Sample records for 111111ll ill11 ill11

  1. Sealpox Virus in Marine Mammal Rehabilitation Facilities, North America, 2007–2009

    PubMed Central

    Roess, Amira A.; Levine, Rebecca S.; Barth, Laura; Monroe, Benjamin P.; Carroll, Darin S.; Damon, Inger K.


    Sealpox, a zoonotic disease affecting pinnipeds (seals and sea lions), can occur among captive and convalescing animals. We surveyed 1 worker each from 11 marine mammal centers and interviewed 31 other marine mammal workers to ascertain their knowledge of and experience with sealpox virus and to identify factors associated with sealpox virus outbreaks among pinnipeds in marine rehabilitation facilities. Demographic and health data were obtained for 1,423 pinnipeds at the 11 facilities. Among the 23 animals in which sealpox was clinically diagnosed, 4 arrived at the facility ill, 11 became ill <5 weeks after arrival, and 2 became ill >5 weeks after arrival; the timing of illness onset was unknown for 6 animals. Most infections occurred in pinnipeds <1 year of age. Nine affected animals were malnourished; 4 had additional illnesses. Sealpox had also occurred among workers at 2 facilities. Sealpox is a noteworthy zoonosis of rehabilitating convalescing pinnipeds; workplace education can help to minimize risks for human infection. PMID:22172454

  2. A study of the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in dermatology inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Vijayamohan, N.; Nair, S. Pradeep


    Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a cause of increased morbidity and mortality in debilitated and immunocompromised patients. Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence of MRSA among dermatology inpatients and elucidate its predisposing factors and antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Materials and Methods: This prospective study involved all the inpatients in the dermatology ward with suspected bacterial infections, both primary and secondary. Gram's stain, pus culture, and antibiotic sensitivity were the main tests done. Results: There were 61 patients in this study, with 36 males (59%) and 25 females (41%). The age group maximally affected was 41-50 years (21.6%). Vesiculobullous disorders (22, 36.1%) and eczemas (16, 26.2%) were the commonest dermatoses with secondary infection. Extremities (72.1%) and the trunk (26.2%) were the commonest sites involved. Diabetes mellitus (DM) was the commonest systemic illness (11.5%). Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest isolate, grown in 52 patients (85.2%) of whom 16 (30.80%) were MRSA positive. MRSA constituted 22.2% of the total bacterial isolates. All the MRSA isolates (100%) were resistant to cloxacillin and oxacillin, while all the isolates (100%) were sensitive to vancomycin and linezolid. Conclusions: The prevalence of MRSA in this study was high. It was most commonly seen in patients with vesiculobullous disorders. A high sensitivity of MRSA was found to amikacin. There was no relation between prolonged antibiotic therapy and MRSA in this study. PMID:25396125

  3. Early or late appearance of "dropped head syndrome" in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Gourie-Devi, M; Nalini, A; Sandhya, S


    Patients and investigations: Between 1981 and 2000, 683 patients with ALS were diagnosed, based on El Escorial criteria. Nine of these had profound neck extensor weakness observed as an early feature, or developing during the later stages of the disease. The protocol for evaluation included detailed clinical history, neurological examination, electromyography, and nerve conduction studies. Investigations were undertaken to exclude malignancy, lymphoproliferative disorders, thyroid dysfunction, and collagen vascular disease. Results: The incidence of dropped head syndrome was 1.3%. The mean (SD) age of the affected patients was 53.3 (10.3) years (range 33 to 65), with an equal distribution of cases in the fourth to seventh decades. In six patients, head drop was an early feature (mean interval from onset of illness 11.6 months (range 3 to 24)); in three it was late (between three and eight years after onset). In five patients, mild neck flexor weakness was present in addition to severe extensor weakness. In all nine patients there were diffuse upper and lower motor neurone signs. None of the patients had difficulty in breathing but all had difficulty in swallowing and social embarrassment, both of which could be corrected by simple measures. Conclusions: Dropped head syndrome is an important clinical sign and usually occurs as an early feature within the first one to two years after the onset of ALS. The cause of dropped head syndrome in these nine cases could be easily established as ALS by the presence of generalised signs. PMID:12700323

  4. The role of arbitrarily primed PCR in identifying the source of an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, C G; Hofmann, J; Pruckler, J M; Benson, R F; Fields, B S; Bandyopadhyay, U; Donnally, E F; Giorgio-Almonte, C; Mermel, L A; Boland, S; Matyas, B T; Breiman, R F


    An outbreak of community-acquired Legionnaires' disease (LD) occurred in Providence, R.I., in fall 1993. To find the outbreak source, exposures of 17 case patients were compared to those of 33 matched controls. Case patients were more likely than controls to have visited a section of downtown (area A) during the 2 weeks before illness (11 [65%] versus 9 [27%]; matched odds ratio, 6.5; P = 0.01). Water samples were cultured from 27 aerosol-producing devices within area A. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates underwent monoclonal antibody (MAb) subtyping and arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR). All four L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates available from case patients who visited area A had identical MAb and AP-PCR patterns. Among 14 environmental isolates, 5 had MAb patterns that matched the case patient isolates, but only 1 had a matching AP-PCR pattern. This investigation implicates a cooling tower in area A as the outbreak source and illustrates the usefulness of AP-PCR for identifying sources of LD outbreaks. PMID:9196197

  5. Sealpox virus in marine mammal rehabilitation facilities, North America, 2007-2009.


    Roess, Amira A; Levine, Rebecca S; Barth, Laura; Monroe, Benjamin P; Carroll, Darin S; Damon, Inger K; Reynolds, Mary G


    Sealpox, a zoonotic disease affecting pinnipeds (seals and sea lions), can occur among captive and convalescing animals. We surveyed 1 worker each from 11 marine mammal centers and interviewed 31 other marine mammal workers to ascertain their knowledge of and experience with sealpox virus and to identify factors associated with sealpox virus outbreaks among pinnipeds in marine rehabilitation facilities. Demographic and health data were obtained for 1,423 pinnipeds at the 11 facilities. Among the 23 animals in which sealpox was clinically diagnosed, 4 arrived at the facility ill, 11 became ill <5 weeks after arrival, and 2 became ill ≥5 weeks after arrival; the timing of illness onset was unknown for 6 animals. Most infections occurred in pinnipeds <1 year of age. Nine affected animals were malnourished; 4 had additional illnesses. Sealpox had also occurred among workers at 2 facilities. Sealpox is a noteworthy zoonosis of rehabilitating convalescing pinnipeds; workplace education can help to minimize risks for human infection. PMID:22172454

  6. Suicidal burn in Hong Kong.


    Chan, R C; Burd, A


    The aim of our study is to review our experience in the management of patients who sustained burns associated with suicidal attempts over a 10-year period. In particular, we look into the outcome and incidence of self-harm/suicide after discharge among the survivors. Thirty-one patients with median age 36 years, ranging from 10 to 74, were included. Twenty-three (74%) were males and eight (26%) were females. Nearly three quarters (74%) of our patients had a known history of psychiatric illness: 11 had known history of substance abuse; 3 of them had drug-induced psychosis; 6 had schizophrenia; 5 had depression; 4 had personality disorders; 1 had pathological gambling and another one had adjustment disorder. Relationship problems and work/financial difficulties were the commonest reason for the suicidal attempts. Self-inflicted flame burn was the most frequent (39%; 12 patients) method of burning. Six patients (19%) died. The remaining 25 patients healed and were discharged. Seventeen patients required ICU care. The median length of stay in ICU was 7 days. The overall median length of stay was 35 days. The median follow up time for those survived is 63 months. Only 4 of these patients had further suicidal/parasuicidal attempts. Despite the high mortality, once these patients survived the initial injury, they are unlikely to commit suicide again. Thus, we believe that aggressive resuscitation should therefore be advocated for all suicidal burn patients. PMID:22360959

  7. Detection of human parechoviruses from clinical stool samples in Aichi, Japan.


    Ito, Miyabi; Yamashita, Teruo; Tsuzuki, Hideaki; Kabashima, Yuka; Hasegawa, Akiko; Nagaya, Satoko; Kawaguchi, Mariko; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Fujiura, Akira; Sakae, Kenji; Minagawa, Hiroko


    Between April 1999 and March 2008, a total of 4,976 stool specimens collected from patients with suspected viral infection through infectious agent surveillance in Aichi, Japan, were tested for the presence of human parechoviruses (HPeVs). We detected HPeVs in 110 samples by either cell culture, reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), or both. Serotyping either by neutralization test or by nucleotide sequence determination and phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 region and 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) regions revealed that 63 were HPeV type 1 (HPeV-1), followed by 44 HPeV-3 strains, 2 HPeV-4 strains, and 1 HPeV-6 strain. The high nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities of the Japanese HPeV-3 isolates in 2006 to the strains previously reported from Canada and Netherlands confirmed the worldwide prevalence of HPeV-3 infection. Ninety-seven percent of the HPeV-positive patients were younger than 3 years, and 86.2% younger than 12 months. The clinical diagnoses of HPeV-positive patients were gastroenteritis, respiratory illness, febrile illness, exanthema, "hand, foot, and mouth disease," aseptic meningitis, and herpangina. Among 49 HPeV-positive patients with gastroenteritis, 35 were positive with HPeV-1 and 12 with HPeV-3, and out of 25 with respiratory illness, 11 were positive with HPeV-1 and 14 with HPeV-3. HPeV-3 seemed to be an important etiological agent of respiratory infection of children. While HPeV-1 was detected predominantly during fall and winter, the majority of the HPeV-3 cases were detected during summer and fall. A different pattern of clinical manifestations as well as seasonality suggested that there are different mechanisms of pathogenesis between HPeV-1 and HPeV-3 infections. PMID:20519478

  8. Widespread pain in older Germans is associated with posttraumatic stress disorder and lifetime employment status--results of a cross-sectional survey with a representative population sample.


    Häuser, Winfried; Glaesmer, Heide; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Brähler, Elmar


    Whether self-reported lifetime civilian and war-related potential traumatic events are associated with widespread pain (WP) and if so, whether the association is attributable to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression has not been studied in a representative sample of the general population. In a randomly selected sample of the German general population, persons aged 60-85 years answered validated self-rating instruments: Regional Pain Scale, trauma list of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, and Patient Health Questionnaire 2. Participants with WP were compared with participants with no or local or regional pain (controls). Stepwise hierarchical logistic regression analyses were performed with WP as the dependent variable and demographic data, potential traumatic events, PTSD, and depressive disorder as independent variables. Of 773 respondents, 147 (19.0%) reported WP. Participants with WP reported rape (4.1% vs 1.0%, P=0.01), life-threatening illness (11.6% vs 6.1%, P=0.02), witnessing trauma (19.2% vs 8.4%, P=0.001), and cumulative potential traumatic events (24.5% vs. 16.5%, P=0.004) more frequently than the 626 controls. The prevalence of full PTSD (10.9% vs 2.2%; P<0.0001) and of potential depressive disorder (13.7% vs 6.6%, P=0.02) was higher in participants with WP than in controls. The significant association between some potential traumatic events and WP was completely abrogated after adjusting for demographic variables and PTSD. In the final model, PTSD (odds ratio 3.43, 95% confidence interval 1.88-6.26) and lifetime employment status as a worker (odds ratio 1.55, 95% confidence interval 1.04-2.31) predicted WP. Prospective studies are necessary to understand the temporal association of PTSD and WP. PMID:23084003

  9. Depression symptoms and stressful life events among college students in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Rivera-Medina, Carmen L.; Cámara-Fuentes, Luis; Suárez-Torres, Alba; Bernal, Guillermo


    Background The transition from adolescence to adulthood is associated with stressful adaptation experiences that may increase symptoms of depression. We explored the prevalence and sex differences of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in freshmen Latino college students in Puerto Rico, and identified stressful life events that could contribute to symptoms of depression. Methods Two thousand one hundred sixty-three freshmen college students from the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) public education system were assessed for depression symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and stressful life events using open questions. Results Nine percent of the sample reported depression symptoms at a moderate or severe level (BDI ≥ 20). Chi square analyses revealed a significantly higher prevalence for three of the stressful life events in females than males: relocation (10.2% females vs. 7.3% males; X2 (1) = 4.13, p=.042), break-up of a significant relationship (25.3% females vs. 17.8% males; X2 (1) = 13.76, p<.001), and illness (11.2% females vs. 7.3% males; X2 (1) = 7.23, p=.007). The model that best explained the variance of BDI scores among females was the presence of suicide risk, relationship break-up, illness, and relocation for college, whereas for males a similar model without the relationship break-up variable resulted in a better fit. Conclusions Freshmen college students present a broad range of depression symptoms and certain stressful life events are associated with an increased prevalence of depression symptoms. Early detection of depression and tailored prevention programs should be developed to improve both mental health and academic performance among the college population. PMID:22939390

  10. Pleural effusion associated with acute and chronic pleuropneumonia and pleuritis secondary to thoracic wounds in horses: 43 cases (1982-1992).


    Collins, M B; Hodgson, D R; Hutchins, D R


    Case records of 43 horses with pleural effusion associated with acute pleuropneumonia, chronic pleuropneumonia, or pleuritis secondary to a penetrating thoracic wound were reviewed to determine the predisposing factors, diagnosis, and treatment of this condition. Acute pleuropneumonia was diagnosed in 36 horses, the majority of which were Thoroughbreds (89%). Of 22 (61%) horses that were in race training at the onset of illness, 11 (31%) had been recently transported a long distance and 4 (11%) had evidence of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage. Physical examination findings and hematologic data were nonspecific. The most consistent abnormality was hyperfibrino-genemia. Affected horses were treated with antibiotics, thoracic drainage, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and supportive care. Twenty-two (61%) horses were discharged from the hospital, with the mean duration of hospitalization for those discharged being 23 days. Nine (25%) horses were euthanatized and 5 (14%) died. Bacterial culturing of thoracic fluid resulted in growth in 30 of the 36 (83%) horses. The finding of anaerobic bacteria in thoracic fluid was not associated with a lower survival rate (62%) than the overall survival rate (61%). Four horses with chronic pleuropneumonia had a history of lethargy and inappetence for > 2 weeks. Actinobacillus equuli was isolated, either alone or in combination with other bacteria, from thoracic fluid of these 4 horses. Each horse was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics and made a rapid recovery. Three horses with acute pleuritis secondary to penetrating thoracic wounds also had nonspecific clinical signs, apart from the wound and a large volume of pleural effusion. Bacteriologic isolates from these horses differed slightly from those of horses with acute pleuropneumonia. PMID:7744650

  11. The Determinants of Traditional Medicine Use in Northern Tanzania: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Stanifer, John W.; Patel, Uptal D.; Karia, Francis; Thielman, Nathan; Maro, Venance; Shimbi, Dionis; Kilaweh, Humphrey; Lazaro, Matayo; Matemu, Oliver; Omolo, Justin; Boyd, David


    Introduction Traditional medicines are an important part of healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa, and building successful disease treatment programs that are sensitive to traditional medicine practices will require an understanding of their current use and roles, including from a biomedical perspective. Therefore, we conducted a mixed-method study in Northern Tanzania in order to characterize the extent of and reasons for the use of traditional medicines among the general population so that we can better inform public health efforts in the region. Methods Between December 2013 and June 2014 in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, we conducted 5 focus group discussions and 27 in-depth interviews of key informants. The data from these sessions were analyzed using an inductive framework method with cultural insider-outsider coding. From these results, we developed a structured survey designed to test different aspects of traditional medicine use and administered it to a random sample of 655 adults from the community. The results were triangulated to explore converging and diverging themes. Results Most structured survey participants (68%) reported knowing someone who frequently used traditional medicines, and the majority (56%) reported using them themselves in the previous year. The most common uses were for symptomatic ailments (42%), chronic diseases (15%), reproductive problems (11%), and malaria/febrile illnesses (11%). We identified five major determinants for traditional medicine use in Northern Tanzania: biomedical healthcare delivery, credibility of traditional practices, strong cultural identities, individual health status, and disease understanding. Conclusions In order to better formulate effective local disease management programs that are sensitive to TM practices, we described the determinants of TM use. Additionally, we found TM use to be high in Northern Tanzania and that its use is not limited to lower-income areas or rural settings. After symptomatic ailments

  12. Exploration of transitional life events in individuals with Friedreich ataxia: Implications for genetic counseling

    PubMed Central


    including one's stage of development, such as graduation from high school, historical events, including war, and idiosyncratic factors, such as health status [4,5]. Of particular interest in the present study are transitional life events, brought about or altered by progressive chronic illness and disability, and the impact of these events on the lives of affected individuals. It has been recognized that the clinical characteristics of a chronic illness or disability may alter the course and timing of many developmentally-related transitional events [6]. For example, conditions associated with a shortened lifespan may cause an individual to pursue a career with a shorter course of training [6]. Specific medical manifestations may also promote a lifestyle incongruent with developmental needs [6,7]. For example, an adolescent with a disability may have difficulty achieving autonomy because of his/her physical dependence on others. In addition to the aforementioned effects of chronic illness and disability on developmentally-related transitional events, a growing body of literature has described disease-related transitional events: those changes that are a direct result of chronic illness and disability. Diagnosis has received attention as being a key disease-related transitional event [8,9]. Studies have also noted other disease transitions related to illness trajectory [10], as the clinical features of the disease may require the individual to make specific adaptations. Disease-related events have also been described in terms of accompanying psychological processes, such as one's awareness of differences brought about by illness [11]. While disease-related events are seemingly significant, the patient's perception of the events is varied. Some events may be perceived as positive experiences for the individual. For example, a diagnosis may end years of uncertainty. Some individuals may perceive these transitional events as insignificant, as they have accommodated to the