study was to explore the long-term impact of an eLearning course entitled ePsychNurse.Net on psychiatric nurses' professional competence in practicing seclusion and restraint and on their job satisfaction and general self-efficacy at 9-month follow-up. In a randomized controlled study, 12 wards were randomly assigned to the ePsychNurse.Net (intervention) or training as usual (control). Baseline and 9-month follow-up data on nurses' knowledge of coercion-related legislation, physical restraint and seclusion, their attitudes towards physical restraint and seclusion, job satisfaction and general self-efficacy were analysed for 137 completers (those who participated in the 9-month follow-up assessment). No between-group differences were found on any variable, with the exception of a change in attitude to seclusion in favour of the control group. The findings of the long-term effects did not differ from the immediate outcomes (3-month follow-up) and the improved level of knowledge acquired and further consolidation of that knowledge did not take place in the 6-month period after the 3-month ePsychNurse.Net course. The ePsychNurse.Net should be further developed and its future modifications will require additional studies, probably with some new outcome measures. PMID:22672441

  17. p53 protein in low-grade astrocytomas: a study with long-term follow-up.

    PubMed Central

    Iuzzolino, P.; Ghimenton, C.; Nicolato, A.; Giorgiutti, F.; Fina, P.; Doglioni, C.; Barbareschi, M.

    1994-01-01

    The immunohistochemical expression of p53 protein (p53) was examined in 52 patients out of a series of 66 patients with low-grade astrocytomas with long-term follow-up. All patients were also evaluated for several clinical and histological features, among which only preoperative Karnofsky score and the extent of surgery were statistically significant parameters to predict outcome on multivariate analysis. p53 accumulation was seen in 46.1% of patients, with a wide range of percentage of positive cells. Median survival for p53-positive and p53-negative patients was 41 and 37 months respectively. The survival curves of p53-positive and -negative patients were not statistically different. However, the curves showed a trend towards a more aggressive course in p53-positive patients beginning 3-4 years after surgery. Five years after diagnosis the survival estimate with the Kaplan-Meier method was 21.2% for patients with p53-positive tumours and 45.9% for patients with p53-negative tumours. This trend is not due to different distribution of major clinical prognostic factors (age, incomplete resection or Karnofsky status). The trend could be related to the time needed by the p53-positive clone to outgrow the rest of the p53-negative neoplastic cell population. This hypothesis is further supported by the fact that the five recurrences which were surgically removed (one anaplastic astrocytoma and four glioblastomas) derived from p53-positive tumours and were themselves intensely p53 positive. Images Figure 1 PMID:8123492

  18. Differential typology and prognosis for dissexual behavior--a follow-up study of previously expert-appraised child molesters.

    PubMed

    Beier, K M

    1998-01-01

    In terms of identifying socially-dysfunctional forms of sexuality--regardless of the legal valuation--dissexuality is defined as "an expression of social failure in sexual behavior." This failure was the subject of a longitudinal analysis of 186 expert-appraised pedophile sexual delinquents at the University of Kiel from 1945 through 1981. Of the child molesters 121 were followed up between September 1990 and September 1992 and 100 were personally contacted. The goal was to empirically develop prognosis criteria, given knowledge of the former delinquents' social development as well as sexual/dissexual practices, which could be of both forensic and interdisciplinary use. Among the bi- and homosexually-orientated pedophiles, the number of offenders for which the act is one of "compensation" was half of the initial collective. In contrast, this number was three-quarters for the heterosexually-orientated perpetrators. Correspondingly, the other half of the bi- and homosexually-orientated pedophiles were either exclusive-type or non-exclusive-type pedophiles (the so-called "true" pedophiles). Among the heterosexually-orientated offenders, the number was only one-quarter. According to the empirical data, we may expect a biographically continuing potential of dissexual behavior for only the exclusive and the non-exclusive type of pedophilia. Most of the relapsed dissexual activities showed up a long time after the expert's report. This is true for both the heterosexually- and the bi- and homosexually orientated groups. The present evaluation of the results allows assignment of behavior for certain delinquent typologies restricted to life phases or lifelong dissexual behavior. PMID:9587795

  19. Prospective six year follow up of patients withdrawn from a randomised study comparing parenteral gold salt and methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    Sander, O.; Herborn, G.; Bock, E.; Rau, R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To confirm the impression of a better outcome of patients withdrawn from parenteral gold salt therapy compared with those withdrawn from methotrexate.?METHODS—Patients with early, active, and erosive RA were randomised for a double blind trial to receive either weekly 15 mg intramuscular methotrexate or 50 mg goldsodiumthiomalate. If the drug had to be withdrawn because of side effects treatment was continued with the other drug in still active disease. Patients with insufficient response were treated with a combination of both drugs. All patients were followed up by an extended clinical and radiographic evaluation.?RESULTS—64 patients each were allocated to methotrexate and gold treatment. After 72 months a complete record was available for 88% of patients. Within the first 36 months 38 patients withdrew from gold treatment (95% because of side effects) and 23 patients withdrew from methotrexate (57% because of side effects). A significant 40% to 70% improvement of all parameters (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C reactive protein, swollen and tender joints, radiological progression) compared with baseline was observed in patients completing their randomised treatment with gold or methotrexate. The same improvement over three years was seen in patients who withdrew from gold treatment, while patients withdrawing from methotrexate experienced a deterioration of their disease.?CONCLUSION—Withdrawals represent the majority of patients in long term drug trials. Patients with early RA stopping gold because of side effects show almost the same sustained improvement as patients continuing gold or methotrexate. Patients withdrawn from methotrexate experience a reactivation of their disease.?? PMID:10225812

  20. p53 protein in low-grade astrocytomas: a study with long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Iuzzolino, P; Ghimenton, C; Nicolato, A; Giorgiutti, F; Fina, P; Doglioni, C; Barbareschi, M

    1994-03-01

    The immunohistochemical expression of p53 protein (p53) was examined in 52 patients out of a series of 66 patients with low-grade astrocytomas with long-term follow-up. All patients were also evaluated for several clinical and histological features, among which only preoperative Karnofsky score and the extent of surgery were statistically significant parameters to predict outcome on multivariate analysis. p53 accumulation was seen in 46.1% of patients, with a wide range of percentage of positive cells. Median survival for p53-positive and p53-negative patients was 41 and 37 months respectively. The survival curves of p53-positive and -negative patients were not statistically different. However, the curves showed a trend towards a more aggressive course in p53-positive patients beginning 3-4 years after surgery. Five years after diagnosis the survival estimate with the Kaplan-Meier method was 21.2% for patients with p53-positive tumours and 45.9% for patients with p53-negative tumours. This trend is not due to different distribution of major clinical prognostic factors (age, incomplete resection or Karnofsky status). The trend could be related to the time needed by the p53-positive clone to outgrow the rest of the p53-negative neoplastic cell population. This hypothesis is further supported by the fact that the five recurrences which were surgically removed (one anaplastic astrocytoma and four glioblastomas) derived from p53-positive tumours and were themselves intensely p53 positive. PMID:8123492

  1. Long-term follow-up after ileocaecal continent cutaneous urinary diversion (Mainz I pouch): A retrospective study of a monocentric experience

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Fahd; Fellahi, Saad; Ouslim, Hicham; Mhanna, Tarik; El Houmaidi, Amine; Aynaou, Mohammed; Boteng, Paapa Dua; Barki, Ali; Nouini, Yassine

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the long-term follow-up after ileocaecal continent cutaneous reservoir (ICCR) and to review the late complications. Patients and methods In all, 756 patients underwent an ICCR in our department, with long-term follow-up data available in 50 patients. The inclusion criterion was ICCR regardless of the indication and the exclusion criteria were orthotopic neobladder or other continent urinary diversions not performed with the ileocaecum. Patients were followed to record primary outcomes and late complications. Complications were stratified according to the Clavien–Dindo classification. Results The mean patient age was 44 years and pelvic malignancies were the first indication for urinary diversion. The mean (range) follow-up was 19 (9–36) years. A stoma stenosis was the most frequent outlet-related complication requiring re-intervention, followed by ischaemic outlet degeneration, and stoma incontinence. Six renal units (RUs) developed obstruction at the anastomotic site and were managed by open surgery. Three RUs had to be removed due to deterioration. A dederivation was necessary in three patients (6%). Conclusion The ICCR is a safe and established technique when an orthotopic pouch is impossible. The long-term follow-up shows acceptable complication rates and satisfactory continence conditions. However, large population studies are necessary to confirm this observation. PMID:26609442

  2. A four-year follow-up controlled study of stress response and symptom persistence in Brazilian children and adolescents with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Palma, Sonia Maria Motta; Natale, Ana Carolina Motta Palma; Maria Calil, Helena

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Disorder andHyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), reassessing them at a four-year follow-up. Their cortisol response to a stress stimulus was measured twice. ADHD symptom persistence, development of comorbidities, and psychostimulant usage were also reassessed. The initial sample consisted of 38 ADHD patients and 38 healthy controls, age ranging 6-14. At the follow-up, there were 37 ADHD patients and 22 healthy controls, age ranging 10-18. ADHD was classified as persistent if the patients fulfilled all DSM IV criteria for syndromic or subthreshold or had functional impairment. Salivary cortisol samples were collected prior to the application of a cognitive stressor (Continuous Performance Test - CPT), and at three time intervals afterwards at baseline and at the follow-up. Their reassessment showed that 75% had persistent symptoms, psychiatric comorbidities (oppositional defiant and behavioral disorders), functional and academic impairement. Only seven patients were on medication. The ADHD group's cortisol levels were lower than those measured four years earlier, but cortisol concentrations were similar for both ADHD and control groups at the four-year follow-up. The cortisol results suggest that HPA axis reactivity could be a marker differentiating ADHD from ADHD with comorbidities. PMID:26365689

  3. Chemoimmunotherapy With Fludarabine and Rituximab Produces Extended Overall Survival and Progression-Free Survival in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Term Follow-Up of CALGB Study 9712

    PubMed Central

    Woyach, Jennifer A.; Ruppert, Amy S.; Heerema, Nyla A.; Peterson, Bercedis L.; Gribben, John G.; Morrison, Vicki A.; Rai, Kanti R.; Larson, Richard A.; Byrd, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The addition of rituximab to fludarabine-based regimens in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has been shown to produce high response rates with extended remissions. The long-term follow-up of these regimens with respect to progression, survival, risk of secondary leukemia, and impact of genomic risk factors has been limited. Methods We report the long-term follow-up of the chemoimmunotherapy trial CALGB 9712 from the Cancer and Leukemia Group B, for which treatment regimen was previously reported, to examine end points of progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), impact of genomic features, and risk of therapy-related myeloid neoplasm (t-MN). Results A total of 104 patients were enrolled on this study and now have a median follow-up of 117 months (range, 66 to 131 months). The median OS was 85 months, and 71% of patients were alive at 5 years. The median PFS was 42 months, and 27% were progression free at 5 years. An estimated 13% remained free of progression at almost 10 years of follow-up. Multivariable models of PFS and OS showed that immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region mutational status was significant for both, whereas cytogenetic abnormalities were significant only for OS. No patient developed t-MN before relapse. Conclusion Long-term follow-up of CALGB 9712 demonstrates extended OS and PFS with fludarabine plus rituximab. Patients treated with fludarabine plus rituximab administered concurrently or sequentially have a low risk of t-MN. These long-term data support fludarabine plus rituximab as one acceptable first-line treatment for symptomatic patients with CLL. PMID:21321292

  4. Parental socioeconomic status and prognosis in individuals with ultra-high risk for psychosis: A 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hur, Ji Won; Choi, Soo-Hee; Yun, Je-Yeon; Chon, Myong-Wuk; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2015-10-01

    A possible relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and the development of mental illness has been continuously suggested. Still, less clear is whether the SES has a direct effect on the development of schizophrenia. In this longitudinal study, we test the hypothesis that parental SES is associated with the prognosis of individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis. One hundred and sixteen individuals who were determined as UHR using a Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS) were classified into three groups based on the parental SES levels assessed by the Hollingshead-Redlich scale. There were no differences in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) at baseline. However, at the 1-year follow-up, the higher versus lower SES group showed significant differences in clinical measures including SAPS, SANS, PANSS positive and negative scales as well as BPRS scores. Most of these clinical differences were attenuated by the second year of follow-up with no sign of an increased rate of conversion to psychosis derived from a socioeconomically disadvantaged status. However, SAPS and PANSS positive scale still revealed sub-threshold positive symptoms within the low SES group at the 2-year follow-up. Moreover, especially for the subjects who continued the follow-ups for 1year and/or 2years, the changes of clinical symptoms between the baseline and follow-ups showed that there were significant symptom changes in higher and middle SES groups within the 1-year period already, but the lower SES group showed significant recovery at the second year. Our findings suggest that low parental SES can be detrimental to the prognosis phase of individuals at UHR. Limited supportive socioeconomic resources may slow the rate of symptom recovery in UHR subjects. PMID:26213342

  5. Variability of NT-proBNP and Its Relationship with Inflammatory Status in Patients with Stable Essential Hypertension: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Roselló-Lletí, Esther; Calabuig, Jose R.; Morillas, Pedro; Cortés, Raquel; Martínez-Dolz, Luis; Almenar, Luis; González-Juanatey, Jose R.; Lauwers, Catheline; Salvador, Antonio; Portolés, Manuel; Bertomeu, Vicente; Rivera, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Background The variability of NT-proBNP levels has been studied in heart failure, yet no data exist on these changes over time in hypertensive patients. Furthermore, studies on the relationship between natriuretic peptides and inflammatory status are limited. Methodology/Principal Findings 220 clinically and functionally asymptomatic stable patients (age 59±13, 120 male) out of 252 patients with essential hypertension were followed up, and NT-proBNP was measured at baseline, 12 and 24 months. No differences in NT-proBNP were found with respect to the basal stage in the hypertrophic group, but significant changes were found in non-hypertrophic subjects. The reproducibility of NT-proBNP measurements was better in patients with hypertrophy than in the non-hypertrophic group for the three intervals (stage I-basal; stage II-stage I; stage II-basal) with a reference change value of 34%, 35% and 41%, respectively, in the hypertrophic group. A more elevated coefficient of correlation was obtained in the hypertrophic group than in patients without hypertrophy: basal versus stage I (r?=?0.79, p<0.0001 and r?=?0.59, p<0.0001) and stage I versus stage II (r?=?0.86, p<0.0001 and r?=?0.56, p<0.0001). Finally, levels of NT-proBNP significantly correlated with sTNF-R1 (p<0.0001) and IL-6 (p<0.01) during follow-up. A multivariate linear regression analysis showed that sTNF-R1 is an independent factor of NT-proBNP. Conclusions/Significance This work shows that there is good stability in NT-proBNP levels in a follow-up study of asymptomatic patients with stable hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. As a consequence, assessment of NT-proBNP concentrations may be a useful tool for monitoring the follow-up of hypertensive patients with hypertrophy. Measured variations in peptide levels, exceeding 35% in a 12-month follow-up and 41% in a 24-month follow-up, may indicate an increase in cardiovascular risk, and therefore implies adjustment in the medical treatment. In addition, this study shows a link between neurohormonal and inflammatory activation in these patients. PMID:22384001

  6. Patient related outcomes in a real life prospective follow up study: Allergen immunotherapy increase quality of life and reduce sick days

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One fourth of the adult population in Europe suffer from respiratory allergy. Subcutaneous-allergen-specific-immunotherapy (SCIT) has long-term disease modifying effect on disease specific Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of SCIT on alternative disease outcomes in patients with grass-pollen and/or house dust mite induced allergic rhino-conjunctivitis and/or an asthma diagnosis. Focus was on expressing outcomes in terms of generic quality of life (Quality-Adjusted-Life-Years (QALY)) and reductions in sick days. Methods The study was a multi-centre study with prospective follow-up. 248 patients were initiated on SCIT. The disease specific Rhino-conjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) and two generic (HRQoL) instruments 15D and EQ-5D were used at baseline and at follow-up. The outcome measures included change in; disease severity, RQLQ-scores, number of days with symptoms- and number of sick days per year and finally changes in generic HRQoL and thus, QALY. Disease severity was assessed by specialist doctors; severity of rhino-conjunctivitis was classified according to the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) and asthma severity according to the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA guideline). The remaining outcome measures were assessed by the patients in questionnaires at baseline and at follow-up. An intension to treat approach was applied. For missing items imputation of sample mean base-line values or follow-up values were used after specified criteria. The effect of SCIT on rhino-conjunctivitis and/or asthma diagnoses was analysed at follow-up using three logistic regression models. Results The disease severity showed significantly improved disease control. Mean RQLQ-score was reduced from 3.02 at baseline to 2.00 at follow-up. Average annual days with symptoms were reduced from 189 to 145 days whilst annual sick days were reduced from 3.7 to 1.2 days. The 15D-score increased from 0.83 to 0.86 and the EQ-5D-score from 0.70 to 0.77, which indicated an annual gain per patient of 0.03-0.06 QALY. Conclusions Allergic patients suffering from rhino-conjunctivitis alone or rhino-conjunctivitis and asthma experience significantly increased HRQoL and they gain 0.03-0.06 QALY, when treated with SCIT for one year. Trial registration The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with the identifier: NCT01486498. PMID:24229439

  7. How to Establish and Follow up a Large Prospective Cohort Study in the 21st Century--Lessons from UK COSMOS.

    PubMed

    Toledano, Mireille B; Smith, Rachel B; Brook, James P; Douglass, Margaret; Elliott, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale prospective cohort studies are invaluable in epidemiology, but they are increasingly difficult and costly to establish and follow-up. More efficient methods for recruitment, data collection and follow-up are essential if such studies are to remain feasible with limited public and research funds. Here, we discuss how these challenges were addressed in the UK COSMOS cohort study where fixed budget and limited time frame necessitated new approaches to consent and recruitment between 2009-2012. Web-based e-consent and data collection should be considered in large scale observational studies, as they offer a streamlined experience which benefits both participants and researchers and save costs. Commercial providers of register and marketing data, smartphones, apps, email, social media, and the internet offer innovative possibilities for identifying, recruiting and following up cohorts. Using examples from UK COSMOS, this article sets out the dos and don'ts for today's cohort studies and provides a guide on how best to take advantage of new technologies and innovative methods to simplify logistics and minimise costs. Thus a more streamlined experience to the benefit of both research participants and researchers becomes achievable. PMID:26147611

  8. Anger and posttraumatic stress disorder in disaster relief workers exposed to the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center disaster: one-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Nimali; Giosan, Cezar; Evans, Susan; Spielman, Lisa; Difede, JoAnn

    2008-11-01

    Although anger is an important feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) it is unclear whether it is simply concomitant or plays a role in maintaining symptoms. A previous study of disaster workers responding to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 () indicated that those with PTSD evidenced more severe anger than those without. The purpose of this study was to conduct a 1-year follow-up to assess the role of anger in maintaining PTSD. Workers with PTSD continued to report more severe anger than those without; there were statistically significant associations between changes in anger, PTSD severity, depression, and psychiatric distress. Multiple regression analysis indicated initial anger severity to be a significant predictor of PTSD severity at follow-up, which is consistent with the notion that anger maintains PTSD. One implication is that disaster workers with high anger may benefit from early intervention to prevent chronic PTSD. PMID:19008736

  9. A 3-year follow-up study of all-ceramic single and multiple crowns performed in a private practice: a prospective case series

    PubMed Central

    Tartaglia, Gianluca M.; Sidoti, Ernesto; Sforza, Chiarella

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Zirconia-based prostheses are commonly used for aesthetic crown and fixed restorations, although follow-up data are limited, especially for implant-supported crowns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the three-year clinical results of the installation of 463 zirconia core crowns by a general dental private practice. METHODS: This study followed 142 patients (69 men and 73 women; aged 28-82 years) who had received 248 single crowns (202 tooth-supported, 36 implant-supported) and 225 multiple units of up to six elements (81 tooth-supported, 144 implant-supported). Clinical events, including fracture and loss of retention, secondary caries, and marginal integrity, were recorded. The overall failure rate was computed for the fractured and lost prostheses. Aesthetic, functional, and biological properties were rated, and patient satisfaction was investigated. RESULTS: During the three-year follow-up period, four patients were lost from the study (18 crowns, 4% of the total crowns). Three of the zirconia prostheses suffered fractures in more than three units (11 crowns; one- vs. three-year follow-up, p<0.05, Wilcoxon signed-rank test), and the cumulative prosthesis survival rate was 98.2%. Twelve units lost retention and were re-cemented, and no secondary caries of the abutment teeth were reported. The aesthetic, functional, and biological properties were generally well-rated, and there were no differences between tooth- and implant-supported crowns. The lowest scores were given regarding the anatomical form of the crowns, as some minor chipping was reported. Relatively low scores were also given for the periodontal response and the adjacent mucosa. Overall, patient satisfaction was high. CONCLUSIONS: At the three-year follow-up, the zirconia-core crowns appeared to be an effective clinical solution as they had favorable aesthetic and functional properties. Only the marginal fit of the prostheses should be improved upon. PMID:22189731

  10. Underweight as a risk factor for respiratory death in the Whitehall cohort study: exploring reverse causality using a 45-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kivimäki, Mika; Shipley, Martin J; Bell, Joshua A; Brunner, Eric J; Batty, G David; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2016-01-01

    Underweight adults have higher rates of respiratory death than the normal weight but it is unclear whether this association is causal or reflects illness-induced weight loss (reverse causality). Evidence from a 45-year follow-up of underweight participants for respiratory mortality in the Whitehall study (N=18?823; 2139 respiratory deaths) suggests that excess risk among the underweight is attributable to reverse causality. The age-adjusted and smoking-adjusted risk was 1.55-fold (95% CI 1.32 to 1.83) higher among underweight compared with normal weight participants, but attenuated in a stepwise manner to 1.14 (95% CI 0.76 to 1.71) after serial exclusions of deaths during the first 5-35?years of follow-up (Ptrend<0.001). PMID:26253581

  11. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study. Second Follow-up Field Test Report; BPS: 90/94. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Daniel J.; And Others

    This document is a summary and evaluation of methodological procedures and results for the field test of the Beginning Postsecondary Student Longitudinal Study Second Followup, 1990-94 (BPS:90/94). The BPS study is a departure from previous studies in that it starts with a cohort of individuals as they enter their postsecondary studies regardless…

  12. Long-term follow up of the FL2000 study comparing CHVP-interferon to CHVP-interferon plus rituximab in follicular lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bachy, Emmanuel; Houot, Roch; Morschhauser, Franck; Sonet, Anne; Brice, Pauline; Belhadj, Karim; Cartron, Guillaume; Audhuy, Bruno; Fermé, Christophe; Feugier, Pierre; Sebban, Catherine; Delwail, Vincent; Maisonneuve, Hervé; Le Gouill, Steven; Lefort, Sophie; Brousse, Nicole; Foussard, Charles; Salles, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Anti-CD20-containing chemotherapy regimens have become the standard of care for patients with follicular lymphoma needing cytotoxic therapy. Four randomized trials demonstrated a clinical benefit for patients treated with rituximab. However, no long-term follow up (i.e. > 5 years) of these trials is yet available. Between May 2000 and May 2002, 358 newly diagnosed patients with high tumor burden follicular lymphoma were randomized to receive cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, etoposide and prednisolone plus interferon-?2a or a similar chemotherapy-based regimen plus rituximab, and outcome was up-dated. With a median follow up of 8.3 years, addition of rituximab remained significantly associated with prolonged event-free survival (primary end point) (P=0.0004) with a trend towards a benefit for overall survival (P=0.076). The Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index score was strongly associated with outcome for both event-free and overall survival in univariate analysis and its prognostic value remained highly significant after adjusting for other significant covariates in multivariate models (P<0.0001 and P=0.001, respectively). Considering long-term toxicity, the addition of rituximab in the first-line setting was confirmed as safe with regards to development of secondary malignancies. Long-term follow up of patients with follicular lymphoma treated in the FL2000 study confirms the sustained clinical benefit of rituximab without long-term toxicity. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier:00136552). PMID:23645690

  13. Appearance concerns and psychosocial adjustment following head and neck cancer: A cross-sectional study and nine-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Sally-Ann; Newell, Robert; Thompson, Andrew; Harcourt, Diana; Lindenmeyer, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial difficulties have been reported in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients, yet only few studies have assessed the impact of altered appearance following HNC treatment using theoretically selected measures of appearance-related distress. This study investigated appearance-related adjustment following HNC, and demographic and socio-cognitive predictors of adjustment. HNC patients (n=49) completed baseline questionnaires and a nine-month postal follow-up (n=20). Participants showed considerable variation in appearance-related adjustment, with females reporting higher levels of appearance-related distress (derriford appearance scale [DAS-24]) than females in the general population and male HNC survivors. Depression scores on the hospital anxiety and depression scale were higher than UK norms whilst anxiety was similar to UK norms. There were no significant differences between baseline and follow-up data. Fear of negative evaluation (a central feature of social anxiety) was a significant predictor of appearance-related adjustment at baseline, whilst dispositional optimism was a significant predictor of appearance-related adjustment at baseline and follow-up. Qualitative responses showed themes of appearance and disability, and coping strategies. Findings suggest that appearance-related adjustment post-HNC varies considerably and psychosocial services working with HNC patients should consider this broad pattern of response. Future research to examine the role of socio-cognitive predictors of appearance-related adjustment could progress development of effective psychological interventions. PMID:24215497

  14. A Prospective, Long-Term Follow-Up Study of 1,444 nm Nd:YAG Laser: A New Modality for Treating Axillary Bromhidrosis

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Kyu; Jang, Hee Won; Kim, Hee Joo; Lee, Sang Geun; Lee, Kyung Goo; Kim, Sun Yae; Yi, Sang Min; Kim, Jae Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Background Surgery for bromhidrosis has a high risk of complications such as hematoma and necrosis. New nonsurgical methods may reduce the burden on surgery and the risks for the patient. Objective This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and side-effects of the 1,444 nm Nd:YAG interstitial laser for treating axillary bromhidrosis. Methods Eighteen bromhidrosis patients were treated with a 1,444 nm Nd:YAG laser at Korea University Ansan Hospital. The post-treatment follow-up was 6 months. After the procedure, we confirmed apocrine gland destruction through histopathological examination. At each follow-up, we measured the severity of the remaining odor, postoperative pain, degree of mobility restriction, and overall satisfaction. Results After 180 days of follow-up, malodor elimination was good in 20 axillae, fair in 12 axillae, and poor in four axillae. At the end point of the study, 14 patients were totally satisfied with the laser treatment, three patients were partially satisfied, and one patient was disatisfied. Pain and limitation of mobility were significantly reduced within 1 week post-operatively, and were almost resolved within 4 weeks post-operatively. A histopathological examination revealed decreased density and significant alterations to the apocrine glands. Conclusion Subdermal coagulation treatment with a 1,444 nm Nd:YAG interstitial laser may be a less invasive and effective therapy for axillary bromhidrosis. PMID:24882972

  15. Effect of Growth Hormone Treatment on Fractures and Quality of Life in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: A 10-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Trimpou, Penelope; Landin-Wilhelmsen, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Context: Growth hormone (GH) treatment increases bone mineral density (BMD) in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Objective: The objective was to report bone data, fractures, and quality of life (QoL) in a 10-year follow-up of women who had received GH for 3 years and compared with controls followed in parallel. Design and Setting: A follow-up of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted at Sahlgrenska University Hospital was performed. Patients: Eighty women aged between 50 and 70 years with osteoporosis and estrogen hormone replacement were studied and compared with an age-matched random population sample of women (n = 120) from the World Health Organization Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease project (Gothenburg, Sweden). Interventions: Patients were randomized to GH 1.0 U or GH 2.5 U recombinant human GH or placebo sc daily during 3 years. All received calcium 750 mg and vitamin D 400 U and were followed up during 10 years. Main Outcome Measures: BMD and bone mineral content were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. QoL was estimated with the 36-item Short Form. Results: GH increased BMD and bone mineral content dose dependently in all regions (P = .01, GH 1.0 U, and P = .0006, GH 2.5 U vs placebo). After 10 years the number of fractures decreased from 56% to 28% (P = .0003) in patients evenly distributed between groups. In controls, fractures increased from 8% to 32% (P = .0008). QoL did not change during GH treatment or during the 10-year follow-up and did not differ compared with controls. Conclusion: GH treatment was beneficial for bone and fracture outcome after 10 years but did not affect the QoL of the women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:26312576

  16. Correlations between carotid plaque progression and mechanical stresses change sign over time: a patient follow up study using MRI and 3D FSI models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence suggests that mechanisms governing advanced plaque progression may be different from those for early progression and require further investigation. Serial MRI data and 3D fluid–structure interaction (FSI) models were employed to identify possible correlations between mechanical stresses and advanced plaque progression measured by vessel wall thickness increase (WTI). Long-term patient follow up was used to gather data and investigate if the correlations identified above were reproducible. Methods In vivo MRI data were acquired from 16 patients in a follow-up study with 2 to 4 scans for each patient (scan interval: average 18 months and standard deviation 6.8 months). A total of 38 scan pairs (baseline and follow-up) were formed for analysis using the carotid bifurcation as the registration point. 3D FSI models were constructed to obtain plaque wall stress (PWS) and flow shear stress (FSS) to quantify their correlations with plaque progression. The Linear Mixed-Effects models were used to study possible correlations between WTI and baseline PWS and FSS with nodal dependence taken into consideration. Results Of the 38 scan pairs, 22 pairs showed positive correlation between baseline PWS and WTI, 1 pair showed negative correlation, and 15 pairs showed no correlation. Thirteen patients changed their correlation sign (81.25%). Between baseline FSS and WTI, 16 pairs showed negative correlation, 1 pair showed positive correlation. Twelve patients changed correlation sign (75%). Conclusion Our results showed that advanced plaque progression had an overall positive correlation with plaque wall stress and a negative correlation with flow shear stress at baseline. However, long-term follow up showed that correlations between plaque progress and mechanical stresses (FSS and PWS) identified for one time period were not re-producible for most cases (>80%). Further investigations are needed to identify the reasons causing the correlation sign changes. PMID:24125580

  17. Analysis of Personal and Family Factors in the Persistence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Results of a Prospective Follow-Up Study in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, M. Inmaculada; Presentación, M. Jesús; Roselló, Belén

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To study the course of ADHD during childhood and analyze possible personal and family predictor variables of the results. Method Sixty-one children with ADHD who were between 6 and 12 years old at the baseline assessment were evaluated 30 months later (mean age at baseline: 8.70 ± 1.97; mean age at follow-up: 10.98 ± 2.19). Status of ADHD in follow-up was identified as persistent (met DSM-IV-TR criteria according to parents’ and teachers’ ratings), contextually persistent (met ADHD criteria according to one informant, and there was functional impairment) and remitted ADHD (with subthreshold clinical symptomatology). Associated psychological disorders of the three groups were analyzed in the follow-up with the Conners' Rating Scales. The groups were compared on ADHD characteristics (symptoms of ADHD and impairment), child psychopathology, executive functioning (EF; inhibition, working memory) and parenting characteristics (parental stress and discipline styles) at baseline. Results At the follow-up, 55.7% of the children continued to meet the DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD, 29.5% showed contextual persistence, and 14.8% presented remission of the disorder. The persistent and contextually persistent ADHD groups showed more associated psychological disorders. Inattention, oppositional problems, cognitive problems and impairment at baseline distinguished the remitted ADHD children from the persistent and contextually persistent ADHD children. Moreover, the persistent groups had significantly more emotional liability and higher parental stress than the group in remission, while no differences in EF where found among the groups. Conclusions ADHD children continue to present symptoms, as well as comorbid psychological problems, during adolescence and early adulthood. These findings confirm that persistence of ADHD is associated with child psychopathology, parental stress and impairment in childhood. PMID:26024216

  18. Low platelet iPLA? activity predicts conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease: a 4-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Gattaz, Wagner F; Talib, Leda L; Schaeffer, Evelin L; Diniz, Breno S; Forlenza, Orestes V

    2014-02-01

    Reduced phospholipase A? (PLA?) activity has been reported in the brain and in blood cells of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are at increased risk of developing AD. In the present study, we determined the activity of distinct PLA? subgroups (iPLA?, sPLA? and cPLA?) in older adults with MCI as compared to patients with mild dementia due to AD and to cognitively healthy controls. We investigated whether decreased PLA? activity at baseline is associated with the progression of MCI to AD upon follow-up during a period of 4 years. The activity of PLA? subgroups was determined in platelets from 169 elderly adults. Progression of MCI to AD was ascertained by standard clinical criteria for AD upon follow-up. At baseline, iPLA? activity was significantly decreased (p = 0.001) in patients with AD and MCI as compared to controls. Patients with MCI who progressed to AD during follow-up showed significantly lower iPLA? activity at baseline as compared to patients with MCI who did not progress to AD (p = 0.009). Moreover, subjects from the control group at baseline who progressed to MCI during follow-up had lower sPLA? and cPLA? (p = 0.014 and p = 0.009, respectively). Our findings suggest that low platelet iPLA? activity may be a risk marker for AD in subjects with MCI. Moreover, low sPLA? and cPLA? were related to cognitive decline in healthy controls, suggesting a relationship with the very early stages of the disease. PMID:24036895

  19. A pharmacist-led follow-up program for patients with coronary heart disease in North Norway–a qualitative study exploring patient experiences

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Scientific literature shows that prevention of CHD is inadequate. The clinical pharmacist’s role in patient-centred care has been shown favourable in a large amount of studies, also in relation to reduction of risk factors related to CHD. We developed and piloted a pharmacist-led follow-up program for patients with established CHD after hospital discharge from a hospital in North Norway. The aim of the present study was to explore how participants in the follow-up program experienced the program with regard to four main topics; medication knowledge, feeling of safety and comfort with medications, the functionality of the program and the clinical pharmacist’s role in the interdisciplinary team. Methods We performed semi-structured thematic interviews with four patients included in the program. After verbatim transcribing, we analysed the interviews using “qualitative content analyses” by Graneheim and Lundman. Trial registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01131715. Results All participants appreciated the follow-up program because their medication knowledge had increased, participation had made them feel safe, they were reassured about the appropriateness of their medications, and they had become more involved in their own medication. The participants reported that the program was well structured and the clinical pharmacist was said to be an important caretaker in the health-care system. The importance of collaboration between pharmacists and physicians, both in hospital and primary care, was emphasized. Conclusion Our results indicate that the follow-up program was highly appreciated among the four participants included in this study. The results must be interpreted in the context of the health care system in Norway today. Here, few pharmacists are working in hospitals or in close relation to the general practitioners. In addition, physicians are short of time in order to supply appropriate medication information, both in hospital and primary care. Involving pharmacists in follow-up of patients with CHD seems to be highly appreciated among patients and may be a step towards improving patient care. The study is limited by the low number of participants. PMID:24679131

  20. The Semantic Structure of a Set of Scales Developed for Use with Large City Pupils. A Follow-up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayrer, James E.; Farber, Irvin J.

    In a previous Semantic Differential study, Ayrer and Farber (1972) reported the results of a factor analysis which utilized a matrix sampling approach. Some problems were encountered (negative eigen-values). The current study did not involve matrix sampling, but the same basic results were obtained. This suggests matrix sampling may be an…

  1. Sustaining the Impact: A Follow-Up of the Teachers Who Participated in the Math-in-CTE Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Morgan V.; Pearson, Donna

    2007-01-01

    During the 2004-05 school year, the National Research Center for Career and Technical Education conducted a study entitled "Building Academic Skills in Context: Testing the Value of Enhanced Math Learning in Career and Technical Education," commonly referred to as the Math-in-CTE study. This was a random-assignment experiment that tested the…

  2. A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study of Affect in Children and Adults with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Lisa; Moss, Jo; Oliver, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Studies of individuals with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) have described changes in mood and behavior with age, although no empirical or longitudinal studies have been conducted. Caregivers of individuals with CdLS (N = 67), cri du chat syndrome (CdCS; N = 42), and Fragile X syndrome (FXS; N = 142) completed the Mood, Interest and Pleasure…

  3. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety in Youth with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selles, Robert R.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Phares, Vicky; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in youth with an autism spectrum disorder appears efficacious; however, maintenance of treatment gains has not yet been studied. Using a sample of 32 youth who had benefited at least minimally from a past trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in autism spectrum disorder, this study assessed…

  4. Robotic Follow-Up for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Bualat, Maria; Deans, Matthew C.; Adams, Byron; Allan, Mark; Altobelli, Martha; Bouyssounouse, Xavier; Cohen, Tamar; Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Garber, Joshua; Palmer, Elizabeth; Heggy, Essam; Jurgens, Frank; Kennedy, Tim; Kobayashi, Linda; Lee, Pascal; Lee, Susan Y.; Lees, David; Lundy, Mike; Park, Eric; Pedersen, Liam; Smith, Trey; To, Vinh; Utz, Hans; Wheeler, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    We are studying how "robotic follow-up" can improve future planetary exploration. Robotic follow-up, which we define as augmenting human field work with subsequent robot activity, is a field exploration technique designed to increase human productivity and science return. To better understand the benefits, requirements, limitations and risks associated with this technique, we are conducting analog field tests with human and robot teams at the Haughton Crater impact structure on Devon Island, Canada. In this paper, we discuss the motivation for robotic follow-up, describe the scientific context and system design for our work, and present results and lessons learned from field testing.

  5. The Relationship Between Balance Measured With a Modified Bathroom Scale and Falls and Disability in Older Adults: A 6-Month Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background There are indications that older adults who suffer from poor balance have an increased risk for adverse health outcomes, such as falls and disability. Monitoring the development of balance over time enables early detection of balance decline, which can identify older adults who could benefit from interventions aimed at prevention of these adverse outcomes. An innovative and easy-to-use device that can be used by older adults for home-based monitoring of balance is a modified bathroom scale. Objective The objective of this paper is to study the relationship between balance scores obtained with a modified bathroom scale and falls and disability in a sample of older adults. Methods For this 6-month follow-up study, participants were recruited via physiotherapists working in a nursing home, geriatricians, exercise classes, and at an event about health for older adults. Inclusion criteria were being aged 65 years or older, being able to stand on a bathroom scale independently, and able to provide informed consent. A total of 41 nursing home patients and 139 community-dwelling older adults stepped onto the modified bathroom scale three consecutive times at baseline to measure their balance. Their mean balance scores on a scale from 0 to 16 were calculated—higher scores indicated better balance. Questionnaires were used to study falls and disability at baseline and after 6 months of follow-up. The cross-sectional relationship between balance and falls and disability at baseline was studied using t tests and Spearman rank correlations. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to study the relationship between balance measured at baseline and falls and disability development after 6 months of follow-up. Results A total of 128 participants with complete datasets—25.8% (33/128) male—and a mean age of 75.33 years (SD 6.26) were included in the analyses of this study. Balance scores of participants who reported at baseline that they had fallen at least once in the past 6 months were lower compared to nonfallers—8.9 and 11.2, respectively (P<.001). The correlation between mean balance score and disability sum-score at baseline was -.51 (P<.001). No significant associations were found between balance at baseline and falls after 6 months of follow-up. Baseline balance scores were significantly associated with the development of disability after 6 months of follow-up in the univariate analysis—odds ratio (OR) 0.86 (95% CI 0.76-0.98)—but not in the multivariate analysis when correcting for age, gender, baseline disability, and falls at follow-up—OR 0.94 (95% CI 0.79-1.11). Conclusions There is a cross-sectional relationship between balance measured by a modified bathroom scale and falls and disability in older adults. Despite this cross-sectional relationship, longitudinal data showed that balance scores have no predictive value for falls and might only have limited predictive value for disability development after 6 months of follow-up. PMID:26018423

  6. Dynamics of resilience in forced migration: a 1-year follow-up study of longitudinal associations with mental health in a conflict-affected, ethnic Muslim population

    PubMed Central

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Abas, Melanie; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sumathipala, Athula; Stewart, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective The concept of ‘resilience’ is of increasing interest in studies of mental health in populations facing adversity. However, lack of longitudinal data on the dynamics of resilience and non-usage of resilience-specific measurements have prevented a better understanding of resilience-mental health interactions. Hence, the present study was conducted to investigate the stability of levels of resilience and its associations with sociodemographic and mental health exposures in a conflict-affected internal-migrant population in Sri Lanka. Design A prospective follow-up study of 1?year. Setting Puttalam district of North Western province in postconflict Sri Lanka (baseline in 2011, follow-up in 2012). Participants An ethnic Muslim population internally displaced 20?years ago (in 1990) from Northern Sri Lanka, aged 18 or above and currently in the process of return migration. Measures It was hypothesised that levels of resilience would be associated with mental health outcomes. Resilience was measured on both occasions using the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14), social support by the Multidimensional Social Support Scale and Lubben Social Network Scale and common mental disorders by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Results Of 450 participants interviewed at baseline in 2011, 338 (75.1%) were re-interviewed in 2012 after a 1-year follow-up. The mean resilience scores measured by RS-14 were 80.2 (95% CI 78.6 to 81.9) at baseline and 84.9 (83.5 to 86.3) at follow-up. At both time points, lower resilience was independently associated with food insecurity, lower social support availability and social isolation. At both time points, there were significant associations with common mental disorders (CMDs) in unadjusted analyses, but they only showed independence at baseline. The CMD prevalence, maintenance and incidence at follow-up was 8.3%, 28.2% and 2.2%, respectively. Conclusions In this displaced population facing a potential reduction in adversity, resilience was more strongly and robustly associated with economic and social factors than with the presence of mental disorder. PMID:25687898

  7. Making a Move: Next Steps for Women. A Follow-up Study of Women Onto Work Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howieson, Cathy

    A 4-year longitudinal study assessed the longer-term outcomes for students of Women Onto Work (WOW) courses aimed at unemployed Scottish women from Wester Hailes, Craigmillar, and Pilton/Muirhouse and unemployed women with disabilities from minority ethnic groups from Edinburgh (Scotland). The research covered 4-year groups of students who were in…

  8. A Descriptive Follow-Up Study of Piedmont Virginia Community College Electronics Technology Graduates from 1995-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mark S.

    The goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the Piedmont Virginia Community College (PVCC) electronics program between 1995-1999 by answering the following questions: (1) did the students find employment in an electronics-related career upon graduation? (2) did they feel that the program provided them with an adequate level of…

  9. A Follow-Up Study of Medical Students' Biomedical Understanding and Clinical Reasoning Concerning the Cardiovascular System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahopelto, Ilona; Mikkila-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Olkinuora, Erkki; Kaapa, Pekka

    2011-01-01

    Novice medical students usually hold initial conceptions concerning medical domains, such as the cardiovascular system, which may contradict scientific explanations and thus hinder learning. The purpose of this study was to investigate which kinds of biomedical representations medical students constructed of the central cardiovascular system in…

  10. Five-Year Graduate Follow-Up Study: A Survey of the Long-Term Successes of 1981 Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John Tyler Community Coll., Chester, VA. Office of Institutional Research.

    In fall 1986, a survey was conducted of the 211 students who graduated from John Tyler Community College (JTCC) in 1981 to determine their perceptions of the college as well as their employment and educational experiences since graduation. Study findings, based on a 37% response rate, included the following: (1) the graduates' two primary reasons…

  11. Adult Outcomes, Reported Self-Aptitude, and Perceived Training: A Follow-Up Study of Individuals with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Holly Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that relate to successful adult outcomes for 28 individuals with visual impairment ages 23-30. The primary dependent variable was current employment. Independent living and completion of postsecondary educational program were secondary, related outcome measures. A secondary goal of this research was…

  12. The Chronicity of Self-Injurious Behaviour: A Long-Term Follow-Up of a Total Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lorne; Oliver, Chris; Murphy, Glynis

    2011-01-01

    Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a relatively common problem for people with intellectual disabilities and it is known to be associated with various risk markers, such as degree of disability, sensory impairments, and autism (McClintock "et al." 2003). Less is known about its long-term course however. Method: The present study was…

  13. Neighborhood and Family Influences on Educational Attainment: Results from the Ontario Child Health Study Follow-Up 2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Michael H.; Georgiades, Katholiki; Racine, Yvonne; Mustard, Cameron

    2007-01-01

    This study uses multilevel models to examine longitudinal associations between contextual influences (neighborhood and family) assessed in 1983 in a cohort of 2,355 children, 4-16 years of age, and educational attainment in 2001. Variation in educational attainment in 2001 attributable to between-neighborhood and between-family differences was…

  14. A Cross-Sectional and Follow-Up Functional MRI Study with a Working Memory Task in Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Caldu, Xavier; Andres-Perpina, Susana; Lazaro, Luisa; Bargallo, Nuria; Falcon, Carles; Plana, Maria Teresa; Junque, Carme

    2010-01-01

    Structural and functional brain abnormalities have been described in anorexia nervosa (AN). The objective of this study was to examine whether there is abnormal regional brain activation during a working memory task not associated with any emotional stimuli in adolescent patients with anorexia and to detect possible changes after weight recovery.…

  15. Trajectories of Heroin Addiction: Growth Mixture Modeling Results Based on a 33-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Huang, David; Chou, Chih-Ping; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates trajectories of heroin use and subsequent consequences in a sample of 471 male heroin addicts who were admitted to the California Civil Addict Program in 1964-1965 and followed over 33 years. Applying a two-part growth mixture modeling strategy to heroin use level during the first 16 years of the addiction careers since…

  16. Course and Prognosis of Childhood Epilepsy: 5-Year Follow-Up of the Dutch Study of Epilepsy in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arts, Willem F. M.; Brouwer, Oebele F.; Peters, A. C. Boudewijn; Stroink, Hans; Peeters, Els A. J.; Schmitz, Paul I. M.; van Donselaar, Cees A.; Geerts, Ada T.

    2004-01-01

    Knowing the prognosis of epilepsy will undoubtedly influence the treatment strategy. This study aimed to define the prospects of newly diagnosed childhood epilepsy, assess the dynamics of its course, identify relevant variables and develop models to assess the individual prognosis. Four hundred and fifty-three children with newly diagnosed…

  17. Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study: 2000/01 Follow-Up Field Test Methodology Report. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biber, Melissa R.; Link, Michael W.; Riccobono, John A.; Siegel, Peter H.

    This report describes and evaluates the methods and procedures used for the field test of the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:2000/01). The B&B:2000/01 field test included important changes from previous B&B surveys (conducted in 1994 and 1997) in its sample design and collection of data. The introductory chapter describes the…

  18. Application Essays as an Effective Tool for Assessing Instruction in the Basic Communication Course: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazer, Joseph P.; Simonds, Cheri J.; Hunt, Stephen K.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of student learning in general education courses is of critical importance in higher education. This study examines the utility of a writing assignment (application essays) in a basic communication course as an effective assessment tool. The authors conducted a content analysis of student portfolios to determine the extent to which…

  19. PROJECT SEARCH: A Five Year Follow-up Study of High School Graduates. Three District Composite Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Evelyn T., Comp.

    The document deals with a five year followup study of three California high school districts starting with 1963 graduates. The project was intended to discover if the guidance and curriculum activities offered enable students to make a satisfactory transition from high school into areas of work, school and/or homemaking. The following information…

  20. Effects of Gestalt Marathon Workshops on Measured Self-Actualization: A Replication and Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulds, Melvin L.; Hannigan, Patricia S.

    1976-01-01

    This replication study investigated the immediate and long-term effects of Gestalt marathon workshops on a measure of self-actualization. Experimental groups participated in a 24-hour continuous Gestalt workshop. Findings revealed significant positive pre-post changes on an overall measure of self-actualization and on 10 of 12 subscales. The…

  1. Student's Booklet; To Accompany The Career Data Book: Results from Project TALENT'S Five-Year Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, John C.; And Others

    The Student Booklet is a companion document to "The Career Data Book: Results from Project TALENT'S Five-year Followup Study" (CE 000 755). The booklet's purpose is to enable the high school student to compare his abilities, achievements, interests, and background with those of other young people who went into various occupations so he may be…

  2. A Follow-Up Study of Relational Processes and Consultation Outcomes for Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erchul, William P.; DuPaul, George J.; Bennett, Megan S.; Grissom, Priscilla F.; Jitendra, Asha K.; Tresco, Katy E.; Volpe, Robert J.; Vile Junod, Rosemary E.; Flammer-Rivera, Lizette M.; Mannella, Mark C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to link consultant and teacher verbal interaction patterns to consultation outcomes. Participants were 4 consultants, 20 teachers, and 20 elementary school students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Audiotaped Problem Analysis Interviews (PAIs) from Project PASS (Promoting Academic Success in Students)…

  3. Third Grade Follow-Up to the Head Start Impact Study: Final Report. OPRE Report 2012-45

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Mike; Bell, Stephen; Cook, Ronna; Heid, Camilla; Broene, Pam; Jenkins, Frank; Mashburn, Andrew; Downer, Jason

    2012-01-01

    In the 1998 reauthorization of Head Start, Congress mandated that the US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) determine, on a national level, the impact of Head Start on the children it serves. As noted by the Advisory Committee on Head Start Research, this legislative mandate required that the impact study address two main research…

  4. Paper ID #6662 A Follow-Up Study of a First-Year Leadership and Service Learning Module

    E-print Network

    O'Brien, James F.

    , and regulation. She also has educational experience in leadership studies through several training programs is a graduate student in the Graduate Group in Science and Mathematics Education, fo- cusing on Engineering Education at the University of California, Berkeley. She also obtained her B.S. in Electrical Engineering

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Mental Health Consumer/Survivor Initiatives: Part V--Outcomes at 3-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Geoffrey; Ochocka, Joanna; Janzen, Rich; Trainor, John; Goering, Paula; Lomotey, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impacts of participation in mental health Consumer/Survivor Initiatives (CSIs), organizations run by and for people with mental illness. A nonequivalent comparison group design was used to compare three groups of participants: (a) those who were continually active in CSIs over a 36-month period (n =…

  6. The Translucent Cadaver: A Follow-up Study to Gauge the Efficacy of Implementing Changes Suggested by Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzé, Sanet Henriët; Driescher, Natasha Darné; Mole, Calvin Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In a study conducted in 2011, the use of full body digital X-ray images (Lodox® Statscan®) and drawings were described for surface anatomy education during which suggestions were made by students on how to improve the method. Educational innovations should continuously be adjusted and improved to provide the best possible scenario for student…

  7. Does ADHD Predict Substance-Use Disorders? A 10-Year Follow-up Study of Young Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Martelon, MaryKate; Joshi, Gagan; Bateman, Clancey; Fried, Ronna; Petty, Carter; Biederman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Objective: High rates of substance-use disorders (SUD) have been found in samples of adolescents and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Predictors of SUD in children with ADHD who are at risk for the development of SUDs remain understudied. The main aims of this study were to identify clinically meaningful characteristics…

  8. Middle school students' attitudes toward math and STEM career interests: A 4-year follow-up study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Madalyn R.

    The purpose of the current study is to examine middle school students' attitudes toward math, intent to pursue STEM-related education and occupations, and STEM interest from middle school to high school. The data used in this study are from a larger, on-going National Science Foundation (NSF) grant-funded study that is investigating middle school students' disengagement while using the Assistments system (Baker, Heffernan & San Pedro, 2012), a computer-based math tutoring system. The NSF grant study aims to explore how disengagement with STEM material can aid in the prediction of students' college enrollment as well as how it may interact with other factors affecting students' career choices (San Pedro, Baker, Bowers, Heffernan, 2013). Participants are students from urban and suburban schools in Massachusetts measured first in middle school and again four years later. Measures at Time 1 included: various items related to attitudes toward mathematics, occupations they could see themselves doing as adults, and the Brief Self-Control Scale (Tangney, Baumeister, & Luzio Boone, 2004). Measures at Time 2 included: items requesting the students' current mathematics and science courses and intended majors or occupations following high school graduation. Exploratory factor analysis, multiple regression and logistic regression analyses were used to test the following four hypotheses: I. There will be several distinct factors that emerge to provide information about middle school students' attitudes toward math; II. Students' attitudes toward math will correlate positively and significantly with students' intent to pursue STEM-related careers at Time 1 with a medium effect; III. Middle school attitudes toward mathematics will relate positively and significantly to level of high school mathematics and science courses with a medium effect; IV. Middle school intent to pursue STEM will correlate positively and significantly with high school intent to pursue STEM majors/careers with a medium effect. Results supported a 2-factor model of Attitudes toward Mathematics consisting of Math Self-Concept and Attitudes toward Assistments. Other significant findings include: a positive relationship between students' Attitudes toward Assistments and level of math class taken in high school; a positive relationship between students' Math Self-Concept and Self Control; a positive relationship between Self Control and students' endorsement of STEM careers while in middle school, and discrepancy between male and female students' endorsement of STEM careers as early as middle school. Although many of the study's primary hypotheses were not supported, the present study provides a framework and baseline for several important considerations. Limitations, including those related to the present study's small sample size, and future implications of the present study, which add to career development literature in STEM, are discussed in regard to both research and practice. Keywords: career development, middle school, attitudes, math, STEM, self-concept

  9. BEMER Therapy Combined with Physiotherapy in Patients with Musculoskeletal Diseases: A Randomised, Controlled Double Blind Follow-Up Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Gyulai, Franciska; Rába, Katalin; Baranyai, Ildikó; Berkes, Enik?; Bender, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study evaluates the effect of adjuvant BEMER therapy in patients with knee arthrosis and chronic low back pain in a randomized double blind design. Methods. A total of 50 patients with chronic low back pain and 50 patients with osteoarthritis of knee took part in this study and were randomized into 4 groups. Hospitalized patients received a standardized physiotherapy package for 3 weeks followed by BEMER therapy or placebo. Results. In patients with low back pain, the comparison of the results obtained at the first and second visit showed a significant improvement in resting VAS scores and Fatigue Scale scores. The Oswestry scores and Quality of Life Scale scores showed no change. In patients with knee arthrosis, the comparison of the first and second measurements showed no significant improvement in the abovementioned parameters, while the comparison of the first and third scores revealed a significant improvement in the Fatigue Scale scores and in the vitality test on the Quality of Life Scale. Conclusions. Our study showed that BEMER physical vascular therapy reduced pain and fatigue in the short term in patients with chronic low back pain, while long-term therapy appears to be beneficial in patients with osteoarthritis of knee. PMID:26078768

  10. BEMER Therapy Combined with Physiotherapy in Patients with Musculoskeletal Diseases: A Randomised, Controlled Double Blind Follow-Up Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gyulai, Franciska; Rába, Katalin; Baranyai, Ildikó; Berkes, Enik?; Bender, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study evaluates the effect of adjuvant BEMER therapy in patients with knee arthrosis and chronic low back pain in a randomized double blind design. Methods. A total of 50 patients with chronic low back pain and 50 patients with osteoarthritis of knee took part in this study and were randomized into 4 groups. Hospitalized patients received a standardized physiotherapy package for 3 weeks followed by BEMER therapy or placebo. Results. In patients with low back pain, the comparison of the results obtained at the first and second visit showed a significant improvement in resting VAS scores and Fatigue Scale scores. The Oswestry scores and Quality of Life Scale scores showed no change. In patients with knee arthrosis, the comparison of the first and second measurements showed no significant improvement in the abovementioned parameters, while the comparison of the first and third scores revealed a significant improvement in the Fatigue Scale scores and in the vitality test on the Quality of Life Scale. Conclusions. Our study showed that BEMER physical vascular therapy reduced pain and fatigue in the short term in patients with chronic low back pain, while long-term therapy appears to be beneficial in patients with osteoarthritis of knee. PMID:26078768

  11. Mental Health Status of Sri Lanka Navy Personnel Three Years after End of Combat Operations: A Follow Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Hanwella, Raveen; Jayasekera, Nicholas E. L. W.; de Silva, Varuni A.

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to assess the mental health status of the Navy Special Forces and regular forces three and a half years after the end of combat operations in mid 2009, and compare it with the findings in 2009. This cross sectional study was carried out in the Sri Lanka Navy (SLN), three and a half years after the end of combat operations. Representative samples of SLN Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas were selected using simple random sampling. Only personnel who had served continuously in combat areas during the one year period prior to the end of combat operations were included in the study. The sample consisted of 220 Special Forces and 275 regular forces personnel. Compared to regular forces a significantly higher number of Special Forces personnel had experienced potentially traumatic events. Compared to the period immediately after end of combat operations, in the Special Forces, prevalence of psychological distress and fatigue showed a marginal increase while hazardous drinking and multiple physical symptoms showed a marginal decrease. In the regular forces, the prevalence of psychological distress, fatigue and multiple somatic symptoms declined and prevalence of hazardous drinking increased from 16.5% to 25.7%. During the same period prevalence of smoking doubled in both Special Forces and regular forces. Prevalence of PTSD reduced from 1.9% in Special Forces to 0.9% and in the regular forces from 2.07% to 1.1%. Three and a half years after the end of combat operations mental health problems have declined among SLN regular forces while there was no significant change among Special Forces. Hazardous drinking among regular forces and smoking among both Special Forces and regular forces have increased. PMID:25254557

  12. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging markers in prediction of cognitive impairment after ischemic stroke: a prospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabian, Shima; Raycheva, Margarita; Petrova, Neli; Janyan, Armina; Petrova, Mariya; Traykov, Latchezar

    2015-01-01

    Background There are few longitudinal studies with controversial results examining delayed changes in cognition after ischemic stroke and predictive values of neuropsychological and neuroimaging markers. Objective The objectives of this study were to evaluate the delayed changes in cognition in poststroke patients and their relationship to the neuropsychological and neuroimaging markers measured during the acute poststroke phase. Methods Eighty-five first-ever stroke inpatients (mean age 65.6±5.6 years) without previous cognitive complaints were prospectively evaluated with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery at the 5th day and the 1st, 6th, and 12th months. A wide range of clinical, radiological, and neuropsychological variables were examined. Results Our results showed significantly poorer performance on mini–mental state examination, memory, attention/executive functions, and processing speed in patients with stroke in comparison with stroke-free cognitively intact controls. Multiple regression analysis revealed that hippocampal atrophy is the strongest predictor of delayed cognitive impairment. Secondary divided subgroups according to Isaacs Set Test (IST) score showed that patients with IST score ?28 had different patterns of cognitive and neurological impairment after 1 year. Baseline impairments in attention/executive functions and memory were associated with development of dementia in poststroke patients. Conclusion Executive functioning deficit appears to have a predictive power for cognitive impairment progression. The study suggests that IST as a screening test has a potential to be a reliable and quick tool for poststroke cognitive impairment evaluation and delayed cognitive and neurological outcome. Hippocampal atrophy was the strongest predictor for cognitive impairment outcome, even in poststroke cognitive impairment. The findings may set the stage for better poststroke management. PMID:26527875

  13. The effect of sulphurous water in patients with osteoarthritis of hand. Double-blind, randomized, controlled follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Csaba; Pecze, Mariann; Tihanyi, Ágnes; Kovács, Lajos; Balogh, Sándor; Bender, Tamás

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of sulphurous water in patients with osteoarthritis of the hand. Forty-seven patients with osteoarthritis of the hand were enrolled into the double-blind, randomized, controlled study, satisfying ACR criteria. One group of the patients (n = 24) received balneotherapy, bathing in sulphurous thermal water for 20 min per occasion, 15 times in all during a period of 3 weeks. The control group (n = 21) had a bath exclusively in warm tap water. Assessments were carried out in both groups on four occasions: at the beginning and at the end of the treatment, and 3 and 6 months after the beginning of the treatment. The parameters studied were the following: pain in the hand, morning stiffness in the joints, grip strength of both hands, and Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ) and AUSCAN Hand Osteoarthritis Index and EuroQol quality of life questionnaire. At the end of treatment, the improvement was more pronounced in the patient group treated with the sulphurous water. After 3 months, significant improvement could be detected in all parameters, except the morning stiffness and EQ5D. After 6 months, the values of pain, HAQ and AUSCAN continued to be significantly better in comparison with the baseline values. The improvement in quality of life was significant only at the end of the treatment, 6 months later not any longer. The difference between the two groups was significant after 3 months in point of pain and EQVAS. Balneotherapy and within this the sulphurous spa water alone may be effective for the attenuation of pain in patients with hand osteoarthrosis. PMID:22843170

  14. Diet, lifestyle, and genetic risk factors for type 2 diabetes: a review from the Nurses’ Health Study, Nurses’ Health Study 2, and Health Professionals’ Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Ardisson Korat, Andres V.; Willett, Walter C.; Hu, Frank B.

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiological evidence collected from three large US cohorts (Nurses’ Health Study, Nurses’ Health Study 2, and Health Professionals’ Follow-up Study) has yielded important information regarding the roles of overall diet, individual foods and nutrients, physical activity and other lifestyle factors in the development of type 2 diabetes. Excess adiposity is a major risk factor for diabetes, and thus, maintaining a healthy body weight and avoidance of weight gain during adulthood is the cornerstone of diabetes prevention. Independent of body weight, the quality or type of dietary fat and carbohydrate is more crucial than the quantity in determining diabetes risk. Higher consumption of coffee, whole grains, fruits, and nuts is associated with lower risk of diabetes, whereas regular consumption of refined grains, red and processed meats, and sugar-sweetened beverages including fruits juices is associated with increased risk. Dietary patterns rich in fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and nuts and legumes but lower in red and processed meats, refined grains, and sugar-sweetened beverages are consistently associated with diabetes risk, even after adjustment for body mass index. The genome-wide association studies conducted in these cohorts have contributed substantially to the discoveries of novel genetic loci for type 2 diabetes and other metabolic traits, although the identified common variants explain only a small proportion of overall diabetes predisposition. Taken together, these ongoing large cohort studies have provided convincing epidemiologic evidence that a healthy diet, together with regular physical activity, maintenance of a healthy weight, moderate alcohol consumption, and avoidance of sedentary behaviors and smoking would prevent the majority of type 2 diabetes cases. PMID:25599007

  15. Longitudinal follow-up study of smoking-induced emphysema progression in low-dose CT screening of lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, H.; Matsuhiro, M.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Nakano, Y.; Ohmatsu, H.; Kusumoto, M.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, Masahiro; Moriyama, N.

    2014-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a major public health problem that is predicted to be third leading cause of death in 2030. Although spirometry is traditionally used to quantify emphysema progression, it is difficult to detect the loss of pulmonary function by emphysema in early stage, and to assess the susceptibility to smoking. This study presents quantification method of smoking-induced emphysema progression based on annual changes of low attenuation volume (LAV) by each lung lobe acquired from low-dose CT images in lung cancer screening. The method consists of three steps. First, lung lobes are segmented using extracted interlobar fissures by enhancement filter based on fourdimensional curvature. Second, LAV of each lung lobe is segmented. Finally, smoking-induced emphysema progression is assessed by statistical analysis of the annual changes represented by linear regression of LAV percentage in each lung lobe. This method was applied to 140 participants in lung cancer CT screening for six years. The results showed that LAV progressions of nonsmokers, past smokers, and current smokers are different in terms of pack-year and smoking cessation duration. This study demonstrates effectiveness in diagnosis and prognosis of early emphysema in lung cancer CT screening.

  16. Radiological follow-up study of rheumatoid wrists after radio-lunate limited arthrodesis with ulnar head resection.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Kensuke; Nishida, Keiichiro; Hashizume, Hiroyuki; Omoto, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Masutaka; Ota, Yusuke; Inoue, Hajime

    2004-01-01

    Radio-lunate limited arthrodesis (RLA) is an established surgical intervention for damaged rheumatoid arthritis (RA) wrists. The goal of RLA is to conserve the range of motion (ROM) and level of activities of daily life (ADL) by delaying more extensive fusion. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the outcome of RLA with ulnar head resection (UHR) in terms of pain score, ROM, and radiographic parameters, including carpal height ratio, ulnar translation ratio, and palmar subluxation. The clinical factors, such as dose of corticosteroids per day and laboratory examination data before surgery, including C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and rheumatoid factor (RF), did not influence the results of the surgery. The changes in these clinical factors were also statistically analyzed in relation to the Schulthess classification of preoperative radiographs of wrists reported by Simmen and Huber: Type I (ankylosis type), Type II (osteoarthritis type), and Type III (disintegration type). This study hypothesized that RLA with UHR would provide no significant improvement in Type III wrists. The results showed that RLA with UHR resulted in stable wrists with excellent pain relief and with limited, but temporary, functional ROM, suggesting that this procedure seems to be applicable for all types of wrists within this group of patients. PMID:17028802

  17. Follow-up study of persons who had iodine-131 and other diagnostic procedures during childhood and adolescence

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, P.M.; Chiacchierini, R.P.; Kaczmarek, R.G.

    1989-08-01

    A prospective study of 3,503 children and adolescents who received diagnostic doses of iodine-131 was conducted to evaluate the risk of radiation-induced thyroid neoplasia. The exposed group was followed for a total of 93,442 person-years. Thyroid doses received by the exposed group ranged from less than 10 rads to slightly more than 2,000 rads. The majority received less than 100 rads. A group of 2,594 children and adolescents who were not exposed to radioactive iodine comprised the control group for the study. Members of the control group were followed for a total of 66,797 person-years. An elevated risk of malignant thyroid tumors was observed in the exposed group. An increased risk of benign thyroid conditions was also noted in the exposed group. The results described above failed to fulfill the requirements for statistical significance because of the small number of cases but are suggestive of a radiation effect.

  18. Predictors of Poststroke Health-Related Quality of Life in Nigerian Stroke Survivors: A 1-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Ashiru Mohammad; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Loh, Siew Yim; Jahan, Nowrozy Kamar

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to identify the predictors in the different aspects of the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and to measure the changes of functional status over time in a cohort of Nigerian stroke survivors. A prospective observational study was conducted in three hospitals of Kano state of Nigeria where stroke survivors receive rehabilitation. The linguistic-validated Hausa versions of the stroke impact scale 3.0, modified Rankin scale, Barthel index and Beck depression inventory scales were used. Paired samples t-test was used to calculate the amount of changes that occur over time and the forward stepwise linear regression model was used to identify the predictors. A total of 233 stroke survivors were surveyed at 6 months, and 93% (217/233) were followed at 1 year after stroke. Functional disabilities were significantly reduced during the recovery phase. Motor impairment, disability, and level of depression were independent predictors of HRQoL in the multivariate regression analysis. The involvement of family members as caregivers is the key factor for those survivors with improved functional status. Thus, to enhance the quality of poststroke life, it is proposed that a holistic stroke rehabilitation service and an active involvement of family members are established at every possible level. PMID:24982864

  19. Heart rate reduction for 36 months with ivabradine reduces left ventricular mass in cardiac allograft recipients: a long-term follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Doesch, Andreas O; Mueller, Susanne; Erbel, Christian; Gleissner, Christian A; Frankenstein, Lutz; Hardt, Stefan; Ruhparwar, Arjang; Ehlermann, Philipp; Dengler, Thomas; Katus, Hugo A

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to graft denervation, sinus tachycardia is a common problem after heart transplantation, underlining the importance of heart rate control without peripheral effects. However, long-term data regarding the effects of ivabradine, a novel If channel antagonist, are limited in patients after heart transplantation. Methods In this follow-up analysis, the resting heart rate, left ventricular mass indexed to body surface area (LVMI), tolerability, and safety of ivabradine therapy were evaluated at baseline and after 36 months in 30 heart transplant recipients with symptomatic sinus tachycardia versus a matched control group. Results During the study period, ivabradine medication was stopped in three patients (10% of total). Further analysis was based on 27 patients with 36 months of drug intake. The mean patient age was 53.3±11.3 years and mean time after heart transplantation was 5.0±4.8 years. After 36 months, the mean ivabradine dose was 12.0±3.4 mg/day. Resting heart rate was reduced from 91.0±10.7 beats per minute before initiation of ivabradine therapy (ie, baseline) to 81.2±9.8 beats per minute at follow-up (P=0.0006). After 36 months of ivabradine therapy, a statistically significant reduction of LVMI was observed (104.3±22.7 g at baseline versus 93.4±18.4 g at follow-up, P=0.002). Hematologic, renal, and liver function parameters remained stable during ivabradine therapy. Except for a lower mycophenolate mofetil dose at follow-up (P=0.02), no statistically significant changes in immunosuppressive drug dosage or blood levels were detected. No phosphenes were observed during 36 months of ivabradine intake despite active inquiry. Conclusion In line with previously published 12-month data, heart rate reduction with ivabradine remained effective and safe in chronic stable patients after heart transplantation, and also during 36-month long-term follow-up. Further, a significant reduction of LVMI was observed only during ivabradine therapy. Therefore, ivabradine may have a sustained long-term beneficial effect with regard to left ventricular remodeling in heart transplant patients. PMID:24235815

  20. Natrelle Silicone Breast Implant Follow-up Study: Demographics, Lifestyle, and Surgical Characteristics of More Than 5000 Reconstruction Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Navin; Murphy, Diane K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A large, multicenter, 10-year observational study is comparing the long-term safety and effectiveness of Natrelle silicone breast implants versus saline implants or national norms. Methods: Women who underwent primary augmentation, revision-augmentation, primary reconstruction, or revision-reconstruction were invited to participate. Enrolled subjects had completed surgery and received one implant or matching implants. Baseline demographics, health, lifestyle, and surgical characteristics are presented here for adult subjects who underwent primary reconstruction or revision-reconstruction. Results: Of 5637 subjects who underwent reconstruction surgery (86.7% primary reconstruction; 13.3% revision-reconstruction), 5407 received silicone implants and 230 received saline implants; 72.9% received bilateral implants. Silicone implants were used in 96.2% who underwent primary reconstruction and in 94.1% who underwent revision-reconstruction. Median age was about 3 years lower in those who underwent primary reconstruction versus revision-reconstruction. Most subjects were white nonsmokers and had attended college. Hispanic subjects were more likely to receive saline implants for primary reconstruction. Across groups, the most common characteristics by implant type or procedure included smooth-surface implants (90.8%), mastectomy scar site (69.7%), and partial (59.2%) or complete (33.9%) submuscular placement. Implant size was larger for revision-reconstruction versus primary reconstruction, and incision size was larger for silicone versus saline implants in subjects undergoing primary reconstruction. Conclusions: This study provides an unprecedented look at a large subject sample. The data offer surgeons an opportunity to make informed decisions regarding the most appropriate implant attributes and surgical approaches for women who desire breast implants for primary or revisionary breast reconstruction. PMID:26495202

  1. Lower Ipsilateral Hippocampal Integrity after Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Schaapsmeerders, Pauline; Tuladhar, Anil M.; Maaijwee, Noortje A. M.; Rutten-Jacobs, Loes C. A.; Arntz, Renate M.; Schoonderwaldt, Hennie C.; Dorresteijn, Lucille D. A.; van Dijk, Ewoud J.; Kessels, Roy P. C.; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Memory impairment after stroke is poorly understood as stroke rarely occurs in the hippocampus. Previous studies have observed smaller ipsilateral hippocampal volumes after stroke compared with controls. Possibly, these findings on macroscopic level are not the first occurrence of structural damage and are preceded by microscopic changes that may already be associated with a worse memory function. We therefore examined the relationship between hippocampal integrity, volume, and memory performance long after first-ever ischemic stroke in young adults. Methods We included all consecutive first-ever ischemic stroke patients, without hippocampal strokes or recurrent stroke/TIA, aged 18–50 years, admitted to our academic hospital between 1980 and 2010. One hundred and forty-six patients underwent T1 MPRAGE, DTI scanning and completed the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and were compared with 84 stroke-free controls. After manual correction of hippocampal automatic segmentation, we calculated mean hippocampal fractional anisotropy (FA) and diffusivity (MD). Results On average 10 years after ischemic stroke, lesion volume was associated with lower ipsilateral hippocampal integrity (p<0.05), independent of hippocampal volume. In patients with a normal ipsilateral hippocampal volume (volume is less than or equal to 1.5 SD below the mean volume of controls) significant differences in ipsilateral hippocampal MD were observed (p<0.0001). However, patients with a normal hippocampal volume and high hippocampal MD did not show a worse memory performance compared with patients with a normal volume and low hippocampal MD (p>0.05). Conclusions Patients with average ipsilateral hippocampal volume could already have lower ipsilateral hippocampal integrity, although at present with no attendant worse memory performance compared with patients with high hippocampal integrity. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate whether a low hippocampal integrity after stroke might lead to exacerbated memory decline with increasing age. PMID:26462115

  2. Bone Mineral Density as a Marker of Cumulative Estrogen Exposure in Psychotic Disorder: A 3 Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Leeuw, Christine; Peeters, Sanne; Domen, Patrick; van Kroonenburgh, Marinus; van Os, Jim; Marcelis, Machteld

    2015-01-01

    Altered estrogen-induced neuroprotection has been implicated in the etiology of psychotic disorders. Using bone mineral density as a marker of lifetime estrogen exposure, a longitudinal family study was conducted to discriminate between etiological mechanisms and secondary effects of disease and treatment. Dual X-ray absorptiometry scans were acquired twice, with an interval of 3 years, in 30 patients with psychotic disorder (male (M)/female (F): 24/6, mean age of 32 years at second measurement), 44 non-psychotic siblings of patients with a psychotic disorder (M/F: 26/18, mean age 32) and 27 controls (M/F: 7/20, mean age 35). Total bone mineral density, Z-scores and T-scores were measured in the lumbar spine and proximal femur. Associations between group and bone mineral density changes were investigated with multilevel random regression analyses. The effect of prolactin-raising antipsychotic medication was evaluated. (Increased risk of) psychotic disorder was not associated with disproportionate bone mineral density loss over a three year period. Instead, femoral bone mineral density measures appeared to decrease less in the patient versus control comparison (total BMD: B = 0.026, 95% CI 0.002 to 0.050, p = 0.037; Z-score: B = 0.224, 95% CI 0.035 to 0.412, p = 0.020; and T-score: B = 0.193, 95% CI 0.003 to 0.382, p = 0.046). Current or past use of a prolactin-raising antipsychotic medication was not associated with bone mineral density changes. In this small longitudinal study, there was no evidence of ongoing estrogen deficiency in psychotic disorder as there was no excessive loss of bone mineral density over a 3-year period in patients using antipsychotic medication. PMID:26309037

  3. Survival and other clinical outcomes of maintenance hemodialysis patients in Taiwan: a 5-year multicenter follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huan-Sheng; Cheng, Chun-Ting; Hou, Chun-Cheng; Liou, Hung-Hsiang; Lim, Paik-Seong

    2014-10-01

    The increasing aging and diabetes mellitus (DM) patients in dialysis population make the quality maintenance of dialysis an imperative issue. Recently, an increasing number of dialysis centers were run by private dialysis providers, many of which apply quality assurance programs and performance management systems to dialysis care. We studied patients in dialysis facilities in Taiwan run by a private chain to see clinical outcomes of centers operating under these systemic strategies. Hemodialysis patients from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2012 in 25 dialysis facilities in Taiwan, which received the management and consultation from a dialysis service provider, NephroCare (NC), were included. Data pivotal to quality of dialysis were analyzed. During a 5-year interval, 5161 hemodialysis patients were included. For volume control, the proportion of patients with weight gain ?4.5% decreases from 41.7% to 30.2%. Mean Kt/V is 1.74?±?0.28. Mean albumin level is 3.92?±?0.38?g/dL. Patients with phosphate <5.5?mg/dL is up to 71.8%. The mean hemoglobin level is 10.70?±?1.40?g/dL. More than 80% of patients have adequate iron status. Further, 73% of patients use native arteriovenous fistula. Hospitalization-free survival rate was 56% at the fifth year. Patient survival rate at the fifth year was 66.4%. Overall clinical performances were maintained very stable in NC facilities from this temporal data analysis. The hospitalization and survival rate also compare favorably with those reported internationally. These results warrant further studies to justify the application of this kind of quality assurance programs and performance management systems in dialysis care. PMID:24766262

  4. An evaluation of the adequacy of vital status follow-up in the Hanford worker mortality study

    SciTech Connect

    Omohundro, E.L.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of the study described in this report was to evaluate the completeness of vital status ascertainment in the Hanford worker cohort. Identifying information on 17,708 Hanford workers, including all workers who were monitored for external radiation exposure, employed at least six months at the Hanford site, and whose vital status remains unknown, was submitted to a private search organization, Equifax Government and Special Systems. Equifax then linked Social Security numbers of these workers with death information files. For the period 1945--86 that has been emphasized in recent dose-response analyses of the Hanford data, Equifax ascertained only 12 new deaths, an increase of only 0.2% over deaths that had been ascertained previously. In addition, Equifax ascertained 23 deaths that were judged to be mismatches based on comparison of names and birth-dates on their files and ours; it is shown that this number can be regarded as a rough estimate of the number of deaths missed because workers had incorrect Social Security numbers. Overall the study suggests that the number of deaths missed was not large, but the confidence one can place in this conclusion is limited by the fact that Equifax`s ascertainment procedures are not perfect, especially for the period before 1965. In order to evaluate the adequacy of the methods used by Equifax, information on 2,254 Hanford workers who had been previously identified as dead was also submitted. Equifax missed less than 2% of known Hanford deaths occurring in the period 1965--86, but missed about 18% of deaths occurring before 1965. Although recent analyses have focused on the period 1945--86, some analyses have included deaths ascertained using direct linkage with Washington state death files for the period 1987--89.

  5. Job stress as a risk factor for absences among manual workers: a 12-month follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    HEO, Yong-Seok; LEEM, Jong-Han; PARK, Shin-Goo; JUNG, Dal-Young; KIM, Hwan-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of job stress on absence from work caused by illnesses and accidents through a prospective research design. A total of 2,349 manual workers were included in this analysis. In the first survey, job stress was determined using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale-Short Form. In the second survey, information on absence due to accidents or illnesses during the past one year was obtained through a questionnaire. The relationship was analyzed using a logistic regression model with multiple imputation. After adjusting for confounding variables for males, absence due to accidents was statistically associated with high job demand, insufficient job control, inadequate social support, and organizational injustice. In addition, high job demands and organizational injustice were related to increased absence due to illnesses in both genders. A lack of reward was associated with increased absence due to illnesses among female workers. We found that job stress was associated with a higher risk of absence caused by accidents or illnesses of manual workers. PMID:26212413

  6. Psychological and Work Stress Assessment of Patients following Angioplasty or Heart Surgery: Results of 1-year Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Fiabane, Elena; Giorgi, Ines; Candura, Stefano M; Argentero, Piergiorgio

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore changes in subjective psychological health and perceived work stress among patients who returned to work (RTW) after a multidisciplinary cardiac rehabilitation (CR) following cardiac interventions. A total of 108 patients were evaluated at the beginning of their CR, at 6 and 12?months after discharge. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess depression, anxiety, illness perception and work stress at each time stage. Results showed reports of depressive symptoms significantly decreased (p?

  7. Evolution of iron burden in acquired aplastic anemia: a cohort study of more than 3-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng; Wang, Jinhuan; Li, Xingxin; Wang, Min; Ge, Meili; Zhang, Jizhou; Huang, Jinbo; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Zhendong; Nie, Neng; Shao, Yingqi; Shi, Jun; Zheng, Yizhou

    2015-01-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is the most common condition linked to transfusion dependence. We conducted a cohort study to explore patterns of the dynamic evolution of iron burden, and to identify the risk factors for iron overload (IO) in 550 AA patients. Of the participants, 13 % presented with IO when diagnosed, including 7 % of patients without a history of transfusion and 22 % of those receiving transfusions. Male patients [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.85, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.77-8.36], adults (HR = 3.04, 95 % CI 1.21-7.63), and patients with high transfusion burdens (more than eight units; HR = 11.30, 95 % CI 4.45-28.70) experienced a significantly higher risk of IO. Furthermore, we found a sharply increasing risk of IO within the first 2 years, especially in males, patients with large number of lifetime transfusions, and patients not responding to treatment. More interestingly, after transfusion independence, a significant seesaw effect between erythropoiesis and iron burden was not noted until 6 months later, which continued over 3 years. In contrast to female patients, children, and patients with lower transfusion burdens, male subjects, adults, and subjects with high transfusion burdens experienced a pattern of slow decline in iron burden. AA incurred a high risk of progression to IO and showed distinct patterns in the evolution of iron burden. In light of these data, we offer suggestions for decision-making regarding who should undergo iron chelation and when. PMID:25430083

  8. Job stress as a risk factor for absences among manual workers: a 12-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Heo, Yong-Seok; Leem, Jong-Han; Park, Shin-Goo; Jung, Dal-Young; Kim, Hwan-Cheol

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of job stress on absence from work caused by illnesses and accidents through a prospective research design. A total of 2,349 manual workers were included in this analysis. In the first survey, job stress was determined using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale-Short Form. In the second survey, information on absence due to accidents or illnesses during the past one year was obtained through a questionnaire. The relationship was analyzed using a logistic regression model with multiple imputation. After adjusting for confounding variables for males, absence due to accidents was statistically associated with high job demand, insufficient job control, inadequate social support, and organizational injustice. In addition, high job demands and organizational injustice were related to increased absence due to illnesses in both genders. A lack of reward was associated with increased absence due to illnesses among female workers. We found that job stress was associated with a higher risk of absence caused by accidents or illnesses of manual workers. PMID:26212413

  9. ADHD, stimulant treatment in childhood and subsequent substance abuse in adulthood - a naturalistic long-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Dalsgaard, Søren; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Frydenberg, Morten; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to estimate the risk of substance use disorder (SUD) and alcohol abuse in adulthood among children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared to the background population. Furthermore, to examine whether the age at initiation and duration of stimulant treatment in childhood predicts SUD and alcohol abuse in adulthood. 208 youths with ADHD (183 boys; 25 girls) were followed prospectively. Diagnoses of SUD and alcohol abuse were obtained from The Danish Psychiatric Central Register. The relative risk (RR) of SUD and alcohol abuse for cases with ADHD, compared to the background population was 7.7 (4.3-13.9) and 5.2 (2.9-9.4), respectively. Female gender, conduct disorder in childhood and older age at initiation of stimulant treatment increased the risk of later SUD and alcohol abuse. Our results warrant increased focus on the possibly increased risk of substance abuse in females with ADHD compared to males with ADHD. PMID:24090624

  10. B-Cell Responses to Human Bocaviruses 1–4: New Insights from a Childhood Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Kantola, Kalle; Hedman, Lea; Tanner, Laura; Simell, Ville; Mäkinen, Marjaana; Partanen, Juulia; Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Veijola, Riitta; Knip, Mikael; Ilonen, Jorma; Hyöty, Heikki; Toppari, Jorma; Simell, Olli; Hedman, Klaus; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Human bocaviruses (HBoVs) 1–4 are recently discovered, antigenically similar parvoviruses. We examined the hypothesis that the antigenic similarity of these viruses could give rise to clinically and diagnostically important immunological interactions. IgG and IgM EIAs as well as qPCR were used to study ~2000 sera collected from infancy to early adolescence at 3–6-month intervals from 109 children whose symptoms were recorded. We found that HBoV1-4-specific seroprevalences at age 6 years were 80%, 48%, 10%, and 0%, respectively. HBoV1 infections resulted in significantly weaker IgG responses among children who had pre-existing HBoV2 IgG, and vice versa. Furthermore, we documented a complete absence of virus type-specific immune responses in six viremic children who had pre-existing IgG for another bocavirus, indicating that not all HBoV infections can be diagnosed serologically. Our results strongly indicate that interactions between consecutive HBoV infections affect HBoV immunity via a phenomenon called “original antigenic sin”, cross-protection, or both; however, without evident clinical consequences but with important ramifications for the serodiagnosis of HBoV infections. Serological data is likely to underestimate human exposure to these viruses. PMID:26418064

  11. Eight-five day postexposure follow-up study in Fischer 344 rats after repeated exposures to methyl isocyanate vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, E.H.; Dodd, D.E.

    1987-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the microscopic lesions in the respiratory tract of Fischer 344 rats as a result of 4- or 8-days exposure (6 hr/day) of 3 ppm MIC and to characterize the postexposure development of these lesions up to day 85. All rats survived the exposure regimen, although significant decreases in body weight and encrustation of the eyes, nose, or mouth were observed. During the first 15 days of postexposure, the rats were hypoactive and had increased respiratory rates. Male mortality was as high as 63%; only 5% of the MIC-exposed females died. The cause of death was interpreted to be respiratory compromise complicated by anorexia and probably dehydration as well. During the next 28 postexposure days, 48% of the male survivors died, while only 3% of the female survivors died. Throughout the 85-day postexposure period, body weight gains in the MIC-treated groups were consistently below control values. Inflammatory and squamous metaplastic lesions of the respiratory tract, observed the day following completion of either the 4- or 8-day exposure regimen, decreased in both frequency and/or severity in survivors of the 85-day postexposure period, indicating recovery from the cytotoxic and irritating effects of MIC vapor. The squamous metaplastic epithelium was replaced by regenerative epithelium beginning in the deeper portion of the respiratory tract. Maturation of collagen occurred in the areas of submucosal fibroplasia.

  12. Relationship between Adipose Tissue Insulin Resistance and Liver Histology in NASH: A PIVENS Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Lauren N.; Wang, Jiangxia; Muralidharan, Sriya; Chalasani, Sadhana; Fullenkamp, Allison M.; Wilson, Laura A.; Sanyal, Arun J.; Kowdley, Kris V.; Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A.; McCullough, Arthur J.; Bass, Nathan M.; Diehl, Anna Mae; Unalp-Arida, Aynur; Chalasani, Naga

    2012-01-01

    The PIVENS [Pioglitazone versus Vitamin E versus Placebo for the Treatment of Non-diabetic Patients with Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH)] trial demonstrated that pioglitazone and vitamin E improved liver histology to varying degrees but mechanisms are unknown. We conducted a study to examine the changes in adipose tissue insulin resistance (Adipo-IR) during the PIVENS trial and its relationship to histological end points. Adipo-IR [fasting non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) × fasting insulin] was calculated at baseline and after 16 and 96 weeks of therapy. Compared to placebo, the baseline Adipo-IR was not different in either vitamin E group (p=0.34) or pioglitazone group (p=0.29).). Baseline Adipo-IR was significantly associated with fibrosis score (p=0.017) but not with other histological features or NAFLD activity score (NAS). After 16 weeks, compared to placebo, the pioglitazone group had significant reduction in Adipo-IR (?15.7 vs. ?1.91, p=0.02) but this effect did not persist at 96 weeks (?3.25 vs. ?4.28, p=0.31). Compared to placebo, Adipo-IR in the vitamin E group did not change significantly either after 16 weeks (p=0.70) or after 96 weeks (p=0.85). Change in Adipo-IR at week 16 was not associated with changes in any histological parameters at week 96, but improvement in Adipo-IR at week 96 was significantly associated with improvement in ballooning (p=0.02), fibrosis (p=0.004), and NAFLD activity score (p=0.01). Conclusion Vitamin E improved liver histology independent of changes in Adipo-IR, and pioglitazone treatment acutely improved Adipo-IR but this was not sustained. Changes in Adipo-IR were associated with changes in liver histology, including fibrosis. PMID:22532269

  13. Follow-up study of abnormal biological indicators and gene expression in the peripheral blood of three accidentally exposed persons

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Cuiping; Tian, Rong; Liu, Huifang; Wang, Haiyan; Wei, Jinping; Guo, Jianping; Guo, Fengling; Li, Shufang

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify biomarkers for early diagnosis and/or for therapeutic targets in the delayed health effects of ionizing radiation, we analyzed the subgroups of lymphocytes, serum protein levels and gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood of three 60Co ?-ray accidentally exposed persons during the three years after irradiation. Flow cytometry analyses and agarose gel electrophoresis were applied to investigate the subgroups of lymphocytes and the composition of serum proteins, respectively. Gene expression profiling was obtained using a whole genome gene expression chip assay. Both the percentage of CD4+ T lymphocytes and the ratio of Th to Ts were reduced compared with the normal control values. The percentage of albumin decreased whereas beta globulin increased. There were 285 up-regulated and 446 down-regulated genes in irradiated samples relative to the control samples. The expression of KDR, CEACAM8 and OSM was validated by RT-PCR. The majority of the differentially expressed genes encode proteins associated with the immune response, inflammation, oncogenesis, cell structure, oxidative stress, neuro-hormone regulation, reproduction, susceptibility to psychiatric disorders, or transcriptional regulation. We have identified a number of promising novel candidates that have potential for serving as biomarkers for delayed damage. Furthermore, the changes in the immunological indicator CD4+ T cells, and the ratio of CD4+ T to CD8+ T cells may be biomarkers for the prediction of delayed damage by ionizing radiation. The findings of our study are useful for forming a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms underlying the delayed effects of ionizing radiation. PMID:23559597

  14. Talent identification and early development of elite water-polo players: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Falk, Bareket; Lidor, Ronnie; Lander, Yael; Lang, Benny

    2004-04-01

    The processes of talent detection and early development are critical in any sport programme. However, not much is known about the appropriate strategies to be implemented during these processes, and little scientific inquiry has been conducted in this area. The aim of this study was to identify variables of swimming, ball handling and physical ability, as well as game intelligence, which could assist in the selection process of young water-polo players. Twenty-four players aged 14-15 years underwent a battery of tests three times during a 2-year period, before selection to the junior national team. The tests included: freestyle swim for 50, 100, 200 and 400 m, 100-m breast-stroke, 100-m 'butterfly' (with breast-stroke leg motion), 50-m dribbling, throwing at the goal, throw for distance in the water, vertical 'jump' from the water, and evaluation of game intelligence by two coaches. A comparison of those players eventually selected to the team and those not selected demonstrated that, 2 years before selection, selected players were already superior on most of the swim tasks (with the exception of breast-stroke and 50-m freestyle), as well as dribbling and game intelligence. This superiority was maintained throughout the 2 years. Two-way tabulation revealed that, based on baseline scores, the prediction for 67% of the players was in agreement with the final selection to the junior national team. We recommend that fewer swim events be used in the process of selecting young water-polo players, and that greater emphasis should be placed on evaluation of game intelligence. PMID:15161108

  15. Do parents play different roles in drinking behaviours of male and female adolescents? A longitudinal follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chao-Chia; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Luh, Dih-Ling; Wu, Chi-Chen; Yen, Lee-Lan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Gender differences in the associations between adolescent drinking behaviour, and perceived parental drinking behaviours and attitudes towards underage drinking, were investigated. Methods Data were drawn from two cohorts in the Child and Adolescent Behaviours in Long-term Evolution project. We used data from 2009 to 2006, when cohorts 1 and 2, respectively, were in grade 9. No cohort effect was found, so the two cohorts were pooled; 3972 students (1999 boys and 1973 girls) participated in the study. The major variables included adolescent drinking behaviours over the last month, and perceived parental drinking behaviours and parental attitudes towards underage drinking. The effects of the combination of parental drinking behaviours, and attitudes on the drinking behaviours of male and female adolescents, were analysed by logistic regression. Results The drinking behaviour of boys was correlated with the drinking behaviours and attitudes of their fathers but not with those of their mothers. Among boys, having a non-drinking father who was against underage drinking (OR=0.27, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.46), a non-drinking father who was favourable towards underage drinking (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.94), or a drinking father who was against underage drinking (OR=0.44, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.85) significantly decreased the likelihood of alcohol consumption, whereas maternal behaviour and attitude were not significant influences. Among girls, having a non-drinking father who was against underage drinking (OR=0.52, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.91) or a non-drinking father who was favourable towards underage drinking (OR=0.51, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.83) significantly decreased the likelihood of alcohol consumption, as did having a non-drinking mother who was against underage drinking (OR=0.23, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.60). Conclusions The influences of fathers and mothers on the drinking behaviour of their adolescent children differed by offspring gender. PMID:25877273

  16. Particular characteristics of allergic symptoms in tropical environments: follow up to 24 months in the FRAAT birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Early wheezing and asthma are relevant health problems in the tropics. Mite sensitization is an important risk factor, but the roles of others, inherent in poverty, are unknown. We designed a birth-cohort study in Cartagena (Colombia) to investigate genetic and environmental risk factors for asthma and atopy, considering as particular features perennial exposure to mites, parasite infections and poor living conditions. Methods Pregnant women representative of the low-income suburbs of the city were randomly screened for eligibility at delivery; 326 mother-infant pairs were included at baseline and biological samples were collected from birth to 24 months for immunological testing, molecular genetics and gene expression analysis. Pre and post-natal information was collected using questionnaires. Results 94% of families were from the poorest communes of the city, 40% lacked sewage and 11% tap-water. Intestinal parasites were found as early as 3 months; by the second year, 37.9% of children have had parasites and 5.22% detectable eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides in stools (Median 3458 epg, IQR 975-9256). The prevalence of "wheezing ever" was 17.5% at 6 months, 31.1% at 12 months and 38.3% at 24 months; and recurrent wheezing (3 or more episodes) 7.1% at 12 months and 14.2% at 24 months. Maternal rhinitis [aOR 3.03 (95%CI 1.60-5.74), p = 0.001] and male gender [aOR 2.09 (95%CI 1.09 - 4.01), p = 0.026], increased risk for wheezing at 6 months. At 24 months, maternal asthma was the main predisposing factor for wheezing [aOR 3.65 (95%CI 1.23-10.8), p = 0.01]. Clinical symptoms of milk/egg allergy or other food-induced allergies were scarce (1.8%) and no case of atopic eczema was observed. Conclusions Wheezing is the most frequent phenotype during the first 24 months of life and is strongly associated with maternal asthma. At 24 months, the natural history of allergic symptoms is different to the "atopic march" described in some industrialized countries. This cohort is representative of socially deprived urban areas of underdeveloped tropical countries. The collection of biological samples, data on exposure and defined phenotypes, will contribute to understand the gene/environment interactions leading to allergy inception and evolution. PMID:22439773

  17. Establishing the Melbourne injecting drug user cohort study (MIX): rationale, methods, and baseline and twelve-month follow-up results

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cohort studies provide an excellent opportunity to monitor changes in behaviour and disease transmission over time. In Australia, cohort studies of people who inject drugs (PWID) have generally focused on older, in-treatment injectors, with only limited outcome measure data collected. In this study we specifically sought to recruit a sample of younger, largely out-of-treatment PWID, in order to study the trajectories of their drug use over time. Methods Respondent driven sampling, traditional snowball sampling and street outreach methods were used to recruit heroin and amphetamine injectors from one outer-urban and two inner-urban regions of Melbourne, Australia. Information was collected on participants’ demographic and social characteristics, drug use characteristics, drug market access patterns, health and social functioning, and health service utilisation. Participants are followed-up on an annual basis. Results 688 PWID were recruited into the study. At baseline, the median age of participants was 27.6 years (IQR: 24.4 years – 29.6 years) and two-thirds (67%) were male. Participants reported injecting for a median of 10.2 years (range: 1.5 months – 21.2 years), with 11% having injected for three years or less. Limited education, unemployment and previous incarceration were common. The majority of participants (82%) reported recent heroin injection, and one third reported being enrolled in Opioid Substitution Therapy (OST) at recruitment. At 12 months follow-up 458 participants (71% of eligible participants) were retained in the study. There were few differences in demographic and drug-use characteristics of those lost to follow-up compared with those retained in the study, with attrition significantly associated with recruitment at an inner-urban location, male gender, and providing incomplete contact information at baseline. Conclusions Our efforts to recruit a sample of largely out-of-treatment PWID were limited by drug market characteristics at the time, where fluctuating heroin availability has led to large numbers of PWID accessing low-threshold OST. Nevertheless, this study of Australian injectors will provide valuable data on the natural history of drug use, along with risk and protective factors for adverse health outcomes associated with injecting drug use. Comprehensive follow-up procedures have led to good participant retention and limited attrition bias. PMID:23786848

  18. Personality Disorder and Changes in Affect Consciousness: A 3-Year Follow-Up Study of Patients with Avoidant and Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Merete Selsbakk; Normann-Eide, Tone; Egeland, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are highly prevalent in patients receiving psychiatric services, and are associated with significant personal and social costs. Over the past two decades, an increasing number of treatment studies have documented the effectiveness of treatment for patients with PDs, especially when it comes to reduction of symptom distress, risk taking behavior, self-harm, or suicide attempts. However, less is known about the more complex aims of improving the personality structure itself, such as identity- and interpersonal disturbances. Emotional dysfunction is closely associated with PD pathology. The present study investigated changes in affect consciousness (AC) in patients with avoidant or borderline PD, and how these changes were associated with clinical status after 3 years of follow-up. The study included 52 individuals; 79 percent were females, and mean age was 30 years. The evaluations included the Affect Consciousness Interview, Symptom Checklist-90-R, Circumplex of Interpersonal Problems, the Index of Self-Esteem, and three domains (Identity Integration, Relational Capacities, and Self-Control) of the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118). There was a significant increase in the Global AC and AC scores for most of the specific affects from baseline to follow-up. As the present study did not include a control group, it cannot be concluded that changes in AC are effects of psychotherapy, and the possibility of age-related maturation processes cannot be excluded. The change in Global AC contributed significantly to explained variance in the follow-up levels of Circumplex of Interpersonal Problems, and the two SIPP-118 domains Relational Capacities and Identity Integration. Improved AC was not associated with change in the Self-Control domain or the Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-R. The results suggest that AC may be altered for patients with borderline and avoidant PDs, and this is the first study to report that improvement in AC contribute significantly to the variance in the self- and interpersonal domains of personality functioning. PMID:26699730

  19. Mexican American, Black and Other Graduates and Dropouts. A Follow-up Study Covering 15 Years of Change, 1956-1971. Fourth in a Five-year Series of Follow-up Studies of School Leavers of East Side Union High School District [San Jose, California].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Jenson, Henry C.

    The fourth report in a series of 5 yearly follow-up studies of a school district in San Jose, California, the report: (1) assists the district, and other districts with similar populations, in assessing organization, curriculum, and guidance services by ethnically analyzed responses and (2) compares the results of this study with the 3 previous…

  20. Dietary phytochemical index and subsequent changes of lipid profile: A 3-year follow-up in Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Golzarand, Mahdieh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Bahadoran, Zahra; Alamdari, Shahram; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND High intakes of phytochemical-rich foods have beneficial effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this study, we assessed the association between the dietary phytochemical index (PI) and changes in lipid profile after 3-year follow-up among Iranian adults. METHODS This longitudinal study was conducted in 1983 subjects, aged 19-70 years, selected among participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study in Iran. Dietary data were collected by using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 168 food items at baseline. PI was calculated based on daily energy derived from [(phytochemical-rich foods kcal/total daily energy intake kcal) × 100]. Lipid profile was measured at baseline and after 3 years and changes in serum lipid profiles were assessed during 3-year follow-up. RESULTS The mean age of participants was 40.4 ± 13.0 years; participants in the highest PI quartile category were more likely to be older. After 3 years of follow-up, total cholesterol was significantly lower in the highest quartile compared with lower quartile of PI in men (181 ± 3 vs. 189 ± 3, P for trend < 0.05). There were significant inverse association between dietary PI and 3 years changes of total cholesterol [? = ?5.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) = ?9.3, ?1.8], triglycerides (? = ?13.7, 95% CI = ?24.6, ?2.8), and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (? = ?6.2, 95% CI = ?10.8, ?1.5), in highest quartile of PI in men. Lipid profiles showed no significant changes over the study period in women. CONCLUSION Higher dietary PI is associated with 3 years improvement of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-HDL-C. Higher consumption of phytochemical-rich foods is recommended to prevent CVD. PMID:25258636

  1. Acute phase and five-year follow-up study of fluoxetine in adolescents with major depression and a comorbid substance use disorder: a review.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Jack R; Clark, Duncan B; Bukstein, Oscar G; Birmaher, Boris; Salloum, Ihsan M; Brown, Sandra A

    2005-10-01

    This paper reviews the results of an acute phase trial and a five-year follow-up study of fluoxetine in adolescents with major depression and a substance use disorder (SUD). This study included a 12-week open label acute phase study of 13 comorbid adolescents, followed by comprehensive assessments conducted 1, 3, and 5 years after entry into an acute phase fluoxetine trial. The results of the acute phase study and of the 1, 3, and 5-year follow-up assessments have already been published in four papers. The current paper was designed to cover the results of the study across the entire 5-year time spectrum of the study, and to summarize the clinical results across that entire time period. The data from this pilot study suggest that the long-term (5-year) clinical course for the Alcohol Dependence, Cannabis Dependence, and academic functioning of comorbid adolescents following acute phase treatment with SSRIs is generally good. However, the long-term clinical course for the Major Depression of that comorbid adolescent population is surprisingly poor. PMID:16102905

  2. Sonographic short-term follow-up after surgical decompression of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel: a single-center prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Tas, Sueleyman; Staub, Frank; Dombert, Thomas; Marquardt, Gerhard; Senft, Christian; Seifert, Volker; Duetzmann, Stephan

    2015-09-01

    OBJECT Carpal tunnel syndrome causes increased cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve, which can be assessed by high-definition ultrasonography. It is unclear today, however, whether high-definition ultrasonography may play a role in the postoperative period. This prospective study aimed to determine the natural history of the morphology of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel after surgical decompression assessed by high-definition ultrasonography. METHODS Between October and December 2014, patients with suspected carpal tunnel syndrome who were referred to the authors' center for peripheral neurosurgery were prospectively enrolled and underwent pre- and postoperative (3 months) high-definition ultrasonography, electrophysiology, and clinical testing. RESULTS Eighty-one patients were enrolled in the study, and 100% were clinically better at the 3-month follow-up. The mean CSA decreased from 14.7 ± 4.9 mm(2) to 12.4 ± 3.4 mm(2) (mean ± SD, p < 0.0001). The mean distal motor latency decreased from 6.6 ± 2.4 msec to 4.8 ± 1.0 msec (mean ± SD, p < 0.0001). Ninety-eight percent of patients who were available for electrodiagnostic follow-up showed an improvement of the distal motor latency; only 80% had a reduction in the CSA. CONCLUSIONS The authors present the second-largest series of patients with sonographic follow-up after surgical decompression of the carpal tunnel reported in the literature so far. This study, which showed a decrease in size of the median nerve after surgical decompression, suggests that the preoperative increase in median nerve CSA at the carpal tunnel may be due to compression and that enlargement of the median nerve is (partially) reversible. PMID:26323824

  3. Five-year retrospective radiographic follow-up study of dental implants with sandblasting with large grit, and acid etching-treated surfaces

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate five-year radiographic follow-up results of the Korean sandblasting with large grit, and acid etching (SLA)-treated implant system. Materials and Methods The subjects of the study are 54 patients who have been followed-up to date, of the patients who underwent implant surgery from May 1, 2009 to April 30, 2011. In all, 176 implant placements were performed. Radiographs were taken before the first surgery, immediately after the first and second surgeries, immediately and six months after the final prosthesis installation, and every year after that. Bone loss was evaluated by the method suggested by Romanos and Nentwig. Results A total of 176 implant placements were performed-122 in men and 54 in women. These patients have been followed-up for an average of 4.9 years. In terms of prosthetic appliances, there were 156 bridges and 20 single prostheses. Nine implants installed in the maxillary molar area, three in the mandibular molar area and two in the maxillary premolar area were included in group M, with bone loss less than 2 mm at the crestal aspect of the implant. Of these, eight implants were single prostheses. In all, six implants failed-four in the mandible and two in the maxilla. All of these failures occurred in single-implant cases. The implant survival rate was 98.1% on the maxilla and 94.3% on the mandible, with an overall survival of 96.6%. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, implants with the SLA surface have a very superior survival rate in relatively poor bone environments such as the maxilla.

  4. Association between prognostic factors and clinical outcome of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma: A retrospective 10-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    LEI, SHANGTONG; DING, ZIHAI; GE, JUNNA; ZHAO, DONGHUI

    2015-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is one of the most common metabolic disorders and accounts for 98% of all cases of thyroid cancer. Previously, a number of studies have investigated the prognostic factors associated with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDTC); however, these studies yielded conflicting results. The current study used a retrospective study design to collect data from WDTC patients who had received the same treatment regimen from the same institute, with a minimum follow-up of 10 years. The De Groot staging system was used to classify WDTC in a total of 320 patients (240 females and 80 males). Among the subjects, the pathological subtypes identified were as follows: Papillary carcinoma (240 cases, 75%), follicular carcinoma (67 cases, 21%) and Hürthle cell carcinoma (13 cases, 4%). Prognostic factors that significantly affected the clinical outcome of the disease were advanced age (P=0.001), tumor size (P=0.03), presence of thyroglobulin (P=0.001) and De Groot stage (P=0.005). The 10-year follow-up study revealed that WDTC is associated with a high survival rate of 96% (307/320 patients survived) and a low mortality rate (4%).

  5. Quality of life after volar locked plating: a 10-year follow-up study of patients with intra-articular distal radius fractures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to present functional results and patient’s health related quality of life (HRQOL) data ten years after volar locked plate fixation (VPF) of unstable intra-articular distal radial fractures (DRF). Methods Thirty-nine patients with a mean age of sixty-one years were operatively treated with VPF after intra-articular distal radial fractures. They were evaluated two, six, and ten years postoperatively according to the Gartland and Werley score. For subjective evaluation the Short Form 36 (SF-36) and the Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaires were adopted. Results Overall, wrist function did not differ significantly two, six and ten years after the operation. Over 90% patients achieved “good” or “excellent” results ten years after surgery according to the Gartland and Werley score. Ten years postoperatively the results of the SF 36 did not differ significantly from the two- and six-year follow-up. Overall findings from the SF-36 did not differ significantly from the data of Austrian and American norm populations. Only in the subscale of mental health (MH) the ten-year follow-up did show significantly poorer results (p?=?0.045) compared to the Austrian norm population. The median DASH scores did not show significant differences during the ten-year follow-up period. Conclusion The ten-year results of this single-center study suggest that operative treatment of intra-articular DRF with volar locked plates is a useful and satisfactory therapy option, both in terms of function and HRQOL. PMID:25059690

  6. Willingness of minorities to participate in biomedical studies: confirmatory findings from a follow-up study using the Tuskegee Legacy Project Questionnaire.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Ralph V.; Green, B. Lee; Kressin, Nancy R.; Claudio, Cristina; Wang, Min Qi; Russell, Stefanie L.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this analysis were to compare the self-reported willingness of blacks, Puerto-Rican Hispanics and whites to participate as research subjects in biomedical studies, and to determine the reliability of the Tuskegee Legacy Project Questionnaire (TLP). METHODS: The TLP Questionnaire, initially used in a four-city study in 1999-2000, was administered in a follow-up study within a random-digit-dial telephone survey to a stratified random sample of adults in three different U.S. cities: Baltimore, MD; New York City; and San Juan, PR. The questionnaire, a 60-item instrument, contains two validated scales: the Likelihood of Participation (LOP) Scale and the Guinea Pig Fear Factor (GPFF) Scale. RESULTS: Adjusting for age, sex, education, income and city, the LOP Scale was not statistically significantly different for the racial/ethnic groups (ANCOVA, p=87). The GPFF Scale was statistically significantly higher for blacks and Hispanics as compared to whites (adjusted ANCOVA, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The of the findings from the current three-city study, as well as from our prior four-city study, are remarkably similar and reinforce the conclusion that blacks and Hispanics self-report that, despite having a higher fear of participation, they are just as likely as whites to participate in biomedical research. PMID:17913117

  7. Inception Cohort Study of Workers Exposed to Toluene Diisocyanate at a Polyurethane Foam Factory: Initial One-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Wei; Wisnewski, Adam V.; Neamtiu, Iulia; Gurzau, Eugen; Sparer, Judith A.; Stowe, Meredith H.; Liu, Jian; Slade, Martin D.; Rusu, Olivia A.; Redlich, Carrie A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Isocyanates are one of the most commonly reported causes of occupational asthma; however, the risks of developing isocyanate asthma in modern production facilities remain poorly defined. We evaluated TDI exposure and respiratory health among an inception cohort of workers during their first year of employment at a new polyurethane foam production factory. Methods Forty-nine newly hired workers were evaluated pre-employment, 6-months, and 12-months post-employment through questionnaire, spirometry and TDI-specific serology. Airborne TDI levels were monitored by fixed-point air sampling and limited personal sampling. Qualitative surface SWYPE™ tests were performed to evaluate potential sources of skin exposure. Results Airborne TDI levels overall were low; over 90% of fixed-point air measurements were below the limit of detection (0.1 ppb). Over the first year of employment,12 of the 49 original workers (24.5%) were lost to follow-up, no additional workers were enrolled, and seven of the 49 original workers (14.2%) developed either new asthma symptoms (N=3), TDI-specific IgG (N=1), new airflow obstruction (N=1) and/or a decline in FEV1? 15% (N=3), findings that could indicate TDI-related health effects.The prevalence of current asthma symptoms was significantly higher in the workers lost to follow-up compared to those who completed the 12 month follow-up (25% vs.2.7%; p=0.04). Conclusions The findings suggest possible early TDI-related health effects in a modern polyurethane production plant. These findings also highlight the need for further longitudinal evaluation of these workers and the challenges of studying workers at risk for isocyanate asthma. PMID:25266741

  8. Association of early adult modifiable cardiovascular risk factors with left atrial size over a 20-year follow-up period: the CARDIA study

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Anderson C; Gidding, Samuel S; Colangelo, Laura A; Kishi, Satoru; Liu, Kiang; Sidney, Stephen; Konety, Suma; Lewis, Cora E; Correia, Luís C L; Lima, Joao A C

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We investigate how early adult and 20-year changes in modifiable cardiovascular risk factors (MRF) predict left atrial dimension (LAD) at age 43–55?years. Methods The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study enrolled black and white adults (1985–1986). We included 2903 participants with echocardiography and MRF assessment in follow-up years 5 and 25. At years 5 and 25, LAD was assessed by M-mode echocardiography, then indexed to body surface area (BSA) or height. Blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), heart rate (HR), smoking, alcohol use, diabetes and physical activity were defined as MRF. Associations of MRF with LAD were assessed using multivariable regression adjusted for age, ethnicity, gender and year-5 left atrial (LA) size. Results The participants were 30±4?years; 55% white; 44% men. LAD and LAD/height were modest but significantly higher over the follow-up period, but LAD/BSA decreased slightly. Increased baseline and 20-year changes in BP were related to enlargement of LAD and indices. Higher baseline and changes in BMI were also related to higher LAD and LAD/height, but the opposite direction was found for LAD/BSA. Increase in baseline HR was related to lower LAD but not LAD indices, when only baseline covariates were included in the model. However, baseline and 20-year changes in HR were significantly associated to LA size. Conclusions In a biracial cohort of young adults, the most robust predictors for LA enlargement over a 20-year follow-up period were higher BP and BMI. However, an inverse direction was found for the relationship between BMI and LAD/BSA. HR showed an inverse relation to LA size. PMID:24384901

  9. Metabolomic pattern analysis after mediterranean diet intervention in a nondiabetic population: a 1- and 3-year follow-up in the PREDIMED study.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Fresno, Rosa; Llorach, Rafael; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Lupianez-Barbero, Ascension; Estruch, Ramón; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet (MD) is considered a dietary pattern with beneficial effects on human health. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an MD on urinary metabolome by comparing subjects at 1 and 3 years of follow-up, after an MD supplemented with either extra-virgin olive oil (MD + EVOO) or nuts (MD + Nuts), to those on advice to follow a control low-fat diet (LFD). Ninety-eight nondiabetic volunteers were evaluated, using metabolomic approaches, corresponding to MD + EVOO (n = 41), MD + Nuts (n = 27), or LFD (n = 30) groups. The (1)H NMR urinary profiles were examined at baseline and after 1 and 3 years of follow-up. Multivariate data analysis (OSC-PLS-DA and HCA) methods were used to identify the potential biomarker discriminating groups, exhibiting a urinary metabolome separation between MD groups against baseline and LFD. Results revealed that the most prominent hallmarks concerning MD groups were related to the metabolism of carbohydrates (3-hydroxybutyrate, citrate, and cis-aconitate), creatine, creatinine, amino acids (proline, N-acetylglutamine, glycine, branched-chain amino acids, and derived metabolites), lipids (oleic and suberic acids), and microbial cometabolites (phenylacetylglutamine and p-cresol). Otherwise, hippurate, trimethylamine-N-oxide, histidine and derivates (methylhistidines, carnosine, and anserine), and xanthosine were predominant after LFD. The application of NMR-based metabolomics enabled the classification of individuals regarding their dietary pattern and highlights the potential of this approach for evaluating changes in the urinary metabolome at different time points of follow-up in response to specific dietary interventions. PMID:25353684

  10. One-Year Follow-Up of the Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Patients' Depression: A Randomized, Single-Blinded, Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kai-Jo; Chen, Tsai-Hui; Hsieh, Hsiu-Tsu; Tsai, Jui-Chen; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the long-term (one year) effectiveness of a 12-session weekly cognitive behavior group therapy (CBGT) on patients with depression. This was a single-blind randomized controlled study with a 2-arm parallel group design. Eighty-one subjects were randomly assigned to 12 sessions intervention group (CBGT) or control group (usual outpatient psychiatric care group) and 62 completed the study. The primary outcome was depression measured with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD). The secondary outcomes were automatic thoughts measured by automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ). Both groups were evaluated at the pretest (before 2 weeks), posttest (after 12 therapy sessions), and short- (3 months), medium- (6 months), and long-term (12 months) follow-up. After receiving CBGT, the experimental group had a statistically significant reduction in the BDI-II from 40.30 at baseline to 17.82 points at session eight and to 10.17 points at postintervention (P < 0.001). Similar effects were seen on the HRSD. ATQ significantly decreased at the 12th session, 6 months after sessions, and 1 year after the sessions ended (P < 0.001). We concluded that CBGT is effective for reducing depression and continued to be effective at 1 year of follow-up. PMID:26380359

  11. Hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis and rehabilitation in patients with complete facial palsy: cohort study of 30 patients followed up for three years.

    PubMed

    Dalla Toffola, Elena; Pavese, Chiara; Cecini, Miriam; Petrucci, Lucia; Ricotti, Susanna; Bejor, Maurizio; Salimbeni, Grazia; Biglioli, Federico; Klersy, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Our study evaluates the grade and timing of recovery in 30 patients with complete facial paralysis (House-Brackmann grade VI) treated with hypoglossal-facial nerve (XII-VII) anastomosis and a long-term rehabilitation program, consisting of exercises in facial muscle activation mediated by tongue movement and synkinesis control with mirror feedback. Reinnervation after XII-VII anastomosis occurred in 29 patients, on average 5.4 months after surgery. Three years after the anastomosis, 23.3% of patients had grade II, 53.3% grade III, 20% grade IV and 3.3% grade VI ratings on the House-Brackmann scale. Time to reinnervation was associated with the final House-Brackmann grade. Our study demonstrates that patients undergoing XIIVII anastomosis and a long-term rehabilitation program display a significant recovery of facial symmetry and movement. The recovery continues for at Hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis and rehabilitation in patients with complete facial palsy: cohort study of 30 patients followed up for three years least three years after the anastomosis, meaning that prolonged follow-up of these patients is advisable. PMID:25473738

  12. One-Year Follow-Up of the Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Patients' Depression: A Randomized, Single-Blinded, Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Kai-Jo; Chen, Tsai-Hui; Hsieh, Hsiu-Tsu; Tsai, Jui-Chen; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the long-term (one year) effectiveness of a 12-session weekly cognitive behavior group therapy (CBGT) on patients with depression. This was a single-blind randomized controlled study with a 2-arm parallel group design. Eighty-one subjects were randomly assigned to 12 sessions intervention group (CBGT) or control group (usual outpatient psychiatric care group) and 62 completed the study. The primary outcome was depression measured with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD). The secondary outcomes were automatic thoughts measured by automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ). Both groups were evaluated at the pretest (before 2 weeks), posttest (after 12 therapy sessions), and short- (3 months), medium- (6 months), and long-term (12 months) follow-up. After receiving CBGT, the experimental group had a statistically significant reduction in the BDI-II from 40.30 at baseline to 17.82 points at session eight and to 10.17 points at postintervention (P < 0.001). Similar effects were seen on the HRSD. ATQ significantly decreased at the 12th session, 6 months after sessions, and 1 year after the sessions ended (P < 0.001). We concluded that CBGT is effective for reducing depression and continued to be effective at 1 year of follow-up. PMID:26380359

  13. Untreated depression in the first trimester of pregnancy leads to postpartum depression: high rates from a natural follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Yazici, Esra; Kirkan, Tulay Sati; Aslan, Puren Akcali; Aydin, Nazan; Yazici, Ahmet Bulent

    2015-01-01

    Background This is a natural follow-up study that presents the postpartum results of women who experienced depression during pregnancy. Methods This study involved 78 women diagnosed with depression in the first trimester of pregnancy. All patients were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) in the first trimester and all were referred to a psychiatric center for treatment. Of the 78, 73 were contacted postpartum and reassessed by SCID-I. Treatment anamnesis was evaluated retrospectively. Results The women were divided into two groups at the postpartum evaluation according to anamnesis of psychiatric treatment. Twenty-one of the 73 (28.7%) had received treatment during pregnancy (treated group). Fifty-two women had not been treated (untreated group). In the treated group, no postpartum depression was determined (0%). In the untreated group, 92% (n=48) of women had a depressive disorder postpartum (P<0.01). In addition, scores regarding depression, functionality, and perceived social support were worse postpartum for the untreated group. Conclusion Untreated depression during pregnancy is an important predictor of postpartum depression. This natural follow-up study is important because it presents very striking rates of postpartum depression. Referral of patients with depression during pregnancy to psychiatric treatment should be provided and is strongly encouraged. PMID:25737636

  14. Graduate Employer Follow Up. TEX-SIS FOLLOW-UP SC2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Larry K.

    This report details the development and implementation of an employer follow-up system, by Amarillo College (AC) as a subcontractor for Project FOLLOW-UP, designed to determine employer assessment of the effectiveness of training received by AC graduates in their employ. The study was conducted in two sequences; in each, employer names and…

  15. Association of Adiponectin with High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and Clinical Outcomes in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: A 3.5-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Chun-Wu; Hsu, Yung-Chien; Shih, Ya-Hsueh; Lin, Chun-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adiponectin (ADPN), one of most abundant fat-derived biologically active substances, plays an important role in anti-atherosclerotic process. There are conflicting results about the impact of ADPN on cardiovascular (CV) outcomes and mortality, particularly in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). Moreover, the relationship between ADPN and inflammatory mediators has been seldom explored in this population. Therefore, we examined the relationship between ADPN and longitudinal high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) changes and investigated whether ADPN or hs-CRP levels could predict CV outcomes and mortality in prevalent PD patients after comprehensive adjustment of possible confounders. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 78 PD patients were enrolled and followed from February 2009 to August 2012. During follow-up, CV events and all-cause mortality were recorded. Results The mean baseline ADPN value was 29.46±18.01 ?g/ml and duration of PD treatment was 37.76±36.96 months. In multiple linear regression analysis, plasma ADPN levels positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein and negatively associated with hs-CRP, body mass index, D4/D0 glucose, triglyceride, and duration of PD treatment. After stratified by genders, the inverse association between baseline ADPN and hs-CRP was more significant in the female group. The hs-CRP levels were followed up annually and remained significantly lower in the high ADPN group in the first 2 years. Patients were then stratified into two groups according to the median ADPN value (23.8 ?g/ml). The results of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated less CV events and better survival in high ADPN group. On multivariate Cox regression analysis, only ADPN level (HR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88–0.98, p = 0.02), age and history of CV diseases were independent risk factors for future CV events. Furthermore, hs-CRP (HR: 1.11, 95% CI:1.001–1.22, p = 0.04) was identified as independent predictor of all-cause mortality. Conclusions Serum hs-CRP levels were consistently lower in the high ADPN group during 2-year follow-up. We also demonstrated the importance of ADPN and hs-CRP in predicting CV events and all-cause mortality in PD population during 3.5-year follow-up. PMID:26474473

  16. Cholesterol and the risk of grade-specific prostate cancer incidence: evidence from two large prospective cohort studies with up to 37 years' follow up

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background High cholesterol may be a modifiable risk factor for prostate cancer but results have been inconsistent and subject to potential "reverse causality" where undetected disease modifies cholesterol prior to diagnosis. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 12,926 men who were enrolled in the Midspan studies between 1970 and 1976 and followed up to 31st December 2007. We used Cox-Proportional Hazards Models to evaluate the association between baseline plasma cholesterol and Gleason grade-specific prostate cancer incidence. We excluded cancers detected within at least 5 years of cholesterol assay. Results 650 men developed prostate cancer in up to 37 years' follow-up. Baseline plasma cholesterol was positively associated with hazard of high grade (Gleason score?8) prostate cancer incidence (n = 119). The association was greatest among men in the 2nd highest quintile for cholesterol, 6.1 to < 6.69 mmol/l, Hazard Ratio 2.28, 95% CI 1.27 to 4.10, compared with the baseline of < 5.05 mmol/l. This association remained significant after adjustment for body mass index, smoking and socioeconomic status. Conclusions Men with higher cholesterol are at greater risk of developing high-grade prostate cancer but not overall risk of prostate cancer. Interventions to minimise metabolic risk factors may have a role in reducing incidence of aggressive prostate cancer. PMID:22260413

  17. Effect of Network Social Capital on the Chances of Smoking Relapse: A Two-Year Follow-up Study of Urban-Dwelling Adults

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Ana; Stewart, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to examine the prospective influence of social capital and social network ties on smoking relapse among adults. Methods. In 2010, a 2-year follow-up study was conducted with the 2008 Montreal Neighborhood Networks and Healthy Aging Study (MoNNET-HA) participants. We asked participants in 2008 and 2010 whether they had smoked in the past 30 days. Position and name generators were used to collect data on social capital and social connections. We used multilevel logistic analysis adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic factors to predict smoking relapse in 2010. Results. Of the 1400 MoNNET-HA follow-up participants, 1087 were nonsmokers in 2008. Among nonsmokers, 42 were smokers in 2010. Results revealed that participants with higher network social capital were less likely (odds ratio [OR]?=?0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.47, 0.96), whereas socially isolated participants (OR?=?3.69; 95% CI?=?1.36, 10.01) or those who had ties to smokers within the household (OR?=?4.22; 95% CI?=?1.52, 11.73) were more likely to report smoking in 2010. Conclusions. Social network capital reduced the chances of smoking relapse. Smoking cessation programs might aim to increase network diversity so as to prevent relapse. PMID:25320891

  18. Quality of life changes following inpatient and outpatient treatment in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a study with 12 months follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Quality of life (QoL) is increasingly recognized as a critical outcome parameter in mental health studies. The aim of this study was to investigate different domains of the QoL in persons with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) before and after a multimodal, disorder-specific in- and outpatient treatment. Methods Data of 73 persons with OCD treated in an inpatient setting followed by outpatient treatment were analyzed. The World Health Organization Quality of Life abbreviated (a multidimensional measure of the QoL) and the Beck Depression Inventory were administered prior to (baseline) and 12 months after the inpatient treatment (follow-up). Results At baseline, participants reported a significantly diminished psychological, social, physical, and global QoL compared to the German general population. Environmental QoL was not impaired in the present sample. The QoL was significantly improved at follow-up, except for social QoL, but remained below norm values. The QoL improvement was predicted by improvements of depressive symptoms. Conclusions The results indicate that persons with OCD suffer from a very low QoL. The QoL was significantly improved after 12 months of intensive state-of-the-art treatment. However, the QoL indices remained considerably lower than population norm values, indicating the need for additional research into novel treatment options for persons with OCD. PMID:23433285

  19. Lost to follow-up among pregnant women in a multi-site community based maternal and newborn health registry: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background It is important when conducting epidemiologic studies to closely monitor lost to follow up (LTFU) rates. A high LTFU rate may lead to incomplete study results which in turn can introduce bias to the trial or study, threatening the validity of the findings. There is scarce information on LTFU in prospective community-based perinatal epidemiological studies. This paper reports the rates of LTFU, describes socio-demographic characteristics, and pregnancy/delivery outcomes of mothers LTFU in a large community-based pregnancy registry study. Methods Data were from a prospective, population-based observational study of the Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research Maternal Newborn Health Registry (MNHR). This is a multi-centre, international study in which pregnant women were enrolled in mid-pregnancy, followed through parturition and 42 days post-delivery. Risk for LTFU was calculated within a 95%CI. Results A total of 282,626 subjects were enrolled in this study, of which 4,893 were lost to follow-up. Overall, there was a 1.7% LTFU to follow up rate. Factors associated with a higher LTFU included mothers who did not know their last menstrual period (RR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1, 4.4), maternal age of < 20 years (RR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1, 1.3), women with no formal education (RR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1, 1.4), and attending a government clinic for antenatal care (RR 2.0, 95% CI 1.4, 2.8). Post-natal factors associated with a higher LTFU rate included a newborn with feeding problems (RR 1.6, 94% CI 1.2, 2.2). Conclusions The LTFU rate in this community-based registry was low (1.7%). Maternal age, maternal level of education, pregnancy status at enrollment and using a government facility for ANC are factors associated with being LTFU. Strategies to ensure representation and high retention in community studies are important to informing progress toward public health goals. Trial registration Registration at the Clinicaltrials.gov (ID# NCT01073475). PMID:26062899

  20. Exercises versus arthroscopic decompression in patients with subacromial impingement: a randomised, controlled study in 90 cases with a one year follow up

    PubMed Central

    Haahr, J; Ostergaard, S; Dalsgaard, J; Norup, K; Frost, P; Lausen, S; Holm, E; Andersen, J

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effect of graded physiotherapeutic training of the rotator cuff versus arthroscopic subacromial decompression in patients with subacromial impingement. Methods: Randomised controlled trial with 12 months' follow up in a hospital setting. Ninety consecutive patients aged 18 to 55 years were enrolled. Symptom duration was between six months and three years. All fulfilled a set of diagnostic criteria for rotator cuff disease, including a positive impingement sign. Patients were randomised either to arthroscopic subacromial decompression, or to physiotherapy with exercises aiming at strengthening the stabilisers and decompressors of the shoulder. Outcome was shoulder function as measured by the Constant score and a pain and dysfunction score. "Intention to treat" analysis was used, with comparison of means and control of confounding variables by general equation estimation analysis. Results: Of 90 patients enrolled, 84 completed follow up (41 in the surgery group, 43 in the training group). The mean Constant score at baseline was 34.8 in the training group and 33.7 in the surgery group. After 12 months the mean scores improved to 57.0 and 52.7, respectively, the difference being non-significant. No group differences in mean pain and dysfunction score improvement were found. Conclusions: Surgical treatment of rotator cuff syndrome with subacromial impingement was not superior to physiotherapy with training. Further studies are needed to qualify treatment choice decisions, and it is recommended that samples are stratified according to disability level. PMID:15834056