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Risk factors for myocardial infarction and death in newly detected NIDDM: the Diabetes Intervention Study, 11-year follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   The Diabetes Intervention Study (DIS) is a prospective population-based multicentre trial of newly detected cases of non-insulin-dependent\\u000a diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). This report analyses the risk factors for subsequent coronary heart disease and all-cause death\\u000a during the 11-year follow-up. The prognostic significance of the categories of the NIDDM Policy Group was validated with respect\\u000a to the incidence of coronary heart

M. Hanefeld; S. Fischer; U. Julius; J. Schulze; U. Schwanebeck; H. Schmechel; H. J. Ziegelasch; J. Lindner



Psychosocial factors and risk of chronic widespread pain: an 11-year follow-up study--the HUNT study.  


Few studies have used prospective designs in large population surveys to assess the risk of developing chronic widespread pain (CWP). We wanted to examine 1) how many people without CWP developed it after 11years, and 2) how anxiety, depression, alcohol use, smoking, sleeping problems, and body mass index (BMI) were associated with this development. This study was based on a representative population-based Norwegian cohort attending both the second (1995 to 1997) and the third (2006 to 2008) wave of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT2 and HUNT3, respectively). Only those adults attending both surveys (N=28,367) were included. Approximately 19,000 individuals without CWP in HUNT2 were assessed for later CWP development in HUNT3, where we looked for symptoms of anxiety, depression, monthly frequency of alcohol use, smoking, sleeping problems, and BMI. Data were analyzed with logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, education, marital status, physical exercise, and pain symptoms not meeting the CWP criteria at baseline. After 11 years, 12% of those without CWP developed CWP. Anxiety and depression, former and current smoking status, BMI<18.5 kg/m(2), BMI?25 kg/m(2), and sleeping problems were all associated with an increased risk of CWP. High and moderate levels of alcohol use were associated with a reduced risk of CWP. In summary, this study indicates that CWP develops over a long-term period for a substantial group of healthy people, and that both psychosocial and lifestyle factors influence the risk of CWP onset. PMID:24813831

Mundal, Ingunn; Gråwe, Rolf W; Bjørngaard, Johan H; Linaker, Olav M; Fors, Egil A



Incidence of cardiovascular diseases and associated risk factors among subjects with type 2 diabetes - An 11-year follow up study  

PubMed Central

Aims This study was planned to assess the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events over an 11-year period and to identify the associated risk factors that could predict the onset of CVD among subjects with type 2 diabetes. Methods Retrospective data of 249 patients (M:F 149:100) with type 2 diabetes, from a cohort of 7800 patients, attending a tertiary care center for diabetes from January 2000 to December 2011 were retrieved and analyzed for this study. Sociodemographic and habitual risk factors, baseline diabetes duration, HbA1c and time of onset of CVD and its risk factors were collected from case records. Person-years method was used to calculate incident rate of CVD. Binary logistic regression analyses were done to identify predictors associated with CVD and its risk factors. Results Incidence of CVD among subjects with diabetes was 5.6 cases/1000 person-years. Nearly 60% developed hypertension and dyslipidemia or both during the 11-year period. The most common complication was neuropathy (14.4%). Smoking [OR (95%CI)] [9.26 (1.6–54.9)] (p = 0.014) and heavy alcohol consumption [8.7 (1.1–69.8)] (p = 0.04) were significantly associated with CVD. Higher BMI was significantly associated with hypertension and dyslipidemia [2.4 (1.3–4.3)] (p = 0.003). Conclusions Smoking and heavy alcohol consumption were significantly associated with CVD, and increased BMI was significantly associated with hypertension and dyslipidemia among subjects with type 2 diabetes in this study population. These findings emphasize the need for early identification and modification of risk factors associated with CVD events in patients with diabetes. PMID:24581089

Umamahesh, K.; Vigneswari, A.; Surya Thejaswi, G.; Satyavani, K.; Viswanathan, Vijay



Course of HIV-I infection in a cohort of homosexual and bisexual men: an 11 year follow up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To characterise the natural history of sexually transmitted HIV-I infection in homosexual and bisexual men. DESIGN--Cohort study. SETTING--San Francisco municipal sexually transmitted disease clinic. PATIENTS--Cohort included 6705 homosexual and bisexual men originally recruited from 1978 to 1980 for studies of sexually transmitted hepatitis B. This analysis is of 489 cohort members who were either HIV-I seropositive on entry into the

G W Rutherford; A R Lifson; N A Hessol; W W Darrow; P M OMalley; S P Buchbinder; J L Barnhart; T W Bodecker; L Cannon; L S Doll



Early Predictors of Language and Social Communication Impairments at Ages 9-11 Years: A Follow-up Study of Early-Referred Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to evaluate hypotheses that early sociocognition will predict later social communication and early phonology will predict later morphosyntax in clinically referred preschoolers. Method: Participants were 108 children ages 9-11 years who had been referred to clinical services with concerns about language at…

Chiat, Shula; Roy, Penny



Emotional Reactivity and the Emergence of Conduct Problems and Emotional Symptoms in 7- to 11-Year-Olds: A 1-Year Follow-up Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study to investigate the relation between psychopathology and predictive validity of emotional reactivity in children over a 1-year follow up period was conducted. The investigation was done using the International Affective Picture System to determine individual differences in the emotional and attention process involved in appetitive and…

Sharp, Carla; Petersen, Nancy; Goodyer, Ian



Intake of fat and fiber-rich foods according to socioeconomic status: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study  

PubMed Central

This study describes the food intake of adolescents participating in the 1993 birth cohort from Pelotas, Southern Brazil, according to socioeconomic position. We carried out a cross-sectional analysis of data collected in the 2004-2005 follow-up visit. Food intake in the previous year was evaluated using the Block questionnaire. Socioeconomic status was evaluated based on an assets index, divided into quintiles. Foods with the highest frequency of daily intake were white bread (83%), butter or margarine (74.6%), beans (66.4%) and milk (48.5%). Intake of butter or margarine, bread, and beans was more frequent among poorer adolescents, and the inverse was true for milk. Intake of fruits and vegetables was low in all socioeconomic strata, but particularly low among the poor. In early adolescence, all socioeconomic groups showed high consumption of foods rich in fat and low consumption of foods rich in fiber. PMID:20963287

Neutzling, Marilda B.; Araujo, Cora Luiza; Vieira, Maria de Fatima A.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Menezes, Ana M. B.; Victora, Cesar G.



A Neurophysiological Marker of Impaired Preparation in an 11-Year Follow-Up Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This longitudinal electrophysiological study investigated the course of multiple impaired cognitive brain functions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adulthood by comparing developmental trajectories of individuals with ADHD and typically developing controls. Methods: Subjects with ADHD ("N"…

Doehnert, Mirko; Brandeis, Daniel; Schneider, Gudrun; Drechsler, Renate; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph



Genitopatellar syndrome: a case report of a rare entity with 11 years of follow-up.  


Genitopatellar syndrome is one of the syndromes described in the last decade. It is characterized by agenesis of the corpus callosum, absent or hypoplastic patellae, extremity contractures, skeletal anomalies, urogenital anomalies, and facial dysmorphic features. While writing this report, only 15 cases have been reported in the literature. The etiology, clinical features, management, and natural history of this syndrome are not yet well established. Past reports in the literature have not been able to identify the exact genetic etiology but it somewhat coincides with nail patella syndrome and short patella syndrome. We would like to introduce this terminology to the orthopedic community and highlight the clinical features of the genitopatellar syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this is a single case report with the longest follow-up of 11 years in the literature. PMID:22568963

To, Michael; Negandhi, Rajiv; Cheung, Kenneth; Cheung, Wai Yuen; Chow, Wang



Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome in 2 siblings: case report after 11-year follow-up.  


The purpose of this case report was to describe the clinical long-term outcome, 11 years after periodontal therapy, of 2 siblings diagnosed with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome. Sibling 1 was a 14-year-old boy with severe periodontal bone loss in his permanent dentition. Sibling 2 was a 7-year-old girl with mixed-dentition and also suffering from periodontal disease. Both were treated with a combination of nonsurgical and antimicrobial therapy. Annual re-evaluations were performed for 11 years. Both siblings improved their periodontal status, but a low level of compliance with treatment over time by sibling 1 resulted in further tooth loss and recurrent periodontal disease. Sibling 2 experienced good periodontal healing in her primary and, later, permanent teeth due in part to proper compliance with oral hygiene instructions. Periodontal health was achieved, and no tooth loss occurred during follow-up. Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome subjects can be successfully treated with nonsurgical/antimicrobial therapy, but treatment outcome could be related to age at diagnosis and compliance with oral hygiene procedures. PMID:23265160

Pimentel, Suzana Peres; Kolbe, Maria Fernanda; Pereira, Roberta Sevá; Ribeiro, Fernanda Vieira; Cirano, Fabiano Ribeiro; Casati, Márcio Zaffalon; Casarin, Renato Corrêa Viana



Outcomes of Microfracture for Traumatic Chondral Defects of the Knee: Average 11Year Follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: In this study, we measured functional outcomes of patients treated arthroscopically with microfracture for full-thickness traumatic defects of the knee. Type of Study: A case series of patients with 7 to 17 years' follow-up. Methods: Between 1981 and 1991, a total of 72 patients (75 knees) met the following inclusion criteria: (1) traumatic full-thickness chondral defect, (2) no meniscus

J. Richard Steadman; Karen K. Briggs; Juan J. Rodrigo; Mininder S. Kocher; Thomas J. Gill; William G. Rodkey



Function, osteoarthritis and activity after ACL-rupture: 11 years follow-up results of conservative versus reconstructive treatment.  


ACL-reconstruction aims to restore joint stability and prevent osteoarthritis; however, malfunction and osteoarthritis are often the sequelae. Our study asks whether ACL-reconstruction or conservative treatment lead to better long-term results. In this retrospective cohort study, 136 patients with isolated ACL-rupture who had been treated by bone-ligament-bone transplant or conservatively were identified. Twenty-seven of these were excluded because of a revision operation in the 11.1 years follow-up period, leaving 109 patients (60 reconstructions and 49 conservatively treated) for evaluation based on clinical, radiological and internationally accepted knee-scores (Tegner, IKDC, Kellgren and Lawrence). An individual cohort study is classified as EBM level 2b according to the Oxford Centre of EBM. We observed significantly better knee-stability (P = 0.008) but more osteoarthritis (Grade II or higher) after ACL-reconstruction (42% vs. 25%). Physical activity levels were similar in both groups during the follow-up period (P = 0.16). Eleven years after ACL-rupture the physical activity levels are similar for both groups. After ACL-reconstruction, stability is higher as is osteoarthritis, whereby the result is not necessarily perceived as better subjectively. Specifically, this retrospective study yielded a 24% incidence of oseoarthrits 11 years after conservative management of ACL-rupture in patients not needing secondary surgery. The risk of secondary meniscal tears is reduced after ACL reconstruction, which reduces the negative effects of OA after surgery. The ultimate objective would be to achieve a good subjective outcome by conservative treatment followed by a rehabilitation program designed to keep secondary meniscus tears at a low level. PMID:18292988

Kessler, M A; Behrend, H; Henz, S; Stutz, G; Rukavina, A; Kuster, M S



Cooperative Thyrotoxicosis Therapy Follow-Up Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thyrotoxicosis study was initiated in 1961 to test for an increase in the incidence of leukemia in hyperthyroid patients treated with iodine-131. Twenty-two study centers representing twenty-six medical institutions submitted records on 36,000 patient...

L. Mills



Follow Up Study of Health Science Graduates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports on a study conducted to assess (1) the status of health science graduates of Towson State University (Maryland) and (2) their impressions of the value of courses offered within the department as they pertained to their present health education job positions. Seventy-three graduates from the period 1971 to 1976, grouped…

McMahon, Joan D.; Peregoy, Stephen


Function, osteoarthritis and activity after ACL-rupture: 11 years follow-up results of conservative versus reconstructive treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

ACL-reconstruction aims to restore joint stability and prevent osteoarthritis; however, malfunction and osteoarthritis are\\u000a often the sequelae. Our study asks whether ACL-reconstruction or conservative treatment lead to better long-term results.\\u000a In this retrospective cohort study, 136 patients with isolated ACL-rupture who had been treated by bone-ligament-bone transplant\\u000a or conservatively were identified. Twenty-seven of these were excluded because of a revision

M. A. Kessler; H. Behrend; S. Henz; G. Stutz; A. Rukavina; M. S. Kuster




PubMed Central

SUMMARY Twenty-two cases who fulfilled the criteria of having atypical manifestation at any stage of illness and had minimum follow up of three years were studied in detail. Their family history and follow up was analysed. The findings of the present study suggest that the cases showing admixture of schizophrenic and affective symptoms are probably a variant of affective disorders although a possibility of their being a third independent psychosis cannot be ruled out. PMID:22065727

Singh, Gurmeet; Sachdev, J. S.




EPA Science Inventory

The Follow-Up Study involves locating and interviewing a group of young adults who, as 10-year-old children, were included in the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Study, an investigation of the prevalence and risk factors for developmental disabilities that was con...


A Follow-Up Study of Former Student Health Advocates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student health advocates (SHAs) are high school students who, under the supervision of the school nurse, provide health education and health promotion activities to other students via a peer education model. This 3-year follow-up study explored how the SHA experience influences career choice and attitudes of the participants. It also examined what…

Streng, Nancy J.



Physical activity and dietary intake of children aged 9–11 years and the influence of peers on these behaviours: a 1-year follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:This study investigated physical activity and dietary intake of children aged 9–11 years, and the influence of peers on these behaviours over a 2-year period.Methods:A total of 106 (64 girls; 42 boys) children were investigated annually, over 2 years. Measures included physical activity (sealed pedometer), self-report measures of dietary intake and physical activity, and a peer influence questionnaire. Anthropometric measures

T Coppinger; Y M Jeanes; J Dabinett; C Vögele; S Reeves



Follow-up and reevaluation traffic studies on gasoline rationing  

SciTech Connect

Follow-up investigations are important in connection with any eventual rationing of automotive fuel, in order to determine if the rationing is achieving its purpose and that unwanted secondary effects have not arisen. These studies would also keep the public informed and be useful in winning its support for rationing. The effectiveness of rationing is determined by three complementary methods: (1) traffic counts, (2) speed measurement, and (3) a study of travel habits.

Asp, K.; Thunberg, B.



Follow-up study of respiratory function in hemp workers.  


A 3-year follow-up study was performed on 38 women and 28 men from the originally studied textile workers employed in a soft hemp processing mill. Acute and chronic respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity were recorded during the cross-sectional and the follow-up studies. Maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curves were obtained on these workers, and forced vital capacity (FVC), 1-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1) and flow rates at 50% and at 25% of the VC (FEF50, FEF25) were measured. High prevalences of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms persisted at the follow-up study. In particular, high prevalences of byssinosis were documented at both studies (women: 47.4% and 47.4%; men: 64.3% and 67.9%, respectively). Statistically significant mean across-shift reductions were recorded for all ventilatory capacity tests at the initial study. A large mean annual decline was calculated for FEV1 in women and for all ventilatory capacity parameters in men; these declines were greater for workers with symptoms of byssinosis than for those without. The accelerated decline in FEV1 noted in the women workers, who were predominantly nonsmokers, suggests an independent hemp effect. Exposures in the work environment were measured with Hexhlet filters and revealed very high dust concentrations (mean total: 21.4 mg/m3, 22.4 mg/m3; respirable: 8.4 mg/m3, 9.9 mg/m3) at both initial and follow-up studies. These levels are much higher than those found in mills processing organic materials in North America. Our data demonstrate that work in the hemp industry, particularly in small poorly regulated mills, continues to have deleterious effects on respiratory function. PMID:8074118

Zuskin, E; Mustajbegovic, J; Schachter, E N



Gender Role and Feminism Revisited: A Follow-Up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this follow-up to our earlier study (Toller, Suter, & Trautman, Gender role identity and attitudes towards feminism, Sex Roles, 51, 85–90, 2004) we examine the interrelationships among gender role, support for feminism, and willingness to self-label as feminist. Ten percent of college students previously surveyed participated in qualitative interviews, which elicited characterizations of feminists, whether students self-identified as feminist,

Elizabeth A. Suter; Paige W. Toller



A follow-up study of remote trauma teleconsultations.  


We conducted a follow-up study of patients who had attended a nurse-led minor accident and treatment service (MATS) and who had participated in a teleconsultation. Over three and a half years, 31,510 patients had attended the MATS unit and 1854 patients (5.9%) of these had participated in a teleconsultation. Of the 1854 telemedicine patients, 1199 had been referred to hospital or clinic and 1153 had actually attended. Retrospective examination of the relevant hospital records showed that in 25 cases (2%) the original telediagnosis was considered incorrect at face-to-face review and that treatment was either begun or changed in 264 cases (23%). All patients, including those discharged home after the teleconsultation, were sent a questionnaire about any changes to their injury. Of the 655 patients discharged home, a questionnaire response was obtained from 598 (91%). Following discharge, 43 of these patients had sought help from another health-care provider (the majority from their general practitioner). Of the 46 patients referred to hospital who did not keep their follow-up appointments, questionnaire results were obtained from 35 (76%). Nine of these patients had sought help from another health-care provider (the majority from their general practitioner) but there had been no change in diagnosis or treatment. Our findings suggest that teleconsultations are an effective means of delivering minor injuries care. PMID:11265101

Tachakra, S; Loane, M; Uche, C U




EPA Science Inventory

The Follow-up Questionnaire data set provides information concerning the activities within the household during the sampling week. The information is from 774 Follow-up Questionnaires for 320 households. Medication and supplemental dietary information is provided. The Follow-u...


A follow-up study of agricultural chemical production workers  

SciTech Connect

This retrospective follow-up study evaluated the mortality experience of 4,323 men employed at a plant in Alabama (AL) that manufactures agricultural and other chemicals. On average, there were 18 years of follow-up per subject during the study period of 1951 to 1987. The observed numbers of deaths among cohort members were compared with the numbers expected on the basis of United States (US) and AL general population mortality rates. The all causes standardized mortality ratio (SMR), computed using US rates as the referent, was 97 (233 observed/240 expected deaths) for whites and 68 (47/69) for blacks. White subjects had more than expected deaths from buccal cavity and pharynx (BCP) cancer (SMR = 388; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 125-905) and from esophageal cancer (SMR = 417; 112-1,067). Their lung cancer mortality rate was 50% higher than the rate of US white men and 14% higher than the rate of AL white men. Each of these three cancers has strong nonoccupational determinants, the roles of which were not assessed and which may have been responsible in whole or in part for the observed increases. The excesses of lung and esophageal cancer were concentrated among short-term employees, an observation which also argues against a causal link with occupational factors. Black men experienced no increased mortality from BCP, esophageal or lung cancer, but results for blacks were imprecise. For white and black subjects combined, there were 3 observed versus 0.62 expected deaths due to soft tissue sarcoma (p = 0.05). The job histories of subjects with this type of cancer did not suggest any shared occupational exposure.

Sathiakumar, N.; Delzell, E.; Austin, H.; Cole, P. (Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama, Birmingham (United States))



Facial dyskinesia: a 16-year follow-up study.  


The 109 female survivors of a mental hospital population surveyed in 1965 for facial dyskinesia were followed up 16 years later. The 99 survivors with non-organic brain syndromes were analysed. Prevalence of dyskinesia had risen from 18.4% to 46.5% during follow-up and its development was significantly associated with neuroleptic dosage. Enlarged ventricles on brain scans were significantly associated with dyskinesia, cognitive impairment and neuroleptic prescribing. PMID:1677601

McClelland, H A; Metcalfe, A V; Kerr, T A; Dutta, D; Watson, P



Lymphangioma. A long-term follow-up study.  


At the Hospital for Sick Children 177 patients with lymphangioma, exclusive of those who had intra-abdominal lesions, were seen between 1927 and 1964. Forty-nine of these (aged 8 to 41 years) were available for follow-up examination. The results of treatment by surgical excision, aspiration, incision and drainage, and radiation are reported. No cases confirmed histologically as lymphangioma underwent spontaneous regression. Two histologically unconfirmed cases underwent partial regression. Four of the 11 who were left with lymphangioma tissue at operation never had significant recurrences. Therefore, this clinical study does not clarify the possible role of spontaneous regression in lymphangioma. Extensive surgery is the treatment of choice whenever feasible, but in unilocular or bilocular cystic lymphagnioma subsequent regression can be expected after palliative treatment (aspiration, or incision and drainage). Clinical and pathological criteria should be established for differentiation between lymphangioma and primary lymphedema. Lesions involving subepithelial, subdermal, and subcutaneous or internodal networks of lymphatics will produce lymphagioma; lesions of the collecting lymphatic trunks will result in lymphedema. PMID:1197438

Saijo, M; Munro, I R; Mancer, K



A 5-year follow-up study of suicide attempts.  


Seventy-five patients were admitted to the ward of the Lund Suicide Research Center following a suicide attempt. After 5 years, the patients were followed up by a personal semistructured interview covering sociodemographic, psychosocial and psychiatric areas. Ten patients (13%) had committed suicide during the follow-up period, the majority within 2 years. They tended to be older at the index attempt admission, and most of them had a mood disorder in comparison with the others. Two patients had died from somatic diseases. Forty-two patients were interviewed, of whom 17 (40%) had reattempted during the follow-up period, most of them within 3 years. Predictors for reattempt were young age, personality disorder, parents having received treatment for psychiatric disorder, and a poor social network. At the index attempt, none of the reattempters had diagnoses of adjustment disorders or anxiety disorders. At follow-up, reattempters had more psychiatric symptoms (SCL-90), and their overall functioning (GAF) was poor compared to those who did not reattempt. All of the reattempters had long-lasting treatment ( > 3 years) as compared to 56% of the others. It is of great clinical importance to focus on treatment strategies for the vulnerable subgroup of self-destructive reattempters. PMID:8739657

Johnsson Fridell, E; Ojehagen, A; Träskman-Bendz, L



Driver Behaviour Questionnaire: a follow-up study.  


The aim of the present study was to investigate time-across stability of different factor solutions (two to six factors) of the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) and to examine the changes on self-reported driving pattern in a follow-up sample (n=622) after three years of the first responses. Repeated measures ANOVA indicated that there was a significant change between Time 1 and Time 2 scores in six items of the DBQ. Drivers reported less competitiveness while driving at Time 2 but more speeding, drinking and driving, driving to wrong destinations and having no recollection of the road just travelled. Significant Time x Sex x Age interactions were found in change scores of four items. Young males and middle-aged female drivers emerged as a group of drivers who changed their self-reported driving pattern over three years. Additionally, sex, age or both had main effects on scores of 21 items. Males and young drivers reported more violations than females and older drivers, whereas female drivers reported more errors and lapses. After running possible factor solutions with Tucker's Phi agreement coefficients, the results indicated that the four- and two-factor solutions were the most stable and interpretable ones. The two-factor solution showed better time-across stability than the four-factor structure did, although the factor solutions found at Time 1 and Time 2 were not as identical as expected. Separate analysis revealed that drivers who had high annual mileage at Time 1 and Time 2 showed the strongest two-factor time-across stability. The test-retest reliability was 0.50 for errors, 0.76 for violations and 0.61 for the whole scale. PMID:16310749

Ozkan, Türker; Lajunen, Timo; Summala, Heikki



The long-term effects of exposure to low doses of lead in childhood. An 11-year follow-up report  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether the effects of low-level lead exposure persist, we reexamined 132 of 270 young adults who had initially been studied as primary school-children in 1975 through 1978. In the earlier study, neurobehavioral functioning was found to be inversely related to dentin lead levels. As compared with those we restudied, the other 138 subjects had had somewhat higher lead

Herbert L. Needleman; Alan Schell; David Bellinger; Alan Leviton; Elizabeth N. Allred



The Bristol shared care glaucoma study: outcome at follow up at 2 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo examine the outcome of care for patients with glaucoma followed up by the hospital eye service compared with those followed up by community optometrists.METHODSA randomised study with patients allocated to follow up by the hospital eye service or community optometrists was carried out in the former county of Avon in south west England. 403 patients with established or suspected

Selena F Gray; Paul G D Spry; Sara T Brookes; Tim J Peters; Ian C Spencer; Ian A Baker; John M Sparrow; David L Easty



Texas Effectiveness Study: Adult Outcome Follow-Up.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Texas Effectiveness Study is an evaluation of the effectiveness of special education programs and services in developing life skills related to the transition planning process for Texas special education. One of the three components of the Texas Effectiveness Study is a study of adult outcomes. This component was implemented in the summer of…

Norris, Deborah; Schumacker, Randall E.


Follow-up Imaging Studies in Children with Splenic Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We undertook a retrospective study of pediatric blunt splenic injuries treated nonoperatively at our institution from 1990 to 1995 (n=72) to assess the impact of serial computed tomography (CT) scans on the outcome. Median number of studies per child was three. The result showed that the appearance of the splenic injury remained unchanged or improved in 95% of the imaging

Shahid Shafi; James C. Gilbert; Michael S. Irish; Philip L. Glick; Michael G. Caty; Richard G. Azizkhan



A Follow-Up Study of the Registered Nursing Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A followup study of the 1966 and 1967 graduates of the registered nurses program at Foothill College (Calif.) sought to identify characteristics which distinguished students who completed the program from those who did not graduate, analyze scores on the state licensing examination for the licensing of nurses to determine what significant…

Keene, James W.


MCC Instruction in Sustainable Technologies. Follow-Up Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to collect feedback from Sustainable Technologies interns regarding the usefulness and effectiveness of their education and training from the Maui Community College Instruction in Sustainable Technologies (MIST) program, and to further assess community need for a new Associate Degree program in Sustainable…

Pezzoli, Jean A.; Ainsworth, Donald


A Follow-Up Study of Abused Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated in a followup study of 219 NAT (non-accidental trauma) children and 159 NEG (gross neglect) children were the specific effects of abusive environments on psychosocial development and the possible reversibility of these effects with intervention through foster home placement. Available from: EC 090 265. (Author/IM)

Kent, James T.




EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this work assignment was to add to our knowledge of the issues that will affect recruitment and retention of pregnant women into the National Children's Study by conducting 14 focus groups comprised of pregnant women, couples, and parents of young chi...


Ten Year Follow-up Study of 65 Suicidal Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Introduction: This survey studies the 10 year psychosocial outcome of 65 adolescents admitted to the Nancy Children’s Hospital in 1994 after a suicide attempt. Method: survey conducted using a self-assessment questionnaire sent to adolescents and their parents. Results: The response rate was 55.4%. About seventy per cent (70.5%) of respondents stated they were happy in their affective lives 10 years after the reference attempt, almost 70% (67.6%) had a job, nearly three quarters (72.5%) considered that they were in good health and 59% felt happy. More than half (55%) had made a subsequent suicide attempt. Two patients committed suicide. The originality of this study lies in its methodology since it allows, through comparison of suicide attempters’ responses with medical data, a high level of under-declaration of repeated attempts to be detected (41.2%). Statistical study of the associations between the total number of repeated suicide attempts and demographic characteristics of the initial population nonetheless evidenced that patients with a history of suicide attempts and those with a history of early repeated attempts (within three months and/or the year) were significantly more likely to repeat their attempt within ten years. Conclusion: Most of the 34 patients traced seemed to have satisfactory personal and professional lives, in contrast to the high level of repeated suicide attempts. Repeated suicide attempts during adolescence appear to be one of the major risk factors in attempting suicide again within 10 years. This confirms the importance of preventive measures after a first suicide attempt. PMID:19495432

Gehin, Anouk; Kabuth, Bernard; Pichene, Catherine; Vidailhet, Colette




EPA Science Inventory

This data set includes responses for 163 food follow-up questionnaires. The food diary follow-up questionnaire was used to identify how the dietary patterns observed for study participants who had submitted duplicate diet samples and completed the associated food diary related to...



EPA Science Inventory

This data set includes responses for 249 participants with a total of 444 follow-up questionnaires. Some participants were studied for more than one monitoring period. The Follow-up Questionnaire was used to provide information on relatively infrequent (e.g., less than daily) ac...


Incidence of Primary Headache: A Danish Epidemiologic Follow-up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of migraine in a general population has been assessed in few longitudinal studies, and the incidence of tension-type headache has never been assessed. The authors aimed to assess the incidence of migraine and tension-type headache in Denmark by conducting a 12-year follow-up study of a general population (1989-2001). The design and methods of follow-up replicated the baseline study

A. C. Lyngberg; B. K. Rasmussen; T. Jørgensen; R. Jensen



Children's reactions to Hurricane Andrew: A forty-four month follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about children's long-term adjustment following a disaster. Thus, the current study was conducted as a 44-month follow-up investigation, examining children's reactions to Hurricane Andrew over time. Previous data collection was conducted at 3, 7, and 10 months post-hurricane with a sample of 442 children. Subjects at follow-up were a subset of the original sample, consisting of 43

Nicole Renee Vincent



Automated Telecommunication to Obtain Longitudinal Follow-up in a Multicenter Cross-sectional COPD Study  

PubMed Central

Background It can be challenging to maintain longitudinal follow-up of subjects in clinical studies. COPDGene is a multicenter, observational study designed to identify genetic factors associated with COPD and to characterize COPD-related phenotypes. To obtain follow-up data on patient's vital status and outcomes, the COPDGene Longitudinal Follow-up (LFU) Program was developed to supplement its parent study. Methods/Results We used a telecommunication system that employed automated telephone contact or web-based questions to obtain longitudinal follow-up data in our subjects. A branching questionnaire asked about exacerbations, new therapies, smoking status, development of co-morbid conditions, and general health status. Study coordinators contacted subjects who did not respond to one of the automated methods. We enrolled 10,383 subjects in the COPDGene study. As of August 29, 2011, 7,959 subjects completed 19,955 surveys. On the first survey, 68.8% of subjects who completed their survey did so by electronic means, while 31.3% required coordinator phone follow-up. On each subsequent survey the number of subjects who completed their survey by electronic means increased, while the number of subjects who required coordinator follow-up decreased. Despite many of the patients in the cohort being chronically ill and elderly, there was broad acceptance of the system with over half the cohort using electronic response methods. Conclusions The COPDGene LFU Study demonstrated that telecommunications was an effective way to obtain longitudinal follow-up of subjects in a large multicenter study. Web-based and automated phone contacts are accepted by research subjects and could serve as a model for LFU in future studies. PMID:22676387

Stewart, Jeffrey I.; Moyle, Sarah; Criner, Gerard J.; Wilson, Carla; Tanner, Ron; Bowler, Russell P.; Crapo, James D.; Zeldin, Robert K.; Make, Barry J.; Regan, Elizabeth A.



Therapeutic community drug treatment success in Peru: a follow-up outcome study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of drug abuse treatment in Peru that used the therapeutic community (TC) model. Program directors and several staff members from all study treatment facilities received two to eight weeks of in-country training on how to implement the TC treatment model prior to the follow-up study. METHODS: This outcome study

Knowlton Johnson; Zhenfeng Pan; Linda Young; Jude Vanderhoff; Steve Shamblen; Thom Browne; Ken Linfield; Geetha Suresh



A ten-year follow-up study of cotton textile workers.  


A follow-up study of respiratory function in cotton textile workers was performed 10 yr after the original cross-sectional study (1975 to 1985). There were 35 nonsmoking female and 31 smoking male textile workers restudied from the original group of 116. The majority of those lost to follow-up had left the industry. The prevalence of byssinosis among the female workers at the time of follow-up was 15/35 (42.9%) compared with 8/35 (22.9%) at the time of the initial study (p = 0.063). For men the byssinosis prevalence at follow-up was 16/31 (51.6%) compared with 8/31 (22.9%) at the time of the initial study (p = 0.03). Similarly, the prevalence of almost all other respiratory symptoms was significantly higher at the follow-up than at the time of the initial study. Significant across-shift decrements in FEV1 and FVC were documented at both surveys. The mean annual decline in ventilatory capacity was greater than expected for both female (FVC: -0.036 +/- 0.005 L/yr; FEV1: -0.059 +/- 0.009 L/yr) and male workers (FVC: -0.059 +/- 0.008 L/yr; FEV1: -0.068 +/- 0.006 L/yr) (Mean +/- SE). The mean total airborne dust concentration measured at the time of the follow-up study was 3.95 mg/m3 with an average respirable dust concentration of 0.97 mg/m3. We conclude that continued exposure to high dust concentrations in the cotton textile industry is associated with an increasing prevalence of respiratory symptoms and progressive impairment of lung function. The increase in respiratory impairment was seen both in smokers and nonsmokers. PMID:1990943

Zuskin, E; Ivankovic, D; Schachter, E N; Witek, T J



Sierra Leone's former child soldiers: a follow-up study of psychosocial adjustment and community reintegration.  


This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (ages 10-18; n = 156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the 2-year period of follow-up, youth who had wounded or killed others during the war demonstrated increases in hostility. Youth who survived rape not only had higher levels of anxiety and hostility but also demonstrated greater confidence and prosocial attitudes at follow-up. Of the potential protective resources examined, improved community acceptance was associated with reduced depression at follow-up and improved confidence and prosocial attitudes regardless of levels of violence exposure. Retention in school was also associated with greater prosocial attitudes. PMID:20636683

Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T; Whitfield, Theodore H; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E



Pre-Placement Anxiety among Foundation-Year MSW Students: A Follow-up Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Field Note presents a follow-up to a pilot study that explored pre-field placement anxiety for 1st-year MSW students. Previous studies report that students experience significant anxiety as they anticipate their field placement, and research indicates that anxiety has the potential to affect learning. A sample of 204 students reported…

Rosenthal Gelman, Caroline; Lloyd, Chrishana M.



Extending a Community of Care beyond the Ninth Grade: A Follow-Up Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative within-site case study ("N" = 10) is a follow-up study to a 2006-2007 investigation that analyzed how 1 high school created a community of care for its ninth-grade students through the implementation of a ninth-grade transition program--Freshman Focus. All participants were interviewed again 3 years later during…

Ellerbrock, Cheryl R.; Kiefer, Sarah M.



A Follow-Up Study on Word and Non-Word Reading Skills in Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study was designed to trace changes in the relationship between non-word reading and irregular word reading on the one hand, and between phonological awareness and non-word reading on the other, through a follow-up study of a group of individuals with Down syndrome. Twelve individuals with Down syndrome, whose data were originally…

Roch, Maja; Jarrold, Christopher



Sources of Validity Evidence for Educational and Psychological Tests: A Follow-Up Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study followed up on previous work that examined the incidence of reporting evidence based on test consequences in "Mental Measurements Yearbook". In the present study, additional possible outlets for what has been called "consequential validity" evidence were investigated, including all articles published in the past 10 years in several…

Cizek, Gregory J.; Bowen, Daniel; Church, Keri



Increased sympathetic reactivity may predict insulin resistance: an 18-year follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulin resistance and sympathetic activity are related by a positive feedback system. However, which precedes the other still remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the predictive role of sympathoadrenal activity in the development of insulin resistance in an 18-year follow-up study. We also examined whether reactivity to 2 different stress tests, a cold pressor test and a mental

Arnljot Flaa; Tonje A. Aksnes; Sverre E. Kjeldsen; Ivar Eide; Morten Rostrup



Personnel Needs in School Psychology: A 10-Year Follow-Up Study on Predicted Personnel Shortages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerns regarding whether a sufficient supply of school psychologists exists have been evident for decades. Studies have predicted that school psychology would face a critical personnel shortage that would peak in 2010, but continue into the foreseeable future. The current study is a 10-year follow-up investigation based on previously published…

Castillo, Jose M.; Curtis, Michael J.; Tan, Sim Yin



Ten Years Later: A Follow-Up Study of Professors Still Working after Age 70  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the impact of the end of mandatory retirement on professors over the long term. This follow-up study investigated the ten-year experience of professors who chose not to retire from a major research university after the elimination of the age 70 mandatory retirement in 1994. The initial interview study was conducted in 1998…

Dorfman, Lorraine T.



The Course and Outcomes of Episodic Endogenous Psychoses with Juvenile Onset (a follow-up study)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clinical follow-up study (mean follow-up period 16.8 ± 6.4 years) of 278 patients with juvenile-onset endogenous episodic\\u000a psychosis (Endogenous Psychosis Episodic Type, EPET – ICD-10 F20.03, F20.23, F25) with first episodes in 1984–1995 was performed.\\u000a The period of the most intense occurrence of repeated episodes occurred during the first five years from the initial episode\\u000a (almost all repeat episodes

V. G. Kaleda



Dietary changes in Vietnamese marriage immigrant women: The KoGES follow-up study  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The immigrant population has grown considerably in South Korea since the early 1990s due to international marriages. Dietary changes in immigrants are an important issue, because they are related to health and disease patterns. This study was conducted to compare changes in dietary intake between baseline and follow-up periods. SUBJECTS/METHODS Two hundreds thirty three Vietnamese female married immigrants. Baseline data were collected during 2006-2009, and the follow-up data were collected during 2008 and 2010. Food consumption was assessed using a 1-day 24-hour recall. RESULTS The amount of the total food consumed (P < 0.001) including that of cereals (P = 0.004), vegetables (P = 0.003), and fruits (P = 0.002) decreased at follow-up compared to that at baseline, whereas consumption of milk and dairy products increased (P = 0.004). Accordingly, the overall energy and nutrient intake decreased at follow-up, including carbohydrates (P = 0.012), protein (P = 0.021), fiber (P = 0.008), iron (P = 0.009), zinc (P = 0.006), and folate (P = 0.002). Among various anthropometric and biochemical variables, mean skeletal muscle mass decreased (P = 0.012), plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol increased, (P = 0.020) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein decreased at follow-up (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS A long-term follow-up study is needed to investigate the association between changes in food and nutrient intake and anthropometric and biochemical variables in these Vietnamese female marriage immigrants. PMID:24944778

Hwang, Ji-Yun; Lee, Hakim; Ko, Ahra; Han, Chan-Jung; Chung, Hye Won



Schizo-Affective Psychoses in Childhood: A Follow-Up Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The follow-up study examined 16 schizo-affective children after a mean of 16 years. In comparison to purely schizophrenic controls, subjects showed an increased incidence of affective psychoses, suicide in the ancestry, and more pre-morbidly well-adjusted personalities. The schizo-affective psychoses had mainly an acute-recurrent character.…

Eggers, Christian



Leadership Challenges Converting a Large High School to Small Schools: A Follow-Up Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This follow-up study presents findings from 11 structured interviews that were conducted with principals engaged in a conversion from a large comprehensive high school to six small schools. Key findings are (a) the greatest barrier to improvement was entrenched instructional patterns and (b) goals of college readiness and social/emotional…

Nehring, James H.; Lohmeier, Jill H.



A Follow-Up Study of Veterans Two Years After Vietnam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This follow-up study of 202 Vietnam veterans from the Philadelphia Metropolitan area focuses on: (1) the current level of alcohol use; (2) depressive symptomatology as measured by a standardized and validated instrument; and (3) the relationship between preservice variables and addiction status in Vietnam to postservice adjustment. Data pertaining…

Nace, Edgar P.; And Others


Comparing Effect Sizes in Follow-Up Studies: ROC Area, Cohen's d , and r  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to facilitate comparisons across follow-up studies that have used different measures of effect size, we provide a table of effect size equivalencies for the three most common measures: ROC area (AUC), Cohen's d, and r. We outline why AUC is the preferred measure of predictive or diagnostic accuracy in forensic psychology or psychiatry, and we urge researchers and

Marnie E. Rice; Grant T. Harris



Suicidal Behavior in Adolescent Ex-Inpatients: A Follow-Up Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a 1991 Gallup poll, 6 percent of American adolescents admitted to suicide attempts. This follow-up study focused on the suicidal behavior before and after admission to a private psychiatric hospital of adolescent inpatients (N=25) who were part of an original sample of 150 inpatients. Compared to the non-respondent group, the respondent group…

Ahmadi, Kate S.; And Others


Follow-Up Study of 1990 Nursing Graduates. Volume XX, No. 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1990, a follow-up study of nursing program graduates was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) in Palatine, Illinois, to examine their employment patterns, further education plans, and evaluate particular aspects of their WRHC experience. All 98 nursing students who earned 48 credit hours in 1990 were mailed questionnaires 1 year…

Lucas, J.; Meltesen, C.


Career Program Completers, 1993-94: A Long-Term Follow-up Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This long-term follow-up study, conducted in the summer of 1998 by Johnson County Community College (JCCC, Kansas) focused on graduates, certificate recipients, and students identified by career program administrators as leaving with marketable skills in 1993-94. Since first administering this type of survey in 1989, JCCC has gained a broader…

Conklin, Karen A.



Microsoft Academic Search

Summary : Assessment of renal function was done in one hundred non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients with varying duration of diabetes, attending the Diabetes Research Centre, Madras. The parameters studied included blood urea, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance and 24 hour urinary protein excretion. The patients were followed up and the renal function tests were repeated at periodical intervals. Diabetic nephropathy

K. S. Usha Rani; M. Viswanathan; C. Snehalatha


Clinically diagnosed childhood asthma and follow-up of symptoms in a Swedish case control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma has risen dramatically not only in the western societies and now forms a major and still increasing public health problem. The aims of this study were to follow up at the age of ten the patterns of asthma symptoms and associations among children with a clinically diagnosed asthma in a sizeable urban-rural community and to in compare

Eduardo Roel; Åshild Faresjö; Olle Zetterström; Erik Trell; Tomas Faresjö



Reversible Autism among Congenitally Blind Children? A Controlled Follow-Up Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Atypical forms of autism may yield insights into the development and nature of the syndrome. Methods: We conducted a follow-up study of nine congenitally blind and seven sighted children who, eight years earlier, had satisfied formal diagnostic criteria for autism and had been included in groups matched for chronological age and verbal…

Hobson, R. Peter; Lee, Anthony



Long-Term Follow-up Study of Children Developmentally Retarded by Early Environmental Deprivation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a 14-year follow-up study of two developmentally retarded Japanese children, a brother and sister, who had been kept shut up in a small shack before being rescued (at ages 5 and 6 respectively). Following birth they consistently suffered malnutrition, maternal deprivation, social isolation from adults, language deprivation,…

Fujinaga, Tamotsu; And Others


The relationship between flow experience and sense of coherence: a 1-year follow-up study.  


This study examined the relationship between flow experience and sense of coherence in 279 tai chi practitioners aged 67.9 ± 7.9 years, with a 1-year follow-up questionnaire. Our results suggest that tai chi improves sense of coherence in older adults, beginners, and long-term practitioners. PMID:24503746

Iida, Kenji; Oguma, Yuko



Antecedents of teenage pregnancy from a 14-year follow-up study using data linkage  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Many western nations continue to have high rates of teenage pregnancies and births, which can result in adverse outcomes for both mother and child. This study identified possible antecedents of teenage pregnancy using linked data from administrative sources to create a 14-year follow-up from a cross-sectional survey. METHODS: Data were drawn from two sources - the 1993 Western Australian

Jennifer Gaudie; Francis Mitrou; David Lawrence; Fiona J Stanley; Sven R Silburn; Stephen R Zubrick



Follow-Up Study of Graduates of the Medical Laboratory Technician Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A follow-up study to discover to what extent the education provided by the Medical Laboratory Technician program at Western Wisconsin Technical Institute has benefited the graduates and their employers was conducted. It was determined that 17 of the first 22 graduates were working successfully as medical laboratory technicians in eight states;…

Kupel, Claudia


A Follow-Up Study of the ABRACADABRA Web-Based Literacy Intervention in Grade 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the follow-up of a randomised control trial study of the ABRACADABRA web-based literacy intervention that contrasted synthetic versus analytic phonics (Comaskey, Savage & Abrami, 2009) in kindergarten children from urban low-SES backgrounds. Participants who received a "synthetic" phonics+phoneme awareness training (n = 26) or…

Di Stasio, Maria Rosaria; Savage, Robert; Abrami, Philip C.



Family Literacy Lasts. The NFER Follow-up Study of the Basic Skills Agency's Demonstration Programmes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The benefits of family literacy programs for children were examined in a 1997 follow-up study in which 154 parents and 237 children who had participated in a family literacy demonstration program in 1994-1995 were interviewed along with the teachers of a subsample of the children and the demonstration program coordinators. The demonstration…

Brooks, Greg; Gorman, Tom; Harman, John; Hutchison, Dougal; Kinder, Kay; Moor, Helen; Wilkin, Anne


Observational study on Takotsubo-like cardiomyopathy: clinical features, diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up  

PubMed Central

Objectives The present study attempts to identify appropriate elements that may contribute to clarify the broad clinical features (diagnosis, care, complication and prognosis) of Takotsubo-like cardiomyopathy for improving its management. Design study Observational study. Setting Primary level of care referred to the emergency department of Vannini Hospital, Rome, Italy. Participants The study population consisted of 75 patients, 72 of the them were women and 3 were men with a mean age of 71.9±9.6?years. Methods From February 2004 to November 2010, prospectively included 84 consecutive patients diagnosed for suspected Takotsubo-like cardiomyopathy. To be eligible, patients had to meet all the Mayo clinic criteria in the absence of neurological trauma or intracranial haemorrhage. Moreover, those patients that at follow-up still presented alteration of acute phase at ECG and echocardiogram were excluded. Thus, 75 patients comprised the study population. To follow-up 19 patients were lost. Results None of 75 patients died in acute phase. All patients were promptly discharged (8.4±4.4?days), since they recovered their normal functional status without symptoms. Follow-up information was available for 56 patients. At a mean follow-up time of 2.2±2?years (range, 0.1–6.8?years) two octogenarian patients (2.6%) died because of sudden cardiac death and pulmonary embolism, respectively. The Takotsubo-like cardiomyopathy recurred in one patient. Conclusions The results of this study support the previous reports about the good prognosis, also in critically ill patients, of Takotsubo-like cardiomyopathy. Further assessment will be needed to determine a careful and sustained follow-up for choosing the best care and foreseeing the recurrences of this emerging condition. PMID:23065445

Cacciotti, Luca; Passaseo, Ilaria; Marazzi, Giuseppe; Camastra, Giovanni; Campolongo, Giuseppe; Beni, Sergio; Lupparelli, Fabrizio; Ansalone, Gerardo



Long-term Ultrasonographic Follow-up Study of Gastric Motility in Patients with Functional Dyspepsia  

PubMed Central

Although patients with functional dyspepsia complain of epigastric symptoms, the relation between these symptoms and gastric motility remains controversial. There are few reports on the clinical course of functional dyspepsia, including changes in gastric motility, observed over a considerably long period. We conducted a study to examine association between changes in symptoms and changes in ultrasonographically evaluated gastric motility over a long-term follow-up period in patients with functional dyspepsia. Forty patients (18 men, 22 women; mean age, 53.7 years) with functional dyspepsia were followed up by medical interview, physical examination, endoscopy, and ultrasonography for gastric motility. Follow-up ranged from 1.0 to 7.8 years (mean, 3.0 years). Ultrasonographic evaluation of gastric motility included gastric emptying rate and antral contractions. During the follow-up period, patients were treated with proton pump inhibitors, H2-blockers, or prokinetics. Symptoms improved in 21 patients (group A), but symptoms persisted or worsened in 19 patients (group B). There were no significant differences in clinical characteristics between the two groups. Gastric motility improved in group A but not in group B. In conclusion, improved gastric motility appears to correspond to and may explain improved symptoms in some patients with functional dyspepsia. PMID:18385832

Kamino, Daisuke; Manabe, Noriaki; Hata, Jiro; Haruma, Ken; Tanaka, Shinji; Chayama, Kazuaki



Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss Increases the Risk of Stroke A 5Year Follow-Up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—No previous study has investigated the incidence or risk of cerebrovascular diseases developing after the sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). This study sets out to estimate the risk of stroke development among SSNHL patients during a 5e-year follow-up period after hospitalization for acute episodes of SSNHL. Methods—Our study design features a study cohort and a comparison cohort. The

Herng-Ching Lin; Pin-Zhir Chao; Hsin-Chien Lee



Effects of art therapy with prison inmates: A follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot study conducted to measure the effects of art therapy with prison inmates (Gussak, 2004) demonstrated marked improvement in mood. The results of this study encouraged a quantitative follow-up study the following year. This study used the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) and the Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form (BDI-II) as pre and post-test assessments to assess the effects

David Gussak



A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study of 284 Adults Classified as Learning Disabled When They Were Second Graders. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A follow-up study was undertaken of 284 adults who were diagnosed as learning disabled during second grade in 1968. At the time of follow up, the sample was 26 to 27 years old; 91 of these individuals were located by telephone and 4 were contacted by mail. The follow-up study used a questionnaire to determine participants' current status in five…

Tingey, Carol; Mortensen, Lance


Longterm follow-up in European respiratory health studies - patterns and implications  

PubMed Central

Background Selection bias is a systematic error in epidemiologic studies that may seriously distort true measures of associations between exposure and disease. Observational studies are highly susceptible to selection bias, and researchers should therefore always examine to what extent selection bias may be present in their material and what characterizes the bias in their material. In the present study we examined long-term participation and consequences of loss to follow-up in the studies Respiratory Health in Northern Europe (RHINE), Italian centers of European Community Respiratory Health Survey (I-ECRHS), and the Italian Study on Asthma in Young Adults (ISAYA). Methods Logistic regression identified predictors for follow-up participation. Baseline prevalence of 9 respiratory symptoms (asthma attack, asthma medication, combined variable with asthma attack and/or asthma medication, wheeze, rhinitis, wheeze with dyspnea, wheeze without cold, waking with chest tightness, waking with dyspnea) and 9 exposure-outcome associations (predictors sex, age and smoking; outcomes wheeze, asthma and rhinitis) were compared between all baseline participants and long-term participants. Bias was measured as ratios of relative frequencies and ratios of odds ratios (ROR). Results Follow-up response rates after 10 years were 75% in RHINE, 64% in I-ECRHS and 53% in ISAYA. After 20 years of follow-up, response was 53% in RHINE and 49% in I-ECRHS. Female sex predicted long-term participation (in RHINE OR (95% CI) 1.30(1.22, 1.38); in I-ECRHS 1.29 (1.11, 1.50); and in ISAYA 1.42 (1.25, 1.61)), as did increasing age. Baseline prevalence of respiratory symptoms were lower among long-term participants (relative deviations compared to total baseline population 0-15% (RHINE), 0-48% (I-ECRHS), 3-20% (ISAYA)), except rhinitis which had a slightly higher prevalence. Most exposure-outcome associations did not differ between long-term participants and all baseline participants, except lower OR for rhinitis among ISAYA long-term participating smokers (relative deviation 17% (smokers) and 44% (10–20 pack years)). Conclusions We found comparable patterns of long-term participation and loss to follow-up in RHINE, I-ECRHS and ISAYA. Baseline prevalence estimates for long-term participants were slightly lower than for the total baseline population, while exposure-outcome associations were mainly unchanged by loss to follow-up. PMID:24739530



Allogeneic blood transfusion and prognosis following total hip replacement: a population-based follow up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Allogeneic red blood cell transfusion is frequently used in total hip replacement surgery (THR). However, data on the prognosis of transfused patients are sparse. In this study we compared the risk of complications following THR in transfused and non-transfused patients. METHODS: A population-based follow-up study was performed using data from medical databases in Denmark. We identified 28,087 primary THR

Alma B Pedersen; Frank Mehnert; Soren Overgaard; Soren P Johnsen



A practical approach to remote longitudinal follow-up of Parkinson's disease: the FOUND study.  


The objective of this study was to examine a remote method for maintaining long-term contact with Parkinson's disease (PD) patients participating in clinical studies. Long-term follow-up of PD patients is needed to fill critical information gaps on progression, biomarkers, and treatment. Prospective in-person assessment can be costly and may be impossible for some patients. Remote assessment using mail and telephone contact may be a practical follow-up method. Patients enrolled in the multi-center Longitudinal and Biomarker Study in Parkinson's Disease (LABS-PD) in-person follow-up study in 2006 were invited to enroll in Follow-up of Persons With Neurologic Diseases (FOUND), which is overseen by a single center under a separate, central institutional review board protocol. FOUND uses mailed questionnaires and telephone interviews to assess PD status. FOUND follow-up continued when LABS-PD in-person visits ended in 2011. Retention and agreement between remote and in-person assessments were determined. In total, 422 of 499 (84.5%) of eligible patients volunteered, AND 96% of participants were retained. Of 60 patients who withdrew consent from LABS-PD, 51 were retained in FOUND. Of 341 patients who were active in LABS-PD, 340 were retained in FOUND (99.7%) when the in-person visits ceased. Exact agreement between remote and in-person assessments was ? 80% for diagnosis, disease features (eg, dyskinesias), and PD medication. Correlation between expert-rated and self-reported Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, which were examined at times separated by several months, was moderate or substantial for most items. Retention was excellent using remote follow-up of research participants with PD, providing a safety net when combined with in-person visits, and also is effective as a stand-alone assessment method, providing a useful alternative when in-person evaluation is not feasible. PMID:24515275

Tanner, Caroline M; Meng, Cheryl C; Ravina, Bernard; Lang, Anthony; Kurlan, Roger; Marek, Kenneth; Oakes, David; Seibyl, John; Flagg, Emily; Gauger, Lisa; Guest, Dolores D; Goetz, Christopher G; Kieburtz, Karl; DiEuliis, Diane; Fahn, Stanley; Elliott, Robin A; Shoulson, Ira



Replication of genetic linkage by follow-up of previously studied pedigrees  

SciTech Connect

Independent replication of linkage in previously studied pedigrees is desirable when genetic heterogeneity is suspected or when the illness is very rare. When the likelihood of the new data in this type of replication study is computed as conditional on the previously reported linkage results, it can be considered independent. The authors describe a simulation method using the SLINK program in which the initial data are fixed and newly genotyped individuals are simulated under [theta] = .01 and [theta] = .50. These give appropriate lod score criteria for rejection and acceptance of linkage in the follow-up study, which take into account the original marker genotypes in the data. An estimate of the power to detect linkage in the follow-up data is also generated. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Gershon, E.S.; Goldin, L.R. (National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD (United States))



Adolecsent mania, EEG abnormality and response to anticonvulsants: a three - year follow-up study.  


We had reported earlier (1998) a high percentage of moderate to severe EEG abnormalities (43.75% of cases) amongst adolescent manic population. Sixteen adolescent manics, with a mean age of 14 9 years, diagnosed according to ICD-10 were taken up for the initial study. Present study is the three-year follow-up report of 67.75% (11 out of 16) of the original patient population. All these patients were subjected fc 21-channel EEG and anticonvulsant drugs were started to all. Follow-up data showed that 3 out of 6 patients, who discontinued medications, were relapsed during this 3 years period. But none of the 5 patients, who regularly took prescribed medicines, relapsed during the same period. Significance of these findings in relapse prevention and the role of anticonvulsants, particularly in relation to adolescent mania, have been emphasized. PMID:21407863

Aich, T K; Sinha, V K; Nizami, H S



Compilation of Case Studies: Exemplary Placement and Follow-Up Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examples of placement and follow-up conceptual models developed for a program of vocational education (kindergarten through university) are presented. Section 1 contains a historical overview of placement and follow-up activities in Florida and describes a comprehensive model. Section 2, describing a model for utilizing community resources for the…

Dale, Jack


Shaken baby syndrome in Switzerland: results of a prospective follow-up study, 2002–2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the incidence of shaken baby syndrome in Switzerland was not known, we conducted a nationwide prospective follow-up\\u000a study for a 5-year period (from 2002 to 2007). The data were collected through the Swiss Pediatric Surveillance Unit. Inclusion\\u000a criteria were the presence, in a child ?6 years of age, of 1) more than or equal to two clinical symptoms (altered consciousness,

Manuela Fanconi; Ulrich Lips



A Follow-Up Study of Girls With Gender Identity Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provided information on the natural histories of 25 girls with gender identity disorder (GID). Standardized assessment data in childhood (mean age, 8.88 years; range, 3–12 years) and at follow-up (mean age, 23.24 years; range, 15–36 years) were used to evaluate gender identity and sexual orientation. At the assessment in childhood, 60% of the girls met the Diagnostic and

Kelley D. Drummond; Susan J. Bradley; Michele Peterson-Badali; Kenneth J. Zucker



Twenty-One Years of Follow-Up Studies of Familial Epidermodysplasia verruciformis  

Microsoft Academic Search

21 years of follow-up study of a family with epidermodysplasia verruciformis (e.v.) have shown that members of one family can be infected with different human papiUomaviruses (HPVs), either HPV 3 or HPV 4, and sometimes with both. The clinical picture resembled disseminated flat warts in cases induced by HPV 3, whereas in those caused by HPV 4 there were flat

G. Orth; S. Obalek; O. Croissant; M. Favre



Routine vaccinations and child survival: follow up study in Guinea›Bissau, West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the association between routine childhood vaccinations and survival among infants in Guinea›Bissau. Design Follow up study. Participants 15 351 women and their children born during 1990 and 1996. Setting Rural Guinea›Bissau. Main outcome measures Infant mortality over six months (between age 0›6 months and 7›13 months for BCG; diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis; and polio vaccines and between

Ines Kristensen; Peter Aaby; Henrik Jensen


Mortality among oral contraceptive users: 20 year follow up of women in a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To see whether the use of oral contraceptives influences mortality. DESIGN--Non-randomised cohort study of 17,032 women followed up on an annual basis for an average of nearly 16 years. SETTING--17 Family planning clinics in England and Scotland. SUBJECTS--Women recruited during 1968-74. At the time of recruitment each woman was aged 25-39, married, a white British subject, willing to participate, and

M. P. Vessey; L. Villard-Mackintosh; K. McPherson; D. Yeates



A cost study of new media supported near oral anticoagulant treatment follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In this study we sought to develop a comparative cost evaluation between conventional and new media, e.g. web, mobile communication technology and digital television, and near patient testing supported anticoagulant (ac) treatment follow-up in a primary health care setting. Method: The comparison was done for two patient groups, self-care and home-care patients, on oral ac treatment in the primary

Samuli Niiranen; Heikki Lamminen; Kirsi Niemi; Heikki Mattila; Seppo Kalli



Lifetime and six-month prevalence of mental disorders in the Munich follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The Lifetime and 6 month DSM-III prevalence rates of mental disorders from an adult general population sample of former West Germany are reported. The most frequent mental disorders (lifetime) from the Munich Follow-up Study were anxiety disorders (13.87%), followed by substance (13.51%) and affective (12.90%) disorders. Within anxiety disorders, simple and social phobia (8.01%) were the most common, followed

Hans-Ulrich Wittchen; Cecilia Ahmoi Essau; Detlev von Zerssen; Jiirgen-Christian Krieg; Michael Zaudig



Long-term follow-up after callosotomy--A prospective, population based, observational study  

PubMed Central

Objective Analyze the long-term outcome of callosotomies with regard to seizure types and frequencies and antiepileptic drug treatment. Methods This longitudinal observational study is based on data from the prospective Swedish National Epilepsy Surgery Register. Thirty-one patients had undergone callosotomy in Sweden 1995–2007 and had been followed for 2 and 5 or 10 years after surgery. Data on their seizure types and frequencies, associated impairments, and use of antiepileptic drugs have been analyzed. Results The median total number of seizures per patient and month was reduced from 195 before surgery to 110 two years after surgery and 90 at the long-term follow-up (5 or 10 years). The corresponding figures for drop attacks (tonic or atonic) were 190 before surgery, 100 2 years after surgery, and 20 at the long-term follow-up. Ten (56%) of the 18 patients with drop attacks were free from drop attacks at long-term follow-up. Three of the remaining eight patients had a reduction of >75%. At long-term follow-up, four were off medication. Only one of the 31 patients had no neurologic impairment. Significance The present population-based, prospective observational study shows that the corpus callosotomy reduces seizure frequency effectively and sustainably over the years. Most improvement was seen in drop attacks. The improvement in seizure frequency over time shown in this study suggests that callosotomy should be considered at an early age in children with intractable epilepsy and traumatizing drop attacks. PMID:24372273

Stigsdotter-Broman, Lina; Olsson, Ingrid; Flink, Roland; Rydenhag, Bertil; Malmgren, Kristina



Retrospective follow-up study of foundry and engine plant workers.  


A retrospective follow-up study of 21,013 workers employed at a foundry and two engine manufacturing plants was conducted to determine if these workers had an unusual mortality experience. A total of 2,235 deaths occurred during the follow-up period of 1970-1987. Mortality from all causes was lower than expected. Men experienced a 6-13% excess of lung cancer deaths, depending on the choice of the comparison group. The data displayed evidence of a positive trend between lung cancer mortality and increasing duration of employment (p = 0.008). White men experienced a statistically significant excess of deaths from stomach cancer (standardized mortality ratio [SMR] = 158; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 101-234). Black men had increased mortality from pancreatic cancer, especially among engine plant workers (SMR = 303; CI = 121-624), and an excess of prostate cancer, concentrated among foundry workers (SMR = 234; CI = 112-430). PMID:8250066

Rotimi, C; Austin, H; Delzell, E; Day, C; Macaluso, M; Honda, Y



A 2-year follow-up study of discharged psychiatric patients with bipolar disorder.  


This study investigated medication compliance, disease recurrence and the recovery of social function in discharged psychiatric patients with bipolar disorder. A 2-year follow-up was conducted on all patients with bipolar disorder, who were hospitalized in our psychiatric department between June 2010 and May 2011. Risk factors for recurrence were analyzed based on a self-designed questionnaire. Of the 252 patients in the study, 210 had complete information (83.3%) for the 2-year follow-up: 170 cases of bipolar I disorder and 40 cases of bipolar II disorder. The 1-year and 2-year full-compliance rates were 41.0% and 35.7%, respectively. The 1-year and 2-year recurrence rates were 42.4% and 61.0%, respectively. Statistically significant differences in rates were found between the bipolar subtypes for 1-year full compliance, 1-year non-compliance, 2-year recurrence, and 2-year readmission. Logistic regression identified different sets of independent variables that were risk factors for recurrence, and protective factors for recurrence at 1 year and 2 years after hospital discharge. The results of the follow-up indicated that the situation of patients with bipolar disorder after discharge is not optimistic, because of high recurrence rates, high non-compliance rates and low recovery rates. Clinical and social experts should pay more attention to the situation. PMID:24794029

Li, Chunyang; Chen, Chao; Qiu, Bin; Yang, Guang



Total knee arthroplasty in younger patients: a 13-year follow-up study.  


Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a well-established treatment at the end stage of a degenerated knee joint. This operative treatment generally relieves pain, improves physical function, and has a high level of patient satisfaction, especially in the elderly. Younger patients, however, are demanding and have a higher level of physical activity compared to elderly patients. One could therefore expect more mechanical problems such as prosthetic loosening and polyethylene wear after long-term follow-up. The goal of this retrospective cohort study was to determine the survival and long-term results of TKA in young patients. Patients who received a TKA at age 60 years or younger for any reason were included. Minimum follow-up was 10 years. Thirty-nine TKAs (Anatomic Graduate Components; Biomet, Warsaw, Indiana) in 31 patients were included. Average patient age was 52.6 years. There were 3 revisions because of infection; in 1 knee the patella was revised because of aseptic loosening. After an average 13-year follow-up, the survival rate was 89.7% and function scores showed a reasonably functioning TKA. There was no difference in survival rate and function scores between patients with rheumatoid arthritis and those with primary or secondary (posttraumatic) osteoarthritis. Our experience with TKA in a younger patient population has been encouraging. The risk of loosening and wear of the implant in our study is low, and this type of TKA also seems to be an effective and safe treatment for younger patients. PMID:21162506

Bisschop, Roel; Brouwer, Reinoud W; Van Raay, Jos J A M



Therapeutic community drug treatment success in Peru: a follow-up outcome study  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of drug abuse treatment in Peru that used the therapeutic community (TC) model. Program directors and several staff members from all study treatment facilities received two to eight weeks of in-country training on how to implement the TC treatment model prior to the follow-up study. Methods This outcome study involved 33 TC treatment facilities and 509 former clients in Lima and other cities in five providences across Peru. A retrospective pre-test (RPT) follow-up design was employed in which 30-day use of illegal drugs and alcohol to intoxication was measured at baseline retrospectively, at the same time of the six-month follow-up. In-person interview data were collected from directors of 73 percent of the eligible TC organizations in January and February 2003 and from former 58 percent of the eligible TC former clients between October 2003 and October 2004. Drug testing was conducted on a small sample of former clients to increase the accuracy of the self-reported drug use data. Results Medium to large positive treatment effects were found when comparing 30-day illegal drug and alcohol use to intoxication before and six months after receiving treatment. As a supplemental analysis, we assumed the 42 percent of the former clients who were not interviewed at the six month assessment had returned to drugs. These results showed medium treatment effects as well. Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling (HGLM) results showed higher implementation fidelity, less stigma after leaving treatment, and older clients, singly or in combination are key predictors of treatment success. Conclusion This study found that former clients of drug and alcohol treatment in facilities using the TC model reported substantial positive change in use of illegal drugs and alcohol to intoxication at a six-month follow-up. The unique contribution of this study is that the results also suggest attention should be placed on the importance of implementing the TC drug abuse treatment model with fidelity. Further, the results strongly suggest that TC drug abuse treatment programs should incorporate follow-up activities that attempt to neutralize community negative reactions (perceived stigma) independent of other factors. PMID:19055774

Johnson, Knowlton; Pan, Zhenfeng; Young, Linda; Vanderhoff, Jude; Shamblen, Steve; Browne, Thom; Linfield, Ken; Suresh, Geetha



Endoscopic stent therapy in patients with chronic pancreatitis: A 5-year follow-up study  

PubMed Central

AIM: This study analyzed clinical long-term outcomes after endoscopic therapy, including the incidence and treatment of relapse. METHODS: This study included 19 consecutive patients (12 male, 7 female, median age 54 years) with obstructive chronic pancreatitis who were admitted to the 2nd Medical Department of the Technical University of Munich. All patients presented severe chronic pancreatitis (stage III°) according to the Cambridge classification. The majority of the patients suffered intermittent pain attacks. 6 of 19 patients had strictures of the pancreatic duct; 13 of 19 patients had strictures and stones. The first endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) included an endoscopic sphincterotomy, dilatation of the pancreatic duct, and stent placement. The first control ERP was performed 4 wk after the initial intervention, and the subsequent control ERP was performed after 3 mo to re-evaluate the clinical and morphological conditions. Clinical follow-up was performed annually to document the course of pain and the management of relapse. The course of pain was assessed by a pain scale from 0 to 10. The date and choice of the therapeutic procedure were documented in case of relapse. RESULTS: Initial endoscopic intervention was successfully completed in 17 of 19 patients. All 17 patients reported partial or complete pain relief after endoscopic intervention. Endoscopic therapy failed in 2 patients. Both patients were excluded from further analysis. One failed patient underwent surgery, and the other patient was treated conservatively with pain medication. Seventeen of 19 patients were followed after the successful completion of endoscopic stent therapy. Three of 17 patients were lost to follow-up. One patient was not available for interviews after the 1st year of follow-up. Two patients died during the 3rd year of follow-up. In both patients chronic pancreatitis was excluded as the cause of death. One patient died of myocardial infarction, and one patient succumbed to pneumonia. All three patients were excluded from follow-up analysis. Follow-up was successfully completed in 14 of 17 patients. 4 patients at time point 3, 2 patients at time point 4, 3 patients at time point 5 and 2 patients at time point 6 and time point 7 used continuous pain medication after endoscopic therapy. No relapse occurred in 57% (8/14) of patients. All 8 patients exhibited significantly reduced or no pain complaints during the 5-year follow-up. Seven of 8 patients were completely pain free 5 years after endoscopic therapy. Only 1 patient reported continuous moderate pain. In contrast, 7 relapses occurred in 6 of the 14 patients. Two relapses were observed during the 1st year, 2 relapses occurred during the 2nd year, one relapse was observed during the 3rd year, one relapse occurred during the 4th year, and one relapse occurred during the 5th follow-up year. Four of these six patients received conservative treatment with endoscopic therapy or analgesics. Relapse was conservatively treated using repeated stent therapy in 2 patients. Analgesic treatment was successful in the other 2 patients. CONCLUSION: 57% of patients exhibited long-term benefits after endoscopic therapy. Therefore, endoscopic therapy should be the treatment of choice in patients being inoperable or refusing surgical treatment. PMID:23430281

Weber, Andreas; Schneider, Jochen; Neu, Bruno; Meining, Alexander; Born, Peter; von Delius, Stefan; Bajbouj, Monther; Schmid, Roland M; Algul, Hana; Prinz, Christian



Incidental finding of monoclonal gammopathy in blood donors: a follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background. The incidental finding of monoclonal immunoglobulin in the sera of healthy blood donors is a relatively frequent event and in such cases the subjects are commonly deferred permanently from donating blood. However, no follow-up studies of these cases have been published so far. Materials and methods. Since 2000, all regular blood donors at Trieste Blood Bank have undergone annual screening by serum protein electrophoresis. Cases presenting with monoclonal gammopathy between January 2000 and December 2008 were registered and follow-up was performed until December 2010. Results. Out of 8,197 regular blood donors, monoclonal gammopathy was detected in 104 subjects (1.3%). The median age at detection was 53 years, the median monoclonal protein concentration was 0.2 g/dL and the cumulative follow-up of these cases amounted to 763 person/years. In two cases asymptomatic multiple myeloma was diagnosed within 6 months of detection of the gammopathy and in 14 cases, the monoclonal gammopathy was transient. The remaining 88 cases were classified as having monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Out of these, two events related to monoclonal gammopathy were observed during the follow up: one lymphoma and one light chain deposition nephropathy. Discussion. According to current prognostic staging systems, the majority of blood donors with monoclonal gammopathy were classified as having low-risk MGUS and had a very low incidence of lymphoproliferative diseases. Permanent deferral of blood donors with stable MGUS causes about a 1% loss of potential blood donations and it represents a “precautionary measure” that needs to be substantiated and validated. PMID:22507857

La Raja, Massimo; Barcobello, Monica; Bet, Nicola; Dolfini, Paolo; Florean, Marina; Tomasella, Federica; De Angelis, Vincenzo; Mascaretti, Luca



What happens to opiate addicts immediately after treatment: a prospective follow up study.  

PubMed Central

In the first British study to investigate systematically what happens to opiate addicts after treatment 50 opiate addicts admitted for inpatient treatment of their drug dependence were followed up for six months after discharge. All had been withdrawn from opiates before follow up. Six months later 26 were not using opiates: 12 had not used opiates at any time since discharge. When subjects in hospital or in prison were excluded from the analysis 21 (47%) of the subjects living in the community were not taking opiates. Many subjects used opiates within days of leaving the inpatient unit, but this first lapse did not necessarily lead to a full relapse into addictive use. During the six months after discharge several subjects used opiates on a less than daily basis. During each two month period throughout the six months of follow up the proportion of subjects who were occasional users fell, the proportion of abstinent subjects grew, and the proportion of daily users (assumed to be readdicted) remained constant. Although many of the addicts relapsed soon after treatment, it was encouraging that almost half were opiate free after six months. These results have important implications for the treatment of drug addicts. PMID:3109662

Gossop, M; Green, L; Phillips, G; Bradley, B



The natural history of the rheumatoid shoulder: a prospective long-term follow-up study.  


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the natural history of rheumatoid disease of the shoulder over an eight-year period. Our hypothesis was that progression of the disease is associated with a decrease in function with time. A total of 22 patients (44 shoulders; 17 women, 5 men, (mean age 63)) with rheumatoid arthritis were followed for eight years. All shoulders were assessed using the Constant score, anteroposterior radiographs (Larsen score, Upward-Migration-Index (UMI)) and ultrasound (US). At final follow-up, the Short Form-36, disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) Score, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and use of anti-rheumatic medication were determined. The mean Constant score was 72 points (50 to 88) at baseline and 69 points (25 to 100) at final follow-up. Radiological evaluation showed progressive destruction of the peri-articular structures with time. This progression of joint and rotator cuff destruction was significantly associated with the Constant score. However, at baseline only the extent of rotator cuff disease and the UMI could predict the Constant score at final follow-up. A plain anteroposterior radiograph of the shoulder is sufficient to assess any progression of rheumatoid disease and to predict functional outcome in the long term by using the UMI as an indicator of rotator cuff degeneration. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:1520-4. PMID:25371467

van der Zwaal, P; Pijls, B G; Thomassen, B J W; Lindenburg, R; Nelissen, R G H H; van de Sande, M A J



Ceramic-on-Ceramic Total Hip Arthroplasty: Minimum of Six-Year Follow-up Study  

PubMed Central

Background This study examines the clinical and radiologic results of ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasties with regard to wear, osteolysis, and fracture of the ceramic after a minimum follow-up of six years. Methods We evaluated the results of a consecutive series of 148 primary ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasties that had been performed between May 2001 and October 2005 in 142 patients. The mean age was 57.2 years (range, 23 to 81 years). The mean follow-up period was 7.8 years (range, 6.1 to 10.1 years). Preoperative diagnosis was avascular necrosis in 77 hips (52%), degenerative arthritis in 36 hips (24.3%), femur neck fracture in 18 hips (12.2%), rheumatoid arthritis in 15 hips (10.1%), and septic hip sequelae in 2 hips (1.4%). Clinical results were evaluated with the Harris hip score, and the presence of postoperative groin or thigh pain. Radiologic analysis was done with special attention in terms of wear, periprosthetic osteolysis, and ceramic failures. Results The mean Harris hip score improved from 58.3 (range, 10 to 73) to 92.5 (range, 79 to 100) on the latest follow-up evaluation. At final follow-up, groin pain was found in 4 hips (2.7%), and thigh pain was found in 6 hips (4.1%). Radiologically, all femoral stems demonstrated stable fixations without loosening. Radiolucent lines were observed around the stem in 25 hips (16.9%), and around the cup in 4 hips (2.7%). Endosteal new bone formation was observed around the stem in 95 hips (64.2%) and around the cup in 88 hips (59.5%). No osteolysis was observed around the stem and cup. There were 2 hips (1.4%) of inclination changes of acetabular cup, 2 hips (1.4%) of hip dislocation, 1 hip (0.7%) of ceramic head fracture, and 1 hip (0.7%) of squeaking. The Kaplan-Meier survival rate of the prostheses was 98.1% at postoperative 7.8 years. Conclusions The ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty produced excellent clinical results and implant survival rates with no detectable osteolysis on a minimum six-year follow-up study. The ceramic-on-ceramic couplings could be a reasonable option of primary total hip arthroplasty for variable indications. PMID:24009902

Choy, Won-Sik; Lee, Sang Ki; Bae, Kyoung Wan; Hwang, Yoon Sub; Park, Chang Kyu



Breast Cancer and the Environment on Long Island Follow-up Study

Dr. Marilie Gammon, of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and collaborating scientists in New York City, conducted a follow-up study on 1,098 women with breast cancer who participated in the parent population-based case-control study of Long Island women. The primary aims of the study were to determine whether environmental and other lifestyle factors influence breast cancer survival and overall survival among a population-based sample of Long Island women diagnosed with the disease.


Predictors of mortality in alcoholic men: a 20-year follow-up study.  


This study investigates the predictors of mortality in 156 male alcoholics who were psychiatrically hospitalized between 1967 and 1968 and followed for > 20 years. The findings showed that an older age, liver cirrhosis, and separation or divorce at intake were all associated with a shorter time to death. These results corroborate those of other follow-up studies that have identified age, health, and social support as independent correlates of mortality in alcoholics. From a therapeutic standpoint, the most alterable predictor is social support. Thus, the establishment of a salutary social network and social support system should be an integral part of the alcoholic's treatment plan. PMID:7485850

Lewis, C E; Smith, E; Kercher, C; Spitznagel, E



Changes in leisure-time physical activity after transition to retirement: a follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Retirement is a major life change that is likely to affect lifestyles. The aim of this study was to examine changes in leisure-time\\u000a physical activity of moderate and vigorous intensity among ageing employees facing transition to retirement over a follow-up\\u000a of 5-7 years.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The baseline data were collected by questionnaire surveys in 2000-2002 among 40-60-year-old employees of the City of

Jouni Lahti; Mikko Laaksonen; Eero Lahelma; Ossi Rahkonen



Long-term trajectories of back pain: cohort study with 7-year follow-up  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe long-term trajectories of back pain. Design Monthly data collection for 6?months at 7-year follow-up of participants in a prospective cohort study. Setting Primary care practices in Staffordshire, UK. Participants 228 people consulting their general practitioners with back pain, on whom information on 6-month back pain trajectories had been collected during 2001–2003, and who had valid consent and contact details in 2009–2010, were contacted. 155 participants (68% of those contacted) responded and provided sufficient data for primary analyses. Outcome measures Trajectories based on patients’ self-reports of back pain were identified using longitudinal latent class analysis. Trajectories were characterised using information on disability, psychological status and presence of other symptoms. Results Four clusters with different back pain trajectories at follow-up were identified: (1) no or occasional pain, (2) persistent mild pain, (3) fluctuating pain and (4) persistent severe pain. Trajectory clusters differed significantly from each other in terms of disability, psychological status and other symptoms. Most participants remained in a similar trajectory as 7?years previously (weighted ? 0.54; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.65). Conclusions Most people with back pain appear to follow a particular pain trajectory over long time periods, and do not have frequently recurring or widely fluctuating patterns. The results are limited by lack of information about the time between data collection periods and by loss to follow-up. However, findings do raise questions about standard divisions into acute and chronic back pain. A new framework for understanding the course of back pain is proposed. PMID:24334157

Dunn, Kate M; Campbell, Paul; Jordan, Kelvin P



The Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS) 6-Year Follow-up  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the clinical course of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom severity and diagnosis from ages 3–5 to 9–12 years during a 6-year follow-up after the original Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS). Method 207 participants (75% male) from the original PATS, assessed at Baseline (mean age 4.4 years, when all met criteria for ADHD) and 3-months later (prior to medication treatment), were re-evaluated in three follow-up assessment visits (Year 3, mean age 7.4 years; Year 4, 8.3 years and Year 6, 10.4 years). Parents and teachers rated symptom severity and clinicians established psychiatric diagnoses. Analyses examined longitudinal changes in symptom severity and ADHD diagnosis. Results Parent- and teacher-rated symptom severity decreased from Baseline to Year 3 but remained relatively stable and in the moderate-to-severe clinical range through Year 6. Girls showed generally steeper decreases in symptom T-scores. At Year 6, 89% (160/180) of remaining participants met ADHD symptom and impairment diagnostic criteria. Comorbidity of oppositional defiant disorder and/or conduct disorder was associated with a 30% higher risk of having an ADHD diagnosis at Year 6 in the multiple logistic model. Medication status during follow-up, on vs. off, did not predict symptom severity change from Year 3 to Year 6 after adjustment for other variables. Conclusions ADHD in preschoolers is a relatively stable diagnosis over a 6-year period. The course is generally chronic, with high symptom severity and impairment, in very young children with moderate-to-severe ADHD, despite treatment with medication. Development of more effective ADHD intervention strategies is needed for this age group. PMID:23452683

Riddle, Mark A.; Yershova, Kseniya; Lazzaretto, Deborah; Paykina, Natalya; Yenokyan, Gayane; Greenhill, Laurence; Abikoff, Howard; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Tim; McCracken, James T.; Kollins, Scott H.; Murray, Desiree W.; Wigal, Sharon; Kastelic, Elizabeth; McGough, James J.; dosReis, Susan; Bauzo-Rosario, Audrey; Stehli, Annamarie; Posner, Kelly



A 12-year follow-up study of psychiatric symptomatology among cocaine-dependent men.  


This prospective longitudinal study examines patterns of psychiatric symptomatology among men admitted to treatment for cocaine dependence in 1988-1989. Study participants were interviewed at treatment intake, and at 1 year, 2 years and 12 years after treatment. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist-58 (SCL) and Natural History Interview were administered at the 4 time points. Of the 266 study participants interviewed at the 12-year follow-up, 138 (52%) had been cocaine abstinent for 5 years or more. Repeated measures ANOVA assessed changes in SCL scores over time for cocaine-abstinent and non-abstinent men. Both groups had similarly high mean SCL scores at treatment intake, and reductions in symptom severity 1 year after treatment. By 12-year follow-up, the abstinent group reported significantly lower SCL scores than the non-abstinent group on 4 of the 5 symptom measures. Additionally, cocaine-abstinent men reported lower rates of depressive and psychotic disorders, and lower use of psychopharmacologic and inpatient treatment than non-abstinent men. These findings suggest that severe psychiatric symptomatology persists among individuals unable to achieve a stable recovery from cocaine dependence. PMID:16503094

Herbeck, Diane M; Hser, Yih-Ing; Lu, Ake T H; Stark, M Elena; Paredes, Alfonso



Musculoskeletal disorders among construction workers: a one-year follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are an important cause of functional impairments and disability among construction workers. An improved understanding of MSDs in different construction occupations is likely to be of value for selecting preventive measures. This study aimed to survey the prevalence of symptoms of MSDs, the work-relatedness of the symptoms and the problems experienced during work among two construction occupations: bricklayers and supervisors. Methods We randomly selected 750 bricklayers and 750 supervisors resident in the Netherlands in December 2009. This sample was surveyed by means of a baseline questionnaire and a follow-up questionnaire one year later. The participants were asked about complaints of the musculoskeletal system during the last six months, the perceived work-relatedness of the symptoms, the problems that occurred during work and the occupational tasks that were perceived as causes or aggravating factors of the MSD. Results Baseline response rate was 37%, follow-up response was 80%. The prevalence of MSDs among 267 bricklayers and 232 supervisors was 67% and 57%, respectively. Complaints of the back, knee and shoulder/upper arm were the most prevalent among both occupations. Irrespective of the body region, most of the bricklayers and supervisors reported that their complaints were work-related. Complaints of the back and elbow were the most often reported among the bricklayers during work, whereas lower arm/wrist and upper leg complaints were the most often reported among the supervisors. In both occupations, a majority of the participants perceived several occupational physical tasks and activities as causes or aggravating factors for their MSD. Recurrent complaints at follow-up were reported by both bricklayers (47% of the complaints) and supervisors (31% of the complaints). Participants in both occupations report that mainly back and knee complaints result in additional problems during work, at the time of follow-up. Conclusions A substantial number of the bricklayers and the supervisors report musculoskeletal disorders, mainly back, knee and shoulder/upper arm complaints. The majority of the bricklayers and half of the supervisors believe that their complaints are work-related. Irrespective of occupation, participants with MSDs report substantial problems during work. Workplace intervention measures aimed at occupational physical tasks and activities seem justified for both occupations. PMID:23061990



Unilateral proptosis in thyroid eye disease with subsequent contralateral involvement: retrospective follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this retrospective follow-up study is to evaluate the prevalence of patients with thyroid eye disease presenting with apparent unilateral proptosis and determine the occurrence of exophthalmos in contralateral non-proptotic eye over the time. Associated features with this event were evaluated. Methods A cohort of 655 consecutive patients affected by thyroid eye disease with a minimum follow-up of 10 years was reviewed. Exophthalmos was assessed by using both Hertel exophthalmometer and computed tomography (CT). The influence of age, gender, hormonal status and of different therapies such as corticosteroids, radiotherapy and surgical decompression on this disease progression was evaluated. Results A total of 89 patients (13.5%) (95% confidence interval [CI] 15%-10%) had clinical evidence of unilateral exophthalmos at the first visit. Among these, 13 patients (14%) (95% CI 22%-7%) developed subsequent contralateral exophthalmos. The increase of protrusion ranged from 2 to 7 mm (mean of 4.2). The time of onset varied from 6 months to 7 years (mean time: 29 months). Smoking status, young age and surgical decompression are significantly associated with development of contralateral proptosis (p< .05). Conclusions Asymmetric thyroid eye disease with the appearance of unilateral exophthalmos at the initial examination is a fairly frequent event, while subsequent contralateral proptosis occurs less commonly. However, physicians should be aware that young patients, particularly if smokers, undergoing orbital decompression in one eye may need further surgery on contralateral side over time. PMID:23721066



What happens to quality in integrated homecare? A 15-year follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore the impact of structural integration on homecare quality. Methods A case study in an organisation comprising a before–after comparison with baseline and four follow-up measurements during 1994–2009, using interviews with clients (n=66–84) and postal inquiries to relatives (n=73–78) and staff (n=68–136). Results Despite the organisational reform involving extensive mergers of health and social care organisations and cuts in staff and service provision, homecare quality remained at almost the same level throughout the 15-year follow-up. According to the clients, it even slightly improved in some homecare areas. Conclusions The results show that despite the structural integration and cuts in staff and service provision, the quality of homecare remained at a good level. Assuming that the potential confounders did have inhibiting effects, the results suggest that structural integration had a positive impact on homecare quality. To obtain firmer evidence to support this tentative conclusion, further research with a randomised comparison design is needed. PMID:21949487

Paljarvi, Soili; Rissanen, Sari; Sinkkonen, Sirkka; Paljarvi, Leo



Progression markers of Spinocerebellar ataxia 2. A twenty years neurophysiological follow up study.  


Nerve conduction is profoundly affected in Spinocerebellar ataxia 2 (SCA2) even before the onset of the disease, but there is no information regarding its progression to the final stage of SCA2. In order to study the progression patterns of nerve conduction abnormalities in SCA2 we performed a prospective follow up evaluation of sensory and motor conduction in 21 SCA2 mutation carriers-initially presymptomatics- and 19 non-SCA2 mutation carriers during 20years. The earliest electrophysiological alterations were the reduction of sensory amplitudes in median and sural nerves, which could be found 8 to 5years prior disease onset and in the last 4years of the preclinical stage respectively. These abnormalities were followed by the increase of sensory latencies and decrease of conduction velocities. Sensory amplitudes progressively decreased during the follow-up clinical stage, rendering almost all patients with abnormal amplitudes and lack of sensory potentials, with faster progression rates in patients with larger CAG repeat lengths. Peripheral motor nerves showed the later involvement. These findings were used to define three distinct stages that describe the progression of the peripheral neuropathy. We suggest that sensory amplitudes could be useful biomarkers to assess the progression of peripheral nerve involvement and therefore to evaluate future clinical trials of therapeutic agents. PMID:20070987

Velázquez-Perez, Luis; Rodríguez-Labrada, Roberto; Canales-Ochoa, Nalia; Sanchez-Cruz, Gilberto; Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan; Montero, Jacqueline Medrano; Aguilera-Rodríguez, Raúl; Diaz, Rosalinda; Almaguer-Mederos, Luis E; Truitz, Agustín Palomino



Follow-up study of four cases of pervasive refusal syndrome.  


The term pervasive refusal syndrome was first mentioned in a paper detailing a sample study of four children by Bryan Lask and colleagues in 1991. This article presents a sample of four children diagnosed with Pervasive Refusal Syndrome, three girls and a boy, seen within a specialist NHS inpatient unit in the North East of England, and describes the main features presented. The main focus of the article will be on long-term prognosis and outcome in relation to day to day functioning and activities. Each of the cases has been followed up once at an interval of between 3 and 16 years after discharge, and the outcomes are presented here. Results suggest that two of the young people with PRS made a complete recovery in the long term, that one was impaired by anorexia nervosa at follow-up, and the remaining young person was reluctant to be interviewed, so it is unclear how well she has maintained her initial discharge recovery. PMID:21461858

Guirguis, Suzy; Reid, Corrine; Rao, Sushma; Grahame, Victoria; Kaplan, Carole



Risk Factors for Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients: Two-Year Follow-Up Study  

PubMed Central

Background. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients under hemodialysis (HD) have high mortality rate. Inflammation, dyslipidemia, disturbances in erythropoiesis, iron metabolism, endothelial function, and nutritional status have been reported in these patients. Our aim was to identify any significant association of death with these disturbances, by performing a two-year follow-up study. Methods and Results. A large set of data was obtained from 189 HD patients (55.0% male; 66.4 ± 13.9 years old), including hematological data, lipid profile, iron metabolism, nutritional, inflammatory, and endothelial (dys)function markers, and dialysis adequacy. Results. 35 patients (18.5%) died along the follow-up period. Our data showed that the type of vascular access, C-reactive protein (CRP), and triglycerides (TG) are significant predictors of death. The risk of death was higher in patients using central venous catheter (CVC) (Hazard ratio [HR] =3.03, 95% CI = 1.49–6.13), with higher CRP levels (fourth quartile), compared with those with lower levels (first quartile) (HR = 17.3, 95% CI = 2.40–124.9). Patients with higher TG levels (fourth quartile) presented a lower risk of death, compared with those with the lower TG levels (first quartile) (HR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.05–0.58). Conclusions. The use of CVC, high CRP, and low TG values seem to be independent risk factors for mortality in HD patients. PMID:24347799

do Sameiro-Faria, Maria; Costa, Elisio; Mendonca, Denisa; Teixeira, Laetitia; Rocha-Pereira, Petronila; Fernandes, Joao; Kohlova, Michaela; Reis, Flavio; Amado, Leonilde; Bronze-da-Rocha, Elsa; Miranda, Vasco; Quintanilha, Alexandre; Belo, Luis; Santos-Silva, Alice



Follow-up study to assess the use and performance of household filters in Zambia.  


Effective household water treatment can improve drinking water quality and prevent disease if used correctly and consistently over time. One year after completion of a randomized controlled study of water filters among households in Zambia with children < 2 years old and mothers who were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive, we conducted a follow-up study to assess use and performance of new filters distributed at the conclusion of the study; 90% of participating households met the criteria for current users, and 75% of participating households had stored water with lower levels of fecal contamination than source water. Microbiologically, the filters continued to perform well, removing an average of 99.0% of fecal indicator bacteria. Although this study provides some encouraging evidence about the potential to maintain high uptake and filter performance, even in the absence of regular household visits, additional research is necessary to assess whether these results can be achieved over longer periods and with larger populations. PMID:24100635

Peletz, Rachel; Simuyandi, Michelo; Simunyama, Martin; Sarenje, Kelvin; Kelly, Paul; Clasen, Thomas



A prospective follow-up study of first-episode acute transient psychotic disorder in Latvia  

PubMed Central

Background Acute and transient psychotic disorder (ATPD) has been described as an acute psychosis with brief onset and polymorphous symptomatology (WHO, 1993). The study of ATPD is growing increasingly relevant as scientists start an active discussion of the possibility of changing the ATPD classification in the next International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The aims of this study were to describe the clinical features of the index episode of ATPD in patients in Latvia, to analyse the stability and longitudinal changes of the diagnosis, to explore potential correlations between the sociodemographic and disease characteristics and to describe stressful life events before the first ATPD episode. Methods A prospective follow-up study of all first-time admitted patients from the Riga Centre of Psychiatry and Addiction Disorders who fulfilled the ICD-10 criteria for ATPD (WHO, 1993) during the 15-month period from 9 January 2010 to 30 March 2011 and followed up until 31 October 2012. Stressful life events, demographics and clinical features during the index episode were assessed. Results One hundred two patients were admitted with first-episode ATPD. The majority were females (60.7%). Over an average 26.5-month follow-up period, 59.8% of the patients were not readmitted. The overall stability rate of ATPD diagnosis in our sample was 67.4% (p?=?0.0001). In the subgroup of patients who were readmitted, 70.7% had their diagnosis converted to schizophrenia in subsequent visits. Stressful life events before the first episode were found in 49.0% of first-episode ATPD patients. Thought disorder was found to be the strongest statistically significant predictor of ATPD diagnosis conversation to schizophrenia (odds ratio 4.3), with high Wald's criterion (9.435) in binary logistic regression. Conclusions ATPD is prevalent in Latvia, with rather high overall stability rate. Combining these data from first-episode ATPD patients in Latvia with data from other countries may help predict the development of the disease and provide a basis for potential changes to ICD-11. PMID:24502369



After the epidemic: follow up study of HIV seroprevalence and changing patterns of drug use  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To follow up known intravenous drug users to determine current health state and drug use, compare characteristics with those of recent drug users, and examine HIV exposure and serostate. DESIGN--Subjects were identified from conventional general practice records and recruited from 1980 to the end of 1985; they were followed up during 1987 and 1988 and compared with drug users identified

C A Skidmore; J R Robertson; A A Robertson; R A Elton




EPA Science Inventory

This data set includes responses for 249 follow-up questionnaires collected during the first week-long monitoring period. The Follow-up Questionnaire was used to provide information on relatively infrequent (e.g., less than daily) activities during the sampling period to explain ...


Asian-Specific total knee system: 5-14 year follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background Knee size and body size differ in Asians compared with Caucasians. Nevertheless, many total knee arthroplasty (TKA) prostheses used worldwide are made for Western Caucasian subjects. As a result, an Asian's knee might not fit these prostheses. We studied the Flexible Nichidai Knee (FNK) system, a new model of TKA for Asian patients. The purpose of this report is to investigate the outcomes of this prosthesis retrospectively. Methods We investigated 1055 primary TKAs in 595 patients who underwent FNK for osteoarthritis (OA) in Japan and were followed for > 5 years. The knee score and function score were used for clinical evaluation. We examined the range of motion (ROM) preoperatively and at final follow-up and radiographic assessments. In addition, postoperative complications were investigated. A survivorship analysis was also conducted using two endpoints: revision for any reason and aseptic failure. Results 890 knees in 502 patients were available for study (follow-up rate of 96.0%). The mean follow-up term was 8.3 years (range, 5.0-14.1 years). The knee and function score significantly improved from 41.3 to 90.3 and from 39.1 to 76.2 points, respectively (p < 0.001). The mean ROM in FNK posterior cruciate retaining (CR) type and FNK posterior-stabilized (PS) type ameliorated significantly from 107.8° and 95.6° to 110.7° and 110.4°, respectively (p < 0.01). Ten knees underwent revision surgery (infection in 3 cases, instability in 2, loosening in 2, and non-union of femoral supracondylar fracture, severe pain, and recurrent hemarthrosis in 1 each). The survivorship rate was 99.4% (95% CI, 99.0-99.8) at 5 years (n = 952 patients at risk) and 96.2% (95% CI, 91.9-100) at 12.5 years (n = 49 patients at risk). Conclusion The FNK prosthesis for Asians achieved excellent mid- to long-term survivorship and clinical results. PMID:22046953



What Affects Reintegration of Female Drug Users after Prison Release? Results of a European Follow-Up Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of this follow-up study is to explore factors influencing the success or failure of women in reintegrating after their release from prison. Female drug users in five European cities were tracked after being released from prison. Out of 234 female prisoners contacted in prisons, 59 were included in the follow-up study. Structured…

Zurhold, Heike; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Sanclemente, Cristina; Schmied, Gabriele; Shewan, David; Verthein, Uwe



Follicular mucinosis presenting as an acneiform eruption: a follow-up study.  


It has been proposed by many authors that follicular mucinosis is directly associated with mycosis fungoides (MF). Follicular mucinosis may be classified into 3 main clinical variants: a benign idiopathic form in children and young adults, which includes an acneiform presentation; an idiopathic form in older patients with a benign course; and a third variant that occurs in adults and is associated with MF. Our goal was to study the relationship between the acneiform variant of follicular mucinosis and MF. Eight patients previously diagnosed with the acneiform variant of follicular mucinosis were identified. Biopsy specimens were reviewed to evaluate the histopathologic attributes that characterize the disease and the infiltrate's immunohistochemistry. Also, patient follow-up was assessed to evaluate the clinical course of the disease. Median age of onset of disease was 29.5 years; 95% of lesions were located in the head and neck region. Biopsy specimens showed a moderate to dense perivascular, perifollicular, and interstitial infiltrate of lymphocytes with mucinous deposits within the follicular epithelium. On immunohistochemistry, the infiltrate showed prominent leukocyte common antigen (LCA) positivity and a CD3-positive and CD4-positive infiltrate with rare CD20-positive cells. None of the study patients showed evidence of MF after a mean follow-up of 3 years. The benign course of disease demonstrated in the study patients suggests that the acneiform variant of follicular mucinosis probably represents a subpopulation of the benign idiopathic form of the disease. However, given that histopathologically this variant cannot be distinguished from the lymphoma-associated variant of follicular mucinosis, longitudinal evaluation is still warranted in these patients. PMID:24257190

Brau-Javier, Cristina N; Santos-Arroyo, Aileen E; De Sanctis-González, Ivette M; Sánchez, Jorge L



"A bucket of cold water": a follow-up study in a residential special school.  


This paper reports the initial findings of a follow-up study of the 75 young men who were admitted in their early teens to a residential school for maladjusted boys over a five year period. Sixty were traced and interviewed in depth, using an approach based on methods established at the Institute of Psychiatry. A structured interview was used which covered the individual's recollections of family, peer experiences, schools and adult life, with a special section on the residential therapeutic environment. The data allowed an assessment of their overall psycho-social adjustment. The preliminary analysis indicates that two-thirds had no current problems of note, and that just under two-fifths had had no history of problems since leaving. With only a few exceptions, the ex-boys' evaluation of the school's regime was positive. PMID:4056171

Lampen, J; Neill, T



A follow-up study of the variations in the body composition of karate athletes.  


We monitored body composition variations in nine elite karateists during a 3-year period (T(1), T(2), T(3)). Arm circumference (AC) and six skinfolds were measured. Arm muscle circumference (AMC) and area (AMA) were then calculated. Fat mass (FM) was calculated using the Durnin-Womersley, Sloan-Weir (S-W), Katch-McArdle and Lohman equations. The only significant increase regarded the AC, AMC and AMA measurements between T(1) and T(2). The time course of the predicted FM amount using the different equations was the same. In particular, the S-W equation did not seem to reflect the modifications in the amount of FM as evidenced by the total sum of the six skinfolds. Our subjects were characterized by a substantial uniformity in body composition parameters measured in this 3-year follow-up study. PMID:14618455

Bertini, I; Pujia, A; Giampietro, M



Renal angiomyolipoma: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and follow-up study of 46 cases.  


We reviewed 46 cases of renal angiomyolipoma covering the period from 1977 to 1997. Eight cases were associated with tuberous sclerosis and one with lymphangiomyomatosis. Histologically, the lesions were most often classic with the three usual components, i.e., mature adipose tissue, thick-walled blood vessels, and smooth muscle. Seven cases were particularly misleading: three cases were entirely adipose mimicking liposarcoma: two cases had an exclusively smooth-muscle component, one mimicking lymphangiomyomatosis and one with epithelioid cells; another case had a monophasic epithelioid pleomorphic component ("REON": renal epithelioid oxyphilic neoplasm) and proved to be fatal; and another case was associated with collecting duct carcinoma. The immunohistochemical profile showed the coexpression of alpha-smooth-muscle actin and HMB45. Our study is the first to show positivity of estrogen and progesteron receptors or both in more than 25% of cases. Of 35 cases with follow-up information, only one patient died of malignant spread of angiomyolipoma. PMID:10478660

L'Hostis, H; Deminiere, C; Ferriere, J M; Coindre, J M



Relationships in couples treated with sperm donation - a national prospective follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background Long-term follow-up on relationship quality in couples who use sperm donation is scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to analyse changes over time in satisfaction with relationship in heterosexual couples who were scheduled for treatment with sperm donation and IVF couples treated with their own gametes and to compare the two groups undergoing different treatment for infertility. Method A prospective follow-up study in which data were collected twice on two groups; couples receiving sperm donation and IVF couples using their own gametes. The ENRICH instrument was used to gain information about the individuals’ subjective experience of their relationship at the time of acceptance for treatment and again 2–5 years later. Results At the time of acceptance for treatment the men and women in the two groups assessed their relationships as being very solid on all dimensions and that there were no differences between the two groups. At the second assessment there was a decline in the satisfaction scores on the dimensions “Children and parenting” and “Egalitarian”, while an increase in scores was observed on “Conception of life” and “Conflict resolution” both for men and woman and also for the two groups. For the couples that had a successful treatment and gave birth to a child/children there was a decrease in satisfaction of the relation in the sperm donation group as well as in the group of couples having IVF with own gametes. Conclusion In conclusion, the overall quality of relationship is stable in couples receiving donated sperm and does not differ from couples undergoing IVF-treatment with own gametes. PMID:25100133



Clinical profile and follow-up of 51 pediatric neurocysticercosis cases: A study from Eastern India  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Our present observational study attempted to evaluate the clinical profiles, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up results of 51 pediatric neurocysticercosis patients over a mean duration of five years (from January 2006 to December 2010). Materials and Methods: Diagnosis was mainly based on clinical features, computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging scan and exclusion of other causes. Patients with active, transitional cysts and seizure were treated with albendazole for 28 days, steroids and anticonvulsants. Results: A total of 38 patients completed this study. Mean age of the presentation was 8.47 ± 3.19 years 52.6% of the patients were female. Overall patients presented with generalized seizure in 55.3%, focal in 31.6%, headache ± vomiting in 63.2%, focal neurodeficit in 10.5% and combination of symptoms in 60.5% cases. Contrast CT brain showed a solitary lesion in 27 (71.1%) and multiple in the rest. At presentation lesions were transitional in 58.2%, inactive in 20% and mixed in 14.6%. After a mean of 2 years, seizure persisted in 9 (23.7%) and headache in 8 (21.1%) of whom six had normal electroencephalography (EEG) while one each showed focal slowing, generalized slowing and epileptiform discharges. During the follow-up, CT scan brain 44.7% lesions calcified, 31.6% disappeared, 10.5% regressed and the rest persisted. Conclusion: Solitary ring enhancing lesions (transitional stage) involving the parietal lobe was the commonest CT picture at presentation. Generalized tonic-clonic seizure was the most common type of seizure. Number of lesions, persistence of lesion, number of seizures, EEG abnormality at presentation were not found to be prognostically significant (P > 0.05). PMID:24339577

Bhattacharjee, Shakya; Biswas, Prativa; Mondal, Tanushree



Popularity of less frequent follow up for breast cancer in randomised study: initial findings from the hotline study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To compare the experiences of patients with breast cancer who were conventionally monitored with those in whom routine follow up was restricted to the time of mammography. DESIGN: Randomisation to conventional schedule of clinic visits or to visits only after mammography. Both cohorts received identical mammography and were invited to telephone for immediate appointments if they detected symptoms. SETTING: Combined breast clinic, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital. SUBJECTS: 211 eligible outpatients with a history of breast cancer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Acceptability of randomisation, interim use of telephone and general practitioner, satisfaction with allocation to follow up. RESULTS: Of 211 eligible patients, 196 (93%) opted for randomisation in the study. Of these, 55 were under 50 years, 78 were diagnosed fewer than five years before, 90 had stage T2-4 tumours, and 71 had involved axillary nodes. Patients who did not participate were more likely to be under 50 years, to be two to five years after diagnosis, and to have had aggressive primary disease. Twice as many patients in both groups expressed a preference for reducing rather than increasing follow up. No increased use of local practitioner services or telephone triage was apparent in the cohort randomised to less frequent follow up by specialists. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing the frequency of routine follow up has so far proved popular among patients with breast cancer at standard risk in this cohort. A multicentre study is needed to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of routine follow up with respect to disease outcomes. PMID:9022429

Gulliford, T.; Opomu, M.; Wilson, E.; Hanham, I.; Epstein, R.



Childhood Predictors of Male Criminality: A Prospective Population-Based Follow-up Study from Age 8 to Late Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To study childhood predictors for late adolescence criminality. Method: The follow-up sample included 2,713 Finnish boys born in 1981. Information about the 8-year-old boys' problem behavior was obtained from parents, teachers, and the children themselves. The follow-up information about criminal offenses was based on the national…

Sourander, Andre; Elonheimo, Henrik; Niemela, Solja; Nuutila, Ari-Matti; Helenius, Hans; Sillanmaki, Lauri; Piha, Jorma; Tamminen, Tuula; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Moilanen, Irma; Almqvist, Frederik



Paranoid (Delusional) Disorders in the Light of a Long-Term Follow-Up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large sample of first-admitted hospitalized patients with delusional psychoses were personally followed up after a mean of 10 and 30 years. At last follow-up 42% showed good overall functioning and 44% were in ordinary work. Patients with affective disorder according to DSM-III had most homogeneous and favorable outcome, while a striking heterogeneity of outcome was noticed in schizophrenia, schizophreniform

Stein Opjordsmoen



Predicting the development of macrovascular disease in people with type 1 diabetes: A 9-year follow-up study.  


The aim of the article was to use prospectively collected data on people with type 1 diabetes to assess which routinely collected clinical measures predict the development of macrovascular disease in people with type 1 diabetes. Data have been collected in a structured format at an annual review since 1985. For this study, all people with type 1 diabetes in the database in both 1992 and 2001 were ascertained. Data were extracted for a diagnosis of coronary artery disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease (macrovascular complications). Presence of other microvascular complications was also ascertained. Forty-one of 404 (10.1%) people had macrovascular disease at the index visit in 1992 and 61 others developed macrovascular complications during follow-up. People who developed macrovascular complications were older (48 +/- 12 versus 36 +/- 11 [SD] years; P = 0.000), had longer duration of diabetes (28 +/- 12 versus 18 +/- 11 years; P = 0.000), higher BMI (26.7 +/- 4.6 versus 25.4 +/- 3.6 kg/m2; P = 0.041), higher base line serum cholesterol (5.9 +/- 1.7 versus 5.2 +/- 1.1 mmol/L, P = 0.007), higher median base line triglyceride levels (1.5 [IQ range 0.9-2.6] versus 1.1 [0.8-1.7] mmol/L; P = 0.002), higher systolic BP (145 +/- 21 versus 129 +/- 20 mmHg; P = 0.000), and higher serum creatinine (102 +/- 57 versus 86 +/- 17 micromol/L; P = 0.038) than those who did not. We found no significant difference in the base line glycated hemoglobin in the two groups. The multivariate model showed that age, duration of diabetes, systolic BP, and serum cholesterol and creatinine levels predicted the development of macrovascular complications, which were also associated with the later development of microalbuminuria. Macrovascular complications developed in 16.8% of people with type 1 diabetes over a 9-year follow-up, and were predicted by potentially modifiable factors including higher BP, BMI, and serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels. PMID:17151302

Sibal, Latika; Law, Huong Nai; Gebbie, Janice; Dashora, Umesh K; Agarwal, Sharad C; Home, Philip



Return to work following unintentional injury: a prospective follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to predict time off work following unintentional injuries due to accidents leading to hospital admission. Design Prospective 6-month follow-up study. Setting Department of Trauma Surgery of a University Hospital. Participants Consecutively recruited victims of unintentional injuries (n=221) hospitalised for a minimum of 32?h including two consecutive nights. All the participants were aged 18–65?years and were able to participate in an assessment within 30?days of the accident. Main outcome measures Interview-assessed number of days off work during the 6?months immediately following the accident. Results The patients’ subjective appraisals of (1) accident severity and (2) their ability to cope with the resulting injury and its job-related consequences predicted time off work following the accident beyond the impact of the objective severity of their injury and the type of accident involved. Conclusions The patients’ subjective appraisals of the accident severity and of their ability to cope with its consequences are highly relevant for return to work after accidents. Extending the findings from previous studies on severely injured and otherwise preselected accident victims, this seems to apply to the whole spectrum of patients hospitalised with unintentional injuries. PMID:24327361

Hepp, Urs; Schnyder, Ulrich; Hepp-Beg, Sofia; Friedrich-Perez, Josefina; Stulz, Niklaus; Moergeli, Hanspeter



Relationships in oocyte recipient couples - a Swedish national prospective follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background The long-term effect of treatment with donated oocytes on women’s and men’s perception of their relationship has been little studied. Thus the aim of this study was to analyse satisfaction with relationships in couples at the time of acceptance for treatment and 2–5 years after treatment with donated gametes and to compare them with IVF couples treated with their own gametes. Method A prospective follow-up study in which data were collected twice on two groups; cohabitating couples receiving oocyte donation and cohabitating IVF couples using their own gametes. A standardised instrument, the ENRICH inventory, was used to gain information about the couples’ subjective experience of their relationships. Results At acceptance for treatment the couples in the two groups assessed their relationships as being very solid on all dimensions and that the women receiving treatment with oocyte showed a higher satisfaction compared to women treated with own gametes. For couples that did have a child, the group of women who had been through the oocyte donating program reported a better quality of their relationship than women in the control group. There were no significant differences in perceived relationship quality between men in the different groups, whether they had a child or not. Conclusions From a long-term perspective couples using oocyte donation treatment have a balanced and solid view of their relationship and treatment, having children or not after treatment did not affect the nature of the relationships. PMID:24885541



A follow up study of patients with paraneoplastic neurological disease in the United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To examine the range of clinical phenotypes, tumour associations, relevant investigations, response to therapy and outcome in a large series of non-selected patients with paraneoplastic neurological disease (PND) affecting the central nervous system (CNS) in the United Kingdom. Methods: Data were obtained on patients either through direct referral or through the British Neurological Surveillance Unit (BNSU) from February 2000 to January 2001. Physicians were asked to supply information about age and sex of patients, presenting neurological syndromes, the basis of the diagnosis of PND, any associated malignancy, and treatment. Case notes were reviewed and follow up data obtained where possible one year after notification. Results: A total of 63 patients (48 females, 15 males) were identified, 48 through the BNSU and 15 through direct referral. Of these 52 were diagnosed as having definite PND, 10 probable PND, and 1 possible PND. The median age of onset of PND was 66 years (range 30–80 years) and only 7 patients (11%) were less than 50 years at presentation. In 53 patients (84%) the PND preceded the diagnosis of cancer. Paraneoplastic sensory neuronopathy, paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis, and paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) were the most common syndromes reported. The benefit of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of the disease was limited, while fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography was shown to be useful for the detection of an occult malignancy in 10 out of 14 patients. Antineuronal antibodies were positive in 44/57 (77%) of cases. The following tumours were diagnosed: small cell lung cancer (30%), breast cancer (14%), ovarian cancer (8%), non-small cell lung cancer (8%), Hodgkin's lymphoma (6%), other (16%). With the exception of PCD associated with mesothelioma all other tumours diagnosed in these patients had been previously documented as being associated with PND. Only treatment of the tumour was found to be associated with a stable or improved neurological outcome at last follow up (Fisher‘s exact test = 4.7, p<0.03). Median survival time was 43 months (95% CI 28 to 57) from onset of neurological disease as calculated using the Kaplan–Meier survival analysis. Conclusions: PND has a striking female preponderance usually affecting patients in their sixth decade and above. The median survival in our study was 43 months. The majority of patients with PND are not known to have cancer at the time of diagnosis. Our study confirms the importance of diagnosing and treating the underlying tumour. PMID:15377687

Candler, P; Hart, P; Barnett, M; Weil, R; Rees, J



A prospective follow-up study on transmission of campylobacter from poultry to abattoir workers.  


Contact with poultry or poultry meat is a well-known risk factor for campylobacteriosis, but prospective studies on transmission of Campylobacter from chickens to humans during slaughter are scarce. In this study, we monitored transmission of Campylobacter from slaughtered chicken to originally culture-negative abattoir workers during the peak season of colonized chicken and human Campylobacter infection. Stool samples were obtained from 28 abattoir workers together with data on health status once a month between June and September 2010, with a follow-up sample collected in February 2011. Campylobacter-positive individuals and chicken flocks were identified by culture, and isolates were further characterized using molecular techniques. Campylobacter was isolated from seven asymptomatic individuals. Four of them had been newly employed and had not reported any previous Campylobacter infection. Four human isolates had matching genetic fingerprints with isolates from recently slaughtered chickens. Our results further support the role of chicken as the source of human Campylobacter infection but suggest that asymptomatic Campylobacter infection may occur even in individuals with only limited earlier exposure to Campylobacter. PMID:24885791

Ellström, Patrik; Hansson, Ingrid; Söderström, Claes; Engvall, Eva Olsson; Rautelin, Hilpi



Course and moderators of emotional eating in anorectic and bulimic patients: a follow-up study.  


Emotion dysregulation has been found to be associated with specific eating attitudes and behavior in Eating Disorder (ED) patients. The present study evaluated whether emotional eating profile of ED patients changes over time and the possible effects of a psychotherapeutic intervention on the emotional eating dimension. One hundred and two ED patients (28 with Anorexia Nervosa restricting type [AN-R], 35 with Anorexia Nervosa binge/purging subtype [AN-B/P] and 39 with Bulimia Nervosa [BN]) were evaluated at baseline, at the end of a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, at 3 and 6 year follow-up. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Axis I Disorders, the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) and several self-reported questionnaires for eating specific and general psychopathology were applied. A control group of 86 healthy subjects was also studied, in order to compare psychopathological variables at baseline. A significant EES total score reduction was observed among AN-B/P and BN patients, whereas no significant change was found in the AN-R group. Mixed Models analyses showed that a significant effect on EES total score variation was found for cocaine or amphetamine abuse (b = .25; p < .01). Patients who assumed these substances reported no significant EES reduction across time, unlike other patients. The present results suggest that ED patients with a history of cocaine or amphetamine abuse represent a sub-population of patients with lasting dysfunctional mood modulatory mechanisms. PMID:24854803

Fioravanti, Giulia; Castellini, Giovanni; Lo Sauro, Carolina; Ianni, Sirio; Montanelli, Luca; Rotella, Francesco; Faravelli, Carlo; Ricca, Valdo



Involvement in bullying and suicidal ideation in middle adolescence: a 2-year follow-up study.  


The objective of the study was to ascertain whether involvement in bullying increases the risk for subsequent suicidal ideation. A total of 2,070 Finnish girls and boys aged 15 were surveyed in the ninth grade (age 15) in schools, and followed up 2 years later in the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study. Involvement in bullying was elicited at age 15 by two questions focusing on being a bully and being a victim of bullying. Suicidal ideation was elicited by one item of the short Beck Depression Inventory at age 17. Baseline depressive symptoms and externalizing symptoms, age and sex were controlled for. Statistical analyses were carried out using cross-tabulations with Chi-square/Fisher's exact test and logistic regression. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was 3-4 times more prevalent among those who had been involved in bullying at age 15 than among those not involved. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was most prevalent among former victims of bullying. Being a victim of bullying at age 15 continued to predict subsequent suicidal ideation when depressive and externalizing symptoms were controlled for. Being a bully at age 15 also persisted as borderline significantly predictive of suicidal ideation when baseline symptoms were controlled for. Findings indicate adolescent victims and perpetrators of bullying alike are at long-term risk for suicidal ideation. PMID:23053774

Heikkilä, Hanna-Kaisa; Väänänen, Juha; Helminen, Mika; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu



Radioactive iodine therapy and breast cancer. A follow-up study of hyperthyroid women  

SciTech Connect

A follow-up study of 1762 hyperthyroid women who were treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital Thyroid Unit between 1946 and 1964 was conducted. The average length of follow-up was 17.2 years. A 1978 mailing address or a death certificate was located for 92% of the women, and 88% of 1058 living patients responded to a mail questionnaire. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for all causes of death was 1.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-1.4). The standardized mortality ratios for all malignant neoplasms and for breast cancer were 0.9 (95% CI 0.7-1.1) and 1.3 (95% CI 0.8-1.9), respectively. More deaths than expected were observed from endocrine and metabolic diseases (SMR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.7), circulatory system diseases (SMR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.3-1.6), and respiratory system diseases (SMR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.3-2.6). The standardized incidence ratios (SIR) for all malignant neoplasms and for breast cancer were 0.9 (95% CI 0.8-1.1) and 1.2 (95% CI 0.9-1.5), respectively. A nonsignificant excess breast cancer risk was observed 10 years after the onset of thyroid symptoms and was present at the end of 30 years of observation. A statistically significant excess number of pancreatic cancer cases (SIR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.0-3.7) and a nonsignificant excess of brain cancer cases (SIR = 2.3, 95% CI 0.7-5.3) were observed. Eighty per cent of the women were treated with radioactive iodine. When age at treatment and year of treatment were controlled, women who were ever treated with radioactive iodine had a standardized rate ratio for breast cancer of 1.9 (95% CI 0.9-4.1), compared with those who were never treated with radioactive iodine. Women who developed hypothyroidism as a result of their treatment for hyperthyroidism did not have an increased risk of developing breast cancer (SIR = 1.1, 95% CI 0.8-1.6).

Goldman, M.B.; Maloof, F.; Monson, R.R.; Aschengrau, A.; Cooper, D.S.; Ridgway, E.C.



Do neuroleptic drugs hasten cognitive decline in dementia? Prospective study with necropsy follow up.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the contribution of neuroleptic drugs to cognitive decline in dementia. DESIGN: Two year prospective, longitudinal study consisting of interviews every four months, with necropsy follow up. SETTING: Community settings in Oxfordshire. SUBJECTS: 71 subjects with dementia, initially living at home with informant. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cognitive function (score from expanded minimental state examination); behavioural problems (physical aggression, hallucinations, persecutory ideas, and disturbance of diurnal rhythm); and postmortem neuropathological assessment (cortical Lewy body pathology). RESULTS: The mean (SE) decline in cognitive score in the 16 patients who took neuroleptics was twice that in the patients who did not (20.7 (2.9) v 9.3 (1.3), P = 0.002). An increased rate of decline was also associated with aggression, disturbed diurnal rhythm, and persecutory ideas. However, only use of neuroleptics and severity of persecutory ideas were independently associated with more rapid cognitive decline when all other variables were adjusted for. The start of neuroleptic treatment coincided with more rapid cognitive decline: median rate of decline was 5 (interquartile range 8.5) points per year before treatment and 11 (12) points per year after treatment (P = 0.02). Cortical Lewy body pathology did not account for association between neuroleptic use and more rapid decline. CONCLUSIONS: Neuroleptic drugs that are sometimes used to treat behavioural complications of dementia may worsen already poor cognitive function. Randomised controlled trials are needed to confirm a causal relation. PMID:9022490

McShane, R.; Keene, J.; Gedling, K.; Fairburn, C.; Jacoby, R.; Hope, T.



Follow-up study of lympho-histiocytic villitis and incidental retroplacental hematoma.  


Placentas are usually submitted for pathologic examination based on obstetrical indications. We hypothesized that the placenta may have diagnostic value to the infant independent of obstetrical events. We specifically tested whether lymphohistiocytic villitis (noninfectious) would predict autoimmune or alloimmune disease based on transfer of activated maternal T-cells to the fetus and whether clinically silent placental separations (retroplacental hematomas, RPH) would predict neurologic injury in the infant. All placentas from consecutive deliveries had a routine pathologic examination of the placenta. The infants with placentas demonstrating inflammation of >1% of villi or RPH >2 cm and matched controls had their hospital charts reviewed and parental interviews by telephone at 5 to 7 years of age. The children of consented patients were also searched for in the office visits of the University of Louisville Pediatric Neurology and Rheumatology divisions. One thousand six hundred eighty-four patients consented to the follow-up study. We found no cases of autoimmune disease among 17 children with villitis >1%. Of 16 infants with RPH, 1 had cerebral palsy but with other placental findings, 1 had lethal hydranenecephaly, and the remainder had no adverse outcome. Of 15 children seen by a pediatric neurologist, none had the same placental lesion. The specific lesions of lymphohistiocytic villitis or asymptomatic RPH do not predict significant pediatric disease by 7 years of age. At least for these 2 lesions, the placenta does not have diagnostic value to the infant. PMID:24450427

Bendon, Robert; Coventry, Susan; Bendon, Jean; Nordmann, Amelia; Schikler, Kenneth



Conflict resolution patterns and longevity of adolescent romantic couples: a 2-year follow-up study.  


This study examined the predictors of longevity among 40 late adolescent romantic couples (mean age males=17.71 years; mean age females=17.18 years). Subjects were given a revealed differences task where they were asked to solve their disagreements. The joint task was recorded, transcribed and analysed by two raters. At 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months after this procedure, partners were contacted by telephone and asked whether their relationship was still intact. A cluster analysis was performed on couples' interaction indices and yielded three distinctive conflict resolution patterns. The Downplaying pattern was characterized by a high tendency to minimize the conflict. The relationships of the adolescents displaying this pattern stayed intact for a period of 9 months. Half of them were still together after 24 months. The adolescents displaying the Integrative pattern, which shows a good ability to negotiate differences tended to stay together over a period of 24 months. Those showing the Conflictive pattern, characterized by a confrontative interaction, were separated by the 3 months follow-up. Results are discussed within the context of developmental perspectives of conflict resolution tendencies and adolescent romance. PMID:16198410

Shulman, Shmuel; Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka; Levran, Elisheva; Anbar, Shmuel



Impulsive and compulsive behaviors in Parkinson's disease: a one-year follow-up study.  


Impulsive and compulsive behaviors (ICBs) have been reported to occur frequently in Parkinson's disease (PD) and include impulse control disorders (ICDs), punding and dopamine dysregulation syndrome (SSD). We report on the outcomes of 25 PD patients who developed ICBs. Information was collected on changes in parkinsonian and psychiatric medication follow-up (median=12.1 months). At time 1, only 18 patients (72%) were taking dopamine agonists (DA). At time 2, fifteen patients (83.33%) either discontinued or decreased their DA treatment. Of these patients, thirteen (86.67%) reported experiencing full or partial remission of their ICBs symptoms. When analyzing separately the 11 patients with punding, these symptoms remained unchanged in 9 patients (81.82%) independently of changes in dopaminergic drugs. In conclusion, the current study suggests that there are clear similarities, but also important differences, between punding and ICDs over time. Pathological gambling, binge or compulsive eating, pathological hypersexuality and compulsive shopping in PD were robustly associated with the use of DA but the relationship between dopaminergic medications and punding is less clear. It is important to determine if other treatment strategies may be effective for punding in PD. PMID:21683375

Ávila, Asunción; Cardona, Xavier; Martín-Baranera, Montse; Bello, Juan; Sastre, Francesc



Screening for celiac disease in 1st degree relatives: a 10-year follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background Although it is known that first degree relatives of celiac patients have an increased risk for celiac disease few studies are available on its incidence. We investigated the incidence of serologic conversion and of new cases of celiac disease among first degree relatives with negative results at a first screening. Methods From a total of 634 first degree relatives of 186 biopsy-proven celiac disease patients diagnosed between October 2000 and October 2010, 450 subjects agreed to participate in the study (Group I), and underwent serologic screening. Between January 2010 and October 2012, out of the initial group of 450, 205 previously sero-negative subjects consented to participate in a second stage of the study and undergo new serologic testing (Group II). All serologically positive individuals of both groups (I and II) were genotyped for celiac disease-predisposing alleles (HLA-DQ2/DQ8). Results 19 subjects (4.2%) out of the 450 subjects of Group I disclosed positive serologic results, presence of DQ2 and/or DQ8 alleles and celiac disease-compatible mucosal abnormalities. The 205 previously negative first degree relatives from Group II that underwent new serologic testing disclosed eight sero-converted subjects. Mucosal abnormalities in five of these patients confirmed the diagnosis of celiac disease. During the 10-year period of the study the incidence of sero-conversion was 8/205 and the incidence of biopsy-proven celiac disease cases was 5/205. Conclusions Our data are coincident with other works on this subject and confirm once again that relatives of celiac patients, especially first degree relatives are at high risk of developing celiac disease. In view of the relatively low incidence further studies are needed to try to establish a useful and cost-effective algorithm for follow-up of relatives of celiac patients. PMID:24552206



Mechanical Engineering Curricula: A Follow-up Study for the Future Effects of ABET EC2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) is recognized by the U.S. Department of Education as the sole agency responsible for accreditation of educational programs leading to degrees in engineering, engineering technology, and related engineering areas. In the late 1990s, engineering programs began transitioning to a new Engineering Criteria 2000 (EC2000). By 2001, all engineering programs were required to be accredited under the new criteria. The philosophy of Engineering Criteria 2000 is to allow institutions and programs to define their mission and objectives to meet the needs of their constituents and enable program differentiation. Emphasis is placed on continuous improvement of programs based on the input of constituents and a process that links outcomes and assessment to program objectives. This current paper is a follow-up study to a preliminary study conducted by the author in 2000 that looked at the initial effects of ABET EC2000. The earlier study examined selected mechanical engineering programs to discern the impact of EC2000 on curriculum development during the initial implementation phase of the new criteria. Data on the layout and composition of mechanical engineering curricula for nine schools in the United States with Ph.D. programs and nine schools without Ph.D. programs was presented and is updated in this current work. Current results are also compared to a study by Robert E. Mates from the State University of New York at Buffalo entitled a Survey of Undergraduate ME Programs, conducted in 1987. The conclusions identify changes that have occurred in mechanical engineering curricula as the EC2000 assessment process has matured.

Whiteman, Wayne



Mortality among oral contraceptive users: 20 year follow up of women in a cohort study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To see whether the use of oral contraceptives influences mortality. DESIGN--Non-randomised cohort study of 17,032 women followed up on an annual basis for an average of nearly 16 years. SETTING--17 Family planning clinics in England and Scotland. SUBJECTS--Women recruited during 1968-74. At the time of recruitment each woman was aged 25-39, married, a white British subject, willing to participate, and either a current user of oral contraceptives or a current user of a diaphragm or intrauterine device (without previous exposure to the pill). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Overall mortality and cause specific mortality. RESULTS--238 Deaths occurred during the follow up period. The main analyses concerned women entering the study while using either oral contraceptives or a diaphragm or intrauterine device. The overall relative risk of death in the oral contraceptive users was 0.9 (95% confidence interval 0.7 to 1.2). Though the numbers of deaths were small in most individual disease categories, the trends observed were generally consistent with findings in other reports. Thus the relative risk of death in the oral contraceptive users was 4.9 (95% confidence interval 0.7 to 230) for cancer of the cervix, 3.3 (95% confidence interval 0.9 to 17.9) for ischaemic heart disease, and 0.4 (95% confidence interval 0.1 to 1.2) for ovarian cancer. There was a linear trend in the death rates from cervical cancer and ovarian cancer (in opposite directions) with total duration of oral contraceptive use. Death rates from breast cancer (relative risk 0.9; 95% confidence interval 0.5 to 1.4) and suicide and probable suicide (relative risk 1.1; 95% confidence interval 0.3 to 3.6) were much the same in the two contraceptive groups. In 1981 the relative risk of death in oral contraceptive users from circulatory diseases as a group was reported to be 4.2 (95% confidence interval 2.3 to 7.7) in the Royal College of General Practitioners oral contraception study. The corresponding relative risk in this study was only 1.5 (95% confidence interval 0.7 to 3.0). CONCLUSIONS--These findings contain no significant evidence of any overall effect of oral contraceptive use on mortality. None the less, only small numbers of deaths occurred during the study period and a significant adverse (or beneficial) overall effect might emerge in the future. Interestingly, the mortality from circulatory disease associated with oral contraceptive use was substantially less than that found in the Royal College of General Practitioners study. PMID:2514858

Vessey, M. P.; Villard-Mackintosh, L.; McPherson, K.; Yeates, D.



Health factors and longevity in men and women: a 26-year follow-up study.  


Health factors have the power to prevent and postpone diseases and death; however, studies using the same methodology in both men and women are sparse. We aimed to study the ability of health factors to prevent mortality in a population-based, 26-year follow-up of Swedish men and women. During 1969-70, a health-screening programme was offered to a stratified sample of 3,064 individuals aged 18-64 years to estimate health-care needs. Missing data (largely according to protocol) for physical fitness, BMI, and smoking habits left 935 subjects, 463 men and 472 women. Alcohol consumption in grams per week and BMI was calculated. Tobacco smoking was recorded as yes/no. Multivariate analysis was performed by Cox regression with age adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Moderate alcohol consumption did not lead to any decrease in mortality. Having two health factors halved the mortality risk in men and women (hazard ratio (HR) 0.52, confidence interval (CI) 0.39-0.70). A further risk reduction was seen in men with three health factors (HR 0.17, CI 0.074-0.41). Men had about 70 per cent higher risk of mortality compared with women after adjustments for all health factors (HR 1.67, CI 1.26-2.23). Men compared to women had greater benefit of all three health factors. This in combination with the overall higher mortality risk in men makes a healthy lifestyle more important for them. The benefit of moderate alcohol consumption could not be detected in this study, and may be explained by an unhealthy drinking pattern in Sweden. PMID:20623324

Carlsson, Axel C; Theobald, Holger; Wändell, Per E



A follow-up study of respiratory function in workers exposed to acid aerosols in a food-processing industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A follow-up investigation was performed on 49 female workers studied 2 years earlier in a vegetable-pickling plant. Acute\\u000a and chronic respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity measurements were recorded during the original and the follow-up\\u000a studies. Maximal expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curves were recorded during the Monday morning work shift. The forced vital\\u000a capacity (FVC), 1-s forced expiratory volume (FEV1), and flow

E. Zuskin; J. Mustajbegovic; E. N. Schachter; D. Pavicic; A. Budak



Physical Activity and Stroke Incidence in Women and Men The NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis that physical inactivity Is associated with increased stroke risk in women and men, the authors analyzed data from a longitudinal cohort study with three follow-up data collection waves. In the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I (NHANES 0 Epidemiologic Follow-up Study, 7,895 white persons and black persons aged 45-74 years were examined in 1971-1975 as

Richard F. Gillum; Michael E. Mussolino; Deborah D. Ingram



Survival, Functional Limitations, and Self-rated Health in the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study, 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined relative hazards for mortality and functional limitations according to poor self-ratings of health using prospective data from the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study, a representative sample of US adults aged 25-74 years that has been followed since the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) was conducted in 1971-1975. Follow-up data were taken from death

Ellen L. Idler; Louise B. Russell; Diane Davis


Public University Follow-Up Studies: Baccalaureate Class of 1997 and the Senior Class of 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents findings of the Baccalaureate Follow-Up Survey of the class of 1997 alumni (n=10,672) one year after graduation from any of Illinois' 12 public universities, as well as a survey of 1,180 seniors (class of 1999), concerning post-graduation plans and satisfaction with their undergraduate education. Almost two-thirds of the…

Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.


Tuberculosis screening and follow-up of asylum seekers in Norway: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: About 80% of new tuberculosis cases in Norway occur among immigrants from high incidence countries. On arrival to the country all asylum seekers are screened with Mantoux test and chest x-ray aimed to identify cases of active tuberculosis and, in the case of latent tuberculosis, to offer follow-up or prophylactic treatment. We assessed a national programme for screening, treatment

Ingunn Harstad; Einar Heldal; Sigurd L Steinshamn; Helge Garåsen; Geir W Jacobsen



Re-Evaluating the University Attrition Statistic: A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following up on the transition to university and university persistence, 119 (44 males; 75 females) students who had not graduated (within seven years) from a large, commuter Canadian university were interviewed. "Leavers" were not a homogenous group but could be divided into categories of departure: transferred to another university (29.4%),…

Wintre, Maxine Gallander; Bowers, Colleen; Gordner, Nicole; Lange, Liora



Follow-up Study of Unusual White Dwarfs: Planets, Disks, and Deep 8 Micron Deficits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have begun a survey of 130 white dwarfs (WDs) with Spitzer to search for infrared photometric anomalies caused by faint companions and disks. We propose follow-up photometry and spectroscopy of a few interesting objects uncovered so far that show signs of either novel absorption features or of hosting planets or disks. The novel absorption features appear in the coolest

Ted von Hippel; Adam Burrows; Mukremin Kilic; Marc Kuchner; Fergal Mullally; William Reach; Donald Winget



Breastfeeding as prophylaxis against atopic disease: prospective follow-up study until 17 years old  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryAtopic diseases constitute a common health problem. For infants at hereditary risk, prophylaxis of atopy has been sought in elimination diets and other preventive measures. We followed up healthy infants during their first year, and then at ages 1, 3, 5, 10, and 17 years to determine the effect on atopic disease of breastfeeding. Of the initial 236 infants, 150

U. M Saarinen; M Kajosaari



Follow up study of moderate alcohol intake and mortality among middle aged men in Shanghai, China.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of death associated with various patterns of alcohol intake. DESIGN: Prospective study of mortality in relation to alcohol consumption at recruitment, with active annual follow up. SETTING: Four small, geographically defined communities in Shanghai, China. SUBJECTS: 18,244 men aged 45-64 years enrolled in a prospective study of diet and cancer during January 1986 to September 1989. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cause mortality. RESULTS: By 28 February 1995, 1198 deaths (including 498 from cancer, 269 from stroke, and 104 from ischaemic heart disease) had been identified. Compared with lifelong non-drinkers, those who consumed 1-14 drinks a week had a 19% reduction in overall mortality (relative risk 0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.94) after age, level of education, and cigarette smoking were adjusted for. This protective effect was not restricted to any specific type of alcoholic drink. Although light to moderate drinking (28 or fewer drinks per week) was associated with a 36% reduction in death from ischaemic heart disease (0.64; 0.41 to 0.998), it had no effect on death from stroke, which is the leading cause of death in this population. As expected, heavy drinking (29 or more drinks per week) was significantly associated with increased risks of death from cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, hepatic cirrhosis, and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Regular consumption of small amounts of alcohol is associated with lower overall mortality including death from ischaemic heart disease in middle aged Chinese men. The type of alcoholic drink does not affect this association. PMID:9001474

Yuan, J. M.; Ross, R. K.; Gao, Y. T.; Henderson, B. E.; Yu, M. C.



Allogeneic blood transfusion and prognosis following total hip replacement: a population-based follow up study  

PubMed Central

Background Allogeneic red blood cell transfusion is frequently used in total hip replacement surgery (THR). However, data on the prognosis of transfused patients are sparse. In this study we compared the risk of complications following THR in transfused and non-transfused patients. Methods A population-based follow-up study was performed using data from medical databases in Denmark. We identified 28,087 primary THR procedures performed from 1999 to 2007, from which we computed a propensity score for red blood cell transfusion based on detailed data on patient-, procedure-, and hospital-related characteristics. We were able to match 2,254 transfused with 2,254 non-transfused THR patients using the propensity score. Results Of the 28,087 THR patients, 9,063 (32.3%) received at least one red blood cell transfusion within 8 days of surgery. Transfused patients had higher 90-day mortality compared with matched non-transfused patients: the adjusted OR was 2.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-3.8). Blood transfusion was also associated with increased odds of pneumonia (OR 2.1; CI: 1.2-3.8), whereas the associations with cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events (OR 1.4; CI: 0.9-2.2) and venous thromboembolism (OR 1.2; CI: 0.7-2.1) did not reach statistical significance. The adjusted OR of reoperation due to infection was 0.6 (CI: 0.1-2.9). Conclusions Red blood cell transfusion was associated with an adverse prognosis following primary THR, in particular with increased odds of death and pneumonia. Although the odds estimates may partly reflect unmeasured bias due to blood loss, they indicate the need for careful assessment of the risk versus benefit of transfusion even in relation to routine THR procedures. PMID:20040083



Ergonomic stressors and upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders in automobile manufacturing: a one year follow up study  

PubMed Central

Aims: To estimate the one year cumulative incidence and persistence of upper extremity (UE) soft tissue disorders, in a fixed cohort of automotive manufacturing workers, and to quantify their associations with ergonomic exposures. Methods: At baseline and at follow up, cases of UE musculoskeletal disorders were determined by interviewer administered questionnaire and standardised physical examination of the upper extremities. The interview obtained new data on psychosocial strain and updated the medical and work histories. An index of exposure to ergonomic stressors, obtained at baseline interview, was the primary independent variable. Cumulative incidence and persistence of UE disorders (defined both by symptoms and by physical examination plus symptoms) were analysed in relation to baseline ergonomic exposures, adjusting for other covariates. The incidence of new disorders was modelled using multivariate proportional hazards regression among workers who were not cases in the first year and the prevalence on both occasions was modelled by repeated measures analysis. Results: A total of 820 workers (69% of eligible cohort members) was examined. Follow up varied slightly by department group but not by baseline exposure level or other characteristics. Among the non-cases at baseline, the cumulative incidence of UE disorders was 14% by symptoms and 12% by symptoms plus examination findings. These rates increased with index of physical exposures primarily among subjects who had the same jobs at follow up as at baseline. Increased exposure during follow up increased risk of incidence. The persistence of UE disorders from baseline to follow up examination was nearly 60% and somewhat associated with baseline exposure score. Conclusions: These longitudinal results confirm the previous cross sectional associations of UE musculoskeletal disorders with exposure to combined ergonomic stressors. The exposure-response relation was similar for incident cases defined by symptoms alone and those confirmed by physical examination. PMID:15258272

Punnett, L; Gold, J; Katz, J; Gore, R; Wegman, D



An evaluation of children with Kawasaki disease in Istanbul: a retrospective follow-up study  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, self?limiting vasculitis of unknown etiology. The incidence of KD is increasing world wide. However, the epidemiological data for KD in Turkey has not been well described. OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographic, clinical, and laboratory features of children with KD who were diagnosed and managed in the American Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. METHOD: Patients with KD were retrospectively identified from the hospital discharge records between 2002 and 2010. Atypical cases of KD were excluded. A standardized form was used to collect demographic data, clinical information, echocardiography and laboratory results. RESULTS: Thirty?five patients with KD, with a mean age of 2.5±1.9 years, were identified. Eighty?five point seven per cent of patients were under 5 years of age. A seasonal pattern favouring the winter months was noticed. In addition to fever and bilateral conjunctival injection, changes in the oral cavity and lips were the most commonly detected clinical signs in our cases. Coronary artery abnormalities were detected in nine patients. The majority of our patients had started treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin in the first 10 days of the onset of fever, and only one patient required systemic steroids for intravenous immunoglobulin?resistant KD. The coronary artery abnormalities resolved in all nine patients within 8 months. CONCLUSION: This study is the most comprehensive series of children from Turkey with KD included in Medline. As adult?onset ischemic heart disease may be due to KD in childhood, further prospective clinical investigations are needed to understand the epidemiology, management and long?term follow?up of the disease. PMID:21340213

Kayiran, Sinan Mahir; Dindar, Aygun; Gurakan, Berkan



One-year follow-up of Chinese people with spinal cord injury: A preliminary study  

PubMed Central

Background A tertiary spinal cord injury (SCI) center was established in the northern region of Hong Kong, China and a multidisciplinary SCI rehabilitation program was developed to reintegrate patients into the community. Objective To investigate functional outcomes for Chinese people with SCI across a 1-year period. Design Longitudinal prospective design. Methods Thirty community-dwelling participants with traumatic SCI were recruited. Functional status was measured using functional independence measure (FIM) on admission, upon discharge, 1-month, 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year post-discharge. Information on use of assistive devices and life role were also obtained. Results Twenty-three (76.67%) participants were men. Seventeen participants (10 with tetraplegia and 7 with paraplegia) were classified ASIA A, B, or C; 13 (7 with tetraplegia and 6 with paraplegia) were classified as ASIA D. Significant differences in FIM motor scores were only found between the tetraplegia group and three other diagnostic groups using Bonferroni post-hoc tests of repeated measure ANOVA (analysis of variance) (P < 0.05). Longitudinally, contrast tests of repeated measure ANOVA showed significant differences during the hospitalization period for all diagnostic groups. People in the ASIA D group showed significant functional improvement even after 1-year post-discharge (P < 0.05). At 1-year post-discharge, only two participants were engaged in either remunerative employment or academic pursuit. Conclusion Despite functional status improvement, few people with traumatic SCI were re-engaged in productive life role 1 year after discharge. Studies with longer follow-up would be beneficial. PMID:23433330

Chan, Sam Chi Chung; Chan, Alice Po Shan



Long-Term follow up after intra-Uterine transfusionS; the LOTUS study  

PubMed Central

Background The Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC) is the Dutch national referral centre for pregnancies complicated by haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) caused by maternal alloimmunization. Yearly, 20-25 affected fetuses with severe anaemia are transfused with intra-uterine blood transfusions (IUT). Mothers of whom their fetus has undergone IUT for HDFN are considered high responders with regard to red blood cell (RBC) antibody formation. Most study groups report high perinatal survival, resulting in a shift in attention towards short- and long-term outcome in surviving children. Methods/Design We set up a large long-term observational follow-up study (LOTUS study), in cooperation with the Sanquin Blood Supply Foundation and the LUMC departments of Obstetrics, Neonatology and ImmunoHematology & Bloodtransfusion. The first part of this study addresses several putative mechanisms associated with blood group alloimmunization in these mothers. The second part of this study determines the incidence of long-term neurodevelopment impairment (NDI) and associated risk factors in children treated with IUT. All women and their life offspring who have been treated with IUT for HDFN in the LUMC from 1987-2008 are invited to participate and after consent, blood or saliva samples are taken. RBC and HLA antigen profile and antibodies are determined by serologic or molecular techniques. Microchimerism populations are tested by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR). All children are tested for their neurological, cognitive and psychosocial development using standardised tests and questionnaires. The primary outcome is neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI), a composite outcome defined as any of the following: cerebral palsy, cognitive or psychomotor development < 2 standard deviation, bilateral blindness and/or bilateral deafness. Discussion The LOTUS study includes the largest cohort of IUT patients ever studied and is the first to investigate post-IUT long-term effects in both mother and child. The results may lead to a change in transfusion policy, in particular future avoidance of certain incompatibilities. Additionally the LOTUS study will provide clinicians and parents better insights in the long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in children with HDFN treated with IUTs, and may improve the quality of antenatal counselling and long-term guidance. PMID:21122095



Relationship between hospital infection and long-term mortality in general surgery: a prospective follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective study of 1431 patients admitted to a general surgery department were followed up for a median of 6.2 years after discharge (7679 person-years of follow-up). We collected information on underlying conditions, including severity of illness, and healthcare-related variables. Relative rates of death and their 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using person-years as the denominator. Multiple-risk factors adjusted

A Cosano; M. Á Mart??nez-González; M Medina-Cuadros; G Mart??nez-Gallego; S Palma; M Delgado-Rodr??guez



Sleep Outcomes in Children with Hemifacial Microsomia and Controls: A Follow-Up Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Children with craniofacial anomalies are at high risk of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), yet its prevalence among children with craniofacial conditions is not known. Children with a relatively common congenital craniofacial condition, hemifacial microsomia (HFM), are likely particularly vulnerable to SDB due to underdevelopment of the mandible and oropharynx. Nevertheless, most children with HFM are not referred for sleep studies. We hypothesized that sleep outcomes would be worse in children with HFM versus controls. Methods We conducted a follow-up study among 124 cases and 349 controls who previously participated in a study of HFM risk factors. Cases were eligible if diagnosed by a craniofacial specialist at one of 25 participating centers. Controls were matched to cases by pediatric practice and age at interview. Parents completed the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) regarding symptoms of SDB and sleep habits. Regression models were adjusted for region, age, sex, race/ethnicity and maternal education. Results Snoring was more commonly reported for children with HFM (29%) than controls (17%) [adjusted odds ratio (adjOR)=1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–3.2]. Compared with controls, children with HFM more often had symptoms consistent with SDB (adjOR=2.8, CI 1.5–5.1). On average, cases’ parents reported 1.9 times as many symptoms on the PSQ breathing scale (CI 1.4–2.7), and 1.3 times more symptoms on the PSQ sleepiness scale (CI 0.9–1.8) than did controls’ parents, with little difference on the PSQ behavior scale. Parents of children with HFM reported 1.4 times more night awakenings than did controls’ parents (CI 0.9–2.2). There was no association for sleep-onset latency or time in bed. Conclusions Children with HFM experienced more snoring and other symptoms of SDB than controls. Pediatricians should be aware of the increased vulnerability for SDB among children with mandibular or external ear underdevelopment or asymmetry, and should refer to a sleep specialist as needed. PMID:19651569

Cloonan, Yona K.; Kifle, Yemiserach; Davis, Scott; Speltz, Matthew L.; Werler, Martha M.; Starr, Jacqueline R.



Allergy risk in an enzyme producing plant: a retrospective follow up study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk of enzyme sensitisation and clinical allergy in workers exposed to enzymes at Novo Nordisk A/S. METHODS: The study was a retrospective follow up study based on medical history and test data originally collected at routine screenings for enzyme allergy by the Occupational Health Service (OHS) of Novo Nordisk A/S during the period 1970-92. Workers were exposed to proteases, lipases, cellulases, and carboxyhydrases. Medical records of 3815 subjects were registered in the OHS database. According to criteria including possible enzyme exposure, allergy tests at the time of engagement, and participation in the allergy screening programme 1064 were selected for the present study. Outcomes were allergy symptoms, specific IgE test (radioallergosorbent test (RAST)) to enzymes, skin test reactions to common allergens and enzymes, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and forced vital capacity (FVC). Potential risk factors were smoking habits, workplace, type of job, age, and sex. RESULTS: Sensitisation occurred to all types of enzymes handled in the plant, most often in production areas and laboratories; 8.8% developed clinical enzyme allergy during the first three years of employment. The risk declined during the period. The frequency of enzyme sensitisation, expressed as RAST values > 0.5 SU, was 36%, and the frequency of significant RAST values > or = 2 SU was 8%. Ranking diagnoses of enzyme allergy by severity, the frequency of asthma was 5.3%, rhinitis 3.0%, and urticaria 0.6%. Half of the cases occurred within the first 15 months of exposure. Smoking was an independent risk factor for clinical enzyme allergy (odds ratio (OR) = 2.3 (95% exact confidence interval (95% CI) 1.4 to 3.9), measurable RAST > or = 0.5 SU (OR = 1.5 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.1)), and RAST > or = 2 SU (OR = 4.5 (95% CI 2.2 to 8.4)). Atopic predisposition at the time of engagement was not a significant risk factor for enzyme allergy. This could be due to various selection mechanisms. PMID:9423581

Johnsen, C R; Sorensen, T B; Ingemann Larsen, A; Bertelsen Secher, A; Andreasen, E; Kofoed, G S; Fredslund Nielsen, L; Gyntelberg, F



Estimating bias from loss to follow-up in a prospective cohort study of bicycle crash injuries  

PubMed Central

Background Loss to follow-up, if related to exposures, confounders and outcomes of interest, may bias association estimates. We estimated the magnitude and direction of such bias in a prospective cohort study of crash injury among cyclists. Methods The Taupo Bicycle Study involved 2590 adult cyclists recruited from New Zealand's largest cycling event in 2006 and followed over a median period of 4.6?years through linkage to four administrative databases. We resurveyed the participants in 2009 and excluded three participants who died prior to the resurvey. We compared baseline characteristics and crash outcomes of the baseline (2006) and follow-up (those who responded in 2009) cohorts by ratios of relative frequencies and estimated potential bias from loss to follow-up on seven exposure-outcome associations of interest by ratios of HRs. Results Of the 2587 cyclists in the baseline cohort, 1526 (60%) responded to the follow-up survey. The responders were older, more educated and more socioeconomically advantaged. They were more experienced cyclists who often rode in a bunch, off-road or in the dark, but were less likely to engage in other risky cycling behaviours. Additionally, they experienced bicycle crashes more frequently during follow-up. The selection bias ranged between ?10% and +9% for selected associations. Conclusions Loss to follow-up was differential by demographic, cycling and behavioural risk characteristics as well as crash outcomes, but did not substantially bias association estimates of primary research interest. PMID:24336816

Tin Tin, Sandar; Woodward, Alistair; Ameratunga, Shanthi



Clinical significance of rheumatoid factors in early rheumatoid arthritis: results of a follow up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum rheumatoid factors (RF) were measured yearly in 135 women with rheumatoid arthritis by the Waaler-Rose and latex fixation tests and IgM, IgA, and IgG RF were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The patients were followed up from an early phase of the disease for a mean duration of six years. Patients with a persistently positive RF test,

D van Zeben; J M Hazes; A H Zwinderman; A Cats; E A van der Voort; F C Breedveld



Continuous Commissioning Results Verification and Follow-up For an Institutional Building: A Case Study  

E-print Network

-up are needed to determine whether CC measures are still in place, need changes, or whether repairs are needed.. If optimal building operations were changed or degraded due to changes in building use, control programming changes, component/sensor failure... and follow-up is not simply a repeat CC process. Typical CC measures include field sensor verification or calibration (temperature, static pressure, and flow), optimization of the schedules for supply temperature (hot and cold deck temperature resets...

Chen, H.; Deng, S.; Bruner, H. L.; Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.



Impulsive and compulsive behaviors in Parkinson's disease: A one-year follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impulsive and compulsive behaviors (ICBs) have been reported to occur frequently in Parkinson's disease (PD) and include impulse control disorders (ICDs), punding and dopamine dysregulation syndrome (SSD). We report on the outcomes of 25 PD patients who developed ICBs. Information was collected on changes in parkinsonian and psychiatric medication follow-up (median=12.1months). At time 1, only 18 patients (72%) were taking

Asunción Ávila; Xavier Cardona; Montse Martín-Baranera; Juan Bello; Francesc Sastre



Deciding whether follow-up studies have replicated findings in a preliminary large-scale omics study.  


We propose a formal method to declare that findings from a primary study have been replicated in a follow-up study. Our proposal is appropriate for primary studies that involve large-scale searches for rare true positives (i.e., needles in a haystack). Our proposal assigns an r value to each finding; this is the lowest false discovery rate at which the finding can be called replicated. Examples are given and software is available. PMID:25368172

Heller, Ruth; Bogomolov, Marina; Benjamini, Yoav



Nutritional status of young children in Mumbai slums: a follow-up anthropometric study  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic childhood malnutrition remains common in India. As part of an initiative to improve maternal and child health in urban slums, we collected anthropometric data from a sample of children followed up from birth. We described the proportions of underweight, stunting, and wasting in young children, and examined their relationships with age. Methods We used two linked datasets: one based on institutional birth weight records for 17 318 infants, collected prospectively, and one based on follow-up of a subsample of 1941 children under five, collected in early 2010. Results Mean birth weight was 2736 g (SD 530 g), with a low birth weight (<2500 g) proportion of 22%. 21% of infants had low weight for age standard deviation (z) scores at birth (follow-up, 35% of young children had low weight for age, 17% low weight for height, and 47% low height for age. Downward change in weight for age was greater in children who had been born with higher z scores. Discussion Our data support the idea that much of growth faltering was explained by faltering in height for age, rather than by wasting. Stunting appeared to be established early and the subsequent decline in height for age was limited. Our findings suggest a focus on a younger age-group than the children over the age of three who are prioritized by existing support systems. Funding The trial during which the birth weight data were collected was funded by the ICICI Foundation for Inclusive Growth (Centre for Child Health and Nutrition), and The Wellcome Trust (081052/Z/06/Z). Subsequent collection, analysis and development of the manuscript was funded by a Wellcome Trust Strategic Award: Population Science of Maternal and Child Survival (085417ma/Z/08/Z). D Osrin is funded by The Wellcome Trust (091561/Z/10/Z). PMID:23173787




PubMed Central

SUMMARY The knowledge about unspecified psychosis is far from adequate currently. During a period of more than 3 years, 58 cases of Psychosis NOS or unspecified psychosis had been diagnosed and during a follow-up of more than 3 years, 21% cases developed Affective disorders, 16% cases developed reactive psychosis and 9% were diagnosed Schizophrenia during subsequent course of illness. 55% cases maintained the diagnosis of psychosis NOS. Unspecified psychosis seems to be a heterogeneous group with diagnostic change occurring in 45% of cases. Unspecified Psychosis was noticed to be more in the younger people. No demographic variable had any significant association with the clinical variables. PMID:21927145

Chaturvedi, S.K.; Sahu, R.N.



Follow-Up Study of the Use of Refrigerated Homogenous Bone Transplants in Orthopaedic Operations  

PubMed Central

Philip Duncan Wilson was born in Columbus, Ohio. His father was a family physician who held the Chair of Obstetrics in the Sterling Medical School [1]. The young Philip graduated from Harvard College in 1909 and then served as President of his graduating class at Harvard Medical School. He spent two years as a surgical intern at MGH, after which he returned to Columbus to practice. During WWI he was invited back to Boston to join the Harvard Unit under Harvey Cushing, and served with that unit when it was housed in the Lycée Pasteur. (The members of that unit included Marius Smith-Petersen, who also spent many years at the Massachusetts General Hospital and also became AAOS President.) He rejoined MGH on the staff in 1919. In 1925 he published an influential monograph with W.A. Cochrane (formerly of the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary), entitled, “Fractures and Dislocations” [5]. Toward the end of his years in Boston he helped found the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. In 1934 he was appointed as Surgeon-in-Chief at the Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled in New York City. Dr. Wilson was active in many organizations, and reorganized and renamed the hospital he served (Hospital for Special Surgery), oversaw the building of a new hospital at its current site on the Cornell University medical campus, and raised money for a large research building. His zest inspired generations, and he was known for his gracious hospitality. Dr. Wilson was one of three of the first fifteen Presidents (the others being Drs. John C. Wilson, Sr. and Melvin Henderson) whose son (Dr. Philip D. Wilson, Jr.) succeeded him as a President of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Dr. Wilson had a long interest in bone grafting and wrote numerous research papers, a few of which are referenced here [2–4]. In the article reprinted in this issue [3], he described the rapid increase in use of a bone bank he developed at the Hospital for Special Surgery in 1946: 19 operations using grafts in 1946, 48 in 1947, 106 in 1948, 134 in 1949, and 259 in 1950. He describes his animal experiments with autogenous grafts in which grafts rapidly incorporated. He further describes biopsies of previously implanted autogenous and homogenous bone transplants in patients undergoing serial fusions for scoliosis. The pathologist (Dr. Milton Helpern) commented they found “ evidence that the cells in the bone transplants survived...” Autogenous grafts, his evidence suggested, incorporated more rapidly that homogenous grafts, but “ the end the results are the same.” His followup studies suggested successful incorporation of graft in 210 of 248 cases. Philip Duncan Wilson, MD is shown. Photograph is reproduced with permission and ©American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Fifty Years of Progress, 1983. References Philip Duncan Wilson, MD 1886–1969. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1969;51:1445–1447. Wilson PD. Experiences with a bone bank. Ann Surg. 1947;126:932–945. Wilson PD. Experience with the use of refrigerated homogenous bone. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1951;33:301–315. Wilson PD. Follow-up study of the use of refrigerated homogenous bone grafts in orthopaedic operations. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1951;33:307–323. Wilson PD, Cochrane WA. Fractures and Dislocations. Philadelphia, PA: JB Lippincott; 1925. PMID:18196370



Speech, language, and cognitive dysfunction in children with focal epileptiform activity: A follow-up study.  


We reviewed the medical history, EEG recordings, and developmental milestones of 19 children with speech and language dysfunction and focal epileptiform activity. Speech, language, and neuropsychological assessments and EEG recordings were performed at follow-up, and prognostic indicators were analyzed. Three patterns of language development were observed: late start and slow development, late start and deterioration/regression, and normal start and later regression/deterioration. No differences in test results among these groups were seen, indicating a spectrum of related conditions including Landau-Kleffner syndrome and epileptic language disorder. More than half of the participants had speech and language dysfunction at follow-up. IQ levels, working memory, and processing speed were also affected. Dysfunction of auditory perception in noise was found in more than half of the participants, and dysfunction of auditory attention in all. Dysfunction of communication, oral motor ability, and stuttering were noted in a few. Family history of seizures and abundant epileptiform activity indicated a worse prognosis. PMID:20493782

Rejnö-Habte Selassie, Gunilla; Hedström, Anders; Viggedal, Gerd; Jennische, Margareta; Kyllerman, Mårten



Maintaining Superior Follow-Up Rates in a Longitudinal Study: Experiences from the College Life Study  

PubMed Central

Longitudinal studies are often considered to be a gold standard for research, but the operational management of such studies is not often discussed in detail; this paper describes strategies used to track and maintain high levels of participation in a longitudinal study involving annual personal interviews with a cohort of 1,253 undergraduates (first-time, first-year students at time of enrollment) at a large public mid-Atlantic university. PMID:22247739

Vincent, Kathryn B.; Kasperski, Sarah J.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Arria, Amelia M.



Anemia after gastrectomy for early gastric cancer: Long-term follow-up observational study  

PubMed Central

AIM: To identify the incidence and etiology of anemia after gastrectomy in patients with long-term follow-up after gastrectomy for early gastric cancer. METHODS: The medical records of those patients with early gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent curative gastrectomy between January 2006 and October 2007 were reviewed. Patients with anemia in the preoperative workup, cancer recurrence, undergoing systemic chemotherapy, with other medical conditions that can cause anemia, or treated during follow up with red cell transfusions or supplements for anemia were excluded. Anemia was defined by World Health Organization criteria (Hb < 12 g/dL in women and < 13 g/dL in men). Iron deficiency was defined as serum ferritin < 20 ?g/dL. Vitamin B12 deficiency was defined as serum vitamin B12 < 200 pg/mL. Iron deficiency anemia was defined as anemia with concomitant iron deficiency. Anemia from vitamin B12 deficiency was defined as megaloblastic anemia (mean cell volume > 100 fL) with vitamin B12 deficiency. The profile of anemia over 48 mo of follow-up was analyzed. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-one patients with gastrectomy for early gastric cancer were analyzed. The incidence of anemia was 24.5% at 3 mo after surgery and increased up to 37.1% at 48 mo after surgery. The incidence of iron deficiency anemia increased during the follow up and became the major cause of anemia at 48 mo after surgery. Anemia of chronic disease and megaloblastic anemia were uncommon. The incidence of anemia in female patients was significantly higher than in male patients at 12 (40.0% vs 22.0%, P = 0.033), 24 (45.0% vs 25.0%, P = 0.023), 36 (55.0% vs 28.0%, P = 0.004), and 48 mo (52.0% vs 31.0%, P = 0.022) after surgery. Patients with total gastrectomy showed significantly higher incidence of anemia than patients with subtotal gastrectomy at 48 mo after surgery (60.7% vs 31.3%, P = 0.008). The incidence of iron deficiency was significantly higher in female patients than in male patients at 6 (35.4% vs 13.3%, P = 0.002), 12 (45.8% vs 16.8%, P < 0.001), 18 (52.1% vs 22.3%, P < 0.001), 24 (60.4% vs 20.9%, P < 0.001), 36 (62.5% vs 29.2%, P < 0.001), and 48 mo (66.7% vs 34.7%, P = 0.001) after surgery. CONCLUSION: Anemia was frequent after gastrectomy for early gastric cancer, with iron deficiency being the major cause. Evaluation for anemia including iron status should be performed after gastrectomy and appropriate iron replacement should be considered. PMID:23155340

Lim, Chul-Hyun; Kim, Sang Woo; Kim, Won Chul; Kim, Jin Soo; Cho, Yu Kyung; Park, Jae Myung; Lee, In Seok; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Song, Kyo-Young; Jeon, Hae Myung; Park, Cho-Hyun



Stability and relapse after orthodontic treatment of deep bite cases-a long-term follow-up study.  


SUMMARY The purpose of this long-term follow-up study was twofold-firstly, to assess prevalence of relapse after treatment of deep bite malocclusion and secondly, to identify risk factors that predispose patients with deep bite malocclusion to relapse. Sixty-one former patients with overbite more than 50% incisor overlap before treatment were successfully recalled. Clinical data, morphometrical measurements on plaster casts before treatment, after treatment and at long-term follow-up, as well as cephalometric measurements before and after treatment were collected. The median follow-up period was 11.9 years. Patients were treated by various treatment modalities, and the majority of patients received at least a lower fixed retainer and an upper removable bite plate during retention. Relapse was defined as increase in incisor overlap from below 50% after treatment to equal or more than 50% incisor overlap at long-term follow-up. Ten per cent of the patients showed relapse to equal or larger than 50% incisor overlap, and their amount of overbite increase was low. Among all cases with deep bite at follow-up, gingival contact and palatal impingement were more prevalent in partially corrected noncompliant cases than in relapse cases. In this sample, prevalence and amount of relapse were too low to identify risk factors of relapse. PMID:23197574

Danz, J C; Greuter, C; Sifakakis, I; Fayed, M; Pandis, N; Katsaros, C



Seeing the Same: A Follow-Up Study on the Portrayals of Disability in Graphic Novels Read by Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 2010 study of the portrayal of disabilities in graphic novels selected by librarians as the "Best" revealed that disabilities were present in less than half of the sample, and the majority of those depictions were of negative stereotypes (Irwin and Moeller 2010). This follow-up study looked at a best seller list of graphic novels to answer the…

Irwin, Marilyn; Moeller, Robin



Use of dietary supplements in Olympic athletes is decreasing: a follow-up study between 2002 and 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of use of dietary supplements (DS) among large sample of elite Finnish athletes and to describe possible changes in dietary supplement use between the years 2002 and 2009. METHODS: A prospective follow-up study was conducted on Olympic athletes. The first survey was conducted on Olympic athletes in 2002 (N

Anni Heikkinen; Antti Alaranta; Ilkka Helenius; Tommi Vasankari



Career Commitment, Career Plans, and Job-Related Stress: A Follow-Up Study of Pharmacy Students as Pharmacists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A follow-up study 2 years later of 73 University of Georgia College of Pharmacy graduates found respondents' career commitment level had decreased and most had changed their long-term career plans. Increasing stress was associated with lower career commitment and greater job dissatisfaction. More longitudinal career studies are recommended.…

Wolfgang, Alan P.; Ortmeier, Brian G.



Education Longitudinal Study of 2002: Base-Year to First Follow-Up Data File Documentation. NCES 2006-344  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides guidance and documentation for users of the public release for the combined base-year and first follow-up data of the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002). It provides extensive documentation of the content of the data files and how to access and manipulate them. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction to ELS:2002. It…

Ingels, Steven J.; Pratt, Daniel J.; Rogers, James E.; Siegel, Peter H.; Stutts, Ellen S.



Adolescents With Gender Identity Disorder Who Were Accepted or Rejected for Sex Reassignment Surgery: A Prospective Follow-up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo conduct a prospective follow-up study with 20 treated adolescent transsexuals to evaluate early sex reassignment, and with 21 nontreated and 6 delayed-treatment adolescents to evaluate the decisions not to allow them to start sex reassignment at all or at an early age.




Follow-Up Study of Former Business Transfer Students and Accounting Aide Majors. Volume XXIII, No. 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of the program evaluation and review process at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) in Illinois, a follow-up study was conducted of 433 Business Transfer (BT's) students who had taken Accounting 203; and Accounting Aide (AA's) majors who attended Harper sometime between fall 1988 and summer 1993. A survey received a 40% response rate for…

Lucas, John A.; Trunk, Rose


Methods and Measures Used for Follow-up at 15 Years of the English and Romanian Adoptee (ERA) Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter covers the methods and measures used in the ERA study, with a special focus on age 15 outcomes. First, the authors outline the sample participation rate for the 15-year follow-up--the percentages in all cases referring to the numbers at the time of initial sample contact. They then describe the measures used in this monograph,…

Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 2010



Cerebral metabolic changes accompanying conversion of mild cognitive impairment into Alzheimer's disease: a PET follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high percentage of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) develop clinical dementia of the Alzheimer type (AD) within 1 year. The aim of this longitudinal study was to identify characteristic patterns of cerebral metabolism at baseline in patients converting from MCI to AD, and to evaluate the changes in these patterns over time. Baseline and follow-up examinations after 1

Alexander Drzezga; Nicola Lautenschlager; Hartwig Siebner; Matthias Riemenschneider; Frode Willoch; Satoshi Minoshima; Markus Schwaiger; Alexander Kurz



Psychological Vulnerability in Children Next-Born after Stillbirth: A Case-Control Follow-Up Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Case studies and anecdotal accounts suggest that perinatal loss may impact upon other children in the family, including those born subsequent to loss. However, there is a dearth of systematically collected quantitative data on this potentially vulnerable group. Methods: Case-controlled follow-up of 52 mothers with history of stillbirth…

Turton, Penelope; Badenhorst, William; Pawlby, Susan; White, Sarah; Hughes, Patricia



The natural history of respiratory allergy: A follow-up study of 99 patients up to 10 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strict relationship between allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma has been seen recently, and in many ways respiratory allergy could be seen as a single disorder of the airways. The link between rhinitis and asthma can be elucidated only by studying the natural history of the disease over long periods. We describe the follow-up of 99 allergic patients up to




A Follow-Up Study of Transfer Students from Southern West Virginia Community College to Marshall University: 1967-1972.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to evaluate the efficacy of the college parallel program at Southern West Virginia Community College (SWVCC), a follow-up study was conducted of all students who had attended SWVCC between 1967 and 1972 and had subsequently transferred to Marshall University. Each of the 204 students in the sample had earned at least 30 semester credit…

Nolan, Edwin J.; Hall, Donald L.


Third National Even Start Evaluation: Follow-Up Findings from the Experimental Design Study. NCEE 2005-3002  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Citation: Ricciuti, A.E., R.G. St.Pierre, W. Lee, A. Parsad & T. Rimdzius. Third National Even Start Evaluation: Follow-Up Findings From the Experimental Design Study. U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance. Washington, D.C., 2004. Background: The Even Start…

Ricciuti, Anne E., St.Pierre, Robert G.; Lee, Wang; Parsad, Amanda




Microsoft Academic Search

Authors conducted a follow-up study to Post, McAllister, Sheely, Hess, & Flowers (2004) to determine whether a group of teachers who previously had been taught play therapy training skills maintained the skills and empathic responding in individual play sessions and in the classroom one academic year after the original training. The participating teachers were matched with a control group of

Barbara A. Hess; Phyllis Post; Claudia Flowers



Occupational Physical Activity, Overweight, and Mortality: A Follow-Up Study of 47,405 Norwegian Women and Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This population-based 24-year follow-up study evaluated the association of occupational physical activity (OPA) with overweight and mortality in 47,405 men and women, healthy at baseline, and reporting OPA as sedentary (reference), light, moderately heavy, or heavy. The adjusted odds ratio for overweight was slightly less than 1 for all categories…

Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Selmer, Randi; Sorensen, Marit; Skurtveit, Svetlana



Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study: First Follow-Up 1996-98 (BPS:96/98) Methodology Report. Technical Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the methods and procedures used for the full-scale data collection effort of the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study First Follow-Up 1996-98 (BPS:96/98). These students, who started their postsecondary education during the 1995-96 academic year, were first interviewed during 1996 as part of the National…

Wine, Jennifer S.; Whitmore, Roy W.; Heuer, Ruth E.; Biber, Melissa; Pratt, Daniel J.


Subclinical neurotoxic lead effects: two-year follow-up studies with psychological test methods.  


Using a prospective, follow-up approach a group of storage battery plant workers was tested by means of a number of psychodiagnostic tests, as e.g., subtests of the WAIS and WMS, Bourdon-Wiersma test, Santa Ana test, before and two years after entering lead-works. Their performance was compared with that of an age-equivalent group of non-exposed controls. Blood lead levels of the lead group increased from an initial 15.3 +/- 6.7 micrograms/dl (Mean +/- SD) to a final 30.5 +/- 9.6 micrograms/dl after two years, whereas the corresponding PbB-value of the controls was 10.5 +/- 3.7 micrograms/dl and 10.3 +/- 4.0 micrograms/dl, respectively. In the primary psychological examination there were no detectable performance differences between the exposed and controls. Whereas the control group displayed pronounced performance improvement due to training for most of the tests over the two-year period, a sizeable portion of the exposed group exhibited even performance deterioration. Group-comparisons were tested by the non-parametric ch 2-test and two-sided Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The most sensitive indicators of psychological impairment among the lead workers were Block Design test, Santa Ana coordination test and Digit Span test. It is concluded that the impairment of CNS function, as evidenced by differential test performance, was caused by lead exposure. No exact threshold for impaired performances could be estimated. PMID:7170035

Mantere, P; Hänninen, H; Hernberg, S



[The course of nursing home admission. A follow-up study in chronic and rehabilitation patients].  


This article describes the course of the nursing home stays of 157 newly admitted patients (55 years and older) using the Behaviour Rating Scale for Elderly Patients ('Beoordelingsschaal Oudere Patiënten'). The follow-up period lasted maximally one year. Differences in the course in relation to the objective of the admission (rehabilitation versus continuous support) and possible factors which impeded or advanced the discharge of the rehabilitation patients, were investigated. For that purpose, information on diagnoses, prognosis, treatment goals and their achievement, and disability according to SIVIS (SIG Nursing Home Information System) was also obtained from the physicians in charge at the nursing home. The course of the nursing home stay appeared to differ for chronic and rehabilitation patients. In addition to physical disability and depressive behavior, the chronic patients, from the time of admission onwards, had more behavioural problems than the rehabilitation patients. Moreover, their dependency, physical and mental disability and inactivity increased in different degree during the stay. For two thirds of the rehabilitation patients, the stay did not end in discharge from the nursing home. For this group, the dependency, depressive behaviour, and to a lesser extent, aggressiveness increased during the stay. The outcome of rehabilitation appeared to be related to the extent of behavioural problems, to the level of disability, and to the medical condition on admission. The least disabled and the 'medically least complex' patients could usually be discharged with an improved level of functioning, which seemed to justify the nursing home stay. The absence of other services impeded discharge in a few cases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1609446

te Wierik, M J; Frederiks, C M; Visser, A P; Sturmans, F



Body Structures and Physical Complaints in Upper Limb Reduction Deficiency: A 24-Year Follow-Up Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe upper body structures associated with upper limb reduction deficiency and the development of these structures over time, to examine the presence of physical complaints in this population, and to compare body structures and complaints between groups based on prosthesis use. Design Prospective cohort study with a follow-up period of 24 years, with matched able-bodied controls. Subjects Twenty-eight patients with unilateral below-elbow reduction deficiency fitted with myoelectric prostheses, aged 8–18 years at inclusion. Method Measurements of upper arm, trunk and spine were performed and study-specific questionnaires were answered at baseline and follow-up; the Brief Pain Inventory and the Quick Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaires were answered at follow-up. Results Both at baseline and follow-up, within-subjects differences in structures of the arm and trunk were shown in patients but not in controls. Spinal deviations, although small, were greater in patients compared to controls. Self-reported disability was higher in patients compared to controls. Differences in back pain and effect of prostheses use could not be shown. Conclusions Patients with unilateral below-elbow reduction deficiency have consistent differences in upper body structures. Deviations of the spine, probably of functional origin, do not progress to clinically relevant scoliosis. PMID:23226218

Postema, Sietke G.; van der Sluis, Corry K.; Waldenlov, Kristina; Norling Hermansson, Liselotte M.



A 4-year follow-up study of the effects of calcium supplementation on bone density in elderly postmenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the long-term effect of calcium supplementation on bone density, 84 elderly women (54–74 years) more than 10 years past the menopause were studied for 4 years as part of a follow-up study of a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial. The placebo group who did not take calcium supplements at all during the 4-year study (control group,n=21) served as a

A. Devine; I. M. Dick; S. J. Heal; R. A. Criddle; R. L. Prince



Risk of suicide after suicide attempt according to coexisting psychiatric disorder: Swedish cohort study with long term follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate the impact of coexistent psychiatric morbidity on risk of suicide after a suicide attempt.Design Cohort study with follow-up for 21-31 years.Setting Swedish national register based study.Participants 39 685 people (53% women) admitted to hospital for attempted suicide during 1973-82.Main outcome measure Completed suicide during 1973-2003.Results A high proportion of suicides in all diagnostic categories took place within

Dag Tidemalm; Niklas Långström; Paul Lichtenstein; Bo Runeson



Risk factors for chronic kidney disease in a community-based population: a 10-year follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore risk factors affecting the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in general population. We conducted a 10-year follow-up study with 123 764 (male: 41 012, female: 82 752) adults aged 40 years and over who received community-based annual examinations. The primary outcome for the analysis was the development of CKD during the

K Yamagata; K Ishida; T Sairenchi; H Takahashi; S Ohba; T Shiigai; M Narita; A Koyama



Family burden and coping strategies in schizophrenia: 1-year follow-up data from the BIOMED I study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To date, only few data are available on how family burden in schizophrenia changes over time. In addition, no study has\\u000a explored how such factors as coping styles and social support influence burden over time. This paper presents the 1-year follow-up\\u000a data from the BIOMED I study on family burden and coping strategies in schizophrenia. Methods: A sample of

L. Magliano; G. Fadden; M. Economou; T. Held; M. Xavier; M. Guarneri; C. Malangone; C. Marasco; M. Maj



Do Patients with Schizophrenia Ever Show Periods of Recovery? A 15Year Multi-Follow-up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to older views, with modern treatment some or many patients with schizophrenia may show intervals of recovery. The current 15-year prospectively designed follow-up research comparing schizophrenia patients with other types of psychotic and nonpsychotic patients studied how many schizophrenia patients ever show inter- vals of recovery. Two hundred seventy-four early young psychiatric patients from the Chicago Followup Study, in-

Martin Harrow; Linda S. Grossman; Thomas H. Jobe; Ellen S. Herbener



Long-term outcome of head injuries: a 23 year follow up study of children with head injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the 23 year follow up study was to determine the relationship between trauma variables including measures of head injury and very long-term sequelae. The study included 159 individuals with a mean age 31.40 years, of whom approximately 90% were admitted to hospital with a mild head injury during childhood (mean age 7.96). Extent of head injury was

H Klonoff; C Clark; P S Klonoff



Early risk factors for depressive symptoms among Korean adolescents: a 6-to-8 year follow-up study.  


Depression during adolescence is critical to the individual's own development. Hence, identifying individuals with high-risk depression at an early stage is necessary. This study aimed to identify childhood emotional and behavioral risk factors related to depressive symptoms in Korean adolescents through a longitudinal study. The first survey took place from 1998 to 2000, and a follow-up assessment conducted in 2006, as the original participants reached 13-15 yr of age. The first assessment used the Korean version of Child Behavior Checklist and a general questionnaire on family structure, parental education, and economic status to evaluate the participants. The follow-up assessment administered the Korean Children's Depression Inventory. Multiple regression analysis revealed that childhood attention problems predicted depressive symptoms during adolescence for both boys and girls. For boys, family structure also predicted adolescent depressive symptoms. This study suggests that adolescents with attention problems during childhood are more likely to experience depressive symptoms. PMID:24265533

Shin, Kyoung Min; Cho, Sun-Mi; Shin, Yun Mi; Park, Kyung Soon



In vivo animal follow-up studies on intrastromal surgery with near-infrared nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the histological results of in-vivo animal follow-up studies on refractive femtosecond laser surgery. Non-invasive flap-free intrastromal ablation as well as flap generation has been performed with MHz nanojoule near infrared femtosecond laser pulses. In particular, the dynamics of corneal wound healing have been studied. Wound-healing effects could be detected up to 90 days post-operation in the case of lasermediated flap generation. The flap-free intrastromal cavity was identified until the 28th day post-treatment. Interestingly, eosinophil granulocytes were observed. The follow-up studies confirmed that the near infrared femtosecond laser at near-nanojoule pulse energy is a highly precise and an attractive tool for intraocular refractive surgery, especially for flap-free intrastromal surgery.

Wang, Baogui; Riemann, Iris; Halbhuber, Karl-Juergen; Schubert, Harald; Kirste, Sigrun; Koenig, Karsten



Clinical application and long-term follow-up study of porcine acellular dermal matrix combined with autoskin grafting.  


The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical effects of porcine acellular dermal matrix combined with autoskin grafting on full-thickness skin defects using long-term clinical follow-up study and histologic examination. One hundred fifty-two patients with deep burn or trauma hospitalized from February 2000 to July 2003 were repaired with porcine acellular dermal matrix and split-thickness autoskin graft. Take rate of the grafts was calculated on 1 week after operation. Scar hyperplasia was examined on 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after operation. At the same time, the contracture rates of grafted areas were also calculated. Skin biopsy was performed on five patients for histologic examination, as well as transmission electron microscopy 78 months after operation. The take rate of grafts of 116 patients (76.3%) was 100%, and the take rate of the rest of the patients (36 patients, 23.7%) was more than 95%. No one needed skin transplantation for the second time. One hundred twenty-seven patients were followed up on 1 month after operation; grafts showed mild contraction. There was slight cicatricle at skin junction with tender texture. There was no obvious pruritus and blister. One hundred one patients were followed up on 3 months after operation. The graft contraction showed obvious relief with good articular function. Eighty-two patients were followed up on 6 months after operation. The color and texture of the grafts were similar to normal skin without obvious cicatricial hyperplasia. Fifty-eight patients were followed up on 12 months after operation. The grafts were similar to normal skin without obvious rejection. There were no significant differences between the contracture rates at 3, 6, and 12 months and 1 month after the second surgery. Sixteen patients were followed up on 78 months after operation. The appearance of grafts was slightly dry compared with normal skin. Tissue structure of grafts was similar to normal skin with sweat gland-like structure, and sweat gland cells were shown in the dermis. Xenogenic acellular dermal matrix combined with split-thickness autograft can repair full-thickness skin defects and inhibit scar proliferation without obvious immune rejection for long time. Newly formed sweat gland-like structure and sweat gland cells in the dermis may be a new research point for reconstruction of skin function. PMID:20182383

Jiong, Chen; Jiake, Chai; Chunmao, Han; Yingen, Pan; Qiuhe, Wu; Zhouxi, Fang; Xiangsheng, Feng



The impact of the peace treaty on psychological well-being: A follow-up study of Palestinian children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined the impact of the Israeli-Palestinian peace treaty and Palestinian children's perception of it on their self-esteem and neuroticism. We also studied the relative importance of earlier exposure to traumatic experiences and psychosocial resources indicated by the children's creativity, intelligence and political activity in influencing their psychological well-being after the peace treaty. The sample used was a follow-up

Eyad El Sarraj



Comparison of early and 1-year follow-up results of conventional hemorrhoidectomy and hemorrhoid artery ligation: a randomized study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aimsDoppler-guided hemorrhoid artery ligation is a new approach for treating hemorrhoids. Early and 1-year follow-up results of the procedure are presented and compared with those of closed scissors hemorrhoidectomy in a prospective randomized study.Patients and methodsSixty consecutively recruited patients were randomized into two groups: group A ( n=30) was treated with standardized closed scissors hemorrhoidectomy and group B

Attila Bursics; Krisztina Morvay; Péter Kupcsulik; Lajos Flautner



Reduction in Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Mortality Extended Follow-up of the Harvard Six Cities Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: A large body of epidemiologic literature has found an association of increased fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) with acute and chronic mortality. The effect of improvements in particle exposure is less clear. Objectives: Earlier analysis of the Harvard Six Cities adult cohort study showed an association between long-term ambient PM2.5 and mortality between enrollment in the mid-1970s and follow-up

Francine Laden; Joel Schwartz; Frank E. Speizer; Douglas W. Dockery


Clinical results of meniscus repair with the meniscus arrow: a 4- to 8-year follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The short-term clinical results of meniscus repair with the meniscus arrow were promising. Unfavorable outcomes were reported\\u000a in two studies, with longer follow-up, raising concerns about the efficacy of this device. We retrospectively reviewed 62\\u000a patients (mean age 23.7 years; range 14–37 years) that underwent all-inside meniscus repair, using the meniscus arrow. Seventeen\\u000a patients had an isolated meniscus tear (ACL intact group)

Nikolaos Koukoulias; Stergios Papastergiou; Konstantinos Kazakos; Georgios Poulios; Konstantinos Parisis



Interspinous Process Decompression With the X-STOP Device for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis A 4Year Follow-Up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-STOP is the first interspinous process decompres- sion device that was shown to be superior to nonoperative therapy in patients with neurogenic intermittent claudication secondary to spinal stenosis in the multicenter randomized study at 1 and 2 years. We present 4-year follow-up data on the X-STOP patients. Patient records were screened to identify potentially eligible subjects who underwent X-STOP implanta-

Dimitriy G. Kondrashov; Matthew Hannibal; Ken Y. Hsu; James F. Zucherman


Survival and Recurrent Strokes in Patients with Different Subtypes of Stroke: A Fourteen-Year Follow-Up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, 339 patients (154 men, 185 women) with a median age of 74 years (range 23–97) admitted to the Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology in 1986, have been followed up for 14 years. The diagnoses were intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH; 30, 8.8%), cardioembolic cerebral infarction (CE, 71, 20.9%), lacunar infarction (LI; 47, 13.9%) and atherosclerotic cerebral infarction (ACI; 191,

Sven-Erik Eriksson; Jan-Edvin Olsson



Longitudinal study of a cohort with past exposure to radar: The MIT Radiation Laboratory follow-up study  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the study was to assess the long-term health effects among participants in a radar research and development project at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) during World War II. The project was conducted in what was known as the Radiation Laboratory (Rad Lab). The study was of a nonconcurrent prospective design. The overall mortality experience, the mortality from specific causes of death, and longevity were examined. The study population included all professional staff members of the MIT Rad Lab. The group largely consisted of scientists and engineers. Analyses were restricted to white males. The mortality experience of the cohort was ascertained after extensive tracing and follow-up. Of the total population of 1592 persons, less than five percent were not traced beyond the 1940's. The majority were followed into the 1980's with an average survival of 36 years.

Hill, D.G.



Normal course of events amongst Swedish soccer players: an 8-year follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study 180 male soccer players entered into a prospective study of injuries in 1980. They were examined again in 1988. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the course of events during their active period. The study was carried out using a questionnaire. The importance of major injuries was evaluated. Hospital records were scrutinized and 179

J Ekstrand; H Roos; H Tropp



Achieving a 96.6 percent follow-up rate in a longitudinal study of drug abusers.  


Longitudinal studies can be hampered by poor follow-up rates, seriously reducing generalizability of the findings. Understanding the barriers, as well as approaches to overcome and adapt to these impediments, resulted in a 96.6% 18 month follow-up rate of 479 drug abusers enrolled in an NIDA funded demonstration project aimed at reducing HIV transmission among St. Louis' most vulnerable drug-using population. In this paper, we discuss the importance of phone and systems tracking, creative team work and persistence and procedures for tracking out-of-treatment drug-users by analyzing the efforts needed to reach the study subjects. We also compared the characteristics of hard-to-reach respondents with those who were less difficult. The results revealed that employment status was the only characteristic associated with being hard-to-reach. Gender, race, age, education and psychiatric status did not discriminate recruitment difficulty in this sample. The study findings suggest that although unemployment predicted recruitment difficulty, and that the locator information provided by the respondent can be very helpful, a comprehensive tracking strategy as well as persistence and creative team work are the most important determinants of the rate of success of a follow-up investigation. PMID:8842633

Cottler, L B; Compton, W M; Ben-Abdallah, A; Horne, M; Claverie, D



A Follow-up Study on U.S.-Trained Iranian Faculty Members: Satisfactions and Dissatisfactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Iran was one of the major contributors to the international student population in the United States. For some years, the number of Iranian students studied in America mounted such that there were more Iranians studying at colleges and universities in the United States than from any other foreign country. This study examined the satisfaction of…

Arasteh, Hamidreza



Loss to follow-up occurs at all stages in the diagnostic and follow-up period among HIV-infected patients in Guinea-Bissau: a 7-year retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe loss to follow-up (LTFU) at all stages of the HIV programme. Design A retrospective cohort study. Setting The HIV clinic at Hospital National Simão Mendes in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. Participants A total of 4080 HIV-infected patients. Outcome measures Baseline characteristics, percentages and incidence rates of LTFU as well as LTFU risk factors at four different stages: immediately after HIV diagnosis (stage 1), after the first CD4 cell count and before a follow-up consultation (stage 2), after a follow-up consultation for patients not eligible for antiretroviral treatment (ART; stage 3) and LTFU among patients on ART (stage 4). Results Almost one-third of the patients were lost to the programme before the first consultation where ART initiation is decided; during the 7-year observation period, more than half of the patients had been lost to follow-up (overall incidence rate=51.1 patients lost per 100 person-years). Age below 30?years at inclusion was a risk factor for LTFU at all stages of the HIV programme. The biggest risk factors were body mass index <18.5?kg/m2 (stage 1), male gender (stage 2), HIV-2 infection (stage 3) and CD4 cell count <200 cells/?L (stage 4). Conclusions In this study, LTFU constituted a major problem, and this may apply to other similar ART facilities. More than half of the patients were lost to follow-up shortly after enrolment, possibly implying a high mortality. Thus, retention should be given a high priority. PMID:24163204

H?nge, Bo Langhoff; Jespersen, Sanne; Nordentoft, Pernille Bejer; Medina, Candida; da Silva, David; da Silva, Zacarias Jose; ?stergaard, Lars; Laursen, Alex Lund; Wejse, Christian



A randomized controlled study of early headgear treatment on occlusal stability--a 13 year follow-up.  


The purpose of this investigation was to assess the long-term occlusal stability in a group treated early with headgear (HG) compared with a control group. The total study group comprised 68 children (40 males and 28 females) aged 7.6 years (standard deviation 0.3), randomly divided into two groups of equal size. In the first group, HG treatment was initiated immediately, while in the control group only minor interceptive procedures were performed during the follow-up period. Fixed appliance treatment, if needed, including extraction of permanent teeth due to crowding, was undertaken after the completion of early treatment. The records were available from the start of the early treatment and at follow-up after 2, 4, 8, and 13 years. The US-weighted Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) Index, graded according to the severity of malocclusion, was used to evaluate occlusal stability. Little's Irregularity Index (LII)and intercanine distance in the lower arch were measured at all time periods. The Aesthetic Component (AC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) scores was used for evaluation of dental aesthetics at the last follow-up. Parametric tests were applied for statistical analyses, except for the evaluation of aesthetics, where a non-parametric test was used. No significant differences were found when long-term stability between the HG and control groups was evaluated at the 13 year follow-up. Lower PAR scores were observed in patients treated without extraction of teeth. A greater irregularity in lower incisor alignment before treatment was found in subjects later treated with extractions. The findings of this study seem to suggest that treatment timing has only a minor influence on stability. PMID:18632838

Krusinskiene, Viktorija; Kiuttu, Päivi; Julku, Johanna; Silvola, Anna-Sofia; Kantomaa, Tuomo; Pirttiniemi, Pertti



Arthroscopic versus mini-open rotator cuff repair: a prospective, randomized study with 24-month follow-up.  


This prospective, randomized study was performed to evaluate the results of mini-open and arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in a comparative case series of patients followed for 24 months. A total of 125 patients were randomized to mini-open (Group I) or arthroscopic (Group II) rotator cuff repair at the time of surgical intervention. The University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) score, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) index, and muscle strength were measured to evaluate the clinical results, while magnetic resonance arthrography was used at 24-month follow-up to investigate the postoperative rotator cuff integrity. Fifty-three patients in Group I and 55 patients in Group II were available for evaluation at 24-month follow-up. At 24-month follow-up, the UCLA score, the ASES index, and muscle strength were statistically significantly increased in both groups postoperatively, while no significant difference was detected between the 2 groups. Intact rotator cuffs were investigated in 42 patients in Group I and 35 in Group II, and there was a significant difference in postoperative structural integrity between the two groups (P < 0.05). When analysis was limited to the patients with full-thickness tear, the muscle strength of the shoulder was significantly better in Group II, and the retearing rate was significantly higher in Group II. Based on the results obtained from this study, it can be indicated that arthroscopic and mini-open rotator cuff repair displayed substantially equal outcomes, except for higher retearing rate in the arthroscopic repair group. While for patients with full-thickness tear, arthroscopic rotator cuff repair displayed better shoulder strength and significantly higher retearing rate as compared to mini-open rotator cuff repair at 24-month follow-up. PMID:23812851

Zhang, Zhenxiang; Gu, Beibei; Zhu, Wei; Zhu, Lixian; Li, Qingsong



Predictors of Risk-based Medical Follow-up: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study1  

PubMed Central

Purpose To conduct an intervention study designed to assess the effectiveness of using a newsletter to increase medical follow-up in pediatric cancer survivors at risk of selected treatment complications. Methods Survivors participating in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study who were at least 25 years of age and at risk of cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, or osteoporosis related to previous cancer treatment were randomly assigned to receive a newsletter featuring brief health risk information or a newsletter including an insert providing more comprehensive health risk information. A follow-up survey distributed 24 months after the newsletter intervention assessed predictors of medical follow-up. Results Overall there were no differences found among the groups in terms of access to a treatment summary, medical follow-up, discussion of childhood cancer health risks, and medical screening for the targeted health behaviors. One exception, indicating borderline significance was that women at risk for osteoporosis who received the newsletter insert were more likely to have discussed their risk with a doctor than those who only received the brief information (10.1% vs. 4.0% p=0.05). Discussion of breast cancer (OR=2.14; 95% CI=1.73–2.65), heart disease (OR=5.54; 95% CI=4.67–6.57) and osteoporosis (OR=7.87; 95% CI=6.34–9.78) risk with physician significantly predicted report of undergoing screening for targeted behavior in previous 2 years as did physician access to treatment summary. Conclusions More detailed content in a newsletter had minimal effect on recommended screening. However, survivor’s discussion of cancer-related risks with one’s doctor significantly influenced participation in health screening. These results highlight the integral role of communication in health behavior. PMID:23568405

Steele, Jeanne R.; Wall, Melanie; Salkowski, Nicholas; Mitby, Pauline; Kawashima, Toana; Yeazel, Mark W.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Robison, Leslie L.; Mertens, Ann C.



MMPI-2 personality profiles and suicidal ideation and behavior in victims of bullying at work: a follow-up study.  


The main aim of this study was to investigate longitudinally the personality profile and suicidal ideation and behavior in victims of bullying at work in relation to the evolution of the victimization. Forty-eight victims were evaluated by means of medical and psychological assessment including the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). A follow up session was carried out after an average of 22 months. At first evaluation, the average MMPI-2 personality profile of victims showed abnormal elevations on scales Hs (Hypochondria), D (Depression), Hy (Hysteria), and Pa (Paranoia), which were strikingly similar to that found in previous studies. Furthermore, suicidal ideation and behavior were common among victims. At follow-up, 26 victims reported that the degree of bullying had remained the same or had even worsened, whereas 22 said that the situation had improved or had been resolved. Although there was a trend toward normalization in the MMPI-2 profile for all victims, the profile of the "static" group was still abnormal at follow up. On the contrary, the profile of the "improved" group was entirely within normal range. Suicidal ideation and behavior decreased in all victims, but only to a significant degree in the improved group. Results are discussed in the light of the bullying process. PMID:24547677

Romeo, Luciano; Balducci, Cristian; Quintarelli, Emanuele; Riolfi, Andrea; Pelizza, Luisa; Serpelloni, Andrea; Tisato, Silvia; Perbellini, Luigi



Sex and situational influences on the use of power: A follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study, which is patterned after an earlier study of male students by Goodstadt and Kipnis [1970], investigated the influence of sex and self-confidence of the subject and kind of worker problem encountered (motivation vs. ability) on the use of supervisory powers by male and female students in a simulated production situation. Contrary to previous research and sex-role stereotypes, males

Christine S. Koberg



Follow-Up Study of Fiscal Year 2001 Occupational Program Graduates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a new statewide study on the benefits of the Illinois Community College System by economists document that community colleges have a strong positive impact on the state. The study found that investing in the completion of an associate degree translates into more than $345,000 in additional income over the remainder of a person's career,…

Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.


Follow-Up Study of Former Students of the Executive Secretarial Program. Volume XVI, No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted at Illinois' William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) to assess the current employment experiences of students who had been enrolled in the college's Executive Secretarial Program. The study population consisted of all 232 students who completed SEC-237 (Secretarial Seminar and Internship) between fall 1976 and spring 1986, and…

Jirak, Mary Ann; Lucas, John A.


Why Do the Results of Follow-Up Studies in Delusional Disorders Differ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper 4 studies on the course of delusional disorders of midlife, partly-diagnosed as ‘late schizophrenias’ in the sense of M. Bleuler, published up to the 70s and 3 studies on the same topic which were published in the 80s, all European, are analysed with regard to differences in their results in order to find out factors operating on

E. Gabriel; H. Schanda



Uric acid and cognition in Parkinson’s disease: A follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive changes are common in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Low plasma uric acid (UA) level is associated with risk of PD and predicts faster progression of motor symptoms in established disease. Whether UA levels predict cognitive changes has not been studied. In a crossectional study, our group has previously shown an association of plasma and urine UA levels with cognition in

Tua Annanmaki; Marjatta Pohja; Tiina Parviainen; Paula Hakkinen; Kari Murros



Students' Thinking and Alternative Conceptions of Transport Systems in Plants: A Follow-Up Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to explore students' alternative conceptions and their associative thinking regarding internal transport in plants through administration of a refined diagnostic test. Questions of associative thinking and explanation were added to form a third tier of the previous two-tier test. The study found three terms related to…

Wang, Jing-Ru



A Follow-Up Note on Prescriptive Statements in Nonintervention Research Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Robinson, Levin, Thomas, Pituch, and Vaughn (2007) examined 74 articles reporting nonintervention studies (i.e., studies with no researcher-manipulated variables) that appeared in 5 educational journals in 1994. Of these articles, 22 contained prescriptive statements (e.g., if teachers or students did X, then student outcome Y would result). In…

Shaw, Shana M.; Walls, Stephen M.; Dacy, Breana Sylvester; Levin, Joel R.; Robinson, Daniel H.



Adjustment to University and Academic Performance: Brief Report of a Follow-Up Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents data that extend an earlier analysis of predictors of academic performance from one to three years. None of the adjustment and other psychosocial variables (help-seeking, academic motivation, self-esteem, perceived stress and perceived academic overload) could predict success at university at the end of three years of study.…

Petersen, Il-haam; Louw, Johann; Dumont, Kitty; Malope, Nomxolisi



Treatment Compliance of Adolescents after Attempted Suicide: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigates compliance with mental health treatments among suicidal adolescents. Results show that child psychopathology and parental attitudes toward treatment plays an important part in increasing compliance with mental health treatment for adolescent suicide attempters.

Burns, Craig D.; Cortell, Ranon; Wagner, Barry M.



A follow-up study of Non-teacher certified Agricultural Education Department graduates  

E-print Network

The Agricultural Education field is expanding daily and Non-teaching Agricultural Education is highly regarded in this area of study. If the curriculum of Non-teaching Agricultural Education is to uphold its reputation and grow successfully...

Dailey, Amber Lynn



Commercial and Industrial Follow-Up Response Study: Factors Influencing Implementation of Energy Conservation Opportunities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Tennessee Valley Authority conducted a study to assess the effectiveness of the Commercial and Industrial (C and I) Energy Management Survey (Audit) Program in increasing the installation of energy conservation measures by commercial industrial consum...

R. Cole, S. Pollock



Long term bone level stability on Short Implants: A radiographic follow up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Placement of short endosseous implants represents a valid treatment in the setting of limited alveolar bone height. This study's objectives were: to estimate the 5 year clinical survival of Bicon TM short implant and to evaluate radiographic bone level changes around 6 x 5.7mm implants in comparison with longer non-6 x 5.7mm implants. Methods: A retrospective cohort study design

Caterina Venuleo; Meghan Weed


The long-term outcome of delinquent children: a 30-year follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the results of a longitudinal study of unselected samples of German delinquent children, stratified by\\u000a frequency of offences recorded before and after the age of criminal responsibility (14 years). A total of 256 young adults\\u000a (mean age, 22 years), juvenile offenders and control non-offenders, were assessed using the following: a standardized interview\\u000a regarding family, child development and life history;

Helmut Remschmidt; Reinhard Walter



Persistent asthma due to isocyanates. A follow-up study of subjects with occupational asthma due to toluene diisocyanate (TDI)  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-five subjects with occupational asthma due to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) exposure were examined. All the subjects were studied with inhalation challenges with TDI and with methacholine. TDI asthma was documented by a positive inhalation challenge to low levels of TDI. Airway responsiveness to methacholine was in the range of asthmatic patients at the time of diagnosis. After an average follow-up interval of 10 months, all the subjects were re-examined. Of the 35 subjects examined, 30 subjects (85.7%) left the workplace, and 5 remained in the same job. Twenty-seven subjects (77.1%) continued to have asthmatic attacks requiring medication for relief of symptoms. At follow-up examination, TDI asthma was documented by a positive inhalation challenge to TDI in 27 subjects. Of these 27 TDI reactors, 22 subjects were removed from occupational exposure to TDI. The TDI reactors had persistent respiratory symptoms and airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. At follow-up visit, 8 subjects (22.9%) lost sensitization to TDI; 5 subjects (62.5%) in this group had also normal airway responsiveness to methacholine after removal from exposure. Only 1 subject among the TDI nonreactors complained of mild respiratory symptoms. At diagnosis, there were no significant differences between subjects who recovered and those who did not with regard to age, smoking habits, atopy, duration of exposure to isocyanates, duration of symptoms, baseline FEV1 (% pred), and baseline airway responsiveness to methacholine.

Mapp, C.E.; Corona, P.C.; De Marzo, N.; Fabbri, L.




PubMed Central

SUMMARY Sociodemographic, clinical and outcome characteristics of 29 cases who had the diagnosis of schizoaffective psychosis were studied. On the basis of longitudinal course of the illness, 2 distinct subgroup of patients could be delineated. Patients with episodic illness were more akin to affective disorders while those with continuous course of illness were conceptually closer to schizophrenia. Concordance of the ICD-9 diagnosis of these patients with other well known diagnostic systems tike Research Diagnostic Criteria, DSM-III-R and proposed ICD-10 was studied. Advantages and limitations of these diagnostic systems with regard to the diagnosis of schizoaffective psychosis are discussed. PMID:21927501

Banerjee, S.T.; Avasthi, A.; Kulhara, P.; Pal, Hemraj



What do predict anxiety and depression in breast cancer patients? A follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Psychological adjustment following cancer occurrence remains a key issue among the survivors. This study aimed to investigate\\u000a psychological distress in patients with breast cancer following completion of breast cancer treatments and to determine its\\u000a associated factors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  This was a prospective study of anxiety and depression in breast cancer patients. Anxiety and depression were measured using\\u000a the Hospital Anxiety

Mariam Vahdaninia; Sepideh Omidvari; Ali Montazeri



Motor Development in Children at Risk of Autism: A Follow-Up Study of Infant Siblings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, evidence of poor or atypical motor skills in autism spectrum disorder has led some to argue that motor impairment is a core feature of the condition. The current study uses a longitudinal prospective design to assess the development of motor skills of 20 children at increased risk of developing autism spectrum disorder, who were…

Leonard, Hayley C.; Bedford, Rachael; Charman, Tony; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Johnson, Mark H.; Hill, Elisabeth L.



Are Graduate Students Better Self Regulated Learners Than Undergraduates? A Follow-Up Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies concerning the self-regulated learning of graduate students are reported. In the first, the responses of 96 graduate students in education to an inventory of self-regulated learning were compared to those of 294 undergraduates previously assessed. It was found, contrary to expectation, that the graduate students scored lower on the…

Lindner, Reinhard W.; And Others


A NEPA follow-up study of DOE loan guarantee fuel ethanol plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was implemented to examine and characterize the actual environmental impacts of three fuel ethanol plants constructed under the US Department of Energy, Office of Alcohol Fuels Loan Guarantee Program, and to compare actual impacts with those predicted about six years ago in environmental assessments (EAs) prepared for these facilities. The objective of the program, established under the Energy

D. B. Jr. Hunsaker; G. K. Eddlemon; R. L. Miller; J. W. Webb



Public University Baccalaureate Follow-Up Study. May 2011 [Revised Feb 2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides the results of analysis of more than 40,000 students who received baccalaureate degrees from the public baccalaureate institutions in Washington during the 2005-06 and 2006-07 academic years. The purpose of this study was to follow students after graduation to determine the extent to which degree recipients were able to secure…

Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2012



Substance Use and Abuse among Adolescent Runaways: A Four-Year Follow-Up Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using National Longitudinal Study Youth Survey data for 1,241 males and 1,143 females, runaway status in early adolescence--ages 14-15 years--was associated with subsequent--4 years later--substance abuse, alcohol problems, and school-dropout status. Gender and number of runaway episodes were considered. Repeat-runaways reported higher substance…

Windle, Michael



Continuity of motivation in higher education: A three-year follow-up study 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the question how the quality of students' learning motivation changes within a period of 3 years. Of special interest is which conditions of the learning environment are responsible for the stability or respectively the change of learning motivation. Deci and Ryan's (2002) self-determination theory (SDT) provides the theoretical foundation of this paper. It allows a differentiated analysis

Florian H. Müller; Marko Palek



Pubertal Timing and Substance Use in Middle Adolescence: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Earlier research has associated early puberty with emotional and behavioral symptoms particularly among girls, while among boys, findings have been contradictory as to whether risks are associated with early or late pubertal timing. We studied the association between pubertal timing and substance use behaviors in middle adolescence in a 2-year…

Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Marttunen, Mauri; Frojd, Sari



Natural History of Thyroid Function in Adults with Down Syndrome--10-Year Follow-Up Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome (DS) is unknown. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with DS over a 10-year period. Results: Transient and persistent thyroid dysfunction was common. The 5- and 10-year incidence of definite hypothyroidism was 0.9%-1.64% and…

Prasher, V.; Gomez, G.



STAR Follow-Up Studies, 1996-1997: The Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio (STAR) Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio (STAR) Project first investigated the effect of small class size on student achievement with over 6,000 Tennessee primary students in 1985 through 1989. The study found a consistent and significant benefit of small classes for all students, with the greatest advantages for minority, inner-city students from…

Pate-Bain, Helen; Boyd-Zaharias, Jayne; Cain, Van A.; Word, Elizabeth; Binkley, M. Edward


Persistence of bullying from childhood to adolescence—a longitudinal 8-year follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine factors associated with bullying and victimization from age 8 to 16.Method: An 8-year longitudinal study included questions about bullying and victimization at age 8 and 16. Children were evaluated with Rutter scales by parents and teachers and with the Child Depression Inventory filled in by the children at age 8. When the children were at the age

Andre Sourander; Leila Helstelä; Hans Helenius; Jorma Piha



Cognitive Deficits Associated with Acquired Amusia after Stroke: A Neuropsychological Follow-Up Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent evidence on amusia suggests that our ability to perceive music might be based on the same neural resources that underlie other higher cognitive functions, such as speech perception and spatial processing. We studied the neural correlates of acquired amusia by performing extensive neuropsychological assessments on 53 stroke patients with a…

Sarkamo, Teppo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Soinila, Seppo; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M.; Laine, Matti; Hietanen, Marja



Six Year Longitudinal Study: Vocational Education Students. Phase 2: First Year Follow-Up. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Portland Community College (PCC) in Oregon participated in a statewide study of community college and high school vocational education. The first phase of the project involved collecting baseline data from community college students in vocational programs and from high school vocational education seniors in spring 1985. In spring 1986, the second…

Portland Community Coll., OR. Research and Planning Dept.


Follow-Up Study of Fiscal Year 1997 Occupational Program Graduates, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides information from graduates of selected occupational programs regarding the effectiveness of their Illinois community college experience. The study surveyed a pool of 2,190 occupational program graduates, which yielded a usable response rate of 58.6%. The majority of graduate respondents (64.5%) came from programs in four…

Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.


A 2-year follow-up study of work ability among college educators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate work ability among college educators before and after an intervention at the workplace. An administrative restructuring in the workplace started to be implemented in 2005. The work ability index (WAI) was administered to 154 educators before the restructure in 2004 and to 60 educators following the restructure in 2006. A t-test comparing

Elaine C. Marqueze; Gustavo P. Voltz; Flávio N. S. Borges; Claudia R. C. Moreno



Follow-Up Study of Machine Tool Technology and Building Construction Graduates. Evaluation Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A followup study of graduates from machine tool technology and building construction programs was conducted to determine the relevancy of programs to employment needs. The survey instrument was a mailed questionnaire designed to determine employment status and history, evaluation of the program, upgrading or retraining needs, and the adequacy of…

Hall, Wilbur; And Others


Medical follow-up study of 5-year-old ICSI children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) are still a matter of concern. The purposes of the present study were to investigate the physical outcome in 5-year-old children born after ICSI and compare them with children born after spontaneous conception. Three hundred singleton children from Belgium, Sweden and the USA, born after ICSI, were matched by maternal age, child age

Maryse Bonduelle; Christina Bergh; Aimon Niklasson; Gianpiero D Palermo; Ulla-Britt Wennerholm



Follow-Up Study of 1970 and 1972 Alumni. Research Report Series, Vol. 7, No. 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to evaluate long-term benefits to students, William Rainey Harper College conducted five- and three-year followup studies of all 1970 and 1972 alumni. The population was defined as students who had accumulated 48 or more credit hours or had received a degree. In all, 385 1970 alumni, and 1,154 1972 alumni were surveyed by mail or…

Lucas, John A.


Educational Goal Attainment: A One-Year Follow-up Study of Nonreturning JCCC Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1989, Johnson County Community College (JCCC, Kansas) conducted studies of "leavers"--students who had been enrolled at JCCC during a specific period of time and had not graduated, earned a certificate, transferred to another college or university, or left the college with marketable skills developed in one of JCCC's career programs. Results of…

Conklin, Karen A.


Follow-Up Study of Rural Schools Implementing CSR Programs in the Southwest. Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Case studies of five small and isolated rural schools in the Southwest focused on their ability to fully implement Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration (CSR) programs over the 3-year period of their federal grants. Data were gathered via interviews with school personnel, classroom observations, document reviews, and telephone interviews with…

Carlson, Robert V.


The Development of Young Elementary School Teachers: A Follow-up Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of an investigation of a group of teacher applicants observed during the entrance examination, the training period of four years, and the first three years of teaching. The study was divided into four parts: (1) the effects of selection and training on the results of…

Koskenniemi, Matti


Adolescent and adult leisure patterns: A 37?year follow?up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between adolescent and adult leisure activities was assessed by utilizing longitudinal data from 1298 subjects studied during their high school years and again when they were in their early fifties. For the sample members, the greater the involvement in a specific type of activity during adolescence, the more frequent the participation in the same type of activity at

David Scott; Fern K. Willits



Early Predictors of Career Development: A 10-Year Follow-up Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents empirical findings from a 10-year longitudinal study of the educational and occupational socialization of 445 participants who were about 7 years old when first tested, and about 17 years old at the fourth time of measurement. In addition to collecting psychological measurements from the participants, behavioral reports were…

Ferreira, Joaquim Armando; Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Fonseca, Antonio C.; Haase, Richard F.



Maintenance pharmacotherapy for recurrent major depressive disorder: 5-year follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Practice guidelines endorse maintenance antidepressant treatment for recurrent major depressive disorder. In the Vantaa Depression Study, we followed 218 psychiatric patients with major depressive disorder for up to 5 years with a life-chart. Of these patients, 86 (39.4%) had more than three lifetime episodes and an indication for maintenance pharmacotherapy. However, of these, only 57% received treatment and only

I. A. K. Holma; K. Mikael Holm; Tarja K. Melartin; Erkki T. Isometsa



Early predictors of career development: A 10-year follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents empirical findings from a 10-year longitudinal study of the educational and occupational socialization of 445 participants who were about 7 years old when first tested, and about 17 years old at the fourth time of measurement. In addition to collecting psychological measurements from the participants, behavioral reports were collected from significant others, specifically parents and teachers. Findings

Joaquim Armando Ferreira; Eduardo J. R. Santos; António C. Fonseca; Richard F. Haase



Educational Follow-Up Study of Juveniles Released from Ethan Allen and Lincoln Hills Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the educational experiences of all 759 youth released from Wisconsin's two juvenile correctional institutions during 1979. School records, including transcripts from schools attended before and after release, were reviewed for each youth. Parole officers were interviewed whenever school records were in question. Only 3 percent of…

Pawasarat, John; And Others


Activity limitations among young adults with developmental disabilities: A population-based follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental disabilities are a heterogeneous group of chronic conditions that may result in substantial activity limitations. The type and number of limitations may vary by impairment characteristics. Economic and social constraints may impact activity limitations beyond those attributable to their impairment. Using the International Classification of Functioning (ICF), Disability, and Health conceptual framework, this study tests the hypothesis that activity

Kim Van Naarden Braun; Marshalyn Yeargin-Allsopp; Donald Lollar



MR Imaging After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Surgery: A Long-term Follow-up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We assumed that patients with surgically treated aneu- rysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) might have more lesions than those revealed by CT that could be visible on MR images. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of a series of 147 patients with aneurysmal SAH who were treated surgically within 3 days of the onset of SAH. One hundred

Riku P. Kivisaari; Oili Salonen; Antti Servo; Taina Autti; Juha Hernesniemi; Juha Ohman


Follow-Up Study of Schools Implementing Comprehensive School Reform in the Southwest. Evaluation Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) programs were implemented in 1998 in five states working with the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL). SEDL's five-state region includes Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. This study examined the implementation status of CSR programs since funding ended. Two hundred and…

Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.


The Longitudinal Assessment Study (LAS): Eighteen Year Follow-Up. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Premised on the view that students with more years of Montessori education (MEY) would possess to a higher degree those qualities emphasized in the Montessori environment and that Montessori students would be as successful as students more traditionally educated, this report presents the final assessment for the Longitudinal Assessment Study,…

Glenn, Christopher M.


Immunosuppressive Treatment of Idiopathic Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a common type of glomerular disease that can lead to chronic renal failure. Various therapeutic regimens have been used in nephrotic FSGS patients. The effect of treatment with prednisolone alone or its combination with azathioprine and cyclosporin and parameters related to a poor outcome are studied. Methods: Fifty-one patients with idiopathic FSGS and a

Dimitrios S. Goumenos; George Tsagalis; A. Meguid El Nahas; John R. Shortland; Periklis Davlouros; John G. Vlachojannis; Colin B. Brown



Substance use and abuse among adolescent runaways: A four-year follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the National Longitudinal Study Youth Survey (NLSY), runaway status in early adolescence (ages 14–15) was associated with subsequent (four years later) substance abuse, alcohol problems, and school dropout status. Three runaway categories were formed—never runaway, runaway once, and runaway two or more times. Overall, the repeat runaways reported engaging in higher levels of substance use and abuse

Michael Windle



Psychological follow-up study of 5-year-old ICSI children  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The developmental outcomes of children born after ICSI are still a matter of concern. The purpose of the present study was to investigate psychological outcomes for 5-year-old children born after ICSI and compare these with outcomes for children born after spontaneous conception (SC). METHODS: Three hundred singleton children born after ICSI in Belgium, Sweden and the USA were matched

I. Ponjaert-Kristoffersen; T. Tjus; J. Nekkebroeck; J. Squires; D. Verte; M. Heimann



Physical Fitness of Adults with an Intellectual Disability: A 13-Year Follow-up Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined changes in physical fitness of middle-aged adults with mental retardation over 13 years. The subjects had participated in a physical fitness study in 1983. They were re-evaluated for cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. Fitness levels declined over the 13 years and were low…

Graham, Andrew; Reid, Greg



Relations between Achievement Goal Orientations and Math Achievement in Primary Grades: A Follow-Up Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present study was to investigate children's achievement goal orientations and their relations to math achievement in the primary grades. The sample consisted of 179 children who were in the 2nd and 3rd grades during the first measurement and in the 3rd and 4th grades during the second measurement. Children's self-ratings were…

Magi, Katrin; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Kikas, Eve



Work-related burn injuries in Ontario, Canada: a follow-up 10-year retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Work-related burn injuries contribute to a quarter of all burn injuries in USA. In 2009, the provincial Workplace Safety and Insurance Board reported 64,824 work-related injuries that resulted in time-lost, 1188 injuries (2%) were a result of burns. There have been two previous studies performed at a regional burn centre (1984-1990 and 1998-2000) looking at incidence and characteristics of work-related burns. There was no significant change between these two groups. The purpose of this study was to identify the recent pattern of work-related burns from 2001 to 2010 and to compare it to the previous studies. During the study period, 1427 patients were admitted for an acute injury to the regional burn centre. Of these, 330 were due to a work-related incident (23%). The mean age of patients was 40.5±11.9 years, 95% were male. The mean total body surface area burn was 11.9±16.2%. The most common mechanism of burn injury was flame (32.7%) followed by electrical (27%) and scald (19.7%), inhalation injury was present in 4.8% of patients and the mortality was 1.8%. Our study has shown that there has been a significant decrease in the incidence in work-related burns treated at the regional burn centre (23.1%, vs. 28.2% vs. 30.2% p<0.01), flame burns have now become the leading cause of injury, there was a significant reduction in inhalation injury (4.8% vs. 23% vs. 14.8%, p<0.00001), and mortality overtime (1.8%, vs. 4% vs. 6.7% p=0.02). These findings strongly suggests a change in the cause of work-related burns, improvement in burn care, and that prevention strategies may have been more effective. PMID:23352030

Clouatre, Elsa; Gomez, Manuel; Banfield, Joanne; Jeschke, Marc G



Aspirin Use and Risk of Cataract in Posttrial Follow-up of Physicians' Health Study I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In Physicians' Health Study I, random- ized trial results indicated no major beneficial effect of 5 years of low-dose aspirin treatment on total cataract (rela- tive risk (RR), 0.94; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.79- 1.13) or cataract extraction (RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.65- 1.01) during the period of treatment. Objective: To examine the effect of assigned aspirin treatment and

William G. Christen; Umed A. Ajani; Debra A. Schaumberg; Robert J. Glynn; JoAnn E. Manson; Charles H. Hennekens



Energy and macronutrient intake in adolescent sprint athletes: A follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macronutrient intake, height, weight, and body composition of 60 adolescent sprint athletes were estimated every 6 months over 3 years. Seven-day food records were analysed based on the Belgian and Dutch food databanks. The age of participants at the start of the 3-year study was 14.8 ± 1.6 years for female athletes and 14.7 ± 1.9 years for male athletes. Girls and boys gained

Dirk Aerenhouts; Peter Deriemaeker; Marcel Hebbelinck; Peter Clarys



Longitudinal pulmonary functional loss in cotton textile workers: A 5-year follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background Occupational exposure to cotton dust causes several diseases affecting the lungs, but only limited information is available on effects of long-term exposure. In this study, we aimed to evaluate longitudinal changes in selected parameters of pulmonary function in textile workers. Material/Methods This prospective cohort study began with 196 textile workers in 2006 and was completed in 2011 with 49 workers. We used standardized tests for pulmonary function on participants on the first day of the workweek in June of 2006 and 2011. Environmental samples of cotton dust were gathered with a vertical elutriator. Loss of pulmonary function was assessed based on gender and smoking status. Results The mean number of years participants worked in the textile factory was 7.61±1.83 years, and the mean age was 35.3+5.8 years. The annual FEV1 loss of all workers was 53.2 ml, giving a ratio of annual FEV1 loss to baseline FEV1 of 1.4%. Pulmonary function parameters of all participants in 2011 were significantly lower than those in 2006 (for all, p<0.05). In both surveys, pulmonary function in current smokers was lower, but this difference was not significant (p>0.05). Conclusions This study provides the first data on pulmonary functional loss in Turkish textile workers and supports the findings of other cohort studies that workers with long-term exposure to cotton dust may lose some pulmonary function. The ratio of annual FEV1 loss to baseline FEV1 appears to be a more accurate and comparable method than annual FEV1 loss for evaluating pulmonary functional loss. PMID:24346118

Kahraman, Hasan; Sucakli, Mustafa Haki; Kilic, Talat; Celik, Mustafa; Koksal, Nurhan; Ekerbicer, Hasan Cetin




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Sacroiliitis detected by bone scintiscanning: a clinical, radiological, and scintigraphic follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four patients had abnormal sacroiliac joints detected by quantitative sacroiliac scintigraphy but no radiological evidence of sacroiliitis on original investigation. We studied them again after intervals of 12 to 36 months. Four patients developed radiological change. Two young, HLA B27-positive men had undoubted ankylosing spondylitis, and a young woman had possible ankylosing spondylitis. A middle-aged man had changes that could

I M Chalmers; B C Lentle; J S Percy; A S Russell



Subclinical Sacroiliitis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Clinical and Follow-up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features, evolution and reliability of spondyloarthropathy criteria in\\u000a a subset of patients with subclinical sacroiliitis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). All patients with IBD (n 62) attending a gastroenterology clinic from a referral centre were included to assess the prevalence of articular involvement.\\u000a Patients were evaluated according to a

R. Queiro; O. Maiz; J. Intxausti; J. R. de Dios; J. Belzunegui; C. González; M. Figueroa



Comparative study of immediately inserted dental implants in sinus lift: 24 months of follow-up  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the success rate of immediately inserted dental implants in sinus lift and the secondary aim is to assess the reliability of performing simultaneous surgery for sinus lift, grafting and implant placement in situations of very low residual bone heights (<4 mm) in the posterior maxillae. Materials and Methods: A series of consecutive patients who sought dental implant rehabilitation were included in this study. The sinus lift cases were selected and divided into two groups based on the maxillary alveolar height, ?4 mm of radiographically measurable bone height (Group 1) and < 4 mm of bone height (Group 2). Results: A total of 13 implants were installed in Group 1, whereas 8 implants were installed in Group 2. The success rate for dental implants in the sinus lifts reached 95.2% after a period of 24 months of evaluation, at 100% for Group 1 (bone height ? 4 mm) and 87.5% for Group 2 (bone height with < 4 mm). Besides the differences between the percentages of success, statistical differences were not reached when the groups were compared (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.38). Conclusions: Despite the limitations of this study, including its low number of participants, the results indicate that simultaneous surgery for sinus lifting, grafting and dental implants in posterior maxillae with very low bone heights (<4 mm) can be performed safely, although with lower success rates than found in patients with higher residual bone heights (>4 mm). PMID:24987595

Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Manfro, Rafael; Fabris, Vinicius; Cecconello, Rodrigo; Derech, Estevo D'Agostini



Changes of empathy in medical college and medical school students: 1-year follow up study  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to determine the correlation between medical education systems, medical college (MC) and medical school (MS), and empathy by investigating the changes in empathy among students with each additional year of medical education. Methods The subjects were MC and MS students who had participated in the same study the previous year. All participants completed the same self-report instruments: a questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, and the Korean edition of the Student Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE-S-K), Among 334 students, the final analysis was conducted on the data provided by 113 MC and 120 MS students, excluding 101 with incomplete data. Results The age and sex did not affect the changes in empathy. Though the JSE-S-K score of MS was significantly higher than that of MC in initial investigation, this study found no difference of empathy between MC and MS. Conclusion Empathy increased significantly after one year of medical education. The difference between two education systems, MC and MS, did not affect the changes in empathy. PMID:23245328



Follow-up of ankle stiffness and electromechanical delay in immobilized children: three cases studies.  


Clinical manual tests refer to increased ankle stiffness in children immobilized due to hip osteochondritis. The aim of the present study was to investigate musculo-articular stiffness via different techniques in immobilized children to confirm or not and quantify these observations. Ankle stiffness was quantified monthly during the long immobilization period in three diseased children and compared to healthy age-matched children. Sinusoidal perturbations were used to evaluate musculo-articular (MA) stiffness of the ankle plantar-flexors. The stiffness index (SI(MA-EMG)) was the slope of the linear relationship between angular stiffness and plantar-flexion torque normalized with electromyographic activity of the triceps surae (TS). The stiffness of the ankle plantar-flexors was also indirectly evaluated using the TS electromechanical delay (EMD). SI(MA-EMG) was greater for diseased children, and this higher stiffness was confirmed by the higher EMD values found in these immobilized children. Furthermore, both parameters indicated that ankle stiffness continues to increase through immobilization period. This study gives a quantitative evaluation of ankle stiffness changes through the immobilization period imposed to children treated for hip osteochondritis. The use of EMD measurement to indirectly evaluate these stiffness changes is also validated. This study shed for the first time some light into the patterns of muscle modifications following immobilization in children. PMID:20189829

Grosset, Jean-François; Lapole, Thomas; Mora, Isabelle; Verhaeghe, Martine; Doutrellot, Pierre-Louis; Pérot, Chantal



Menstrual function among women exposed to polybrominated biphenyls: A follow-up prevalence study  

PubMed Central

Background Alteration in menstrual cycle function is suggested among rhesus monkeys and humans exposed to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and structurally similar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The feedback system for menstrual cycle function potentially allows multiple pathways for disruption directly through the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and indirectly through alternative neuroendocrine axes. Methods The Michigan Female Health Study was conducted during 1997–1998 among women in a cohort exposed to PBBs in 1973. This study included 337 women with self-reported menstrual cycles of 20–35 days (age range: 24–56 years). Current PBB levels were estimated by exponential decay modeling of serum PBB levels collected from 1976–1987 during enrollment in the Michigan PBB cohort. Linear regression models for menstrual cycle length and the logarithm of bleed length used estimated current PBB exposure or enrollment PBB exposure categorized in tertiles, and for the upper decile. All models were adjusted for serum PCB levels, age, body mass index, history of at least 10% weight loss in the past year, physical activity, smoking, education, and household income. Results Higher levels of physical activity were associated with shorter bleed length, and increasing age was associated with shorter cycle length. Although no overall association was found between PBB exposure and menstrual cycle characteristics, a significant interaction between PBB exposures with past year weight loss was found. Longer bleed length and shorter cycle length were associated with higher PBB exposure among women with past year weight loss. Conclusion This study suggests that PBB exposure may impact ovarian function as indicated by menstrual cycle length and bleed length. However, these associations were found among the small number of women with recent weight loss suggesting either a chance finding or that mobilization of PBBs from lipid stores may be important. These results should be replicated with larger numbers of women exposed to similar lipophilic compounds. PMID:16091135

Davis, Stephanie I; Blanck, Heidi Michels; Hertzberg, Vicki S; Tolbert, Paige E; Rubin, Carol; Cameron, Lorraine L; Henderson, Alden K; Marcus, Michele



The Capodimonte Deep Field. Presentation of the survey and first follow-up studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the Capodimonte Deep Field (OACDF), a deep field covering an area of 0.5 ° 2 in the B, V, R optical bands plus six medium-band filters in the wavelength range 773-913 nm. The field reaches the following limiting magnitudes: BAB˜ 25.3, VAB˜ 24.8 and RAB˜25.1 and contains ˜50 000 extended sources in the magnitude range 18 ?RAB ?25.0. Hence, it is intermediate between deep pencil beam surveys and very wide but shallow surveys. The main scientific goal of the OACDF is the identification and characterization of early-type field galaxies at different look-back times in order to study different scenarios of galaxy formation. Parallel goals include the search for groups and clusters of galaxies and the search for rare and peculiar objects (gravitational lenses, QSOs, halo White Dwarfs). In this paper we describe the OACDF data reduction, the methods adopted for the extraction of the photometric catalogs, the photometric calibration and the quality assessment of the catalogs by means of galaxy number counts, spectroscopic and photometric redshifts and star colors. We also present the first results of the search for galaxy overdensities. The depth of the OACDF and its relatively large spatial coverage with respect to pencil beam surveys make it a good tool for further studies of galaxy formation and evolution in the redshift range 0-1, as well as for stellar studies. Based on observations carried out at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile under proposals numbers 63.O-0464(A), 64.O-0304(A), 65.O-0298(A) and 67.B-0457(A). Tables A.1-A.3 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

Alcalá, J. M.; Pannella, M.; Puddu, E.; Radovich, M.; Silvotti, R.; Arnaboldi, M.; Capaccioli, M.; Covone, G.; Dall'Ora, M.; De Lucia, G.; Grado, A.; Longo, G.; Mercurio, A.; Musella, I.; Napolitano, N.; Pavlov, M.; Rifatto, A.; Ripepi, V.; Scaramella, R.



Follow up study of radiocesium contamination in a Greek forest ecosystem.  


Radiocesiun distribution in the different parts of a Quercus conferta Kit ecosystem in Northern Greece was measured in 2005-2006, twenty years after the Chernobyl accident. The comparison between the results of this study and those previously measured (1993-1995) in the same ecosystem gives information about the long-term behavior of 137Cs in forest ecosystems. The major part of the 137Cs inventory is still in the upper layers of the soil. The radiocesium distribution in soil is fixed and has been in equilibrium at least since 1993, when the first measurements were performed. The major contamination mechanism of leaves and wood is root uptake. PMID:17846528

Clouvas, A; Xanthos, S; Takoudis, G; Antonopoulos-Domis, M; Alifrangis, D A; Zhiyanski, M; Sokolovska, M



Desisting and persisting gender dysphoria after childhood: a qualitative follow-up study.  


The aim of this qualitative study was to obtain a better understanding of the developmental trajectories of persistence and desistence of childhood gender dysphoria and the psychosexual outcome of gender dysphoric children. Twenty five adolescents (M age 15.88, range 14-18), diagnosed with a Gender Identity Disorder (DSM-IV or DSM-IV-TR) in childhood, participated in this study. Data were collected by means of biographical interviews. Adolescents with persisting gender dysphoria (persisters) and those in whom the gender dysphoria remitted (desisters) indicated that they considered the period between 10 and 13 years of age to be crucial. They reported that in this period they became increasingly aware of the persistence or desistence of their childhood gender dysphoria. Both persisters and desisters stated that the changes in their social environment, the anticipated and actual feminization or masculinization of their bodies, and the first experiences of falling in love and sexual attraction had influenced their gender related interests and behaviour, feelings of gender discomfort and gender identification. Although, both persisters and desisters reported a desire to be the other gender during childhood years, the underlying motives of their desire seemed to be different. PMID:21216800

Steensma, Thomas D; Biemond, Roeline; de Boer, Fijgje; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T



A follow-up study of neurometabolic alterations in female concussed athletes.  


Athletes who sustain a concussion demonstrate a variety of symptoms and neuropsychological alterations that could be brought on by neurometabolic abnormalities. However, no study has yet investigated these aspects in female athletes using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The present study investigated the neurometabolic and -psychological effects of a concussion in the acute (7-10 days postinjury) and chronic (6 months postinjury) phases after injury. Eleven female concussed athletes and 10 female control athletes were scanned at both time points in a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Neuropsychological and symptomatic evaluations were completed at each time point. Neuropsychological alterations and a higher severity of symptoms were found in the acute phase in concussed athletes, relative to controls, but showed recovery in the chronic phase. Concussed athletes showed neurometabolic impairment in prefrontal and motor cortices characterized by a pathological increase of glutamine/glutamate and creatine (Cr) only in the chronic phase. Also, a significant decrease in N-acetyl-aspartate/Cr ratio was observed in control athletes at the second time point. Concussed female athletes showed acute cognitive alterations and higher severity of symptoms that do not appear to be underlied by neurometabolic abnormalities, which are only present in the chronic postinjury phase. PMID:24053210

Chamard, Emilie; Henry, Luke; Boulanger, Yvan; Lassonde, Maryse; Théoret, Hugo



Sutureless femtosecond anterior lamellar keratoplasty: A 1-year follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Aim: To study the safety and efficacy of sutureless femtosecond anterior lamellar keratoplasty (FALK) in patients with corneal stromal opacities. Materials and Methods: Eleven eyes of 11 consecutive patients with corneal stromal opacities involving < 250 ? due to various pathologies were included in the study. Preoperatively, all underwent anterior segment imaging with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) (Bioptigen Inc., Durham, North Carolina, USA) to measure the depth of the stromal opacity. All patients underwent FALK, and bandage contact lens was placed for a period of 2 weeks. Postoperatively, uncorrected visual acuity, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and SD-OCT evaluation were performed. Results: All patients showed significant improvement in BCVA. The mean postoperative BCVA (in decimals) improved from 0.11 ± 0.06 preoperatively to 0.59 ± 0.08. There were no intraoperative or significant postoperative complications that were noticed. Conclusion: FALK is a safe and effective alternative to deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty or penetrating keratoplasty in the treatment of anterior stromal opacities. PMID:25370393

Shetty, Rohit; Nagaraja, Harsha; Veluri, Himabindu; Shivanna, Yathish; Kugar, Thungappa; Nujits, Rudy; Shetty, Bhujang



[Follow-up studies of gerontopsychiatric long-term patients following a change in residential status].  


Changes in living conditions of the elderly are considered as critical life events. The degree of stress produced by such critical life events is seen largely dependent on controllability and predictability of the situation. Our study focuses on changes in behavior and well-being at four times during ten weeks while 34 long-term gerontopsychiatric patients moved into reconstructed wards, which were mainly improved under ecological aspects. Investigations were performed with the "Beobachtungsskala für alternde Patienten (BAP)" and by free observation. In summary, the results show reduced well-being and behavioral problems at all four times of measurement for female patients compared to the male group. In contrary, for male patients there is a significant reduction in need of help, physical disability, aggression and depression one week after the move. But these improvements are not stable. Partly, they are followed by decreases even beyond the baseline six weeks after the move. Therefore, unlike the male patients it seems that the older and more impaired women in our sample can not at all profit from the positive changes in the new living conditions on the ward at any time during our study. Their well-being remains obviously unsatisfactory and becomes even worse and threatening for single cases after the move. Results are discussed with respect to psychiatric impairments like dementia, paranoia, with regard to stress and coping as well as with respect to some contradictory findings in this field of research. PMID:2496413

Büssing, A; Knauer, E



Primary headaches in preschool age children: clinical study and follow-up in 163 patients.  


Although headache frequency is increasing in preschool age children, an extensive evaluation of the clinical features in affected patients has yet to be achieved. This retrospective study examined 243 patients who were separately analysed in two distinct groups according to the age of onset and the age of first clinical evaluation. Group 1 included preschool age children, while Group 2 consisted of pubertal age patients. In all the patients the importance of a positive family history for headache as a risk factor was confirmed. In addition, when compared with Group 2, Group 1 showed greater male gender prevalence and earlier onset of the attacks. Regarding clinical features, in Group 1, compared with Group 2, the attack duration was shorter with lower symptom association such as photo- or phonophobia, nausea and no pain increase during physical activity. In the same group, tension-type headache was the predominant diagnosis, in contrast to the high migraine prevalence of Group 2. This study also showed that the International Headache Society 1988 classification criteria are not fully adequate for juvenile headaches. In fact, the headaches of more than 10% of patients in Group 1 still remained unclassifiable, while those of all the subjects in Group 2 were properly classifiable. PMID:16426271

Battistella, P A; Fiumana, E; Binelli, M; Bertossi, E; Battista, P; Perakis, E; Soriani, S



The impact of recycled neonatal incubators in Nigeria: a 6-year follow-up study.  


Nigeria has a record of high newborn mortality as an estimated 778 babies die daily, accounting for a ratio of 48 deaths per 1000 live births. The aim of this paper was to show how a deteriorating neonatal delivery system in Nigeria may have, in part, been improved by the application of a novel recycled incubator technique (RIT). Retrospective assessment of clinical, technical, and human factors in 15 Nigerian neonatal centres was carried out to investigate how the application of RIT impacted these factors. Pre-RIT and post-RIT neonatal mortalities were compared by studying case files. Effect on neonatal nursing was studied through questionnaires that were completed by 79 nurses from 9 centres across the country. Technical performance was assessed based on 10-indices scores from clinicians and nurses. The results showed an increase in neonatal survival, nursing enthusiasm, and practice confidence. Appropriately recycled incubators are good substitutes to the less affordable modern incubators in boosting neonatal practice outcome in low-income countries. PMID:21331375

Amadi, Hippolite Onyejiaka; Azubuike, Jonathan C; Etawo, Uriah S; Offiong, Uduak R; Ezeaka, Chinyere; Olateju, Eyinade; Adimora, Gilbert N; Osibogun, Akin; Ibeziako, Ngozi; Iroha, Edna O; Dutse, Abdulhameed I; Chukwu, Christian O; Okpere, Eugene E; Kawuwa, Mohammed B; El-Nafaty, Aliyu U; Kuranga, Sulyman A; Mokuolu, Olugbenga Ayodeji



The Impact of Recycled Neonatal Incubators in Nigeria: A 6-Year Follow-Up Study  

PubMed Central

Nigeria has a record of high newborn mortality as an estimated 778 babies die daily, accounting for a ratio of 48 deaths per 1000 live births. The aim of this paper was to show how a deteriorating neonatal delivery system in Nigeria may have, in part, been improved by the application of a novel recycled incubator technique (RIT). Retrospective assessment of clinical, technical, and human factors in 15 Nigerian neonatal centres was carried out to investigate how the application of RIT impacted these factors. Pre-RIT and post-RIT neonatal mortalities were compared by studying case files. Effect on neonatal nursing was studied through questionnaires that were completed by 79 nurses from 9 centres across the country. Technical performance was assessed based on 10-indices scores from clinicians and nurses. The results showed an increase in neonatal survival, nursing enthusiasm, and practice confidence. Appropriately recycled incubators are good substitutes to the less affordable modern incubators in boosting neonatal practice outcome in low-income countries. PMID:21331375

Amadi, Hippolite Onyejiaka; Azubuike, Jonathan C.; Etawo, Uriah S.; Offiong, Uduak R.; Ezeaka, Chinyere; Olateju, Eyinade; Adimora, Gilbert N.; Osibogun, Akin; Ibeziako, Ngozi; Iroha, Edna O.; Dutse, Abdulhameed I.; Chukwu, Christian O.; Okpere, Eugene E.; Kawuwa, Mohammed B.; El-Nafaty, Aliyu U.; Kuranga, Sulyman A.; Mokuolu, Olugbenga Ayodeji



Interrelationship between chronic periodontitis and anemia: A 6-month follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background: In India, anemia is a common and serious health disorder among both sexes and all age groups, with anemia of chronic disease (ACD) being the second most prevalent anemia. Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of the tooth caused by specific microorganisms. An immune response to bacteria and their products induces a major vascular response, offering explanatory mechanisms for the interactions between periodontal infection and a variety of systemic disorders. Therefore, periodontitis results in low-grade systemic inflammation, which may cause lower number of erythrocytes and, consequently, lower hemoglobin concentration. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 systemically healthy male patients visiting the outpatient department participated in the study. Of these, 50 patients had healthy periodontium and 50 patients had chronic periodontitis. Clinical parameters and red blood cell parameters of all the patients were assessed at baseline and 6 months after non-surgical periodontal therapy. Statistical analysis using Student's t-test was performed. Results: Data analysis revealed that patients with chronic periodontitis showed an improvement in both clinical and red blood cell parameters from baseline to 6 months after non-surgical periodontal therapy. Conclusion: From the present study, it can be concluded that like any other chronic condition, chronic periodontitis can lead to ACD. It also provides evidence that non-surgical periodontal therapy can improve the anemic status of patients with chronic periodontitis. PMID:24744539

Patel, Megha Dhananjay; Shakir, Quaid Johar; Shetty, Arvind



Homocysteine as a Risk Factor for Hypertension: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study  

PubMed Central

Homocysteine (Hcy) is regarded as a risk factor for hypertension, but research on the causal relationship between Hcy and hypertension is limited. In the present study, we prospectively tracked the blood pressure progression of a normotensive population with different Hcy levels over a 2-year period. The incidence of hypertension with increasing Hcy quartiles produced an approximately U-shaped curve, with significance in males. Compared with the third quartile, the risk of hypertension in the first and second quartiles was increased by 1.55 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.154–2.081) fold and 1.501 (95% CI 1.119–2.013) fold, respectively, with the increase being more significant in males. In conclusion, Hcy is related to hypertension incidence with the results approximating an U-shaped curve. Low Hcy levels might also increase the risk of hypertension. PMID:25310282

Yao, Tao; Li, DongQing; Wang, YanXiu; Li, YuQing; Wu, ShouLing; Cai, Jun



Beta2-Microglobulin as a Diagnostic Marker in Cerebrospinal Fluid: A Follow-Up Study  

PubMed Central

Beta2-Microglobulin (?2-m) is a low molecular weight protein occurring in all body fluids. Its concentration increases in various pathologies. Increased values in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are ascribed to an activation of immune system. Using immunoturbidimetry, we examined concentrations of beta2-microglobulin in cerebrospinal fluid in a large group of 6274 patients with defined neurological diseases. Cell counts, total protein, albumin, glucose, lactic acid, immunoglobulins concentrations, and isofocusing (IEF) were also evaluated. We found substantial changes of CSF ?2-m concentrations in purulent meningitis, leptomeningeal metastasis, viral meningitis/encephalitis, and neuroborreliosis, while in multiple sclerosis these changes were not significant. Intrathecal synthesis and immune activation were present in these clinical entities. A new normative study enables better understanding of beta2-microglobulin behavior in CSF. PMID:24895473

Svatonova, Jana; Borecka, Klara; Adam, Pavel; Lanska, Vera



Mood and cognition after electrical injury: a follow-up study.  


Individuals who have experienced an electrical injury have been reported to demonstrate both acute and delayed cognitive and psychiatric symptoms. The present study assessed 20 electrically injured patients who underwent neuropsychological evaluations twice following their injury. Time since injury, time between assessments, and longitudinal mood changes were evaluated for their potential impact on simple and complex attention outcomes. As an overall group, there was little change over time from low average to average baseline attention/concentration performance. However, results indicated that longitudinal increases in depressive symptoms were consistently associated with poorer performance on a measure of simple and complex attention. Loss of consciousness, litigation status, baseline injury status (acute vs. post-acute), and time between evaluations were not significant predictors of changes in cognitive performance. Implications for the treatment of comorbid psychiatric issues and for future research on victims of electrical trauma are discussed. PMID:24395352

Aase, Darrin M; Fink, Joseph W; Lee, Raphael C; Kelley, Kathleen M; Pliskin, Neil H



"Inclusive working life in Norway": a registry-based five-year follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background In 2001, the Norwegian authorities and major labour market partners signed an agreement regarding ‘inclusive working life’ (IW), whereby companies that participate are committed to reducing sickness absence. Our main aim was to determine the effect of the IW program and work characteristics by gender on long-term (>8 weeks) sickness absence (LSA). Methods Self-reported data on work characteristics from the Oslo Health Study were linked to registry-based data on IW status, education and LSA. From 2001–2005, 10,995 participants (5,706 women and 5,289 men) aged 30, 40, 45 and 60 years were followed. A Cox regression was used to compute hazard ratios (HR) for LSA risk. The cohort was divided into an IW group (2,733 women and 2,058 men) and non-IW group (2,973/3,231). Results 43.2% and 41.6% of women and 22.3%/24.3% of men (IW / non-IW, respectively) experienced at least one LSA. In a multivariate model, statistically significant risk factors for LSA were low education (stronger in men), shift work/night work or rotating hours (strongest in men in the non-IW group), and heavy physical work or work involving walking and lifting (men only and stronger in the non-IW group). Among men who engaged in shift work, the LSA risk was significantly lower in the IW group. Conclusions Our results could suggest that IW companies that employ many men in shift work have implemented relevant efforts for reducing sickness absence. However, this study could not demonstrate a significant effect of the IW program on the overall LSA risk. PMID:23829467



Comparative clinical study of the effectiveness of different dental bleaching methods - two year follow-up  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated color change, stability, and tooth sensitivity in patients submitted to different bleaching techniques. Material and methods In this study, 48 patients were divided into five groups. A half-mouth design was conducted to compare two in-office bleaching techniques (with and without light activation): G1: 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) (Lase Peroxide - DMC Equipments, São Carlos, SP, Brazil) + hybrid light (HL) (LED/Diode Laser, Whitening Lase II DMC Equipments, São Carlos, SP, Brazil); G2: 35% HP; G3: 38% HP (X-traBoost - Ultradent, South Jordan UT, USA) + HL; G4: 38% HP; and G5: 15% carbamide peroxide (CP) (Opalescence PF - Ultradent, South Jordan UT, USA). For G1 and G3, HP was applied on the enamel surface for 3 consecutive applications activated by HL. Each application included 3x3' HL activations with 1' between each interval; for G2 and G4, HP was applied 3x15' with 15' between intervals; and for G5, 15% CP was applied for 120'/10 days at home. A spectrophotometer was used to measure color change before the treatment and after 24 h, 1 week, 1, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. A VAS questionnaire was used to evaluate tooth sensitivity before the treatment, immediately following treatment, 24 h after and finally 1 week after. Results Statistical analysis did not reveal any significant differences between in-office bleaching with or without HL activation related to effectiveness; nevertheless the time required was less with HL. Statistical differences were observed between the results after 24 h, 1 week and 1, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months (intergroup). Immediately, in-office bleaching increased tooth sensitivity. The groups activated with HL required less application time with gel. Conclusion All techniques and bleaching agents used were effective and demonstrated similar behaviors. PMID:23032205

MONDELLI, Rafael Francisco Lia; de AZEVEDO, Juliana Felipi David e Goes; FRANCISCONI, Ana Carolina; de ALMEIDA, Cristiane Machado; ISHIKIRIAMA, Sergio Kiyoshi



Follow-Up Association Studies of Chromosome Region 9q and Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip/Palate  

PubMed Central

Cleft lip/palate comprises a large fraction of all human birth defects, and is notable for its significant lifelong morbidity and complex etiology. Several studies have shown that genetic factors appear to play a significant role in the etiology of cleft lip/palate. Human chromosomal region 9q21 has been suggested in previous reports to contain putative cleft loci. Moreover, a specific region (9q22.3-34.1) was suggested to present a ?45% probability of harboring a cleft susceptibility gene. Fine mapping of fifty SNPs across the 9q22.3-34.11 region was performed to test for association with cleft lip/palate in families from United States, Spain, Turkey, Guatemala, and China. We performed family-based analysis and found evidence of association of cleft lip/palate with STOM (rs306796) in Guatemalan families (P=0.004) and in all multiplex families pooled together (P=0.002). This same SNP also showed borderline association in the US families (P=0.04). Under a nominal value of 0.05, other SNPs also showed association with cleft lip/palate and cleft subgroups. SNPs in STOM and PTCH genes and nearby FOXE1 were further associated with cleft phenotypes in Guatemalan and Chinese families. Gene prioritization analysis revealed PTCH and STOM ranking among the top fourteen candidates for cleft lip/palate among 339 genes present in the region. Our results support the hypothesis that the 9q22.32-34.1 region harbors cleft susceptibility genes. Additional studies with other populations should focus on these loci to further investigate the participation of these genes in human clefting. PMID:20583170

Letra, Ariadne; Menezes, Renato; Govil, Manika; Fonseca, Renata F.; McHenry, Toby; Granjeiro, Jose M.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Orioli, Ieda M.; Marazita, Mary L.; Vieira, Alexandre R.



A follow-up study on extracorporeal fixation of condylar fractures using vertical ramus osteotomy  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study is to report the results of extracorporeal fixation in patients with mandibular condylar fractures and compare them with the clinical results of conservative treatment. Materials and Methods The medical records of 92 patients (73 male [M] : 19 female [F], age 13-69 years, mean 33.1 years) treated for condylar fractures at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Sun Dental Hospital (Daejeon, Korea) from 2007 to 2012 were reviewed. Patients were divided into three groups: group A (23 patients; M : F=18 : 5, age 21-69 years, mean 32.6 years), treated with extracorporeal fixation; group B (30 patients; M : F=24 : 6, age 16-57 years, mean 21.1 years), treated by conventional open reduction; and group C (39 patients; M : F=31 : 8, age 16-63 years, mean 34.4 years), treated with the conservative method ('closed' reduction). Clinical and radiographic findings were evaluated and analyzed statistically. Results Occurrence of postoperative condylar resorption correlated with certain locations and types of fracture. In this study, patients in group A (treated with extracorporeal fixation) did not demonstrate significant postoperative complications such as malocclusion, mandibular hypomobility, temporomandibular disorder, or complete resorption of condyle fragments. Conclusion In superiorly located mandibular condyle fractures, exact reconstruction of condylar structure with the conventional open reduction technique can be difficult due to the limited surgical and visual fields. In such cases, extracorporeal fixation of the condyle using vertical ramus osteotomy may be a better choice of treatment because it results in anatomically accurate reconstruction and low risk of complications. PMID:24868504

Park, Sung Yong; Im, Jae Hyoung; Yoon, Seong Hoe



Hygienic and health characteristics of donkey milk during a follow-up study.  


For its characteristics, donkey milk has been proposed as an alternative to goat or artificial milk to feed allergic infants. Therefore, it is important to increase our knowledge on health and immunological characteristics of donkey milk. Ten donkeys, bred as companion animals, were enrolled in this study and sampled once a month, for eight months. Milk (10 ml) was collected from each half udder for somatic cell count (SCC), bacteriological analysis and total bacteria count (TBC). The major pathogens were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, and Staphylococcus aureus isolates were further genotyped by nanoarray analysis. Whey lysozyme and NAGase (NAG) activities were also assessed. Overall, 101 half-udder milk samples were taken. They showed very low values of TBC (<250 cfu/ml) and SCC (<50 000 cells/ml) and a minor prevalence of pathogens: Staph. aureus was isolated only from 5 milk samples (3 animals), Streptococcus equi from 2 samples and Str. equisimilis from a single sample. All the isolates were sensitive to all antibiotic classes used in veterinary medicine. None of the Staph. aureus isolates were shown to harbour genes coding for any enterotoxin, toxic-shock syndrome toxin or antibiotic resistance. Lysozyme levels were always very high (4000-5000 U/ml), while NAG values were mostly low (<50 U/ml), out of the last part of lactation. The results of this study confirmed the low prevalence of intramammary infections in donkey and the absence of food-borne pathogens, suggesting that donkey milk could be a safe food, if the mammary gland is healthy and the animals are milked in proper hygienic conditions. PMID:20883563

Pilla, Rachel; Daprà, Valentina; Zecconi, Alfonso; Piccinini, Renata



Microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia: a long-term follow-up study.  


In this report, we present our experience with microvascular decompression (MVD) as treatment for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and discuss factors related to recurrence after this procedure. Between 1986 and 2004, 90 patients underwent MVD for treatment of idiopathic TN at the Marmara University Department of Neurosurgery and Marmara University Neurological Sciences Institute. Individuals with atypical and secondary forms of TN were excluded from the study. The patient characteristics, work-up findings, observations during surgery, and results of MVD for the 90 cases are reviewed. In 87 (97%) of the patients, exposure of the pontocerebellar angle revealed a vascular structure compressing the trigeminal nerve. In the patients with vascular compression, the problem vessel was an artery in 80 (92%) cases and a vein in 7 (8%) cases. In 77 cases, all symptoms were completely resolved by the operation. Ten patients experienced significant partial relief, and the intensity of the residual pain in these cases was not severe enough to require medication. Three patients experienced no improvement after MVD. There was no mortality associated with MVD in the 90 cases. The findings for our series of 90 patients with TN who underwent MVD indicate that this operation is an effective and reliable treatment for this condition. We recommend MVD as the first-line surgical approach for patients with TN who do not respond to medical management. PMID:17323260

Pamir, M N; Peker, S



Cognitive deficits associated with acquired amusia after stroke: a neuropsychological follow-up study.  


Recent evidence on amusia suggests that our ability to perceive music might be based on the same neural resources that underlie other higher cognitive functions, such as speech perception and spatial processing. We studied the neural correlates of acquired amusia by performing extensive neuropsychological assessments on 53 stroke patients with a left or right hemisphere middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months after the stroke. In addition, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on all patients 1 week and 6 months post-stroke. Based on their performance on a shortened version of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA), the patients were classified as amusic (n=32) or non-amusic (n=21). MRI results showed that the incidence of auditory cortex and frontal lobe damage was significantly higher in the amusic group than in the non-amusic group, but the two groups did not differ in respect to lesion laterality. Cognitively, amusia was associated with general deficits in working memory and learning, semantic fluency, executive functioning, and visuospatial cognition, as well as hemisphere-specific deficits in verbal comprehension, mental flexibility, and visuospatial attention (unilateral spatial neglect). Moreover, the recovery of music perception ability was related to the recovery of verbal learning, visuospatial perception and attention, and focused attention, especially in amusic patients. Together, these results suggest the ability to perceive music is closely linked to other higher cognitive functions. PMID:19500606

Särkämö, Teppo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Soinila, Seppo; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M; Laine, Matti; Hietanen, Marja



A 20-year follow-up study on chronic respiratory effects of exposure to cotton dust.  


In order to evaluate chronic effects of long-term exposure to cotton dust on respiratory health, and the role of dust and endotoxin, longitudinal changes in lung function and respiratory symptoms were observed prospectively from 1981 to 2001 in 447 cotton textile workers, along with 472 silk textile controls. The results from five surveys conducted over the 20-yr period are reported, including standardised questionnaires, pre- and post-shift spirometric measurements, work-area inhalable dust sample collections and airborne Gram-bacterial endotoxin analysis. Cotton workers had more persistent respiratory symptoms and greater annual declines in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity as compared with silk workers. After exposure cessation, in the final 5-yr period, the rate of FEV1 decline tended to slow in nonsmoking males, but not in nonsmoking females. Workers who reported byssinotic symptoms more persistently suffered greater declines in FEV1. Chronic loss in lung function was more strongly associated with exposure to endotoxin than to dust. In conclusion, the current study suggests that long-term exposure to cotton dust, in which airborne endotoxin appears to play an important role, results in substantial adverse chronic respiratory effects. PMID:16264050

Wang, X-R; Zhang, H-X; Sun, B-X; Dai, H-L; Hang, J-Q; Eisen, E A; Wegman, D H; Olenchock, S A; Christiani, D C



A follow-up study of Eco Education's environmental service-learning program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the study is to determine student views of the influence of the Eco Education Urban Stewards program's impact on their involvement in community environmental initiatives. Eco Education is a non-profit organization in St. Paul that facilitates an urban, environmental, year-long science curriculum delivered in middle schools in Minnesota. The year-long program ends with an urban, environmental service-learning project. Ten high school students from the Inter District Downtown School who had completed Urban Stewards in middle school took a survey and were interviewed and compared with ten high school students who had a more traditional middle school science experience. Semi-structured oral interviews were conducted with each student. Transcriptions of the interviews were analyzed and compared to the survey results. The survey results were tabulated and given numerical values to compare the Eco Education and non-Eco Education students. Common themes and differences were discovered when comparing the survey results and interview transcriptions of the two groups. Urban Stewards students demonstrated more awareness of environmental issues, concerns and community projects but not by a significant amount.

Hobert, Thomas Milton


Parent-Reported Executive Functioning in Post-Institutionalized Children: A Follow-Up Study  

PubMed Central

Objective This study compared parent-rated executive functioning (EF) in 6- to 18-year-old children adopted from psychosocially depriving institutions to that in children adopted from severely or “globally” depriving institutions. Individual continuity in EF over two years was examined in children adopted from psychosocially depriving institutions. Method There were 471 children adopted from psychosocially depriving Russian institutions which provided adequate physical resources but failed to provide a consistent set of responsive caregivers. There were 111 children adopted in the early 1990s from globally depriving Romanian institutions which were characterized by physical deprivation as well as profound psychosocial neglect. Adoptive parents completed a background questionnaire and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Results Children adopted from globally depriving institutions had significantly higher levels of EF difficulties than children adopted from psychosocially depriving institutions. For both groups, adoption after 18 months of age was associated with higher levels of EF difficulties. Children adopted from globally depriving institutions had higher levels of EF difficulties than the BRIEF standardization sample at younger ages at adoption. There was moderate to strong continuity in EF difficulties over two years in children adopted from psychosocially depriving institutions. Conclusions These findings suggest that more severe early deprivation may lead to a higher risk of later EF difficulties, which may persist over time. PMID:23413815

Merz, Emily C.; McCall, Robert B.; Groza, Victor



Psychosocial conditions in adults with Crouzon syndrome: a follow-up study of 31 Swedish patients.  


Crouzon syndrome presents with craniosynostosis, maxillary hypoplasia, exophtalmus, and sometimes hampered neuropsychological development. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the quality of life for adult patients with Crouzon syndrome. Forty patients with Crouzon syndrome born before 1990 could be identified. A questionnaire addressing education, employment, social relations, and quality-of-life was used. A matched control group was created for comparison. Logistic regression, correcting for the influence of age and sex, was used to compare patients and controls. Thirty-one patients and 285 controls answered the questionnaire. The level of education was lower in patients than in controls (p < 0.015). Patients were less often married or had a partner (p = 0.059), had fewer children of their own (p = 0.004), and had less experience of a sexual relationship (p < 0.001). The difference in housing was not significant, and only one patient lived in a care centre and three patients required a personal assistant to manage activities of daily living. The patients' estimation of their somatic health was equal to that of the controls, but the patients more often used anti-epileptic medication (p = 0.003). Periods of depressive mood were more common in patients (p = 0.001), but there was no difference between the groups regarding a general positive attitude to life. In conclusion, patients with Crouzon syndrome often have intellectual and social shortcomings that negatively affect their lives. However, the range of abilities is wide in this group. PMID:24328900

Fischer, Sara; Tovetjärn, Robert; Maltese, Giovanni; Sahlin, Per-Erik; Tarnow, Peter; Kölby, Lars



Parent-reported executive functioning in postinstitutionalized children: a follow-up study.  


This study compared parent-rated executive functioning (EF) in 6- to 18-year-old children adopted from psychosocially depriving institutions to that in children adopted from severely or "globally" depriving institutions. Individual continuity in EF over 2 years was examined in children adopted from psychosocially depriving institutions. There were 471 children adopted from psychosocially depriving Russian institutions that provided adequate physical resources but failed to provide a consistent set of responsive caregivers. There were 111 children adopted in the early 1990s from globally depriving Romanian institutions that were characterized by physical deprivation as well as profound psychosocial neglect. Adoptive parents completed a background questionnaire and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Children adopted from globally depriving institutions had significantly higher levels of EF difficulties than children adopted from psychosocially depriving institutions. For both groups, adoption after 18 months of age was associated with higher levels of EF difficulties. Children adopted from globally depriving institutions had higher levels of EF difficulties than the BRIEF standardization sample at younger ages at adoption. There was moderate to strong continuity in EF difficulties over 2 years in children adopted from psychosocially depriving institutions. These findings suggest that more severe early deprivation may lead to a higher risk of later EF difficulties, which may persist over time. PMID:23413815

Merz, Emily C; McCall, Robert B; Groza, Victor



Blackfoot disease in Taiwan: a 30-year follow-up study  

SciTech Connect

Blackfoot disease is an endemic peripheral vascular disease found among the inhabitants of a limited area on the southwest coast of Taiwan, where artesian well water with a high concentration of arsenic has been used for more than eighty years. The natural history of blackfoot disease, based on a prospective study of 1,300 patients, is presented. The overall male/female ratio was 1.5:1. Although the clinical onset was usually insidious, it may be quite sudden and almost always begins with numbness or coldness in one or more extremities, usually the feet. Ultimately, rest pain develops and progresses to gangrene. In this series, 68% of the patients underwent spontaneous or operative amputation, and the reamputation rate was 23.3%. Lower extremity involvement in blackfoot disease was observed in 97.7% of the cases. The average annual rate for major amputation was 3.81 per 100 patient-years. The factors influencing the prognosis, such as amputation in relation to age and disease onset, are analyzed. The case fatality rate was 66.5% during thirty years; 44% of these were cardiovascular deaths. The annual death rate was 4.84 per 100 patient-years. Other reported case fatality rates for vascular insufficiency are reviewed. A dose-response relationship between blackfoot disease and the duration of water intake was also noted. The survival rates after the onset of blackfoot disease were: five years, 76.0%; ten years, 59.5%; twenty years, 38.2%; thirty years, 28.6%. The 50% survival point was 13.5 years after onset of the disease.

Tseng, W.P.



Inadequate Riboflavin Intake and Anemia Risk in a Chinese Population: Five-Year Follow Up of the Jiangsu Nutrition Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Riboflavin (vitamin B2) has been shown in animal studies to affect the absorption and metabolism of iron. Cross-sectional population studies show a relationship between riboflavin intake and anemia but prospective population studies are limited. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between riboflavin intake and the risk of anemia in a Chinese cohort. Method The study used data from 1253 Chinese men and women who participated in two waves of the Jiangsu Nutrition Study (JIN), five years apart, in 2002 and 2007. Riboflavin intake and hemoglobin (Hb) were quantitatively assessed together with dietary patterns, lifestyle, socio-demographic and health-related factors. Results At baseline, 97.2% of participants had inadequate riboflavin intake (below the estimate average requirement). Riboflavin intake was positively associated with anemia at baseline, but low riboflavin intake was associated with an increased risk of anemia at follow-up among those anemic at baseline. In the multivariate model, adjusting for demographic and lifestyle factors and dietary patterns, the relative risk and 95% confidence interval for anemia at follow-up, across quartiles of riboflavin intake were: 1, 0.82(0.54–1.23), 0.56(0.34–0.93), 0.52(0.28–0.98) (p for trend 0.021). There was a significant interaction between riboflavin and iron intake; when riboflavin intake was low, a high iron intake was associated with a lower probability of anemia at follow-up. This association disappeared when riboflavin intake was high. Conclusion Inadequate riboflavin intake is common and increases the risk of anemia in Chinese adults. Given the interaction with iron intake correcting inadequate riboflavin intake may be a priority in the prevention of anemia, and population based measurement and intervention trials are required. PMID:24533156

Shi, Zumin; Zhen, Shiqi; Wittert, Gary A.; Yuan, Baojun; Zuo, Hui; Taylor, Anne W.



Follow-Up Testing

Provides possible follow-up testing, next steps and treatments for women who receive abnormal cervical screening test results, including estrogen cream, colposcopy, endocervical curettage biopsy, punch biopsy, and cone biopsy.


Heterogeneity of treatment changes after psychodynamic therapy within a one year follow-up: a replication study.  


Naturalistic psychotherapy effect studies commonly report effect sizes for the total sample. However, a previous study of SCL-90 Global Severity Index (GSI) improvement in a large outpatient sample used a cluster analytic strategy and reported clinical relevant outcome trajectories that could be grouped into early within-treatment improvement, late improvement in the follow-up period, and deteriorating patients with slight improvement that was lost at follow-up. We explore GSI outcome trajectories and clinical significant change in a sample of 320 patients at a public psychiatric outpatient psychodynamic group therapy unit, the majority with anxiety, personality, and mood disorders. The study revealed large discharge and follow-up effect sizes but more than one third of the patients were without measurable improvement. The major clusters described above were confirmed, and revealed unique clinical and socio-demographic characteristics. Late improvers, as compared with early improvers, were characterized by anxiety symptoms and lack of network support after controlling for GSI at admission. Similarly, deteriorating patients had longer duration of illness and less favourable social characteristics compared with the other two groups. Early improving patients were less likely to have participated in short-term groups, and only one third participated in additional treatment compared with more than 69% of the other patients. Severe and socially affected psychiatric patients, and patients with anxiety and agoraphobic symptoms may be less optimally treated in short-term time limited psychodynamic groups. There is an obvious need for diversity of treatment offers, better integration of psycho-social treatment components, and long-term open ended treatment. PMID:24646047

Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin



Infertility among women working in horticulture. A follow-up study in the Danish Occupational Hospitalization Register.  


The possible association between employment in horticulture with potential exposure to pesticides and female infertility was examined by identification of women with hospital contact due to infertility and working in horticulture through the Danish Occupational Hospitalization Register. This follow-up study gave a standardized incidence ratio of 1.06 (95% confidence interval: 0.84-1.32) for treatment of infertility in women working in horticulture compared with the standard population and did not confirm that women working in the horticultural industry are at increased risk for infertility. PMID:18675960

Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Hannerz, Harald; Feveile, Helene; Bonde, Jens Peter; Burr, Hermann



Early childhood psychological problems predict a poor sense of coherence in adolescents: a 15-year follow-up study.  


The aim of the present 15-year follow-up was to study the association between childhood psychological symptoms and sense of coherence (SOC) in adolescence. Destructive behaviour at three years, attention problems and thought problems at 12 years, attention problems, anxiety/depression, delinquency and somatic complaints at 15 years predicted a poor SOC at 18 years. Problems reported by adolescents themselves explained a poor SOC much more often than problems reported by parents. The identification of early childhood behavioural problems helps us to identify children at risk of ill-being in adolescence since problems seem to persist unchanged until that period of life. PMID:19383659

Honkinen, Päivi-Leena; Aromaa, Minna; Suominen, Sakari; Rautava, Päivi; Sourander, Andre; Helenius, Hans; Sillanpää, Matti



Electrocardiographic Abnormalities in Elderly Chagas Disease Patients: 10-Year Follow-Up of the Bambu? Cohort Study of Aging  

PubMed Central

Background Electrocardiography has been considered an important tool in the management of Chagas disease (ChD) patients, although its value in elderly infected patients is unknown. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence and prognostic value of electrocardiographic abnormalities in Trypanosoma cruzi infected and noninfected older adults. Methods and Results We studied 1462 participants in Bambuí City, Brazil, with electrocardiogram (ECG) records classified by the Minnesota Code. Follow?up time was 10 years; the endpoint was mortality. Adjustment for potential confounding variables included age, gender, conventional risk factors, and B?type natriuretic peptide (BNP). The mean age was 69 years (60.9% women). The prevalence of ChD was 38.1% (n=557). ECG abnormalities were more frequent in ChD patients (87.6% versus 77.7%, P<0.001). Right bundle branch block (RBBB) with left anterior hemiblock (LAH) was strongly related to ChD (OR: 11.99 [5.60 to 25.69]). During the mean follow?up time of 8.7 years, 556 participants died (253 with ChD), and only 89 were lost to follow?up. ECG variables of independent prognostic value for death in ChD included absence of sinus rhythm, frequent ventricular and supraventricular premature beats, atrial fibrillation, RBBB, old and possible old myocardial infarction, and left ventricular hypertrophy. The presence of any major ECG abnormalities doubled the risk of death in ChD patients (HR: 2.18 [1.35 to 3.53]), but it also increased the risk in non?ChD subjects (HR: 1.50 [1.07 to 2.10]); the risk of death increased with the number of major abnormalities in the same patient. Conclusion ECG abnormalities are more common among elderly Chagas disease patients and strongly predict adverse outcomes. PMID:24510116

Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P.; Marcolino, Milena S.; Prineas, Ronald J.; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda



Adherence to International Follow-Up Guidelines in Type 2 Diabetes: A Longitudinal Cohort Study in Luxembourg  

PubMed Central

Introduction Type 2 diabetes is associated with severe micro- and macro-vascular complications. Physicians’ and patients’ adherence to follow-up guidelines permits postponing or reducing these complications. The objectives were to assess the level of adherence to fundamental follow-up guidelines and determine patients’ characteristics associated with this level of adherence in the context of Luxembourg, where no guidelines were implemented. Study population The exhaustive residing population treated for type 2 diabetes in Luxembourg during the 2000-2006 period (N?=?21,068). Methods Seven fundamental criteria were extracted from international guidelines (consultation with the treating physician, HbA1c tests, electrocardiogram, retinal, dental, lipid and renal check-ups). The factors associated with the level of adherence to those criteria were identified using a partial proportional odds model. Results In 2006, despite 90% of the patients consulted at least 4 times their treating physician, only 0.6% completed all criteria; 55.0% had no HbA1c test (?8.6 points since 2000) and 31.1% had a renal check-up (+21.6 points). The sex (ORmale: 0.87 [95%CI, 0.83?0.92]), the nationality (ORNonEU: 0.64 [0.52?0.78]), the type of antidiabetic treatment (ORoral: 1.48 [1.35?1.63], ORmixed: 1.35 [1.20?1.52]) and the type of treating physician (ORG-ID: 0.47 [0.42?0.53]) were the main factors associated with the level of adherence in 2006 (3 or more criteria). Conclusion A large percentage of patients were not provided with a systematic annual follow-up between 2000 and 2006. This study highlighted the necessity to promote guidelines in Luxembourg, education for physicians and to launch a national discussion on a disease management program for diabetic patients. PMID:24244637

Renard, Laurence M.; Bocquet, Valery; Vidal-Trecan, Gwenaelle; Lair, Marie-Lise; Blum-Boisgard, Claudine



Follow-up study on lead exposure in children living in a smelter community in northern Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background To study the changes of children lead exposure in the city of Torreon during the last five years, after environmental and public health interventions, using the timeline of lead in blood concentration as the biomarker of exposure and its relation to lead in soil concentrations. Methods This follow-up study started in 2001 and consisted of 232 children living in nine neighborhoods in Torreon. Children were tested at 0, 6, 12 and 60 months. Lead in blood concentrations, Hemoglobin, Zinc-Protoporphyrin, anthropometric measures and socioeconomic status questionnaire was supplied to the parents. Results Median and range of lead in blood concentrations obtained at 0, 6, 12, 60 months were: 10.12 ?g/dl (1.9 - 43.8), 8.75 ?g/dl (1.85 - 41.45), 8.4 ?g/dl (1.7 - 35.8) and 4.4 ?g/dl (1.3 - 30.3), respectively. The decrease of lead in blood levels was significantly related to ages 0, 6, 12 and 60 months of the follow-up study. The timeline of B-Pb was associated with the timeline of lead in soil concentrations. Conclusions B-Pb levels have significantly decreased in the group of children studied. This could be explained by a) environmental interventions by authorities and the smelter companies, b) normal changes in hygienic habits as children age and c) lead redistribution from blood to hard tissues. PMID:21767395



Can a routine follow-up blood culture be justified in Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia? a retrospective case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background The need for mandatory confirmation of negative conversion in Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia (KpB) has not been adequately addressed. We conducted a retrospective case–control study of adult patients with KpB over a 5-year period in two tertiary-care hospitals to determine the risk factors for persistent bacteremia and to reevaluate the necessity of follow-up blood culture in KpB. Methods Persistent KpB is defined as the finding of K. pneumoniae in more than two separate blood-culture samples for longer than a two-day period in a single episode. The case- and control-groups were patients with persistent and non-persistent KpB, respectively, and they were matched 1-to-3 according to age and gender. Results Among 1068 KpB episodes analyzed after excluding polymicrobial infection and repeated KpB, follow-up blood cultures were performed in 862 cases (80.7%), 62 of which (7.2%) were persistent. Independent risk factors for persistence were intra-abdominal infection, higher Charlson’s comorbidity weighted index score, prior solid organ transplantation, and unfavorable treatment response, which was defined as positivity for at least two parameters among fever, leukocytosis, and no decrease of C-reactive protein on the second day after initial culture. A proposed scoring system using four variables, namely, intra-abdominal infection, nosocomial KpB, fever and lack of C-reactive protein decrease, the last two being assessed on the second day after the initial blood culture, showed that only 4.9% of the patients with no risk factors or with only intra-abdominal infection had persistent KpB. Conclusions Though persistent KpB is uncommon, follow-up blood culture was performed in as many as 80% of the cases in this study. A more careful clinical assessment is warranted to reduce the cost and patient inconvenience involved in follow-up blood culture. PMID:23914899



CT Colonography: Clinical Evaluation of a Method for Automatic Coregistration of Polyps at Follow-up Surveillance Studies.  


Purpose To evaluate the accuracy of a method of automatic coregistration of the endoluminal surfaces at computed tomographic (CT) colonography performed on separate occasions to facilitate identification of polyps in patients undergoing polyp surveillance. Materials and Methods Institutional review board and HIPAA approval were obtained. A registration algorithm that was designed to coregister the coordinates of endoluminal colonic surfaces on images from prone and supine CT colonographic acquisitions was used to match polyps in sequential studies in patients undergoing polyp surveillance. Initial and follow-up CT colonographic examinations in 26 patients (35 polyps) were selected and the algorithm was tested by means of two methods, the longitudinal method (polyp coordinates from the initial prone and supine acquisitions were used to identify the expected polyp location automatically at follow-up CT colonography) and the consistency method (polyp coordinates from the initial supine acquisition were used to identify polyp location on images from the initial prone acquisition, then on those for follow-up prone and follow-up supine acquisitions). Two observers measured the Euclidean distance between true and expected polyp locations, and mean per-patient registration accuracy was calculated. Segments with and without collapse were compared by using the Kruskal-Wallace test, and the relationship between registration error and temporal separation was investigated by using the Pearson correlation. Results Coregistration was achieved for all 35 polyps by using both longitudinal and consistency methods. Mean ± standard deviation Euclidean registration error for the longitudinal method was 17.4 mm ± 12.1 and for the consistency method, 26.9 mm ± 20.8. There was no significant difference between these results and the registration error when prone and supine acquisitions in the same study were compared (16.9 mm ± 17.6; P = .451). Conclusion Automatic endoluminal coregistration by using an algorithm at initial CT colonography allowed prediction of endoluminal polyp location at subsequent CT colonography, thereby facilitating detection of known polyps in patients undergoing CT colonographic surveillance. © RSNA, 2014. PMID:24991991

Helbren, Emma; Roth, Holger R; Hampshire, Thomas E; Pickhardt, Perry J; Taylor, Stuart A; Hawkes, David J; Halligan, Steve



Clinical results of meniscus repair with the meniscus arrow: a 4- to 8-year follow-up study.  


The short-term clinical results of meniscus repair with the meniscus arrow were promising. Unfavorable outcomes were reported in two studies, with longer follow-up, raising concerns about the efficacy of this device. We retrospectively reviewed 62 patients (mean age 23.7 years; range 14-37 years) that underwent all-inside meniscus repair, using the meniscus arrow. Seventeen patients had an isolated meniscus tear (ACL intact group) and 45 patients concomitant ACL rupture that was reconstructed at the same time with the meniscus repair (ACL reconstructed group). All patients followed a non-aggressive rehabilitation protocol. Follow-up was assessed by clinical examination, Lysholm and Tegner score, IKDC knee examination form and KT-2000 arthrometry for the anteroposterior laxity of the reconstructed knees. At an average follow-up of 73 months (range 49-96 months) there were three failures (4.8%), one from the ACL intact group and two from the ACL reconstructed group. One patient developed arthrofibrosis (ACL reconstructed group) that resolved conservatively. Soft tissue irritation at the repair site was noted in three patients. In two patients the symptoms were transient. In the third patient the arrow tip was cut off under local anaesthesia due to saphenous infrapatellar branch irritation and the symptoms resolved (inappropriate arrow size). KT-2000 arthrometry showed that sagittal knee laxity was less than 3 mm in all reconstructed knees. The mean Tegner activity score decreased from 6.7 (pretrauma) to 6.2 (postoperatively). The average Lysholm score was 96, with normal or nearly normal function of all success knees, according to the IKDC knee examination form. Our results show a high clinical success rate of meniscus repair with the meniscus arrow. We found this device both safe and effective. PMID:16858563

Koukoulias, Nikolaos; Papastergiou, Stergios; Kazakos, Konstantinos; Poulios, Georgios; Parisis, Konstantinos



Brief cognitive-behavioral therapy for weight loss in midlife women: a controlled study with follow-up  

PubMed Central

Objective Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has proven to be effective in weight reduction. This study explores whether individual, 8-session CBT can promote weight loss in midlife women. Methods Anthropometric (weight, abdominal perimeter, and body mass index calculation), psychological (health-related and sexual quality of life, stress, anxiety, and depression), and behavioral measures (binge eating disorder and restrained, external, and emotional eating) were assessed at baseline (T1), posttreatment (T2), and 4-month follow-up (T3), for a total of 21 women at baseline; the CBT group (n = 11) and the control group (n = 10; waiting list) were compared. Results Statistically significant effects that were dependent on the intervention were observed on weight (F = 4.402; P = 0.035; ?p2 = 0.404; ? = 0.652) and body mass index (F = 3.804; P = 0.050; ?p2 = 0.369; ? = 0.585); furthermore, marginally significant effects were observed on external eating (F = 2.844; P = 0.095; ?p2 = 0.304; ? = 0.461). At follow-up, women in the CBT group presented with lower weight, abdominal perimeter, body mass index, and external eating; higher health-related quality-of-life and restrained eating were also observed in this group. Most differences identified were at a marginally significant level. Moreover, at follow-up, none of the participants of the CBT group met the criteria for binge eating disorder, whereas the number of women with binge eating disorder in the control group remained the same through all three assessments. Conclusion An effective, though small, weight loss was achieved. Changes in quality of life were also observed. Moreover, changes in external eating behavior were successful. PMID:23091402

Pimenta, Filipa; Leal, Isabel; Maroco, Joao; Ramos, Catarina



Association between serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and eating disorders outcome: a 6-year follow-up study.  


Eating disorder patients show different long-term outcomes, and trait-related alterations of serotonergic function, which might be related with the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene. We studied the relationships between 5-HTTLPR polymorphism, eating specific and general psychopathology and the long-term outcome of anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) patients. We evaluated the distribution of the functional 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in a series of 201 Italian, Caucasian, eating disorder patients (113 with AN and 88 with BN binge/purging (BP subtype) and in 150 Caucasian unrelated controls. Prior to starting an individual cognitive behavior therapy, a clinical assessment was performed by means of the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis I disorders and several self-report questionnaires. This assessment was repeated at the end of treatment, 3 years after the end of treatment and 3 years after the first follow-up. Diagnostic changes between AN and BN were frequent (28.3%), and the presence of depressive disorders was associated with a higher rate of diagnostic crossover during the follow-up period. The S-allele of the 5-HTTLPR genotype increases the risk susceptibility for both depressive comorbidity (OR?=?4.23; 95% CI, 1.45-12.37) and diagnostic crossover during the follow-up period in AN patients (OR = 5.04; 95% CI, 1.69-14.98). Logistic regression analyses confirmed these findings, when the interaction between genotype and psychiatric comorbidity as predictors of diagnostic instability in AN patients were taken into account. No significant association was found between 5-HTTLPR genotype and recovery. The S-allele of the 5-HTTLPR genotype increases the risk for depressive disorders comorbidity, and moderates the long-term outcome of anorectic patients. PMID:22488946

Castellini, Giovanni; Ricca, Valdo; Lelli, Lorenzo; Bagnoli, Silvia; Lucenteforte, Ersilia; Faravelli, Carlo; Sorbi, Sandro; Nacmias, Benedetta



Insomnia symptoms and subsequent cardiovascular medication: a register-linked follow-up study among middle-aged employees.  


Sleep disturbances have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease outcomes. The associations of insomnia with hypertension and dyslipidaemia, the main modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, are less studied. We especially lack understanding on the longitudinal effects of insomnia on dyslipidaemia. We aimed to examine the associations of insomnia symptoms with subsequent prescribed medication for hypertension and dyslipidaemia using objective register-based follow-up data. Baseline questionnaire surveys among 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, were conducted in 2000-2002 (n = 6477, response rate 67%, 78% women) and linked to a national register on prescribed reimbursed medication 5-7 years prior to and 5 years after baseline. Associations between the frequency of insomnia symptoms (difficulties in initiating and maintaining sleep, non-restorative sleep) and hypertension and dyslipidaemia medication during the follow-up were analysed using logistic regression analysis (odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals). Analyses were adjusted for pre-baseline medication, sociodemographic and work-related factors, health behaviours, mental health, and diabetes. Frequent insomnia symptoms were reported by 20%. During the 5-year follow-up, 32% had hypertension medication and 15% dyslipidaemia medication. Adjusting for age, gender and pre-baseline medication, frequent insomnia symptoms were associated with hypertension medication (odds ratio 1.57, 95% confidence interval 1.23-2.00) and dyslipidaemia medication (odds ratio 1.59, 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.12). Occasional insomnia symptoms were also associated with cardiovascular medication, though less strongly. Further adjustments had negligible effects. To conclude, insomnia should be taken into account in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease and related risk factors. PMID:24313664

Haaramo, Peija; Rahkonen, Ossi; Hublin, Christer; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahelma, Eero; Lallukka, Tea



Persistent financial hardship, 11-year weight gain and health behaviours in the Whitehall II study  

E-print Network

and measured weight change over 11 years in employed middle-aged women and men in Britain, while considering conventional SES measures. As individuals can experience transitions in health behaviours associated with both cumulative hardship and excess weight... the study period (n=6,221) showed a similar socio- demographic profile to participants responding at baseline (n=6,429) (Table S1). Two clinical examinations (1985-88; 1997-99) provided adiposity outcome data (n=5,704). The available sample 4 included...

Conklin, Annalijn I.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Brunner, Eric J.; Monsivais, Pablo



A follow-up study of cognitive function in young adults who had resective epilepsy surgery in childhood.  


This study examined cognitive function in young adults who had epilepsy surgery in childhood. Thirty-seven individuals with medically intractable epilepsy with onset at 16 years or younger who had resective epilepsy surgery at least two years in the past (mean follow-up duration of 8.5 years) were assessed; of these, 13 had seizures within the year prior to the study, and the remainder had none. A comparison group of 16 individuals with childhood-onset intractable epilepsy who had not had surgery, all of whom had experienced at least one seizure in the past 12 months, was also included. The cognitive tests included measures of vocabulary, visuoconstructive ability, memory, and concept formation. Group differences were found only for the vocabulary and verbal memory tests, with the surgical group with seizures having the lowest performance. A subset of the surgical patients had preoperative data available on comparable tests, allowing for an examination of performance over time. Vocabulary scores were higher at follow-up, a finding which was present irrespective of seizure status. The results suggest that after epilepsy surgery in childhood or adolescence, few improvements in cognitive skills related to surgery or seizure outcome are to be expected. PMID:24508594

Smith, Mary Lou; Olds, Janet; Snyder, Thomas; Elliott, Irene; Lach, Lucyna; Whiting, Sharon



Joint modelling of repeated transitions in follow-up data--a case study on breast cancer data.  


In longitudinal studies where time to a final event is the ultimate outcome often information is available about intermediate events the individuals may experience during the observation period. Even though many extensions of the Cox proportional hazards model have been proposed to model such multivariate time-to-event data these approaches are still very rarely applied to real datasets. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the application of extended Cox models for multiple time-to-event data and to show their implementation in popular statistical software packages. We demonstrate a systematic way of jointly modelling similar or repeated transitions in follow-up data by analysing an event-history dataset consisting of 270 breast cancer patients, that were followed-up for different clinical events during treatment in metastatic disease. First, we show how this methodology can also be applied to non Markovian stochastic processes by representing these processes as "conditional" Markov processes. Secondly, we compare the application of different Cox-related approaches to the breast cancer data by varying their key model components (i.e. analysis time scale, risk set and baseline hazard function). Our study showed that extended Cox models are a powerful tool for analysing complex event history datasets since the approach can address many dynamic data features such as multiple time scales, dynamic risk sets, time-varying covariates, transition by covariate interactions, autoregressive dependence or intra-subject correlation. PMID:16053262

Genser, B; Wernecke, K D



Genetic Susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity: Follow-Up of Findings from Genome-Wide Association Studies  

PubMed Central

Elucidating the underlying genetic variations influencing various complex diseases is one of the major challenges currently facing clinical genetic research. Although these variations are often difficult to uncover, approaches such as genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been successful at finding statistically significant associations between specific genomic loci and disease susceptibility. GWAS has been especially successful in elucidating genetic variants that influence type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity/body mass index (BMI). Specifically, several GWASs have confirmed that a variant in transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) confers risk for T2D, while a variant in fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) confers risk for obesity/BMI; indeed both of these signals are considered the most statistically associated loci discovered for these respective traits to date. The discovery of these two key loci in this context has been invaluable for providing novel insight into mechanisms of heritability and disease pathogenesis. As follow-up studies of TCF7L2 and FTO have typically lead the way in how to follow up a GWAS discovery, we outline what has been learned from such investigations and how they have implications for the myriad of other loci that have been subsequently reported in this disease context. PMID:24719615

Basile, Kevin J.; Johnson, Matthew E.; Xia, Qianghua; Grant, Struan F. A.



Contribution of deaths related to alcohol use of socioeconomic variation in mortality: register based follow up study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the contribution of excessive alcohol use to socioeconomic variation in mortality among men and women in Finland. DESIGN: Register based follow up study. SUBJECTS: The population covered by the 1985 and 1990 censuses, aged > or = 20 in the follow up period 1987-93. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total mortality and alcohol related mortality from all causes, from diseases, and from accidents and violence according to socioeconomic position. The excess mortality among other classes compared with upper non-manual employees and differences in life expectancy between the classes were used to measure mortality differentials. RESULTS: Alcohol related mortality constituted 11% of all mortality among men aged > or = 20 and 2% among women and was higher among manual workers than among other classes. It accounted for 14% of the excess all cause mortality among manual workers over upper non-manual employees among men and 4% among women and for 24% and 9% of the differences in life expectancy, respectively. Half of the excess mortality from accidents and violence among male manual workers and 38% among female manual workers was accounted for by alcohol related deaths, whereas in diseases the role of alcohol was modest. The contribution of alcohol related deaths to relative mortality differentials weakened with age. CONCLUSIONS: Class differentials in alcohol related mortality are an important factor in the socioeconomic mortality differentials in Finland, especially among men, among younger age groups, and in mortality from accidents and violence. PMID:9253268

Makela, P.; Valkonen, T.; Martelin, T.



VOLUMESERIES: a software tool for target volume follow-up studies with computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Technical note.  


In clinical follow-up studies after radiosurgery, imaging modalities such as computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are used. Accurate determination of the residual lesion volume is necessary for realistic assessment of the effects of treatment. Usually, the diameters rather than the volume of the lesion are measured. To determine the lesion volume without using stereotactically defined images, the software program VOLUMESERIES has been developed. VOLUMESERIES is a personal computer-based image analysis tool. Acquired DICOM CT scans and MR image series can be visualized. The region of interest is contoured with the help of the mouse, and then the system calculates the volume of the contoured region and the total volume is given in cubic centimeters. The defined volume is also displayed in reconstructed sagittal and coronal slices. In addition, distance measurements can be performed to measure tumor extent. The accuracy of VOLUMESERIES was checked against stereotactically defined images in the Leksell GammaPlan treatment planning program. A discrepancy in target volumes of approximately 8% was observed between the two methods. This discrepancy is of lesser interest because the method is used to determine the course of the target volume over time, rather than the absolute volume. Moreover, it could be shown that the method was more sensitive than the tumor diameter measurements currently in use. VOLUMESERIES appears to be a valuable tool for assessing residual lesion volume on follow-up images after gamma knife radiosurgery while avoiding the need for stereotactic definition. PMID:11143250

Scheib, S G; Gianolini, S; Haller, D; Wellis, G N; Siegfried, J



Prognosis of shoulder tendonitis in repetitive work: a follow up study in a cohort of Danish industrial and service workers  

PubMed Central

Methods: In a follow up study of musculoskeletal disorders in industrial and service workers, 113 employees were identified with a history of shoulder pain combined with clinical signs of shoulder tendonitis. The workers had yearly reexaminations up to three times. Quantitative estimates of duration, repetitiveness, and forcefulness of current tasks were obtained from video recordings. Perception of job demands, decision latitude, and social support was recorded by a job content questionnaire. Recovery of shoulder tendonitis was analysed by Kaplan-Meier survival technique and by logistic regression on exposure variables and individual characteristics in models, allowing for time varying exposures. Results: Some 50% of workers recovered within 10 months (95% CI 6 to 14 months). Higher age was strongly related to slow recovery, while physical job exposures were not. Perception of demands, control, and social support at the time when the shoulder disorder was diagnosed, were associated with delayed recovery, but these psychosocial factors did not predict slow recovery in incident cases identified during follow up. Conclusion: The median duration of shoulder tendonitis in a cross sectional sample of industrial and service workers was in the order of 10 months. This estimate is most likely biased towards too high a value. Recovery was strongly reduced in higher age. Physical workplace exposures and perceived psychosocial job characteristics during the period preceding diagnosis seem not to be important prognostic factors. PMID:12937204

Bonde, J; Mikkelsen, S; Andersen, J; Fallentin, N; Baelum, J; Svendsen, S; Thomsen, J; Frost, P; Thomsen, G; Overgaard, E; Kaergaard, A; the, P



The prognostic value of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in primary breast cancer: Results of a 10 year follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study on 214 patients with primary breast cancer (median follow-up 8.5 yr, maximum follow-up 15 yr), EGF-R was negatively correlated to estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, whereas no association was found with age, lymph node status, and tumor size. Initially, after a follow-up of 5 yr, there was a tendency to a significant association between EGF-R levels and

Jan G. M. Klijn; Maxime P. Look; Henk Portengen; Jana Alexieva-Figusch; Wim L. J. Putten; John A. Foekens



Oral contraceptive use and mortality after 36 years of follow-up in the Nurses' Health Study: prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether use of oral contraceptives is associated with all cause and cause specific mortality. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Nurses’ Health Study, data collected between 1976 and 2012. Population 121?701 participants were prospectively followed for 36 years; lifetime oral contraceptive use was recorded biennially from 1976 to 1982. Main outcome measures Overall and cause specific mortality, assessed throughout follow-up until 2012. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the relative risks of all cause and cause specific mortality associated with use of oral contraceptives. Results In our population of 121?577 women with information on oral contraceptive use, 63?626 were never users (52%) and 57?951 were ever users (48%). After 3.6 million person years, we recorded 31?286 deaths. No association was observed between ever use of oral contraceptives and all cause mortality. However, violent or accidental deaths were more common among ever users (hazard ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.37). Longer duration of use was more strongly associated with certain causes of death, including premature mortality due to breast cancer (test for trend P<0.0001) and decreased mortality rates of ovarian cancer (P=0.002). Longer time since last use was also associated with certain outcomes, including a positive association with violent or accidental deaths (P=0.005). Conclusions All cause mortality did not differ significantly between women who had ever used oral contraceptives and never users. Oral contraceptive use was associated with certain causes of death, including increased rates of violent or accidental death and deaths due to breast cancer, whereas deaths due to ovarian cancer were less common among women who used oral contraceptives. These results pertain to earlier oral contraceptive formulations with higher hormone doses rather than the now more commonly used third and fourth generation formulations with lower estrogen doses. PMID:25361731

Charlton, Brittany M; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Colditz, Graham A; Missmer, Stacey A; Rosner, Bernard A; Hankinson, Susan E; Speizer, Frank E



Skin cancer in patients with psoriasis treated with coal tar. A 25-year follow-up study  

SciTech Connect

For many years, crude coal tar has been used for the treatment of psoriasis. The possible carcinogenic effect of crude coal tar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Goeckerman regimen), considered individually or in combination, has been of some concern to physicians. A 25-year follow-up study was completed on 280 patients with psoriasis who were hospitalized and treated with crude coal tar and UV radiation at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn, during the years 1950 through 1954. The results of this study suggest that the incidence of skin cancer is not appreciably increased above the expected incidence for the general population when patients are treated with coal tar ointments. It seems that the Goeckerman regimen (topical crude coal tar combined with UV radiation) can be used with minimal risk for skin cancer in the treatment of psoriasis.

Pittelkow, M.R.; Perry, H.O.; Muller, S.A.; Maughan, W.Z.; O'Brien, P.C.



Safety of post-exposure rabies prophylaxis during pregnancy: a follow-up study from Guangzhou, China.  


This study aimed to assess the safety profile of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for rabies in pregnant women. All of the subjects received the Essen vaccination regimen. Systemic and local reactions were monitored within 72 hours following the immunization, and the subjects were followed until six months after delivery. No moderate or severe adverse effects occurred in any subject following the vaccination. Among the 72 subjects in this follow-up study, four had voluntary abortions, one subject had an accidental miscarriage, and the remaining 67 subjects delivered babies vaginally or by caesarean section. All of the infants exhibited normal development.The purified Vero cell rabies vaccine and the purified chick embryo cell vaccine were both safe for the PEP of pregnant women and did not interfere with the development of the fetuses or infants. Education is needed in China to stop pregnancy terminations due to concerns about rabies vaccination risk. : PMID:23442589

Huang, Guihua; Liu, Huazhang; Cao, Qing; Liu, Beiyan; Pan, Huai; Fu, Chuanxi



Use of dietary supplements in Olympic athletes is decreasing: a follow-up study between 2002 and 2009  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of use of dietary supplements (DS) among large sample of elite Finnish athletes and to describe possible changes in dietary supplement use between the years 2002 and 2009. Methods A prospective follow-up study was conducted on Olympic athletes. The first survey was conducted on Olympic athletes in 2002 (N = 446) and the follow-up study was conducted between May 2008 and June 2009 (N = 372). Results In 2002, a total of 81% of the athletes used dietary supplements (a mean of 3.37 ± 3.06 DS per user) and in 2009, a total of 73% of the athletes (a mean of 2.60 ± 2.69 per DS user) used them. After adjusting for age-, sex- and sport type, the OR (95% confidence interval, CI) for use of any dietary supplement was significantly less in 2009 as compared with 2002 results (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.43-0.90). Decrease in DS use was observed in all supplement subgroups (vitamins, minerals, nutritional supplements). Athletes in speed and power events and endurance events reported use of any dietary supplement significantly more often than team sport athletes both in 2002 and 2009. In year 2009, the frequency of all dietary supplement use increased when athlete's age increased and the increase was significant in older age groups: of the athletes under 21 years 63%, 21-24 years 83% and over 24 years 90% consumed nutritional supplements. Conclusions Based in our study, there seems to be a lowering trend of dietary supplement use among elite Finnish athletes although differences between sport subgroups and age groups are considerable. PMID:21294857



Classic lobular neoplasia on core biopsy: a clinical and radio-pathologic correlation study with follow-up excision biopsy.  


There are no consensus guidelines for the management of lobular neoplasia diagnosed on core biopsy as the highest risk factor for cancer. This study aimed to assess the risk of upgrade (invasive carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ) at the site of the lobular neoplasia and any clinical, radiological or pathologic factors associated with the upgrade. We reviewed all cases with a diagnosis of lobular neoplasia on core biopsy from June 2006 to June 2011. Any cases with radio-pathologic discordance, coexistent lesion that required excision (atypical ductal hyperplasia, flat epithelial atypia, duct papilloma or radial scar) or non-classic variant of lobular carcinoma in situ (pleomorphic, mixed ductal and lobular, lobular carcinoma in situ with necrosis) were excluded from the study. Core biopsy indications included calcification in 35 (40%), non-mass like enhancement in 19 (22%), mass lesion in 31 (36%) and mass as well as calcification in two cases (2%). Follow-up excisions were studied for the presence of upgrade. The study cohort included 87 cases and showed an upgrade of 3.4% (95% confidence interval: 1-10%). Three cases showed an upgrade (one ductal carcinoma in situ and two invasive cancers). All upgraded cases were breast imaging-reporting and data system score ?4 and associated with atypical duct hyperplasia or in situ or invasive cancer in prior or concurrent biopsies in either breast. The number of cores and lobules involved, pagetoid duct involvement, presence of microcalcification in lobular neoplasia, needle gauge and number of cores obtained showed no correlation with the upgrade. Our results suggest that with radio-pathologic concordance and no prior biopsy proven risk for breast cancer, core biopsy finding of lobular neoplasia as the highest risk lesion can be appropriately and safely managed with clinical and radiologic follow-up as an alternative to surgical excision. PMID:23307062

Chaudhary, Shweta; Lawrence, Loretta; McGinty, Geraldine; Kostroff, Karen; Bhuiya, Tawfiqul



Persistence, clearance and reinfection regarding six high risk human papillomavirus types in Colombian women: a follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background The design of new healthcare schemes which involve using molecular HPV screening means that both persistence and clearance data regarding the most prevalent types of HR-HPV occurring in cities in Colombia must be ascertained. Methods This study involved 219 HPV positive women in all of whom 6 types of HR-HPV had been molecularly identified and quantified; they were followed-up for 2 years. The Kaplan-Meier survival function was used for calculating the time taken for the clearance of each type of HPV. The role of a group of independent variables concerning the time taken until clearance was evaluated using a Cox proportional-hazards regression model or parametric (log-logistic) methods when necessary. Regarding viral load, the Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for measuring the difference of medians for viral load for each type, according to the state of infection (cleared or persistent). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for evaluating the change in the women’s colposcopy findings at the start of follow-up and at the end of it (whether due to clearance or the end of the follow-up period). Results It was found that HPV-18 and HPV-31 types had the lowest probability of becoming cleared (1.76 and 2.75 per 100 patients/month rate, respectively). Women from Colombian cities other than Bogotá had a greater probability of being cleared if they had HPV-16 (HR 2.58: 1.51–4.4 95% CI) or HPV-58 (1.79 time ratio: 1.33-2.39 95% CI) infection. Regarding viral load, HPV-45-infected women having 1?×?106 to 9.99?×?109 viral copies had better clearance compared to those having greater viral loads (1.61 time ratio: 1.01-2.57 95% CI). Lower HPV-31 viral load values were associated with this type’s persistence and changes in colposcopy findings for HPV-16 gave the worst prognosis in women having low absolute load values. Conclusions HPV infection clearance in this study was related to factors such as infection type, viral load and the characteristics of the cities from which the women came. Low viral load values would indicate viral persistence and a worse prognosis regarding a change in colposcopy findings. PMID:25030273



Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: a clinicopathologic study of 33 cases with long-term follow-up.  


Cases listed in the U.T.M.D Anderson Cancer Center files as low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma and originally diagnosed before 2004 were reviewed. They were included in the study if the diagnosis was confirmed and if there was adequate histologic material and clinical information with at least 5 years of follow-up. Thirty-three cases met the study criteria. The patients were 6 to 52 years old at the time of diagnosis (median, 29 y); 19 were male and 14 were female. The most common tumor locations were the shoulder area (5), thigh (5), and inguinal area (4). Tumor size varied from 1.5 to 16 cm (median, 9.4 cm) in those cases in which it was known. The typical histologic findings were contrasting fibrous and myxoid areas, moderate to low cellularity, bland-appearing spindle cells with no or slight nuclear pleomorphism and rare mitotic figures, and a swirling, whorled growth pattern. Prominent vascularity in myxoid areas and perivascular hypercellularity were fairly common, whereas larger hypercellular zones were sometimes seen in primary tumors but were more frequent in recurrences (local) and metastases. Hypercellular regions sometimes had round rather than spindle cells, a diffuse sheet-like cell arrangement, and/or a somewhat increased mitotic rate. Very hypocellular fibrotic areas were also observed and sometimes had thick collagen bundles. Pericollagenous rosettes were present in 6 cases but not in all specimens from these. Other growth pattern variations included storiform, fascicular-herringbone, and patternless areas; uncommonly noted were cell clusters, strands, palisades, and a retiform network. Additional unusual features were moderate nuclear pleomorphism (seen mostly in recurrent and metastatic tumors), cysts, osseous metaplasia, and a tigroid pattern with alternating fibrous and myxoid strips. One patient had a recurrence with features of sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma, whereas 2 had dedifferentiated recurrences with anaplastic predominantly round cells and numerous mitotic figures. Fourteen patients died of tumor after 3 (this patient's tumor became dedifferentiated) to 42 years (median, 15 y). Nineteen patients were alive at last follow-up of 5½ to 70 years (median, 13 y), 6 with tumor and 13 without. Twenty-one patients had recurrence after intervals of up to 15 years (median, 3½ y), and 15 had metastases (mostly in the lungs and pleura) after periods of up to 45 years (median, 5 y). Except for dedifferentiation, which led to short survival after it occurred, histologic differences were not related to tumor behavior or patient survival. The 4 patients whose neoplasms measured <3.5 cm were all tumor free at last follow-up. PMID:21921785

Evans, Harry L



Parenteral Pethidine for labour pain relief and substance use disorder: 20-year follow-up cohort study in offspring  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether use of intrapartum Pethidine pain analgesia increases the risk for substance use disorder in adult offspring. Design Analysis of data from a cohort study. Setting Academic hospital in Leiden, the Netherlands. Participants 133 cases and 164 control individuals, aged 18–20?years at follow-up. Main outcome measure Incidence of substance use disorder or use of alcohol and tobacco. Results The lifetime use of addictive substances in children exposed to intrapartum Pethidine analgesia was 45% of 133 children versus 48% of 164 not-exposed subjects (adjusted OR=0.79, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.29). Recent use of alcohol, tobacco and hard drugs showed no statistical difference either. Conclusion Pethidine for labour pain medication appears not to be associated with substance misuse or smoking in later life. PMID:22649173

Kanhai, Humphrey; Rosendaal, Frits; van Dommelen, Paula; Swaab, Dick; Rodrigues Pereira, Erik; van de Wetering, Ben



A spiderless arachnophobia therapy: comparison between placebo and treatment groups and six-month follow-up study.  


We describe a new arachnophobia therapy that is specially suited for those individuals with severe arachnophobia who are reluctant to undergo direct or even virtual exposure treatments. In this therapy, patients attend a computer presentation of images that, while not being spiders, have a subset of the characteristics of spiders. The Atomium of Brussels is an example of such an image. The treatment group (n = 13) exhibited a significant improvement (time x group interaction: P = .0026) when compared to the placebo group (n = 12) in a repeated measures multivariate ANOVA. A k-means clustering algorithm revealed that, after 4 weeks of treatment, 42% of the patients moved from the arachnophobic to the nonarachnophobic cluster. Six months after concluding the treatment, a follow-up study showed a substantial consolidation of the recovery process where 92% of the arachnophobic patients moved to the nonarachnophobic cluster. PMID:17713595

Granado, Laura Carmilo; Ranvaud, Ronald; Peláez, Javier Ropero



A Spiderless Arachnophobia Therapy: Comparison between Placebo and Treatment Groups and Six-Month Follow-Up Study  

PubMed Central

We describe a new arachnophobia therapy that is specially suited for those individuals with severe arachnophobia who are reluctant to undergo direct or even virtual exposure treatments. In this therapy, patients attend a computer presentation of images that, while not being spiders, have a subset of the characteristics of spiders. The Atomium of Brussels is an example of such an image. The treatment group (n = 13) exhibited a significant improvement (time × group interaction: P = .0026) when compared to the placebo group (n = 12) in a repeated measures multivariate ANOVA. A k-means clustering algorithm revealed that, after 4 weeks of treatment, 42% of the patients moved from the arachnophobic to the nonarachnophobic cluster. Six months after concluding the treatment, a follow-up study showed a substantial consolidation of the recovery process where 92% of the arachnophobic patients moved to the nonarachnophobic cluster. PMID:17713595

Granado, Laura Carmilo; Ranvaud, Ronald; Pelaez, Javier Ropero



Natural course of care dependency in residents of long-term care facilities: prospective follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background Insight in the natural course of care dependency of vulnerable older persons in long-term care facilities (LTCF) is essential to organize and optimize individual tailored care. We examined changes in care dependency in LTCF residents over two 6-month periods, explored the possible predictive factors of change and the effect of care dependency on mortality. Methods A prospective follow-up study in 21 Dutch long-term care facilities. 890 LTCF residents, median age 84 (Interquartile range 79–88) years participated. At baseline, 6 and 12 months, care dependency was assessed by the nursing staff with the Care Dependency Scale (CDS), range 15–75 points. Since the median CDS score differed between men and women (47.5 vs. 43.0, P?=?0.013), CDS groups (low, middle and high) were based on gender-specific 33% of CDS scores at baseline and 6 months. Results At baseline, the CDS groups differed in median length of stay on the ward, urine incontinence and dementia (all P?follow-up, 10% improved to a higher CDS group, 65% were in the same, and 25% had deteriorated to a lower CDS group; a similar pattern emerged at 12-month follow-up. Gender, age, urine incontinence, dementia, cancer and baseline care dependency status, predicted an increase in care dependency over time. Conclusion The majority of residents were stable in their care dependency status over two subsequent 6-month periods. Highly care dependent residents showed an increased mortality risk. Awareness of the natural course of care dependency is essential to residents and their formal and informal caregivers when considering therapeutic and end-of-life care options. PMID:24884563



Combined therapy with bevacizumab and photodynamic therapy for myopic choroidal neovascularization: A one-year follow-up controlled study  

PubMed Central

AIM To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a combined treatment for myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV) using photodynamic therapy (PDT) and intravitreal bevacizumab and to compare it with intravitreal bevacizumab monotherapy. METHODS Thirty-four eyes with angiographic evidence of myopic CNV were randomly divided into two groups: 17 were treated with one intravitreal bevacizumab injection (1.25 mg) and low-fluence-rate PDT within seven days of the injection (Group A). The other 17 received monotherapy with bevacizumab injections (Group B). Clinical evidence of complications, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and fluorescein leakage were evaluated. BCVA and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were evaluated monthly. The timepoints follow-up was established at 6 and 12mo. All patients were retreated following a PRN protocol. RESULTS A total of 34 eyes of 34 patients (26 women and 8 men) with a mean age of 62.35 years were included. In Group A (17 eyes) the mean BCVA increased from 0.55±0.13 logMAR before the treatment to 0.40±0.09 logMAR at the 12mo follow-up (P<0.01). In Group B (17 eyes) the mean BCVA increased from 0.60±0.11 logMAR before the treatment to 0.55±0.12 logMAR at the 12mo follow-up (P<0.01). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of LogMar visual acuity. In Group A the mean number of combined treatments was 1.8±0.11 per patient; in Group B the mean number of intravitreal bevacizumab injections was 3.1±0.08 per patient. The number of treatments was significantly fewer in Group A (P<0.01). No local or systemic side effects occurred among any of the patients treated in this study. CONCLUSION The combination of anti-angiogenic injections and PDT appears to be a safe and effective option for myopic CNV treatment and allows for a significant reduction of intravitreal injections. PMID:24790881

Saviano, Sandro; Piermarocchi, Rita; Leon, Pia E.; Mangogna, Alessandro; Zanei, Andrea; Cavarzeran Sc, Fabiano; Tognetto, Daniele



Follow-up study on the motion range after treatment of degenerative disc disease with the Bryan cervical disc prosthesis.  


This study examined effect of a new intervertebral cervical disc prosthesis in relieving the neurological symptoms and signs, improving the patients' ability to perform daily activities, reducing pain, and maintaining the stability and segmental motion. From December 2003 to October 2004, 12 patients, who had received 14 replacements of cervical artificial discs, were followed-up for 2 to 8 months (with a mean of 5.2 months). Of them 5 had cervical spondylotic myelopathy and 7 had cervical disc herniation. The patients included 7 males and 5 females, with their age ranging from 35 to 62 y and a mean of 50.3 y. Single-level replacements were performed in 10 cases and 2 cases received two-level replacement. Operation time of the single-level surgery averaged 130+/-50 min and the time of two-level surgery was 165+/-53 min on average (from skin incision to skin suturing). Neurological or vascular complications during or after surgery was not observed. Japanese Orthopedic Association scores (JOA scores) increased from 8.6 to 15.8 on average. There was no prothesis subsidence or excursion. Replaced segments were stable and the range of motion was partially restored, being 4.68 degrees (3.6 degrees -6.1 degrees ) in flexion and extension position and 3.51 degrees (2.5 degrees -4.6 degrees ), 3.42 degrees (2.6 degrees -4.3 degrees ) in left and right bending position. No obvious loss of physiological curvature was noted. CT or MRI follow-up showed that excursion was less than 1.5 mm) in 2 of 14 levels and between 1.5 mm and 3 mm) in 1 of 14 levels. No ossification in the replaced levels was observed. It is concluded that satisfactory short-term results were achieved in the 12 cases of artificial disc replacements. Different from anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, the replacement could achieve quick functional recovery and did not lead to the movement limitation of cervical vertebrae. At least a 5-years follow-up was needed to assess the long-term effect of the prosthesis on its neighboring segments. PMID:17497290

Yang, Shuhua; Hu, Yong; Zhao, Jijun; He, Xianfeng; Liu, Yong; Xu, Weihua; Du, Jingyuan; Fu, Dehao



Rate of progression of CT-quantified emphysema in male current and ex-smokers: a follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the factors associated with CT-quantified emphysema progression in heavy smokers. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of length of smoking cessation and clinical / demographical factors on the rate of emphysema progression and FEV1-decline in male heavy smokers. Methods 3,670 male smokers with mean (SD) 40.8 (17.9) packyears underwent chest CT scans and pulmonary function tests at baseline and after 1 and 3 years follow-up. Smoking status (quitted ?5, ?1-<5, <1 years or current smoker) was noted. Rate of progression of emphysema and FEV1-decline after follow-up were assessed by analysis of variance adjusting for age, height, baseline pulmonary function and emphysema severity, packyears, years in study and respiratory symptoms. The quitted ?5 group was used as reference. Results Median (Q1-Q3) emphysema severity,<-950 HU, was 8.8 (5.1 – 14.1) and mean (SD) FEV1 was 3.4 (0.73) L or 98.5 (18.5) % of predicted. The group quitted ‘>5 years’ showed significantly lower rates of progression of emphysema compared to current smokers, 1.07% and 1.12% per year, respectively (p<0.001). Current smokers had a yearly FEV1-decline of 69 ml, while subjects quit smoking >5 years had a yearly decline of 57.5 ml (p<0.001). Conclusion Quit smoking >5 years significantly slows the rate of emphysema progression and lung function decline. Trial registration Registered at with trial number ISRCTN63545820. PMID:23688060



Long-Term Follow-Up of Transsexual Persons Undergoing Sex Reassignment Surgery: Cohort Study in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Context The treatment for transsexualism is sex reassignment, including hormonal treatment and surgery aimed at making the person's body as congruent with the opposite sex as possible. There is a dearth of long term, follow-up studies after sex reassignment. Objective To estimate mortality, morbidity, and criminal rate after surgical sex reassignment of transsexual persons. Design A population-based matched cohort study. Setting Sweden, 1973-2003. Participants All 324 sex-reassigned persons (191 male-to-females, 133 female-to-males) in Sweden, 1973–2003. Random population controls (10?1) were matched by birth year and birth sex or reassigned (final) sex, respectively. Main Outcome Measures Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for mortality and psychiatric morbidity were obtained with Cox regression models, which were adjusted for immigrant status and psychiatric morbidity prior to sex reassignment (adjusted HR [aHR]). Results The overall mortality for sex-reassigned persons was higher during follow-up (aHR 2.8; 95% CI 1.8–4.3) than for controls of the same birth sex, particularly death from suicide (aHR 19.1; 95% CI 5.8–62.9). Sex-reassigned persons also had an increased risk for suicide attempts (aHR 4.9; 95% CI 2.9–8.5) and psychiatric inpatient care (aHR 2.8; 95% CI 2.0–3.9). Comparisons with controls matched on reassigned sex yielded similar results. Female-to-males, but not male-to-females, had a higher risk for criminal convictions than their respective birth sex controls. Conclusions Persons with transsexualism, after sex reassignment, have considerably higher risks for mortality, suicidal behaviour, and psychiatric morbidity than the general population. Our findings suggest that sex reassignment, although alleviating gender dysphoria, may not suffice as treatment for transsexualism, and should inspire improved psychiatric and somatic care after sex reassignment for this patient group. PMID:21364939

Dhejne, Cecilia; Lichtenstein, Paul; Boman, Marcus; Johansson, Anna L. V.; Langstrom, Niklas; Landen, Mikael



Longitudinal changes in pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in cotton textile workers. A 15-yr follow-up study.  


To evaluate the chronic effects of exposure to cotton dust, a 15-yr follow-up study in cotton textile workers was performed in Shanghai, China from 1981 to 1996. Testing occurred four times during the 15-yr period. The achieved follow-up rates were 76-88% of the original 447 cotton textile workers, and 70-85% of the original 472 silk textile workers (as a control group). Identical questionnaires, equipment, and methods were used throughout the study. The prevalence of byssinosis increased over time in cotton workers, with 15.3% at the last survey versus 7.6% at the baseline, whereas no byssinosis was found in silk workers. More workers in the cotton group consistently reported symptoms than in the silk group, although symptom reporting varied considerably from survey to survey. Cotton workers had small, but significantly greater, adjusted annual declines in FEV(1) and FVC than did the silk workers. Years worked in cotton mills, high level of exposure to endotoxin, and across-shift drops in FEV(1) were found to be significant determinants for longitudinal change in FEV(1), after controlling for appropriate confounders. Furthermore, there were statistically significant associations between excessive loss of FEV(1) and byssinosis, chest tightness at work, and chronic bronchitis in cotton workers. Workers who consistently (three or four of the surveys) reported byssinosis or chest tightness at work had a significantly greater 15-yr loss of FEV(1). We conclude that long-term exposure to cotton dust is associated with chronic or permanent obstructive impairments. Consistent reporting of respiratory symptoms, including byssinosis and chest tightness at work, is of value to predict the magnitude and severity of chronic impairments in textile workers. PMID:11282755

Christiani, D C; Wang, X R; Pan, L D; Zhang, H X; Sun, B X; Dai, H; Eisen, E A; Wegman, D H; Olenchock, S A



Associations of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior with Academic Skills - A Follow-Up Study among Primary School Children  

PubMed Central

Background There are no prospective studies that would have compared the relationships of different types of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with academic skills among children. We therefore investigated the associations of different types of PA and SB with reading and arithmetic skills in a follow-up study among children. Methods The participants were 186 children (107 boys, 79 girls, 6–8 yr) who were followed-up in Grades 1–3. PA and SB were assessed using a questionnaire in Grade 1. Reading fluency, reading comprehension and arithmetic skills were assessed using standardized tests at the end of Grades 1–3. Results Among all children more recess PA and more time spent in SB related to academic skills were associated with a better reading fluency across Grades 1–3. In boys, higher levels of total PA, physically active school transportation and more time spent in SB related to academic skills were associated with a better reading fluency across the Grades 1–3. Among girls, higher levels of total PA were related to worse arithmetic skills across Grades 1–3. Moreover, total PA was directly associated with reading fluency and arithmetic skills in Grades 1–3 among girls whose parents had a university degree, whereas these relationships were inverse in girls of less educated parents. Conclusions Total PA, physically active school transportation and SB related to academic skills may be beneficial for the development of reading skills in boys, whereas factors that are independent of PA or SB may be more important for academic skills in girls. Trial Registration NCT01803776 PMID:25207813

Haapala, Eero A.; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Tompuri, Tuomo; Lintu, Niina; Vaisto, Juuso; Leppanen, Paavo H. T.; Laaksonen, David E.; Lindi, Virpi; Lakka, Timo A.



Benchmark concentrations for methyl mercury obtained from the 9-year follow-up of the Seychelles Child Development Study.  


Methyl mercury (MeHg) is highly toxic to the developing nervous system. Human exposure is mainly from fish consumption since small amounts are present in all fish. Findings of developmental neurotoxicity following high-level prenatal exposure to MeHg raised the question of whether children whose mothers consumed fish contaminated with background levels during pregnancy are at an increased risk of impaired neurological function. Benchmark doses determined from studies in New Zealand, and the Faroese and Seychelles Islands indicate that a level of 4-25 parts per million (ppm) measured in maternal hair may carry a risk to the infant. However, there are numerous sources of uncertainty that could affect the derivation of benchmark doses, and it is crucial to continue to investigate the most appropriate derivation of safe consumption levels. Earlier, we published the findings from benchmark analyses applied to the data collected on the Seychelles main cohort at the 66-month follow-up period. Here, we expand on the main cohort analyses by determining the benchmark doses (BMD) of MeHg level in maternal hair based on 643 Seychellois children for whom 26 different neurobehavioral endpoints were measured at 9 years of age. Dose-response models applied to these continuous endpoints incorporated a variety of covariates and included the k-power model, the Weibull model, and the logistic model. The average 95% lower confidence limit of the BMD (BMDL) across all 26 endpoints varied from 20.1 ppm (range=17.2-22.5) for the logistic model to 20.4 ppm (range=17.9-23.0) for the k-power model. These estimates are somewhat lower than those obtained after 66 months of follow-up. The Seychelles Child Development Study continues to provide a firm scientific basis for the derivation of safe levels of MeHg consumption. PMID:16806480

van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Beck, Christopher; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Cernichiari, Elsa; Davidson, Philip W; Myers, Gary J; Clarkson, Thomas W



A 3-year follow-up study of various types of orthodontic canine-to-canine retainers.  


The present study was performed to test the tendency for plaque and calculus build-up along the wire of different types of bonded orthodontic canine-to-canine retainers, whether the presence of such retainers causes any damage to the teeth involved, the failure rate of the retainers, and any changes in incisor alignment during a 3-year period of retention. The four test groups received either retainers made of thick plain wire bonded only to the canines (n = 11); thick spiral wire bonded only to the canines (n = 13); thin, flexible spiral wire bonded to each tooth (n = 11); or removable retainers (n = 14). Accumulation of plaque and calculus along the gingival margin, gingival inflammation and probing attachment level were scored in lingual areas from canine to canine at the time of fixed appliance removal and again 3 years after retainer insertion. Incisor irregularity was measured on plaster models made at the same time periods. Accumulation of plaque and calculus and development of caries along the wire were scored at follow-up. Retainer failures were recorded whenever they occurred. The results revealed no intergroup differences in changes between baseline and follow-up examinations or status along the retainer wire for any of the variables. Gingival inflammation and plaque accumulation were scored less frequently after 3 years in retention than at the time of debonding. No signs of caries were seen adjacent to the wire. Failures were observed of one, four and three of the fixed retainer types, respectively. These patients showed a greater increase in incisor irregularity than the other patients. PMID:9386336

Artun, J; Spadafora, A T; Shapiro, P A



Does ADHD Predict Substance Use Disorders? A 10-year Follow-up Study of Young Adults With ADHD  

PubMed Central

Objective High rates of Substance Use Disorders (SUD) have been found in samples of adolescents and adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Predictors of SUD among ADHD children who are at risk for the development of SUD remain understudied. The main aims of this study were to identify clinically meaningful characteristics of children that predicted the future development of SUD and to see whether the role of these characteristics varied by sex. Method Subjects were children and adolescents with (N=268; mean age ± SD = 10.9 ± 3.2 years) and without (N=229; mean age 11.9 ± 3.3 years) DSM-III-R ADHD followed prospectively and blindly over a ten-year follow-up period onto young adult years. Subjects were assessed with structured diagnostic interviews for psychopathology and SUDs. Results Over the ten-year follow-up period, ADHD was found to be a significant predictor of any SUD (Hazards Ratio, (95% Confidence Interval) = 1.47 (1.07, 2.02); p=0.01) and cigarette smoking (2.38 (1.61, 3.53); p<0.01). Within ADHD, comorbid conduct disorder (2.74 (1.66, 4.52); p<0.01) and oppositional defiant disorder (2.21 (1.40, 3.51); p<0.01) at baseline were also found to be significant predictors of SUD. We found similar results for cigarette, alcohol, and drug use disorders. There were few meaningful sex interaction effects. We did not find any clinically significant associations for any social or family environment factors nor cognitive functioning factors (all p values > 0.05). Conclusions These results indicate that ADHD is a significant risk factor for the development of SUD and cigarette smoking in both sexes. PMID:21621138

Wilens, Timothy E.; Martelon, MaryKate; Joshi, Gagan; Bateman, Clancey; Fried, Ronna; Petty, Carter; Biederman, Joseph



Lead exposure and growth in the early preschool child: A follow-up report from the Cincinnati Lead Study  

SciTech Connect

This report is a follow-up of an earlier study of the effects of low to moderate prenatal and postnatal lead exposure on children's growth in stature. Two hundred thirty-five subjects were assessed every 3 months for lead exposure (blood lead level) and stature (recumbent length) up to 33 months of age. Fetal lead exposure was indexed by maternal blood lead level during pregnancy. The adverse effects of lead on growth during the first year of life were reported previously. This analysis covers essentially the second and third years of life. The results indicate that mean blood lead level during this period was negatively associated with attained height at 33 months of age (P = .002). This association was, however, evidenced only among those children who had mean blood lead levels greater than the cohort median (greater than or equal to 10.77 micrograms/dL) during the 3- to 15-month interval. The results also suggest that the effect of lead exposure (both in utero as well as during the first year of life) are transient provided that subsequent exposure to lead is not excessive. It appears that maintaining an average blood lead level of 25 micrograms/dL or more during the second and third year of life was detrimental to the child's attained stature at 33 months of age. Approximately 15% of this cohort experienced these levels of lead exposure. Continued follow-up of this cohort will reveal whether these lead-related deficits persist and whether they continue to be dependent on the level of exposure in an earlier period.

Shukla, R.; Dietrich, K.N.; Bornschein, R.L.; Berger, O.; Hammond, P.B. (Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH (United States))



Photoselective vaporization of prostate vs. transurethral resection of prostate: A prospective, randomized study with one year follow-up  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate in a prospective, randomized study, the efficacy and safety profile of photoselective vaporization of prostate (PVP) using a 80W potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser when compared to standard transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic enlargement (BPE). Materials and Methods: Between February 2009 and August 2009, 117 patients satisfying the eligibility criteria underwent surgery [60 PVP{Group A}; 57 TURP{Group B}]. The groups were compared for functional outcome (both subjective and objective parameters), perioperative parameters and complications, with a follow up of one year. P value<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The baseline characteristics of the two groups were comparable. Mean age was 66.68 years and 65.74 years, mean IPSS score was 19.98 and 20.88, mean prostate volume was 44.77 cc and 49.02 cc in Group A and B, respectively. Improvements in IPSS, QOL, prostate volume, Q max and PVRU at 12 months were similar in both groups. PVP patients had longer operating time, lesser perioperative blood loss, shorter catheterization time and a higher dysuria rate when compared to TURP patients. The overall complication rate was similar in the two groups. Conclusions: In patients with LUTS due to BPE, KTP-PVP is an equally efficacious alternative to TURP with durable results at one year follow up with additional benefits of lesser perioperative blood loss, lesser transfusion requirements and a shorter catheterization time. Long term comparative data is awaited to clearly define the role of KTP-PVP in such patients. PMID:23204660

Mohanty, Nayan K.; Vasudeva, Pawan; Kumar, Anup; Prakash, Sanjay; Jain, Manoj; Arora, Rajender P.



Uncemented total hip arthroplasty in patients younger than 50 years: a 6- to 10-year follow-up study.  


Young patients are expected to place increased demands on total hip arthroplasty (THA) because they are more active and have a longer life expectancy. The long-term outcome of the Charnley low-friction arthroplasty in young, active patients has been shown to be associated with a high degree of polyethylene wear and osteolysis. However, cementless acetabular components have been shown to be successful in young patients.We evaluated the clinical and radiographic results of 77 cementless THAs in 81 young, active patients at a mean follow-up of 7.5 years. Mean preoperative Harris Hip Score improved from 46.24 to 96.5 points at 6 years. One acetabular component showed aseptic loosening 10 years postoperatively. Three patients (3 hips) underwent bone grafts and liner renewal for severe osteolysis around the acetabular component. The rate of survival at 6 years for loosening was 98.8%, and for revision of the liner was 95.5% (95% confidence interval, 93%-98%). Mean liner wear rate was 0.125 mm/year (range, 0.0-0.39 mm/year). Acetabular osteolysis was found in 14% (9 hips) of the 67 hips and was related to polyethylene wear (P=.0024). Although there was only 1 cup loosening in this study, there was a high rate of linear wear of the polyethylene liner and acetabular osteolysis in young, active patients. Further follow-up is therefore needed, and osteolysis and polyethylene wear should continue to be observed in young, active patients. PMID:20415300

Liang, Tian J; You, Mu Z; Xing, Pei F; Bin, Shen; Ke, Zhou Zhong; Jing, Yang



Serial Changes in Sexual Function Following Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate: A Short-term Follow-up Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the serial changes in sexual function in the short-term period after holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and to investigate whether a change in each domain of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) is associated with improvement of micturition. Materials and Methods Thirty-eight potent men who underwent HoLEP and in whom complete 12-month follow-up data on the IIEF were available were included in this retrospective study. All patients underwent a baseline evaluation for BPH. The surgical outcome was evaluated at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively by use of the International Prostate Symptom Score, IIEF, and uroflowmetry. Results The mean age and body mass index of the patients was 64.5±6.2 years and 24.2±2.6 kg/m2, respectively. Mean total prostate volume and transitional zone volume were 48.8±18.8 ml and 24.2±16.1 ml, respectively. Most IIEF domain scores showed a slight decrease at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery but recovered to the baseline or showed a marginal but nonsignificant increase at 12 months postoperatively compared with baseline. Orgasmic function and the overall sexual satisfaction domain score remained slightly reduced up to 12 months postoperatively. There was no significant correlation between improvement of micturition and change in sexual function throughout the follow-up period after surgery. Conclusions Although HoLEP achieves significant improvements in micturition, overall sexual function decreases slightly in the early postoperative period, but recovers to the baseline at 12 months postoperatively. Our data suggest that changes in sexual function after HoLEP are not associated with improvement of micturition. PMID:22379589

Jeong, Min Su; Ha, Seung Beom; Lee, Chang Ju; Cho, Min Chul; Kim, Soo Woong



Side branch healing patterns of the Tryton dedicated bifurcation stent: a 1-year optical coherence tomography follow-up study.  


The bare-metal Tryton Side Branch (SB) Stent™ (Tryton Medical, Durham, NC, USA) is used with a drug-eluting stent (DES) in the main branch (MB) to treat bifurcation lesions. It is argued that a drug-eluting Tryton-version is needed to improve clinical outcomes, although previous registries have shown good clinical results. More insights in neo-intimal hyperplasia (NIH) growth patterns of the Tryton treatment strategy are needed to decide if and where to drug-coat the stent. Ten patients returned for follow-up angiography (mean follow-up time 393 ± 103 days) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) pullbacks from the MB were obtained in all patients and from the SB in six patients. A per-strut analysis showed an uncovered strut rate of 0.7 % and an incompletely-apposed strut rate of 0.8 %. Most incompletely-apposed struts were found at the bifurcation region, in the luminal half facing towards the SB. Mean NIH thickness in the proximal MB, distal MB and SB were 0.14 ± 0.11, 0.19 ± 0.11, and 0.34 ± 0.19 mm, respectively, with a variety of growth patterns observed in the SB. We found good vascular healing of the DES in the MB, while healing was less favourably in the SB part. Furthermore, we observed a variety of NIH growth patterns in this SB part and more studies are needed to investigate the relation between growth patterns and clinical outcomes. PMID:25062748

Grundeken, Maik J; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M; Kraak, Robin P; Woudstra, P; de Bruin, Daniel M; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Koch, Karel T; Tijssen, Jan G; de Winter, Robbert J; Wykrzykowska, Joanna J



Prevalence and long-term predictors of persistent chronic widespread pain in the general population in an 11-year prospective study: the HUNT study  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is common and associated with prominent negative consequences. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of persistent CWP in an 11-year prospective cohort study in the general population, and to examine anxiety, depression, alcohol use, poor sleep, body mass index (BMI) and chronic disease, along with demographic, lifestyle and other health-related variables as possible predictors for the assumed CWP persistence. Methods CWP was defined as having pain at three or more predefined sites (involving the trunk and upper and lower limbs) for at least three months in the last year. We used a Norwegian general population cohort of 28,367 individuals who responded to both the second (1995–1997) and the third (2006–2008) waves of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT2 and HUNT3, respectively). Data were analysed with logistic regression models. Results CWP prevalence in HUNT2 was 17%. Of those reporting CWP in HUNT2, 53% still reported CWP at follow-up in HUNT3. Adjusted analyses revealed that depression and alcohol consumption were not substantially associated with the 11-year prospective CWP outcome. Poor sleep, obesity and chronic disease predicted persistent CWP, and being male and/or 60 years or older was protective. Conclusions This cohort study revealed that nearly half of the participants with baseline CWP resolved from CWP 11 years later. Among those whose CWP did not resolve, obesity, sleeping problems and chronic disease predicted CWP persistence, while aging and male sex was protective. Anxiety, mixed anxiety and depression, former smoking, and overweight were weakly associated, while depression, moderate exercise, and alcohol use were not associated with persistent CWP. PMID:24951013



Work ability of middle-aged Finnish construction workers – a follow-up study in 1991–1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work ability of 961 construction workers, aged 40yr and over, was followed in two consecutive interviews in 1991 and 1995. A total of 736 (77%) construction workers participated in the follow-up interview. A work ability index was calculated for each respondent at baseline and at follow-up. Information on disability pensions was obtained from the registries of the LEL Employment

J. Liira; E. Matikainen; P. Leino-Arjas; A. Malmivaara; P. Mutanen; H. Rytkönen; J. Juntunen



A nationwide, population-based, long-term follow-up study of repeated self-harm in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background Previous follow-up studies of repeated self-harm show that the cumulative risk of repeated self-harm within one year is 5.7%–15%, with females at greatest risk. However, relatively few studies have focused on the Far East. The objective of this study was to calculate the cumulative risk of repeated self-harm over different lengths of follow-up time (3?months, 6?months, and 1–8?years), to determine factors influencing repeated self-harm and to explore the interaction between gender and self-harm methods. Methods We used self-harm patient who hospitalized due to first-time self-harm between 2000 and 2007 from 1,230 hospitals in Taiwan. Hospitalization for repeated self-harm among members of this cohort was tracked after 3?months, 6?months, and 1–8?years. Tracking continued until December 31, 2008. We analyzed the cumulative risk and risk factors of repeated self-harm by using negative binomial regression. Results Of the 39,875 individual study samples, 3,388 individuals (8.50%) were found to have repeatedly self-harmed. The cumulative risk of repeated self-harm within three months was 7.19% and within one year was 8%. Within 8?years, it was 8.70%. Females were more likely to repeatedly self-harm than males (RR?=?1.21, 95% CI?=?1.15–1.76). The main method of self-harm was solid or liquid substances (RR?=?1.88, 95% CI?=?1.23–2.04) or cutting or piercing (RR?=?1.36, 95% CI?=?1.02–1.82), and in patients with psychiatric disorders were more likely to self-harm (RR?=?1.61, 95% CI?=?1.48–1.75). Conclusions The key time for intervention for repeated self-harm is within three months. Appropriate prevention programs should be developed based on gender differences. PMID:22950416



Mortality Among Young Injection Drug Users in San Francisco: A 10-Year Follow-up of the UFO Study  

PubMed Central

This study examined associations between mortality and demographic and risk characteristics among young injection drug users in San Francisco, California, and compared the mortality rate with that of the population. A total of 644 young (<30 years) injection drug users completed a baseline interview and were enrolled in a prospective cohort study, known as the UFO (“U Find Out”) Study, from November 1997 to December 2007. Using the National Death Index, the authors identified 38 deaths over 4,167 person-years of follow-up, yielding a mortality rate of 9.1 (95% confidence interval: 6.6, 12.5) per 1,000 person-years. This mortality rate was 10 times that of the general population. The leading causes of death were overdose (57.9%), self-inflicted injury (13.2%), trauma/accidents (10.5%), and injection drug user-related medical conditions (13.1%). Mortality incidence was significantly higher among those who reported injecting heroin most days in the past month (adjusted hazard ratio = 5.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 24.3). The leading cause of death in this group was overdose, and primary use of heroin was the only significant risk factor for death observed in the study. These findings highlight the continued need for public health interventions that address the risk of overdose in this population in order to reduce premature deaths. PMID:22227793

Evans, Jennifer L.; Tsui, Judith I.; Hahn, Judith A.; Davidson, Peter J.; Lum, Paula J.; Page, Kimberly



Cardiovascular risk estimation in women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy disorders at term: a longitudinal follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular disease is associated with major morbidity and mortality in women in the Western world. Prediction of an individual cardiovascular disease risk in young women is difficult. It is known that women with hypertensive pregnancy complications have an increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease in later life and pregnancy might be used as a cardiovascular stress test to identify women who are at high risk for cardiovascular disease. In this study we assess the possibility of long term cardiovascular risk prediction in women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy disorders at term. Methods In a longitudinal follow-up study, between June 2008 and November 2010, 300 women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy disorders at term (HTP cohort) and 94 women with a history of normotensive pregnancies at term (NTP cohort) were included. From the cardiovascular risk status that was known two years after index pregnancy we calculated individual (extrapolated) 10-and 30-year cardiovascular event risks using four different risk prediction models including the Framingham risk score, the SCORE score and the Reynolds risk score. Continuous data were analyzed using the Student’s T test and Mann–Whitney U test and categorical data by the Chi-squared test. A poisson regression analysis was performed to calculate the incidence risk ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals for the different cardiovascular risk estimation categories. Results After a mean follow-up of 2.5 years, HTP women had significantly higher mean (SD) extrapolated 10-year cardiovascular event risks (HTP 7.2% (3.7); NTP 4.4% (1.9) (p<.001, IRR 5.8, 95% CI 1.9 to 19)) and 30-year cardiovascular event risks (HTP 11% (7.6); NTP 7.3% (3.5) (p<.001, IRR 2.7, 95% CI 1.6 to 4.5)) as compared to NTP women calculated by the Framingham risk scores. The SCORE score and the Reynolds risk score showed similar significant results. Conclusions Women with a history of gestational hypertension or preeclampsia at term have higher predicted (extrapolated) 10-year and 30-year cardiovascular event risks as compared to women with a history of uncomplicated pregnancies. Further large prospective studies have to evaluate whether hypertensive pregnancy disorders have to be included as an independent variable in cardiovascular risk prediction models for women. PMID:23734952



A Long-term Follow-up Study on the Engraftment of Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Sheep  

PubMed Central

Xenograft models of human hematopoiesis are essential to the study of the engraftment and proliferative potential of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in vivo. Immunodeficient mice and fetal sheep are often used as xenogeneic recipients because they are immunologically naive. In this study, we transplanted human HSCs into fetal sheep and assessed the long-term engraftment of transplanted human HSCs after birth. Fourteen sheep were used in this study. In 4 fetal sheep, HSCs were transduced with homeo-box B4 (HOXB4) gene before transplantation, which promoted the expansion of HSCs. Another 4 fetal sheep were subjected to non-myeloablative conditioning with busulfan. Seven of these 8 sheep showed successful engraftment of human HSCs (1–3% of colony-forming units) as assessed after the birth of fetal sheep (5 months post-transplantation), although HOXB4-transduced HSCs showed sustained engraftment for up to 40 months. Intact HSCs were transplanted into six non-conditioned fetal sheep, and human colony-forming units were not detected in the sheep after birth. These results suggest that, as compared with mouse models, where the short lifespan of mice limits long-term follow-up of HSC engraftment, the fetal sheep model provides a unique perspective for evaluating long-term engraftment and proliferation of human HSCs. PMID:25048264

Abe, Tomoyuki; Hanazono, Yutaka; Nagao, Yoshikazu



The Functional, Social and Economic Impact of Acute Encephalitis Syndrome in Nepal - a Longitudinal Follow-Up Study  

PubMed Central

Background Over 133,000 children present to hospitals with Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) annually in Asia. Japanese encephalitis (JE) accounts for approximately one-quarter of cases; in most cases no pathogen is identified and management is supportive. Although JE is known to result in neurological impairment, few studies have examined the wider impact of JE and AES on patients and their families. Methodology/Principal Findings Children (aged 1 month–14 years) with AES were assessed 5–12 months after discharge from two Nepali hospitals. Assessment included clinical examination, the Liverpool Outcome Score (LOS) - a validated assessment of function following encephalitis, questionnaires about the child's social participation since discharge, and out-of-pocket costs to the family. Children were classified as JE or ‘other AES’ based on anti-JE virus antibody titres during acute illness. Contact was made with the families of 76% (73/96) of AES children. Six children had died and one declined participation. 48% (32/66) reported functional impairment at follow-up, most frequently affecting behaviour, language or limb use. Impairment was more frequent in JE compared to ‘other AES’ cases (68% [13/19] versus 40% [19/47]; p?=?0.06). 49% (26/53) had improvement in LOS between discharge and follow-up. The median out-of-pocket cost to families, including medical bills, medication and lost earnings was US$ 1151 (10 times their median monthly income) for children with severe/moderate impairment and $524 (4.6 times their income) for those with mild/no impairment (P?=?0.007). Acute admission accounted for 74% of costs. Social participation was limited in 21% of children (n?=?14). Conclusions/Significance Prolonged functional impairment was common following AES. Economic impact to families was substantial. Encouragingly, almost half the children improved after discharge and most reported sustained social participation. This study highlights a need for long-term medical support following AES. Rationalisation of initial expensive hospital treatments may be warranted, especially since only supportive treatment is available. PMID:24069467

Rayamajhi, Ajit; Poudel, Prakash; Shrestha, Pramina; Srivastav, Vijay; Kneen, Rachel; Medina-Lara, Antonieta; Singh, Rupa R.; Solomon, Tom



Do sexual dysfunctions get better during dialysis? Results of a six-month prospective follow-up study from Turkey.  


Dialysis improves most symptoms of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), yet many patients continue to experience sexual dysfunction (SD) during the dialysis treatment. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the frequency and the course of SD during a 6-month dialysis treatment. Additionally, relationships between the level of depression, cognitive impairment and biochemical parameters of SD were also assessed. The subjects were 43 ESRD (25 male and 18 female) on dialysis treatment for at least 12 months. SD was assessed using the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX); the level of depression and cognitive impairment were assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE). Several biochemical parameters were also assessed. All assessments were carried out at baseline and repeated at 6-month follow-up. Of 43 patients, 20 (47%) and 18 (42%) complained of SD at baseline and at 6-month assessments, respectively. Of 25 males, nine (36%) and seven (28%) patients described SD at baseline and 6-month assessments, respectively; erectile dysfunction was the most frequent complaint. Of 18 females, 11 (61%) and 11 (61%) patients reported SD at baseline and 6-month assessments, respectively; difficulties with arousal and reaching orgasm were the most frequent complaints. Both total and item-by-item comparisons of baseline and 6 months ASEX scores did not reveal any significant changes during 6-month period, indicating that patient's sexual functions do not improve with dialysis treatment. For female patients, HDRS scores were significantly higher in patients with SD at baseline (t = 2.15, P = 0.05) and at 6-month follow-up (t = 2.44, P = 0.03) assessments; after excluding the effects of age and duration of dialysis for females using regression analysis, HDRS still significantly (t = 4.02, P = 0.003) associated with the SD. This preliminary prospective study suggests that SD is frequent in dialysis patients, does not remit with dialysis treatment, associated with depression in female patients, and much clinical attention is indicated. PMID:15829989

Soykan, A; Boztas, H; Kutlay, S; Ince, E; Nergizoglu, G; Dileköz, A Y; Berksun, O



Long-term follow-up studies of Gamma Knife surgery for patients with neurofibromatosis Type 2.  


Object The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term clinical outcomes after Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) for patients with neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2) and the role of GKS in the management of NF2. Methods From December 1994 through December 2008, a total of 46 patients (21 male, 25 female) with NF2 underwent GKS and follow-up evaluation for at least 5 years at the Gamma Knife Center of the Beijing Neurosurgical Institute. GKS was performed using the Leksell Gamma Knife Models B and C. The mean age of the patients was 30 years (range 13-59 years). A family history of NF2 was found for 9 (20%) patients. The NF2 phenotype was thought to be Wishart for 20 (44%) and Feiling-Gardner for 26 (56%) patients. Among these 46 patients, GKS was performed to treat 195 tumors (73 vestibular schwannomas and 122 other tumors including other schwannomas and meningiomas). For vestibular schwannomas, the mean volume was 5.1 cm(3) (median 3.6 cm(3), range 0.3-27.3 cm(3)), the mean margin dose was 12.9 Gy (range 10-14 Gy), and the mean maximum dose was 27.3 Gy (range 16.2-40 Gy). For other tumors, the mean volume was 1.7 cm(3) (range 0.3-5.5 cm(3)), the mean margin dose was 13.3 Gy (range 11-14 Gy), and the mean maximum dose was 26.0 Gy (range 18.0-30.4 Gy). The median duration of follow-up was 109 months (range 8-195 months). Results For the 73 vestibular schwannomas that underwent GKS, the latest follow-up MR images demonstrated regression of 30 (41%) tumors, stable size for 31 (43%) tumors, and enlargement of 12 (16%) tumors. The total rate of tumor control for bilateral vestibular schwannomas in patients with NF2 was 84%. Of the 122 other types of tumors that underwent GKS, 103 (85%) showed no tumor enlargement. The rate of serviceable hearing preservation after GKS was 31.9% (15/47). The actuarial rates for hearing preservation at 3 years, 5 years, 10 years, and 15 years were 98%, 93%, 44%, and 17%, respectively. Of the 46 patients, 22 (48%) became completely bilaterally deaf, 17 (37%) retained unilateral serviceable hearing, and 7 (15%) retained bilateral serviceable hearing. The mean history of the disease course was 12 years (range 5-38 years). Conclusions GKS was confirmed to provide long-term local tumor control for small- to medium-sized vestibular schwannomas and other types of tumors, although vestibular schwannomas in patients with NF2 responded less well than did unilateral sporadic vestibular schwannomas. Phenotype is the most strongly predictive factor of final outcome after GKS for patients with NF2. The risk for loss of hearing is high, whereas the risk for other cranial nerve complications is low. PMID:25434947

Sun, Shibin; Liu, Ali



Guided bone regeneration with barrier membranes--a clinical and radiographic follow-up study after 24 months.  


The present follow-up study evaluated clinical and radiographic parameters of dental implants placed with simultaneous guided bone regeneration with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) membranes. All implants were functioning well 24 months after insertion. In all, 63 patients with a total of 91 e-PTFE-augmented implants were integrated in a regular maintenance protocol. Modified periodontal data of 85 implants in 59 patients were recorded at 24 months and indicated no difference to implants placed in sufficient pristine bone. The mean plaque score (mplI) was 0.29, 74% of the sites showed no plaque. The sulcular probing depth ranged from 1 to 7 mm with a mean of 2.6 mm (SD +/- 0.8). Of the sites 96.5% were < or = 4 mm deep, in 49% of them probing resulted in bleeding. Periotest values 6 and 24 months (mean: -3.4 and -3.4) after placement revealed stable peri-implant conditions and sustained osseointegration. The radiographic evaluation performed 6, 12 and 24 months post insertion yielded a mean bone loss of 0.93, 1.36 and 1.51 mm ranging from 0 to 4 mm. The short-term results of our clinical study demonstrated stable peri-implant conditions 2 years after membrane-protected osseous regeneration. The newly formed bone seemed to be able to withstand functional loading in a predictable manner after 18 months. PMID:10196786

Lorenzoni, M; Pertl, C; Polansky, R; Wegscheider, W



Factors affecting outcome after anterior cruciate ligament injury: a prospective study with a six-year follow-up.  


The aim of this study was to investigate whether gender, age, stable personality traits, associated meniscus and/or articular cartilage injuries, treatment (non-operative or reconstructive surgery), additional subsequent trauma to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-injured knee and activity level before injury affect the intermediate outcome after ACL injury. The primary outcome was the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). Fifty-seven patients, 18-50 years old with an acute, unilateral ACL tear were included in the study. At the time of inclusion, the patients completed the Tegner score, regarding activity level before injury, and Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP). At follow-up, after 5.6 years they completed the KOOS, the Tegner score and a general questionnaire concerning ACL reconstruction and subsequent knee trauma. The subjects who had sustained additional trauma subsequent to their ACL injury had a significantly worse outcome according to the KOOS than those who had not. Furthermore, low ratings in the embitterment scale in the SSP were correlated to a better outcome in the KOOS. Treatment did not affect the KOOS total score. However, the non-operatively treated subjects had a significantly better outcome according to the knee-related quality-of-life domain in the KOOS. PMID:18067527

Swirtun, L R; Renström, P



Evaluating conditional release in not guilty by reason of insanity acquittees: a prospective follow-up study in Virginia.  


Detailed research on treatment and risk management approaches with not guilty by reason of insanity acquittees (NGRI) during their conditional release is needed as states increasingly use community-based services for these individuals. Grounded in case law, and supported by follow-up studies demonstrating low recidivism rates, states have been encouraged in their efforts to conditionally release NGRI acquittees. The authors evaluated a state-wide sample of 127 NGRI acquittees released into the community after spending a mean of 61.63 months (SD = 76.54) in the hospital. One hundred individuals were committed to the hospital for lengthier treatment (M hospital time = 77.23 months, SD = 79.84), but 27 individuals were released to the community after a relatively short hospital stay (M hospital time = 5.60 months, SD = 3.01). Regarding release, 96 individuals (75.6%) maintained their conditional release. After evaluating a host of demographic and standardized risk data, the following variables predicted revocation on conditional release: previous failure on conditional release, nonadherence with hospital treatment, dangerousness to others, and previous violent charges. A multivariate survival analysis determined criminal behavior and previous failure on conditional release predicted time to revocation. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of considering standardized risk variables in the community-based management of forensic patients. In addition, the data are supportive of continued attempts at moving insanity acquittees from the hospital to the community via conditional release. PMID:24377912

Vitacco, Michael J; Vauter, Rebecca; Erickson, Steven K; Ragatz, Laurie



Association between number of children and mortality of mothers: results of a 37-year follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the association between parity and long term all-cause mortality and mortality due to specific causes in women. Methods This prospective population-based study included 40,454 mothers who gave birth in Western Jerusalem, Israel, to 125,842 children and were followed for an average of 37 years following the birth of their first child. Cox Proportional Hazards Models were used to evaluate long-term total and specific cause mortality of women by their parity. Results We found a U-shaped relationship between the number of offspring and risk of all-cause mortality in mothers. After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and maternal health and obstetric conditions, higher mortality rates were observed for mothers of 1 child (HR=1.18; 95% CI 1.04–1.4), mothers of 5–9 children (HR=1.21;95%CI 1.09–1.33), and mothers of ?10 children (HR=1.49;95%CI 1.12–1.99) as compared to mothers of 2–4 children. Mortality risk from specific causes including coronary disease, circulatory disease, and cancer were increased for multiparous women. Conclusions In this long-term follow-up study, there was an association between number of children mortality risk of mothers. These findings suggest that maternal pregnancies and post-natal characteristics as reflected by number of children may have consequences for long-term maternal health. PMID:23176782

Dior, Uri P; Hochner, Hagit; Friedlander, Yechiel; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Jaffe, Dena; Burger, Ayala; Avgil, Meytal; Manor, Orly; Elchalal, Uriel



Outrunning major weight gain: a prospective study of 8,340consistent runners during 7 years of follow-up  

SciTech Connect

Background: Body weight increases with aging. Short-term,longitudinal exercise training studies suggest that increasing exerciseproduces acute weight loss, but it is not clear if the maintenance oflong-term, vigorous exercise attenuates age-related weight gain inproportion to the exercise dose. Methods: Prospective study of 6,119 maleand 2,221 female runners whose running distance changed less than 5 km/wkbetween their baseline and follow-up survey 7 years later. Results: Onaverage, men who ran modest (0-24 km/wk), intermediate (24-48 km/wk) orprolonged distances (>_48 km/wk) all gained weight throughage 64,however, those who ran ?48 km/wk had one-half the average annual weightgain of those who ran<24 km/wk. Age-related weight gain, and itsreduction by running, were both greater in younger than older men. Incontrast, men s gain in waist circumference with age, and its reductionby running, were the same in older and younger men. Women increased theirbody weight and waist and hip circumferences over time, regardless ofage, which was also reduced in proportion to running distance. In bothsexes, running did not attenuate weight gain uniformly, but ratherdisproportionately prevented more extreme increases. Conclusion: Men andwomen who remain vigorously active gain less weight as they age and thereduction is in proportion to the exercise dose.

Williams, Paul T.



Physical activity, fitness and body composition of Finnish police officers: a 15-year follow-up study.  


This study evaluated changes in the physical activity, fitness and body composition of 103 police officers during a 15-year follow-up. The absolute aerobic capacity was similar in 1981 and 1996, muscular performance had declined, and body weight had increased approximately 0.5 kg/year. More than half the subjects (53%) had increased their leisure-time physical activity in 1996. The correlation was significant between physical activity in 1981 and physical fitness in 1996, but weak between physical activity in 1996 and fitness in 1996. It was also significant between waist circumference and waist/hip ratio in 1996 and physical activity during the previous 5 and 15 years. No significant correlations were found between physical activity and work ability or perceived physical or mental job stress. The physical fitness of middle-aged police officers seems to be predicted strongly by physical activity in early adulthood. Therefore health and fitness promotion measures should start at that time. This, together with regular systematic training, should help to sustain work ability of middle-aged police officers. PMID:10795384

Sörensen, L; Smolander, J; Louhevaara, V; Korhonen, O; Oja, P



Long-term effect of placental type on anthropometrical and psychological traits among monozygotic twins: a follow up study.  


The long-term effect of differences in placentation in MZ twins is a controversial subject. An effect has been clearly established for birth weight but data on psychological traits are still under debate. We studied 20 pairs of monochorionic MZ (MC MZ) and 24 pairs of dichorionic MZ (DC MZ) twins. A chorion effect was observed for Block Design (WISC-R) confirming a previous report: MC MZ co-twins were more similar that DC MZ co-twins. For anthropometrical measures, an expected effect in the opposite direction was found. No chorion effect was significant for the other variables. A follow up was undertaken 3 years later using cognitive, national academic evaluations, and personality variables. The sample included 16 pairs of MC MZ and 22 pairs of DC MZ twins. Again a chorion effect was observed on anthropometrical variables but results on the Block Design were not replicated. However, the MC MZ co-twins were more similar than the DC MZ co-twins for two other cognitive variables: Perceptual Organization Index from the WISC-R and Global Visualisation from a Belgian reasoning test. Among the personality variables only one was sensitive to a chorion effect. The discussion focuses on the need for larger samples to achieve adequate power in statistical comparisons. PMID:10555132

Gutknecht, L; Spitz, E; Carlier, M



Adipogenesis of Sprague Dawely rats mesenchymal stem cells: a morphological, immunophenotyping and gene expression follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) offer significant promise as a multipotent source for cell-based therapies and could form the basis for the differentiation and cultivation of tissue grafts to replace damaged tissue. However, no gene expression follow up analysis has been undertaken to characterize the in vitro adipogenic differentiated MSCs. The main goal of this study was to focus on MSCs and to analyze their differentiation capacity. To achieve this aim, bone marrow MSCs from sprague dawely rats were isolated, expanded in monolayer culture and characterized with respect to their cluster of differentiation (CD) and ability for adipogenic differentiation capacity. The expression of CD44, CD45, CD29, CD34, and CD90 on bone marrow derived MSCs was characterized using flow cytometry. Adipogenesis was determined by staining with oil-red O and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assessments of lipoprotein lipase, leptin, adiponectin and adipocyte genes at different time intervals, after 4, 7, 14, and 21 days. Our results revealed that the pattern of CD marker expression was highly positive significant with CD29, CD44, and CD90 when compared with CD34 and CD45. MSCs showed proliferative potential and were capable of adipogenic differentiation characterized by reddish brown-droplets following staining with oil-red O and expression of molecular bands of genes. These results demonstrate, at the morphological, immunophenotyping and gene expression levels, the multipotency of MSCs and thus highlight their potential therapeutic value for cell-based tissue engineering. PMID:24987544



Objective outcome evaluation using inertial sensors in subacromial impingement syndrome: a five-year follow-up study.  


Shoulder-related dysfunction is the second most common musculoskeletal disorder and is an increasing burden on health-care systems. Commonly used clinical questionnaires suffer from subjectivity, pain dominance and a ceiling effect. Objective functional measurement has been identified as a relevant issue in clinical rehabilitation. Inertia based motion analysis (IMA) is a new generation of objective outcome assessment tool; it can produce objective movement parameters while being fast, cheap and easy to operate. In this prospective study, an inertial sensor comprising a three-dimensional accelerometer and gyroscope is attached at the humerus to measure shoulder movements during two motion tasks in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome at baseline and at five-year after treatment. One hundred healthy subjects served as healthy reference database and 15 patients were measured pre- and post-treatment. IMA was better able to detect improvement in shoulder movements compared to the clinical questionnaires (Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and Simple Shoulder Test (SST); p < 0.05) and was hardly correlated with the clinical questionnaires (Pearson R = 0.39). It may therefore add an objective functional dimension to outcome assessment. The fast assessment (t < 5 min) of a simple motion test makes it suitable for routine clinical follow-up. PMID:24622109

Körver, R J P; Senden, R; Heyligers, I C; Grimm, B



The cementless anatomic Benoist Girard (ABG) II total hip arthroplasty: a minimum 8-year follow-up study.  


We have evaluated 90 consecutive primary cementless ABG II total hip replacements. The bearings combined metal-on-polyethylene in 64 hips, and alumina-on-alumina in 26 hips. At the minimum 8-year follow-up, ten patients had died, seven had been lost to follow-up, two had undergone revision of either or both components, and 68 were still alive and had not been revised. With revision for any reason as the endpoint, the cumulative survival rate at 10years was 97.5%±1.7%, and 98.7%±1.3% for the metal-back cup and the femoral component, respectively. No hip showed peri-acetabular osteolysis. The ABG II total hip arthroplasty has demonstrated favourable clinical and radiological outcomes as well as survival in the current series. Further follow-up is needed to confirm these mid-term results. PMID:23122655

Nourissat, Christian; Essig, Jérôme; Asencio, Gérard



Cognitive Experiences Reported by Borderline Patients and Axis II Comparison Subjects: A 16-year Prospective Follow-up Study  

PubMed Central

Objective This study assesses three main types of cognition: nonpsychotic thought (odd thinking, unusual perceptual experiences, and non-delusional paranoia), quasi-psychotic thought, and true-psychotic thought in borderline patients followed prospectively for 16 years. It also compares the rates of these disturbed cognitions to those reported by axis II comparison subjects. Method The cognitive experiences of 362 inpatients—290 borderline patients and 72 axis II comparison subjects—were assessed at study entry using the cognitive section of the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines. Their cognitive experiences were reassessed every two years using the same interview. Results Each of the five main types of thought studied was reported by a significantly higher percentage of borderline patients than axis II comparison subjects over time. Each of these types of thought, except true-psychotic thought, declined significantly over time for those in both groups. Eleven of the 17 more specific forms of thought studied were also reported by a significantly higher percentage of borderline patients over the years of follow-up: magical thinking, overvalued ideas, recurrent illusions, depersonalization, derealization, undue suspiciousness, ideas of reference, other paranoid ideation, quasi-psychotic delusions, quasi-psychotic hallucinations, and true-psychotic hallucinations. Fourteen specific forms of thought were found to decline significantly over time for those in both groups: all forms of thought mentioned above except true-psychotic hallucinations plus marked superstitiousness, sixth sense, telepathy, and clairvoyance. Conclusions Disturbed cognitions are common among borderline patients and distinguishing for the disorder. They also decline substantially over time but remain a problem, particularly those of a nonpsychotic nature. PMID:23558452

Zanarini, Mary C.; Frankenburg, Frances R.; Wedig, Michelle M.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.



Observational Follow-up Study on a Cohort of Children with Severe Pneumonia after Discharge from a Day-care Clinic in Dhaka, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Compliance, morbidity, mortality, and hospitalization during fortnightly follow-up were evaluated by an observational study on a cohort of children with severe and very severe pneumonia after day-care treatment at an urban clinic. The primary outcome measures were proportions of success (compliance) and failure (non-compliance) of follow-up visits at the day-care clinic. In total, 251 children were followed up, with median (IQR) age of 5.0 (3.0-9.0) months, and their compliance dropped from 92% at the first to 85% at the sixth visit. Cough (28%), fever (20%), and rapid breathing (13%) were common morbidities. Successful follow-up visits were possible in 180 (95.2%) and 56 (90.3%) of the children with severe and very severe pneumonia respectively. Eleven (4.4%) needed hospitalization, and four (1.6%) died. Majority (?90%) of the children could be successfully followed up; some failed to attend their scheduled follow-up visits due to hospitalization and death. The common morbidities indicate the importance of follow-up for detecting medical problems and early treatment, thus reducing risk of death. PMID:25076656

Alam, Nur H.; Chisti, Mohammod J.; Salam, Mohammed A.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Gyr, Niklaus



Seasonal changes in symptoms in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a seasonal follow-up study.  


Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether seasonal changes aggravate the symptoms of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), by serial administration of the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) questionnaire for an extended period. Material and methods. Seventy-seven men with CP/CPPS were serially evaluated with the Korean version of the NIH-CPSI questionnaire every 2-3 months from October 2008 to October 2012. The mean duration of follow-up was 27.11 ± 10.00 months and the mean number of visits per patient was 14.68 ± 5.33 times during the study. Results. The number of patients complaining of breakthrough pain during the study was 31 in spring and autumn, nine in summer and 18 in winter. However, there were no significant differences in the mean NIH-CPSI scores across the seasons. In spring, summer and autumn, only urination symptoms correlated with quality of life (QoL) (r(2) = 0.277, p < 0.001). In winter, both pain items and urination symptoms correlated with QoL (pain: r(2) = 0.522, p < 0.001; urination symptoms: r(2) = 0.250, p < 0.001). Conclusion. Although fewer severe pain attacks occurred in summer, the mean NIH-CPSI scores did not differ across seasons. The pain from CP/CPPS had a greater impact on QoL during winter than it did in the other seasons. In addition, pain was a more significant determinant of QoL than urination symptoms during winter. PMID:25012875

Shin, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Gilho



Association between Dietary Patterns and Depressive Symptoms Over Time: A 10-Year Follow-Up Study of the GAZEL Cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Data on the association between dietary patterns and depression are scarce. The objective of this study was to examine the longitudinal association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms assessed repeatedly over 10 years in the French occupational GAZEL cohort. Methods A total of 9,272 men and 3,132 women, aged 45–60 years in 1998, completed a 35-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline. Dietary patterns were derived by Principal Component Analysis. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) in 1999, 2002, 2005 and 2008. The main outcome measure was the repeated measures of CES-D. Longitudinal analyses were performed with logistic regression based on generalized estimating equations. Principal Findings The highest quartile of low-fat, western, high snack and high fat-sweet diets in men and low-fat and high snack diets in women were associated with higher likelihood of depressive symptoms at the start of the follow-up compared to the lowest quartile (OR between 1.16 and 1.50). Conversely, the highest quartile of traditional diet (characterized by fish and fruit consumption) was associated with a lower likelihood of depressive symptoms in women compared to the lowest quartile, with OR?=?0.63 [95%CI, 0.50 to 0.80], as the healthy pattern (characterized by vegetables consumption) with OR?=?0.72 [95%CI, 0.63 to 0.83] and OR?=?0.75 [95%CI, 0.61 to 0.93] in men and women, respectively. However, there was probably a reverse causality effect for the healthy pattern. Conclusion This longitudinal study shows that several dietary patterns are associated with depressive symptoms and these associations track over time. PMID:23251585

Le Port, Agnes; Gueguen, Alice; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Melchior, Maria; Lemogne, Cedric; Nabi, Hermann; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Czernichow, Sebastien



Neurosurgery and prognosis in patients with radiation-induced brain injury after nasopharyngeal carcinoma radiotherapy: a follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background Radiotherapy is the standard radical treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and may cause radiation-induced brain injury (RI). Treatment for RI remains a challenge. We conducted this study to investigate the indications of neurosurgery, operation time and prognosis of patients with RI after NPC radiotherapy who underwent neurosurgical management. Methods This was a follow-up study between January 2005 and July 2011. Fifteen NPC cases of RI who underwent neurosurgery were collected. Brain Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), surgery and histology were studied. The outcome was assessed by LENT/SOMA scales and modified Rankin scale. Results Brain lesion resection (86.7%) was more common than decompressive craniotomy (13.3%). According to LENT/SOMA scale before and six months after surgery, 13 of 15, 12 of 15, 14 of 15, and 14 of 15 cases showed improvement at subjective, objective, management and analytic domains, respectively. 12 of 15 patients showed improvement of modified Rankin scale after surgery. Three patients who underwent emergency surgery showed significant improvement (average score increment of 2, 2.7, 2.7, 3 and 2 at LENT/SOMA scale subjective, objective, management, analytic, and modified Rankin scale, respectively), as compared with 12 cases underwent elective surgery (average score increment of 1, 1, 1.4, 1.8 and 1 at LENT SOMA scale subjective, objective, management, analytic, and modified Rankin scale, respectively). Conclusions Neurosurgery, including brain necrotic tissue resection and decompressive craniotomy, improves the prognosis for RI patients, especially for those with indications of emergency surgery. PMID:23578338



Variability of NT-proBNP plasma and urine levels in patients with stable heart failure: a 2-year follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To examine N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) variability in plasma and urine samples of patients with stable heart failure (HF) during a 24-month follow-up.Design: Prospective study.Setting: Teaching hospital based study.Patients: 74 clinically and functionally stable patients (NYHA class 2±0.5) out of 114 patients diagnosed with HF were followed up, and NT-proBNP plasma and urine levels were measured at baseline,

Raquel Corte?s; Miguel Rivera; Antonio Salvador; Vicente Bertomeu; Fernando Garci?a de Burgos; Esther Rosello?-Lleti?; Manuel Portole?s; Rafael Paya?; Luis Marti?nez-Dolz; Vicente Climent



Patterns of improvement after methadone treatment: 1 year follow-up results from the National Treatment Outcome Research Study (NTORS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One year outcomes for substance use behaviours, health and criminal behaviour, and variation in treatment response, are reported for patients recruited to methadone maintenance and methadone reduction treatment programmes as part of NTORS. Significant reductions in the use of all illicit target drugs were found at follow-up for patients recruited to the methadone maintenance and methadone reduction modalities. Because of

Michael Gossop; John Marsden; Duncan Stewart; Alexandra Rolfe



Treatment of Adjustment Disorder with Anxiety: A September 11, 2001, Case Study with a 1-Year Follow-Up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the application of cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of a 20-year-old White male manifesting an adjustment disorder with anxiety, who initially presented on September 11, 2001, following the terrorist attacks. The initial treatment regime lasted 8 weeks. In addition, follow-up sessions at 6, 11, and 12 months…

Powell, Shawn; McCone, Dave



Two Studies of the Long-Term Follow-up of Minimal Therapist Contact Treatments of Vascular and Tension Headache.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Followed up on tension and vascular headache patients, intially treated with biofeedback and/or relaxation training in either a minimal therapist contact or an intensive individual protocol, where one-half of patients continued keeping headache diaries and were seen monthly; others had minimal contact. Demonstrated equally good maintenance from…

Blanchard, Edward B.; And Others



Adrenocortical carcinoma in children: First population?based clinicopathological study with long-term follow-up.  


Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is rare in both adult and pediatric populations. Literature suggests significant differences between children and adults in presentation, histological properties and outcome. The aim of this first nationwide study on pediatric ACC was to describe the incidence, presentation, pathological characteristics, treatment and survival in The Netherlands. All ACC patients aged <20 years at diagnosis and registered in the population-based Netherlands Cancer Registry between 1993 and 2010 were included. Clinical data were extracted from medical records. Archival histological slides were collected via the Dutch Pathology Registry (PALGA). We compared our findings to all clinical studies on pediatric ACC that were found on PubMed. Based on the results, 12 patients were identified: 8 females and 4 males. The median age was 4.1 years (range 1.1-18.6). The population-based age-standardized incidence rate for patients <20 years was 0.18 per million person-years. Autonomous hormonal secretion was present in 10 patients. Seven patients were aged ?4 years at diagnosis, 5 presented with localized disease and 2 with locally advanced disease. Five patients were aged ?5 years, 3 presented with distant metastases and 1 with locally advanced disease. For all patients, histological examination displayed malignant characteristics. All patients aged ?4 years at diagnosis survived; the median follow-up was 97 months (57-179 months). All patients aged ?5 years died; the median survival was 6 months (0-38 months). Pediatric ACC is extremely rare in the Western world. The clinical outcome was remarkably better in patients aged ?4 years. This is in accordance with less advanced stage of disease at presentation, yet contrasts with the presence of adverse histological characteristics. Clinical management in advanced disease is adapted from adult practice in the absence of evidence regarding pediatric ACC. PMID:25241764

Kerkhofs, T M A; Ettaieb, M H T; Verhoeven, R H A; Kaspers, G J L; Tissing, W J E; Loeffen, J; Van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M M; De Krijger, R R; Haak, H R



Disability in young people and adults after head injury: 5-7 year follow up of a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Improvement 1–2 years after head injury is well established but the pattern thereafter is unclear. Past studies have not examined representative head injury populations and typically report findings in terms of functioning across social, psychological, neurobehavioural, or cognitive domains rather than global outcome. Objective To determine the late outcome of a representative cohort of participants admitted to hospital after a head injury 5–7 years previously and to identify early and late factors correlating with persisting disability and change between one and 5–7 years. Methods A representative cohort of head injured people whose outcome one year after injury was reported previously, were followed up 5–7 years after injury. Participants were assessed using structured and validated measures of global outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended), cognitive impairment, psychological wellbeing, health status, and social factors. Results Of 475 survivors studied at one year, 115 (24%) had died by seven years. In survivors at 5–7 years, disability remained frequent (53%); and the rate, similar to that found at one year (57%). Sixty three participants (29%) had improved but 55 (25%) deteriorated. The persistence of disability and its development after previous recovery each showed stronger associations with indices of depression, anxiety, and low self?esteem than with initial severity of injury or persisting cognitive impairment. Conclusions Admission to hospital after head injury is followed 5–7?years later by disability in a high proportion of survivors. Persistence of disability and development of new disability are strongly associated with psychosocial factors that may be open to remediation, even late after injury. PMID:16614025

Whitnall, L; McMillan, T M; Murray, G D; Teasdale, G M



Urinary Concentration of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 in Idiopathic Glomerulonephritis: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study  

PubMed Central

Background Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), which is up regulated in kidney diseases, is considered a marker of kidney inflammation. We examined the value of urine MCP-1 in predicting the outcome in idiopathic glomerulonephritis. Methods Between 1993 and 2004, 165 patients (68 females) diagnosed with idiopathic proteinuric glomerulopathy and with serum creatinine <150 µmol/L at diagnosis were selected for the study. Urine concentrations of MCP-1 were analyzed by ELISA in early morning spot urine samples collected on the day of the diagnostic kidney biopsy. The patients were followed until 2009. The progression rate to end-stage kidney disease was calculated using Kaplan–Meier survival analysis. End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) was defined as the start of kidney replacement therapy during the study follow-up time. Results Patients with proliferative glomerulonephritis had significantly higher urinary MCP-1 excretion levels than those with non-proliferative glomerulonephritis (p<0.001). The percentage of patients whose kidney function deteriorated significantly was 39.0% in the high MCP-1 excretion group and 29.9% in the low MCP-1 excretion group. However, after adjustment for confounding variables such as glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and proteinuria, there was no significant association between urine MCP-1 concentration and progression to ESKD, (HR?=?1.75, 95% CI?=?0.64–4.75, p?=?0.27). Conclusion Our findings indicate that progression to end-stage kidney disease in patients with idiopathic glomerulopathies is not associated with urine MCP-1 concentrations at the time of diagnosis. PMID:24489972

Tofik, Rafid; Ohlsson, Sophie; Bakoush, Omran



Towards more reliable automated multi-dose dispensing: retrospective follow-up study on medication dose errors and product defects.  


To date, little is known on applicability of different types of pharmaceutical dosage forms in an automated high-speed multi-dose dispensing process. The purpose of the present study was to identify and further investigate various process-induced and/or product-related limitations associated with multi-dose dispensing process. The rates of product defects and dose dispensing errors in automated multi-dose dispensing were retrospectively investigated during a 6-months follow-up period. The study was based on the analysis of process data of totally nine automated high-speed multi-dose dispensing systems. Special attention was paid to the dependence of multi-dose dispensing errors/product defects and pharmaceutical tablet properties (such as shape, dimensions, weight, scored lines, coatings, etc.) to profile the most suitable forms of tablets for automated dose dispensing systems. The relationship between the risk of errors in dose dispensing and tablet characteristics were visualized by creating a principal component analysis (PCA) model for the outcome of dispensed tablets. The two most common process-induced failures identified in the multi-dose dispensing are predisposal of tablet defects and unexpected product transitions in the medication cassette (dose dispensing error). The tablet defects are product-dependent failures, while the tablet transitions are dependent on automated multi-dose dispensing systems used. The occurrence of tablet defects is approximately twice as common as tablet transitions. Optimal tablet preparation for the high-speed multi-dose dispensing would be a round-shaped, relatively small/middle-sized, film-coated tablet without any scored line. Commercial tablet products can be profiled and classified based on their suitability to a high-speed multi-dose dispensing process. PMID:22458299

Palttala, Iida; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Honkanen, Outi; Suominen, Risto; Antikainen, Osmo; Hirvonen, Jouni; Yliruusi, Jouko



Criterion validity of a competency-based assessment center in medical education - a 4-year follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Core competencies have progressively gained importance in medical education. In other contexts, especially personnel selection and development, assessment centers (ACs) are used to assess competencies, but there is only a limited number of studies on competency-based ACs in medical education. To the best of our knowledge, the present study provides the first data on the criterion-related validity of a competency-based AC in medical education. Methods We developed an AC tailored to measure core competencies relevant to medical education (social-ethical, communicative, self, and teaching) and tested its validity in n=30 first-year medical students using 3- to 4-year follow-up measures such as (a) objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE) on basic clinical skills (n=26), (b) OSCE on communication skills (n=21), and (c) peer feedback (n=18). The AC contained three elements: interview, group discussion, and role play. Additionally, a self-report questionnaire was provided as a basis for the interview. Results Baseline AC average score and teaching competency correlated moderately with the communication OSCE average score (r=0.41, p=0.03, and r=0.38, p=0.04, respectively). Social-ethical competency in the AC showed a very strong convergent association with the communication OSCE average score (r=0.60, p<0.01). The AC total score also showed a moderate correlation with the overall peer feedback score provided in Year 4 (r=0.38, p=0.06). In addition, communicative competency correlated strongly with the overall peer feedback (r=0.50, p=0.02). We found predominantly low and insignificant correlations between the AC and the OSCE on basic clinical skills (r=?0.33 to 0.30, all p's>0.05). Conclusion The results showed that competency-based ACs can be used at a very early stage of medical training to successfully predict future performance in core competencies. PMID:25219931

Rotthoff, Thomas; Ostapczuk, Martin S.; Kroncke, Klaus D.; Zimmerhofer, Alexander; Decking, Ulrich; Schneider, Matthias; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie



Job strain and risk of cardiovascular events in treated hypertensive Japanese workers: hypertension follow-up group study.  


In Japan, Karoshi, which means "death from overwork", has become a focus of social concern. However, no previous study has examined long working hours and job strain simultaneously in relation to incidence of cardiovascular events (CVE) in Japanese workers. We prospectively evaluated the relation between job strain or long working hours and risk of CVE in treated hypertensives during the years 1994-2000. In this study, we followed a sample of 1,615 participants (908 men and 707 women) aged 40-65 yr who were working more than 5 working hours per day. Participants completed questions about work-related conditions and lifestyle variables at baseline, and were free of diagnosed cardiovascular disease, stroke or cancer. Job strain (the combination of job demands and job control) was assessed using a simple questionnaire developed with reference to Karasek's model. The main outcome measure was incidence of CVE. During the mean follow-up period of 5.6 yr, we documented 38 cases of initial CVE. Analyses were conducted using the Cox proportional hazard model. We found a significant association between incidence of CVE and job strain categories, but not long working hours. Multivariate relative risks for CVE in active jobs and high strain jobs overall were 2.89 (95% CI: 1.33-6.28) and 2.45 (95% CI: 0.87-6.93); for men 2.94 (95% CI: 1.29-6.73) and 1.86 (95% CI: 0.51-6.75), and for women 3.97 (95% CI: 0.34-46.88) and 9.05 (95% CI: 1.17-69.86), respectively. In conclusion, active jobs and high strain jobs were associated with increased risk of CVE for treated hypertensive workers. PMID:15824474

Uchiyama, Shuji; Kurasawa, Takashi; Sekizawa, Toshihiro; Nakatsuka, Hiroshi



Mental Health Problems and Educational Attainment in Adolescence: 9-Year Follow-Up of the TRAILS Study  

PubMed Central

Background This study examines if mental health problems at age 11 and changes in mental health problems between age 11 and 16 predict educational attainment of adolescents at age 19, overall and stratified by gender. Methods Data from 1711 adolescents (76.8% from initial cohort) of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a Dutch prospective cohort study with 9year follow-up, were used. Mental health problems (externalizing, internalizing and attention problems) were measured by the Youth Self Report and the Child Behavior Checklist at ages 11 and 16. Difference scores for mental health problems between age 11 and 16 were calculated. Educational attainment was assessed at age 19. Results Externalizing, internalizing and attention problems at age 11 were significantly associated with low educational attainment at age 19 (crude model). When adjusted for demographic variables and the other mental health problems, only the association for attention problems remained significant (odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval: 3.19, 2.11–4.83). Increasing externalizing problems between age 11 and 16 also predicted low educational attainment at age 19 (OR 3.12, 1.83–5.32). Among girls, increasing internalizing problems between age 11 and 16 predicted low educational attainment (OR 2.21, 1.25–3.94). For boys, no significant association was found for increasing internalizing problems and low educational attainment. For increasing attention problems between age 11 and 16 no significant association with low educational attainment was found. Conclusions Externalizing, internalizing and attention problems at age 11 and an increase of these problems during adolescence predicted low educational attainment at age 19. Early treatment of these mental health problems may improve educational attainment, and reduce socioeconomic health differences in adulthood. PMID:25047692

Veldman, Karin; Bultmann, Ute; Stewart, Roy E.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.



Fertility potential in men with a history of congenital undescended testes: a long-term follow-up study.  


Men with a history of congenital undescended testes (UDT) have an increased risk of fertility problems. Despite no definitive proof, current guidelines recommend early surgical intervention because this may have a positive effect on future fertility potential by preventing degenerative changes of the testes in early life. Also surgical intervention facilitates observability of the testes in view of possible malignancy. We evaluated testicular function in adult men with previous UDT treated at different ages before puberty. A long-term follow-up study of men with previous UDT was performed. Andrological evaluation included medical history taking, physical examination, scrotal ultrasound, determination of reproductive hormones, and semen analysis. Findings were compared with those of a control group of men with normal testicular descent. The influence of age at orchiopexy on future fertility parameters was evaluated in a multivariate regression analysis. 62 men were included of whom seven had had bilateral UDT. Twenty-four patients had had their orchiopexy before the age of 24 months of whom eight men had it before 12 months of age. Forty-eight men had had unsuccessful luteinizing-hormone-releasing-hormone (LHRH) nasal spray treatment during childhood, whereas 14 of 24 men operated before 24 months of age had not received LHRH treatment before orchiopexy. Fertility potential in men with a history of UDT is compromised in comparison with controls. We could not detect any influence of age at orchiopexy on fertility parameters. However, the number of patients operated before the age of 12 months is limited. This study does not support the assumption that early orchiopexy results in better fertility potential. PMID:23258637

van Brakel, J; Kranse, R; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S M P F; Hendriks, A E J; de Jong, F H; Bangma, C H; Hazebroek, F W J; Dohle, G R



Impact of tuberculosis treatment on health-related quality of life of pulmonary tuberculosis patients: a follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background At present, much of the attention within tuberculosis (TB) management is spent on microbiological cure, and its impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is either undervalued or seldom considered. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of TB treatment on HRQoL of new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients. Moreover, we also aimed to determine whether the selected socio-demographic and clinical variables were predictive of variability in the HRQoL scores over time. Methods This was a prospective follow-up of new smear positive PTB patients who were diagnosed at the chest clinic of Penang General Hospital between March 2010 and February 2011. All eligible patients (i.e., a new case of smear positive PTB, literate and aged 18 years or above) were asked to self-complete the SF-36v2 questionnaire at the start of their treatment, and then subsequently after the intensive phase and at the end of the treatment. A score on a health domain or component summary measure that was less than 47 norm-based scoring (NBS) point was considered indicative of impaired function within that health domain or dimension. Likewise, an individual having mental component summary (MCS) score???42 NBS point was considered to be at the risk of depression. Repeated measures ANOVA test was performed to examine how the summary scores varied over time, and to determine whether independent variables were predictive of variability in the physical component summary (PCS) and MCS scores over time. Results A total of 216 patients completed the SF-36v2 questionnaire at the start of their treatment. Out of these, 177 and 153 completed the questionnaire at the second and third follow-ups, respectively. The mean PCS scores at the start of the treatment, after the intensive phase and at the end of treatment were 41.9 (SD 5.1), 45.8 (SD 4.8) and 46.0 (SD 6.9), respectively. Similarly, the mean MCS scores at the start of the treatment, after the intensive phase and at the end of the treatment were 39.9 (SD 7.3), 45.0 (SD 6.8) and 46.8 (SD 7.8), respectively. More than 23% of the patients were at the risk of depression at the end of their TB treatment. Patient’s age and being a smoker were predictive of differences in the PCS scores. Similarly, monthly income, being a smoker and TB-related symptoms at the start of the treatment were predictive of differences in the MCS scores. Conclusion Although HRQoL improved with the treatment, the scores on component summary measures showed compromised physical and mental health among study patients even at the end of their TB treatment. PMID:24528499



Mental health screening in armed forces before the Iraq war and prevention of subsequent psychological morbidity: follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess whether screening for mental disorder before the start of the 2003 Iraq war would have predicted subsequent mental disorders. Design Longitudinal cohort study of the United Kingdom armed forces. Participants 2820 of 2873 personnel of the three services who completed an initial questionnaire in 2002 were asked to complete a second questionnaire between June 2004 and 2 March 2006. Setting Regiments, air stations, bases, ships, and homes for those who had left the services. Main outcome measures Positive and negative likelihood ratios, and positive and negative predictive value of first assessment compared with assessment two to three years later of post-traumatic stress disorder, general health questionnaire, physical symptoms, self perception of health, and alcohol misuse for the entire group and for those deployed to the Iraq war. Results The response rate to the follow-up questionnaire was 69%, adjusted for return to senders. The positive likelihood ratio of post-traumatic stress disorder was high (13.1, 95% confidence interval 7.2 to 23.8), but the negative likelihood ratio was close to 1 (0.78, 0.67 to 0.91). The positive predictive values were low because of the low prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder in the period before the Iraq war. The positive likelihood ratios for the other psychological assessments varied between 2.7 and 5.6, and the negative likelihood ratios were slightly lower than for post-traumatic stress disorder, indicating that these were not good candidates for screening. Results were the same for the analyses restricted to those who were deployed. Conclusions Screening for common mental disorders before deployment in this cohort would not have reduced subsequent morbidity or predicted post-traumatic stress disorder, but this may change if there is a considerable increase in the prevalence of the disorder. PMID:17023434

Hooper, Richard; Jones, Margaret; Hull, Lisa; Browne, Tess; Horn, Oded; Murphy, Dominic; Hotopf, Matthew; Wessely, Simon



Use of proton pump inhibitors after antireflux surgery: a nationwide register-based follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Objective Antireflux surgery (ARS) has been suggested as an alternative to lifelong use of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) in reflux disease. Data from clinical trials on PPI use after ARS have been conflicting. We investigated PPI use after ARS in the general Danish population using nationwide healthcare registries. Design A nationwide retrospective follow-up study of all patients aged ?18 and undergoing first-time ARS in Denmark during 1996–2010. Two outcome measures were used: redemption of first PPI prescription after ARS (index prescription) and a marker of long-term use, defined by an average PPI use of ?180 defined daily doses (DDDs) per year. Kaplan–Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards model were used for statistics. Results 3465 patients entered the analysis. 12.7% used no PPI in the year before surgery, while 14.2%, 13.4% and 59.7% used 1–89 DDD, 90–179 DDD and ?180 DDD, respectively. Five-, 10- and 15-year risks of redeeming index PPI prescription were 57.5%, 72.4% and 82.6%, respectively. Similarly, 5-, 10- and 15-year risks of taking up long-term PPI use were 29.4%, 41.1% and 56.6%. Female gender, high age, ARS performed in most recent years, previous use of PPI and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or antiplatelet therapy significantly increased the risk of PPI use. Conclusions Risk of PPI use after ARS was higher than previously reported, and more than 50% of patients became long-term PPI users 10–15?years postsurgery. Patients should be made aware that long-term PPI therapy is often necessary after ARS. PMID:24474384

L?drup, Anders; Pottegard, Anton; Hallas, Jesper; Bytzer, Peter



Short and long term outcome of neonatal hyperglycemia in very preterm infants: a retrospective follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background Hyperglycemia in premature infants is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, but data on long-term outcome are limited. We investigated the effects of neonatal hyperglycemia (blood glucose ? 10 mmol/l, treated with insulin for ? 12 hours) on growth and neurobehavioral outcome at 2 years of age. Methods Retrospective follow-up study at 2 years of age among 859 infants ?32 weeks of gestation admitted to a tertiary neonatal center between January 2002 and December 2006. Thirty-three survivors treated with insulin for hyperglycemia and 63 matched controls without hyperglycemia were evaluated at a corrected age of 2 years. Outcome measures consisted of growth (weight, length, and head circumference) and neurological and behavioural development. Results 66/859 (8%) infants ? 32 weeks of gestation developed hyperglycemia. Mortality during admission was 27/66 (41%) in the hyperglycemia group versus 62/793 (8%) in those without hyperglycemia (p < 0.001). Mortality was higher in infants with hyperglycemia with a birth weight ?1,000 gram (p = 0.005) and/or gestational age of 24-28 weeks (p = 0.009) than in control infants without hyperglycemia. Sepsis was more prominent in infants with hyperglycemia and a birth weight of >1,000 gram (p = 0.002) and/or gestational age of 29-32 weeks (p = 0.009) than in control infants without hyperglycemia. Growth at 2 years of age was similar, but neurological and behavioural development was more frequently abnormal among those with neonatal hyperglycemia (p = 0.036 and 0.021 respectively). Conclusions Mortality was higher in very preterm infants with hyperglycemia treated with insulin during the neonatal period. At 2 years of age survivors showed normal growth, but a higher incidence of neurological and behavioural problems. Better strategies to manage hyperglycemia may improve outcome of very preterm infants. PMID:20646308



Psychological and neuropsychological correlates of dependence-related behaviour in Medication Overuse Headaches: a one year follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background Medication Overuse Headache (MOH) can be related in some patients to dependence-related behaviour characterised by craving, a deficit in controlling substance intake, which is associated to orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) dysfunction. The aim of this study was to explore the psychological correlates in MOH patients and the functioning of the OFC through neuropsychological assessment (Iowa Gambling Task: IGT) and to relate it to prognosis at a one year follow-up point. Findings Seventeen subjects suffering from probable MOH were included and compared to 19 migraineurs and to 17 controls. The results show significant between group differences for behavioural dependence, depression, anxiety, catastrophizing. There were no between group differences for impulsivity. Mean IGT score did not allow differentiation of MOH patients from the other groups, whereas the score was significantly different between opiate abusers and other medication abusers (45 +/?5.7 versus 57.1 +/?8.2, p?=?0.019). Among the clinical variables rated at inclusion, the amount of acute headache medication taken per month was the only one predicting the prognosis (RR?=?1.05, 95% CI?=?1-1.06, p?=?0.04). A slight increase in risk of relapse at 1 year was observed in patients with poorer IGT scores (RR?=?0.92, 95% CI?=?0.85-1, p?=?0.05) and higher behavioural-dependence scores (RR?=?1.07, 95% CI?=?1–1.14, p?=?0.05). None of the other psychological variables predicted relapse risk. Conclusions These results must be interpreted with caution due to the low number of subjects. They showed a deficit in decision making processes in MOH patients who overuse medications containing psychoactive substances like opiates. Moreover dependence-related variables are related to the prognosis. PMID:23826963



A follow-up study of cancer incidence among workers in manufacture of phenoxy herbicides in Denmark.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this cohort study is to shed further light on the potential carcinogenic effect indicated by a Swedish case control study of the 2,4-dichlorophenol and 4-chloro-ortho-cresol based phenoxy herbicides, unlikely to be contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD). In the present study it was the intention to include all persons employed in manufacture of phenoxy herbicides in Denmark before 1982. The predominant product was MCPA and only a very limited amount of 2,4,5-T was processed in one of the two factories included in the study. Registration of the cohort was based on company records, supplemented with data from a public pension scheme from 1964 onwards. Ninety-nine percent of registered employees could be followed up. Cancer cases were identified by linkage with the National Cancer Register. Totals of 3,390 males and 1,069 females were included in the study. In the analysis special attention was given to soft tissue sarcomas (STS) and malignant lymphomas (ML) which are the diagnostic groups indicated to be associated with exposure to phenoxy herbicides in the Swedish studies. Five cases of STS were observed among male employees in contrast to 1.84 expected cases. This result supports the Swedish observation of an increased risk of STS following exposure to phenoxy herbicides unlikely to be contaminated with 2,3,7,8-TCDD. However, several potential biases have to be taken into account in interpretation of this observation and these are discussed. Seven cases of ML were observed among male employees in contrast to 5.37 expected which does not support the Swedish observation of an excess risk. The total cancer risk among persons employed in manufacture and packaging of phenoxy herbicides was equivalent to the cancer risk in the Danish population. Among males thus employed 11 lung cancer cases were observed in contrast to 5.33 expected. Attention should be given to exposure to spray dried MCPA-sodium salt in the plants, but other work place exposures and tobacco consumption may have contributed to the increased risk. The tabulation of data by many diagnostic groups may explain the excesses observed for rectum cancer among males and cervical cancer among females. The study has revealed that several potential biases have to be taken into account when the Swedish observations are tested in other settings. PMID:4027168

Lynge, E.



Malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia: a follow-up study of a hospital-based population of 166 patients with oral leukoplakia from The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A follow-up study of a hospital-based population of 166 patients with oral leukoplakia revealed a 2.9% annual malignant transformation rate. The median follow-up period was 29 months. Parameters associated with an increased risk of malignant transformation were female gender (P<0.025), absence of smoking habits in women (P<0.05), and a non-homogeneous clinical aspect (P=0.01). For uniform reporting, a recently proposed classification

K. P. Schepman; E. H. van der Meij; L. E. Smeele; I. van der Waal



Back pain and MRI changes in the thoraco-lumbar spine of top athletes in four different sports: a 15-year follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total 71 male athletes (weight lifters, wrestlers, orienteers, and ice-hockey players) and 21 non-athletes were randomly\\u000a selected, for a baseline MRI study. After 15 years all the participants at baseline were invited to take part in a follow-up\\u000a examination, including a questionnaire on back pain and a follow-up MRI examination. Thirty-two athletes and all non-athletes\\u000a had disc height reduction at

Adad Baranto; Mikael Hellström; C.-G. Cederlund; Rickard Nyman; Leif Swärd



Myopic Shift and Outdoor Activity among Primary School Children: One-Year Follow-Up Study in Beijing  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess whether a change in myopia related oculometric parameters of primary school children in Beijing was associated with indoors and outdoors activity. Methods The longitudinal school-based study included school children who were examined in 2011 and who were re-examined in 2012. The children underwent a comprehensive eye examination including ocular biometry by optical low-coherence reflectometry and non-cycloplegic refractometry. Parents and children had a detailed interview including questions on time spent indoors and outdoors. Results Out of 681 students examined at baseline, 643 (94.4%) returned for follow-up examination. Within the one-year period, mean time spent daily outdoors increased by 0.4±0.9 hours, mean axial length by 0.26±0.49 mm, the ratio of axial length divided by anterior corneal curvature (AL/CC) by 0.03±0.06, and myopic refractive error by ?0.06±0.89 diopters. In multivariate analysis, elongation of axial length was significantly associated with less total time spent outdoors (P?=?0.02; standardized coefficient beta ?0.12) and more time spent indoors with studying (P?=?0.007; beta: 0.14) after adjustment for maternal myopia (P?=?0.02; beta: 0.12). An increase in AL/CC was significantly associated with less time spent outdoors (P?=?0.01; beta:?0.12) after adjustment for paternal myopia (P?=?0.003; beta: 0.15) and if region of habitation was excludedors for leisure (P?=?0.006; beta:?0.13), with less total time spent outdoors (P?=?0.04; beta:?0.10), or with more time spent i. An increase in myopic refractive error, after adjustment for age, was significantly associated with less time spent outdo ndoors with studying (P?=?0.005; beta: 0.13). Conclusions A change in oculometric parameters indicating an increase in myopia was significantly associated with less time spent outdoors and more time spent indoors in school children in Greater Beijing within a study period of one year. Our study provides additional information on the potentially helpful role of outdoors activity in the prevention of myopia. Public health care measures such as school agendas may potentially take it into account. PMID:24086484

Guo, Yin; Liu, Li Juan; Xu, Liang; Tang, Ping; Lv, Yan Yun; Feng, Yi; Meng, Meng; Jonas, Jost B.



Two-year follow up study of stress-related disorders among immigrants to Israel from the Chernobyl area.  

PubMed Central

We report on findings from a 2-year follow-up study of immigrants originating from exposed areas around the site of the 1986 Chernobyl accident matched with comparison subjects emigrating from other republics in the Confederation of Independent States. In the initial study of 708 immigrants, the samples were matched by age, gender, and year of immigration. We assessed two exposure groups--high and low--by estimating levels of ground cesium contamination from the International Atomic Energy Agency maps. We reinterviewed 520 immigrants from the first wave of data collection (a reinterview rate of 73%), 87 from high-exposure areas, 217 from low-exposure areas, and 216 comparison subjects. This study examined the prevalence of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD), depression, somatization, anxiety, and physical effects (high blood pressure, acute symptoms, and chronic illness). The results obtained in the first wave conducted 8 years after the accident showed that psychological symptoms were significantly higher in exposed respondents than in the comparison group. During the second wave (10 years after the accident) we observed a decline in the prevalence of PTSD and related distress except for somatization, which remained at the same level. An association between exposure and high blood pressure was observed in the first wave of data, but was not still significant in the second wave of data collection. The proportion of those who reported three or more chronic health problems was 48.3% among the high-exposure group, 49.3% in the low-exposure group, and 30.6% in the comparison group (p = 0.0003). The most commonly reported problems were heart disease. problems with vision or hearing, migraine headaches, problems with the lymphatic system, and arthritis. Based on the results, it was concluded that the Chernobyl accident was a powerful stressor, having a strong impact on both mental and physical health. Since all respondents were engaged in the process of acculturation and accommodation to a new country after emigration, it is encouraging that this study shows that levels of psychological distress are waning as the new immigrants are absorbed into Israeli society. However, there still remains some independent effect on health associated with the experience of the Chernobyl accident. PMID:9467080

Cwikel, J; Abdelgani, A; Goldsmith, J R; Quastel, M; Yevelson, I I



Homeopathic treatment of patients with chronic sinusitis: A prospective observational study with 8 years follow-up  

PubMed Central

Background An evaluation of homeopathic treatment and the outcomes in patients suffering from sinusitis for ?12 weeks in a usual care situation. Methods Subgroup analysis including all patients with chronic sinusitis (ICD-9: 473.9; ?12 weeks duration) of a large prospective multicentre observational study population. Consecutive patients presenting for homeopathic treatment were followed-up for 2 years, and complaint severity, health-related quality of life (QoL), and medication use were regularly recorded. We also present here patient-reported health status 8 years post initial treatment. Results The study included 134 adults (mean age 39.8 ± 10.4 years, 76.1% women), treated by 62 physicians. Patients had suffered from chronic sinusitis for 10.7 ± 9.8 years. Almost all patients (97.0%) had previously been treated with conventional medicine. For sinusitis, effect size (effect divided by standard deviation at baseline) of complaint severity was 1.58 (95% CI 1.77; 1.40), 2.15 (2.38; 1.92), and 2.43 (2.68; 2.18) at 3, 12, and 24 months respectively. QoL improved accordingly, with SF-36 changes in physical component score 0.27 (0.15; 0.39), 0.35 (0.19; 0.52), 0.44 (0.23; 0.65) and mental component score 0.66 (0.49; 0.84), 0.71 (0.50; 0.92), 0.65 (0.39; 0.92), 0.74 (0.49; 1.00) at these points. The effects were still present after 8 years with SF-36 physical component score 0.38 (0.10; 0.65) and mental component score 0.74 (0.49; 1.00). Conclusion This observational study showed relevant improvements that persisted for 8 years in patients seeking homeopathic treatment because of sinusitis. The extent to which the observed effects are due to the life-style regulation and placebo or context effects associated with the treatment needs clarification in future explanatory studies. PMID:19635154

Witt, Claudia M; Ludtke, Rainer; Willich, Stefan N



Determinants and Causes of Neonatal Mortality in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia: A Multilevel Analysis of Prospective Follow Up Study  

PubMed Central

Background Ethiopia is among the countries with the highest neonatal mortality with the rate of 37 deaths per 1000 live births. In spite of many efforts by the government and other partners, non-significant decline has been achieved in the last 15 years. Thus, identifying the determinants and causes are very crucial for policy and program improvement. However, studies are scarce in the country in general and in Jimma zone in particular. Objective To identify the determinants and causes of neonatal mortality in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A prospective follow-up study was conducted among 3463 neonates from September 2012 to December 2013. The data were collected by interviewer-administered structured questionnaire and analyzed by SPSS V.20.0 and STATA 13. Verbal autopsies were conducted to identify causes of neonatal death. Mixed-effects multilevel logistic regression model was used to identify determinants of neonatal mortality. Results The status of neonatal mortality rate was 35.5 (95%CI: 28.3, 42.6) per 1000 live births. Though significant variation existed between clusters in relation to neonatal mortality, cluster-level variables were found to have non-significant effect on neonatal mortality. Individual-level variables such as birth order, frequency of antenatal care use, delivery place, gestation age at birth, premature rupture of membrane, complication during labor, twin births, size of neonate at birth and neonatal care practice were identified as determinants of neonatal mortality. Birth asphyxia (47.5%), neonatal infections (34.3%) and prematurity (11.1%) were the three leading causes of neonatal mortality accounting for 93%. Conclusions This study revealed high status of neonatal mortality in the study area. Higher-level variables had less importance in determining neonatal mortality. Individual level variables related to care during pregnancy, intra-partum complications and care, neonatal conditions and the immediate neonatal care practices were identified as determinant factors. Improving antenatal care, intra-partum care and immediate neonatal care are recommended. PMID:25232842

Debelew, Gurmesa Tura; Afework, Mesganaw Fantahun; Yalew, Alemayehu Worku



Cherubism--a case report with long term follow up.  


Cherubism is a rare non-neoplastic disease of the bone characterized by bilateral painless enlargement of the jaws giving a cherubic appearance to the patient. It is an autosomal dominant disorder but may occur sporadically. In this paper, we have tried to explain about the clinical, radiological and histopathologic features of cherubism by presenting a case study. A case study of a 7 year old male patient, who first presented with mandibular bilateral swellings to our department in 1998, has been presented. In-depth clinical, radiological and histopathologic examination was done. An extensive long-term follow-up till 11 years was maintained. When presented for the first time, radiological investigation showed characteristic multilocular lytic lesions of the mandible bilaterally. Histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen showed proliferating fibrous connective tissue interspersed by multinucleated giant cells. It was diagnosed as a case nonfamilial cherubism. Follow-up after 5 years showed involvement of the maxilla as well, which was then corrected by surgical methods. Upon follow up 11 years after the first presentation, it was seen that the lesion was regressing by itself and there was improvement in facial contour. The natural course of Cherubism through its progression, stabilization and involution of the disease after puberty, has been highlighted in this case. More, in-depth studies to understand the nature and the pathogenesis of this condition better are required. PMID:22234113

Chavali, Lakshmi V; Bhimalingam, R M Rao; Sudhakar, P V



The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers: A Follow-up Study Investigating the Early Detection of Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often go undetected in toddlers. The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) was used to screen 3,793 children aged 16–30 months from low- and high-risk sources; screen positive cases were diagnostically evaluated. Re-screening was performed on 1,416 children aged 42–54 months. Time 1 Positive Predictive Value (PPV) was .36 for the initial screening and .74 for the screening plus follow-up telephone interview; values were similar for Time 2 PPV. When separating referral sources, PPV was low for the low-risk sample but acceptable with the follow-up telephone interview. Children with ASD from the low-risk and high-risk samples were highly similar. Results indicate that the M-CHAT continues to be a promising instrument for the early detection of ASD. PMID:17882539

Robins, Diana L.; Ventola, Pamela E.; Pandey, Juhi; Boorstein, Hilary C.; Esser, Emma L.; Wilson, Leandra B.; Rosenthal, Michael A.; Sutera, Saasha; Verbalis, Alyssa D.; Barton, Marianne; Hodgson, Sarah; Green, James; Dumont-Mathieu, Thyde; Volkmar, Fred; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Klin, Ami; Fein, Deborah



Effect of the kangaroo position on the electromyographic activity of preterm children: a follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background One of the components of the Kangaroo Method (KM) is the adoption of the Kangaroo Position. The skin-to-skin contact and the vertical position the child adopts when in this position may provide sensorial, vestibular and postural stimuli for the newborn. The Kangaroo Position may encourage vestibular stimuli and a flexed posture of the limbs, suggesting the hypothesis that the Kangaroo Position may have an impact on flexor muscle tone. The effect of these stimuli on the motor features of the newborn has not been the subject of much investigation. No study has yet been conducted to determine whether the Kangaroo Position may progressively increase electromyographic activity or whether this increase persists until term-equivalent age. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Kangaroo Position on the electromyographic activity of preterm children. Method A follow-up study was carried out between July and November 2011 at the Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP), Recife-Brazil, using a sample of 30 preterm children. Surface Eletromyography (SEMG) was used to investigate the muscle activity of biceps brachii. The electromyographic readings were taken immediately before (0 h) and after 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h of application of the Kangaroo Position as well as at the term equivalent age in each baby. Electromyographic activity was analyzed using the Root Mean Square (RMS) and the mean values of the times were analyzed by way of analysis of variance for repeated measures and the Tukey test. Results Electromyographic activity of the biceps brachii varied and increased over the whole 96h period (RMS:0 h?=?36.5 and 96 h?=?52.9) (F(5.174)?=?27.56; p?



PTSD and depression among displaced Chinese workers after the world trade center attack: A follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a follow-up assessment to assess the development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and depression among\\u000a Chinese immigrants after the World Trade Center attack. Sixty-five Chinese displaced workers who were originally interviewed\\u000a in May 2002 were re-interviewed in March 2003. Whereas depression scores decreased over time, avergae PTSD scores remained\\u000a unchanged. The trajectory of posttraumatic stress symptoms was more

Heike Thiel de Bocanegra; Sophia Moskalenko; Priscilla Chan



A follow-up study of first trimester induced abortions at hospitals and family planning clinics in Sichuan Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four-thousand women aged 18–40 underwent an early induced abortion at hospitals and family planning clinics in six counties in Sichuan province, China, between 1 July 1990 and 30 June 1991. The subjects were followed-up three times, on days 15, 90 and 180 after the operation. Information was obtained about their age, parity, contraceptive use, social behaviors, and gynecological and psychological

Lin Luo; Shi-Zhong Wu; Xiao-Qin Chen; Min-Xiang Li; Thomas W. Pullum



Clinical conditions of long-term cure in childhood-onset epilepsy: A 45-year follow-up study.  


Clinical conditions of long-term cure in childhood-onset epilepsy, defined as sustained remission off antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment, are not well known. To address that clinically important question, we determined clinical factors predictive of long-term seizure cure in a population-based cohort of 133 patients followed up since their first seizure before the age of 16years. At the end of the 45-year follow-up (mean=39.8, median=44, range=11-47), 81 (61%) of the 133 patients had entered at least 5-year remission off AEDs, meeting our definition of cure. The 81 patients were seizure-free off AEDs for a mean of 34.4 (median=38, range=6-46) years and 59 (73%) of the 81 patients following the first standard medication until the end of follow-up (mean=36.5, median=39, range=14-46years). Four independent factors were found to be associated with cure compared with having seizures while on AEDs: seizure frequency less than weekly during the first 12months of AED treatment (p=0.002), pretreatment seizure frequency less than weekly (p=0.002), higher IQ (>70; p=0.021), and idiopathic or cryptogenic vs. symptomatic etiology (p=0.042). Patients with seizure frequency of less than once a week during early treatment and idiopathic etiology had a ninefold chance to of being cured since the onset of the first adequate antiepileptic therapy until the end of follow-up compared with patients who a symptomatic etiology had at least weekly seizures while on AEDs (RR=8.7, 95% CI=2.0-37.0; p<0.001). In conclusion, IQ, etiology, and seizure frequencies both in the first year of AED treatment and prior to medication appear to be clinical predictors of cure in childhood-onset epilepsy. PMID:24975821

Sillanpää, Matti; Saarinen, Maiju; Schmidt, Dieter



Dementia Diagnostics in Primary Care: A Representative 8Year Follow-Up Study in Lower Saxony, Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To investigate whether primary-care physicians’ competency regarding dementia diagnostics improved from 1993 to 2001. Methods: In a representative follow-up survey 122 out of 170 (71.8%) family physicians (FPs) were randomly assigned to 2 written case samples presenting patients with slight memory impairment (case 1a: female vs. case 1b: male) and moderate dementia [vascular type (case 2a) vs. Alzheimer’s disease

Lienhard Maeck; Sebastian Haak; Anita Knoblauch; Gabriela Stoppe



Shifting coresidence near the end of life: Comparing decedents and survivors of a follow-up study in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

What we know about transitions in coresidence of elders in China is based on panel data involving survivors. This article\\u000a examines the tendency to and determinants of shifts in coresidence with adult children among the very old, comparing survivors\\u000a of an intersurvey period with those who died (decedents). Data come from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey.\\u000a Baseline and follow-up

Zachary Zimmer; Kim Korinek



Type of postmenopausal hormone use and risk of breast cancer: 12-year follow-up from the Nurses' Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prospectively examined the use of hormone replacement therapy in relation to breast cancer incidence in a cohort of women 30 to 55 years of age in 1976. During 12 years of follow-up (480,665 person-years) among postmenopausal women, 1,050 incident cases of breast cancer were documented. Overall, past users of replacement estrogen were not at increased risk. After adjustment for

Graham A. Colditz; Meir J. Stampfer; Walter C. Willett; David J. Hunter; JoAnn E. Manson; Charles H. Hennekens; Bernard A. Rosner; Frank E. Speizer



Cardiovascular medication, physical activity and mortality: cross-sectional population study with ongoing mortality follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To establish physical activity levels in relation to cardiovascular medication and to examine if physical activity is associated with benefit independently of medication among people with no diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (CVD).Design:Cross-sectional surveys in 1998 and 2003 with continuing mortality follow-up.Setting:Household-based interviews in England and Scotland.Participants:Population samples of adults aged ?35 living in households, respondents of the Scottish Health Survey

E Stamatakis; M Hamer; P Primatesta



Piriformis muscle syndrome in 19 patients treated by tenotomy – A 1- to 16-year follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   We treated 19 patients with piriformis muscle syndrome. All patients complained of pain in the buttocks and the posterior\\u000a thigh. Clinically the buttock was tender and passive stretching increased the pain. In ten patients skin sensation was reduced\\u000a and three had a limp. All patients were treated with tenotomy. At follow-up after an average of 8 (1–16) years, eight

K. Indrekvam; E. Sudmann



A large prospective European cohort study of patients treated with strontium ranelate and followed up over 3 years.  


Strontium ranelate has been available as an osteoporosis treatment in Europe since 2004. This article describes a large European observational survey of the use of strontium ranelate in clinical daily practice. A retrospective observational registry included 32,446 women consulting for postmenopausal osteoporosis in seven countries. Within the registry, 12,046 women were receiving strontium ranelate and were followed up over 3 years. The baseline characteristics of the follow-up cohort were similar to those of the whole registry cohort (age, 68.9 ± 10.3 years; body mass index, 25.6 ± 4.3 kg/m(2); lumbar spine T-score, -2.57 ± 0.85 SD; femoral neck T-score, -2.11 ± 0.86 SD). At baseline, 77 % of patients had at least one risk factor for osteoporosis, and 46 % had a previous history of osteoporotic fracture. Mean duration of follow-up was 32.0 ± 9.7 months, and treatment duration was 25.2 ± 13.7 months (24,956 patient-years of treatment). Persistence with strontium ranelate was 80 % at 1 year, 68 % at 2 years, and 64 % at 32 months; most patients (about 80 %) reported rarely omitting a dose. At least one emergent adverse event was reported in 2,674 (22 %) patients, most frequently gastrointestinal side effects. The crude incidence of venous thromboembolic events was 2.1/1,000 patient-years. No cases of hypersensitivity reactions, such as drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), Steven-Johnson syndrome, or toxic epidermal necrolysis, were reported. During follow-up, a fracture occurred in 890 patients (7 %); 429 of the fractures were nonvertebral fractures. Our observational survey over 32 months indicated good rates of adherence with strontium ranelate and confirmed its good safety profile in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:23455629

Audran, M; Jakob, F J; Palacios, S; Brandi, M-L; Bröll, H; Hamdy, N A T; McCloskey, E V



Coroner autopsy study of homicides in Rivers State of Nigeria: 11-year review.  


As most developing countries, including Nigeria, grapple with economic crisis, poor human capital development and high levels of income inequality, violent crimes - especially homicides - continue to be a cause for concern. We studied the pathology and demographic distribution of homicides in Rivers State of Nigeria expecting that the findings would be useful in formulating preventive strategies. Reports of homicide autopsies in the state for 11 years were retrospectively scrutinized for age, gender, type of weapon, site of injury, circumstances, mechanisms and causes of death. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Homicides constituted 50.5% of the medicolegal autopsies. Although the overall male:female ratio was 12.4?:?1, there was variation with weapon. Deaths by firearm had the highest male:female ratio of 24.6?:?1. The mean and peak ages were 29.2?±?11.4 and 21-30 years, respectively, while the range was 1 to 96 years. Firearms were the most common weapons, at 68.9%, hemorrhagic shock and head injuries at 61.5% and 28.2% respectively were the most common mechanisms and causes of death. Armed robbery incidents were the most common circumstances, while the head was the most common site of injury at 48.8%. The homicide rate is high in our environment and most homicides are committed during armed robberies using firearms. Improving medical care and providing emergency medical services will reduce cases of deaths from homicides, most of which occur due to manageable hemorrhagic shock. Increasing the drive towards controlling illegal arms acquisition and possession will reduce the present carnage in the state. PMID:23945261

Obiorah, C C; Amakiri, C N



Duration of untreated psychosis and clinical outcomes of first-episode schizophrenia: a 4-year follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship between the duration of untreated psychosis and long-term clinical outcomes remains uncertain. Objective Prospectively assess the relationship of the duration of untreated psychosis on clinical outcomes in a sample of individuals with first-onset schizophrenia treated at the Pudong Mental Health Center from January 2007 to December 2008. Methods Information about general health, psychotic symptoms and social functioning were collected using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS), Morningside Rehabilitation Status Scale (MRSS), and Social Disability Screening Schedule (SDSS) at baseline and in June 2010 and June 2012. Results The 43 individuals with first-episode schizophrenia participating in the study were divided into short (<24 weeks) and long (>24weeks) duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) groups. The mean (sd) duration of follow-up was 1197 (401) days in the short DUP group and 1412 (306) days in the long DUP group (t=9.98, p=0.055). Despite less prominent psychotic symptoms at the time of first diagnosis among patients who had a long DUP compared to those with a short DUP (BPRS mean scores, 42.5 [8.4] v. 50.0 [10.6], t=2.42, p=0.0210) and a similar number of clinical relapses (based on positive symptoms assessed by the BPRS), patients with a long DUP were more likely to require hospitalization at the time of first diagnosis (52% [11/21] v. 9% [2/22], ?2=9.55, p=0.002) and more likely to require re-hospitalization during the first two years of treatment (67% [14/21] v. 32% [7/22], ?2=5.22, p=0.022). Moreover, after four years of routine treatment, despite a similar severity of positive symptoms, patients who had had a long DUP prior to initiating treatment had significantly poorer social functioning than those who had had a short DUP (SDSS mean scores, 7.0 [5.2] v. 3.4 [4.9], t=2.20, p=0.035). Conclusions These findings show that despite having a similar level of psychotic symptoms – as measured by the BPRS – compared to patients with a short DUP, patients with schizophrenia who have a long DUP prior to initial treatment have poorer long-term social functioning. This confirms the clinical importance of the early recognition and treatment of individuals with chronic psychotic conditions. PMID:25114480

QIN, Hongyun; ZHANG, Jie; WANG, Zhenping; MIN, Haiying; YAN, Caiying; CHEN, Fuzhen; FU, Weizhong; ZHANG, Ming



Extended follow-up and spatial analysis of the American Cancer Society study linking particulate air pollution and mortality.  


We conducted an extended follow-up and spatial analysis of the American Cancer Society (ACS) Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II) cohort in order to further examine associations between long-term exposure to particulate air pollution and mortality in large U.S. cities. The current study sought to clarify outstanding scientific issues that arose from our earlier HEI-sponsored Reanalysis of the original ACS study data (the Particle Epidemiology Reanalysis Project). Specifically, we examined (1) how ecologic covariates at the community and neighborhood levels might confound and modify the air pollution-mortality association; (2) how spatial autocorrelation and multiple levels of data (e.g., individual and neighborhood) can be taken into account within the random effects Cox model; (3) how using land-use regression to refine measurements of air pollution exposure to the within-city (or intra-urban) scale might affect the size and significance of health effects in the Los Angeles and New York City regions; and (4) what exposure time windows may be most critical to the air pollution-mortality association. The 18 years of follow-up (extended from 7 years in the original study [Pope et al. 1995]) included vital status data for the CPS-II cohort (approximately 1.2 million participants) with multiple cause-of-death codes through December 31, 2000 and more recent exposure data from air pollution monitoring sites for the metropolitan areas. In the Nationwide Analysis, the influence of ecologic covariate data (such as education attainment, housing characteristics, and level of income; data obtained from the 1980 U.S. Census; see Ecologic Covariates sidebar on page 14) on the air pollution-mortality association were examined at the Zip Code area (ZCA) scale, the metropolitan statistical area (MSA) scale, and by the difference between each ZCA value and the MSA value (DIFF). In contrast to previous analyses that did not directly include ecologic covariates at the ZCA scale, risk estimates increased when ecologic covariates were included at all scales. The ecologic covariates exerted their greatest effect on mortality from ischemic heart disease (IHD), which was also the health outcome most strongly related with exposure to PM2.5 (particles 2.5 microm or smaller in aerodynamic diameter), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), and the only outcome significantly associated with exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2). When ecologic covariates were simultaneously included at both the MSA and DIFF levels, the hazard ratio (HR) for mortality from IHD associated with PM2.5 exposure (average concentration for 1999-2000) increased by 7.5% and that associated with SO4(2-) exposure (average concentration for 1990) increased by 12.8%. The two covariates found to exert the greatest confounding influence on the PM2.5-mortality association were the percentage of the population with a grade 12 education and the median household income. Also in the Nationwide Analysis, complex spatial patterns in the CPS-II data were explored with an extended random effects Cox model (see Glossary of Statistical Terms at end of report) that is capable of clustering up to two geographic levels of data. Using this model tended to increase the HR estimate for exposure to air pollution and also to inflate the uncertainty in the estimates. Including ecologic covariates decreased the variance of the results at both the MSA and ZCA scales; the largest decrease was in residual variation based on models in which the MSA and DIFF levels of data were included together, which suggests that partitioning the ecologic covariates into between-MSA and within-MSA values more completely captures the sources of variation in the relationship between air pollution, ecologic covariates, and mortality. Intra-Urban Analyses were conducted for the New York City and Los Angeles regions. The results of the Los Angeles spatial analysis, where we found high exposure contrasts within the Los Angeles region, showed that air pollution-mortality risks were nearly 3 times greater than those reported fro

Krewski, Daniel; Jerrett, Michael; Burnett, Richard T; Ma, Renjun; Hughes, Edward; Shi, Yuanli; Turner, Michelle C; Pope, C Arden; Thurston, George; Calle, Eugenia E; Thun, Michael J; Beckerman, Bernie; DeLuca, Pat; Finkelstein, Norm; Ito, Kaz; Moore, D K; Newbold, K Bruce; Ramsay, Tim; Ross, Zev; Shin, Hwashin; Tempalski, Barbara



Predictors of outcomes of assertive outreach teams: a 3-year follow-up study in North East England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Assertive outreach (AO) is a required component of services for people with severe mental illness in England. However, the\\u000a claims to its effectiveness have been contested and the relationships between team organisation, including model fidelity,\\u000a the use of mental health interventions and outcomes for service users remain unclear.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Three-year follow up of 33 AO teams was conducted using standardised measures

John Carpenter; Anna Luce; David Wooff



Intimate relationships and childbearing after adolescent depression: a population-based 15 year follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Adolescent depression is associated with a range of interpersonal adversities. We hypothesized that depressed adolescents\\u000a are at subsequent increased risk of problems related to intimate relationships and childbearing in adulthood, and used longitudinal\\u000a data to examine this.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  A population-based investigation of depression in 16 to 17 year olds was followed up after 15 years, at around the age of\\u000a 30 years. Comparisons were

U. Jonsson; H. Bohman; A. Hjern; L. von Knorring; A. Paaren; G. Olsson; A.-L. von Knorring



PLATINO, a nine-year follow-up study of COPD in the city of S?o Paulo, Brazil: the problem of underdiagnosis*  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the underdiagnosis rate in new COPD cases at the end of a nine-year follow-up period-in the study designated "Projeto Latino-Americano de Investigação em Obstrução Pulmonar" (PLATINO, Latin-American Pulmonary Obstruction Investigation Project)-and compare that with the underdiagnosis rate during the initial phase of the study, as well as to identify the clinical features exhibited by the subjects who were not diagnosed until the end of the follow-up phase. METHODS: The study population comprised the 1,000 residents of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, who took part in the PLATINO study. Of those, 613 participated in the follow-up phase, during which the subjects were assessed with the same instruments and equipment employed in the initial phase of the study. We used the chi-square test or the independent sample t-test to analyze the underdiagnosis rate and to identify the characteristics of the subjects who were not diagnosed until the end of the follow-up phase. RESULTS: The underdiagnosis rate for new COPD cases at the end of the nine-year follow-up period was 70.0%. The underdiagnosis rate during the follow-up phase was 17.5% lower than that reported for the initial phase of the study. The subjects who were not diagnosed until the end of the follow-up phase presented with fewer respiratory symptoms, better pulmonary function, and less severe disease than did those previously diagnosed with COPD. CONCLUSIONS: The underdiagnosis rate for new COPD cases was lower in the follow-up phase of the study than in the initial phase. The subjects who were not diagnosed until the end of the follow-up phase of the PLATINO study presented with the same clinical profile as did those who were not diagnosed in the initial phase. These findings underscore the need for spirometry in order to confirm the diagnosis of COPD and provide early intervention. PMID:24626267

Moreira, Graciane Laender; Manzano, Beatriz Martins; Gazzotti, Mariana Rodrigues; Nascimento, Oliver Augusto; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Jardim, Jose Roberto



Validation of the Spanish version of the physical activity questionnaire used in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this analysis was to test the validity of the estimates of energy expenditure and sedentary lifestyle obtained through a self-administered questionnaire of physical activity for Spanish-speaking people adapted from US questionnaires (Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals' Follow-up Study) using a triaxial accelerometer (RT3 Triaxial Research Tracker) as the reference. Design and setting: Validation study, calculating

Miguel Angel Martínez-González; Constanza López-Fontana; José Javier Varo; Almudena Sánchez-Villegas; J Alfredo Martinez



Capturing the Cumulative Effects of School Reform: An 11-Year Study of the Impacts of America's Choice on Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the results of an 11-year longitudinal study of the impact of America's Choice comprehensive school reform (CSR) design on student learning gains in Rochester, New York. A quasi-experimental interrupted time-series approach using Bayesian hierarchical growth curve analysis with crossed random effects is used to compare the…

May, Henry; Supovitz, Jonathan A.



Long-term follow-up study of elderly patients with covered stent implantation after coronary perforation  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the long-term efficacy of covered stent implantation in the treatment of elderly patients with coronary perforation while undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods From June 2004 to June 2012, our center has followed ten elderly patients (age ? 60 years) who sustained coronary perforation during PCI. The major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were observed as well. The patients were advised to take 75 mg/day Clopidogrel for two years, and indefinite use of 100 mg/day enteric-coated aspirin. Results Six out of the 10 patients aged from 60 to 76 years old (mean 68.6 ± 5.2 years) were male, four were female. The average diameter of the implanted stents was 3.3 ± 0.3 mm, and the average length was 22.1 ± 3.7 mm. All the ruptures were successfully sealed without intra-procedural death. The follow-up duration ranged from 0.6 to 67 months (mean 31.7 ± 24.5 months). One patient died of multiple organ failure due to lung infection in 19 days after PCI; one died of cardiac sudden death in 13 months after PCI; one had angina pectoris in 53 months after PCI; one underwent multi-slice CT examination in six months after PCI, and no in-stent restenosis was found. The other four patients received angiography follow-up, and the results showed that three patients had no intra-stent restenosis, while one had left anterior descending (LAD) restenosis in the covered stent in 67 months after PCI. The in-hospital mortality was 10% (1/10). The MACE rate in 12 months after PCI was 10% (1/10). During the entire followed-up period, the restenosis rate in target vessels was 20% (1/5), mortality was 20% (2/10), and the MACE rate was 40% (4/10). Conclusion Treatment of coronary perforation by using covered stents can achieve favorable long-term results; a two-year dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after PCI can effectively prevent intra-stent thrombosis.

Wang, Geng; Han, Ya-Ling; Jing, Quan-Min; Wang, Xiao-Zeng; Ma, Ying-Yan; Wang, Bin



Stability of the dexamethasone suppression test in borderline personality disorder with and without comorbid PTSD: a one-year follow-up study.  


Alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis feedback regulation have been repeatedly reported in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Due to the cross-sectional design of these studies, little is known about the longitudinal course of HPA axis functioning. In a sample of 13 patients with BPD, the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) has been used in a one-year follow-up study. There were no changes of cortisol concentrations before or after dexamethasone intake between baseline and follow-up examination. Patients with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) showed more pronounced cortisol suppression compared to those without PTSD. The DST seems to be a stable marker of alterations in HPA axis feedback regulation in BPD, which is also reflected by substantial correlations between percentage of cortisol suppression at baseline and follow-up examination. PMID:17674401

Wingenfeld, Katja; Lange, Wolfgang; Wulff, Hella; Berea, Christina; Beblo, Thomas; Saavedra, Anamaria Silva; Mensebach, Christoph; Driessen, Martin



Rough-and-Tumble Play and the Development of Physical Aggression and Emotion Regulation: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a follow-up to a study demonstrating that rough-and-tumble play was related to physical aggression in the preschool\\u000a years. Fathers reported on the frequency of father-child rough-and-tumble play interactions, and the degree to which fathers\\u000a were dominant in the play dyad was observed and coded from play interactions. In this follow-up study, school-aged children’s\\u000a physically aggressive behaviors and emotion

Joseph L. Flanders; Melissa Simard; Daniel Paquette; Sophie Parent; Frank Vitaro; Robert O. Pihl; Jean R. Séguin



Loss to Follow-Up as a Competing Risk in an Observational Study of HIV-1 Incidence  

PubMed Central

Objective Conventional survival estimates may be biased if loss to follow-up (LTF) is associated with the outcome of interest. Our goal was to assess whether the association between sexual risk behavior and HIV-1 acquisition changed after accounting for LTF with competing risks regression. Methods HIV-1-seronegative women who enrolled in a Kenyan sex worker cohort from 1993–2007 were followed prospectively and tested for HIV at monthly clinic visits. Our primary predictor was self-reported sexual risk behavior in the past week, analyzed as a time-dependent covariate. Outcomes included HIV-1 acquisition and LTF. We analyzed the data using Cox proportional hazards regression and competing risks regression, in which LTF was treated as a competing event. Results A total of 1,513 women contributed 4,150 person-years (py), during which 198 (13.1%) acquired HIV-1 infection (incidence, 4.5 per 100 py) and 969 (64.0%) were LTF (incidence, 23.4 per 100 py). After adjusting for potential confounders, women reporting unprotected sex with multiple partners were less likely to be lost to follow-up (adjusted sub-hazard ratio (aSHR) 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32–0.76, relative to no sexual activity). The risk of HIV-1 acquisition after reporting unprotected sex with multiple partners was similar with Cox regression (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 2.41, 95% CI 1.36–4.27) and competing risks regression (aSHR 2.47, 95% CI 1.33–4.58). Conclusions Unprotected sex with multiple partners was associated with higher HIV-1 acquisition risk, but lower attrition. This differential attrition did not substantially bias Cox regression estimates when compared to competing risks regression results. PMID:23555041

Graham, Susan M.; Raboud, Janet; McClelland, R. Scott; Jaoko, Walter; Ndinya-Achola, Jeckoniah; Mandaliya, Kishor; Overbaugh, Julie; Bayoumi, Ahmed M.



Clinical follow-up of responses to treatment with benznidazol in Amazon: a cohort study of acute Chagas disease.  


A total of 179 individuals with acute Chagas disease mainly transmitted by oral source, from Pará and Amapá State, Amazonian, Brazil were included during the period from 1988 to 2005. Blood samples were used to survey peripheral blood for T. cruzi hemoparasites by quantitative buffy coat (QBC), indirect xenodiagnosis, blood culture and serology to detection of total IgM and anti-T. cruzi IgG antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and indirect hemagglutination assay (HA). All assays were performed pre-treatment (0 days) and repeated 35 (±7) and 68 (±6) days after the initiation of treatment with benznidazol and every 6 months while remained seropositive. The endpoint of collection was performed in 2005. Total medium period of follow-up per person was 5.6 years. Also, a blood sample was collected from 72 randomly chosen treated patients to perform polimerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Proportions of subjects with negative or positive serology according to the number of years after treatment were compared. In the endpoint of follow-up we found 47 patients (26.7%) serologically negative, therefore considered cured and 5 (2.7%) exhibited mild cardiac Chagas disease. Other 132 patients had persistent positive serologic tests. The PCR carried out in 72 individuals was positive in 9.8%. Added, there was evidence of therapeutic failure immediately following treatment, as demonstrated by xenodiagnosis and blood culture methods in 2.3% and 3.5% of cases, respectively. There was a strong evidence of antibody clearing in the fourth year after treatment and continuous decrease of antibody titers. Authors suggest that control programs should apply operational researches with new drug interventions four years after the acute phase for those treated patients with persistently positive serology. PMID:23724050

Pinto, Ana Yecê das Neves; Valente, Vera da Costa; Coura, José Rodrigues; Valente, Sebastião Aldo da Silva; Junqueira, Angela Cristina Veríssimo; Santos, Laura Cristina; Ferreira, Alberto Gomes; de Macedo, Roberto Cavalleiro