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Sample records for 124-f-5 waste site

  1. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F5 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-5), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-043

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-14

    The 1607-F5 waste site is a former septic tank, tile field, and associated pipeline located within the 100-FR-1 Operable Unit that received sewage from the former 181-F Pumphouse. Lead, gamma-chlordane, and heptachlor epoxide were identified within or around the septic system at concentrations exceeding the direct exposure cleanup criteria. Multiple metal and pesticide constituents were also identified as exceeding the groundwater and river protection cleanup criteria. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  2. Nuclear waste disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Mallory, C.W.; Watts, R.E.; Sanner, W.S. Jr.; Paladino, J.B.; Lilley, A.W.; Winston, S.J.; Stricklin, B.C.; Razor, J.E.

    1988-11-15

    This patent describes a disposal site for the disposal of toxic or radioactive waste, comprising: (a) a trench in the earth having a substantially flat bottom lined with a layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular material having a high hydraulic conductivity for obstructing any capillary-type flow of ground water to the interior of the trench; (b) a non-rigid, radiation-blocking cap formed from a first layer of alluvium, a second layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular material having a high hydraulic conductivity for blocking any capillary-type flow of water between the layer of alluvium and the rest of the cap, a layer of water-shedding silt for directing surface water away from the trench, and a layer of rip-rap over the silt layer for protecting the silt layer from erosion and for providing a radiation barrier; (c) a solidly-packed array of abutting modules of uniform size and shape disposed in the trench and under the cap for both encapsulating the wastes from water and for structurally supporting the cap, wherein each module in the array is slidable movable in the vertical direction in order to allow the array of modules to flexibly conform to variations in the shape of the flat trench bottom caused by seismic disturbances and to facilitate the recoverability of the modules; (d) a layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular materials having a high hydraulic conductivity in the space between the side of the modules and the walls of the trench for obstructing any capillary-type flow of ground water to the interior of the trench; and (e) a drain and wherein the layer of silt is sloped to direct surface water flowing over the cap into the drain.

  3. Hanford Site Secondary Waste Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Westsik, Joseph H.

    2009-01-29

    Summary The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is making plans to dispose of 54 million gallons of radioactive tank wastes at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The high-level wastes and low-activity wastes will be vitrified and placed in permanent disposal sites. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents, and these need to be processed and disposed of also. The Department of Energy Office of Waste Processing sponsored a meeting to develop a roadmap to outline the steps necessary to design the secondary waste forms. Representatives from DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Washington State Department of Ecology, the Oregon Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, technical experts from the DOE national laboratories, academia, and private consultants convened in Richland, Washington, during the week of July 21-23, 2008, to participate in a workshop to identify the risks and uncertainties associated with the treatment and disposal of the secondary wastes and to develop a roadmap for addressing those risks and uncertainties. This report describes the results of the roadmap meeting in Richland. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents. The secondary waste roadmap workshop focused on the waste streams that contained the largest fractions of the 129I and 99Tc that the Integrated Disposal Facility risk assessment analyses were showing to have the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater. Thus, the roadmapping effort was to focus on the scrubber/off-gas treatment liquids with 99Tc to be sent to the Effluent Treatment Facility for treatment and solidification and the silver mordenite and carbon beds with the captured 129I to be packaged and sent to the IDF. At the highest level, the secondary waste roadmap includes elements addressing regulatory and

  4. Hanford site waste tank characterization

    SciTech Connect

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes the on-going work in the characterization of the Hanford-Site high-level waste tanks. The waste in these tanks was produced as part of the nuclear weapons materials processing mission that occupied the Hanford Site for the first 40 years of its existence. Detailed and defensible characterization of the tank wastes is required to guide retrieval, pretreatment, and disposal technology development, to address waste stability and reactivity concerns, and to satisfy the compliance criteria for the various regulatory agencies overseeing activities at the Hanford Site. The resulting Tank Characterization Reports fulfill these needs, as well as satisfy the tank waste characterization milestones in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order.

  5. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  6. Waste Site Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Old aircraft considered not restorable are melted down in on-site furnaces to reclaim the aluminum in their airframes. The process produces aluminum ingots and leaves a residue known as "dross." Because dross contains contaminants like lead silver cadmium and copper, Pima County, the dross dumping site, wanted to locate areas where dross had been dumped. Dr. Larry Lepley and Sandra L. Perry used the Landsat Thematic Mapper to screen for dross. A special two-step procedure was developed to separate the dross dumps (typically no larger than 50 meters across) from the desert background. The project has opened the door for similar applications.

  7. NAVAJO NATION HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This point coverage represents the locations of hazardous waste sites on the Navajo Nation Indian Reservation. The point locations were delineated on 1:24,000 scale US Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps by staff from the Navajo Nation EPA, Resource Conservation & Reco...

  8. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-07-01

    This document establishes the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal. Mixed waste generated within the State of Nevada by NNSA/NSO activities is accepted for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site for storage or disposal.

  9. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    SciTech Connect

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-12-14

    The Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan establishes the programmatic framework and criteria with in which the Hanford Site ensures that contract-handled TRU wastes can be certified as compliant with the WIPP WAC and TRUPACT-II SARP.

  10. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    SciTech Connect

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-09-09

    The Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan establishes the programmatic framework and criteria within which the Hanford Site ensures that contract-handled TRU wastes can be certified as compliant with the WIPP WAC and TRUPACT-II SARP.

  11. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Waste Acceptance Criteria

    1999-05-01

    This document provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the Nevada Test Site.

  12. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 1, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation, and amount of waste.

  13. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 2, Generator dangerous waste report, radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, waste designation, weight, and waste designation.

  14. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 4, Waste Management Facility report, Radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation and amount of waste.

  15. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous materials at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  16. Vadose zone monitoring for hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    This book is a review and evaluation of vadose (unsaturated) zone monitoring. It describes the applicability of selected monitoring methods to hazardous waste disposal sites. Topics covered include: geohydrologic framework of the vadose zone; premonitoring of storage at disposal sites; premonitoring of water movement at disposal sites; active and abandoned site monitoring methods; waste source pollutant characterization; geohydrologic settings for waste disposals and conceptual vadose zone monitoring descriptions.

  17. Waste management units: Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Molen, G.

    1991-09-01

    This report indexes every waste management unit of the Savannah River Site. They are indexed by building number and name. The waste units are also tabulated by solid waste units receiving hazardous materials with a known release or no known release to the environment. It also contains information on the sites which has received no hazardous waste, and units which have received source, nuclear, or byproduct material only. (MB)

  18. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC)

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NSO Waste Management Project

    2008-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and LLW Mixed Waste (MW) for disposal.

  19. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2005-10-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal.

  20. Hazardous waste operational plan for site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.S.

    1982-02-12

    This plan outlines the procedures and operations used at LLNL's Site 300 for the management of the hazardous waste generated. This waste consists primarily of depleted uranium (a by-product of U-235 enrichment), beryllium, small quantities of analytical chemicals, industrial type waste such as solvents, cleaning acids, photographic chemicals, etc., and explosives. This plan details the operations generating this waste, the proper handling of this material and the procedures used to treat or dispose of the hazardous waste. A considerable amount of information found in this plan was extracted from the Site 300 Safety and Operational Manual written by Site 300 Facility personnel and the Hazards Control Department.

  1. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    SciTech Connect

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-06

    As a generator of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Hanford Site must ensure that its TRU waste meets the requirements of US. Department of Energy (DOE) 0 435.1, ''Radioactive Waste Management,'' and the Contact-Handled (CH) Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP-WAC). WIPP-WAC requirements are derived from the WIPP Technical Safety Requirements, WIPP Safety Analysis Report, TRUPACT-II SARP, WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 191/194 Compliance Certification Decision. The WIPP-WAC establishes the specific physical, chemical, radiological, and packaging criteria for acceptance of defense TRU waste shipments at WIPP. The WPP-WAC also requires that participating DOE TRU waste generator/treatment/storage sites produce site-specific documents, including a certification plan, that describe their program for managing TRU waste and TRU waste shipments before transferring waste to WIPP. Waste characterization activities provide much of the data upon which certification decisions are based. Waste characterization requirements for TRU waste and TRU mixed waste that contains constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) are established in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Waste Analysis Plan (WAP). The Hanford Site Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) (HNF-2599) implements the applicable requirements in the WAP and includes the qualitative and quantitative criteria for making hazardous waste determinations. The Hanford Site must also ensure that its TRU waste destined for disposal at WPP meets requirements for transport in the Transuranic Package Transporter-11 (TRUPACT-11). The US. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) establishes the TRUPACT-11 requirements in the Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package (TRUPACT-11 SARP). In

  2. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    SciTech Connect

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-01

    As a generator of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Hanford Site must ensure that its TRU waste meets the requirements of US. Department of Energy (DOE) 0 435.1, ''Radioactive Waste Management,'' and the Contact-Handled (CH) Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP-WAC). WIPP-WAC requirements are derived from the WIPP Technical Safety Requirements, WIPP Safety Analysis Report, TRUPACT-II SARP, WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 191/194 Compliance Certification Decision. The WIPP-WAC establishes the specific physical, chemical, radiological, and packaging criteria for acceptance of defense TRU waste shipments at WIPP. The WPP-WAC also requires that participating DOE TRU waste generator/treatment/storage sites produce site-specific documents, including a certification plan, that describe their program for managing TRU waste and TRU waste shipments before transferring waste to WIPP. Waste characterization activities provide much of the data upon which certification decisions are based. Waste characterization requirements for TRU waste and TRU mixed waste that contains constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) are established in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Waste Analysis Plan (WAP). The Hanford Site Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) (HNF-2599) implements the applicable requirements in the WAP and includes the qualitative and quantitative criteria for making hazardous waste determinations. The Hanford Site must also ensure that its TRU waste destined for disposal at WPP meets requirements for transport in the Transuranic Package Transporter-11 (TRUPACT-11). The US. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) establishes the TRUPACT-11 requirements in the Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package (TRUPACT-11 SARP). In

  3. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-09-03

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  4. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-01-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  5. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-17

    This manual defines the Hanford Site radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste acceptance criteria. Criteria in the manual represent a guide for meeting state and federal regulations; DOE Orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to acceptance of radioactive and hazardous solid waste at the Hanford Site. It is not the intent of this manual to be all inclusive of the regulations; rather, it is intended that the manual provide the waste generator with only the requirements that waste must meet in order to be accepted at Hanford Site TSD facilities.

  6. GEOSTATISTICAL SAMPLING DESIGNS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter discusses field sampling design for environmental sites and hazardous waste sites with respect to random variable sampling theory, Gy's sampling theory, and geostatistical (kriging) sampling theory. The literature often presents these sampling methods as an adversari...

  7. Hanford site transuranic waste certification plan

    SciTech Connect

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-05-12

    As a generator of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Hanford Site must ensure that its TRU waste meets the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A, ''Radioactive Waste Management, and the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant' (DOE 1996d) (WIPP WAC). The WIPP WAC establishes the specific physical, chemical, radiological, and packaging criteria for acceptance of defense TRU waste shipments at WIPP. The WIPP WAC also requires that participating DOE TRU waste generator/treatment/storage sites produce site-specific documents, including a certification plan, that describe their management of TRU waste and TRU waste shipments before transferring waste to WIPP. The Hanford Site must also ensure that its TRU waste destined for disposal at WIPP meets requirements for transport in the Transuranic Package Transporter41 (TRUPACT-11). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) establishes the TRUPACT-I1 requirements in the ''Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package'' (NRC 1997) (TRUPACT-I1 SARP).

  8. Solid waste management complex site development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Greager, T.M.

    1994-09-30

    The main purpose of this Solid Waste Management Complex Site Development Plan is to optimize the location of future solid waste treatment and storage facilities and the infrastructure required to support them. An overall site plan is recommended. Further, a series of layouts are included that depict site conditions as facilities are constructed at the SWMC site. In this respect the report serves not only as the siting basis for future projects, but provides siting guidance for Project W-112, as well. The plan is intended to function as a template for expected growth of the site over the next 30 years so that future facilities and infrastructure will be properly integrated.

  9. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-02-28

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept DOE non-radioactive classified waste, DOE non-radioactive hazardous classified waste, DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW), DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste for permanent disposal. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and will be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project (WMP) at (702) 295-7063, and your call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  10. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    MCDOWELL, A.K.; TRINER, G.C.

    2002-03-28

    DOE Order 435.1 requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic (TRU) waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of waste at TSD units operated by WMP. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Revisions to the acceptance criteria document require an Unreviewed Safety Question review to document that the changes are consistent with current applicable safety analysis. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility; and T-Plant facility. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the waste specification records (WSRds) and/or waste stream profile sheet approvals. The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite

  11. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ellefson, M.D.

    1998-07-01

    Order 5820.2A requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of radioactive waste at TSD units operated by WMH. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP); and T Plant Complex. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the 1901 identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the Waste Specification Records (WSRds). The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite facilities.

  12. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept the following: • DOE hazardous and non-hazardous non-radioactive classified waste • DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW) • DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW) • U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste The LLW and MLLW listed above may also be classified waste. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and shall be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. Classified waste may be sent to the NNSS as classified matter. Section 3.1.18 provides the requirements that must be met for permanent burial of classified matter. The NNSA/NFO and support contractors are available to assist the generator in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NFO Environmental Management Operations (EMO) at (702) 295-7063, and the call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  13. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria, December 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    This document establishes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office waste acceptance criteria. The waste acceptance criteria provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed waste for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites for storage or disposal.

  14. Vadose zone monitoring for hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, L.G.; Wilson, L.G.; Hoylman, E.W.

    1983-10-01

    This book describes the applicability of vadose zone monitoring techniques to hazardous waste site investigations. More than 70 different sampling and nonsampling vadose zone monitoring techniques are described in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. Physical, chemical, geologic, topographic, geohydrologic, and climatic constraints for vadose zone monitoring are quantitatively determined. Vadose zone monitoring techniques are categorized for premonitoring, active, and postclosure site assessments. Waste disposal methods are categorized for piles, landfills, impoundments, and land treatment. Conceptual vadose zone monitoring approaches are developed for specific waste disposal method categories.

  15. Disposal of Hanford site tank wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kupfer, M.J.

    1993-09-01

    Between 1943 and 1986, 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs) were built and used to store radioactive wastes generated during reprocessing of irradiated uranium metal fuel elements at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington state. The 149 SSTs, located in 12 separate areas (tank farms) in the 200 East and 200 West areas, currently contain about 1.4 {times} 10{sup 5} m{sup 3} of solid and liquid wastes. Wastes in the SSTs contain about 5.7 {times} 10{sup 18} Bq (170 MCi) of various radionuclides including {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 137}Cs, and transuranium (TRU) elements. The 28 DSTs also located in the 200 East and West areas contain about 9 {times} 10{sup 4} m{sup 3} of liquid (mainly) and solid wastes; approximately 4 {times} 10{sup 18}Bq (90 MCi) of radionuclides are stored in the DSTs. Important characteristics and features of the various types of SST and DST wastes are described in this paper. However, the principal focus of this paper is on the evolving strategy for final disposal of both the SST and DST wastes. Also provided is a chronology which lists key events and dates in the development of strategies for disposal of Hanford Site tank wastes. One of these strategies involves pretreatment of retrieved tank wastes to separate them into a small volume of high-level radioactive waste requiring, after vitrification, disposal in a deep geologic repository and a large volume of low-level radioactive waste which can be safely disposed of in near-surface facilities at the Hanford Site. The last section of this paper lists and describes some of the pretreatment procedures and processes being considered for removal of important radionuclides from retrieved tank wastes.

  16. Management of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book is a compilation of papers presented at a conference on the management of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. Papers were presented in the following topics: federal and state programs; sampling and monitoring; leaking tanks; in-situ treatment; site remediation; banner technology; storage/disposal; endangerment assessment; risk assessment techniques; and research and development.

  17. LOCATIONS OF MILITARY WASTE SITES IN ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This map shows locations of contaminated and non-contaminated military waste sites, Alaska Native Villages, Native Corporation boundaries, and Traditional Land-Use areas (Artic Slope region only). The entire state is shown plus identification of all military sites currently being...

  18. Siting Patterns of Nuclear Waste Repositories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Barry D.; Shelley, Fred M.

    1988-01-01

    Provides an inventory of international radioactive waste-management policies and repository siting decisions for North America, Central and South America, Europe, Asia, and Africa. This discussion stresses the important role of demographic, geologic, and political factors in siting decisions. (Author/BSR)

  19. Final vegetative cover for closed waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.; Salvo, S.K.

    1993-01-22

    Low-level, hazardous, and mixed waste disposal sites normally require some form of plant material to prevent erosion of the final closure cap. Waste disposal sites are closed and capped in a complex scientific manner to minimize water infiltration and percolation into and through the waste material. Turf type grasses are currently being used as an interim vegetative cover for most sites. This coverage allows for required monitoring of the closure cap for settlement and maintenance activities. The purpose of this five year study was to evaluate plant materials for use on wastes sites after the post-closure care period that are quickly and easily established and economically maintained, retard water infiltration, provide maximum year-round evapotranspiration, are ecologically acceptable and do not harm the closure cap. The results of the study suggest that two species of bamboo (Phyllostachys (P.) bissetii and P. rubromarginata) can be utilized to provide long lived, low maintenance, climax vegetation for the waste sites after surveillance and maintenance requirements have ceased.

  20. PROTOCOL FOR BIOASSESSMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bioassessment protocol is one of several tools, including chemical analysis and field study, that can be used to characterize the potential environmental risk associated with hazardous waste sites. The protocol can be applied to priority ranking for deciding the need for clea...

  1. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-09-09

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each US Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the QAPP.

  2. Nevada test site waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This document provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the NTS. Review each section of this document. This document is not intended to include all of the requirements; rather, it is meant as a guide toward meeting the regulations. All references in this document should be observed to avoid omission of requirements on which acceptance or rejection of waste will be based. The Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document.

  3. Cleanup Verification Package for the 300-8 Waste Site

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2005-11-07

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 300-8 waste site. This waste site was formerly used to stage scrap metal from the 300 Area in support of a program to recycle aluminum.

  4. Methodology to remediate a mixed waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.

    1994-08-01

    In response to the need for a comprehensive and consistent approach to the complex issue of mixed waste management, a generalized methodology for remediation of a mixed waste site has been developed. The methodology is based on requirements set forth in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and incorporates ``lessons learned`` from process design, remediation methodologies, and remediation projects. The methodology is applied to the treatment of 32,000 drums of mixed waste sludge at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Process technology options are developed and evaluated, first with regard to meeting system requirements and then with regard to CERCLA performance criteria. The following process technology options are investigated: (1) no action, (2) separation of hazardous and radioactive species, (3) dewatering, (4) drying, and (5) solidification/stabilization. The first two options were eliminated from detailed consideration because they did not meet the system requirements. A quantitative evaluation clearly showed that, based on system constraints and project objectives, either dewatering or drying the mixed waste sludge was superior to the solidification/stabilization process option. The ultimate choice between the drying and the dewatering options will be made on the basis of a technical evaluation of the relative merits of proposals submitted by potential subcontractors.

  5. Hanford Site Waste Storage Tank Information Notebook

    SciTech Connect

    Husa, E.I.; Raymond, R.E.; Welty, R.K.; Griffith, S.M.; Hanlon, B.M.; Rios, R.R.; Vermeulen, N.J.

    1993-07-01

    This report provides summary data on the radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 East and West Areas at the Hanford Site. The summary data covers each of the existing 161 Series 100 underground waste storage tanks (500,000 gallons and larger). It also contains information on the design and construction of these tanks. The information in this report is derived from existing reports that document the status of the tanks and their materials. This report also contains interior, surface photographs of each of the 54 Watch List tanks, which are those tanks identified as Priority I Hanford Site Tank Farm Safety Issues in accordance with Public Law 101-510, Section 3137*.

  6. Sweden picks site for waste repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Ned

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear power-plant operators in Sweden have selected a site where they can permanently store the country's spent nuclear fuel. The repository would be located 500 m below ground at Forsmark, roughly 200km north of Stockholm, which is already home to a nuclear power plant. The decision was taken after two decades of study by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB), which is owned by the country's nuclear firms.

  7. Characterizing soils for hazardous waste site assessments.

    PubMed

    Breckenridge, R P; Keck, J F; Williams, J R

    1994-04-01

    This paper provides a review and justification of the minimum data needed to characterize soils for hazardous waste site assessments and to comply with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Scientists and managers within the regulatory agency and the liable party need to know what are the important soil characteristics needed to make decisions about risk assessment, what areas need remediation and what remediation options are available. If all parties involved in characterizing a hazardous waste site can agree on the required soils data set prior to starting a site investigation, data can be collected in a more efficient and less costly manner. Having the proper data will aid in reaching decisions on how to address concerns at, and close-out, hazardous waste sites.This paper was prepared to address two specific concerns related to soil characterization for CERCLA remedial response. The first concern is the applicability of traditional soil classification methods to CERCLA soil characterization. The second is the identification of soil characterization data type required for CERCLA risk assessment and analysis of remedial alternatives. These concerns are related, in that the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process addresses both. The DQO process was developed in part to assist CERCLA decision-makers in identifying the data types, data quality, and data quantity required to support decisions that must be made during the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. Data Quality Objectives for Remedial Response Activities: Development Process (US EPA, 1987a) is a guidebook on developing DQOs. This process as it relates to CERCLA soil characterization is discussed in the Data Quality Objective Section of this paper. PMID:24213742

  8. Mixed waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, M.N.; Bailey, L.L.

    1991-12-31

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a key installation of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is managed by DOE`s Savannah River Field Office and operated under contract by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Site`s waste management policies reflect a continuing commitment to the environment. Waste minimization, recycling, use of effective pre-disposal treatments, and repository monitoring are high priorities at the site. One primary objective is to safely treat and dispose of process wastes from operations at the site. To meet this objective, several new projects are currently being developed, including the M-Area Waste Disposal Project (Y-Area) which will treat and dispose of mixed liquid wastes, and the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF), which will store, treat, and dispose of solid mixed and hazardous wastes. This document provides a description of this facility and its mission.

  9. Waste management units - Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    This report is a compilation of worksheets from the waste management units of Savannah River Plant. Information is presented on the following: Solid Waste Management Units having received hazardous waste or hazardous constituents with a known release to the environment; Solid Waste Management Units having received hazardous waste or hazardous constituents with no known release to the environment; Solid Waste Management Units having received no hazardous waste or hazardous constituents; Waste Management Units having received source; and special nuclear, or byproduct material only.

  10. Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System. Waste management 1993 symposium papers and viewgraphs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State has the most diverse and largest amount of highly radioactive waste of any site in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored in large underground tanks since 1944. A Tank Waste Remediation System Program has been established within the DOE to safely manage and immobilize these wastes in anticipation of permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Waste Management 1993 Symposium Papers and Viewgraphs covered the following topics: Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Overview; Tank Waste Retrieval Issues and Options for their Resolution; Tank Waste Pretreatment - Issues, Alternatives and Strategies for Resolution; Low-Level Waste Disposal - Grout Issue and Alternative Waste Form Technology; A Strategy for Resolving High-Priority Hanford Site Radioactive Waste Storage Tank Safety Issues; Tank Waste Chemistry - A New Understanding of Waste Aging; Recent Results from Characterization of Ferrocyanide Wastes at the Hanford Site; Resolving the Safety Issue for Radioactive Waste Tanks with High Organic Content; Technology to Support Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Objectives.

  11. Specialized Disposal Sites for Different Reprocessing Plant Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Driscoll, Michael J.

    2007-07-01

    Once-through fuel cycles have one waste form: spent nuclear fuel (SNF). In contrast, the reprocessed SNF yields multiple wastes with different chemical, physical, and radionuclide characteristics. The different characteristics of each waste imply that there are potential cost and performance benefits to developing different disposal sites that match the disposal requirements of different waste. Disposal sites as defined herein may be located in different geologies or in a single repository containing multiple sections, each with different characteristics. The paper describes disposal options for specific wastes and the potential for a waste management system that better couples various reprocessing plant wastes with disposal facilities. (authors)

  12. Mixed waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, M.N.; Bailey, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a key installation of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is managed by DOE's Savannah River Field Office and operated under contract by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Site's waste management policies reflect a continuing commitment to the environment. Waste minimization, recycling, use of effective pre-disposal treatments, and repository monitoring are high priorities at the site. One primary objective is to safely treat and dispose of process wastes from operations at the site. To meet this objective, several new projects are currently being developed, including the M-Area Waste Disposal Project (Y-Area) which will treat and dispose of mixed liquid wastes, and the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF), which will store, treat, and dispose of solid mixed and hazardous wastes. This document provides a description of this facility and its mission.

  13. Pre-1970 transuranic solid waste at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1995-05-23

    The document is based on a search of pre-1970 Hanford Solid Waste Records. The available data indicates seven out of thirty-one solid waste burial sites used for pre-1970 waste appear to be Transuranic (TRU). A burial site defined to be TRU contains >100 nCi/gm Transuranic nuclides.

  14. Sensor system for buried waste containment sites

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Ann Marie; Gardner, Bradley M.; Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Partin, Judy K.; Lancaster, Gregory D.; Pfeifer, May Catherine

    2000-01-01

    A sensor system is disclosed for a buried waste containment site having a bottom wall barrier and/or sidewall barriers, for containing hazardous waste. The sensor system includes one or more sensor devices disposed in one or more of the barriers for detecting a physical parameter either of the barrier itself or of the physical condition of the surrounding soils and buried waste, and for producing a signal representing the physical parameter detected. Also included is a signal processor for receiving signals produced by the sensor device and for developing information identifying the physical parameter detected, either for sounding an alarm, displaying a graphic representation of a physical parameter detected on a viewing screen and/or a hard copy printout. The sensor devices may be deployed in or adjacent the barriers at the same time the barriers are deployed and may be adapted to detect strain or cracking in the barriers, leakage of radiation through the barriers, the presence and leaking through the barriers of volatile organic compounds, or similar physical conditions.

  15. ENERGY CONSERVATION AND PRODUCTION AT WASTE CLEANUP SITES (ISSUE PAPER)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Saving energy used by hazardous waste cleanup remediation systems should interest those people working on waste cleanup sites. Presidential Executive Order 13123, "Greening the Government Through Efficient Energy Management", states that each agency shall strive to expand the us...

  16. Existing data on the 216-Z liquid waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, K.W.

    1981-05-01

    During 36 years of operation at the Hanford Site, the ground has been used for disposal of liquid and solid transuranic and/or low-level wastes. Liquid waste was disposed in surface and subsurface cribs, trenches, French drains, reverse wells, ditches and ponds. Disposal structures associated with Z Plant received liquid waste from plutonium finishing and reclamation, waste treatment and laboratory operations. The nineteen 216-Z sites have received 83% of the plutonium discharged to 325 liquid waste facilities at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this document is to support the Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement by drawing the existing data together for the 216-Z liquid waste disposal sites. This document provides an interim reference while a sitewide Waste Information Data System (WIDS) is developed and put on line. Eventually these and additional site data for all Hanford waste disposal sites will be available on WIDS. Compilation of existing data is the first step in evaluating the need and developing the technology for long-term management of these waste sites. The scope of this document is confined to data describing the status of the 216-Z waste sites as of December 31, 1979. Information and sketches are taken from existing documents and drawings.

  17. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA, JUNE 2006

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2006-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal.

  18. Waste site grouping for 200 Areas soil investigations

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify logical waste site groups for characterization based on criteria established in the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy (DOE-RL 1996a). Specific objectives of the document include the following: finalize waste site groups based on the approach and preliminary groupings identified in the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy; prioritize the waste site groups based on criteria developed in the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy; select representative site(s) that best represents typical and worse-case conditions for each waste group; develop conceptual models for each waste group. This document will serve as a technical baseline for implementing the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy. The intent of the document is to provide a framework, based on waste site groups, for organizing soil characterization efforts in the 200 Areas and to present initial conceptual models.

  19. Robots remove explosive waste from flooded site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Explosive industrial waste can remain hazardous for years, making remediation extremely dangerous, particularly when using traditional methods involving people and manually operated equipment. The work is even more complex if the waste is submerged. Authorities in 1988 faced an unusual challenge when they decided to clean up a flooded area that had been used for more than 30 years as a dump for explosive materials. They devised an innovative but highly effective solution. Instead of using divers, two robots perform the cleanup while site personnel remain 600 feet away from the restricted area. The robots were developed by Sonsub Environmental Services Inc. (Houston), which is responsible for their operation. The robots initially located and cleared a small area underwater to set up a metal-processing system, which also was designed by Sonsub. The system is similar to a metal-recycling shredder. The robots then assembled the 25-foot-tall, 20-ton system 60 feet below the surface on the pit floor. A large, surface robot carried sections of the shredder to the cleared area and lowered them, while a smaller, submersible robot guided them into position. This required extreme precision by the smaller robot, which had to ensure that sections mated properly. Both robots now retrieve waste from the pit bottom and feed it into the shredder. The larger robot has a 40-foot jointed arm for lifting up to 1,000 pounds of debris, a manipulator hand for sorting through rock piles and removing small containers, and a grapple for picking up items from the pit floor.

  20. Journey to the Nevada Test Site Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    SciTech Connect

    2007-08-01

    Journey to the Nevada Test Site Radioactive Waste Management Complex begins with a global to regional perspective regarding the location of low-level and mixed low-level waste disposal at the Nevada Test Site. For decades, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) has served as a vital disposal resource in the nation-wide cleanup of former nuclear research and testing facilities. State-of-the-art waste management sites at the NNSS offer a safe, permanent disposal option for U.S. Department of Energy/U.S. Department of Defense facilities generating cleanup-related radioactive waste.

  1. Journey to the Nevada Test Site Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-10-28

    Journey to the Nevada Test Site Radioactive Waste Management Complex begins with a global to regional perspective regarding the location of low-level and mixed low-level waste disposal at the Nevada Test Site. For decades, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) has served as a vital disposal resource in the nation-wide cleanup of former nuclear research and testing facilities. State-of-the-art waste management sites at the NNSS offer a safe, permanent disposal option for U.S. Department of Energy/U.S. Department of Defense facilities generating cleanup-related radioactive waste.

  2. Evaluation of health effects from hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Andelman, J.B.; Underhill, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    This information and data for evaluating health effects from hazardous waste sites stems from the efforts of specialists representing leading research centers, hospitals, universities, government agencies and includes consultant as well as corporate viewpoints. The work evolved from the Fourth Annual Symposium on Environmental Epidemiology sponsored by the Center for Environmental Epidemiology at the University of Pittsburgh and the U.S. EPA. Contents-One: Scope of the Hazardous Wastes Problems. Evaluating Health Effects at Hazardous Waste Sites. Historical Perspective on Waste Disposal. Two: Assessment of Exposure to Hazardous Wastes. Chemical Emissions Assessment for Hazardous Waste Sites. Assessing Pathways to Human Populations. Methods of Defining Human Exposures. Three: Determining Human Health Effects. Health Risks of Concern. Expectations and Limitations of Human Health Studies and Risk Assessment. Four: Case Studies. Love Canal. Hardeman County, Tennessee. Cannonsburg, Pennsylvania. Five: Defining Health Risks at Waste Sites. Engineering Perspectives from an Industrial Viewpoint. Role of Public Groups. Integration of Governmental Resources in Assessment of Hazards.

  3. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-06

    The Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) has been prepared for waste characterization activities to be conducted by the Transuranic (TRU) Project at the Hanford Site to meet requirements set forth in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, 4890139088-TSDF, Attachment B, including Attachments B1 through B6 (WAP) (DOE, 1999a). The QAPjP describes the waste characterization requirements and includes test methods, details of planned waste sampling and analysis, and a description of the waste characterization and verification process. In addition, the QAPjP includes a description of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements for the waste characterization program. Before TRU waste is shipped to the WIPP site by the TRU Project, all applicable requirements of the QAPjP shall be implemented. Additional requirements necessary for transportation to waste disposal at WIPP can be found in the ''Quality Assurance Program Document'' (DOE 1999b) and HNF-2600, ''Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan.'' TRU mixed waste contains both TRU radioactive and hazardous components, as defined in the WLPP-WAP. The waste is designated and separately packaged as either contact-handled (CH) or remote-handled (RH), based on the radiological dose rate at the surface of the waste container. RH TRU wastes are not currently shipped to the WIPP facility.

  4. Cleanup Verification Package for the 300-18 Waste Site

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2005-08-26

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 300-18 waste site. This site was identified as containing radiologically contaminated soil, metal shavings, nuts, bolts, and concrete.

  5. METHODOLOGY TO INVENTORY, CLASSIFY, AND PRIORITIZE UNCONTROLLED WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive method to inventory uncontrolled waste disposal sites integrates all available historic, engineering, geologic, land use, water supply, and public agency or private company records in order to develop a complete and accurate site profile. Detailed information on s...

  6. Site-Specific Seismic Site Response Model for the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, Alan C.; Reidel, Steve P.

    2005-02-24

    This interim report documents the collection of site-specific geologic and geophysical data characterizing the Waste Treatment Plant site and the modeling of the site-specific structure response to earthquake ground motions.

  7. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-12-14

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the quality assurance project plan (QAPP).

  8. Characterization recommendations for waste sites at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.; Gordon, D.E.; Johnson, W.F.; Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.; Nichols, R.L.; Shedrow, C.B.

    1987-11-01

    One hundred and sixty six disposal facilities that received or may have received waste materials resulting from operations at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) have been identified. These waste range from innocuous solid and liquid materials (e.g., wood piles) to process effluents that contain hazardous and/or radioactive constituents. The waste sites have been grouped into 45 categories according the the type of waste materials they received. Waste sites are located with SRP coordinates, a local Department of Energy (DOE) grid system whose grid north is 36 degrees 22 minutes west of true north. DOE policy is to close all waste sites at SRP in a manner consistent with protecting human health and environment and complying with applicable environmental regulations (DOE 1984). A uniform, explicit characterization program for SRP waste sites will provide a sound technical basis for developing closure plans. Several elements are summarized in the following individual sections including (1) a review of the history, geohydrology, and available characterization data for each waste site and (2) recommendations for additional characterization necessary to prepare a reasonable closure plan. Many waste sites have been fully characterized, while others have not been investigated at all. The approach used in this report is to evaluate available groundwater quality and site history data. For example, groundwater data are compared to review criteria to help determine what additional information is required. The review criteria are based on regulatory and DOE guidelines for acceptable concentrations of constituents in groundwater and soil.

  9. Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Safety Assessment Document

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, K.K.; Kendall, E.W.; Brown, J.J.

    1980-02-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Safety Assessment Document evaluates site characteristics, facilities and operating practices which contribute to the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes at the Nevada Test Site. Physical geography, cultural factors, climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology (with emphasis on radionuclide migration), ecology, natural phenomena, and natural resources are discussed and determined to be suitable for effective containment of radionuclides. Also considered, as a separate section, are facilities and operating practices such as monitoring; storage/disposal criteria; site maintenance, equipment, and support; transportation and waste handling; and others which are adequate for the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes. In conclusion, the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site is suitable for radioactive waste handling and storage/disposal for a maximum of twenty more years at the present rate of utilization.

  10. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-D-2 Lead Sheeting Waste Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-030

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-19

    The 100-D-2 Lead Sheeting waste site was located approximately 50 m southwest of the 185-D Building and approximately 16 m north of the east/west oriented road. The site consisted of a lead sheet covering a concrete pad. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  11. Savannah River Site`s Site Specific Plan. Environmental restoration and waste management, fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This Site Specific Plan (SSP) has been prepared by the Savannah River Site (SRS) in order to show the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities that were identified during the preparation of the Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan (FYP) for FY 1992--1996. The SSP has been prepared in accordance with guidance received from DOE-HQ. DOE-SR is accountable to DOE-HQ for the implementation of this plan. The purpose of the SSP is to develop a baseline for policy, budget, and schedules for the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities. The plan explains accomplishments since the Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 plan, demonstrates how present and future activities are prioritized, identifies currently funded activities and activities that are planned to be funded in the upcoming fiscal year, and describes future activities that SRS is considering.

  12. Cleanup Verification Package for the 300 VTS Waste Site

    SciTech Connect

    S. W. Clark and T. H. Mitchell

    2006-03-13

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 300 Area Vitrification Test Site, also known as the 300 VTS site. The site was used by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as a field demonstration site for in situ vitrification of soils containing simulated waste.

  13. Uranium waste disposal at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.; McDonell, W.R.; Wilhite, E.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Savannah River Site generates waste containing depleted, natural, and enriched uranium residue. The past and current practice for disposal of this waste at the Savannah River Site have been assessed using radionuclide pathway analysis to estimate environmental impact of closure alternatives for existing disposal sites, and to assist in the development of improved disposal facilities in the near future. This paper outlines the status of uranium waste management technology as currently practiced to maintain the environmental impact within an acceptable limit at the Savannah River Site, and indicates those steps being taken to improve future operations.

  14. Uranium waste disposal at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.; McDonell, W.R.; Wilhite, E.L.

    1990-12-31

    The Savannah River Site generates waste containing depleted, natural, and enriched uranium residue. The past and current practice for disposal of this waste at the Savannah River Site have been assessed using radionuclide pathway analysis to estimate environmental impact of closure alternatives for existing disposal sites, and to assist in the development of improved disposal facilities in the near future. This paper outlines the status of uranium waste management technology as currently practiced to maintain the environmental impact within an acceptable limit at the Savannah River Site, and indicates those steps being taken to improve future operations.

  15. On-site or off-site treatment of medical waste: a challenge.

    PubMed

    Taghipour, Hassan; Mohammadyarei, Taher; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohamad; Asl Hashemi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Treating hazardous-infectious medical waste can be carried out on-site or off-site of health-care establishments. Nevertheless, the selection between on-site and off-site locations for treating medical waste sometimes is a controversial subject. Currently in Iran, due to policies of Health Ministry, the hospitals have selected on-site-treating method as the preferred treatment. The objectives of this study were to assess the current condition of on-site medical waste treatment facilities, compare on-site medical waste treatment facilities with off-site systems and find the best location of medical waste treatment. To assess the current on-site facilities, four provinces (and 40 active hospitals) were selected to participate in the survey. For comparison of on-site and off-site facilities (due to non availability of an installed off-site facility) Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was employed. The result indicated that most on-site medical waste treating systems have problems in financing, planning, determining capacity of installations, operation and maintenance. AHP synthesis (with inconsistency ratio of 0.01 < 0.1) revealed that, in total, the off-site treatment of medical waste was in much higher priority than the on-site treatment (64.1% versus 35.9%). According to the results of study it was concluded that the off-site central treatment can be considered as an alternative. An amendment could be made to Iran's current medical waste regulations to have infectious-hazardous waste sent to a central off-site installation for treatment. To begin and test this plan and also receive the official approval, a central off-site can be put into practice, at least as a pilot in one province. Next, if it was practically successful, it could be expanded to other provinces and cities. PMID:24739145

  16. Waste reduction at a propellant manufacturing site

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, L.A.

    1994-12-31

    It is the US Army policy to reduce the volume and toxicity of hazardous waste generated by its operations and activities. The Army established a goal to reduce 1985 waste generation levels by 50% by the year 1992, with additional reductions proposed through 1999 per Army guidance. To assist in accomplishing this goal, the Production Base Modernization Activity under a program sponsored by the US Army Materiel Command contracted Science Applications International Corporation to conduct a waste minimization audit at Radford Army Ammunition Plant. This study addressed hazardous wastes as well as non-hazardous oily wastes. The investigation was conducted in three phases to document how hazardous and oily wastes are produced and to recommend waste reduction alternatives. Radford Army Ammunition Plant (RAAP) produces in-process materials such as nitric and sulfuric acids, and propellant components including nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin. In addition, to propellants, the explosives trinitrotoluene and diethylene glycol dinitrate can be produced. The manufacture of military propellants generates the majority of waste at the facility. This paper will present the results of the RAAP Hazmin study, focusing on the major waste generating processes involved with propellant manufacture, Hazmin options suggested to minimize waste generation, and lessons learned.

  17. Hazardous waste shipment data collection from DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Page, L.A.; Kirkpatrick, T.D.; Stevens, L.

    1992-12-31

    Past practices at the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites for offsite release of hazardous waste are being reviewed to determine if radioactively contaminated hazardous wastes were released to commercial treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. Records indicating the presence of radioactivity in waste shipped to and treated at a commercial incineration facility led to a ban on offsite hazardous waste shipments and investigation of past practices for offsite release of hazardous waste from the DOE sites. A House of Representatives Interior and Insular Affairs Committee oversight hearing on potentially contaminated waste shipments to commercial facilities concluded that the main issue was the lack of a uniform national standard to govern disposal of mixed waste.

  18. Hazardous waste shipment data collection from DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Page, L.A.; Kirkpatrick, T.D. ); Stevens, L. )

    1992-01-01

    Past practices at the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites for offsite release of hazardous waste are being reviewed to determine if radioactively contaminated hazardous wastes were released to commercial treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. Records indicating the presence of radioactivity in waste shipped to and treated at a commercial incineration facility led to a ban on offsite hazardous waste shipments and investigation of past practices for offsite release of hazardous waste from the DOE sites. A House of Representatives Interior and Insular Affairs Committee oversight hearing on potentially contaminated waste shipments to commercial facilities concluded that the main issue was the lack of a uniform national standard to govern disposal of mixed waste.

  19. Benefits of On-Site Management of Environmental Restoration Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, Michael J. ,P.E.; Wood, Craig, R.E.M.; Kwiecinski, Daniel, P.E.; Alanis, Saul

    2003-02-27

    As Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) began assessing options under which to conduct the remediation of environmental restoration sites, it became clear that the standard routes for permanent disposal of waste contaminated with hazardous materials would be difficult. Publicly, local citizens' groups resisted the idea of large volumes of hazardous waste being transported through their communities. Regulations for the off-site disposal are complicated due to the nature of the environmental restoration waste, which included elevated tritium levels. Waste generated from environmental restoration at SNL/NM included debris and soils contaminated with a variety of constituents. Operationally, disposal of environmental restoration waste was difficult because of the everchanging types of waste generated during site remediation. As an alternative to standard hazardous waste disposal, SNL/NM proposed and received regulatory approval to construct a Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU). By containing the remediation wastes on-site, SNL/NM's Environmental Restoration (ER) Program managed to eliminate transportation concerns from the public, worked with regulatory agencies to develop a safe, permanent disposal, and modified the waste disposal procedures to accommodate operational changes. SNL/NM accomplished the task and saved approximately $200 million over the life of the CAMU project, as compared to off-site disposal options.

  20. Chemical pretreatment of Savannah River Site nuclear waste for disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Walker, D.D.

    1992-12-31

    This work describes two processes, Extended Sludge Processing and In-Tank Precipitation, which have been developed and demonstrated at full-scale to pretreat the Savannah River Site High-Level Waste for permanent disposal. These processes will be carried out in waste storage tanks which have been modified for chemical processing. These processes will concentrate the radioactivity into a small volume for vitrification. The bulk of the waste will be sufficiently decontaminated such that it can be disposed of as a low-level waste. The decontaminated waste will be incorporated into a cement wasteform in the Saltstone Facility.

  1. ON-SITE WASTE INK RECYCLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recycling ink has good potential as a way to reduce waste and promote long-term cost avings. he evaluation summarized here addresses the product quality, waste reduction nd economic issues involved in recycling printing ink in a facility such as THE ARFORD COURANT newspaper in Ha...

  2. Public reactions to nuclear waste: Citizens' views of repository siting

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    This book presents revised and updated papers from a panel of social scientists, at the 1989 AAAS meetings, that examined the public's reactions to nuclear waste disposal and the repository siting process. The papers report the results of original empirical research on citizens' views of nuclear waste repository siting. Topics covered include the following: content analysis of public testimony; sources of public concern about nuclear waste disposal in Texas agricultural communities; local attitudes toward high-level waste repository at Hanford; perceived risk and attitudes toward nuclear wastes; attitudes of Nevada urban residents toward a nuclear waste repository; attitudes of rural community residents toward a nuclear waste respository. An introductory chapter provides background and context, and a concluding chapter summarizes the implications of the reports. Two additional chapters cover important features of high-level waste disposal: long term trends in public attitudes toward nuclear energy and nuclear waste policy and assessment of the effects on the Los Vegas convention business if a high-level nuclear waste depository were sited in Nevada.

  3. SITE GENERATED RADIOLOGICAL WASTE HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    S. C. Khamankar

    2000-06-20

    The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System handles radioactive waste products that are generated at the geologic repository operations area. The waste is collected, treated if required, packaged for shipment, and shipped to a disposal site. Waste streams include low-level waste (LLW) in solid and liquid forms, as-well-as mixed waste that contains hazardous and radioactive constituents. Liquid LLW is segregated into two streams, non-recyclable and recyclable. The non-recyclable stream may contain detergents or other non-hazardous cleaning agents and is packaged for shipment. The recyclable stream is treated to recycle a large portion of the water while the remaining concentrated waste is packaged for shipment; this greatly reduces the volume of waste requiring disposal. There will be no liquid LLW discharge. Solid LLW consists of wet solids such as ion exchange resins and filter cartridges, as-well-as dry active waste such as tools, protective clothing, and poly bags. Solids will be sorted, volume reduced, and packaged for shipment. The generation of mixed waste at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) is not planned; however, if it does come into existence, it will be collected and packaged for disposal at its point of occurrence, temporarily staged, then shipped to government-approved off-site facilities for disposal. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System has equipment located in both the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) and in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). All types of liquid and solid LLW are processed in the WTB, while wet solid waste from the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is packaged where received in the WHB. There is no installed hardware for mixed waste. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System receives waste from locations where water is used for decontamination functions. In most cases the water is piped back to the WTB for processing. The WTB and WHB provide staging areas for storing and shipping LLW

  4. Waste treatment at the La Hague and Marcoule sites

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    In this report, an overview of waste treatment and solidification facilities located at the La Hague and Marcoule sites, which are owned and/or operated by Cogema, provided. The La Hague facilities described in this report include the following: The STE3 liquid effluent treatment facility (in operation); the AD2 solid waste processing facility (also in operation); and the UCD alpha waste treatment facility (under construction). The Marcoule facilities described in this report, both of which are in operation, include the following: The STEL-EVA liquid effluent treatment facilities for the entire site; and the alpha waste incinerator of the UPI plant. This report is organized into four sections: this introduction, low-level waste treatment at La Hague, low-level waste treatment at Marcoule, and new process development. including the solvent pyrolysis process currently in the development stage for Cogema`s plants.

  5. Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites

    SciTech Connect

    McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m/sup 3/ brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs.

  6. Macroencapsulated and elemental lead mixed waste sites report

    SciTech Connect

    Kalia, A.; Jacobson, R.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compile a list of the Macroencapsulated (MACRO) and Elemental Lead (EL) Mixed Wastes sites that will be treated and require disposal at the Nevada Test Site within the next five to ten years. The five sites selected were: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington; Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho Falls, Idaho; Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Rocky Flats Environmental Technology (RF), Golden, Colorado; and Savannah River (SRS), Charleston, South Carolina. A summary of total lead mixed waste forms at the five selected DOE sites is described in Table E-1. This table provides a summary of total waste and grand total of the current inventory and five-year projected generation of lead mixed waste for each site. This report provides conclusions and recommendations for further investigations. The major conclusions are: (1) the quantity of lead mixed current inventory waste is 500.1 m{sup 3} located at the INEL, and (2) the five sites contain several other waste types contaminated with mercury, organics, heavy metal solids, and mixed sludges.

  7. The toxicologic hazard of superfund hazardous-waste sites.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B L; DeRosa, C

    1997-01-01

    Uncontrolled hazardous-waste sites are a major environmental and public health concern in the United States and elsewhere. The remediation of and public health responses to these sites is mandated by the federal Superfund statute. Approximately 40,000 uncontrolled waste sites have been reported to U.S. federal agencies. About 1,300 of these sites constitute the current National Priorities List (NPL) of sites for remediation. Findings from a national database on NPL sites show approximately 40% present completed exposure pathways, although this figure rose to 80% in 1996. Data from 1992 through 1996 indicate that 46% of sites are a hazard to public health. Thirty substances are found at 6% or more of sites with completed pathways. Eighteen of the substances are known human carcinogens or reasonably anticipated to be carcinogenic. Many of the 30 substances also possess systemic toxicity. The high percentage of sites with completed exposure pathways and the toxicity potential of substances in these pathways show that uncontrolled hazardous-waste sites are a major environmental threat to human health. Findings from the United States' experience in responding to uncontrolled waste sites are relevant to other countries as they address similar environmental and public health concerns. PMID:9553998

  8. Waste site story: Tons of uncertainty backstage

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The results of an informal survey of 39 US nuclear utilities regarding nuclear waste storage are presented. Survey topics included short-term needs for dry or extended wet storage through 2002, re-racking, multi-purpose canisters, factors influencing the purchase of dry storage/transport systems, vendor performance, plant life extension, licensing, and privatization of waste storage. Selected utility comments are presented. Utility responses are noted by percentages only; specific utilities are not identified.

  9. Description of the Northwest hazardous waste site data base and preliminary analysis of site characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, D.L.; Hartz, K.E.; Triplett, M.B.

    1988-08-01

    The Northwest Hazardous Waste RD and D Center (the Center) conducts research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) activities for hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste technologies applicable to remediating sites in the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington. To properly set priorities for these RD and D activities and to target development efforts it is necessary to understand the nature of the sites requiring remediation. A data base of hazardous waste site characteristics has been constructed to facilitate this analysis. The data base used data from EPA's Region X Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) and from Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation (PA/SI) forms for sites in Montana. The Center's data base focuses on two sets of sites--those on the National Priorities List (NPL) and other sites that are denoted as ''active'' CERCLIS sites. Active CERCLIS sites are those sites that are undergoing active investigation and analysis. The data base contains information for each site covering site identification and location, type of industry associated with the site, waste categories present (e.g., heavy metals, pesticides, etc.), methods of disposal (e.g., tanks, drums, land, etc.), waste forms (e.g., liquid, solid, etc.), and hazard targets (e.g., surface water, groundwater, etc.). As part of this analysis, the Northwest region was divided into three geographic subregions to identify differences in disposal site characteristics within the Northwest. 2 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. GUIDE TO TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTES AT SUPERFUND SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past fewyears, it has become increasinsly evident that land disposal of hazardous wastes is at least only a temporary solution for much of the wastes present at Superfund sites. The need for more Iong-term, permanent "treatment solutions as alternatives to land disposal ...

  11. HANDBOOK FOR REMEDIAL ACTION AT WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook is directed toward technical personnel in federal, state, regional, and municipal agencies involved in the cleanup of hazardous waste disposal sites, industrial surface impoundments, and municipal, industrial, and combined landfills. It contains a summary of the flo...

  12. COMPARATIVE TOXICOLOGY OF LABORATORY ORGANISMS FOR ASSESSING HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multi-media/multi-trophic level bioassays have been proposed to determine the extent and severity of environmental contamination at hazardous waste sites. Comparative toxicological profiles for algae, daphnia, earthworms, microbes, mixed sewage and plants; wheat 'Stephens', lettu...

  13. PROTECTING HEALTH AND SAFETY AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cleanup operations at inactive hazardous waste sites are now underway throughout the country. Thousands of workers are involved in the national effort. Because of the potential hazards inherent in such operations, an interagency committee, consisting of the National Institute for...

  14. Radioactive Waste Packaging of Conditioned Waste at Kozloduy NPP Site

    SciTech Connect

    Genchev, G.; Dimov, D.; Russev, K.

    2006-07-01

    An important part of Safety Management of conditioned low and intermediate level Radioactive Waste (RAW) is their packaging and containers for transport, storage and final disposal. A reinforced concrete container (RCC) has been developed to take cemented super compacted dry waste and cement solidified liquid waste at Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP). The container is to be used as a packaging of transportation, storage and final disposal of RAW conditioned by cementation KNPP specialists constructed and performed tests on the container. These tests were possible thanks to a review of European Community States experience, USA experience and IAEA documents. The container was tested by a team of specialists from KNPP, project specialists, fabricator of the containers and from Bulgarian Regulatory Body under IAEA Safety Standards, Safety Series, TECDOC, TRS and Bulgarian Standards. An expert from IAEA was a member of the testing group for RCC examinations. (authors)

  15. Hazard ranking systems for chemical wastes and chemical waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, R.D.; Parker, F.L. ); Crutcher, M.R. and Associates, Inc., Columbia, IL )

    1991-01-01

    Hazardous materials and substances have always existed in the environment. Mankind has evolved to live with some degree of exposure to toxic materials. Until recently the risk has been from natural toxins or natural background radiation. While rapid technological advances over the past few decades have improved the lifestyle of our society, they have also dramatically increased the availability, volume and types of synthetic and natural hazardous materials. Many of their effects are as yet uncertain. Products and manufacturing by-products that no longer serve a useful purpose are deemed wastes. For some waste products land disposal will always be their ultimate fate. Hazardous substances are often included in the waste products. One needs to classify wastes by degree of hazard (risk). Risk (degree of probability of loss) is usually defined for risk assessment as probability of an occurrence times the consequences of the occurrence. Perhaps even more important than the definition of risk is the choice of a risk management strategy. The choice of strategy will be strongly influenced by the decision criteria used. Those decision criteria could be utility (the greatest happiness of the greatest number), rights or technology based or some combination of the three. It is necessary to make such choices about the definition of risks and criteria for management. It is clear that these are social (i.e., political) and value choices and science has little to say on this matter. This is another example of what Alvin Weinberg has named Transcience where the subject matter is scientific and technical but the choices are social, political and moral. This paper shall deal only with the scientific and technical aspects of the hazardous waste problem to create a hazardous substances classification system.

  16. Summary of tank waste physical properties at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Q.H.

    1994-04-01

    This report summarizes the physical parameters measured from Hanford Site tank wastes. Physical parameters were measured to determine the physical nature of the tank wastes to develop simulants and design in-tank equipment. The physical parameters were measured mostly from core samples obtained directly below tank risers. Tank waste physical parameters were collected through a database search, interviewing and selecting references from documents. This report shows the data measured from tank waste but does not describe how the analyses wee done. This report will be updated as additional data are measured or more documents are reviewed.

  17. Control of incidental asbestos exposure at hazardous waste sites.

    PubMed

    Koustas, R N

    1991-07-01

    This paper discusses asbestos regulations that are not part of Superfund and examines how these regulations can help to identify, evaluate and manage the risk associated with Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) at hazardous waste cleanup sites. Unless one knows where to look for ACM at hazardous waste sites, it may go undetected even after all the traditional sampling is done. Although EPA is currently developing a policy for evaluating risk from asbestos exposure at certain Superfund sites, information from existing regulations can be used to manage hazards associated with asbestos exposure at hazardous waste sites. This paper also identifies where to find governmental agency personnel and consultants who may be retained for site-specific help. PMID:1930954

  18. DOE site performance assessment activities. Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Information on performance assessment capabilities and activities was collected from eight DOE sites. All eight sites either currently dispose of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or plan to dispose of LLW in the near future. A survey questionnaire was developed and sent to key individuals involved in DOE Order 5820.2A performance assessment activities at each site. The sites surveyed included: Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The questionnaire addressed all aspects of the performance assessment process; from waste source term to dose conversion factors. This report presents the information developed from the site questionnaire and provides a comparison of site-specific performance assessment approaches, data needs, and ongoing and planned activities. All sites are engaged in completing the radioactive waste disposal facility performance assessment required by DOE Order 5820.2A. Each site has achieved various degrees of progress and have identified a set of critical needs. Within several areas, however, the sites identified common needs and questions.

  19. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 600-233 Waste Site, Vertical Pipe Near 100-B Electrical Laydown Area, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-041

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Carlson

    2005-12-08

    The 600-233 waste site consisted of three small-diameter pipelines within the 600-232 waste site, including previously unknown diesel fuel supply lines discovered during site remediation. The 600-233 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  20. Environmental Assessment: Waste Tank Safety Program, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) needs to take action in the near-term, to accelerate resolution of waste tank safety issues at the Hanford Site near the City of Richland, Washington, and reduce the risks associated with operations and management of the waste tanks. The DOE has conducted nuclear waste management operations at the Hanford Site for nearly 50 years. Operations have included storage of high-level nuclear waste in 177 underground storage tanks (UST), both in single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank configurations. Many of the tanks, and the equipment needed to operate them, are deteriorated. Sixty-seven SSTs are presumed to have leaked a total approximately 3,800,000 liters (1 million gallons) of radioactive waste to the soil. Safety issues associated with the waste have been identified, and include (1) flammable gas generation and episodic release; (2) ferrocyanide-containing wastes; (3) a floating organic solvent layer in Tank 241-C-103; (4) nuclear criticality; (5) toxic vapors; (6) infrastructure upgrades; and (7) interim stabilization of SSTs. Initial actions have been taken in all of these areas; however, much work remains before a full understanding of the tank waste behavior is achieved. The DOE needs to accelerate the resolution of tank safety concerns to reduce the risk of an unanticipated radioactive or chemical release to the environment, while continuing to manage the wastes safely.

  1. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Feo, Giovanni De; Gisi, Sabino De

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Wasting land for the siting of hazardous waste landfills must be avoided. • The siting procedure is based on a land use map of potentially suitable areas. • All the waste facilities of the management system are simultaneously considered. • A case study is developed considering two multi-criteria techniques. • An innovative criteria weighting tool (PSW) is used in combination with the AHP. - Abstract: The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a “land use map of potentially suitable areas” for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the “Priority Scale”) in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method.

  2. Forming artificial soils from waste materials for mine site rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellishetty, Mohan; Wong, Vanessa; Taylor, Michael; Li, Johnson

    2014-05-01

    Surface mining activities often produce large volumes of solid wastes which invariably requires the removal of significant quantities of waste rock (overburden). As mines expand, larger volumes of waste rock need to be moved which also require extensive areas for their safe disposal and containment. The erosion of these dumps may result in landform instability, which in turn may result in exposure of contaminants such as trace metals, elevated sediment delivery in adjacent waterways, and the subsequent degradation of downstream water quality. The management of solid waste materials from industrial operations is also a key component for a sustainable economy. For example, in addition to overburden, coal mines produce large amounts of waste in the form of fly ash while sewage treatment plants require disposal of large amounts of compost. Similarly, paper mills produce large volumes of alkaline rejected wood chip waste which is usually disposed of in landfill. These materials, therefore, presents a challenge in their use, and re-use in the rehabilitation of mine sites and provides a number of opportunities for innovative waste disposal. The combination of solid wastes sourced from mines, which are frequently nutrient poor and acidic, with nutrient-rich composted material produced from sewage treatment and alkaline wood chip waste has the potential to lead to a soil suitable for mine rehabilitation and successful seed germination and plant growth. This paper presents findings from two pilot projects which investigated the potential of artificial soils to support plant growth for mine site rehabilitation. We found that pH increased in all the artificial soil mixtures and were able to support plant establishment. Plant growth was greatest in those soils with the greatest proportion of compost due to the higher nutrient content. These pot trials suggest that the use of different waste streams to form an artificial soil can potentially be used in mine site rehabilitation

  3. DUST CONTROL AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES. HANDBOOK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spills, waste disposal, and various industrial operations can result in the contamination of land surfaces with toxic chemicals. Soil particles from these areas can be entrained into the air, transported offsite via the wind, and result in human exposure by direct inhalation. Ind...

  4. Identification of potential transuranic waste tanks at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Colburn, R.P.

    1995-05-05

    The purpose of this document is to identify potential transuranic (TRU) material among the Hanford Site tank wastes for possible disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as an alternative to disposal in the high-level waste (HLW) repository. Identification of such material is the initial task in a trade study suggested in WHC-EP-0786, Tank Waste Remediation System Decisions and Risk Assessment (Johnson 1994). The scope of this document is limited to the identification of those tanks that might be segregated from the HLW for disposal as TRU, and the bases for that selection. It is assumed that the tank waste will be washed to remove soluble inert material for disposal as low-level waste (LLW), and the washed residual solids will be vitrified for disposal. The actual recommendation of a disposal strategy for these materials will require a detailed cost/benefit analysis and is beyond the scope of this document.

  5. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 120-F-1 Glass Dump Waste Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-028

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-06-27

    The 120-F-1 waste site consisted of two dumping areas located 660 m southeast of the 105-F Reactor containing laboratory equipment and bottles, demolition debris, light bulbs and tubes, small batteries, small drums, and pesticide contaminated soil. It is probable that 108-F was the source of the debris but the material may have come from other locations within the 100-F Area. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  6. TOXICITY EVALUATIONS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES: AN ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological assessments for hazardous waste sites should include acute toxicity tests as well as short-term tests which measure biological endpoints other than death. oxicity and field assessment methods may be assembled into "tool boxes" which reflect not only the site-specific d...

  7. REMEDIAL RESPONSE AT THE RICHMOND, CALIFORNIA HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency surveyed 395 uncontrolled hazardous waste sites where some form of remedial action had been planned. A series of reports on 23 sites representative of various remedial response activities has been prepared. The current report from this ser...

  8. Cleanup Verification Package for the 600-47 Waste Site

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Cutlip

    2005-08-26

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of interim remedial action for the 600-47 waste site. This site consisted of several areas of surface debris and contamination near the banks of the Columbia River across from Johnson Island. Contaminated material identified in field surveys included four areas of soil, wood, nuts, bolts, and other metal debris.

  9. EVALUATION OF WASTE STABILIZED BY THE SOLIDITECH SITE TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Soliditech technology demonstration was conducted at the Imperial Oil Company/Champion Chemicals Superfund Site in Monmouth County, New Jersey. ontamination at this site includes PCBs, lead (with various other metals) and oil and grease. his process mixes the waste material w...

  10. TANK WASTE RETRIEVAL LESSONS LEARNED AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    DODD, R.A.

    2006-01-17

    One of the environmental remediation challenges facing the nation is the retrieval and permanent disposal of approximately 90 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State and stores roughly 60% of this waste. An estimated 53 million gallons of high-level, transuranic, and low-level radioactive waste is stored underground in 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 newer double-shell tanks (DSTs) at the Hanford Site. These SSTs range in size from 55,000 gallons to 1,000,000 gallon capacity. Approximately 30 million gallons of this waste is stored in SSTs. The SSTs were constructed between 1943 and 1964 and all have exceeded the nominal 20-year design life. Sixty-seven SSTs are known or suspected to have leaked an estimated 1,000,000 gallons of waste. The risk of additional SST leakage has been greatly reduced by removing more than 3 million gallons of interstitial liquids and supernatant and transferring the waste to the DST system since 1997 as part of the interim stabilization program. Retrieval of SST saltcake and sludge waste is underway to further reduce risks and stage feed materials for the Hanford Site Waste Treatment Plant. This paper presents lessons learned from retrieval of tank waste at the Hanford Site and discusses how this information is used to optimize retrieval system efficiency, improve overall cost effectiveness of retrieval operations, and ensure that HFFACO requirements are met.

  11. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal.

    PubMed

    De Feo, Giovanni; De Gisi, Sabino

    2014-11-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a "land use map of potentially suitable areas" for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the "Priority Scale") in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method. PMID:25002369

  12. Site hydrogeologic/geotechnical characterization report for Site B new municipal solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, R.; Nowacki, P.

    1991-04-01

    This Site Hydrogeologic/Geotechnical Characterization Report (SHCR) presents the results of a comprehensive study conducted on a proposed solid waste landfill site, identified herein as Site B, at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This report is intended to satisfy all requirements of the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) with regard to landfill siting requirements and ground water and environmental protection. In addition, this report provides substantial geotechnical data pertinent to the landfill design process.

  13. Final vegetative cover for closed waste sites. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.; Salvo, S.K.

    1993-01-22

    Low-level, hazardous, and mixed waste disposal sites normally require some form of plant material to prevent erosion of the final closure cap. Waste disposal sites are closed and capped in a complex scientific manner to minimize water infiltration and percolation into and through the waste material. Turf type grasses are currently being used as an interim vegetative cover for most sites. This coverage allows for required monitoring of the closure cap for settlement and maintenance activities. The purpose of this five year study was to evaluate plant materials for use on wastes sites after the post-closure care period that are quickly and easily established and economically maintained, retard water infiltration, provide maximum year-round evapotranspiration, are ecologically acceptable and do not harm the closure cap. The results of the study suggest that two species of bamboo (Phyllostachys (P.) bissetii and P. rubromarginata) can be utilized to provide long lived, low maintenance, climax vegetation for the waste sites after surveillance and maintenance requirements have ceased.

  14. Nevada Test Site 2008 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-06-23

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2008 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities.

  15. 2002 Hyperspectral Analysis of Hazardous Waste Sites on the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gladden, J.B.

    2003-08-28

    Hazardous waste site inspection is a labor intensive, time consuming job, performed primarily on the ground using visual inspection and instrumentation. It is an expensive process to continually monitor hazardous waste and/or landfill sites to determine if they are maintaining their integrity. In certain instances, it may be possible to monitor aspects of the hazardous waste sites and landfills remotely. The utilization of multispectral data was suggested for the mapping of clays and iron oxides associated with contaminated groundwater, vegetation stress, and methane gas emissions (which require longer wavelength detectors). The Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, S.C. is a United States Department of Energy facility operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. For decades the SRS was responsible for developing weapons grade plutonium and other materials for the nation's nuclear defense. Hazardous waste was generated during this process. Waste storage site inspection is a particularly important issue at the SRS because there are over 100 hazardous waste sites scattered throughout the 300 mile complex making it difficult to continually monitor all of the facilities. The goal is to use remote sensing technology to identify surface anomalies on the hazardous waste sites as early as possible so that remedial work can take place rapidly to maintain the integrity of the storage sites. The anomalous areas are then targeted for intensive in situ human examination and measurement. During the 1990s, many of the hazardous waste sites were capped with protective layers of polyethelene sheeting and soil, and planted with bahia grass and/or centipede grass. This research investigated hyperspectral remote sensing technology to determine if it can be used to measure accurately and monitor possible indicators of change on vegetated hazardous waste sites. Specifically, it evaluated the usefulness of hyperspectral remote sensing to assess the condition of vegetation on clay

  16. Identification of unknown waste sites using MIVIS hyperspectral images

    SciTech Connect

    Gomarasca, M.A.; Strobelt, S.

    1996-11-01

    This paper presents the results on the individuation of known and unknown (illegal) waste sites using Landsat TM satellite imagery and airborne MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer) data for detailed analysis in Italy. Previous results with Landsat TM imagery were partially positive for large waste site identification and negative for small sites. Information acquired by the MIVIS hyperspectral system presents three main characteristics: local scale study, possibility to plan the proper period based on the objectives of the study, high number of spectral bands with high spectral and geometrical resolution. MIVIS airborne shootings were carried out on 7 July 1994 at noon with 4x4 m pixel resolution. The MIVIS 102 bands` sensors can distinguish even objects with similar spectral behavior, thanks to its high spectral resolution. Identification of degraded sites is obtained using traditional spectral and statistical operators (NDVI, Principal Component Analysis, Maximum Likelihood classifier) and innovative combination of filtered band ratios realized to extract specific waste elements (acid slimes or contaminated soils). One of the aims that concerns with this study is the definition of an operative program for the characterization, identification and classification of defined categories of waste disposal sites. The best schedule for the data collection by airborne MIVIS oriented to this target is defined. The planning of the proper flight, based on the waste sites features, is important to optimize this technology. One of the most efficient methods for detecting hidden waste sites is the thermal inertia so two images are necessary: one during low sun load and one with high sun load. The results obtained are operationally useful and winning. This instrument, supported by correct analysis techniques, may offer new interesting prospects in territorial management and environmental monitoring. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  18. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  19. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  20. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  1. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  2. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 128-B-3 Burn Pit Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-058

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-11-17

    The 128-B-3 waste site is a former burn and disposal site for the 100-B/C Area, located adjacent to the Columbia River. The 128-B-3 waste site has been remediated to meet the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results of sampling at upland areas of the site also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  3. Geotechnical hazards associated with closed municipal solid waste landfill sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powrie, W.; Richards, D.; Beaven, R.

    2015-09-01

    As pressure for new infrastructure and development grows, it is inevitable that building projects will encounter some of the c20,000 closed former solid waste landfills in the UK, many of which will have accepted municipal solid wastes (MSW). Construction on or across these sites brings a special set of geohazards associated with the potential for large and difficult to predict settlements, gas (and odour) release or generation, contaminated leachate and the breach of containment systems and other environmental controls. The presentation will discuss these issues with reference to recent research into understanding and predicting settlements in municipal solid waste landfills; assessing the total, current and residual gas potential of biodegradable wastes; the role of the hydraulic regime in the flushing of contaminants from the waste and the quality of leachate; and the need or otherwise for the long term integrity of engineered barriers and controls.

  4. A history of solid waste packaging at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.R.; Weyns-Rollosson, D.I.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Stratton, T.J.

    1995-02-01

    Since the initiation of the defense materials product mission, a total of more than 600,000 m{sup 3} of radioactive solid waste has been stored or disposed at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State. As the DOE complex prepares for its increasing role in environmental restoration and waste remediation, the characterization of buried and retrievably stored waste will become increasingly important. Key to this characterization is an understanding of the standards and specifications to which waste was packaged; the regulations that mandated these standards and specifications; the practices used for handling and packaging different waste types; and the changes in these practices with time.

  5. Savannah River Site Waste Removal Program - Past, Present and Future

    SciTech Connect

    Saldivar, E.

    2002-02-25

    The Savannah River Site has fifty-one high level waste tanks in various phases of operation and closure. These tanks were originally constructed to receive, store, and treat the high level waste (HLW) created in support of the missions assigned by the Department of Energy (DOE). The Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) requires the high level waste to be removed from the tanks and stabilized into a final waste form. Additionally, closure of the tanks following waste removal must be completed. The SRS HLW System Plan identifies the interfaces of safe storage, waste removal, and stabilization of the high level waste and the schedule for the closure of each tank. HLW results from the dissolution of irradiated fuel components. Desired nuclear materials are recovered and the byproducts are neutralized with NaOH and sent to the High Level Waste Tank Farms at the SRS. The HLW process waste clarifies in the tanks as the sludge settles, resulting in a layer of dense sludge with salt supernate settling above the sludge. Salt supernate is concentrated via evaporation into saltcake and NaOH liquor. This paper discusses the history of SRS waste removal systems, recent waste removal experiences, and the challenges facing future removal operations to enhance efficiency and cost effectiveness. Specifically, topics will include the evolution and efficiency of systems used in the 1960's which required large volumes of water to current systems of large centrifugal slurry pumps, with significant supporting infrastructure and safety measures. Interactions of this equipment with the waste tank farm operations requirements will also be discussed. The cost and time improvements associated with these present-day systems is a primary focus for the HLW Program.

  6. A short history of waste management at the Hanford Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gephart, Roy E.

    The world’s first full-scale nuclear reactors and chemical reprocessing plants built at the Hanford Site in the desert of southeastern Washington State produced two-thirds of the plutonium generated in the United States for nuclear weapons. Operating these facilities also created large volumes of radioactive and chemical waste, some of which was released into the environment exposing people who lived downwind and downstream. Hanford now contains the largest accumulation of nuclear waste in the Western Hemisphere. Hanford’s last reactor shut down in 1987 followed by closure of the last reprocessing plant in 1990. Today, Hanford’s only mission is cleanup. Most onsite radioactive waste and nuclear material lingers inside underground tanks or storage facilities. About half of the chemical waste remains in tanks while the rest persists in the soil, groundwater, and burial grounds. Six million dollars each day, or nearly two billion dollars each year, are spent on waste management and cleanup activities. There is significant uncertainty in how long cleanup will take, how much it will cost, and what risks will remain for future generations. This paper summarizes portions of the waste management history of the Hanford Site published in the book “Hanford: A Conversation about Nuclear Waste and Cleanup.” ( Gephart, 2003).

  7. A Short History of Waste Management at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gephart, Roy E.

    2010-03-31

    "The world’s first full-scale nuclear reactors and chemical reprocessing plants built at the Hanford Site in the desert of eastern Washington State produced two-thirds of the plutonium generated in the United States for nuclear weapons. Operating these facilities also created large volumes of radioactive and chemical waste, some of which was released into the environment exposing people who lived downwind and downstream. Hanford now contains the largest accumulation of nuclear waste in the Western Hemisphere. Hanford’s last reactor shut down in 1987 followed by closure of the last reprocessing plant in 1990. Today, Hanford’s only mission is cleanup. Most onsite radioactive waste and nuclear material lingers inside underground tanks or storage facilities. About half of the chemical waste remains in tanks while the rest persists in the soil, groundwater, and burial grounds. Six million dollars each day, or nearly two billion dollars each year, are spent on waste management and cleanup activities. There is significant uncertainty in how long cleanup will take, how much it will cost, and what risks will remain for future generations. This paper summarizes portions of the waste management history of the Hanford Site published in the book “Hanford: A Conversation about Nuclear Waste and Cleanup.”(1) "

  8. Hazardous Waste Site Remediation, Neighborhood Change, and Neighborhood Quality.

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, M; Schneider, D

    1994-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that neighborhoods with hazardous waste sites may no longer be undesirable places to live if they have been at least partly remediated. We collected 377 questionnaires (42% response rate) administered from within one-half mile of the number 1, 4, and 12 hazardous waste sites on the National Priority List (Superfund). These neighborhoods were rated higher quality than neighborhoods with unremediated hazardous waste sites and about the same as neighborhoods in northern New Jersey and the United States as a whole. Newer residents considered these formerly tainted areas to be opportunities to upgrade their housing and living conditions. Long-term residents retained the negative image of the blemished neighborhood. Images p542-a PMID:9679112

  9. Predominant chemicals in Hanford site waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Boothe, G.F.

    1996-09-23

    Predominant chemical constituents in Hanford Site single-shell and double-shell tanks are determined. Predominant chemical constituents are defined as those anions, cations, and compounds presenting over 99 percent of the routine risks to workers or members of the public. Toxic chemicals and those chemical constituents in tanks that present the 99 percentile hazards to groundwater and air are identified.

  10. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-07-31

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Waste Disposal Sites' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Closure activities were conducted from December 2008 to April 2009 according to the FFACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 139 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 139, 'Waste Disposal Sites,' consists of seven CASs in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 139 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (2) At CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site, an administrative UR was implemented. No postings or post-closure monitoring are required. (3) At CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (4) At CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit, no work was performed. (5) At CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches, a native soil cover was installed, and a UR was

  11. The Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Alumkal, W.T.; Babad, H.; Harmon, H.D.; Wodrich, D.D.

    1994-01-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, has the most diverse and largest amount of highly radioactive waste in the United States. High-level radioactive waste has been stored in large underground tanks since 1944. Approximately 230,000 m{sup 3} (61 Mgal) of caustic liquids, slurries, saltcakes, and sludges have {sup 137}Cs accumulated in 177 tanks. In addition, significant amounts of {sup 90}Sr and were removed from the tank waste, converted to salts, doubly encapsulated in metal containers., and stored in water basins. A Tank Waste Remediation System Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy in 1991 to safely manage and immobilize these wastes in anticipation of permanent disposal of the high-level waste fraction in a geologic repository. Since 1991, progress has been made resolving waste tank safety issues, upgrading Tank Farm facilities and operations, and developing a new strategy for retrieving, treating, and immobilizing the waste for disposal.

  12. Fundamentals of hazardous waste site remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, K.

    1999-11-01

    Environmental engineering professionals now have a resource for basic remediation skills. Hazardous materials chemistry, hydrogeology, reaction engineering, and clean-up level development are among the related issues examined in detail. End-of-chapter review problems are included to test comprehension of material. This book offers a cross-disciplinary approach to solving site remediation problems. It also contains proven material, developed in actual teaching situations. In addition this book provides convenient reference for professionals--and a fine introduction for trainees.

  13. An Integrated Site-Wide Assessment of Nuclear Wastes to Remain at the Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, J.G.; Bryce, R.W.; Hildebrand, R.D.; Kincaid, C.T.

    2004-10-06

    Since its creation in 1943 until 1988, the Hanford Site, a facility in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex was dedicated to the production of weapons grade plutonium and other special nuclear materials. The Hanford Site is located in eastern Washington State and is bordered on the north and east by the Columbia River. Decades of creating fuel, irradiating it in reactors, and processing it to recover nuclear material left numerous waste sites that involved the discharge of contaminated liquids and the disposal of contaminated solid waste. Today, the primary mission of the Hanford Site is to safely cleanup and manage the site's legacy waste. A site-wide risk assessment methodology has been developed to assist the DOE, as well as state and federal regulatory agencies, in making decisions regarding needed remedial actions at past waste sites, and safe disposal of future wastes. The methodology, referred to as the System Assessment Capability (SAC), utilizes an integrated set of models that track potential contaminants from inventory through vadose zone, groundwater, Columbia River and air pathways to human and ecological receptors.

  14. Interim reclamation report: Basalt Waste Isolation Project exploration shaft site

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.

    1990-02-01

    In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. Extensive studies of the geotechnical aspects of the site were undertaken, including preparations for drilling a large diameter Exploratory Shaft. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the Exploratory Shaft Facility, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 43 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Site characterization for LIL radioactive waste disposal in Romania

    SciTech Connect

    Diaconu, D. R.; Birdsell, K. H.; Witkowski, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies in radioactive waste management in Romania have focussed mainly on the disposal of low and intermediate level waste from the operation of the new nuclear power plant at Cernavoda. Following extensive geological, hydrological, seismological, physical and chemical investigations, a disposal site at Saligny has been selected. This paper presents description of the site at Saligny as well as the most important results of the site characterisation. These are reflected in the three-dimensional, stratigraphical representation of the loess and clay layers and in representative parameter values for the main layers. Based on these data, the simulation of the background, unsaturated-zone water flow at the Saligny site, calculated by the FEHM code, is in a good agreement with the measured moisture profile.

  16. Beyond the not-in-my-backyard impasse. [Siting of hazardous waste facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Peelle, E.; Ellis, R.

    1987-01-01

    Key assumptions of past planning in hazardous waste siting are no longer valid. Workable, legitimate solutions to hazardous waste siting will require (1) a comprehensive integrated hazardous waste management strategy giving primary emphasis to waste stream reduction, detoxification, and recycling; (2) extensive interactive communication and participation among citizens, regulators, and waste managers during planning, siting, and operation; and (3) net institutional arrangements and guarantees that instill confidence among citizens about the need for and safety of proposed hazardous waste facilities.

  17. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 537: Waste Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Envirornmental Restoration

    2007-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 537 is identified in the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) of 1996 as Waste Sites. CAU 537 is located in Areas 3 and 19 of the Nevada Test Site, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and consists of the following two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 03-23-06, Bucket; Yellow Tagged Bags; and CAS 19-19-01, Trash Pit. CAU 537 closure activities were conducted in April 2007 according to the FFACO and Revision 3 of the Sectored Clean-up Work Plan for Housekeeping Category Waste Sites (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2003). At CAS 03-23-06, closure activities included removal and disposal of a 15-foot (ft) by 15-ft by 8-ft tall wooden shed containing wood and metal debris and a 5-gallon plastic bucket containing deteriorated plastic bags with yellow radioactive contamination tape. The debris was transported to the Area 9 U10c Landfill for disposal after being screened for radiological contamination according to the ''NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004). At CAS 19-19-01, closure activities included segregation, removal, and disposal of non-friable, non-regulated asbestos-containing material (ACM) and construction debris. The ACM was determined to be non-friable by waste characterization samples collected prior to closure activities. The ACM was removed and double-bagged by licensed, trained asbestos workers and transported to the Area 9 U10c Landfill for disposal. Construction debris was transported in end-dump trucks to the Area 9 U10c Landfill for disposal. Closure activities generated sanitary waste/construction debris and ACM. Waste generated during closure activities was appropriately managed and disposed. Waste characterization sample results are included as Appendix A of this report, and waste disposition documentation is included as Appendix B of this report. Copies of the Sectored Housekeeping Site Closure

  18. Application of neural networks to waste site screening

    SciTech Connect

    Dabiri, A.E.; Kraft, T.; Hilton, J.M.

    1993-03-01

    Waste site screening requires knowledge of the actual concentrations of hazardous materials and rates of flow around and below the site with time. The present approach to site screening consists primarily of drilling, boreholes near contaminated site and chemically analyzing the extracted physical samples and processing the data. In addition, hydraulic and geochemical soil properties are obtained so that numerical simulation models can be used to interpret and extrapolate the field data. The objective of this work is to investigate the feasibility of using neural network techniques to reduce the cost of waste site screening. A successful technique may lead to an ability to reduce the number of boreholes and the number of samples analyzed from each borehole to properly screen the waste site. The analytic tool development described here is inexpensive because it makes use of neural network techniques that can interpolate rapidly and which can learn how to analyze data rather than having to be explicitly programmed. In the following sections, data collection and data analyses will be described, followed by a section on different neural network techniques used. The results will be presented and compared with mathematical model. Finally, the last section will summarize the research work performed and make several recommendations for future work.

  19. ON-SITE MERCURY ANALYSIS OF SOIL AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES BY IMMUNOASSAY AND ASV

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two field methods for Hg, immunoassay and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV), that can provide onsite results for quick decisions at hazardous waste sites were evaluated. Each method was applied to samples from two Superfund sites that contain high levels of Hg; Sulphur Bank Me...

  20. GUIDE TO SITE AND SOIL DESCRIPTION FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE CHARACTERIZATION VOLUME 1: METALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This guide is intended to assist field personnel who must identify, describe, and interpret site and soil characteristics of hazardous waste sites where metals contamination is suspected or known. he approach presented, including the knowledge frames of an expert system, will be ...

  1. Hanford Site Hazardous waste determination report for transuranic debris waste streams NPFPDL2A

    SciTech Connect

    WINTERHALDER, J.A.

    1999-09-29

    This hazardous waste determination report (Report) describes the process and information used on the Hanford Site to determine that waste stream number NPFPDLZA, consisting of 30 containers of contact-handled transuranic debris waste, is not hazardous waste regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. For a waste to be hazardous under these statutes, the waste either must be specifically listed as a hazardous waste, or exhibit one or more of the characteristics of a hazardous waste, Le., ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity. Waste stream NPFPDLZA was generated, packaged, and placed into storage between 1993 and 1997. Extensive knowledge of the waste generating process, facility operational history, and administrative controls and operating procedures in effect at the time of generation, supported the initial nonhazardous waste determination. Because of the extent and reliability of information pertaining to this waste type, and the total volume of waste in the debris matrix parameter category, the Hanford Site is focusing initial efforts on this and similar waste streams for the first shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). RCRA regulations authorize hazardous waste determinations to be made either by using approved sampling and analysis methods or by applying knowledge of the waste in light of the materials or the process(es) used. This latter approach typically is referred to as process knowledge. The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (CAO-94-1010) for WIPP refers to acceptable knowledge in essentially the same terms; acceptable knowledge as used throughout this Report is synonymous with the term process knowledge. The 30 containers addressed in this Report were characterized by the following methods: Acceptable knowledge; Nondestructive examination using real-time radiography; Visual examination; and Headspace gas sampling and analysis. The initial

  2. USE OF ELECTROKINETICS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program was authorized as part of the 1986 amendments to the Superfund legislation. t represents a joint effort between the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development and Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. he pro...

  3. MEASUREMENT OF BIOAVAILABLE IRON AT TWO HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past, the concentrations of iron II in monitoring wells has been used to evaluate natural attenuation processes at hazardous waste sites. Changes in the aqueous concentrations of electron acceptors/products are important to the evaluation of natural biological attenuation...

  4. POTENTIAL FOR GULLS TO TRANSPORT BACTERIA FROM HUMAN WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was designed as a first step in assessing whether gulls visiting human waste sites can acquire human microorganisms and distribute them across the coastal landscape. Beaches, landfills, and a lagoon of treated wastewater located in a coastal Lake Michigan county were t...

  5. FIELD APPLICATIONS OF ROBOTIC SYSTEMS IN HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cleanup of hazardous waste sites is a challenging and complex field that offers numerous opportunities for the application of robotic technology. he contamination problem, long in the making, will take decades to resolve. ur ingenuity in developing robotic tools to assist in ...

  6. MOLECULAR OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPIC TECHNIQUES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE SCREENING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is interested in field screening hazardous waste sites for contaminants in the soil and surface and ground water. his study is an initial technical overview of the principal molecular spectroscopic techniques and instrumentation currently ...

  7. GROUTING TECHNIQUES IN BOTTOM SEALING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bottom sealing of hazardous waste sites involves the injection or insertion of an inert impermeable and continuous horizontal barrier in soil below the source of contamination. This type of containment strategy could be used in conjunction with other technology such as slurry wal...

  8. METHOD FOR ESTIMATING FUGITIVE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Control techniques are reviewed for applicability to fugitive particulate emissions from hazardous waste sites. Techniques judged applicable include chemical stabilization (40 to 100 percent efficiency, $520/acre-yr to $2,720/acre-yr), wet suppression (25 to 90 percent efficiency...

  9. Fifty Years of Transuranic Waste at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, A.

    2002-11-20

    Three years into the Cold War, in 1950, President Truman asked the E. I. du Pont de Nemours Company to build and operate a plant to produce materials for nuclear weapons. This document covers 50 years of transuranic waste at Savannah River Site from production to cleanup.

  10. 169. ARAIV Miscellaneous site details, including contaminated waste tank pit, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    169. ARA-IV Miscellaneous site details, including contaminated waste tank pit, fence detail, marker posts, berm, and "Caution radiation hazard" sign. Norman Engineering Company 961-area/ML-1-1-501-3. Date: March 1960. Ineel index code no. 066-0501-00-613-102795. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. USE OF ELECTROKINETICS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program was authorized as part of the 1986 amendments to the Superfund legislation. It represents a joint effort between U.S. EPA`s Office of Research and Development and Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. The progr...

  12. Environmental waste site characterization utilizing aerial photographs and satellite imagery: Three sites in New Mexico, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Pope, P.; Becker, N.; Wells, B.; Lewis, A.; David, N.

    1996-04-01

    The proper handling and characterization of past hazardous waste sites is becoming more and more important as world population extends into areas previously deemed undesirable. Historical photographs, past records, current aerial satellite imagery can play an important role in characterizing these sites. These data provide clear insight into defining problem areas which can be surface samples for further detail. Three such areas are discussed in this paper: (1) nuclear wastes buried in trenches at Los Alamos National Laboratory, (2) surface dumping at one site at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and (3) the historical development of a municipal landfill near Las Cruces, New Mexico.

  13. Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching

    DOEpatents

    Treat, Russell L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

  14. Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching

    DOEpatents

    Treat, R.L.; Gee, G.W.; Whyatt, G.A.

    1993-02-02

    The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

  15. Closure Strategy Nevada Test Site Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the strategy for closure of part of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is about 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). The Area 5 RWMS is in the northern part of Frenchman Flat, approximately 14 miles north of Mercury. The Area 5 RWMS encompasses 732 acres subdivided into quadrants, and is bounded by a 1,000-foot (ft)-wide buffer zone. The northwest and southwest quadrants have not been developed. The northeast and southeast quadrants have been used for disposal of unclassified low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and indefinite storage of classified materials. This paper focuses on closure of the 38 waste disposal and classified material storage units within the southeast quadrant of the Area 5 RWMS, called the ''92-Acre Area''. The U.S Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is currently planning to close the 92-Acre Area by 2011. Closure planning for this site must take into account the regulatory requirements for a diversity of waste streams, disposal and storage configurations, disposal history, and site conditions. For ease of discussion, the 92-Acre Area has been subdivided into six closure units defined by waste type, location, and similarity in regulatory requirements. Each of the closure units contains one or more waste disposal units; waste disposal units are also called waste disposal cells. The paper provides a brief background of the Area 5 RWMS, identifies key closure issues for the 92-Acre Area, recommends actions to address the issues, and provides the National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), schedule for closure.

  16. Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-09-14

    The NTS solid waste disposal sites must be permitted by the state of Nevada Solid Waste Management Authority (SWMA). The SWMA for the NTS is the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Federal Facilities (NDEP/BFF). The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as land manager (owner), and National Security Technologies (NSTec), as operator, will store, collect, process, and dispose all solid waste by means that do not create a health hazard, a public nuisance, or cause impairment of the environment. NTS disposal sites will not be included in the Nye County Solid Waste Management Plan. The NTS is located approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the federal lands management authority for the NTS, and NSTec is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS has signs posted along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The Area 5 RWMS is the location of the permitted facility for the Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS). The Area 5 RWMS is located near the eastern edge of the NTS (Figure 2), approximately 26 km (16 mi) north of Mercury, Nevada. The Area 5 RWMS is used for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste. Many areas surrounding the RWMS have been used in conducting nuclear tests. A Notice of Intent to operate the disposal site as a Class III site was submitted to the state of Nevada on January 28, 1994, and was acknowledged as being received in a letter to the NNSA/NSO on August 30, 1994. Interim approval to operate a Class III SWDS for regulated asbestiform low-level waste (ALLW) was authorized on August 12, 1996 (in letter from Paul Liebendorfer to Runore Wycoff), with operations to be conducted in accordance with the ''Management Plan

  17. Incentives and the siting of radioactive waste facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, S.A.; Copenhaver, E.D.; Reed, J.H.; Soderstrom, E.J.; Sorensen, J.H.; Peelle, E.; Bjornstad, D.J.

    1982-08-01

    The importance of social and institutional issues in the siting of nuclear waste facilities has been recognized in recent years. Limited evidence from a survey of rural Wisconsin residents in 1980 indicates that incentives may help achieve the twin goals of increasing local support and decreasing local opposition to hosting nuclear waste facilities. Incentives are classified according to functional categories (i.e., mitigation, compensation, and reward) and the conditions which may be prerequisites to the use of incentives are outlined (i.e., guarantee of public health and safety, some measure of local control, and a legitimation of negotiations during siting). Criteria for evaluating the utility of incentives in nuclear waste repository siting are developed. Incentive packages may be more useful than single incentives, and nonmonetary incentives, such as independent monitoring and access to credible information, may be as important in eliciting support as monetary incentives. Without careful attention to prerequisites in the siting process it is not likely that incentives will facilitate the siting process.

  18. Closure Plan for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-09-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RMWS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is managed and operated by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This document is the first update of the preliminary closure plan for the Area 5 RWMS at the NTS that was presented in the Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (DOE, 2005a). The major updates to the plan include a new closure schedule, updated closure inventory, updated site and facility characterization data, the Title II engineering cover design, and the closure process for the 92-Acre Area of the RWMS. The format and content of this site-specific plan follows the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans (DOE, 1999a). This interim closure plan meets closure and post-closure monitoring requirements of the order DOE O 435.1, manual DOE M 435.1-1, Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, 40 CFR 265, Nevada Administrative Code (NAC) 444.743, and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements as incorporated into NAC 444.8632. The Area 5 RWMS accepts primarily packaged low-level waste (LLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and asbestiform low-level waste (ALLW) for disposal in excavated disposal cells.

  19. Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins: Waste site assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Haselow, J.S.; Looney, B.B.; Nichols, R.L.

    1989-09-05

    This Waste Site Assessment for the SRL Seepage Basins is the second in a series of documents being prepared to support development of an appropriate closure plan for these basins. The closure of these basins will be designed to provide protection to human health and the environment and to meet the provisions of the Consent Decree. A Technical Data Summary for these basins has already been submitted as part of the Consent Decree. This Site Assessment Report includes a waste site characterization, and a discussion of closure options for the basins. A closure option is recommended in this report, but details of the recommended closure are not provided in this report since they will be provided in a subsequent closure plan. The closure plan is the third document required under the Consent Decree. 18 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. Sealing concepts for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, C.L.; Gulick, C.W.; Lambert, S.J.

    1982-09-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility is proposed for development in the southeast portion of the State of New Mexico. The proposed horizon is in bedded salt located approximately 2150 ft below the surface. The purpose of the WIPP is to provide an R&D facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from defense activities of the United States. As such, it will include a disposal demonstration for transuranic (TRU) wastes and an experimental area to address issues associated with disposal of defense high level wastes (DHLW) in bedded salt. All DHLW used in the experiments are planned for retrieval at the termination of testing; the TRU waste can be permanently disposed of at the site after the pilot phase is complete. This report addresses only the Plugging and Sealing program, which will result in an adequate and acceptable technology for final sealing and decommissioning of the facility at the WIPP site. The actual plugging operations are intended to be conducted on a commercial industrial basis through contracts issued by the DOE. This report is one in a series that is based on a technical program of modeling, laboratory materials testing and field demonstration which will provide a defensible basis for the actual plugging operations to be conducted by the DOE for final closure of the facility.

  1. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 128-B-2, 100-B Burn Pit #2 Waste Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-038

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Carlson

    2005-12-21

    The 128-B-2 waste site was a burn pit historically used for the disposal of combustible and noncombustible wastes, including paint and solvents, office waste, concrete debris, and metallic debris. This site has been remediated by removing approximately 5,627 bank cubic meters of debris, ash, and contaminated soil to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  2. Conversion of transuranic waste to low level waste by decontamination: a site specific update

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.P.; Hazelton, R.F.

    1985-09-01

    As a followup to an FY-1984 cost/benefit study, a program was conducted in FY-1985 to transfer to the relevant DOE sites the information and technology for the direct conversion of transuranic (TRU) waste to low-level waste (LLW) by decontamination. As part of this work, the economic evaluation of the various TRUW volume reduction and conversion options was updated and expanded to include site-specific factors. The results show, for the assumptions used, that size reduction, size reduction followed by decontamination, or in situ decontamination are cost effective compared with the no-processing option. The technology transfer activities included site presentations and discussions with operations and waste management personnel to identify application opportunities and site-specific considerations and constraints that could affect the implementation of TRU waste conversion principles. These discussions disclosed definite potential for the beneficial application of these principles at most of the sites, but also confirmed the existence of site-specific factors ranging from space limitations to LLW disposal restrictions that could preclude particular applications or diminish expected benefits. 8 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Haiti: Feasibility of Waste-to-Energy Options at the Trutier Waste Site

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, M. D.; Hunsberger, R.; Ness, J. E.; Harris, T.; Raibley, T.; Ursillo, P.

    2014-08-01

    This report provides further analysis of the feasibility of a waste-to-energy (WTE) facility in the area near Port-au-Prince, Haiti. NREL's previous analysis and reports identified anaerobic digestion (AD) as the optimal WTE technology at the facility. Building on the prior analyses, this report evaluates the conceptual financial and technical viability of implementing a combined waste management and electrical power production strategy by constructing a WTE facility at the existing Trutier waste site north of Port-au-Prince.

  4. 1993 annual report of hazardous waste activities for the Oak Ridge K-25 site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report is a detailed listing of all of the Hazardous Waste activities occurring at Martin Marietta`s K-25 site. Contained herein are hazardous waste notification forms, waste stream reports, generator fee forms and various TSDR reports.

  5. Annual Report - FY 2000, Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada Test Site, March 2001

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2001-03-01

    This document reports the low-level radioactive waste, mixed low-level radioactive waste, and Polychlorinated Biphenyl contaminated low-level waste transported to or from the Nevada Test Site during fiscal year 2000.

  6. Site specific plan. [Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchison, J.; Jernigan, G.

    1989-12-01

    The Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan (FYP) covers the period for FY 1989 through FY 1995. The plan establishes a Department of Energy -- Headquarters (DOE-HQ) agenda for cleanup and compliance against which overall progress can be measured. The FYP covers three areas: Corrective Activities, Environmental Restoration, and Waste Management Operations. Corrective Activities are those activities necessary to bring active or standby facilities into compliance with local, state, and federal environmental regulations. Environmental restoration activities include the assessment and cleanup of surplus facilities and inactive waste sites. Waste management operations includes the treatment, storage, and disposal of wastes which are generated as a result of ongoing operations. This Site Specific Plan (SSP) has been prepared by the Savannah River Site (SRS) in order to show how environmental restoration and waste management activities that were identified during the preparation of the FYP will be implemented, tracked, and reported. The SSP describes DOE Savannah River (DOE-SR) and operating contractor, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), organizations that are responsible, for undertaking the activities identified in this plan. The SSP has been prepared in accordance with guidance received from DOE-HQ. DOE-SR is accountable to DOE-HQ for the implementation of this plan. 8 refs., 46 figs., 23 tabs.

  7. Municipal solid waste landfill siting using intelligent system

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Jarrah, Omar . E-mail: aljarrah@just.edu.jo; Abu-Qdais, Hani . E-mail: hqdais@just.edu.jo

    2006-07-01

    Historically, landfills have been the dominant alternative for the ultimate disposal of municipal solid waste. This paper addresses the problem of siting a new landfill using an intelligent system based on fuzzy inference. The proposed system can accommodate new information on the landfill site selection by updating its knowledge base. Several factors are considered in the siting process including topography and geology, natural resources, socio-cultural aspects, and economy and safety. The system will rank sites on a scale of 0-100%, with 100% being the most appropriate one. A weighting system is used for all of the considered factors. The results from testing the system using different sites show the effectiveness of the system in the selection process.

  8. Soil characterization methods for unsaturated low-level waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Wierenga, P.J.; Young, M.H. . Dept. of Soil and Water Science); Gee, G.W.; Kincaid, C.T. ); Hills, R.G. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Nicholson, T.J.; Cady, R.E. )

    1993-01-01

    To support a license application for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), applicants must characterize the unsaturated zone and demonstrate that waste will not migrate from the facility boundary. This document provides a strategy for developing this characterization plan. It describes principles of contaminant flow and transport, site characterization and monitoring strategies, and data management. It also discusses methods and practices that are currently used to monitor properties and conditions in the soil profile, how these properties influence water and waste migration, and why they are important to the license application. The methods part of the document is divided into sections on laboratory and field-based properties, then further subdivided into the description of methods for determining 18 physical, flow, and transport properties. Because of the availability of detailed procedures in many texts and journal articles, the reader is often directed for details to the available literature. References are made to experiments performed at the Las Cruces Trench site, New Mexico, that support LLW site characterization activities. A major contribution from the Las Cruces study is the experience gained in handling data sets for site characterization and the subsequent use of these data sets in modeling studies.

  9. SRS: Site ranking system for hazardous chemical and radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Brown, S.L.

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the rationale and presents instructions for a site ranking system (SRS). SRS ranks hazardous chemical and radioactive waste sites by scoring important and readily available factors that influence risk to human health. Using SRS, sites can be ranked for purposes of detailed site investigations. SRS evaluates the relative risk as a combination of potentially exposed population, chemical toxicity, and potential exposure of release from a waste site; hence, SRS uses the same concepts found in a detailed assessment of health risk. Basing SRS on the concepts of risk assessment tends to reduce the distortion of results found in other ranking schemes. More importantly, a clear logic helps ensure the successful application of the ranking procedure and increases its versatility when modifications are necessary for unique situations. Although one can rank sites using a detailed risk assessment, it is potentially costly because of data and resources required. SRS is an efficient approach to provide an order-of-magnitude ranking, requiring only readily available data (often only descriptive) and hand calculations. Worksheets are included to make the system easier to understand and use. 88 refs., 19 figs., 58 tabs.

  10. Site selection and licensing issues: Southwest Compact low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, J.L.

    1989-11-01

    The low-level radioactive waste disposal site in California is being selected through a three-phase program. Phase 1 is a systematic statewide, regional, and local screening study. This program was conducted during 1986 and 1987, and culminated in the selection of three candidate sites fur further study. The candidate sites are identified as the Panamint, Silurian, and Ward Valley sites. Phase 2 comprises site characterization and environmental and socio-economic impact study activities at the three candidate sites. Based upon the site characterization studies, the candidate sites are ranked according to the desirability and conformance with regulatory requirements. Phase 3 comprises preparation of a license application for the selected candidate site. The license application will include a detailed characterization of the site, detailed design and operations plans for the proposed facility, and assessments of potential impacts of the site upon the environment and the local communities. Five types of siting criteria were developed to govern the site selection process. These types are: technical suitability exclusionary criteria, high-avoidance criteria beyond technical suitability requirements, discretionary criteria, public acceptance, and schedule requirements of the LLWR Policy Act Amendments. This paper discusses the application of the hydrological and geotechnical criteria during the siting and licensing studies in California. These criteria address site location and performance, and the degree to which present and future site behavior can be predicted. Primary regulatory requirements governing the suitability of a site are that the site must be hydrologically and geologically simple enough for the confident prediction of future behavior, and that the site must be stable enough that frequent or intensive maintenance of the closed site will not be required. This paper addresses the methods to measure site suitability at each stage of the process, methods to

  11. SIMULANT DEVELOPMENT FOR SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M; Russell Eibling, R; David Koopman, D; Dan Lambert, D; Paul Burket, P

    2007-09-04

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies High Level Waste (HLW) for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. The HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides (primarily iron, aluminum, magnesium, manganese, and uranium) and soluble sodium salts (carbonate, hydroxide, nitrite, nitrate, and sulfate). The HLW is processed in large batches through DWPF; DWPF has recently completed processing Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) and is currently processing Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). The composition of metal species in SB4 is shown in Table 1 as a function of the ratio of a metal to iron. Simulants remove radioactive species and renormalize the remaining species. Supernate composition is shown in Table 2.

  12. Gas Retention and Release from Hanford Site Sludge Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Meacham, Joseph E.; Follett, Jordan R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Wells, Beric E.; Schonewill, Philip P.

    2015-02-18

    Radioactive wastes from nuclear fuel processing are stored in large underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. Solid wastes can be divided into saltcake (mostly precipitated soluble sodium nitrate and nitrite salts with some interstitial liquid consisting of concentrated salt solutions) and sludge (mostly low solubility aluminum and iron compounds with relatively dilute interstitial liquid). Waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, radio-thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank’s carbon steel walls. Nonflammable gases, such as nitrous oxide and nitrogen, are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., ammonia and methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks.

  13. Nevada Test Site waste acceptance criteria [Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    Revision one updates the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the NTS. Review each section of this document. This document is not intended to include all of the requirements; rather, it is meant as a guide toward meeting the regulations. All references in this document should be observed to avoid omission of requirements on which acceptance or rejection of waste will be based. The Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document.

  14. Nevada National Security Site 2013 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, David B

    2014-02-13

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. Groundwater samples from the aquifer immediately below the Area 5 RWMS have been collected and analyzed and static water levels have been measured in this aquifer since 1993. This report updates these data to include the 2013 results. Beginning with this report, analysis results for leachate collected from the mixed-waste cell at the Area 5 RWMS (Cell 18) are also included.

  15. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Enviromental Report for 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Enviromnetal Services

    2009-09-21

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2008 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to characterize site environmental management performance; summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; highlight significant facility programs and efforts; and describe how compliance and environmental improvement is accomplished through the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) Number NM4890139088-TSDF (treatment, storage, and disposal facility) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WIPP mission is to safely dispose of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste generated by the production of nuclear weapons and other activities related to the national defense of the United States. In 2008, 5,265 cubic meters (m3) of TRU waste were disposed of at the WIPP facility, including 5,216 m3 of contact-handled (CH) TRU waste and 49 m3 of remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. From the first

  16. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 1999 Site Environmental Report

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Roy B.; Adams, Amy; Martin, Don; Morris, Randall C.; Reynolds, Timothy D.; Warren, Ronald W.

    2000-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)Carlsbad Area Office and the Westinghouse Waste Isolation Division (WID) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 1999 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year 1999 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH- 0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an Annual Site Environmental Report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during calendar year 1999. WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 1999, no evidence was found of any adverse effects from WIPP on the surrounding environment. Radionuclide concentrations in the environment surrounding WIPP were not statistically higher in 1999 than in 1998.

  17. Pyramiding tumuli waste disposal site and method of construction thereof

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Martin P.

    1989-01-01

    An improved waste disposal site for the above-ground disposal of low-level nuclear waste as disclosed herein. The disposal site is formed from at least three individual waste-containing tumuli, wherein each tumuli includes a central raised portion bordered by a sloping side portion. Two of the tumuli are constructed at ground level with adjoining side portions, and a third above-ground tumulus is constructed over the mutually adjoining side portions of the ground-level tumuli. Both the floor and the roof of each tumulus includes a layer of water-shedding material such as compacted clay, and the clay layer in the roofs of the two ground-level tumuli form the compacted clay layer of the floor of the third above-ground tumulus. Each tumulus further includes a shield wall, preferably formed from a solid array of low-level handleable nuclear wate packages. The provision of such a shield wall protects workers from potentially harmful radiation when higher-level, non-handleable packages of nuclear waste are stacked in the center of the tumulus.

  18. Management of investigation-derived wastes during site inspections. Directive

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The guidance presents a general regulatory background and options for management of investigation-derived wastes (IDW) generated during Superfund site inspections (SIs). These wastes include soil cuttings, drilling muds, purged ground water decontamination fluids (water and other fluids), disposable sampling equipment (DE), and disposable personal protective equipment (PPE). The National Contingency Plan (NCP) requires that management of IDW generated during SIs compiles with all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARS) to the extent practicable. In addition, other legal and practical consideration may affect the handling of IDW. Therefore, site inspection managers and other involved parties should be familiar with this guidance, as well as the requirements of the NCP, ARARs, and EPA's interpretation of these requirements.

  19. Studies of Current Circulation at Ocean Waste Disposal Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Davis, G.; Henry, R.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Acid waste plume was observed in LANDSAT imagery fourteen times ranging from during dump up to 54 hours after dump. Circulation processes at the waste disposal site are highly storm-dominated, with the majority of the water transport occurring during strong northeasterlies. There is a mean flow to the south along shore. This appears to be due to the fact that northeasterly winds produce stronger currents than those driven by southeasterly winds and by the thermohaline circulation. During the warm months (May through October), the ocean at the dump site stratifies with a distinct thermocline observed during all summer cruising at depths ranging from 10 to 21 m. During stratified conditions, the near-bottom currents were small. Surface currents responded to wind conditions resulting in rapid movement of surface drogues on windy days. Mid-depth drogues showed an intermediate behavior, moving more rapidly as wind velocities increased.

  20. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Repackaging at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    E.F. Di Sanza; G. Pyles; J. Ciucci; P. Arnold

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes the activities required to modify a facility and the process of characterizing, repackaging, and preparing for shipment the Nevada Test Site’s (NTS) legacy transuranic (TRU) waste in 58 oversize boxes (OSB). The waste, generated at other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites and shipped to the NTS between 1974 and 1990, requires size-reduction for off-site shipment and disposal. The waste processing approach was tailored to reduce the volume of TRU waste by employing decontamination and non-destructive assay. As a result, the low-level waste (LLW) generated by this process was packaged, with minimal size reduction, in large sea-land containers for disposal at the NTS Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The remaining TRU waste was repackaged and sent to the Idaho National Laboratory Consolidation Site for additional characterization in preparation for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the NTS Management and Operating (M&O) contractor, NSTec, successfully partnered to modify and upgrade an existing facility, the Visual Examination and Repackaging Building (VERB). The VERB modifications, including a new ventilation system and modified containment structure, required an approved Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis prior to project procurement and construction. Upgrade of the VERB from a radiological facility to a Hazard Category 3 Nuclear Facility required new rigor in the design and construction areas and was executed on an aggressive schedule. The facility Documented Safety Analysis required that OSBs be vented prior to introduction into the VERB. Box venting was safely completed after developing and implementing two types of custom venting systems for the heavy gauge box construction. A remotely operated punching process was used on boxes with wall thickness of up to 3.05 mm (0.120 in) to insert aluminum

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant CY 2000 Site Environmental Report

    SciTech Connect

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC; Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Inc.

    2001-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office and Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2000 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2000 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protect ion Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an Annual Site Environmental Report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2000. The format of this report follows guidance offered in a June 1, 2001 memo from DOE's Office of Policy and Guidance with the subject ''Guidance for the preparation of Department of Energy (DOE) Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2000.'' WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2000, no evidence was found of any adverse

  2. Risk analysis and solving the nuclear waste siting problem

    SciTech Connect

    Inhaber, H.

    1993-12-01

    In spite of millions of dollars and countless human resources being expended on finding nuclear wastes sites, the search has proved extremely difficult for the nuclear industry. This may be due to the approach followed, rather than inadequacies in research or funding. A new approach to the problem, the reverse Dutch auction, is suggested. It retains some of the useful elements of the present system, but it also adds new ones.

  3. Three multimedia models used at hazardous and radioactive waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The report provides an approach for evaluating and critically reviewing the capabilities of multimedia models. The study focused on three specific models: MEPAS version 3.0, MMSOILS Version 2.2, and PRESTO-EPA-CPG Version 2.0. The approach to model review advocated in the study is directed to technical staff responsible for identifying, selecting and applying multimedia models for use at sites containing radioactive and hazardous materials. In the report, restrictions associated with the selection and application of multimedia models for sites contaminated with radioactive and mixed wastes are highlighted.

  4. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2012

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2012 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: Characterize site environmental management performance; Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE Environmental Sustainability Goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS).

  5. Health and Safety Procedures Manual for hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Thate, J.E.

    1992-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Chemical Assessments Team (ORNL/CAT) has developed this Health and Safety Procedures Manual for the guidance, instruction, and protection of ORNL/CAT personnel expected to be involved in hazardous waste site assessments and remedial actions. This manual addresses general and site-specific concerns for protecting personnel, the general public, and the environment from any possible hazardous exposures. The components of this manual include: medical surveillance, guidance for determination and monitoring of hazards, personnel and training requirements, protective clothing and equipment requirements, procedures for controlling work functions, procedures for handling emergency response situations, decontamination procedures for personnel and equipment, associated legal requirements, and safe drilling practices.

  6. BIOGEOCHEMICAL GRADIENTS AS A FRAMEWORK FOR UNDERSTANDING WASTE SITE EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, M; Karen Vangelas, K

    2008-10-17

    The migration of biogeochemical gradients is a useful framework for understanding the evolution of biogeochemical conditions in groundwater at waste sites contaminated with metals and radionuclides. This understanding is critical to selecting sustainable remedies and evaluating sites for monitored natural attenuation, because most attenuation mechanisms are sensitive to geochemical conditions such as pH and redox potential. Knowledge of how gradients in these parameters evolve provides insights into the behavior of contaminants with time and guides characterization, remedy selection, and monitoring efforts. An example is a seepage basin site at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina where low-level acidic waste has seeped into groundwater. The remediation of this site relies, in part, on restoring the natural pH of the aquifer by injecting alkaline solutions. The remediation will continue until the pH up-flow of the treatment zone increases to an acceptable value. The time required to achieve this objective depends on the time it takes the trailing pH gradient, the gradient separating the plume from influxing natural groundwater, to reach the treatment zone. Predictions of this length of time will strongly influence long-term remedial decisions.

  7. Geographic studies of pediatric cancer near hazardous waste sites.

    PubMed

    White, E; Aldrich, T E

    1999-01-01

    The incidence of pediatric (i.e., 0-17 y of age) cancers in North Carolina was studied for the years 1990-1993 in counties and ZIP-code areas that contained a National Priorities List hazardous-waste site. We analyzed the areas to determine if there was an excess incidence of cancer among the pediatric population. We used geographic information systems technology to address-match and map the cancer cases, along with county and National Priorities List hazardous waste-site location. No significantly elevated cancer incidence rates were found at the county level. Two ZIP-code areas had statistically significant elevations in cancer incidence (p < .05). Only 3 of the cancer cases we mapped resided within a 1.6-km (1 mi) buffer zone of a National Priorities List hazardous-waste site. These 3 cases were not in the ZIP-code areas that had increased incidence rates. The small numerators throughout the study led us to question the accuracy of the assessment of underlying rates. The general capabilities of the geographic information systems, as well as advantages and limitations of the system, are discussed. As an exploratory study, this study serves as a springboard into more in-depth environmental-health hypotheses and more-specific investigations of point sources of hazardous exposures. PMID:10634228

  8. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139, Waste Disposal Sites, is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). CAU 139 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 139 consists of the following CASs: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Details of the site history and site characterization results for CAU 139 are provided in the approved Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006) and in the approved Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to present the detailed scope of work required to implement the recommended corrective actions as specified in Section 4.0 of the approved CADD (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The approved closure activities for CAU 139 include removal of soil and debris contaminated with plutonium (Pu)-239, excavation of geophysical anomalies, removal of surface debris, construction of an engineered soil cover, and implementation of use restrictions (URs). Table 1 presents a summary of CAS-specific closure activities and contaminants of concern (COCs). Specific details of the corrective actions to be performed at each CAS are presented in Section 2.0 of this report.

  9. Nevada Test Site 2000 Annual Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Y. E.Townsend

    2001-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2000 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (IL) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure.

  10. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC), Rev. 7-01

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-05-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NTSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal.

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report

    SciTech Connect

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions, Inc.

    2002-09-20

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2001 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH- 0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above Orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2001. WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2001, no evidence was found of any adverse effects from WIPP on the surrounding environment.

  12. Remediation of Hanford's N-Reactor Liquid Waste Disposal Sites.

    PubMed

    Sitsler, Robert B.; DeMers, Steven K.

    2003-02-01

    Hanford's N-Reactor operated from 1963 to 1987 generating approximately 9 x 10 m of radioactive and hazardous liquid effluent as a result of reactor operations. Two liquid waste disposal sites, essentially large trenches designed to filter contaminants from the water as it percolates through the soil column, were established to dispose of the effluent. The discharges to the sites included cooling water from the reactor primary, spent fuel storage, and periphery systems, along with miscellaneous drainage from reactor support facilities. Today, both sites are classified as Treatment Storage and Disposal Facilities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, which makes them priority sites for remediation. The two sites cover approximately 4,100 m and 9,300 m, respectively. Remediation of the sites requires removing a combined total of approximately 2.6 x 10 kg of contaminated soil and debris. Principal radionuclides contained in the soil/debris are Co, Cs, Pu, and Sr. Remediation of these waste sites requires demolishing concrete structures and excavating, hauling, and disposing of contaminated soils in work areas containing high levels of contamination and whole body dose rates in excess of 1 mSv h. The work presents unique radiological control challenges, such as minimizing external dose to workers in a constantly changing outdoor work environment, maintaining contamination control during removal of a water distribution trough filled with highly contaminated sludge, and minimizing outdoor airborne contamination during size reduction of highly contaminated pipelines. Through innovative approaches to dose reduction and contamination control, Hanford's Environmental Restoration Contractor has met the challenge, completing the first phase on schedule and with a total project exposure below the goal of 0.1 person-Sv. PMID:12555036

  13. Remediation of Hanford's N-reactor liquid waste disposal sites.

    PubMed

    Sitsler, Robert B; DeMers, Steven K

    2003-02-01

    Hanford's N-Reactor operated from 1963 to 1987 generating approximately 9 x 10(7) m3 of radioactive and hazardous liquid effluent as a result of reactor operations. Two liquid waste disposal sites, essentially large trenches designed to filter contaminants from the water as it percolates through the soil column, were established to dispose of the effluent. The discharges to the sites included cooling water from the reactor primary, spent fuel storage, and periphery systems, along with miscellaneous drainage from reactor support facilities. Today, both sites are classified as Treatment Storage and Disposal Facilities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, which makes them priority sites for remediation. The two sites cover approximately 4,100 m2 and 9,300 m2, respectively. Remediation of the sites requires removing a combined total of approximately 2.6 x 10(8) kg of contaminated soil and debris. Principal radionuclides contained in the soil/debris are 60Co, 137Cs, 239Pu, and 90Sr. Remediation of these waste sites requires demolishing concrete structures and excavating, hauling, and disposing of contaminated soils in work areas containing high levels of contamination and whole body dose rates in excess of 1 mSv h-1. The work presents unique radiological control challenges, such as minimizing external dose to workers in a constantly changing outdoor work environment, maintaining contamination control during removal of a water distribution trough filled with highly contaminated sludge, and minimizing outdoor airborne contamination during size reduction of highly contaminated pipelines. Through innovative approaches to dose reduction and contamination control, Hanford's Environmental Restoration Contractor has met the challenge, completing the first phase on schedule and with a total project exposure below the goal of 0.1 person-Sv. PMID:12564346

  14. Making cleanup decisions at hazardous waste sites: the clean sites approach.

    PubMed

    Sarno, D J

    1991-09-01

    This paper provides a summary of the results of an 18-month study conducted by Clean Sites, Inc. of Alexandria, Virginia. The study was designed to take a critical look at the way remedies are selected for abandoned hazardous waste sites that are cleaned up under the authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund) and to develop recommendations for improving that process. The recommendations were released in an October 1990 report entitled "Improving Remedy Selection: An Explicit and Interactive Process for the Superfund Program." Through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Clean Sites is working to test these recommendations. At two actual Superfund sites, Clean Sites will assist EPA in performing the remedy selection in accordance with the process Clean Sites has developed. PMID:1756038

  15. Site sampling and treatability studies for demonstration of WasteChem's asphalt encapsulation technology under EPA's SITE program

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, J.; Tsadwa, S.; Wills, N.; Evans, M.

    1990-10-01

    This paper presents a sampling approach that was used to determine whether there were adequate quantities and concentrations of wastes at the Woodland Township Route 532 Site for demonstration of the asphalt encapsulation technology. This paper also presents the result of a bench-scale treatability study on wastes from this site. The preliminary sampling and analysis confirmed most of the types of organic and inorganic contaminants found at the Woodland Township Route 532 site during the remedial investigation (RI). However, the contamination levels varied over relatively short distances across the site from some contaminants. The bench-scale treatability study indicated that, when compared with concentrations in the untreated waste, WasteChem's asphalt encapsulation technology reduced semivolatile organic compound concentrations in the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure extracts of treated wastes. The study also indicated that metals concentrations in the TCLP extracts were lower in the treated wastes than the untreated wastes in some samples and higher in others.

  16. 2003 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program, Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2003 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site. Wells Ue5PW-1, Ue5PW-2, and Ue5PW-3 were sampled semi-annually for the required analytes: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon (TOC), total organic halides (TOX), tritium, and major cations/anions. Results from all samples collected in 2003 were within established criteria. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated unit within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site and confirm that any previous detections of TOC and TOX were false positives. Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. There were no major changes noted in the monitored groundwater elevations. There continues to be an extremely small gradient to the northeast with an average flow velocity of less than one foot per year. Other information in the report includes a Cumulative Chronology for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the current groundwater sampling procedure.

  17. Geologic mapping as a prerequisite to hazardous waste facility siting

    SciTech Connect

    LaMoreaux, P.E. )

    1993-03-01

    The nation's welfare is based on its capability to develop the mineral, water, and energy resources of the land. In addition, these resources must be developed with adequate consideration of environmental impact and the future welfare of the country. Geologic maps are an absolute necessity in the discovery and development of natural resources; for managing radioactive, toxic, and hazardous wastes; and for the assessment of hazards and risks such as those associated with volcanic action, earthquakes, landslides, and subsidence. Geologic maps are the basis for depicting rocks and rock materials, minerals, coal, oil, and water at or near the earth's surface. Hazardous waste facility projects require the preparation of detailed geologic maps. Throughout most of the USA, this type of mapping detail is not available. If these maps were available, it is estimated that the duration of an individual project could be reduced by at least one-fourth (1/4). Therefore, adequate site-specific mapping is required if one is to eliminate environmental problems associated with hazardous, toxic, radioactive, and municipal waste sites.

  18. Nevada Test Site 2007 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-01-01

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from three monitoring wells located near the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada, for calendar year 2007. The NTS is an approximately 3,561 square kilometer (1,375 square mile) restricted-access federal installation located approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). Pilot wells UE5PW-1, UE5PW-2, and UE5PW-3 are used to monitor the groundwater at the Area 5 RWMS (Figure 2). In addition to groundwater monitoring results, this report includes information regarding site hydrogeology, well construction, sample collection, and meteorological data measured at the Area 5 RWMS. The disposal of low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level radioactive waste at the Area 5 RWMS is regulated by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management'. The disposal of mixed low-level radioactive waste is also regulated by the state of Nevada under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulation Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, 'Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities' (CFR, 1999). The format of this report was requested by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in a letter dated August 12, 1997. The appearance and arrangement of this document have been modified slightly since that date to provide additional information and to facilitate the readability of the document. The objective of this report is to satisfy any Area 5 RWMS reporting agreements between DOE and NDEP.

  19. Updated Site Response Analyses for the Waste Treatment Plant, DOE Hanford, Site, Washington.

    SciTech Connect

    Youngs, Robert R.

    2007-06-29

    This document describes the calculations performed to develop updated relative amplification functions for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facility at the DOE Hanford Site, Washington State. The original 2,000-year return period design spectra for the WTP were based on the results of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) performed for the DOE Hanford Site by Geomatrix (1996). Geomatrix (1996) performed the PSHA using empirical soil-site ground motion models based primarily on recordings from California. As part of that study, site response analyses were performed to evaluate ground motions at the Hanford sites and California deep soil sites. As described in Appendix A of Geomatrix (1996), characteristic site profiles and dynamic soil properties representative of conditions at various Hanford sites and California deep soil strong motion recording stations were defined. Relative site responses of the Hanford profiles and California profiles were then compared. Based on the results of those site response analyses, it was concluded that ground motions at the Hanford sites underlain by deep soil deposits are similar in character to those on California deep soil sites and it was judged appropriate to use empirical deep soil site attenuation relationships based primarily on California ground motion data to develop design spectra for the Hanford sites. In a subsequent analysis, Geomatrix (2003) updated the site response analyses of Geomatrix (1996, Appendix A) to incorporate randomization of the California and Hanford profiles. The results of that analysis also led to the conclusion that the response of the Hanford profiles was similar to the response of deep soil sites in California.

  20. Updated Site Response Analyses for the Waste Treatment Plant, DOE Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Youngs RR

    2007-06-01

    This document describes the calculations performed to develop updated relative amplification functions for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facility at the DOE Hanford Site, Washington State. The original 2,000-year return period design spectra for the WTP were based on the results of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) performed for the DOE Hanford Site by Geomatrix (1996). Geomatrix (1996) performed the PSHA using empirical soil-site ground motion models based primarily on recordings from California. As part of that study, site response analyses were performed to evaluate ground motions at the Hanford sites and California deep soil sites. As described in Appendix A of Geomatrix (1996), characteristic site profiles and dynamic soil properties representative of conditions at various Hanford sites and California deep soil strong motion recording stations were defined. Relative site responses of the Hanford profiles and California profiles were then compared. Based on the results of those site response analyses, it was concluded that ground motions at the Hanford sites underlain by deep soil deposits are similar in character to those on California deep soil sites and it was judged appropriate to use empirical deep soil site attenuation relationships based primarily on California ground motion data to develop design spectra for the Hanford sites. In a subsequent analysis, Geomatrix (2003) updated the site response analyses of Geomatrix (1996, Appendix A) to incorporate randomization of the California and Hanford profiles. The results of that analysis also led to the conclusion that the response of the Hanford profiles was similar to the response of deep soil sites in California.

  1. Studies of Current Circulation at Ocean Waste Disposal Sites. [Delaware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Davis, G.; Henry, R.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Circulation processes at the acid waste disposal site are highly event-dominated, with the majority of the water transport occurring during strong northeasters. There is a mean flow to the south alongshore. This appears to be due to the fact that northeasterly winds produce stronger currents than those driven by southeasterly winds and by the thermohaline circulation. During the warm months, the ocean stratifies with warm water over cold water. A distinct thermocline was observed with expendable bathythermographs during all summer cruises at depths ranging from 10 to 21 meters. During stratified conditions, the near-bottom drogues showed very little movements. The duPont waste plume was observed in LANDSAT satellite imagery during dump up to 54 hours after dump.

  2. Window-mounted unit cleans air at hazardous waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, J.M. ); Sawyer, P.

    1994-07-01

    Uncontrolled hazardous waste sites present the potential for exposure to numerous airborne chemicals--both identified and unidentified. This was the case at an Elizabeth, N.J., remediation project managed by a major environmental contractor. The four-acre site housed three active manufacturing facilities and was bordered by an operation commuter railroad line. About 6,300 drums of assorted organic chemicals, mostly acid chlorides and bromides, awaited sampling and removal. In addition, 120 tanks and vessels required sampling, characterization and removal. Due to site restrictions, support trailers were located relatively close to active work areas. Damaged drums littering the site contained water-reactive, organic acid chlorides and bromides, and released slight emissions during humid or rainy conditions. Shifting winds could (and did) carry trace releases or trace contaminants toward the trailers, potentially exposing unprotected workers. Efforts were begun to alleviate even trace contaminant at levels in the remediation site's temporary office trailers. One potential solution to managing trace contaminants at the site was to use a window-mounted, air conditioner-type unit that would replenish each trailer with filtered air three times an hour, and provide positive pressure in the trailer to compensate for repeated openings and closings of doors. The design uses common, off-the-shelf components to temper the approximately 10 percent makeup air, which provides positive pressure.

  3. Automated Monitoring System for Waste Disposal Sites and Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    S. E. Rawlinson

    2003-03-01

    A proposal submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology, Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) program to deploy an automated monitoring system for waste disposal sites and groundwater, herein referred to as the ''Automated Monitoring System,'' was funded in fiscal year (FY) 2002. This two-year project included three parts: (1) deployment of cellular telephone modems on existing dataloggers, (2) development of a data management system, and (3) development of Internet accessibility. The proposed concept was initially (in FY 2002) to deploy cellular telephone modems on existing dataloggers and partially develop the data management system at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This initial effort included both Bechtel Nevada (BN) and the Desert Research Institute (DRI). The following year (FY 2003), cellular modems were to be similarly deployed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the early data management system developed at the NTS was to be brought to those locations for site-specific development and use. Also in FY 2003, additional site-specific development of the complete system was to be conducted at the NTS. To complete the project, certain data, depending on site-specific conditions or restrictions involving distribution of data, were to made available through the Internet via the DRI/Western Region Climate Center (WRCC) WEABASE platform. If the complete project had been implemented, the system schematic would have looked like the figure on the following page.

  4. Chemical Disposition of Plutonium in Hanford Site Tank Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Jones, Susan A.

    2015-05-07

    This report examines the chemical disposition of plutonium (Pu) in Hanford Site tank wastes, by itself and in its observed and potential interactions with the neutron absorbers aluminum (Al), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and sodium (Na). Consideration also is given to the interactions of plutonium with uranium (U). No consideration of the disposition of uranium itself as an element with fissile isotopes is considered except tangentially with respect to its interaction as an absorber for plutonium. The report begins with a brief review of Hanford Site plutonium processes, examining the various means used to recover plutonium from irradiated fuel and from scrap, and also examines the intermediate processing of plutonium to prepare useful chemical forms. The paper provides an overview of Hanford tank defined-waste–type compositions and some calculations of the ratios of plutonium to absorber elements in these waste types and in individual waste analyses. These assessments are based on Hanford tank waste inventory data derived from separately published, expert assessments of tank disposal records, process flowsheets, and chemical/radiochemical analyses. This work also investigates the distribution and expected speciation of plutonium in tank waste solution and solid phases. For the solid phases, both pure plutonium compounds and plutonium interactions with absorber elements are considered. These assessments of plutonium chemistry are based largely on analyses of idealized or simulated tank waste or strongly alkaline systems. The very limited information available on plutonium behavior, disposition, and speciation in genuine tank waste also is discussed. The assessments show that plutonium coprecipitates strongly with chromium, iron, manganese and uranium absorbers. Plutonium’s chemical interactions with aluminum, nickel, and sodium are minimal to non-existent. Credit for neutronic interaction of plutonium with these absorbers

  5. Disposal Activities and the Unique Waste Streams at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, P.

    2012-10-31

    This slide show documents waste disposal at the Nevada National Security Site. Topics covered include: radionuclide requirements for waste disposal; approved performance assessment (PA) for depleted uranium disposal; requirements; program approval; the Waste Acceptance Review Panel (WARP); description of the Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program (RWAP); facility evaluation; recent program accomplishments, nuclear facility safety changes; higher-activity waste stream disposal; and, large volume bulk waste streams.

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.:0

    SciTech Connect

    Wickline, Alfred

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 137: Waste Disposal Sites. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 137 contains sites that are located in Areas 1, 3, 7, 9, and 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 137 is comprised of the eight corrective action sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) CAS 01-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; (2) CAS 03-23-01, Waste Disposal Site; (3) CAS 03-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (4) CAS 03-99-15, Waste Disposal Site; (5) CAS 07-23-02, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (6) CAS 09-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (7) CAS 12-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; and (8) CAS 12-23-07, Waste Disposal Site. The Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, sampling of environmental media, analysis of samples, and assessment of investigation results, where appropriate. Data will be obtained to support corrective action alternative evaluations and waste management decisions. The CASs in CAU 137 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting corrective action

  7. Distinguishing Between Site Waste, Natural, and Other Sources of Contamination at Uranium and Thorium Contaminated Sites - 12274

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, David C.

    2012-07-01

    Uranium and thorium processing and milling sites generate wastes (source, byproduct, or technically enhanced naturally occurring material), that contain contaminants that are similar to naturally occurring radioactive material deposits and other industry wastes. This can lead to mis-identification of other materials as Site wastes. A review of methods used by the US Army Corps of Engineers and the Environmental Protection Agency to distinguish Site wastes from potential other sources, enhanced materials, and natural deposits, at three different thorium mills was conducted. Real case examples demonstrate the importance of understanding the methods of distinguishing wastes. Distinguishing between Site wastes and enhanced Background material can be facilitated by establishing and applying a formal process. Significant project cost avoidance may be realized by distinguishing Site wastes from enhanced NORM. Collection of information on other potential sources of radioactive material and physical information related to the potential for other radioactive material sources should be gathered and reported in the Historical Site Assessment. At a minimum, locations of other such information should be recorded. Site decision makers should approach each Site area with the expectation that non site related radioactive material may be present and have a process in place to distinguish from Site and non Site related materials. (authors)

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2003-09-17

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2002 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year 2002 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, and Guidance for the Preparation of DOE Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2002 (DOE Memorandum EH-41: Natoli:6-1336, April 4, 2003). These Orders and the guidance document require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  9. 2005 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2006-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2005 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site. In additon to providing groundwater monitoring results, this report also includes information regarding site hydrogeology, well construction, sample collection, and meteorological data measured at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site, Ny County, Nevada.

  10. Final Reclamation Report: Basalt Waste Isolation Project exploratory shaft site

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.

    1990-06-01

    The restoration of areas disturbed by activities of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) constitutes a unique operation at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site, both from the standpoint of restoration objectives and the time frame for accomplishing these objectives. The BWIP reclamation program comprises three separate projects: borehole reclamation, Near Surface Test Facility (NSTF) reclamation, and Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) reclamation. The main focus of this report is on determining the success of the revegetation effort 1 year after work was completed. This report also provides a brief overview of the ESF reclamation program. 21 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.

  11. 36 CFR 6.4 - Solid waste disposal sites not in operation on September 1, 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment plant, septic system waste, or domestic sewage; (vii) Petroleum, including used crankcase oil from... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites... PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL...

  12. 36 CFR 6.4 - Solid waste disposal sites not in operation on September 1, 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment plant, septic system waste, or domestic sewage; (vii) Petroleum, including used crankcase oil from... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites... PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL...

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF MONITORING AND DIAGNOSTIC METHODS FOR ROBOTS USED IN REMEDIATION OF WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program of the Department of Energy (DOE), extensive use of robots is planned for safe and efficient clean up of hazardous and radioactive waste sites. Robots operating at these waste sites will be exposed to a variety of life...

  14. Progress in forming bottom barriers under waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, E.E.

    1997-12-31

    The paper describes an new method for the construction, verification, and maintenance of underground vaults to isolate and contain radioactive burial sites without excavation or drilling in contaminated areas. The paper begins with a discussion of previous full-scale field tests of horizontal barrier tools which utilized high pressure jetting technology. This is followed by a discussion of the TECT process, which cuts with an abrasive cable instead of high pressure jets. The new method is potentially applicable to more soil types than previous methods and can form very thick barriers. Both processes are performed from the perimeter of a site and require no penetration or disturbance of the active waste area. The paper also describes long-term verification methods to monitor barrier integrity passively.

  15. Sensor System Fo4r Buried Waste Containment Sites

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Ann Marie; Gardner, Bradley M.; Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Partin, Judy K.; Lancaster, Gregory D.; Pfeifer, Mary Catherine

    2003-11-18

    A sensor system for a buried waste containment site having a bottom wall barrier and sidewall barriers, for containing hazardous waste. The sensor system includes one or more sensor devices disposed in one or more of the barriers for detecting a physical parameter either of the barrier itself or of the physical condition of the surrounding soils and buried waste, and for producing a signal representing the physical parameter detected. Also included is a signal processor for receiving signals produced by the sensor device and for developing information identifying the physical parameter detected, either for sounding an alarm, displaying a graphic representation of a physical parameter detected on a viewing screen and/or a hard copy printout. The sensor devices may be deployed in or adjacent the barriers at the same time the barriers are deployed and may be adapted to detect strain or cracking in the barriers, leakage of radiation through the barriers, the presence and leaking through the barriers of volatile organic compounds, or similar physical conditions.

  16. Sensor System Fo4r Buried Waste Containment Sites

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Ann Marie; Gardner, Bradley M.; Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Partin, Judy K.; Lancaster, Gregory D.; Pfeifer, Mary Catherine

    2005-09-27

    A sensor system for a buried waste containment site having a bottom wall barrier and/or sidewall barriers, for containing hazardous waste. The sensor system includes one or more sensor devices disposed in one or more of the barriers for detecting a physical parameter either of the barrier itself or of the physical condition of the surrounding soils and buried waste, and for producing a signal representing the physical parameter detected. Also included is a signal processor for receiving signals produced by the sensor device and for developing information identifying the physical parameter detected, either for sounding an alarm, displaying a graphic representation of a physical parameter detected on a viewing screen and/or a hard copy printout. The sensor devices may be deployed in or adjacent the barriers at the same time the barriers are deployed and may be adapted to detect strain or cracking in the barriers, leakage of radiation through the barriers, the presence and leaking through the barriers of volatile organic compounds, or similar physical conditions.

  17. VITRIFICATION OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Peeler, D.

    2009-06-17

    The objective of this study was to experimentally measure the properties and performance of a series of glasses with compositions that could represent high level waste Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) as vitrified at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility. These data were used to guide frit optimization efforts as the SB5 composition was finalized. Glass compositions for this study were developed by combining a series of SB5 composition projections with a group of candidate frits. The study glasses were fabricated using depleted uranium and their chemical compositions, crystalline contents and chemical durabilities were characterized. Trevorite was the only crystalline phase that was identified in a few of the study glasses after slow cooling, and is not of concern as spinels have been shown to have little impact on the durability of high level waste glasses. Chemical durability was quantified using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). All of the glasses had very acceptable durability performance. The results of this study indicate that a frit composition can be identified that will provide a processable and durable glass when combined with SB5.

  18. Myth of nuclear explosions at waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, W.R.

    1983-10-01

    Approximately 25 years ago, an event is said to have occurred in the plains immediately west of the southern Ural mountains of the Soviet Union that is being disputed to this very day. One person says it was an explosion of nuclear wastes buried in a waste disposal site; other people say it was an above-ground test of an atomic weapon; still others suspect that an alleged contaminated area (of unknown size or even existence) is the result of a series of careless procedures. Since the event, a number of articles about the disposal-site explosion hypothesis written by a Soviet exile living in the United Kingdom have been published. Although the Soviet scientist's training and background are in the biological sciences and his knowledge of nuclear physics or chemistry is limited, people who oppose the use of nuclear energy seem to want to believe what he says without question. The work of this Soviet biologist has received wide exposure both in the United Kingdom and the United States. This report presents arguments against the disposal-site explosion hypothesis. Included are discussions of the amounts of plutonium that would be in a disposal site, the amounts of plutonium that would be needed to reach criticality in a soil-water-plutonium mixture, and experiments and theoretical calculations on the behavior of such mixtures. Our quantitative analyses show that the postulated nuclear explosion is so improbable that it is essentially impossible and can be found only in the never-never land of an active imagination. 24 references, 14 figures, 5 tables.

  19. Hazard ranking systems for chemical wastes and chemical waste sites. Hazardous waste ranking systems

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, R.D.; Parker, F.L.; Crutcher, M.R.

    1991-12-31

    Hazardous materials and substances have always existed in the environment. Mankind has evolved to live with some degree of exposure to toxic materials. Until recently the risk has been from natural toxins or natural background radiation. While rapid technological advances over the past few decades have improved the lifestyle of our society, they have also dramatically increased the availability, volume and types of synthetic and natural hazardous materials. Many of their effects are as yet uncertain. Products and manufacturing by-products that no longer serve a useful purpose are deemed wastes. For some waste products land disposal will always be their ultimate fate. Hazardous substances are often included in the waste products. One needs to classify wastes by degree of hazard (risk). Risk (degree of probability of loss) is usually defined for risk assessment as probability of an occurrence times the consequences of the occurrence. Perhaps even more important than the definition of risk is the choice of a risk management strategy. The choice of strategy will be strongly influenced by the decision criteria used. Those decision criteria could be utility (the greatest happiness of the greatest number), rights or technology based or some combination of the three. It is necessary to make such choices about the definition of risks and criteria for management. It is clear that these are social (i.e., political) and value choices and science has little to say on this matter. This is another example of what Alvin Weinberg has named Transcience where the subject matter is scientific and technical but the choices are social, political and moral. This paper shall deal only with the scientific and technical aspects of the hazardous waste problem to create a hazardous substances classification system.

  20. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-23, 100-B/C Area Surface Debris, Waste Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-027

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-06-16

    The 100-B-23, 100-B/C Surface Debris, waste consisted of multiple locations of surface debris and chemical stains that were identified during an Orphan Site Evaluation of the 100-B/C Area. Evaluation of the collected information for the surface debris features yielded four generic waste groupings: asbestos-containing material, lead debris, oil and oil filters, and treated wood. Focused verification sampling was performed concurrently with remediation. Site remediation was accomplished by selective removal of the suspect hazardous items and potentially impacted soils. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010

    SciTech Connect

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: (1) Characterize site environmental management performance. (2) Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year. (3) Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements. (4) Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE Environmental Sustainability Goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the WIPP. DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Number NM4890139088-TSDF (Permit) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  2. Perceived risk impacts from siting hazardous waste facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hemphill, R.C.; Edwards, B.K.; Bassett, G.W. Jr.

    1992-08-01

    This paper describes methods for evaluating perception-based economic impacts resulting from siting hazardous waste facilities. Socioeconomic impact analysis has devoted increasing attention to the potential implications of changed public perceptions of risk due to an activity or situation. This contrasts with traditional socioecconomic impact analysis, which has been limited to measuring direct and indirect consequences of activities, e.g., the employment effects of placing a military base in a specified location. Approaches to estimating economic impacts due to changes in public perceptions are ex ante or ex post. The former predict impacts prior to the construction and operation of a facility, while the later is based on impacts that become evident only when the facility is up and running. The theoretical foundations and practical requirements for demonstrating impacts, resulting from the siting of a hazardous facility are described. The theoretical rationale supporting the study of perceived risk research is presented along with discussion of problems that arise in demonstrating the existence and measuring the quantitative importance of economic impacts due to changes in perceived risk. The high-level nuclear waste facility being considered in Nevada is presented as an example in which there is potential for impacts, but where the link between perceived risk and economic conditions has not yet been developed.

  3. Three multimedia models used at hazardous and radioactive waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Pardi, R.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Holtzman, S.; Sun, L.C.; Rambaugh, J.O.; Potter, S.

    1996-02-01

    Multimedia models are used commonly in the initial phases of the remediation process where technical interest is focused on determining the relative importance of various exposure pathways. This report provides an approach for evaluating and critically reviewing the capabilities of multimedia models. This study focused on three specific models MEPAS Version 3.0, MMSOILS Version 2.2, and PRESTO-EPA-CPG Version 2.0. These models evaluate the transport and fate of contaminants from source to receptor through more than a single pathway. The presence of radioactive and mixed wastes at a site poses special problems. Hence, in this report, restrictions associated with the selection and application of multimedia models for sites contaminated with radioactive and mixed wastes are highlighted. This report begins with a brief introduction to the concept of multimedia modeling, followed by an overview of the three models. The remaining chapters present more technical discussions of the issues associated with each compartment and their direct application to the specific models. In these analyses, the following components are discussed: source term; air transport; ground water transport; overland flow, runoff, and surface water transport; food chain modeling; exposure assessment; dosimetry/risk assessment; uncertainty; default parameters. The report concludes with a description of evolving updates to the model; these descriptions were provided by the model developers.

  4. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, B.D.; Gertz, C.P.; Clayton, W.A.; Crowe, B.M.

    1998-12-31

    In 1978, the Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), established a managed LLW disposal project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Two, sites which were already accepting limited amounts of on-site generated waste for disposal and off-site generated Transuranic Waste for interim storage, were selected to house the disposal facilities. In those early days, these sites, located about 15 miles apart, afforded the DOE/NV the opportunity to use at least two technologies to manage its waste cost effectively. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose packaged waste while the Area 3 RWMS uses subsidence craters formed from underground testing of nuclear weapons for the disposal of packaged and unpackaged bulk waste. The paper describes the technical attributes of both Area 5 and Area 3 facilities, the acceptance process, the disposal processes, and present and future capacities of both sites.

  5. Making or Breaking Waste Facility Siting Successes with a Siting Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeiss, Chris; Lefsrud, Lianne

    1996-01-01

    Waste facility siting successes depend on many linked factors of facility design and impacts, site characteristics, and community beliefs and values. A facility siting framework is constructed to combine important elements and cause-effect linkages that affect the siting outcome. The framework consists of three main components: (1) core elements of facility design, effects, and community beliefs, attitude and response; (2) contributing factors of site and community characteristics, community beliefs and values that affect the interpretation of the facility and its effects; and (3) siting management interventions to manage the process and facility impacts. The framework is applied in an unsuccessful and a successful siting case to determine the key elements that contribute to siting outcome: (1) thorough need justification for the facility from the proponent’s and the community’s perspective; (2) careful facility design and prediction of the impacts and to select impact management compensation measures; (3) screening and selection of communities where the beliefs and values are compatible with the type of facility and its effects, (4) cooperatively selected impact reduction (i.e., prevention, control, and mitigation) measures followed by compensation and incentives; and (5) intensive process management to balance the community characteristics and values with the proponent’s efforts to plan, design, assess and manage impacts, and ultimately, gain approval of the facility. The siting framework provides a comprehensive and robust structure of key factors that contribute to siting outcome and, therefore, provides the tool to identify, evaluate, and design siting interventions to enhance the chances of successful siting outcome.

  6. Hanford site solid waste management environmental impact statement technical information document [SEC 1 THRU 4

    SciTech Connect

    FRITZ, L.L.

    2003-04-01

    This Technical Information Document (TID) provides engineering data to support DOE/EIS-0286, ''Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement,'' including assumptions and waste volumes calculation data.

  7. Closure End States for Facilities, Waste Sites, and Subsurface Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, Kurt D.; Chamberlain, Grover S.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Deeb, Rula A.; Hawley, Elizabeth L.; Whitehurst, Latrincy; Marble, Justin

    2012-11-21

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) manages the largest groundwater and soil cleanup effort in the world. DOE’s Office of Environmental Management (EM) has made significant progress in its restoration efforts at sites such as Fernald and Rocky Flats. However, remaining sites, such as Savannah River Site, Oak Ridge Site, Hanford Site, Los Alamos, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and West Valley Demonstration Project possess the most complex challenges ever encountered by the technical community and represent a challenge that will face DOE for the next decade. Closure of the remaining 18 sites in the DOE EM Program requires remediation of 75 million cubic yards of contaminated soil and 1.7 trillion gallons of contaminated groundwater, deactivation & decommissioning (D&D) of over 3000 contaminated facilities and thousands of miles of contaminated piping, removal and disposition of millions of cubic yards of legacy materials, treatment of millions of gallons of high level tank waste and disposition of hundreds of contaminated tanks. The financial obligation required to remediate this volume of contaminated environment is estimated to cost more than 7% of the to-go life-cycle cost. Critical in meeting this goal within the current life-cycle cost projections is defining technically achievable end states that formally acknowledge that remedial goals will not be achieved for a long time and that residual contamination will be managed in the interim in ways that are protective of human health and environment. Formally acknowledging the long timeframe needed for remediation can be a basis for establishing common expectations for remedy performance, thereby minimizing the risk of re-evaluating the selected remedy at a later time. Once the expectations for long-term management are in place, remedial efforts can be directed towards near-term objectives (e.g., reducing the risk of exposure to residual contamination) instead

  8. Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management at the Nevada Test Site - Current Status

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce D. Becker, Bechtel Nevada; Bruce M. Crowe, Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carl P. Gertz, DOE Nevada Operations Office; Wendy A. Clayton, DOE Nevada Operations Office

    1999-02-01

    The performance objective of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Radioactive Waste disposal facility at the Nevada Test Site transcends those of any other radioactive waste disposal site in the United States. This paper describes the technical attributes of the facility, present and future capacities and capabilities, and provides a description of the process from waste approval to final disposition. The paper also summarizes the current status of the waste disposal operations.

  9. Nevada Test Site 2005 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Hudson, Cathy A. Wills

    2006-08-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2005 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (U.S. Department of Energy, 2005; Grossman, 2005; Bechtel Nevada, 2006). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure levels around the RWMSs are at or below background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. There is no detectable man-made radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. Measurements at the Area 5 RWMS show that radon flux from waste covers is no higher than natural radon flux from undisturbed soil in Area 5. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. Precipitation during 2005 totaled 219.1 millimeters (mm) (8.63 inches [in.]) at the Area 3 RWMS and 201.4 mm (7.93 in.) at the Area 5 RWMS. Soil-gas tritium monitoring continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Moisture from precipitation at Area 5 has percolated to the bottom of the bare-soil weighing lysimeter, but this same moisture has been removed from the vegetated weighing lysimeter by evapotranspiration. Vadose zone data from the operational waste pit covers show that precipitation from the fall of 2004 and the spring of 2005 infiltrated past the deepest sensors at 188 centimeters (6.2 feet) and remains in the pit cover

  10. Small mammal populations at hazardous waste disposal sites near Houston, Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.

    1990-01-01

    Small mammals were trapped, tagged and recaptured in 0?45 ha plots at six hazardous industrial waste disposal sites to determine if populations, body mass and age structures were different from paired control site plots. Low numbers of six species of small mammals were captured on industrial waste sites or control sites. Only populations of hispid cotton rats at industrial waste sites and control sites were large enough for comparisons. Overall population numbers, age structure, and body mass of adult male and female cotton rats were similar at industrial waste sites and control sites. Populations of small mammals (particularly hispid cotton rats) may not suffice as indicators of environments with hazardous industrial waste contamination.

  11. Evaluating off-site disposal of low-level waste at LANL-9498

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, Kenneth M; French, Sean B; Boyance, Julien A

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory generates a wide range of waste types, including solid low-level radioactive waste (LL W), in conducting its national security mission and other science and technology activities. Although most ofLANL's LLW has been disposed on-site, limitations on expansion, stakeholder concerns, and the potential for significant volumes from environmental remediation and decontamination and demolition (D&D) have led LANL to evaluate the feasibility of increasing off-site disposal. It appears that most of the LL W generated at LANL would meet the Waste Acceptance Criteria at the Nevada Test Site or the available commercial LL W disposal site. Some waste is considered to be problematic to transport to off-site disposal even though it could meet the off-site Waste Acceptance Criteria. Cost estimates for off-site disposal are being evaluated for comparison to estimated costs under the current plans for continued on-site disposal.

  12. 36 CFR 6.4 - Solid waste disposal sites not in operation on September 1, 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR 257.3-1 to 257.3-8, and 40 CFR part 258, subparts B, C, D, E and F; (6) The site will not... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites... PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL...

  13. Building of multilevel stakeholder consensus in radioactive waste repository siting

    SciTech Connect

    Dreimanis, A.

    2007-07-01

    This report considers the problem of multilevel consensus building for siting and construction of shared multinational/regional repositories for radioactive waste (RW) deep disposal. In the siting of a multinational repository there appears an essential innovative component of stakeholder consensus building, namely: to reach consent - political, social, economic, ecological - among international partners, in addition to solving the whole set of intra-national consensus building items. An entire partnering country is considered as a higher-level stakeholder - the national stakeholder, represented by the national government, being faced to simultaneous seeking an upward (international) and a downward (intra-national) consensus in a psychologically stressed environment, possibly being characterized by diverse political, economic and social interests. The following theses as a possible interdisciplinary approach towards building of shared understanding and stakeholder consensus on the international scale of RW disposal are forwarded and developed: a) building of international stakeholder consensus would be promoted by activating and diversifying on the international scale multilateral interactions between intra- and international stakeholders, including web-based networks of the RW disposal site investigations and decision-making, as well as networks for international cooperation among government authorities in nuclear safety, b) gradual progress in intergovernmental consensus and reaching multilateral agreements on shared deep repositories will be the result of democratic dialogue, via observing the whole set of various interests and common resolving of emerged controversies by using advanced synergetic approaches of conflict resolution, c) cross-cultural thinking and world perception, mental flexibility, creativity and knowledge are considered as basic prerogatives for gaining a higher level of mutual understanding and consensus for seeking further consensus, for

  14. 36 CFR 6.4 - Solid waste disposal sites not in operation on September 1, 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites not in operation on September 1, 1984. 6.4 Section 6.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.4 Solid waste disposal sites not...

  15. 36 CFR 6.5 - Solid waste disposal sites in operation on September 1, 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites in operation on September 1, 1984. 6.5 Section 6.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.5 Solid waste disposal sites in operation...

  16. Application for Permit to Operate a Class II Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site - U10c Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-03-31

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is the federal lands management authority for the NTS and National Security Technologies LLC (NSTec) is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The site will be used for the disposal of refuse, rubbish, garbage, sewage sludge, pathological waste, Asbestos-Containing Material (ACM), industrial solid waste, hydrocarbon-burdened soil, hydrocarbon-burdened demolition and construction waste, and other inert waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids or regulated under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) will not be accepted for disposal at the site. Waste regulated under the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA), excluding Polychlorinated Biphenyl [PCB], Bulk Product Waste (see Section 6.2.5) and ACM (see Section 6.2.2.2) will not be accepted for disposal at the site. The disposal site will be used as the sole depository of permissible waste which is: (1) Generated by entities covered under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Hazardous Waste Generator Identification Number for the NTS; (2) Generated at sites identified in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO); (3) Sensitive records and media, including documents, vugraphs, computer disks, typewriter ribbons, magnetic tapes, etc., generated by NNSA/NSO or its contractors; (4) ACM generated by NNSA/NSO or its contractors according to Section 6.2.2.2, as necessary; (5) Hydrocarbon-burdened soil and solid waste from areas covered under the EPA Hazardous Waste Generator Identification Number for the NTS; (6) Other waste on a case-by-case concurrence by

  17. USED NUCLEAR MATERIALS AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE: ASSET OR WASTE?

    SciTech Connect

    Magoulas, V.

    2013-06-03

    The nuclear industry, both in the commercial and the government sectors, has generated large quantities of material that span the spectrum of usefulness, from highly valuable (“assets”) to worthless (“wastes”). In many cases, the decision parameters are clear. Transuranic waste and high level waste, for example, have no value, and is either in a final disposition path today, or – in the case of high level waste – awaiting a policy decision about final disposition. Other materials, though discardable, have intrinsic scientific or market value that may be hidden by the complexity, hazard, or cost of recovery. An informed decision process should acknowledge the asset value, or lack of value, of the complete inventory of materials, and the structure necessary to implement the range of possible options. It is important that informed decisions are made about the asset value for the variety of nuclear materials available. For example, there is a significant quantity of spent fuel available for recycle (an estimated $4 billion value in the Savannah River Site’s (SRS) L area alone); in fact, SRS has already blended down more than 300 metric tons of uranium for commercial reactor use. Over 34 metric tons of surplus plutonium is also on a path to be used as commercial fuel. There are other radiological materials that are routinely handled at the site in large quantities that should be viewed as strategically important and / or commercially viable. In some cases, these materials are irreplaceable domestically, and failure to consider their recovery could jeopardize our technological leadership or national defense. The inventories of nuclear materials at SRS that have been characterized as “waste” include isotopes of plutonium, uranium, americium, and helium. Although planning has been performed to establish the technical and regulatory bases for their discard and disposal, recovery of these materials is both economically attractive and in the national

  18. Nevada Test Site 2000 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Yvonne Townsend

    2001-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data, subsidence monitoring data, and meteorology monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels, whereas radon concentrations are not above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 2000 was an average rainfall year: rainfall totaled 167 mm (6.6 in) at the Area 3 RWMS (annual average is 156 mm [6.5 in]) and 123 mm (4.8 in) at the Area 5 RWMS (annual average is 127 mm [5.0 in]). Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2000 rainfall infiltrated less than one meter (3 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. All 2000 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing well at isolating buried waste.

  19. Hazardous waste site assessment: Inactive landfill, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of an inactive landfill (Pit 6) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300. The primary objectives were to: collect and review background information pertaining to past waste disposal practices and previous environmental characterization studies; conduct a geophysical survey of the landfill area to locate the buried wastes; conduct a hydrogeologic investigation to provide additional data on the rate and direction of groundwater flow, the extent of any groundwater contamination, and to investigate the connection, if any, of the shallow groundwater beneath the landfill with the local drinking water supply; conduct a risk assessment to identify the degree of threat posed by the landfill to the public health and environment; compile a preliminary list of feasible long-term remedial action alternatives for the landfill; and develop a list of recommendations for any interim measures necessary at the landfill should the long-term remedial action plan be needed.

  20. Applying Lean Concepts to Waste Site Closure - 13137

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, M.L.

    2013-07-01

    Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office to manage the River Corridor Closure Project, a 10-year contract in which WCH will clean up 220 mi{sup 2} of contaminated land at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. In the summer of 2011, with Tri-Party (DOE-RL, Environmental Protection Agency and Washington State Department of Ecology) Agreement Milestones due at the end of the calendar year, standard work practices were challenged in regards to closure documentation development. The Lean process, a concept that maximizes customer value while minimizing waste, was introduced to WCH's Sample Design and Cleanup Verification organization with the intention of eliminating waste and maximizing efficiencies. The outcome of implementing Lean processes and concepts was impressive. It was determined that the number of non-value added steps far outnumbered the value added steps. Internal processing time, document size, and review times were all reduced significantly; relationships with the customer and the regulators were also improved; and collaborative working relationships with the Tri Parties have been strengthened by working together on Lean initiatives. (authors)

  1. Theophylline disposition in residents living near a chemical waste site.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, M L; Gardner, M J; Mangione, A; Yurchak, A M; Paigen, B; Jusko, W J

    1984-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of theophylline were compared in 11 residents living near a chemical waste site (Love Canal) and 25 control subjects from Western New York. Love Canal residents had documented chronic exposure to a variety of organic and halogenated compounds. Only young adults with no overt diseases were examined. Theophylline plasma clearances were similar in the two groups, although the enzyme inductive effects of tobacco smoking were further confirmed. The lack of environmental effect on theophylline clearance indicates that no chronic net change in one pathway of microsomal P-448 oxidation occurred. The possibility of acute changes related to seasonal chemical exposure and mixed inductive/repressive effects from the myriad types of chemicals may confound the data. PMID:6525442

  2. Anisotropic capillary barrier for waste site surface covers

    DOEpatents

    Stormont, J.C.

    1996-08-27

    Waste sites are capped or covered upon closure. The cover structure incorporates a number of different layers each having a contributory function. One such layer is the barrier layer. Traditionally the barriers have been compacted soil and geosynthetics. These types of barriers have not been successfully implemented in unsaturated ground conditions like those found in dry climates. Capillary barriers have been proposed as barrier layers in dry environments, but the divergence length of these barriers has been found to be inadequate. An alternative to the capillary barrier is a anisotropic capillary barrier. An anisotropic capillary barrier has an increased divergence length which results in more water being diverted laterally preventing the majority of water from percolating in a downward direction through the barrier. 10 figs.

  3. Anisotropic capillary barrier for waste site surface covers

    DOEpatents

    Stormont, John C.

    1996-01-01

    Waste sites are capped or covered upon closure. The cover structure incorporates a number of different layers each having a contributory function. One such layer is the barrier layer. Traditionally the barriers have been compacted soil and geosynthetics. These types of barriers have not been successfully implemented in unsaturated ground conditions like those found in dry climates. Capillary barriers have been proposed as barrier layers in dry environments, but the divergence length of these barriers has been found to be inadequate. An alternative to the capillary barrier is a anisotropic capillary barrier. An anisotropic capillary barrier has an increased divergence length which results in more water being diverted laterally preventing the majority of water from percolating in a downward direction through the barrier.

  4. Nevada Test 1999 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 radioactive waste management sites

    SciTech Connect

    Yvonne Townsend

    2000-05-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels, whereas radon concentrations are not above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the alluvial aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 1999 was a dry year: rainfall totaled 3.9 inches at the Area 3 RWMS (61 percent of average) and 3.8 inches at the Area 5 RWMS (75 percent of average). Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 1999 rainfall infiltrated less than one foot before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium data indicate very slow migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were insignificant. All 1999 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing as expected at isolating buried waste.

  5. Savannah River Site mixed waste Proposed Site Treatment Plan (PSTP). Volumes 1 and 2 and reference document: Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Helmich, E.; Noller, D.K.; Wierzbicki, K.S.; Bailey, L.L.

    1995-07-13

    The DOE is required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act to prepare site treatment plans describing the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating mixed waste. This proposed plan contains Savannah River Site`s preferred options and schedules for constructing new facilities, and otherwise obtaining treatment for mixed wastes. The proposed plan consists of 2 volumes. Volume 1, Compliance Plan, identifies the capacity to be developed and the schedules as required. Volume 2, Background, provides a detailed discussion of the preferred options with technical basis, plus a description of the specific waste streams. Chapters are: Introduction; Methodology; Mixed low level waste streams; Mixed transuranic waste; High level waste; Future generation of mixed waste streams; Storage; Process for evaluation of disposal issues in support of the site treatment plans discussions; Treatment facilities and treatment technologies; Offsite waste streams for which SRS treatment is the Preferred Option (Naval reactor wastes); Summary information; and Acronyms and glossary. This revision does not contain the complete revised report, but only those pages that have been revised.

  6. Identifying suitable "piercement" salt domes for nuclear waste storage sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kehle, R.

    1980-08-01

    Piercement salt domes of the northern interior salt basins of the Gulf of Mexico are being considered as permanent storage sites for both nuclear and chemically toxic wastes. The suitable domes are stable and inactive, having reached their final evolutionary configuration at least 30 million years ago. They are buried to depths far below the level to which erosion will penetrate during the prescribed storage period and are not subject to possible future reactivation. The salt cores of these domes are themselves impermeable, permitting neither the entry nor exit of ground water or other unwanted materials. In part, a stable dome may be recognized by its present geometric configuration, but conclusive proof depends on establishing its evolutionary state. The evolutionary state of a dome is obtained by reconstructing the growth history of the dome as revealed by the configuration of sedimentary strata in a large area (commonly 3,000 square miles or more) surrounding the dome. A high quality, multifold CDP reflection seismic profile across a candidate dome will provide much of the necessary information when integrated with available subsurface control. Additional seismic profiles may be required to confirm an apparent configuration of the surrounding strata and an interpreted evolutionary history. High frequency seismic data collected in the near vicinity of a dome are also needed as a supplement to the CDP data to permit accurate depiction of the configuration of shallow strata. Such data must be tied to shallow drill hole control to confirm the geologic age at which dome growth ceased. If it is determined that a dome reached a terminal configuration many millions of years ago, such a dome is incapable of reactivation and thus constitutes a stable storage site for nuclear wastes.

  7. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 128-F-2, 100-F Burning Pit Waste Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-031

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-12-01

    The 128-F-2 waste site consisted of multiple burn and debris filled pits located directly east of the 107-F Retention Basin and approximately 30.5 m east of the northeast corner of the 100-F Area perimeter road that runs along the riverbank. The burn pits were used for incinerating nonradioactive, combustible materials from 1945 to 1965. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  8. Operational Strategies for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site in Egypt - 13513

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, Yasser T.

    2013-07-01

    The ultimate aims of treatment and conditioning is to prepare waste for disposal by ensuring that the waste will meet the waste acceptance criteria of a disposal facility. Hence the purpose of low-level waste disposal is to isolate the waste from both people and the environment. The radioactive particles in low-level waste emit the same types of radiation that everyone receives from nature. Most low-level waste fades away to natural background levels of radioactivity in months or years. Virtually all of it diminishes to natural levels in less than 300 years. In Egypt, The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center has been established since 1983, as a waste management facility for LLW and ILW and the disposal site licensed for preoperational in 2005. The site accepts the low level waste generated on site and off site and unwanted radioactive sealed sources with half-life less than 30 years for disposal and all types of sources for interim storage prior to the final disposal. Operational requirements at the low-level (LLRW) disposal site are listed in the National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control NCNSRC guidelines. Additional procedures are listed in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Standards Manual. The following describes the current operations at the LLRW disposal site. (authors)

  9. Geochemical survey of an illegal waste disposal site under a waste emergency scenario (Northwest Naples, Italy).

    PubMed

    Ferrara, L; Iannace, M; Patelli, A M; Arienzo, M

    2013-03-01

    Since the mid 1980s, Naples and the Campania region have suffered from the dumping of wastes into overfilled landfills. The aim was to characterise a former cave located in Roccarainola (Naples, Italy) for its eventual destination to a controlled landfill site. A detailed hydro-geochemical survey of the area was carried out through drilling of 14 boreholes and four monitoring wells. Samples of water, sediment and soil were analysed for heavy metals and organic contaminants from a dew pond placed in the middle of the cave. The underneath aquifer was also surveyed. The nature of gases emitted from the site was investigated. Results of the geognostic survey revealed the presence of huge volumes of composite wastes, approximately half a million of cubic metre, which accumulated up to a thickness of 25.6 m. In some points, wastes lie below the free surface level of the aquifer. The sampled material from the boreholes revealed levels of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sn, Tl and Zn exceeding the intervention legal limits. Outstanding loads of Cd, Pb and Zn were found, with levels exceeding of about 50, 100 and 1,870 times the limit. In several points, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon load was extremely high, 35 vs 1 mg kg(-1) of the threshold. The aquifer was also very heavily polluted by Cd, Cr-tot, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, with impressive high load of Cr and Mn, up to 250-370 times the limits. Hot gases up to 62 °C with presence of xylene and ethylbenzene were found. Results indicated that the site needs an urgent intervention of recovery to avoid compromising the surrounding areas and aquifers of the Campania plain. PMID:22766923

  10. Waste management units - Savannah River Site. Volume 1, Waste management unit worksheets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    This report is a compilation of worksheets from the waste management units of Savannah River Plant. Information is presented on the following: Solid Waste Management Units having received hazardous waste or hazardous constituents with a known release to the environment; Solid Waste Management Units having received hazardous waste or hazardous constituents with no known release to the environment; Solid Waste Management Units having received no hazardous waste or hazardous constituents; Waste Management Units having received source; and special nuclear, or byproduct material only.

  11. Use of DOE site selection criteria for screening low-level waste disposal sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.W.; Ketelle, R.H.; Stinton, L.H.

    1983-09-01

    The proposed Department of Energy (DOE) site selection criteria were applied to the Oak Ridge Reservation, and the application was evaluated to determine the criteria's usefulness in the selection of a low-level waste disposal site. The application of the criteria required the development of a methodology to provide a framework for evaluation. The methodology is composed of site screening and site characterization stages. The site screening stage relies on reconnaissance data to identify a preferred site capable of satisfying the site selection criteria. The site characterization stage relies on a detailed site investigation to determine site acceptability. The site selection criteria were applied to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation through the site screening stage. Results of this application were similar to those of a previous siting study on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The DOE site selection criteria when coupled with the methodology that was developed were easily applied and would be adaptable to any region of interest.

  12. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. Chapter 3 summarizes present knowledge of the regional and site hydrologic systems. The purpose of the information presented is to (1) describe the hydrology based on available literature and preliminary site-exploration activities that have been or are being performed and (2) provide information to be used to develop the hydrologic aspects of the planned site characterization program. Chapter 4 contains geochemical information about the Yucca Mountain site. The chapter references plan for continued collection of geochemical data as a part of the site characterization program. Chapter 4 describes and evaluates data on the existing climate and site meterology, and outlines the suggested procedures to be used in developing and validating methods to predict future climatic variation. 534 refs., 100 figs., 72 tabs.

  13. Control of Eolian soil erosion from waste site surface barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.

    1994-11-01

    Physical models were tested in a wind tunnel to determine optimum surface-ravel admixtures for protecting silt-loam soil from erosion by, wind and saltating, sand stresses. The tests were performed to support the development of a natural-material surface barrier for and waste sites. Plans call for a 2-m deep silt-loam soil reservoir to retain infiltrating water from rainfall and snowmelt. The objective of the study was to develop a gravel admixture that would produce an erosion-resistant surface layer during, periods of extended dry climatic stress. Thus, tests were performed using simulated surfaces representing dry, unvegetated conditions present just after construction, after a wildfire, or during an extended drought. Surfaces were prepared using silt-loam soil mixed with various grades of sand and Travel. Wind-induced surface shear stresses were controlled over the test surfaces, as were saltating, sand mass flow rates and intensities. Tests were performed at wind speeds that approximated and exceeded local 100-year peak gust intensities. Surface armors produced by pea gravel admixtures were shown to provide the best protection from wind and saltating sand stresses. Compared with unprotected silt-loam surfaces, armored surfaces reduced erosion rates by more than 96%. Based in part on wind tunnel results, a pea gravel admixture of 15% will be added to the top 1 in of soil in a prototype barrier under construction in 1994. Field tests are planned at the prototype site to provide data for comparison with wind tunnel results.

  14. Little serious health damage linked to waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.J.

    1985-03-25

    Often in the past decade, human exposure to toxic chemicals from landfills and other dump sites has been fingered as the culprit for unexplained sicknesses. Now, a thorough, documented, peer review of the scientific evidence for disease caused by environmental chemicals has been completed. The Universities Associated for Research and Education in Pathology has published a report on its nearly 18-month study of the information available on health effects from exposure to chemicals from waste dumps with a not totally unexpected general finding: ''There is little scientific evidence that chemical disposal sites have had serious effects on the health of populations living near them.'' The UAREP report does not make light of the magnitude of the chemical disposal problem. Joe W. Grisham, chairman of the scientific panel that reviewed the data and head of the pathology department at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, emphasized that the report considered for its work only research papers published in the referenced literature. Just because the evidence has not appeared at this time does not mean there is not a potential problem. Other data are out there, he explained, some of them available, some involved in litigation, and some being kept for whatever reason by the federal government.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING TOLUENE DEGRADATION IN GROUND WATER AT A HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial ecology of pristine and contaminated ground water at a chemical waste disposal site was investigated. ecently, it was determined that ground water downslope from the disposal site contained elevated levels of toxic pollutants, including benzene, toluene, xylene and ...

  16. Flood Assessment at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site and the Proposed Hazardous Waste Storage Unit, DOE/Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Schmeltzer, J. S.; Millier, J. J.; Gustafson, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    A flood assessment at the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) and the proposed Hazardous Waste Storage Unit (HWSU) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was performed to determine the 100-year flood hazard at these facilities. The study was conducted to determine whether the RWMS and HWSU are located within a 100-year flood hazard as defined by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and to provide discharges for the design of flood protection.

  17. 36 CFR 6.5 - Solid waste disposal sites in operation on September 1, 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., septic system waste or domestic sewage; (vii) Petroleum, including used crankcase oil from a motor..., 40 CFR part 240, Guidelines for the Thermal Processing of Solid Waste. (d) If the Regional Director... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites...

  18. 36 CFR 6.5 - Solid waste disposal sites in operation on September 1, 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., septic system waste or domestic sewage; (vii) Petroleum, including used crankcase oil from a motor..., 40 CFR part 240, Guidelines for the Thermal Processing of Solid Waste. (d) If the Regional Director... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites...

  19. Radiological safety evaluation for a Savannah River Site Waste Transfer Facility. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ades, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a radiological safety evaluation performed in support of operation of a typical Waste Transfer Facility (WTF) located at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This facility transfers liquid radioactive waste from and to various waste processing, storage, and treatment facilities.

  20. Flood Assessment Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-07-01

    A flood assessment was conducted at the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1-1). The study area encompasses the watershed of Yucca Flat, a closed basin approximately 780 square kilometers (km2) (300 square miles) in size. The focus of this effort was on a drainage area of approximately 94 km2 (36 mi2), determined from review of topographic maps and aerial photographs to be the only part of the Yucca Flat watershed that could directly impact the Area 3 RWMS. This smaller area encompasses portions of the Halfpint Range, including Paiute Ridge, Jangle Ridge, Carbonate Ridge, Slanted Buttes, Cockeyed Ridge, and Banded Mountain. The Area 3 RWMS is located on coalescing alluvial fans emanating from this drainage area.

  1. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-1 Surface Chemical and Solid Waste Dumping Area, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-003

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-04-24

    The 100-B-1 waste site was a dumping site that was divided into two areas. One area was used as a laydown area for construction materials, and the other area was used as a chemical dumping area. The 100-B-1 Surface Chemical and Solid Waste Dumping Area site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations support future unrestricted land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  2. Technical summary of groundwater quality protection program at the Savannah River Site, 1952--1986. Volume 1, Site geohydrology and waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Heffner, J.D.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides information regarding the status of and groundwater quality at the waste sites at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). Specific information provided for each waste site at SRS includes its location, size, inventory (when known), and history. Many waste sites at SRS are considered to be of little environmental concern because they contain nontoxic or inert material such as construction rubble and debris. Other waste sites, however, either are known to have had an effect on groundwater quality or are suspected of having the potential to affect groundwater. Monitoring wells have been installed at most of these sites; monitoring wells are scheduled for installation at the remaining sites. Results of the groundwater analyses from these monitoring wells, presented in the appendices, are used in the report to help identify potential contaminants of concern, if any, at each waste site. The list of actions proposed for each waste site in Christensen and Gordon`s 1983 report are summarized, and an update is provided for each site. Planned actions for the future are also outlined.

  3. Audit Report on "Waste Processing and Recovery Act Acceleration Efforts for Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste at the Hanford Site"

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management's (EM), Richland Operations Office (Richland), is responsible for disposing of the Hanford Site's (Hanford) transuranic (TRU) waste, including nearly 12,000 cubic meters of radioactive contact-handled TRU wastes. Prior to disposing of this waste at the Department's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), Richland must certify that it meets WIPP's waste acceptance criteria. To be certified, the waste must be characterized, screened for prohibited items, treated (if necessary) and placed into a satisfactory disposal container. In a February 2008 amendment to an existing Record of Decision (Decision), the Department announced its plan to ship up to 8,764 cubic meters of contact-handled TRU waste from Hanford and other waste generator sites to the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) at Idaho's National Laboratory (INL) for processing and certification prior to disposal at WIPP. The Department decided to maximize the use of the AMWTP's automated waste processing capabilities to compact and, thereby, reduce the volume of contact-handled TRU waste. Compaction reduces the number of shipments and permits WIPP to more efficiently use its limited TRU waste disposal capacity. The Decision noted that the use of AMWTP would avoid the time and expense of establishing a processing capability at other sites. In May 2009, EM allocated $229 million of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) funds to support Hanford's Solid Waste Program, including Hanford's contact-handled TRU waste. Besides providing jobs, these funds were intended to accelerate cleanup in the short term. We initiated this audit to determine whether the Department was effectively using Recovery Act funds to accelerate processing of Hanford's contact-handled TRU waste. Relying on the availability of Recovery Act funds, the Department changed course and approved an alternative plan that could increase costs by about $25 million

  4. Technical basis for classification of low-activity waste fraction from Hanford site tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, C.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-17

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a technical basis to support a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission determination to classify the low-activity waste from the Hanford Site single-shell and double-shell tanks as `incidental` wastes after removal of additional radionuclides and immobilization.The proposed processing method, in addition to the previous radionuclide removal efforts, will remove the largest practical amount of total site radioactivity, attributable to high-level wastes, for disposal in a deep geologic repository. The remainder of the waste would be considered `incidental` waste and could be disposed onsite.

  5. Technical basis for classification of low-activity waste fraction from Hanford site tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, C.A.

    1996-09-20

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a technical basis to support a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission determination to classify the low-activity waste from the Hanford Site single-shell and double-shell tanks as `incidental` wastes after removal of additional radionuclides and immobilization.The proposed processing method, in addition to the previous radionuclide removal efforts, will remove the largest practical amount of total site radioactivity, attributable to high-level waste, for disposal is a deep geologic repository. The remainder of the waste would be considered `incidental` waste and could be disposed onsite.

  6. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report, calendar year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This report is a compilation of data on the disposition of hazardous wastes generated on the Hanford Reservation. This information is on EPA requirement every two years. Wastes include: tank simulant waste; alkaline batteries; lead-based paints; organic solvents; light bulbs containing lead and/or mercury; monitoring well drilling wastes; soils contaminated with trace metals, halogenated organics, or other pollutants; Ni-Cd batteries; pesticides; waste oils and greases; wastes from the cleanup of fuel/gasoline spills; filters; metals; and other.

  7. Nevada Test Site, 2006 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Hudson

    2007-06-30

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2006 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (U.S. Department of Energy, 2006; Warren and Grossman, 2007; National Security Technologies, LLC, 2007). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure levels around the RWMSs are at or below background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. There is no detectable man-made radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. Measurements at the Area 5 RWMS show that radon flux from waste covers is no higher than natural radon flux from undisturbed soil in Area 5. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. Precipitation during 2006 totaled 98.6 millimeters (mm) (3.9 inches [in.]) at the Area 3 RWMS and 80.7 mm (3.2 in.) at the Area 5 RWMS. Soil-gas tritium monitoring continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Moisture from precipitation at Area 5 remains at the bottom of the bare-soil weighing lysimeter, but this same moisture has been removed from the vegetated weighing lysimeter by evapotranspiration. Vadose zone data from the operational waste pit covers show that evaporation continues to slowly remove soil moisture that came from the heavy precipitation in the fall of 2004 and the spring of

  8. 1994 Annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Many Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention successes at the Hanford Site occur every day without formal recognition. A few of the successful projects are: T-Plant helps facilities reuse equipment by offering decontamination services for items such as gas cylinders, trucks, and railcars, thus saving disposal and equipment replacement costs. Custodial Services reviewed its use of 168 hazardous cleaning products, and, through a variety of measures, replaced them with 38 safer substitutes, one for each task. Scrap steel contaminated with low level radioactivity from the interim stabilization of 107-K and 107-C was decontaminated and sold to a vendor for recycling. Site-wide programs include the following: the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (P2OA) program at the Hanford site was launched during 1994, including a training class, a guidance document, technical assistance, and goals; control over hazardous materials purchased was achieved by reviewing all purchase requisitions of a chemical nature; the Office Supply Reuse Program was established to redeploy unused or unwanted office supply items. In 1994, pollution prevention activities reduced approximately 274,000 kilograms of hazardous waste, 2,100 cubic meters of radioactive and mixed waste, 14,500,000 kilograms of sanitary waste, and 215,000 cubic meters off liquid waste and waste water. Pollution Prevention activities also saved almost $4.2 million in disposal, product, and labor costs. Overall waste generation increased in 1994 due to increased work and activity typical for a site with an environmental restoration mission. However, without any Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention activities, solid radioactive waste generation at Hanford would have been 25% higher, solid hazardous waste generation would have been 30% higher, and solid sanitary waste generation would have been 60% higher.

  9. Immediate Deployment of Waste Energy Recovery Technologies at Multi Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Castonguay

    2012-06-29

    Verso Paper Corp. implemented a portfolio of 13 commercially available proven industrial technologies each exceeding 30% minimum threshold efficiency and at least 25% efficiency increase. These sub-projects are a direct result of a grant received from the Department of Energy (DOE) through its FOA 0000044 (Deployment of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems, District Energy Systems, Waste Energy Recovery Systems, and Efficient Industrial Equipment), which was funded by the American Recovery Act. These were installed at 3 sites in 2 states and are helping to reduce Verso costs, making the facilities more competitive. This created approximately 100 construction jobs (FTE's) and reduced impacted Verso facilities' expense budgets. These sub-projects were deployed at Verso paper mills located in Jay, Maine, Bucksport, Maine, and Sartell, Minnesota. The paper mills are the economic engines of the rural communities in which these mills are located. Reinvestment in waste energy recovery capital improvements is providing a stimulus to help maintain domestic jobs and to competitively position the US pulp and paper industry with rising energy costs. Energy efficiency improvements are also providing a positive environmental impact by reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the quantity of wastewater treated and discharged, and fossil fuel demand. As a result of these projects, when fully operating, Verso realized a total of approximately 1.5 TBtu/Year reduction in overall energy consumption, which is 119% of the project objectives. Note that three paper machines have since been permanently curtailed. However even with these shutdowns, the company still met its energy objectives. Note also that the Sartell mill's paper machine is down due to a recent fire which damaged the mill's electrical infrastructure (the company has not decided on the mill's future).

  10. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 128-F-3 PNL Burn Pit, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-042

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-10-20

    The 128-F-3 waste site is a former burn pit associated with the 100-F Area experimental animal farm. The site was overlain by coal ash associated with the 126-F-1 waste site and could not be located during confirmatory site evaluation. Therefore, a housekeeping action was performed to remove the coal ash potentially obscuring residual burn pit features. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  11. Determination of total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.I.; Pool, K.H.

    1994-05-01

    Nickel ferrocyanide compounds (Na{sub 2-x}Cs{sub x}NiFe (CN){sub 6}) were produced in a scavenging process to remove {sup 137}Cs from Hanford Site single-shell tank waste supernates. Methods for determining total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes are needed for the evaluation of potential exothermic reactions between cyanide and oxidizers such as nitrate and for safe storage, processing, and management of the wastes in compliance with regulatory requirements. Hanford Site laboratory experience in determining cyanide in high-level wastes is summarized. Modifications were made to standard cyanide methods to permit improved handling of high-level waste samples and to eliminate interferences found in Hanford Site waste matrices. Interferences and associated procedure modifications caused by high nitrates/nitrite concentrations, insoluble nickel ferrocyanides, and organic complexants are described.

  12. Overview of Nevada Test Site Radioactive and Mixed Waste Disposal Operations

    SciTech Connect

    J.T. Carilli; S.K. Krenzien; R.G. Geisinger; S.J. Gordon; B. Quinn

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Environmental Management Program is responsible for carrying out the disposal of on-site and off-site generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and low-level radioactive mixed waste (MW) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Core elements of this mission are ensuring safe and cost-effective disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. This paper focuses on the impacts of new policies, processes, and opportunities at the NTS related to LLW and MW. Covered topics include: the first year of direct funding for NTS waste disposal operations; zero tolerance policy for non-compliant packages; the suspension of mixed waste disposal; waste acceptance changes; DOE Consolidated Audit Program (DOECAP) auditing; the 92-Acre Area closure plan; new eligibility requirements for generators; and operational successes with unusual waste streams.

  13. Closure Plan for the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-09-01

    The Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RMWS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is managed and operated by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This document is the first update of the interim closure plan for the Area 3 RWMS, which was presented in the Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (ICMP) (DOE, 2005). The format and content of this plan follows the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans (DOE, 1999a). The major updates to the plan include a new closure date, updated closure inventory, the new institutional control policy, and the Title II engineering cover design. The plan identifies the assumptions and regulatory requirements, describes the disposal sites and the physical environment in which they are located, presents the design of the closure cover, and defines the approach and schedule for both closing and monitoring the site. The Area 3 RWMS accepts low-level waste (LLW) from across the DOE Complex in compliance with the NTS Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSA/NSO, 2006). The Area 3 RWMS accepts both packaged and unpackaged unclassified bulk LLW for disposal in subsidence craters that resulted from deep underground tests of nuclear devices in the early 1960s. The Area 3 RWMS covers 48 hectares (119 acres) and comprises seven subsidence craters--U-3ax, U-3bl, U-3ah, U-3at, U-3bh, U-3az, and U-3bg. The area between craters U-3ax and U-3bl was excavated to form one large disposal unit (U-3ax/bl); the area between craters U-3ah and U-3at was also excavated to form another large disposal unit (U-3ah/at). Waste unit U-3ax/bl is closed; waste units U-3ah/at and U-3bh are active; and the remaining craters, although currently undeveloped, are available for disposal of waste if required. This plan specifically addresses the closure of the U-3ah/at and the U-3bh LLW units. A final closure

  14. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 6

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  15. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in acordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and eveloping a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing prinicples, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed. 880 refs., 130 figs., 25 tabs.

  16. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Neavada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended and approved for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining hte geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare and environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  17. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended by the Secretary of Energy and approved by the President for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the requirements of the Nulcear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of the site characterization plan are oulined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  18. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended and approved by the President for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package; and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstate the suitability of the site for a repository, to desin the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next; it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  19. Savannah River Site Interim Waste Management Program Plan FY 1991--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Chavis, D.M.

    1992-05-01

    The primary purpose of the Waste Management Program Plan is to provide an annual report of how Waste Management's operations are conducted, what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year. In addition, this document projects activities for several years beyond the coming fiscal year in order to adequately plan for safe handling, storage, and disposal of radioactive wastes generated at the Savannah River Site and for developing technology for improved management of wastes. In this document, work descriptions and milestone schedules are current as of December 1991.

  20. Savannah River Site Interim Waste Management Program Plan FY 1991--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Chavis, D.M.

    1992-05-01

    The primary purpose of the Waste Management Program Plan is to provide an annual report of how Waste Management`s operations are conducted, what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year. In addition, this document projects activities for several years beyond the coming fiscal year in order to adequately plan for safe handling, storage, and disposal of radioactive wastes generated at the Savannah River Site and for developing technology for improved management of wastes. In this document, work descriptions and milestone schedules are current as of December 1991.

  1. 36 CFR 6.5 - Solid waste disposal sites in operation on September 1, 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... restrictions and criteria applicable to the site under 40 CFR 257.3 and 40 CFR part 258, or where applicable, 40 CFR part 240, Guidelines for the Thermal Processing of Solid Waste. (d) If the Regional Director... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites...

  2. Two citizen task forces and the challenge of the evolving nuclear waste siting process

    SciTech Connect

    Peelle, E.B.

    1990-01-01

    Siting any nuclear waste facility is problematic in today's climate of distrust toward nuclear agencies and fear of nuclear waste. This study compares and contrasts the siting and public participation processes as two citizen task forces dealt with their difficult responsibilities. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. Process Description for the Retrieval of Earth Covered Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    DEROSA, D.C.

    2000-01-13

    This document describes process and operational options for retrieval of the contact-handled suspect transuranic waste drums currently stored below grade in earth-covered trenches at the Hanford Site. Retrieval processes and options discussed include excavation, container retrieval, venting, non-destructive assay, criticality avoidance, incidental waste handling, site preparation, equipment, and shipping.

  4. FINAL REPORT. DEVELOPMENT OF MONITORING AND DIAGNOSTIC METHODS FOR ROBOTS USED IN REMEDIATION OF WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) of the Department of Energy (DOE), extensive use of robots is planned for safe and efficient cleanup of hazardous and radioactive waste sites. Robots operating at these waste sites will be exposed to a variety of life-limitin...

  5. Target detection and mapping of aquatic hazardous waste sites in Massachusetts Bay utilizing sidescan sonar

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, D.J.; Capone, V.; Cook, G.S.; Casey, D.A.; Wiley, D.N.

    1992-01-01

    The oceans have frequently been used for disposal for a variety of industrial, chemical, and low-level radioactive wastes. In Massachusetts Bay, several areas have been used for the permitted and possible non-permitted disposal of waste containers with environmentally sensitive materials. During the Summer and Fall of 1991, the Industrial Waste Site (IWS) and the Boston Lightship Dumping Ground (BLDG) in Massachusetts Bay were the subject of intensive surveys to determine the areal extent, distribution and location of waste containers.

  6. Assessment of remote sensing technologies to discover and characterize waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    1992-03-11

    This report presents details about waste management practices that are being developed using remote sensing techniques to characterize DOE waste sites. Once sites and problems have been located and an achievable restoration and remediation program have been established, efforts to reclaim the environment will begin. Special problems to be considered are: concentrated wastes in tanks and pits; soil and ground water contamination; ground safety hazards for workers; and requirements for long-term monitoring.

  7. Assessment of remote sensing technologies to discover and characterize waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    1992-03-11

    This report presents details about waste management practices that are being developed using remote sensing techniques to characterize DOE waste sites. Once the sites and problems have been located and characterized and an achievable restoration and remediation program have been established, efforts to reclaim the environment will begin. Special problems to be considered are: concentrated waste forms in tanks and pits; soil and ground water contamination; ground safety hazards for workers; and requirement for long-term monitoring.

  8. Hanford Site River Protection Project High-Level Waste Safe Storage and Retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Aromi, E. S.; Raymond, R. E.; Allen, D. I.; Payne, M. A.; DeFigh-Price, C.; Kristofzski, J. G.; Wiegman, S. A.

    2002-02-25

    This paper provides an update from last year and describes project successes and issues associated with the management and work required to safely store, enhance readiness for waste feed delivery, and prepare for treated waste receipts for the approximately 53 million gallons of mixed and high-level waste currently in aging tanks at the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a 560 square-mile area in southeastern Washington State near Richland, Washington.

  9. 2002 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Y. E. Townsend

    2003-06-01

    Environmental, subsidence, and meteorological monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)(refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater,meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada (BN) reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorological data indicate that 2002 was a dry year: rainfall totaled 26 mm (1.0 in) at the Area 3 RWMS and 38 mm (1.5 in) at the Area 5 RWMS. Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2002 rainfall infiltrated less than 30 cm (1 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. Special investigations conducted in 2002 included: a comparison between waste cover water contents measured by neutron probe and coring; and a comparison of four methods for measuring radon concentrations in air. All 2002 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing within expectations of the model and parameter assumptions for the facility Performance Assessments (PAs).

  10. Geohydrologic aspects for siting and design of low-level radioactive-waste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedinger, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    The objective for siting and design of low-level radioactive-waste repository sites is to isolate the waste from the biosphere until the waste no longer poses an unacceptable hazard as a result of radioactive decay. Low-level radioactive waste commonly is isolated at shallow depths with various engineered features to stabilize the waste and to reduce its dissolution and transport by ground water. The unsaturated zone generally is preferred for isolating the waste. Low-level radioactive waste may need to be isolated for 300 to 500 years. Maintenance and monitoring of the repository site are required by Federal regulations for only the first 100 years. Therefore, geohydrology of the repository site needs to provide natural isolation of the waste for the hazardous period following maintenance of the site. Engineering design of the repository needs to be compatible with the natural geohydrologic conditions at the site. Studies at existing commercial and Federal waste-disposal sites provide information on the problems encountered and the basis for establishing siting guidelines for improved isolation of radioactive waste, engineering design of repository structures, and surveillance needs to assess the effectiveness of the repositories and to provide early warning of problems that may require remedial action. Climate directly affects the hydrology of a site and probably is the most important single factor that affects the suitability of a site for shallow-land burial of low-level radioactive waste. Humid and subhumid regions are not well suited for shallow isolation of low-level radioactive waste in the unsaturated zone; arid regions with zero to small infiltration from precipitation, great depths to the water table, and long flow paths to natural discharge areas are naturally well suited to isolation of the waste. The unsaturated zone is preferred for isolation of low-level radioactive waste. The guiding rationale is to minimize contact of water with the waste and to

  11. Annual Transportation Report for Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2009-02-01

    In February 1997, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Nevada Operations Office (now known as the Nevada Site Office) issued the Mitigation Action Plan which addressed potential impacts described in the “Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada” (DOE/EIS 0243). The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office committed to several actions, including the preparation of an annual report, which summarizes waste shipments to and from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at Area 5 and Area 3. No shipments were disposed of at Area 3 in fiscal year (FY) 2008. This document satisfies requirements regarding low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) transported to or from the NTS during FY 2008. No transuranic (TRU) waste shipments were made from or to the NTS during FY 2008.

  12. Nevada Test Site 2001 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Y. E. Townsend

    2002-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data, subsidence monitoring data, and meteorology monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada (BN) reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 2001 was an average rainfall year: rainfall totaled 150 mm (5.9 in) at the Area 3 RWMS and 120 mm (4.7 in) at the Area 5 RWMS. Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2001 rainfall infiltrated less than one meter (3 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. All 2001 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing within expectations of the model and parameter assumptions for the facility performance assessments.

  13. Nevada Test Site 2009 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Radioactive Waste

    2010-06-23

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2009 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NTS. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. All gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below the minimum detectable concentrations, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Radon flux from waste covers is well below regulatory limits. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 87.6 millimeters (mm) (3.45 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2009 is 43 percent below the average of 152.4 mm (6.00 in.), and the 62.7 mm (2.47 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2009 is 49 percent below the average of 122.5 mm (4.82 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05 continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than evaporation

  14. Nevada Test Site 2007 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2007 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2007a; 2008; Warren and Grossman, 2008). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are at background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. A single gamma spectroscopy measurement for cesium was slightly above the minimum detectable concentration, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Radon flux from waste covers is well below regulatory limits. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 136.8 millimeters (mm) (5.39 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2007 is 13 percent below the average of 158.1 mm (6.22 in.), and the 123.8 mm (4.87 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2007 is 6 percent below the average of 130.7 mm (5.15 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05U continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward movement percolation of precipitation more effectively

  15. Simulation of groundwater flow around a pilot waste tire site

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.; Chyi, L.L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-04-01

    The groundwater system in the area contains several aquifers divided by underclays as confining layers. The three aquifers addressed under this research include the upper aquifer above the No. 6 underclay, the middle aquifer above the No. 5 underclay and the lower aquifer above the No. 4 underclay. A quasi-3D conceptual model is used in simulating groundwater flow and MODFLOW is used for the actual modeling. The boundary of the model area is defined by a local divide on the north, the Hugle Run on the west and the Temple Ditch on the east and the Sandy Creek on the south. The model consists of three aquifer layers and two confining layers. The upper one is unconfined, the middle one is a hybrid, and the lower one is confined. In the simulation of the upper aquifer, drain boundary condition is defined to include seepage. In the simulation of the middle aquifer, the Hugle Run and the Temple ditch associated with the alluvium represent a drain boundary and the Sand Creek to the south represents a constant head. The lower aquifer does not have a natural hydrogeologic boundary. The equipotential contours are assigned as constant head boundary. Simulation has indicated that minimal groundwater flow existed in the upper aquifer and it is flowing toward the southwest. Groundwater flow in the middle aquifer near the pilot waste site is somewhat divergent to the south. The velocity is slow near the site but increases quickly toward the southwest. Leakage from the upper aquifer appears to be predominant over the regional flow in the recharge of the middle aquifer. The lower aquifer is recharged mainly by the regional flow and is flowing almost due south.

  16. Role for risk communication in closing military waste sites.

    PubMed

    Klauenberg, B J; Vermulen, E K

    1994-06-01

    Lessons learned from environmental and occupational hazard risk management practices over the past 30 years have led the Department of Defense to explore alternative risk management approaches. Policies for cleanup of environmentally hazardous waste sites are undergoing examination and are being reframed. A Demonstration Risk Communication Program is described which incorporates principles that integrate risk-based scientific information as well as community values, perceptions, and needs in a democratic process that includes the public as an active participant from the earliest stages. A strong scientific foundation for assessment and characterization of risk is viewed as necessary but not sufficient; the public's values must be actively integrated into the negotiated criteria. The Demonstration Program uses a model to prepare the participants and to guide them through the process. A five-step process is presented: (1) create risk communications process action team including at least one member of the specific site audience; (2) professionally train participants on team dynamics including interpersonal communication skills; (3) train risk communicators to deliver a cogent presentation of the message to secure a decision acceptable to both the government and the public; (4) identify existing biases, perceptions, and values held by all participants; and (5) develop risk message incorporating science and values. The process action team approach assumes the participants enter into the effort with the goal of improved environment and safeguarded public health. The team approach avoids confrontational or adversarial interactions and focuses on a dialogue from which a negotiated team response develops. Central to the program is the recognition that communication is only effective when the dialogue is two-way. PMID:8029507

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF DEFENSE NUCLEAR WASTE USING HAZARDOUS WASTE GUIDANCE. APPLICATIONS TO HANFORD SITE ACCELERATED HIGH-LEVEL WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL MISSION0

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, William; Huffman, Lori; Lerchen, Megan; Wiemers, Karyn

    2003-02-27

    Federal hazardous waste regulations were developed for management of industrial waste. These same regulations are also applicable for much of the nation's defense nuclear wastes. At the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State, one of the nation's largest inventories of nuclear waste remains in storage in large underground tanks. The waste's regulatory designation and its composition and form constrain acceptable treatment and disposal options. Obtaining detailed knowledge of the tank waste composition presents a significant portion of the many challenges in meeting the regulatory-driven treatment and disposal requirements for this waste. Key in applying the hazardous waste regulations to defense nuclear wastes is defining the appropriate and achievable quality for waste feed characterization data and the supporting evidence demonstrating that applicable requirements have been met at the time of disposal. Application of a performance-based approach to demonstrating achievable quality standards will be discussed in the context of the accelerated high-level waste treatment and disposal mission at the Hanford Site.

  18. PLUTONIUM SOLUBILITY IN SIMULATED SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.; Hobbs, D.; Edwards, T.

    2010-09-27

    To address the accelerated disposition of the supernate and salt portions of Savannah River Site (SRS) high level waste (HLW), solubility experiments were performed to develop a predictive capability for plutonium (Pu) solubility. A statistically designed experiment was used to measure the solubility of Pu in simulated solutions with salt concentrations and temperatures which bounded those observed in SRS HLW solutions. Constituents of the simulated waste solutions included: hydroxide (OH{sup -}), aluminate (Al(OH){sub 4}{sup -}), sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), carbonate (CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}), nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}), and nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}) anions. Each anion was added to the waste solution in the sodium form. The solubilities were measured at 25 and 80 C. Five sets of samples were analyzed over a six month period and a partial sample set was analyzed after nominally fifteen months of equilibration. No discernable time dependence of the measured Pu concentrations was observed except for two salt solutions equilibrated at 80 C which contained OH{sup -} concentrations >5 mol/L. In these solutions, the Pu solubility increased with time. This observation was attributed to the air oxidation of a portion of the Pu from Pu(IV) to the more soluble Pu(V) or Pu(VI) valence states. A data driven approach was subsequently used to develop a modified response surface model for Pu solubility. Solubility data from this study and historical data from the literature were used to fit the model. The model predicted the Pu solubility of the solutions from this study within the 95% confidence interval for individual predictions and the analysis of variance indicated no statistically significant lack of fit. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) model was compared with predicted values from the Aqueous Electrolyte (AQ) model developed by OLI Systems, Inc. and a solubility prediction equation developed by Delegard and Gallagher for Hanford tank waste. The agreement between

  19. Framework for managing wastes from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) sites.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-09-15

    Oil and gas companies operate in many countries around the world. Their exploration and production (E&P) operations generate many kinds of waste that must be carefully and appropriately managed. Some of these wastes are inherently part of the E&P process; examples are drilling wastes and produced water. Other wastes are generic industrial wastes that are not unique to E&P activities, such as painting wastes and scrap metal. Still other wastes are associated with the presence of workers at the site; these include trash, food waste, and laundry wash water. In some host countries, mature environmental regulatory programs are in place that provide for various waste management options on the basis of the characteristics of the wastes and the environmental settings of the sites. In other countries, the waste management requirements and authorized options are stringent, even though the infrastructure to meet the requirements may not be available yet. In some cases, regulations and/or waste management infrastructure do not exist at all. Companies operating in these countries can be confronted with limited and expensive waste management options.

  20. Review of New York state low-level radioactive waste siting process

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This book reviews the efforts of New York State to site a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It evaluates the nature, sources, and quality of the data, analyses, and procedures used by the New York State Siting Commission in its decision-making process, which identified five potential sites for low-level waste disposal. Finally, the committee offers a chapter highlighting the lessons in siting low-level radioactive waste facilities that can be learned from New York State`s experience.

  1. Western Maryland Power Plant Siting Study: comparison of solid-waste-disposal issues at three candidate sites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klauda, R.J.; Portner, E.M.; Lentz, J.J.

    1984-10-01

    This document is one of a series of technical reports prepared for the Western Maryland Power Plant Siting Study. An array of solid-waste-disposal-issues are compared for the three candidate sites (FP-12 in Frederick County, WP-14 and WP-26 in Washington County) remaining after the six- to three-area study phase. An 1890-MW conventional, coal-fired power plant would produce about 46 million cubic yards of solid waste over a 33-year period. The study evaluated potential impacts of a blend of fly ash and fixed scrubber sludge disposed in landfills with a design to maximize waste isolation and minimize permeate or leachate production. All three candidate sites appear to have adequate waste-disposal capacity. Varied ground-water flow directions and potential dilution limitations in the areas draining FP-12 and WP-14 make monitoring, detection, and potential mitigation options more complex and costly than at WP-26.

  2. Comparative toxicology of laboratory organisms for assessing hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.E.; Peterson, S.A.; Greene, J.C.; Callahan, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Multi-media/multi-trophic level bioassays have been proposed to determine the extent and severity of environmental contamination at hazardous waste sites. Comparative toxicological profiles for algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), daphnia (Daphnia magna), earthworms (Eisenia foetida), microbes (Photobacterium fisherii, mixed sewage microorganisms) and plants; wheat Stephens, (Triticum aestivum), lettuce, butter crunch, (Lactuca sativa L.) radish, Cherry Belle, (Raphanus sativa L.), red clover, Kenland, (Trifolium pratense L.) and cucumber, Spartan Valor, (Cucumis sativa L.) are presented for selected heavy metals, herbicides and insecticides. Specific chemical EC/sub 50/ values are presented for each test organism. Differences in standard deviations were compared between each individual test organism, as well as for the chemical subgroup assayed. Algae and daphnia are the most sensitive test organisms to heavy metals and insecticides followed in order of decreasing sensitivity by Microtox (Photobacterium fisherii), DO depletion rate, seed germination and earthworms. Higher plants were most sensitive to 2,4-D, (2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) followed by algae, Microtox, daphnia and earthworms. Differences in toxicity of 2,4-D chemical formulations and commercial sources of insecticides were observed with algae and daphia tests.

  3. Nevada National Security Site 2014 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, David

    2015-02-19

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. Groundwater samples from the aquifer immediately below the Area 5 RWMS have been collected and analyzed and static water levels have been measured in this aquifer since 1993. This report updates these data to include the 2014 results. Analysis results for leachate contaminants collected from the mixed-waste cell at the Area 5 RWMS (Cell 18) are also included. During 2014, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at three wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Groundwater samples were collected at wells UE5PW-1, UE5PW-2, and UE5PW-3 on March 11 and August 12, 2014, and static water levels were measured at each of these wells on March 10, June 2, August 11, and October 14, 2014. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. General water chemistry (cations and anions) was also measured. Results from samples collected in 2014 are within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. The data from the shallow aquifer indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS, and there were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. Leachate from above the primary liner of Cell 18 drains into a sump and is collected in a tank at the ground surface. Cell 18 began receiving waste in January 2011. Samples were collected from the tank when the leachate volume approached the 3,000-gallon tank capacity. Leachate samples have been collected 16 times since January 2011. During 2014, samples were collected on February 25, March 5, May 20, August 12, September 16, November 11, and December 16. Each leachate sample was

  4. Preliminary siting activities for new waste handling facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.D.; Hoskinson, R.L.; Kingsford, C.O.; Ball, L.W.

    1994-09-01

    The Idaho Waste Processing Facility, the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility, and the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility are new waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities that have been proposed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A prime consideration in planning for such facilities is the selection of a site. Since spring of 1992, waste management personnel at the INEL have been involved in activities directed to this end. These activities have resulted in the (a) identification of generic siting criteria, considered applicable to either treatment or disposal facilities for the purpose of preliminary site evaluations and comparisons, (b) selection of six candidate locations for siting,and (c) site-specific characterization of candidate sites relative to selected siting criteria. This report describes the information gathered in the above three categories for the six candidate sites. However, a single, preferred site has not yet been identified. Such a determination requires an overall, composite ranking of the candidate sites, which accounts for the fact that the sites under consideration have different advantages and disadvantages, that no single site is superior to all the others in all the siting criteria, and that the criteria should be assigned different weighing factors depending on whether a site is to host a treatment or a disposal facility. Stakeholder input should now be solicited to help guide the final selection. This input will include (a) siting issues not already identified in the siting, work to date, and (b) relative importances of the individual siting criteria. Final site selection will not be completed until stakeholder input (from the State of Idaho, regulatory agencies, the public, etc.) in the above areas has been obtained and a strategy has been developed to make a composite ranking of all candidate sites that accounts for all the siting criteria.

  5. On-site storage of high level nuclear waste: attitudes and perceptions of local residents.

    PubMed

    Bassett, G W; Jenkins-Smith, H C; Silva, C

    1996-06-01

    No public policy issue has been as difficult as high-level nuclear waste. Debates continue regarding Yucca Mountain as a disposal site, and-more generally-the appropriateness of geologic disposal and the need to act quickly. Previous research has focused on possible social, political, and economic consequences of a facility in Nevada. Impacts have been predicted to be potentially large and to emanate mainly from stigmatization of the region due to increased perceptions of risk. Analogous impacts from leaving waste at power plants have been either ignored or assumed to be negligible. This paper presents survey results on attitudes of residents in three counties where nuclear waste is currently stored. Topics include perceived risk, knowledge of nuclear waste and radiation, and impacts on jobs, tourism, and housing values from leaving waste on site. Results are similar to what has been reported for Nevada; the public is concerned about possible adverse effects from on-site storage of waste. PMID:8693158

  6. Technology needs for remediation: Hanford and other DOE sites. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    Technologies are being developed under the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program to facilitate remediation of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) buried and stored low-level radioactive, transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive and hazardous buried wastes. The BWID program is being coordinated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in southeastern Idaho, a DOE site that has large volumes of buried radioactive wastes. The program is currently focusing its efforts on the problems at INEL`s Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). As specific technologies are successfully demonstrated, they will be available for transfer to applications at other DOE buried waste sites. The purpose of this study is to present buried waste technology needs that have been identified for DOE sites other than INEL.

  7. Selection and cultivation of final vegetative cover for closed waste sites at the Savannah River Site, SC

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.; Salvo, S.K.

    1992-12-31

    Low-level, hazardous, and mixed waste disposal sites normally require some form of plant material to prevent erosion of the final closure cap. Waste disposal sites are closed and capped in a complex scientific manner to minimize water infiltration and percolation into and through the waste material. Turf type grasses are currently being used as a vegetative cover for most sites. Consequently, the sites require periodic mowing and other expensive annual maintenance practices. The purpose of this five year study was to evaluate alternative plant material for use on wastes sites that is quickly and easily established and economically maintained, retards water infiltration, provides maximum year-round evapotranspiration, is ecologically acceptable and does not harm the closure cap. The results of the study are described in this report and suggest that two species of bamboo (Phyllostachys bissetii and P. rubromarainata) can be utilized to provide long lived, low maintenance, climax vegetation for the waste sites. These large species of bamboo will also reduce the probability of intrusion by humans, animals and deeply rooted plant species.

  8. Selection and cultivation of final vegetative cover for closed waste sites at the Savannah River Site, SC

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R. ); Salvo, S.K. )

    1992-01-01

    Low-level, hazardous, and mixed waste disposal sites normally require some form of plant material to prevent erosion of the final closure cap. Waste disposal sites are closed and capped in a complex scientific manner to minimize water infiltration and percolation into and through the waste material. Turf type grasses are currently being used as a vegetative cover for most sites. Consequently, the sites require periodic mowing and other expensive annual maintenance practices. The purpose of this five year study was to evaluate alternative plant material for use on wastes sites that is quickly and easily established and economically maintained, retards water infiltration, provides maximum year-round evapotranspiration, is ecologically acceptable and does not harm the closure cap. The results of the study are described in this report and suggest that two species of bamboo (Phyllostachys bissetii and P. rubromarainata) can be utilized to provide long lived, low maintenance, climax vegetation for the waste sites. These large species of bamboo will also reduce the probability of intrusion by humans, animals and deeply rooted plant species.

  9. Environmental assessment: Solid waste retrieval complex, enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage facility, infrastructure upgrades, and central waste support complex, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to take action to: retrieve transuranic (TRU) waste because interim storage waste containers have exceeded their 20-year design life and could fail causing a radioactive release to the environment provide storage capacity for retrieved and newly generated TRU, Greater-than-Category 3 (GTC3), and mixed waste before treatment and/or shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP); and upgrade the infrastructure network in the 200 West Area to enhance operational efficiencies and reduce the cost of operating the Solid Waste Operations Complex. This proposed action would initiate the retrieval activities (Retrieval) from Trench 4C-T04 in the 200 West Area including the construction of support facilities necessary to carry out the retrieval operations. In addition, the proposed action includes the construction and operation of a facility (Enhanced Radioactive Mixed Waste Storage Facility) in the 200 West Area to store newly generated and the retrieved waste while it awaits shipment to a final disposal site. Also, Infrastructure Upgrades and a Central Waste Support Complex are necessary to support the Hanford Site`s centralized waste management area in the 200 West Area. The proposed action also includes mitigation for the loss of priority shrub-steppe habitat resulting from construction. The estimated total cost of the proposed action is $66 million.

  10. Nevada National Security Site 2013 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, D. B.

    2014-08-19

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) within the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2013 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2013; 2014a; 2014b). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are close to detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. The 105.8 millimeters (mm) (4.17 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2013 is 30% below the average of 150.3 mm (5.92 in.), and the 117.5 mm (4.63 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2013 is 5% below the average of 123.6 mm (4.86 in.). Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents

  11. Nevada National Security Site 2012 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, David B.

    2013-09-10

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2012 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2012; 2013a; 2013b). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are only slightly above detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. The 133.9 millimeters (mm) (5.27 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2012 is 12% below the average of 153.0 mm (6.02 in.), and the 137.6 mm (5.42 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2012 is 11% below the average of 122.4 mm (4.82 in.). Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents

  12. Overview of Fiscal Year 2002 Research and Development for Savannah River Site's Salt Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    H. D. Harmon, R. Leugemors, PNNL; S. Fink, M. Thompson, D. Walker, WSRC; P. Suggs, W. D. Clark, Jr

    2003-02-26

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste program is responsible for storage, treatment, and immobilization of high-level waste for disposal. The Salt Processing Program (SPP) is the salt (soluble) waste treatment portion of the SRS high-level waste effort. The overall SPP encompasses the selection, design, construction and operation of treatment technologies to prepare the salt waste feed material for the site's grout facility (Saltstone) and vitrification facility (Defense Waste Processing Facility). Major constituents that must be removed from the salt waste and sent as feed to Defense Waste Processing Facility include actinides, strontium, cesium, and entrained sludge. In fiscal year 2002 (FY02), research and development (R&D) on the actinide and strontium removal and Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) processes transitioned from technology development for baseline process selection to providing input for conceptual design of the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The SPP R&D focused on advancing the technical maturity, risk reduction, engineering development, and design support for DOE's engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contractors for the Salt Waste Processing Facility. Thus, R&D in FY02 addressed the areas of actual waste performance, process chemistry, engineering tests of equipment, and chemical and physical properties relevant to safety. All of the testing, studies, and reports were summarized and provided to the DOE to support the Salt Waste Processing Facility, which began conceptual design in September 2002.

  13. Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada National Security Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-10-04

    The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is the federal lands management authority for the NNSS and National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NNSS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NNSS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NNSS. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) is the location of the permitted facility for the Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS). The Area 5 RWMS is located near the eastern edge of the NNSS (Figure 1), approximately 26 km (16 mi) north of Mercury, Nevada. The Area 5 RWMS is used for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste. Many areas surrounding the RWMS have been used in conducting nuclear tests. The site will be used for the disposal of regulated Asbestiform Low-Level Waste (ALLW), small quantities of low-level radioactive hydrocarbon-burdened (LLHB) media and debris, LLW, LLW that contains Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water, and small quantities of LLHB demolition and construction waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids, or waste that is regulated as hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or state-of-generation hazardous waste regulations, will not be accepted for disposal at the site. Waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) that will be accepted at the disposal site is regulated asbestos-containing materials (RACM) and PCB Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water. The term asbestiform is

  14. Archaeological Activity Report: Post-Review Discoveries Within 45BN431 at Solid Waste Site 128-F-2

    SciTech Connect

    T. E. Marceau; J. J. Sharpe

    2006-12-21

    During monitoring of remedial activities at Solid Waste Site 128-F-2 on August 19, 2005, a concentration of mussel shell was discovered in the west wall of a trench in the northen section of the waste site.

  15. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2005 Site Environmental Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2006-10-13

    The purpose of this report is to provide information needed by the DOE to assess WIPP's environmental performance and to make WIPP environmental information available to stakeholders and members of the public. This report has been prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A and DOE guidance. This report documents WIPP's environmental monitoring programs and their results for 2004. The WIPP Project is authorized by the DOE National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-164). After more than 20 years of scientific study and public input, WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. Located in southeastern New Mexico, WIPP is the nation's first underground repository permitted to safely and permanently dispose of TRU radioactive and mixed waste (as defined in the WIPP LWA) generated through defense activities and programs. TRU waste is defined, in the WIPP LWA, as radioactive waste containing more than 100 nanocuries (3,700 becquerels [Bq]) of alpha-emitting TRU isotopes per gram of waste, with half-lives greater than 20 years except for high-level waste, waste that has been determined not to require the degree of isolation required by the disposal regulations, and waste the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has approved for disposal. Most TRU waste is contaminated industrial trash, such as rags and old tools; sludges from solidified liquids; glass; metal; and other materials from dismantled buildings. TRU waste is eligible for disposal at WIPP if it has been generated in whole or in part by one or more of the activities listed in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §10101, et seq.), including naval reactors development, weapons activities, verification and control technology, defense nuclear materials production, defense nuclear waste and materials by-products management,defense nuclear materials security and safeguards and security investigations, and

  16. Geology Report: Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site DOE/Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2006-07-01

    Surficial geologic studies near the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) were conducted as part of a site characterization program. Studies included evaluation of the potential for future volcanism and Area 3 fault activity that could impact waste disposal operations at the Area 3 RWMS. Future volcanic activity could lead to disruption of the Area 3 RWMS. Local and regional studies of volcanic risk indicate that major changes in regional volcanic activity within the next 1,000 years are not likely. Mapped basalts of Paiute Ridge, Nye Canyon, and nearby Scarp Canyon are Miocene in age. There is a lack of evidence for post-Miocene volcanism in the subsurface of Yucca Flat, and the hazard of basaltic volcanism at the Area 3 RWMS, within the 1,000-year regulatory period, is very low and not a forseeable future event. Studies included a literature review and data analysis to evaluate unclassified published and unpublished information regarding the Area 3 and East Branch Area 3 faults mapped in Area 3 and southern Area 7. Two trenches were excavated along the Area 3 fault to search for evidence of near-surface movement prior to nuclear testing. Allostratigraphic units and fractures were mapped in Trenches ST02 and ST03. The Area 3 fault is a plane of weakness that has undergone strain resulting from stress imposed by natural events and underground nuclear testing. No major vertical displacement on the Area 3 fault since the Early Holocene, and probably since the Middle Pleistocene, can be demonstrated. The lack of major displacement within this time frame and minimal vertical extent of minor fractures suggest that waste disposal operations at the Area 3 RWMS will not be impacted substantially by the Area 3 fault, within the regulatory compliance period. A geomorphic surface map of Yucca Flat utilizes the recent geomorphology and soil characterization work done in adjacent northern Frenchman Flat. The approach taken was to adopt the map unit boundaries (line

  17. 1997 annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Segall, P.

    1998-04-13

    Hanford`s missions are to safely clean up and manage the site`s legacy wastes, and to develop and deploy science and technology. Through these missions Hanford will contribute to economic diversification of the region. Hanford`s environmental management or cleanup mission is to protect the health and safety of the public, workers, and the environment; control hazardous materials; and utilize the assets (people, infra structure, site) for other missions. Hanford`s science and technology mission is to develop and deploy science and technology in the service of the nation including stewardship of the Hanford Site. Pollution Prevention is a key to the success of these missions by reducing the amount of waste to be managed and identifying/implementing cost effective waste reduction projects. Hanford`s original mission, the production of nuclear materials for the nation`s defense programs, lasted more than 40 years, and like most manufacturing operations, Hanford`s operations generated large quantities of waste and pollution. However, the by-products from Hanford operations pose unique problems like radiation hazards, vast volumes of contaminated water and soil, and many contaminated structures including reactors, chemical plants and evaporation ponds. The cleanup activity is an immense and challenging undertaking, which includes characterization and decommissioning of 149 single shell storage tanks, treating 28 double shell tanks, safely disposing of over 2,100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel stored on site, removing numerous structures, and dealing with significant solid waste, ground water, and land restoration issues.

  18. Demonstration of Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction with Savannah River Site High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.

    2001-08-27

    Researchers successfully demonstrated the chemistry and process equipment of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) flowsheet for the decontamination of high level waste using a 33-stage, 2-cm centrifugal contactor apparatus at the Savannah River Technology Center. This represents the first CSSX process demonstration using Savannah River Site (SRS) high level waste. Three tests lasting 6, 12, and 48 hours processed simulated average SRS waste, simulated Tank 37H/44F composite waste, and Tank 37H/44F high level waste, respectively.

  19. Savannah River Site Waste Management Program Plan, FY 1993. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The primary purpose of the Waste Management Program Plan is to provide an annual report on facilities being used to manage wastes, forces acting to change current waste management (WM) systems, and how operations are conducted. This document also reports on plans for the coming fiscal year and projects activities for several years beyond the coming fiscal year to adequately plan for safe handling and disposal of radioactive wastes generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and for developing technology for improved management of wastes.

  20. Characterization Report for the 92-Acre Area of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. This report summarizes characterization and monitoring work pertinent to the 92-Acre Area in the southeast part of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites. The decades of characterization and assessment work at the Area 5 RWMS indicate that the access controls, waste operation practices, site design, final cover design, site setting, and arid natural environment contribute to a containment system that meets regulatory requirements and performance objectives for the short- and long-term protection of the environment and public. The available characterization and Performance Assessment information is adequate to support design of the final cover and development of closure plans. No further characterization is warranted to demonstrate regulatory compliance. U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is proceeding with the development of closure plans for the six closure units of the 92-Acre Area.

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2003 Site Environmental Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-09-03

    The purpose of this report is to provide information needed by the DOE to assess WIPP's environmental performance and to convey that performance to stakeholders and members of the public. This report has been prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A and DOE guidance. This report documents WIPP's environmental monitoring programs and their results for 2003. The WIPP Project is authorized by the DOE National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-164). After more than 20 years of scientific study and public input, WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. Located in southeastern New Mexico, WIPP is the nation's first underground repository permitted to safely and permanently dispose of TRU radioactive and mixed waste (as defined in the WIPP LWA) generated through the research and production of nuclear weapons and other activities related to the national defense of the United States. TRU waste is defined in the WIPP LWA as radioactive waste containing more than 100 nanocuries (3,700 becquerels [Bq]) of alpha-emitting transuranic isotopes per gram of waste, with half-lives greater than 20 years. Exceptions are noted as high-level waste, waste that has been determined not to require the degree of isolation required by the disposal regulations, and waste the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has approved for disposal. Most TRU waste is contaminated industrial trash, such as rags and old tools, and sludges from solidified liquids; glass; metal; and other materials from dismantled buildings. A TRU waste is eligible for disposal at WIPP if it has been generated in whole or in partby one or more of the activities listed in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §10101, et seq.), including naval reactors development, weapons activities, verification and control technology, defense nuclear materials production, defense nuclear waste and materials by

  2. Statistical approaches to screening hazardous waste sites for toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.M.; Athey, L.A.; Skalski, J.R.

    1987-06-01

    Bioassay results from two field studies illustrate how maps of toxicity can be prepared based on systematic sampling and show how cleanup decisions can be made using bioassay results based on few samples. Logarithmically spaced soil samples were obtained along four parallel transects at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal. A total of 72 soil samples were subjected to Daphnia, Microtox, algal, earthworm and lettuce root elongation bioassays. Bioassay results (excepting earthworms) were inconclusive for toxicity, but allowed us to ignore several classes of compounds, such as water-soluble heavy metals, herbicides, and insecticides, since our prior results using pure chemicals showed depressed algal growth in the presence of these contaminants. To depict the spatial pattern of observed seed mortality at each depth, we used kriging to produce contour maps. The results clearly showed that lettuce seed mortality was higher in the 15 to 30 cm fraction, that waste-trench soil was highly phytotoxic, and that toxicity decreased as a function of distance from the trench. In addition, we found that mortality contours produced by kriging could be useful in site cleanup decisions. A study was conducted using a series of water and sediment samples collected from a narrow stream adjacent to a wood treatment plant in Canton, Mississippi. Both creosote and pentachlorophenol were used for wood treatment. Sediment samples were collected every 20 m in the visibly contaminated zones. Based on simple linear interpolation of bioassay results, we found that different bioassays led to different conclusions regarding the toxicity of different areas, suggesting that contaminants other than creosote may have caused the observed toxicity. Moreover, chemical analysis was an inaccurate predictor of toxicity.

  3. Use of controlled release herbicides in waste burial sites

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.

    1981-07-01

    Controlled-release formulations of herbicides have been applied to the soil in the manner traditional for herbicides: on the surface or mixed into the top few inches of soil. The controlled-release formulation allows another option that we propose to use: to place herbicides, contained in controlled-release formulations, in a layer at least a foot below the surface of the soil, in order to prevent root penetration below that level. Ideally, the herbicide will prevent root tip cell division but will not translocate within the plant, thus assuring that the plant will survive, preserving the ground cover. Trifluralin is one of the herbicides which does not translocate and was chosen for use in this study. A number of applications for this technology are possible; particularly in waste management. In the present studies, we used two different forms of polymeric carrier/delivery (PCD) systems to investigate the controlled release of herbicides. In the initial study, a sheet was made of homogeneous mixtures of an individual polymer and trifluralin. We made several of these sheets, using a different polymer each time (with trifluralin) to compare release rates from the various polymers. We also fabricated cylindrical pellets in two sizes from mixtures of Profax/sup a/ PS-1600 polypropylene and trifluralin, formulated to determine the interaction of PCD systems with soil. Also developed is a trifluralin-releasing device with a theoretical effective lifetime approaching 100 years. The system was designed specifically to protect the asphalt layer or clay/aggregate barriers on uranium mill tailings piles. PCD devices composed of pellets could also be implanted over burial sites for radioactive and/or toxic materials, preventing translocation of those materials to plant shoots, and thence into the biosphere.

  4. For Sale: Nuclear Waste Sites--Anyone Buying?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Don

    1992-01-01

    Explores why the United States Nuclear Waste Program has been unable to find a volunteer state to host either a nuclear waste repository or monitored retrieval storage facility. Discusses the Department of Energy's plans for Nevada's Yucca Mountain as a repository and state and tribal responses to the plan. (21 references) (MCO)

  5. Management and disposal of waste from sites contaminated by radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Carlyle J.

    1998-06-01

    Various methods of managing and disposing of wastes generated by decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) activities are described. This review of current waste management practices includes a description of waste minimization and volume reduction techniques and their applicability to various categories of radwaste. The importance of the physical properties of the radiation and radioactivity in determining the methodology of choice throughout the D & D process is stressed. The subject is introduced by a survey of the common types of radioactive contamination that must be managed and the more important hazards associated with each type. Comparisons are made among high level, transuranic, low level, and radioactive mixed waste, and technologically-enhanced, naturally-occurring radioactive material (TENORM). The development of appropriate clean-up criteria for each category of contaminated waste is described with the aid of examples drawn from actual practice. This includes a discussion of the application of pathway analysis to the derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines. The choice between interim storage and permanent disposal of radioactive wastes is addressed. Approaches to permanent disposal of each category of radioactive waste are described and illustrated with examples of facilities that have been constructed or are planned for implementation in the near future. Actual experience at older, existing, low-level waste disposal facilities is discussed briefly.

  6. Nuclear Waste Cross Site Transfer Pump Operational Resonance Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    HAUCK, F.M.

    1999-12-01

    Two single-volute, multi-stage centrifugal pumps are installed at a nuclear waste transfer station operated by the Department of Energy in Hanford, WA. The two parallel 100% pumps are Variable Frequency Drive operated and designed to transport waste etc.

  7. Microbial Population of Feedlot Waste and Associated Sites

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, R. A.; Hrubant, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    A quantitative determination was made every 2 months for a year of the microflora of beef cattle waste and runoff at a medium-sized midwestern feedlot. Counts were obtained for selected groups of organisms in waste taken from paved areas of pens cleaned daily and, therefore, reflect the flora of raw waste. Overall, in terms of viable count per gram dry weight, the feedlot waste contained 1010 total organisms, 109 anaerobes, 108 gram-negative bacteria, 107 coliforms, 106 sporeformers, and 105 yeasts, fungi, and streptomycetes. The specific numbers and pattern of these groups of organisms varied only slightly during the study in spite of a wide variation in weather. Data indicate that little microbial growth occurs in the waste as it exists in the feedlot. Runoff from the pens contained the same general population pattern but with greater variation attributable to volume of liquid. Comparable determinations of an associated field disposal area (before and after cropping), stockpiled waste, and elevated dirt areas in the pens indicate that fungi, and especially streptomycetes, are the aerobic organisms most associated with final stabilization of the waste. Yeasts, which are the dominant type of organism in the ensiled corn fed the cattle, do not occur in large numbers in the animal waste. Large ditches receiving runoff and subsurface water from the fields have a population similar to the runoff but with fewer coliforms. PMID:16349931

  8. ANNUAL TRANSPORTATION REPORT FY 2007, Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE NNSA NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2007-12-01

    In February 1997, the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (now known as the Nevada Site Office) issued the Mitigation Action Plan which addressed potential impacts described in the “Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada” (DOE/EIS 0243). The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office committed to several actions, including the preparation of an annual report, which summarizes waste shipments to and from the Nevada Test Site Radioactive Waste Management Site at Area 5. No shipments were disposed of at Area 3 in fiscal year 2007. This document satisfies requirements regarding low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level radioactive waste transported to or from the NTS during fiscal year 2007.

  9. A model for optimal operation of land-treatment sites for oily wastes.

    PubMed

    Unlü, K; Kivanç, S

    2001-06-01

    Land treatment as a disposal technology has been extensively used for the disposal of oily wastes. Effective management of land treatment sites require optimal operation of the system in order to achieve the fastest and most complete degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons without contamination of the environment. This paper describes a model that can be used for optimising the operation of land treatment sites for oily wastes. The model is composed of system simulator and optimisation submodels. Conceptually, the system simulation submodel is composed of a waste mixing zone, lower treatment zone and aquifer modules. The system simulation model allows for periodic waste applications and determines the spatial and temporal variation of the state variables such as phase summed (total) and aqueous phase contaminant concentrations and water content in the system. The optimisation submodel coupled with the system simulator determines the optimal values of system control variables, such as waste loading rate, infiltration rate, water content, frequency of waste application and the dimensions of the land treatment site. Optimisation of these system control variables is accomplished by maximising the hydrocarbon mass removal from the waste mixing zone under the constraint of satisfying a prespecified water quality criteria in the aquifer. Selected model applications are presented to demonstrate the applicability and utility of the model. Such model applications include determination of the optimal operating conditions for the land treatment of oily wastes under various different site and soil environmental conditions and practical waste disposal scenarios. PMID:11699857

  10. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 547: Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-07-17

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 547, Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, and provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that closure objectives for CAU 547 were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996 as amended). CAU 547 consists of the following three Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 3, and 9 of the Nevada National Security Site: (1) CAS 02-37-02, Gas Sampling Assembly; (2) CAS 03-99-19, Gas Sampling Assembly; AND (3) CAS 09-99-06, Gas Sampling Assembly Closure activities began in August 2011 and were completed in June 2012. Activities were conducted according to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for CAU 547 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2011). The recommended corrective action for the three CASs in CAU 547 was closure in place with administrative controls. The following closure activities were performed: (1) Open holes were filled with concrete; (2) Steel casings were placed over vertical expansion joints and filled with cement; (3) Engineered soil covers were constructed over piping and exposed sections of the gas sampling system components; (4) Fencing, monuments, Jersey barriers, radiological postings, and use restriction (UR) warning signs were installed around the perimeters of the sites; (5) Housekeeping debris was picked up from around the sites and disposed; and (6) Radiological surveys were performed to confirm final radiological postings. UR documentation is included in Appendix D. The post-closure plan was presented in detail in the CADD/CAP for CAU 547 and is included as

  11. Low-level radioactive waste management: transitioning to off-site disposal at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dorries, Alison M

    2010-11-09

    Facing the closure of nearly all on-site management and disposal capability for low-level radioactive waste (LLW), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is making ready to ship the majority of LLW off-site. In order to ship off-site, waste must meet the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility's (TSDF) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In preparation, LANL's waste management organization must ensure LANL waste generators characterize and package waste compliantly and waste characterization documentation is complete and accurate. Key challenges that must be addressed to successfully make the shift to off-site disposal of LLW include improving the detail, accuracy, and quality of process knowledge (PK) and acceptable knowledge (AK) documentation, training waste generators and waste management staff on the higher standard of data quality and expectations, improved WAC compliance for off-site facilities, and enhanced quality assurance throughout the process. Certification of LANL generators will allow direct off-site shipping of LLW from their facilities.

  12. Nevada National Security Site 2012 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2013-02-11

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The data have been collected since 1993 and include calendar year 2012 results. During 2012, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at the three pilot wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Groundwater samples were collected at UE5PW-1, UE5PW-2, and UE5PW-3 on March 21, August 7, August 21, and September 11, 2012, and static water levels were measured at each of the three pilot wells on March 19, June 6, August 2, and October 15, 2012. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also measured. Final results from samples collected in 2012 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  13. Nevada National Security Site 2010 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-01-01

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The data have been collected since 1993 and include calendar year 2010 results. During 2010, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at the three pilot wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Samples were collected at UE5PW-1 on March 10 and August 10, 2010; at UE5PW-2 on March 10, August 10, and August 25, 2010; and at UE5PW-3 on March 31, August 10, and August 25, 2010. Static water levels were measured at each of the three pilot wells on March 1, April 26, August 9, and November 9, 2010. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also measured. Results from all samples collected in 2010 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  14. Nevada Test Site 2002 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Y. E. Townsend

    2003-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2002 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Wells Ue5PW-1, Ue5PW-2, and Ue5PW-3 were sampled semiannually for the required analytes: pH, specific conductance, major cations/anions, metals, tritium, total organic carbon (TOC), and total organic halogen (TOX). Results from all samples collected in 2002 were within established criteria. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act(RCRA) regulated unit within the RWMS-5 and confirm that the detections of TOC and TOX in 2000 were false positives. Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (ILs) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. There were no major changes noted in the monitored groundwater elevation. There continues to be an extremely small gradient to the northeast with an average flow velocity of less than one foot per year. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure.

  15. Nevada Test Site 2009 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program, Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-01-19

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The data have been collected since 1993 and include calendar year 2009 results. During 2009, groundwater at each of the three pilot wells was sampled on March 10, 2009, and August 18, 2009, and water levels at each of the three pilot wells were measured on February 17, May 6, August 17, and November 10, 2009. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also measured. Results from all samples collected in 2009 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  16. Conceptual Design Report: Nevada Test Site Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Project

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-01-31

    Environmental cleanup of contaminated nuclear weapons manufacturing and test sites generates radioactive waste that must be disposed. Site cleanup activities throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex are projected to continue through 2050. Some of this waste is mixed waste (MW), containing both hazardous and radioactive components. In addition, there is a need for MW disposal from other mission activities. The Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision designates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as a regional MW disposal site. The NTS has a facility that is permitted to dispose of onsite- and offsite-generated MW until November 30, 2010. There is not a DOE waste management facility that is currently permitted to dispose of offsite-generated MW after 2010, jeopardizing the DOE environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. A mission needs document (CD-0) has been prepared for a newly permitted MW disposal facility at the NTS that would provide the needed capability to support DOE's environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. This report presents a conceptual engineering design for a MW facility that is fully compliant with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and DOE O 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management'. The facility, which will be located within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the NTS, will provide an approximately 20,000-cubic yard waste disposal capacity. The facility will be licensed by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP).

  17. Mobile loading transuranic waste at small quantity sites in the Department of Energy complex-10523

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Mitch; Howard, Bryan; Weyerman, Wade; Mctaggart, Jerri

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Carlsbad Office (LANL-CO), operates mobile loading operations for all of the large and small quantity transuranic (TRU) waste sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The mobile loading team performs loading and unloading evolutions for both contact handled (CH) and remote handled (RH) waste. For small quantity sites, many of which have yet to remove their TRU waste, the mobile loading team will load shipments that will ship to Idaho National Laboratory, a centralization site, or ship directly to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). For example, Argonne National Laboratory and General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center have certified programs for RH waste so they will ship their RH waste directly to WIPP. Many of the other sites will ship their waste to Idaho for characterization and certification. The Mobile Loading Units (MLU) contain all of the necessary equipment needed to load CH and RH waste into the appropriate shipping vessels. Sites are required to provide additional equipment, such as cranes, fork trucks, and office space. The sites are also required to provide personnel to assist in the shipping operations. Each site requires a site visit from the mobile loading team to ensure that all of the necessary site equipment, site requirements and space for shipping can be provided. The mobile loading team works diligently with site representatives to ensure that all safety and regulatory requirements are met. Once the waste is ready and shipping needs are met, the mobile loading team can be scheduled to ship the waste. The CH MLU is designed to support TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT loading activities wherever needed within the DOE complex. The team that performs the mobile loading operation has obtained national certification under DOE for TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT loading and shipment certification. The RH MLU is designed to support removable lid canister (RLC) and RH-72B cask loading activities wherever needed within the DOE

  18. Revised Draft Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-04-11

    This ''Revised Draft Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement'' (HSW EIS) covers three primary aspects of waste management at Hanford--waste treatment, storage, and disposal. It also addresses four kinds of solid waste--low-level waste (LLW), mixed (radioactive and chemically hazardous) low-level waste (MLLW), transuranic (TRU) waste, and immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). It fundamentally asks the question: how should we manage the waste we have now and will have in the future? This EIS analyzes the impacts of the LLW, MLLW, TRU waste, and ILAW we currently have in storage, will generate, or expect to receive at Hanford. The HSW EIS is intended to help us determine what specific facilities we will continue to use, modify, or construct to treat, store, and dispose of these wastes (Figure S.1). Because radioactive and chemically hazardous waste management is a complex, technical, and difficult subject, we have made every effort to minimize the use of acronyms (making an exception for our four waste types listed above), use more commonly understood words, and provide the ''big picture'' in this summary. An acronym list, glossary of terms, and conversions for units of measure are provided in a readers guide in Volume 1 of this EIS.

  19. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 116-C-3, 105-C Chemical Waste Tanks, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-002

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-01-31

    The 116-C-3 waste site consisted of two underground storage tanks designed to receive mixed waste from the 105-C Reactor Metals Examination Facility chemical dejacketing process. Confirmatory evaluation and subsequent characterization of the site determined that the southern tank contained approximately 34,000 L (9,000 gal) of dejacketing wastes, and that the northern tank was unused. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling and modeling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also show that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  20. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites... NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. (a) An...

  1. Closure Strategy for a Waste Disposal Facility with Multiple Waste Types and Regulatory Drivers at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    L. Desotell; D. Wieland; V. Yucel; G. Shott; J. Wrapp

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is planning to close the 92-Acre Area of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is about 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Closure planning for this facility must take into account the regulatory requirements for a diversity of waste streams, disposal and storage configurations, disposal history, and site conditions. This paper provides a brief background of the Area 5 RWMS, identifies key closure issues, and presents the closure strategy. Disposals have been made in 25 shallow excavated pits and trenches and 13 Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes at the 92-Acre Area since 1961. The pits and trenches have been used to dispose unclassified low-level waste (LLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and asbestiform waste, and to store classified low-level and low-level mixed materials. The GCD boreholes are intermediate-depth disposal units about 10 feet (ft) in diameter and 120 ft deep. Classified and unclassified high-specific activity LLW, transuranic (TRU), and mixed TRU are disposed in the GCD boreholes. TRU waste was also disposed inadvertently in trench T-04C. Except for three disposal units that are active, all pits and trenches are operationally covered with 8-ft thick alluvium. The 92-Acre Area also includes a Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWDU) operating under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Interim Status, and an asbestiform waste unit operating under a state of Nevada Solid Waste Disposal Site Permit. A single final closure cover is envisioned over the 92-Acre Area. The cover is the evapotranspirative-type cover that has been successfully employed at the NTS. Closure, post-closure care, and monitoring must meet the requirements of the following regulations: U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1, Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, Title 40 CFR Part 265, Nevada Administrative

  2. 1995 Annual report on waste generation and waste mainization progress as required by DOE order 5400.1, Hanford site

    SciTech Connect

    Betsch, M.D.

    1996-09-24

    While waste generation numbers are important, the true measure of success is waste minimized. Many Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) successes at the Hanford Site occur every day without formal recognition as pollution prevention, as they have become part of a culture of best management practices. As an example, the success of the excess and reuse program, both informal and formal, documents the Wmin/P2 culture that exists in the pollution prevention representatives and employees at the facilities.

  3. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase induction in the common kingfisher from an electronic waste recycling site.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang-Ping; Mo, Ling; Zhi, Hui; Peng, Ying; Tao, Lin; Ren, Zi-He; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-06-01

    The health effects of exposure to electronic waste (e-waste)-derived pollutants are an important issue. The authors explored the association between the hepatic levels of e-waste-derived halogenated contaminants (including polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs], and polybrominated biphenyls [PBBs]) and hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity of the common kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) from an e-waste site and 2 reference sites in South China. The summed concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs, and PBBs ranged from 620 ng/g to 15 000 ng/g, 25 ng/g to 900 ng/g, and 14 ng/g to 49 ng/g wet weight, respectively, in the kingfishers from the e-waste site, and these values were significantly greater (2-3 orders of magnitude) than those obtained at the 2 reference sites. Correspondingly, significant hepatic EROD induction was observed in the kingfishers from the e-waste site compared with the reference sites. The EROD activity was significantly correlated to the levels of most of the PCB and PBDE congeners examined as well as PBB 153, suggesting that EROD induction may be evoked by these e-waste-derived pollutants. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1594-1599. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26509239

  4. Application for Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site - U10c Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-08-05

    The NTS is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. NNSA/NSO is the federal lands management authority for the NTS and NSTec is the Management & Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The U10C Disposal Site is located in the northwest corner of Area 9 at the NTS (Figure 1) and is located in a subsidence crater created by two underground nuclear events, one in October 1962 and another in April 1964. The disposal site opened in 1971 for the disposal of rubbish, refuse, pathological waste, asbestos-containing material, and industrial solid waste. A Notice of Intent form to operate the disposal site as a Class II site was submitted to the state of Nevada on January 26, 1994, and was acknowledged in a letter to the DOE on February 8, 1994. It operated as a state of Nevada Class II Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS) until it closed on October 5, 1995, for retrofit as a Class III SWDS. The retrofit consisted of the installation of a minimum four-foot compacted soil layer to segregate the different waste types and function as a liner to inhibit leachate and water flow into the lower waste zone. Five neutron monitoring tubes were installed in this layer to monitor possible leachate production and water activity. Upon acceptance of the installed barrier and approval of an Operating Plan by NDEP/BFF, the site reopened in January 1996 as a Class III SWDS for the disposal of industrial solid waste and other inert waste.

  5. Geohydrologic descriptions of selected solid waste disposal sites in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres-Gonzalez, Arturo; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando

    1982-01-01

    General descriptions of the 50 disposal sites are given with their geohydrologic setting. Baseline data consisting of specific conductance, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and common ions were obtained at many of the sites. Such information provides a technical basis for assessing future effects of those solid-waste disposal sites on the quality of water resources.

  6. ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES: A FIELD AND LABORATORY REFERENCE DOCUMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document has the following purposes: 1) to discuss the scientific basis for assessing adverse ecological effects at hazardous waste sites (HWSs), and 2) to present methods for evaluating the on-site and off-site ecological effects of HWSs. The methods are intended for implem...

  7. Geochemical information for sites contaminated with low-level radioactive wastes. III. Weldon Spring Storage Site

    SciTech Connect

    Seeley, F.G.; Kelmers, A.D.

    1985-02-01

    The Weldon Spring Storage Site (WSSS), which includes both the chemical site and the quarry, became radioactively contaminated as the result of wastes that were being stored from operations to recover uranium from pitchblende ores in the 1940s and 1950s. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering various remedial action options for the WSSS. This report describes the results of geochemical investigations carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support these activities and to help quantify various remedial action options. Soil and groundwater samples were characterized, and uranium and radium sorption ratios were measured in site soil/groundwater systems by batch contact methodology. Soil samples from various locations around the raffinate pits were found to contain major amounts of silica, along with illite as the primary clay constituent. Particle sizes of the five soil samples were variable (50% distribution point ranging from 12 to 81 ..mu..m); the surface areas varied from 13 to 62 m/sup 2//g. Elemental analysis of the samples showed them to be typical of sandy clay and silty clay soils. Groundwater samples included solution from Pit 3 and well water from Well D. Anion analyses showed significant concentrations of sulfate and nitrate (>350 and >7000 mg/L, respectively) in the solution from Pit 3. These anions were also present in the well water, but in lower concentrations. Uranium sorption ratios for four of the soil samples contacted with the solution from Pit 3 were moderate to high (approx. 300 to approx. 1000 mL/g). The fifth sample had a ratio of only 12 mL/g. Radium sorption ratios for the five samples were moderate to high (approx. 600 to approx. 1000 mL/g). These values indicate that soil at the WSSS may show favorable retardation of uranium and radium in the groundwater. 13 references, 13 figures, 10 tables.

  8. Hydrogeologic data for existing excavations and the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The Special Projects Section of Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Co., Inc. is responsible for characterizing the subsurface geology and hydrology of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Waste Management Division. Geologic description, in situ testing, and laboratory analyses of alluvium exposed in existing excavations are important subparts to the Area 5 Site Characterization Program designed to determine the suitability of the RWMS for disposal of low level waste mixed waste and transuranic waste. The primary purpose of the Existing Excavation Project is two-fold: first, to characterize important hydrologic properties of the near surface alluvium, thought to play an important role in the infiltration and redistribution of water and solutes through the upper unsaturated zone at the Area 5 RWMS; and second, to provide guidance for the design of future sampling and testing programs. The justification for this work comes from the state of Nevada review of the original DOE/NV Part B Permit application submitted in 1988 for disposal of mixed wastes at the RWMS. The state of Nevada determined that the permit was deficient in characterization data concerning the hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone. DOE/NV agreed with the state and proposed the study of alluvium exposed in existing excavations as one step toward satisfying these important site characterization data requirements. Other components of the site characterization process include the Science Trench Borehole and Pilot Well Projects.

  9. Composite Analysis for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    V. Yucel

    2001-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of a Composite Analysis (CA) for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The Area 5 RWMS is a US Department of Energy (DOE)-operated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management site located in northern Frenchman Flat on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS has disposed of low-level radioactive waste in shallow unlined pits and trenches since 1960. Transuranic waste (TRU) and high-specific activity waste was disposed in Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes from 1983 to 1989. The purpose of this CA is to determine if continuing operation of the Area 5 RWMS poses an acceptable or unacceptable risk to the public considering the total waste inventory and all other interacting sources of radioactive material in the vicinity. Continuing operation of the Area 5 RWMS will be considered acceptable if the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) is less than 100 mrem in a year. If the TEDE exceeds 30 mrem in a year, a cost-benefit options analysis must be performed to determine if cost-effective management options exist to reduce the dose further. If the TEDE is found to be less than 30 mrem in a year, an analysis may be performed if warranted to determine if doses are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

  10. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    SciTech Connect

    1988-01-01

    Chapter six describes the basis for facility design, the completed facility conceptual design, the completed analytical work relating to the resolution of design issues, and future design-related work. The basis for design and the conceptual design information presented in this chapter meet the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, for a conceptual repository design that takes into account site-specific requirements. This information is presented to permit a critical evaluation of planned site characterization activities. Chapter seven describes waste package components, emplacement environment, design, and status of research and development that support the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) Project. The site characterization plan (SCP) discussion of waste package components is contained entirely within this chapter. The discussion of emplacement environment in this chapter is limited to considerations of the environment that influence, or which may influence, if perturbed, the waste packages and their performance (particularly hydrogeology, geochemistry, and borehole stability). The basis for conceptual waste package design as well as a description of the design is included in this chapter. The complete design will be reported in the advanced conceptual design (ACD) report and is not duplicated in the SCP. 367 refs., 173 figs., 68 tabs.

  11. Nevada National Security Site 2010 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2010 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2010a; 2010b; 2011). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. All gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below the minimum detectable concentrations, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 246.9 millimeters (mm) (9.72 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2010 is 56 percent above the average of 158.7 mm (6.25 in.), and the 190.4 mm (7.50 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2010 is 50 percent above the average of 126.7 mm (4.99 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05 continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than

  12. Nevada National Security Site 2011 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-07-31

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2011 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are only slightly above detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. During the last 2 weeks of March 2011, gamma spectroscopy results for air particles showed measurable activities of iodine-131 (131I), cesium-134 (134Cs), and cesium-137 (137Cs). These results are attributed to the release of fission products from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi power plant in Japan. The remaining gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below minimum detectable concentrations. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. The 86.3 millimeters (mm) (3.40 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2011 is 44% below the average of 154.1 mm (6.07 in.), and the 64.8 mm

  13. Establishing the acceptability of Savannah River site waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Plodinec, M.J.; Kitchen, B.G.

    1990-01-01

    The United States' first facility to immobilize high-level nuclear waste, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), will soon begin integrated nonradioactive testing. An important objective of that testing is to demonstrate that the DWPF product will comply with specifications established by the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW). In this report, the DWPF process and product are described, and the approach being taken to establish the acceptability of the DWPF product is presented. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Increased Rate of Hospitalization for Diabetes and Residential Proximity of Hazardous Waste Sites

    PubMed Central

    Kouznetsova, Maria; Huang, Xiaoyu; Ma, Jing; Lessner, Lawrence; Carpenter, David O.

    2007-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies suggest that there may be an association between environmental exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and diabetes. Objective The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that residential proximity to POP-contaminated waste sites result in increased rates of hospitalization for diabetes. Methods We determined the number of hospitalized patients 25–74 years of age diagnosed with diabetes in New York State exclusive of New York City for the years 1993–2000. Descriptive statistics and negative binomial regression were used to compare diabetes hospitalization rates in individuals who resided in ZIP codes containing or abutting hazardous waste sites containing POPs (“POP” sites); ZIP codes containing hazardous waste sites but with wastes other than POPs (“other” sites); and ZIP codes without any identified hazardous waste sites (“clean” sites). Results Compared with the hospitalization rates for diabetes in clean sites, the rate ratios for diabetes discharges for people residing in POP sites and “other” sites, after adjustment for potential confounders were 1.23 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15–1.32] and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.16–1.34), respectively. In a subset of POP sites along the Hudson River, where there is higher income, less smoking, better diet, and more exercise, the rate ratio was 1.36 (95% CI, 1.26–1.47) compared to clean sites. Conclusions After controlling for major confounders, we found a statistically significant increase in the rate of hospitalization for diabetes among the population residing in the ZIP codes containing toxic waste sites. PMID:17366823

  15. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2000-02-17

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions.

  16. Non-Thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-Level Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    DOE proposes to transport contact-handled LLMW from the Hanford Site to the Allied Technology Group (ATG) Mixed Waste Facility (MWF) in Richland, Washington, for non-thermal treatment and to return the treated waste to the Hanford Site for eventual land disposal. Over a 3-year period the waste would be staged to the ATG MWF, and treated waste would be returned to the Hanford Site. The ATG MWF would be located on an 18 hectare (ha) (45 acre [at]) ATG Site adjacent to ATG's licensed low-level waste processing facility at 2025 Battelle Boulevard. The ATG MWF is located approximately 0.8 kilometers (km) (0.5 miles [mi]) south of Horn Rapids Road and 1.6 km (1 mi) west of Stevens Drive. The property is located within the Horn Rapids triangle in northern Richland (Figure 2.1). The ATG MWF is to be located on the existing ATG Site, near the DOE Hanford Site, in an industrial area in the City of Richland. The effects of siting, construction, and overall operation of the MWF have been evaluated in a separate State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) EIS (City of Richland 1998). The proposed action includes transporting the LLMW from the Hanford Site to the ATG Facility, non-thermal treatment of the LLMW at the ATG MWF, and transporting the waste from ATG back to the Hanford Site. Impacts fi-om waste treatment operations would be bounded by the ATG SEPA EIS, which included an evaluation of the impacts associated with operating the non-thermal portion of the MWF at maximum design capacity (8,500 metric tons per year) (City of Richland 1998). Up to 50 employees would be required for non-thermal treatment portion of the MWF. This includes 40 employees that would perform waste treatment operations and 10 support staff. Similar numbers were projected for the thermal treatment portion of the MWF (City of Richland 1998).

  17. MANIPULATING SUBSURFACE COLLOIDS TO ENHANCE CLEANUPS OF DOE WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Colloidal phases, such as submicrometer iron oxyhydroxides, aluminosilicate clays, and humic macromolecules, are important subsurface sorbents for the low-solubility chemicals in DOE wastes. Recent research we have performed as part of DOE's Subsurface Science Program has demonst...

  18. Shutdown of nuclear waste site threatens neutrino lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2014-07-01

    An explosion and a series of radioactive leaks have forced the closure of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, New Mexico, US, putting a temporary halt to the Enriched Xenon Observatory-200 (EXO-200).

  19. Siting study for a consolidated waste capability at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, Steven Richard

    2011-01-26

    Decision analysis was used to rank alternative sites for a new Consolidated Waste Capability (CWC) to replace current hazardous solid waste operations (hazardous/chemical, mixed lowlevel, transuranic, and low-level waste) at Los Alamos National Laboratory's TA-54 Area G. An original list of 21 site alternatives was pre-screened to ten sites that were assessed using the analytical hierarchy process with five top-level criteria and fifteen sub-criteria. Three passes of the analysis were required to assess different site scenarios: 1) a fully consolidated CWC with both transfer/storage and LL W disposal in one location (45 acre minimum), 2) CWC transfer/storage only (12 acre minimum), and 3) LLW disposal only (33 acre minimum). The top site choice for all three options is TA-63/52/46; the second choice is TA-18/36. TA-54 East, Zone 4 also deserves consideration as a LLW disposal site.

  20. Chemical, physical, and biological properties of compounds present at hazardous-waste sites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-27

    The chemical profiles are intended to serve as a concise reference with information on the physicochemical properties, transport and fate, toxicity, and regulatory standards for individual chemicals identified by the EPA Office of Waste Program Enforcement at hazardous-waste sites. The profiles can be used in conjunction with the Toxicology and Endangerment Assessment Handbooks.

  1. Program plan for evaluation of the Ferrocyanide Waste Tank safety issue at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Borsheim, G.L.; Meacham, J.E.; Cash, R.J.; Dukelow, G.T.

    1994-03-01

    This document describes the background, priorities, strategy and logic, and task descriptions for the Ferrocyanide Waste Tank Safety Program. The Ferrocyanide Safety Program was established in 1990 to provide resolution of a major safety issue identified for 24 high-level radioactive waste tanks at the Hanford Site.

  2. COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTIONS AT UNCONTROLLED HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES: WORKER HEALTH AND SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Superfund resources are currently being spent to clean up many uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. Pursuant to requirements stipulated in Section 105 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, the cost-effectiveness of remedial ...

  3. USE OF REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES IN A SYSTEMATIC INVESTIGATION OF AN UNCONTROLLED HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the use and evaluation of several remote sensing techniques in conjunction with direct sample collection in order to develop a systematic approach for subsurface investigations at uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. Remote sensing techniques (electrical resi...

  4. Study on detecting leachate leakage of municipal solid waste landfill site.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiangang; Cao, Xianxian; Ai, Yingbo; Zhou, Dongdong; Han, Qiting

    2015-06-01

    The article studies the detection of the leakage passage of leachate in a waste landfill dam. The leachate of waste landfill has its own features, like high conductivity, high chroma and an increasing temperature, also, the horizontal flow velocity of groundwater on the leakage site increases. This article proposes a comprehensive tracing method to identify the leakage site of an impermeable membrane by using these features. This method has been applied to determine two leakage sites of the Yahu municipal solid waste landfill site in Pingshan District, Shenzhen, China, which shows that there are two leachate leakage passages in the waste landfill dam A between NZK-2 and NZK-3, and between NZK-6 and NZK-7. PMID:25911065

  5. LINERS FOR SANITARY LANDFILLS AND CHEMICAL AND HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report lists addresses of sanitary landfills and chemical and hazardous waste disposal sites and holding ponds with some form of impermeable lining. Liners included are polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, Hypalon R, ethylene propylene diene monomer, butyl rubber, conventional ...

  6. Demonstration of Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation Process Using Savannah River Site High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.B.

    2001-09-10

    This report details the experimental effort to demonstrate the continuous precipitation of cesium from Savannah River Site High Level Waste using sodium tetraphenylborate. In addition, the experiments examined the removal of strontium and various actinides through addition of monosodium titanate.

  7. Annual Report - FY 2002, Radioactive Waste Shipments To and From the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-01-01

    In February 1997, the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office issued the Mitigation Action Plan which addressed potential impacts described in the ''Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada'' (DOE/EIS 0243). The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office committed to several actions, including the preparation of an annual report, which summarizes waste shipments to and from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at Area 3 and Area 5. This document satisfies requirements with regard to low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) transported to or from the NTS during fiscal year (FY) 2002.

  8. MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF THE SUBSURFACE AT AN ABANDONED CREOSOTE WASTE SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial ecology of pristine, slightly contaminated, and heavily contaminated subsurface materials, and four subsurface materials on the periphery of the plume at an abandoned creosote waste site was investigated. xcept for the unsaturated zone of the heavily contaminated ma...

  9. BOREHOLE SENSING METHODS FOR GROUND-WATER INVESTIGATIONS AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geophysical methods are becoming a cost effective approach to providing answers to hydrogeologic questions associated with ground-water contamination. Geophysical methods applicable to hazardous waste site investigations can be broken into two categories: surface and subsurface m...

  10. Annual Report - FY 2001, Radioactive Waste Shipments To and From the Nevada Test Site, February 2002

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Operations Office

    2002-02-01

    In February 1997, the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) issued the Mitigation Action Plan which addressed potential impacts described in the ''Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada'' (DOE/EIS 0243). NNSA/NV committed to several actions, including the preparation of an annual report, which summarizes waste shipments to and from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at Area 3 and Area 5. This document satisfies requirements with regard to low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) transported to or from the NTS during fiscal year (FY 2001).

  11. MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF THE SUBSURFACE AT AN ABANDONED CREOSOTE WASTE SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial ecology of pristine, slightly contaminated, and heavily contaminated subsurface materials, and four subsurface materials on the periphery of the plume at an abandoned creosote waste site was investigated. Except for the unsaturated zone of the heavily contaminated m...

  12. BIOREMEDIATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES: PRACTICAL APPROACHES TO IMPLEMENTATION (EPA/625/K-96/001)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document contains abstracts and slide hardcopy for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) "Seminar Series on Bioremediation of Hazardous Waste Sites: Practical Approaches to Implementation." This technology transfer seminar series, sponsored by EPA's Biosystems ...

  13. Burden of Disease from Toxic Waste Sites in India, Indonesia, and the Philippines in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Caravanos, Jack; Ericson, Bret; Sunga-Amparo, Jennifer; Susilorini, Budi; Sharma, Promila; Landrigan, Philip J.; Fuller, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prior calculations of the burden of disease from toxic exposures have not included estimates of the burden from toxic waste sites due to the absence of exposure data. Objective: We developed a disability-adjusted life year (DALY)-based estimate of the disease burden attributable to toxic waste sites. We focused on three low- and middle-income countries (LMICs): India, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Methods: Sites were identified through the Blacksmith Institute’s Toxic Sites Identification Program, a global effort to identify waste sites in LMICs. At least one of eight toxic chemicals was sampled in environmental media at each site, and the population at risk estimated. By combining estimates of disease incidence from these exposures with population data, we calculated the DALYs attributable to exposures at each site. Results: We estimated that in 2010, 8,629,750 persons were at risk of exposure to industrial pollutants at 373 toxic waste sites in the three countries, and that these exposures resulted in 828,722 DALYs, with a range of 814,934–1,557,121 DALYs, depending on the weighting factor used. This disease burden is comparable to estimated burdens for outdoor air pollution (1,448,612 DALYs) and malaria (725,000 DALYs) in these countries. Lead and hexavalent chromium collectively accounted for 99.2% of the total DALYs for the chemicals evaluated. Conclusions: Toxic waste sites are responsible for a significant burden of disease in LMICs. Although some factors, such as unidentified and unscreened sites, may cause our estimate to be an underestimate of the actual burden of disease, other factors, such as extrapolation of environmental sampling to the entire exposed population, may result in an overestimate of the burden of disease attributable to these sites. Toxic waste sites are a major, and heretofore underrecognized, global health problem. PMID:23649493

  14. Field application of innovative grouting agents for in situ stabilization of buried waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, G.G.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents field applications for two innovative grouting agents that were used to in situ stabilize buried waste sites, via jet grouting. The two grouting agents include paraffin and a proprietary iron oxide based cement grout called TECT. These materials were tested in specially designed cold test pits that simulate buried transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The field demonstrations were performed at the INEL in an area referred to as the Cold Test Pit, which is adjacent to the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). At the RWMC, 56,000 m{sup 3} of transuranic (TRU) waste is co-mingled with over 170,000 m{sup 3} of soil in shallow land burial. Improving the confinement of this waste is one of the options for final disposition of this waste. Using jet-grouting technology to inject these materials into the pore spaces of buried waste sites results in the creation of buried monolithic waste forms that simultaneously protect the waste from subsidence, while eliminating the migratory potential of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in the waste.

  15. Hazardous-waste sites: Priority health conditions and research strategies--United States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-07

    Uncontrolled disposal sites containing hazardous waste and other contaminants have created national environmental problems (1). Because of potential health problems associated with the more than 33,000 hazardous-waste sites in the United States, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)--as part of its federally legislated mandate--has developed a list of seven priority health conditions (PHCs) to (1) assist in evaluating potential health risks to persons living near these sites and (2) determine program and applied human health research activities involving hazardous substances identified at the sites. This report summarizes the development and intended applications of the seven PHCs.

  16. National plan for siting high-level radioactive waste repositories and environmental assessment: Public draft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-02-01

    The process used to find sites suitable for disposal of high level radioactive waste is described. Existing and planned activities for screening successively smaller portions of land to identify suitable candidate sites, and for subsequently selecting one or more of these sites for permanent disposal of radioactive wastes are discussed. Environmental effects of the proposed action, including the anticipate range of field studies to characterize various land areas and reasonable alternative siting strategies, are assessed. The environmental assessment provides the basis for a finding of whether or not implementation of this plan will result in significant environmental impacts.

  17. Hydrogeological influences on radionuclide migration from the major radioactive waste burial sites at Chernobyl (A review)

    SciTech Connect

    Dgepo, S.P.; Skalsky, A.S.; Bugai, D.A.; Marchuk, V.V.; Waters, R.D.

    1994-03-01

    This paper summarizes the recent hydrogeological investigations of several research organizations on waste confinement at the major radioactive waste (RW) burial sites immediately adjacent to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (Ch. NPP). Hydrogeological conditions and radiologic ground-water contamination levels are described. Ongoing ground-water monitoring practices are evaluated. The chemical and physical characteristics of the radionuclides within the burial sites are considered. Ground water and radionuclide transport modeling studies related to problems of the RW disposal sites are also reviewed. Current concerns on future impacts of the RW burial sites on the hydrological environment and water resources of the Ch.NPP area are discussed.

  18. Environmental Assessment for the Independent Waste Handling Facility, 211-F at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    Currently, liquid Low Activity Waste (LAW) and liquid High Activity Waste (HAW) are generated from various process operational facilities/processes throughout the Savannah River Site (SRS) as depicted on Figure 2-1. Prior to storage in the F-Area tank farm, these wastes are neutralized and concentrated to minimize their volume. The Waste Handling Facility (211-3F) at Building 211-F Complex (see Figure 2-2) is the only existing facility onsite equipped to receive acidic HAW for neutralization and volume reduction processing. Currently, Building 221-F Canyon (see Figure 2-2) houses the neutralization and evaporation facilities for HAW volume reduction and provides support services such as electric power and plant, process, and instrument air, waste transfer capabilities, etc., for 21 1-F operations. The future plan is to deactivate the 221-F building. DOE`s purpose is to be able to process the LAW/HAW that will continue to be generated on site. DOE needs to establish an alternative liquid waste receipt and treatment capability to support site facilities with a continuing mission. The desire is for Building 211-F to provide the receipt and neutralization functions for LAW and HAW independent of 221-F Canyon. The neutralization capability is required to be part of the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Programs (NMSP) facilities since the liquid waste generated by the various site facilities is acidic. Tn order for Waste Management to receive the waste streams, the solutions must be neutralized to meet Waste Management`s acceptance criteria. The Waste Management system is caustic in nature to prevent corrosion and the subsequent potential failure of tanks and associated piping and hardware.

  19. Nevada National Security Site 2011 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-02-27

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The data have been collected since 1993 and include calendar year 2011 results. During 2011, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at the three pilot wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Samples were collected at UE5PW-1 on March 8, August 2, August 24, and October 19, 2011; at UE5PW-2 on March 8, August 2, August 23, and October 19, 2011; and at UE5PW-3 on March 8, August 2, August 23, and October 19, 2011. Static water levels were measured at each of the three pilot wells on March 1, June 7, August 1, and October 17, 2011. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also measured. Initial total organic carbon and total organic halides results for samples collected in August 2011 were above previous measurements and, in some cases, above the established investigation limits. However, after field sample pumps and tubing were disinfected with Clorox solution, the results returned to normal levels. Final results from samples collected in 2011 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  20. Preparation of delisting petition for SRS (Savannah River Site) raw materials waste sludge---Mixed F006 waste

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    Waste sludge from the raw materials manufacturing facility at the Savannah River Site contains both hazardous and low-level radioactive components. This waste, which contains electroplating sludge and depleted uranium, is classified as a mixed waste. The objective of the delisting petition is to demonstrate that this waste can be treated/solidified in a cement-based material and disposed of in concrete vaults so that drinking water standards will not be exceeded. Sampling and analytical data which support this petition will be presented. Results show that when the data are applied to the EPA Vertical and Horizontal Spread Model, health-based standards for all hazardous waste constituents will not be exceeded during worst case operating and environmental conditions. Disposal of stabilized sludge in concrete vaults will also meet the requirements of DOE Order 5820.2A and the March 9, 1988 DOE Record of Decision which outline criteria for low-level radioactive waste disposal at the Savannah River Site. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Regulatory Framework for Salt Waste Disposal and Tank Closure at the Savannah River Site - 13663

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Steve; Dickert, Ginger

    2013-07-01

    The end of the Cold War has left a legacy of approximately 37 million gallons of radioactive waste in the aging waste tanks at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). A robust program is in place to remove waste from these tanks, treat the waste to separate into a relatively small volume of high-level waste and a large volume of low-level waste, and to actively dispose of the low-level waste on-site and close the waste tanks and associated ancillary structures. To support performance-based, risk-informed decision making and to ensure compliance with all regulatory requirements, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its current and past contractors have worked closely with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop and implement a framework for on-site low-level waste disposal and closure of the SRS waste tanks. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, provides DOE the authority to manage defense-related radioactive waste. DOE Order 435.1 and its associated manual and guidance documents detail this radioactive waste management process. The DOE also has a requirement to consult with the NRC in determining that waste that formerly was classified as high-level waste can be safely managed as either low-level waste or transuranic waste. Once DOE makes a determination, NRC then has a responsibility to monitor DOE's actions in coordination with SCDHEC to ensure compliance with the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61 (10CFR61), Subpart C performance objectives. The management of hazardous waste substances or components at SRS is regulated by SCDHEC and the EPA. The foundation for the interactions between DOE, SCDHEC and EPA is the SRS Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). Managing this array of requirements and successfully interacting with regulators, consultants and stakeholders is a challenging task but ensures

  2. Emission of volatile organic compounds from solid waste disposal sites and importance of heat management.

    PubMed

    Urase, Taro; Okumura, Hiroyuki; Panyosaranya, Samerjai; Inamura, Akihiro

    2008-12-01

    The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a solid waste disposal site for municipal solid wastes was quantified. The VOCs contained in the landfill gas taken at the site were benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethyl benzenes, and trimethyl benzenes, while the concentrations of chlorinated compounds were very low. The concentration of benzene in the landfill gas samples ranged from below the detection limit to 20 mg m(-3), and the ratio of benzene to toluene ranged from 0.2 to 8. The higher concentrations of VOCs in landfill gas and in leachates were observed with the samples taken at high temperature areas of the target site. Polystyrene plastic waste was identified as one of the sources of VOCs in solid waste disposal sites at a high temperature condition. The appropriate heat management in landfill sites is an important countermeasure to avoid unusually high emission of VOCs because the heat generated by the biodegradation of organic solid wastes may promote the release of VOCs, especially in the case of sites which receive both biodegradable and plastic wastes. PMID:19039069

  3. Determining site-specific drum loading criteria for storing combustible {sup 238}Pu waste

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, R.S.; Callis, E.L.; Cappis, J.H.; Espinoza, J.M.; Foltyn, E.M.; Reich, B.T.; Smith, M.C.

    1994-02-01

    Waste containing hydrogenous-combustible material contaminated with {sup 238}Pu can generate hydrogen gas at appreciable rates through alpha radiolysis. To ensure safe transportation of WIPP drums, the limit for {sup 238}Pu-combustible waste published in the WIPP TRUPACT-11 CONTENT (TRUCON) CODES is 21 milliwafts per 55 gallon drum. This corresponds to about 45 milligrams of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} used for satellite heat source-electrical generators. The Los Alamos waste storage site adopted a {sup 238}Pu waste storage criteria based on these TRCUCON codes. However, reviews of the content in drums of combustible waste generated during heat source assembly at Los Alamos showed the amount of {sup 238}Pu is typically much greater than 45 milligrams. It is not feasible to appreciably reduce Los Alamos {sup 238}Pu waste drum loadings without significantly increasing waste volumes or introducing unsafe practices. To address this concern, a series of studies were implemented to evaluate the applicability of the TRUCON limits for storage of this specific waste. Addressed in these evaluations were determination of the hydrogen generation rate, hydrogen diffusion rates through confinement layers and vent filters, and packaging requirements specific to Los Alamos generated {sup 238}Pu contaminated combustible waste. These studies also showed that the multiple-layer packaging practices in use at Los Alamos could be relaxed without significantly increasing the risk of contamination. Based on a model developed to predict H{sub 2} concentrations in packages and drum headspace, the site specific effective hydrogen generation rate, and hydrogen-diffusion values, and revising the waste packaging practices, we were able to raise the safe loading limit for {sup 238}Pu waste drums for on site storage to the gram levels typical of currently generated {sup 238}Pu waste.

  4. The burden of disease from pediatric lead exposure at hazardous waste sites in 7 Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Caravanos, Jack; Chatham-Stephens, Kevin; Ericson, Bret; Landrigan, Philip J; Fuller, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Identification and systematic assessment of hazardous wastes sites in low and middle-income countries has lagged. Hazardous waste problems are especially severe in lower income Asian countries where environmental regulations are non-existent, nonspecific or poorly enforced. In these countries extensive unregulated industrial development has created waste sites in densely populated urban areas. These sites appear to pose significant risks to public health, and especially to the health of children. To assess potential health risks from chemical contamination at hazardous waste sites in Asia, we assessed 679 sites. A total of 169 sites in 7 countries were classified as contaminated by lead. Eighty-two of these sites contained lead at levels high enough to produce elevated blood lead levels in surrounding populations. To estimate the burden of pediatric lead poisoning associated with exposure to lead in soil and water at these 82 lead-contaminated sites, we used standard toxicokinetic models that relate levels of lead in soil and water to blood lead levels in children. We calculated blood lead levels, and we quantified losses of intelligence (reductions in IQ scores) that were attributable to lead exposure at these sites. We found that 189,725 children in the 7 countries are at risk of diminished intelligence as a consequence of exposure to elevated levels of lead in water and soil at hazardous waste sites. Depending on choice of model, these decrements ranged from 4.94 to 14.96 IQ points. Given the restricted scope of this survey and the conservative estimation procedures employed, this number is almost certainly an underestimate of the full burden of disease. Exposure to toxic chemicals from hazardous waste sites is an important and heretofore insufficiently examined contributor to the Global Burden of Disease. PMID:22999658

  5. The coast guard's cleanup of hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Rezendes, V.S.

    1989-11-01

    GAO concluded that the Coast Guard still has most of its major hazardous waste cleanup work to do - an effort that will cost millions and will take decades to complete. Yet the Coast Guard cannot confidently estimate long-term cleanup costs until it assesses and investigates potential hazardous waste locations. While Coast Guard data suggest that it is complying with hazardous waste regulations, this GAO report maintains that the Coast Guard may not be collecting the type of information needed to support long-term budget requests. The Coast Guard is planning to reissue reporting instructions in order to stress the importance of reporting violations and related costs. If successful, this effort could help ensure that the Coast Guard has the information necessary to estimate future funding needs.

  6. Site selection and characterization for historic low-level radioactive wastes in Ontario, Co-operative Siting Process

    SciTech Connect

    Paktunc, A.D.

    1993-12-31

    The Co-operative Siting Process is a non-confrontational way to site a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) management facility in Ontario. The facility will be designed to accommodate approximately 880,000 m{sup 3} of LLRW. Four sets of general facility concepts, appropriate for the physical and chemical characteristics of the wastes and the general site conditions, are being considered. These include engineered mounds, shallow burial in trenches, burial in open pit with previous surround, and intermediate depth rock disposal concepts. The communities interested in offering a site are located in the Canadian Shield where the topography is dominated by rolling hills with reliefs of up to 50 meters and hydrogeological conditions are primarily controlled by fractures in the rock and by the types and distribution of glacial sediments. Climatic conditions can be classified as humid-continental. The objective of site characterization activity is to assess the suitability of potential sites for long-term containment of LLRW in the geosphere and their safe isolation from the biosphere. An initial phase involves exploratory studies designed to reduce larger areas to smaller areas and eventually to candidate sites. The second phase involves site-specific studies designed to maximize the changes of identifying more than one site for different facility requirements and complying with the regulatory requirements and performance expectations.

  7. Low-level radioactive waste management at the Nevada Test Site -- Current status

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, B.D.; Crowe, B.M.; Gertz, C.P.; Clayton, W.A.

    1999-04-01

    The performance objectives of the Department of Energy`s Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) disposal facilities located at the Nevada Test Site transcend those of any other radioactive waste disposal site in the US. Situated at the southern end of the Great Basin, 800 feet above the water table, the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) has utilized a combination of engineered shallow land disposal cells and deep augured shafts to dispose a variety of waste streams. These include high volume low-activity wastes, classified materials, and high-specific-activity special case wastes. Twenty miles north of Area 5 is the Area 3 RWMS. Here bulk LLW disposal takes place in subsidence craters formed from underground testing of nuclear weapons. Earliest records indicate that documented LLW disposal activities have occurred at the Area 5 and Area 3 RWMS`s since 1961 and 1968, respectively. However, these activities have only been managed under a formal program since 1978. This paper describes the technical attributes of the facilities, present and future capacities and capabilities, and provides a description of the process from waste approval to final disposition. The paper also summarizes the current status of the waste disposal operations.

  8. Waste Management at the Nevada Test Site Fiscal Year 2001 Current Status

    SciTech Connect

    B. D. Becker; W. A. Clayton; B. M. Crowe

    2002-05-01

    The performance objectives of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) Low-level Radioactive Waste (LLW) disposal facilities located at the Nevada Test Site transcend those of any other radioactive waste disposal site in the United States. Situated at the southern end of the Great Basin, 244 meters (800 feet) above the water table, the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) has utilized a combination of engineered shallow land disposal cells and deep augured shafts to dispose a variety of waste streams. These include high volume low-activity waste, classified radioactive material, and high-specific-activity special case waste. Fifteen miles north of Area 5 is the Area 3 RWMS. Here bulk LLW disposal takes place in subsidence craters formed from underground testing of nuclear weapons. Earliest records indicate that documented LLW disposal activities have occurred at the Area 5 and Area 3 RWMSs since 1961 and 1 968, respectively. However, these activities have only been managed under a formal program since 1978. This paper describes the technical attributes of the facilities, present and future capacities and capabilities, and provides a description of the process from waste approval to final disposition. The paper also summarizes the current status of the waste disposal operations.

  9. Waste Management at the Nevada Test Site Year 2002: Current Status

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Bruce, D.; Gertz, Carl, P.; Clayton, Wendy, A.; Carilli, Jhon, T.; Crowe, Bruce M.

    2003-02-24

    The performance attributes of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Low-level Radioactive Waste (LLW) disposal facilities located at the Nevada Test Site transcend those of any other LLW disposal site in the United States. Situated at the southern end of the Great Basin, 244 meters (800 feet) above the water table, the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) has utilized a combination of engineered shallow land disposal cells and deep augured shafts to dispose a variety of waste streams. These include high volume low-activity waste, classified material, and high-specific activity special case waste. Fifteen miles north of Area 5 is the Area 3 RWMS. Here bulk LLW disposal takes place in subsidence craters formed from underground testing of nuclear weapons. Earliest records indicate that documented LLW disposal activities have occurred at the Area 5 and Area 3 RWMSs since 1961 and 1968, respectively. However, these activities have only been managed under a formal program since 1978. This paper describes the technical attributes of the facilities, present and future capacities and capabilities, and provides a description of the process from waste approval to final disposition. The paper also summarizes the current status of the waste disposal operations.

  10. Description and hydrogeologic evaluation of nine hazardous-waste sites in Kansas, 1984-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, R.J.; Spruill, T.B.

    1988-01-01

    Wastes generated at nine hazardous-waste sites in Kansas were disposed in open pits, 55-gal drums, or large storage tanks. These disposal methods have the potential to contaminate groundwater beneath the sites, the soil on the sites, and nearby surface water bodies. Various activities on the nine sites included production of diborane, transformer oil waste, production of soda ash, use of solvents for the manufacture of farm implements, reclamation of solvents and paints, oil-refinery wastes, meat packaging, and the manufacture and cleaning of tanker-truck tanks. Monitoring wells were installed upgradient and downgradient from the potential contamination source on each site. Strict decontamination procedures were followed to prevent cross contamination between well installations. Air-quality surveys were made on each site before other investigative procedures started. Hydrogeologic investigative techniques, such as terrain geophysical surveys, gamma-ray logs, and laboratory permeameter tests, were used. Groundwater level measurements provide data to determine the direction of flow. Groundwater contamination detected under the sites posed the greatest threat to the environment because of possible migration of contaminants by groundwater flow. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and trace metals were detected in the groundwater at several of the sites. Many of the same compounds detected in the groundwater also were detected in soil and bed-material samples collected onsite or adjacent to the sites. Several contaminants were detected in background samples of groundwater and soil. (USGS)

  11. Performance Assessment Transport Modeling of Uranium at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Radioactive Waste

    2010-10-12

    Following is a brief summary of the assumptions that are pertinent to the radioactive isotope transport in the GoldSim Performance Assessment model of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, with special emphasis on the water-phase reactive transport of uranium, which includes depleted uranium products.

  12. Characterization ReportOperational Closure Covers for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada Geotechnical Sciences

    2005-06-01

    Bechtel Nevada (BN) manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). The Area 3 RWMS is located in south-central Yucca Flat and the Area 5 RWMS is located about 15 miles south, in north-central Frenchman Flat. Though located in two separate topographically closed basins, they are similar in climate and hydrogeologic setting. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste, while the Area 3 RWMS uses subsidence craters formed from underground testing of nuclear weapons for the disposal of packaged and unpackaged bulk waste. Over the next several decades, most waste disposal units at both the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are anticipated to be closed. Closure of the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs will proceed through three phases: operational closure, final closure, and institutional control. Many waste disposal units at the Area 5RWMS are operationally closed and final closure has been placed on one unit at the Area 3 RWMS (U-3ax/bl). Because of the similarities between the two sites (e.g., type of wastes, environmental factors, operational closure cover designs, etc.), many characterization studies and data collected at the Area 3 RWMS are relevant and applicable to the Area 5 RWMS. For this reason, data and closure strategies from the Area 3 RWMS are referred to as applicable. This document is an interim Characterization Report – Operational Closure Covers, for the Area 5 RWMS. The report briefly describes the Area 5 RWMS and the physical environment where it is located, identifies the regulatory requirements, reviews the approach and schedule for closing, summarizes the monitoring programs, summarizes characterization studies and results, and then presents conclusions and recommendations.

  13. Public concerns and the public role in siting nuclear and chemical waste facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Branden B.

    1987-09-01

    Nuclear and chemical waste facilities can be successfully sited, despite nimby responses, if siting programs account for the sources of public concern. Irrational fear is not the main source; instead, waste managers must deal with perceived inequities in the distribution of benefits and costs, and concern about facility safety. Benefit-cost inequities may be dealt with in part by keeping wastes where they are generated, through political restrictions, or by providing economic compensation and political incentives (for example, a local veto). Assuring people of facility safety includes allowing local control (monitoring, health assessment, regulation), and enhancing trust of facility managers through such means as rectifying past mistakes, individual-oriented education campaigns, and negotiation of compensation packages with local residents. These means should reduce —without eliminating—public opposition to local siting of nuclear and chemical waste facilities.

  14. Hanford site tank waste remediation system programmatic environmental review report

    SciTech Connect

    Haass, C.C.

    1998-09-03

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) committed in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Record of Decision (ROD) to perform future National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis at key points in the Program. Each review will address the potential impacts that new information may have on the environmental impacts presented in the TWRS EIS and support an assessment of whether DOE`s plans for remediating the tank waste are still pursuing the appropriate plan for remediation or whether adjustments to the program are needed. In response to this commitment, DOE prepared a Supplement Analysis (SA) to support the first of these reevaluations. Subsequent to the completion of the SA, the Phase IB negotiations process with private contractors resulted in several changes to the planned approach. These changes along with other new information regarding the TWRS Program have potential implications for Phase 1 and Phase 2 of tank waste retrieval and waste storage and/or disposal that may influence the environmental impacts of the Phased Implementation alternative. This report focuses on identifying those potential environmental impacts that may require NEPA analysis prior to authorization to begin facility construction and operations.

  15. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Site-Specific Plan for Fiscal Year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) multiprogram laboratory whose primary mission has been to research nuclear technologies. Working with these technologies and conducting other types of research generates waste, including radioactive and/or hazardous wastes. While most of the waste treatment, storage, and disposal practices have been effective, some practices have led to the release of contaminants to the environment. As a result, DOE has developed (1) an Environmental Restoration (ER) Program to identify and, where necessary, cleanup releases from inactive waste sites and (2) a Waste Management (WM) Program to safely treat, store, and dispose of DOE wastes generated from current and future activities in an environmentally sound manner. This document describes the plans for FY 1993 for the INEL`s ER and WM programs as managed by DOE`s Idaho Field Office (DOE-ID).

  16. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    WEBER RA

    2009-01-16

    The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient potential energy to break up material and release gas and are assigned to waste group B. These tanks are considered to represent a potential induced flammable gas release hazard, but no spontaneous buoyant displacement flammable gas release hazard. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and have an energy ratio {ge} 3.0, but that pass the third criterion (buoyancy ratio < 1.0, see below) are also assigned to waste group B. Even though the designation as a waste

  17. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    FOWLER KD

    2007-12-27

    This document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 7 is the annual update of the calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs. The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient potential energy to break up

  18. Radioactive Waste Evaporation: Current Methodologies Employed for the Development, Design, and Operation of Waste Evaporators at the Savannah River Site and Hanford Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Calloway, T.B.

    2003-09-11

    Evaporation of High level and Low Activity (HLW and LAW) radioactive wastes for the purposes of radionuclide separation and volume reduction has been conducted at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites for more than forty years. Additionally, the Savannah River Site (SRS) has used evaporators in preparing HLW for immobilization into a borosilicate glass matrix. This paper will discuss the methodologies, results, and achievements of the SRTC evaporator development program that was conducted in support of the SRS and Hanford WTP evaporator processes. The cross pollination and application of waste treatment technologies and methods between the Savannah River and Hanford Sites will be highlighted. The cross pollination of technologies and methods is expected to benefit the Department of Energy's Mission Acceleration efforts by reducing the overall cost and time for the development of the baseline waste treatment processes.

  19. Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate

    SciTech Connect

    Al Yaqout, Anwar F

    2003-07-01

    Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce. Almost 95% of all solid waste generated in Kuwait during the last 10 years was dumped in five unlined landfills. The sites accepting liquid waste consist of old sand quarries that do not follow any specific engineering guidelines. With the current practice, contamination of the ground water table is possible due to the close location of the water table beneath the bottom of the waste disposal sites. This study determined the percentage of industrial liquid waste and sludge of the total waste dumped at the landfill sites, analyzed the chemical characteristics of liquid waste stream and contaminated water at disposal sites, and finally evaluated the possible risk posed by the continuous dumping of such wastes at the unlined landfills. Statistical analysis has been performed on the disposal and characterization of industrial wastewater and sludge at five active landfill sites. The chemical analysis shows that all the industrial wastes and sludge have high concentrations of COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals. Results show that from 1993 to 2000, 5.14{+-}1.13 million t of total wastes were disposed per year in all active landfill sites in Kuwait. The share of industrial liquid and sludge waste was 1.85{+-}0.19 million t representing 37.22{+-}6.85% of total waste disposed in all landfill sites. Such wastes contribute to landfill leachate which pollutes groundwater and may enter the food chain causing adverse health effects. Lined evaporation ponds are suggested as an economical and safe solution for industrial wastewater and sludge disposal in the arid climate of Kuwait.

  20. Impact of Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme on work practices at construction sites in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Ann T.W.; Poon, C.S.; Wong, Agnes; Yip, Robin; Jaillon, Lara

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A significant reduction of construction waste was achieved at the first 3 years of CWDCS implementation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer However, the reduction cannot be sustained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Implementation of the CWDCS has generated positive effects in waste reduction by all main trades. - Abstract: Waste management in the building industry in Hong Kong has become an important environmental issue. Particularly, an increasing amount of construction and demolition (C and D) waste is being disposed at landfill sites. In order to reduce waste generation and encourage reuse and recycling, the Hong Kong Government has implemented the Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme (CWDCS) to levy charges on C and D waste disposal to landfills. In order to provide information on the changes in reducing waste generation practice among construction participants in various work trades, a study was conducted after 3 years of implementation of the CWDCS via a structured questionnaire survey in the building industry in Hong Kong. The study result has revealed changes with work flows of the major trades as well as differentiating the levels of waste reduced. Three building projects in the public and private sectors were selected as case studies to demonstrate the changes in work flows and the reduction of waste achieved. The research findings reveal that a significant reduction of construction waste was achieved at the first 3 years (2006-2008) of CWDCS implementation. However, the reduction cannot be sustained. The major trades have been influenced to a certain extent by the implementation of the CWDCS. Slight improvement in waste management practices was observed, but reduction of construction waste in the wet-finishing and dry-finishing trades has undergone little improvement. Implementation of the CWDCS has not yet motivated subcontractors to change their methods of construction so as to reduce C and D waste.

  1. Cementation and solidification of miscellaneous mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.A.; Semones, G.B.

    1995-02-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site produces a variety of wastes which are amenable to micro-encapsulation in cement Portland cement is an inexpensive and readily available material for this application. The Waste Projects (WP) group at Rocky Flats evaluated cementation to determine its effectiveness in encapsulating several wastes. These included waste analytical laboratory solutions, incinerator ash, hydroxide precipitation sludge, and an acidic solution from the Delphi process (a chemical oxidation technology being evaluated as an alternative to incineration). WP prepared surrogate wastes and conducted designed experiments to optimize the cement formulation for the waste streams. These experiments used a Taguchi or factorial experimental design, interactions between the variables were also considered in the testing. Surrogate waste samples were spiked with various levels of each of six Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) listed metals (Cd, Cr, Ba, Pb, Ni, and Ag), cemented using the optimized formulation, and analyzed for leach resistance using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The metal spike levels chosen were based on characterization data, and also based on an estimate of the highest levels of contaminants suspected in the waste. This paper includes laboratory test results for each waste studied. These include qualitative observations as well as quantitative data from TCLP analyses and environmental cycling studies. The results from these experiments show that cement stabilization of the different wastes can produce final waste forms which meet the current RCRA Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) requirements. Formulations that resulted in LDR compliant waste forms are provided. The volume increases associated with cementation are also lower than anticipated. Future work will include verification studies with actual mixed radioactive waste as well as additional formulation development studies on other waste streams.

  2. Solidification of low-level radioactive waste at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    Aqueous-based process waste and other small volume wastes including basin sludge and incinerator ash will be solidified in cement-based wasteforms at SRS. A variety of inorganic solidifying agents are used depending on the chemistry, contaminants, and processing characteristics of the waste. In some cases, pre-treatment of the waste is used to reduce the activity of the waste and/or to remove the hazardous characteristics of the waste. In the case of DWPF saltstone, pretreatment is used to reduce 137 Cs and 90 Sr concentration to Class A levels and in-situ treatment (chemical reactions between the cementitious solids and waste) is used to remove the toxic metal characteristic of the waste. Chemical reduction of the Cr/sup +6/ to Cr/sup +3/ and subsequent precipitation of Cr(OH)/sub 3/, (low solubility) occurs as the result of reactions between the cementitious raw materials and the waste liquid. In summary waste treatment and solidification used at SRS is designed to meet both South Carolina and Federal requirements for maintaining the quality of the groundwater at the disposal site boundary. 2 refs.

  3. FLOATING COVER SYSTEMS FOR WASTE LAGOONS: POTENTIAL APPLICATION AT OLD INGER SITE, LOUISIANA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous liquids are impounded in pits, ponds, and lagoons at many uncontrolled hazardous waste sites across the country. As the ranking, remedial investigations, and feasibility studies proceed at these sites, many of the lagoons gradually fill with rainwater and threaten to ov...

  4. Towards identifying the next generation of superfund and hazardous waste site contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ela, Wendell P.; Sedlak, David L.; Barlaz, Morton A.; Henry, Heather F.; Muir, Derek C.G.; Swackhamer, Deborah L.; Weber, Eric J.; Arnold, Robert G.; Ferguson, P. Lee; Field, Jennifer A.; Furlong, Edward T.; Giesy, John P.; Halden, Rolf U.; Henry, Tala; Hites, Ronald A.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.; Howard, Philip H.; Luthy, Richard G.; Meyer, Anita K.; Saez, A. Eduardo; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Vulpe, Chris D.; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions A need exists for a carefully considered and orchestrated expansion of programmatic and research efforts to identify, evaluate, and manage CECs of hazardous waste site relevance, including developing an evolving list of priority CECs, intensifying the identification and monitoring of likely sites of present or future accumulation of CECs, and implementing efforts that focus on a holistic approach to prevention.

  5. Transport and fate of organic wastes in groundwater at the Stringfellow hazardous waste disposal site, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Hsu, J.; Barber, L.B.

    2001-01-01

    In January 1999, wastewater influent and effluent from the pretreatment plant at the Stringfellow hazardous waste disposal site were sampled along with groundwater at six locations along the groundwater contaminant plume. The objectives of this sampling and study were to identify at the compound class level the unidentified 40-60% of wastewater organic contaminants, and to determine what organic compound classes were being removed by the wastewater pretreatment plant, and what organic compound classes persisted during subsurface waste migration. The unidentified organic wastes are primarily chlorinated aromatic sulfonic acids derived from wastes from DDT manufacture. Trace amounts of EDTA and NTA organic complexing agents were discovered along with carboxylate metabolites of the common alkylphenolpolyethoxylate plasticizers and nonionic surfactants. The wastewater pretreatment plant removed most of the aromatic chlorinated sulfonic acids that have hydrophobic neutral properties, but the p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid which is the primary waste constituent passed through the pretreatment plant and was discharged in the treated wastewaters transported to an industrial sewer. During migration in groundwater, p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid is removed by natural remediation processes. Wastewater organic contaminants have decreased 3- to 45-fold in the groundwater from 1985 to 1999 as a result of site remediation and natural remediation processes. The chlorinated aromatic sulfonic acids with hydrophobic neutral properties persist and have migrated into groundwater that underlies the adjacent residential community. Copyright ?? 2001 .

  6. Transport and fate of organic wastes in groundwater at the Stringfellow hazardous waste disposal site, southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leenheer, Jerry A.; Hsu, John; Barber, L. B.

    2001-10-01

    In January 1999, wastewater influent and effluent from the pretreatment plant at the Stringfellow hazardous waste disposal site were sampled along with groundwater at six locations along the groundwater contaminant plume. The objectives of this sampling and study were to identify at the compound class level the unidentified 40-60% of wastewater organic contaminants, and to determine what organic compound classes were being removed by the wastewater pretreatment plant, and what organic compound classes persisted during subsurface waste migration. The unidentified organic wastes are primarily chlorinated aromatic sulfonic acids derived from wastes from DDT manufacture. Trace amounts of EDTA and NTA organic complexing agents were discovered along with carboxylate metabolites of the common alkylphenolpolyethoxylate plasticizers and nonionic surfactants. The wastewater pretreatment plant removed most of the aromatic chlorinated sulfonic acids that have hydrophobic neutral properties, but the p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid which is the primary waste constituent passed through the pretreatment plant and was discharged in the treated wastewaters transported to an industrial sewer. During migration in groundwater, p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid is removed by natural remediation processes. Wastewater organic contaminants have decreased 3- to 45-fold in the groundwater from 1985 to 1999 as a result of site remediation and natural remediation processes. The chlorinated aromatic sulfonic acids with hydrophobic neutral properties persist and have migrated into groundwater that underlies the adjacent residential community.

  7. Contamination by perfluorinated compounds in water near waste recycling and disposal sites in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Isobe, Tomohiko; Misaki, Kentaro; Takahashi, Shin; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-04-01

    There are very few reports on the contamination by perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in the environment of developing countries, especially regarding their emission from waste recycling and disposal sites. This is the first study on the occurrence of a wide range of PFCs (17 compounds) in ambient water in Vietnam, including samples collected from a municipal dumping site (MD), an e-waste recycling site (ER), a battery recycling site (BR) and a rural control site. The highest PFC concentration was found in a leachate sample from MD (360 ng/L). The PFC concentrations in ER and BR (mean, 57 and 16 ng/L, respectively) were also significantly higher than those detected in the rural control site (mean, 9.4 ng/L), suggesting that municipal solid waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment are potential contamination sources of PFCs in Vietnam. In general, the most abundant PFCs were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUDA; <1.4-100, <1.2-100, and <0.5-20 ng/L, respectively). Interestingly, there were specific PFC profiles: perfluoroheptanoic acid and perfluorohexanoic acid (88 and 77 ng/L, respectively) were almost as abundant as PFOA in MD leachate (100 ng/L), whereas PFNA was prevalent in ER and BR (mean, 17 and 6.2 ng/L, respectively) and PFUDA was the most abundant in municipal wastewater (mean, 5.6 ng/L), indicating differences in PFC contents in different waste materials. PMID:22773082

  8. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 547: Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-31

    This addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 547: Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, DOE/NV--1480, dated July 2012, documents repairs of erosion and construction of engineered erosion protection features at Corrective Action Site (CAS) 02-37-02 (MULLET) and CAS 09-99-06 (PLAYER). The final as-built drawings are included in Appendix A, and photographs of field work are included in Appendix B. Field work was completed on March 11, 2013.

  9. Soil Characterization Database for the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    R. D. Van Remortel; Y. J. Lee; K. E. Snyder

    2005-01-01

    Soils were characterized in an investigation at the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. Data from the investigation are presented in four parameter groups: sample and site characteristics, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) particle size fractions, chemical parameters, and American Society for Testing Materials-Unified Soil Classification System (ASTM-USCS) particle size fractions. Spread-sheet workbooks based on these parameter groups are presented to evaluate data quality, conduct database updates, and set data structures and formats for later extraction and analysis. This document does not include analysis or interpretation of presented data.

  10. Soil Characterization Database for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Y. J. Lee; R. D. Van Remortel; K. E. Snyder

    2005-01-01

    Soils were characterized in an investigation at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. Data from the investigation are presented in four parameter groups: sample and site characteristics, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) particle size fractions, chemical parameters, and American Society for Testing Materials-Unified Soil Classification System (ASTM-USCS) particle size fractions. Spread-sheet workbooks based on these parameter groups are presented to evaluate data quality, conduct database updates,and set data structures and formats for later extraction and analysis. This document does not include analysis or interpretation of presented data.

  11. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-26 Spillway, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-052

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-18

    The 100-B-26 Spillway waste site is a spillway that served as an emergency discharge point for the 132-C-2 outfall in the event that the 100-B-15 river effluent pipelines were blocked, damaged, or undergoing maintenance. The selected action involved demonstrating through confirmatory sampling that cleanup goals have been met and proposing a reclassification of this site to No Action. The results of the confirmatory sampling demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations remaining in the soil beneath the riprap are more protective of groundwater and the Columbia River than the risk they would pose if the site was remediated.

  12. Superfund at work: Hazardous waste cleanup efforts nationwide, Spring 1993 (Powersville site profile, Peach County, Georgia)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) encountered much more than a municipal landfill at the Powersville site in Peach County, Georgia. Contamination from improperly dumped hazardous wastes and pesticides tainted an old quarry used for household garbage. Chemicals migrating into area ground water threatened local drinking water supplies. To address these issues, EPA's Superfund program designed a cleanup strategy that included: negotiating with the county and chemical companies to contain the hazardous wastes on site underneath a protective cover; investigating reports of drinking water contamination and extending municipal water lines to affected residents; and conducting a tailored community relations program to inform and educate residents about the site.

  13. Radiological effect of a low level waste site on the environment.

    PubMed

    Black, S C; Latham, A R

    1994-10-01

    Environmental surveillance at the fence line of a low-level radioactive waste disposal site on the Nevada Test Site includes sampling for air particulates, radioiodines, tritium in atmospheric moisture, and airborne transuranics, plus an array of thermoluminescent dosimeters for measurement of external gamma exposures. The results obtained from this surveillance are displayed and discussed. The calculated effluents and the resultant effective dose equivalents to workers and the general public are discussed. It is concluded that, in the 15 years since its establishment, this waste disposal site has led to no significant radiological exposure to workers, the general public, or the environment. PMID:8083055

  14. Ground-water quality beneath solid-waste disposal sites at anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zenone, Chester; Donaldson, D.E.; Grunwaldt, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    Studies at three solid-waste disposal sites in the Anchorage area suggest that differences in local geohydrologic conditions influence ground-water quality. A leachate was detected in ground water within and beneath two sites where the water table is very near land surface and refuse is deposited either at or below the water table in some parts of the filled areas. No leachate was detected in ground water beneath a third site where waste disposal is well above the local water table.

  15. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F4 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-131

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-12-03

    The 1607-F4 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that serviced the former 115-F Gas Recirculation Building. The system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline that were in use from 1944 to 1965. The 1607-F4 waste site received unknown amounts of sanitary sewage from the 115-F Gas Recirculation Building and may have potentially contained hazardous and radioactive contamination. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  16. Waste deposit influences on groundwater quality as a tool for waste type and site selection for final storage quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arneth, Jan-Dirk; Milde, Gerald; Kerndorff, Helmut; Schleyer, Ruprecht

    Leachates from deposits of wastes may, in the long run, adversely influence groundwater quality. Since tipping still constitutes the most important form of waste disposal, strategies must be developed which are capable of protecting groundwater against contamination from leachates. In the first instance such protective measures must provide for a minimization of contamination by setting up optimal barriers. Since it would seem difficult to reach this goal in a forseeable future, the avoidance of substances with a high potential for groundwater hazards has to be attributed much importance. In former times, little attention was given to impermeability or avoidance of substances with a high potential for groundwater hazards contained in wastes. Therefore, results of the investigation of groundwater near abandoned sites can be used to optimize groundwater protection on future tipping sites. In the present study, the results of chemical investigation of groundwater from the vicinity of 92 waste disposal sites in the Federal Republic of Germany are presented and the changes in groundwater quality owing to the penetration of leachates are discussed separately for inorganic and organic contaminants.

  17. Soil structural analysis tools and properties for Hanford site waste tank evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, C.J.; Holtz, R.D.; Wagenblast, G.R.; Weiner, E.D.; Marlow, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    As Hanford Site contractors address future structural demands on nuclear waste tanks, built as early as 1943, it is necessary to address their current safety margins and ensure safe margins are maintained. Although the current civil engineering practice guidelines for soil modeling are suitable as preliminary design tools, future demands potentially result in loads and modifications to the tanks that are outside the original design basis and current code based structural capabilities. For example, waste removal may include cutting a large hole in a tank. This report addresses both spring modeling of site soils and finite-element modeling of soils. Additionally seismic dynamic modeling of Hanford Site soils is also included. Of new and special interest is Section 2.2 that Professor Robert D. Holtz of the University of Washington wrote on plane strain soil testing versus triaxial testing with Hanford Site application to large buried waste tanks.

  18. Computer models used to support cleanup decision-making at hazardous and radioactive waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Pardi, R.; DePhillips, M.P.; Meinhold, A.F.

    1992-07-01

    Massive efforts are underway to cleanup hazardous and radioactive waste sites located throughout the US To help determine cleanup priorities, computer models are being used to characterize the source, transport, fate and effects of hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials found at these sites. Although, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have provided preliminary guidance to promote the use of computer models for remediation purposes, no Agency has produced directed guidance on models that must be used in these efforts. To identify what models are actually being used to support decision-making at hazardous and radioactive waste sites, a project jointly funded by EPA, DOE and NRC was initiated. The purpose of this project was to: (1) Identify models being used for hazardous and radioactive waste site assessment purposes; and (2) describe and classify these models. This report presents the results of this study.

  19. Decommissioning and Dismantling of Liquid Waste Storage and Liquid Waste Treatment Facility from Paldiski Nuclear Site, Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Varvas, M.; Putnik, H.; Johnsson, B.

    2006-07-01

    The Paldiski Nuclear Facility in Estonia, with two nuclear reactors was owned by the Soviet Navy and was used for training the navy personnel to operate submarine nuclear reactors. After collapse of Soviet Union the Facility was shut down and handed over to the Estonian government in 1995. In co-operation with the Paldiski International Expert Reference Group (PIERG) decommission strategy was worked out and started to implement. Conditioning of solid and liquid operational waste and dismantling of contaminated installations and buildings were among the key issues of the Strategy. Most of the liquid waste volume, remained at the Facility, was processed in the frames of an Estonian-Finnish co-operation project using a mobile wastewater purification unit NURES (IVO International OY) and water was discharged prior to the site take-over. In 1999-2002 ca 120 m{sup 3} of semi-liquid tank sediments (a mixture of ion exchange resins, sand filters, evaporator and flocculation slurry), remained after treatment of liquid waste were solidified in steel containers and stored into interim storage. The project was carried out under the Swedish - Estonian co-operation program on radiation protection and nuclear safety. Contaminated installations in buildings, used for treatment and storage of liquid waste (Liquid Waste Treatment Facility and Liquid Waste Storage) were then dismantled and the buildings demolished in 2001-2004. (authors)

  20. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FOR TANK WASTE PRETREATMENT AT THE DOE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    HAMILTON, D.W.

    2006-01-03

    Radioactive wastes from one hundred seventy-seven underground storage tanks in the 200 Area of the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State will be retrieved, treated and stored either on site or at an approved off-site repository. DOE is currently planning to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, which would be treated and permanently disposed in separate facilities. A significant volume of the wastes in the Hanford tanks is currently classified as medium Curie waste, which will require separation and treatment at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). Because of the specific challenges associated with treating this waste stream, DOE EM-21 funded a project to investigate the feasibility of using fractional crystallization as a supplemental pretreatment technology. The two process requirements for fractional crystallization to be successfully applied to Hanford waste include: (1) evaporation of water from the aqueous solution to enrich the activity of soluble {sup 137}Cs, resulting in a higher activity stream to be sent to the WTP, and (2) separation of the crystalline salts that are enriched in sodium, carbonate, sulfate, and phosphate and sufficiently depleted in {sup 137}Cs, to produce a second stream to be sent to Bulk Vitrification. Phase I of this project has just been completed by COGEMA/Georgia Institute of Technology. The purpose of this report is to document an independent expert review of the Phase I results with recommendations for future testing. A team of experts with significant experience at both the Hanford and Savannah River Sites was convened to conduct the review at Richland, Washington the week of November 14, 2005.

  1. Electrokinetic remediation of plutonium-contaminated nuclear site wastes: results from a pilot-scale on-site trial.

    PubMed

    Agnew, Kieran; Cundy, Andrew B; Hopkinson, Laurence; Croudace, Ian W; Warwick, Phillip E; Purdie, Philip

    2011-02-28

    This paper examines the field-scale application of a novel low-energy electrokinetic technique for the remediation of plutonium-contaminated nuclear site soils, using soil wastes from the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) Aldermaston site, Berkshire, UK as a test medium. Soils and sediments with varying composition, contaminated with Pu through historical site operations, were electrokinetically treated at laboratory-scale with and without various soil pre-conditioning agents. Results from these bench-scale trials were used to inform a larger on-site remediation trial, using an adapted containment pack with battery power supply. 2.4 m(3) (ca. 4t onnes) of Pu-contaminated soil was treated for 60 days at a power consumption of 33 kWh/m(3), and then destructively sampled. Radiochemical data indicate mobilisation of Pu in the treated soil, and migration (probably as a negatively charged Pu-citrate complex) towards the anodic compartment of the treatment cell. Soil in the cathodic zone of the treatment unit was remediated to a level below free-release disposal thresholds (1.7 Bq/g, or <0.4 Bq/g above background activities). The data show the potential of this method as a low-cost, on-site tool for remediation of radioactively contaminated soils and wastes which can be operated remotely on working sites, with minimal disruption to site infrastructure or operations. PMID:21227583

  2. Special Analysis of Transuranic Waste in Trench T04C at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Shott, Vefa Yucel, Lloyd Desotell

    2008-05-01

    This Special Analysis (SA) was prepared to assess the potential impact of inadvertent disposal of a limited quantity of transuranic (TRU) waste in classified Trench 4 (T04C) within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS is a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in northern Frenchman Flat on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS is regulated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under DOE Order 435.1 and DOE Manual (DOE M) 435.1-1. The primary objective of the SA is to evaluate if inadvertent disposal of limited quantities of TRU waste in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 RWMS is in compliance with the existing, approved Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS) issued under DOE M 435.1-1. In addition, supplemental analyses are performed to determine if there is reasonable assurance that the requirements of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, can be met. The 40 CFR 191 analyses provide supplemental information regarding the risk to human health and the environment of leaving the TRU waste in T04C. In 1989, waste management personnel reviewing classified materials records discovered that classified materials buried in trench T04C at the Area 5 RWMS contained TRU waste. Subsequent investigations determined that a total of 102 55-gallon drums of TRU waste from Rocky Flats were buried in trench T04C in 1986. The disposal was inadvertent because unclassified records accompanying the shipment indicated that the waste was low-level. The exact location of the TRU waste in T04C was not recorded and is currently unknown. Under DOE M 435.1-1, Chapter IV, Section P.5, low-level waste disposal facilities must obtain a DAS. The DAS specifies conditions that must be met to operate within the radioactive waste management basis, consisting of a

  3. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Neutron Products Incorporated Sealed Source Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Shott, Gregory

    2014-08-31

    The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Neutron Products Incorporated (NPI) Sealed Sources waste stream (DRTK000000056, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream consists of 850 60Co sealed sources (Duratek [DRTK] 2013). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream requires a special analysis (SA) because the waste stream 60Co activity concentration exceeds the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

  4. A data base for low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Daum, M.L.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1989-07-01

    A computerized database was developed to assist the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in evaluating methods and data for characterizing health hazards associated with land and ocean disposal options for low-level radioactive wastes. The data cover 1984 to 1987. The types of sites considered include Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensed commercial disposal sites, EPA National Priority List (NPL) sites, US Department of Energy (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Project (FUSRAP) and DOE Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) sites, inactive US ocean disposal sites, and DOE/Department of Defense facilities. Sources of information include reports from EPA, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), as well as direct communication with individuals associated with specific programs. The data include site descriptions, waste volumes and activity levels, and physical and radiological characterization of low-level wastes. Additional information on mixed waste, packaging forms, and disposal methods were compiled, but are not yet included in the database. 55 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Criteria for greater confinement of radioactive wastes at arid western sites

    SciTech Connect

    Card, D.H.; Hunter, P.H.; Adam, J.A.; White, R.B.

    1981-05-01

    This document provides a set of criteria and standards for greater confinement disposal (CCD) of low-level waste as an alternative to shallow land burial or deep geologic disposal for certain types of waste. The criteria and standards are discussed relative to seven major areas: radiation exposure protection, characterization of waste, transportation and handling, site selection, engineering, general facility requirements, and administration. The document addresses the objectives or goals of burial at intermediate depths to provide greater confinement, and its advantages and disadvantages compared to shallow land burial. Additionally, the document describes a generic greater confinement disposal facility (GCDF), and discusses as well as evaluates the various interrelating factors which must be considered in the selection of a viable site and in the development of GCDF design and performance criteria. Methods are developed for evaluating and ranking the importance of the factors based on health and safety, their potential impact on cost, and the uncertainty and/or difficulty in measurement and control of the factors. It also provides the methodology and analysis used to determine the various site-specific waste concentration acceptance standards (in the form of area disposal concentration limits) as well as design and engineering standards. It also illustrates the methodology used to determine the optimal or preferred depth of disposal under expected arid site conditions and alternative wet or irrigated site conditions. In addition, an example calculation demonstrates the application of the waste area concentration limits at an arid or humid GDF in determining the allowable waste inventory capacity of a particular site and the loading capacity of a waste disposal cell.

  6. Risk assessment for the on-site transportation of radioactive wastes for the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B.M.; Monette, F.A.; Chen, S.Y.

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the risk assessment performed for the on-site transportation of radioactive wastes in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). Risks for the routine shipment of wastes and the impacts from potential accidental releases are analyzed for operations at the Hanford Site (Hanford) near Richland, Washington. Like other large DOE sites, hanford conducts waste management operations for all wastes types; consequently, the impacts calculated for Hanford are expected to be greater than those for smaller sites. The risk assessment conducted for on-site transportation is intended to provide an estimate of the magnitude of the potential risk for comparison with off-site transportation risks assessed for the WM PEIS.

  7. APPLICATION OF THERMAL DESORPTION TECHNOLOGIES TO HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermal desorption is a separation process frequently used to remediate many Superfund sites. Thermal desorption technologies are recommended and used because of (1) the wide range of organic contaminants effectively treated, (2) availability and mobility of commercial systems, ...

  8. COSTS OF REMEDIAL RESPONSE ACTIONS AT UNCONTROLLED HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary purpose of this study was to update conceptual design cost estimates for remedial action unit operations portrayed in earlier reports. Thirty-five remedial action unit operations conceptual designs, addressing uncontrolled landfill or impoundment disposal sites, were ...

  9. FACT SHEET ON ENERGY CONSERVATION AT WASTE CLEANUP SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fact sheet describes considerations for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources for remediation projects involving groundwater pump and treat systems. The document presents the findings of conducting an energy analysis at several sites and indicates lessons learned an...

  10. Technical Analysis of OnSite Disposal of Space Grade Plutonium Waste

    SciTech Connect

    James, COOK

    2004-12-20

    The Risk Based End State Vision Report for the Savannah River Site includes a variance that proposes on-site near surface disposal of waste from the program to produce Pu-238 heat sources for deep space probes. On-site disposal would greatly reduce the risk to workers by eliminating the need to repackage the waste in order to characterize it and ship it to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Significant cost savings can also be realized. A legacy inventory of 6145 m3 containing 590,000 curies of Heat Source plutonium exists at the Savannah River Site. Our plan is to ship as much of this material as possible to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant using currently available facilities and equipment. We estimate that most of the volume can be safely packaged and transported to WIPP. The remainder, 1813 m3 containing 280,000 curies, is proposed to be disposed of at the SRS after demonstrating that all applicable environmental protection regulations can be met. A technical analysis has been done u sing the overall methodology developed for low-level waste disposal performance assessments. The results to date show that groundwater protection will be maintained, but that enhanced engineering measures are needed to meet the performance measures for protection of inadvertent intruders. The release criterion from 40 CFR 191 is achievable. This analysis provides a means of demonstrating the technical basis on-site disposal of Heat Source plutonium to management, stakeholders and regulators.

  11. A solid waste disposal site selection procedure based on groundwater vulnerability mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simsek, Celalettin; Kincal, Cem; Gunduz, Orhan

    2006-02-01

    In this study, a new, GIS-based solid waste site selection tool (DUPIT) is introduced to obtain a systematic and unbiased methodology during the evaluation phases of alternative solid waste disposal areas with regards to vulnerability to groundwater pollution. The proposed tool is an index technique based on the linear combination of five different hydrogeological parameters including Depth to groundwater table, Upper layer lithology, Permeability of the unsaturated zone, Impermeable layer thickness and Topographic slope. Five different categories are developed to classify each alternative based on the suitability of the site for a solid waste disposal area. As a result, each site is ranked according to the contamination risks for groundwater resources. The proposed technique is applied to the District of Torbali near Izmir, Turkey to determine the most appropriate solid waste disposal site location. The Torbali application is implemented by using a GIS database developed for the area. Based on the results of this application, the best alternative solid waste disposal site for Torbali is selected to be located in the northern portions of the city where the groundwater table is deep, the permeability is low and the topographic slope is mild.

  12. Wetlands restoration at hazardous waste sites in northern New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Harman, C.R.

    1995-12-31

    Under the strict requirements of the New Jersey Freshwater Wetlands Protection Act, remedial activities conducted in wetland areas must include provisions for restoration of the disturbed wetlands. The Act calls for the restoration of the functions of the effected wetlands to conditions similar to the preexisting functions. Wetlands restoration in these circumstances usually includes the regrading of the excavated area using imported top soil and planting of hydrophytic trees, shrubs and herbaceous species to restore the vegetative community. The restoration of the vegetative community is usually based on the characteristics of the predisturbance plant community. At most sites, the natural hydrologic regime is not modified by remediation and supplemental support is not required. Much of the freshwater wetland sites that require restoration in northern New Jersey are dominated by red maple (Acer rubrum forests). The success rate of restoring these areas is mixed, depending on a variety of environmental factors, some of which are often unknown. This paper presents a synopsis of several wetland mitigation projects that have been conducted over the past two years in northern New Jersey. In each instance, wetland restoration was conducted following the excavation of contaminated soils. In terms of plant survival rates and vegetative cover, one of the sites was highly successful, another was marginally successful, and third site is still being monitored. The lessons learned from these sites will be used in mitigating other wetlands sites and will hopefully increase the success rate of these types of projects.

  13. Effects on residential property values of proximity to a site contaminated with radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, B.A.; Olshansky, S.J.; Segel, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    An issue often raised by the public regarding projects that involve hazardous chemical or radioactive waste sites is whether distance from these sites affects residential property values. Previous research has studied changes in the housing market in communities near Three Mile Island after the 1979 accident and legal precedents of compensation for loss of property value because of proximity to hazardous areas. However, this research has not addressed effects on residential property values of proximity specifically to hazardous chemical or radioactive waste sites. The effects of the proximity of residence to such a site in West Chicago, Illinois - used for many years for disposal of thorium waste from processing ores - were investigated in this study. Single-family residence sales located within about 0.4 km of the West Chicago site were compared with residence sales located between 0.4 km and 1.6 km from the site. Trends in average annual selling prices were analyzed both before and after publicity appeared about the existence of the radioactive material at the site. Results indiate that older residences (built before 1950) located within about 0.4 km of the disposal site experienced a prolonged depression in selling prices after the publicity, in comparison with older residences located farther from the site and with all transactions on newer residences. These results confirm to some extent public perceptions and potentially raise legal issues associated with property values. Suggestions are provided for mitigative measures to alleviate these issues. 22 references, 1 figure.

  14. Site characterization report for the basalt waste isolation project. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    1982-11-01

    The reference location for a repository in basalt for the terminal storage of nuclear wastes on the Hanford Site and the candidate horizons within this reference repository location have been identified and the preliminary characterization work in support of the site screening process has been completed. Fifteen technical questions regarding the qualification of the site were identified to be addressed during the detailed site characterization phase of the US Department of Energy-National Waste Terminal Storage Program site selection process. Resolution of these questions will be provided in the final site characterization progress report, currently planned to be issued in 1987, and in the safety analysis report to be submitted with the License Application. The additional information needed to resolve these questions and the plans for obtaining the information have been identified. This Site Characterization Report documents the results of the site screening process, the preliminary site characterization data, the technical issues that need to be addressed, and the plans for resolving these issues. Volume 2 contains chapters 6 through 12: geochemistry; surface hydrology; climatology, meteorology, and air quality; environmental, land-use, and socioeconomic characteristics; repository design; waste package; and performance assessment.

  15. Framework for DOE mixed low-level waste disposal: Site fact sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Gruebel, M.M.; Waters, R.D.; Hospelhorn, M.B.; Chu, M.S.Y.

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is required to prepare and submit Site Treatment Plans (STPS) pursuant to the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct). Although the FFCAct does not require that disposal be addressed in the STPS, the DOE and the States recognize that treatment of mixed low-level waste will result in residues that will require disposal in either low-level waste or mixed low-level waste disposal facilities. As a result, the DOE is working with the States to define and develop a process for evaluating disposal-site suitability in concert with the FFCAct and development of the STPS. Forty-nine potential disposal sites were screened; preliminary screening criteria reduced the number of sites for consideration to twenty-six. The DOE then prepared fact sheets for the remaining sites. These fact sheets provided additional site-specific information for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the twenty-six sites as potential disposal sites. The information also provided the basis for discussion among affected States and the DOE in recommending sites for more detailed evaluation.

  16. Effects of ageing on elution behaviour of nitrogenous compounds in disposed wastes from landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies of elution and cation exchange capacity (CEC) tests were applied to aged and fresh municipal and industrial solid wastes to examine the effects of ageing on the long-term elution behaviour of nitrogen on leachate in municipal and industrial solid waste landfill sites. Nitrogen in the leachate gradually eluted as organic nitrogen, but not upon transformation of organic nitrogen to elutable inorganic nitrogen compounds in the solid waste. Ammonium in the solid waste, retained similar to its interaction with clay minerals in soil, elutes when exposed to leachate by being replaced with highly concentrated cations or loses its positive charge in high pH in the leachate, which percolates down from the upper layer of the disposed waste. The quantity of ammonium adsorbed into the aged wastes through CEC measurement process by replacement with ammonium acetate was higher than that onto the fresh wastes. That difference in quantities can serve as an index of the ability of the solid waste to withhold ammonium in the leachate that percolates down the landfill layer. Those results demonstrate that ammonification of organic nitrogen in the waste is not the crucial step of the elution of nitrogenous compounds into leachate. PMID:25145199

  17. Consultation draft: Site characterization plan overview, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 113)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a site characterization plan for the candidate site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The DOE has provided, for information and review, a consultation draft of the plan to the State of Texas and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The site characterization plan is a lengthy document that describes in considerable detail the program that will be conducted to characterize the geologic, hydrologic, and other conditions relevant to the suitability of the site for a repository. The overview presented here consists of brief summaries of important topics covered in the consultation draft of the site characterization plan; it is not a substitute for the site characterization plan. The arrangement of the overview is similar to that of the plan itself, with brief descriptions of the repository system - the site, the repository, and the waste package - preceding the discussion of the characterization program to be carried out at the Deaf Smith County site. It is intended primarily for the management staff of organizations involved in the DOE's repository program or other persons who might wish to understand the general scope of the site-characterization program, the activities to be conducted, and the facilities to be constructed rather than the technical details of site characterization. 15 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Site 300 hazardous-waste-assessment project. Interim report: December 1981. Preliminary site reconnaissance and project work plan

    SciTech Connect

    Raber, E.; Helm, D.; Carpenter, D.; Peifer, D.; Sweeney, J.

    1982-01-20

    This document was prepared to outline the scope and objectives of the Hazardous Waste Assessment Project (HWAP) at Site 300. This project was initiated in October, 1981, to investigate the existing solid waste landfills in an effort to satisfy regulatory guidelines and assess the potential for ground-water contamination. This involves a site-specific investigation (utilizing geology, hydrology, geophysics and geochemistry) with the goal of developing an effective ground-water quality monitoring network. Initial site reconnaissance work has begun and we report the results, to date, of our geologic hydrogeologic studies. All known solid waste disposal locations are underlain by rocks of either the Late Miocene Neroly Formation or the Cierbo Formation, both of which are dominantly sandstones interbedded with shale and claystone. The existence of a regional confined (artesian) aquifer, as well as a regional water-table aquifer is postulated for Site 300. Preliminary analysis has led to an understanding of directions and depths of regional ground-water flow.

  19. Geochemistry of trench leachates at low-level radioactive waste burial sites

    SciTech Connect

    Dayal, R.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Clinton, J.

    1984-01-01

    Trench leachates from the low-level radioactive waste burial sites at Maxey Flats, Kentucky and Barnwell, South Carolina were sampled and analyzed for dissolved inorganic, organic, and radionuclide constituents. Relative to local groundwaters, the trench leachates exhibit significant modifications in major ion and radionuclide compositions. The formation and composition of the leachates can be attributed to site-specific hydrological and geochemical factors. Leaching and microbial degradation of waste materials are considered to be the important geochemical processes controlling the leachate compositions. Elevated concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, dissolved organic and inorganic carbon, and various anthropogenic radionuclides reflect leaching of waste materials. Anoxic conditions as characterized by depletion of dissolved oxygen and sulphate, and high contents of alkalinity and ammonia reflect microbial decomposition of organic waste materials. Because of relatively stagnant water accumulations, the extent of modification is much greater in the Maxey Flats leachates as compared with those from Barnwell. 8 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Habitat requirements and burrowing depths of rodents in relation to shallow waste burial sites

    SciTech Connect

    Gano, K.A.; States, J.B.

    1982-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the literature and summarize information on factors affecting habitat selection and maximum recorded burrowing depths for representative small mammals that we consider most likely to inhibit waste burial sites in arid and semi-arid regions of the West. The information is intended for waste management designers who need to know what to expect from small mammals that may be present at a particular site. Waste repositories oculd be designed to exclude the deep burrowing rodents of a region by creating an unattractive habitat over the waste. Summaries are given for habitat requirements of each group along with generalized modifications that could be employed to deter habitation. Representatives from the major groups considered to be deep burrowers are discussed. Further, detailed information about a particular species can be obtained from the references cited.

  1. TWRS tank waste pretreatment process development hot test siting report

    SciTech Connect

    Howden, G.F.; Banning, D.L.; Dodd, D.A.; Smith, D.A.; Stevens, P.F.; Hansen, R.I.; Reynolds, B.A.

    1995-02-01

    This report is the sixth in a series that have assessed the hot testing requirements for TWRS pretreatment process development and identified the hot testing support requirements. This report, based on the previous work, identifies specific hot test work packages, matches those packages to specific hot cell facilities, and provides recommendations of specific facilities to be employed for the pretreatment hot test work. Also identified are serious limitations in the tank waste sample retrieval and handling infrastructure. Recommendations are provided for staged development of 500 mL, 3 L, 25 L and 4000 L sample recovery systems and specific actions to provide those capabilities.

  2. Radioactive waste disposal in Germany: no site decision - Keeping competence

    SciTech Connect

    Kienzler, Bernhard; Geckeis, Horst; Gompper, Klaus; Klenze, Reinhardt

    2007-07-01

    The research programme of the Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE) at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe is dedicated to elaborate the fundamental understanding of radionuclide/actinide interactions with various components of the groundwater and with the relevant host rock materials at disposal relevant trace concentrations. INE's research programme was not biased after enactment of the Gorleben moratorium in 2001. This paper presents current R and D with respect to application in performance assessment/safety case of nuclear waste disposal. Focus is given to the leading role of the institute in various projects within EU framework programmes. (authors)

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2006-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 139 is comprised of the seven corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 03-35-01, Burn Pit; (2) 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; (3) 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; (4) 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; (5) 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; (6) 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and (7) 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives with the exception of CASs 09-23-01 and 09-34-01. Regarding these two CASs, CAS 09-23-01 is a gravel gertie where a zero-yield test was conducted with all contamination confined to below ground within the area of the structure, and CAS 09-34-01 is an underground detection station where no contaminants are present. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for the other five CASs where information is insufficient. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on January 4, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 139.

  4. Hazard ranking system evaluation of CERCLA inactive waste sites at Hanford: Volume 3: Unplanned-release sites (HISS data base)

    SciTech Connect

    Jette, S.J.; Lamar, D.A.; McLaughlin, T.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Van Houten, N.C.; Stenner, R.D; Cramer, K.H.; Higley, K.A.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to formally document the assessment activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. These activities were carried out pursuant to the DOE orders that address the Comprehensive Environmental Response, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Program for the cleanup of inactive waste sites. The DOE orders incorporate the US Environmental Protection Agency methodology, which is based on the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. This methodology includes:PA/SI, remedial investigation/feasibility study, record of decision, design and implementation or remedial action, operation and monitoring, and verification monitoring. Volume 1 of this report discusses the CERCLA inactive waste-site evaluation process, assumptions, and results of the Hazard Ranking System methodology employed. Volume 2 presents the data on the individual CERCLA engineered-facility sites at Hanford, as contained in the Hanford Inactive Site Surveillance (HISS) Data Base. Volume 3 presents the data on the individual CERCLA unplanned-release sites at Hanford, as contained in the HISS Data Base. 13 figs.

  5. Hazard ranking system evaluation of CERCLA inactive waste sites at Hanford: Volume 2: Engineered-facility sites (HISS data base)

    SciTech Connect

    Jette, S.J.; Lamar, D.A.; McLaughlin, T.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Van Houten, N.C.; Stenner, R.D.; Cramer, K.H.; Higley, K.A.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to formally document the assessment activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. These activities were carried out pursuant to the DOE orders that address the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Program for the cleanup of inactive waste sites. The DOE orders incorporate the US Environmental Protection Agency methodology, which is based on the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. This methodology includes: PA/SI, remedial investigation/feasibility study, record of decision, design and implementation of remedial action, operation and monitoring, and verification monitoring. Volume 1 of this report discusses the CERCLA inactive waste-site evaluation process, assumptions, and results of the Hazard Ranking System methodology employed. Volume 2 presents the data on the individual CERCLA engineered-facility sites at Hanford, as contained in the Hanford Inactive Site Surveillance (HISS) Data Base. Volume 3 presents the data on the individual CERCLA unplanned-release sites at Hanford, as contained in the HISS Data Base. 13 refs.

  6. Overview of Hanford Site High-Level Waste Tank Gas and Vapor Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, James L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Droppo, James G.; Meacham, Joseph E.

    2004-08-31

    Hanford Site processes associated with the chemical separation of plutonium from uranium and other fission products produced a variety of volatile, semivolatile, and nonvolatile organic and inorganic waste chemicals that were sent to high-level waste tanks. These chemicals have undergone and continue to undergo radiolytic and thermal reactions in the tanks to produce a wide variety of degradation reaction products. The origins of the organic wastes, the chemical reactions they undergo, and their reaction products have recently been examined by Stock (2004). Stock gives particular attention to explaining the presence of various types of volatile and semivolatile organic species identified in headspace air samples. This report complements the Stock report by examining the storage of volatile and semivolatile species in the waste, their transport through any overburden of waste to the tank headspaces, the physical phenomena affecting their concentrations in the headspaces, and their eventual release into the atmosphere above the tanks.

  7. High-level waste processing at the Savannah River Site: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.E.; Bennett, W.M.; Elder, H.H.; Lee, E.D.; Marra, S.L.; Rutland, P.L.

    1997-09-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC mg began immobilizing high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass in 1996. Currently, the radioactive glass is being produced as a ``sludge-only`` composition by combining washed high-level waste sludge with glass frit. The glass is poured in stainless steel canisters which will eventually be disposed of in a permanent, geological repository. To date, DWPF has produced about 100 canisters of vitrified waste. Future processing operations will, be based on a ``coupled`` feed of washed high-level waste sludge, precipitated cesium, and glass frit. This paper provides an update of the processing activities completed to date, operational/flowsheet problems encountered, and programs underway to increase production rates.

  8. RESULTS OF THE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR THE CLASSIFIED TRANSURANIC WASTES DISPOSED AT THE NEVADA TEST SITE

    SciTech Connect

    J. COCHRAN; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    Most transuranic (TRU) wastes are destined for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). However, the TRU wastes from the cleanup of US nuclear weapons accidents are classified for national security reasons and cannot be disposed in WIPP. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sought an alternative disposal method for these ''special case'' TRU wastes and from 1984 to 1987, four Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes were used to place these special case TRU wastes a minimum of 21 m (70 ft) below the land surface and a minimum of 200 m (650 ft) above the water table. The GCD boreholes are located in arid alluvium at the DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS). Because of state regulatory concerns, the GCD boreholes have not been used for waste disposal since 1989. DOE requires that TRU waste disposal facilities meet the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) requirements for disposal of TRU wastes, which are contained in 40 CFR 191. This EPA standard sets a number of requirements, including probabilistic limits on the cumulative releases of radionuclides to the accessible environment for 10,000 years. The DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) has contracted with Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) to conduct a performance assessment (PA) to determine if the TRU waste emplaced in the GCD boreholes complies with the EPA's requirements. Sandia has completed the PA using all available information and an iterative PA methodology. This paper overviews the PA of the TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes [1]. As such, there are few cited references in this paper and the reader is referred to [1] and [2] for references. The results of the PA are that disposal of TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes easily complies with the EPA's 40 CFR 191 safety standards for disposal of TRU wastes. The PA is undergoing a DOE Headquarters (DOE/HQ) peer review, and the final PA will be released in FY2001 or FY2002.

  9. Impact of Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme on work practices at construction sites in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ann T W; Poon, C S; Wong, Agnes; Yip, Robin; Jaillon, Lara

    2013-01-01

    Waste management in the building industry in Hong Kong has become an important environmental issue. Particularly, an increasing amount of construction and demolition (C&D) waste is being disposed at landfill sites. In order to reduce waste generation and encourage reuse and recycling, the Hong Kong Government has implemented the Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme (CWDCS) to levy charges on C&D waste disposal to landfills. In order to provide information on the changes in reducing waste generation practice among construction participants in various work trades, a study was conducted after 3 years of implementation of the CWDCS via a structured questionnaire survey in the building industry in Hong Kong. The study result has revealed changes with work flows of the major trades as well as differentiating the levels of waste reduced. Three building projects in the public and private sectors were selected as case studies to demonstrate the changes in work flows and the reduction of waste achieved. The research findings reveal that a significant reduction of construction waste was achieved at the first 3 years (2006-2008) of CWDCS implementation. However, the reduction cannot be sustained. The major trades have been influenced to a certain extent by the implementation of the CWDCS. Slight improvement in waste management practices was observed, but reduction of construction waste in the wet-finishing and dry-finishing trades has undergone little improvement. Implementation of the CWDCS has not yet motivated subcontractors to change their methods of construction so as to reduce C&D waste. PMID:23122205

  10. Evaluation of geologic materials to limit biological intrusion into low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hakonson, T.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the results of a three-year research program to evaluate the performance of selected soil and rock trench cap designs in limiting biological intrusion into simulated waste. The report is divided into three sections including a discussion of background material on biological interactions with waste site trench caps, a presentation of experimental data from field studies conducted at several scales, and a final section on the interpretation and limitations of the data including implications for the user.

  11. Ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Fruland, R.M.

    1986-10-01

    Washington state regulations required that solid waste landfill facilities have ground-water monitoring programs in place by May 27, 1987. This document describes the well locations, installation, characterization studies and sampling and analysis plan to be followed in implementing the ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). It is based on Washington Administrative Code WAC 173-304-490. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-004

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 100-F-26:8 waste site consisted of the underground pipelines that conveyed sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office to the 1607-F1 septic tank. The site has been remediated and presently exists as an open excavation. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  13. Immobilized low-activity waste site borehole 299-E17-21

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P.; Reynolds, K.D.; Horton, D.G.

    1998-08-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is the group at the Hanford Site responsible for the safe underground storage of liquid waste from previous Hanford Site operations, the storage and disposal of immobilized tank waste, and closure of underground tanks. The current plan is to dispose of immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW) in new facilities in the southcentral part of 200-East Area and in four existing vaults along the east side of 200-East Area. Boreholes 299-E17-21, B8501, and B8502 were drilled at the southwest corner of the ILAW site in support of the Performance Assessment activities for the disposal options. This report summarizes the initial geologic findings, field tests conducted on those boreholes, and ongoing studies. One deep (480 feet) borehole and two shallow (50 feet) boreholes were drilled at the southwest corner of the ILAW site. The primary factor dictating the location of the boreholes was their characterization function with respect to developing the geohydrologic model for the site and satisfying associated Data Quality Objectives. The deep borehole was drilled to characterize subsurface conditions beneath the ILAW site, and two shallow boreholes were drilled to support an ongoing environmental tracer study. The tracer study will supply information to the Performance Assessment. All the boreholes provide data on the vadose zone and saturated zone in a previously uncharacterized area.

  14. Toward Identifying the Next Generation of Superfund and Hazardous Waste Site Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Ela, Wendell P.; Sedlak, David L.; Barlaz, Morton A.; Henry, Heather F.; Muir, Derek C.G.; Swackhamer, Deborah L.; Weber, Eric J.; Arnold, Robert G.; Ferguson, P. Lee; Field, Jennifer A.; Furlong, Edward T.; Giesy, John P.; Halden, Rolf U.; Henry, Tala; Hites, Ronald A.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.; Howard, Philip H.; Luthy, Richard G.; Meyer, Anita K.; Sáez, A. Eduardo; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Vulpe, Chris D.; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Background This commentary evolved from a workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences titled “Superfund Contaminants: The Next Generation” held in Tucson, Arizona, in August 2009. All the authors were workshop participants. Objectives Our aim was to initiate a dynamic, adaptable process for identifying contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) that are likely to be found in future hazardous waste sites, and to identify the gaps in primary research that cause uncertainty in determining future hazardous waste site contaminants. Discussion Superfund-relevant CECs can be characterized by specific attributes: They are persistent, bioaccumulative, toxic, occur in large quantities, and have localized accumulation with a likelihood of exposure. Although still under development and incompletely applied, methods to quantify these attributes can assist in winnowing down the list of candidates from the universe of potential CECs. Unfortunately, significant research gaps exist in detection and quantification, environmental fate and transport, health and risk assessment, and site exploration and remediation for CECs. Addressing these gaps is prerequisite to a preventive approach to generating and managing hazardous waste sites. Conclusions A need exists for a carefully considered and orchestrated expansion of programmatic and research efforts to identify, evaluate, and manage CECs of hazardous waste site relevance, including developing an evolving list of priority CECs, intensifying the identification and monitoring of likely sites of present or future accumulation of CECs, and implementing efforts that focus on a holistic approach to prevention. PMID:21205582

  15. Thermodynamic model for uranium release from hanford site tank residual waste.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Kirk J; Deutsch, William J; Lindberg, Mike J

    2011-02-15

    A thermodynamic model of U solid-phase solubility and paragenesis was developed for Hanford Site tank residual waste that will remain in place after tank closure. The model was developed using a combination of waste composition data, waste leach test data, and thermodynamic modeling of the leach test data. The testing and analyses were conducted using actual Hanford Site tank residual waste. Positive identification of U phases by X-ray diffraction was generally not possible either because solids in the waste were amorphous or their concentrations were not detectable by XRD for both as-received and leached residual waste. Three leachant solutions were used in the studies: deionized water, CaCO3 saturated solution, and Ca(OH)2 saturated solution. Analysis of calculated saturation indices indicate that NaUO2PO4·xH2O and Na2U2O7(am) are present in the residual wastes initially. Leaching of the residual wastes with deionized water or CaCO3 saturated solution results in preferential dissolution Na2U2O7(am) and formation of schoepite. Leaching of the residual wastes with Ca(OH)2 saturated solution appears to result in transformation of both NaUO2PO4·xH2O and Na2U2O7(am) to CaUO4. Upon the basis of these results, the paragenetic sequence of secondary phases expected to occur as leaching of residual waste progresses for two tank closure scenarios was identified. PMID:21268633

  16. EXAMPLE OF A RISK BASED DISPOSAL APPROVAL SOLIDIFICATION OF HANFORD SITE TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    PRIGNANO AL

    2007-11-14

    The Hanford Site requested, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 10 approved, a Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 (TSCA) risk-based disposal approval (RBDA) for solidifying approximately four cubic meters of waste from a specific area of one of the K East Basin: the North Loadout Pit (NLOP). The NLOP waste is a highly radioactive sludge that contained polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) regulated under TSCA. The prescribed disposal method for liquid PCB waste under TSCA regulations is either thermal treatment or decontamination. Due to the radioactive nature of the waste, however, neither thermal treatment nor decontamination was a viable option. As a result, the proposed treatment consisted of solidifying the material to comply with waste acceptance criteria at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico, or possibly the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility at the Hanford Site, depending on the resulting transuranic (TRU) content of the stabilized waste. The RBDA evaluated environmental risks associated with potential airborne PCBs. In addition, the RBDA made use of waste management controls already in place at the treatment unit. The treatment unit, the T Plant Complex, is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA)-permitted facility used for storing and treating radioactive waste. The EPA found that the proposed activities did not pose an unreasonable risk to human health or the environment. Treatment took place from October 26,2005 to June 9,2006, and 332 208-liter (55-gallon) containers of solidified waste were produced. All treated drums assayed to date are TRU and will be disposed at WIPP.

  17. Example of a Risk-Based Disposal Approval: Solidification of Hanford Site Transuranic Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, B.M.; Hyatt, J.E.; Martin, P.W.; Prignano, A.L.

    2008-07-01

    The Hanford Site requested, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 10 approved, a Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 (TSCA) risk-based disposal approval (RBDA) for solidifying approximately four cubic meters of waste from a specific area of one of the K East Basin: the North Loadout Pit (NLOP). The NLOP waste is a highly radioactive sludge that contained polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) regulated under TSCA. The prescribed disposal method for liquid PCB waste under TSCA regulations is either thermal treatment or decontamination. Due to the radioactive nature of the waste, however, neither thermal treatment nor decontamination was a viable option. As a result, the proposed treatment consisted of solidifying the material to comply with waste acceptance criteria at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico, or possibly the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility at the Hanford Site, depending on the resulting transuranic (TRU) content of the stabilized waste. The RBDA evaluated environmental risks associated with potential airborne PCBs. In addition, the RBDA made use of waste management controls already in place at the treatment unit. The treatment unit, the T Plant Complex, is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA)-permitted facility used for storing and treating radioactive waste. The EPA found that the proposed activities did not pose an unreasonable risk to human health or the environment. Treatment took place from October 26, 2005 to June 9, 2006, and 332 208-liter (55-gallon) containers of solidified waste were produced. All treated drums assayed to date are TRU and will be disposed at WIPP. (authors)

  18. Effect of sun elevation upon remote sensing of ocean color over an acid waste dump site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressette, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Photographic flights were made over an ocean acid waste dump site while dumping was in progress. The flights resulted in wide angle, broadband, spectral radiance film exposure data between the wavelengths of 500 to 900 nanometers for sun elevation angles ranging from 26 to 42 degrees. It is shown from densitometer data that the spectral signature of acid waste discharged into ocean water can be observed photographically, the influence of sun elevation upon remotely sensed apparent color can be normalized by using a single spectral band ratioing technique, and photographic quantification and mapping of acid waste through its suspended iron precipitate appears possible.

  19. Risk assessment for the Arkansas City hazardous-waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, L.D.

    1989-01-01

    A review of risk assessment revealed inconsistencies in the methods used, arguments as to the reliability of the end results, and conflicts over its acceptance by members of scientific community. The US Geological Survey requested an endangerment assessment for the environmental contamination from an old oil refinery site in Coffey County, Kansas. The four aspects of the risk assessment process were applied to the data available from the contamination site. Investigation of the substances present, their toxicities, available dose-response data and exposure information led to quantitative risk values for various substances present. Risks to the susceptible population were characterized according to type of threat and risk probability. Significant risks due to systemic toxicants and carcinogens, as well as organoleptic problems, were determine to pose a threat to the population experiencing exposure at this particular site.

  20. On-site storage of high level nuclear waste: Attitudes and perceptions of local residents

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, G.W. Jr.; Jenkins-Smith, H.C.; Silva, C.

    1996-06-01

    No public policy issue has been as difficult as high-level nuclear waste. Debates continue regarding Yucca Mountain as a disposal site, and - more generally - the appropriateness of geologic disposal and the need to act quickly. Previous research has focused on possible social, political, and economic consequences of a facility in Nevada. Impacts have been predicted to be potentially large and to emanate mainly from stigmatization of the region due to increased perceptions of risk. Analogous impacts from leaving waste at power plants have been either ignored or assumed to be negligible. This paper presents survey results on attitudes of residents in three countries where nuclear waste is currently stored. Topics include perceived risk, knowledge of nuclear waste and radiation, and impacts on jobs, tourism, and housing values from leaving waste on site. Results are similar to what has been reported for Nevada; the public is concerned about possible adverse effects from on-site storage of waste. 24 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. 1993 report on Hanford Site land disposal restrictions for mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.

    1993-04-01

    Since the early 1940s, the contractors at the Hanford Site have been involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials. These production activities have resulted in the generation of large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste (RMW). This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976{sup 2}(RCRA) and Atomic Energy Act{sup 3}. This report covers mixed waste only. Hazardous waste that is not contaminated with radionuclides is not addressed in this report. The Washington State Department of Ecology, US Environmental Protection Agency, and US Department of Energy have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order{sup 1} (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement) to bring the Hanford Site operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement required development of the original land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan and its annual updates to comply with LDR requirements for RMW. This report is the third update of the plan first issued in 1990. The Tri-Party Agreement requires, and the baseline plan and annual update reports provide, the information that follows: Waste characterization information; storage data; treatment information; waste reduction information; schedule; and progress.

  2. Microbial pathogens of public health significance in waste dumps and common sites.

    PubMed

    Achudume, A C; Olawale, J T

    2007-01-01

    Microbial pathogens of public health significance found in waste and common sites were collected from four different dumping sites and assessed for pathogenic agents. The modified methods employed were based on the classical methods and basic principles of the reactions followed by biochemical enzymatic standards described for gram negative non fermenting bacteria. The results have shown presence of bacterial species including Pseudomonas, Mirococcus, Actinomyces, Neisseria, Bacillus and Klebsiella. These pathogens can infect wounds and cause sepsis and mortality and can even occur with such organisms to cause secondary infection. These groups of organisms are almost impossible to control since they are ubitiquous. Public health may be ensured from pathogenic agents at waste sites by prompt removal of waste and proper management (mechanical sorting and excavating) methods. PMID:17718005

  3. Waste minimization plan construction and operation of the replacement cross-site transfer system, project W-058

    SciTech Connect

    Boucher, T.D.

    1996-04-01

    This report addresses the research and development of a waste minimization plan for the construction and operation of Project W-058, Replacement of the Cross-Site Transfer System, on the Hanford Site. The plan is based on Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-307, Plans. The waste minimization plan identifies areas where pollution prevention/waste minimization principles can be incorporated into the construction and operation of the cross-site transfer system.

  4. Testing contamination risk assessment methods for toxic elements from mine waste sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdaal, A.; Jordan, G.; Szilassi, P.; Kiss, J.; Detzky, G.

    2012-04-01

    Major incidents involving mine waste facilities and poor environmental management practices have left a legacy of thousands of contaminated sites like in the historic mining areas in the Carpathian Basin. Associated environmental risks have triggered the development of new EU environmental legislation to prevent and minimize the effects of such incidents. The Mine Waste Directive requires the risk-based inventory of all mine waste sites in Europe by May 2012. In order to address the mining problems a standard risk-based Pre-selection protocol has been developed by the EU Commission. This paper discusses the heavy metal contamination in acid mine drainage (AMD) for risk assessment (RA) along the Source-Pathway-Receptor chain using decision support methods which are intended to aid national and regional organizations in the inventory and assessment of potentially contaminated mine waste sites. Several recognized methods such as the European Environmental Agency (EEA) standard PRAMS model for soil contamination, US EPA-based AIMSS and Irish HMS-IRC models for RA of abandoned sites are reviewed, compared and tested for the mining waste environment. In total 145 ore mine waste sites have been selected for scientific testing using the EU Pre-selection protocol as a case study from Hungary. The proportion of uncertain to certain responses for a site and for the total number of sites may give an insight of specific and overall uncertainty in the data we use. The Pre-selection questions are efficiently linked to a GIS system as database inquiries using digital spatial data to directly generate answers. Key parameters such as distance to the nearest surface and ground water bodies, to settlements and protected areas are calculated and statistically evaluated using STATGRAPHICS® in order to calibrate the RA models. According to our scientific research results, of the 145 sites 11 sites are the most risky having foundation slope >20o, 57 sites are within distance <500m to the

  5. A sensitivity analysis of hazardous waste disposal site climatic and soil design parameters using HELP3

    SciTech Connect

    Adelman, D.D.; Stansbury, J.

    1997-12-31

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, And Liability Act (CERCLA), and subsequent amendments have formed a comprehensive framework to deal with hazardous wastes on the national level. Key to this waste management is guidance on design (e.g., cover and bottom leachate control systems) of hazardous waste landfills. The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of leachate volume at hazardous waste disposal sites to climatic, soil cover, and vegetative cover (Leaf Area Index) conditions. The computer model HELP3 which has the capability to simulate double bottom liner systems as called for in hazardous waste disposal sites was used in the analysis. HELP3 was used to model 54 combinations of climatic conditions, disposal site soil surface curve numbers, and leaf area index values to investigate how sensitive disposal site leachate volume was to these three variables. Results showed that leachate volume from the bottom double liner system was not sensitive to these parameters. However, the cover liner system leachate volume was quite sensitive to climatic conditions and less sensitive to Leaf Area Index and curve number values. Since humid locations had considerably more cover liner system leachate volume than and locations, different design standards may be appropriate for humid conditions than for and conditions.

  6. Capacitated location of collection sites in an urban waste management system

    SciTech Connect

    Ghiani, Gianpaolo; Lagana, Demetrio; Manni, Emanuele; Triki, Chefi

    2012-07-15

    Urban waste management is becoming an increasingly complex task, absorbing a huge amount of resources, and having a major environmental impact. The design of a waste management system consists in various activities, and one of these is related to the location of waste collection sites. In this paper, we propose an integer programming model that helps decision makers in choosing the sites where to locate the unsorted waste collection bins in a residential town, as well as the capacities of the bins to be located at each collection site. This model helps in assessing tactical decisions through constraints that force each collection area to be capacitated enough to fit the expected waste to be directed to that area, while taking into account Quality of Service constraints from the citizens' point of view. Moreover, we propose an effective constructive heuristic approach whose aim is to provide a good solution quality in an extremely reduced computational time. Computational results on data related to the city of Nardo, in the south of Italy, show that both exact and heuristic approaches provide consistently better solutions than that currently implemented, resulting in a lower number of activated collection sites, and a lower number of bins to be used.

  7. INTEGRATING FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY AND AFO/CAFO WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project is an effort to evaluate animal feeding operation and confined animal feeding operation sites for energy-production on a state-wide level. The project will determine the potential energy and environmental benefits of methane utilization in hydrogen fuel cells in the...

  8. Protecting subcontractor personnel during hazardous waste site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Lankford, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper covers Industrial Hygiene involvement in the Site Characterization Program, focusing on the field oversight responsibilities. It discusses the different types and levels of protective equipment, gives an example of the type of situation that can arise from field characterization efforts, and gives a brief summary of health protection program elements. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Hanford Site River Protection Project (RPP) High Level Waste Storage

    SciTech Connect

    KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.

    2000-01-31

    The CH2M HILL Hanford Group (CHG) conducts business to achieve the goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of River Protection at the Hanford Site. The CHG is organized to manage and perform work to safely store, retrieve, etc.

  10. Comparative approaches to siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Newberry, W.F.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes activities in nine States to select site locations for new disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. These nine States have completed processes leading to identification of specific site locations for onsite investigations. For each State, the status, legal and regulatory framework, site criteria, and site selection process are described. In most cases, States and compact regions decided to assign responsibility for site selection to agencies of government and to use top-down mapping methods for site selection. The report discusses quantitative and qualitative techniques used in applying top-down screenings, various approaches for delineating units of land for comparison, issues involved in excluding land from further consideration, and different positions taken by the siting organizations in considering public acceptance, land use, and land availability as factors in site selection.

  11. A little here, a little there, a fairly big problem everywhere: Small quantity site transuranic waste disposition alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    D. Luke; D. Parker; J. Moss; T. Monk; L. Fritz; B. Daugherty; K. Hladek; S. Kosiewicx

    2000-02-27

    Small quantities of transuranic (TRU) waste represent a significant challenge to the waste disposition and facility closure plans of several sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This paper presents the results of a series of evaluations, using a systems engineering approach, to identify the preferred alternative for dispositioning TRU waste from small quantity sites (SQSs). The TRU waste disposition alternatives evaluation used semi-quantitative data provided by the SQSs, potential receiving sites, and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to select and recommend candidate sites for waste receipt, interim storage, processing, and preparation for final disposition of contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. The evaluations of only four of these SQSs resulted in potential savings to the taxpayer of $33 million to $81 million, depending on whether mobile systems could be used to characterize, package, and certify the waste or whether each site would be required to perform this work. Small quantity shipping sites included in the evaluation included the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL), University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), and Mound Laboratory. Candidate receiving sites included the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), the Savannah River Site (SRS), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge (OR), and Hanford. At least 14 additional DOE sites having TRU waste may be able to save significant money if cost savings are similar to the four evaluated thus far.

  12. A Little Here, A Little There, A Fairly Big Problem Everywhere: Small Quantity Site Transuranic Waste Disposition Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Luke, Dale Elden; Parker, Douglas Wayne; Moss, J.; Monk, Thomas Hugh; Fritz, Lori Lee; Daugherty, B.; Hladek, K.; Kosiewicx, S.

    2000-03-01

    Small quantities of transuranic (TRU) waste represent a significant challenge to the waste disposition and facility closure plans of several sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This paper presents the results of a series of evaluations, using a systems engineering approach, to identify the preferred alternative for dispositioning TRU waste from small quantity sites (SQSs). The TRU waste disposition alternatives evaluation used semi-quantitative data provided by the SQSs, potential receiving sites, and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to select and recommend candidate sites for waste receipt, interim storage, processing, and preparation for final disposition of contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. The evaluations of only four of these SQSs resulted in potential savings to the taxpayer of $33 million to $81 million, depending on whether mobile systems could be used to characterize, package, and certify the waste or whether each site would be required to perform this work. Small quantity shipping sites included in the evaluation included the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL), University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), and Mound. Candidate receiving sites included the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), the Savannah River Site (SRS), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge (OR), and Hanford. At least 14 additional DOE sites having TRU waste may be able to save significant money if cost savings are similar to the four evaluated thus far.

  13. Environmental assessment for the off-site volume reduction of low-level radioactive waste from the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1061) for the proposed off-site volume reduction of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  14. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-047

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-04-26

    The 1607-F3 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that supported the 182-F Pump Station, the 183-F Water Treatment Plant, and the 151-F Substation. The sanitary sewer system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline, all in use between 1944 and 1965. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  15. Pipeline Cross-Site Transfer Assessment for Tank 241-SY-101 Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Yasuo; Wells, Beric E.; Hartley, Stacey A.; Cooley, Scott K.

    2002-02-20

    This study evaluated the feasibility of transferring waste now stored in Tank SY-101 in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site to a storage tank in 200 East Area through a 6.2-mile-long, 3-inch-diameter stainless steel pipeline. Using the Wasp slurry transport model, the critical velocity and expected pressure drop were calculated to determine 1) whether current SY-101 waste can be transferred through the existing cross-site transfer pipeline without additional dilution and, if it is not possible, how much dilution is needed.

  16. Tank 241-C-106 past-practice sluicing waste retrieval, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) needs to take action to eliminate safety concerns with storage of the high-heat waste in Tank 241-C-106 (Tank C-106), and demonstrate a tank waste retrieval technology. This Environmental Assessment (EA) was prepared to analyze the potential impacts associated with the proposed action, past-practice sluicing of Tank C-106, an underground single-shell tank (SST). Past-practice sluicing is defined as the mode of waste retrieval used extensively in the past at the Hanford Site on the large underground waste tanks, and involves introducing a high-volume, low-pressure stream of liquid to mobilize sludge waste prior to pumping. It is proposed to retrieve the waste from Tank C-106 because this waste is classified not only as transuranic and high-level, but also as high-heat, which is caused by the radioactive decay of strontium. This waste characteristic has led DOE to place Tank C-106 on the safety ``Watchlist.``

  17. Systems Engineering in the Development and Implementation of the Savannah River Site Transuranic Waste Disposition Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fayfich, R.R.

    1999-03-10

    The use of systems engineering facilitated the strategic planning and implementation of the Savannah River Site (SRS) transuranic waste disposal program. This application represented the first SRS use of systems engineering in the pre-program planning stages during the development of a comprehensive strategic plan for the disposal of transuranic waste at the Department of Energy Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The use of systems engineering focused the efforts of the technical experts to devise a three initiative plan for the disposal of transuranic waste where previous efforts failed. Continued application of systems engineering facilitated the further development and implementation of the first initiative outlined in the strategic plan, i.e., set-up the program and process to begin to characterize and ship waste to the WIPP.This application of systems engineering to the transuranic waste program represented the first opportunity at the SRS for a comprehensive usage of systems engineering at all program levels. The application was initiated at the earliest possible point in the program development, i.e., strategic planning, and successively was used in detailed development and implementation of the program. Systems engineering successfully focused efforts to produce a comprehensive plan for the disposal of SRS transuranic waste at the WIPP, and facilitated development of the SRS capability and infrastructure to characterize, certify, and ship waste.

  18. Engineering study of 50 miscellaneous inactive underground radioactive waste tanks located at the Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1994-03-02

    This engineering study addresses 50 inactive underground radioactive waste tanks. The tanks were formerly used for the following functions associated with plutonium and uranium separations and waste management activities in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Site: settling solids prior to disposal of supernatant in cribs and a reverse well; neutralizing acidic process wastes prior to crib disposal; receipt and processing of single-shell tank (SST) waste for uranium recovery operations; catch tanks to collect water that intruded into diversion boxes and transfer pipeline encasements and any leakage that occurred during waste transfer operations; and waste handling and process experimentation. Most of these tanks have not been in use for many years. Several projects have, been planned and implemented since the 1970`s and through 1985 to remove waste and interim isolate or interim stabilize many of the tanks. Some tanks have been filled with grout within the past several years. Responsibility for final closure and/or remediation of these tanks is currently assigned to several programs including Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS), Environmental Restoration and Remedial Action (ERRA), and Decommissioning and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure (D&RCP). Some are under facility landlord responsibility for maintenance and surveillance (i.e. Plutonium Uranium Extraction [PUREX]). However, most of the tanks are not currently included in any active monitoring or surveillance program.

  19. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-54 Animal Farm Pastures, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-015

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-04-17

    The 100-F-54 waste site, part of the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit, is the soil associated with the former pastures for holding domestic farm animals used in experimental toxicology studies. Evaluation of historical information resulted in identification of the experimental animal farm pastures as having potential residual soil contamination due to excrement from experimental animals. The 100-F-54 animal farm pastures confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  20. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B1 Septic System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-015

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-08-30

    The 1607-B1 Septic System includes a septic tank, drain field, and associated connecting pipelines and influent sanitary sewer lines. This septic system serviced the former 1701-B Badgehouse, 1720-B Patrol Building/Change Room, and the 1709-B Fire Headquarters. The 1607-B1 waste site received unknown amounts of nonhazardous, nonradioactive sanitary sewage from these facilities during its operational history from 1944 to approximately 1970. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  1. Identification of sites for the low-level waste disposal development and demonstration program

    SciTech Connect

    Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, D.W.

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the results of site selection studies for potential low-level radioactive waste disposal sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Summaries of the site selection procedures used and results of previous site selection studies on the ORR are included. This report includes recommendations of sites for demonstration of shallow land burial using engineered trench designs and demonstration of above-grade disposal using design concepts similar to those used in tumulus disposal. The site selection study, like its predecessor (ORNL/TM-9717, Use of DOE Site Selection Criteria for Screening Low-Level Waste Disposal Sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation), involved application of exclusionary site screening criteria to the region of interest to eliminate unacceptable areas from consideration. Also like the previous study, the region of interest for this study was limited to the Oak Ridge Department of Energy Reservation. Reconnaissance-level environmental data were used in the study, and field inspections of candidate sites were made to verify the available reconnaissance data. Five candidate sites, all underlain by Knox dolomite residuum and bedrock, were identified for possible development of shallow land burial facilities. Of the five candidate sites, the West Chestnut site was judged to be best suited for deployment of the shallow land burial technology. Three candidate sites, all underlain by the Conasauga Group in Bear Creek Valley, were identified for possible development of above-grade disposal technologies. Of the three sites identified, the Central Bear Creek Valley site lying between State Route 95 and Gum Hollow Road was ranked most favorable for deployment of the above-grade disposal technology.

  2. Savannah River Site chemical, metal, and pesticide (CMP) waste vitrification treatability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cicero, C.A.

    1997-01-13

    Numerous Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as well as Department of Defense (DOD) and commercial facilities, have used earthen pits for disposal of chemicals, organic contaminants, and other waste materials. Although this was an acceptable means of disposal in the past, direct disposal into earthen pits without liners or barriers is no longer a standard practice. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), approximately three million pounds of such material was removed from seven chemical, metal, and pesticide disposal pits. This material is known as the Chemical, Metal, and Pesticide (CMP) Pit waste and carries several different listed waste codes depending on the contaminants in the respective storage container. The waste is not classified as a mixed waste because it is believed to be non-radioactive; however, in order to treat the material in a non-radioactive facility, the waste would first have to be screened for radioactivity. The Defense Waste Processing Technology (DWPT) Section of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was requested by the DOE-Savannah River (SR) office to determine the viability of vitrification of the CMP Pit wastes. Radioactive vitrification facilities exist which would be able to process this waste, so the material would not have to be analyzed for radioactive content. Bench-scale treatability studies were performed by the DWPT to determine whether a homogeneous and durable glass could be produced from the CMP Pit wastes. Homogeneous and durable glasses were produced from the six pits sampled. The optimum composition was determined to be 68.5 wt% CMP waste, 7.2 wt% Na{sub 2}O, 9 wt% CaO, 7.2 wt% Li{sub 2}O and 8.1 wt% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This glass melted at 1,150 C and represented a two fold volume reduction.

  3. Glass Property Models, Constraints, and Formulation Approaches for Vitrification of High-Level Nuclear Wastes at the US Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Sang

    2015-03-02

    The legacy nuclear wastes stored in underground tanks at the US Department of Energy’s Hanford site is planned to be separated into high-level waste and low-activity waste fractions and vitrified separately. Formulating optimized glass compositions that maximize the waste loading in glass is critical for successful and economical treatment and immobilization of nuclear wastes. Glass property-composition models have been developed and applied to formulate glass compositions for various objectives for the past several decades. The property models with associated uncertainties and combined with composition and property constraints have been used to develop preliminary glass formulation algorithms designed for vitrification process control and waste form qualification at the planned waste vitrification plant. This paper provides an overview of current status of glass property-composition models, constraints applicable to Hanford waste vitrification, and glass formulation approaches that have been developed for vitrification of hazardous and highly radioactive wastes stored at the Hanford site.

  4. High metal reactivity and environmental risks at a site contaminated by glass waste.

    PubMed

    Augustsson, A; Åström, M; Bergbäck, B; Elert, M; Höglund, L O; Kleja, D B

    2016-07-01

    This study addresses the reactivity and risks of metals (Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, As and Sb) at a Swedish site with large glass waste deposits. Old glassworks sites typically have high total metal concentrations, but as the metals are mainly bound within the glass waste and considered relatively inert, environmental investigations at these kinds of sites are limited. In this study, soil and landfill samples were subjected to a sequential chemical extraction procedure. Data from batch leaching tests and groundwater upstream and downstream of the waste deposits were also interpreted. The sequential extraction revealed that metals in <2 mm soil/waste samples were largely associated with geochemically active fractions, indicating that metals are released from pristine glass and subsequently largely retained in the surrounding soil and/or on secondary mineral coatings on fine glass particles. From the approximately 12,000 m(3) of coarse glass waste at the site, almost 4000 kg of Pb is estimated to have been lost through corrosion, which, however, corresponds to only a small portion of the total amount of Pb in the waste. Metal sorption within the waste deposits or in underlying soil layers is supported by fairly low metal concentrations in groundwater. However, elevated concentrations in downstream groundwater and in leachates of batch leaching tests were observed for several metals, indicating on-going leaching. Taken together, the high metal concentrations in geochemically active forms and the high amounts of as yet uncorroded metal-rich glass, indicate considerable risks to human health and the environment. PMID:27077538

  5. Hazardous waste site cleanup standards: The science behind the numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Markey, T.F.; Strohm, B.C.; Neal, L.W.

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews two of the more progressive state approaches to establishing risk-based environmental cleanup standards and compares them to federal risk assessment guidance and methods. The objective is to provide a comparative evaluation of the scientific approach used by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) and the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MADEP). To accomplish this the assumptions used in developing generic cleanup criteria were reviewed. This review supported the scientific justification and rationale of regulatory policies which permit the use of site-specific risk assessments in establishing site remediation goals. The benefits of which can be the selection of more cost-effective remedial alternatives which afford comparable levels of protection of the public health and environment.

  6. Seismic Surface-Wave Tomography of Waste Sites - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Timothy L.

    2000-09-14

    The objective of this study was to develop analysis programs for surface-wave group-velocity tomography, and apply these to three test areas. We succeeded by obtaining data covering two square areas that were 30 meters on a side, and a third area that was 16 meters on a side, in addition to a collaborative effort wherein we processed data from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory site. At all sites, usable group velocities were obtained for frequencies from 16 to 50 Hz using a sledgehammer source. The resulting tomographic images and velocity anomalies were sufficient to delineate suspected burial trenches (one 4-meters deep) and anomalous velocity structure related to rocks and disturbed soil. The success was not uniform because in portions of one area the inversion for shear-wave structure became unstable. More research is needed to establish a more robust inversion technique.

  7. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site gravity survey and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, L.J.; Fett, J.D.

    1983-04-01

    A portion of the WIPP site has been extensively surveyed with high-precision gravity. The main survey (in T22S, R31E) covered a rectangular area 2 by 4-1/3 mi encompassing all of WIPP site Zone II and part of the disturbed zone to the north of the site. Stations were at 293-ft intervals along 13 north-south lines 880 ft apart. The data are considered accurate to within a few hundredths of a milligal. Long-wavelength gravity anomalies correlate well with seismic time structures on horizons below the Castile Formation. Both the gravity anomalies and the seismic time structures are interpreted as resulting from related density and velocity variations within the Ochoan Series. Shorter wavelength negative gravity anomalies are interpreted as resulting from bulk density alteration in the vicinity of karst conduits. The WIPP gravity survey was unable to resolve low-amplitude, long-wavelength anomalies that should result from the geologic structures within the disturbed zone. It did indicate the degree and character of karst development within the surveyed area.

  8. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-31, 144-F Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-033

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-24

    The 100-F-31 waste site is a former septic system that supported the inhalation laboratories, also referred to as the 144-F Particle Exposure Laboratory (132-F-2 waste site), which housed animals exposed to particulate material. The 100-F-31 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  9. Manufactured gas plant sites: Characterization of wastes and IGT`s innovative remediation alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, V.J.

    1993-12-31

    Manufactured gas plants (MGP)--often referred to as town gas plants--have existed in many parts of the world, including the United States, during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Consequently, many of these plants disposed of process wastes and less valuable by-products onsite, contaminated with coal-tar wastes, light oils, naphthalene, etc. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are components of coal-tar wastes and other wastes that remain at many of these town gas sites. PAH- containing soils, as a result, represent the largest waste type at most MGP sites. Also, certain PAHs are recognized today as being potential animal and/or human carcinogens and, as such, represent an environmental hazard. The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has developed and/or evaluated several techniques/processes to improve the biodegradation of PAHs present at MGP sites. As a result of extensive studies, IGT has successfully developed and demonstrated an integrated Chemical/Biological Treatment (CBT) process that is capable of enhancing the rate as well as the extent of PAH degradation. This process combines two complementary as well as powerful remedial techniques: (1) chemical pretreatment using Fenton`s reagent and (2) a biological system using native aerobic microorganisms. This paper presents the general characteristics of MGP sites and wastes and the innovative IGT processes at various stages of development and demonstration. This paper also discusses the IGT/GRI treatability protocol that can be used to determine the potential of bioremediation for any MGP site soil within a 2 to 3-month period.

  10. Waste site characterization and remediation: Problems in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kalavapudi, M.; Iyengar, V.

    1996-12-31

    Increased industrial activities in developing countries have degraded the environment, and the impact on the environment is further magnified because of an ever-increasing population, the prime receptors. Independent of the geographical location, it is possible to adopt effective strategies to solve environmental problems. In the United States, waste characterization and remediation practices are commonly used for quantifying toxic contaminants in air, water, and soil. Previously, such procedures were extraneous, ineffective, and cost-intensive. Reconciliation between the government and stakeholders, reinforced by valid data analysis and environmental exposure assessments, has allowed the {open_quotes}Brownfields{close_quotes} to be a successful approach. Certified reference materials and standard reference materials from the National Institute of Standards (NIST) are indispensable tools for solving environmental problems and help to validate data quality and the demands of legal metrology. Certified reference materials are commonly available, essential tools for developing good quality secondary and in-house reference materials that also enhance analytical quality. This paper cites examples of environmental conditions in developing countries, i.e., industrial pollution problems in India, polluted beaches in Brazil, and deteriorating air quality in countries, such as Korea, China, and Japan. The paper also highlights practical and effective approaches for remediating these problems. 23 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Hanford Site waste tank farm facilities design reconstitution program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Vollert, F.R.

    1994-09-06

    Throughout the commercial nuclear industry the lack of design reconstitution programs prior to the mid 1980`s has resulted in inadequate documentation to support operating facilities configuration changes or safety evaluations. As a result, many utilities have completed or have ongoing design reconstitution programs and have discovered that without sufficient pre-planning their program can be potentially very expensive and may result in end-products inconsistent with the facility needs or expectations. A design reconstitution program plan is developed here for the Hanford waste tank farms facility as a consequence of the DOE Standard on operational configuration management. This design reconstitution plan provides for the recovery or regeneration of design requirements and basis, the compilation of Design Information Summaries, and a methodology to disposition items open for regeneration that were discovered during the development of Design Information Summaries. Implementation of this plan will culminate in an end-product of about 30 Design Information Summary documents. These documents will be developed to identify tank farms facility design requirements and design bases and thereby capture the technical baselines of the facility. This plan identifies the methodology necessary to systematically recover documents that are sources of design input information, and to evaluate and disposition open items or regeneration items discovered during the development of the Design Information Summaries or during the verification and validation processes. These development activities will be governed and implemented by three procedures and a guide that are to be developed as an outgrowth of this plan.

  12. Analysis of long-term impacts of TRU waste remaining at generator/storage sites for No Action Alternative 2

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, J.W.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Bergeron, M.P.; Streile, G.P.

    1997-09-01

    This report is a supplement to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal-Phase Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II). Described herein are the underlying information, data, and assumptions used to estimate the long-term human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in transuranic (TRU) waste remaining at major generator/storage sites after loss of institutional control under No Action Alternative 2. Under No Action Alternative 2, TRU wastes would not be emplaced at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) but would remain at generator/storage sites in surface or near-surface storage. Waste generated at smaller sites would be consolidated at the major generator/storage sites. Current TRU waste management practices would continue, but newly generated waste would be treated to meet the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. For this alternative, institutional control was assumed to be lost 100 years after the end of the waste generation period, with exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in the TRU waste possible from direct intrusion and release to the surrounding environment. The potential human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in TRU waste were analyzed for two different types of scenarios. Both analyses estimated site-specific, human-health impacts at seven major generator/storage sites: the Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The analysis focused on these seven sites because 99 % of the estimated TRU waste volume and inventory would remain there under the assumptions of No Action Alternative 2.

  13. Comprehensive Geophysical Investigation over a Former Radioactive Waste Site, Hanford, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rucker, D. F.; Fink, J. B.; Glaser, D. R.; Gee, G. W.; Sweeney, M. K.

    2004-12-01

    Several geophysical methods were combined to characterize a technetium-99 (Tc-99) plume beneath a former radioactive waste site, including a magnetic gradiometry survey, a broadband multi-frequency electromagnetic survey and a high resolution resistivity (HRR) survey. The 50 acre site was previously used for the disposal of fission products formed during uranium processing, where high volumes of liquid mixed waste were discharged to unlined trenches over a two year period from 1956 to 1958. The magnetic and electromagnetic surveys identified buried infrastructure used during the construction of the disposal site. The HRR survey, which consisted of electrical resistivity measurements along transects parallel and perpendicular to a trench in the southern portion of the site, identified an electrically conductive plume coincident with Tc-99 data obtained from a nearby borehole. The data were used to confirm assumptions used in an unsaturated flow model, including recharge and hydraulic properties.

  14. On-Site Decontamination System for Liquid Low Level Radioactive Waste - 13010

    SciTech Connect

    OSMANLIOGLU, Ahmet Erdal

    2013-07-01

    This study is based on an evaluation of purification methods for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) by using natural zeolite. Generally the volume of liquid low-level waste is relatively large and the specific activity is rather low when compared to other radioactive waste types. In this study, a pilot scale column was used with natural zeolite as an ion exchanger media. Decontamination and minimization of LLLW especially at the generation site decrease operational cost in waste management operations. Portable pilot scale column was constructed for decontamination of LLW on site. Effect of temperature on the radionuclide adsorption of the zeolite was determined to optimize the waste solution temperature for the plant scale operations. In addition, effect of pH on the radionuclide uptake of the zeolite column was determined to optimize the waste solution pH for the plant scale operations. The advantages of this method used for the processing of LLLW are discussed in this paper. (authors)

  15. Costs and impacts of transporting nuclear waste to candidate repository sites

    SciTech Connect

    McSweeney, T.I.; Peterson, R.W.; Gupta, R.

    1983-12-31

    In this paper, a status report on the current estimated costs and impacts of transporting high-level nuclear wastes to candidate disposal sites is given. Impacts in this analysis are measured in terms of risk to public health and safety. Since it is difficult to project the status of the nuclear industry to the time of repository operation - 20 to 50 years in the future - particular emphasis in the paper is placed on the evaluation of uncertainties. The first part of this paper briefly describes the characteristics of the waste that must be transported to a high-level waste disposal site. This discussion is followed by a section describing the characteristics of the waste transport system. Subsequent sections describe the costs and risk assessments of waste transport. Finally, in a concluding section, the effect of the uncertainties in the definition of the waste disposal system on cost and risk levels is evaluated. This last section also provides some perspectives on the magnitude of the cost and risk levels relative to other comparable costs and risks generally encountered. 13 references, 2 figures, 16 tables.

  16. Restoration of areas disturbed by site studies for a mined commercial radioactive waste repository: The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP)

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Biehert, R.W.; Newell, R.L.; Page, T.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) was undertaken to environmentally characterize a portion of the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State as a potential host for the nation's first mined commercial nuclear waste repository. Studies were terminated by Congress in 1987. Between 1976 and 1987, 72 areas located across the Hanford Site were disturbed by the BWIP. These areas include borehole pads, a large Exploratory Shaft Facility, and the Near Surface Test Facility. Most boreholes were cleared of vegetation, leveled, and stabilized with a thick layer of compacted pit-run gravel and sand. The Near Surface Test Facility consists of three mined adits, a rock-spoils bench, and numerous support facilities. Restoration began in 1988 with the objective of returning sites to pre-existing conditions using native species. The Hanford Site retains some of the last remnants of the shrub-steppe ecosystem in Washington. The primary constraints to restoring native vegetation at Hanford are low precipitation and the presence of cheatgrass, an extremely capable alien competitor. 5 figs.

  17. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Sauls, V.W.

    1993-03-01

    An important objective of the Savannah River Site`s low-level radioactive waste management program is to isolate the waste from the environment both now and well into the future. A key element in achieving this is the disposal of low-level radioactive waste in sealed concrete vaults. Historically the Site has disposed of low-level radioactive waste via shallow land burial. In 1987, it was decided that better isolation from the environment was required. At that time several options for achieving this isolation were studied and below grade concrete vaults were chosen as the best method. This paper discusses the performance objectives for the vaults, the current design of the vaults and plans for the design of future vaults, the cost to construct the vaults, and the performance assessment on the vaults. Construction of the first set of vaults is essentially complete and readiness reviews before the start of waste receipt are being performed. Startup is to begin late in calendar year 1992 and continue through early CY 1993. The performance assessment is under way and the first draft is to be completed in early 1993.

  18. Characterizing Solids in Residual Wastes from Single-Shell Tanks at the Hanford Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Arey, Bruce W.; Heald, Steve M.; Deutsch, William J.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2010-03-03

    Solid-phase characterization methods have been used in an ongoing study of residual wastes (i.e., waste remaining after final retrieval operations) from underground single-shell storage tanks 241-C-103, 241 C 106, 241-C-202, 241-C-203, and 241-S-112 at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in Washington State. The results of studies completed to date show variability in the compositions of those residual wastes and the compositions, morphologies, and crystallinities of the individual phases that make up these wastes. These differences undoubtedly result from the various waste types stored and transferred into and out of each tank and the different sluicing and retrieval operations used for waste retrieval. The studies indicate that these residual wastes are chemically-complex assemblages of crystalline and amorphous solids that contain contaminants as discrete phases and/or coprecipitated within oxide/hydroxide phases. Depending on the specific tank, various solids (e.g., gibbsite; böhmite; dawsonite; cancrinite; Fe oxides/hydroxides such as hematite, goethite, and maghemite; rhodochrosite; lindbergite; whewellite; nitratine; and numerous amorphous or poorly crystalline phases) have been identified by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in residual wastes studied to date. The studies also show that contact of residual wastes with Ca(OH)2- and CaCO3-saturated aqueous solutions, which were used as surrogates for the compositions of pore-fluid leachants derived from young and aged cements, respectively, may alter the composition of solid phases present in the contacted wastes. Iron oxides/hydroxides have been identified in all residual wastes studied to date. They occur in these wastes as discrete particles, particles intergrown within a matrix of other phases, and surface coatings on other particles or particle aggregates. These Fe oxides/hydroxides typically contain trace concentrations of other

  19. Destroying LLW and hazardous waste on-site with the synthetica steam detoxifier

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, T.R.; Depetris, S.S.

    1994-12-31

    The amount of hazardous waste and low level waste generated in the country is growing at a steady rate, yet the options for effectively dealing with these waste streams are becoming fewer and fewer. In this paper we discuss a new technology that holds considerable promise for dealing with LLW and hazardous waste. The Synthetica{reg_sign} Detoxifier (STD) does not use air combustion and has no flame - quite different from incineration. It carries out hazardous waste destruction by very high temperature steam reforming (i.e., 2000 to 2700{degrees}F), and is only 4 ft x 6 ft x 7.5 ft in size. Vent gases are carbon dioxide and water. Destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs) exceed 99.99% for even the most refractory organics. The capacity is from 2 to 5 drums per day, or a ton per day, depending on the type of waste being processed. The STD combined with a Heated Shredder Evaporator feed system has shown considerable success reducing the mass and volume of low level waste (up to 50 fold reduction). A list of some of the many waste streams that have been processed with the STD are presented. The STD, with its low-risk operation, small size and the fact that it is not an incinerator greatly simplifies siting and permitting in today`s environment. User advantages are that it eliminates risky transportation of hazardous and low-level wastes and terminates their liability with their generated waste for a fixed cost. Costs are less than half that for incineration of landfilling.

  20. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.E.; Pechmann, J.H.K.; Knox, J.N.; Estes, R.A.; McGregor, J.H.; Bailey, K.

    1988-12-01

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory has completed 10 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site. This progress report examines water quality studies on streams peripheral to the DWPF construction site and examines the effectiveness of refuge ponds'' in ameliorating the effects of construction on local amphibians. Individual papers on these topics are indexed separately. 93 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs. (MHB)