Kohorn, E. I.
The persons who directed the academic teaching of women's health at Yale Medical School are presented by biographical sketches recounting their achievements and some of the difficulties they encountered. Three who provided particular catalysis were Nathan Smith, Herbert Thoms, and Lee Buxton. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:8303913
Cottier, H.; Turk, J.; Sobin, L.
This Memorandum proposes a standardized system of reporting the histology of human lymph nodes based on commonly used simple staining techniques. The purpose is to provide a uniform, internationally acceptable system by which the histological structure of lymph nodes can be correlated with other parameters of immunological status. The proposed protocols are intended to provide information that is not available in conventional written reports, that use such terms as “hyperplasia” or “nonspecific lymphadenitis”. ImagesFigure 22Figure 13Figure 5Figure 4Figure 3Figure 14Figure 15Figure 9Figure 21Figure 8Figure 12Figure 17Figure 16Figure 2Figure 7Figure 6Figure 20Figure 19Figure 11Figure 10Figure 18 PMID:4539822
Wills, E. J.; Walton, B.
A survey of postoperative jaundice throughout the United Kingdom allowed the detailed analysis of 76 patients with unexplained hepatitis following halothane anesthesia ("halothane hepatitis"). In 16 patients liver biopsy specimens were examined by light and/or electron microscopy to determine whether the liver morphology could aid the differentiation between "halothane" and "acute viral" hepatitis. The mitochondrial changes often claimed to be characteristic of holothane hepatitis were unremarkable in our patients. Since lipid vacuolation and a predominantly centrilobular distribution of necrosis are not classically described in fatal viral hepatitis, the presence of these features in some of our fatal cases was of some diagnostic interest. In general, however, the results of light and electron microscopy in patients with unexplained postoperative hepatitis is considered to have little differential diagnositc value. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:645815
Sanna, Mario; Zini, Carlo; Gamoletti, Roberto; Frau, Niccolò; Taibah, Abdel Kader; Russo, Alessandra; Pasanisi, Enrico
Petrous bone cholesteatoma is a rare pathologic entity and may be a difficult surgical challenge because of potential involvement of the facial nerve, carotid artery, dura mater, otic capsule, and risk of cerebrospinal fluid leak. The objective of this article is to present a personal classification of petrous bone cholesteatomas, a survey of recent surgical attitudes, and our present surgical strategy based on our experience with 54 operations between 1978 and 1990. Radical petromastoid exenteration with marsupialization and the middle cranial fossa approach were used only for small pure infra- or supralabyrinthine cholesteatomas, respectively. The enlarged transcochlear approach with closure of the external auditory canal was used for infralabyrinthine, infralabyrinthine-apical, and massive petrous bone cholesteatomas. Five cases with petrous bone cholesteatomas in different locations are described in detail to present the signs and symptoms together with the management. ImagesFigure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18 PMID:17170912
Roncero, V; Vincente, J A; Redondo, E; Gãzquez, A; Duran, E
A microscopic, ultrastructural, and morphometric study was made of the gills of tench (Tinca tinca, L.) subjected to acute experimental lead nitrate poisoning. Twenty-one adult tench were subjected to poisoning and a further 22 were used as controls. Lesions were characterized by the appearance of edema and epithelial hyperplasia and necrosis, both in cells forming part of the filtration barrier and in those in the interlamellar space. These processes developed in the course of the experiment, leading to the death of tench after 12 to 15 days of exposure to 75 ppm lead nitrate, at which point the concentrations of lead in the gills had reached their maximum. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 13. FIGURE 14. FIGURE 15. FIGURE 16. FIGURE 17. FIGURE 18. FIGURE 19. PMID:2088740
Jedrzynski, M S; Bullock, J D; McGuire, T W; Elder, B L; Bullock, J D
In this article we have reviewed the clinical and bacteriologic aspects of anaerobic orbital cellulitis and have presented six patients to illustrate these points. Physicians who treat patients with orbital cellulitis should have a high index of suspicion for possible instances involving anaerobes, so that appropriate management can be started early. To investigate this problem further, we created an animal model of anaerobic orbital cellulitis. This model may be useful in future studies of the pathogenesis and treatment of this serious and often devastating disease. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 PMID:1808813
Keating, Joseph C
Chiropractic education in the northwestern United States has its origins in the Marsh School & Cure in 1904. Most of the early schools were located in Portland, Oregon, including the D.D. Palmer College of Chiropractic (1908-1910), and several of these had merged by 1912 or 1913 to form the Pacific Chiropractic College, forerunner of today's Western States College. The latter was organized as a non-profit institution during the Great Depression, and struggled not only to survive but to create a higher standard. The early broad-scope of chiropractic training in the state probably encouraged the liberal scope of practice enjoyed in Oregon to this day. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20Figure 21Figure 22Figure 24
Wilk, Kevin E.; Arrigo, Christopher; Andrews, James R.; Clancy, William G.
Objective: To discuss the rehabilitation program after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in the female athlete. In addition, we will discuss 8 unique characteristics identified in the female athlete and specific training drills to address and correct the potentially deleterious effects of these unique characteristics. Background: The female athlete appears to be more susceptible to noncontact ACL injuries than the male athlete. There seem to be many differences between the female and male athlete that may contribute to the increased injury rate in the female athlete. These variations include anatomical and neuromuscular considerations and differences. Description: Based on the unique characteristics of the female athlete and the anatomical and neuromuscular dissimilarities, a specially designed rehabilitation program has been established for the female athlete after ACL surgery. Clinical Advantages: The rehabilitation drills discussed in this article challenge the neuromuscular system through proprioception, kinesthesia, dynamic joint stability, neuromuscular control, and perturbation training activities. Improving the female athlete's neuromuscular system will, we believe, expedite the injured athlete's recovery after ACL injury or surgery. Although the concepts discussed are part of a postoperative rehabilitation program after ACL surgery, these concepts may also be implemented as a preventive program to assist in reducing the incidence of ACL injuries in the female athlete. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12.Figure 13.Figure 14.Figure 15.Figure 16.Figure 17.Figure 18.Figure 19.Figure 20.Figure 21.Figure 22.Figure 23. PMID:16558561
Robb, R.A.; Heffeman, P.B.; Camp, J.J.; Hanson, D.P.
The capability to extract objective and quantitatively accurate information from 3-D radiographic biomedical images has not kept pace with the capabilities to produce the images themselves. This is rather an ironic paradox, since on the one hand the new 3-D and 4-D imaging capabilities promise significant potential for providing greater specificity and sensitivity (i.e., precise objective discrimination and accurate quantitative measurement of body tissue characteristics and function) in clinical diagnostic and basic investigative imaging procedures than ever possible before, but on the other hand, the momentous advances in computer and associated electronic imaging technology which have made these 3-D imaging capabilities possible have not been concomitantly developed for full exploitation of these capabilities. Therefore, we have developed a powerful new microcomputer-based system which permits detailed investigations and evaluation of 3-D and 4-D (dynamic 3-D) biomedical images. The system comprises a special workstation to which all the information in a large 3-D image data base is accessible for rapid display, manipulation, and measurement. The system provides important capabilities for simultaneously representing and analyzing both structural and functional data and their relationships in various organs of the body. This paper provides a detailed description of this system, as well as some of the rationale, background, theoretical concepts, and practical considerations related to system implementation. ImagesFigure 5Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16
House, E. W.; Benditt, E. P.
Electron-microscopic examination of spontaneously occurring coronary arterial lesions in adult spawning steelhead trout showed them to be subendothelial accumulations of modified smooth muscle cells covered by an intact endothelium. Some of the cells in the nodules appeared highly vacuolated and seemed to be associated with varying amounts of collagen and elastin. The internal elastic lamina was often doubled with smooth muscle cells between the layers. The thickness of the internal elastica was altered and, in some lesions, penetrated by smooth muscle cells. In the smallest lesions, smooth muscle cells appeared to be penetrating the internal elastic lamina and were usually close to a highly vacuolated intimal endothelial cell. The underlying medial layer frequently exhibited altered orientation of the cells, with the frequent appearance of increased collagen and amorphous extracellular material. No lipid was present in any lesion. Although vacuolation of endothelial cells suggested some alteration in endothelial cells, at least in developed lesions, no evidence of endothelial denudation over lesions was observed. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:7294154
Hargis, A. M.; Haupt, K. H.; Hegreberg, G. A.; Prieur, D. J.; Moore, M. P.
Familial canine dermatomyositis is a recently identified disease of collie dogs that resembles human juvenile dermatomyositis. The lesions in the skin and muscles obtained by biopsy from two litters of dogs were characterized for the purpose of determining the similarity of the lesions to those of human dermatomyositis. The cutaneous lesions began between 7 and 11 weeks of age and were present on the face, lips, ears, and skin over bony prominences of the limbs, feet, sternum, and tip of the tail. Histologically the cutaneous lesions frequently consisted of vesicles, pustules, and ulcers on the lips, face, and ears. Neutrophils, lymphocytes, mast cells, and macrophages were present throughout the dermis. Neutrophils and lymphocytes were also present in and around vessels. Between 13 and 19 weeks of age generalized muscle atrophy was noted. The muscle lesions consisted of interstitial lymphocyte, plasma cell, macrophage, and neutrophil accumulation; myofiber degeneration, regeneration, and atrophy; and fibrosis. Perivascular neutrophils, lymphocytes, and plasma cells were also seen. Histologically, the lesions resembled those present in human juvenile dermatomyositis; and these observations, coupled with clinical, immunologic, and clinical pathologic observations presented elsewhere, suggest that familial canine dermatomyositis is an appropriate and potentially useful model for human juvenile dermatomyositis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:6465285
Klösgen, B; Helfrich, W
Using cryo-transmission electron microscopy, we have obtained abundant and reproducible evidence for a superstructure of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayers. Dispersions of vesicles were prepared by gentle shaking of a 2% suspension of DOPC in water followed in part by extrusion through a porous technical membrane. Sampling and cryofixation took place at various times within 3 weeks after the preparation. From the micrographs we infer that the small fraction of vesicles enclosing one another develop passages (connections) between the bilayers. In contrast, the superstructure is basically a feature of disconnected membranes. Among its modifications are isolated membrane bends or folds and a grainy membrane texture with a minimal grain spacing of 4-6 nm. In the extruded dispersions the passages and the superstructure seem to be formed mostly within the first day. The fraction of smooth and unilamellar vesicles is large at all times and in all dispersions. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 PMID:9414216
Merriam, J C; Stalnecker, M C; Merriam, G R
The initial stages in the rehabilitation of a male child with severe microblepharon, corneal opacities, bilateral facial clefts, bilateral complete cleft lip and palate, and unilateral syndactyly are described. Review of the literature suggests that severe microblepharon is associated with other craniofacial anomalies, and often the child is stillborn or retarded. Surviving children have been abandoned because of their appearance. The child described in this case appears to be unique because his intelligence is normal, and, to our knowledge, this is the first reported case of penetrating keratoplasty after reconstruction of functional eyelids. The principal problems after corneal grafting appear to have been chronic partial exposure due to inadequate lid length and a poor Bell's reflex and the persistence of a rim of vascularized fibrous tissue around the corneal graft. Future reconstructive surgery is outlined. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 PMID:2979029
Asher, S A; Pershan, P S
The alignment of dilauryl-, dimyristoyl-, and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine at various water concentrations into large oriented monodomain multilayers by annealing at elevated temperatures (Powers and Clark, 1975, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72:840; Powers and Pershan. 1977. Biophys. J. 20:137) is accompanied by the formation and subsequent dissolution of various defect structures. Some of these defects appear similar to those observed in thermotropic and other lyotropic liquid crystals, reflecting the lamellar structure of these materials. The formation and evolution of defects during the alignment of the lipids into the defect-free, monodomain, multilamellar geometry is studied using polarized microscopy. A combination of polarized and dark-field microscopy facilitated characterization of the defects; specific structural models are proposed. A new alignment technique involving compression and dilation of the lipid, which effects sample alignment at temperatures that are lower than those required by the Powers technique, is described. Lower temperature alignment avoids thermal decomposition that will sometimes occur if the lipid is maintained at elevated temperatures for prolonged periods. With this technique, samples (80 micrometer thick) of dilaurylphosphatidylcholine with 20% water by weight were aligned at room temperature. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 PMID:263691
Pancreatic carcinogenesis in the Syrian hamster, induced by beta-oxidized derivatives of N-nitroso-di-n-propylamine, constitutes a valuable model of human cancer of the exocrine pancreas. In both species the majority of tumors are adenocarcinomas: superficially, on the basis of their histological appearance, these appear to be ductal in origin. However, sequential analysis, by electron microscopy, of the development of pancreatic neoplasia in the hamster model indicates that acinar cells may participate in the histogenesis of "ductal" adenomas and carcinomas. Acinar cells appear to undergo changes in differentiation, including pseudoductular transformation, giving rise to a new population of cells that resemble ductular or centroacinar types. This new population may then proliferate to form, first, cystic foci and subsequently cystadenomas and adenocarcinomas. Mucous metaplasia appears to develop at late stages of tumor development. Although the participation of ductular and centroacinar cells in pancreatic carcinogenesis cannot be excluded, very few tumors arise from the ductal epithelium. It is possible that some human pancreatic adenocarcinomas may also have their origin from dysplastic acinar cells, by analogy with the hamster model: focal acinar dysplasia being common in human pancreatic cancer patients. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 13. FIGURE 14. FIGURE 15. FIGURE 16. FIGURE 17. FIGURE 18. PMID:6383797
Herman, M. M.; Sipe, J. C.; Rubinstein, L. J.; Vandenberg, S. R.; Spence, A. M.; Vraa-Jensen, J.
The electron microscopic features of the stages of divergent neuroepithelial differentiation in the solid implants of a transplantable mouse testicular teratoma (OTT-6050) are presented and compared to the sequential stages of cytogenesis that have been described in the developing avian and mammalian central nervous system. Primitive neuroepithelial tumor cells showed the features of undifferentiated multipotential matrix (or ventricular) cells of the neural tube. They formed primitive medullary rosettes, from which various transitions were traced to more differentiated, cilia-containing ependymoblastomatous rosettes; the transitional features included increased granular endoplasmic reticulum and microvilli formation. Glial differentiation was characterized by the presence of mature ependymal rosettes and of astrocytes containing glial filaments. Neuronal differentiation included the development of synapses and the presence of dense-core vesicles in nerve cell processes. No intermediate cell forms were found that suggested multiple lines of differentiation occurring within a single cell. Images Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 21 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:171962
Cooper, W C
The various congenital and acquired conditions which alter orbital volume are reviewed. Previous investigative work to determine orbital capacity is summarized. Since these studies were confined to postmortem evaluations, the need for a technique to measure orbital volume in the living state is presented. A method for volume determination of the orbit and its contents by high-resolution axial tomography and quantitative digital image analysis is reported. This procedure has proven to be accurate (the discrepancy between direct and computed measurements ranged from 0.2% to 4%) and reproducible (greater than 98%). The application of this method to representative clinical problems is presented and discussed. The establishment of a diagnostic system versatile enough to expand the usefulness of computerized axial tomography and polytomography should add a new dimension to ophthalmic investigation and treatment. Images FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 A FIGURE 10 B FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 A FIGURE 26 B FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 PMID:3938582
Leadbetter, Wyland F.
From review of recent information relative to calculus formation in the kidney, the conclusion reached that we do not yet understand, despite much effort, the basic physicochemical mechanisms involved. Since this is so, it has seemed best to the author for the present to rely, in treating patients with renal stones, on simple therapeutic concepts, which, if carefully and conscientiously applied, produce good results. The concepts are the elimination of known causes such as parathyroid adenomas and obstructive lesions, elimination or at least treatment of infections, diminution of urinary components which form the basis of calculi by limiting the oral intake or absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and maintenance of a dilute urine of desired pH. A plan for preoperative study is suggested to allow planned therapy. Indications for operative removal of calculi as well as some points of technique are discussed. It is emphasized that surgical removal of a calculus is but an incident in the care of patients with calculi and that treatment during the postoperative period and followup therapy is most important if success is to be achieved. Reports of cases to illustrate the application of these concepts are presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16 PMID:13523394
Fobi, M. A. L.
Obesity is a chronic disease due to excess fat storage, a genetic predisposition, and strong environmental contributions. This problem is worldwide, and the incidence is increasing daily. There are medical, physical, social, economic, and psychological comorbid conditions associated with obesity. There is no cure for obesity except possibly prevention. Nonsurgical treatment has been inadequate in providing sustained weight loss. Currently, surgery offers the only viable treatment option with longterm weight loss and maintenance for the morbidly obese. Surgeries for weight loss are called bariatric surgeries. There is no one operation that is effective for all patients. Gastric bypass operations are the most common operations currently used. Because there are inherent complications from surgeries, bariatric surgeries should be performed in a multidisciplinary setting. The laparoscopic approach is being used by some surgeons in performing the various operations. The success rate--usually defined as >50% excess weight loss that is maintained for at least five years from bariatric surgery--ranges from 40% in the simple to >70% in the complex operations. The weight loss from surgical treatment results in significant improvements and, in some cases, complete resolution of comorbid conditions associated with obesity. Patients undergoing surgery for obesity need lifelong nutritional supplements and medical monitoring. Images Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:14746355
Harris, G J
The clinical course of SPA of the orbit is associated with the age of the patient. That association might be explained through a series of intermediate relationships: the clinical course correlates with the bacterial constituency, the bacterial constituency is related to physiologic derangement within the sinuses, the physiologic derangement may vary with the degree of obstruction of the sinus ostia, and the ostial caliber relative to the volume of the cavity that must be drained decreases with patient age into late adolescence. The controversy between pediatricians and surgeons over the appropriate indications for drainage might be resolved with the acknowledgement that each side is correct on the basis of the patient populations treated. It is hoped that recognition of the age-related variations in SPA will permit a more systematic approach to the management of this complex infectious disease. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 PMID:8140703
Faraggiana, T.; Churg, J.; Grishman, E.; Strauss, L.; Prado, A.; Bishop, D. F.; Schuchman, E.; Desnick, R. J.
A histochemical study was performed on light- and electron-microscopic level in a case of Fabry's disease. The patient underwent kidney transplantation for renal failure and died of heart failure 6 months later. Patient's tissues were studied at the light- and electron-microscopic levels with various embedding and staining techniques for lipids and carbohydrates. Two peroxidase-labeled lectins (from Ricinus communis and from Bandeiraea simplicifolia) known to have affinity for alpha- and beta-D-galactose, were strongly reactive with the storage material on frozen sections. The ultrahistochemical and extraction tests showed that the typical granules had a variable reactivity and morphologic characteristics in different cells, probably reflecting different composition. A small number of typical deposits were also observed in the transplanted kidney. This is the first reported case of recurrence of the storage disease in the allograft. Of interest was also the fact that the patient's blood inhibited normal alpha-galactosidase activity, suggesting a possible inhibitor-related mechanism in the pathogenesis of the recurrence. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 PMID:6786101
Dalldorf, F. G.; Cromartie, W. J.; Anderle, S. K.; Clark, R. L.; Schwab, J. H.
The intraperitoneal injection of peptidoglycan-carbohydrate fragments from Group A streptococci produces a chronic, polyarticular, erosive synovitis in rats. The cell wall material accumulates rapidly in the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes, where it causes little injury. At the same time, selective localization and persistence of the material in the synovial and periarticular tissues occurs. Its presence in the joint is associated with acute and recurrent inflammation with focal synotivitis, pannus formation, joint destruction, and ankylosis. Cell wall fragments become localized in the synovial and periarticular tissues at a time when there are leukocytes in the bloodstream, which appear to contain the material. During this early phase vascular lesions appear in the synovium and in periarticular tissues with collections of fibrin, neutrophils, macrophages, and cell wall fragments near the venules and capillaries. Recurrent episodes of inflammation and joint injury, associated with persistent cell wall antigen within macrophages, were observed over a period of 90 days. Images Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:6996490
Reichert, C. M.; O'Leary, T. J.; Levens, D. L.; Simrell, C. R.; Macher, A. M.
The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a devastating new illness which appears to be sexually and parenterally transmissible. AIDS was first described in the male homosexual community; however, the disease has more recently been described among intravenous drug abusers, Haitians, hemophiliacs, and others. The etiologic agent is unknown. AIDS may represent an infection by a previously undescribed organism, a mutant of a known microorganism, or a multifactorial combination of environmental, immunologic, and genetic factors. As a consequence of the disease's seemingly irreversible ablation of the cell-mediated immune system, AIDS victims succumb to a variety of infections and/or unusual neoplasms. In its fully developed form, mortality approaches 100%. At autopsy the gross and microscopic pathology of the syndrome can be divided into three general categories: 1) morphologic manifestations of profound lymphoid depletion; 2) infections, usually with mixed opportunistic pathogens; and 3) unusual neoplasms, most frequently Kaposi's sarcoma or high-grade lymphomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 PMID:6311021
Keating, Joseph C
John J. Nugent, D.C. is remembered by many as either the “Abraham Flexner of Chiropractic” or the “anti-Christ of Chiropractic.” From 1941 until his forced retirement in 1959, the Irish-born Palmer graduate was one of the most important factors in the profession's educational reforms. Yet Nugent's work as the National Chiropractic Association's (NCA's) director of research was not the beginning of the campaign to upgrade chiropractic education. This paper looks at earlier influences and events which set the stage for Nugent's campaign. Among these were the introduction of licensure for chiropractors, the self-defeating actions of B.J. Palmer, the introduction of basic science legislation, the lethargy of the schools, and the struggle for control of education between the schools, on the one hand, and the NCA and the Council of State Chiropractic Examining Boards on the other ImagesFigure 1Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20Figure 21Figure 22Figure 23Figure 24Figure 25Figure 26Figure 28Figure 29Figure 30Figure 31Figure 32Figure 33Figure 34Figure 35Figure 36Figure 37Figure 38
Dawe, C. J.; Freund, R.; Mandel, G.; Ballmer-Hofer, K.; Talmage, D. A.; Benjamin, T. L.
The authors have explored the effects of variations in mouse polyoma virus genotype on patterns of tumor formation in the mouse. Four "wild type" virus strains were surveyed. Two were highly oncogenic, inducing multiple tumors of epithelial and mesenchymal origin, at high frequency and with short latency. The other two strains were weakly oncogenic, inducing fewer tumors, solely of mesenchymal origin, and after a long latency. These sharply contrasting tumor profiles were reproduced with virus stocks derived from molecularly cloned viral genomes. Though vastly different in their oncogenic properties, these cloned viruses proved equally effective in transforming established rat fibroblasts in culture and showed the same patterns of tumor antigen expression in cultured mouse cells. Complexes of polyoma middle T antigen and pp60c-src were demonstrated in extracts of epithelial tumors induced by a highly oncogenic virus strain. It is concluded that polyoma viral genetic determinants for tumor induction in the mouse are more complex than those previously defined by the use of cell transformation systems. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:2437801
Zutter, M. M.; Santoro, S. A.
The alpha 2 beta 1 integrin (platelet membrane glycoprotein Ia-IIa, VLA-2, ECMR-II) functions as a cell surface receptor for collagen. The authors have determined the histologic distribution of the alpha 2 beta 1 receptor in normal tissues by immunohistochemical technique. The studies revealed that the alpha 2 beta 1 receptor was expressed on fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and epithelial cells from multiple sites including skin, tonsil, breast, sweat gland, gastrointestinal tract, lung, bladder, cervix, and prostate. Follicular dendritic cells of the lymph node, tonsil, and spleen and dendritic cells of the thymus also expressed the alpha 2 beta 1 receptor. The receptor also was present on Schwann cells of ganglia and on neuroglia. Greatly enhanced expression of the receptor in regions of proliferating epithelium suggests that enhanced expression of alpha 2 beta 1 is associated with orderly, regulated cell proliferation. The circumferential staining pattern of the alpha 2 beta 1 integrin within many epithelia is virtually identical to that observed for other adhesive receptors, such as the cadherins, which have been implicated in cell-cell adhesion. Images Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:2164774
Han, X.; Lyle, R.; Eustace, D. L.; Jewers, R. J.; Parrington, J. M.; Das, A.; Chana, T.; Dagg, B.; Money, S.; Bates, T. D.
A new cell line, XH1, has been derived from an invasive focally keratinising adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix in a 32 year old patient. It has been maintained in long term monolayer culture for 26 months, and passaged over 100 times (much greater than 300 population doublings). It is aneuploid with a mean chromosome number of 78. Examination using two minisatellite hypervariable DNA probes has shown it to be different from other cell lines maintained in this laboratory and from HeLa. Two sublines, XH1a and XH1b, show marked differences in monolayer culture, growth in soft agar, and xenograft formation. XH1 and XH1a cells readily form subcutaneous xenografts, and lung colonies can be established by their intravenous injection. Subcutaneous injection of XH1b cells results in rapid cell growth for a few days after which the tumour undergoes degeneration and then regresses completely. The XH1 karyotype has many rearranged chromosomes. Parental XH1 cells and both sublines show integration of HPV16 into the genome. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:1911212
Keating, Joseph C
This paper provides a cursory overview of attempts to discover, preserve and disseminate the history of the chiropractic profession, up to and including the organization of the Association for the History of Chiropractic (AHC). A surprisingly wide range of materials have been available for many decades, but sustained efforts at historical scholarship are more recent (past quarter century). The quality of these works has been uneven, but has improved with the emergence of chiropractic scholarly periodicals and interest from non-chiropractor investigators. Affiliates of the American-based AHC are located in Australia and Canada; organized historical scholarship in other regions of the world has yet to develop. Several substantial archival resources for historical investigations are available, and merit greater scrutiny and support within the profession. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20Figure 21Figure 22Figure 23Figure 24Figure 25p136-ap136-bp136-cp136-dp136-e
Sears, M L; Yamada, E; Cummins, D; Mori, N; Mead, A; Murakami, M
An intact ciliary epithelial bilayer has been isolated from the rabbit eye by perfusion, microsurgical dissection, and recovery techniques. Vital subcellular organelles and intercellular junctions of this epithelial bilayer preparation are very well preserved. The total electrical resistance of the epithelial bilayer is 350 ohms, and the transepithelial potential is 650 microV, nonpigmented epithelium side negative. The electrical resistance is reduced by 0.2 mM EGTA and the transepithelial potential reduced by 0.1 mM ouabain. Bicarbonate depletion at a constant pH of 7.4 rapidly and significantly reduces the transepithelial potential. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors decrease transmembrane potential by as much as 30%. These morphologic and physiologic experiments authenticate the validity of this bilayered epithelial preparation for future use in detailed studies of the mechanism of aqueous humor formation. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 PMID:1808804
Tammann, G. Andreas
A brief history of the determination of the Hubble constant H_0 is given. Early attempts following Lemaitre (1927) gave much too high values due to errors of the magnitude scale, Malmquist bias and calibration problems. By 1962 most authors agreed that 75< H_0 <130. After 1975 a dichotomy arose with values near 100 and others around 55. The former came from apparent-magnitude-limited samples and were affected by Malmquist bias. New distance indicators were introduced; they were sometimes claimed to yield high values of H_0, but the most recent data lead to H_0 in the 60's, yet with remaining difficulties as to the zero-point of the respective distance indicators. SNe Ia with their large range and very small luminosity dispersion (avoiding Malmquist bias) offer a unique opportunity to determine the large-scale value of H_0. Their maximum luminosity can be well calibrated from 10 SNe Ia in local parent galaxies whose Cepheids have been observed with HST. An unforeseen difficulty - affecting all Cepheid distances - is that their P-L relation varies from galaxy to galaxy, presumably in function of metallicity. A proposed solution is summarized here. The conclusion is that H_0 = 63.2 +/- 1.3 (random) +/- 5.3 (systematic) on all scales. The expansion age becomes then (with Omega_m=0.3, Omega_Lambda=0.7) 15.1 Gyr.
Alroy, J.; Orgad, U.; DeGasperi, R.; Richard, R.; Warren, C. D.; Knowles, K.; Thalhammer, J. G.; Raghavan, S. S.
The clinical, morphologic, histochemical, and biochemical features of GM1-gangliosidosis in two canine models, English Springer Spaniel (ESS) and Portuguese Water Dog (PWD), have been compared. The disease onset, its clinical course, and survival period of the affected dogs were similar in both models. Skeletal dysplasia was noted radiographically at 2 months of age, whereas at 4 1/2 months of age there was progressive neurologic impairment. However, dwarfism and coarse facial features were seen only in ESS. Both models had similar deficiency in activity of lysosomal beta-galactosidase, but possessed a normal protein activator for GM1-beta-galactosidase. Both models stored GM1-ganglioside, asialo-GM1, and oligosaccharides in brain. Furthermore, only the PWD stored glycoproteins containing polylactosaminoglycans in visceral organs, and neither model stored them in the brain. Morphologically, both models demonstrated similar storage material in multiple tissues and cell types. The ultrastructure of the storage material was cell-type specific and identical in both models. However, some differences in the lectin staining pattern were noted. Our clinical, biochemical, and histochemical findings indicate that PWD and ESS may represent two different mutations of the beta-galactosidase gene. Moreover, the authors conclude that it is difficult, and inappropriate, to apply the human classification of GM1-gangliosidosis (i.e. infantile, juvenile, and adult forms) to these canine models. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:1546746
Albert, D M
Electron microscopic examination of 57 ocular melanomas (54 human, two feline and one canine) revealed the presence of viral particles in six specimens. Herpesviruses particles were observed in one human specimen and were passed in human fibroblasts (WI-38), where they gave rise to intranuclear inclusions. A-type oncornavirus particles (oncogenic RNA virus) were observed in a second case, both in cells of tumor directly removed from an enucleated eye as well as in cells grown in tissue culture. In three human specimens and one feline specimen, togavirus particles were observed. Rubella is a member of this group, and the possibility that the presence of togavirus in these tumors is the result of latent ocular infection by rubella virus is raised. Herpes virus and RNA tumor viruses are widely considered as having a possible etiologic role for certain human cancers. The observation of togavirus is unexpected, as this virus has not been previously implicated in human or animal tumors. Injection of an RNA tumor virus (Gardner strain feline sarcoma virus) into the anterior chamber of newborn kittens resulted in the development of iris and ciliary body melanomas, many of which showed invasion and, in one instance, metastasis. This is the first animal model of a viral-induced uveal melanoma, and the histology and ultrastructure are described. These results emphasize the need for the continued investigation of the role of these viruses in uveal melanoma. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 PMID:545833
Cavalot, F.; Miyata, M.; Vladutiu, A.; Terranova, V.; Dubiski, S.; Burlingame, R.; Tan, E.; Brentjens, J.; Milgrom, F.; Andres, G.
Immunization of rabbits with physicochemically altered homologous or even autologous IgG induces formation of antibodies combining with IgG of rabbit and of foreign species. Cardiac but not renal lesions were reported in such animals. This study examined the nephritogenic potential of the immune response to cationized or heat-aggregated homologous IgG of b9 or b4 allotype in rabbits of the b4 allotype. Rabbits injected with either b9 or b4 cationized IgG produced antibodies reactive with rabbit and human IgG and with histones; they also developed abnormal glomerular deposits of IgG b4 and C3 corresponding to alterations of the glomerular basement membranes (GBM). Rabbits injected with either b9 or b4 aggregated IgG developed antibodies reactive with rabbit and human IgG and abnormal glomerular deposits of IgG b4 and C3 in the GBM and in the mesangium with subendothelial and mesangial electron-dense deposits. Some rabbits in both groups had proliferative and exudative glomerulonephritis and proteinuria. The results showed that immunization of rabbits with physicochemically altered homologous IgG induces an immune response to rabbit and human IgG and to histones as well as glomerular deposits of autologous IgG and C3 and other glomerular lesions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 Figure 30 PMID:1546743
Giacomelli, F.; Anversa, P.; Wiener, J.
Acute hypertension has been produced in rats by the intravenous infusion of angiotensin amide for 4 hours. Both control and hypertensive animals were injected intravenously prior to sacrifice with either horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or colloidal carbon. Epicardial arteries and blocks of ventricular myocardium containing intramyocardial arteries and arterioles have been processed for electron microscopy. HRP appears to penetrate the endoethelium of epicardial arteries from control animals within vesicles that bypass endothelial junctions and empty into interendoethelial clefts. Peroxidase does not traverse the endothelium of intramural arteries and arterioles of controls over the 10-minute period of observation. There is acceleration of lateral vesicular transport in the endothelium of epicardial arteries after angiotensin infusion and direct permeation of interendothelial clefts of intramural arterial vessels. Medial fragmentation and more extensive necrosis are observed in intramyocardial but not in epicardial arterial vessels. Foci of myocardial damage resembling irreversible ischemic or anoxic injury followed by reflow are described. It is suggested that the increased permeability of epicardial arteries may be due to elevated pressure, while the altered permeability and vascular lesions of intramural arteries and arterioles are more readily attributable to the vasoconstriction produced by angiotension. The vascular and myocardial lesions are also discussed in relation to the regional actions of angiotensin on the coronary circulation and known effects of this vasoactive peptide on myocardium. Images Figure 19 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figures 20 and 21 Figure 29 Figure 30 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figures 5-8 Figure 9 Figure 22 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:937512
Hansen, J C; Skalak, R; Chien, S; Hoger, A
A finite element network model has been developed to predict the macroscopic elastic shear modulus and the area expansion modulus of the red blood cell (RBC) membrane skeleton on the basis of its microstructure. The topological organization of connections between spectrin molecules is represented by the edges of a random Delaunay triangulation, and the elasticity of an individual spectrin molecule is represented by the spring constant, K, for a linear spring element. The model network is subjected to deformations by prescribing nodal displacements on the boundary. The positions of internal nodes are computed by the finite element program. The average response of the network is used to compute the shear modulus (mu) and area expansion modulus (kappa) for the corresponding effective continuum. For networks with a moderate degree of randomness, this model predicts mu/K = 0.45 and kappa/K = 0.90 in small deformations. These results are consistent with previous computational models and experimental estimates of the ratio mu/kappa. This model also predicts that the elastic moduli vary by 20% or more in networks with varying degrees of randomness. In large deformations, mu increases as a cubic function of the extension ratio lambda 1, with mu/K = 0.62 when lambda 1 = 1.5. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 20 FIGURE A1 FIGURE A2 FIGURE A3 PMID:8770194
Breiteneder-Geleff, S.; Matsui, K.; Soleiman, A.; Meraner, P.; Poczewski, H.; Kalt, R.; Schaffner, G.; Kerjaschki, D.
Puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis (PAN), a rat model of human minimal change nephropathy, is characterized by extensive flattening of glomerular epithelial cell (podocyte) foot processes and by severe proteinuria. For comparison of expression of glomerular membrane proteins of normal and PAN rats, a membrane protein fraction of isolated rat glomeruli was prepared and monoclonal antibodies were raised against it. An IgG-secreting clone designated LF3 was selected that specifically immunolabeled podocytes of normal but not of PAN rats. The antigen of LF3 IgG was identified as a 43-kd glycoprotein. Molecular cloning of its cDNA was performed in a delta gt11 expression library prepared from mRNA of isolated rat glomeruli. The predicted amino acid sequence indicated a 166-amino-acid integral membrane protein with a single membrane-spanning domain, two potential phosphorylation sites in its short cytoplasmic tail, and six potential O-glycosylation sites in the large ectodomain. High amino acid sequence identities were found to membrane glycoproteins of rat lung and bone and mouse thymus epithelial cells as well as to a phorbol-ester-induced protein in a mouse osteoblast cell line and to a canine influenza C virus receptor. In PAN, expression of this 43-kd protein was selectively reduced to < 30%, as determined by quantitative immunogold electron microscopy, immunoblotting, and Northern blotting. These data provide evidence that transcription of the 43-kd transmembrane podocyte glycoprotein is specifically down-regulated in PAN. To indicate that this protein could be associated with transformation of arborized foot processes to flat feet (Latin, pes planus) we have called it podoplanin. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:9327748
Ward, J. M.; Stevens, J. L.; Konishi, N.; Kurata, Y.; Uno, H.; Diwan, B. A.; Ohmori, T.
Vimentin expression was studied immunohistochemically in renal cortical tubules of untreated male rats of various ages, rats exposed to toxins (barbital sodium, folic acid) and carcinogens (streptozotocin, N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine, barbital sodium, and in humans of various ages with or without renal epithelial tumors. Fetal, neonatal, and young adult rats did not express vimentin in renal cortical tubules. Regenerative renal tubular lesions from rats with aging nephropathy and from rats with toxic nephropathy both expressed vimentin. Mitogenic lesions induced by folic acid at 24 hours, however, were not immunoreactive for vimentin. Carcinogen-induced preneoplastic renal cortical tubular lesions in rats were most often focally immunoreactive whereas strong vimentin expression was found in almost all induced renal tumors. In kidneys of three children (younger than 2 years of age), vimentin was not found in renal cortical tubular cells except in rare individual cells in one case. Vimentin was abundant in basophilic regenerative tubules in kidneys of aged individuals, however. Most (7/10) human renal carcinomas and latent preneoplastic or neoplastic renal tubular lesions found incidentally at autopsy (2/4) showed vimentin expression. The authors suggest that the switching to vimentin expression in phenotypically normal renal cortical tubular cells in rats and humans, which do not usually express the intermediate filament protein vimentin, should be considered vimentin metaplasia. Vimentin expression is dissociated from increased cell proliferation in hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions, however. Instead the degree of dedifferentiation of the tubule cells and changes in phenotype were associated with vimentin expression. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:1415487
Barkla, D. H.; Tutton, P. J.
In this study the proliferative and morphologic changes that occur in the colon of normal and dimethylhydrazine-treated rats following surgical bypass of the middle third of the colon are reported. Proliferative changes were measured by estimating accumulated mitotic indexes following vinblastine treatment and morphologic changes were observed with the use of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Data were collected on Days 0, 7, 14, 30, and 72 after surgery. The results show that surgical bypass produces contrasting effects in the segments proximal to and distal to the suture line. In the proximal segment there was morphologic evidence of hyperplasia, although proliferative activity was unchanged except for an increase at 7 days in normal rats. In the distal segment there was a long-lived increase in the mitotic index, although morphologic changes were not seen. The results for DMH-treated rats were similar to those in normal rats. Groups of isolated dysplastic epithelial cells were often seen in the submucosa adjacent to sutures up to 72 days after surgery. Increased lymphoid infiltration was seen in segments proximal to but not distal to the suture line. It is hypothesized that the different responses of the proximal and distal segments may be related to the different embryologic origins of those segments. It is also hypothesized that the seeding of the submucosa with epithelial cells during suturing may be a factor in tumor recurrence. Images Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:4014432
Kawanami, Oichi; Ferrans, Victor J.; Fulmer, Jack D.; Crystal, Ronald G.
Ultrastructural study of pulmonary biopsy specimens from patients with fibrotic lung disease disclosed the presence of nuclear inclusions in 1% or less of cuboidal alveolar epithelial cells in 9 of 19 patients, including 6 of 12 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, 2 of 3 patients with collagen-vascular disease, and 1 of 3 patients with sarcoidosis. Nuclear inclusions were not observed by ultrastructural study in 5 control patients. The inclusions consisted of masses or aggregates of tubules which probably were derived from the inner nuclear membranes. These tubules were smooth-walled, showed branchings and bifurcations, were composed of single trilaminar membranes, usually had a clear content, and ranged from 500 to 1000 Å in diameter. They resembled nuclear tubules which occur in other cell types under conditions of rapid growth or specific hormonal stimulation. Statistically significant differences between the groups of patients with and without nuclear inclusions in cuboidal alveolar epithelial cells were not found with respect to smoking history, degree of fibrosis in the lung biopsy specimen, or the degree of pulmonary physiologic impairment. However, the average age of the patients having nuclear inclusions was significantly greater than that of patients not having nuclear inclusions. In addition, the frequency of indentations in the nuclei of cuboidal alveolar epithelial cells was greater in patients with nuclear inclusions than in patients without nuclear inclusions. Highly significant correlations were observed between the presence of nuclear inclusions and the presence of a) anchoring fibrils and hemidesmosomes along the basal surfaces of alveolar epithelial cells and b) multilayering of the alveolar epithelium. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 13Figure 14Figure 10Figure 8Figure 9Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figures 11 and 12Figure 15Figure 16Figure 6Figures 17 through 20 PMID:426030
Arkin, A; Ross, J
In prior work we demonstrated the implementation of logic gates, sequential computers (universal Turing machines), and parallel computers by means of the kinetics of chemical reaction mechanisms. In the present article we develop this subject further by first investigating the computational properties of several enzymatic (single and multiple) reaction mechanisms: we show their steady states are analogous to either Boolean or fuzzy logic gates. Nearly perfect digital function is obtained only in the regime in which the enzymes are saturated with their substrates. With these enzymatic gates, we construct combinational chemical networks that execute a given truth-table. The dynamic range of a network's output is strongly affected by "input/output matching" conditions among the internal gate elements. We find a simple mechanism, similar to the interconversion of fructose-6-phosphate between its two bisphosphate forms (fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and fructose-2,6-bisphosphate), that functions analogously to an AND gate. When the simple model is supplanted with one in which the enzyme rate laws are derived from experimental data, the steady state of the mechanism functions as an asymmetric fuzzy aggregation operator with properties akin to a fuzzy AND gate. The qualitative behavior of the mechanism does not change when situated within a large model of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and the TCA cycle. The mechanism, in this case, switches the pathway's mode from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis in response to chemical signals of low blood glucose (cAMP) and abundant fuel for the TCA cycle (acetyl coenzyme A). Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 PMID:7948674
Runge, P E
PURPOSE: Eduard Jaeger's original Test-Types were carefully evaluated: (1) to determine whether Jaeger had maintained a consistent standard, (2) to establish the correct Snellen equivalent for Jaeger's Test-Types, (3) to answer the question of why and how the standard was lost, and (4) to compare the visual angle of optotypes to lines of continuous text. METHODS: All original Viennese editions of Jaeger's Test-Types, as well as first generation United Kingdom (UK) and United States (US) versions, were evaluated. Data were collected objectively using a microruler with a 20X loupe and subjectively using a laser distance-measuring device. The data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel. All previous measurements of Jaeger's Test-Types, objective and subjective, collected over the past 133 years were compared to the current data and to each other. RESULTS: The correct Snellen equivalent of Jaeger's Test-Types was determined. The visual angle created from the measurement of the height of lowercase letters, without ascenders or descenders, provides an accurate method of assigning a visual angle of a line of continuous text. Comparing the typefaces used in printing first generation UK and US versions of Jaeger's Test-Types to the Viennese editions provided an explanation for the absence of a consistent standard for Jaeger's Test-Types today. CONCLUSIONS: All 10 versions of Jaeger's original Test-Types are virtually identical and established a gold standard for reading vision tests. Jaeger's standard was lost when his Test-Types were first printed in the UK and the US using local typefaces. The Jaeger standard has been re-established. Visual angles determined using continuous text are comparable to those obtained by using optotypes. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7C FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19A FIGURE 19B p409-a FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE
Grossniklaus, H E
metastasizes through regional lymphatics. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 PMID:10360307
Zaki, Sherif R.; Greer, Patricia w.; Coffield, Lisa M.; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Nolte, Kurt B.; Foucar, Kathy; Feddersen, Richard M.; Zumwalt, Ross E.; Miller, Gayle L.; Khan, Ali S.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Mahy, Brian W.J.; Peters, Clarence J.
a newly recognized, often fatal disease, with a spectrum of microscopic morphological changes, which may be an important cause of severe and fatal illness presenting as adult respiratory distress syndrome. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15 PMID:7887439
Morrison, W. I.; Murray, Max; Sayer, P. D.; Preston, J. M.
polymorphonuclear leukocytes, along with extensive deposition of fibrin, were commonly found in the subcapsular sinuses. During this period, foci of erythropoietic cells were present throughout the red pulp of the spleen. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18Figure 19 PMID:6110341
Jones, C. L.; Buch, S.; Post, M.; McCulloch, L.; Liu, E.; Eddy, A. A.
tubulointerstitial ECM accumulation occurs in rats with acute PAN nephrosis because of the activation of genes encoding several matrix proteins and inhibition of matrix degradation mediated by TIMP. These events are reversed during the phase of recovery from nephrotic syndrome. Increased mRNA levels for TGF-beta, possibly originating from inflammatory interstitial monocytes, are likely to be one of the mediators of the molecular events observed. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:1281619
Cortinovis, C.; Klimek, F.; Nogueira, E.
application of some carcinogens at high doses, they are not obligatory precursors of hepatocellular tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 PMID:1951631
Kirsch, Wolff M.; Zhu, Yong Hua; Hardesty, Robert A.; Petti, George; Furnas, David
Reconstructive challenges engendered by skull base surgery are critical determinants of outcome. A novel nonpenetrating, arcuate-legged clip has proven to be both technically and biologically effective for management of these difficult closures. Clips have facilitated reconstructions associated with the surgical management of eight skull base cases: leiomyosarcoma of the orbit, middle fossa, ptyergopalatine fossa, two meningiomas (petrotentorial, cavernous sinus), vagus nerve paraganglioma, complex traumatic orbital dural tear, and one basilar and two vertebral artery aneurysms. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 14Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18 PMID:17170909
Russo, I H; Russo, J
in cancer initiation. Comparative studies with the development of the human breast and the pathogenesis of breast cancer have contributed to validate rodent-to-human extrapolations. However, it has not been definitively established what type of information is necessary for human risk assessment, whether currently toxicity testing methodologies are sufficient for fulfilling those needs, or whether treatment-induced tumorigenic responses in rodents are predictive of potential human risk. An alternative to the traditional bioassays are mechanism-based toxicology and molecular and cellular approaches, combined with comparative in vitro systems. These approaches might allow the rapid screen of chemicals for setting priorities for further studies to determine the dose-response relationship for chemical effects at low doses, to assess effects other than mutagenesis and/or tumorigenesis, or to establish qualitative and quantitative relationships of biomarkers to toxic effects. Until there is enough information on the predictive value of mechanism-based toxicology for risk assessment, this approach should be used in conjunction with and validated by the traditional in vivo long-term bioassays. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. A Figure 7. B Figure 8. A Figure 8. B Figure 9. Figure 10. Figure 11. Figure 12. Figure 13. Figure 14. Figure 15. Figure 16. Figure 17. Figure 18. Figure 19. Figure 20. Figure 21. Figure 22. Figure 23. Figure 24. Figure 25. Figure 26. PMID:8899375
. ( Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURES 24 FIGURES 25 FIGURES 26 FIGURES 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 PMID:10360310
Krachmer, J H
endothelial rejection, three because of glaucoma, one because of a retrocorneal membrane, two from both a retrocorneal membrane and glaucoma, and one from both an endothelial rejection and glaucoma. Thus, glaucoma was involved in six of the nine failures (27% of all grafts). Clinically visible retrocorneal membranes formed in 4 of the 22 grafts. All four eyes had preoperative slit lamp-visible iridocorneal adhesions. The factor that most prominently influences keratoplasty prognosis is the presence of iridocorneal adhesions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 40 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 PMID:3914130
Van Vleet, J. F.; Ferrans, V. J.
seen less frequently; and, in contrast to man, coronary artery disease and myocardial ischemia are rather infrequent in animals. The present review shows clearly that the spectrum of myocardial diseases in animals is enlarging and that many newly recognized diseases are emerging and assuming considerable importance. For example, various heritable cardiomyopathies have recently been described in the KK mouse, cattle, and rats. Increasingly recognized myocardial diseases include cardiomyopathies in cats, dogs, and birds; anthracycline cardiotoxicity; furazolidone cardiotoxicity; ionophore cardiotoxicity; myocardial damage associated with central nervous system injuries; myocardial hypertrophy in Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 45 Figure 46 Figure 47 Figure 48 Figure 61 Figure 62 Figure 63 Figure 64 Figure 79 Figure 75 Figure 76 Figure 77 Figure 78 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 & 30 Figure 31 Figure 32 Figure 33 Figure 34 Figure 35 Figure 36 Figure 37 Figure 38 Figure 39 Figure 40 Figure 41 Figure 42 Figure 43 Figure 44 Figure 49 Figure 50 Figure 51 Figure 52 Figure 53 Figure 54 Figure 55 Figure 56 Figure 57 Figure 58 Figure 59 Figure 60 Figure 65 Figure 66 Figure 67 Figure 68 Figure 69 Figure 70 Figure 71 & 72 Figure 73 & 74 PMID:3524254
Jakobiec, F A
melanocytes and exhibited more haphazard arrangements of the melanofilaments, which were only partially melaninized. Mitochondria were more numerous than in dendritic melanocytes, and monoribosomes predominated over polyribosomes. Cytoplasmic filaments were inconspicuous. Cells in the immediate subepithelial connective tissue zone had features identical to those of the cells within the junctional nests. Smaller, lymphocytoid cells with less numerous and more rudimentary melanosomes were found in the middle and deeper portions of the lesions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 67 FIGURE 1 FIGURE 62 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 40 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 FIGURE 47 FIGURE 48 FIGURE 49 FIGURE 50 FIGURE 51 FIGURE 52 FIGURE 53 FIGURE 54 FIGURE 55 FIGURE 56 FIGURE 57 FIGURE 58 FIGURE 59 FIGURE 60 FIGURE 61 FIGURE 63 FIGURE 64 FIGURE 65 FIGURE 66 FIGURE 68 FIGURE 69 FIGURE 70 FIGURE 71 FIGURE 72 FIGURE 73 FIGURE 74 FIGURE 75 FIGURE 76 FIGURE 77 FIGURE 78 FIGURE 79 FIGURE 80 FIGURE 81 FIGURE 82 FIGURE 83 FIGURE 84 FIGURE 85 FIGURE 86 FIGURE 87 FIGURE 88 FIGURE 89 PMID:6398936
Ludwig, I H
limitation of versions, less separation of the tendons from sclera, and thicker appearance of the scar segments. The use of nonabsorbable sutures in the repair procedure reduced the recurrence rate. Histologic examination of the clinical stretched scar specimens showed dense connective tissue that was less well organized compared with normal tendon. In the tissue culture studies, cells cultured from the stretched scar specimens grew rapidly and were irregularly shaped. A high-molecular-weight protein was identified in the culture medium. By contrast, cells cultured from normal tendon (controls) grew more slowly and regularly, stopped growing at 4 days, and produced less total protein than cultured stretched scar specimens. In the animal model studies, the collagenase-treated sites showed elongated scars with increased collagen between the muscle and the sclera, as well as increased collagen creep rates, compared with the saline-treated controls. The use of nonabsorbable sutures in collagenase-treated animal model surgery sites was associated with shorter, thicker scars compared with similar sites sutured with absorbable sutures. CONCLUSIONS: A lengthened or stretched, remodeled scar between an operated muscle tendon and sclera is a common occurrence and is a factor contributing to the variability of outcome after strabismus repair, even years later. This abnormality may be revealed by careful exploration of previously operated muscles. Definitive repair requires firm reattachment of tendon to sclera with nonabsorbable suture support. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 40 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 FIGURE 52
Horton, J C
chiasm. It forms gradually over a period of years following monocular enucleation, presumably from shrinkage of the optic chiasm caused by atrophy of fibers from the enucleated eye. Therefore, the superior temporal hemianopia in the "other eye" seen in the anterior chiasmal syndrome cannot be due to compression of Wilbrand's Knee. I propose that it occurs from combined compression of the optic chiasm and one (or both) optic nerves. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 5A FIGURE 5B FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 7 C FIGURE 7 D FIGURE 7 E FIGURE 7 F FIGURE 7 G FIGURE 7 H FIGURE 8A FIGURE 8B FIGURE 9A FIGURE 9B FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11A FIGURE 11B FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 20 PMID:9440188
Berry, J. P.; Henoc, P.; Galle, P.; Pariente, R.
The results of a study of 90 patients are presented. Intrapulmonary mineral deposits were characterized by electron diffraction and electron probe microanalysis. Using this method, pneumoconioses may be distinguidhed from other pneumopathies. In cases of pneumoconiosis, there exists a specific relationship between the etiology of the dust exposure and the crystallographic characteristics of the intrapulmonary deposits. The nature of the deposits may be indicative of a specific type of pneumoconiosis. This method is particularly useful in differentiating between asbestos bodies and ferruginous bodies. The value of the method in general and its importance in the study of pneumoconiosis are discussed. Images Figure 4 Figure 13 Figure 5 Figure 14 Figure 6 Figure 15 Figure 7 Figure 16 Figure 8 Figure 17 Figure 1 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 2 Figure 11 Figure 3 Figure 12 PMID:937507
Rafferty, T. D.; Tousignant, G.
We have previously reported a standardized stepwise transesophageal echocardiography transverse plane (monoplane) patient examination sequence suitable for intraoperative use. Biplane transesophageal echocardiography furnishes images of the heart and great vessels in both transverse and vertical planes. This report describes a seven-step vertical plane examination, the completion component of a comprehensive intraoperative biplane evaluation. Each step is illustrated by presentation of a two-dimensional echocardiographic image, a matching diagram and a schematic representation of the corresponding axis of interrogation. Examples of clinical presentations complete the report. Images Figure 2 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14a Figure 14b Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21a Figure 21b Figure 21c PMID:8792603
The nephrotic syndrome, glomerulonephritis, disseminated lupus erythematosus and the Fanconi syndrome show characteristic changes with electron microscopy. Experimental studies of animals were carried out to determine the significance of such changes by observing reactions that occur under carefully controlled conditions. A lesion with collagen deposition that was found in the centrolobular region of glomeruli sheds new light on the function of this region. This evidence must be considered in developing an understanding of how the production of urine is controlled. Fluid-filled compartments and various bodies associated with the ultrastructure of tubule cells can be produced under conditions which suggest that these structures play a role in tubular resorption. ImagesFigure 1, 2.Figure 3.Figure 4, 5.Figure 6, 7.Figure 8, 9.Figure 10.Figure 11, 12.Figure 13, 14.Figure 15, 16.Figure 17. PMID:13759386
Haller, J A
Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 38 PMID:8981713
O'Neill, J F
and may vary from blindness and severe mental retardation to minor retinochoroidal lesions of little consequence. Effective solutions for either the prevention or treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis have not been developed in this country but are under intensive and continuing investigation. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5A FIGURE 5B FIGURE 5C FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15A FIGURE 15B FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20A FIGURE 20B FIGURE 20C FIGURE 20D FIGURE 20E FIGURE 20F FIGURE 20G FIGURE 20H FIGURE 20J FIGURE 20K FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 A FIGURE 24B FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 PMID:10360309
Wright, K W
forced duction testing by observing the pattern of strabismus including torsion. Because of the chance for spontaneous resolution, conservative management, not surgery, should be the first line of treatment for acquired Brown's syndrome. If surgery is indicated, a novel procedure, the silicone tendon expander, is an effective option with excellent long-term outcomes. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 PMID:10703149
Rafferty, T. D.; Lippmann, H.
Recent advances in technology have allowed application of transesophageal echocardiography to intraoperative care of critically ill patients. Early clinical application primarily involved evaluation of left ventricular regional wall motion. However, valid intraoperative use of transesophageal echocardiography should also encompass systematic assessment of the entire heart as well as the great vessels. This report describes a 10-step sequence of single plane, two-dimensional echocardiographic views which constitute a basic patient examination capable of being performed by a practitioner whose primary responsibility is the delivery of anesthesia care. A 5-step color flow Doppler examination sequence is also presented. These views complement the two-dimensional echocardiographic steps. Representations of methods for grading Doppler-defined valvular regurgitation complete the report. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 PMID:7825339
Walker, D. H.; Harrison, A.; Murphy, K.; Flemister, M.; Murphy, F. A.
Ultrastructural, histopathologic, and virologic studies of adult hamsters infected with virulent Venezuelan equine encelphalomyelitis (VEE) virus (Subtype I-B) demonstrated precise chronologic and topographic progression of lesions and viral replication in extraneural sites. Thymus contained the earliest lesions and the highest initial and subsequent viral titers. No particular cytotropism was observed as highly efficient viral replication and severe cytonecrosis proceded. Early cortical necrosis of splenic periarteriolar lymphocytic sheath was followed by lymphoblastoid repopulation of the peripheral zone. Massive bone marrow necrosis was accompained by ultrastructural evidence of VEE viral particle production in reticulum cells, rubricytes, myeloid cells, lymphoblastoid cells, and megakaryocytes. Speed, efficiency, destructiveness, and relative sensitivity of virtually all lymphoreticular and hematopoetic cells were hallmarks of virulent VEE infection in the hamster. Images Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 12A and B Figure 13 Figure 7 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:941983
Camussi, G.; Caldwell, P. R.; Andres, G.; Brentjens, J. R.
The effect of repeated interactions of antibodies with cell surface antigens have been examined in in vitro, but not in in vivo systems. In this study are described the results of multiple antibody-cell surface antigen interactions in vivo. Rabbits were given repeated intravenous injections of goat antibodies to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), an antigen expressed on the surface of lung endothelial cells. For prevention of anaphylactic reactions, which would have been induced by multiple injections of heterologous immune or nonimmune IgG, the rabbits were made neonatally tolerant to goat IgG. Divalent immune IgG given daily for 21 days induced chronic antigenic modulation (antigen disappearance) with resistance to antibody-mediated inflammatory lesions. The rabbits, however, developed degenerative changes of alveolar endothelial and epithelial cells. Administration of immune IgG every other day for 43 days allowed partial reexpression of ACE and was associated with intravascular, but not interstitial, inflammatory changes. In contrast, repeated administration of monovalent immune Fab did not induce antigenic modulation but caused severe, lethal, interstitial pneumonitis. Thus, in this experimental model the development of acute interstitial inflammatory changes correlates with persistence of antigen and is abrogated by disappearance of antigen induced by divalent antibodies. Further, repeated endothelial antigen antibody interactions fail to induce chronic inflammatory or sclerosing lung lesions. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 7 Figure 7 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:3034065
Anderson, P. G.; Bishop, S. P.; Digerness, S. B.
The purpose of this study was to compare the functional and morphologic changes that occur during ischemic contracture and reperfusion in the normal and hypertrophied heart. Hearts from Sprague-Dawley, spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats were evaluated using a modified Langendorff perfusion apparatus. After obtaining control data, hearts were potassium-arrested, made ischemic, and studied at various time points. Regional coronary flow was assessed with the use of radiolabeled microspheres or Microfil dye infusion, and morphologic changes were evaluated by means of light and electron microscopy. Sarcomere length changes and qualitative morphologic changes during global ischemia demonstrate a transmural progression of ischemic damage starting at the endocardium and extending, with time, epicardially. The progression of ischemic changes in hypertrophied hearts of SHRs was similar to that of normal hearts; however, hypertrophied hearts developed ischemic contracture sooner than normal hearts. In addition, the development of contraction band change after ischemic contracture occurred only when hearts were reperfused and was related to the development of no-reflow. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:2959155
Gulizia, J. M.; Cunningham, M. W.; McManus, B. M.
Association of group A streptococci with acute rheumatic fever and valvular heart disease is well established; however the basis of valve injury remains unclear. In this study, anti-streptococcal monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) cross-reactive with myocardium were reacted with sections from 22 rheumatic valves, nine normal, five endocarditic, one 'floppy,' and one Marfan valve. In immunohistochemical studies, MAb reactivity was observed with cardiac myocytes, smooth muscle cells, cell surface and cytoplasm of endothelial cells lining valves, and valvular interstitial cells. Endothelial basement membrane and elastin fibrils reacted with the MAbs, whereas collagen was unreactive. Similar reactivity was seen with sera from acute rheumatic fever patients. The anti-streptococcal MAbs reacted with intravalvular myosin and vimentin in Western blots, and purified elastin competitively inhibited the binding of the anti-streptococcal MAbs to whole group A streptococci. The data show that human heart valves have numerous sites of immunoreactivity with anti-streptococcal MAbs and acute rheumatic fever sera of potential importance in the pathogenesis of rheumatic valvular injury. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:1704188
Speers, W. C.; Birdwell, C. R.; Dixon, F. J.
N,N-dimethylacetamide, hexamethylene bisacetamide, and Polybrene induced rapid and extensive differentiation in vitro in an otherwise slowly differentiating subline of embryonal carcinoma cells. The type of differentiated cell induced was dependent on the spatial organization of the stem cells during drug treatment. In monalayer culture "epithelial" cells were produced exclusively. However, treatment of aggregated suspension cultures yielded predominantly "fibroblast-like" cells. The undifferentiated embryonal carcinoma cells and the two differentiated cell types were morphologically distinct when examined by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy; and they had differences in cell surface antigens. Both differential cell types produced large amounts of fibronectin, whereas the embryonal carcinoma cells produced only minimal amounts. This system provides a convenient way to induce relatively synchronous differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells into specific differentiated cell types. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:507191
Lehnert, B E
Pulmonary macrophages consist of several subpopulations that can be defined by their anatomical locations as well as by other criteria. In addition to the well-known alveolar macrophages that reside on the alveolar surface, pulmonary macrophages also occur in the conducting airways, in various pulmonary interstitial regions, and, in some mammalian species, in the lung's intravascular compartment. Other thoracic macrophages of relevance to pulmonary defense and some lung disease processes are the pleural macrophages resident in the pleural space and macrophages present in regional lymph nodes that receive lymphatic drainage from the lung. Of the above subpopulations of pulmonary and thoracic macrophages, the alveolar macrophages have received the most experimental attention in the context of the pulmonary clearance and retention of deposited particles. Accordingly, less information is currently available regarding the roles other pulmonary and thoracic populations of macrophages may play in the removal of particles from the lower respiratory tract and associated tissue compartments. This report provides an overview of the various subpopulations of pulmonary and thoracic macrophages, as defined by their anatomical locations. The known and postulated roles of macrophages in the pulmonary clearance and retention of particles are reviewed, with particular emphasis on macrophage-associated processes involved in the pulmonary clearance of relatively insoluble particles. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 14. FIGURE 15. FIGURE 16. FIGURE 17. FIGURE 18. FIGURE 19. A FIGURE 19. B FIGURE 21. FIGURE 22. PMID:1396454
Abt, E; Suh, H H; Allen, G; Koutrakis, P
An intensive particle monitoring study was conducted in homes in the Boston, Massachusetts, area during the winter and summer of 1996 in an effort to characterize sources of indoor particles. As part of this study, continuous particle size and mass concentration data were collected in four single-family homes, with each home monitored for one or two 6-day periods. Additionally, housing activity and air exchange rate data were collected. Cooking, cleaning, and the movement of people were identified as the most important indoor particle sources in these homes. These sources contributed significantly both to indoor concentrations (indoor-outdoor ratios varied between 2 and 33) and to altered indoor particle size distributions. Cooking, including broiling/baking, toasting, and barbecuing contributed primarily to particulate matter with physical diameters between 0.02 and 0.5 microm [PM((0.02-0.5))], with volume median diameters of between 0.13 and 0.25 microm. Sources of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters between 0.7 and 10 microm [PM((0.7-10))] included sautéing, cleaning (vacuuming, dusting, and sweeping), and movement of people, with volume median diameters of between 3 and 4.3 microm. Frying was associated with particles from both PM((0.02-0.5)) and PM((0.7-10)). Air exchange rates ranged between 0.12 and 24.3 exchanges/hr and had significant impact on indoor particle levels and size distributions. Low air exchange rates (< 1 exchange/hr) resulted in longer air residence times and more time for particle concentrations from indoor sources to increase. When air exchange rates were higher (> 1 exchange/hr), the impact of indoor sources was less pronounced, as indoor particle concentrations tracked outdoor levels more closely. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:10620522
Yi, E. S.; Lee, H.; Suh, Y. K.; Tang, W.; Qi, M.; Yin, S.; Remick, D. G.; Ulich, T. R.
Extrinsic allergic alveolitis and pulmonary sarcoidosis are granulomatous diseases of the lung for which clinical presentation and anatomic site of granuloma formation differ. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis is caused by inhaled antigens, whereas the nature and source of the inciting antigen in sarcoidosis is unknown. To test the hypothesis that the route via which antigen is introduced to the lung contributes to the clinicopathological presentation of pulmonary granulomatous disease, rats immunized with intravenous (i.v.) Corynebacterium parvum were challenged after 2 weeks with either intratracheal (i.t.) or i.v. C. parvum. The granulomatous inflammation elicited by i.t. challenge predominantly involved alveolar spaces and histologically simulated extrinsic allergic alveolitis. In contrast, the inflammation induced by i.v. challenge was characterized by granulomatous angiitis and interstitial inflammation simulating sarcoidosis. Elevations of leukocyte counts and TNF levels in bronchoalveolar fluid, which reflect inflammation in the intra-alveolar compartment, were much more pronounced after i.t. than after i.v. challenge. Tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, CC chemokine, CXC chemokine, and adhesion molecule mRNA and protein expression occurred in each model. In conclusion, i.t. or i.v. challenge with C. parvum in sensitized rats caused pulmonary granulomatous inflammation that was histologically similar to human extrinsic allergic alveolitis and sarcoidosis, respectively. Although the soluble and cellular mediators of granulomatous inflammation were qualitatively similar in both disease models, the differing anatomic source of the same antigenic challenge was responsible for differing clinicopathological presentations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 11 Figure 13 Figure 12 Figure 14 PMID:8863677
Strayer, D. S.; Skaletsky, E.; Sell, S.
The pathogenic effects of plaque-purified Boerlage and Patuxent strains of Shope fibroma virus (SFV) in neonatal rabbits are compared with results of previous reports which used nonpurified SFV. Clinically, the Boerlage strain produced large tumors; whereas the same dose of Patuxent strain SFV induced much smaller tumors locally. Neither virus caused metastatic or extensively invasive local spread in our study. Some Patuxent recipients died of respiratory infections prior to sacrifice. However, both groups of rabbits handled the tumor well; the tumor began regressing 15-20 days after inoculation. Histologically, the tumors produced by those viruses were identical. Patuxent strain recipients were otherwise normal. Boerlage strain recipients showed increased persistence of extramedullary hematopoiesis and scattered foci of parenchymal necrosis in their livers. They also showed considerable cell death in thymic lobules. In rabbits given Patuxent strain SFV, virus antigens were detected only in the tumor by immunohistologic examination. Boerlage viral antigens were found in the tumor and overlying skin. We also detected virus systemically in Boerlage recipients: it was present in fixed tissue phagocytes in the spleen and liver and also in parenchymal cells of the lungs, liver, and kidney. Boerlage strain SFV recipients also showed detectable virus in their thymus, both at the periphery of the thymic lobules and in the connective tissue separating thymic lobules from each other. Despite the disseminated nature of the infection, rabbits that received the latter strain fared as well as those receiving Patuxent strain SFV. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 p-a Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 1 p345-a Figure 6 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:6087669
Chander, P.; Soni, A.; Suri, A.; Bhagwat, R.; Yoo, J.; Treser, G.
Renal tissues from two groups of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) were examined: Group A had severe proteinuria and varying degrees of renal insufficiency, designated AIDS-associated nephropathy (AAN), and Group B had no renal involvement. Control Group C consisted of patients with heroin-associated nephropathy (HAN) with proteinuria comparable to patients in Group A but without AIDS or its related complex (ARC). The most frequent finding, common to both AAN and HAN, was focal glomerular sclerosis. In contrast to HAN, AAN tissue showed mesangial hypocellularity, sparse interstitial infiltrates, severe tubular degenerative changes, tubular microcystic ectasia, Bowman's space dilatation, and presence of multiple complex inclusions both in the nuclei and cytoplasm in a variety of cells. Abundant tubuloreticular inclusions were found in the endothelial and occasionally in the interstitial cell cytoplasm. Nuclear bodies (NBs) were seen in greater frequency, complexity, size, and heterogeneity, and of budding configuration in Group A as compared with Groups B and C; NBs in Group C were mostly of simple types (I and II). In addition, a peculiar granulofibrillary transformation in many tubular and interstitial cell nuclei was observed in Group A. This transformation was rarely present in Group B and was never seen in Group C. Because complex NBs (Types III to V) and various intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions present in Group A are often associated with viral invasion, their presence in kidneys of AIDS patients with proteinuria suggests a viral etiology for AAN. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:3548410
van den Oord, J. J.; de Wolf-Peeters, C.; De Vos, R.; Desmet, V. J.
The light-microscopic, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemical features of immature sinus histiocytosis were studied in 10 lymph nodes with the histologic picture of toxoplasmic lymphadenitis and compared with the features of lymphoid cells present in the marginal zone of the splenic white pulp. Areas of immature sinus histiocytosis consisted largely of medium-sized lymphoid cells with markedly irregular nuclei and abundant pale cytoplasm. Using a panel of monoclonal antibodies, the predominating lymphoid cells were found to carry the B-cell phenotype B1+Ba1-sIgM+sIgD-OKIa1+. Admixed were variable numbers of larger, blastic lymphoid cells, small lymphocytes, histiocytic elements, and polymorphonuclear granulocytes. The marginal zone of the splenic white pulp was composed of a similar mixture of cells, and marginal-zone lymphocytes demonstrated an analogous immunohistochemical phenotype. Our results indicate that immature sinus histiocytes are B-lymphoid cells that are closely related to marginal zone lymphocytes. As such, immature sinus histiocytes may have a role similar to that of marginal-zone lymphocytes, which have been claimed to transport antigens or immune complexes toward the follicular center or to serve as precursors of plasma cells. We suggest that immature sinus histiocytosis represents an abnormal expansion of the marginal zone, normally present at the sinusoidal pole of lymphoid follicles. The reason for this marginal-zone hyperplasia, recognized as immature sinus histiocytosis in a variety of reactive lymph node conditions, may be a maturation arrest in the normal development of immature sinus histiocytes into small, sIgM+ sIgD+ lymphocytes. Images Figure 3 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:3970140
Yamamoto, T.; Naito, M.; Moriyama, H.; Umezu, H.; Matsuo, H.; Kiwada, H.; Arakawa, M.
Kupffer cells were selectively eliminated in mice by the intravenous administration of liposome-entrapped dichloromethylene diphosphonate. At 5 days, small peroxidase-negative and acid-phosphatase-weakly-positive macrophages appeared, increased in number, and differentiated into peroxidase- and acid-phosphatase-positive Kupffer cells. Repopulating small macrophages actively proliferated, and the number of Kupffer cells returned to the normal level by day 14. The numbers of macrophage precursors in the liver as detected by the monoclonal antibodies ER-MP20 and ER-MP58 increased after liposome-entrapped dichloromethylene diphosphonate injection. ER-MP58-positive cells proliferated and differentiated into ER-MP20-positive cells and eventually into BM8-positive Kupffer cells in the liver. Bone-marrow-derived ER-MP58-positive cells were also detectable in the liver and differentiated into ER-MP20-positive cells, but they did not become BM8-positive macrophages. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor mRNA expression was enhanced in the liver 1 day after injection. The administration of macrophage colony-stimulating factor did not shorten the period of Kupffer cell depletion but increased the number and the proliferative capacity of repopulating Kupffer cells. These findings implied that repopulating Kupffer cells are derived from a macrophage precursor pool in the liver rather than from bone-marrow-derived monocytes. Local production of macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the liver plays a crucial role in the differentiation, maturation, and proliferation of Kupffer cells. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 11 Figure 13 Figure 12 Figure 18 PMID:8863675
Basset, F.; Ferrans, V. J.; Soler, P.; Takemura, T.; Fukuda, Y.; Crystal, R. G.
involved. Under these circumstances, intraluminal organization can mediate the fusion of adjacent alveolar structures by intraluminal connective tissue. Images Figure 15 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 18 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:3953768
Rice, D; Barone, S
Vulnerable periods during the development of the nervous system are sensitive to environmental insults because they are dependent on the temporal and regional emergence of critical developmental processes (i.e., proliferation, migration, differentiation, synaptogenesis, myelination, and apoptosis). Evidence from numerous sources demonstrates that neural development extends from the embryonic period through adolescence. In general, the sequence of events is comparable among species, although the time scales are considerably different. Developmental exposure of animals or humans to numerous agents (e.g., X-ray irradiation, methylazoxymethanol, ethanol, lead, methyl mercury, or chlorpyrifos) demonstrates that interference with one or more of these developmental processes can lead to developmental neurotoxicity. Different behavioral domains (e.g., sensory, motor, and various cognitive functions) are subserved by different brain areas. Although there are important differences between the rodent and human brain, analogous structures can be identified. Moreover, the ontogeny of specific behaviors can be used to draw inferences regarding the maturation of specific brain structures or neural circuits in rodents and primates, including humans. Furthermore, various clinical disorders in humans (e.g., schizophrenia, dyslexia, epilepsy, and autism) may also be the result of interference with normal ontogeny of developmental processes in the nervous system. Of critical concern is the possibility that developmental exposure to neurotoxicants may result in an acceleration of age-related decline in function. This concern is compounded by the fact that developmental neurotoxicity that results in small effects can have a profound societal impact when amortized across the entire population and across the life span of humans. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 12 Figure 14 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:10852851
Jakobiec, F A; Font, R L; Zimmerman, L E
Eight adult patients with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the orbit are described. Only two of the patients were known to have von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis. The typical clinical history included the development of a mass in the superonasal quadrant of the orbit, which was palpable immediately beneath the skin of the lid. There was a definite tendency for the lesions to arise in, or grow along, the supraorbital nerve--including posteriorly through the superior orbital fissure to the Gasserian ganglion, and even as far posteriorly along the trigeminal rootlets to the pons. Delays in pathologic diagnosis, which beclouded the true nature of the process, led to multiple recurrences, eventuating in five known fatalities out of the eight patients. In addition to intracranial extension, pulmonary metastases and regional cervical metastases were encountered. Once recognized for their diagnostic value, the histopathologic patterns are highly distinctive: biphasic populations of spindled and epithelioid cells; sheets of epithelioid cells or clusters demarcated by delicate reticulin fibers or thicker collagenous trabeculae; malignant plexiform patterns; and neurotubular patterns. Pure spindle cell populations were encountered only in the two patients with von Recklinghausen's disease, and in each, either a pre-existent benign neurofibroma or a coexistent plexiform neurofibroma was found in the pathology specimens. The best management of this condition depends upon early clinical and pathological recognition, leading to radical surgery, which usually consists of orbital exenteration combined with intracranial extirpation of as much of the trigeminal nerve as possible. Postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy after radical surgery might also be advisable. Images FIGURE 16 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 PMID:3938581
Young, M A; Ravishanker, G; Beveridge, D L
, and may have important implications for understanding the functional energetics and specificity of the interactions of DNA and RNA with regulatory proteins, pharmaceutical agents, and other ligands. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 PMID:9370428
Rossi, M. A.
months after transplantation, the myocytes of heterotopic hearts were smaller in size in comparison to those after 2 or 6 months. The graft cells were separated from each other by fibrous tissue and mononuclear cells and were not aligned in parallel within the tissue; often, they appeared to have lost their connections with adjacent cells. The myofibrils within cells were strikingly disorganized, coursing in different directions. Severely degenerated myocytes were commonly seen. These results, without precluding the possible role of neural and hormonal stimuli, clearly indicate that hemodynamic work load regulates the developmental growth of newborn mouse heart transplanted into the pinna of the ear of isogeneic adult recipient mice. In other words, the mass of cardiac tissue would be adjusted to meet the prevailing hemodynamic demands.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:1632462
Goody, R S; Reedy, M C; Hofmann, W; Holmes, K C; Reedy, M K
The binding of rabbit muscle myosin subfragment 1 (S1) to glycerinated insect flight muscle fibers has been studied by low-angle x-ray diffraction, quantitative sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis, quantitative interference microscopy, and electron microscopy. Changes induced in the rigor x-ray diffraction pattern are consistent with the idea that vacant myosin-binding sites on thin filaments are filled by exogenous S1. Electron microscopy indicates that S1 permeates and labels fibers and fibrils completely. Electron micrographs also show that cross-bridges are not displaced by exogenous S1 under the conditions used, and this is supported by the unchanged mechanical stiffness of the S1-labeled fibers. The amount of bound S1, as measured by gel electrophoresis and interference microscopy, together with the magnitude of the intensity changes in the x-ray diffraction pattern, is consistent with a thick filament structure that contains four molecules of endogenous myosin per 14.5 nm of its length, but does not agree well with earlier estimates of six myosins per crown. Lack of information on possible inhibition of S1-binding by factors other than the presence of cross-bridges, e.g., troponin, render uncertain calculations of the number of attached cross-bridges in the rigor state. However, it appears that at least 75% of the endogenous myosin heads are attached. Occupancy of binding sites on thin filaments after incubation with S1 is high, probably greater than 85%, so that x-ray scattering from those parts of the structure that adhere to the symmetry of the thin filaments can be treated as diffraction from S1-decorated thin filaments. In addition, we show in thin flared X cross sections that exo-S1 heads bind to actin with the geometry described in decorated actin by Taylor, K.A., and L.A. Amos. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 PMID:3978197
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false BSAI C. Opilio Tanner Crab Bycatch Limitations Zone 13 Figure 13 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 13 Figure 13 to Part 679—BSAI C. Opilio Tanner Crab...
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... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false BSAI C. Opilio Tanner Crab Bycatch Limitations Zone 13 Figure 13 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 13 Figure 13 to Part 679—BSAI C. Opilio Tanner Crab...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false BSAI C. Opilio Tanner Crab Bycatch Limitations Zone 13 Figure 13 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 13 Figure 13 to Part 679—BSAI C. Opilio Tanner Crab...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false BSAI C. Opilio Tanner Crab Bycatch Limitations Zone 13 Figure 13 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 13 Figure 13 to Part 679—BSAI C. Opilio Tanner Crab...
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... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labels for Domestic Mattress With Foundation 12 Figure 12 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 12 Figure...
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Christy, Donna M.
This article describes lessons that link mathematics topics with literature, the NCTM's Navigations series, and art projects. Each lesson is designed around a theme and is laced throughout with fantasy. (Contains 13 figures.)
Jones, J.F.; Petterson, B.J.; Strip, D.R.
A payload suspended from a gantry is swing damped in accordance with a control algorithm based on the periodic motion of the suspended mass or by servoing on the forces induced by the suspended mass. 13 figures.
Haik, B G
further study. Specimens from patients with intraocular hemorrhage should be viewed cautiously, since erythrocytes contain high levels of enolase. Analysis of subretinal aspirates is an extremely accurate method of confirming the diagnosis of Coats' disease. The key diagnostic findings are the presence of cholesterol crystals and pigment-laden macrophages and the absence of tumor cells on fresh preparations. The technique should be reserved for patients where retinoblastoma has been ruled out by all noninvasive means and massive subretinal drainage is anticipated. The natural progression in advanced Coats' disease is toward the development of a blind, painful eye. Spontaneous regression does rarely occur, and some eyes quietly progress to a phthisical state.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 A FIGURE 34 B FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 A FIGURE 46 B FIGURE 47 A FIGURE 47 B FIGURE 48 A FIGURE 48 B FIGURE 49 FIGURE 50 FIGURE 51 FIGURE 52 FIGURE 54 FIGURE 54 (cont.) FIGURE 55 FIGURE 57 FIGURE 58 FIGURE 59 FIGURE 60 FIGURE 61 FIGURE 62 FIGURE 63 FIGURE 64 FIGURE 65 FIGURE 66 A FIGURE 66 B FIGURE 67 A FIGURE 67 B PMID:1808814
In this brief review, we discuss some of the properties of atomic and molecular negative ions and their excited states. Experiments involving photon reactions with negative ions and polar dissociation are summarized. 116 references, 14 figures.
Kucinskas, Vytolis; Paulauskaite, Alina
The article is intended to discuss the features, structure, functions and developmental peculiarities of organizational culture in private colleges. A summary and conclusions of empirical research into organizational culture in private colleges are presented. (Contains 6 tables and 14 figures.)
Asunka, Stephen; Chae, Hui Soo; Hughes, Brian; Natriello, Gary
Transaction logs of user activity on an academic library website were analyzed to determine general usage patterns on the website. This paper reports on insights gained from the analysis, and identifies and discusses issues relating to content access, interface design and general functionality of the website. (Contains 13 figures and 8 tables.)
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hemispherical Anvil and Curbstone Anvil 11, Figures 11, 12 and 13 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Figs. 11, 12, 13 Figures...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hemispherical Anvil and Curbstone Anvil 11, Figures 11, 12 and 13 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Figs. 11, 12, 13 Figures...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labels for Imported Mattress With Foundation 13 Figure 13 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 13...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hemispherical Anvil and Curbstone Anvil 11, Figures 11, 12 and 13 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Figs. 11, 12, 13 Figures...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hemispherical Anvil and Curbstone Anvil 11, Figures 11, 12 and 13 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Figs. 11, 12, 13 Figures...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hemispherical Anvil and Curbstone Anvil 11, Figures 11, 12 and 13 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Figs. 11, 12, 13 Figures...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Single Grid Hard TED Escape Opening 13 Figure 13 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Single Grid Hard TED Escape Opening 13 Figure 13 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Single Grid Hard TED Escape Opening 13 Figure 13 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Single Grid Hard TED Escape Opening 13 Figure 13 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES...
An easily accessible electrical connector capable of rapid assembly and disassembly is described wherein a wide metal conductor sheet may be evenly contacted over the entire width of the conductor sheet by opposing surfaces on the connector which provide an even clamping pressure against opposite surfaces of the metal conductor sheet using a single threaded actuating screw. 13 figures.
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labels for Imported Mattress With Foundation 13 Figure 13 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 13...
Fischer, Thomas; Kretschmer, Thomas
This deliverable identifies key approaches for quality management in peer production by benchmarking peer production practices and processes in other areas. (Contains 29 footnotes, 13 figures and 2 tables.)[This report has been authored with contributions of: Kaisa Honkonen-Ratinen, Matti Auvinen, David Riley, Jose Pinzon, Thomas Fischer, Thomas…
Gluck, P.; Krakower, Zeev
We present a unit comprising theory, simulation and experiment for a body oscillating on a vertical spring, in which the simultaneous use of a force probe and an ultrasonic range finder enables one to explore quantitatively and understand many aspects of simple and damped harmonic motions. (Contains 14 figures.)
Katz, J.L.; Chenghung Hung.
Ceramic oxide powders and a method for their preparation. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby two or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein said precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders are determined by process conditions. 14 figures.
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sablefish Regulatory Areas 14 Figure 14 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sablefish Regulatory Areas 14 Figure 14 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sablefish Regulatory Areas 14 Figure 14 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Label for Domestic Mattress Alone and with Foundation and Label for Imported Mattress Alone and With Foundation 14 Figures 14 and 15 to Part 1633... Domestic Mattress Alone and with Foundation and Label for Imported Mattress Alone and With...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Label for Domestic Mattress Alone and with Foundation and Label for Imported Mattress Alone and With Foundation 14 Figures 14 and 15 to Part 1633... Domestic Mattress Alone and with Foundation and Label for Imported Mattress Alone and With...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Label for Domestic Mattress Alone and with Foundation and Label for Imported Mattress Alone and With Foundation 14 Figures 14 and 15 to Part 1633... Domestic Mattress Alone and with Foundation and Label for Imported Mattress Alone and With...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Label for Domestic Mattress Alone and with Foundation and Label for Imported Mattress Alone and With Foundation 14 Figures 14 and 15 to Part 1633... Domestic Mattress Alone and with Foundation and Label for Imported Mattress Alone and With...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Label for Domestic Mattress Alone and with Foundation and Label for Imported Mattress Alone and With Foundation 14 Figures 14 and 15 to Part 1633... Domestic Mattress Alone and with Foundation and Label for Imported Mattress Alone and With...
Sutton-Spence, Rachel; Kaneko, Michiko
This paper considers the range of ways that sign languages use geometric symmetry temporally and spatially to create poetic effect. Poets use this symmetry in sign language art to highlight duality and thematic contrast, and to create symbolic representations of beauty, order and harmony. (Contains 8 tables, 14 figures and 6 notes.)
Arkansas State Dept. of Higher Education, Little Rock.
This document reports data on on-campus enrollment and student geographic origins in Arkansas higher education for Fall 1991 in 12 figures and 27 tables. Part I treats on-campus enrollment by institution (at public four-year colleges, public two-year institutions, and all independent institutions), student level (data for Fall 1987 through 1991),…
Arkansas State Dept. of Higher Education, Little Rock.
This document reports data on on-campus enrollment and student geographic origins in Arkansas higher education for Fall 1988 in 12 figures and 25 tables. Part I treats on-campus enrollment by institution (at public four-year colleges, public two-year institutions, and all independent institutions), student level (data for Fall 1984 through 1988),…
Arkansas State Dept. of Higher Education, Little Rock.
This document reports data on on-campus enrollment and student geographic origins in Arkansas higher education for Fall 1990 in 12 figures and 25 tables. Part I treats on-campus enrollment by institution (at public four-year colleges, public two-year institutions, and all independent institutions), student level (data for Fall 1986 through 1990),…
Arkansas State Dept. of Higher Education, Little Rock.
This document reports data on on-campus enrollment and student geographic origins in Arkansas higher education for Fall 1989 in 12 figures and 25 tables. Part I treats on-campus enrollment by institution (at public four-year colleges, public two-year institutions, and all independent institutions), student level (data for Fall 1980 through 1989),…
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labels for Domestic Mattress With Foundation 12 Figure 12 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 12...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area 12 Figure 12 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area 12 Figure 12 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area 12 Figure 12 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Escape Opening & Cover Dimensions for 71-inch TED 12 Figure 12 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE...
The principles and design choices for cyclotrons as mass spectrometers are described. They are illustrated by examples of cyclotrons developed by various groups for this purpose. The use of present high energy cyclotrons for mass spectrometry is also described. 28 references, 12 figures.
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labels for Domestic Mattress With Foundation 12 Figure 12 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 12...
Tousignant, J.; Côté, B.; Barolet, D.
Urticaria is often incapacitating, yet it is not always easy to know whether a patient should undergo testing and what treatment should be prescribed. This article provides a systematic approach to urticaria and its treatment. Images Figures 1-2 Figures 3-4 PMID:8435550
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Escape Opening & Cover Dimensions for 71-inch TED 12 Figure 12 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE...
Mass yields of the spontaneous fission of Fm isotopes, Cf isotopes, and /sup 259/Md are discussed. Actinide yields were measured for bombardments of /sup 248/Cm with /sup 16/O, /sup 18/O, /sup 20/Ne, and /sup 22/Ne. A superheavy product might be produced by bombarding /sup 248/Cm with /sup 48/Ca ions. 12 figures. (DLC)
Bernhardt, A.F.; Contolini, R.J.
In a process for fabricating planarized thin film metal interconnects for integrated circuit structures, a planarized metal layer is etched back to the underlying dielectric layer by electropolishing, ion milling or other procedure. Electropolishing reduces processing time from hours to minutes and allows batch processing of multiple wafers. The etched back planarized thin film interconnect is flush with the dielectric layer. 12 figures.
Fermat's principle is considered as a unifying concept. It is usually presented erroneously as a "least time principle". In this paper we present some software that shows cases of maxima and minima and the application of Fermat's principle to the problem of focusing in lenses. (Contains 12 figures.)
Liu, P.K.T.; Gallaher, G.R.; Wu, J.C.S.
A method is described for producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane including passing a selected hydrocarbon vapor through a ceramic membrane and controlling ceramic membrane exposure temperature and ceramic membrane exposure time. The method produces a carbon coated ceramic membrane of reduced pore size and modified surface properties having increased chemical, thermal and hydrothermal stability over an uncoated ceramic membrane. 12 figures.
Tuffery, A R
Morris dancing includes several distinct forms of vigorous traditional dance with about 5000 amateur participants in the UK and Ireland. Questionnaires were sent to over 500 registered morris sides. The response rate was 29 per cent with 129 acute injuries and 47 chronic injuries including one fatality. The commonest acute injuries were to ankle (33 per cent) and calf (22 per cent). The back was the commonest site of chronic injury, with a high contribution from occupational and other sources. Morris dancing is a relatively low-risk activity, but injuries could be prevented by improving the fitness of dancers and selecting safer surfaces to dance on. The severity of injuries could probably be reduced by seeking more and better treatment. Images Figures 1-3 Figures 1-3 Figures 1-3 PMID:2515914
Otitis media remains one of the least understood conditions seen by a family physician. More attention to follow up instead of widespread use of antibiotics and decongestant mixtures could improve family practice care of children with middle ear disorders. Greater selection in resorting to surgical management would be helpful. Unnecessary interference is unlikely to be of long-term benefit to either children or their families. ImagesFigures 1-3Figures 4-5 PMID:21221314
A general theory for the angular distribution of sequentially emitted particles and gamma rays is developed. Comparison with experimental data allows one to obtain information on the fragment spin and misalignment. Angular distributions of sequentially emitted gammas, alphas, and fission fragments are discussed in detail. It is shown that the experimental data are consistent with the thermal excitation of angular momentum-bearing modes. The anomaly of sequential fission suggests the presence of a prompt or direct fission component. 13 figures.
Kam, F.B.K.; Stallmann, F.W.
Further improvement in calculational procedures or a combination of calculations and measurements is necessary to attain 10 to 15% (1 sigma) accuracy for neutron exposure parameters (flux greater than 0.1 MeV, flux greater than 1.0 MeV, and dpa). The calculational modeling of power reactors should be benchmarked in an actual LWR plant to provide final uncertainty estimates for end-of-life predictions and limitations for plant operations. 26 references, 14 figures, 6 tables.
Elston, T C; Oster, G
The bacterial flagellar motor is driven by a flux of ions between the cytoplasm and the periplasmic lumen. Here we show how an electrostatic mechanism can convert this ion flux into a rotary torque. We demonstrate that, with reasonable parameters, the model can reproduce many of the experimental measurements. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 p720-a PMID:9251788
Yeung, E.S.; Taylor, J.A.
A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis. 14 figures.
Behrens, W.W.; Jerina, K.L.; Hahn, H.T.
Wear of short carbon-fiber-reinforced polyamide-imide and polyphenylene sulfide is described. Comparative data from thrust washer wear tests for both polymers are presented. Fiber orientation is shown to have a significant effect on wear rates. The wear mechanisms in both polymers are illustrated with optical and scanning electron micrographs. Wear is shown to be a nonlinear function of time and stress for both PPS and PAI. 15 references, 14 figures.
This presentation discusses current electric utility regulatory reform with a focus on the impacts of competition in the Midwest marketplace. Information and data are presented through 14 figures and 30 tables. Regulatory issues at the state and Federal levels are very briefly outlined, including reciprocity, unbundling, stranded cost recovery, and independent system operation. Graphical data on energy capacity by source, capacity additions, wholesale markets, electricity prices, and market development are also presented.
Robson, Wm. Lane M.; Leung, Alexander K.C.; Boag, Graham S.
The clinical and radiological presentations of 12 pediatric urological disorders are described. The described disorders include pyelonephritis, vesicoureteral reflux, ureteropelvic obstruction, ureterovesical obstruction, ectopic ureterocele, posterior urethral valves, multicystic dysplastic kidney, polycystic kidney disease, ectopic kidney, staghorn calculi, urethral diverticulum, and urethral meatal stenosis. ImagesFigure 1-2Figure 3Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6-7Figure 8-9Figure 10Figure 11-12 PMID:21229068
This flood hazard report describes the extent and severity of the flood potential along selected reaches of the Duck and Little Duck Rivers, and Grindstone Hollow, Hunt, Hickory Flat, and Wolf Creeks in the vicinity of Manchester, Tennessee. The report was prepared by TVA as a result of a request from the city of Manchester for TVA technical assistance in evaluating alternative solutions to local flood problems. 5 references, 12 figures, 12 tables.
This document summarizes work performed at participating sites on the immobilization of high-level wastes from the chemical reprocessing of reactor fuels. The plan is to develop waste form alternatives for each of the three DOE sites (SRP, ICPP, and Hanford). Progress is reported in the following areas: waste preparation; fixation in glass, concrete, tailored ceramics, and coated particles; process and equipment development; and final handling. 12 figures, 19 tables. (DLC)
Dittmer, D. K.; Teasell, R.
Prolonged bed rest and immobilization inevitably lead to complications. Such complications are much easier to prevent than to treat. Musculoskeletal complications include loss of muscle strength and endurance, contractures and soft tissue changes, disuse osteoporosis, and degenerative joint disease. Cardiovascular complications include an increased heart rate, decreased cardiac reserve, orthostatic hypotension, and venous thromboembolism. Images Figures 1-2 Figures 3-4 PMID:8324411
Calo, J.M.; Suubers, E.M.; Wojtowicz, M.; Lilly, W.
This project is concerned with the study of the nature and behavior of active sites in gasification of chars produced from synthesized model compounds, primarily of the phenol-formaldehyde family of resins. The current technical progress report presents further developments on resin synthesis and characterization and the design of a pyro-gasifier reactor for transient kinetic studies of the chars produced from the model compounds. 7 references, 12 figures, 2 tables.
McCallum, R.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.
A method for making an isotropic permanent magnet comprises atomizing a melt of a rare earth-transition metal alloy (e.g., an Nd--Fe--B alloy enriched in Nd and B) under conditions to produce protectively coated, rapidly solidified, generally spherical alloy particles. Wherein a majority of the particles are produced/size classified within a given size fraction (e.g., 5 to 40 microns diameter) exhibiting optimum as-atomized magnetic properties and subjecting the particles to concurrent elevated temperature and elevated isotropic pressure for a time effective to yield a densified, magnetically isotropic magnet compact having enhanced magnetic properties and mechanical properties. 13 figures.
Solares, G.; Zamenhof, R.G.
A detector assembly is disclosed for use in obtaining alpha-track autoradiographs, the detector assembly including a substantially boron-free substrate; a detector layer deposited on the substantially boron-free substrate, the detector layer being capable of recording alpha particle tracks and exhibiting evidence of the alpha tracks in response to being exposed to an etchant, the detector layer being less than about 2 microns thick; and a protective layer deposited on the detector layer, the protective layer being resistant to the etchant and having a thickness of about 0.5 to 1 microns. 13 figures.
Wellstood, F.C.; Kingston, J.J.; Clarke, J.
A microelectronic component comprising a crossover is provided comprising a substrate, a first high T[sub c] superconductor thin film, a second insulating thin film comprising SrTiO[sub 3]; and a third high T[sub c] superconducting film which has strips which crossover one or more areas of the first superconductor film. An in situ method for depositing all three films on a substrate is provided which does not require annealing steps and which can be opened to the atmosphere between depositions. 13 figures.
Dalmaz, G.; Godet, M.
A generalization of the hydrodynamic expression for Hertzian contacts is described and various methods for calculating the thickness of the oil film winter steady-state, isothermal conditions are given. This is important for engineering applications such as gears and bearings because these results are closer to real operating conditions. Theories of lubrication are discussed, and the mathematics involved are presented using approximately 30 equations and 13 figures. For lubricated, linear, elliptical or point Hertzian contacts it is demonstrated how to calculate the thickness of the oil film at the center of the contact for steady-state isothermal conditions.
The present talk has three parts: first, a discussion of current ideas about the physics of very high spin states; second, some comments about noncollective behavior up to the highest spins where it is known, approx. 40 h; and finally, a presentation of the newest method for studying collective behavior up to spins of 60 to 70 h. The intention is that the overview presented in the first part will be sufficiently broad to indicate the relationship of the noncollective and collective behavior discussed in the other parts, and to provide some understanding of the compromise in behavior that seems to occur at the very highest spins. 13 figures.
Apparatus and methods for detecting the permeation of hazardous or toxic chemicals through protective clothing are disclosed. The hazardous or toxic chemicals of interest do not possess the spectral characteristic of luminescence. The apparatus and methods utilize a spectrochemical modification technique to detect the luminescence quenching of an indicator compound which upon permeation of the chemical through the protective clothing, the indicator is exposed to the chemical, thus indicating chemical permeation. The invention also relates to the fabrication of protective clothing materials. 13 figures.
Some unusual and interesting structural geometries have been recognized on seismic lines recorded in the United Kingdom sector the southern Permian basin of the North Sea. They seem to be the result of diapirism at the northern edge of the (Upper Permian) Zechstein salt basin, and involve the preservation of a 75 km (47 mi) long prism of a younger Mesozoic sequence replaced elsewhere by the widespread Jurassic/Cretaceous late Kimmerian unconformity. It is suggested that the diapiric features described are due to the movement of salt toward the basin edge having been dammed by a change in facies from basinal halite to shelf lithologies over a short distance. 13 figures.
King, K.W.; Engdahl, E.R.
Earthquake data for the calendar year 1980 are presented for earthquakes occurring within and adjacent to the southern Nevada seismograph network. Locations, magnitudes, and selected focal mechanisms for these events and events from prior years of network operation are presented and discussed in relation to the geologic framework of the region. The principal results are that (1) earthquakes concentrate in fault zones having a northeast orientation, (2) fault zones having a northwest orientation are quiescent or nearly so, and (3) no earthquakes have been detected closer than 12 km to the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository study area. 12 references, 13 figures.
Wellstood, F.C.; Kingston, J.J.; Clarke, J.
A microelectronic component comprising a crossover is provided comprising a substrate, a first high T[sub c] superconductor thin film, a second insulating thin film comprising SrTiO[sub 3] ; and a third high T[sub c] superconducting film which has strips which crossover one or more areas of the first superconductor film. An in situ method for depositing all three films on a substrate is provided which does not require annealing steps. The photolithographic process is used to separately pattern the high T[sub c] superconductor thin films. 14 figures.
The presence of polychlorinated biphenyls and other chlorinated compounds in a sample is determined by treating the sample with a photo-activator and then exposing the treated sample to a UV light source. The UV light produces a photo-product complex, which is subsequently excited with UV light to cause luminescence of the complex. The luminescence is detected and characteristics of the luminescence spectra are used to determine the presence of chlorinated compounds and also the quantity of the chlorine in the compounds. 14 figures.
Liu, C.T.; Takeyama, Masao.
The specification discloses chromium-niobium alloys which exhibit improved mechanical properties at high temperatures in the range of 1250 C and improved room temperature ductility. The alloys contain a Cr[sub 2]Nb-rich intermetallic phase and a Cr-rich phase with an overall niobium concentration in the range of from about 5 to about 18 at. %. The high temperature strength is substantially greater than that of state of the art nickel-based superalloys for enhanced high temperature service. Further improvements in the properties of the compositions are obtained by alloying with rhenium and aluminum; and additional rare-earth and other elements. 14 figures.
Mahajan, Vivek; Gaymalov, Zagit; Alakhova, Daria; Gupta, Richa; Zucker, Irving H; Kabanov, Alexander V
The data contains 14 figures supporting the research article "Horizontal gene transfer from macrophages to ischemic muscles upon delivery of naked DNA with Pluronic block copolymers" . The data explains the surgical procedure and histological characterization of Murine Hind Limb Ischemia. The data also shows the kinetics of luciferase gene expression, spread of GFP expression through muscle and the colocalization of GFP with cellular markers in ischemic muscles injected with pDNA alone or pDNA/Pluronic. Finally the data shows the effect of Pluronic Block Copolymer to enhance total gene expression (cmv-promoter driven luciferase gene) in coculture of DNA transfected MØs with muscle cells. PMID:27222845
A wide range of phenomena is observed in heavy-ion collisions, calling for a comprehensive theory based on fundamental principles of many-particle quantum mechanics. At low energies, the nuclear dynamics is controlled by the mean field, as we know from spectroscopic nuclear physics. We therefore expect the comprehensive theory of collisions to contain mean-field theory at low energies. The mean-field theory is the subject of the first lectures in this chapter. This theory can be studied quantum mechanically, in which form it is called TDHF (time-dependent Hartree-Fock), or classically, where the equation is called the Vlasov equation. 25 references, 14 figures.
Porous semiconducting material, e.g. silicon, is formed by electrochemical treatment of a specimen in hydrofluoric acid, using the specimen as anode. Before the treatment, the specimen can be masked. The porous material is then etched with a caustic solution or is oxidized, depending of the kind of structure desired, e.g. a thinned specimen, a specimen, a patterned thinned specimen, a specimen with insulated electrical conduits, and so on. Thinned silicon specimen can be subjected to tests, such as measurement of interstitial oxygen by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). 14 figures.
Zheng, Y; Doerschuk, P C; Johnson, J E
The capsid is modeled as a region of constant electron density located between inner and outer envelopes that exhibit icosahedral symmetry. For computational purposes the envelopes are represented as truncated sums of weighted icosahedral harmonics. Methods are described for estimating the weights from x-ray solution scattering patterns based on nonlinear least squares, and two examples of the procedure, for viruses with known atomic-resolution structures, are given. Images FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 23 PMID:8527677
Spontaneous fission activities produced in the reactions of /sup 13/C, /sup 15/N, /sup 16/O, and /sup 18/O ions with /sup 248/Cm and /sup 249/Bk targets are reported; excitation functions and half-lives of element 104 isotopes are given. Reactions that led to the formation of /sup 259/Fm are discussed in detail. The principal features of the SuperHILAC on-line isotope separator and some of the anticipated applications are described. 14 figures, 2 tables. (RWR)
This paper presents aspects of current and recent work on the distribution of radium and plutonium near the surfaces of human bone and applications of the data. Included are sections on methods, surface deposit thickness, radium distribution near the endosteal surface, the use of alpha spectrometry in conjunction with autoradiography, radium distribution in the mastoid, and factors affecting plutonium specific activity. Emphasis is placed on the alpha spectrometry technique because of its usefulness and its recent application to problems of local dosimetry. 19 references, 14 figures, 6 tables.
Vanderlaan, M.; Watkins, B.E.; Stanker, L.H.
Monoclonal antibodies are described which have specific affinities for halogenated nucleoside analogs and are preferentially selective for one particular halogen. Such antibodies, when incorporated into immunochemical reagents, may be used to identify and independently quantify the cell division character of more than one population or subpopulation in flow cytometric measurements. Independent assessment of division activity in cell sub-populations facilitates selection of appropriate time and dose for administration of anti-proliferative agents. The hybridomas which secrete halogen selective antibodies and the method of making them are described. 14 figures.
The technique called prompt ..gamma..-ray neutron activation analysis has been applied to rapid materials analysis. The radiation following the neutron radiation capture is prompt in the sense that the nuclear decay time is on the order of 10/sup -15/ second, and thus the technique is not strictly activation, but should be called radiation neutron capture spectroscopy or neutron capture ..gamma..-ray spectroscopy. This paper reviews the following: sources and detectors, theory of radiative capture, nonstatistical capture, giant dipole resonance, fast neutron capture, and thermal neutron capture ..gamma..-ray spectra. 14 figures.
A new cylindrical drift chamber is being constructed for the Mark II detector for use at the new SLAC Linear Collider. The design of the new chamber is based on a multi-sense-wire cell of the jet-chamber type. In addition to drift-time measurements, pulse height measurements from the sense wires will provide electron-hadron separation by dE/dx. The design and construction of the chamber, tests of prototypes, and chamber electronics are discussed. 7 references, 12 figures.
Barker, C.E.; Eimerl, D.; Velsko, S.P.; Roberts, D.
Temperature-insensitive, phase-matched harmonic frequency conversion of laser light at a preferred wavelength of 1.064 microns can be achieved by use of a crystal of deuterated l-arginine phosphate. The crystal is cut and oriented so that the laser light propagates inside the crystal along one of several required directions, which correspond to a temperature-insensitive, phase-matching locus. The method of measuring and calculating the temperature-insensitive, phase-matching angles can be extended to other fundamental wavelengths and other crystal compositions. 12 figures.
Negm, Y.; Zimmerman, G.O.; Powers, R.E. Jr.; McConeghy, R.J.; Kaplan, A.
A composite lead is provided which electrically links and conducts a current between about 75-80K and liquid helium temperature of about 4.5K. The composite lead may be employed singly or in multiples concurrently to provide conduction of electrical current from normal conductors and semi-conductors at room temperature to superconductors operating at 4.5K. In addition, a variety of organizational arrangements and assemblies are provided by which the mechanical strength and electrical reliability of the composite lead is maintained. 12 figures.
Brody, J P; Yager, P; Goldstein, R E; Austin, R H
The shrinking of liquid handling systems to the micron and submicron size range entails moving into the area of small Reynolds numbers. The fluid dynamics in this regime are very different from the macroscale. We present an intuitive explanation of how the different physics of small Reynolds numbers flow, along with microscopic sizes, can influence device design, and give examples from our own work using fluid flow in microfabricated devices designed for biological processing. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 PMID:8968612
Larue, D.K.; Martinez, P.A.
Based on a combination of Walther's Law of Facies and bed-form climb theory, the authors propose a model that explains how erosion surfaces and vertical sequences of clastic strata are preserved where deposition occurs in channelized or locally erosional environments including fluvial and submarine-channel deposits, barred beaches, and transgressive coastlines. the model considers both lateral and vertical migration of a scour surface and its associated depositional products. As in studies of bed-form climb, they recognize subcritical, critical, and supercritical climb of scour surfaces relative to adjacent depositional forms. 12 figures.
Popescu-Marinescu, V.; Elain-Talau, L.; Papadopol, M.; Nicolescu, D.; Teodorescu, L.
Research on the effects of geothermal waters (both used and unused) on vertebrates and invertebrates made the water's toxico-lethal character obvious in waters with a normal concentration or diluted up to over 17%. Among the organisms used in the experiment, Daphnia magna (a cladoceran) and young carp (Cyprinus carpio) have proved to be more sensitive. Tubifex tubifex (an oligochaete) have proved to be more resistant. Taking in account the toxicity of geothermal waters with addition of a specific smell and taste contracted by the meat fish, their overflow into natural receivers is not recommended. 7 references, 12 figures.
Ginley, D.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Martens, J.S.
A transimpedance amplifier for use with high temperature superconducting, other superconducting, and conventional semiconductors allows for appropriate signal amplification and impedance matching to processing electronics. The amplifier incorporates the superconducting flux flow transistor into a differential amplifier configuration which allows for operation over a wide temperature range, and is characterized by high gain, relatively low noise, and response times less than 200 picoseconds over at least a 10-80 K. temperature range. The invention is particularly useful when a signal derived from either far-IR focal plane detectors or from Josephson junctions is to be processed by higher signal/higher impedance electronics, such as conventional semiconductor technology. 12 figures.
Burry, D.B.; Williams, P.M.
A system and method for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot permits exchange during a programmed task. The exchange mechanism is located off the robot, thus reducing the mass of the robot arm and permitting smaller robots to perform designated tasks. A simple spring/collet mechanism mounted on the robot is used which permits the engagement and disengagement of the tool or end effector without the need for a rotational orientation of the tool to the end effector/collet interface. As the tool changing system is not located on the robot arm no umbilical cords are located on robot. 12 figures.
Dill, D.; Jungen, C.
In 1964 Mulliken systematically extended the ideas of Rydberg states and quantum defects from atoms to molecules. The key point of that extension is stated in several sentences: In molecules...all that has just been stated for atomic Rydberg states finds a parallel if one considers any one fixed nuclear configuration... However the mode of variation of the MOs and their energies as one varies the nuclear configuration is a new feature of interest. A complication...is the fact that the interaction of the molecular rotation with the l vector of the Rydberg electron changes radically as n increases in a Rydberg series. Thereby Mulliken introduced the concept of the quantum-defect function, ..mu lambda..(R), depending on nuclear configuration R and orbital-momentum projection ..lambda.. along the molecular axis. This concept has emerged as central to the understanding of the interconversion of electronic and nuclear motion in molecular systems. 13 figures.
Koplow, M.D.; Searight, E.F.; Panora, R.
The TECOGEN Division of Thermo Electron Corporation has developed a nominal 150 ton engine driven chiller system under the sponsorship of the Gas Research Institute. The system incorporates an engine directly driving a screw compressor to produce about 130 tons of cooling capacity and a single effect absorption chiller driven by hot water recovered from engine heat to produce another 30 tons of cooling capacity. An economic analysis shows that it will be possible to recover the cost premium of engine driven chiller systems in most US cities in 3 years or less with the O and M savings of these systems when this cost premium is $30 per ton. 4 references, 13 figures, 5 tables.
The paradoxical record of striped bass distribution and abundance, including population declines in coastal waters and variable success of freshwater introductions, is analyzed for consistency with a thermal niche-dissolved oxygen-squeeze hypothesis. A commonality among diverse field and laboratory observations supports a genetic-based thermal niche for the species that changes to lower temperatures as fish age. This shift can cause local conditions, especially warm surface strata and deoxygenated deep water, to be incompatible with the success of large fish. Crowding due to temperature preferences and avoidance of low oxygen concentrations can lead to pathological symptoms and over fishing, which may contribute to population declines. Through a mixture of evidence and conjecture, the thermal niche-dissolved oxygen hypothesis is proposed as a unified perspective of the habitat requirements of the species that can aid in its study and management. 141 references, 13 figures.
Hoots, S.; Wadsworth, D.
The radiation-measurement team of the Weapons Engineering Division at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) measured neutron and gamma dose and spectra on the Little Boy replica at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in April 1983. This assembly is a replica of the gun-type atomic bomb exploded over Hiroshima in 1945. These measurements support the National Academy of Sciences Program to reassess the radiation doses due to atomic bomb explosions in Japan. Specifically, the following types of information were important: neutron spectra as a function of geometry, gamma to neutron dose ratios out to 1.5 km, and neutron attenuation in the atmosphere. We measured neutron and gamma dose/fission from close-in to a kilometer out, and neutron and gamma spectra at 90 and 30/sup 0/ close-in. This paper describes these measurements and the results. 12 references, 13 figures, 5 tables.
Lee, K.H.; Xie, G.Q.
A method is described for imaging with low frequency electromagnetic fields, and for interpreting the electromagnetic data using ray tomography, in order to determine the earth conductivity with high accuracy and resolution. The imaging method includes the steps of placing one or more transmitters, at various positions in a plurality of transmitter holes, and placing a plurality of receivers in a plurality of receiver holes. The transmitters generate electromagnetic signals which diffuse through a medium, such as earth, toward the receivers. The measured diffusion field data H is then transformed into wavefield data U. The travel times corresponding to the wavefield data U, are then obtained, by charting the wavefield data U, using a different regularization parameter [alpha] for each transform. The desired property of the medium, such as conductivity, is then derived from the velocity, which in turn is constructed from the wavefield data U using ray tomography. 13 figures.
Hazelton, R.F.; Lundgren, R.A.; Allen, R.P.
The study discussed in this report was a cost/benefit analysis to determine: (1) whether explosive cutting is cost effective in comparison with alternative metal sectioning methods and (2) whether explosive cutting would reduce radiation exposure or provide other benefits. Two separate approaches were pursued. The first was to qualitatively assess cutting methods and factors involved in typical sectioning cases and then compare the results for the cutting methods. The second was to prepare estimates of work schedules and potential radiation exposures for candidate sectioning methods for two hypothetical, but typical, sectioning tasks. The analysis shows that explosive cutting would be cost effective and would also reduce radiation exposure when used for typical nuclear facility sectioning tasks. These results indicate that explosive cutting should be one of the principal cutting methods considered whenever steel or similar metal structures or equipment in a nuclear facility are to be sectioned for repair or decommissioning. 13 figures, 7 tables. (DLC)
Methods and models used to estimate the radiation doses to a returning population of the atolls in the Marshall Islands are presented. In this environment natural processes have acted on source-term radionuclides for nearly 30 years. The data bases developed for the models, and the results of the radiological dose analyses at the various atolls are described. The major radionuclides in order of their contribution to the total estimated doses were /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, /sup 241/Am, and /sup 60/Co. Exposure pathways in order of their contribution to the estimated doses were: terrestrial food chain, external ..gamma.., marine food chain, inhalation, and cistern water and ground water. 56 references, 13 figures, 16 tables.
Bionta, R.M.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Skulina, K.M.
A process is disclosed for fabricating high efficiency x-ray lenses that operate in the 0.5-4.0 keV region suitable for use in biological imaging, surface science, and x-ray lithography of integrated circuits. The gradient index x-ray optics fabrication process broadly involves co-sputtering multi-layers of film on a wire, followed by slicing and mounting on block, and then ion beam thinning to a thickness determined by periodic testing for efficiency. The process enables the fabrication of transmissive gradient index x-ray optics for the 0.5-4.0 keV energy range. This process allows the fabrication of optical elements for the next generation of imaging and x-ray lithography instruments in the soft x-ray region. 13 figures.
Oliver, R.L.; Youngberg, A.D.
Hundreds of mineralogic and geochemical tests were done under US Department of Energy contracts on core samples taken from the Hanna underground coal gasification site. These tests included x-ray diffraction studies of minerals in coal ash, overburden rocks, and heat-altered rocks; x-ray fluorescence analyses of oxides in coal ash and heat-altered rocks; semi-quantitative spectrographic analyses of elements in coal, overburden, and heat-altered rocks; chemical analyses of elements and compounds in coal, overburden, and heat-altered rocks and ASTM proximate and ultimate analyses of coal and heat-altered coal. These data sets were grouped, averaged, and analyzed to provide preburn and postburn mineralogic and geochemical characteristics of rock units at the site. Where possible, the changes in characteristics from the preburn to the postburn state are related to underground coal gasification processes. 11 references, 13 figures, 8 tables.
To compare the measured and theoretical gravity anomaly of a typical coral-reef oil field, data were collected from the wilfred Pool, Sullivan County, Indiana. Densities of available core samples from the field were determined and the anomaly was calculated, taking into account the lateral and vertical variation of density and the geologic structure known from core studies and drilling-log records of lithologic types penetrated by the wells. Comparison of the theoretical and actual anomalies indicated a rough correspondence except for several sharp negative anomalies on the flanks of the measured gravity anomaly. Further studies indicated that the negative anomalies are possibly due to fluvial erosion that produced, on the surface of the youngest Pennsylvanian sediments, channels which were later filled with glacial till of lower density than the sediments. 13 figures.
Droz, L.; Mougenot, D.
The upper Mozambique Fan includes a stable down-stream region, with a north-south channel flanked by thick (1.5 sec two-way traveltime) asymmetric levees, and a migrating upstream region where at least two main feeding paths have been successively dominant. From the Oligocene to early Miocene, the north-south Serpa Pinto Valley acted as the main conduit for the north Mozambique terrigenous sediments. From the middle Miocene, the west-east Zambezi Valley became the dominant path and supplied the fan with sediments transported by the Zambezi River from the central part of Mozanbique. The transfer from one sediment-feeding system to the other is related to the abandonment of the Serpa Pinto Valley because of graben formation along the Davie Ridge, which trapped the sediments, and the increase of the Zambezi River sediment supply because of the creation and erosion of the East African Rift. 13 figures.
A detailed process description is provided for producing integral spiral fins on the outside surface of Zircaloy nuclear fuel cladding tubes by masking with pressure sensitive tape strips and then chemical milling (pickling) the tube wall between the tape strips to leave the fins in relief. Fins up to 0.020 inch high by 0.05 to 0.12 inch wide were consistently produced on tubes having wall thickness of 0.008 inch or greater after fin pickling. Wall thickness uniformity was excellent. Information is provided on tube surface preparation to maximize tape mask adhesion time during pickling, acid chemistry control to prevent local tube wall thinning near the fin, and pickling techniques to promote uniform material removal. Simple fixture designs are described for quickly and conveniently applying the tape strips to the tube wall in an accurate spiral. 13 figures, 4 tables.
A spatially variable coronal expansion, when coupled with solar rotation, leads to the formation of high speed solar wind streams which evolve considerably with increasing heliocentric distance. Initially the streams steepen for simple kinematic reasons, but this steepening is resisted by pressure forces, leading eventually to the formation of forward-reverse shock pairs in the distant heliosphere. The basic physical processes responsible for stream steepening an evolution are explored and model calculations are compared with actual spacecraft observations of the process. The solar wind stream evolution problem is relatively well understood both observationally and theoretically. Tools developed in achieving this understanding should be applicable to other astrophysical systems where a spatially or temporally variable outflow is associated with a rotating object. 27 references, 13 figures.
The thread gauge permits the user to determine the pitch diameter of tapered threads at the intersection of the pitch cone and the end face of the object being measured. A pair of opposed anvils having lines of threads which match the configuration and taper of the threads on the part being measured are brought into meshing engagement with the threads on opposite sides of the part. The anvils are located linearly into their proper positions by stop fingers on the anvils that are brought into abutting engagement with the end face of the part. This places predetermined reference points of the pitch cone of the thread anvils in registration with corresponding points on the end face of the part being measured, resulting in an accurate determination of the pitch diameter at that location. The thread anvils can be arranged for measuring either internal or external threads. 13 figures.
Dabrowski, B.; Vaughey, J.T.; Poeppelmeier, K.R.
A high temperature superconducting material with the general formula GaSr[sub 2]Ln[sub 1[minus]x]M[sub x]Cu[sub 2]O[sub 7[+-]w] wherein Ln is selected from the group consisting of La, Ce, Pt, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Y and M is selected from the group consisting of C and Sr, 0.2[<=]x[<=]0.4 and w is a small fraction of one. A method of preparing this high temperature superconducting material is provided which includes heating and cooling a mixture to produce a crystalline material which is subsequently fired, ground and annealed at high pressure and temperature in oxygen to establish superconductivity. 14 figures.
Gunnink, R.; Prindle, A.L.; Asakura, Y.; Masui, J.; Ishiguro, N.; Kawasaki, A.; Kataoka, S.
This report describes a computer-based gamma spectrometer system that was developed for measuring isotopic and total plutonium concentrations in nitric acid solutions. The system was installed at the Tokai reprocessing plant where it is undergoing testing and evaluation as part of the Tokai Advanced Safeguards Exercise (TASTEX). Objectives of TASTEX Task H, High-Resolution Gamma Spectrometer for Plutonium Isotopic Analysis, the methods and equipment used, the installation and calibration of the system, and the measurements obtained from several reprocessing campaigns are discussed and described. In general, we find that measurements for gamma spectroscopy agree well with those of mass spectrometry and of other chemical analysis. The system measures both freshly processed plutonium from the product accountability tank and aged plutonium solutions from storage tanks. 14 figures, 15 tables.
Christensen, J J; Izatt, R M
The H/sub 2/O-CHCl/sub 3/-H/sub 2/O liquid membrane system was characterized with respect to the effect on cation (K/sup +/) transport rate of salt concentration and anion type. A bulk liquid membrane cell was used. A mathematical model for cation flux is being developed for several cations, several macrocycles, and mixtures of two or three cations. Eu/sup 3 +/ was not transported by 18-crown-6, but its reduced from Eu/sup 2 +/ was. Cation transport properties of calixarenes are also being investigated. Emulsion membrane systems were studied as a way of increasing the cation transport. Pb/sup 2 +/ was found to be transported by dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 through the liquid membrane. Transport rates of metal cation nitrates were measured in a water-toluene-water emulsion membrane system. 14 figures, 7 tables. (DLC)
Chavez, R.V.; Ekeroth, D.E.; Johnson, F.T.; Matusz, J.M.
Elongated coolant pumps suspended under steam generators within containment in a power plant with limited access space, are removed and replaced by an elongated maintenance cart with an elongated opening along one side in which the motor is received. Rollers support the cart for conveying the elongated motor in an upright position out from under the steam generator and onto an elevator. The elevator is lowered to transfer support of the cart and motor through trunnions to saddles straddling the elevator for rotation of the cart to a generally horizontal position. The elevator then raises the horizontally disposed cart carrying the motor to a higher floor where it is rolled off the elevator and out through the auxiliary equipment hatch. 14 figures.
Shurr, G.W.; Anna, L.O.; Peterson, J.A.
The Zuni sequence in the Williston basin is a largescale lithogenetic package bounded by interregional unconformities. Within the sequence, three major subdivisions are separated by unconformities or marker beds and correspond with chronostratigraphic units: (1) Middle and Upper Jurassic, (2) Lower Cretaceous, and (3) Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene. The basin has clear expression in the Jurassic subdivision, poor expression in the Lower Cretaceous, and good expression in the Upper Cretaceous. A series of seven marginal paleotectonic elements surround the basin center on the west, south, and east in the US. Five more marginal elements have been described in Canada. Occurrences of oil in the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous and of natural gas in the Upper Cretaceous are broadly related to the pattern of marginal paleotectonic elements. 14 figures, 1 table.
All known information sources, ranging from newspaper reports to the University of Chicago (DAPPL) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA/NSSFC) data lists, were utilized to produce a self-consistent compilation and description of violent tornado occurrences in the contiguous United States for the years 1880 through 1982. The 969 F-scale 4 and 5 tornadoes comprise the most complete and rational data base available for studies elated to violent tornado risk assessment; the data provide improved bases for licensing decisions and development of standards in safety at nuclear facility sites. Reconciliation of the DAPPL and NSSFC data lists for violent tornadoes has been achieved. Analysis of the data shows geographical and temporal variability of tornado occurrences; suggestions are given to help account for nonuniform distributions, and other suggestions are made for needed future research. 32 references, 14 figures, 8 tables.
Distribution and abundance of 215 amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals were monitored for 10 years on Utah's Oil Shale Tracts using line transects, mist netting, and live trapping. Wildlife monitoring was conducted in four major vegetation types and during all seasons to establish a quantitative baseline for use in impact identification during oil shale mining. Habitat preferences were established for many species in cold desert vegetation of two types of desert shrub, and juniper and riparian woodlands. Seasonal, annual, and habitat distribution of each class demonstrated a variety of adaptive responses to environmental variables. The most important environmental variables, that is, those factors resulting in a predictable change in wildlife populations, were, in descending order: weather, food resource, shelter, and competition. 31 references, 14 figures, 10 tables.
As a prolific producer of hydrocarbons, the San Joaquin basin in south-central California has been the subject of geological research since the late nineteenth century. Much of this research has focused on the subsurface Eocene to lower Miocene succession because of its attractive reservoir potential. Although seismic and well-log data are available in profuse quantities, the complex sedimentary architecture of the basin fill, the application of local and inconsistent stratigraphic nomenclature, and the inherent limitations of subsurface data have led to much confusion concerning the middle Cenozoic history of the basin. This paper presents a sedimentological analysis of the depositional systems in the Eocene to lower Miocene strata of the San Emigdio and Tehachapi Mountains. The various depositional systems are considered within the contexts of encompassing depositional sequences to reconstruct the middle Cenozoic depositional, tectonic, and sea level history of the southern San Joaquin basin. 14 figures, 1 table.
Dubi, A.; Gerstl, S.A.W.
Recently, a new Monte Carlo Method called the Contribution Monte Carlo Method was developed. The method is based on the theory of contributions, and uses a new receipe for estimating target responses by a volume integral over the contribution current. The analog features of the new method were discussed in previous publications. The application of some biasing methods to the new contribution scheme is examined here. A theoretical model is developed that enables an analytic prediction of the benefit to be expected when these biasing schemes are applied to both the contribution method and regular Monte Carlo. This model is verified by a variety of numerical experiments and is shown to yield satisfying results, especially for deep-penetration problems. Other considerations regarding the efficient use of the new method are also discussed, and remarks are made as to the application of other biasing methods. 14 figures, 1 tables.
A method is described for a systematic method of interpreting interference fringes obtained by using a corner cube retroreflector as an alignment aid when aligning a paraboloid to a spherical wavefront. This is applicable to any general case where such alignment is required, but is specifically applicable in the case of aligning an autocollimating test using a diverging beam wavefront. In addition, the method provides information which can be systematically interpreted such that independent information about pitch, yaw and focus errors can be obtained. Thus, the system lends itself readily to automation. Finally, although the method is developed specifically for paraboloids, it can be seen to be applicable to a variety of other aspheric optics when applied in combination with a wavefront corrector that produces a wavefront which, when reflected from the correctly aligned aspheric surface will produce a collimated wavefront like that obtained from the paraboloid when it is correctly aligned to a spherical wavefront. 14 figures.
Mahajan, Vivek; Gaymalov, Zagit; Alakhova, Daria; Gupta, Richa; Zucker, Irving H.; Kabanov, Alexander V.
The data contains 14 figures supporting the research article “Horizontal gene transfer from macrophages to ischemic muscles upon delivery of naked DNA with Pluronic block copolymers” . The data explains the surgical procedure and histological characterization of Murine Hind Limb Ischemia. The data also shows the kinetics of luciferase gene expression, spread of GFP expression through muscle and the colocalization of GFP with cellular markers in ischemic muscles injected with pDNA alone or pDNA/Pluronic. Finally the data shows the effect of Pluronic Block Copolymer to enhance total gene expression (cmv-promoter driven luciferase gene) in coculture of DNA transfected MØs with muscle cells. PMID:27222845
Jenness, B.L.; Rosendahl, S.M.; Gamble, R.L.
The authors report on progress to date of the atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) boiler retrofit at the Black Dog Unit 2 plant of the Northern States Power Company. Construction began in September 1984 after the completion of technical and economic feasibility studies, and initial operation is scheduled for the second quarter of 1986. The project features the largest AFBC boiler to date, a 40 MW capacity regain/upgrade, and 25-year extension of unit life, low leakage regenerative air preheater design, electrostatic precipitator performance improvement, alternate fuel co-firing capacity, and reduced emission on a per MW basis. The authors describe the management and engineering developments associated with the project. 12 figures, 4 tables.
SRC-water slurries exhibit properties that qualify them for use as fuel in conventional oil-fired combustion facilities. However, to date, the slurries tested have shown storage instability, which requires constant agitation and recirculation to avoid sedimentation in the storage tanks. High viscosities of the material being evaluated hampered the test performance. A program was instituted to better understand the variables responsible for viscosity and static stability of these slurries. Effective additives and concentrations were determined. This report presents laboratory data demonstrating that solid concentration, particle size distribution, additive concentration, and slurry preparation technique influence the viscosity and stability characteristics of an SRC-water slurry. 7 references, 12 figures, 11 tables.
The fast pyrolysis of coal produces tar, char and a range of low molecular weight gases in various proportions and amounts depending on the pyrolysis conditions (temperature, pressure) and the coal being pyrolyzed. Much research effort has been devoted to study of the reaction kinetics and effect of process variables, attempting thereby to elucidate the pyrolysis mechanism. Less effort has been focused on coal chemical structure and its relationship to the pyrolysis reactions and pyrolysis products. It was to attempt to better understand coal structure and its influence on pyrolysis products and pyrolysis mechanisms that this project was undertaken. This paper reports only on that portion of the work concerned with the aliphatic hydrocarbon products and particularly the light olefins. (7 tables, 12 figures, 16 refs.)
The SPAR space power system design is based on a high temperature fast spectrum nuclear reactor that furnishes heat to a thermoelectric conversion system to generate an electrical power output of 100 kW/sub (e)/. An important feature of this design is the use of alkali metal heat pipes to provide redundant, reliable, and low-loss heat transfer at high temperature. Three sets of heat pipes are used in the system. These include sodium/molybdenum heat pipes to transfer heat from the reactor core to the conversion system, potassium/niobium heat pipes to couple the conversion system to the radiator in a redundant manner, and potassium/titanium heat pipes to distribute rejected heat throughout the radiator surface. The designs of these units are discussed and fabrication methods and testing results are described. 12 figures.
McKnight, R.K.; Rosenberry, C.E.; Orcutt, J.A.
This report describes radiological survey, decontamination and decommissioning of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Area 25 facilities and land areas incorporated in the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS). Buildings, facilities and support systems used after 1959 for nuclear reactor and engine testing were surveyed for the presence of radioactive contamination. The cleanup was part of the Surplus Facilities Management Program funded by the Department of Energy's Richland Operations Office. The radiological survey portion of the project encompassed portable instrument surveys and removable contamination surveys (swipe) for alpha and beta plus gamma radiation contamination of facilities, equipment and land areas. Soil sampling was also accomplished. The majority of Area 25 facilities and land areas have been returned to unrestricted use. Remaining radiologically contaminated areas are posted with warning signs and barricades. 12 figures.
Brodner, A.J.; Bistline, J.E.; Weber, S.E.
The hydraulics and the mass-transfer behavior of a five-tray, single-bubble-cap, single-downcomer, gas-liquid contactor were studied for use as a gas scrubber. Flooding was not observed at the maximum available liquid and gas flow rates of 0.32 and 464 L/min, respectively. The maximum liquid entrainment was 33% at a gross liquid flow rate of 0.05 L/min. The Murphree-tray efficiencies for absorption of CO/sub 2/ (5000 ppM in air) into demineralized water ranged from 0.14 to 0.74 for volumetric liquid-to-gas ratios of 4 x 10/sup -4/ and 2 x 10/sup -4/, respectively, for k/sub L/a values ranging from 0.088 to 0.36 min/sup -1/. 12 figures, 10 tables.
A survey of the nasal mites from Guatemalan cloud forest birds is reported. Seventy-eight birds, representing 10 families and 18 species, were examined. Prevalence of infection was 24%. Two new species are described: Sternostoma darlingi from Mitrephanes phaeocercus (Tyrannidae) and S. pencei from Empidonax flavescens (Tyrannidae). New host records are reported for S. priangae from Chlorospingus opthalmicus (Thraupidae), S. hutsoni from Catharus dryas (Turdidae), Ptilonyssus sairae from Chlorospingus opthalmicus (Thraupidae), and Myioborus miniatus (Parulidae), P. euroturdi from Catharus dryas (Turdidae), P. tyrannus from Empidonax flavescens and Mitrephanes phaeocercus (both Tyannidae), and Tinaminyssus ixoreus from Catharus dryas (Turdidae). The subspecies Ptilonyssus euroturdi mimicola Fain and Hyland is synonymized with the nominate subspecies. Data are presented to suggest that the Rhinonyssidae may be a polyphyletic assemblage. 35 references, 12 figures, 1 table.
Baer, William H.
In 1983, the Nez Perce National Forest and the Bonneville Power Administration entered into an interagency agreement to enhance and improve habitat for two anadromous fish species, spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawyscha) and summer steelhead trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss), in the South Fork Clearwater River tributaries. The South Fork Clearwater River was dammed in 1927 for hydroelectric development. Anadromous fish runs were virtually eliminated until the dam was removed in 1962. To complicate the problem, upstream spawning and rearing habitats were severely impacted by dredge and hydraulic mining, road building, timber harvest, and over-grazing. Fish habitat improvement projects under the above contract are being carried out in two major tributaries to the South Fork Clearwater River. Both the Red River and the Crooked River projects began in 1983 and will be completed in 1990. 12 figures., 1 tab.
Striped bass Morone saxatilis has a paradoxical record of distribution and abundance, including population declines in coastal waters and variable success of freshwater introductions. This record is analyzed for consistency with a hypothesis that striped bass are squeezed between their thermal and dissolved oxygen preferences or requirements. A commonality among diverse field and laboratory observations supports an inherent thermal niche for the species that changes to lower temperatures as fish age. This shift can cause local conditions, especially warm surface strata and deoxygenated deep water, to be incompatible with the success of large fish. Crowding due to temperature preferences alone or coupled with avoidance of low oxygen concentrations can lead to pathology and overfishing, which may contribute to population declines. Through a mixture of evidence and conjecture, the thermal niche-dissolved oxygen hypothesis is proposed as a unified perspective of the habitat requirements of the species that can aid in its study and management. 139 references, 12 figures.
Iman, R.L.; Davenport, J.M.
A method for inducing a desired rank correlation matrix on multivariate input vectors for simulation studies has recently been developed by Iman and Conover (SAND 80-0157). The primary intention of this procedure is to produce correlated input variables for use with computer models. Since this procedure is distribution free and allows the exact marginal distributions to remain intact, it can be used with any marginal distributions for which it is reasonable to think in terms of correlation. A series of rank correlation plots based on this procedure when the marginal distributions are normal, lognormal, uniform, and loguniform is presented. These plots provide a convenient tool for both aiding the modeler in determining the degree of dependence among variables (rather than guessing) and communicating with the modeler the effect of different correlation assumptions. 12 figures, 10 tables.
Elmer, J.W.; Teruya, A.T.; O'Brien, D.W.
A tomographic technique is disclosed for measuring the current density distribution in electron beams using electron beam profile data acquired from a modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power beams. The modified Faraday cup includes a narrow slit and is rotated by a stepper motor and can be moved in the x, y and z directions. The beam is swept across the slit perpendicular thereto and controlled by deflection coils, and the slit rotated such that waveforms are taken every few degrees form 0[degree] to 360[degree] and the waveforms are recorded by a digitizing storage oscilloscope. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional images of the current density distribution in the beam can be reconstructed by computer tomography from this information, providing quantitative information about the beam focus and alignment. 12 figures.
Lemming, J.F.; Rakel, D.A.
Purpose of this guide is to assist those responsible for plutonium isotopic measurements in the application of gamma-ray spectrometry. Objectives are to promote an understanding of the measurement process, including its limitations and applicability, by reviewing the general features of a plutonium spectrum and identifying the quantities which must be extracted from the data; to introduce state-of-the-art analysis techniques by reviewing four isotopic analysis packages and identifying their differences; to establish the basis for measurement control and assurance by discussing means of authenticating the performance of a measurement system; and to prepare for some specific problems encountered in plutonium isotopic analyses by providing solutions from the practical experiences of several laboratories. 29 references, 12 figures, 17 tables.
The use of organic Rankine cycles (ORC) for the recovery and conversion of low-temperature waste heat has received considerable attention during recent years. The number of demonstration systems developed and put into service is small, and only a fraction of the possible energy-conserving benefits of the concept have been realized to date. This situation is due partly to the fact that energy costs have only recently risen to the point where such units provide acceptable return on investment. A second contributing factor may be that the design of ORC equipment has not yet responded to the special needs of the dominant market for ORC systems. 2 references, 12 figures, 5 tables.
Neutron scattering experiments have shown that both the (H3-H4)/sub 2/ and H2a-H2b histone complexes are quite asymmetric in solution. The (H3-H4)/sub 2/ tetramer is an oblate or flattened structure, with a radius of gyration almost as large as that of the core octamer. If the tetramer is primarily globular, it must have an axial ratio of about 1:5. It is more likely, however, that this asymmetry results in part from N-terminal arms that extend outward approximately within the major plane of the particle. If this is the case, less asymmetric models for the globular part of the tetramer, including a dislocated disk, can be made consistent with the scattering data. The H2a-H2b dimer, on the other hand, is an elongated structure. 48 references, 12 figures, 1 table.
A regional model that can predict groundwater movement through the reference repository location and surrounding area is essential to assessing the site suitability for a nuclear waste repository. During the last two decades, several models have been developed to handle complicated flow patterns through complex geologic materials. The basic problem, however, is obtaining the data base needed to apply these models. The hydrological data needed include the spatial distribution of effective porosity, the hydraulic conductivity tensor and its variation in space, values of specific storage, the hydraulic head distribution, and the fluid properties. In this report, we discuss conventional methods of obtaining vertical hydraulic conductivity and examine their applicability to the BWIP site. 39 references, 12 figures, 4 tables.
Pollack, H.N.; Christensen, D.H.
Earthquake activity in the western Ohio-Indiana region is monitored with a precision seismograph network which consists of nine stations located in west central Ohio and four stations sited in Indiana. Five local and near regional earthquakes have been recorded during this report period. Three events were located outside the array, near the cities of Kalamazoo, Michigan, Cleveland, Ohio and Cincinnati, Ohio. Two events occurred in the center of the Ohio array. A focal mechanism was calculated for the larger of these two events. This focal mechanism shows mainly strike slip motion on steeply dipping nodal planes, striking at N35/sup 0/-45/sup 0/E and N50/sup 0/-70/sup 0/W. Both of these planes correspond to local structures. 7 references, 12 figures, 6 tables.
Challberg, R.C.; Kobsa, I.R.
A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof. 12 figures.
Clare, V.; Ashman, W.; Broome, P.; Jameson, J.; Lewis, J.; Merkler, J.; Mickiewicz, A.; Sacco, W.; Sturdivan, L.
Wound ballistics assessments traditionally have been based on correlations between some quantification of “ballistic dose” and an empirical/subjective medical quantification of human functional degradation. Although complicated by the highly inhomogeneous nature of the human body and by the voluminous data handling requirements these correlation values were obtained by manual methods. The procedure required a substantial commitment of time and resources, thereby restricting the data base from which incapacitation evaluations were made. The obvious advantages of automated wound ballistics analyses have been realized in the ARRADCOM Computer Man System, capable of duplicating the results of the manual system while reducing the time required for each analysis from three months to less than one day. The versatility of the system also makes it readily adaptable to other ballistic, medical, and paramedical assessment tasks. ImagesFIGURE 1FIGURE 2FIGURE 3FIGURE 4FIGURE 5FIGURE 6FIGURE 7FIGURE 8FIGURE 9FIGURE 10FIGURE 11FIGURE 12FIGURE 13
Rest, J.; Zawadski, S.A.; Piasecka, M.
The theoretical FASTGRASS model for the prediction of the behavior of the gaseous and volatile fission products in nuclear fuels under normal and transient conditions has undergone substantial improvements. The major improvements have been in the atomistic and bubble diffusive flow models, in the models for the behavior of gas bubbles on grain surfaces, and in the models for the behavior of the volatile fission products iodine and cesium. The thoery has received extensive verification over a wide range of fuel operating conditions, and can be regarded as a state-of-the-art model based on our current level of understanding of fission product behavior. PARAGRASS is an extremely efficient, mechanistic computer code with the capability of modeling steady-state and transient fission-product behavior. The models in PARAGRASS are based on the more detailed ones in FASTGRASS. PARAGRASS updates for the FRAPCON (PNL), FRAP-T (INEL), and SCDAP (INEL) codes have recently been completed and implemented. Results from an extensive FASTGRASS verification are presented and discussed for steady-state and transient conditions. In addition, FASTGRASS predictions for fission product release rate constants are compared with those in NUREG-0772. 21 references, 13 figures.
Tsukada, T.; McNutt, M. A.; Ross, R.; Gown, A. M.
Monoclonal antibody HHF35 has previously been characterized biochemically as recognizing isotypes of actin (alpha and gamma) which are specific to muscle cells. In this study, the authors have investigated the normal and pathologic tissue distribution of HHF35-positive cells using the avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase method on methacarn-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of human tissue. In addition to muscle tissues (smooth, skeletal, and cardiac) the antibody localizes to myoepithelium, as well as most of the capsular cells of several parenchymal organs, including liver, kidney, and spleen, with extension of the latter cells into the splenic trabeculaes. In pathologic tissues, the antibody localizes to cells, identified by some investigators as "myofibroblasts," in the stroma of certain tumors, within hyperplastic fibrous tissue responses ("fibromatoses") such as Dupuytren's contracture, and within fibrotic lung tissue. HHF35 also localizes to cells that proliferate within the intima in lesions of atherosclerosis and to a unique population of reactive mesothelial and submesothelial cells. Among tumors, it is positive only on leiomyomas, leiomyosarcomas, and rhabdomyosarcomas, and negative on all nonmuscle sarcomas. This antibody thus shows great potential utility as a diagnostic reagent in various pathologic conditions, most especially in the diagnosis of tumors of muscle origin. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 p392-a Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 p397-a p398-a Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:3555106
Olsen, K.B.; Thomas, V.W.
Field investigations and a literature review were conducted to determine whether existing well-logging techniques are suitable for measuring /sup 226/Ra at remedial action sites. These methods include passive gamma-ray measurement techniques using NaI(Tl) and, occasionally, intrinsic germanium detectors. Parameters that must be considered when logging boreholes at remedial action sites include: (1) casing material and thickness, (2) water in the borehole, (3) borehole diameter, (4) disequilibrium between uranium and its daughters when using scintillation detectors, and (5) spatial distribution of the tailings material. Information from the uranium exploration industry demonstrates that borehole logging is a better method for estimating radionuclide concentrations in subsurface soils than core and drill cutting analysis. Field measurements using NaI(Tl) and IG detectors at Edgemont, South Dakota, have shown that NaI(Tl) detectors log boreholes faster than IGs. However, if NaI(Tl) detectors are used, additional time is required after logging to obtain representative samples of any anomalies found during logging, conform those samples to a constant geometry, and then count the samples using IG detectors to determine if the materials are tailings. 16 references, 13 figures.
Dynamically scaled analogs of the geologic structures of the Zagros mountain belt are used to argue that different parts of the Zagros Mountains of Iran record different combinations of the effects of a gravity-driven overturn and a southwest-northeast lateral shortening superimposed on the Zagros overturn. Partially scaled material models have been used to simulate the Zagros geodynamics, which involve layer-parallel compression of a 6 to 7 km-thick Phanerozoic carbonate cover containing a pattern of preshortening diapirs. The folds in the Zagros form rapidly (1.5 mm/yr in a 20 to 30 km-wide zone), reactivate some of the preshortening diapirs, and generate new synshortening listric diapirs. A third set of postshortening diapirs rises from the Hormuz decollement behind the fold-thrust front. Model buckle folds superimposed on diapirs or pillows tend to avoid and curve around preshortening diapirs, which flatten in the synclines. Model profiles show that lateral shortening induces residual salt at depth to flow toward and rise through the anticlinal cores as synshortening or postshortening diapirs. The author suggests that any salt pillows in currently diapir-free zones of the Zagros fold-thrust belt may surface as diapirs through the anticlines in the future. 13 figures, 4 tables.
Easter, R.C.; Dana, M.T.; Thorp, J.M.; Busness, K.M.; Hales, J.M.; Raynor, G.S.; Benkovitz, C.M.; Tanner, R.L.; Shannon, J.D.
The OSCAR (Oxidation and Scavenging Characteristics of April Rains) field experiment was conducted in April, 1981, as part of the MAP3S/RAINE program. The OSCAR study was designed to provide detailed characterizations of the physicochemical and dynamical features of selected cyclonic storm systems as they traversed the eastern U.S. Major experiment components included sequential precipitation chemistry measurements, aircraft measurements both in cloud and in clear air in storm inflow regions, surface-level air chemistry measurements, and supporting meteorological measurements. The precipitation chemisty network consisted of an intermediate-density network with 37 sampling sites covering the region from southern Ontario to Tennessee and from Illinois to New Hampshire, and a high-density network with 47 sampling sites located in a 100 by 100 km area in northeast Indiana. A total of four storm events were studied during the experiment. The report describes the design and operational aspects for the high-density and intermediate-density components of the experiment, and the composition of the integrated OSCAR data set which has been developed. A synoptic meteorological description of the four storm events studied during OSCAR is also provided. 17 references, 13 figures, 8 tables.
This chapter discusses regional controls which affect the world distribution of surficial chemogenic uranium deposits. The most important of these are (1) climate, (2) geomorphology, including physiographic and climatic stability, and (3) provenance, i.e., the weathering terrain from which uranium and associated substances are derived. The three economically important environments are the calcrete environment, simple evaporative environments and paludal environments. Of these three categories, the calcrete uranium environment is probably the most uniquely constrained in terms of regional climate, geomorphic setting, provenance (vanadium as well as uranium) and especially the need for long term stability of both climate and physiography. Purely evaporative deposits, though subject to some of the same kinds of constraints, can also reflect local circumstances and a wider range of climates, physiographic settings, and source terrains. The third category encompassing bogs, marshes and organic-rich playas can form under an even wider range of climates and settings provided only that organic materials accumulate in abundance and are contacted by uranium-bearing waters. For all of these reasons and also because of the great economic importance of the calcrete environment as well as its relative novelty and complexity the discussion in this chapter is focused on calcrete, dolocrete and gypcrete uranium deposits. Objective data are reviewed first follwed by inferences and suggestions. 13 figures.
Butler, B.L.; Beninga, K.J.
A focus control system dynamically sets and controls the focal length of a reflective membrane supported between a perimeter frame. A rear membrane is also supported between the perimeter frame rearward and spaced apart from a back side of the reflective membrane. The space between the membranes defines a plenum space into which a mass of gas at a first pressure is inserted. The pressure differential between the first pressure and an external pressure, such as the atmospheric pressure, causes the reflective membrane to assume a first curvature relative to a reference plane associated with the perimeter frame. This curvature defines the focal length of the reflective membrane. The focal length is dynamically controlled by changing the volume of the plenum space, thereby changing the first pressure. The system can be used to change or maintain the pressure differential and hence the front membrane curvature. The plenum volume is changed by pushing or pulling on a central section of the rear membrane using a suitable actuator. Sensing means continuously sense the location of the reflective membrane relative to the reference plane. This sensed position is compared to a reference position, and a resulting error signal, comprising the difference between the sensed position and reference position, drives the actuator in a direction to minimize the difference. A vent value compensates for temperature changes or leaks in the closed volume by allowing the pressure differential to be adjusted as required to center the working range of the actuator about the desired focal length. 13 figures.
Wei, G.C.; Robbins, J.M.
A carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulation developed for a radioisotope heat source is made from chopped rayon fiber about 10 ..mu..m in diameter and 250 ..mu..m long, which is carbonized and bonded with phenolic resin particles. The CBCF is an excellent lightweight insulating material with a nominal density of 0.2 Mg/m/sup 3/ and a thermal conductivity of 0.24 W/(m-K) in vacuum at 2000/sup 0/C. Several attributes that make CBCF particularly suitable for the heat source application have been identified. These include light weight, low thermal conductivity, chemical compatibility, and high-temperature capabilities. The mechanical strength of CBCF insulation is satisfactory for the application. The basic fabrication technique was refined to eliminate undesirable large pores and cracks often present in materials fabricated by earlier techniques. Also, processing was scaled up to increase the fabrication rate by a factor of 10. The specific properties of the CBCF were tailored by adjusting material and processing variables to obtain the desired results. 22 references, 13 figures, 4 tables.
The energy-geometry matching condition reported in Quarterly Report No. 1 has been incorporated in the design of a Mark II precharger and construction is underway. By matching the energy and geometry, monopolar charging is assured by providing a charging zone outside the ionization zone. Particle charges greater than the Pauthenier limit were observed using a bi-electrode geometry. Either or both free electron charging or space-charge enhancement of the electric field may be responsible for the increase in charge above the theoretical limit for the average electric field. A separate experiment on free electron charging proceeded during this quarter and the progress is reported. To date the exhaustive experiments on resistance modification by simple electron beam irradiation have not provided evidence to support practical utilization. However, preliminary experiments do suggest that the presence of small amounts of SO/sub 2/ and the subsequent conversion of SO/sub 2/ by electron beam treatment may conductively coat high resistivity fly ash particles with a resultant reduction in resistivity. The status of the laboratory precipitator test system is reported along with the preparations for tests of the new Mark II precharger module. During this quarter a patent disclosure on a device to enhance radiation dose was submitted to the US Department of Energy. 13 figures.
Single-pulse Raman and photoacoustic spectroscopy studies of triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) and related compounds. [Trinitrobenzene (TNB), 1-amino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene(MATB), 1,3-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (DATB)
Trott, W.M.; Renlund, A.M.; Jungst, R.G.
Pulsed-laser-excited Raman scattering methods and photoacoustic spectroscopy have been applied to the study of porous, granular samples (i.e., pressed pellets) of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB), 1-amino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (MATB), 1,3-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (DATB) and 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). Single-pulse spontaneous Raman spectra have been obtained for all four materials. Using 532-nm excitation, the intensity of the background emission observed with the Raman scattered light varies as TNB > MATB > DATB > TATB. This trend is compared to information on the long-wavelength absorption edge of MATB, DATB and TATB as determined by the photoacoustic spectra of these materials. Stimulated Raman scattering has been observed for three of the compounds with conversion efficiency as follows: DATB > TATB > MATB. In the case of TATB, this process may be limited by photo-induced chemical reactions. The relatively efficient formation of one or more stable photolysis products in TATB is evident on the basis of its photoacoustic spectrum. Preliminary single-pulse Raman scattering measurements on shocked TATB are also described. 16 references, 13 figures, 2 tables.
Key, P.L.; Schlabach, T.D.
Consumption of metals by Western economies appears to have begun a decline in the mid 1970s which has gone largely unnoticed or explained. Although this period is close to a period of recession, initial analysis of the decline indicated that it could not be explained by general economic factors alone. The authors examined data from various sources on the usage of metals in telecommunications and, in general, find a declining trend in metal usage in recent years but the timing of the decline varies with different metals and does not, in general, coincide with the noted general decline. In addition to economic factors, they propose several technological factors believed to contribute to this trend. These factors can be grouped into two broad categories; evolutionary and revolutionary. Evolutionary factors are those that occur within a given technology as it matures and are associated with a learning-curve type of model as an industry becomes more familiar with a technology. Examples include such things as cost-reduction programs leading to reduced gold use on contacts of miniaturization trends leading to decreased use of materials in general. Revolutionary factors are associated with major, rapid replacement of an existing technology by a new one. Examples include the replacement of lead for cable sheathing by polyethylene and copper wire by optical fibers. 29 references, 13 figures, 7 tables.
Four main areas are explored: (1) the proper culture medium for corneal tissue; (2) the effect of serum on in vitro tissue growth; (3) the in vitro interrelationships between corneal epithelium and endothelium; and (4) the biology of cultures of whole corneas (organ cultures). Modified Eagle's minimal essential medium (MEM) proved to be an excellent culture fluid. Corneal tissue could be grown in MEM without serum or clot, thus providing a defined culture medium. The in vitro biology of outgrowths of multilayered corneal epithelium and monolayered corneal endothelium are discussed. Contact inhibition between epithelium and endothelium is demonstrated in whole corneal (organ) cultures. Images FIGURE 5 A FIGURE 5 B FIGURE 10 A FIGURE 10 B FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 1 C FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 6 A FIGURE 6 B FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 8 A FIGURE 8 B FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B FIGURE 12 A FIGURE 12 B FIGURE 12 C FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 A FIGURE 14 B FIGURE 15 A FIGURE 15 B FIGURE 16 A FIGURE 16 B FIGURE 17 A FIGURE 17 B FIGURE 17 C FIGURE 18 A FIGURE 18 B PMID:1246815
Larson, E.D.; Williams, R.H.
Industrial cogeneration is gaining popularity as an energy and money saving alternative to separate steam and electricity generation. Among cogeneration technologies, gas-turbine systems are attractive largely because of their lower capital cost and high thermodynamic efficiency. However, at industrial plants where steam and electricity loads vary daily, seasonally, or unpredictably, the economics of conventional gas turbines are often unfavorable due to low capacity utilization. Steam-injected gas-turbine cogeneration overcomes the part-load problem by providing for excess steam to be injected back into the turbine to raise electrical output and generating efficiency. Under provisions of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act, any excess electricity can be sold to the local grid at the prevailing avoided cost of electricity. Steam-injected gas-turbine cogeneration can result in a consistently high rate of return on investment over a wide range of variation in process steam loads. Moreover, this technology can also give rise to greater annual electricity production and fuel savings per unit of process steam generated, compared to simple-cycle cogeneration, making the technology attractive form the perspective of society, as well as that of the user. Steam-injected gas-turbines may soon find applications in electric utility base-load generation. 39 references, 13 figures, 2 tables.
Drouart, G.; De Breuck, C.; Vernet, J.; Laing, R. A.; Seymour, N.; Stern, D.; Haas, M.; Pier, E. A.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.
We examine the relative orientation of radio jets and dusty tori surrounding the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in powerful radio galaxies at z > 1. The radio core dominance R = Pcore^20 GHz/P_extended^500 MHz serves as an orientation indicator, measuring the ratio between the anisotropic Doppler-beamed core emission and the isotropic lobe emission. Assuming a fixed cylindrical geometry for the hot, dusty torus, we derive its inclination i by fitting optically-thick radiative transfer models to spectral energy distributions obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope. We find a highly significant anti-correlation (p < 0.0001) between R and i in our sample of 35 type 2 AGN combined with a sample of 18 z ~ 1 3CR sources containing both type 1 and 2 AGN. This analysis provides observational evidence both for the Unified scheme of AGN and for the common assumption that radio jets are in general perpendicular to the plane of the torus. The use of inclinations derived from mid-infrared photometry breaks several degeneracies which have been problematic in earlier analyses. We illustrate this by deriving the core Lorentz factor Γ from the R-i anti-correlation, finding Γ ≳ 1.3. Figures 11, 12, and Tables 1, 2, 6 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
Kupperman, D.S.; Claytor, T.N.; Groenwald, R.
A program is under way to assess the effectiveness of current and proposed techniques for acoustic leak detection (ALD) in reactor coolant systems. An ALD facility has been constructed and tests have begun on five laboratory-grown cracks (three fatigue and two thermal-fatigue and two field-induced IGSCC specimens. After ultrasonic testing revealed cracks in the Georgia Power Co. HATCH-1 BWR recirculation header, the utility installed an ALD system. Data from HATCH-1 have given an indication of the background noise level at a BWR recirculation header sweepolet weld. The HATCH leak detection system was tested to determine the sensitivity and dynamic range. Other background data have been acquired at the Watts Bar Nuclear Reactor in Tennessee. An ANL waveguide system, including transducer and electronics, was installed and tested on an accumulator safety injection pipe. The possibility of using ultrasonic wave scattering patterns to discriminate between IGSCCs and geometric reflectors has been explored. Thirteen reflectors (field IGSCCs, graphite wool IGSCCs, weld roots, and slits) were examined. Work with cast stainless steel (SS) included sound velocity and attenuation in isotropic and anisotropic cast SS. Reducing anisotropy does not help reduce attenuation in large-grained material. Large artificial flaws (e.g., a 1-cm-deep notch with a 4-cm path) could not be detected in isotropic centrifugally cast SS (1 to 2-mm grains) by longitudinal or shear waves at frequencies of 1 MHz or greater, but could be detected with 0.5-MHz shear waves. 13 figures.
The sedimentary basins of interior Sudan are characterized by thick nonmarine clastic sequences of Jurassic(.)-Cretaceous and Tertiary age. Over 45,000 ft (13,716 m) of sediment was deposited in the deepest trough and extensive basinal areas are underlain by more than 20,000 ft (6096 m) of sedimentary rocks. The depositional sequences include thick lacustrine shales and claystones, flood plain claystones, and lacustrine, fluvial, and alluvial sandstones and conglomerates. Those lacustrine claystones deposited in a suboxic environment provide good oil-prone source rocks. Reservoir sandstones have been found in a wide variety of nonmarine sandstone facies. The extensional tectonism that formed these basins began in the Jurassic(.)-Early Cretaceous. Movement along major fault trends continued intermittently into the Miocene. This deformation resulted in a complex structural history that led to the formation of several deep fault-bounded troughs, major interbasinal highs, and complex basin flanks. This tectonism has created a wide variety of structures, many of which have become effective hydrocarbon traps. During the past eight years, several important oil discoveries have been made. Significant accumulations have been delineated in the Heglig and Unity areas, where estimated recoverable reserves are 250-300 million bbl of oil. 14 figures.
Schmude, Richard W.
In one recent class, 77% of my students at the beginning of the semester could not answer question #1 below correctly. One reason for this is the student's misconception of the distances between the planets and the sun. In one textbook, 14 figures did not have the correct distance scale. In all cases each figure focuses on an astronomical concept that is not related to distance; nevertheless when my students examine these figures, their misconception that the planets are very close to each other and to the sun is reinforced. Furthermore, many of my students will go on to become teachers and will continue to convey the misconception of scale to their students. There are several things that can be done to solve the problem of student misconception of distances. One solution is to draw the Sun's light as arrows instead of drawing the Sun's disc. In this way, the distance is not shown in the drawing. In cases where one must draw the incorrect scale, the student should be warned of this. Finally, at least one laboratory exercise in the introductory astronomy class should emphasize the concept of correct scale. 1. The reason why summer is hotter here in Georgia than winter is because: a. The sun is farther away in the summer b. The sun is closer to us in the summer c. Sunlight hits us more directly in the summer d. The moon is closer in the summer e. The sun has a higher surface temperature in the summer
A method is developed to predict corn yield during the growing season using a plant process model (CERES-Maize), current weather data and climatological data. The procedure is to place the current year's daily weather (temperature and precipitation) into the model up to the time the yield prediction is to be made and sequences of historical data (one sequence per year) after that time until the end of the growing season to produce yield estimates. The mean of the distribution of yield estimates is taken as the prediction. The variance associated with a prediction is relatively constant until the time of tassel initiation and then decreases toward zero as the season progresses. As a consequence, perfect weather forecasts reach their peak value between the beginning of ear growth and the beginning of grain fill. The change in the predicted yield in response to weather as the growing season progresses is discussed for 1983 and 1976 at Peoria, Illinois. Results are given of an attempt to incorporate 30-day Climate Analytic Center outlooks into the predictive scheme. 21 references, 14 figures, 1 table.
This interim report of findings from studies by SREL has updated information on several key components of the Steel Creek ecosystem. We have emphasized two categories of the Steel Creek biota: Endangered Species (American alligator) and species for which environmental degradation within SRP boundaries might result in changes in offsite resource abundance. Wintering waterfowl surveys in the vicinity of the Steel Creek delta have demonstrated a pattern of increased utilization over the duration of these studies (1981-83). Wood stork utilization of SRP swamp areas also appeared to be substantially increased relative to previous years. Thermal alteration of the Steel Creek delta areas will eliminate this area as wood stork foraging habitat. Anadromous fish utilization of the Steel Creek area was also substantially increased in 1983 relative to 1982. The differences in anadromous fish species utilization patterns between 1982 and 1983 are probably a result of the markedly different river flow conditions between the two years. Studies of the American alligator have continued. No further reproduction by alligators has been observed in the Steel Creek system. 24 references, 14 figures, 13 tables.
Lesuer, D.; Goldberg, A.; Hiromoto, D.; Patt, J.
Fatigue of elastomers is a subject that has received considerable study over the years. This paper explores the problem of damage accumulation in a series of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) based compounds containing 0, 15, 25, and 35 wt % carbon-black under conditions in which a limited number of higher stress cycles have been applied to the material (referred to here as low cycle fatigue). Damage development in elastomers can take many forms. Generally speaking, one can classify the degradation as mechanical or chemical in origin. The most obvious form of mechanical damage is flaw or cut growth, while typical examples of chemical damage include chain scission or thermal oxidation. The fatigue crack growth relationship given in Equation 1 obviously only applies to flaw growth. However, it does an excellent job of following the data and exhibits the threshold behavior observed in both SBR and SBR-35 at room temperature. At higher temperatures, the damaged material shows an increasing deviation from threshold behavior. The obvious implication is that some thermally activated damage mechanism is degrading the material. In previous work, carbon-black loaded SBR subjected to a high temperature, high stress environment was shown to undergo a thermal-mechanical oxidation process. Certainly, this process is a candidate for a damage mechanism in these studies. 6 references, 14 figures, 1 table.
Murphy, K.A.; Gunther, M.F.; Vengsarkar, A.M.; Claus, R.O.
An extrinsic Fizeau fiber optic sensor comprises a single-mode fiber, used as an input/output fiber, and a multimode fiber, used purely as a reflector, to form an air gap within a silica tube that acts as a Fizeau cavity. The Fresnel reflection from the glass/air interface at the front of the air gap (reference reflection) and the reflection from the air/glass interface at the far end of the air gap (sensing reflection) interfere in the input/output fiber. The two fibers are allowed to move in the silica tube, and changes in the air gap length cause changes in the phase difference between the reference reflection and the sensing reflection. This phase difference is observed as changes in intensity of the light monitored at the output arm of a fused biconical tapered coupler. The extrinsic Fizeau fiber optic sensor behaves identically whether it is surface mounted or embedded, which is unique to the extrinsic sensor in contrast to intrinsic Fabry-Perot sensors. The sensor may be modified to provide a quadrature phase shift extrinsic Fizeau fiber optic sensor for the detection of both the amplitude and the relative polarity of dynamically varying strain. The quadrature light signals may be generated by either mechanical or optical means. A plurality of the extrinsic sensors may connected in cascade and multiplexed to allow monitoring by a single analyzer. 14 figures.
Self, G.A.; Breard, S.Q.; Rael, H.P.; Stein, J.A.; Thayer, P.A.; Traugott, M.O.; Eason, W.D.
In 1982, a significant onshore oil discovery in the lower Eocene Wilcox was made at Lockhart Crossing field, illuminating a new oil trend in southeast Louisiana. Twenty-eight producers and nine dry holes were drilled, resulting in development of 3400 productive acres with estimated recoverable reserves of 21 million bbl of oil after secondary recovery. The main field reservoir is a 40 to 80-ft (12 to 24-m) marine sandstone. The dominant facies is an upward-coarsening sequence of very fine to fine-grained glauconitic sandstone deposited as a nearshore marine bar. The associated facies is a younger, upward-fining, channelized sequence of medium to very fine-grained sandstone. Faulting initiated channeling and erosion into the existing nearshore bar facies with subsequent deposition of channel fill. Together these two facies constitute one reservoir. The primary trapping mechanism is structural, in the form of a rollover anticline. This solution gas drive reservoir is normally pressured and displays a concave-downward producing water level that initially masked the true productive limits of the field. 14 figures, 3 tables.
Dickey, P.A.; George, G.O.; Barker, C.
In some fields of the Tertiary Niger delta of Nigeria, heavy, asphaltic oil is found in shallow reservoirs and light, waxy oil is found in deeper reservoirs in the same field. Both oils appears to have had the same source. The change with depth from heavy to light oil is usually abrupt and occurs at a reservoir temperature between 150/sup 0/ and 180/sup 0/F (66/sup 0/ and 82/sup 0/C). In other areas similar degradation of oil has been ascribed to bacteria brought into the oil reservoir by invading meteoric water. In Nigeria, meteoric water is low in dissolved solids and high in bicarbonate, whereas connate water is saltier and contains more chloride. Samples of both types of oil and associated water from six fields were analyzed and compared with previously acquired analyses from these fields. No clear relationship between meteoric water and degraded oil was found. Degraded oil may occur with either meteoric or connate water, and undegraded oil is sometimes found with meteoric water. This suggests extensive secondary migration of oil from one structure to another as well as deep penetration of meteoric water. 14 figures, 1 table.
This report describes the initial results obtained in a project whose objective is to determine how and to what extent organic complexants affect the mobility of toxic elements in subsurface groundwaters at commercial low-level waste disposal sites. Generic soil components (e.g., hydrous oxides, silica, clays) are being employed so that the results will be broadly applicable. Organic complexants used in the nuclear industry are being emphasized. Data have been obtained with two radioactive (/sup 63/Ni and /sup 239/Pu) and one nonradioactive toxic element (Cd). Work with /sup 63/Ni has been emphasized; it was studied with five different generic soil components (hydrous ferric oxide, silica, titania, kaolinite, and montmorillonite) and five different complexants (EDTA, NTA, picolinate, citrate, and oxalate). EDTA was the complexant studied most extensively and hydrous ferric oxide was the most studied soil component. A wide diversity of effects of organic complexants on toxic elements sorption was observed. The effects vary not only among complexants, but also among toxic elements and among soil components. In some systems the complexant results in increased toxic element sorption (decreased mobility) while in other systems the complexant results in decreased toxic element sorption (increased mobility). 16 references, 14 figures, 5 tables.
Cook, N.G.W.; Hood, M.; Tsai, F.
A description is given of the processes of rock fragmentation induced by circular flat-bottomed punches from 5 to 20 mm dia loading orthogonal to the flat surface of cylindrical specimens of Sierra granite of 89 mm dia and confined by a steel belt, and 100 mm cube specimens confined in a biaxial frame. It is found that the rock deforms elastically until the applied punch load exceeds 45% of the maximum load that the rock can sustain. At loads greater than 45% of the maximum, a crack is initiated around the perimeter of the punch and this crack propagates in the well-known conical Hertzian manner. When the crack begins to propagate, the location of its front is reasonably well defined. However, as it extends with continued application of the load, an intense zone of microcracks surrounds and conceals the crack tip. Fractures initiating within this microcracked region propagate to the surface and form rock chips. The effects of punch size and confining stress, orthogonal to the punch, on the rock indentation strength are examined. Some decrease in punching strength with increasing punch size is noted; there is an increase in strength with increasing confining stress. At low confining stress, specimens split by cleavage through the axis of the punch. The theory of elasticity is used to show that this could occur with a punch loading against a semi-infinite rock surface and may therefore be an important phenomenon, not just an artifact of finite laboratory specimens. 11 references, 14 figures.
VerPloeg, A.J.; DeBruin, R.H.
The Trapper Canyon Tar Sand Deposit is located in the eastern Bighorn Basin, approximately 25 miles east of Greybull, Wyoming. This project not only involved detailed geologic mapping of the Trapper Canyon Tar Sand Deposit, but also sampling and describing the tar zone as well as the bounding barren zones. Samples were analyzed for porosity, permeability, oil saturation, and characteristics of the oil. Thin sections from both the tar zone and barren zones were made and examined to determine textural characteristics and kinds of pore-filling cements. In addition, samples were analyzed using the scanning electron microscope to gain insight into the diagenesis of the reservoir rock and trapping mechanisms. The Trapper Canyon Tar Sand Deposit was investigated because it was considered potentially commercial, and the results of the study could aid in forming an economical plan of development for this deposit and similar deposits elsewhere in the State. Also, the area provided an excellent opportunity to examine surface exposures of a tar sand deposit. The final phase of the study involved mapping the Bush Butte quadrangle and looking for additional tar sand deposits in the quadrangle. The search for additional deposits was carried out based on a model developed by examination of the Trapper Canyon Deposit. 16 references, 14 figures, 3 tables.
Ramsdell, J.V.; Athey, G.F.; Glantz, C.S.
MESOI Version 2.0 is an interactive Lagrangian puff model for estimating the transport, diffusion, deposition and decay of effluents released to the atmosphere. The model is capable of treating simultaneous releases from as many as four release points, which may be elevated or at ground-level. The puffs are advected by a horizontal wind field that is defined in three dimensions. The wind field may be adjusted for expected topographic effects. The concentration distribution within the puffs is initially assumed to be Gaussian in the horizontal and vertical. However, the vertical concentration distribution is modified by assuming reflection at the ground and the top of the atmospheric mixing layer. Material is deposited on the surface using a source depletion, dry deposition model and a washout coefficient model. The model also treats the decay of a primary effluent species and the ingrowth and decay of a single daughter species using a first order decay process. This report is divided into two parts. The first part discusses the theoretical and mathematical bases upon which MESOI Version 2.0 is based. The second part contains the MESOI computer code. The programs were written in the ANSI standard FORTRAN 77 and were developed on a VAX 11/780 computer. 43 references, 14 figures, 13 tables.