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Sample records for 130te double beta

  1. Masses of {sup 130}Te and {sup 130}Xe and Double-{beta}-Decay Q Value of {sup 130}Te

    SciTech Connect

    Redshaw, Matthew; Mount, Brianna J.; Myers, Edmund G.; Avignone, Frank T. III

    2009-05-29

    The atomic masses of {sup 130}Te and {sup 130}Xe have been obtained by measuring cyclotron frequency ratios of pairs of triply charged ions simultaneously trapped in a Penning trap. The results, with 1 standard deviation uncertainty, are M({sup 130}Te)=129.906 222 744(16) u and M({sup 130}Xe)=129.903 509 351(15) u. From the mass difference the double-{beta}-decay Q value of {sup 130}Te is determined to be Q{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}}({sup 130}Te)=2527.518(13) keV. This is a factor of 150 more precise than the result of the AME2003 [G. Audi et al., Nucl. Phys. A729, 337 (2003)].

  2. Search for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay of 130Te with CUORE-0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonso, K.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J. W.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Caminata, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X. G.; Capelli, S.; Cappelli, L.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Copello, S.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Cushman, J. S.; Dafinei, I.; Dally, A.; Dell'Oro, S.; Deninno, M. M.; di Domizio, S.; di Vacri, M. L.; Drobizhev, A.; Ejzak, L.; Fang, D. Q.; Faverzani, M.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Hansen, E.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Hickerson, K. P.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lim, K. E.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maino, M.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; O'Donnell, T.; Orio, F.; Orlandi, D.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pagliarone, C. E.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Piperno, G.; Pirro, S.; Pozzi, S.; Previtali, E.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sala, E.; Sangiorgio, S.; Santone, D.; Scielzo, N. D.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.; Wagaarachchi, S. L.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Wielgus, L.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Zanotti, L.; Zarra, C.; Zhang, G. Q.; Zhu, B. X.; Zucchelli, S.; Cuore Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    We report the results of a search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in a 9.8 kg yr exposure of 130Te using a bolometric detector array, CUORE-0. The characteristic detector energy resolution and background level in the region of interest are 5.1 ±0.3 keV FWHM and 0.058 ±0.004 (stat)±0.002 (syst)counts /(keV kg yr ) , respectively. The median 90% C.L. lower-limit half-life sensitivity of the experiment is 2.9 ×1024 yr and surpasses the sensitivity of previous searches. We find no evidence for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 130Te and place a Bayesian lower bound on the decay half-life, T1/2 0 ν>2.7 ×1024 yr at 90% C.L. Combining CUORE-0 data with the 19.75 kg yr exposure of 130Te from the Cuoricino experiment we obtain T1/2 0 ν>4.0 ×1024 yr at 90% C.L. (Bayesian), the most stringent limit to date on this half-life. Using a range of nuclear matrix element estimates we interpret this as a limit on the effective Majorana neutrino mass, mβ β<270 - 760 meV .

  3. Searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 130}Te with CUORE

    SciTech Connect

    CUORE; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone III, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Cai, X. Z.; Camacho, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X. G.; Capelli, S.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Carrettoni, M.; Casali, N.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Copello, S.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Dafinei, I.; Dally, A.; Datskov, V.; Biasi, A. De; Deninno, M. M.; Domizio, S. Di; Vacri, M. L. di; Ejzak, L.; Fang, D. Q.; Farach, H. A.; Faverzani, M.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Goett, J.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Kazkaz, K.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Li, Y. L.; Ligi, C.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maiano, C.; Maino, M.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Napolitano, T.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; O'Donnell, T.; Orio, F.; Orlandi, D.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Piperno, G.; Pira, C.; Pirro, S.; Previtali, E.; Rampazzo, V.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sala, E.; Sangiorgio, S.; Scielzo, N. D.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tian, W. D.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Wielgus, L.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Zanotti, L.; Zarra, C.; Zhu, B. X.; Zucchelli, S.

    2014-02-24

    Neutrinoless double-beta (0#23;{nu}{beta}{beta}#12;#12;) decay is a hypothesized lepton-number-violating process that offers the only known means of asserting the possible Majorana nature of neutrino mass. The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is an upcoming experiment designed to search for 0#23;{nu}{beta}{beta}#23;#12;#12; decay of {sup 130}Te using an array of 988 TeO{sub 2} crystal bolometers operated at 10 mK. The detector will contain 206 kg of {sup 130}Te and have an average energy resolution of 5 keV; the projected 0#23;#23;{nu}{beta}{beta}#12;#12; decay half-life sensitivity after five years of live time is 1.6 #2;x 10{sup 26} y at 1{sigma}#27; (9.5x#2;10{sup 25} y at the 90% confidence level), which corresponds to an upper limit on the effective Majorana mass in the range 40-100 meV (50-130 meV). In this paper we review the experimental techniques used in CUORE as well as its current status and anticipated physics reach.

  4. Searching for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay of 130 Te with CUORE

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; et al

    2015-01-01

    Neumore » trinoless double-beta (0 ν β β ) decay is a hypothesized lepton-number-violating process that offers the only known means of asserting the possible Majorana nature of neutrino mass. The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is an upcoming experiment designed to search for 0 ν β β decay of 130 Te using an array of 988 TeO 2 crystal bolometers operated at 10 mK. The detector will contain 206 kg of 130 Te and have an average energy resolution of 5 keV; the projected 0 ν β β decay half-life sensitivity after five years of livetime is 1.6 × 10 26  y at 1 σ (9.5 × 10 25  y at the 90% confidence level), which corresponds to an upper limit on the effective Majorana mass in the range 40–100 meV (50–130 meV). In this paper, we review the experimental techniques used in CUORE as well as its current status and anticipated physics reach.« less

  5. First results on neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te with the calorimetric CUORICINO experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaboldi, C.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Balata, M.; Bandac, I.; Barucci, M.; Beeman, J. W.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Capelli, S.; Capozzi, F.; Carbone, L.; Cebrian, S.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; de Waard, A.; Farach, H. A.; Fascilla, A.; Fiorini, E.; Frossati, G.; Giuliani, A.; Gorla, P.; Haller, E. E.; McDonald, R. J.; Morales, A.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; Olivieri, E.; Palmieri, E.; Pasca, E.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pessina, G.; Pirro, S.; Pobes, C.; Previtali, E.; Pyle, M.; Risegari, L.; Rosenfeld, C.; Sangiorgio, S.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Torres, L.; Ventura, G.

    2004-04-01

    The first results are reported on the limit for neutrinoless double decay of 130Te obtained with the new bolometric experiment CUORICINO. The set-up consists of 44 cubic crystals of natural TeO2, 5 cm on the side and 18 crystals of 3×3×6 cm3. Four of these latter crystals are made with isotopically enriched materials: two in 128Te and two others in 130Te. With a sensitive mass of ∼40 kg, our array is by far the most massive running cryogenic detector to search for rare events. The array is operated at a temperature of ∼10 mK in a dilution refrigerator under a heavy shield in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory at a depth of about 3500 m.w.e. The counting rate in the region of neutrinoless double beta decay is ∼0.2 counts keV-1 kg-1 y-1, among the lowest in this type of experiment. No evidence for neutrinoless double beta decay is found with the present statistics obtained in about three months with a live time of 72%. The corresponding lower limit for the lifetime of this process is of 5.5×1023 years at 90% C.L. The corresponding limit for the effective neutrino mass ranges between 0.37 to 1.9 eV depending on the theoretically calculated nuclear matrix elements used. This constraint is the most restrictive one except those obtained with Ge diodes, and is comparable to them.

  6. Nuclear structure relevant to neutrinoless double beta decay candidate {sup 130}Te and other recent results

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, B. P.

    2013-12-30

    We have undertaken a series of single-nucleon and pair transfer reaction measurements to help constrain calculations of the nuclear matrix elements for neutrinoless double beta decay. In this talk, a short overview of measurements relevant to the {sup 130}Te→{sup 130}Xe system is given. Brief mention is made of other recent and forthcoming results.

  7. Thick-target yields of iodine isotopes from proton interactions in Te, and the double-{beta} decay of {sup 128,130}Te

    SciTech Connect

    da Cruz, M.T.F.; Chan, Y.D.; Garcia, A.; Larimer, R.M.; Lesko, K.T.; Norman, E.B.; Rossi, D.F.; Stokstad, R.G.; Zlimen, I.; Wietfeldt, F.E. |; Bardayan, D.W.; Hindi, M.M.

    1993-03-29

    We report thick-target yields of {sup 126,128,130}I from the bombardment of natural Te targets with 15-, 30-, 45- and 50-MeV protons, together with the iodine production cross sections for 1.85- and 5.0-GeV protons. With these data, we have estimated the relative cosmic-ray induced production of {sup 126}Xe, {sup 128}Xe and {sup 13O}Xe in Te ores. These quantities affect the ratio of double-{beta} decay half-lives of {sup 13O}Te and {sup 128}Te. A revised correction of cosmic-ray induced xenon can change the half-life ratio by as much as 10%, from (3.52{plus_minus}0.11) {times} 10{sup {minus}4} to (3.88{plus_minus}0.14) {times} 10{sup {minus}4}.

  8. Thick-target yields of iodine isotopes from proton interactions in Te, and the double-[beta] decay of [sup 128,130]Te

    SciTech Connect

    da Cruz, M.T.F.; Chan, Y.D.; Garcia, A.; Larimer, R.M.; Lesko, K.T.; Norman, E.B.; Rossi, D.F.; Stokstad, R.G.; Zlimen, I. ); Wietfeldt, F.E. California Univ., Berkeley, CA . Dept. of Physics); Bardayan, D.W.; Hindi, M.M. . Dept. of Physics)

    1993-03-29

    We report thick-target yields of [sup 126,128,130]I from the bombardment of natural Te targets with 15-, 30-, 45- and 50-MeV protons, together with the iodine production cross sections for 1.85- and 5.0-GeV protons. With these data, we have estimated the relative cosmic-ray induced production of [sup 126]Xe, [sup 128]Xe and [sup 13O]Xe in Te ores. These quantities affect the ratio of double-[beta] decay half-lives of [sup 13O]Te and [sup 128]Te. A revised correction of cosmic-ray induced xenon can change the half-life ratio by as much as 10%, from (3.52[plus minus]0.11) [times] 10[sup [minus]4] to (3.88[plus minus]0.14) [times] 10[sup [minus]4].

  9. Search for 2{nu}{beta}{beta} Decay of {sup 130}Te to the First Excited State of {sup 130}Xe with an Ultra-Low-Background Germanium Crystal Array

    SciTech Connect

    Mizouni, L. K.; Aalseth, C. E.; Erikson, L. E.; Hossbach, T. W.; Keillor, M. E.; Orrell, J. L.; Avignone, F. T. III

    2011-12-13

    The goal of searching for zero-neutrino double-beta (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay is to probe an absolute neutrino mass scale suggested by the mass-splitting parameters observed by neutrino oscillation experiments. Furthermore, observation of 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay is an explicit instance of Lepton-number non-conservation. A sensitive measurement of two-neutrino double-beta (2{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay can provide critical input to Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA) calculations of the nuclear matrix elements in models similar to those used to extract the absolute neutrino mass from (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay experiments. Tellurium-130, an even-even nucleus, can undergo 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay to the first 0+ excited state of {sup 130}Xe producing three possible {gamma}-ray cascades as it transitions to the ground state. The Cascades detector is a high purity germanium (HPGe) crystal array consisting of two ultra-low-background copper cryostats each housing a hexagonal array of seven crystals. The project is currently being developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, WA (USA), and aims to obtain very high {gamma}-ray detection efficiency while utilizing highly effective and low-background shielding. GEANT4 simulations of the detector are performed for a {sup 130}Te sample in order to determine the optimum size and geometry of the source for maximum detection efficiency and predict its sensitivity for measuring 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay to the first 0+ excited state of {sup 130}Xe. These simulations are validated with calibration sources and presented.

  10. Analysis techniques for the evaluation of the neutrinoless double-β decay lifetime in 130Te with the CUORE-0 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alduino, C.; Alfonso, K.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J. W.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Caminata, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X. G.; Capelli, S.; Cappelli, L.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Carniti, P.; Casali, N.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Copello, S.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Cushman, J. S.; Dafinei, I.; Dally, A.; Davis, C. J.; Dell'Oro, S.; Deninno, M. M.; di Domizio, S.; di Vacri, M. L.; Drobizhev, A.; Fang, D. Q.; Faverzani, M.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gladstone, L.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Hansen, E.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Hickerson, K. P.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lim, K. E.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maino, M.; Marini, L.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Mosteiro, P. J.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; O'Donnell, T.; Orio, F.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pagliarone, C. E.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Piperno, G.; Pirro, S.; Pozzi, S.; Previtali, E.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sala, E.; Sangiorgio, S.; Santone, D.; Scielzo, N. D.; Singh, V.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.; Wagaarachchi, S. L.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Zanotti, L.; Zhang, G. Q.; Zhu, B. X.; Zimmermann, S.; Zucchelli, S.; Cuore Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    We describe in detail the methods used to obtain the lower bound on the lifetime of neutrinoless double-beta (0 ν β β ) decay in 130Te and the associated limit on the effective Majorana mass of the neutrino using the CUORE-0 detector. CUORE-0 is a bolometric detector array located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso that was designed to validate the background reduction techniques developed for CUORE, a next-generation experiment scheduled to come online in 2016. CUORE-0 is also a competitive 0 ν β β decay search in its own right and functions as a platform to further develop the analysis tools and procedures to be used in CUORE. These include data collection, event selection and processing, as well as an evaluation of signal efficiency. In particular, we describe the amplitude evaluation, thermal gain stabilization, energy calibration methods, and the analysis event selection used to create our final 0 ν β β search spectrum. We define our high level analysis procedures, with emphasis on the new insights gained and challenges encountered. We outline in detail our fitting methods near the hypothesized 0 ν β β decay peak and catalog the main sources of systematic uncertainty. Finally, we derive the 0 ν β β decay half-life limits previously reported for CUORE-0, T1/2 0 ν>2.7 ×1024yr , and in combination with the Cuoricino limit, T1/2 0 ν>4.0 ×1024yr .

  11. Change of nuclear configurations in the neutrinoless double-β decay of 130Te →130Be and 136Xe136Ba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entwisle, J. P.; Kay, B. P.; Tamii, A.; Adachi, S.; Aoi, N.; Clark, J. A.; Freeman, S. J.; Fujita, H.; Fujita, Y.; Furuno, T.; Hashimoto, T.; Hoffman, C. R.; Ideguchi, E.; Ito, T.; Iwamoto, C.; Kawabata, T.; Liu, B.; Miura, M.; Ong, H. J.; Schiffer, J. P.; Sharp, D. K.; Süsoy, G.; Suzuki, T.; Szwec, S. V.; Takaki, M.; Tsumura, M.; Yamamoto, T.

    2016-06-01

    The change in the configuration of valence protons between the initial and final states in the neutrinoless double-β decay of 130Te → 130Be and of 136Xe136Ba has been determined by measuring the cross sections of the (d ,3He) reaction with 101-MeV deuterons. Together with our recent determination of the relevant neutron configurations involved in the process, a quantitative comparison with the latest shell-model and interacting-boson-model calculations reveals significant discrepancies. These are the same calculations used to determine the nuclear matrix elements governing the rate of neutrinoless double-β decay in these systems.

  12. Analysis techniques for the evaluation of the neutrinoless double-β decay lifetime in 130Te with the CUORE-0 detector

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Alduino, C.; Alfonso, K.; Artusa, D. R.; Azzolini, O.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J. W.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; et al

    2016-04-25

    Here, we describe in detail the methods used to obtain the lower bound on the lifetime of neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay in 130Te and the associated limit on the effective Majorana mass of the neutrino using the CUORE-0 detector. CUORE-0 is a bolometric detector array located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso that was designed to validate the background reduction techniques developed for CUORE, a next-generation experiment scheduled to come online in 2016. CUORE-0 is also a competitive 0νββ decay search in its own right and functions as a platform to further develop the analysis tools and procedures tomore » be used in CUORE. These include data collection, event selection and processing, as well as an evaluation of signal efficiency. In particular, we describe the amplitude evaluation, thermal gain stabilization, energy calibration methods, and the analysis event selection used to create our final 0νββ search spectrum. We define our high level analysis procedures, with emphasis on the new insights gained and challenges encountered. We outline in detail our fitting methods near the hypothesized 0νββ decay peak and catalog the main sources of systematic uncertainty. Finally, we derive the 0νββ decay half-life limits previously reported for CUORE-0, T0ν1/2 > 2.7×1024yr, and in combination with the Cuoricino limit, T0ν1/2 > 4.0×1024yr.« less

  13. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay with CUORE-0: Physics Results and Detector Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canonica, L.

    2016-08-01

    The CUORE-0 experiment searches for neutrinoless double beta decay in ^{130}Te. It consists of an array of 52 tellurium dioxide crystals, operated as bolometers at a temperature of 10 mK, with a total mass of about 39 kg of TeO_2. CUORE-0 has been built to test the performance of the upcoming CUORE experiment and represents the largest ^{130}Te bolometric setup currently in operation. This experiment has been running in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Italy, since March 2013. We report the results of a search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 9.8 kg years ^{130}Te exposure, which allowed us to set the most stringent limit to date on this half-life. The performance of the detector in terms of background rate and energy resolution are also reported.

  14. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay with CUORE-0: Physics Results and Detector Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canonica, L.

    2016-01-01

    The CUORE-0 experiment searches for neutrinoless double beta decay in ^{130} Te. It consists of an array of 52 tellurium dioxide crystals, operated as bolometers at a temperature of 10 mK, with a total mass of about 39 kg of TeO_2 . CUORE-0 has been built to test the performance of the upcoming CUORE experiment and represents the largest ^{130} Te bolometric setup currently in operation. This experiment has been running in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Italy, since March 2013. We report the results of a search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 9.8 kg years ^{130} Te exposure, which allowed us to set the most stringent limit to date on this half-life. The performance of the detector in terms of background rate and energy resolution are also reported.

  15. Neutrinoless double beta decay search with SNO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozza, V.

    2014-01-01

    The SNO+ experiment is the follow up of SNO. The detector is located 2 km underground in the Vale Canada Ltd.'s Creighton Mine near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The active volume of the detector consists of 780 tonnes of Linear Alkyl Benzene (LAB) in an acrylic vessel of 12 m diameter, surrounded by about 9500 PMTs. The main goal of the SNO+ experiment is the search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te. With an initial loading of 0.3% of natural tellurium (nearly 800 kg of 130Te), it is expected to reach a sensitivity on the effective Majorana neutrino mass of about 100 meV after several years of data taking. Designed as a general purpose neutrino experiment, other exciting physical goals can be explored, like the measurement of reactor neutrino oscillations and geo-neutrinos in a geologically-interesting location, watch of supernova neutrinos and studies of solar neutrinos. A first commissioning phase with water filled detector will start at the end of 2013, while the double beta decay phase will start in 2015.

  16. A search for neutrinoless double beta decay of tellurium-130

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Adam Douglas

    This dissertation describes an experimental search for neutrinoless double beta (0nubetabeta) decay of 130Te. An observation of 0nubetabeta decay would establish that neutrinos are Majorana fermions and would constrain the neutrino mass scale. The data analyzed were collected by two bolometric experiments: CUORICINO and an R&D experiment for CUORE known as the Three Towers Test. Both experiments utilized arrays of TeO 2 crystals operated as bolometers at ˜10 mK in a dilution refrigerator. The bolometers measured the energy deposited by particle interactions in the crystals by recording the induced change in crystal temperature. Between the two experiments, there were 81 TeO2 bolometers used in the analysis, each of which was an independent detector of nuclear decays as well as a source of 130Te. The experiments were conducted underground at a depth of about 3300 meters water equivalent in Hall A of the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Assergi, Italy, in order to shield the detectors from cosmic rays. The data analyzed represent an exposure of 19.9 kg · y of 130Te (18.6 kg · y from CUORICINO and 1.3 kg · y from the Three Towers Test). In addition to the combined analysis of the two experiments, an analysis of CUORICINO data alone is presented in order to compare with an independent analysis being carried out by collaborators at the University of Milano-Bicocca. No signal due to 0nubetabeta decay is observed, and therefore a limit on the partial half-life for the decay is set. From a simultaneous fit to the 81 independent detectors, the rate of 0nubetabeta decay of 130Te is measured to be Gamma0nubetabeta( 130Te) = (-0.6+/-1.4 (stat.) +/- 0.4 (syst.)) x 10-25 y-1, which corresponds to a lower limit on the partial half-life for 0nubetabeta decay of 130Te of T0nbb1/2 (130Te) > 3.0x1024 y (90% C.L.). Converting the half-life limit to an upper limit on the effective Majorana neutrino mass, mbetabeta, using a set of recent nuclear matrix element calculations

  17. First neutrinoless double beta decay results from CUORE-0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gironi, L.; Alduino, C.; Alfonso, K.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J. W.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Camacho, A.; Caminata, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X. G.; Capelli, S.; Cappelli, L.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Carniti, P.; Casali, N.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Copello, S.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Cushman, J. S.; Dafinei, I.; Dally, A.; Davis, C. J.; Dell'Oro, S.; Deninno, M. M.; Di Domizio, S.; Di Vacri, M. L.; Drobizhev, A.; Fang, D. Q.; Faverzani, M.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Giachero, A.; Giuliani, A.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Hansen, E.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Hickerson, K. P.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Ligi, C.; Lim, K. E.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maino, M.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Napolitano, T.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; O'Donnell, T.; Orio, F.; Orlandi, D.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pagliarone, C. E.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Piperno, G.; Pira, C.; Pirro, S.; Pozzi, S.; Previtali, E.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sala, E.; Sangiorgio, S.; Santone, D.; Scielzo, N. D.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.; Wagaarachchi, S. L.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Wielgus, L.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Zanotti, L.; Zarra, C.; Zhang, G. Q.; Zhu, B. X.; Zimmermann, S.; Zucchelli, S.

    2015-10-01

    The CUORE-0 experiment, a 52 bolometer array searching for neutrinoless double beta decay from 130Te, has started taking data in spring 2013 underground at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS). The excellent results obtained in terms of energy resolution and background level allowed this experiment to reach the sensitivity of Cuoricino in approximately half the runtime. Combining CUORE-0 data (9.8 kg.yr exposure of 130Te) with the 19.75 kg.yr exposure of the Cuoricino experiment, we obtain the most stringent limit to date on the half-life of this isotope (T1/2 > 4.0 × 1024 yr). In this article, we review the results from CUORE-0 and discuss the status and the physics potential of CUORE, a 19 times larger bolometer array that plans to begin operations by end of this year.

  18. Results from the Cuoricino (Zero-Neutrino Double Beta) Decay Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Arnaboldi, C; Artusa, D R; Avignone, F T; Balata, M; Bandac, I; Barucci, M; Beeman, J W; Bellini, F; Brofferio, C; Bucci, C; Capelli, S; Carbone, L; Cebrian, S; Clemenza, M; Cremonesi, O; Creswick, R J; de Ward, A; Didomizio, S D; Dolinski, M J; Farach, H A; Fiorini, E; Frossati, G; Giachero, A; Giuliani, A; Gorla, P; Guardincerri, E; Gutierrez, T D; Haller, E E; Maruyama, R H; McDonald, R J; Nisi, S; Nones, C; Norman, E B; Nucciotti, A; Olivieri, E; Pallavicini, M; Palmieri, E; Pasca, E; Pavan, M; Pedretti, M; Pessina, G; Pirro, S; Previtali, E; Risegari, L; Rosenfeld, C; Sangiorgio, S; Sisti, M; Smith, A R; Torres, L; Ventura, G; Vignati, M

    2007-12-20

    Recent results from the CUORICINO {sup 130}Te zero-neutrino double-beta (0v{beta}{beta}) decay experiment are reported. CUORICINO is an array of 62 tellurium oxide (TeO{sub 2}) bolometers with an active mass of 40.7 kg. It is cooled to {approx}8 mK by a dilution refrigerator shielded from environmental radioactivity and energetic neutrons. It is running in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Assergi, Italy. These data represent 11.83 kg y or 90.77 mole-years of {sup 130}Te. No evidence for 0v{beta}{beta}-decay was observed and a limit of T{sub 1/2}{sup 0v} ({sup 130}Te) {ge} 3.0 x 10{sup 24} y (90% C.L.) is set. This corresponds to upper limits on the effective mass, , between 0.19 and 0.68eV when analyzed with the many published nuclear structure calculations. In the context of these nuclear models, the values fall within the range corresponding to the claim of evidence of 0v{beta}{beta}-decay by H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus and his co-workers. The experiment continues to acquire data.

  19. Results of the double beta decay experiment NEMO-3

    SciTech Connect

    Tretyak, V. I.; Collaboration: NEMO-3 Collaboration

    2013-12-30

    The double beta decay experiment NEMO-3 has taken data from February 2003 to January 2011. The two-neutrino decay half lives were measured for seven different isotopes ({sup 100}Mo, {sup 82}Se, {sup 116}Cd, {sup 150}Nd, {sup 96}Zr, {sup 48}Ca and {sup 130}Te). No evidence for neutrinoless double beta decay is observed. The 0νββ half-life limits are found to be T{sub 1/2}{sup 0ν}({sup 100}Mo)>1.0×10{sup 24}yr(90%C.L.) and T{sub 1/2}{sup 0ν}({sup 82}Se)>3.2×10{sup 23}yr(90%C.L.)

  20. Search for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay of with CUORE-0

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Alfonso, K.; Artusa, D.  R.; F. T. Avignone; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T.  I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.  W.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; et al

    2015-09-03

    We report the results of a search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in a 9.8 kg yr exposure of 130Te using a bolometric detector array, CUORE-0. The characteristic detector energy resolution and background level in the region of interest are 5.1 ± 0.3 keV FWHM and 0.058 ± 0.004 (stat.) ± 0:002 (syst.) counts/(keV kg yr), respectively. The median 90% C.L. lower-limit sensitivity of the experiment is 2.9 x 1024 yr and surpasses the sensitivity of previous searches. We find no evidence for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 130Te and place a Bayesian lower bound on the decay half-life, T0$_1$1/2 > 2.7more » x 1024 yr at 90% C.L. Combining CUORE-0 data with the 19.75 kg yr exposure of 130Te from the Cuoricino experiment we obtain T0$_1$1/2 > 4.0 x 1024 yr at 90% C.L. (Bayesian), the most stringent limit to date on this half-life. Using a range of nuclear matrix element estimates we interpret this as a limit on the effective Majorana neutrino mass, mββ < 270 - 760 meV.« less

  1. Search for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay of Te130 with CUORE-0

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Alfonso, K.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J. W.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; et al

    2015-09-03

    We report the results of a search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in a 9.8 kg yr exposure of 130Te using a bolometric detector array, CUORE-0. The characteristic detector energy resolution and background level in the region of interest are 5:1± 0:3 keV FWHM and 0:058 ± 0:004 (stat) ± 0:002 (syst) counts / (keV kg yr), respectively. The median 90% C.L. lower-limit half-life sensitivity of the experiment is 2:9x1024 yr and surpasses the sensitivity of previous searches. We find no evidence for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 130Te and place a Bayesian lower bound on the decay half-life, T0ν1/2 > 2.7more » x 1024 yr at 90% C.L. Combining CUORE-0 data with the 19.75 kg yr exposure of 130Te from the Cuoricino experiment we obtain T0ν1/2 > 4.0 x 1024 yr at 90% C.L. (Bayesian), the most stringent limit to date on this half-life. Lastly, using a range of nuclear matrix element estimates we interpret this as a limit on the e ective Majorana neutrino mass, mββ < 270 -760 meV.« less

  2. The Milano-Gran Sasso double beta decay experiment: toward a 20-crystal array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandrello, A.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Camin, D. V.; Cremonesi, O.; Fiorini, E.; Giuliani, A.; Nucciotti, A.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Previtali, E.; Zanotti, L.

    1996-02-01

    TeO 2 thermal detectors are being used by the Milano group to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te. An upper limit for neutrinoless decay half life of 2.1 × 10 22 yr at 90% CL obtained with a 334 g TeO 2 detector has been previously reported. To improve the sensitivity of the experiment an array of twenty 340 g TeO 2 crystals will be realised in the next future. As a first step toward the realisation of that experiment a 4 crystal detector has been tested in the Gran Sasso refrigerator. Detector performances, data acquisition and analysis are discussed.

  3. The CUORICINO and CUORE double beta decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardito, R.; Arnaboldi, C.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Balata, M.; Bandac, I.; Barucci, M.; Beeman, J. W.; Bellini, F.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Capelli, S.; Capozzi, F.; Carbone, L.; Cebrian, S.; Clemenza, M.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Dafinei, I.; de Waard, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dolinski, M.; Farach, H. A.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Freedman, S. J. F.; Frossati, G.; Gargiulo, C.; Giuliani, A.; Gorla, P.; Guardincerri, E.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Heeger, K. M.; Irastorza, I. G.; Longo, E.; Maruyama, R.; Morganti, S.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; Xu, Nu; Olivieri, E.; Ottonello, P.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, E.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pessina, G.; Pirro, S.; Previtali, E.; Risegari, L.; Rosenfeld, C.; Sangiorgio, S.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Torres, L.; Ventura, G.; Zanotti, L.

    2006-07-01

    After an introduction on the various experimental techniques to be adopted in searches for double beta decay, the new approach based on the use of cryogenic low temperature detectors is described. The present results are reported on the limit for neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te obtained with the large bolometric detector CUORICINO. This setup consists of 44 cubic crystals of natural TeO 2 with 5 cm sides and 18 crystals of 3×3×6 cm 3. Four of these latter crystals are made with isotopically enriched materials: two in 128Te and two others in 130Te. With a sensitive mass of 40.7 kg, this array is by far the most massive running cryogenic detector. The array is operated at a temperature of ˜10 mK in a dilution refrigerator under a heavy shield in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory at a depth of about 3500 m.w.e. The counting rate in the region of neutrinoless double beta decay is 0.18±0.02 counts keV -1 kg -1 y -1, among the lowest in this type of experiment. No evidence for neutrinoless double beta decay is found. The corresponding lower limit for the lifetime of this process is 2×10 24 years at 90% C.L. The resultant upper limit on the effective neutrino mass ranges between 0.2 and 1.0 eV, depending on the theoretically calculated nuclear matrix elements. This constraint is the most restrictive one, except for those obtained with Ge diodes, and is comparable to them. The second part of this report is devoted to the present status of the construction of the larger experiment CUORE (Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events) formed from 988 bolometers with a cubic TeO 2 absorber of size 5×5×5 cm 3, with a total mass of ˜750 kg. We present technical details of the CUORE setup as well as of its location and our efforts to reduce radioactive backgrounds.

  4. Neganov-Luke amplified cryogenic light detectors for the background discrimination in neutrinoless double beta decay search with TeO2 bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willers, M.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Gütlein, A.; Münster, A.; Lanfranchi, J.-C.; Oberauer, L.; Potzel, W.; Roth, S.; Schönert, S.; Sivers, M. v.; Wawoczny, S.; Zöller, A.; Giuliani, A.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate that Neganov-Luke amplified cryogenic light detectors with Transition Edge Sensor read-out can be applied for the background suppression in cryogenic experiments searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te with TeO2 based bolometers. Electron and gamma induced events can be discriminated from α events by detecting the Cherenkov light produced by the β particles emitted in the decay. We use the Cherenkov light produced by events in the full energy peak of 208Tl and by events from a 147Sm source to show that at the Q-value of the neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te (Qβ β = 2.53 MeV), a separation of e-/γ events from α events can be achieved on an event-by-event basis with practically no reduction in signal acceptance.

  5. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremonesi, Oliviero

    2016-05-01

    After more than 3/4 of century from its proposal, Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (NLDBD) is still missing observation and continues to represent the only practical method for investigating the Dirac/Majorana nature of neutrinos. In case neutrinos would be Majorana particles, NLDBD would provide unique informations on their properties (absolute mass scale and Majorana phases). Boosted by the discovery of neutrino oscillations, a number of experiments with improved sensitivity have been proposed in the past decade. Some of them have recently started operation and others are ready to start. They will push the experimental sensitivity on the decay halflife beyond 1026 year, starting to analyze the region of the inverted mass hierarchy. The status and perspectives of the ongoing experimental effort are reviewed. Uncertainties coming from the calculation othe decay nuclear matrix elements (NME) as well as the recently suggested possibility of a relevant quenching of the axial coupling constant are also discussed.

  6. Disentangling the various Mechanisms of neutrinoless double beta decay to extract the neutrino mass

    SciTech Connect

    Vergados, J. D.

    2011-12-16

    It is well known that there exist many mechanisms that may contribute to neutrinoless double beta decay. By exploiting the fact that the associated nuclear matrix elements are target dependent we show that, given definite experimental results on a sufficient number of targets, one can determine or sufficiently constrain all lepton violating parameters including the mass term. As a specific example we show that, given the observation of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay in three different nuclei, e.g. {sup 76}Ge, {sup 100}Mo and {sup 130}Te, and assuming just three active lepton number violating parameters, e.g. light and heavy neutrino mass mechanisms in left handed currents as well as R-parity breaking SUSY mechanism, one may determine all lepton violating parameters, provided that they are relatively real.

  7. On Double-Beta Decay Half-Life Time Systematics

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.

    2010-04-14

    Recommended 2{beta}(2{nu}) half-life values and their systematics were analyzed in the framework of a simple empirical approach. T{sub 1/2}{sup 2{nu}} {approx} 1/E{sup 8} trend has been observed for {sup 128,130}Te recommended values. This trend was used to predict T{sub 1/2}{sup 2{nu}} for all isotopes of interest. Current results were compared with other theoretical and experimental works.

  8. Predicting neutrinoless double beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, M.; Villanova del Moral, A.; Valle, J.W.F.

    2005-11-01

    We give predictions for the neutrinoless double beta decay rate in a simple variant of the A{sub 4} family symmetry model. We show that there is a lower bound for the {beta}{beta}{sub 0{nu}} amplitude even in the case of normal hierarchical neutrino masses, corresponding to an effective mass parameter vertical bar m{sub ee} vertical bar {>=}0.17{radical}({delta}m{sub ATM}{sup 2}). This result holds both for the CP conserving and CP violating cases. In the latter case we show explicitly that the lower bound on vertical bar m{sub ee} vertical bar is sensitive to the value of the Majorana phase. We conclude therefore that in our scheme, {beta}{beta}{sub 0{nu}} may be accessible to the next generation of high sensitivity experiments.

  9. Neutron capture cross-section studies of Tellurium isotopes for neutrinoless double beta decay applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhike, Megha; Tornow, Werner

    2014-09-01

    The CUORE detector at Gran Sasso, aimed at searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 130Te, employs an array of TeO2 bolometer modules. To understand and identify the contribution of muon and (α,n) induced neutrons to the CUORE background, fast neutron cature cross-section data of the tellurium isotopes 126Te, 128Te and 130Te have been measured with the activation method at eight different energies in the neutron energy range 0.5-7.5 MeV. Plastic pill boxes of diameter 1.6 cm and width 1 cm containing Te were irradiated with mono-energetic neutrons produced via the 3H(p,n)3He and 2H(d,n)3He reactions. The cross-sections were determined relative to the 197Au(n, γ)198Au and 115In(n,n')115m In standard cross sections. The activities of the products were measured using 60% lead-shielded HPGe detectors at TUNL's low background counting facility. The present results are compared with the evaluated data from TENDL-2012, ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.2 and JENDL-4.0, as well as with literature data.

  10. First results on neutrinoless double beta decay of Te-130 with the calorimetric cuoricino experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Arnaboldi, C.; Artusa, D.R.; Avignone, F.T.; Balata, M.; Bandac, I.; Barucci, M.; Beeman, J.W.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Capelli, S.; Capozzi, F.; Carbone, L.; Cebrian, S.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R.J.; de Waard, A.; Farach, H.A.; Fascilla, A.; Fiorini, E.; Frossati, G.; Giuliani, A.; Gorla, P.; Haller, E.E.; McDonald, R.J.; Morales, A.; Norman, E.B.; Nucciotti, A.; Olivieri, E.; Palmieri, E.; Pasca, E.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pessina, G.; Pirro, S.; Pobes, C.; Previtali, E.; Pyle, M.; Risegari, L.; Rosenfeld, C.; Sangiorgio, S.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A.R.; Torres, L.; Ventura, G.

    2003-12-04

    The first results are reported on the limit for neutrinoless double decay of {sup 130}Te obtained with the new bolometric experiment CUORICINO. The set-up consists of 44 cubic crystals of natural TeO{sub 2}, 5 cm on the side and 18 crystals of 3 x 3 x 6 cm{sup 3}. Four of these latter crystals are made with isotopically enriched materials: two in {sup 128}Te and two others in {sup 130}Te . With a sensitive mass of {approx}40 kg, our array is by far the most massive running cryogenic detector to search for rare events. The array is operated at a temperature of {approx}10 mK in a dilution refrigerator under a heavy shield in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory at a depth of about 3500 m.w.e. The counting rate in the region of neutrinoless double beta decay is {approx}0.2 counts keV{sup -1} kg{sup -1} year{sup -1}, among the lowest in this type of experiment. No evidence for neutrinoless double beta decay is found with the present statistics obtained in about three months with a live time of 72%. The corresponding lower limit for the lifetime of this process is of 5.5 x 10{sup 23} years at 90% C.L. The corresponding limit for the effective neutrino mass ranges between 0.37 to 1.9 eV depending on the theoretically calculated nuclear matrix elements used. This constraint is the most restrictive one except those obtained with Ge diodes, and is comparable to them.

  11. Anti-Reflective Coatings R&D for Next Generation Neutrinoless Double Beta Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leder, Alexander; Cuore Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Cyogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is a ton-scale cryogenic source=detector experiment designed to search for the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (0 νββ) of 130Te. CUORE currently utilizes a single phonon readout channel per crystal; adding a second channel for scintillation or Cherenkov light would improve particle identification for actively rejecting background events. This light would be collected via semiconductor wafers covered with anti-reflective coatings. These coatings maximize light absorption. In this talk, I will discuss the coating optimization regarding material and structure, and its implications for designing the next generation CUORE-style experiment. In addition, I will discuss projections for possible sensitivities of next generation 0 νββ searches that use dual channel light-phonon readouts.

  12. Average and recommended half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay: Upgrade-2013

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, A. S.

    2013-12-30

    All existing positive results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of {sup 48}Ca, {sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 96}Zr, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 100}Mo−{sup 100}Ru (0{sub 1}{sup +}), {sup 116}Cd, {sup 130}Te, {sup 136}Xe, {sup 150}Nd, {sup 150}Nd−{sup 150}Sm (0{sub 1}{sup +}) and {sup 238}U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of {sup 128}Te and {sup 130}Ba are proposed. I recommend the use of these results as the most currently reliable values for half-lives.

  13. The COBRA Double Beta Decay Search Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, D. Y.

    2006-11-01

    The COBRA experiment aims to use a large quantity of CdZnTe semiconductor detectors to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. The current status of the experiment is discussed, and new limits on several double beta modes are presented. Future plans for a large scale experiment are also described.

  14. The COBRA double-beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, D. Y.; COBRA Collaboration

    2007-09-01

    The COBRA experiment aims to use a large quantity of Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CdZnTe) semiconductor detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay (0 υββ). The current status of the experiment is discussed, and new limits on several double-beta modes are presented. Future plans for a large-scale experiment are also described.

  15. The COBRA Double Beta Decay Search Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, D. Y.

    2006-11-17

    The COBRA experiment aims to use a large quantity of CdZnTe semiconductor detectors to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. The current status of the experiment is discussed, and new limits on several double beta modes are presented. Future plans for a large scale experiment are also described.

  16. Sterile neutrinos in neutrinoless double beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Benes, P.; Faessler, Amand; Simkovic, F.; Kovalenko, S.

    2005-04-01

    We study possible contribution of the Majorana neutrino mass eigenstate {nu}{sub h}, dominated by a sterile neutrino component, to neutrinoless double beta (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay. A special emphasis is made on accurate calculation of the corresponding nuclear matrix elements. From the current experimental lower bound on the 0{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay half-life of 76 Ge we derive stringent constraints on the {nu}{sub h}-{nu}{sub e} mixing in a wide region of the values of {nu}{sub h} mass. We discuss cosmological and astrophysical status of {nu}{sub h} in this mass region.

  17. Review of modern double beta decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabash, A. S.

    2015-10-01

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T1/2(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino ( < 0.46 eV) and a coupling constant of Majoron to neutrino ( < 1.3 . 10-5) are obtained. Prospects of search for neutrinoless double beta decay in new experiments with sensitivity to at the level of ˜ 0.01-0.1 eV are discussed.

  18. Review of modern double beta decay experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, A. S.

    2015-10-28

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T{sub 1/2}(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino (〈m{sub ν}〉 < 0.46 eV) and a coupling constant of Majoron to neutrino (〈g{sub ee}〉 < 1.3 · 10{sup −5}) are obtained. Prospects of search for neutrinoless double beta decay in new experiments with sensitivity to 〈m{sub ν}〉 at the level of ∼ 0.01-0.1 eV are discussed.

  19. Searches for neutrinoless double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwingenheuer, Bernhard

    2012-07-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a lepton number violating process whose observation would also establish that neutrinos are their own anti-particles. There are many experimental efforts with a variety of techniques. Some (EXO, Kamland-Zen, GERDA phase I and CANDLES) started take data in 2011 and EXO has reported the first measurement of the half life for the double beta decay with two neutrinos of 136Xe. The sensitivities of the different proposals are reviewed.

  20. Neutron interactions in the CUORE neutrinoless double beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinski, Michelle Jean

    Neutrinoless double beta decay (0nuDBD) is a lepton-number violating process that can occur only for a massive Majorana neutrino. The search for 0nuDBD is currently the only practical experimental way to determine whether neutrinos are identical to their own antiparticles (Majorana neutrinos) or have distinct particle and anti-particle states (Dirac neutrinos). In addition, the observation of 0nuDBD can provide information about the absolute mass scale of the neutrino. The Cuoricino experiment was a sensitive search for 0nuDBD, as well as a proof of principle for the next generation experiment, CUORE. CUORE will search for 0nuDBD of 130Te with a ton-scale array of unenriched TeO2 bolometers. By increasing mass and decreasing the background for 0nuDBD, the half-life sensitivity of CUORE will be a factor of twenty better than that of Cuoricino. The site for both of these experiments is the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, an underground laboratory with 3300 meters water equivalent rock overburden and a cosmic ray muon attenuation factor of 10-6. Because of the extreme low background requirements for CUORE, it is important that all potential sources of background in the 0nuDBD peak region at 2530 keV are well understood. One potential source of background for CUORE comes from neutrons, winch can be produced underground both by (alpha,n) reactions and by fast cosmic ray muon interactions. Preliminary simulations by the CUORE collaboration indicate that these backgrounds will be negligible for CUORE. However, in order to accurately simulate the expected neutron background, it is important to understand the cross sections for neutron interactions with detector materials. In order to help refine these simulations, I have measured the gamma-ray production cross sections for interactions of neutrons on the abundant stable isotopes of Te using the GEANIE detector array at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. In addition, I have used the GEANIE data to set an upper

  1. Double-Beta Decay at TUNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, Mary

    2007-10-01

    Studying double-beta decay at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) is perhaps one of the most promising ways to pinpoint the neutrino mass. What they do not mention is that to study double-beta decay, you probably have to become a certified miner, and if you have a fear of goats, you should stay away. In this talk, I will tell you some of my experiences as a TUNL graduate student, and how I am now nearly qualified for a job in the mining industry.

  2. New generation of double beta decay experiments: are there any limitations?

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, A. S.

    2011-12-16

    New generation of experiments to search for neutrinoless double beta decay with sensitivity to effective Majorana neutrino mass on the level of {approx}3-5 meV is discussed. Possible restrictions in achievement of this sensitivity such as: possibility to produce large amount of enriched isotopes, possibility to reach of a very low level of background, energy resolution and possible cost of experiments are considered. It is shown that for realization of so ambitious project 10 tons (or more) of enriched isotope is required. Background index should be on the level {<=}10{sup -5}-10{sup -6} c/kg{center_dot}keV{center_dot}y. In addition, the energy resolution of the detector should be no worse than 1-2%. It is shown that {sup 130}TeO{sub 2} low temperature bolometer could be the most realistic candidate for such an experiment. Under certain conditions experiments with {sup 76}Ge, {sup 100}Mo and {sup 136}Xe can be realized too.

  3. Low-energy neutral-current neutrino scattering on {sup 128,130}Te isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Tsakstara, V.; Kosmas, T. S.

    2011-05-15

    Differential, total, and cumulative cross section calculations for neutral current neutrino scattering on {sup 128,130}Te isotopes are performed in the context of the quasiparticle random phase approximation by utilizing realistic two-nucleon forces. These isotopes are the main contents of detectors of ongoing experiments with multiple neutrino physics goals (COBRA and CUORE at Gran Sasso), including potential low-energy astrophysical neutrino (solar, supernova, geoneutrinos) detection. The incoming neutrino energy range adopted in our calculations ({epsilon}{sub {nu}{<=}1}00 MeV) covers the low-energy {beta}-beam neutrinos and the pion-muon stopped neutrino beams existing or planned to be conducted at future neutron spallation sources. The aim of these facilities is to measure neutrino-nucleus cross sections at low and intermediate neutrino energies with the hope of shedding light on open problems in neutrino-induced reactions on nuclei and neutrino astrophysics. Such probes motivate theoretical studies on weak responses of various nuclear systems; thus the evaluated cross sections may be useful in this direction.

  4. The COBRA Double Beta Decay Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, J. V.

    2007-03-01

    The progress of the COBRA neutrinoless double beta decay experiment is discussed. Potential backgrounds are described. Estimates on the contamination levels of 214Bi in the detectors have been made using previously acquired low background data. New crystals with a different passivation material show an improved background count rate of approximately one order of magnitude.

  5. The COBRA double beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldorf, C.; Cobra Collaboration

    2012-08-01

    The COBRA experiment is searching for double beta decay using CdZnTe semiconductor detectors. The main focus is on the isotope 116Cd. In addition to pure energy measurements, pixelisation allows also for tracking capabilities. This kind of semiconductor tracker is unique in the field. The current status of the experiment is shown including the latest half-life limits.

  6. The COBRA Double Beta Decay Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J. V.

    2007-03-28

    The progress of the COBRA neutrinoless double beta decay experiment is discussed. Potential backgrounds are described. Estimates on the contamination levels of 214Bi in the detectors have been made using previously acquired low background data. New crystals with a different passivation material show an improved background count rate of approximately one order of magnitude.

  7. Nuclear-Structure Data Relevant to Neutinoless-Double-Beta-Decay Matrix Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Benjamin

    2015-10-01

    An observation of neutrinoless double beta decay is one of the most exciting prospects in contemporary physics. It follows that calculations of the nuclear matrix elements for this process are of high priority. The change in the wave functions between the initial and final states of the neutrinoless-double-beta-decay candidates 76Ge-->76Se, 100Mo-->100Ru, 130Te-->130Xe, and 136Xe-->136Ba have been studied with transfer reactions. The data are focused on the change in the occupancies of the valence orbitals in the ground states as two neutrons decay into two protons. The results set a strict constraint on any theoretical calculations describing this rearrangement and thus on the magnitude of the nuclear matrix elements for this process, which currently exhibit uncertainties at the factor of 2-4 level. Prior to these measurements there were limited experimental data were available A = 76 and 100 systems, and very limited data for the A = 130 and 136 systems, in a large part due to the gaseous Xe isotopes involved. The uncertainties on most of these data are estimated to range from 0.1-0.3 nucleons. The program started with the A = 76 system, with subsequent calculations, modified to reproduce the experimental occupancies, exhibiting a significant reduction in the discrepancy between various models. New data are available for the A = 100 , 130, and 136 systems. I review the program, making detailed comparisons between the latest theoretical calculations and the experimental data where available. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract Number DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  8. Search for 2νββ Decay of 130Te to the First Excited State of 130Xe with an Ultra-Low-Background Germanium Crystal Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizouni, L. K.; Aalseth, C. E.; Avignone, F. T.; Erikson, L. E.; Hossbach, T. W.; Keillor, M. E.; Orrell, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of searching for zero-neutrino double-beta (0νββ) decay is to probe an absolute neutrino mass scale suggested by the mass-splitting parameters observed by neutrino oscillation experiments. Furthermore, observation of 0νββ decay is an explicit instance of Lepton-number non-conservation. A sensitive measurement of two-neutrino double-beta (2νββ) decay can provide critical input to Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA) calculations of the nuclear matrix elements in models similar to those used to extract the absolute neutrino mass from (0νββ) decay experiments. Tellurium-130, an even-even nucleus, can undergo 2νββ decay to the first 0+ excited state of 130Xe producing three possible γ-ray cascades as it transitions to the ground state. The Cascades detector is a high purity germanium (HPGe) crystal array consisting of two ultra-low-background copper cryostats each housing a hexagonal array of seven crystals. The project is currently being developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, WA (USA), and aims to obtain very high γ-ray detection efficiency while utilizing highly effective and low-background shielding. GEANT4 simulations of the detector are performed for a 130Te sample in order to determine the optimum size and geometry of the source for maximum detection efficiency and predict its sensitivity for measuring 2νββ decay to the first 0+ excited state of 130Xe. These simulations are validated with calibration sources and presented.

  9. Status of the double beta experiment COBRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuber, K.

    2006-07-01

    The COBRA experiment is going to use a large number of CdZnTe semiconductor detectors to perform a search for various double beta decay modes. The current status of the experiment is presented, as well as first results. A half-life measurement of the fourfold forbidden non-unique beta-decay of 113Cd has been performed. Improved half-life limits for the ground state transitions of 64Zn for 0νβ+/EC and 0νEC/EC have been obtained. A short outlook on future activities is given.

  10. The COBRA Neutrinoless Double Beta Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang

    2008-04-01

    The COBRA is a proposed experiment to detect neutrinoless double beta decays of the isotope 116Cd. The COBRA design is based on CZT room temperature solid state detectors. A prototype of the experiment made of 64 1cm^3 detectors is running in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory. In this talk, I will discuss the design of the COBRA prototype experiment and possible designs of a large-scale experiment made of 410 kg of CZT detectors. We are currently evaluating the option to use CZT detector units with 200 micron spatial resolution. Such detectors would make it possible to track the electrons from double beta decays and to distinguish them from certain types of background events.

  11. JUNO and neutrinoless double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Shao-Feng; Rodejohann, Werner

    2015-11-01

    We study the impact of the precision determination of oscillation parameters in the JUNO experiment on half-life predictions for neutrinoless double beta decay. We show that the solar neutrino mixing angle can be measured by JUNO with below 1% uncertainty. This implies in particular that the minimal value of the effective mass in the inverted mass ordering will be known essentially without uncertainty. We demonstrate that this reduces the range of half-life predictions in order to test this value by a factor of 2. The remaining uncertainty is caused by nuclear matrix elements. This has important consequences for future double beta decay experiments that aim at ruling out the inverted mass ordering or the Majorana nature of neutrinos.

  12. Future Challenges for Double Beta Decay Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Neutrino oscillation experiments have shown that at least one neutrino has a mass greater than 50 meV. In the inverted hierarchy pattern of neutrino masses, one would expect an effective Majorana neutrino mass of 15 meV or greater. This fact has led to a strong resurgence of interest in neutrinoless double beta decay experiments that can reach this mass target. If this rare nuclear decay process exists it would demonstrate that Lepton number conservation is violated, that neutrinos are their own anti-particles and the decay rate would give an indication of the neutrino mass. This presentation will summarize the double beta decay experimental program with a focus on the technical challenges that will be faced.

  13. Double Beta Decay Measurement with COBRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jeanne R.

    2011-12-01

    The COBRA experiment aims to use a large array of CdZnTe semiconductor detectors to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. Extensive simulation studies and data collected with a small proto-type experiment have been used to address the major design specifications for a large scale experiment sensitive to 116Cd half-lives in excess of 1026 years. The current and future prospects of the COBRA experiment are presented.

  14. Towards a Precise Energy Calibration of the CUORE Double Beta Decay Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dally, Adam G.

    The mass of the neutrino may hold the key to many problems in cosmology and astrophysics. The observation of neutrino oscillations shows that neutrinos have mass, which was something that was not accounted for in the Standard Model of particle physics. This thesis covers topics relating to measuring the value of neutrino mass directly using bolometers. The first section will discuss the neutrino mass and different experiments for measuring the mass using bolometers. The mass of the neutrino can be measured directly from beta-decay or inferred from observation of neutrinoless double beta decay (0nubetabeta). In this work I present Monte Carlo and analytic simulation of the MARE experiment including, pile-up and energy resolution effects. The mass measurement limits of a micro-calorimeter experiments as it relates to the quantity of decays measured is provided. A similar simulation is preformed for the HolMES experiment. The motivation is to determine the sensitivity of such experiments and the detector requirements to reach the goal sensitivity. Another possible method for determining the neutrino mass is to use neutrinoless double beta decay. The second section will cover the Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) detector calibration system (DCS). CUORE is a neutrinoless double beta decay (0nubetabeta) experiment with an active mass of 206 kg of 130Te. The detector consists of 988 TeO2 bolometers operating at 10 mK. The signature of 0 nubetabeta decay is an excess of events at the Q-value of 2528 keV. Understanding the energy response is critical for event identification, but this presents many challenges. Calibration is necessary to associate a known energy from a gamma with a voltage pulse from the detector. The DCS must overcome many design challenges. The calibration source must be placed safely and reliable within the detector. The temperature of the detector region of the cryostat must not be changed during calibration. To achieve this

  15. The high sensitivity double beta spectrometer TGV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briancon, Ch.; Brudanin, V. B.; Egorov, V. G.; Janout, Z.; Koníček, J.; Kovalík, A.; Kovalenko, V. E.; Kubašta, J.; Pospíšil, S.; Revenko, A. V.; Rukhadze, N. I.; Salamatin, A. V.; Sandukovsky, V. G.; Štekl, I.; Timkin, V. V.; Tsupko-Sitnikov, V. V.; Vorobel, V.; Vylov, Ts.

    1996-02-01

    A high sensitivity double beta spectrometer TGV (Telescope Germanium Vertical) has been developed. It is based on 16 HPGe detectors of volume 1200 × 6 mm 3 each in the same cryostat. The TGV spectrometer was proposed for the study of ultrarare nuclear processes (e.g. 2νββ, 0νββ, 2νEC/EC). Details of the TGV spectrometer construction are described, the principles of background suppression, the results of Monte Carlo simulations and the results of test background measurements (in Dubna and Modane underground laboratory) are provided.

  16. Search for neutrinoless double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrovskiy, Igor; O’Sullivan, Kevin

    2016-06-01

    We review current experimental efforts to search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ). A description of the selected leading experiments is given and the strongest recent results are compared in terms of achieved background indexes (BI) and limits on effective Majorana mass. A combined limit is also shown. The second part of the review covers next generation experiments, highlighting the challenges and new technologies that may be necessary to achieve a justifiable discovery potential. A potential synergy with direct dark matter searches, which could be an especially prudent strategy in case the axial vector coupling constant is quenched in 0νββ decay, is emphasized.

  17. COBRA - Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidrich, Nadine

    2012-08-01

    The COBRA experiment is searching for neutrinoless double beta decay using CdZnTe semiconductor detectors. The main focus is on Cd-116, with a decay energy of 2814keV well above the highest naturally occurring gamma lines. Furthermore, Te-130, with a high natural abundance, and Cd-106, a double β+ emitter, are under investigation. Advantageous is the possibility to operate the detectors at room temperature. Besides coplanar grid detectors, pixelised detectors are considered. The latter ones would allow for particle discrimination, therefore providing efficient background reduction. The current status of the experiment is described, including the upgrade of the R&D set-up in spring 2011 at the LNGS underground laboratory, the different detector concepts and the latest half -life limits. Furthermore, studies on the use of liquid scintillator for background suppression and Monte-Carlo simulations are presented.

  18. The NEXT double beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laing, A.; NEXT Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    NEXT (Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC) is a neutrinoless double-beta (ββ0v) decay experiment at Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc (LSC). It is an electroluminescent Time Projection Chamber filled with high pressure 136Xe gas with separated function capabilities for calorimetry and tracking. Energy resolution and background suppression are the two key features of any neutrinoless double beta decay experiment. NEXT has both good energy resolution (< 1% FWHM) and an extra handle for background identification provided by track reconstruction. We expect a background rate of 4 × 10-4 counts keV-1 kg-1 yr-1, and a sensitivity to the Majorana neutrino mass of between 80-160 meV (depending on NME) after a run of 3 effective years of the 100 kg scale NEXT-100 detector. The initial phase of NEXT-100, called NEW, is currently being commissioned at LSC. It will validate the NEXT background rate expectations and will make first measurements of the two neutrino ββ2v mode of 136Xe. Furthermore, the NEXT technique can be extrapolated to the tonne scale, thus allowing the full exploration of the inverted hierarchy of neutrino masses. These proceedings review NEXT R&D results, the status of detector commissioning at LSC and the NEXT physics case.

  19. Neutrinoless double beta decay search with the NEMO 3 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nasteva, Irina

    2008-11-23

    The NEMO 3 experiment searches for neutrinoless double beta decay and makes precision measurements of two-neutrino double beta decay in seven isotopes. The latest two-neutrino half-life results are presented, together with the limits on neutrinoless half-lives and the corresponding effective Majorana neutrino masses. Also given are the limits obtained on neutrinoless double beta decay mediated by R{sub p}-violating SUSY, right-hand currents and different Majoron emission modes.

  20. Liquid Scintillator based experiments in Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, K.; KamLAND-Zen Collaboration

    2012-08-01

    Recent experiments have confirmed neutrino oscillations. The mass structure of neutrinos is one of the next interesting subjects in neutrino physics. Neutrinoless double beta decay has the potential to investigate the mass structure of neutrinos. Many neutrinoless double beta decay experiments are being proposed and some were introduced at this conference. Here we present neutrinoless double beta decay experiments based on liquid scintillator techniques. SNO+ plans to use 150Nd as the neutrinoless double beta decay isotope dissolved in liquid scintillator, similarly KamLAND-Zen will use 136Xe loaded liquid scintillator. The physics goals, schedule and current status of both experiments were discussed.

  1. Correlations and the neutrinoless double beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Menendez, J.; Poves, A.; Caurier, E.; Nowacki, F.

    2009-11-09

    We explore the influence of the deformation on the nuclear matrix elements of the neutrinoless double beta decay (NME), concluding that the difference in deformation -or more generally on the amount of quadrupole correlations- between parent and grand daughter nuclei quenchs strongly the decay. We discuss how varies the nuclear matrix element of {sup 76}Ge decay when the wave functions of the two nuclei involved in the transition are constrained to reproduce the experimental occupancies. In the Interacting Shell Model description the value of the NME is enhanced about 15% compared to previous calculations, whereas in the QRPA the NME's are reduced by 20%-30%, thus, the discrepancies between both approaches diminish.

  2. Theoretical challenges in Double Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, Sabin

    2016-05-01

    The study of the double beta decay (DBD), particularly the neutrino less decay mode, is of great interest for testing the lepton number conservation (LNC) and getting information about neutrino properties, as the neutrinos character (Dirac or Majorana particles?), their absolute mass and hierarchy, etc. [1]-[2]. To make predictions of the DBD lifetimes and put constraints on the neutrino parameters, one needs accurate calculations of the nuclear matrix elements (NME) and phase space factors (PSF) entering the DBD lifetime expressions. In this paper I present recent calculations of these quantities, performed with approaches developed by our group. Then, I compare the theoretical predictions for the two-neutrino (2v) DBD lifetimes, for the most experimentally interesting nuclei, with the experimental ones, and comment on the reliability of the neutrinoless (0v) DBD calculations.

  3. What can we learn from neutrinoless double beta decay experiments?

    SciTech Connect

    Bahcall, John N.; Murayama, Hitoshi; Pena-Garay, Carlos

    2004-04-08

    We assess how well next generation neutrinoless double beta decay and normal neutrino beta decay experiments can answer four fundamental questions. 1) If neutrinoless double beta decay searches do not detect a signal, and if the spectrum is known to be inverted hierarchy, can we conclude that neutrinos are Dirac particles? 2) If neutrinoless double beta decay searches are negative and a next generation ordinary beta decay experiment detects the neutrino mass scale, can we conclude that neutrinos are Dirac particles? 3) If neutrinoless double beta decay is observed with a large neutrino mass element, what is the total mass in neutrinos? 4) If neutrinoless double beta decay is observed but next generation beta decay searches for a neutrino mass only set a mass upper limit, can we establish whether the mass hierarchy is normal or inverted? We base our answers on the expected performance of next generation neutrinoless double beta decay experiments and on simulations of the accuracy of calculations of nuclear matrix elements.

  4. Matrix elements for the ground-state to ground-state 2{nu}{beta}{sup -}{beta}{sup -} decay of Te isotopes in a hybrid model

    SciTech Connect

    Bes, D. R.; Civitarese, O.

    2010-01-15

    Theoretical matrix elements, for the ground-state to ground-state two-neutrino double-{beta}-decay mode (2{nu}{beta}{sup -}{beta}{sup -}gs->gs) of {sup 128,130}Te isotopes, are calculated within a formalism that describes interactions between neutrons in a superfluid phase and protons in a normal phase. The elementary degrees of freedom of the model are proton-pair modes and pairs of protons and quasineutrons. The calculation is basically a parameter-free one, because all relevant parameters are fixed from the phenomenology. A comparison with the available experimental data is presented.

  5. The GERDA Neutrinoless Double Beta-Decay Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Majorovits, Bela A.

    2007-10-12

    Neutrinoless double beta (0{nu}{beta}{beta})-decay is the key process to gain understanding of the nature of neutrinos. The GErmanium Detector Array (GERDA) is designed to search for 0{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay of the isotope {sup 76}Ge. Germanium crystals enriched in {sup 76}Ge, acting as source and detector simultaneously, will be submerged directly into an ultra pure cooling medium that also serves as a radiation shield. This concept will allow for a reduction of the background by up to two orders of magnitudes with respect to earlier experiments.

  6. Status and Perspectives of Double Beta Decay Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuber, K.

    2015-11-01

    Double beta decay is an extremely rare process and requires half-life measurements around 1020 years for the neutrino accompanied and well beyond that for the neutrinoless mode. The current status of the search will be discussed.

  7. Neutrino mass ordering in future neutrinoless double beta decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jue

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by recent intensive experimental efforts on searching for neutrinoless double beta decays, we present a detailed quantitative analysis on the prospect of resolving neutrino mass ordering in the next generation 76Ge-type experiments.

  8. No-neutrino double beta decay: more than one neutrino

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Interference effects between light and heavy Majorana neutrinos in the amplitude for no-neutrino double beta decay are discussed. The effects include an upper bound on the heavy neutrino mass, and an A dependence for the effective mass extracted from double beta decay. Thus the search for the no-neutrino decay mode should be pursued in several nuclei, and particularly in Ca/sup 48/, where the effective mass may be quite large.

  9. Neutrinoless double-beta decay and neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodejohann, Werner

    2012-12-01

    The connection of neutrino physics with the neutrinoless double-beta decay is reviewed. After presenting the current status of the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata matrix and the theoretical background of neutrino mass and lepton mixing, we will summarize the various implications of neutrino physics for the double-beta decay. The influence of light sterile neutrinos and other exotic modifications of the three neutrino picture is also discussed.

  10. Theory of neutrinoless double-beta decay.

    PubMed

    Vergados, J D; Ejiri, H; Simkovic, F

    2012-10-01

    Neutrinoless double-beta decay, which is a very old and yet elusive process, is reviewed. Its observation will signal that the lepton number is not conserved and that the neutrinos are Majorana particles. More importantly it is our best hope for determining the absolute neutrino-mass scale at the level of a few tens of meV. To achieve the last goal certain hurdles must be overcome involving particle, nuclear and experimental physics. Nuclear physics is important for extracting useful information from the data. One must accurately evaluate the relevant nuclear matrix elements--a formidable task. To this end, we review the sophisticated nuclear structure approaches which have recently been developed, and which give confidence that the required nuclear matrix elements can be reliably calculated employing different methods: (a) the various versions of the quasiparticle random phase approximations, (b) the interacting boson model, (c) the energy density functional method and (d) the large basis interacting shell model. It is encouraging that, for the light neutrino-mass term at least, these vastly different approaches now give comparable results. From an experimental point of view it is challenging, since the life times are long and one has to fight against formidable backgrounds. One needs large isotopically enriched sources and detectors with high-energy resolution, low thresholds and very low background. If a signal is found, it will be a tremendous accomplishment. The real task then, of course, will be the extraction of the neutrino mass from the observations. This is not trivial, since current particle models predict the presence of many mechanisms other than the neutrino mass, which may contribute to or even dominate this process. In particular, we will consider the following processes: The neutrino induced, but neutrino-mass independent contribution. Heavy left and/or right-handed neutrino-mass contributions. Intermediate scalars (doubly charged, etc

  11. Theory of neutrinoless double-beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergados, J. D.; Ejiri, H.; Šimkovic, F.

    2012-10-01

    Neutrinoless double-beta decay, which is a very old and yet elusive process, is reviewed. Its observation will signal that the lepton number is not conserved and that the neutrinos are Majorana particles. More importantly it is our best hope for determining the absolute neutrino-mass scale at the level of a few tens of meV. To achieve the last goal certain hurdles must be overcome involving particle, nuclear and experimental physics. Nuclear physics is important for extracting useful information from the data. One must accurately evaluate the relevant nuclear matrix elements—a formidable task. To this end, we review the sophisticated nuclear structure approaches which have recently been developed, and which give confidence that the required nuclear matrix elements can be reliably calculated employing different methods: (a) the various versions of the quasiparticle random phase approximations, (b) the interacting boson model, (c) the energy density functional method and (d) the large basis interacting shell model. It is encouraging that, for the light neutrino-mass term at least, these vastly different approaches now give comparable results. From an experimental point of view it is challenging, since the life times are long and one has to fight against formidable backgrounds. One needs large isotopically enriched sources and detectors with high-energy resolution, low thresholds and very low background. If a signal is found, it will be a tremendous accomplishment. The real task then, of course, will be the extraction of the neutrino mass from the observations. This is not trivial, since current particle models predict the presence of many mechanisms other than the neutrino mass, which may contribute to or even dominate this process. In particular, we will consider the following processes: The neutrino induced, but neutrino-mass independent contribution. Heavy left and/or right-handed neutrino-mass contributions. Intermediate scalars (doubly charged, etc

  12. Complementarity of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay and Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, Scott; Lykken, Joseph

    2014-03-20

    Neutrinoless double beta decay experiments constrain one combination of neutrino parameters, while cosmic surveys constrain another. This complementarity opens up an exciting range of possibilities. If neutrinos are Majorana particles, and the neutrino masses follow an inverted hierarchy, then the upcoming sets of both experiments will detect signals. The combined constraints will pin down not only the neutrino masses but also constrain one of the Majorana phases. If the hierarchy is normal, then a beta decay detection with the upcoming generation of experiments is unlikely, but cosmic surveys could constrain the sum of the masses to be relatively heavy, thereby producing a lower bound for the neutrinoless double beta decay rate, and therefore an argument for a next generation beta decay experiment. In this case as well, a combination of the phases will be constrained.

  13. Measurement of the ββ decay half-life of 130Te with the NEMO-3 detector.

    PubMed

    Arnold, R; Augier, C; Baker, J; Barabash, A S; Basharina-Freshville, A; Blondel, S; Bongrand, M; Broudin-Bay, G; Brudanin, V; Caffrey, A J; Chapon, A; Chauveau, E; Durand, D; Egorov, V; Flack, R; Garrido, X; Grozier, J; Guillon, B; Hubert, Ph; Hugon, C; Jackson, C M; Jullian, S; Kauer, M; Klimenko, A; Kochetov, O; Konovalov, S I; Kovalenko, V; Lalanne, D; Lamhamdi, T; Lang, K; Liptak, Z; Lutter, G; Mamedov, F; Marquet, Ch; Martin-Albo, J; Mauger, F; Mott, J; Nachab, A; Nemchenok, I; Nguyen, C H; Nova, F; Novella, P; Ohsumi, H; Pahlka, R B; Perrot, F; Piquemal, F; Reyss, J L; Richards, B; Ricol, J S; Saakyan, R; Sarazin, X; Simard, L; Simkovic, F; Shitov, Yu; Smolnikov, A; Söldner-Rembold, S; Stekl, I; Suhonen, J; Sutton, C S; Szklarz, G; Thomas, J; Timkin, V; Torre, S; Tretyak, V I; Umatov, V; Vála, L; Vanyushin, I; Vasiliev, V; Vorobel, V; Vylov, Ts; Zukauskas, A

    2011-08-01

    We report results from the NEMO-3 experiment based on an exposure of 1275 days with 661 g of (130)Te in the form of enriched and natural tellurium foils. The ββ decay rate of (130)Te is found to be greater than zero with a significance of 7.7 standard deviations and the half-life is measured to be T(½)(2ν) = [7.0 ± 0.9(stat) ± 1.1(syst)] × 10(20) yr. This represents the most precise measurement of this half-life yet published and the first real-time observation of this decay. PMID:21902318

  14. Status of the COBRA double beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuber, Kai

    2010-01-01

    The current status of the COBRA experiment is described. Results on the 4-fold forbidden beta decay of 113Cd and a variety of double beta decay limits of Cd, Zn and Te isotopes are presented based on 18 kg × days of exposure with an array of sixteen CdZnTe semiconductor detectors. A short description on the activities with pixelated detectors for tracking is given.

  15. The status of the COBRA double-beta-decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuber, K.

    2010-04-01

    The current status of the COBRA experiment is described. Results on the fourfold-forbidden beta decay of 113Cd and a variety of double-beta-decay limits for Cd, Zn and Te isotopes are presented, based on 18 kg× days of exposure with an array of sixteen CdZnTe semiconductor detectors. A short description of the activities with pixelated detectors for tracking is given.

  16. Majorana neutrino masses and the neutrinoless double-beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Faessler, A.

    2006-12-15

    Neutrinoless double-beta decay is forbidden in the Standard Model of electroweak and strong interaction but allowed in most Grand Unified Theories (GUTs). Only if the neutrino is a Majorana particle (identical with its antiparticle) and if it has a mass is neutrinoless double-beta decay allowed. Apart from one claim that the neutrinoless double-beta decay in {sup 76}Ge is measured, one has only upper limits for this transition probability. But even the upper limits allow one to give upper limits for the electron Majorana neutrino mass and upper limits for parameters of GUTs and the minimal R-parity-violating supersymmetric model. One further can give lower limits for the vector boson mediating mainly the right-handed weak interaction and the heavy mainly right-handed Majorana neutrino in left-right symmetric GUTs. For that, one has to assume that the specific mechanism is the leading one for neutrinoless double-beta decay and one has to be able to calculate reliably the corresponding nuclear matrix elements. In the present work, one discusses the accuracy of the present status of calculating of the nuclear matrix elements and the corresponding limits of GUTs and supersymmetric parameters.

  17. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay and {nu}-Mass Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Pedretti, M.

    2005-10-12

    The search for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay could improve our knowledge on neutrino properties. After a brief discussion on the implications of the observation of this rare process, I will introduce the experimental approaches and review the prospects of the search for this nuclear transition.

  18. Computer code for double beta decay QRPA based calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Barbero, C. A.; Mariano, A.; Krmpotić, F.; Samana, A. R.; Ferreira, V. dos Santos; Bertulani, C. A.

    2014-11-11

    The computer code developed by our group some years ago for the evaluation of nuclear matrix elements, within the QRPA and PQRPA nuclear structure models, involved in neutrino-nucleus reactions, muon capture and β{sup ±} processes, is extended to include also the nuclear double beta decay.

  19. The Majorana Double Beta Decay Experiment: Present Status

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo, Estanislao; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Beene, Jim; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, C. D.; Collar, J. I.; Combs, Dustin C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M. P.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Horton, Mark; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keller, C.; Kidd, M. F.; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Merriman, Jason H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips II, D. G.; Poon, Alan; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C.

    2013-06-01

    The Majorana collaboration is actively pursuing research and development aimed at a tonne-scale 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment, an R&D effort that will field approximately 40 kg of germanium detectors with mixed enrichment levels. This article provides a status update on the construction of the Demonstrator

  20. Extra dimensions and neutrinoless double beta decay experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gozdz, Marek; Kaminski, Wieslaw A.; Faessler, Amand

    2005-05-01

    The neutrinoless double beta decay is one of the few phenomena, belonging to the nonstandard physics, which is extensively being sought for in experiments. In the present paper the link between the half-life of the neutrinoless double beta decay and theories with large extra dimensions is explored. The use of the sensitivities of currently planned 0{nu}2{beta} experiments: DAMA, CANDLES, COBRA, DCBA, CAMEO, GENIUS, GEM, MAJORANA, MOON, CUORE, EXO, and XMASS, gives the possibility for a nondirect 'experimental' verification of various extra dimensional scenarios. We discuss also the results of the Heidelberg-Moscow Collaboration. The calculations are based on the Majorana neutrino mass generation mechanism in the Arkani-Hamed-Dimopoulos-Dvali model.

  1. Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata parameters from neutrino oscillations, single beta decay, and double beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, K.; Takeda, N.; Fukuyama, T.; Nishiura, H.

    2001-07-01

    We examine the constraints on the Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata lepton mixing matrix from the present and future experimental data of neutrino oscillation, tritium beta decay, and neutrinoless double beta decay for the Majorana neutrinos. We show that the small mixing angle solutions for solar neutrino problem are disfavored for small averaged mass ({l_angle}m{sub {nu}}{r_angle}) of neutrinoless double beta decay ({le}0.01 eV) in the inverse neutrino mass hierarchy scenario. This is the case even in the normal mass hierarchy scenario except for a very restrictive value of the averaged neutrino mass ({ovr m{sub {nu}}}) of single beta decay. The lower mass bound for {ovr m{sub {nu}}} is given from the present neutrino oscillation data. We obtain some relations between {l_angle}m{sub {nu}}{r_angle} and {ovr m{sub {nu}}}. The constraints on the Majorana CP violating phases are also given.

  2. MAJORANA Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay DUSEL R&D

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, John F.

    2009-09-04

    The Majorana research and development is addressing key issues and risks related to the collaboration's goal of undertaking a search for neutrinoless double-beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) in {sup 76}Ge using an array of hyper-pure Ge-diodes (HPGe). The observation of this decay would provide critical insight into our understanding of neutrinos, yielding definitive evidence that neutrinos are Majorana particles and providing information on the absolute mass of neutrinos. Achieving sensitivities to 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay half-lives on the order of 10{sup 26} years requires ultra-low backgrounds in the 2039 keV region where a 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay peak would be observed. The goal of our R&D program has been to demonstrate the feasibility of all components of Majorana and to provide an integrated evaluation framework, allowing for optimization of these components in terms of background, background suppression, and signal detection efficiency and acceptance. This report covers work carried out by Majorana collaboration members at the University of Washington as part of the overall Majorana collaboration activities. Specifically the Majorana group at the University of Washington was involved in moving forward on demonstrating technology for clean large-scale cryostats and mounting the HPGe crystals in low-mass holders. The UW activities included assistance in the procurement and assembly of an electroforming system for large size cryostats, and design and fabrication of prototype crystal mounting hardware.

  3. Nuclear-structure aspects of double beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Suhonen, Jouni

    2010-11-24

    Neutrinoless double beta (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay of nuclei is a process that requires the neutrino to be a massive Majorana particle and thus cannot proceed in the standard model of electro-weak interactions. Recent results of the neutrino-oscillation experiments have produced accurate information on the mixing of neutrinos and their squared mass differences. The 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay takes place in atomic nuclei where it can be observed, at least in principle, by underground neutrino experiments. The need of nuclei in observation of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay bears two facets: The nucleus serves as laboratory for detection but at the same time its complicated many-nucleon structure interferes strongly with the analysis of the experimental data. The information about the weak-interaction observables, like the neutrino mass, has to be filtered from the data through the nuclear matrix elements (NMEs). Hence, exact knowledge about the NMEs is of paramount importance in the analysis of the data provided by the expensive and time-consuming underground experiments.

  4. Two-Neutrino Double-Beta Decay.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerard Ortego, Carlos-Kjell

    1992-01-01

    Two previous independent reports of 2 nubetabeta-decay by the ITEP-YPI collaboration, rm T_sp{1/2} {2nu}=(9+/- 1) times 10^ {20} yr (1sigma), and PNL-USC group, rm T_sp{1/2 }{2nu}=(1.12_sp{-0.26} {+0.48}) times 10^{21} yr (2sigma), were confirmed using a 0.25 Kg Ge(Li) detector isotopically enriched to 86% in ^{76}Ge. The detector was operated in the PNL-USC ultralow background facility in the Homestake gold mine for 168 days. Following a single correction to the data, a spectrum resembling that of the earlier PNL-USC experiment, with about the same intensity per ^{76}Ge atom, per year, was observed with a measured half life of rm T_sp{1/2}{2nu}=(9.2 _sp{-0.4}{+0.7} times 10 ^{20} y (2sigma). This experiment is one of two presented in this dissertation as original work. The half-life of the 2nubeta beta-decay of ^{100} Mo to the 1130 keV level of ^{100 }Ru has been measured to be rm T_{1/2}=(1.1_sp{-0.2} {+0.3}) times 10^{21} y (90% C.L.), by observing the 590.76 and 539.53 keV gamma rays emitted in the 0_sp{1}{+ }to 2^+to 0^+ de -excitation cascade. A review of the most relevant nuclear structure calculations is given, and their predictions are compared to the measurements from our two experiments.

  5. Status and perspectives of the COBRA double beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiel, Henning; COBRA Collaboration

    2006-05-01

    The COBRA experiment is going to use a large amount of CdZnTe semiconductor detectors to perform a search for various double beta decay modes. The current status of the experiment is presented, as well as first results. A half-life measurement of the 4-fold forbidden non-unique beta-decay of 113Cd has been performed. Improved half-life limits for the ground state transitions of 64Zn for 0νβ+/EC and 0νEC/EC have been obtained. A short outlook on future activities is given.

  6. New Limit on the Neutrinoless ββ Decay of 130Te

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaboldi, C.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T., III; Balata, M.; Bandac, I.; Barucci, M.; Beeman, J. W.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Capelli, S.; Carbone, L.; Cebrian, S.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; de Waard, A.; Farach, H. A.; Fiorini, E.; Frossati, G.; Guardincerri, E.; Giuliani, A.; Gorla, P.; Haller, E. E.; McDonald, R. J.; Morales, A.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; Olivieri, E.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, E.; Pasca, E.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pessina, G.; Pirro, S.; Previtali, E.; Risegari, L.; Rosenfeld, C.; Sangiorgio, S.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Torres, L.; Ventura, G.

    2005-09-01

    We report the present results of CUORICINO, a search for neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay of Te130. The detector is an array of 62 TeO2 bolometers with a total active mass of 40.7 kg. The array is cooled by a dilution refrigerator shielded from environmental radioactivity and energetic neutrons, operated at ˜8mK in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory. No evidence for (0νββ) decay was found and a new lower limit, T1/20ν≥1.8×1024yr (90% C.L.) is set, corresponding to ⟨mν⟩≤0.2 to 1.1 eV, depending on the theoretical nuclear matrix elements used in the analysis.

  7. GERDA - a new neutrinoless double beta experiment using 76Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierhofer, G.; GERDA Collaboration

    2011-09-01

    The search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νßß) has been a very active field for the last decades. While double beta decay has been observed, 0νßß decay still waits for its experimental proof. The GErmanium Detector Array (GERDA) uses 76Ge, an ideal candidate as it is acting as source and detector simultaneously. Germanium detectors, isotopically enriched in 76Ge are submerged directly into an ultra pure cryo liquid, which serves as coolant and radiation shield. This concept will allow to reduce the background by up to two orders of magnitude with respect to earlier experiments. GERDA has been constructed in hall A of the underground laboratory LNGS of the INFN in Italy. The experiment started recently with a test run.

  8. Inverse Beta Decay Reconstruction in the Double Chooz Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norrick, Anne

    2010-02-01

    The Double Chooz Experiment will search for neutrino oscillations using the ``Inverse Beta-Decay'' (IBD) interactions of electron antineutrinos from a nuclear reactor in Chooz, France. The experiment needs to isolate IBD events by detecting and reconstructing the positions and deposited energies of the outgoing positron and neutron. Methods for isolating this process will be described. In addition, results of simulation studies of two different reconstruction algorithms will be presented and their performances compared. )

  9. MeV neutrinos in double {beta} decay

    SciTech Connect

    Zuber, K.

    1997-08-01

    The effect of Majorana neutrinos in the MeV mass range on the double {beta} decay of various isotopes is studied on pure phenomenological arguments. By using only experimental half-life data, limits on the mixing parameter U{sub eh}{sup 2} of the order 10{sup {minus}7} can be derived. Also the possible achievements of upcoming experiments and some consequences are outlined. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. The Majorana Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiseppe, Vincente

    2014-09-01

    Neutrinoless double-beta decay searches play a major role in determining the nature of neutrinos, the existence of a lepton violating process, and the effective Majorana neutrino mass. The Majorana Collaboration is assembling an array of high purity Ge detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. The Majorana Demonstrator, containing 40 kg (30 kg enriched in 76Ge) of Ge detectors, is currently being constructed and commissioned at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota. The initial goals are to demonstrate the required background and scalability of a Ge-based, tonne-scale experiment. The status and potential physics reach of the Majorana Demonstrator experiment will be presented. Neutrinoless double-beta decay searches play a major role in determining the nature of neutrinos, the existence of a lepton violating process, and the effective Majorana neutrino mass. The Majorana Collaboration is assembling an array of high purity Ge detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. The Majorana Demonstrator, containing 40 kg (30 kg enriched in 76Ge) of Ge detectors, is currently being constructed and commissioned at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota. The initial goals are to demonstrate the required background and scalability of a Ge-based, tonne-scale experiment. The status and potential physics reach of the Majorana Demonstrator experiment will be presented. We acknowledge support from the Office of Nuclear Physics in the DOE Office of Science, the Particle and Nuclear Astrophysics Program of the National Science Foundation and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research.

  11. Sensitivity of CUORE to Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay

    SciTech Connect

    CUORE; Alessandria, F.; Andreotti, E.; Ardito, R.; Arnaboldi, C.; Avignone III, F. T.; Balata, M.; Bandac, I.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Bloxham, T.; Brofferio, C.; Bryant, A.; Bucci, C.; Cai, X. Z.; Canonica, L.; Capelli, S.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Carrettoni, M.; Casali, N.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Dafinei, I.; Dally, A.; Biasi, A. De; Decowski, M. P.; Deninno, M. M.; Waard, A. de; Domizio, S. Di; Ejzak, L.; Faccini, R.; Fang, D. Q.; Farach, H. A.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Foggetta, L.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Frossati, G.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Guardincerri, E.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Heeger, K. M.; Huang, H. Z.; Ichimura, K.; Kadel, R.; Kazkaz, K.; Keppel, G.; Kogler, L.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kraft, S.; Lenz, D.; Li, Y. L.; Liu, X.; Longo, E.; Ma, Y. G.; Maiano, C.; Maier, G.; Maino, M.; Mancini, C.; Martinez, C.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Napolitano, T.; Newman, S.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; Orio, F.; Orlandi, D.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pessina, G.; Pirro, S.; Previtali, E.; Rampazzo, V.; Rimondi, F.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Salvioni, C.; Sangiorgio, S.; Schaeffer, D.; Scielzo, N. D.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Stivanello, F.; Taffarello, L.; Terenziani, G.; Tian, W. D.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Whitten Jr., C. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Xu, N.; Zanotti, L.; Zarra, C.; Zhu, B. X.; Zucchelli, S.

    2011-11-23

    In this paper, we study the sensitivity of CUORE, a bolometric double-beta decay experiment under construction at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy. Two approaches to the computation of experimental sensitivity are discussed and compared, and the formulas and parameters used in the sensitivity estimates are provided. Assuming a background rate of 10{sup -2} cts/(keV kg y), we find that, after 5 years of live time, CUORE will have a 1 {sigma} sensitivity to the neutrinoless double-beta decay half-life of {caret T{sup 0{nu}}{sub 1/2}}(1{sigma} ) = 1.6x 10{sup 26} y and thus a potential to probe the effective Majorana neutrino mass down to 41-95 meV; the sensitivity at 1.64{sigma} , which corresponds to 90% C.L., will be {caret T{sup 0{nu}}{sub 1/2}(1.64{sigma} }) = 9.5x10{sup 25} y. This range is compared with the claim of observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay in {sup 76}Ge and the preferred range in the neutrino mass parameter space from oscillation results.

  12. Capturing relic neutrinos with {beta}- and double {beta}-decaying nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hodak, Rastislav; Kovalenko, Sergey; Simkovic, Fedor

    2009-11-09

    Neutrinos are probably one of the most important structural constituents of the Universe. The Big Bang Theory predicts that the significant component of them is formed by the cosmic neutrino background, an analogues of the big bang relic photons comprising the cosmic microwave background radiation, which has been measured with amazing accuracy. Properties of the relic neutrino background are closely related to the ones of the cosmic microwave radiation. Relic neutrinos pervade space, but their temperature is extremely small, being of the order of 0.1 meV. Although belonging to the most abundant particles of the Universe, the relic neutrinos evade direct detection so far. This is because the low-energy neutrinos interact only very weakly with matter. In this contribution, we explore the feasibility to detect the cosmic neutrino background by means of {beta}-decaying ({sup 3}H and {sup 187}Re) and double beta decaying ({sup 100}Mo) nuclei. In addition, we address the question whether double relic neutrino capture on nuclei can be an obstacle for observation of neutrinoless double {beta}-decay.

  13. Double-beta decay: Some recent results and developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avignone, F. T.

    A brief review and status of theoretical issues associated with double-beta decay (ββ-decay) is given. The final results of the measurement of 2ν ββ-decay of 100Mo to the first excited 0 + state in 100Ru are presented prior to publication. Corrections to the earlier PNL/USC/ITEP/YPI measurement of 2ν ββ-decay of 76Ge are also given prior to publication. Finally, a status report and first results of the phase-I of the International Germanium Experiment (IGEX) are presented.

  14. Values of the phase space factors for double beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Stoica, Sabin Mirea, Mihai

    2015-10-28

    We report an up-date list of the experimentally most interesting phase space factors for double beta decay (DBD). The electron/positron wave functions are obtained by solving the Dirac equations with a Coulomb potential derived from a realistic proton density distribution in nucleus and with inclusion of the finite nuclear size (FNS) and electron screening (ES) effects. We build up new numerical routines which allow us a good control of the accuracy of calculations. We found several notable differences as compared with previous results reported in literature and possible sources of these discrepancies are discussed.

  15. The Nuclear and Particle Physics of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haxton, Wick

    2014-03-01

    Fortuitous properties of nuclei allow us to isolate and study the rare second-order weak process of double beta decay. In particular, the decay channel in which a final state of two electrons and no neutrinos is produced - neutrinoless double beta decay - provides our best test of lepton number conservation and the Majorana mass of the electron neutrino. I will describe the connections between this process and the charge conjugation properties of the neutrino, including the possibility that the presence of both Dirac and Majorana masses accounts for the anomalous scale of neutrino masses. The extraordinary progress made over the past two decades has prepared the way for next-generation experiments that will probe Majorana masses at levels where nonzero rates may be found, given what we now know about neutrino mass splittings. I will describe some of the heroic efforts underway to develop detectors of unprecedented size, radiopurity, depth, and thus sensitivity. Work supported by the Office of Science, US DOE.

  16. Background Reduction For Germanium Double Beta Decay Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, H.; Cebrian, S.; Morales, J.; Villar, J. A.

    2007-03-28

    The new generation experiments to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge (Q{beta}{beta}=2039keV) using enriched germanium detectors, need to reach a background level of {approx}10-3 c keV-1 kg-1 y-1 in the Region of Interest (RoI: 2-2.1 MeV) that would have, for 70 kg of germanium enriched to 86% in 76Ge, 3 keV of FWHM and 5 years of measuring time, a sensitivity on the effective neutrino mass of {<=} 40 meV. To reduce the background level close to the value needed, we have to combine several techniques. Three of the most important points to study are: segmentation and granularity of the crystal and spatial resolution of the detector directly correlated with an offline Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA). Preliminary studies about these strategies for background reduction were developed during last months, obtaining some promising results.

  17. Shell model nuclear matrix elements for competing mechanisms contributing to double beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Horoi, Mihai

    2013-12-30

    Recent progress in the shell model approach to the nuclear matrix elements for the double beta decay process are presented. This includes nuclear matrix elements for competing mechanisms to neutrionless double beta decay, a comparison between closure and non-closure approximation for {sup 48}Ca, and an updated shell model analysis of nuclear matrix elements for the double beta decay of {sup 136}Xe.

  18. Effect of cancellation in neutrinoless double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Manimala; Pascoli, Silvia; Wong, Steven

    2014-11-01

    In light of recent experimental results, we carefully analyze the effects of interference in neutrinoless double beta decay, when more than one mechanism is operative. If a complete cancellation is at work, the half-life of the corresponding isotope is infinite, and any constraint on it will automatically be satisfied. We analyze this possibility in detail assuming a cancellation in Xe 136 , and find its implications on the half-life of other isotopes, such as Ge 76 . For definiteness, we consider the role of light and heavy sterile neutrinos. In this case, the effective Majorana mass parameter can be redefined to take into account all contributions, and its value gets suppressed. Hence, larger values of neutrino masses are required for the same half-life. The canonical light neutrino contribution cannot saturate the present limits of half-lives or the positive claim of observation of neutrinoless double beta decay, once the stringent bounds from cosmology are taken into account. For the case of cancellation, where all the sterile neutrinos are heavy, the tension between the results from neutrinoless double beta decay and cosmology becomes more severe. We show that the inclusion of light sterile neutrinos in this setup can resolve this issue. Using the recent results from GERDA, we derive upper limits on the active-sterile mixing angles and compare them with the case of no cancellation. The required values of the mixing angles become larger, if a cancellation is at work. A direct test of destructive interference in Xe 136 is provided by the observation of this process in other isotopes, and we study in detail the correlation between their half-lives. Finally, we discuss the model realizations which can accommodate light and heavy sterile neutrinos and the cancellation. We show that sterile neutrinos of few hundred MeV or GeV mass range, coming

  19. Study of 48Ca double beta decay by CANDLES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, I.; Kishimoto, T.; Umehara, S.; Ito, G.; Yasuda, K.; Kakubata, H.; Miyashita, M.; Takubo, K.; Matsuoka, K.; Nomachi, M.; Saka, M.; Seki, K.; Fushimi, K.; Hazama, R.; Ohsumi, H.; Okada, K.; Tamagawa, Y.; Jinno, T.; Fujiwara, N.; Yoshida, S.; CANDLES Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    CANDLES is the project to search for double beta decay (DBD) of 48Ca by using CaF2 scintillators. The Q-value of 48Ca, which is the highest (4.27 MeV) among potential DBD nuclei, is far above energies of γ-rays from natural radioactivities (maximum 2.615 MeV from 208Tl decay), therefore we can naturally expect small backgrounds in the energy region we are interested in. We have constructed the prototype detector, CANDLES III in our laboratory (Osaka U.) at sea level and studied the basic performance of the system, including the light collection, position reconstruction and background rejection. After R&D study we moved the detector system to new experimental room at Kamioka underground laboratory. Herein the expected performances and current status of the CANDLES system are described.

  20. The Majorana Search for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazkaz, K.; Majorana Collaboration

    2005-06-01

    The Majorana experiment[ nucl-ex/0311013] is a proposed 76Ge-based search for neutrinoless double-beta (0 νββ) decay and dark matter (DM). It will use segmented, enriched germanium detectors in a close-pack configuration. With 500 kg of germanium, Majorana would be expected to reach a sensitivity to the 0 νββ decay half-life of 10 27 years, corresponding to a neutrino mass near the atmospheric mass scale. Current development efforts are presented, along with performance expectations and background reduction methods. Additionally, the status of the related detectors SEGA (Segmented Enriched Germanium Assembly) and MEGA[Kazkaz, K., Aalseth, C.E., Hossbach, T.W., Gehman, V.M., Kephart, J.D., Miley, H.S., IEEE Trans. Nuc. Sci. 51 (2004) 1029] (Multi-Element Gamma Assay) are presented. Current simulation efforts will be presented in a parallel poster by Reyco Henning.

  1. Recent results from cosmology and neutrinoless double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell’Oro, Stefano; Marcocci, Simone

    2016-05-01

    We quantify the impact of cosmological surveys on the search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0vββ) within the hypothesis that the 0vββ rate is dominated by the Majorana mass of ordinary neutrinos. In particular, we exploit the potential relevance of the work of Palanque-Delabrouille et al. [JCAP 1502, 045 (2015)], whose result seems to favor the normal hierarchy spectrum for the light neutrino masses. The impact of our analysis for the future generation of 0vββ experiments is quite dramatic and motivates further cosmological studies, both theoretically and experimentally. In fact, the allowed values for the Majorana Effective Mass turn out to be < 75meV at 3σ C.L, lowering down to less than 20 meV at 1σ C.L.

  2. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y. -D.; et al

    2014-01-01

    Tmore » he M ajorana D emonstrator will search for the neutrinoless double-beta ( β β 0 ν ) decay of the isotope Ge with a mixed array of enriched and natural germanium detectors.he observation of this rare decay would indicate that the neutrino is its own antiparticle, demonstrate that lepton number is not conserved, and provide information on the absolute mass scale of the neutrino.he D emonstrator is being assembled at the 4850-foot level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota.he array will be situated in a low-background environment and surrounded by passive and active shielding. Here we describe the science goals of the D emonstrator and the details of its design. « less

  3. Radiopurity control in the NEXT-100 double beta decay experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Álvarez, V.; Cárcel, S.; Cervera, A.; Díaz, J.; Ferrario, P.; Gil, A.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; Laing, A.; Liubarsky, I.; Lorca, D.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez, A.; Monrabal, F.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Rodríguez, J.; Serra, L.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; and others

    2013-08-08

    An extensive material screening and selection process is underway in the construction of the 'Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC' (NEXT), intended to investigate neutrinoless double beta decay using a high-pressure xenon gas TPC filled with 100 kg of Xe enriched in {sup 136}Xe. Determination of the radiopurity levels of the materials is based on gamma-ray spectroscopy using ultra-low background germanium detectors at the Laboratorio Subterráneo de Canfranc (Spain) and also on Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry. Materials to be used in the shielding, pressure vessel, electroluminescence and high voltage components and energy and tracking readout planes have been already taken into consideration. The measurements carried out are presented, describing the techniques and equipment used, and the results obtained are shown, discussing their implications for the NEXT experiment.

  4. Ground state occupation probabilities of neutrinoless double beta decay candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotila, Jenni; Barea, Jose

    2015-10-01

    A better understanding of nuclear structure can offer important constraints on the calculation of 0 νββ nuclear matrix elements. A simple way to consider differences between initial and final states of neutrinoless double beta decay candidates is to look at the ground state occupation probabilities of initial and final nuclei. As is well known, microscopic interacting boson model (IBM-2) has found to be very useful in the description of detailed aspects of nuclear structure. In this talk I will present results for ground state occupation probabilities obtained using IBM-2 for several interesting candidates of 0 νββ -decay. Comparison with recent experimental results is also made. This work was supported Academy of Finland (Project 266437) and Chilean Ministry of Education (Fondecyt Grant No. 1150564),

  5. Neutrinoless double-beta decay in covariant density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Ring, P.; Yao, J. M.; Song, L. S.; Hagino, K.; Meng, J.

    2015-10-15

    We use covariant density functional theory beyond mean field in order to describe neutrinoless double-beta decay in a fully relativistic way. The dynamic effects of particle-number and angular-momentum conservations as well as shape fluctuations of quadrupole character are taken into account within the generator coordinate method for both initial and final nuclei. The calculations are based on the full relativistic transition operator. The nuclear matrix elements (NME’s) for a large number of possible transitions are investigated. The results are compared with various non-relativistic calculations, in particular also with the density functional theory based on the Gogny force. We find that the non-relativistic approximation is justified and that the total NME’s can be well approximated by the pure axial-vector coupling term. This corresponds to a considerable reduction of the computational effort.

  6. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, Estanislao; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Combs, Dustin C.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, Reyco; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; Luke, P.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Mertens, S.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; O'Shaughnessy, Mark D.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips, David; Poon, Alan; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Snyder, N.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Suriano, Anne-Marie; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, Werner; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; White, Brandon R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Williams, T.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The Majorana Demonstrator will search for the neutrinoless double-beta (ββ (0ν)) decay of the isotope 76Ge with a mixed array of enriched and natural germanium detectors. The observation of this rare decay would indicate that the neutrino is its own antiparticle, demonstrate that lepton number is not conserved, and provide information on the absolute mass scale of the neutrino. TheDemonstrator is being assembled at the 4850-foot level of the SanfordUnderground Research Facility in Lead, SouthDakota. The array will be situated in a low-background environment and surrounded by passive and active shielding. Here we describe the science goals of the Demonstrator and the details of its design.

  7. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, Estanislao; Avignone, Frank T.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Combs, Dustin C.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, Reyco; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; Luke, P.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Mertens, S.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips, David; Poon, Alan; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Snyder, N.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Suriano, Anne-Marie; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, Werner; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; White, Brandon R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Williams, T.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

    2014-06-01

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR will search for the neutrinoless double-beta (ββ(0ν)) decay of the isotope 76Ge with a mixed array of enriched and natural germanium detectors. The observation of this rare decay would indicate that the neutrino is its own antiparticle, demonstrate that lepton number is not conserved, and provide information on the absolute mass scale of the neutrino. The DEMONSTRATOR is being assembled at the 4850-foot level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota. The array will be situated in a low-background environment and surrounded by passive and active shielding. Here we describe the science goals of the DEMONSTRATOR and the details of its design.

  8. Neutrinoless double-beta decay in covariant density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ring, P.; Yao, J. M.; Song, L. S.; Hagino, K.; Meng, J.

    2015-10-01

    We use covariant density functional theory beyond mean field in order to describe neutrinoless double-beta decay in a fully relativistic way. The dynamic effects of particle-number and angular-momentum conservations as well as shape fluctuations of quadrupole character are taken into account within the generator coordinate method for both initial and final nuclei. The calculations are based on the full relativistic transition operator. The nuclear matrix elements (NME's) for a large number of possible transitions are investigated. The results are compared with various non-relativistic calculations, in particular also with the density functional theory based on the Gogny force. We find that the non-relativistic approximation is justified and that the total NME's can be well approximated by the pure axial-vector coupling term. This corresponds to a considerable reduction of the computational effort.

  9. New techniques and results in sup 76 Ge double-beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, H.S.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Hensley, W.K.; Reeves, J.H. ); Avignone, F.T. . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-09-01

    Several methods of lowering the background in germanium double-beta decay experiments are discusses. A technique for increasing confidence in double-beta decay measurements by variation of detector enrichment is demonstrated in the case of two-neutrino decay mode of {sup 76}Ge. The impact of cosmic ray spallation in low-background isotopically enriched germanium detectors is examined.

  10. New techniques and results in {sup 76}Ge double-beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, H.S.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Hensley, W.K.; Reeves, J.H.; Avignone, F.T.

    1991-09-01

    Several methods of lowering the background in germanium double-beta decay experiments are discusses. A technique for increasing confidence in double-beta decay measurements by variation of detector enrichment is demonstrated in the case of two-neutrino decay mode of {sup 76}Ge. The impact of cosmic ray spallation in low-background isotopically enriched germanium detectors is examined.

  11. LUCIFER: scintillating bolometers for neutrinoless double-beta decay searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattavina, Luca

    2014-09-01

    In the field of fundamental particle physics, the nature of the neutrino, if it is a Dirac or a Majorana particle, plays a crucial role not only in neutrino physics, but also in the overall framework of fundamental particle interactions and in cosmology. Neutrinoless double-beta decay (0vDBD) is the key tool for the investigation of this nature. Experimental techniques based on the calorimetric approach with cryogenic particle detectors have demonstrated suitability for the investigation of rare nuclear processes, profiting from excellent energy resolution and scalability to large masses. Unfortunately, the most relevant issue is related to background suppression. In fact, bolometers being fully-active detectors struggle to reach extremely low background level. The LUCIFER project aims to deploy the first array of enriched scintillating bolometers. Thanks to the double read-out - heat and scintillation light produced by scintillating bolometers - a highly efficient background identification and rejection is guaranteed, leading to a background-free experiment. We show the potential of such technology in ZnMoO4 and ZnSe prototypes. We describe the current status of the project, including results of the recent R&D activity.

  12. Use of 130Te 2 for frequency referencing and active stabilisation of a violet extended cavity diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, I. S.; Hult, J.; Kaminski, C. F.

    2006-04-01

    This paper reports on the use of 130Te 2 absorption lines in active laser-locking, and in frequency referencing, of the emission of a violet extended cavity diode laser with a wavelength of around 410 nm. We note the existence of closely spaced tellurium absorption lines, suitable for referencing purposes in gas sensing applications, at wavelengths below the lower limit (417 nm) of the spectral region covered by the tellurium atlas [J. Cariou, P. Luc, Atlas du spectre d'Absorption de la Molecule de Tellure, CNRS, Paris, 1980]. The absolute positions of the lines in the acquired spectra were estimated by comparison to a simultaneously acquired fluorescence spectrum of atomic indium, and were identified using calculations based on fundamental spectroscopic data. The laser frequency was stabilised within a range of 40 MHz, which is negligible compared to typical transition widths at atmospheric pressure.

  13. Use of (130)Te(2) for frequency referencing and active stabilisation of a violet extended cavity diode laser.

    PubMed

    Burns, I S; Hult, J; Kaminski, C F

    2006-04-01

    This paper reports on the use of (130)Te(2) absorption lines in active laser-locking, and in frequency referencing, of the emission of a violet extended cavity diode laser with a wavelength of around 410 nm. We note the existence of closely spaced tellurium absorption lines, suitable for referencing purposes in gas sensing applications, at wavelengths below the lower limit (417 nm) of the spectral region covered by the tellurium atlas [J. Cariou, P. Luc, Atlas du spectre d'Absorption de la Molecule de Tellure, CNRS, Paris, 1980]. The absolute positions of the lines in the acquired spectra were estimated by comparison to a simultaneously acquired fluorescence spectrum of atomic indium, and were identified using calculations based on fundamental spectroscopic data. The laser frequency was stabilised within a range of 40 MHz, which is negligible compared to typical transition widths at atmospheric pressure. PMID:16503188

  14. Semiconductor-based experiments for neutrinoless double beta decay search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnabé Heider, Marik; Gerda Collaboration

    2012-08-01

    Three experiments are employing semiconductor detectors in the search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay: COBRA, Majorana and GERDA. COBRA is studying the prospects of using CdZnTe detectors in terms of achievable energy resolution and background suppression. These detectors contain several ββ emitters and the most promising for 0νββ-decay search is 116Cd. Majorana and GERDA will use isotopically enriched high purity Ge detectors to search for 0νββ-decay of 76Ge. Their aim is to achieve a background ⩽10-3 counts/(kgṡyṡkeV) at the Q improvement compared to the present state-of-art. Majorana will operate Ge detectors in electroformed-Cu vacuum cryostats. A first cryostat housing a natural-Ge detector array is currently under preparation. In contrast, GERDA is operating bare Ge detectors submerged in liquid argon. The construction of the GERDA experiment is completed and a commissioning run started in June 2010. A string of natural-Ge detectors is operated to test the complete experimental setup and to determine the background before submerging the detectors enriched in 76Ge. An overview and a comparison of these three experiments will be presented together with the latest results and developments.

  15. The Gerda search for neutrinoless double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shaughnessy, Christopher; Gerda Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The Germanium Detector Array (Gerda) is a search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors enriched in the isotope-76 are operated bare in liquid argon (LAr). LAr is used for both cooling of the HPGe diodes to their operating temperatures and for shielding from external radiation sources. From the measurements of the first phase that began data taking on 1 Nov. 2011 it is expected to have a sensitivity on the level of T1/2>2E25 yr at a 90% CL after 15 kġyr. The goal of this phase will be to probe the claim of an observation by part of the Heidelberg-Moscow collaboration. Efforts will then focus on increasing the sensitivity of the experiment by deploying additional enriched detectors that are in an advanced stage of production and by reducing the background index further by making use of pulse shape discrimination techniques as well as an active LAr veto. While the 0νββ region of interest continues to remain blinded, here the status of Phase-I data taking is presented along with the work towards improving the experimental sensitivity.

  16. Constraining neutrino mass from neutrinoless double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, P. S. Bhupal; Goswami, Srubabati; Mitra, Manimala; Rodejohann, Werner

    2013-11-01

    We study the implications of the recent results on neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) from GERDA-I (Ge76) and KamLAND-Zen+EXO-200 (Xe136) and the upper limit on the sum of light neutrino masses from Planck. We show that the upper limits on the effective neutrino mass from Xe136 are stronger than those from Ge76 for most of the recent calculations of the nuclear matrix elements (NMEs). We also analyze the compatibility of these limits with the claimed observation in Ge76 and show that while the updated claim value is still compatible with the recent GERDA limit as well as the individual Xe136 limits for a few NME calculations, it is inconsistent with the combined Xe136 limit for all but one NME. Imposing the most stringent limit from Planck, we find that the canonical light neutrino contribution cannot saturate the current limit, irrespective of the NME uncertainties. Saturation can be reached by inclusion of the right-handed (RH) neutrino contributions in TeV-scale left-right symmetric models with type-II seesaw. This imposes a lower limit on the lightest neutrino mass. Using the 0νββ bounds, we also derive correlated constraints in the RH sector, complimentary to those from direct searches at the LHC.

  17. Measurement of double-beta-decay—experiments TGV and NEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štekl, I.

    2001-06-01

    A description of the aim and present status of the experiments NEMO and TGV are presented. The NEMO collaboration developed the detector NEMO-2 to investigate double-beta ( ββ) decay of 100Mo, 116Cd, 82Se and 96Zr. The results obtained for the above mentioned isotopes are given. The new detector NEMO-3, which is approximately 20 times larger than NEMO-2, is under construction. The NEMO-3 detector should allow the study of 0 νββ decays of 100Mo (or other isotopes) with half-life ˜10 25years, corresponding to neutrino masses of 0.1- 0.3 eV. The TGV I collaboration has studied the ββ decay of 48Ca. The result T 2 νββ1/2=(4.2 +3.3-1.3)×10 19 years has been found. Experiment TGV II is devoted to measurement of the ββ decay (β +β +, β +/ EC, EC/ EC) of 106Cd, particularly the 2 νEC/EC mode.

  18. LUCIFER: Neutrinoless Double Beta decay search with scintillating bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattavina, Luca; LUCIFER Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    One of the fundamental open questions in elementary particle physics is the value of the neutrino mass and its nature of Dirac or Majorana particle. Neutrinoless double beta decay (DBD0ν) is a key tool for investigating these neutrino properties and for finding answers to the open questions concerning mass hierarchy and absolute scale. Experimental techniques based on the calorimetric approach with cryogenic particle detectors are proved to be suitable for the search of this rare decay, thanks to high energy resolution and large mass of the detectors. One of the main issues to access an increase of the experimental sensitivity is strictly related to background reduction, trying to perform possibly a zero background experiment. The LUCIFER (Low-background Underground Cryogenic Installation For Elusive Rates) project, funded by the European Research Council, aims at building a background-free DBD0ν experiment, with a discovery potential comparable with the present generation experiments. The idea of LUCIFER is to measure, simultaneously, heat and scintillation light with ZnSe bolometers. Detector features and operational procedures are reviewed. The expected performances and sensitivity are also discussed.

  19. Purification of lanthanides for double beta decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polischuk, O. G.; Barabash, A. S.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Boiko, R. S.; Cappella, F.; Cerulli, R.; Danevich, F. A.; Incicchitti, A.; Laubenstein, M.; Mokina, V. M.; Nisi, S.; Poda, D. V.; Tretyak, V. I.

    2013-08-01

    There are several potentially double beta active isotopes among the lanthanide elements. However, even high purity grade lanthanide compounds contain 238U, 226Ra and 232,228Th typically on the level of ˜ (0.1 - 1) Bq/kg. The liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of U, Ra and Th from CeO2, Nd2O3 and Gd2O3. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe γ spectrometry at the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the INFN (Italy). After the purification the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide by Ra and Th was decreased at least one order of magnitude. The efficiency of the approach to purify cerium oxide from Ra was on same level, while the radioactive contamination of neodymium sample before and after the purification is below the sensitivity of analytical methods. The purification method is much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like lanthanum, lutetium and actinium. R&D of the methods to remove the pollutions with improved efficiency is in progress.

  20. Sensitivity of NEXT-100 to neutrinoless double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Albo, J.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Ferrario, P.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; Álvarez, V.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; Borges, F. I. G.; Cárcel, S.; Carrión, J. V.; Cebrián, S.; Cervera, A.; Conde, C. A. N.; Díaz, J.; Diesburg, M.; Esteve, R.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Ferreira, A. L.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Goldschmidt, A.; González-Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Hauptman, J.; Henriques, C. A. O.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Herrero, V.; Labarga, L.; Laing, A.; Lebrun, P.; Liubarsky, I.; López-March, N.; Lorca, D.; Losada, M.; Martínez-Lema, G.; Martínez, A.; Monrabal, F.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Novella, P.; Nygren, D.; Palmeiro, B.; Para, A.; Querol, M.; Renner, J.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, J.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Serra, L.; Shuman, D.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Stiegler, T.; Toledo, J. F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Webb, R.; White, J. T.; Yahlali, N.; Yepes-Ramírez, H.

    2016-05-01

    NEXT-100 is an electroluminescent high-pressure xenon gas time projection chamber that will search for the neutrinoless double beta (0 νββ) decay of 136Xe. The detector possesses two features of great value for 0 νββ searches: energy resolution better than 1% FWHM at the Q value of 136Xe and track reconstruction for the discrimination of signal and background events. This combination results in excellent sensitivity, as discussed in this paper. Material-screening measurements and a detailed Monte Carlo detector simulation predict a background rate for NEXT-100 of at most 4 × 10-4 counts keV-1 kg-1 yr-1. Accordingly, the detector will reach a sensitivity to the 0 νββ-decay half-life of 2.8 × 1025 years (90% CL) for an exposure of 100 kg·year, or 6.0 × 1025 years after a run of 3 effective years. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. Purification of lanthanides for double beta decay experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Polischuk, O. G.; Barabash, A. S.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Boiko, R. S.; Danevich, F. A.; Mokina, V. M.; Poda, D. V.; Tretyak, V. I.; Cappella, F.; Incicchitti, A.; Cerulli, R.; Laubenstein, M.; Nisi, S.

    2013-08-08

    There are several potentially double beta active isotopes among the lanthanide elements. However, even high purity grade lanthanide compounds contain {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232,228}Th typically on the level of ∼ (0.1 - 1) Bq/kg. The liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of U, Ra and Th from CeO{sub 2}, Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe γ spectrometry at the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the INFN (Italy). After the purification the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide by Ra and Th was decreased at least one order of magnitude. The efficiency of the approach to purify cerium oxide from Ra was on same level, while the radioactive contamination of neodymium sample before and after the purification is below the sensitivity of analytical methods. The purification method is much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like lanthanum, lutetium and actinium. R and D of the methods to remove the pollutions with improved efficiency is in progress.

  2. The SuperNEMO neutrinoless double beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilela, Cristovao; NEMO Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    SuperNEMO is an experiment currently in the construction phase with the aim of searching for neutrinoless double beta decay, a beyond the standard model lepton number violating process. It employs the same strategy as its predecessor NEMO-3, with a tracker and calorimeter surrounding a thin foil of source isotope. Twenty modules are planned, yielding 100 kg of 82Se as source, with a sensitivity to a half-life of 1026 years. The first module is intended to demonstrate the very stringent radiopurity requirements, with no background counts being expected in the region of interest of the decay for 2.5 years of data taking. It will hold 7 kg of 82Se, giving it a sensitivity to a half-life of 6.5 × 1024 years. The tracking detector is essential for background discrimination and its construction and commissioning are being undertaken in the U.K., primarily at UCL, MSSL (UCL) and The University of Manchester.

  3. Online Data Monitoring for the CUORE Neutrinoless Double-beta Decay Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feintzeig, Jacob; Cuore Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is an upcoming bolometric experiment that will search for neutrinoless double-beta decay at Gran Sasso, Italy. Crystals of tellurium dioxide are instrumented with neutron transmutation doped (NTD) thermistors to observe the heat pulse caused by a double beta decay event. Currently under construction, CUORE will contain 988 independent bolometers. The CUORE-0 detector, consisting of the first 52 bolometers, took data from 2013-2015. After briefly reviewing results from a neutrinoless double-beta decay search with CUORE-0, I will outline recent work to improve data analysis and online data quality monitoring for the upcoming CUORE detector.

  4. Sense and sensitivity of double beta decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; Martín-Albo, J.; Sorel, M.; Ferrario, P.; Monrabal, F.; Muñoz, J.; Novella, P.; Poves, A.

    2011-06-01

    The search for neutrinoless double beta decay is a very active field in which the number of proposals for next-generation experiments has proliferated. In this paper we attempt to address both the sense and the sensitivity of such proposals. Sensitivity comes first, by means of proposing a simple and unambiguous statistical recipe to derive the sensitivity to a putative Majorana neutrino mass, mββ. In order to make sense of how the different experimental approaches compare, we apply this recipe to a selection of proposals, comparing the resulting sensitivities. We also propose a ``physics-motivated range'' (PMR) of the nuclear matrix elements as a unifying criterium between the different nuclear models. The expected performance of the proposals is parametrized in terms of only four numbers: energy resolution, background rate (per unit time, isotope mass and energy), detection efficiency, and ββ isotope mass. For each proposal, both a reference and an optimistic scenario for the experimental performance are studied. In the reference scenario we find that all the proposals will be able to partially explore the degenerate spectrum, without fully covering it, although four of them (KamLAND-Zen, CUORE, NEXT and EXO) will approach the 50 meV boundary. In the optimistic scenario, we find that CUORE and the xenon-based proposals (KamLAND-Zen, EXO and NEXT) will explore a significant fraction of the inverse hierarchy, with NEXT covering it almost fully. For the long term future, we argue that 136Xe-based experiments may provide the best case for a 1-ton scale experiment, given the potentially very low backgrounds achievable and the expected scalability to large isotope masses.

  5. Sense and sensitivity of double beta decay experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gómez-Cadenas, J.J.; Martín-Albo, J.; Sorel, M.; Ferrario, P.; Monrabal, F.; Muñoz, J.; Novella, P.; Poves, A. E-mail: justo.martin-albo@ific.uv.es E-mail: paola.ferrario@ific.uv.es E-mail: jmunoz@ific.uv.es E-mail: alfredo.poves@uam.es

    2011-06-01

    The search for neutrinoless double beta decay is a very active field in which the number of proposals for next-generation experiments has proliferated. In this paper we attempt to address both the sense and the sensitivity of such proposals. Sensitivity comes first, by means of proposing a simple and unambiguous statistical recipe to derive the sensitivity to a putative Majorana neutrino mass, m{sub ββ}. In order to make sense of how the different experimental approaches compare, we apply this recipe to a selection of proposals, comparing the resulting sensitivities. We also propose a ''physics-motivated range'' (PMR) of the nuclear matrix elements as a unifying criterium between the different nuclear models. The expected performance of the proposals is parametrized in terms of only four numbers: energy resolution, background rate (per unit time, isotope mass and energy), detection efficiency, and ββ isotope mass. For each proposal, both a reference and an optimistic scenario for the experimental performance are studied. In the reference scenario we find that all the proposals will be able to partially explore the degenerate spectrum, without fully covering it, although four of them (KamLAND-Zen, CUORE, NEXT and EXO) will approach the 50 meV boundary. In the optimistic scenario, we find that CUORE and the xenon-based proposals (KamLAND-Zen, EXO and NEXT) will explore a significant fraction of the inverse hierarchy, with NEXT covering it almost fully. For the long term future, we argue that {sup 136}Xe-based experiments may provide the best case for a 1-ton scale experiment, given the potentially very low backgrounds achievable and the expected scalability to large isotope masses.

  6. First results of neutrinoless double beta decay search with the GERmanium Detector Array "GERDA"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicskó Csáthy, József

    2014-06-01

    The study of neutrinoless double beta decay is the most powerful approach to the fundamental question if the neutrino is a Majorana particle, i.e. its own anti-particle. The observation of the lepton number violating neutrinoless double beta decay would establish the Majorana nature of the neutrino. Until now neutrinoless double beta decay was not observed. The GERmanium Detector Array, GERDA is a double beta decay experiment located at the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Italy. GERDA operates bare Ge diodes enriched in 76Ge in liquid argon supplemented by a water shield. The exposure accumulated adds up to 21.6 kg· yr with a background level of 1.8 · 10-2 cts/(keV·kg·yr). The results of the Phase I of the experiment are presented and the preparation of the Phase II is briefly discussed.

  7. A Search for Lorentz-Violation in Double Beta Decay with EXO-200

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Tessa; EXO-200 Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The Standard-Model Extension (SME) framework assumes Lorentz-violation at the Planck scale, a result of certain theories uniting quantum mechanics to General Relativity. Lorentz-violating operators are added to the current Standard Model, potentially producing effects that could be observed on a macroscopic scale, for instance altering the standard spectrum of double beta decay. The EXO-200 experiment uses 175 kg of enriched liquid xenon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 136Xe, and the low background and high precision of the experiment create a good platform to search for other phenomena in double beta decay. The results of a search for deviations to the two-neutrino double beta decay spectrum of 136Xe that would indicate neutrino coupling to a Lorentz-violating operator in the SME are presented.

  8. Measurement of the double-beta decay half-life and search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of 48Ca with the NEMO-3 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, R.; Augier, C.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Baker, J. D.; Barabash, A. S.; Basharina-Freshville, A.; Blondel, S.; Blot, S.; Bongrand, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busto, J.; Caffrey, A. J.; Calvez, S.; Cascella, M.; Cerna, C.; Cesar, J. P.; Chapon, A.; Chauveau, E.; Chopra, A.; Duchesneau, D.; Durand, D.; Egorov, V.; Eurin, G.; Evans, J. J.; Fajt, L.; Filosofov, D.; Flack, R.; Garrido, X.; Gómez, H.; Guillon, B.; Guzowski, P.; Hodák, R.; Huber, A.; Hubert, P.; Hugon, C.; Jullian, S.; Klimenko, A.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kovalenko, V.; Lalanne, D.; Lang, K.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lemière, Y.; Le Noblet, T.; Liptak, Z.; Liu, X. R.; Loaiza, P.; Lutter, G.; Mamedov, F.; Marquet, C.; Mauger, F.; Morgan, B.; Mott, J.; Nemchenok, I.; Nomachi, M.; Nova, F.; Nowacki, F.; Ohsumi, H.; Pahlka, R. B.; Perrot, F.; Piquemal, F.; Povinec, P.; Přidal, P.; Ramachers, Y. A.; Remoto, A.; Reyss, J. L.; Richards, B.; Riddle, C. L.; Rukhadze, E.; Rukhadze, N. I.; Saakyan, R.; Salazar, R.; Sarazin, X.; Shitov, Yu.; Simard, L.; Šimkovic, F.; Smetana, A.; Smolek, K.; Smolnikov, A.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Soulé, B.; Štekl, I.; Suhonen, J.; Sutton, C. S.; Szklarz, G.; Thomas, J.; Timkin, V.; Torre, S.; Tretyak, Vl. I.; Tretyak, V. I.; Umatov, V. I.; Vanushin, I.; Vilela, C.; Vorobel, V.; Waters, D.; Zhukov, S. V.; Žukauskas, A.; NEMO-3 Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    The NEMO-3 experiment at the Modane Underground Laboratory investigates the double-beta decay of 48Ca. Using 5.25 yr of data recorded with a 6.99 g sample of 48Ca, approximately 150 double-beta decay candidate events are selected with a signal-to-background ratio greater than 3. The half-life for the two-neutrino double-beta decay of 48Ca is measured to be T1/2 2 ν=[6. 4-0.6+0.7(stat)-0.9 +1.2(syst ) ]×1 019 yr . A search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 48Ca yields a null result, and a corresponding lower limit on the half-life is found to be T1/2 0 ν>2.0 ×1 022 yr at 90% confidence level, translating into an upper limit on the effective Majorana neutrino mass of ⟨mβ β⟩<6.0 - 26 eV , with the range reflecting different nuclear matrix element calculations. Limits are also set on models involving Majoron emission and right-handed currents.

  9. Neutron Interactions in the CUORE Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Dolinski, Michelle Jean

    2008-10-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay (0vDBD) is a lepton-number violating process that can occur only for a massive Majorana neutrino. The search for 0vDBD is currently the only practical experimental way to determine whether neutrinos are identical to their own antiparticles (Majorana neutrinos) or have distinct particle and anti-particle states (Dirac neutrinos). In addition, the observation of 0vDBD can provide information about the absolute mass scale of the neutrino. The Cuoricino experiment was a sensitive search for 0vDBD, as well as a proof of principle for the next generation experiment, CUORE. CUORE will search for 0vDBD of 130Te with a ton-scale array of unenriched TeO2 bolometers. By increasing mass and decreasing the background for 0vDBD, the half-life sensitivity of CUORE will be a factor of twenty better than that of Cuoricino. The site for both of these experiments is the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, an underground laboratory with 3300 meters water equivalent rock overburden and a cosmic ray muon attenuation factor of 10-6. Because of the extreme low background requirements for CUORE, it is important that all potential sources of background in the 0vDBD peak region at 2530 keV are well understood. One potential source of background for CUORE comes from neutrons, which can be produced underground both by (α,n) reactions and by fast cosmic ray muon interactions. Preliminary simulations by the CUORE collaboration indicate that these backgrounds will be negligible for CUORE. However, in order to accurately simulate the expected neutron background, it is important to understand the cross sections for neutron interactions with detector materials. In order to help refine these simulations, I have measured the gamma-ray production cross sections for interactions of neutrons on the abundant stable isotopes of Te using the GEANIE detector array at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. In addition, I have used the GEANIE

  10. Bonner Prize Talk -- First Laboratory Observation of Double Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Although we are awash in neutrinos, we remain ignorant of some of their fundamental properties. We don't know their masses. We don't know whether ``anti-neutrinos'' are really distinct particles. Double beta (ββ) decay offers a handle on these questions if we can observe the energy spectrum of the two emitted electrons, and determine whether or not they share their energy with two neutrinos. Seeing neutrinoless (0ν) decay would solve some enduring puzzles. The power of the process to elucidate the neutrino was recognized in the 1930's, but ββ decay would be exceedingly rare and difficult to detect. Unsuccessful laboratory searches had been going on for 25 years when the UC Irvine group began its first experiment with a cloud chamber in 1972. After some background for the non-expert, and a snapshot of the theoretical and experimental milieu at the time, the talk will begin with the reasons for choosing a cloud chamber, and the taming of its balky and idiosyncratic behavior. The talk will end with the first definitive observation of two-neutrino (2ν)ββ decay of ^82Se in the vastly superior time projection chamber (TPC) in 1987. Discouragement through the tortuous 15-year interval was relieved by occasional victories. Some I will illustrate with revealing cloud-chamber photographs. We learned many things from this primitive device, and after seven years we isolated an apparent ββ decay signal. But the efficiency of the trigger was small, and difficult to pin down. Estimating 2.2%, we were way low. The resulting ``short'' ^82Se half-life of 1 x 10^19 years was suspect. New technology came to the rescue with the invention of the TPC. Experience with the cloud chamber guided our design of a TPC specifically for ββ decay. The TPC was built from scratch. Its long, steep learning curve was also punctuated with little triumphs. A memorable moment was the first turn-on of a portion of the chamber. So long ago, this all seems rather quaint, but through ample use of

  11. Electronic Transitions (BO+u ← XO+g) and Bandhead Fitting for 130Te2 in the Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Mantia, David; Coker, James; Furneaux, John; Gillean, Jeffrey

    2014-06-01

    The electronic spectrum of 130Te2 serves as a frequency standard for many spectroscopic investigations. We scanned the molecule in the region 664 to 676 THz using a tunable diode laser to create an atlas of transition lines, in line with the previous investigations of Cariou, et al. The BO+u ← XO+g transition was studied in great detail using the precise data for the X band from Verges, et al. Using this data, the number of vibrational bandheads was identified. This allowed the rotational parameters B, D and H to be precisely obtained for each bandhead. These results are combined to obtain the appropriate spectroscopic parameters for the B0 electronic band. The results of this investigation will be presented. Cariou, J. and Luc, P. "Atlas Du Spectre D'Absorption De La Molecule De Tellure." Laboratoire Aime, Cotton CNRS II 91405 Orsay, France. 1980. Verges, J. "The Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectrum of {Te}2 Studied by Fourier Transformation Spectrometry. Physica Scripta. Vol. 25, 338-350, 1982.

  12. Experimental study of double-{beta} decay modes using a CdZnTe detector array

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J. V.; Goessling, C.; Koettig, T.; Muenstermann, D.; Rajek, S.; Schulz, O.; Janutta, B.; Zuber, K.; Junker, M.; Reeve, C.; Wilson, J. R.

    2009-08-15

    An array of sixteen 1 cm{sup 3} CdZnTe semiconductor detectors was operated at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (LNGS) to further investigate the feasibility of double-{beta} decay searches with such devices. As one of the double-{beta} decay experiments with the highest granularity the 4x4 array accumulated an overall exposure of 18 kg days. The setup and performance of the array is described. Half-life limits for various double-{beta} decay modes of Cd, Zn, and Te isotopes are obtained. No signal has been found, but several limits beyond 10{sup 20} years have been performed. They are an order of magnitude better than those obtained with this technology before and comparable to most other experimental approaches for the isotopes under investigation. An improved limit for the {beta}{sup +}/EC decay of {sup 120}Te is given.

  13. Double-Beta Decay of 96Zr and Double-Electron Capture of 156Dy to Excited Final States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, Sean W.

    Two separate experimental searches for second-order weak nuclear decays to excited final states were conducted. Both experiments were carried out at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility to provide shielding from cosmic rays. The first search is for the two-neutrino double-beta decay of 96Zr to excited final states of the daughter nucleus, 96Mo. As a by product of this experiment, the beta decay of 96Zr was also investigated. Two coaxial high-purity germanium detectors were used in coincidence to detect gamma rays produced by the daughter nucleus as it de-excited to the ground state. After collecting 1.92 years of data with 17.91 g of enriched 96Zr, half-life limits at the level of 10 20 yr were produced. Measurements of this decay are important to test neutrinoless double-beta decay nuclear matrix element calculations, which are necessary to extract the neutrino mass from a measurement of the neutrinoless double-beta decay half-life. The second experiment is a search for the resonantly-enhanced neutrinoless double-electron capture decay of 156Dy to excited states in 156Gd. Double-electron capture is a possible experimental alternative to neutrinoless-double beta decay, which could distinguish the Dirac or Majorana nature of the neutrino. Two clover high-purity germanium detectors were used in coincidence to investigate the decay. A 213.5 mg enriched 156Dy sample was observed for 0.635 year, producing half-life limits of 10 17 yr. The limits produced by both of these experiments are currently the most stringent limits available for these decays.

  14. Neutron inelastic scattering processes as a background for double-{beta} decay experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, D.-M.; Elliott, S. R.; Hime, A.; Gehman, V.; Kazkaz, K.

    2008-05-15

    We investigate several Pb(n,n{sup '}{gamma}) and Ge(n,n{sup '}{gamma}) reactions. We measure {gamma}-ray production from Pb(n,n{sup '}{gamma}) reactions that can be a significant background for double-{beta} decay experiments which use lead as a massive inner shield. Particularly worrisome for Ge-based double-{beta} decay experiments are the 2041-keV and 3062-keV {gamma} rays produced via Pb(n,n{sup '}{gamma}). The former is very close to the {sup 76}Ge double-{beta} decay endpoint energy and the latter has a double escape peak energy near the endpoint. We discuss the implications of these {gamma} rays on past and future double-{beta} decay experiments and estimate the cross section to excite the level that produces the 3062-keV {gamma} ray. Excitation {gamma}-ray lines from Ge(n,n{sup '}{gamma}) reactions are also observed. We consider the contribution of such backgrounds and their impact on the sensitivity of next-generation searches for neutrinoless double-{beta} decay using enriched germanium detectors.

  15. The Path to Large-Mass Double Beta Decay Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Steven R.

    2012-08-08

    The technology is ready for atmospheric scale sensitivity and we can at least discuss it for the solar scale. Even null results will be interesting. Supporting measurements are important and have an impact. Need several mesurements with a total uncertainty (experiment and theory) of {approx} 50% or less, and eventually even better. If we see {beta}{beta} the qualitative physics results are profound, but next we'll want to quantify the underlying physics.

  16. 0{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay nuclear matrix elements with self-consistent short-range correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Simkovic, Fedor; Faessler, Amand; Muether, Herbert; Rodin, Vadim; Stauf, Markus

    2009-05-15

    A self-consistent calculation of nuclear matrix elements of the neutrinoless double-beta decays (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) of {sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 96}Zr, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 116}Cd, {sup 128}Te, {sup 130}Te, and {sup 136}Xe is presented in the framework of the renormalized quasiparticle random phase approximation (RQRPA) and the standard QRPA. The pairing and residual interactions as well as the two-nucleon short-range correlations are for the first time derived from the same modern realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials, namely, from the charge-dependent Bonn potential (CD-Bonn) and the Argonne V18 potential. In a comparison with the traditional approach of using the Miller-Spencer Jastrow correlations, matrix elements for the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay are obtained that are larger in magnitude. We analyze the differences among various two-nucleon correlations including those of the unitary correlation operator method (UCOM) and quantify the uncertainties in the calculated 0{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay matrix elements.

  17. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR: A Search for Neutrinoless Double-beta Decay of Germanium-76

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, Alexis G.; Aguayo, Estanislao; Avignone, F. T.; Zhang, C.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Collar, J. I.; Combs, Dustin C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Horton, Mark; Howard, Stanley; Howe, Mark; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, M. F.; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Merriman, Jason H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Sobolev, V.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, Werner; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

    2012-09-28

    The observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay would determine whether the neutrino is a Majorana particle and provide information on the absolute scale of neutrino mass. The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the DEMONSTRATOR, an array of germanium detectors, to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will contain 40 kg of germanium; up to 30 kg will be enriched to 86% in 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will be deployed deep underground in an ultra-low-background shielded environment. Operation of the DEMONSTRATOR aims to determine whether a future tonne-scale germanium experiment can achieve a background goal of one count per tonne-year in a 4-keV region of interest around the 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay Q-value of 2039 keV.

  18. Experiments TGV I (double-beta decay of 48Ca) and TGV II (double-beta decay of 106Cd and 48Ca)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štekl, I.; Čermák, P.; Beneš, P.; Brudanin, V. B.; Rukhadze, N. I.; Egorov, V. G.; Kovalenko, V. E.; Kovalík, A.; Salamatin, A. V.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V. V.; Vylov, Ts.; Briancon, Ch.; Šimkovic, F.

    2000-04-01

    Present status of experiments TGV I and TGV II is given. The TGV I collaboration has studied the double-beta decay of 48Ca with a low-background and high sensitivity Ge multi-detector spectrometer TGV (Telescope Germanium Vertical). The preliminary results of years and years (90% CL) for double-beta decay of 48 Ca has been found after the processing of experimental data obtained after 8700 hours of measuring time using approximately 1 gramme of 48Ca. The aim of the experiment TGV II is the development of the experimental methods, construction of spectrometers and measurement of the decay (++, β+/EC, EC/EC) of 106Cd particularly the 2νEC/EC mode. The theoretical description and performance of the TGV II spectrometer are also given.

  19. Neutrinoless double {beta}-decay nuclear matrix elements within the SRQRPA with self-consistent short range correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Benes, Petr; Simkovic, Fedor

    2009-11-09

    The nuclear matrix elements M{sup 0v} of the neutrinoless double beta decay (0v{beta}{beta}-decay) are systematically evaluated using the self-consistent renormalized quasiparticle random phase approximation (SRQRPA). The residual interaction and the two-nucleon short-range correlations are derived from the charge-dependent Bonn (CD-Bonn) potential. The importance of further progress in the calculation of the 0v{beta}{beta}-decay nuclear matrix elements is stressed.

  20. Search for double beta decay of 48Ca in the TGV experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brudanin, V. B.; Rukhadze, N. I.; Briançon, C.; Egorov, V. G.; Kovalenko, V. E.; Kovalik, A.; Salamatin, A. V.; Štekl, I.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V. V.; Vylov, T.; Čermák, P.

    2000-12-01

    This Letter describes a collaborative TGV (Telescope Germanium Vertical) study of the double beta decay of 48Ca with a low-background and high sensitivity Ge multi-detector spectrometer. The results of T1/22νββ=(4.2+3.3- 1.3)×1019 years and T1/20νββ>1.5×1021 years (90% CL) for double beta decay of 48Ca were found after processing experimental data obtained after 8700 hours of measuring time, using approximately 1 gramme of 48Ca. The features of a TGV-2 experiment are also presented.

  1. Observation of Two-Neutrino Double-Beta Decay in Xe-136 with EXO-200

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, N.; Aharmim, B.; Auger, M.; Auty, D.J.; Barbeau, P.S.; Barry, K.; Bartoszek, L.; Beauchamp, E.; Belov, V.; Benitez-Medina, C.; Breidenbach, M.; Burenkov, A.; Cleveland, B.; Conley, R.; Conti, E.; Cook, J.; Cook, S.; Coppens, A.; Counts, I.; Craddock, W.; Daniels, T.; /more authors..

    2012-09-14

    We report the observation of two-neutrino double-beta decay in {sup 136}Xe with T{sub 1/2} = 2.11 {+-} 0.04(stat) {+-} 0.21(syst) x 10{sup 21} yr. This second-order process, predicted by the standard model, has been observed for several nuclei but not for {sup 136}Xe. The observed decay rate provides new input to matrix element calculations and to the search for the more interesting neutrinoless double-beta decay, the most sensitive probe for the existence of Majorana particles and the measurement of the neutrino mass scale.

  2. Optimization of the Transport Shield for Neutrinoless Double Beta-decay Enriched Germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.; Reid, Douglas J.; Fast, James E.

    2012-04-15

    This document presents results of an investigation of the material and geometry choice for the transport shield of germanium, the active detector material used in 76Ge neutrinoless double beta decay searches. The objective of this work is to select the optimal material and geometry to minimize cosmogenic production of radioactive isotopes in the germanium material. The design of such a shield is based on the calculation of the cosmogenic production rate of isotopes that are known to cause interfering backgrounds in 76Ge neutrinoless double beta decay searches.

  3. New limit on the neutrinoless double beta decay of /sup 100/Mo

    SciTech Connect

    Krivicich, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    A search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of /sup 100/Mo was conducted using thin Mo films and solid state Si detectors. The experiment has collected 3500 hours of data operating underground in a deep silver mine (3290 M.W.E.). Only one event was found to be consistent with neutrinoless double beta decay. Using this one event, a limit of greater than or equal to 1 x 10/sup 22/ years (1 sigma) is set on the /sup 100/Mo half-life. This is approximately five times larger than the best previous /sup 100/Mo limit.

  4. The MAJORANA experiment: an ultra-low background search for neutrinoless double-beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, D.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Collar, J. I.; Combs, Dustin C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, Steven R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, Matthew P.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Horton, Mark; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keller, C.; Kidd, Mary; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Merriman, Jason H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Poon, Alan; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C.

    2012-12-01

    The observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay would resolve the Majorana nature of the neutrino and could provide information on the absolute scale of the neutrino mass. The initial phase of the Majorana Experiment, known as the Demonstrator, will house 40 kg of Ge in an ultra-low background shielded environment at the 4850' level of the Sanford Underground Laboratory in Lead, SD. The objective of the Demonstrator is to validate whether a future 1-tonne experiment can achieve a background goal of one count per tonne-year in a narrow region of interest around the 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay peak.

  5. The search for Majorana neutrinos with neutrinoless double beta decays: From CUORICINO to LUCIFER experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bellini, F.

    2012-11-20

    The study of neutrino properties is one of the fundamental challenges in particle physics nowadays. Fifty years of investigations established that neutrinos are massive but the absolute mass scale has not yet been measured. Moreover its true nature is still unknown. Is the neutrino its own antiparticle (thus violating the lepton number) as proposed by Majorana in 1937? The only way to probe the neutrino nature is through the observation of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}), a very rare spontaneous nuclear transition which emits two electrons and no neutrinos. In this paper, after a brief introduction to the theoretical framework of Majorana's neutrino, a presentation of experimental challenges posed by 0{nu}{beta}{beta} search will be given as well as an overview of present status and future perpectives of experiments.

  6. Bilepton contributions to the neutrinoless double beta decay in the economical 3-3-1 model

    SciTech Connect

    Soa, D. V. Dong, P. V. Huong, T. T.; Long, H. N.

    2009-05-15

    A new bound of the mixing angle between charged gauge bosons (the standard-model W and the bilepton Y) in the economical 3-3-1 model is given. Possible contributions of the charged bileptons to the neutrinoless double beta (({beta}{beta}){sub 0{nu}}) decay are discussed. We show that the ({beta}{beta}){sub 0{nu}} decay in this model is due to both the Majorana {sub L} and Dirac {sub D} neutrino masses. If the mixing angle is in the range of the ratio of neutrino masses {sub L}/{sub D}, the Majorana and Dirac masses are comparable to each other and both may give the main contribution to the decay. As a result, constraints on the bilepton mass are given.

  7. First direct double-beta decay Q-value measurement of the neutrinoless double-beta decay candidate selenium-82 and development of a high-precision magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincoln, David Louis

    The results of recent neutrino oscillation experiments indicate that the mass of the neutrino is nonzero. The mass hierarchy and the absolute mass scale of the neutrino, however, are unknown. Furthermore, the nature of the neutrino is also unknown; is it a Dirac or Majorana particle, i.e. is the neutrino its own antiparticle? If experiments succeed in observing neutrinoless double-beta decay, there would be evidence that the neutrino is a Majorana particle and that conservation of total lepton number is violated - a situation forbidden by the Standard Model of particle physics. In support of understanding the nature of the neutrino, the first direct double-beta decay Q-value measurement of the neutrinoless double-beta decay candidate 82Se was performed [D. L. Lincoln et al., Physical Review Letters 110, 012501 (2013)]. The measurement was carried out using Penning trap mass spectrometry, which has proven to be the most precise and accurate method for determining atomic masses and therefore, Q-values. The high-precision measurement resulted in a Q-value with nearly an order of magnitude improvement in precision over the literature value. This result is important for the theoretical interpretations of the observations of current and future double-beta decay studies. It is also important for the design of future and next-generation double-beta decay experiments, such as SuperNEMO, which is planned to observe 100 - 200 kg of 82Se for five years. The high-precision measurement was performed at the Low-Energy Beam and Ion Trap (LEBIT) facility located at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). The LEBIT facility was the first Penning trap mass spectrometry facility to utilize rare isotope beams produced via fast fragmentation and has measured nearly 40 rare isotopes since its commissioning in 2005. To further improve the LEBIT facility's performance, technical improvements to the system are being implemented. As part of this work, to increase the

  8. Status of double beta decay experiments using isotopes other than 136Xe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandola, L.

    2014-09-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a lepton-number violating process predicted by many extensions of the standard model. It is actively searched for in several candidate isotopes within many experimental projects. The status of the experimental initiatives which are looking for the neutrinoless double beta decay in isotopes other than 136Xe is reviewed, with special emphasis given to the projects that passed the R&D phase. The results recently released by the experiment GERDA are also summarized and discussed. The GERDA data give no positive indication of neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge and disfavor in a model-independent way the long-standing observation claim on the same isotope. The lower limit reported by GERDA for the half-life of neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge is T1/20ν > 2.1 ṡ1025 yr (90% C.L.), or T1/20ν > 3.0 ṡ1025 yr, when combined with the results of other 76Ge predecessor experiments.

  9. Double Beta Decay Experiments: Present Status and Prospects for the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabash, A. S.

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T1/2(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino ( < 0.46 eV) and a coupling constant of Majoron to neutrino ( < 1.3 × 10-5) are obtained. In the second part of the review prospects of search for the neutrinoless double beta decay in new experiments with sensitivity to at the level of ∼ (0.01-0.1) eV are discussed. The main attention is paid to experiments of CUORE, GERDA, MAJORANA, EXO, KamLAND-Zen-2, SuperNEMO and SNO+. Possibilities of low-temperature scintillating bolometers on the basis of inorganic crystals (ZnSe, ZnMoO4, Li2MoO4, CaMoO4 and CdWO4) are considered too.

  10. Experiment TGV-2 - Search for double beta decay of 106Cd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukhadze, N. I.; Briançon, Ch.; Brudanin, V. B.; Čermák, P.; Egorov, V. G.; Klimenko, A. A.; Kovalík, A.; Rukhadze, E. N.; Shitov, Yu. A.; Šimkovic, F.; Štekl, I.; Timkin, V. V.

    2012-08-01

    New limits (at 90% C.L.) on double beta decay of Cd106-T(0νEC/EC)>1.7×1020 yr and T(2νEC/EC)>4.2×1020 yr were obtained in a preliminary calculation of data accumulated for 12900 h on the TGV-2 spectrometer.

  11. Present status and future of the experiment TGV (measurement of double beta decay of48Ca)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brudanin, V. B.; Egorov, V. G.; Kovalík, A.; Kovalenko, V. E.; Rukhadze, N. I.; Salamatin, A. V.; Sandukovsky, V. G.; Timkin, V. V.; Vylov, Ts.; Zaparov, Ch.; Briancon, Ch.; Janout, Z.; Koníček, J.; Kubašta, J.; Pospíšil, S.; Štekl, I.; Vorobel, V.

    1998-02-01

    A short description of experiment TGV (double beta decay of48Ca) is given. The measurement started in the Modane underground laboratory in August 1996. The first result of T {1/2/0 ν } ≥ 4.6 × 1020 years [90% CL] after 2545 hours is presented.

  12. Neutrinoless double beta decay in type I+II seesaw models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Debasish; Dasgupta, Arnab

    2015-11-01

    We study neutrinoless double beta decay in left-right symmetric extension of the standard model with type I and type II seesaw origin of neutrino masses. Due to the enhanced gauge symmetry as well as extended scalar sector, there are several new physics sources of neutrinoless double beta decay in this model. Ignoring the left-right gauge boson mixing and heavy-light neutrino mixing, we first compute the contributions to neutrinoless double beta decay for type I and type II dominant seesaw separately and compare with the standard light neutrino contributions. We then repeat the exercise by considering the presence of both type I and type II seesaw, having non-negligible contributions to light neutrino masses and show the difference in results from individual seesaw cases. Assuming the new gauge bosons and scalars to be around a TeV, we constrain different parameters of the model including both heavy and light neutrino masses from the requirement of keeping the new physics contribution to neutrinoless double beta decay amplitude below the upper limit set by the GERDA experiment and also satisfying bounds from lepton flavor violation, cosmology and colliders.

  13. Alpha Backgrounds for HPGe Detectors in Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R. A.; Burritt, T. H.; Elliott, S. R.; Gehman, V. M.; Guiseppe, V.E.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    The Majorana Experiment will use arrays of enriched HPGe detectors to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge. Such a decay, if found, would show lepton-number violation and confirm the Majorana nature of the neutrino. Searches for such rare events are hindered by obscuring backgrounds which must be understood and mitigated as much as possible. A potentially important background contribution to this and other double-beta decay experiments could come from decays of alpha-emitting isotopes in the 232Th and 238U decay chains on or near the surfaces of the detectors. An alpha particle emitted external to an HPGe crystal can lose energy before entering the active region of the detector, either in some external-bulk material or within the dead region of the crystal. The measured energy of the event will only correspond to a partial amount of the total kinetic energy of the alpha and might obscure the signal from neutrinoless double-beta decay. A test stand was built and measurements were performed to quantitatively assess this background. We present results from these measurements and compare them to simulations using Geant4. These results are then used to measure the alpha backgrounds in an underground detector in situ. We also make estimates of surface contamination tolerances for double-beta decay experiments using solid-state detectors.

  14. Neutrino-less Double Beta Decay of {sup 48}Ca-CANDLES

    SciTech Connect

    Kishimoto, T.; Nomachi, M.; Yoshida, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Ichimura, K.; Ito, G.; Yasuda, K.; Kakubata, H.; Miyashita, M.; Takubo, K.; Saka, M.; Seki, K.; Ajimura, S.; Umehara, S.; Nakatani, N.; Tamagawa, Y.; Ogawa, I.; Fushimi, K.; Hazama, R.; Ohsumi, H.

    2011-10-21

    Neutrino-less double beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) is currently known to be an only experiment to verify whether lepton number is conserved or not. The lepton number non-conservation is the key to create matter dominated universe with CP violation. The so-called leptogenesys scenario presents a way to create the matter dominated universe by these violations. If neutrinos have Majorana mass, transition from a particle to an anti-particle is possible and the left-handed and right-handed neutrinos could have different masses. It is highly likely that the neutrinos are Majorana particles. We have been studying double beta decay of {sup 48}Ca. Our first stage experiment using the ELEGANT VI detector system gave the best lower limit of the half life of 0{nu}{beta}{beta} of {sup 48}Ca. We have been working on CANDLES detector system to sense much longer lifetime region. We have developed techniques to reduce backgrounds. The CADLES detector system was installed at Kamioka underground laboratory. Here I describe a schematic view of the system.

  15. Can one measure nuclear matrix elements of neutrinoless double {beta} decay?

    SciTech Connect

    Rodin, Vadim; Faessler, Amand

    2009-10-15

    By making use of the isospin conservation by strong interaction, the Fermi 0{nu}{beta}{beta} nuclear matrix element M{sub F}{sup 0{nu}} is transformed to acquire the form of an energy-weighted double Fermi transition matrix element. This useful representation allows reconstruction of the total M{sub F}{sup 0{nu}} provided a small isospin-breaking Fermi matrix element between the isobaric analog state in the intermediate nucleus and the ground state of the daughter nucleus could be measured, e.g., by charge-exchange reactions. Such a measurement could set a scale for the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} nuclear matrix elements and help to discriminate between the different nuclear structure models in which calculated M{sub F}{sup 0{nu}} may differ by as much as a factor of 5 (that translates to about 20% difference in the total M{sup 0{nu}})

  16. New limits on double beta decay of 106Cd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukhadze, N. I.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Briançon, Ch.; Brudanin, V. B.; Čermák, P.; Egorov, V. G.; Klimenko, A. A.; Kovalík, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Mamedov, F.; Shitov, Yu. A.; Šimkovic, F.; Štekl, I.; Timkin, V. V.; Zhukov, S. V.

    2011-02-01

    Investigation of double electron capture in 106Cd was performed at the Modane underground laboratory (4800 m.w.e.) using the multi-detector spectrometer TGV-2. In Phase I of the experiment, ˜10 g of 106Cd with an enrichment of 75% was measured during 8687 hours. In Phase II, the TGV-2 background was significantly suppressed in comparison with Phase I and the 106Cd mass was increased to ˜13.6 g. New half-life limits (at 90% CL) were obtained for 2νEC/EC decay of 106Cd to the ground state of Pd106 - T1/2>3.0×10 y (Phase I) and T1/2>3.6×10 y (Phase II, 9000 hours), and for 0νEC/EC decay of 106Cd to the 2741 keV excited state of Pd106 - T1/2>1.1×10 y (Phase II).

  17. New physics effects on neutrinoless double beta decay from right-handed current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Shao-Feng; Lindner, Manfred; Patra, Sudhanwa

    2015-10-01

    We study the impact of new physics contributions to neutrinoless double beta decay arising from right-handed current in comparison with the standard mechanism. If the light neutrinos obtain their masses from Type-II seesaw within left-right symmetric model, where the Type-I contribution is suppressed to negligible extent, the right-handed PMNS matrix is the same as its left-handed counterpart, making it highly predictable and testable at next-generation experiments. It is very attractive, especially with recent cosmological constraint favoring the normal hierarchy under which the neutrinoless double beta decay is too small to be observed unless new physics appears as indicated by the recent diboson excess observed at ATLAS. The relative contributions from left- and right-handed currents can be reconstructed with the ratio between lifetimes of two different isotopes as well as the ratio of nuclear matrix elements. In this way, the theoretical uncertainties in the calculation of nuclear matrix elements can be essentially avoided. We also discuss the interplay of neutrinoless double beta decay measurements with cosmology, beta decay, and neutrino oscillation.

  18. First results on double {beta}-decay modes of Cd, Te, and Zn Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Bloxham, T.; Freer, M.; Boston, A.; Nolan, P.; Dawson, J.; Reeve, C.; Wilson, J. R.; Zuber, K.; Dobos, D.; Goessling, C.; Kiel, H.; Muenstermann, D.; Oehl, S.; Fox, S. P.; Fulton, B. R.; McGrath, J.; Wadsworth, R.; Harrison, P. F.; Morgan, B.; Ramachers, Y.

    2007-08-15

    Four 1-cm{sup 3} CdZnTe semiconductor detectors were operated in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory to explore the feasibility of such devices for double {beta}-decay searches as proposed for the COBRA experiment. The research involved background studies accompanied by measurements of energy resolution performed at the surface. Energy resolutions sufficient to reduce the contribution of two-neutrino double {beta}-decay events to a negligible level for a large-scale experiment have already been achieved and further improvements are expected. Using activity measurements of contaminants in all construction materials a background model was developed with the help of Monte Carlo simulations and major background sources were identified. A total exposure of 4.34 kg{center_dot}days of underground data have been accumulated allowing a search for neutrinoless double {beta}-decay modes of seven isotopes found in CdZnTe. Half-life limits (90% C.L.) are presented for decays to ground and excited states. Four improved lower limits have been obtained, including zero neutrino double electron capture transitions of {sup 64}Zn and {sup 120}Te to the ground state, which are 1.19x10{sup 17} years and 2.68x10{sup 15} years, respectively.

  19. Background Suppression Using Pulse Shape Analysis with a BEGe Detector for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Search with GERDA

    SciTech Connect

    Budjas, Dusan; Schoenert, Stefan; Chkvorets, Oleg

    2009-12-17

    A pulse shape analysis for distinguishing between double beta decay-like interactions and multiple-scattered photons was performed for the first time using a BEGe-type detector. This discrimination method is included in the research and development for the second phase of the GERDA experiment, since active background suppression techniques are necessary to reach sensitivity for the {sup 76}Ge neutrinoless double beta decay half life of >10{sup 26} years. A suppression of backgrounds in the energy region of interest around the {sup 76}Ge Q{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} = 2039 keV is demonstrated, with (0.93{+-}0.08)% survival probability for events from {sup 60}Co, (21{+-}3)% for {sup 226}Ra, and (40{+-}2)% for {sup 228}Th. This performance is achieved with (89{+-}1)% acceptance of {sup 228}Th double escape events, which are analogous to double beta decay.

  20. Effect of beta on Seismic Vulnerability Curve for RC Bridge Based on Double Damage Criterion

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Qinghai; Yuan Wancheng

    2010-05-21

    In the analysis of seismic vulnerability curve based on double damage criterion, the randomness of structural parameter and randomness of seismic should be considered. Firstly, the distribution characteristics of structure capability and seismic demand are obtained based on IDA and PUSHOVER, secondly, the vulnerability of the bridge is gained based on ANN and MC and a vulnerability curve according to this bridge and seismic is drawn. Finally, the analysis for a continuous bridge is displayed as an example, and parametric analysis for the effect of beta is done, which reflects the bridge vulnerability overall from the point of total probability, and in order to reduce the discreteness, large value of beta are suggested.

  1. Double {beta} experiments with the help of scintillation and HPGe detectors at Gran Sasso

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, A.; Konovalov, S. I.; Umatov, V. I.; Belli, P.; D'Angelo, S.; Di Marco, A.; Bernabei, R.; Boiko, R. S.; Chernyak, D. M.; Danevich, F. A.; Kobychev, V. V.; Kropivyansky, B. N.; Kudovbenko, V. M.; Nagorny, S. S.; Podviyanuk, R. B.; Polischuk, O. G.; Tretyak, V. I.; Vyshnevskyi, I. M.; Yurchenko, S. S.; Brudanin, V. B.; and others

    2011-12-16

    A search for double beta decay of {sup 64,70}Zn, {sup 180,186}W was carried out by using low background ZnWO{sub 4} crystal scintillators, while a CeCl{sub 3} scintillation detector was applied to investigate 2{beta} processes in {sup 136,138,142}Ce. A search for 2{beta} decay of {sup 96,104}Ru, {sup 156,158}Dy, {sup 190,198}Pt and study of 2{nu}2{beta} decay of {sup 100}Mo to the first excited 0{sup +} level of {sup 100}Ru were realized by ultra-low background HPGe {gamma} spectrometry. Moreover, CdWO{sub 4} crystal scintillators from enriched {sup 106}Cd and {sup 116}Cd isotopes were developed to search for 2{beta} decay of {sup 106}Cd and {sup 116}Cd. Finally, experiments aimed to investigate {sup 96,104}Ru and {sup 116}Cd are in progress and a new phase of the experiment to search for 2{beta} processes in {sup 106}Cd is in preparation.

  2. Disentangling effects of mechanisms that could contribute to the neutrinoless double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horoi, Mihai; Neacsu, Andrei

    2015-10-01

    Neutrinoless double-beta decay, if observed, would signal physics beyond the Standard Model that could be discovered at energies significantly lower than those at which the relevant degrees of freedom could be excited. Therefore, it could be challenging to further use the neutrinoless double-beta decay observations to distinguish between many beyond Standard Model competing mechanisms to this process. Accurate nuclear structure calculation of the nuclear matrix elements necessary to analyze the decay rates could be helpful to narrow down the list of competing mechanisms, and to better identify the more exotic properties of the neutrinos. We will present information that one can get from the angular and energy distribution of the emitted electron assuming that the right-handed currents exist. Support from U.S. NSF Grant PHY-1404442 and DOE Grant DE-SC0008529 is acknowledged.

  3. Investigation of double beta decay of 100Mo to excited states of 100Ru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, R.; Augier, C.; Barabash, A. S.; Basharina-Freshville, A.; Blondel, S.; Blot, S.; Bongrand, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busto, J.; Caffrey, A. J.; Čermák, P.; Cerna, C.; Chapon, A.; Chauveau, E.; Dragounová, L.; Duchesneau, D.; Durand, D.; Egorov, V.; Eurin, G.; Evans, J. J.; Flack, R.; Garrido, X.; Gómez, H.; Guillon, B.; Guzowski, P.; Hodák, R.; Hubert, P.; Hugon, C.; Hůlka, J.; Jullian, S.; Klimenko, A.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kovalenko, V.; Lalanne, D.; Lang, K.; Lemière, Y.; Liptak, Z.; Loaiza, P.; Lutter, G.; Mamedov, F.; Marquet, C.; Mauger, F.; Morgan, B.; Mott, J.; Nemchenok, I.; Nomachi, M.; Nova, F.; Nowacki, F.; Ohsumi, H.; Pahlka, R. B.; Perrot, F.; Piquemal, F.; Povinec, P.; Ramachers, Y. A.; Remoto, A.; Reyss, J. L.; Richards, B.; Riddle, C. L.; Rukhadze, E.; Rukhadze, N.; Saakyan, R.; Sarazin, X.; Shitov, Yu.; Simard, L.; Šimkovic, F.; Smetana, A.; Smolek, K.; Smolnikov, A.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Soulé, B.; Štekl, I.; Suhonen, J.; Sutton, C. S.; Szklarz, G.; Thomas, J.; Timkin, V.; Torre, S.; Tretyak, V. I.; Tretyak, Vl. I.; Umatov, V.; Vilela, C.; Vorobel, V.; Warot, G.; Waters, D.; Žukauskas, A.

    2014-05-01

    Double beta decay of 100Mo to the excited states of daughter nuclei has been studied using a 600 cm3 low-background HPGe detector and an external source consisting of 2588 g of 97.5% enriched metallic 100Mo, which was formerly inside the NEMO-3 detector and used for the NEMO-3 measurements of 100Mo. The half-life for the two-neutrino double beta decay of 100Mo to the excited 01+ state in 100Ru is measured to be T1/2=[7.5±0.6(stat)±0.6(syst)]ṡ1020 yr. For other (0ν+2ν) transitions to the 21+, 22+, 02+, 23+ and 03+ levels in 100Ru, limits are obtained at the level of ∼(0.25-1.1)ṡ1022 yr.

  4. Analysis of mechanisms that could contribute to neutrinoless double-beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horoi, Mihai; Neacsu, Andrei

    2016-06-01

    Neutrinoless double-beta decay is a beyond the Standard Model process that would indicate that neutrinos are Majorana fermions, and the lepton number is not conserved. It could be interesting to use the neutrinoless double-beta decay observations to distinguish between several beyond Standard Model mechanisms that could contribute to this process. Accurate nuclear structure calculations of the nuclear matrix elements necessary to analyze the decay rates could be helpful to narrow down the list of contributing mechanisms. We investigate the information one can get from the angular and energy distribution of the emitted electrons and from the half-lives of several isotopes, assuming that the right-handed currents exist. For the analysis of these distributions, we calculate the necessary nuclear matrix elements using shell model techniques, and we explicitly consider interference terms.

  5. SNO+ status and plans for double beta decay search and other neutrino studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andringa, S.; SNO+ Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    SNO+ is a multi-purpose Neutrino Physics experiment, succeeding to the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory by replacing heavy water with liquid scintillator, which can also be loaded with large quantities of double-beta decaying isotope. The scientific goals of SNO+ are the search for neutrinoless double-beta decay, the study of solar neutrinos and of anti-neutrinos from nuclear reactors and the Earth's natural radioactivity, as well as supernovae neutrinos. The installation of the detector at SNOLAB is being completed and commissioning has already started with a dry run. The detector will soon be filled with water and, later, with scintillator. Here we highlight the main detector developments and address the several Physics analysis being prepared for the several planned SNO+ runs.

  6. Pion dominance in R-parity violating supersymmetry induced neutrinoless double beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Faessler, Amand; Gutsche, Thomas; Simkovic, Fedor; Kovalenko, Sergey

    2008-06-01

    At the quark level there are basically two types of contributions of R-parity violating supersymmetry (Re{sub p} SUSY) to neutrinoless double beta decay: the short-range contribution involving only heavy virtual superpartners and the long-range one with the virtual squark and neutrino. Hadronization of the effective operators, corresponding to these two types of contributions, may in general involve virtual pions in addition to close on-mass-shell nucleons. From the previous studies it is known that the short-range contribution is dominated by the pion exchange. In the present paper we show that this is also true for the long-range Re{sub p} SUSY contribution. Therefore, we conclude that the Re{sub p} SUSY contributes to the neutrinoless double beta decay dominantly via charged pion exchange between the decaying nucleons.

  7. CALDER: neutrinoless double-beta decay identification in TeO bolometers with kinetic inductance detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistelli, E. S.; Bellini, F.; Bucci, C.; Calvo, M.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Castellano, M. G.; Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A.; Cosmelli, C.; Cruciani, A.; de Bernardis, P.; Di Domizio, S.; D'Addabbo, A.; Martinez, M.; Masi, S.; Pagnanini, L.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M.

    2015-08-01

    Next-generation experiments searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay must be sensitive to a Majorana neutrino mass as low as 10. CUORE , an array of 988 TeO bolometers being commissioned at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, features an expected sensitivity of 50-130 at 90 % C.L. The background is expected to be dominated by radioactivity, and can be in principle removed by detecting the small amount of Cherenkov light emitted by the signal. The Cryogenic wide-Area Light Detectors with Excellent Resolution project aims at developing a small prototype experiment consisting of TeO bolometers coupled to high-sensitivity light detectors based on kinetic inductance detectors. The R&D is focused on the light detectors in view of the implementation in a next-generation neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment.

  8. First search for Lorentz and C P T violation in double beta decay with EXO-200

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, J. B.; Barbeau, P. S.; Beck, D.; Belov, V.; Breidenbach, M.; Brunner, T.; Burenkov, A.; Cao, G. F.; Chambers, C.; Cleveland, B.; Coon, M.; Craycraft, A.; Daniels, T.; Danilov, M.; Daugherty, S. J.; Davis, C. G.; Davis, J.; Delaquis, S.; Der Mesrobian-Kabakian, A.; DeVoe, R.; Díaz, J. S.; Didberidze, T.; Dilling, J.; Dolgolenko, A.; Dolinski, M. J.; Dunford, M.; Fairbank, W.; Farine, J.; Feyzbkhsh, S.; Feldmeier, W.; Fierlinger, P.; Fudenberg, D.; Gornea, R.; Graham, K.; Gratta, G.; Hall, C.; Homiller, S.; Hughes, M.; Jewell, M. J.; Jiang, X. S.; Johnson, A.; Johnson, T. N.; Johnston, S.; Karelin, A.; Kaufman, L. J.; Killick, R.; Koffas, T.; Kravitz, S.; Krücken, R.; Kuchenkov, A.; Kumar, K. S.; Leonard, D. S.; Licciardi, C.; Lin, Y. H.; Ling, J.; MacLellan, R.; Marino, M. G.; Mong, B.; Moore, D.; Nelson, R.; Njoya, O.; Odian, A.; Ostrovskiy, I.; Piepke, A.; Pocar, A.; Prescott, C. Y.; Retiére, F.; Rowson, P. C.; Russell, J. J.; Schubert, A.; Sinclair, D.; Smith, E.; Stekhanov, V.; Tarka, M.; Tolba, T.; Tsang, R.; Twelker, K.; Vuilleumier, J.-L.; Vogel, P.; Waite, A.; Walton, J.; Walton, T.; Weber, M.; Wen, L. J.; Wichoski, U.; Wood, J.; Yang, L.; Yen, Y.-R.; Zeldovich, O. Ya.; EXO-200 Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    A search for Lorentz- and C P T -violating signals in the double beta decay spectrum of 136Xe has been performed using an exposure of 100 kg .yr with the EXO-200 detector. No significant evidence of the spectral modification due to isotropic Lorentz-violation was found, and a two-sided limit of -2.65 ×10-5 GeV <âof(3 )<7.60 ×10-6 GeV (90% C.L.) is placed on the relevant coefficient within the Standard-Model Extension (SME). This is the first experimental study of the effect of the SME-defined oscillation-free and momentum-independent neutrino coupling operator on the double beta decay process.

  9. Status and perspective of the GERDA neutrinoless double beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knöpfle, K. T.; Gerda Collaboration

    2012-09-01

    Gerda, the GERManium Detector Array [1], is a new double beta decay experiment which is currently under commissioning in the Infn National Gran Sasso Laboratory (Lngs), Italy. It is implementing a new shielding concept by operating bare Ge diodes - enriched in 76Ge - in high purity liquid argon supplemented by a water shield. The paper presents the status of the experiment, results from the commissioning, and a summary of planned future activities.

  10. Simulation of double beta decay in the ''SeXe'' TPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauger, F.

    2007-04-01

    In 2004, the NEMO collaboration has started some preliminary studies for a next-generation double beta decay experiment: SuperNEMO. The possibility to use a large gaseous TPC has been investigated using simulation and extrapolation of former experiments. In this talk, I report on the reasons why such techniques have not been selected in 2004 and led the NEMO collaboration to reuse the techniques implemented within the NEMO3 detector.

  11. The low background spectrometer TGV II for double beta decay measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beneš, P.; Čermák, P.; Gusev, K. N.; Klimenko, A. A.; Kovalenko, V. E.; Kovalík, A.; Rukhadze, N. I.; Salamatin, A. V.; Šimkovic, F.; Štekl, I.; Timkin, V. V.; Vylov, Ts.

    2006-12-01

    The low-background multi-HPGe spectrometer TGV II installed in the Modane Underground Laboratory (France) is described in detail and the results of the background measurements are reported. The spectrometer is focused on the double beta decay measurements with two isotopes— 106Cd ( 2νEC/EC mode) and 48Ca ( ββ mode). A basic summary of the physics of ββ decay (especially EC/EC mode) is also given.

  12. Study of Double Beta Decay of {sup 48}Ca by CANDLES

    SciTech Connect

    Umehara, S.; Kishimoto, T.; Ogawa, I.; Matsuoka, K.; Ito, G.; Yasuda, K.; Kakubata, H.; Miyashita, M.; Nomachi, M.; Ajimura, S.; Tamagawa, Y.; Fushimi, K.; Hazama, R.; Ohsumi, H.; Okada, K.; Yoshida, S.; Fujii, Y.

    2010-05-12

    CANDLES is the project to search for neutrino-less double beta decay (0nubetabeta) of {sup 48}Ca. The observation of 0nubetabeta will prove existence of a massive Majorana neutrino. We have developed the new detector system CANDLES which features CaF{sub 2}(pure) scintillators. Here expected performances of the system for background rejection are presented. It is also described current status of development for the detector system.

  13. Are massive Majorana neutrinos canceling each other in neutrinoless double-. beta. decay

    SciTech Connect

    Vergados, J.D.

    1983-12-01

    The possibility of various massive Majorana neutrinos canceling each other in neutrinoless double-..beta.. decay is examined. It is shown that if all neutrino eigenmasses are less than 10 MeV such a cancellation persists in the hadronic medium if initially present at the elementary (gauge) level. The same is true for neutrino mass greater than 10 GeV. In all other cases, such a cancellation will require a conspiracy between particle and nuclear physics.

  14. Solar neutrino interactions with liquid scintillators used for double beta-decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejiri, Hiroyasu; Zuber, Kai

    2016-08-01

    Solar neutrinos interact within double-beta-decay (DBD) detectors and hence will contribute to backgrounds (BGs) for DBD experiments. Background contributions due to solar neutrinos are evaluated for their interactions with atomic electrons and nuclei in liquid scintillation detectors used for DBD experiments. They are shown to be serious BGs for high-sensitivity DBD experiments to search for the Majorana neutrino masses in the inverted and normal hierarchy regions.

  15. The COBRA experiment - Status and prospects on the search of neutrinoless double beta-decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatschler, S.

    2015-10-01

    The Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride 0-ν Double Beta Research Apparatus (COBRA) [1] is a next-generation experiment searching for the existence of neutrinoless double beta-decay (0νββ-decay). The observation of 0νββ-decay would be an unambiguous sign for physics beyond the Standard Model such as lepton number violating processes and would prove the Majorana character of neutrinos. Furthermore, the study of 0νββ-decay could probe the absolute neutrino mass and allows for the identification of the neutrino mass hierarchy realized in nature assuming light Majorana neutrino exchange. Currently a demonstrator setup at the underground facility LNGS (Italy) built of 4×4×4 coplanar grid (CPG) detectors collects high quality low background physics data with FADC pulse shape sampling. The detectors are made of natural abundant CdZnTe (CZT), which is a commercially available room temperature semiconductor. It contains several double beta isotopes, the most promising of which is 116Cd with a Q-value of 2813.5 keV - which is well above the highest naturally occurring prominent γ-lines.

  16. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR: A search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of ⁷⁶Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, W.; Abgrall, N.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y. -D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Poon, A. W.P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C. -H.; Yumatov, V.

    2015-05-01

    Neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay is a hypothesized process where in some even-even nuclei it might be possible for two neutrons to simultaneously decay into two protons and two electrons without emitting neutrinos. This is possible only if neutrinos are Majorana particles, i.e. fermions that are their own antiparticles. Neutrinos being Majorana particles would explicitly violate lepton number conservation, and might play a role in the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe. The observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay would also provide complementary information related to neutrino masses. The Majorana Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, with a total of 40-kg Germanium detectors, to search for the 0νββ decay of ⁷⁶Ge and to demonstrate a background rate at or below 3 counts/(ROI•t•y) in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039 keV Q-value for ⁷⁶Ge 0νββ decay. In this paper, we discuss the physics of neutrinoless double beta decay and then focus on the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, including its design and approach to achieve ultra-low backgrounds and the status of the experiment.

  17. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR: A search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of ⁷⁶Ge

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xu, W.; Abgrall, N.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; et al

    2015-05-01

    Neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay is a hypothesized process where in some even-even nuclei it might be possible for two neutrons to simultaneously decay into two protons and two electrons without emitting neutrinos. This is possible only if neutrinos are Majorana particles, i.e. fermions that are their own antiparticles. Neutrinos being Majorana particles would explicitly violate lepton number conservation, and might play a role in the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe. The observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay would also provide complementary information related to neutrino masses. The Majorana Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, with a total of 40-kg Germanium detectors,more » to search for the 0νββ decay of ⁷⁶Ge and to demonstrate a background rate at or below 3 counts/(ROI•t•y) in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039 keV Q-value for ⁷⁶Ge 0νββ decay. In this paper, we discuss the physics of neutrinoless double beta decay and then focus on the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, including its design and approach to achieve ultra-low backgrounds and the status of the experiment.« less

  18. The Majorana Demonstrator: A Search for Neutrinoless Double-beta Decay of 76Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W.; Abgrall, N.; Avignone, F. T., III; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.; Majorana Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    Neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay is a hypothesized process where in some even-even nuclei it might be possible for two neutrons to simultaneously decay into two protons and two electrons without emitting neutrinos. This is possible only if neutrinos are Majorana particles, i.e. fermions that are their own antiparticles. Neutrinos being Majorana particles would explicitly violate lepton number conservation, and might play a role in the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe. The observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay would also provide complementary information related to neutrino masses. The Majorana Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, with a total of 40-kg Germanium detectors, to search for the 0νββ decay of 76Ge and to demonstrate a background rate at or below 3 counts/(ROI·t·y) in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039 keV Q-value for 76Ge 0νββ decay. In this paper, we discuss the physics of neutrinoless double beta decay and then focus on the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, including its design and approach to achieve ultra-low backgrounds and the status of the experiment.

  19. Double-beta decay investigation with highly pure enriched ^{82}Se for the LUCIFER experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeman, J. W.; Bellini, F.; Benetti, P.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Chiesa, D.; Clemenza, M.; Dafinei, I.; Domizio, S. Di; Ferroni, F.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gotti, C.; Laubenstein, M.; Maino, M.; Nagorny, S.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Orio, F.; Pagnanini, L.; Pattavina, L.; Pessina, G.; Piperno, G.; Pirro, S.; Previtali, E.; Rusconi, C.; Schäffner, K.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M.

    2015-12-01

    The LUCIFER project aims at deploying the first array of enriched scintillating bolometers for the investigation of neutrinoless double-beta decay of ^{82}Se. The matrix which embeds the source is an array of ZnSe crystals, where enriched ^{82}Se is used as decay isotope. The radiopurity of the initial components employed for manufacturing crystals, that can be operated as bolometers, is crucial for achieving a null background level in the region of interest for double-beta decay investigations. In this work, we evaluated the radioactive content in 2.5 kg of 96.3 % enriched ^{82}Se metal, measured with a high-purity germanium detector at the Gran Sasso deep underground laboratory. The limits on internal contaminations of primordial decay chain elements of ^{232}Th, ^{238}U and ^{235}U are respectively: <61, <110 and <74 μ Bq/kg at 90 % C.L. The extremely low-background conditions in which the measurement was carried out and the high radiopurity of the ^{82}Se allowed us to establish the most stringent lower limits on the half-lives of the double-beta decay of ^{82}Se to 0^+_1, 2^+_2 and 2^+_1 excited states of ^{82}Kr of 3.4\\cdot 10^{22}, 1.3\\cdot 10^{22} and 1.0\\cdot 10^{22} y, respectively, with a 90 % C.L.

  20. The COBRA experiment – Status and prospects on the search of neutrinoless double beta-decay

    SciTech Connect

    Zatschler, S.

    2015-10-28

    The Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride 0-ν Double Beta Research Apparatus (COBRA) [1] is a next-generation experiment searching for the existence of neutrinoless double beta-decay (0νββ-decay). The observation of 0νββ-decay would be an unambiguous sign for physics beyond the Standard Model such as lepton number violating processes and would prove the Majorana character of neutrinos. Furthermore, the study of 0νββ-decay could probe the absolute neutrino mass and allows for the identification of the neutrino mass hierarchy realized in nature assuming light Majorana neutrino exchange. Currently a demonstrator setup at the underground facility LNGS (Italy) built of 4×4×4 coplanar grid (CPG) detectors collects high quality low background physics data with FADC pulse shape sampling. The detectors are made of natural abundant CdZnTe (CZT), which is a commercially available room temperature semiconductor. It contains several double beta isotopes, the most promising of which is {sup 116}Cd with a Q-value of 2813.5 keV – which is well above the highest naturally occurring prominent γ-lines.

  1. Minimally allowed neutrinoless double beta decay rates within an anarchical framework

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, James

    2009-06-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay ({beta}{beta}0{nu}) is the only realistic probe of the Majorana nature of the neutrino. In the standard picture, its rate is proportional to m{sub ee}, the e-e element of the Majorana neutrino mass matrix in the flavor basis. I explore minimally allowed m{sub ee} values within the framework of mass matrix anarchy where neutrino parameters are defined statistically at low energies. Distributions of mixing angles are well defined by the Haar integration measure, but masses are dependent on arbitrary weighting functions and boundary conditions. I survey the integration measure parameter space and find that for sufficiently convergent weightings, m{sub ee} is constrained between (0.01-0.4) eV at 90% confidence. Constraints from neutrino mixing data lower these bounds. Singular integration measures allow for arbitrarily small m{sub ee} values with the remaining elements ill-defined, but this condition constrains the flavor structure of the model's ultraviolet completion. {beta}{beta}0{nu} bounds below m{sub ee}{approx}5x10{sup -3} eV should indicate symmetry in the lepton sector, new light degrees of freedom, or the Dirac nature of the neutrino.

  2. Neutron induced radio-isotopes and background for Ge double beta decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Pinghan; Majorana Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Environmental neutrons, mostly produced by muons in the cosmic rays, might contribute backgrounds to the search for neutrinoless double beta decays. These neutrons can interact with materials and generate radio-isotopes, which can decay and produce radioactive backgrounds. Some of these neutron-induced isotopes have a signature of a time-delayed coincidence, allowing us to study these infrequent events. For example, such isotopes can decay by beta decay to metastable states and then decay by gamma decay to the ground state. Considering the time-delayed coincidence of these two processes, we can determine candidates for these neutron-induced isotopes in the data and estimate the flux of neutrons in the deep underground environment. In this report, we will list possible neutron-induced isotopes and the methodology to detect them, especially those that can affect the search for neutrinoless double beta decays in 76Ge. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics Program of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility. We acknowledge the support of the U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program.

  3. The neutrinoless double beta decay experiment COBRA: Status and future plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jerrad

    2009-10-01

    The COBRA experiment uses Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) room-temperature solid-state detectors to search for neutrinoless double beta decays of the isotope ^116Cd as well as for rare decays from several other Cd and Te isotopes. A prototype experiment is currently taking data in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory. In this contribution, recent results from the prototype will be presented. Furthermore, the on-going detector R&D will be described and two detector options for a large-scale experiment made of 420 kg of CZT detectors will be discussed. The first option uses ``calorimetric coplanar grid detector units". Alternatively, finely pixelated detectors may be used with pixel pitches of between 200 and 350 microns. The pixelated detectors would afford the possibility of tracking beta particles inside the detector and distinguishing them from background events.

  4. Hot Dark Matter and Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay:. World Status of the Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, Hans V.

    2008-04-01

    A final independent analysis of the data of the 76Ge experiment in Gran Sasso (HEIDELBERG-MOSCOW experiment) which is since 15 years the worldwide by far most sensitive double beta experiment, is presented for the main set of data taken in the period Nov. 1995 - May 2003.4,5 In this period the time structure of all events have been registered. Two different methods of pulse shape analysis4,5,7-9,15,17-19 lead to selection of potential 0νββ events at Qββ with almost no γ-background in a wide range around Qββ. The background achieved in the energy region of the Qββ value for double beta decay is 5.10-3 events kg-1yr-1keV-1. A line at Qββ is observed at a confidence level of more than 6σ. The identification of this line as signal of neutrinoless double beta decay is the most reasonable explanation. This means total lepton number violation and a Majorana nature of the neutrino as fundamental consequences for particle physics. The half-life for this process is determined to be <=ft(2.23+0.44-0.31(stat); ) × 1025 y. Assuming vanishing right-handed weak currents or other more exotic contributions to the 0νββ decay amplitude, a value of < m > = <=ft (0.32+0.03-0.03 ; ) eV is derived. Normalizing the nuclear matrix element for 2νββ decay to the experimental value, the lower limit for could be lower, down to 0.22 eV. With this value neutrinos contribute at least 4.7% to the dark matter in the Universe.

  5. Status and perspectives of the COBRA double-beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. R.; Cobra Collaboration

    2006-05-01

    The COBRA experiment is going to use a large amount of CdZnTe semiconductor detectors to perform a search for various double-beta-decay modes. The current status of the experiment is presented, as well as first results. Improved half-life limits for the ground-state transitions of 64Zn and 120Te for 0νβ +/EC and 0νECEC have been obtained and the rate of the 4-fold forbidden 113Cd decays has been measured. A short outlook on future activities is also given.

  6. Neutrinoless double-beta decay search with CUORE and CUORE-0 experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moggi, N.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Cai, X. Z.; Camacho, A.; Caminata, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X. G.; Capelli, S.; Cappelli, L.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Copello, S.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Cushman, J. S.; Dafinei, I.; Dally, A.; Datskov, V.; Dell'oro, S.; Deninno, M. M.; Di Domizio, S.; Di Vacri, M. L.; Drobizhev, A.; Ejzak, L.; Fang, D. Q.; Farach, H. A.; Faverzani, M.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Hickerson, K. P.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Li, Y. L.; Ligi, C.; Lim, K. E.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maiano, C.; Maino, M.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Morganti, S.; Napolitano, T.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; O'Donnell, T.; Orio, F.; Orlandi, D.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pagliarone, C. E.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Piperno, G.; Pira, C.; Pirro, S.; Pozzi, S.; Previtali, E.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sala, E.; Sangiorgio, S.; Santone, D.; Scielzo, N. D.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tian, W. D.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Wielgus, L.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Zanotti, L.; Zarra, C.; Zhang, G. Q.; Zhu, B. X.; Zucchelli, S.

    2015-03-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is an upcoming experiment designed to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decays. Observation of the process would unambiguously establish that neutrinos are Majorana particles and provide information on their absolute mass scale hierarchy. CUORE is now under construction and will consist of an array of 988 TeO2 crystal bolometers operated at 10 mK, but the first tower (CUORE-0) is already taking data. The experimental techniques used will be presented as well as the preliminary CUORE-0 results. The current status of the full-mass experiment and its expected sensitivity will then be discussed.

  7. Limit on Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay of 76Ge by GERDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Andreotti, E.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Heider, M. Barabè; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; Cossavella, F.; Demidova, E. V.; Domula, A.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Ferella, A.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Guthikonda, K. K.; Hampel, W.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Csáthy, J. Janicskó; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Machado, A. A.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Misiaszek, M.; Nemchenok, I.; Nisi, S.; Shaughnessy, C. O.'.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pessina, G.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Schönert, S.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Strecker, H.; Tarka, M.; Ur, C. A.; Vasenko, A. A.; Volynets, O.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zavarise, P.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    The Gerda experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy uses germanium detectors made from material with an enriched 76Ge isotope fraction to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of this nucleus. Applying a blind analysis we find no signal after an exposure of 21.6 kg·yr and a background of about 0.01 cts/(keV·kg·yr). A half-life limit of Tov1/2> 2.1 · 1025 yr (90% C.L.) is extracted. The previous claim of a signal for 76Ge is excluded with 99% probability in a model independent way.

  8. Results on neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge from GERDA Phase I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palioselitis, Dimitrios; GERDA Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    The Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment is searching for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76Ge by operating bare germanium diodes in liquid argon. GERDA is located at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) in Italy. During Phase I, a total exposure of 21.6 kg yrand a background index of 0.01 cts/(keVkg yr) were reached. No signal was observed and a lower limit of T0ν1/2 > 2.1 · 1025 yr(90% C.L.) is derived for the half life of the 0νββ decay of 76Ge.

  9. AXEL: High pressure xenon gas Time Projection Chamber for neutrinoless double beta decay search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Sheng

    2016-05-01

    AXEL is a high pressure xenon gas TPC detector being developed for neutrinoless double-beta decay search. We use proportional scintillation mode with a new electroluminescence light detection scheme to achieve very high energy resolution with a large detector. The detector has a capability of tracking which can be used reduce background. The project is in a R&D phase, and we report current status of our prototype chamber with 10 L and 8 bar Xe gas. We also present the results of the photon detection efficiency measurement and the linearity test of silicon photomultiplier(SiPM).

  10. Many-body correlations of QRPA in nuclear matrix elements of double-beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Terasaki, J.

    2015-10-28

    We present two new ideas on the quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) approach for calculating nuclear matrix elements of double-beta decay. First, it is necessary to calculate overlaps of the QRPA states obtained on the basis of the ground states of different nuclei. We calculate this overlap using quasiboson vacua as the QRPA ground states. Second, we show that two-particle transfer paths are possible to use for the calculation under the closure approximation. A calculation is shown for {sup 150}Nd→{sup 150}Sm using these two new ideas, and their implication is discussed.

  11. A scintillating bolometer array for double beta decay studies: The LUCIFER experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gironi, L.

    2016-07-01

    The main goal of the LUCIFER experiment is to study the neutrinoless double beta decay, a rare process allowed if neutrinos are Majorana particles. Although aiming at a discovery, in the case of insufficient sensitivity the LUCIFER technique will be the demonstrator for a higher mass experiment able to probe the entire inverted hierarchy region of the neutrino mass. In order to achieve this challenging result, high resolution detectors with active background discrimination capability are required. This very interesting possibility can be largely fulfilled by scintillating bolometers thanks to the simultaneous read-out of heat and light emitted by the interactions in the detector or by pulse shape analysis.

  12. Mass and Double-Beta-Decay Q Value of {sup 136}Xe

    SciTech Connect

    Redshaw, Matthew; Wingfield, Elizabeth; McDaniel, Joseph; Myers, Edmund G.

    2007-02-02

    The atomic mass of {sup 136}Xe has been measured by comparing cyclotron frequencies of single ions in a Penning trap. The result, with 1 standard deviation uncertainty, is M({sup 136}Xe)=135.907 214 484 (11) u. Combined with previous results for the mass of {sup 136}Ba [Audi, Wapstra, and Thibault, Nucl. Phys. A 729, 337 (2003)], this gives a Q value (M[{sup 136}Xe]-M[{sup 136}Ba])c{sup 2}=2457.83(37) keV, sufficiently precise for ongoing searches for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 136}Xe.

  13. Mass and Double-Beta-Decay Q Value of Xe136

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redshaw, Matthew; Wingfield, Elizabeth; McDaniel, Joseph; Myers, Edmund G.

    2007-02-01

    The atomic mass of Xe136 has been measured by comparing cyclotron frequencies of single ions in a Penning trap. The result, with 1 standard deviation uncertainty, is M(Xe136)=135.907 214 484 (11) u. Combined with previous results for the mass of Ba136 [Audi, Wapstra, and Thibault, Nucl. Phys. A 729, 337 (2003)NUPABL0375-947410.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.003], this gives a Q value (M[Xe136]-M[Ba136])c2=2457.83(37)keV, sufficiently precise for ongoing searches for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of Xe136.

  14. Neutrinoless double-beta decay search with CUORE and CUORE-0 experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Moggi, N.; Artusa, D. R.; F. T. Avignone; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; et al

    2015-03-24

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is an upcoming experiment designed to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decays. Observation of the process would unambiguously establish that neutrinos are Majorana particles and provide information on their absolute mass scale hierarchy. CUORE is now under construction and will consist of an array of 988 TeO2 crystal bolometers operated at 10 mK, but the first tower (CUORE-0) is already taking data. The experimental techniques used will be presented as well as the preliminary CUORE-0 results. The current status of the full-mass experiment and its expected sensitivity will then be discussed.

  15. Neutrinoless double-beta decay search with CUORE and CUORE-0 experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Moggi, N.; Artusa, D. R.; F. T. Avignone; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Cai, X. Z.; Camacho, A.; Caminata, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X. G.; Capelli, S.; Cappelli, L.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Copello, S.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Cushman, J. S.; Dafinei, I.; Dally, A.; Datskov, V.; Dell’oro, S.; Deninno, M. M.; Di Domizio, S.; Di Vacri, M. L.; Drobizhev, A.; Ejzak, L.; Fang, D. Q.; Farach, H. A.; Faverzani, M.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Hickerson, K. P.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Li, Y. L.; Ligi, C.; Lim, K. E.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maiano, C.; Maino, M.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Morganti, S.; Napolitano, T.; Nisi, S.; C. Nones; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; O’Donnell, T.; Orio, F.; Orlandi, D.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pagliarone, C. E.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Piperno, G.; Pira, C.; Pirro, S.; Pozzi, S.; Previtali, E.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sala, E.; Sangiorgio, S.; Santone, D.; Scielzo, N. D.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tian, W. D.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Wielgus, L.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Zanotti, L.; Zarra, C.; Zhang, G. Q.; Zhu, B. X.; Zucchelli, S.; Fabbri, F.; Giacomelli, P.

    2015-03-24

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is an upcoming experiment designed to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decays. Observation of the process would unambiguously establish that neutrinos are Majorana particles and provide information on their absolute mass scale hierarchy. CUORE is now under construction and will consist of an array of 988 TeO2 crystal bolometers operated at 10 mK, but the first tower (CUORE-0) is already taking data. The experimental techniques used will be presented as well as the preliminary CUORE-0 results. The current status of the full-mass experiment and its expected sensitivity will then be discussed.

  16. Majorana phases, CP violation, sterile neutrinos and neutrinoless double-beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Babič, Andrej; Šimkovic, Fedor

    2013-12-30

    CP violation plays a crucial role in the generation of the baryon asymmetry in the Universe. Within this context we investigate the possibility of CP violation in the lepton sector caused by Majorana neutrino mixing. Focus is put on the model including 1 sterile neutrino. Both cases of normal and inverted neutrino mass spectrum are considered. We address the question whether the Majorana phases can be measured in the neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments with sensitivity to the effective Majorana neutrino mass of the order of 10{sup −2} eV.

  17. Progress in the use of pixel detectors in double beta decay experiment TGV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, J. M.; TGV Collaboration

    2013-12-01

    The TGV collaboration has been investigating two neutrino double electron capture (2νEC/EC) in 106Cd since 2000. The double beta experiments would answer some of the puzzling problems about neutrinos (e.g. nature and mass) but one of the main challenges is the background events. The collaboration is investigating the use of pixel detectors in such rare decay experiments. Pixel detector gives spatial information along with energy of the particle, thus provides useful information to reduce the background. The collaboration has proposed a Silicon Pixel Telescope (SPT) for the next generation experiment; where a pair of Si pixel detectors with enriched Cd foil in the middle forms the detection unit. A prototype unit of SPT has been constructed and results of preliminary background measurements performed on the surface and in the underground laboratories are presented.

  18. Progress in the use of pixel detectors in double beta decay experiment TGV

    SciTech Connect

    Jose, J. M. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a Collaboration: TGV Collaboration

    2013-12-30

    The TGV collaboration has been investigating two neutrino double electron capture (2νEC/EC) in {sup 106}Cd since 2000. The double beta experiments would answer some of the puzzling problems about neutrinos (e.g. nature and mass) but one of the main challenges is the background events. The collaboration is investigating the use of pixel detectors in such rare decay experiments. Pixel detector gives spatial information along with energy of the particle, thus provides useful information to reduce the background. The collaboration has proposed a Silicon Pixel Telescope (SPT) for the next generation experiment; where a pair of Si pixel detectors with enriched Cd foil in the middle forms the detection unit. A prototype unit of SPT has been constructed and results of preliminary background measurements performed on the surface and in the underground laboratories are presented.

  19. Double gene deletion reveals the lack of cooperation between PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{beta} in skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Bedu, E.; Desplanches, D.; Pequignot, J.; Bordier, B.; Desvergne, B. . E-mail: beatrice.desvergne@unil.ch

    2007-06-15

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are involved in the regulation of most of the pathways linked to lipid metabolism. PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{beta} isotypes are known to regulate muscle fatty acid oxidation and a reciprocal compensation of their function has been proposed. Herein, we investigated muscle contractile and metabolic phenotypes in PPAR{alpha}-/-, PPAR{beta}-/-, and double PPAR{alpha}-/- {beta}-/- mice. Heart and soleus muscle analyses show that the deletion of PPAR{alpha} induces a decrease of the HAD activity ({beta}-oxidation) while soleus contractile phenotype remains unchanged. A PPAR{beta} deletion alone has no effect. However, these mild phenotypes are not due to a reciprocal compensation of PPAR{beta} and PPAR{alpha} functions since double gene deletion PPAR{alpha}-PPAR{beta} mostly reproduces the null PPAR{alpha}-mediated reduced {beta}-oxidation, in addition to a shift from fast to slow fibers. In conclusion, PPAR{beta} is not required for maintaining skeletal muscle metabolic activity and does not compensate the lack of PPAR{alpha} in PPAR{alpha} null mice.

  20. Search for double beta decay of 116Cd with enriched 116CdWO4 crystal scintillators (Aurora experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danevich, F. A.; Barabash, A. S.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Cappella, F.; Caracciolo, V.; Cerulli, R.; Chernyak, D. M.; d’Angelo, S.; Incicchitti, A.; Kobychev, V. V.; Konovalov, S. I.; Laubenstein, M.; Mokina, V. M.; Poda, D. V.; Polischuk, O. G.; Shlegel, V. N.; Tretyak, V. I.; Umatov, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    The Aurora experiment to investigate double beta decay of 116 Cd with the help of 1.162 kg cadmium tungstate crystal scintillators enriched in 116 Cd to 82% is in progress at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory. The half-life of 116 Cd relatively to the two neutrino double beta decay is measured with the highest up-to-date accuracy T1/2 = (2.62 ± 0.14) × 1019 yr. The sensitivity of the experiment to the neutrinoless double beta decay of 116 Cd to the ground state of 116 Sn is estimated as T1/2 ≥ 1.9 × 1023 yr at 90% CL, which corresponds to the effective Majorana neutrino mass limit (mv) ≤ (1.2 — 1.8) eV. New limits are obtained for the double beta decay of 116 Cd to the excited levels of 116 Sn, and for the neutrinoless double beta decay with emission of majorons.

  1. The AMoRE: Search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 100}Mo

    SciTech Connect

    Park, HyangKyu

    2015-10-28

    The AMoRE (Advanced Mo-based Rare process Experiment) collaboration is using calcium molybdate ({sup dep48}Ca {sup 100}MoO{sub 4}) crystals enriched in {sup 100}Mo and depleted in {sup 48}Ca to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay (DBD) of {sup 100}Mo using at the underground laboratory in Korea. Metallic magnetic calorimeters operating a milliKelvin temperatures are used as temperature sensors to measure heat and light signals from the crystals. The simultaneous and fast detection capabilities for both phonons and photons, and their excellent energy resolution provide powerful methods for identifying DBD signals and rejecting background events, which are mainly due to random coincidences between two uncorrelated two-neutrino-double-beta decays of {sup 100}Mo. The AMoRE-Pilot experiment that is currently underway uses a 1.5 kg, five-element array of {sup dep48}Ca {sup 100}MoO{sub 4} crystals. The ultimate goal is a ∼200 kg array of crystals and a half-life sensitivity of order 10{sup 26} years, which will access the inverted hierarchy region for effective Majorana neutrino masses, i.e., 0.02 to 0.05 eV. In this talk, we present recent progress on the development of low-background calcium molybdate detectors and results from room- and milli-Kelvin temperatures. Sensitivities based on GEANT4 simulations that incorporate measured background are reported.

  2. Status Update of the Majorana Demonstrator Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gruzko, Julieta; Rielage, Keith Robert; Xu, Wenqin; Elliott, Steven Ray; Massarczyk, Ralph; Goett, John Jerome III; Chu, Pinghan

    2015-11-10

    Neutrinoless double beta decay searches play a major role in determining neutrino properties, in particular the Majorana or Dirac nature of the neutrino and the absolute scale of the neutrino mass. The consequences of these searches go beyond neutrino physics, with implications for Grand Unification and leptogenesis. The Majorana Collaboration is assembling a low-background array of high purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. The Majorana Demonstrator, which is currently being constructed and commissioned at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota, will contain 44 kg (30 kg enriched in 76Ge) of HPGe detectors. Its primary goal is to demonstrate the scalability and background required for a tonne-scale Ge experiment. This is accomplished via a modular design and projected background of less than 3 cnts/tonne-yr in the region of interest. The experiment is currently taking data with the first of its enriched detectors.

  3. Investigation of Double Beta Decay of 100Mo to Excited States of 100Ru

    SciTech Connect

    A. J. Caffrey; The NEMO-3 Collaboration

    2014-05-01

    Double beta decay of 100Mo to the excited states of daughter nuclei has been studied using a 600 cm3 low-background HPGe detector and an external source consisting of 2588 g of 97.5% enriched metallic 100Mo, which was formerly inside the NEMO-3 detector and used for the NEMO-3 measurements of 100Mo. The half-life for the two-neutrino double beta decay of 100Mo to the excited View the MathML source state in 100Ru is measured to be T1/2=[7.5±0.6(stat)±0.6(syst)]·1020 yr. For other (0?+2?) transitions to the View the MathML source, View the MathML source, View the MathML source, View the MathML source and View the MathML source levels in 100Ru, limits are obtained at the level of ~(0.25–1.1)·1022 yr.

  4. Status of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR: A search for neutrinoless double-beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremenko, Yu.; Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, F. T.; Baldenegro-Barrera, C. X.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; Laferriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Macmullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.

    2015-04-01

    If neutrinos are Majorana particles, i.e. fermions that are their own antiparticles, then neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay is possible. In such a process, two neutrons can simultaneously decay into two protons and two electrons without emitting neutrinos. Neutrinos being Majorana particles would explicitly violate lepton number conservation, and might play a role in the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR experiment is under construction at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD and will search for the neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay of the 76Ge isotope. The goal of the experiment is to demonstrate that it is possible to achieve a sufficiently low background rate in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039 keV Q-value to justify building a tonne-scale experiment. In this paper, we discuss the physics and design of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, its approach to achieving ultra-low background and the status of the experiment.

  5. Radiopure ZnMoO4 scintillating bolometers for the LUMINEU double-beta experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poda, D. V.; Armengaud, E.; Arnaud, Q.; Augier, C.; Barabash, A. S.; Benoît, A.; Benoît, A.; Bergé, L.; Boiko, R. S.; Bergmann, T.; Blümer, J.; Broniatowski, A.; Brudanin, V.; Camus, P.; Cazes, A.; Censier, B.; Chapellier, M.; Charlieux, F.; Chernyak, D. M.; Coron, N.; Coulter, P.; Cox, G. A.; Danevich, F. A.; de Boissière, T.; Decourt, R.; De Jesus, M.; Devoyon, L.; Drillien, A.-A.; Dumoulin, L.; Eitel, K.; Enss, C.; Filosofov, D.; Fleischmann, A.; Fourches, N.; Gascon, J.; Gastaldo, L.; Gerbier, G.; Giuliani, A.; Gros, M.; Hehn, L.; Henry, S.; Hervé, S.; Heuermann, G.; Humbert, V.; Ivanov, I. M.; Juillard, A.; Kéfélian, C.; Kleifges, M.; Kluck, H.; Kobychev, V. V.; Koskas, F.; Kozlov, V.; Kraus, H.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Le Sueur, H.; Loidl, M.; Magnier, P.; Makarov, E. P.; Mancuso, M.; de Marcillac, P.; Marnieros, S.; Marrache-Kikuchi, C.; Menshikov, A.; Nasonov, S. G.; Navick, X.-F.; Nones, C.; Olivieri, E.; Pari, P.; Paul, B.; Penichot, Y.; Pessina, G.; Piro, M. C.; Plantevin, O.; Redon, T.; Robinson, M.; Rodrigues, M.; Rozov, S.; Sanglard, V.; Schmidt, B.; Shlegel, V. N.; Siebenborn, B.; Strazzer, O.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Tenconi, M.; Torres, L.; Tretyak, V. I.; Vagneron, L.; Vasiliev, Ya. V.; Velazquez, M.; Viraphong, O.; Walker, R. J.; Weber, M.; Yakushev, E.; Zhang, X.; Zhdankov, V. N.

    2015-08-01

    The results of R&D of radiopure zinc molybdate (ZnMoO4) based scintillating bolometers for the LUMINEU (Luminescent Underground Molybdenum Investigation for NEUtrino mass and nature) double-beta decay experiment are presented. A dedicated two-stage molybdenum purification technique (sublimation in vacuum and recrystallization from aqueous solutions) and an advanced directional solidification method (the low-thermal-gradient Czochralski technique) were utilized to produce high optical quality large mass (˜1 kg) ZnMoO4 crystal boules and first 100Mo (99.5%) enriched Zn100MoO4 crystal scintillator (mass of ˜0.2 kg). Scintillating bolometers based on ZnMoO4 (≈ 0.33 kg) and Zn100MoO4 (≈ 0.06 kg) scintillation elements and high purity Ge wafers were tested in the EDELWEISS set-up at the Modane Underground Laboratory (France). Long term low temperature tests demonstrate excellent detectors' performance and effectiveness of the purification and solidification procedures for the achievement of high radiopurity of the material, in particular with a bulk activity of 228Th and 226Ra below 4 µBq/kg. The adopted protocol was used to produce for the first time a large volume Zn100MoO4 crystal scintillator (mass of ˜1.4 kg, 100Mo enrichment is 99.5%) to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 100Mo in the framework of the LUMINEU project.

  6. Status and future prospect of 48Ca double beta decay search in CANDLES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, T.; Nakajima, K.; Ajimura, S.; Batpurev, T.; Chan, W. M.; Fushimi, K.; Hazama, R.; Kakubata, H.; Khai, B. T.; Kishimoto, T.; Li, X.; Maeda, T.; Masuda, A.; Matsuoka, K.; Morishita, K.; Nakatani, N.; Nomachi, M.; Noshiro, S.; Ogawa, I.; Ohata, T.; Osumi, H.; Suzuki, K.; Tamagawa, Y.; Tesuno, K.; Trang, V. T. T.; Uehara, T.; Umehara, S.; Yoshida, S.

    2016-05-01

    The observation of neutrino-less double beta decay (0vßß) would be the most practical way to prove the Majorana nature of the neutrino and lepton number violation. CANDLES studies 48Ca double beta decay using CaF2 scintillator. The main advantage of 48Ca is that it has the highest Q-value (4.27 MeV) among all the isotope candidates for 0vßß. The CANDLES III detector is currently operating with 300kg CaF2 crystals in the Kamioka underground observatory, Japan. In 2014, a detector cooling system and a magnetic cancellation coil was installed with the aim to increase light emission of CaF2 scintillator and photo-electron collection efficiency of the photo-multipliers. After this upgrade, light yield was increased to 1000 p.e./MeV which is 1.6 times larger than before. According to data analysis and simulation, main background source in CANDLES is turned out to be high energy external gamma-ray originating neutron capture on the surrounding materials, so called (n,γ). Upgrading the detector by installing neutron and gamma-ray shield can reduce the remaining main backgrounds by two order magnitude. In this report, we discuss the detail of (n,γ) and background reduction by additional shielding.

  7. The AMoRE: Search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 100Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, HyangKyu

    2015-10-01

    The AMoRE (Advanced Mo-based Rare process Experiment) collaboration is using calcium molybdate (dep48Ca 100MoO4) crystals enriched in 100Mo and depleted in 48Ca to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay (DBD) of 100Mo using at the underground laboratory in Korea. Metallic magnetic calorimeters operating a milliKelvin temperatures are used as temperature sensors to measure heat and light signals from the crystals. The simultaneous and fast detection capabilities for both phonons and photons, and their excellent energy resolution provide powerful methods for identifying DBD signals and rejecting background events, which are mainly due to random coincidences between two uncorrelated two-neutrino-double-beta decays of 100Mo. The AMoRE-Pilot experiment that is currently underway uses a 1.5 kg, five-element array of dep48Ca 100MoO4 crystals. The ultimate goal is a ˜200 kg array of crystals and a half-life sensitivity of order 1026 years, which will access the inverted hierarchy region for effective Majorana neutrino masses, i.e., 0.02 to 0.05 eV. In this talk, we present recent progress on the development of low-background calcium molybdate detectors and results from room- and milli-Kelvin temperatures. Sensitivities based on GEANT4 simulations that incorporate measured background are reported.

  8. Status of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR: A Search for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremenko, Yu.; Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, F. T.; Baldenegro-Barrera, C. X.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; Laferriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Macmullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.

    If neutrinos are Majorana particles, i.e. fermions that are their own antiparticles, then neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay is possible. In such a process, two neutrons can simultaneously decay into two protons and two electrons without emitting neutrinos. Neutrinos being Majorana particles would explicitly violate lepton number conservation, and might play a role in the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR experiment is under construction at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD and will search for the neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay of the 76Ge isotope. The goal of the experiment is to demonstrate that it is possible to achieve a sufficiently low background rate in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039 keV Q-value to justify building a tonne-scale experiment. In this paper, we discuss the physics and design of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, its approach to achieving ultra-low background and the status of the experiment.

  9. The Majorana Demonstrator: A search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of germanium-76

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, S. R.; Boswell, M.; Goett, J.; Rielage, K.; Ronquest, M. C.; Xu, W.; Abgrall, N.; Chan, Y-D.; Hegai, A.; Martin, R. D.; Mertens, S.; Poon, A. W. P.; Aguayo, E.; Fast, J. E.; Hoppe, E. W.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Orrell, J. L.; Overman, N. R.; Soin, A.; and others

    2013-12-30

    The MAJORANA collaboration is searching for neutrinoless double beta decay using {sup 76}Ge, which has been shown to have a number of advantages in terms of sensitivities and backgrounds. The observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay would show that lepton number is violated and that neutrinos are Majorana particles and would simultaneously provide information on neutrino mass. Attaining sensitivities for neutrino masses in the inverted hierarchy region, 15 - 50 meV, will require large, tonne-scale detectors with extremely low backgrounds, at the level of ∼1 count/t-y or lower in the region of the signal. The MAJORANA collaboration, with funding support from DOE Office of Nuclear Physics and NSF Particle Astrophysics, is constructing the DEMONSTRATOR, an array consisting of 40 kg of p-type point-contact high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, of which ∼30 kg will be enriched to 87% in {sup 76}Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR is being constructed in a clean room laboratory facility at the 4850' level (4300 m.w.e.) of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. It utilizes a compact graded shield approach with the inner portion consisting of ultra-clean Cu that is being electroformed and machined underground. The primary aim of the DEMONSTRATOR is to show the feasibility of a future tonne-scale measurement in terms of backgrounds and scalability.

  10. Search for double beta decay with HPGe detectors at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chkvorets, Oleg

    2008-12-01

    Neutrinoless double-beta decay is practically the only way to establish the Majorana nature of the neutrino mass and its decay rate provides a probe of an effective neutrino mass. Double beta experiments are long-running underground experiments with specific challenges concerning the background reduction and the long term stability. These problems are addressed in this work for the Heidelberg-Moscow (HdM), GENIUS Test Facility (TF) and GERDA experiments. The HdM experiment collected data with enriched 76Ge high purity (HPGe) detectors from 1990 to 2003. An improved analysis of HdM data is presented, exploiting new calibration and spectral shape measurements with the HdM detectors. GENIUS-TF was a test-facility that verified the feasibility of using bare germanium detectors in liquid nitrogen. The first year results of this experiment are discussed. The GERDA experiment has been designed to further increase the sensitivity by operating bare germanium detectors in a high purity cryogenic liquid, which simultaneously serves as a shielding against background and as a cooling media. In the preparatory stage of GERDA, an external background gamma flux measurement was done at the experimental site in the Hall A of the Gran Sasso laboratory. The characterization of the enriched detectors from the HdM and IGEX experiments was performed in the underground detector laboratory for the GERDA collaboration. Long term stability measurements of a bare HPGe detector in liquid argon were carried out. Based on these measurements, the first lower limit on the half-life of neutrinoless double electron capture of 36Ar was established to be 1.85*10^18 years at 68% C.L.

  11. Measurement of the Double-Beta Decay Half-life of {sup 136}Xe in KamLAND-Zen

    SciTech Connect

    KamLAND-Zen Collaboration; Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Hanakago, H.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kato, R.; Koga, M.; Matsuda, S.; Mitsui, T.; Nakada, T.; Nakamura, K.; Obata, A.; Oki, A.; Ono, Y.; Shimizu, I.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Tamae, K.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B. D.; Yamada, S.; Yoshida, H.; Kozlov, A.; Yoshida, S.; Banks, T. I.; Detwiler, J. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Han, K.; O'Donnell, T.; Berger, B. E.; Efremenko, Y.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Enomoto, S.; Decowski, M. P.

    2012-01-23

    We present results from the KamLAND-Zen double-beta decay experiment based on an exposure of 77.6 days with 129 kg of {sup 136}Xe. The measured two-neutrino double-beta decay half-life of {sup 136}Xe is T{sup 2{nu}}{sub 1/2} = 2:38 {+-} 0:02(stat) {+-}0.14(syst) x10{sup 21} yr, consistent with a recent measurement by EXO-200. We also obtain a lower limit for the neutrinoless double-beta decay half-life, T{sup 0{nu}}{sub 1/2} > 5.7 x 10{sup 24} yr at 90% C.L.

  12. Exploration of Pixelated detectors for double beta decay searches within the COBRA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwenke, M.; Zuber, K.; Janutta, B.; He, Z.; Zeng, F.; Anton, G.; Michel, T.; Durst, J.; Lück, F.; Gleixner, T.; Gössling, C.; Schulz, O.; Köttig, T.; Krawczynski, H.; Martin, J.; Stekl, I.; Cermak, P.

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the COBRA experiment is the search for neutrinoless double beta decay events in Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe) room temperature semiconductor detectors. The development of pixelated detectors provides the potential for clear event identification and thus major background reduction. The tracking option of a semiconductor is a unique approach in this field. For initial studies, several possible detector systems are considered with a special regard for low background applications: the large volume system Polaris with a pixelated CdZnTe sensor, Timepix detectors with Si and enriched CdTe sensor material and a CdZnTe pixel system developed at the Washington University in St. Louis, USA. For all detector systems first experimental background measurements taken at underground laboratories (Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory in Italy, LNGS and the Niederniveau Messlabor Felsenkeller in Dresden, Germany) and additionally for the Timepix detectors simulation results are presented.

  13. An update on the neutrinoless double beta decay search at Cuoricino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Thomas D.

    2004-10-01

    We present a status report on the neutrinoless double beta (0ν2β) decay search efforts at Cuoricino, a bolometric experiment located at the Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy. In particular, we provide an update on the ongoing hardware development and parallel analysis efforts at LBNL. Cuoricino consists of a single tower of 62 TeO2 crystals ( ˜ 40 kg), which serve as both the source and detector for the 0ν2β decays. We also discuss the proposed CUORE (Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events) experiment. Similar in concept to Cuoricino, CUORE will consist of 1000 TeO2 crystals having a total mass of approximately 760 kg. CUORE will provide more statistics and, along with various anticipated technical improvements, higher sensitivity to 0ν2β decays than Cuoricino. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy.

  14. Results on neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge from the GERDA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palioselitis, Dimitrios

    2015-05-01

    The Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment is searching for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76Ge, a lepton number violating nuclear process predicted by extensions of the Standard Model. GERDA is an array of bare germanium diodes immersed in liquid argon located at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) in Italy. The results of the GERDA Phase I data taking with a total exposure of 21.6 kg yr and a background index of 0.01 cts/(keV kg yr) are presented in this paper. No signal was observed and a lower limit of T1/20ν > 2.1×1025 yr (90% C.L.) was derived for the half-life of the 0νββ decay of 76Ge. Phase II of the experiment aims to reduce the background around the region of interest by a factor of ten.

  15. Research and Development Supporting a Next Generation Germanium Double Beta Decay Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rielage, Keith; Elliott, Steve; Chu, Pinghan; Goett, Johnny; Massarczyk, Ralph; Xu, Wenqin

    2015-10-01

    To improve the search for neutrinoless double beta decay, the next-generation experiments will increase in source mass and continue to reduce backgrounds in the region of interest. A promising technology for the next generation experiment is large arrays of Germanium p-type point contact detectors enriched in 76-Ge. The experience, expertise and lessons learned from the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and GERDA experiments naturally lead to a number of research and development activities that will be useful in guiding a future experiment utilizing Germanium. We will discuss some R&D activities including a hybrid cryostat design, background reduction in cabling, connectors and electronics, and modifications to reduce assembly time. We acknowledge the support of the U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program.

  16. Phase II Upgrade of the GERDA Experiment for the Search of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorovits, B.

    Observation of neutrinoless double beta decay could answer the question regarding the Majorana or Dirac nature of neutrinos. The GERDA experiment utilizes HPGe detectors enriched with the isotope 76Ge to search for this process. Recently the GERDA collaboration has unblinded data of Phase I of the experiment. In order to further improve the sensitivity of the experiment, additionally to the coaxial detectors used, 30 BEGe detectors made from germanium enriched in 76Ge will be deployed in GERDA Phase II. BEGe detectors have superior PSD capability, thus the background can be further reduced. The liquid argon surrounding the detector array will be instrumented in order to reject background by detecting scintillation light induced in the liquid argon by radiation. After a short introduction the hardware preparations for GERDA Phase II as well as the processing and characterization of the 30 BEGe detectors are discussed.

  17. Ultra-low gamma-ray measurement system for neutrinoless double beta decay.

    PubMed

    Kang, W G; Choi, J H; Jeon, E J; Lee, J I; Kim, H J; Kim, S K; Kim, Y D; Lee, J H; Ma, K J; Myung, S S; So, J H

    2013-11-01

    An experiment for the detection of 0νβ(+)/EC and 0νEC/EC in 92Mo nuclei has been carried out with a scintillating crystal, CaMoO4, in coincidence with the HPGe detector. We study the background events inside the event selection window for 0ν β(+)/EC decays of CaMoO4 detector. For 51.2 days of data taking period, we didn't observe any event in the neutrinoless EC/EC decay event window. The (92)Mo 0νβ(+)/EC decay half-life limit was set to 0.61×10(20) years with a 90% confidence by method of Feldman and Cousins. This ultra-low gamma ray measurement utilizing coincidence technique can be used for the resonant EC/EC decay process of some nuclei which is potentially important for neutrinoless double beta decay process. PMID:23726518

  18. Neutron-Induced Reactions on Copper and Zero-Neutrino Double-Beta Decay Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooden, Matthew; Kelley, John; Fallin, Brent; Finch, Sean; Howell, Calvin; Rusev, Gencho; Tonchev, Anton; Tornow, Werner

    2012-10-01

    Cross-section measurements of (n,xγ) reactions on ^natCu were carried out at TUNL using monoenergetic neutrons at six energies of En = 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 MeV. These studies were performed to provide accurate cross-section data on materials abundant in experimental setups involving HPGe detectors used to search for rare events, like the neutrino-less double-beta decay of ^76Ge. Spallation and (α,n) neutrons are expected to cause the largest source of external background in the energy region of interest. At TUNL pulsed neutron beams were produced via the ^2H(d,n)^3He reaction and the deexcitation γ rays from the reaction ^natCu(n,xγ) were detected with clover HPGe detectors. Our cross-section data will be compared to theoretical calculations and to data recently obtained at LANL with a white neutron beam.

  19. Search for β+/EC double beta decay of 120Te

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomei, C.

    2011-12-01

    We present a search for β+/EC double beta decay of 120Te performed with the CUORICINO experiment, an array of TeO2 cryogenic bolometers. After collecting 0.0573 kgṡy of 120Te, we see no evidence of a signal and therefore set the following limits on the half-life: T1/20ν>1.9ṡ1021 y at 90% C.L. for the 0ν mode and T1/22ν>7.6ṡ1019 y at 90% C.L. for the 2ν mode. These results improve the existing limits by almost three orders of magnitude (four in the case of 0ν mode).

  20. Experiment TGV-2. Search for double beta decay of 106Cd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukhadze, N. I.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Briançon, Ch; Brudanin, V. B.; Čermák, P.; Egorov, V. G.; Klimenko, A. A.; Kovalik, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Rukhadze, E. N.; Mamedov, F.; Shitov, Yu A.; Šimkovic, F.; Štekl, I.; Timkin, V. V.; Zhukov, S. V.

    2012-07-01

    The search for double beta decay of 106Cd was performed at the Modane underground laboratory (France, 4800 m.w.e.) using the multi-detector spectrometer TGV-2. 16 samples (~13.6 g) of 106Cd with an enrichment of 75% were installed between neighbouring HPGe detectors and measured during 12900 h. New half-life limits (at 90% CL) were obtained for 2νEC/EC decay of 106Cd to the ground state of 106Pd - T1/2 > 4.2 × 1020 y, and for OνEC/EC resonant decay of 106Cd to 2741 keV and 2718 keV excited states of 106Pd - T1/2 > 1.8 × 1020y and T1/2 > 1.6 × 1020y respectively.

  1. The search for Majorana neutrinos with neutrinoless double beta decays: From CUORICINO to LUCIFER experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, F.

    2012-11-01

    The study of neutrino properties is one of the fundamental challenges in particle physics nowadays. Fifty years of investigations established that neutrinos are massive but the absolute mass scale has not yet been measured. Moreover its true nature is still unknown. Is the neutrino its own antiparticle (thus violating the lepton number) as proposed by Majorana in 1937? The only way to probe the neutrino nature is through the observation of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (0νββ), a very rare spontaneous nuclear transition which emits two electrons and no neutrinos. In this paper, after a brief introduction to the theoretical framework of Majorana's neutrino, a presentation of experimental challenges posed by 0νββ search will be given as well as an overview of present status and future perpectives of experiments.

  2. Lucifer:. AN Experimental Breakthrough in the Search for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dafinei, I.; Ferroni, F.; Giuliani, A.; Pirro, S.; Previtali, E.

    2011-03-01

    LUCIFER (Low-background Underground Cryogenic Installation For Elusive Rates) is a new project for the study of neutrinoless Double Beta Decay, based on the technology of the scintillating bolometers. These devices promise a very efficient rejection of the a background, opening the way to a virtually background-free experiment if candidates with a transition energy higher than 2615 keV are investigated. The baseline candidate for LUCIFER is 82Se. This isotope will be embedded in ZnSe crystals grown with enriched selenium and operated as scintillating bolometers in a low-radioactivity underground dilution refrigerator. In this paper, the LUCIFER concept will be introduced and the sensitivity and the prospects related to this project will be discussed.

  3. LUCIFER, a potentially background-free approach to the search for neutrinoless double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nones, C.; Lucifer Group

    2011-08-01

    LUCIFER (Low-background Underground Cryogenic Installation For Elusive Rates) is a new project for the study of neutrinoless Double Beta Decay, based on the technology of scintillating bolometers. These devices promise a very efficient rejection of the alpha background, opening the way to a virtual background-free experiment if candidates with a transition energy higher than 2615 keV are investigated. The baseline candidate for LUCIFER is 82Se. This isotope will be embedded in ZnSe crystals grown with enriched selenium and operated as scintillating bolometers in a low-radioactivity underground dilution refrigerator. In this paper, the LUCIFER concept will be introduced. The sensitivity and the very promising prospects related to this project will be discussed.

  4. An experimental investigation of double beta decay of /sup 100/Mo

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, B.L.

    1988-11-17

    New limits on half-lives for several double beta decay modes of /sup 100/Mo were obtained with a novel experimental system which included thin source films interleaved with a coaxial array of windowless silicon detectors. Segmentation and timing information allowed backgrounds originating in the films to be studied in some detail. Dummy films containing /sup 96/Mo were used to assess remaining backgrounds. With 0.1 mole years of /sup 100/Mo data collected, the lower half-life limits at 90% confidence were 2.7 /times/ 10/sup 18/ years for decay via the two-neutrino mode, 5.2 /times/10/sup 19/ years for decay with the emission of a Majoron, and 1.6 /times/ 10/sup 20/ years and 2.2 /times/ 10/sup 21/ years for neutrinoless 0/sup +/ ..-->.. 2/sup +/ and 0/sup +/ ..-->.. 0/sup +/ transitions, respectively. 50 refs., 38 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Uvby-beta photometry of visual double stars - Absolute magnitudes of intrinsically bright stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, E. H.

    1982-05-01

    Individual absolute visual magnitudes M(v) are derived for intrinsically bright stars and evolved stars. The results are collected for 106 objects believed to be members of binary systems. uvby-beta photometry was empirically calibrated in terms of M(v) for main sequence stars and photoelectrically determined apparent magnitudes. The derived M(v) values are not significantly different from those stated in the Wilson catalogue (1976). Binary systems with main sequence primaries and secondary components off the main sequence were also investigated. Several systems in which at least one component may be in the pre-main sequence contraction stage are pointed out. A wide variety of comments and derived data are given individually for 136 double stars, including metallicities, distance moduli, and masses.

  6. First array of enriched Zn^{82}Se bolometers to search for double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artusa, D. R.; Balzoni, A.; Beeman, J. W.; Bellini, F.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Camacho, A.; Capelli, S.; Cardani, L.; Carniti, P.; Casali, N.; Cassina, L.; Clemenza, M.; Cremonesi, O.; Cruciani, A.; D'Addabbo, A.; Dafinei, I.; Di Domizio, S.; di Vacri, M. L.; Ferroni, F.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gotti, C.; Keppel, G.; Maino, M.; Mancuso, M.; Martinez, M.; Morganti, S.; Nagorny, S.; Nastasi, M.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Orio, F.; Orlandi, D.; Pagnanini, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Pirro, S.; Pozzi, S.; Previtali, E.; Puiu, A.; Rusconi, C.; Schäffner, K.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M.; Zolotarova, A.

    2016-07-01

    The R&D activity performed during the last years proved the potential of ZnSe scintillating bolometers to the search for neutrino-less double beta decay, motivating the realization of the first large-mass experiment based on this technology: CUPID-0. The isotopic enrichment in ^{82}Se, the Zn^{82}Se crystals growth, as well as the light detectors production have been accomplished, and the experiment is now in construction at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy). In this paper we present the results obtained testing the first three Zn^{82}Se crystals operated as scintillating bolometers, and we prove that their performance in terms of energy resolution, background rejection capability and intrinsic radio-purity complies with the requirements of CUPID-0.

  7. The Majorana Zero-Neutrino Double-Beta Decay Experiment White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Gaitskell, R.; Barabash, A.; Konovalov, S.; Stekhanov, V.; Umatov,, V.; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, S.; Webb, J.; Miley, Harry S.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Anderson, Dale N.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Brodzinski, Ronald L.; Jordan, David B.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Smith, Leon E.; Thompson, Robert C.; Warner, Ray A.; Tornow, W.; Young, A.; Collar, J. I.; Avignone, Frank T.; Palms, John M.; Doe, P. J.; Elliott, Steven R.; Kazkaz, K.; Robertson, Hamish; Wilkerson, John

    2002-03-07

    The goal of the Majorana Experiment is to determine the effective Majorana masss of the eletron neutrino. Detection of the neutrino mass implied by oscillation results in within our grasp. This exciting physics goal is best pursued using double-beta decay of germanium because of the historical and emerging advances in eliminating competing signals from radioactive backgrounds. The Majorana Experiment will consist of a large mass of 76Ge in the form of high-resolution detectors deep underground, searching for a sharp peak at the BB endpoint. We present here an overview of the entire project in order to help put in perspective the scope, the level and technial risk, and the readiness of the Collaboration to begin the undertaking.

  8. Upgrading KamLAND-Zen for improved sensitivity to neutrinoless double-beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupczak, Emmett; KamLAND-Zen Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    KamLAND is a 1 kton liquid scintillator antineutrino detector located underground in Kamioka, Japan. The KamLAND-Zen experiment began in 2011, using KamLAND to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay (0 νββ). This process, if observed, would indicate that neutrinos are their own antiparticle and thus are Majorana fermions, a discovery that could help explain the matter-antimatter discrepancy in our universe. Currently, KamLAND-Zen is one of the most sensitive experiments to 0 νββ . In order to improve upon the present limits for 0 νββ , KamLAND is undergoing a series of upgrades to reduce background. This includes the construction of a new inner nylon chamber (``mini-balloon''). The current results and design considerations for the mini-balloon will be discussed.

  9. Shell-Model Calculations of Two-Nucleon Tansfer Related to Double Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Alex

    2013-10-01

    I will discuss theoretical results for two-nucleon transfer cross sections for nuclei in the regions of 48Ca, 76Ge and 136Xe of interest for testing the wavefuntions used for the nuclear matrix elements in double-beta decay. Various reaction models are used. A simple cluster transfer model gives relative cross sections. Thompson's code Fresco with direct and sequential transfer is used for absolute cross sections. Wavefunctions are obtained in large-basis proton-neutron coupled model spaces with the code NuShellX with realistic effecive Hamiltonians such as those used for the recent results for 136Xe [M. Horoi and B. A. Brown, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 222502 (2013)]. I acknowledge support from NSF grant PHY-1068217.

  10. Searching for neutrinoless double beta decay of Te-130 with CUORE bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ke; Cuore Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The CUORE (Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events) experiment will search for neutrinoless double beta decay of Te-130. CUORE large-mass bolometer array will consist of 988 tellurium oxide bolometer modules and a total of 206 kg of Te-130 in one single cryostat at 10 mK. It will be sensitive to an effective Majorana neutrino mass of 50-130 meV and is one of the most sensitive experiments under construction. The detector and the cryostat are in an advanced stage of installation and is expected to start operation by the end of 2015. Recents results from CUORE-0, a prototype experiment to CUORE, have validated the performance and background predictions of TeO2 bolometer arrays. In this talk, we will present the latest results from CUORE-0, the construction status, as well as sensitivity projection of CUORE. On behalf of the CUORE Collaboration.

  11. Pixel detectors in double beta decay experiments, a new approach for background reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, J. M.; Čermák, P.; Štekl, I.; Shitov, Yu. A.; Rukhadze, E. N.; Rukhadze, N. I.; Brudanin, V. B.; Fiederle, M.; Fauler, A.; Loaiza, P.

    2013-08-01

    Double beta decay (ββ) experiments are challenging frontiers in contemporary physics. These experiments have the potential to investigate more about neutrinos (eg. nature and mass). The main challenge for these experiments is the reduction of background. The group at IEAP, CTU in Prague is investigating a new approach using pixel detectors Timepix. Pixel detector offer background reduction capabilities with its ability to identify the particle interaction (from the 2D signature it generates). However, use of pixel detectors has some challenges such as the presence of readout electronics near the sensing medium and heat dissipation. Different aspects of pixel setup (identification of radio-impurities, selection of radio-pure materials) and proposed experimental setup are presented. Also, results of preliminary background measurements (performed on the surface and in the underground laboratories) using the prototype setups are presented.

  12. A Segmented, Enriched N-type Germanium Detector for Neutrinoless Double Beta-Decay Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Leviner, L.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Ahmed, M. W.; Avignone, F. T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Boswell, M.; De Braeckeleer, L.; Brudanin, V.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Elliott, Steven R.; Gehman, Victor M.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Kephart, Jeremy; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S.; Lesko, Kevin; Li, Jingyi; Mei, Dongming; Mikhailov, S.; Miley, Harry S.; Radford, D. C.; Reeves, James H.; Sandukovsky, Viatcheslav; Umatov, Valdimir; Underwood, T. A.; Tornow, W.; Wu, Y. K.; Young, A.

    2014-01-21

    We present data characterizing the performance of the _rst segmented, N- type Ge detector, isotopically enriched to 85% 76Ge. This detector, based on the Ortec PT6x2 design and referred to as SEGA (Segmented, Enriched Germanium Assembly), was developed as a possible prototype for neutrinoless double beta-decay measurements by the Majorana collaboration. We present some of the general characteristics (including bias potential, efficiency, leakage current, and integral cross-talk) for this detector in its temporary cryostat. We also present an analysis of the resolution of the detector, and demonstrate that for all but two segments there is at least one channel that reaches the Majorana resolution goal below 4 keV FWHM at 2039 keV, and all channels are below 4.5 keV FWHM.

  13. Neutrino nuclear responses for double beta decays and astro neutrinos by charge exchange reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejiri, Hiroyasu

    2014-09-01

    Neutrino nuclear responses are crucial for neutrino studies in nuclei. Charge exchange reactions (CER) are shown to be used to study charged current neutrino nuclear responses associated with double beta decays(DBD)and astro neutrino interactions. CERs to be used are high energy-resolution (He3 ,t) reactions at RCNP, photonuclear reactions via IAR at NewSUBARU and muon capture reactions at MUSIC RCNP and MLF J-PARC. The Gamow Teller (GT) strengths studied by CERs reproduce the observed 2 neutrino DBD matrix elements. The GT and spin dipole (SD) matrix elements are found to be reduced much due to the nucleon spin isospin correlations and the non-nucleonic (delta isobar) nuclear medium effects. Impacts of the reductions on the DBD matrix elements and astro neutrino interactions are discussed.

  14. Bounds for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay in SO(10) Inspired Seesaw Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buccella, F.; Falcone, D.

    By requiring the lower limit for the lightest right-handed neutrino mass, obtained in the baryogenesis from leptogenesis scenario, and a Dirac neutrino mass matrix similar to the up-quark mass matrix, we predict small values for the νe mass and for the matrix element mee responsible of the neutrinoless double beta decay, mνe around 5×10-3 eV and mee smaller than 10-3 eV, respectively. The allowed range for the mass of the heaviest right-handed neutrino is centered around the value of the scale of B-L breaking in the SO(10) gauge theory with Pati-Salam intermediate symmetry.

  15. TPC Detectors for Neutrino-less Double-Beta Decay and Dark Matter Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldschmidt, Azriel

    2012-10-01

    Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) are increasingly becoming the particle detector technology of choice for rare event searches such as neutrino-less double beta decays and direct WIMP dark matter interactions. At present time, experiments using xenon-filled TPCs are producing some of the best limits for both of these searches. TPCs offer 3D ionization-track imaging as well as calorimetric energy measurements both of which are important handles for the identification of the rare sought-after events while discarding background events due to cosmic rays or due to radioactive decays in the detector or surrounding materials. Particle identification, beyond that provided by the particle range and dE/dx information, is also available from the relative amount of ionization and excitation losses and is essential for the WIMP searches. The contiguous gas or liquid volume at the heart of a TPC is continuously purified to remove contaminants that would otherwise deteriorate the detector performance or produce backgrounds. The fiducial volume for the event searches can be defined after the fact and is typically chosen to be well separated from the physical boundaries of the working gas or liquid to avoid surface events that often are problematic and much harder to reject in solid state detectors. The scalability of the TPC is one of its most important advantages in a field where ever increasing detector masses are required to achieve the required sensitivities. Detectors of O(100) kg scale are in operation and construction and ton to multi-ton detectors are being planned and expected to come on-line in the next years. In this talk I will describe the various types of TPCs in use or planned and will discuss their potential for achieving the exciting goals of discovering the dark matter particle and observing neutrino-less double beta decays.

  16. Search for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay of with CUORE-0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfonso, K.; Artusa, D.  R.; F. T. Avignone; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T.  I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.  W.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Caminata, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X.  G.; Capelli, S.; Cappelli, L.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Copello, S.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R.  J.; Cushman, J.  S.; Dafinei, I.; Dally, A.; Dell’Oro, S.; Deninno, M.  M.; Di Domizio, S.; Di Vacri, M.  L.; Drobizhev, A.; Ejzak, L.; Fang, D.  Q.; Faverzani, M.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Freedman, S.  J.; Fujikawa, B.  K.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T.  D.; Haller, E.  E.; Han, K.; Hansen, E.; Heeger, K.  M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Hickerson, K.  P.; Huang, H.  Z.; Kadel, R.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu.  G.; Lim, K.  E.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y.  G.; Maino, M.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R.  H.; Mei, Y.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Nisi, S.; C. Nones; Norman, E.  B.; Nucciotti, A.; O’Donnell, T.; Orio, F.; Orlandi, D.; Ouellet, J.  L.; Pagliarone, C.  E.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Piperno, G.; Pirro, S.; Pozzi, S.; Previtali, E.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sala, E.; Sangiorgio, S.; Santone, D.; Scielzo, N.  D.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A.  R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.; Wagaarachchi, S.  L.; Wang, B.  S.; Wang, H.  W.; Wielgus, L.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L.  A.; Wise, T.; Zanotti, L.; Zarra, C.; Zhang, G.  Q.; Zhu, B.  X.; Zucchelli, S.

    2015-09-03

    We report the results of a search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in a 9.8 kg yr exposure of 130Te using a bolometric detector array, CUORE-0. The characteristic detector energy resolution and background level in the region of interest are 5.1 ± 0.3 keV FWHM and 0.058 ± 0.004 (stat.) ± 0:002 (syst.) counts/(keV kg yr), respectively. The median 90% C.L. lower-limit sensitivity of the experiment is 2.9 x 1024 yr and surpasses the sensitivity of previous searches. We find no evidence for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 130Te and place a Bayesian lower bound on the decay half-life, T0$_1$1/2 > 2.7 x 1024 yr at 90% C.L. Combining CUORE-0 data with the 19.75 kg yr exposure of 130Te from the Cuoricino experiment we obtain T0$_1$1/2 > 4.0 x 1024 yr at 90% C.L. (Bayesian), the most stringent limit to date on this half-life. Using a range of nuclear matrix element estimates we interpret this as a limit on the effective Majorana neutrino mass, mββ < 270 - 760 meV.

  17. Search for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay of Te130 with CUORE-0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfonso, K.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J. W.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Caminata, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X. G.; Capelli, S.; Cappelli, L.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Copello, S.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Cushman, J. S.; Dafinei, I.; Dally, A.; Dell’Oro, S.; Deninno, M. M.; Di Domizio, S.; Di Vacri, M. L.; Drobizhev, A.; Ejzak, L.; Fang, D. Q.; Faverzani, M.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Hansen, E.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Hickerson, K. P.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lim, K. E.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maino, M.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; O’Donnell, T.; Orio, F.; Orlandi, D.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pagliarone, C. E.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Piperno, G.; Pirro, S.; Pozzi, S.; Previtali, E.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sala, E.; Sangiorgio, S.; Santone, D.; Scielzo, N. D.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.; Wagaarachchi, S. L.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Wielgus, L.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Zanotti, L.; Zarra, C.; Zhang, G. Q.; Zhu, B. X.; Zucchelli, S.

    2015-09-03

    We report the results of a search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in a 9.8 kg yr exposure of 130Te using a bolometric detector array, CUORE-0. The characteristic detector energy resolution and background level in the region of interest are 5:1± 0:3 keV FWHM and 0:058 ± 0:004 (stat) ± 0:002 (syst) counts / (keV kg yr), respectively. The median 90% C.L. lower-limit half-life sensitivity of the experiment is 2:9x1024 yr and surpasses the sensitivity of previous searches. We find no evidence for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 130Te and place a Bayesian lower bound on the decay half-life, T1/2 > 2.7 x 1024 yr at 90% C.L. Combining CUORE-0 data with the 19.75 kg yr exposure of 130Te from the Cuoricino experiment we obtain T1/2 > 4.0 x 1024 yr at 90% C.L. (Bayesian), the most stringent limit to date on this half-life. Lastly, using a range of nuclear matrix element estimates we interpret this as a limit on the e ective Majorana neutrino mass, mββ < 270 -760 meV.

  18. Radiopure ZnMoO{sub 4} scintillating bolometers for the LUMINEU double-beta experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Poda, D. V.; Chernyak, D. M.; Armengaud, E.; Boissière, T. de; Fourches, N.; Gerbier, G.; Gros, M.; Hervé, S.; Magnier, P.; Navick, X-F.; Nones, C.; Paul, B.; Penichot, Y.; Arnaud, Q.; Augier, C.; Benoît, A.; Cazes, A.; Censier, B.; Charlieux, F.; De Jesus, M. [IPNL, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS and others

    2015-08-17

    The results of R&D of radiopure zinc molybdate (ZnMoO{sub 4}) based scintillating bolometers for the LUMINEU (Luminescent Underground Molybdenum Investigation for NEUtrino mass and nature) double-beta decay experiment are presented. A dedicated two-stage molybdenum purification technique (sublimation in vacuum and recrystallization from aqueous solutions) and an advanced directional solidification method (the low-thermal-gradient Czochralski technique) were utilized to produce high optical quality large mass (∼1 kg) ZnMoO{sub 4} crystal boules and first {sup 100}Mo (99.5%) enriched Zn{sup 100}MoO{sub 4} crystal scintillator (mass of ∼0.2 kg). Scintillating bolometers based on ZnMoO{sub 4} (≈ 0.33 kg) and Zn{sup 100}MoO{sub 4} (≈ 0.06 kg) scintillation elements and high purity Ge wafers were tested in the EDELWEISS set-up at the Modane Underground Laboratory (France). Long term low temperature tests demonstrate excellent detectors’ performance and effectiveness of the purification and solidification procedures for the achievement of high radiopurity of the material, in particular with a bulk activity of {sup 228}Th and {sup 226}Ra below 4 µBq/kg. The adopted protocol was used to produce for the first time a large volume Zn{sup 100}MoO{sub 4} crystal scintillator (mass of ∼1.4 kg, {sup 100}Mo enrichment is 99.5%) to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 100}Mo in the framework of the LUMINEU project.

  19. Characterization of a ZnSe scintillating bolometer prototype for neutrinoless double beta decay search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenconi, M.; Giuliani, A.; Nones, C.; Pessina, G.; Plantevin, O.; Rusconi, C.

    2014-01-01

    As proposed in the LUCIFER project, ZnSe crystals are attractive materials to realize scintillating bolometers aiming at the search for neutrinoless double beta decay of the promising isotope 82Se. However, the optimization of the ZnSe-based detectors is rather complex and requires a wide-range investigation of the crystal features: optical properties, crystalline quality, scintillation yields and bolometric behaviour. Samples tested up to now show problems in the reproducibility of crucial aspects of the detector performance. In this work, we present the results obtained with a scintillating bolometer operated aboveground at about 25 mK. The detector energy absorber was a single 1 cm3 ZnSe crystal. The good energy resolution of the heat channel (about 14 keV at 1460 keV) and the excellent alpha/beta discrimination capability are very encouraging for a successful realization of the LUCIFER program. The bolometric measurements were completed by optical tests on the crystal (optical transmission and luminescence measurements down to 10 K) and investigation of the crystalline structure. The work here described provides a set of parameters and procedures useful for a complete pre-characterization of ZnSe crystals in view of the realization of highly performing scintillating bolometers.

  20. Studies on the double-{beta} decay nucleus {sup 64}Zn using the (d,{sup 2}He) reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Grewe, E.-W.; Baeumer, C.; Dohmann, H.; Frekers, D.; Hollstein, S.; Rakers, S.; Thies, J. H.; Harakeh, M. N.; Berg, A. M. van den; Woertche, H. J.; Johansson, H.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.; Petermann, I.; Sieja, K.; Simon, H.; Langanke, K.; Nowacki, F.; Popescu, L.; Savran, D.; Zilges, A.

    2008-06-15

    The (d,{sup 2}He) charge-exchange reaction on the double-{beta} decay ({beta}{beta}) nucleus {sup 64}Zn has been studied at an incident energy of 183 MeV. The two protons in the {sup 1}S{sub 0} state (indicated as {sup 2}He) were both momentum analyzed and detected simultaneously by the BBS magnetic spectrometer and its position-sensitive detector. {sup 2}He spectra with a resolution of about 115 keV (FWHM) have been obtained allowing identification of many levels in the residual nucleus {sup 64}Cu with high precision. {sup 64}Zn is one of the rare cases undergoing a {beta}{beta} decay in {beta}{sup +} direction. In the experiment presented here, Gamow-Teller (GT{sup +}) transition strengths have been extracted. Together with the GT{sup -} transition strengths from {sup 64}Ni({sup 3}He,t) data to the same intermediate nucleus {sup 64}Cu, the nuclear matrix elements of the {beta}{beta} decay of {sup 64}Zn have been evaluated. Finally, the GT{sup {+-}} distributions are compared with shell-model calculations and a critical assessment is given of the various residual interactions presently employed for the pf shell.

  1. Double Beta Decay in Xenon-136. Measuring the Neutrino-Emitting Mode and Searching for Majoron-Emitting Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Herrin, Steven

    2013-06-01

    Observations of neutrino flavor oscillations have demonstrated that neutrinos have mass. Since the discovery of these oscillations, much progress has been made at mea- suring the neutrino mass-squared differences and lepton mixing angles that character- ize them. However, the origin and absolute scale of neutrino masses remain unknown. Unique among fermions, neutrinos can be Majorana particles, which could provide an explanation for neutrino masses. Discovery of a hypothetical process known as neutrinoless double beta decay would show that neutrinos are Majorana particles and determine the mass scale for neutrinos. The Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) is a series of experiments searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 136Xe. The first experiment, EXO-200, began operation in 2011 and makes use of 200 kg of xenon enriched to 80.6% in 136Xe. The analysis presented here makes use of data from EXO-200 to obtain a more precise measurement of the half-life for the two-neutrino-emitting mode of double beta decay than previously reported. The analysis also sets limits on the half-lives for exotic, Majoron-emitting modes of neutrinoless double beta decay. Data from EXO-200 is also used to produce a measurement of the cosmic muon flux at the WIPP under- ground site where EXO-200 is located.

  2. Pattern recognition techniques to reduce backgrounds in the search for the {sup 136}Xe double beta decay with gaseous TPCs

    SciTech Connect

    Iguaz, F. J.; Cebrián, S.; Dafni, T.; Gómez, H.; Herrera, D. C.; Irastorza, I. G.; Luzon, G.; Segui, L.; Tomas, A.

    2013-08-08

    The observation of the neutrinoless double beta decay may provide essential information on the nature of neutrinos. Among the current experimental approaches, a high pressure gaseous TPC is an attractive option for the search of double beta decay due to its good energy resolution and the detailed topological information of each event. We present in this talk a detailed study of the ionization topology of the {sup 136}Xe double beta decay events in a High Pressure Xenon TPC, as well as that of the typical competing backgrounds. We define some observables based on graph theory concepts to develop automated discrimination algorithms. Our criteria are able to reduce the background level by about three orders of magnitude in the region of interest of the {sup 136}Xe Q{sub ββ} for a signal acceptance of 40%. This result provides a quantitative assessment of the benefit of topological information offered by gaseous TPCs for double beta decay search, and proves that it is a promising feature in view of future experiments in the field. Possible ideas for further improvement in the discrimination algorithms and the dependency of these results with the gas diffusion and readout granularity will be also discussed.

  3. MOON for a next-generation neutrino-less double-beta decay experiment: Present status and perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Shima, T.; Doe, P.J.; Ejiri, H.; Elliot, S.R.; Engel, J.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fushimi, K.; Gehman, V.M.; Greenfield, M.B.; Hazama, R.; /Hiroshima U. /NIRS, Chiba

    2008-01-01

    The performance of the MOON detector for a next-generation neutrino-less double-beta decay experiment was evaluated by means of the Monte Carlo method. The MOON detector was found to be a feasible solution for the future experiment to search for the Majorana neutrino mass in the range of 100-30 meV.

  4. Optimization Studies for the COBRA Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiment and Results from a Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jerrad Wayne

    The COBRA experiment uses Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) room-temperature semiconductor detectors to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of cadmium-116. While the experiment has produced globally competitive half-life limits with data from coplanar-grid CZT detectors, a future ton-scale iteration could set limits constraining the effective Majorana neutrino mass to less than 100 meV. The aim of this work is to determine the optimal CZT detector type for such an experiment. First, an overview of the relevant neutrino physics as well as an introduction to the COBRA experiment is presented. The performance characteristics and design criteria for CZT detectors are then covered, both in general and as they relate to COBRA. Simulations and prototype experiments have been performed using two of the detector design candidates. The method and results are discussed in detail. Finally, the prototype is compared with other CZT detector designs in the context of performance and scalability for a 420 kg COBRA experiment.

  5. Radon and material radiopurity assessment for the NEXT double beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebrián, S.; Pérez, J.; Bandac, I.; Labarga, L.; Álvarez, V.; Barrado, A. I.; Bettini, A.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Camargo, M.; Cárcel, S.; Cervera, A.; Conde, C. A. N.; Conde, E.; Dafni, T.; Díaz, J.; Esteve, R.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Fernández, M.; Ferrario, P.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Gehman, V. M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; González-Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Hauptman, J.; Morata, J. A. Hernando; Herrera, D. C.; Irastorza, I. G.; Laing, A.; Liubarsky, I.; López-March, N.; Lorca, D.; Losada, M.; Luzón, G.; Marí, A.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez, A.; Martínez-Lema, G.; Miller, T.; Monrabal, F.; Monserrate, M.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Vidal, J. Muñoz; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Nygren, D.; Oliveira, C. A. B.; de Solórzano, A. Ortiz; Aparicio, J. L. Pérez; Querol, M.; Renner, J.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, J.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Serra, L.; Shuman, D.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Toledo, J. F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Villar, J. A.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Yahlali, N.

    2015-08-01

    The "Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC" (NEXT), intended to investigate the neutrinoless double beta decay using a high-pressure xenon gas TPC filled with Xe enriched in 136Xe at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory in Spain, requires ultra-low background conditions demanding an exhaustive control of material radiopurity and environmental radon levels. An extensive material screening process is underway for several years based mainly on gamma-ray spectroscopy using ultra-low background germanium detectors in Canfranc but also on mass spectrometry techniques like GDMS and ICPMS. Components from shielding, pressure vessel, electroluminescence and high voltage elements and energy and tracking readout planes have been analyzed, helping in the final design of the experiment and in the construction of the background model. The latest measurements carried out will be presented and the implication on NEXT of their results will be discussed. The commissioning of the NEW detector, as a first step towards NEXT, has started in Canfranc; in-situ measurements of airborne radon levels were taken there to optimize the system for radon mitigation and will be shown too.

  6. Minimally allowed neutrinoless double beta decay rates within an anarchical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, James

    2009-06-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay (ββ0ν) is the only realistic probe of the Majorana nature of the neutrino. In the standard picture, its rate is proportional to mee, the e-e element of the Majorana neutrino mass matrix in the flavor basis. I explore minimally allowed mee values within the framework of mass matrix anarchy where neutrino parameters are defined statistically at low energies. Distributions of mixing angles are well defined by the Haar integration measure, but masses are dependent on arbitrary weighting functions and boundary conditions. I survey the integration measure parameter space and find that for sufficiently convergent weightings, mee is constrained between (0.01-0.4) eV at 90% confidence. Constraints from neutrino mixing data lower these bounds. Singular integration measures allow for arbitrarily small mee values with the remaining elements ill-defined, but this condition constrains the flavor structure of the model’s ultraviolet completion. ββ0ν bounds below mee˜5×10-3eV should indicate symmetry in the lepton sector, new light degrees of freedom, or the Dirac nature of the neutrino.

  7. The Search For Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay With The Majorana Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronquest, Michael

    2012-10-01

    The neutrino sector is currently among the most dynamic topics of particle physics. The past two decades have revealed non-zero neutrino masses, large mixing of mass eigenstates compared to the quark sector and ``large'' values of θ13, with the latter permitting observation of possible CP violation in the neutrino sector. If current theoretical prejudges are confirmed by the identification of neutrinos as Majorana fermions, and thus are their own anti-particles, neutrino CP violation also permits leptogenesis and would thus advance our understanding of the generation mechanism of the matter/anti-matter asymmetry in the current universe. This talk will briefly outline the physics and signatures of neutrinoless double beta decay, which would serve as proof of the Majorana nature of the neutrino. The global program of searches for this process will be reviewed, with emphasis given to the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an experiment featuring arrays of enriched HPGe detectors serving as both source and detector. The DEMONSTRATOR's design, rich physics reach, and schedule will be detailed. Finally, plans for a ton-scale HPGe experiment to be jointly developed by the MAJORANA and GERDA collaborations will be introduced.

  8. Neutrinoless double beta decay in Gerda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabmayr, Peter; Gerda Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The Germanium Detector Array (Gerda) experiment searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay in 76Ge. This lepton number violating process is predicted by extensions of the standard model. Gerda follows a staged approach by increasing mass and lowering the background level from phase to phase. Gerda is setup at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory of INFN, Italy. An array of high-purity germanium detectors is lowered directly in liquid argon for shielding and cooling. Further background reduction is achieved by an instrumented water buffer. In Phase I an exposure of 21.6 kg yr was collected at a background level of 10-2 cts/(keV kg yr). The lower limit on the half-life of 76Ge > 2 . 1 .1025 yr (90% C.L.) has been published. Further analyses search for decay into excited states or the accompanied Majoron decay. Presently, Phase II is in preparation which intends to reach a background level of 10-3 cts/(keV kg yr) and to increase the exposure to 100 kg yr. About 20 kg of novel thick-window BEGe (Broad Energy Germanium) detectors will be added and the liquid argon will be instrumented. The status of Phase II preparation and results from the commissioning runs will be presented as well as some further results from Phase I.

  9. Double-beta decay with majoron emission in GERDA Phase I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmer, Sabine

    2015-07-01

    Neutrinoless double-beta decay with emission of one or two majorons (0 νββχ( χ)) is predicted by several beyond-Standard-Model theories. This article reviews the results of a search for 0 νββχ( χ) of 76Ge using data from the Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment, located underground at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy. The analysis comprised data with an exposure of 20.3 kg·yr from the first phase of the experiment. No indication of contributions to the observed energy spectra was detected for any of the majoron models. The lower limit on the half-life for the ordinary majoron model (spectral index n = 1 was determined to be T {1/2/0 νβ } > 4.2 · 1023 yr (90% quantile). This limit and the limits derived for the other majoron modes constitute the most stringent limits on 0 νββχ( χ) decay of 76Ge measured to date.

  10. Search for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay of 76Ge with the GERmanium Detector Array "gerda"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfagnini, Alberto

    2011-10-01

    The study of neutrinoless double beta decay (DBD) is the only presently known approach to the fundamental question if the neutrino is a Majorana particle, i.e. its own anti-particle. The observation of neutrinoless DBD would not only establish the Majorana nature of the neutrino but also represent a determination of its effective mass if the nuclear matrix element is given. So far, the most sensitive results have been obtained with 76Ge, and the group of Klapdor-Kleingrothaus has made a claim of discovery. Future experiments have to reduce radioactive backgrounds to increase the sensitivity. GERDA is a new DBD experiment which is currently under construction in the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Italy. It is implementing a new shielding concept by operating bare Ge diodes - enriched in 76Ge - in high purity liquid argon supplemented by a water shield. The aim of GERDA is to scrutinize the recent claim of discovery, and, in a second phase, to achieve a two orders of magnitude lower background index than recent experiments, increasing the sensitive mass and reaching an exposure of 100 kg yr. The paper will discuss design, physics reach, and status of construction of GERDA.

  11. Results on Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay from Gerda Phase I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macolino, Carla

    2014-12-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array, GERDA, is designed to search for neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay of 76Ge and it is installed in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) of INFN, Italy. In this review, the detection principle and detector setup of GERDA are described. Also, the main physics results by GERDA Phase I, are discussed. They include the measurement of the half-life of 2νββ decay, the background decomposition of the energy spectrum and the techniques for the discrimination of the background, based on the pulse shape of the signal. In the last part of this review, the estimation of a limit on the half-life of 0νββ (T0ν 1/2>2.1ḑot 1025 yr at 90% C.L.) and the comparison with previous results are discussed. GERDA data from Phase I strongly disfavor the recent claim of 0νββ discovery, based on data from the Heidelberg-Moscow experiment.

  12. The MGDO software library for data analysis in Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, M.; Detwiler, J. A.; Finnerty, P.; Kröninger, K.; Lenz, D.; Liu, J.; Marino, M. G.; Martin, R.; Nguyen, K. D.; Pandola, L.; Schubert, A. G.; Volynets, O.; Zavarise, P.

    2012-07-01

    The Gerda and Majorana experiments will search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge using isotopically enriched high-purity germanium detectors. Although the experiments differ in conceptual design, they share many aspects in common, and in particular will employ similar data analysis techniques. The collaborations are jointly developing a C++ software library, MGDO, which contains a set of data objects and interfaces to encapsulate, store and manage physical quantities of interest, such as waveforms and high-purity germanium detector geometries. These data objects define a common format for persistent data, whether it is generated by Monte Carlo simulations or an experimental apparatus, to reduce code duplication and to ease the exchange of information between detector systems. MGDO also includes general-purpose analysis tools that can be used for the processing of measured or simulated digital signals. The MGDO design is based on the Object-Oriented programming paradigm and is very flexible, allowing for easy extension and customization of the components. The tools provided by the MGDO libraries are used by both Gerda and Majorana.

  13. CANDLES - Search for Neutrino-less Double Beta Decay of 48Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umehara, Saori; Candles Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    CANDLES is the project to search for neutrino-less double beta decay (0 νββ) of 48Ca. The CANDLES system aims at a high sensitive measurement by a characteristic detector system and 48Ca enrichment. The system realizes a complete 4 π active shield by immersing the CaF2 scintillators in liquid scintillator. The active shield by the liquid scintillator will effectively reject background events from external origins. On the other band, we have studied 48Ca enrichment and succeeded in obtaining enriched 48Ca although it is a small amount. Now we have developed the CANDLES III system, which contained 350 g of 48Ca without enrichment, at the Kamioka underground laboratory. Two improvements, a light-concentration system and a new DAQ system, were installed for the CANDLES III system. The light-concentration system improved a energy resolution by increasing a PMT photo-coverage by 80%. The new DAQ system, which is a dead time less system, improved a rejection efficiency for a characteristic background origin. We checked detector performance with the light-concentration system and the new DAQ system. Here we will report the detector performance for background rejection and the expected sensitivity with the two improvements.

  14. Cosmogenic Backgrounds to Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay in EXO-200

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Joshua; EXO-200 Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    As neutrinoless double-beta decay (0 νββ) experiments become more sensitive and intrinsic radioactivity in detector materials is reduced, previously minor contributions to the background must be understood and eliminated. With this in mind, cosmogenic backgrounds have been studied with the EXO-200 experiment. Simulations of muon-induced backgrounds in EXO-200 using Geant4 and FLUKA identified several potential cosmogenic radionuclides, though only 137Xe provides a significant background for the 136Xe 0 νββ search with EXO-200. The simulations were normalized based on a measurement of the muon flux underground using the EXO-200 TPC. Muon-induced neutron backgrounds were measured using γ-rays from neutron capture on the detector materials, in data coincident with veto triggers. This provided a measurement of 137Xe yield, and a test of the accuracy of the neutron production and transport simulations. Simulations agree with data to within ~40 % . The ability to identify 136 Xe (n , γ) events will allow for rejection of 137Xe backgrounds in future 0 νββ analyses.

  15. GraXe, graphene and xenon for neutrinoless double beta decay searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; Guinea, F.; Fogler, M. M.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Martín-Albo, J.; Monrabal, F.; Muñoz Vidal, J.

    2012-02-01

    We propose a new detector concept, GraXe (to be pronounced as grace), to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 136XE. GraXe combines a popular detection medium in rare-event searches, liquid xenon, with a new, background-free material, graphene. In our baseline design of GraXe, a sphere made of graphene-coated titanium mesh and filled with liquid xenon (LXe) enriched in the 136XE isotope is immersed in a large volume of natural LXe instrumented with photodetectors. Liquid xenon is an excellent scintillator, reasonably transparent to its own light. Graphene is transparent over a large frequency range, and impermeable to the xenon. Event position could be deduced from the light pattern detected in the photosensors. External backgrounds would be shielded by the buffer of natural LXe, leaving the ultra-radiopure internal volume virtually free of background. Industrial graphene can be manufactured at a competitive cost to produce the sphere. Enriching xenon in the isotope 136XE is easy and relatively cheap, and there is already near one ton of enriched xenon available in the world (currently being used by the EXO, KamLAND-Zen and NEXT experiments). All the cryogenic know-how is readily available from the numerous experiments using liquid xenon. An experiment using the GraXe concept appears realistic and affordable in a short time scale, and its physics potential is enormous.

  16. ZICOS - New project for neutrinoless double beta decay experiment using zirconium complex in liquid scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Yoshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    A liquid scintillator containing a tetrakis (isopropyl acetoacetato) zirconium has been developed for new project of neutrinoless double beta decay experiment (ZICOS experiment). We have synthesized a tetrakis (isopropyl acetoacetato) zirconium, which have high solubility (over 31.2 wt.%) in anisole. We measured the performance of liquid scintillator containing 10 wt.% concentration of a tetrakis (isopropyl acetoacetato) zirconium, and obtained 48.7 ± 7.1% of the light yield of BC505 and the energy resolution of 4.1 ± 0.6% at 3.35 MeV assuming 40% photo coverage of the photomultiplier, respectively. We also estimated that ZICOS experiment should be sensitive to (mν) < 0.1 eV assuming gA = 1.25, gpp = 1.11 and QRPA model, if a radius of the inner detector is 1.5 m and the detector is filled with this liquid scintillator with an enriched 96Zr nucleus and we can reduce 208 Tl backgrounds to be one tenth order of magnitude of KamLAND-Zen using Cherenkov lights.

  17. Majorana neutrino masses from neutrinoless double-beta decays and lepton-number-violating meson decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun-Hao; Zhang, Jue; Zhou, Shun

    2016-09-01

    The Schechter-Valle theorem states that a positive observation of neutrinoless double-beta (0 νββ) decays implies a finite Majorana mass term for neutrinos when any unlikely fine-tuning or cancellation is absent. In this note, we reexamine the quantitative impact of the Schechter-Valle theorem, and find that current experimental lower limits on the half-lives of 0 νββ-decaying nuclei have placed a restrictive upper bound on the Majorana neutrino mass | δ mνee | < 7.43 ×10-29 eV radiatively generated at the four-loop level. Furthermore, we generalize this quantitative analysis of 0 νββ decays to that of the lepton-number-violating (LNV) meson decays M- →M‧+ + ℓα- + ℓβ- (for α , β = e or μ). Given the present upper limits on these rare LNV decays, we have derived the loop-induced Majorana neutrino masses | δ mνee | < 9.7 ×10-18 eV, | δ mνeμ | < 1.6 ×10-15 eV and | δ mνμμ | < 1.0 ×10-12 eV from K- →π+ +e- +e-, K- →π+ +e- +μ- and K- →π+ +μ- +μ-, respectively. A partial list of radiative neutrino masses from the LNV decays of D, Ds and B mesons is also given.

  18. Search for double beta decay of 106Cd in TGV-2 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukhadze, N. I.; Briançon, Ch; Brudanin, V. B.; Čermák, P.; Egorov, V. G.; Klimenko, A. A.; Kovalik, A.; Shitov, Yu A.; Štekl, I.; Timkin, V. V.; Vylov, Ts

    2010-01-01

    Search for double beta decay (β+β+, β+/EC, EC/EC) of 106Cd was performed at the Modane underground laboratory (4800 m w.e.) using a spectrometer TGV-2 with 32 HPGe detectors. New limits on the half-lives of 0vEC/EC resonant decay - T1/2 >= 1.6 × 1020 y, and on 2vEC/EC decay of 106Cd - T1/2 >= 4.1 × 1020 y (at 90% CL) were obtained from preliminary calculations of experimental data accumulated for 12900 h of measurement of ~13.6 g of 106Cd with enrichment of 75%. The limits on 2vEC/EC decay of 106Cd to the 2+,512 keV and 0+1,1334 keV excited states of 106Pd and on 2vβ+β+ and 2vβ+/EC decay of 106Cd were improved

  19. LUCIFER: Scintillating bolometers for the search of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignati, M.

    2012-08-01

    The nature of neutrino mass is one of the frontier problems of particle physics. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (0νDBD) is a powerful tool to measure the neutrino mass and to test possible extensions of the Standard Model. Bolometers are excellent detectors to search for this rare decay, thanks to their good energy resolution and to the low background conditions in which they can operate. The current challenge consists in the reduction of the background, represented by environmental γ's and α's, in view of a zero background experiment. We present the LUCIFER R&D, funded by an European grant, in which the background can be reduced by an order of magnitude with respect to the present generation experiments. The technique is based on the simultaneous bolometric measurement of the heat and of the scintillation light produced by a particle, that allows to discriminate between β and α particles. The γ background is reduced by choosing 0νDBD candidate isotopes with transition energy above the environmental γ's spectrum. The prospect of this R&D are discussed.

  20. Status Update of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorren, Kristopher; Majorana Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The MAJORANA collaboration has made significant progress over the past year on the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The goal of the DEMONSTRATOR is to demonstrate backgrounds low enough to justify building a tonne-scale experiment, establish the feasibility to construct and field modular arrays of Ge detectors, and perform searches for additional physics beyond the standard model. The DEMONSTRATOR is currently being built at the 4850 ft level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. The first of three custom cryostats, the prototype module, is currently taking data, while assembly and commissioning of the second cryostat, module 1, is ongoing. Hardware fabrication for the third cryostat, module 2, is nearing completion. Combined, module 1 and module 2 will contain 40 kg of Ge detectors with 30 kg enriched to 87 % 76 Ge, the double-beta decaying isotope. An active simulation and analysis campaign is underway for the prototype and module 1 cryostats. This talk will provide an overview and status update on the DEMONSTRATOR. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics Program of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility.

  1. The Majorana Demonstrator Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massarczyk, Ralph; Majorana Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay searches play a major role in determining neutrino properties. The Majorana Collaboration is constructing an ultra-low background, modular high-purity Ge detector array to search for this decay in 76Ge. Located at the 4850-ft level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility, the Demonstrator detector assembly has the goal to show that it is possible to achieve background rates necessary for future ton-scale experiments. The talk will give a short introduction to the experiment, an overview of the achievements made in detector construction, data analysis and simulation. After the first commissioning phase last year with more than half of the detectors in their final configuration, the current status of the Demonstrator will be presented in this talk as well as plans for the future. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics Program of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility. We acknowledge the support of the U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program.

  2. GraXe, graphene and xenon for neutrinoless double beta decay searches

    SciTech Connect

    Gómez-Cadenas, J.J.; Martín-Albo, J.; Monrabal, F.; Vidal, J. Muñoz; Guinea, F.; Fogler, M.M.; Katsnelson, M.I. E-mail: paco.guinea@icmm.csic.es E-mail: katsnel@sci.kun.nl E-mail: francesc.monrabal@ific.uv.es

    2012-02-01

    We propose a new detector concept, GraXe (to be pronounced as grace), to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 136}XE. GraXe combines a popular detection medium in rare-event searches, liquid xenon, with a new, background-free material, graphene. In our baseline design of GraXe, a sphere made of graphene-coated titanium mesh and filled with liquid xenon (LXe) enriched in the {sup 136}XE isotope is immersed in a large volume of natural LXe instrumented with photodetectors. Liquid xenon is an excellent scintillator, reasonably transparent to its own light. Graphene is transparent over a large frequency range, and impermeable to the xenon. Event position could be deduced from the light pattern detected in the photosensors. External backgrounds would be shielded by the buffer of natural LXe, leaving the ultra-radiopure internal volume virtually free of background. Industrial graphene can be manufactured at a competitive cost to produce the sphere. Enriching xenon in the isotope {sup 136}XE is easy and relatively cheap, and there is already near one ton of enriched xenon available in the world (currently being used by the EXO, KamLAND-Zen and NEXT experiments). All the cryogenic know-how is readily available from the numerous experiments using liquid xenon. An experiment using the GraXe concept appears realistic and affordable in a short time scale, and its physics potential is enormous.

  3. Exploring the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay in the Inverted Neutrino Hierarchy with Bolometric Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Artusa, D. R.; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Cai, X. Z.; Camacho, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X. G.; Capelli, S.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Carrettoni, M.; Casali, N.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Dafinei, I.; Dally, A.; Datskov, V.; Biasi, A. De; Deninno, M. M.; Domizio, S. Di; Vacri, M. L. di; Ejzak, L.; Fang, D. Q.; Farach, H. A.; Faverzani, M.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Goett, J.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Kazkaz, K.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Li, Y. L.; Ligi, C.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maiano, C.; Maino, M.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Napolitano, T.; Nisi, S.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; O'Donnell, T.; Orio, F.; Orlandi, D.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Piperno, G.; Pira, C.; Pirro, S.; Previtali, E.; Rampazzo, V.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sala, E.; Sangiorgio, S.; Scielzo, N. D.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tian, W. D.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Wielgus, L.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Zanotti, L.; Zarra, C.; Zhu, B. X.

    2014-10-15

    Neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) is one of the most sensitive probes for physics beyond the Standard Model, providing unique information on the nature of neutrinos. In this paper we review the status and outlook for bolometric 0νββ decay searches. We summarize recent advances in background suppression demonstrated using bolometers with simultaneous readout of heat and light signals. We simulate several configurations of a future CUORE-like bolometer array which would utilize these improvements and present the sensitivity reach of a hypothetical next-generation bolometric0νββ experiment. We demonstrate that a bolometric experiment with the isotope mass of about 1 ton is capable of reaching the sensitivity to the effective Majorana neutrino mass (|mee|) of order 10-20 meV, thus completely exploring the so-called inverted neutrino mass hierarchy region. In conclusion, we highlight the main challenges and identify priorities for an R&D program addressing them.

  4. GT neutrino-nuclear responses for double beta decays and astro neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejiri, H.; Suhonen, J.

    2015-05-01

    Gamow-Teller nuclear matrix elements (NMEs) for pairs of {{β }+/- } {{1}+}≤ftrightarrow {{0}+} ground-state-to-ground-state transitions, in particular their geometric mean NME {{M}m}, are studied. The observed means Mexp m in the medium-heavy mass region are compared with the corresponding single-quasiparticle (qp) NMEs and the means MQRPAm calculated by the proton neutron qp random-phase approximation (pnQRPA). The {{M}m} NMEs turn out to be insensitive to the nucleon occupancy/vacancy amplitudes and to the particle-particle interaction parameter {{g}pp} of the pnQRPA. The observed mean NMEs are found to be reduced by a coefficient k≈ 0.23 relative to the effective qp NMEs and by a coefficient {{k}NM}≈ 0.6 with respect to the pnQRPA NMEs. The reductions associated with the spin isospin correlations and nuclear medium effects, and their impact on nuclear double beta decays and astro-neutrino-nuclear interactions are discussed.

  5. Neutrino nuclear responses for double beta decays and astro neutrino interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimune, Hidetoshi; Ejiri, Hiroyasu

    2015-10-01

    Neutrino nuclear matrix elements (NMEs), are crucial to extract neutrino properties from double beta decay (DBD) experiments, and to evaluate astro-neutrino nuclear interaction and nucleosynthesis rates. NMEs are very sensitive to nucleon nucleon spin-isospin(στ) and nuclear medium effects. Theoretical calculations for NMEs are very hard. Experimental inputs from charge exchange reactions such as (3He,t) and (μ ,νμ xnγ) are very important for evaluating ν-weak NMEs for ββ and astro- ν processes. Gamow-Teller (GT) and spin dipole (SD) NMEs are studied. Note GT is major for 2 νββ , while SD is one of major components for 0 νββ . The observed NMEs for both GT and SD transitions are found to be reduced by kστ ~ 0.4-0.5 due to the nucleon στ correlation and to the one kNM ~ 0.5-0.6 due to the nuclear medium effects such as nucleon isobar (Δ) that are not explicitly included in the pnQRPA. The nuclear medium effects such as N Δ correlations are incorporated by using the effective coupling constant gAeff = (0.5-0.6) ×gA (free) for ββ and astro- ν NMEs.

  6. The contribution of light Majorana neutrinos to neutrinoless double beta decay and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Oro, S.; Marcocci, S.; Viel, M.; Vissani, F.

    2015-12-01

    Cosmology is making impressive progress and it is producing stringent bounds on the sum of the neutrino masses Σ, a parameter of great importance for the current laboratory experiments. In this letter, we exploit the potential relevance of the analysis of Palanque-Delabrouille et al. [JCAP 02 (2015) 045] to the neutrinoless double beta decay (0ν β β) search. This analysis indicates small values for the lightest neutrino mass, since the authors find Σ < 84 meV at 1σ C.L., and provides a 1σ preference for the normal hierarchy. The allowed values for the Majorana effective mass, probed by 0ν β β, turn out to be < 75 meV at 3σ C.L. and lower down to less than 02 meV at 1σ C.L. . If this indication is confirmed, the impact on the 0ν β β experiments will be tremendous since the possibility of detecting a signal will be out of the reach of the next generation of experiments.

  7. The contribution of light Majorana neutrinos to neutrinoless double beta decay and cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Dell’Oro, S.; Marcocci, S.; Viel, M.; Vissani, F.

    2015-12-11

    Cosmology is making impressive progress and it is producing stringent bounds on the sum of the neutrino masses Σ, a parameter of great importance for the current laboratory experiments. In this letter, we exploit the potential relevance of the analysis of Palanque-Delabrouille et al. to the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) search. This analysis indicates small values for the lightest neutrino mass, since the authors find Σ<84 meV at 1σ C.L., and provides a 1σ preference for the normal hierarchy. The allowed values for the Majorana effective mass, probed by 0νββ, turn out to be <75 meV at 3σ C.L. and lower down to less than 20 meV at 1σ C.L. . If this indication is confirmed, the impact on the 0νββ experiments will be tremendous since the possibility of detecting a signal will be out of the reach of the next generation of experiments.

  8. Search for double beta decay of 106Cd in the TGV-2 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukhadze, N. I.; Brudanin, V. B.; Egorov, V. G.; Klimenko, A. A.; Kovalik, A.; Kouba, P.; Piquemal, F.; Rozov, S. V.; Rukhadze, E.; Salamatin, A. V.; Šimkovic, F.; Shitov, Yu A.; Štekl, I.; Timkin, V. V.; Yakushev, E. A.

    2016-05-01

    A new experimental run of searching for double beta decay of 106Cd was performed at the Modane underground laboratory (LSM, France, 4800 m w.e.) using the TGV-2 spectrometer, consisting of 32 planar type HPGe detectors with a total sensitive volume of ~400 cm3. 16 foils of 106Cd with an enrichment of 99.57% and a total mass of ~ 23.2 g were inserted between the entrance windows of face-to-face detectors. The limit on 2vEC/EC decay of 106Cd - T1/2 > 3.7 × 1020 y at 90% C.F was obtained from the preliminary calculation of experimental data accumulated for 8198 h of measurement. The limits on the resonance OvEC/EC decay of 106Cd were obtained from the measurement of ~23.2 g of 106Cd with the low-background HPGe spectrometer Obelix lasted 395 h -T1/2 (KF, 2741 keV) > 0.9 × 1020 y and T1/2 (KK, 2718 keV) > 1.4 × 1020 y at 90% C.L.

  9. Exploring the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay in the Inverted Neutrino Hierarchy with Bolometric Detectors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Artusa, D. R.; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; et al

    2014-10-15

    Neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) is one of the most sensitive probes for physics beyond the Standard Model, providing unique information on the nature of neutrinos. In this paper we review the status and outlook for bolometric 0νββ decay searches. We summarize recent advances in background suppression demonstrated using bolometers with simultaneous readout of heat and light signals. We simulate several configurations of a future CUORE-like bolometer array which would utilize these improvements and present the sensitivity reach of a hypothetical next-generation bolometric0νββ experiment. We demonstrate that a bolometric experiment with the isotope mass of about 1 ton is capablemore » of reaching the sensitivity to the effective Majorana neutrino mass (|mee|) of order 10-20 meV, thus completely exploring the so-called inverted neutrino mass hierarchy region. In conclusion, we highlight the main challenges and identify priorities for an R&D program addressing them.« less

  10. Deformed shell model results for neutrinoless double beta decay of nuclei in A = 60 - 90 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, R.; Kota, V. K. B.

    2015-03-01

    Nuclear transition matrix elements (NTME) for the neutrinoless double beta decay (Oνββ or OνDBD) of 70Zn, 80Se and 82Se nuclei are calculated within the framework of the deformed shell model (DSM) based on Hartree-Fock (HF) states. For 70Zn, jj44b interaction in 2p3/2, 1f5/2, 2p1/2 and 1g9/2 space with 56Ni as the core is employed. However, for 80Se and 82Se nuclei, a modified Kuo interaction with the above core and model space are employed. Most of our calculations in this region were performed with this effective interaction. However, jj44b interaction has been found to be better for 70Zn. The above model space was used in many recent shell model (SM) and interacting boson model (IBM) calculations for nuclei in this region. After ensuring that DSM gives good description of the spectroscopic properties of low-lying levels in these three nuclei considered, the NTME are calculated. The deduced half-lives with these NTME, assuming neutrino mass is 1 eV, are 1.1 × 1026, 2.3 × 1027 and 2.2 × 1024 yr for 70Zn, 80Se and 82Se, respectively.

  11. High temperature conductivity of potassium-beta(double prime)-alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Underwood, M. L.; Ryan, M. A.; O'Connor, D.; Kikkert, S.

    1992-01-01

    Potassium beta(double prime)-alumina (BDPA) single crystals have been reported by several groups to leave higher ionic conductivity than sodium BDPA crystals at room temperature, and similar conductivities are obtained at temperatures up to 600-700 K. Potassium BDPA ceramics have been reported to have significantly poorer conductivities than those of sodium BDPA ceramics, but conductivity measurements at temperatures above 625 K have not been reported. In this study, K(+)-BDPA ceramics were prepared from Na(+)-BDPA ceramic using a modified version of the exchange reaction with KCl vapor reported by Crosbie and Tennenhouse (1982), and the conductivity has been measured in K vapor at temperatures up to 1223 K, using the method of Cole et al. (1979). The results indicate reasonable agreement with earlier data on K(+)-BDPA ceramic measured in a liquid K cell, but show that the K(+)-BDPA ceramic's conductivity approaches that of Na(+)-BDPA ceramic at higher temperatures, being within a factor of four at 700 K and 60 percent of the conductivity of Na(+)-BDPA at T over 1000 K. Both four-probe dc conductivity and four probe ac impedance measurements were used to characterize the conductivity. A rather abrupt change in the grain boundary resistance suggesting a possible phase change in the intergranular material, potassium aluminate, is seen in the ac impedance behavior.

  12. Radon and material radiopurity assessment for the NEXT double beta decay experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Cebrián, S.; Dafni, T.; González-Díaz, D.; Herrera, D. C.; Irastorza, I. G.; Luzón, G.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Villar, J. A.; Álvarez, V.; Cárcel, S.; Cervera, A.; Díaz, J.; Ferrario, P.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; Laing, A.; Liubarsky, I.; López-March, N. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC & Universitat de València, C and others

    2015-08-17

    The ”Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC” (NEXT), intended to investigate the neutrinoless double beta decay using a high-pressure xenon gas TPC filled with Xe enriched in {sup 136}Xe at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory in Spain, requires ultra-low background conditions demanding an exhaustive control of material radiopurity and environmental radon levels. An extensive material screening process is underway for several years based mainly on gamma-ray spectroscopy using ultra-low background germanium detectors in Canfranc but also on mass spectrometry techniques like GDMS and ICPMS. Components from shielding, pressure vessel, electroluminescence and high voltage elements and energy and tracking readout planes have been analyzed, helping in the final design of the experiment and in the construction of the background model. The latest measurements carried out will be presented and the implication on NEXT of their results will be discussed. The commissioning of the NEW detector, as a first step towards NEXT, has started in Canfranc; in-situ measurements of airborne radon levels were taken there to optimize the system for radon mitigation and will be shown too.

  13. Radiopurity assessment of the tracking readout for the NEXT double beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebrián, S.; Pérez, J.; Bandac, I.; Labarga, L.; Álvarez, V.; Barrado, A. I.; Bettini, A.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Camargo, M.; Cárcel, S.; Cervera, A.; Conde, C. A. N.; Conde, E.; Dafni, T.; Díaz, J.; Esteve, R.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Fernández, M.; Ferrario, P.; Ferreira, A. L.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Gehman, V. M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; González-Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Hauptman, J.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Herrera, D. C.; Irastorza, I. G.; Laing, A.; Liubarsky, I.; López-March, N.; Lorca, D.; Losada, M.; Luzón, G.; Marí, A.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez, A.; Martínez-Lema, G.; Miller, T.; Monrabal, F.; Monserrate, M.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Nygren, D.; Oliveira, C. A. B.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Pérez Aparicio, J. L.; Querol, M.; Renner, J.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, J.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Serra, L.; Shuman, D.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Toledo, J. F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Villar, J. A.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Yahlali, N.

    2015-05-01

    The ``Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon Time-Projection Chamber'' (NEXT) is intended to investigate the neutrinoless double beta decay of 136Xe, which requires a severe suppression of potential backgrounds; therefore, an extensive screening and selection process is underway to control the radiopurity levels of the materials to be used in the experimental set-up of NEXT. The detector design combines the measurement of the topological signature of the event for background discrimination with the energy resolution optimization. Separate energy and tracking readout planes are based on different sensors: photomultiplier tubes for calorimetry and silicon multi-pixel photon counters for tracking. The design of a radiopure tracking plane, in direct contact with the gas detector medium, was specially challenging since the needed components like printed circuit boards, connectors, sensors or capacitors have typically, according to available information in databases and in the literature, activities too large for experiments requiring ultra-low background conditions. Here, the radiopurity assessment of tracking readout components based on gamma-ray spectroscopy using ultra-low background germanium detectors at the Laboratorio Subterr&aposaneo de Canfranc (Spain) is described. According to the obtained results, radiopure enough printed circuit boards made of kapton and copper, silicon photomultipliers and other required components, fulfilling the requirement of an overall background level in the region of interest of at most 8×10-4 counts keV-1 kg-1 y-1, have been identified.

  14. Neutrinoless double beta decay. Annual progress report, January 1, 1984-December 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, H.W.

    1984-08-01

    Work is continuing on a collaborative experiment with experimenters from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in Mo/sup 100/. We have developed a hybrid, lithium drifted, silicon surface barrier detector 1.5 mm thick and 7.1 cm in diameter which, operating at LN/sub 2/ temperature and in conjunction with an Amptek A225 low noise preamplifier and amplifier chip, gives an electronic resolution of 18 keV FWHM. At present, we have 8 working detectors of this type and another 8 currently being fabricated, and we expect to have between 50 and 70 of these detectors working by January 1985. We have also fabricated 5 grams of isotopically pure Mo/sup 100/ into 7 micron thick circular foils 7.1 cm in diameter and have constructed a titanium cryostat with an oxygen-free, high conductivity electrolytic (OFHC) copper dipstick which currently contains a stack of 6 detectors and is being used to evaluate backgrounds from the residual natural radioactivity remaining in the detector system. We hope to begin taking data with 5 to 10% of the full array by early 1985.

  15. Theoretical uncertainties in the nuclear matrix elements of neutrinoless double beta decay: The transition operator

    SciTech Connect

    Menéndez, Javier

    2013-12-30

    We explore the theoretical uncertainties related to the transition operator of neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay. The transition operator used in standard calculations is a product of one-body currents, that can be obtained phenomenologically as in Tomoda [1] or Šimkovic et al. [2]. However, corrections to the operator are hard to obtain in the phenomenological approach. Instead, we calculate the 0νββ decay operator in the framework of chiral effective theory (EFT), which gives a systematic order-by-order expansion of the transition currents. At leading orders in chiral EFT we reproduce the standard one-body currents of Refs. [1] and [2]. Corrections appear as two-body (2b) currents predicted by chiral EFT. We compute the effects of the leading 2b currents to the nuclear matrix elements of 0νββ decay for several transition candidates. The 2b current contributions are related to the quenching of Gamow-Teller transitions found in nuclear structure calculations.

  16. Testing Left-Right extensions of the standard model of electroweak interactions with double-beta decay and LHC measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civitarese, O.; Suhonen, J.; Zuber, K.

    2015-07-01

    The minimal extension of the standard model of electroweak interactions allows for massive neutrinos, a massive right-handed boson WR, and a left-right mixing angle ζ. While an estimate of the light (electron) neutrino can be extracted from the non-observation of the neutrinoless double beta decay, the limits on the mixing angle and the mass of the righthanded (RH) boson may be extracted from a combined analysis of the double beta decay measurements (GERDA, EXO-200 and KamLAND-Zen collaborations) and ATLAS data on the two-jets two-leptons signals following the excitation of a virtual RH boson mediated by a heavy-mass neutrino. In this work we shall compare results of both types of experiments, and show that the estimates are not in tension.

  17. A combined limit on the neutrino mass from neutrinoless double-beta decay searches in multiple isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzowski, P.

    2016-05-01

    We set a combined limit on the effective Majorana neutrino mass mββ from experimental searches for neutrinoless double-beta decay of multiple isotopes. The limits on mββ range between 130-310 meV, depending on the choice of nuclear matrix element calculation. The limits on mββ can also be translated into a limit on the neutrino mass and mixing parameters of a fourth sterile neutrino.

  18. Double-Beta Decay of ^150Nd to Excited Final States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, M. F.; Esterline, J. H.; Tornow, W.

    2010-11-01

    An experimental study of the two-neutrino double-beta (2νββ) decay of ^150Nd to various excited final states of ^150Sm was performed at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL). Such data provide important checks for theoretical models used to predict 0νββ decay half lives. The measurement was performed at the recently established Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF) using the TUNL-ITEP ββ decay setup. In this setup, two high-purity germanium detectors were operated in coincidence to detect the deexcitation gamma rays of the daughter nucleus. This coincidence technique, along with the location underground, provides a considerable reduction in background in the regions of interest. This study yields the first results from KURF and the first detection of the coincidence gamma rays from the 0^+1 excited state of ^150Sm. These gamma rays have energies of 334.0 keV and 406.5 keV, and are emitted in coincidence through a 0^+1->2^+1->0^+gs transition. An enriched Nd2O3 sample obtained from Oak Ridge National Laboratory was used. After counting for 391 days, 29 raw events in the region of interest were observed. This count rate gives a half life of T1/2=(0.72^+0.36-0.18±0.04(syst.))x10^20 years, which agrees within error with another recent measurement, in which no coincidence was employed. An updated result will be given.

  19. Radon emanation based material measurement and selection for the SuperNEMO double beta experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerna, Cédric; Soulé, Benjamin; Perrot, Frédéric

    2015-08-01

    The SuperNEMO Demonstrator experiment aims to study the neutrinoless double beta decay of 7 kg of 82Se in order to reach a limit on the light Majorana neutrino mass mechanism T1/2 (ββ0ν) > 6.5 1024 years (90%CL) equivalent to a mass sensitivity mββ < 0.20 - 0.40 eV (90%CL) in two years of data taking. The detector construction started in 2014 and its installation in the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM) is expected during the course of 2015. The remaining level of 226Ra (238U chain) in the detector components can lead to the emanation of 222Rn gas. This isotope should be controlled and reduced down to the level of a 150 µBq/m3 in the tracker chamber of the detector to achieve the physics goals. Besides the HPGe selection of the detector materials for their radiopurity, the most critical materials have been tested and selected in a dedicated setup facility able to measure their 222Rn emanation level. The operating principle relies on a large emanation tank (0.7m3) that allows measuring large material surfaces or large number of construction pieces. The emanation tank is coupled to an electrostatic detector equipped with a silicon diode to perform the alpha spectroscopy of the gas it contains and extract the 222Rn daughters. The transfer efficiency and the detector efficiency have been carefully calibrated through different methods. The intrinsic background of the system allows one to measure 222Rn activities down to 3 mBq, leading to a typical emanation sensitivity of 20 µBq/m2/day for a 30 m2 surface sample. Several construction materials have been measured and selected, such as nylon and aluminized Mylar films, photomultipliers and tracking of the SuperNEMO Demonstrator.

  20. Neutron inelastic scattering in natural Pb as a background in neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Guiseppe, Vincente E; Elliott, Steve R; Hime, Andrew; Perepelitsa, Dennis V

    2008-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering on Pb isotopes can result in {gamma} rays near the signature endpoint energy in a number of {beta}{beta} isotopes. In particular, there are {gamma}-ray transitions in {sup 206}Pb and {sup 207}Pb that might produce energy deposits at the {sup 76}Ge Q{sub {beta}{beta}} in Ge detectors used for 0{nu}{beta}{beta} searches. The levels that produce these {gamma} rays can be excited by n,n'{gamma} reactions, but the cross sections are small and previously unmeasured. The cross section on {sup nat}Pb to produce the 2041-keV {gamma} ray from {sup 206}Pb is measured to be 3.1 {+-} 0.6 (stat.) {+-} 0.3 (syst.) mb at {approx} 9.6 MeV. The cross section on {sup nat}Pb to produce the 3062-keV {gamma} ray from {sup 207}Pb is measured to be 4.3 {+-} 0.8 (stat.) {+-} 0.4 (syst.) mb at the same energy. We place upper limits on the cross sections for exciting some other levels in Pb that have transition energies corresponding to Q{sub {beta}{beta}} in orhter {beta}{beta} isotopes.

  1. Theoretical investigation of the dependence of double beta decay tracks in a Ge detector on particle and nuclear physics parameters and separation from gamma ray events

    SciTech Connect

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V.; Krivosheina, I.V.; Titkova, I.V.

    2006-01-01

    The sizes of tracks of events of neutrinoless double-beta decay in a Germanium detector depend on particle physics and nuclear physics parameters such as neutrino mass, right-handed current parameters, etc., and nuclear matrix elements. In this paper for the first time Monte Carlo simulations of neutrino-accompanied (2{nu}{beta}{beta}) and neutrinoless double-beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) events, and of various kinds of background processes such as multiple and other {gamma} interactions are reported for a Ge detector. The time history of the evolution of the individual events is followed and the sizes of the events (partial volumes in the detector inside which the energy of the event is released) are investigated. Effects of the angular correlations of the two electrons in {beta}{beta} decay, which again depend on the above nuclear and (for 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay) on particle physics parameters, are taken into account and have been calculated for this purpose for the first time on basis of the experimental half-life of {sup 76}Ge and of realistic nuclear matrix elements. The sizes determine, together with the location of the events in the detector, the pulse shapes to be observed. It is shown for {beta}{beta} decay of {sup 76}Ge, that {beta}{beta} events should be selectable with high efficiency by rejecting large size (high multiplicity) {gamma} events. Double-escape peaks of similar energy of {gamma} lines show concerning their sizes similar behavior as 0{nu}{beta}{beta} events, and in that sense can be of some use for corresponding 'calibration' of pulse shapes of the detector. The possibility to distinguish {beta}{beta} events from {gamma} events is found to be essentially independent of the particle physics parameters of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} process. A brief outlook is given on the potential of future experiments with respect to determination of the particle physics parameters ,<{lambda}>,<{eta}>.

  2. Spatial Double Generalized Beta Regression Models: Extensions and Application to Study Quality of Education in Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cepeda-Cuervo, Edilberto; Núñez-Antón, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a proposed Bayesian extension of the generalized beta spatial regression models is applied to the analysis of the quality of education in Colombia. We briefly revise the beta distribution and describe the joint modeling approach for the mean and dispersion parameters in the spatial regression models' setting. Finally, we…

  3. CANDLES project for the study of neutrino-less double beta decay of 48Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Sei

    2014-09-01

    There is, presently, strong evidence that neutrinos undergo flavor oscillations,and hence must have finite masses. Neutrino-less double beta (0 νββ) decay measurement offers a realistic opportunity to establish the Majorana nature of neutrinos and gives the absolute scale of the effective neutrino mass. CANDLES is the project to search for 0 νββ decay of 48Ca. A distinctive characteristic of 48Ca is the highest Q value (4.3 MeV) among 0 νββ isotopes. Therefore it enables us to measure 0 νββ decay signals in background free contribution. The CANDLES system consists of undoped CaF2 scintillators (CaF2),liquid scintillator (LS), and large photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). A large number of CaF2 crystals in the form of 10 cm cubes are immersed in the LS. Scintillating CaF2 crystals work as an active source detector for 0 νββ decay of 48Ca, together with LS as a multi-purpose detector component to both reject backgrounds and to propagate scintillation photons. PMTs are placed around the LS vessel to detect photons from both scintillators. The simple design concept of CANDLES enables us to increase the 48Ca source amount. 48Ca enrichment is also effective for the high sensitive measurement, because natural abundance of 48Ca is very low (0.19%). We have studied 48Ca enrichment and succeeded in obtaining enriched 48Ca although it is a small amount. Now we have developed the CANDLES III system, which contained with 300kg CaF2 crystals without enrichment, at the Kamioka underground laboratory. New light collection system was installed in 2012, and accordingly photo-coverage has been enlarged by about 80%. Further improvement will be expected in 2014 by installing a detector cooling system in order to increase light emission from CaF2 crystals. The detail of the latest CANDLES III (U.G.) system and its performance will be presented. Recently, we found that gamma rays from neutron captures on materials surrounding detector could be dominant background. These

  4. Radon emanation based material measurement and selection for the SuperNEMO double beta experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Cerna, Cédric Soulé, Benjamin; Perrot, Frédéric

    2015-08-17

    The SuperNEMO Demonstrator experiment aims to study the neutrinoless double beta decay of 7 kg of {sup 82}Se in order to reach a limit on the light Majorana neutrino mass mechanism T{sub 1/2} (ββ0ν) > 6.5 10{sup 24} years (90%CL) equivalent to a mass sensitivity mβ{sub β} < 0.20 - 0.40 eV (90%CL) in two years of data taking. The detector construction started in 2014 and its installation in the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM) is expected during the course of 2015. The remaining level of {sup 226}Ra ({sup 238}U chain) in the detector components can lead to the emanation of {sup 222}Rn gas. This isotope should be controlled and reduced down to the level of a 150 µBq/m{sup 3} in the tracker chamber of the detector to achieve the physics goals. Besides the HPGe selection of the detector materials for their radiopurity, the most critical materials have been tested and selected in a dedicated setup facility able to measure their {sup 222}Rn emanation level. The operating principle relies on a large emanation tank (0.7m{sup 3}) that allows measuring large material surfaces or large number of construction pieces. The emanation tank is coupled to an electrostatic detector equipped with a silicon diode to perform the alpha spectroscopy of the gas it contains and extract the {sup 222}Rn daughters. The transfer efficiency and the detector efficiency have been carefully calibrated through different methods. The intrinsic background of the system allows one to measure 222Rn activities down to 3 mBq, leading to a typical emanation sensitivity of 20 µBq/m{sup 2}/day for a 30 m{sup 2} surface sample. Several construction materials have been measured and selected, such as nylon and aluminized Mylar films, photomultipliers and tracking of the SuperNEMO Demonstrator.

  5. New precursors for direct synthesis of single phase Na- and K-{beta}{double_prime}-aluminas for use in AMTEC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R.L.; MacQueen, D.B.; Bader, K.E.; Barron, A.R.

    1997-12-31

    Alkali Metal Thermoelectric Converters (AMTEC) are efficient direct energy conversion devices that depend on the use of highly conductive beta-alumina membranes for their operation. The key component of the AMTEC system is a highly conductive Na-{beta}{double_prime}-alumina solid electrolyte which conducts sodium ions from the high to low temperature zone, thereby generating electricity. AMTEC cells convert thermal to electrical energy by using heat to produce and maintain an alkali metal concentration gradient across the ion transporting BASE membrane. They have developed a method for producing pure phase Na-{beta}{double_prime}-alumina and K-{beta}{double_prime}-alumina powders from single phase nano-sized carboxylato-alumoxanes precursors. Sodium or potassium ions (the mobile ions) and either Mg{sup 2+} or Li{sup +} ions (which stabilize the {beta}{double_prime}-alumina structure) can be atomically dispersed into the carboxylato-alumoxane lattice at low (< 100 C) temperature. Calculation of the carboxylato-alumoxane precursors at 1,200--1,500 C produces pure phase {beta}{double_prime}-alumina powders.

  6. Purifications of calcium carbonate and molybdenum oxide powders for neutrinoless double beta decay experiment, AMoRE

    SciTech Connect

    Park, HyangKyu

    2015-08-17

    The AMoRE (Advanced Mo based Rare process Experiment) collaboration is going to use calcium molybdate crystals to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 100}Mo isotope. In order to make the crystal, we use calcium carbonate and molybdenum oxide powders as raw materials. Therefore it is highly necessary to reduce potential sources for radioactive backgrounds such as U and Th in the powders. In this talk, we will present our studies for purification of calcium carbonate and molybdenum oxide powders.

  7. Electron-capture branch of {sup 100}Tc and tests of nuclear wave functions for double-{beta} decays.

    SciTech Connect

    Sjue, S. K. L.; Melconian, D.; Garcia, A.; Ahmad, I.; Algora, A.; Aysto, J.; Elomaa, V.-V.; Eronen, T.; Hakala, J.; Hoedl, S.; Kankainen, A.; Kessler, T.; Moore, I. D.; Naabe, F.; Penttila, H.; Rahaman, S.; Saastamoinen, A.; Swanson, H. E.; Weber, C.; Triambak, S.; Deryckx, K.; Physics; Univ. of Washington; Texas A&M Univ.; Univ. of Valencia; Hungarian Academy of Sciences; Univ. of Jyvaskyla; Univ. of Michigan

    2008-12-30

    We present a measurement of the electron-capture branch of {sup 100}Tc. Our value, B(EC) = (2.6 {+-} 0.4) x 10{sup -5}, implies that the {sup 100}Mo neutrino absorption cross section to the ground state of {sup 100}Tc is roughly 50% larger than previously thought. Disagreement between the experimental value and QRPA calculations relevant to double-{beta} decay matrix elements persists. We find agreement with previous measurements of the 539.5- and 590.8-keV {gamma}-ray intensities.

  8. The double beta decay spectrum of sup 100 Mo as measured with a TPC (time projection chamber)

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, S.R. ); Moe, M.K.; Nelson, M.A.; Vient, M.A. )

    1990-01-01

    A time projection chamber with 8.3 grams of enriched {sup 100}MoO{sub 3} as the central electrode has been operating approximately five months in an underground laboratory. A preliminary analysis of the two-electron sum energy spectrum, the spectrum of those same electrons taken singly, and the opening angle distribution yields a half life of 1.16{sub -0.08}{sup +0.34} {times} 10{sup 19} y at the 68% confidence level for two-neutrino double beta decay of {sup 100}Mo. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Direct link between neutrinoless double beta decay and leptogenesis in a seesaw model with S{sub 4} symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Y. H.; Kang, Sin Kyu; Kim, C. S.; Nguyen, T. Phong

    2010-11-01

    We study how leptogenesis can be implemented in a seesaw model with S{sub 4} flavor symmetry, which leads to the neutrino tribimaximal mixing matrix and degenerate right-handed (RH) neutrino spectrum. Introducing a tiny soft S{sub 4} symmetry breaking term in the RH neutrino mass matrix, we show that the flavored resonant leptogenesis can be successfully realized, which can lower the seesaw scale much so, as to make it possible to probe in colliders. Even though such a tiny soft breaking term is essential for leptogenesis, it does not significantly affect the low-energy observables. We also investigate how the effective light neutrino mass || associated with neutrinoless double beta decay can be predicted along with the neutrino mass hierarchies by imposing experimental data of low-energy observables. We find a direct link between leptogenesis and neutrinoless double beta decay characterized by || through a high energy CP phase {phi}, which is correlated with low-energy Majorana CP phases. It is shown that our predictions of || for some fixed parameters of high energy physics can be constrained by the current observation of baryon asymmetry.

  10. Critical view to ``IGEX 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment: Prospects for next generation experiments''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H. V.; Dietz, A.; Krivosheina, I. V.

    2004-10-01

    Recently, a paper entitled “The IGEX 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment: Prospects for next generation experiments” has been published [

    Phys. Rev. D 65, 092007 (2002)PRVDAQ0556-282110.1103/PhysRevD.65.092007
    ]. In view of the recently reported evidence for neutrinoless double-beta decay [
    Mod. Phys. Lett. A 16, 2409 (2001).MPLAEQ0217-732310.1142/S0217732301005825
    ;
    Found. Phys.FNDPA40015-9018 31, 1181 (2002)
    ;
    Phys. Lett. BPYLBAJ0370-2693 586, 198 (2004).10.1016/j.physletb.2004.02.025
    ], it is particularly unfortunate that the IGEX paper is rather incomplete in its presentation. We would like to point out in this Comment that and why it would be highly desirable to make more details about the experimental conditions and the analysis of IGEX available. We list some of the main points, which require further explanation. We also point to an arithmetic mistake in the analysis of the IGEX data, the consequence of which are too high half-life limits given in that paper.

  11. Influence of a keV sterile neutrino on neutrinoless double beta decay: How things changed in recent years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merle, Alexander; Niro, Viviana

    2013-12-01

    Earlier studies of the influence of dark matter keV sterile neutrinos on neutrinoless double beta decay concluded that there is no significant modification of the decay rate. These studies have focused only on a mass of the keV sterile neutrino above 2 and 4 keV, respectively, as motivated by certain production mechanisms. On the other hand, alternative production mechanisms have been proposed, which relax the lower limit for the mass, and new experimental data are available, too. For this reason, an updated study is timely and worthwhile. We focus on the most recent data, i.e., the newest Chandra and XMM-Newton observational bounds on the x-ray line originating from radiative keV sterile neutrino decay, as well as the new measurement of the previously unknown leptonic mixing angle θ13. While the previous works might have been a little short-sighted, the new observational bounds do indeed render any influences of keV sterile neutrinos on neutrinoless double beta decay small. This conclusion even holds in case not all the dark matter is made up of keV sterile neutrinos.

  12. The Majorana Demonstrator: Progress towards showing the feasibility of a 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Finnerty, P.; Aguayo, Estanislao; Amman, M.; Avignone, Frank T.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Barton, P. J.; Beene, Jim; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Collar, J. I.; Combs, Dustin C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Fraenkle, Florian; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hoppe, Eric W.; Horton, Mark; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; Looker, Q.; Luke, P.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Merriman, Jason H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Phillips, David; Poon, Alan; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, Werner; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Yakushev, E.; Yaver, Harold; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

    2014-03-24

    The Majorana Demonstrator will search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay (0*) of the 76Ge isotope with a mixed array of enriched and natural germanium detectors. The observation of this rare decay would indicate the neutrino is its own anti-particle, demonstrate that lepton number is not conserved, and provide information on the absolute mass-scale of the neutrino. The Demonstrator is being assembled at the 4850 foot level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota. The array will be contained in a lowbackground environment and surrounded by passive and active shielding. The goals for the Demonstrator are: demonstrating a background rate less than 3 counts tonne -1 year-1 in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) surrounding the 2039 keV 76Ge endpoint energy; establishing the technology required to build a tonne-scale germanium based double-beta decay experiment; testing the recent claim of observation of 0; and performing a direct search for lightWIMPs (3-10 GeV/c2).

  13. Effect of partial agonist activity in beta blockers in severe angina pectoris: a double blind comparison of pindolol and atenolol.

    PubMed

    Quyyumi, A A; Wright, C; Mockus, L; Fox, K M

    1984-10-13

    The use of beta adrenoceptor blockade in the treatment of rest angina is controversial, and the effects on severe angina of partial agonist activity in beta blockers are unknown. Eight patients with effort angina and seven with effort and nocturnal angina and severe coronary artery disease were studied initially when they were not taking any antianginal drugs. Pindolol 5 mg thrice daily (with partial agonist activity) and atenolol 100 mg daily (without partial agonist activity) were given for five days each in a double blind randomised manner. Diaries of angina were kept and treadmill exercise testing and ambulatory ST monitoring performed during the last 48 hours of each period of treatment. Daytime and nocturnal resting heart rates and the frequency of angina were significantly reduced by atenolol compared with pindolol (p less than 0.01). The duration of exercise was significantly increased and the frequency, duration, and magnitude of daytime and nocturnal episodes of ST segment depression on ambulatory monitoring were reduced by atenolol. Reduction in resting heart rate is important in the treatment of both effort and nocturnal angina. Partial agonist activity in beta adrenoceptor antagonists may be deleterious in patients with severe angina pectoris. PMID:6148991

  14. Probing new physics models of neutrinoless double beta decay with SuperNEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, R.; Augier, C.; Baker, J.; Barabash, A. S.; Basharina-Freshville, A.; Bongrand, M.; Brudanin, V.; Caffrey, A. J.; Cebrián, S.; Chapon, A.; Chauveau, E.; Dafni, T.; Deppisch, F. F.; Diaz, J.; Durand, D.; Egorov, V.; Evans, J. J.; Flack, R.; Fushima, K.-I.; Irastorza, I. García; Garrido, X.; Gómez, H.; Guillon, B.; Holin, A.; Holy, K.; Horkley, J. J.; Hubert, P.; Hugon, C.; Iguaz, F. J.; Ishihara, N.; Jackson, C. M.; Jullian, S.; Kauer, M.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kovalenko, V.; Lamhamdi, T.; Lang, K.; Lutter, G.; Luzón, G.; Mamedov, F.; Marquet, C.; Mauger, F.; Monrabal, F.; Nachab, A.; Nasteva, I.; Nemchenok, I.; Nguyen, C. H.; Nomachi, M.; Nova, F.; Ohsumi, H.; Pahlka, R. B.; Perrot, F.; Piquemal, F.; Povinec, P. P.; Richards, B.; Ricol, J. S.; Riddle, C. L.; Rodríguez, A.; Saakyan, R.; Sarazin, X.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Serra, L.; Shitov, Y.; Simard, L.; Šimkovic, F.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Štekl, I.; Sutton, C. S.; Tamagawa, Y.; Thomas, J.; Timkin, V.; Tretyak, V.; Tretyak, V. I.; Umatov, V. I.; Vanyushin, I. A.; Vasiliev, R.; Vasiliev, V.; Vorobel, V.; Waters, D.; Yahlali, N.; Žukauskas, A.

    2010-12-01

    The possibility to probe new physics scenarios of light Majorana neutrino exchange and right-handed currents at the planned next generation neutrinoless double β decay experiment SuperNEMO is discussed. Its ability to study different isotopes and track the outgoing electrons provides the means to discriminate different underlying mechanisms for the neutrinoless double β decay by measuring the decay half-life and the electron angular and energy distributions.

  15. Observation of a possible optical burst of the double star Beta Camelopardalis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wdowiak, T. J.; Clifton, K. S.

    1985-01-01

    An intensified SEC Vidicon observation of a brightening of the image of Beta Cam for a duration of about 0.25 sec at 0932 UT on December 4, 1969 is described. The observation was made during airborne observations of meteors over Canada between latitudes of 50 and 60 deg N.

  16. Measurement of the half-life of the two-neutrino double beta decay of 76Ge with the GERDA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The GERDA Collaboration; Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Andreotti, E.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barnabé Heider, M.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; Cossavella, F.; Demidova, E. V.; Denisov, A.; Domula, A.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Ferella, A. D.; Freund, K.; Froborg, F.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gazzana, S.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Guthikonda, K. K.; Hampel, W.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kianovsky, S.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Liu, X.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Machado, A. A.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Nemchenok, I.; Nisi, S.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Peraro, L.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Ritter, F.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Strecker, H.; Tarka, M.; Ur, C. A.; Vasenko, A. A.; Volynets, O.; von Sturm, K.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zavarise, P.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2013-03-01

    The primary goal of the GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso of INFN is the search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. High-purity germanium detectors made from material enriched in 76Ge are operated directly immersed in liquid argon, allowing for a substantial reduction of the background with respect to predecessor experiments. The first 5.04 kg yr of data collected in Phase I of the experiment have been analyzed to measure the half-life of the neutrino-accompanied double beta decay of 76Ge. The observed spectrum in the energy range between 600 and 1800 keV is dominated by the double beta decay of 76Ge. The half-life extracted from GERDA data is T2ν1/2 = (1.84+0.14-0.10) × 1021 yr.

  17. Explaining a CMS e e j j excess with R -parity violating supersymmetry and implications for neutrinoless double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allanach, Ben; Biswas, Sanjoy; Mondal, Subhadeep; Mitra, Manimala

    2015-01-01

    A recent CMS search for the right-handed gauge boson WR reports an interesting deviation from the Standard Model. The search has been conducted in the e e j j channel and has shown a 2.8 σ excess around me e j j˜2 TeV . In this work, we explain the reported CMS excess with R -parity violating supersymmetry. We consider resonant selectron and sneutrino production, followed by the three body decays of the neutralino and chargino via an R -parity violating coupling. We fit the excess for slepton masses around 2 TeV. The scenario can further be tested in neutrinoless double beta decay (0 ν β β ) experiments. GERDA Phase-II will probe a significant portion of the good-fit parameter space.

  18. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR: An R and D project towards a tonne-scale germanium neutrinoless double-beta decay search

    SciTech Connect

    Aalseth, C. E.; Ely, J.; Fast, J. E.; Fuller, E.; Hoppe, E. W.; Keillor, M.; Kouzes, R. T.; Miley, H. S.; Orrell, J. L.; Thompson, R.; Warner, R.; Amman, M.; Bergevin, M.; Chan, Y.-D.; Detwiler, J. A.; Fujikawa, B.; Loach, J. C.; Luke, P. N.; Poon, A. W. P; Prior, G.

    2009-12-17

    The MAJORANA collaboration is pursuing the development of the so-called MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The DEMONSTRATOR is intended to perform research and development towards a tonne-scale germanium-based experiment to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 76}Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR can also perform a competitive direct dark matter search for light WIMPs in the 1-10 GeV/c{sup 2} mass range. It will consist of approximately 60 kg of germanium detectors in an ultra-low background shield located deep underground at the Sanford Underground Laboratory in Lead, SD. The DEMONSTRATOR will also perform background and technology studies, and half of the detector mass will be enriched germanium. This talk will review the motivation, design, technology and status of the Demonstrator.

  19. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR: An R&D project towards a tonne-scale germanium neutrinoless double-beta decay search

    SciTech Connect

    Aalseth, Craig E; Amman, M; Amsbaugh, John F; Avignone, F. T.; Back, Henning O; Barabash, A; Barbeau, Phil; Beene, Jim; Bergevin, M; Bertrand, F; Boswell, M; Brudanin, V; Bugg, William; Burritt, Tom H; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Collar, J I; Cooper, R J; Creswick, R; Detwiler, Jason A; Doe, P J; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H; Elliott, Steven R; Ely, James H; Esterline, James H; Farach, H A; Fast, James E; Fields, N; Finnerty, P; Fujikawa, Brian; Fuller, Erin S; Gehman, Victor; Giovanetti, G K; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K; Hallin, A L; Hazama, R; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W; Hossbach, Todd W; Howe, M A; Johnson, R A; Keeter, K; Keillor, Martin E; Keller, C; Kephart, Jeremy D; Kidd, Mary; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S; Kouzes, Richard T; Lesko, Kevin; Leviner, L; Loach, J C; Luke, P; MacMullin, S; Marino, Michael G; Mei, Dong-Ming; Miley, Harry S; Miller, M; Mizouni, Leila K; Montoya, A; Myers, A W; Nomachi, Masaharu; Odom, Brian; Orrell, John L; Phillips, D; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Qian, J; Radford, D C; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R G. H.; Rodriguez, Larry; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof P; Schubert, Alexis G; Shima, T; Shirchenko, M; Strain, J; Thomas, K; Thompson, Robert C; Timkin, V; Tornow, W; Van Wechel, T D; Vanyushin, I; Vetter, Kai; Warner, Ray A; Wilkerson, J; Wouters, Jan; Yakushev, E; Young, A; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C L; Zimmerman, S

    2009-12-17

    The MAJORANA collaboration is pursuing the development of the so-called MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The DEMONSTRATOR is intended to perform research and development towards a tonne-scale germanium-based experiment to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR can also perform a competitive direct dark matter search for light WIMPs in the 1-10GeV/c2 mass range. It will consist of approximately 60 kg. of germanium detectors in an ultra-low background shield located deep underground at the Sanford Underground Laboratory in Lead, SD. The DEMONSTRATOR will also perform background and technology studies, and half of the detector mass will be enriched germanium. This talk will review the motivation, design, technology and status of the Demonstrator.

  20. A measurement of the 2 neutrino double beta decay rate of Te-130 in the CUORICINO experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kogler, Laura K.

    2011-11-30

    CUORICINO was a cryogenic bolometer experiment designed to search for neutrinoless double beta decay and other rare processes, including double beta decay with two neutrinos (2vββ). The experiment was located at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and ran for a period of about 5 years, from 2003 to 2008. The detector consisted of an array of 62 TeO2 crystals arranged in a tower and operated at a temperature of 10 mK. Events depositing energy in the detectors, such as radioactive decays or impinging particles, produced thermal pulses in the crystals which were read out using sensitive thermistors. The experiment included 4 enriched crystals, 2 enriched with 130Te and 2 with 128Te, in order to aid in the measurement of the 2vββ rate. The enriched crystals contained a total of 350 g 130Te. The 128-enriched (130-depleted) crystals were used as background monitors, so that the shared backgrounds could be subtracted from the energy spectrum of the 130- enriched crystals. Residual backgrounds in the subtracted spectrum were fit using spectra generated by Monte-Carlo simulations of natural radioactive contaminants located in and on the crystals. The 2vββ half-life was measured to be T2v1/2 = [9.81± 0.96(stat)± 0.49(syst)] x1020 y.

  1. Alexandrite laser frequency doubling in. beta. -BaB/sub 2/O/sub 4/ crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.; Yeh, J.

    1988-10-01

    Efficient and tunable coherent ultraviolet (360--390 nm) generation in ..beta..-BaB/sub 2/O/sub 4/ crystals using type-I phase matching at room temperature is presented. The phase-matching angle is characterized with an alexandrite laser with a wavelength tuning range of 725--785 nm. The crystal angular bandwidth of 0.9 mrad-cm and spectral bandwidth of 1.15 nm-cm are also measured. UV output pulse energy of 105 mJ at 378 nm with 31% energy conversion efficiency is achieved.

  2. Predictions for neutrinoless double-beta decay in the 3+1 sterile neutrino scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunti, C.; Zavanin, E. M.

    2016-05-01

    In this proceeding we present predictions of the effective Majorana mass |mββ| in neutrinoless double-β decay for the standard 3v mixing case and for the 3+1 neutrino mixing case indicated by the short-baseline anomalies. We have taken into account the uncertainties of the neutrino mixing parameters determined by oscillation experiments. We obtained that the predictions for |mββ| in the cases of 3v and 3+1 mixing are quite different, in agreement with previous discussions in the literature, and that future measurements of neutrinoless double-β decay and the total mass of the three lightest neutrinos in cosmological experiments may distinguish the 3v and 3+1 cases if the mass ordering is determined by oscillation experiments.

  3. Stability of transgene integration and expression in subsequent generations of doubled haploid oilseed rape transformed with chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase genes in a double-gene construct.

    PubMed

    Melander, Margareta; Kamnert, Iréne; Happstadius, Ingrid; Liljeroth, Erland; Bryngelsson, Tomas

    2006-09-01

    A double-gene construct with one chitinase and one beta-1,3-glucanase gene from barley, both driven by enhanced 35S promoters, was transformed into oilseed rape. From six primary transformants expressing both transgenes 10 doubled haploid lines were produced and studied for five generations. The number of inserted copies for both the genes was determined by Southern blotting and real-time PCR with full agreement between the two methods. When copy numbers were analysed in different generations, discrepancies were found, indicating that at least part of the inserted sequences were lost in one of the alleles of some doubled haploids. Chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase expression was analysed by Western blotting in all five doubled haploid generations. Despite that both the genes were present on the same T-DNA and directed by the same promoter their expression pattern between generations was different. The beta-1,3-glucanase was expressed at high and stable levels in all generations, while the chitinase displayed lower expression that varied between generations. The transgenic plants did not show any major impact on fungal resistance when assayed in greenhouse, although purified beta-1,3-glucanase and chitinase caused retardment of fungal growth in vitro. PMID:16565860

  4. Search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of Mo100 with the NEMO-3 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, R.; Augier, C.; Baker, J. D.; Barabash, A. S.; Basharina-Freshville, A.; Blondel, S.; Blot, S.; Bongrand, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busto, J.; Caffrey, A. J.; Cerna, C.; Chapon, A.; Chauveau, E.; Duchesneau, D.; Durand, D.; Egorov, V.; Eurin, G.; Evans, J. J.; Flack, R.; Garrido, X.; Gómez, H.; Guillon, B.; Guzowski, P.; Hodák, R.; Hubert, P.; Hugon, C.; Jullian, S.; Klimenko, A.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kovalenko, V.; Lalanne, D.; Lang, K.; Lemière, Y.; Liptak, Z.; Loaiza, P.; Lutter, G.; Mamedov, F.; Marquet, C.; Mauger, F.; Morgan, B.; Mott, J.; Nemchenok, I.; Nomachi, M.; Nova, F.; Nowacki, F.; Ohsumi, H.; Pahlka, R. B.; Perrot, F.; Piquemal, F.; Povinec, P.; Ramachers, Y. A.; Remoto, A.; Reyss, J. L.; Richards, B.; Riddle, C. L.; Rukhadze, E.; Saakyan, R.; Sarazin, X.; Shitov, Yu.; Simard, L.; Šimkovic, F.; Smetana, A.; Smolek, K.; Smolnikov, A.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Soulé, B.; Štekl, I.; Suhonen, J.; Sutton, C. S.; Szklarz, G.; Thomas, J.; Timkin, V.; Torre, S.; Tretyak, Vl. I.; Tretyak, V. I.; Umatov, V. I.; Vanushin, I.; Vilela, C.; Vorobel, V.; Waters, D.; Žukauskas, A.; NEMO-3 Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    We report the results of a search for the neutrinoless double-β decay (0νββ) of Mo100, using the NEMO-3 detector to reconstruct the full topology of the final state events. With an exposure of 34.7 kg .y, no evidence for the 0νββ signal has been found, yielding a limit for the light Majorana neutrino mass mechanism of T1/2(0νββ)>1.1×1024 years (90% C.L.) once both statistical and systematic uncertainties are taken into account. Depending on the nuclear matrix elements this corresponds to an upper limit on the Majorana effective neutrino mass of ⟨mν⟩<0.3-0.9 eV (90% C.L.). Constraints on other lepton number violating mechanisms of 0νββ decays are also given. Searching for high-energy double electron events in all suitable sources of the detector, no event in the energy region [3.2-10] MeV is observed for an exposure of 47 kg .y.

  5. Search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of Mo 100 with the NEMO-3 detector

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Baker; A. J. Caffrey

    2014-06-01

    We report the results of a search for the neutrinoless double-ß decay (0?ßß ) of Mo 100 , using the NEMO-3 detector to reconstruct the full topology of the final state events. With an exposure of 34.7??kg·y , no evidence for the 0?ßß signal has been found, yielding a limit for the light Majorana neutrino mass mechanism of T 1/2 (0?ßß)>1.1×10 24 years (90% C.L.) once both statistical and systematic uncertainties are taken into account. Depending on the nuclear matrix elements this corresponds to an upper limit on the Majorana effective neutrino mass of ?m ? ?<0.3–0.9??eV (90% C.L.). Constraints on other lepton number violating mechanisms of 0?ßß decays are also given. Searching for high-energy double electron events in all suitable sources of the detector, no event in the energy region [3.2–10] MeV is observed for an exposure of 47??kg·y .

  6. Enhanced tumor formation in cyclin D1 x transforming growth factor beta1 double transgenic mice with characterization by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Deane, Natasha G; Lee, Haakil; Hamaamen, Jalal; Ruley, Anna; Washington, M Kay; LaFleur, Bonnie; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S; Price, Ronald; Beauchamp, R Daniel

    2004-02-15

    Transgenic mice that overexpress cyclin D1 protein in the liver develop liver carcinomas with high penetrance. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) serves as either an epithelial cell growth inhibitor or a tumor promoter, depending on the cellular context. We interbred LFABP-cyclin D1 and Alb-TGF-beta1 transgenic mice to produce cyclin D1/TGF-beta1 double transgenic mice and followed the development of liver tumors over time, characterizing cellular and molecular changes, tumor incidence, tumor burden, and tumor physiology noninvasively by magnetic resonance imaging. Compared with age-matched LFABP-cyclin D1 single transgenic littermates, cyclin D1/TGF-beta1 mice exhibited a significant increase in tumor incidence. Tumor multiplicity, tumor burden, and tumor heterogeneity were higher in cyclin D1/TGF-beta1 mice compared with single transgenic littermates. Characteristics of cyclin D1/TGF-beta1 livers correlated with a marked induction of the peripheral periductal oval cell/stem cell compartment of the liver. A number of cancerous lesions from cyclin D1/TGF-beta1 mice exhibited unique features such as ductal plate malformations and hemorrhagic nodules. Some lesions were contiguous with the severely diseased background liver and, in some cases, replaced the normal architecture of the entire organ. Cyclin D1/TGF-beta1 lesions, in particular, were associated with malignant features such as areas of vascular invasion by hepatocytes and heterogeneous hyperintensity of signal on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. These findings demonstrate that TGF-beta1 promotes stem cell activation and tumor progression in the context of cyclin D1 overexpression in the liver. PMID:14973059

  7. LUCIFER: A Scintillating Bolometer Array for the Search of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardani, L.; Lucifer Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    One of the main limitations in the study of 0vDBD is the presence of a radioactive background in the energy region of interest. This limit can be overcome by the technological approach of the LUCIFER project, which is based the double read-out of the heat and scintillation light produced by ZnSe scintillating bolometers. This experiment aims at a background lower than 10-3counts/keV/kg/y in the energy region of the 0νDBD of 82Se. Such a low background level will provide a sensitivity on the effective neutrino mass of the order of 100 meV. In the following, the results of the recent R&D activity are discussed, the single module for the LUCIFER detector is described, and the process for the production of 82Se-enriched ZnSe crystals is presented.

  8. Double Mantle Plume Upwelling—A Possible Formation Mechanism of Beta Plateau and Devana Chasma,Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, N.

    2009-12-01

    Ning Ding,Zuoxun Zeng,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan,430074,China NingDing.eagle@gmail.com Introduction:Venus represents a‘one plate planet’[1],and the uplift,fractures and volcanism in Beta Regio on Venus are considered to be formed by lithosphere uplift driven by a hot plume[2]. Based on the double peaking saddle landform,we suggest the tectonic pattern of double mantle plume upwelling to interpret the formation mechanism of Beta Plateau and Devana Chasma.We take a physical modeling to validate this possibility. Model:There is no ductile shear in Venus[3],so we use quartz sands to simulate the crust of Venus.We use two wood stickes 1.5cm in diameter rising from the rubber canvas slowly and straight till about half of the model,then falling down slowly and straight.The base is a hard rubber plate,in the center of which,there are two holes 3cm in diameter,and the distance between them is 5cm.The holes are covered by rubber canvas.We use the quartz sands in colours of white, red and black with particle size of 70 mess as the model materials. Result:Fig.1:At the beginning of the wood stickes upwelling,only fine radial cracks are formed above the upwelling from central to outside.With the upwelling continue,surface energy of the fine radial cracks increase and make the cracks unstable,finally,the fine radial cracks connect each other and form a fracture zone.And then the two mantle plume downwelling,the fracture zone is developed to form a chasma at the end. Fig.2:The four profiles all form reverse faults outside and normal faults inside.But the difference is the faults in the middle of the chasma goes deeper than others.It is the pattern of Beta Plateau where the tectonic rising is cut by Devana Chasma zone in the topographic features. Fig.3:From the tow fig., we can see two points similar:a.the elevation is high and distribution area is large around the area of two upwelling and it is high around the area of chasma,but the distribution area is small

  9. Medical treatment of patients with severe exertional and rest angina: double blind comparison of beta blocker, calcium antagonist, and nitrate.

    PubMed Central

    Quyyumi, A A; Crake, T; Wright, C M; Mockus, L J; Fox, K M

    1987-01-01

    The role of medical treatment of patients who had resting nocturnal angina as well as exertional angina was investigate. The effects of atenolol 100 mg a day, nifedipine 20 mg three times a day, and isosorbide mononitrate 40 mg twice a day were investigated in a double blind, triple dummy randomised study. Nine patients with coronary artery disease, early positive exercise tests, and transient daytime and nocturnal ambulatory ST segment changes were initially assessed off all antianginal medication. They were then treated with each drug for three five day periods. Angina diaries were reviewed and maximal treadmill exercise tests and 48 hour ambulatory ST segment monitoring were performed at the end of each treatment period. Resting and exercise heart rate and blood pressure were significantly lower on atenolol than on either isosorbide mononitrate or nifedipine. The duration of exercise to 1 mm ST segment depression was significantly greater on atenolol than on isosorbide mononitrate. Only one patient had an improvement in exercise tolerance on nifedipine that was greater than the improvement on atenolol; this patient had single vessel disease. The total number and duration of episodes of ST segment change during ambulatory monitoring were significantly lower with atenolol than on either isosorbide mononitrate or nifedipine. Nocturnal ST segment changes were abolished in six patients on atenolol, in six patients on nifedipine, and in five patients on isosorbide mononitrate. When nocturnal ST segment changes occurred, their frequency was reduced with all three drugs. Pain was abolished in four patients on atenolol and pain relief was significantly better on atenolol than on isosorbide mononitrate. There was no significant difference in pain relief between isosorbide mononitrate and nifedipine. Thus beta receptor blockade with atenolol was the most effective means of reducing myocardial ischaemia both during exercise and at rest at night without causing deterioration

  10. Medical treatment of patients with severe exertional and rest angina: double blind comparison of beta blocker, calcium antagonist, and nitrate.

    PubMed

    Quyyumi, A A; Crake, T; Wright, C M; Mockus, L J; Fox, K M

    1987-06-01

    The role of medical treatment of patients who had resting nocturnal angina as well as exertional angina was investigate. The effects of atenolol 100 mg a day, nifedipine 20 mg three times a day, and isosorbide mononitrate 40 mg twice a day were investigated in a double blind, triple dummy randomised study. Nine patients with coronary artery disease, early positive exercise tests, and transient daytime and nocturnal ambulatory ST segment changes were initially assessed off all antianginal medication. They were then treated with each drug for three five day periods. Angina diaries were reviewed and maximal treadmill exercise tests and 48 hour ambulatory ST segment monitoring were performed at the end of each treatment period. Resting and exercise heart rate and blood pressure were significantly lower on atenolol than on either isosorbide mononitrate or nifedipine. The duration of exercise to 1 mm ST segment depression was significantly greater on atenolol than on isosorbide mononitrate. Only one patient had an improvement in exercise tolerance on nifedipine that was greater than the improvement on atenolol; this patient had single vessel disease. The total number and duration of episodes of ST segment change during ambulatory monitoring were significantly lower with atenolol than on either isosorbide mononitrate or nifedipine. Nocturnal ST segment changes were abolished in six patients on atenolol, in six patients on nifedipine, and in five patients on isosorbide mononitrate. When nocturnal ST segment changes occurred, their frequency was reduced with all three drugs. Pain was abolished in four patients on atenolol and pain relief was significantly better on atenolol than on isosorbide mononitrate. There was no significant difference in pain relief between isosorbide mononitrate and nifedipine. Thus beta receptor blockade with atenolol was the most effective means of reducing myocardial ischaemia both during exercise and at rest at night without causing deterioration

  11. Nuclear Structure Relevant to Double-beta Decay: Studies of 76Ge and 76Se using Inelastic Neutron Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crider, Benjamin P.

    While neutrino oscillations indicate that neutrino flavors mix and that neutrinos have mass, they do not supply information on the absolute mass scale of the three flavors of neutrinos. Currently, the only viable way to determine this mass scale is through the observation of the theoretically predicted process of neutrinoless double-beta decay (0nubetabeta). This yet-to-be-observed decay process is speculated to occur in a handful of nuclei and has predicted half-lives greater than 1025 years. Observation of 0nubetabeta is the goal of several large-scale, multinational efforts and consists of detecting a sharp peak in the summed energies at the Q-value of the reaction. An exceptional candidate for the observation of 0nubetabeta is 76Ge, which offers an excellent combination of capabilities and sensitivities, and two such collaborations, MAJORANA and GERDA, propose tonne-scale experiments that have already begun initial phases using a fraction of the material. The absolute scale of the neutrino masses hinges on a matrix element, which depends on the ground-state wave functions for both the parent (76Ge) and daughter (76Se) nuclei in the 0nubetabeta decay and can only be calculated from nuclear structure models. Efforts to provide information on the applicability of these models have been undertaken at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory using gamma-ray spectroscopy following inelastic scattering reactions with monoenergetic, accelerator-produced fast neutrons. Information on new energy levels and transitions, spin and parity assignments, lifetimes, multipole mixing ratios, and transition probabilities have been determined for 76Se, the daughter of 76Ge 0nubetabeta, up to 3.0 MeV. Additionally, inaccuracies in the accepted level schemes have been addressed. Observation of 0nubetabeta requires precise knowledge of potential contributors to background within the region of interest, i.e., approximately 2039 keV for 76Ge. In addition to backgrounds

  12. Gaseous time projection chambers for rare event detection: results from the T-REX project. I. Double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irastorza, I. G.; Aznar, F.; Castel, J.; Cebrián, S.; Dafni, T.; Galán, J.; Garcia, J. A.; Garza, J. G.; Gómez, H.; Herrera, D. C.; Iguaz, F. J.; Luzon, G.; Mirallas, H.; Ruiz, E.; Seguí, L.; Tomás, A.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the T-REX project, a number of R&D and prototyping activities have been carried out during the last years to explore the applicability of gaseous Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) with Micromesh Gas Structures (Micromegas) in rare event searches like double beta decay, axion research and low-mass WIMP searches. In both this and its companion paper, we compile the main results of the project and give an outlook of application prospects for this detection technique. While in the companion paper we focus on axions and WIMPs, in this paper we focus on the results regarding the measurement of the double beta decay (DBD) of 136Xe in a high pressure Xe (HPXe) TPC. Micromegas of the microbulk type have been extensively studied in high pressure Xe and Xe mixtures. Particularly relevant are the results obtained in Xe + trimethylamine (TMA) mixtures, showing very promising results in terms of gain, stability of operation, and energy resolution at high pressures up to 10 bar. The addition of TMA at levels of ~ 1% reduces electron diffusion by up to a factor of 10 with respect to pure Xe, improving the quality of the topological pattern, with a positive impact on the discrimination capability. Operation with a medium size prototype of 30 cm diameter and 38 cm of drift (holding about 1 kg of Xe at 10 bar in the fiducial volume, enough to contain high energy electron tracks in the detector volume) has allowed to test the detection concept in realistic experimental conditions. Microbulk Micromegas are able to image the DBD ionization signature with high quality while, at the same time, measuring its energy deposition with a resolution of at least a ~ 3% FWHM @ Qββ. This value was experimentally demonstrated for high-energy extended tracks at 10 bar, and is probably improvable down to the ~ 1% FWHM levels as extrapolated from low energy events. In addition, first results on the topological signature information (one straggling track ending in two blobs) show promising

  13. Discovery potential of xenon-based neutrinoless double beta decay experiments in light of small angular scale CMB observations

    SciTech Connect

    Gómez-Cadenas, J.J.; Martín-Albo, J.; Vidal, J. Muñoz; Peña-Garay, C. E-mail: jmalbos@ific.uv.es E-mail: penya@ific.uv.es

    2013-03-01

    The South Pole Telescope (SPT) has probed an expanded angular range of the CMB temperature power spectrum. Their recent analysis of the latest cosmological data prefers nonzero neutrino masses, with Σm{sub ν} = (0.32±0.11) eV. This result, if confirmed by the upcoming Planck data, has deep implications on the discovery of the nature of neutrinos. In particular, the values of the effective neutrino mass m{sub ββ} involved in neutrinoless double beta decay (ββ0ν) are severely constrained for both the direct and inverse hierarchy, making a discovery much more likely. In this paper, we focus in xenon-based ββ0ν experiments, on the double grounds of their good performance and the suitability of the technology to large-mass scaling. We show that the current generation, with effective masses in the range of 100 kg and conceivable exposures in the range of 500 kg·year, could already have a sizeable opportunity to observe ββ0ν events, and their combined discovery potential is quite large. The next generation, with an exposure in the range of 10 ton·year, would have a much more enhanced sensitivity, in particular due to the very low specific background that all the xenon technologies (liquid xenon, high-pressure xenon and xenon dissolved in liquid scintillator) can achieve. In addition, a high-pressure xenon gas TPC also features superb energy resolution. We show that such detector can fully explore the range of allowed effective Majorana masses, thus making a discovery very likely.

  14. Microscopic calculations of signals of double beta decay in a 76Ge detector and first application to the Heidelberg Moscow experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H. V.; Krivosheina, I. V.; Mironov, V.; Titkova, I. V.

    2006-05-01

    The identification of signals of neutrinoless double beta decay is a question of extreme interest. Starting from the Monte Carlo calculated time history and spatial energy distribution of neutrinoless double beta events, for the first time the expected pulse shapes to be observed in a big 76Ge detector have been calculated 'microscopically', by using the Poisson Superfish code for determination of the field distribution in the detector. It is shown, that for the majority of 0 νββ events it is not possible to differentiate between the contributions of different particle physics parameters entering into the 0 νββ decay process-in the mass mechanism the effective neutrino mass and the right-handed weak current parameters < λ >, < η >. It is shown, that on the other hand it is possible in a 76Ge double beta decay experiment to reject a background of larger sizes (high multiplicity) gamma events by selecting low size (low multiplicity) events. First application of the theoretical ββ pulses to events from the line observed at Qββ [H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, I.V. Krivosheina, A. Dietz, et al., Phys. Lett. B 586 (2004) 198; H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, A. Dietz, I.V. Krivosheina, et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 522 (2004) 371] shows very good agreement. It is shown further, and confirmed by measurements with a collimated source, that a rather good radial position determination of ββ events in the detector is possible. By the same type of calculation it is shown that use of the pulse shapes of the 1592 keV double escape line of the 2614 keV γ-transition from 228Th for calibrating a neuronal net for search of events of neutrinoless double beta decay can be helpful.

  15. ({sup 3}He,t) reaction on the double {beta} decay nucleus {sup 48}Ca and the importance of nuclear matrix elements

    SciTech Connect

    Grewe, E.-W.; Frekers, D.; Rakers, S.; Baeumer, C.; Dohmann, H.; Thies, J.; Adachi, T.; Fujita, Y.; Shimbara, Y.; Botha, N. T.; Fujita, H.; Hatanaka, K.; Nakanishi, K.; Sakemi, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Tameshige, Y.; Tamii, A.; Negret, A.; Popescu, L.; Neveling, R.

    2007-11-15

    High-resolution ({sup 3}He,t) measurements on the double {beta}-decay ({beta}{beta}) nucleus {sup 48}Ca have been performed at RCNP (Osaka, Japan) to determine Gamow-Teller (GT{sup -}) transitions to the nucleus {sup 48}Sc, which represents the intermediate nucleus in the second-order perturbative description of the {beta}{beta} decay. At a bombarding energy of E{sub {sup 3}He}=420 MeV an excitation energy resolution of 40 keV was achieved. The measurements were performed at two angle positions of the Grand Raiden Spectrometer (GRS): 0 deg. and 2.5 deg. The results of both settings were combined to achieve angular distributions, by which the character of single transitions could be determined. To characterize the different multipoles, theoretical angular distributions for states with J{sup {pi}}=1{sup +},2{sup +},2{sup -}, and 3{sup +} were calculated using the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) Code DW81. The GT{sup -} strength was extracted up to E{sub x}=7 MeV and combined with corresponding GT{sup +} strength deduced from the {sup 48}Ti(d,{sup 2}He){sup 48}Sc data to calculate the low-energy part of the {beta}{beta}-decay matrix element for the {sup 48}Ca 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay. We show that after applying trivial momentum corrections to the ({sup 3}He,t) spectrum, the two reaction probes (p,n) and ({sup 3}He,t) reveal a spectral response to an impressively high degree of similarity in the region of low momentum transfer.

  16. Secondary scintillation yield in high-pressure xenon gas for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, E. D. C.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Ball, M.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Lux, T.; Sánchez, F.; dos Santos, J. M. F.

    2010-02-01

    The search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) is an important topic in contemporary physics with many active experiments. New projects are planning to use high-pressure xenon gas as both source and detection medium. The secondary scintillation processes available in noble gases permit large amplification with negligible statistical fluctuations, offering the prospect of energy resolution approaching the Fano factor limit. This Letter reports results for xenon secondary scintillation yield, at room temperature, as a function of electric field in the gas scintillation gap for pressures ranging from 2 to 10 bar. A Large Area Avalanche Photodiode (LAAPD) collected the VUV secondary scintillation produced in the gas. X-rays directly absorbed in the LAAPD are used as a reference for determining the number of charge carriers produced by the scintillation pulse and, hence, the number of photons impinging the LAAPD. The number of photons produced per drifting electron and per kilovolt, the so-called scintillation amplification parameter, displays a small increase with pressure, ranging from 141±6 at 2 bar to 170±10 at 8 bar. In our setup, this parameter does not increase above 8 bar due to non-negligible electron attachment. The results are in good agreement with those presented in the literature in the 1 to 3 bar range. The increase of the scintillation amplification parameter with pressure for high gas densities has been also observed in former work at cryogenic temperatures.

  17. The scalar triplet contribution to lepton flavour violation and neutrinoless double beta decay in Left-Right Symmetric Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambhaniya, Gulab; Dev, P. S. Bhupal; Goswami, Srubabati; Mitra, Manimala

    2016-04-01

    We analyse in detail the scalar triplet contribution to the low-energy lepton flavour violating (LFV) and lepton number violating (LNV) processes within a TeV-scale left-right symmetric framework. We show that in both type-I and type-II seesaw dominance for the light neutrino masses, the triplet of mass comparable to or smaller than the largest right-handed neutrino mass scale can give sizeable contribution to the LFV processes, except in the quasi-degenerate limit of light neutrino masses, where a suppression can occur due to cancellations. In particular, a moderate value of the heaviest neutrino to scalar triplet mass ratio r≲ O(1) is still experimentally allowed and can be explored in the future LFV experiments. Similarly, the contribution of a relatively light triplet to the LNV process of neutrinoless double beta decay could be significant, disfavouring a part of the model parameter space otherwise allowed by LFV constraints. Nevertheless, we find regions of parameter space consistent with both LFV and LNV searches, for which the values of the total effective neutrino mass can be accessible to the next generation ton-scale experiments. Such light triplets can also be directly searched for at the LHC, thus providing a complementary probe of this scenario. Finally, we also study the implications of the triplet contribution for the left-right symmetric model interpretation of the recent diboson anomaly at the LHC.

  18. LUMINEU: a search for neutrinoless double beta decay based on ZnMoO4 scintillating bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armengaud, E.; Arnaud, Q.; Augier, C.; Benoît, A.; Benoît, A.; Boiko, L. Bergé S.; Bergmann, T.; Blümer, J.; Broniatowski, A.; Brudanin, V.; Camus, P.; Cazes, A.; Chapellier, M.; Charlieux, F.; Chernyak, D. M.; Coron, N.; Coulter, P.; Danevich, F. A.; de Boissiére, T.; Decourt, R.; De Jesus, M.; Devoyon, L.; Drillien, A.-A.; Dumoulin, L.; Eitel, K.; Enss, C.; Filosofov, D.; Fleischmann, A.; Foerster, N.; Fourches, N.; Gascon, J.; Gastaldo, L.; Gerbier, G.; Giuliani, A.; Gray, D.; Gros, M.; Hehn, L.; Henry, S.; Hervé, S.; Heuermann, G.; Humbert, V.; Ivanov, I. M.; Juillard, A.; Kéfélian, C.; Kleifges, M.; Kluck, H.; Kobychev, V. V.; Koskas, F.; Kozlov, V.; Kraus, H.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Le Sueur, H.; Loidl, M.; Magnier, P.; Makarov, E. P.; Mancuso, M.; de Marcillac, P.; Marnieros, S.; Marrache-Kikuchi, C.; Menshikov, A.; Nasonov, S. G.; Navick, X.-F.; Nones, C.; Olivieri, E.; Pari, P.; Paul, B.; Penichot, Y.; Pessina, G.; Piro, M. C.; Plantevin, O.; Poda, D. V.; Redon, T.; Robinson, M.; Rodrigues, M.; Rozov, S.; Sanglard, V.; Schmidt, B.; Scorza, S.; Shlegel, V. N.; Siebenborn, B.; Strazzer, O.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Tenconi, M.; Torres, L.; Tretyak, V. I.; Vagneron, L.; Vasiliev, Ya V.; Velazquez, M.; Viraphong, O.; Walker, R. J.; Weber, M.; Yakushev, E.; Zhang, X.; Zhdankov, V. N.

    2016-05-01

    The LUMINEU is designed to investigate the possibility to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 100 Mo by means of a large array of scintillating bolometers based on ZnMoO4 crystals enriched in 100 Mo. High energy resolution and relatively fast detectors, which are able to measure both the light and the heat generated upon the interaction of a particle in a crystal, are very promising for the recognition and rejection of background events. We present the LUMINEU concepts and the experimental results achieved aboveground and underground with large-mass natural and enriched crystals. The measured energy resolution, the α/β discrimination power and the radioactive internal contamination are all within the specifications for the projected final LUMINEU sensitivity. Simulations and preliminary results confirm that the LUMINEU technology can reach zero background in the region of interest (around 3 MeV) with exposures of the order of hundreds kgxyears, setting the bases for a next generation 0v2β decay experiment capable to explore the inverted hierarchy region of the neutrino mass pattern.

  19. CALDER - Neutrinoless double-beta decay identification in TeO2 bolometers with kinetic inductance detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignati, M.; Bellini, F.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Castellano, M. G.; Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A.; Cosmelli, C.; Cruciani, A.; D’Addabbo, A.; Di Domizio, S.; Martinez, M.; Tomei, C.

    2016-05-01

    Next-generation experiments searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay must be sensitive to a Majorana neutrino mass as low as 10 meV. CUORE, an array of 988 TeO2 bolometers being commissioned at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy, features an expected sensitivity of 50-130 meV at 90% C.L, that can be improved by removing the background from α radioactivity. This is possible if, in coincidence with the heat release in a bolometer, the Cherenkov light emitted by the β signal is detected. The amount of light detected is so far limited to only 100 eV, requiring low-noise cryogenic light detectors. The CALDER project (Cryogenic wide-Area Light Detectors with Excellent Resolution) aims at developing a small prototype experiment consisting of TeO2 bolometers coupled to new light detectors based on kinetic inductance detectors. The present R&D is focused on the light detectors. We present the latest results and the perspectives of the project.

  20. Energy Calibration for a Sensitive Search for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay: Using the Cuoricino Experience to Prepare for CUORE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejzak, Larissa M.

    Neutrinos, which were long believed to be massless particles, are now known to have a tiny finite mass. A thorough understanding of the properties of their masses may provide vital clues to the history of the development of the universe as we know it. An intensive experimental search is underway for evidence of a Majorana mass component to the neutrino via many current and upcoming detectors seeking to observe the rare nuclear process neutrinoless double-beta decay (0nubetabeta). These detectors must be able to achieve very low backgrounds and a precise understanding of their energy scales. This paper presents the experimental approach of one of these 0nubetabeta experiments, the Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE), and the attendant challenges of achieving excellent energy calibration performance in the detector from the perspectives of both hardware design and analysis. Experience and data from Cuoricino, the predecessor of CUORE, have been extensively leveraged to prepare optimized operational procedures for CUORE. The expected sensitivity profile of CUORE as a function of time is also presented and compared with those of other leading 0nubetabeta experiments.

  1. Deformed shell model results for neutrinoless positron double beta decay of nuclei in the A = 60-90 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, R.; Srivastava, P. C.; Kota, V. K. B.

    2013-09-01

    Nuclear transition matrix elements (NTME) for neutrinoless positron double beta decay (0νβ+β+ and 0νβ+EC) of 64Zn, 74Se, 78Kr and 84Sr nuclei, which are in the A = 60-90 region, are calculated within the framework of the deformed shell model (DSM) based on Hartree-Fock states. For 64Zn, GXPF1A interaction in 1f7/2, 2p3/2, 1f5/2 and 2p1/2 space with 40Ca as the core is employed. Similarly for 74Se, 78Kr and 84Sr nuclei, 56Ni is taken as the inert core employing a modified Kuo interaction in 2p3/2, 1f5/2, 2p1/2 and 1g9/2 space. After ensuring that the DSM gives a good description of the spectroscopic properties of low-lying levels in the four nuclei considered, the NTME are calculated. The half-lives deduced with these NTME, assuming the neutrino mass is 1 eV, are smallest for 78Kr with the half-life for β+EC decay being ˜1027 yr. For all others, the half-lives are in the range of ˜1028-1029 yr.

  2. Beta-Decay Spectroscopy of Neutron-Rich Isotopes Utilizing a Planar Ge Double-Sided Strip Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, N.; Liddick, S. N.; Prokop, C. J.; Kondev, F. G.; Kumar, S.; Crider, B. P.; Paulauskas, S. V.; Suchyta, S.

    2015-10-01

    In nuclear science, rapid changes in the structure of the atomic nucleus have been inferred with small changes in the neutron and proton numbers. These changes are manifested in variations of the low-energy level schemes of exotic isotopes. One region of the nuclear chart where rapid changes in deformation have been suggested based on the behavior of the first excited 2 + states is in neutron-rich nuclei near A = 110. Beta-decay spectroscopy is a sensitive and selective technique that can be used to investigate the low-energy level schemes exotic nuclei at low production rates. At the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), a recently commissioned planar Ge double-sided strip detector (GeDSSD) is used in a novel application for these studies. Preliminary results from the decay of Tc isotopes in an experiment aimed at nuclei near A = 110 will be presented. This work was supported by the DOE NNSA DE-NA0000979 and the NSF Grant PHY1102511.

  3. TeV-scale left-right symmetry and large mixing effects in neutrinoless double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhupal Dev, P. S.; Goswami, Srubabati; Mitra, Manimala

    2015-06-01

    We revisit various contributions to neutrinoless double beta decay (0 ν β β ) in a TeV-scale left-right symmetric model (LRSM) for type-I seesaw dominance. We show that the momentum-dependent effects due to WL-WR exchange (λ diagram) and WL-WR mixing (η diagram) could give dominant contributions to the 0 ν β β amplitude in a wide range of the LRSM parameter space with large left-right neutrino mixing. In particular, for a relatively large WL-WR mixing, the η contribution by itself could saturate the current experimental limit on the 0 ν β β half-life, thereby providing stringent constraints on the relevant LRSM parameters, complementary to the indirect constraints derived from lepton-flavor-violating observables. In a simplified scenario parametrized by a single light-heavy neutrino mixing, the inclusion of the λ and η contributions leads to significantly improved 0 ν β β constraints on the light-heavy neutrino mixing as well as on the WL-WR mixing parameters. We also present a concrete TeV-scale LRSM setup, where the mixing effects are manifestly enhanced, and discuss the interplay between 0 ν β β , lepton flavor violation, and electric dipole moment constraints.

  4. Gastric cancer associated variant of DNA polymerase beta (Leu22Pro) promotes DNA replication associated double strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    Rozacky, Jenna; Nemec, Antoni A.; Sweasy, Joann B.; Kidane, Dawit

    2015-01-01

    DNA polymerase beta (Pol β) is a key enzymefor the protection against oxidative DNA lesions via itsrole in base excision repair (BER). Approximately 1/3 of tumors studied to date express Pol β variant proteins, and several tumors overexpress Pol β. Pol β possesses DNA polymerase and dRP lyase activities, both of which are known to be important for efficient BER. The dRP lyase activity resides within the 8kDa amino terminal domain of Pol β, is responsible for removal of the 5′ phosphate group (5′-dRP). The DNA polymerase subsequently fills the gaps. Previously, we demonstrated that the human gastric cancer-associated variant of Pol β (Leu22Pro (L22P)) lacks dRP lyase function in vitro. Here, we report that L22P-expressing cells harbor significantly increased replication associated DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and defective maintenance of the nascent DNA strand (NDS) during replication stress. Moreover, L22P-expressing cells are sensitive to PARP1 inhibitors, which suggests trapped PARP1 binds to the 5′-dRP group and blocks replications forks, resulting in fork collapse and DSBs. Our data suggest that the normal function of the dRP lyase is critical to maintain replication fork integrity and prevent replication fork collapse to DSBs and cellular transformation. PMID:26090616

  5. Inelastic neutron scattering studies of Ge-76 and Se-76: relevance to neutrinoless double-beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Crider, Ben; Peters, Erin; Ross, T.J.; McEllistrem, M; Prados-Estevez, F.; Allmond, James M; Vanhoy, J.R.; Yates, S.W.

    2015-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering measurements were performed at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory on enriched Ge-76 and Se-76 scattering samples. From measurements at incident neutron energies from 2.0 to 4.0 MeV, many new levels were identified and characterized in each nucleus; level lifetimes, transition probabilities, multipole mixing ratios, and other properties were determined. In addition, gamma-ray cross sections for the Ge-76(n,n'gamma) reaction were measured at neutron energies up to 5.0 MeV, with the goal of determining the cross sections of gamma rays in 2040-keV region, which corresponds to the region of interest in the neutrinoless double beta decay of Ge-76. Gamma rays from the three strongest branches from the 3952-keV level were observed, but the previously reported 2041-keV gamma ray was not. Population cross sections across the range of incident neutron energies were determined for the 3952-keV level, resulting in a cross section of similar to 0.1 mb for the 2041-keV branch using the previously determined branching ratios. Beyond this, the data from these experiments indicate that previously unreported gamma rays from levels in Ge-76 can be found in the 2039-keV region.

  6. Gastric cancer associated variant of DNA polymerase beta (Leu22Pro) promotes DNA replication associated double strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Rozacky, Jenna; Nemec, Antoni A; Sweasy, Joann B; Kidane, Dawit

    2015-09-15

    DNA polymerase beta (Pol β) is a key enzyme for the protection against oxidative DNA lesions via its role in base excision repair (BER). Approximately 1/3 of tumors studied to date express Pol β variant proteins, and several tumors overexpress Pol β. Pol β possesses DNA polymerase and dRP lyase activities, both of which are known to be important for efficient BER. The dRP lyase activity resides within the 8kDa amino terminal domain of Pol β, is responsible for removal of the 5' phosphate group (5'-dRP). The DNA polymerase subsequently fills the gaps. Previously, we demonstrated that the human gastric cancer-associated variant of Pol β (Leu22Pro (L22P)) lacks dRP lyase function in vitro. Here, we report that L22P-expressing cells harbor significantly increased replication associated DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and defective maintenance of the nascent DNA strand (NDS) during replication stress. Moreover, L22P-expressing cells are sensitive to PARP1 inhibitors, which suggests trapped PARP1 binds to the 5'-dRP group and blocks replications forks, resulting in fork collapse and DSBs. Our data suggest that the normal function of the dRP lyase is critical to maintain replication fork integrity and prevent replication fork collapse to DSBs and cellular transformation. PMID:26090616

  7. Simultaneous analysis of neutrinoless double beta decay and LHC pp-cross sections: limits on the left-right mixing angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civitarese, O.; Suhonen, J.; Zuber, K.

    2015-09-01

    The extension of the Standard Model of electroweak interactions, to accommodate massive neutrinos and/or right-handed currents, is one of the fundamental questions to answer in the cross-field of particle and nuclear physics. The consequences of such extensions would reflect upon nuclear decays, like the very exotic nuclear double-beta-decay, as well as upon high-energy proton-proton reactions of the type performed at the LHC accelerator. In this talk we shall address this question by looking at the results reported by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations, where the excitation and decay of a heavy-mass boson may be mediated by a heavy-mass neutrino in proton-proton reactions leading to two jets and two leptons, and by extracting limits on the left-right mixing, from the latest measurements of nuclear-double-beta decays reported by the GERDA and EXO collaborations.

  8. Search for double beta processes in 106Cd with enriched 106CdWO4 crystal scintillator in coincidence with four crystals HPGe detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danevich, F. A.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Brudanin, V. B.; Cappella, F.; Caracciolo, V.; Cerulli, R.; Chernyak, D. M.; D'Angelo, S.; Incicchitti, A.; Laubenstein, M.; Mokina, V. M.; Poda, D. V.; Polischuk, O. G.; Tretyak, V. I.; Tupitsyna, I. A.

    2015-10-01

    A radiopure cadmium tungstate crystal scintillator, enriched in 106Cd (106CdWO4), was used to search for double beta decay processes in 106Cd in coincidence with an ultra-low background set-up containing four high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors in a single cryostat. The experiment has been completed after 13085 h of data taking. New improved limits on most of the double beta processes in 106Cd have been set on the level of 1020-1021 yr. Tn particular, the half-life limit on the two neutrino electron capture with positron emission, T1/2 ≥ 1.8 × 1021 yr, reached the region of theoretical predictions.

  9. Possible usage of Cherenkov photons to reduce the background in a 136Xe neutrino-less double-beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signorelli, G.; Dussoni, S.

    2016-07-01

    One of the main backgrounds in the search for 136Xe nutrino-less double-beta decay (0 νββ) is the signal from Compton scattering of photons with energy around the decay endpoint at 2.458 MeV. Electrons in liquid xenon emit scintillation light at 178 nm. Liquid xenon being extremely transparent to ultra violet light it is in principle possible to discriminate one particle events (such as the Compton background) from two particle events (double-beta decay signals) by the amount of Cherenkov radiation emitted. The identification of the Cherenkov photons may be performed by looking at the different time structure of the signal with respect to the scintillation, by selecting photons with wavelengths larger than the typical Xenon scintillation light, and by the different emission topology. A proof-of-principle study of this approach is presented here together with preliminary studies on possible detectors for the two light components at different wavelengths.

  10. Search for double beta processes in {sup 106}Cd with enriched {sup 106}CdWO{sub 4} crystal scintillator in coincidence with four crystals HPGe detector

    SciTech Connect

    Danevich, F. A. Chernyak, D. M.; Mokina, V. M.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; D’Angelo, S.; Brudanin, V. B.; Cappella, F.; Caracciolo, V.; Cerulli, R.; Laubenstein, M.; Incicchitti, A.; Poda, D. V.; Polischuk, O. G.; Tretyak, V. I.; Tupitsyna, I. A.

    2015-10-28

    A radiopure cadmium tungstate crystal scintillator, enriched in {sup 106}Cd ({sup 106}CdWO{sub 4}), was used to search for double beta decay processes in {sup 106}Cd in coincidence with an ultra-low background set-up containing four high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors in a single cryostat. The experiment has been completed after 13085 h of data taking. New improved limits on most of the double beta processes in {sup 106}Cd have been set on the level of 10{sup 20}−10{sup 21} yr. Tn particular, the half-life limit on the two neutrino electron capture with positron emission, T{sub 1/2} ≥ 1.8 × 10{sup 21} yr, reached the region of theoretical predictions.

  11. Characterization of Nuclear Recoils in High Pressure Xenon Gas: Towards a Simultaneous Search for WIMP Dark Matter and Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Renner, J.; Gehman, V. M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Oliveira, C. A.B.; Nygren, D.

    2015-03-24

    Xenon has recently been the medium of choice in several large scale detectors searching for WIMP dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. Though present-day large scale experiments use liquid xenon, the gas phase offers advantages favorable to both types of searches such as improved intrinsic energy resolution and fewer fluctuations in the partition of deposited energy between scintillation and ionization channels. We recently constructed a high pressure xenon gas TPC as a prototype for the NEXT (Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC) neutrinoless double beta decay experiment and have demonstrated the feasibility of 0.5% FWHM energy resolution at themore » 136Xe double beta Q-value with 3-D tracking capabilities. We now present results from this prototype on the simultaneous observation of scintillation and ionization produced by nuclear recoils at approximately 14 bar pressure. The recoils were produced by neutrons of approximately 2-6 MeV emitted from a radioisotope plutonium-beryllium source, and primary scintillation (S1) and electroluminescent photons produced by ionization (S2) were observed. We discuss the potential of gaseous xenon to distinguish between electron and nuclear recoils through the ratio of these two signals S2/S1. From these results combined with the possibility of using columnar recombination to sense nuclear recoil directionality at high pressures we envision a dual-purpose, ton-scale gaseous xenon detector capable of a combined search for WIMP dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. This work has been performed within the context of the NEXT collaboration.« less

  12. Characterization of Nuclear Recoils in High Pressure Xenon Gas: Towards a Simultaneous Search for WIMP Dark Matter and Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, J.; Gehman, V. M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Oliveira, C. A. B.; Nygren, D.

    Xenon has recently been the medium of choice in several large scale detectors searching for WIMP dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. Though present-day large scale experiments use liquid xenon, the gas phase o_ers advantages favorable to both types of searches such as improved intrinsic energy resolution and fewer fluctuations in the partition of deposited energy between scintillation and ionization channels. We recently constructed a high pressure xenon gas TPC as a prototype for the NEXT (Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC) neutrinoless double beta decay experiment and have demonstrated the feasibility of 0.5% FWHM energy resolution at the 136Xe double beta Q-value with 3-D tracking capabilities. We now present results from this prototype on the simultaneous observation of scintillation and ionization produced by nuclear recoils at approximately 14 bar pressure. The recoils were produced by neutrons of approximately 2-6 MeV emitted from a radioisotope plutonium-beryllium source, and primary scintillation (S1) and electroluminescent photons produced by ionization (S2) were observed. We discuss the potential of gaseous xenon to distinguish between electron and nuclear recoils through the ratio of these two signals S2/S1. From these results combined with the possibility of using columnar recombination to sense nuclear recoil directionality at high pressures we envision a dual-purpose, ton-scale gaseous xenon detector capable of a combined search for WIMP dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. This work has been performed within the context of the NEXT collaboration.

  13. Characterization of Nuclear Recoils in High Pressure Xenon Gas: Towards a Simultaneous Search for WIMP Dark Matter and Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, J.; Gehman, V. M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Oliveira, C. A.B.; Nygren, D.

    2015-03-24

    Xenon has recently been the medium of choice in several large scale detectors searching for WIMP dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. Though present-day large scale experiments use liquid xenon, the gas phase offers advantages favorable to both types of searches such as improved intrinsic energy resolution and fewer fluctuations in the partition of deposited energy between scintillation and ionization channels. We recently constructed a high pressure xenon gas TPC as a prototype for the NEXT (Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC) neutrinoless double beta decay experiment and have demonstrated the feasibility of 0.5% FWHM energy resolution at the 136Xe double beta Q-value with 3-D tracking capabilities. We now present results from this prototype on the simultaneous observation of scintillation and ionization produced by nuclear recoils at approximately 14 bar pressure. The recoils were produced by neutrons of approximately 2-6 MeV emitted from a radioisotope plutonium-beryllium source, and primary scintillation (S1) and electroluminescent photons produced by ionization (S2) were observed. We discuss the potential of gaseous xenon to distinguish between electron and nuclear recoils through the ratio of these two signals S2/S1. From these results combined with the possibility of using columnar recombination to sense nuclear recoil directionality at high pressures we envision a dual-purpose, ton-scale gaseous xenon detector capable of a combined search for WIMP dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. This work has been performed within the context of the NEXT collaboration.

  14. Measurement of scintillation and ionization yield with high-pressure gaseous mixtures of Xe and TMA for improved neutrinoless double beta decay and dark matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Y.; Goldschmidt, A.; Matis, H. S.; Nygren, D.; Oliveira, C.; Renner, J.

    2015-11-01

    Liquid Xe TPCs are among the most popular choices for double beta decay and WIMP dark matter searches. Gaseous Xe has intrinsic advantages when compared to Liquid Xe, specifically, tracking capability and better energy resolution for double beta decay searches. The performance of gaseous Xe can be further improved by molecular additives such as trimethylamine(TMA), which are expected to (1) cool down the ionization electrons, (2) convert Xe excitation energy to TMA ionizations through Penning transfer, and (3) produce scintillation and electroluminescence light in a more easily detectable wavelength (300 nm). These features may provide better tracking and energy resolution for double-beta decay searches. They are also expected to enhance columnar recombination for nuclear recoils, which can be used for searches for WIMP dark matter with directional sensitivity. We constructed a test ionization chamber and successfully measured scintillation and ionization yields at high precision with various Xe and TMA mixtures and pressures. We observed the Penning effect and an increase in recombination with the addition of TMA. However, many undesired features for dark matter searches, such as strong suppression of the scintillation light and no sign of recombination light, were also found. This work has been carried out within the context of the NEXT collaboration.

  15. Solving the Neutrino Mass Mystery using Double Beta Decay. An Examination of the Feasibility of Xennoon Purification and Ion Capture and Release using an Electrostatic Probe

    SciTech Connect

    Outschoorn, Verena M

    2003-09-05

    Double beta decay has long been recognized as a useful avenue for the study of electron neutrinos, especially the neutrino mass and its fundamental nature (Majorana or Dirac). Recent neutrino oscillation experiments have provided compelling evidence that the neutrino has mass. The detection of the neutrinoless mode of double beta decay would finally set a lower limit on the mass of the electron neutrino, as well as prove that the neutrino is a Majorana particle (with opposite spin, it is its own anti-particle). The Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) project attempts to detect neutrinoless double beta decay using {sup 136}Xe that decays by this process to {sup 136}Ba{sup 2} + e{sup -} + e{sup -}. Perhaps one of the most significant characteristics of this project is the reduction of the background through the identification of the Barium ions for each individual event using laser fluorescence techniques. This project also proposes to collect scintillation light in addition to the ionization electrons in order to further improve energy resolution. Current work at SLAC includes the development of a purification system for xenon, as well as tests for the capture and release of single ions using an electrostatic probe.

  16. Improved background rejection in neutrinoless double beta decay experiments using a magnetic field in a high pressure xenon TPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, J.; Cervera, A.; Hernando, J. A.; Imzaylov, A.; Monrabal, F.; Muñoz, J.; Nygren, D.; Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate that the application of an external magnetic field could lead to an improved background rejection in neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay experiments using a high-pressure xenon (HPXe) TPC. HPXe chambers are capable of imaging electron tracks, a feature that enhances the separation between signal events (the two electrons emitted in the 0νββ decay of 136Xe) and background events, arising chiefly from single electrons of kinetic energy compatible with the end-point of the 0νββ decay (0Qββ). Applying an external magnetic field of sufficiently high intensity (in the range of 0.5-1 Tesla for operating pressures in the range of 5-15 atmospheres) causes the electrons to produce helical tracks. Assuming the tracks can be properly reconstructed, the sign of the curvature can be determined at several points along these tracks, and such information can be used to separate signal (0νββ) events containing two electrons producing a track with two different directions of curvature from background (single-electron) events producing a track that should spiral in a single direction. Due to electron multiple scattering, this strategy is not perfectly efficient on an event-by-event basis, but a statistical estimator can be constructed which can be used to reject background events by one order of magnitude at a moderate cost (about 30%) in signal efficiency. Combining this estimator with the excellent energy resolution and topological signature identification characteristic of the HPXe TPC, it is possible to reach a background rate of less than one count per ton-year of exposure. Such a low background rate is an essential feature of the next generation of 0νββ experiments, aiming to fully explore the inverse hierarchy of neutrino masses.

  17. Neutron inelastic scattering and reactions in natural Pb as a background in neutrinoless double-{beta}-decay experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Guiseppe, V. E.; Devlin, M.; Elliott, S. R.; Fotiades, N.; Hime, A.; Nelson, R. O.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Mei, D.-M.

    2009-05-15

    Inelastic neutron scattering and reactions on Pb isotopes can result in {gamma} rays near the signature end-point energy in a number of {beta}{beta} isotopes. In particular, there are {gamma}-ray transitions in {sup 206,207,208}Pb that might produce energy deposits at the {sup 76}GeQ{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} in Ge detectors used for 0{nu}{beta}{beta} searches. The levels that produce these {gamma} rays can be excited by (n,n{sup '}{gamma}) or (n,xn{gamma}) reactions, but the cross sections are small and previously unmeasured. This work uses the pulsed neutron beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center to directly measure reactions of interest to {beta}{beta}-decay experiments. The cross section on {sup nat}Pb to produce the 2041-keV {gamma} ray from {sup 206}Pb is measured to be 3.6 {+-} 0.7 (stat.) {+-} 0.3 (syst.) mb at {approx_equal}9.6 MeV. The cross section on {sup nat}Pb to produce the 3061,3062-keV {gamma} rays from {sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb is measured to be 3.9 {+-} 0.8 (stat.) {+-} 0.4 (syst.) mb at the same energy. We report cross sections or place upper limits on the cross sections for exciting some other levels in Pb that have transition energies corresponding to Q{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} in other {beta}{beta} isotopes.

  18. Particle and nuclear physics parameters—how do they affect the tracks of double beta events in a germanium detector, and their separation from gamma events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H. V.; Krivosheina, I. V.; Titkova, I. V.

    2006-01-01

    The sizes of tracks of events of neutrinoless double beta decay in a germanium detector depend on particle physics and nuclear physics parameters such as neutrino mass, right-handed current parameters, etc., and nuclear matrix elements. The knowledge of this dependence is of importance, since the key to probe the existence of 0 νββ decay beyond observation of a signal at the Q value of the process, Qββ, is the discrimination of ββ events from background γ events (or other events), in almost any double beta decay experiment (see [H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, I.V. Krivosheina, A. Dietz, et al., Phys. Lett. B 586 (2004) 198; H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, A. Dietz, I.V. Krivosheina, et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 522 (2004) 371]). In this Letter for the first time Monte Carlo simulations of neutrino-accompanied (2 νββ) and neutrinoless double beta decay (0 νββ) events, and of various kinds of background processes such as multiple and other γ interactions are reported for a Ge detector. The time history of the evolution of the individual events is followed and a systematic study has been performed of the sizes of the events (volumes in the detector inside which the energy of the event is released which determine the observed signals). Effects of the angular correlations of the two electrons in ββ decay, which again depend on the above nuclear and (for 0 νββ decay) particle physics parameters, are taken into account and have been calculated for this purpose for 76Ge for the first time on basis of the experimental half-life and of realistic nuclear matrix elements. A brief outlook is given on the potential of future experiments with respect to determination of the particle physics parameters , < λ >, < η >.

  19. Calculation of two-neutrino double beta decay half-lives of 76Ge, 82Se, 96Zr and 100Mo nuclei for the 0+ → 0+ transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aytekin, Hüseyin; Yılmaz, Alaaddin

    2015-06-01

    We calculated the half-lives of two-neutrino double beta decay (2ν β β ) of 76Ge, 82Se, 96Zr and 100Mo nuclei for the 0+ ↦ 0+ transition. Quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA) was used by considering the charge-exchange spin-spin interactions among the nucleons by considering both particle-hole (p-h) and particle-particle (p-p) channels in the separable form. Calculations were performed for the spherical form of the nuclei.

  20. Development of radiopure cadmium tungstate crystal scintillators from enriched {sup 106}Cd and {sup 116}Cd to search for double beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Danevich, F. A.; Boiko, R. S.; Chernyak, D. M.; Kobychev, V. V.; Kropivyansky, B. N.; Mokina, V. M.; Nikolaiko, A. S.; Poda, D. V.; Podviyanuk, R. B.; Tretyak, V. I.; Barabash, A. S.; Konovalov, S. I.; Umatov, V. I.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; D'Angelo, S.; Brudanin, V. B.; Cappella, F.; Incicchitti, A.; Caracciolo, V.; and others

    2013-08-08

    Cadmium tungstate crystal scintillators enriched in {sup 106}Cd up to 66% ({sup 106}CdWO{sub 4}) and in {sup 116}Cd up to 82% ({sup 116}CdWO{sub 4}) have been developed. The low radioactive contamination of the crystals measured on the level of ≤ 1.5 mBq/kg ({sup 40}K), ≤ 0.005 - 0.012 mBq/kg ({sup 226}Ra), 0.04 - 0.07 mBq/kg ({sup 228}Th) allows to carry out high sensitivity experiments to search for double beta processes in {sup 106}Cd and {sup 116}Cd.

  1. Development of a three-steps derivatization assay for the localization of double bond in monounsaturated monomers of poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Simon-Colin, Christelle; Gouin, Christelle; Lemechko, Pierre; Kervarec, Nelly; Guezennec, Jean

    2012-07-01

    A new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the localization of double bond in monounsaturated 3-hydroxyalkenoic acids monomers has been developed. A three steps derivation assay was used including a methanolysis, then acetylation and dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) addition to alkene groups. Electron impact GC-MS analysis of such derivatives offers characteristic fragments allowing the unambiguous determination of double bond position in side chain. This novel method is well-suited for the routine analysis of poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), and was used to characterize monounsaturated monomers in both 3-hydroxyalkenoic acids standards as well as in mcl-PHAs and poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate-co-3-hydroxyundecenoate) (PHOU) produced by bacterial strain Pseudomonas guezennei from glucose or a mixture of sodium octanoate plus 10-undecenoic acid, respectively. PMID:22717557

  2. Results of the BiPo-1 prototype for radiopurity measurements for the SuperNEMO double beta decay source foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argyriades, J.; Arnold, R.; Augier, C.; Baker, J.; Barabash, A. S.; Basharina-Freshville, A.; Bongrand, M.; Bourgeois, C.; Breton, D.; Brière, M.; Broudin-Bay, G.; Brudanin, V. B.; Caffrey, A. J.; Carcel, S.; Cebrián, S.; Chapon, A.; Chauveau, E.; Dafni, Th.; Díaz, J.; Durand, D.; Egorov, V. G.; Evans, J. J.; Flack, R.; Fushima, K.-I.; Irastorza, I. G.; Garrido, X.; Gómez, H.; Guillon, B.; Holin, A.; Hommet, J.; Holy, K.; Horkey, J. J.; Hubert, P.; Hugon, C.; Iguaz, F. J.; Ishihara, N.; Jackson, C. M.; Jenzer, S.; Jullian, S.; Kauer, M.; Kochetov, O. I.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kovalenko, V.; Lamhamdi, T.; Lang, K.; Lemière, Y.; Lutter, G.; Luzón, G.; Mamedov, F.; Marquet, Ch.; Mauger, F.; Monrabal, F.; Nachab, A.; Nasteva, I.; Nemchenok, I. B.; Nguyen, C. H.; Nomachi, M.; Nova, F.; Ohsumi, H.; Pahlka, R. B.; Perrot, F.; Piquemal, F.; Povinec, P. P.; Richards, B.; Ricol, J. S.; Riddle, C. L.; Rodríguez, A.; Saakyan, R.; Sarazin, X.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Serra, L.; Shitov, Yu. A.; Simard, L.; Šimkovic, F.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Štekl, I.; Sutton, C. S.; Tamagawa, Y.; Szklarz, G.; Thomas, J.; Thompson, R.; Timkin, V.; Tretyak, V.; Tretyak, Vl. I.; Umatov, V. I.; Vála, L.; Vanyushin, I. A.; Vasiliev, R.; Vasiliev, V. A.; Vorobel, V.; Waters, D.; Yahlali, N.; Žukauskas, A.; SuperNEMO Collaboration

    2010-10-01

    The development of BiPo detectors is dedicated to the measurement of extremely high radiopurity in 208Tl and 214Bi for the SuperNEMO double beta decay source foils. A modular prototype, called BiPo-1, with 0.8 m2 of sensitive surface area, has been running in the Modane Underground Laboratory since February, 2008. The goal of BiPo-1 is to measure the different components of the background and in particular the surface radiopurity of the plastic scintillators that make up the detector. The first phase of data collection has been dedicated to the measurement of the radiopurity in 208Tl. After more than one year of background measurement, a surface activity of the scintillators of A(Tl208)=1.5 μBq/m2 is reported here. Given this level of background, a larger BiPo detector having 12 m2 of active surface area, is able to qualify the radiopurity of the SuperNEMO selenium double beta decay foils with the required sensitivity of A(Tl208)<2 μBq/kg (90% C.L.) with a six month measurement.

  3. The 76Ge(n,p)76Ga reaction and its relevance to searches for the neutrino-less double-beta decay of 76Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornow, W.; Bhike, Megha; Fallin, B.; Krishichayan, Fnu

    2015-10-01

    The 76Ge(n,p)76Ga reaction and the subsequent β decay of 76Ga to 76Ge has been used to excite the 3951.9 keV state of 76Ge, which decays by emission of a 2040.7 keV γ ray. Using HPGe detectors, the associated pulse-height signal may be undistinguishable from the potential signal produced in neutrino-less double-beta decay of 76Ge with its Q-value of 2039.0 keV. In the neutron energy range between 10 and 20 MeV the production cross section of the 2040.7 keV γ ray is approximately 0.1 mb. In the same experiment γ rays of energy 2037.9 keV resulting from the 76Ge(n, γ)77Ge reaction were clearly observed. Adding the 76Ge(n,n' γ)76Ge reaction, which also produces the 2040.7 keV γ ray with a cross section value of the order of 0.1 mb clearly shows that great care has to be taken to eliminate neutron-induced backgrounds in searches for neutrino-less double-beta decay of 76Ge. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE under Grant NO. DE-FG02-97ER41033.

  4. The Majorana Demonstrator: Progress towards showing the feasibility of a tonne-scale 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finnerty, P.; Aguayo, E.; Amman, M.; Avignone, F. T., Iii; Barabash, A. S.; Barton, P. J.; Beene, J. R.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Collar, J. I.; Combs, D. C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, J.; Fast, J. E.; Fields, N.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gehman, V. M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M. P.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Horton, M.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; Luke, P. N.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, M. G.; Martin, R. D.; Merriman, J. H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, L.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; Overman, N. R.; Perumpilly, G.; Phillips, D. G., Ii; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Steele, D.; Strain, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Yakushev, E.; Yaver, H.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.; Majorana Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    The Majorana Demonstrator will search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay (0vββ) of the 76Ge isotope with a mixed array of enriched and natural germanium detectors. The observation of this rare decay would indicate the neutrino is its own anti-particle, demonstrate that lepton number is not conserved, and provide information on the absolute mass-scale of the neutrino. The Demonstrator is being assembled at the 4850 foot level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota. The array will be contained in a low-background environment and surrounded by passive and active shielding. The goals for the Demonstrator are: demonstrating a background rate less than 3 t-1 y-1 in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) surrounding the 2039 keV 76Ge endpoint energy; establishing the technology required to build a tonne-scale germanium based double-beta decay experiment; testing the recent claim of observation of 0vββ [1]; and performing a direct search for light WIMPs (3-10 GeV/c2).

  5. Measurement of scintillation and ionization yield with high-pressure gaseous mixtures of Xe and TMA for improved neutrinoless double beta decay and dark matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Y.; Goldschmidt, A.; Matis, H. S.; Miller, T.; Nygren, D. R.; Oliveira, C. A. B.; Renner, J.

    2016-03-01

    The gaseous Xenon(Xe) time projection chamber (TPC) is an attractive detector technique for neutrinoless double beta decay and WIMP dark matter searches. While it is less dense compared to Liquid Xe detectors, it has intrinsic advantages in tracking capability and better energy resolution. The performance of gaseous Xe can be further improved by molecular additives such as trimethylamine(TMA), which is expected to (1) cool down the ionization electrons, (2) convert Xe excitation energy to TMA ionizations through Penning transfer, and (3) produce scintillation and electroluminescence light in a more easily detectable wavelength (300 nm). In order to test the feasibility of the performance improvements with TMA, we made the first direct measurement of Penning and fluorescence transfer efficiency with gaseous mixtures of Xe and TMA. While we observed a Penning transfer efficiency up to ~35%, we found strong suppression of primary scintillation light with TMA. We also found that the primary scintillation light with Xe and TMA mixture can be well characterized by ~3% fluorescence transfer from Xe to TMA, with further suppression due to TMA self-quenching. No evidence of the scintillation light produced by recombination of TMA ions was found. This strong suppression of scintillation light makes dark matter searches quite challenging, while the possibility of improved neutrinoless double beta decay searches remains open. This work has been carried out within the context of the NEXT collaboration.

  6. Elastic and Inelastic Scattering of Neutrons from Neon and Argon: Impact on Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay and Dark Matter Experimental Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMullin, Sean Patrick

    In underground physics experiments, such as neutrinoless double-beta decay and dark matter searches, fast neutrons may be the dominant and potentially irreducible source of background. Experimental data for the elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections of neutrons from argon and neon, which are target and shielding materials of interest to the dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay communities, were previously unavailable. Unmeasured neutron scattering cross sections are often accounted for incorrectly in Monte-Carlo simulations. Elastic scattering cross sections were measured at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) using the neutron time-of-flight technique. Angular distributions for neon were measured at 5.0 and 8.0 MeV. One full angular distribution was measured for argon at 6.0 MeV. The cross-section data were compared to calculations using a global optical model. Data were also fit using the spherical optical model. These model fits were used to predict the elastic scattering cross section at unmeasured energies and also provide a benchmark where the global optical models are not well constrained. Partial gamma-ray production cross sections for (n,xngamma ) reactions in natural argon and neon were measured using the broad spectrum neutron beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). Neutron energies were determined using time of flight and resulting gamma rays from neutron-induced reactions were detected using the GErmanium Array for Neutron Induced Excitations (GEANIE). Partial gamma-ray production cross sections for six transitions in 40Ar, two transitions in 39Ar and the first excited state transitions is 20Ne and 22Ne were measured from threshold to a neutron energy where the gamma-ray yield dropped below the detection sensitivity. Measured (n,xngamma) cross sections were compared with calculations using the TALYS and CoH3 nuclear reaction codes. These new measurements will help to identify potential backgrounds in

  7. Mushroom acidic glycosphingolipid induction of cytokine secretion from murine T cells and proliferation of NK1.1 {alpha}/{beta} TCR-double positive cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Nozaki, Hirofumi; Itonori, Saki; Sugita, Mutsumi; Nakamura, Kimihide; Ohba, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Akemi; Kushi, Yasunori

    2008-08-29

    Interferon (IFN)-{gamma} and interleukin (IL)-4 regulate many types of immune responses. Here we report that acidic glycosphingolipids (AGLs) of Hypsizigus marmoreus and Pleurotus eryngii induced secretion of IFN- {gamma} and IL-4 from T cells in a CD11c-positive cell-dependent manner similar to that of {alpha}-galactosylceramide ({alpha}-GalCer) and isoglobotriaosylceramide (iGb3), although activated T cells by AGLs showed less secretion of cytokine than those activated by {alpha}-GalCer. In addition, stimulation of these mushroom AGLs induced proliferation of NK1.1 {alpha}/{beta} TCR-double positive cells in splenocytes. Administration of a mixture of {alpha}-GalCer and AGLs affected the stimulation of {alpha}-GalCer and generally induced a subtle Th1 bias for splenocytes but induced an extreme Th2 bias for thymocytes. These results suggested that edible mushroom AGLs contribute to immunomodulation.

  8. Aboveground test of an advanced Li2MoO4 scintillating bolometer to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 100Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekker, T. B.; Coron, N.; Danevich, F. A.; Degoda, V. Ya.; Giuliani, A.; Grigorieva, V. D.; Ivannikova, N. V.; Mancuso, M.; de Marcillac, P.; Moroz, I. M.; Nones, C.; Olivieri, E.; Pessina, G.; Poda, D. V.; Shlegel, V. N.; Tretyak, V. I.; Velazquez, M.

    2016-01-01

    Large lithium molybdate (Li2MoO4) crystal boules were produced by using the low thermal gradient Czochralski growth technique from deeply purified molybdenum. A small sample from one of the boules was preliminary characterized in terms of X-ray-induced and thermally-excited luminescence. A large cylindrical crystalline element (with a size of ⊘40 × 40 mm) was used to fabricate a scintillating bolometer, which was operated aboveground at ˜15 mK by using a pulse-tube cryostat housing a high-power dilution refrigerator. The excellent detector performance in terms of energy resolution and α background suppression along with preliminary positive indications on the radiopurity of this material show the potentiality of Li2MoO4 scintillating bolometers for low-counting experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 100Mo.

  9. High Beta-palmitate formula and bone strength in term infants: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Litmanovitz, Ita; Davidson, Keren; Eliakim, Alon; Regev, Rivka H; Dolfin, Tzipora; Arnon, Shmuel; Bar-Yoseph, Fabiana; Goren, Amit; Lifshitz, Yael; Nemet, Dan

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to compare the effect of 12-week feeding of commercially available infant formulas with different percentages of palmitic acid at sn-2 (beta-palmitate) on anthropometric measures and bone strength of term infants. It was hypothesized that feeding infants with high beta-palmitate (HBP) formula will enhance their bone speed of sound (SOS). Eighty-three infants appropriate for gestational age participated in the study; of these, 58 were formula-fed and 25 breast-fed infants, serving as a reference group. The formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive HBP formula (43 % of the palmitic acid is esterified to the middle position of the glycerol backbone, study group; n = 30) or regular formula with low-beta palmitate (LBP, 14 % of the palmitic acid is esterified to the middle position of the glycerol backbone, n = 28). Sixty-six infants completed the 12-week study. Anthropometric and quantitative ultrasound measurements of bone SOS for assessment of bone strength were performed at randomization and at 6 and 12 weeks postnatal age. At randomization, gestational age, birth weight, and bone SOS were comparable between the three groups. At 12 weeks postnatal age, the mean bone SOS of the HBP group was significantly higher than that of the LBP group (2,896 ± 133 vs. 2,825 ± 79 m/s respectively, P = 0.049) and comparable with that of the breast-fed group (2,875 ± 85 m/s). We concluded that infants consuming HBP formula had changes in bone SOS that were comparable to those of infants consuming breast milk and favorable compared to infants consuming LBP formula. PMID:23179103

  10. EPR and electron-nuclear double-resonance studies of an F/sup +/ center in sodium, potassium, and lithium. beta. -alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.R.; Stinson, D.G.; Stapleton, H.J.; Abraham, M.M.

    1981-11-01

    EPR and electron-nuclear double-resonance (ENDOR) data from F/sup +/ centers in the conduction planes of sodium, potassium and lithium ..beta..-alumina are presented. The low-temperature Ku-band ENDOR spectra from these fast ionic conductors consist of sharp resonances from distant nuclei and broad, unresolved signals from nearest-neighbor aluminum and nearby Na, K, or Li cations in the conduction plane. The Na data are consistent with x-band ENDOR results of others. The K and Li data reveal the existence of a second inequivalent F/sup +/ center in these materials. The shape and breadth of the Na ENDOR signal can be simulated assuming that: (1) both Beevers-Ross and mid-oxygen sites are occupied, (2) the F/sup +/-ligand hyperfine interaction varies with distance as 1/R/sup 3/, and (3) there exists a Gaussian distribution of hyperfine couplings which is consistent with a 0.3-A tunneling distance inferred for Na ions from dielectric susceptibility data on Na ..beta..-alumina.

  11. Nitrotyrosinylation, Remodeling and Endothelial-Myocyte Uncoupling in iNOS, Cystathionine Beta Synthase (CBS) Knockouts and iNOS/CBS Double Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Soumi; Kumar, Munish; Sen, Utpal; Mishra, Paras K.; Tyagi, Neetu; Metreveli, Naira; Lominadze, David; Rodriguez, Walter; Tyagi, Suresh C.

    2009-01-01

    Increased levels of homocysteine (Hcy), recognized as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), were associated with cardiovascular diseases. There was controversy regarding the detrimental versus cardio protective role of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in ischemic heart disease. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the Hcy generated nitrotyrosine by inducing the endothelial nitric oxide synthase, causing endothelial-myocyte (E–M) coupling. To differentiate the role of iNOS versus constitutive nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and nNOS) in Hcy-mediated nitrotyrosine generation and matrix remodeling in cardiac dysfunction, left ventricular (LV) tissue was analyzed from cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) heterozygote knockout, iNOS homozygote knockout, CBS−/+/iNOS−/− double knockout, and wild-type (WT) mice. The levels of nitrotyrosine, MMP-2 and -9 (zymographic analysis), and fibrosis (by trichrome stain) were measured. The endothelial-myocyte function was determined in cardiac rings. In CBS−/+ mice, homocysteine was elevated and in iNOS−/− mice, nitric oxide was significantly reduced. The nitrotyrosine and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels were elevated in double knockout and CBS−/+ as compared to WT mice. Although MMP-2 levels were similar in CBS−/+, iNOS−/−, and CBS−/+/iNOS−/−, the levels were three- to fourfold higher than WT. The levels of collagen were similar in CBS−/+ and iNOS−/−, but they were threefold higher than WT. Interesting, the levels of collagen increased sixfold in double knockouts, compared to WT, suggesting synergism between high Hcy and lack of iNOS. Left ventricular hypertrophy was exaggerated in the iNOS−/− and double knockout, and mildly increased in the CBS−/+, compared to WT mice. The endothelial-dependent relaxation was attenuated to the same extent in the CBS−/+ and iNOS−/−, compared to WT, but it was robustly blunted in double knockouts. The results concluded that homocysteine

  12. Inelastic neutron scattering cross sections for 76Ge relevant to background in neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Crider, Ben; Peters, Erin; Allmond, James M; McEllistrem, M; Prados-Estevez, F.; Ross, T.J.; Vanhoy, J.R.; Yates, S.W.

    2015-01-01

    The experimental signature in searches for the neutrinoless double- decay of 76Ge is a peak near 2039 keV in the spectrum. Given the low probability of the process, it is important that the background in this region be well understood. Inelastic scattering reactions with neutrons from muon-induced interactions and ( ,n) reactions in the surrounding materials or in the detector can provide contributions to the background. We have measured the production cross sections for rays from the 76Ge(n,n ) reaction in the 2039-keV region at incident neutron energies up to 4.9 MeV. In addition to determining that the cross sectionsmore » of a previously known 2040.7-keV ray from the 3952-keV level in 76 Ge are rather small, we find that a larger contribution arises from a 2037.5-keV ray which is attributed to a newly identified level at 3147 keV in 76Ge. A third contribution is also possible from another new level at 3577 keV. These results indicate that the 2039-keV region in 76Ge neutrinoless double- decay searches is more complex than was previously thought.« less

  13. Two experiments in neutrino physics: Double beta decay of cadmium-116 and the efficiency of an argon-40 neutrino detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Manojeet

    1999-03-01

    This thesis contains work concerning two experiments related to searches for neutrino masses. 1. QRPA calculations of double-β-decays have not been able to reproduce data in the A = 100 system. We propose the A = 116 system-because of its smaller deformation-as a simpler system to test QRPA calculations. We performed two experiments that determine the previously unknown electron capture (EC) decay branch of 116In to be (2.27 ± 0.63) × 10- 2%, from which we deduce logft = 4.39- 0.15+0.10. We then used this EC logft value along with the well known βsp- logft values to predict the 2ν double-β decay rate of 116Cd to the g.s. and the first excited 0+ state of 116Sn. The prediction shows that the contribution to the double-β decay rate from the g.s could exceed the total decay rate indicating a cancellation of contributions from the excited states of 116In. 2. We studied β-delayed proton and γ emission from 40Ti decay. We found t1/over 2 = 53.6 ± 0.6 ms and observed 28 proton groups that we organized into a 40Ti decay with 21 branches. The reduced transition strengths of these decay branches were then used to compute the neutrino detection efficiency of the ICARUS liquid argon time-projection chamber. Our integrated GT strength is about 20% larger than the theoretical prediction. We found 40Ar(/nu,e) cross-sections (for an electron energy threshold W = 5 MeV) of (13.8 ± 0.3) × 10-43cm2, (74.0 ± 1.6) × 10- 43cm2 and (3.2 ± 0.1) × 10- 41cm2 for 8B neutrinos, hep neutrinos and supernova neutrinos characterized by a temperature of 4.5 MeV.

  14. Randomized, prospective, and double-blind trial of new beta-lactams in the treatment of appendicitis.

    PubMed Central

    Lau, W Y; Fan, S T; Chu, K W; Suen, H C; Yiu, T F; Wong, K K

    1985-01-01

    A prospective, randomized, and double-blind study was conducted with 864 patients operated on for appendicitis. In early cases, including normal and acute appendicitis, one dose of antibiotic was given. The rate of postappendectomy septic complications in patients who received cefotaxime, cefoperazone, or moxalactam was very low (about 3%), and there was no statistical difference between the drugs. For late cases, including gangrenous and perforated appendicitis, the antibiotics were continued for 5 days. Moxalactam decreased significantly the septic complications in these patients when compared with the other two drugs. It is safe, free from serious toxic side effects, and more convenient and easier to administer than combination antibiotic therapy. The main disadvantage of moxalactam is its high cost, but this has to be balanced against the savings in nursing time, the cost of monitoring renal function and serum level when aminoglycosides are used, and the reduced usage and manipulation of infusion sets. PMID:3911877

  15. The production of alpha/beta and gamma/delta double negative (DN) T-cells and their role in the maintenance of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chapman, John C; Chapman, Fae M; Michael, Sandra D

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the thymus gland to convert bone marrow-derived progenitor cells into single positive (SP) T-cells is well known. In this review we present evidence that the thymus, in addition to producing SP T-cells, also has a pathway for the production of double negative (DN) T-cells. The existence of this pathway was noted during our examination of relevant literature to determine the cause of sex steroid-induced thymocyte loss. In conducting this search our objective was to answer the question of whether thymocyte loss is the end product of a typical interaction between the reproductive and immune systems, or evidence that the two systems are incompatible. We can now report that "thymocyte loss" is a normal process that occurs during the production of DN T-cells. The DN T-cell pathway is unique in that it is mediated by thymic mast cells, and becomes functional following puberty. Sex steroids initiate the development of the pathway by binding to an estrogen receptor alpha located in the outer membrane of the mast cells, causing their activation. This results in their uptake of extracellular calcium, and the production and subsequent release of histamine and serotonin. Lymphatic vessels, located in the subcapsular region of the thymus, respond to the two vasodilators by undergoing a substantial and preferential uptake of gamma/delta and alpha/beta DN T- cells. These T- cells exit the thymus via efferent lymphatic vessels and enter the lymphatic system.The DN pathway is responsible for the production of three subsets of gamma/delta DN T-cells and one subset of alpha/beta DN T-cells. In postpubertal animals approximately 35 % of total thymocytes exit the thymus as DN T-cells, regardless of sex. In pregnant females, their levels undergo a dramatic increase. Gamma/delta DN T-cells produce cytokines that are essential for the maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:26164866

  16. A double mutation in exon 6 of the [beta]-hexosaminidase [alpha] subunit in a patient with the B1 variant of Tay-Sachs disease

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, P.J. Child Health Research Institute, London, Ontario ); Coulter-Mackie, M.B. Child Health Research Institute, London, Ontario Children's Psychiatric Research Institute, London, Ontario )

    1992-10-01

    The B1 variant form of Tay-Sachs disease is enzymologically unique in that the causative mutation(s) appear to affect the active site in the [alpha] subunit of [beta]-hexosaminidase A without altering its ability to associate with the [beta] subunit. Most previously reported B1 variant mutations were found in exon 5 within codon 178. The coding sequence of the [alpha] subunit gene of a patient with the B1 variant form was examined with a combination of reverse transcription of mRNA to cDNA, PCR, and dideoxy sequencing. A double mutation in exon 6 has been identified: a G[sub 574][yields]C transversion causing a val[sub 192][yields]leu change and a G[sub 598][yields] A transition resulting in a val[sub 200][yields]met alteration. The amplified cDNAs were otherwise normal throughout their sequence. The 574 and 598 alterations have been confirmed by amplification directly from genomic DNA from the patient and her mother. Transient-expression studies of the two exon 6 mutations (singly or together) in COS-1 cells show that the G[sub 574][yields]C change is sufficient to cause the loss of enzyme activity. The biochemical phenotype of the 574 alteration in transfection studies is consistent with that expected for a B1 variant mutation. As such, this mutation differs from previously reported B1 variant mutations, all of which occur in exon 5. 31 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Recent technologic developments on high-resolution beta imaging systems for quantitative autoradiography and double labeling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthe, N.; Chatti, K.; Coulon, P.; Maı̂trejean, S.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.

    2004-07-01

    Two novel beta imaging systems, particularly interesting in the field of radiopharmacology and molecular biology research, were developed these last years. (1) a beta imager was derived from research conducted by Pr Charpak at CERN. This parallel plate avalanche chamber is a direct detection system of β radioactivity, which is particularly adapted for qualitative and quantitative autoradiography. With this detector, autoradiographic techniques can be performed with emitters such as 99mTc because this radionuclide emits many low-energy electrons and the detector has a very low sensitivity to low-range γ-rays. Its sensitivity (smallest activity detected: 0.007 cpm/mm 2 for 3H and 0.01 for 14C), linearity (over a dynamic range of 10 4) and spatial resolution (50 μm for 3H or 99mTc to 150 μm for 32P or 18F (β +)) gives a real interest to this system as a new imaging device. Its principle of detection is based on the analysis of light emitted during the interaction with an intensified CCD camera. This property may suggest new potential applications, particularly in the field of β-rays selection according to their energy. This detector provides a new fast way to detect all β-emitting isotopes in biological samples up to 20 cm×25 cm (electrophoresis gels, hybridization membranes, tissue sections on glass slides, TLC plates and any other planar two-dimension samples). It is ideal for tritium detection, 500 times faster than classical film, thus maximizing the research productivity. (2) A micro imager is based on contact imaging through a solid scintillator sheet. Light emitted is amplified through an image intensifier tube and is analyzed with a CCD camera. The full field of view is smaller than the first one (24 mm×32 mm) but a better spatial resolution is obtained (typically 15 μm for 3H, 20 μm for 14C and 35S). The specifications of this detector are: efficiency 50-100% depending on isotope, linear response over a dynamic range of 10 4, smallest activity

  18. Single and Double Beta-Decay Q Values among the Triplet 96Zr, 96Nb, and 96Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alanssari, M.; Frekers, D.; Eronen, T.; Canete, L.; Dilling, J.; Haaranen, M.; Hakala, J.; Holl, M.; Ješkovský, M.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Koponen, J.; Mayer, A. J.; Moore, I. D.; Nesterenko, D. A.; Pohjalainen, I.; Povinec, P.; Reinikainen, J.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Srivastava, P. C.; Suhonen, J.; Thompson, R. I.; Voss, A.; Wieser, M. E.

    2016-02-01

    The atomic mass relations among the mass triplet 96Zr, 96Nb, and 96Mo have been determined by means of high-precision mass measurements using the JYFLTRAP mass spectrometer at the IGISOL facility of the University of Jyväskylä. We report Q values for the 96Zr single and double β decays to 96Nb and 96

  19. Herman Feshbach Prize in Theoretical Nuclear Physics Xiangdong Ji, University of Maryland PandaX-III: high-pressure gas TPC for Xe136 neutrinoless double beta decay at CJPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xiangdong; PandaX-III Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The PandaX-III in China's Jinping Underground Lab is a new neutrinoless double beta decay experiment using Xe136 high-pressure gas TPC. The first phase of the experiment uses a 4 m3 gas detector with symmetric Micromegas charge readout planes. The gas TPC allows full reconstruction of the event topology, capable of distinguishing the two electron events from gamma background with high confidence level. The energy resolution can reach about 3% FWHM at the beta decay Q-value. The detector construction and the experimental lab is currently under active development. In this talk, the current status and future plan are reported.

  20. Single and Double Beta-Decay Q Values among the Triplet ^{96}Zr, ^{96}Nb, and ^{96}Mo.

    PubMed

    Alanssari, M; Frekers, D; Eronen, T; Canete, L; Dilling, J; Haaranen, M; Hakala, J; Holl, M; Ješkovský, M; Jokinen, A; Kankainen, A; Koponen, J; Mayer, A J; Moore, I D; Nesterenko, D A; Pohjalainen, I; Povinec, P; Reinikainen, J; Rinta-Antila, S; Srivastava, P C; Suhonen, J; Thompson, R I; Voss, A; Wieser, M E

    2016-02-19

    The atomic mass relations among the mass triplet ^{96}Zr, ^{96}Nb, and ^{96}Mo have been determined by means of high-precision mass measurements using the JYFLTRAP mass spectrometer at the IGISOL facility of the University of Jyväskylä. We report Q values for the ^{96}Zr single and double β decays to ^{96}Nb and ^{96}Mo, as well as the Q value for the ^{96}Nb single β decay to ^{96}Mo, which are Q_{β}(^{96}Zr)=163.96(13), Q_{ββ}(^{96}Zr)=3356.097(86), and Q_{β}(^{96}Nb)=3192.05(16)  keV. Of special importance is the ^{96}Zr single β-decay Q value, which has never been determined directly. The single β decay, whose main branch is fourfold unique forbidden, is an alternative decay path to the ^{96}Zr ββ decay, and its observation can provide one of the most direct tests of the neutrinoless ββ-decay nuclear-matrix-element calculations, as these can be simultaneously performed for both decay paths with no further assumptions. The theoretical single β-decay rate has been re-evaluated using a shell-model approach, which indicates a ^{96}Zr single β-decay lifetime within reach of an experimental verification. The uniqueness of the decay also makes such an experiment interesting for an investigation into the origin of the quenching of the axial-vector coupling constant g_{A}. PMID:26943530

  1. Superconducting Aluminum Layers as Pulse Shape Modifiers: An Innovative Solution to Fight Against Surface Background in Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nones, C.; Bergé, L.; Dumoulin, L.; Marnieros, S.; Olivieri, E.

    2012-06-01

    The most limiting factor for experiments looking for rare events, such as neutrinoless double beta decay, is the radioactive background. We will describe an innovative technique for the discrimination of the surface background which combine the use of thin layers of superconducting aluminum, deposited on a crystal operated as a macro-bolometer and with a fast thermistor, such as a NbSi thin film acting as out-of-equilibrium phonon sensor. The working principle is based on the fact that particles which transfer energy into the Al film create quasi-particles that release heat to the crystal with a considerable delay, that may be in the millisecond range. It is thus clear that pulses acquired from a fast thermistor in the case of surface and bulk events should have different shapes, depending on the place of the initial energy release. Here we present preliminary results on a small TeO2 crystal equipped with NbSi films and an Al film with a thickness of 10 μm. We prove that we are able to identify alpha surface events by pulse shape analysis with a good separation between bulk and surface events. The possibility to extend this rejection technique to bolometers equipped with slow temperature sensors as neutron transmutation doped Ge thermistors is under study.

  2. The (d,{sup 2}He) reaction on {sup 76}Se and the double-{beta}-decay matrix elements for A=76

    SciTech Connect

    Grewe, E.-W.; Baeumer, C.; Dohmann, H.; Frekers, D.; Hollstein, S.; Rakers, S.; Thies, J. H.; Harakeh, M. N.; Berg, A. M. van den; Woertche, H. J.; Johansson, H.; Simon, H.; Popescu, L.; Savran, D.; Zilges, A.

    2008-10-15

    The (d,{sup 2}He) charge-exchange reaction on {sup 76}Se was studied at an incident energy of 183 MeV. The outgoing two protons in the {sup 1}S{sub 0} state, referred to as {sup 2}He, were both momentum analyzed and detected by the same spectrometer and detector. The experiment was performed at KVI, Groningen, using the magnetic spectrometer BBS at three angular positions: 0 deg., 2.5 deg., and 5 deg. Excitation-energy spectra of the residual nucleus {sup 76}As were obtained with an energy resolution of about 120 keV (FWHM). Gamow-Teller (GT{sup +}) transition strengths were extracted up to 5 MeV and compared with those from an (n,p) experiment at low resolution. Together with the GT{sup -} transition strengths from the {sup 76}Ge(p,n) experiment leading to the same intermediate nucleus, the nuclear matrix element of the two-neutrino double-{beta} decay of {sup 76}Ge was evaluated.

  3. Kinetics and transport at AMTEC electrodes. II - Temperature dependence of the interfacial impedance of Na(g)/porous Mo/Na-Beta-double prime alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Underwood, M. L.; Bankston, C. P.; Kummer, J. T.

    1990-01-01

    The exchange current, transfer coefficient, mass-transport parameters, and electrode capacitance at the Na(g)/porous Mo/Na-Beta-double prime alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) phase boundary have been evaluated from 740 to 1220 K. The transfer coefficient exhibits a value close to 0.5 and the exchange current is dominated by collision frequency, with no significant activation energy. Since the porous Mp-electrode adopts a fairly regular microstructure on the BASE surface, the magnitude of the exchange current of mature electrodes directly depends on the actual contact zone of the porous metal film with the BASE ceramic, and decreases slightly as grain growth occurs. The exchange currents and the mass-transport parameters derived for very porous, thin Mo electrodes indicate that the charge-transfer reaction occurs at a small fraction of the interface. High-frequency limiting capacitance and resistance values due to the interface show potential dependence and a value on the order of 1 F/sq m and 0.1-1.0 Ohm-sq cm.

  4. Effects of combined alpha and beta adrenoceptor blockade in patients with angina pectoris. A double blind study comparing labetalol with placebo.

    PubMed

    Quyyumi, A A; Wright, C; Mockus, L; Shackell, M; Sutton, G C; Fox, K M

    1985-01-01

    The effects of a combined alpha and beta receptor antagonist, labetalol, were investigated in 10 patients with chronic stable angina pectoris. The optimal dose was determined during an initial dose titration study when the patients were treated with 200 mg, 400 mg, and 600 mg (six patients) of labetalol a day. The effective dose was then compared with placebo in a double blind randomised study. The effects of the drug were monitored with angina diaries, treadmill exercise testing, and 48 hour ambulatory electrocardiographic ST segment monitoring. Plasma labetalol concentrations were measured during each treatment period. The mean effective antianginal dose of labetalol was 480 (SD 140) mg/day given by mouth twice a day. There was a dose related reduction in daytime and nocturnal heart rate, the frequency of pain was significantly reduced by 41%, and exercise duration was significantly increased by 44% with labetalol when compared with placebo. The frequency and duration of the episodes of ST segment depression were significantly reduced by 56% and 73% respectively with labetalol. Adverse effects resulted in a reduction of the dose of labetalol in two patients. Thus labetalol is an effective agent in the treatment of angina pectoris. PMID:3881105

  5. Implications of the diboson excess for neutrinoless double beta decay and lepton flavor violation in TeV scale left-right symmetric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awasthi, Ram Lal; Dev, P. S. Bhupal; Mitra, Manimala

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the recent diboson excess observed at the LHC and possible interpretation within a TeV-scale left-right symmetric framework, we explore its implications for low-energy experiments searching for lepton number and flavor violation. Assuming a simple type-II seesaw mechanism for neutrino masses, we show that for the right-handed (RH) gauge boson mass and coupling values required to explain the LHC anomalies, the RH contribution to the lepton number violating process of neutrinoless double beta decay (0 ν β β ) is already constrained by current experiments for relatively low-mass (MeV-GeV) RH neutrinos. The future ton-scale 0 ν β β experiments could probe most of the remaining parameter space, irrespective of the neutrino mass hierarchy and uncertainties in the oscillation parameters and nuclear matrix elements. On the other hand, the RH contribution to the lepton flavor violating process of μ →e γ is constrained for relatively heavier (TeV) RH neutrinos, thus providing a complementary probe of the model. Finally, a measurement of the absolute light neutrino mass scale from future precision cosmology could make this scenario completely testable.

  6. Ebola Virus VP35 Protein Binds Double-Stranded RNA and Inhibits Alpha/Beta Interferon Production Induced by RIG-I Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas, Washington B.; Loo, Yueh-Ming; Gale, Michael; Hartman, Amy L.; Kimberlin, Christopher R.; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Basler, Christopher F.

    2006-01-01

    The Ebola virus (EBOV) VP35 protein blocks the virus-induced phosphorylation and activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3), a transcription factor critical for the induction of alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) expression. However, the mechanism(s) by which this blockage occurs remains incompletely defined. We now provide evidence that VP35 possesses double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding activity. Specifically, VP35 bound to poly(rI) · poly(rC)-coated Sepharose beads but not control beads. In contrast, two VP35 point mutants, R312A and K309A, were found to be greatly impaired in their dsRNA-binding activity. Competition assays showed that VP35 interacted specifically with poly(rI) · poly(rC), poly(rA) · poly(rU), or in vitro-transcribed dsRNAs derived from EBOV sequences, and not with single-stranded RNAs (ssRNAs) or double-stranded DNA. We then screened wild-type and mutant VP35s for their ability to target different components of the signaling pathways that activate IRF-3. These experiments indicate that VP35 blocks activation of IRF-3 induced by overexpression of RIG-I, a cellular helicase recently implicated in the activation of IRF-3 by either virus or dsRNA. Interestingly, the VP35 mutants impaired for dsRNA binding have a decreased but measurable IFN antagonist activity in these assays. Additionally, wild-type and dsRNA-binding-mutant VP35s were found to have equivalent abilities to inhibit activation of the IFN-β promoter induced by overexpression of IPS-1, a recently identified signaling molecule downstream of RIG-I, or by overexpression of the IRF-3 kinases IKKɛ and TBK-1. These data support the hypothesis that dsRNA binding may contribute to VP35 IFN antagonist function. However, additional mechanisms of inhibition, at a point proximal to the IRF-3 kinases, most likely also exist. PMID:16698997

  7. Search for double-beta decay of 136Xe to excited states of 136Ba with the KamLAND-Zen experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakura, K.; Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Hachiya, T.; Hayashida, S.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Ishio, S.; Koga, M.; Matsuda, S.; Mitsui, T.; Motoki, D.; Nakamura, K.; Obara, S.; Otani, M.; Oura, T.; Shimizu, I.; Shirahata, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Tachibana, H.; Tamae, K.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B. D.; Yoshida, H.; Kozlov, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Fushimi, K.; Banks, T. I.; Berger, B. E.; Fujikawa, B. K.; O'Donnell, T.; Winslow, L. A.; Efremenko, Y.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Detwiler, J. A.; Enomoto, S.; Decowski, M. P.

    2016-02-01

    A search for double-beta decays of 136Xe to excited states of 136Ba has been performed with the first phase data set of the KamLAND-Zen experiment. The 01+, 21+ and 22+ transitions of 0 νββ decay were evaluated in an exposure of 89.5 kg ṡyr of 136Xe, while the same transitions of 2 νββ decay were evaluated in an exposure of 61.8 kg ṡyr. No excess over background was found for all decay modes. The lower half-life limits of the 21+ state transitions of 0 νββ and 2 νββ decay were improved to T1/20ν (0+ → 21+) > 2.6 ×1025 yr and T1/22ν (0+ → 21+) > 4.6 ×1023 yr (90% C.L.), respectively. We report on the first experimental lower half-life limits for the transitions to the 01+ state of 136Xe for 0 νββ and 2 νββ decay. They are T1/20ν (0+ → 01+) > 2.4 ×1025 yr and T1/22ν (0+ → 01+) > 8.3 ×1023 yr (90% C.L.). The transitions to the 22+ states are also evaluated for the first time to be T1/20ν (0+ → 22+) > 2.6 ×1025 yr and T1/22ν (0+ → 22+) > 9.0 ×1023 yr (90% C.L.). These results are compared to recent theoretical predictions.

  8. Charged lepton flavour violcxmation and neutrinoless double beta decay in left-right symmetric models with type I+II seesaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Debasish; Dasgupta, Arnab

    2016-07-01

    We study the new physics contributions to neutrinoless double beta decay (0 νββ) half-life and lepton flavour violation (LFV) amplitude within the framework of the minimal left-right symmetric model (MLRSM). Considering all possible new physics contributions to 0 νββ and charged lepton flavour violation μ → eγ , μ → 3 e in MLRSM, we constrain the parameter space of the model from the requirement of satisfying existing experimental bounds. Assuming the breaking scale of the left-right symmetry to be O (1) TeV accessible at ongoing and near future collider experiments, we consider the most general type I+II seesaw mechanism for the origin of tiny neutrino masses. Choosing the relative contribution of the type II seesaw term allows us to calculate the right handed neutrino mass matrix as well as Dirac neutrino mass matrix as a function of the model parameters, required for the calculation of 0νββ and LFV amplitudes. We show that such a general type I+II seesaw structure results in more allowed parameter space compared to individual type I or type II seesaw cases considered in earlier works. In particular, we show that the doubly charged scalar masses M Δ are allowed to be smaller than the heaviest right handed neutrino mass M N from the present experimental bounds in these scenarios which is in contrast to earlier results with individual type I or type II seesaw showing M Δ > M N .

  9. Neutrinoless double-β decay and nuclear transition matrix elements

    SciTech Connect

    Rath, P. K.

    2015-10-28

    Within mechanisms involving the light Majorana neutrinos, squark-neutrino, Majorons, sterile neutrinos and heavy Majorana neutrino, nuclear transition matrix elements for the neutrinoless (β{sup −}β{sup −}){sub 0ν} decay of {sup 96}Zr, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 128,130}Te and {sup 150}Nd nuclei are calculated by employing the PHFB approach. Effects due to finite size of nucleons, higher order currents, short range correlations, and deformations of parent as well as daughter nuclei on the calculated matrix elements are estimated. Uncertainties in nuclear transition matrix elements within long-ranged mechanisms but for double Majoron accompanied (β{sup −}β{sup −}ϕϕ){sub 0ν} decay modes are 9%–15%. In the case of short ranged heavy Majorona neutrino exchange mechanism, the maximum uncertainty is about 35%. The maximum systematic error within the mechanism involving the exchange of light Majorana neutrino is about 46%.

  10. Neutrinoless double-β decay and nuclear transition matrix elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, P. K.

    2015-10-01

    Within mechanisms involving the light Majorana neutrinos, squark-neutrino, Majorons, sterile neutrinos and heavy Majorana neutrino, nuclear transition matrix elements for the neutrinoless (β-β-)0ν decay of 96Zr, 100Mo, 128,130Te and 150Nd nuclei are calculated by employing the PHFB approach. Effects due to finite size of nucleons, higher order currents, short range correlations, and deformations of parent as well as daughter nuclei on the calculated matrix elements are estimated. Uncertainties in nuclear transition matrix elements within long-ranged mechanisms but for double Majoron accompanied (β-β-ϕϕ)0ν decay modes are 9%-15%. In the case of short ranged heavy Majorona neutrino exchange mechanism, the maximum uncertainty is about 35%. The maximum systematic error within the mechanism involving the exchange of light Majorana neutrino is about 46%.

  11. INHIBITION OF THE TWO-SUBSITE BETA-D-XYLOSIDASE FROM SELENOMONAS RUMINANTIUM BY SUGARS: COMPETITIVE, NONCOMPETITIVE, DOUBLE BINDING, AND SLOW BINDING MODES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The active site of the GH43 beta-xylosidase from Selenomonas ruminantium comprises two subsites and single access route for ligands. Inhibition of enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside (4NPA) and 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside (4NPX) by sugars was analyzed acco...

  12. Results from the CUORE-0 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canonica, L.; Alduino, C.; Alfonso, K.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T., III; Azzolini, O.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J. W.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Caminata, A.; Cao, X. G.; Capelli, S.; Cappelli, L.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Carniti, P.; Casali, N.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Copello, S.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Cushman, J. S.; Dafinei, I.; Dally, A.; Davis, C. J.; Dell’Oro, S.; Deninno, M. M.; Di Domizio, S.; Di Vacri, M. L.; Drobizhev, A.; Fang, D. Q.; Faverzani, M.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gladstone, L.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Hansen, E.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Hickerson, K. P.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, G. Yu; Lim, K. E.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maino, M.; Marini, L.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Mosteiro, P. J.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; O’Donnell, T.; Orio, F.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pagliarone, C. E.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Piperno, G.; Pirro, S.; Pozzi, S.; Previtali, E.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sala, E.; Sangiorgio, S.; Santone, D.; Scielzo, N. D.; Singh, V.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.; Wagaarachchi, S. L.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Zanotti, L.; Zhang, G. Q.; Zhu, B. X.; Zimmermann, S.; Zucchelli, S.

    2016-05-01

    The CUORE-0 experiment searched for neutrinoless double beta decay in 130Te using an array of 52 tellurium dioxide crystals, operated as bolometers at a temperature of 10 mK. It took data in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (Italy) since March 2013 to March 2015. We present the results of a search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 9.8 kg-years 130Te exposure that allowed us to set the most stringent limit to date on this half-life. The performance of the detector in terms of background and energy resolution is also reported.

  13. Efficacy and Tolerability of Conventional Nimesulide Versus Beta-Cyclodextrin Nimesulide in Patients with Pain After Surgical Dental Extraction: A Multicenter, Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy Study☆

    PubMed Central

    Bocanegra, Mildred; Seijas, Alberto; Yibirín, Maria González

    2003-01-01

    Background: Pain following extraction of an impacted third molar is widely used to assess analgesic efficacy, especially that of a single dose of a drug. The analgesic activity of conventional nimesulide (CN) has been documented in a variety of types of acute and chronic pain. Beta-cyclodextrin nimesulide (BN) is a new formulation in which nimesulide is included in a cyclodextrin molecule, which increases its solubility in water and its dilution rate, allowing extended, rapid absorption of the drug. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a single dose of BN compared with CN in patients with pain following extraction of an impacted third molar. Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy study conducted at 3 dentistry centers in Venezuela. The patients were randomized to 1 of 2 groups. One group received a single dose of BN (400-mg tablet, equivalent to 100 mg of nimesulide); the other group received a single dose of CN (100-mg tablet). Both groups also received a placebo. The efficacy variables were (1) pain intensity (PI), assessed on a visual analog scale (VAS) at the following times: 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, and 45 minutes and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 hours after drug administration; (2) time to first measurable difference in PI from baseline (PID) (PID ≥1 cm on the VAS; ie, the beginning of analgesic action); (3) maximum PID (max PID); (4) sum of PIDs in the 12-hour observation period; (5) pain relief (PR), as rated on a 5-point scale; (6) maximum PR; and (7) sum of the PR scores in the 12-hour observation period (ie, total PR). For the tolerability analysis, all adverse events (AEs) were to be recorded, and the investigators were to assess whether each AE was drug related. Results: Seventy-two patients were enrolled in the study. Of these, 62 patients (40 women, 22 men; mean [SD] age, 20.1 [5.9] years) were assessed; 35 were treated with BN and 27 with CN. PI reduction was more rapid and greater

  14. N-benzylideneaniline and N-benzylaniline are potent inhibitors of lignostilbene-alpha,beta-dioxygenase, a key enzyme in oxidative cleavage of the central double bond of lignostilbene.

    PubMed

    Han, Sun-Young; Inoue, Hiroki; Terada, Tamami; Kamoda, Shigehiro; Saburi, Yoshimasa; Sekimata, Katsuhiko; Saito, Tamio; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yoshida, Shigeo; Asami, Tadao

    2003-06-01

    Lignostilbene-alpha,beta-dioxygenase (LSD, EC 1.13.11.43) is involved in oxidative cleavage of the central double bond of lignostilbene to form the corresponding aldehydes by a mechanism similar to those of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase, key enzymes in abscisic acid biosynthesis and vitamin A biosynthesis, respectively. In this study, several N-benzylideneanilines and amine were synthesized and examined for their efficacy as inhibitors of LSD. N-(4-Hydroxybenzylidene)-3-methoxyaniline was found to be a potent inhibitor with IC50 = 0.3 microM and N-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-3-methoxyaniline was also active with IC50 = 10 microM. The information obtained from the structure-activity relationships study here can aid in discovering inhibitors of both abscisic acid and vitamin A biosynthesis. PMID:14506920

  15. Results of a search for neutrinoless double-β decay using the COBRA demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Joachim; Fritts, M.; Gehre, Daniel; Gößling, Claus; Hagner, Caren; Heidrich, Nadine; Klingenberg, Reiner; Kröninger, Kevin; Nitsch, Christian; Oldorf, Christian; Quante, Thomas; Rajek, Silke; Rebber, Henning; Rohatsch, Katja; Tebrügge, Jan; Temminghoff, Robert; Theinert, Robert; Timm, Jan; Wonsak, Björn; Zatschler, Stefan; Zuber, Kai; Cobra Collaboration

    2016-08-01

    Neutrinoless double-β decay (0 ν β β decay) is a hypothetical process that can occur if the neutrino is its own antiparticle. The COBRA Collaboration operates a demonstrator to search for these decays at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy using CdZnTe semiconductor detectors. The exposure of 234.7 kg d considered in this analysis was collected between September 2011 and February 2015. The analysis focuses on the decay of the nuclides 114Cd,128Te,70Zn,130Te, and 116Cd. A Bayesian analysis is performed to estimate the signal strength of 0 ν β β decay. No signal is observed for any of these nuclides. Therefore, the following half-life limits at 90% credibility are set: T1/2 0 ν>1.6 ×1021yr (114Cd),T1/2 0 ν>1.9 ×1021yr (128Te),T1/2 0 ν>6.8 ×1018yr (70Zn),T1/2 0 ν>6.1 ×1021yr (130Te), and T1/2 0 ν>1.1 ×1021yr (116Cd).

  16. Results of experiments devoted to searches for 2K capture on {sup 78}Kr and for the double-beta decay of {sup 136}Xe with the aid of proportional counters

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrilyuk, Yu. M.; Gangapshev, A. M.; Zhantudueva, Dj. A.; Kazalov, V. V.; Kuz'minov, V. V.; Panasenko, S. I.; Ratkevich, S. S.; Efendiev, K. V.; Yakimenko, S. P.

    2013-09-15

    A brief description of two low-background setups deployed at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory (Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences) and intended for searches for two types of double-beta decay of inert-gas isotopes-2K capture on {sup 78}Kr and the double-beta decay of {sup 136}Xe-is given. The two setups in question have similar structures and employ identical large high-pressure copper proportional counters as detectors. Upon a treatment of data from measurements with krypton samples differing in the content of the isotope {sup 78}Kr, the spectrum for an enriched sample revealed an excess of events at a statistical-significance level of about two standard deviations (2{sigma}). If one attributes this excess to 2K(2{nu}) capture on {sup 78}Kr, the respective half-life is T{sub 1/2} = 1.4{sub -0.7}{sup +2.3} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} yr at a 90% C.L. A treatment of data from measurements with xenon samples differing in content of the isotope {sup 136}Xe led to the appearance of an excess of events in the spectrum for an enriched sample at a statistical-significance level of about 2.2{sigma}. If one assumes that this excess is due to the two-neutrino double-beta decay of {sup 136}Xe, then the respective half-life is T{sub 1/2} = 5.8{sub -1.8}{sup +4.7} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} yr.

  17. The (d,{sup 2}He) reaction on {sup 96}Mo and the double-{beta} decay matrix elements for {sup 96}Zr

    SciTech Connect

    Dohmann, H.; Baeumer, C.; Frekers, D.; Grewe, E.-W.; Hollstein, S.; Rakers, S.; Thies, J. H.; Harakeh, M. N.; Berg, A. M. van den; Woertche, H. J.; Johansson, H.; Simon, H.; Popescu, L.; Savran, D.; Zilges, A.

    2008-10-15

    The {sup 96}Mo(d,{sup 2}He){sup 96}Nb charge-exchange reaction was investigated at an incident energy of E{sub d}=183.5 MeV. An excitation-energy resolution of 110 keV was achieved. The experiment was performed at KVI, Groningen, using the magnetic spectrometer BBS at three angular positions: 0 deg., 2.5 deg., and 6 deg. We found that below 6 MeV almost the entire Gamow-Teller (GT{sup +}) strength is concentrated in a single state at 0.69 MeV excitation energy. As {sup 96}Mo is the daughter of the {beta}{beta} decay nucleus {sup 96}Zr, the present result provides information about the nuclear matrix elements active in the 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay of {sup 96}Zr.

  18. Interlayer magnetoresistance peak in {beta}{sup {double_prime}}-(BEDT{endash}TTF){sub 2}SF{sub 5}CH{sub 2}CF{sub 2}SO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Su, X.; Zuo, F.; Schlueter, J.A.; Williams, J.M.

    1999-04-01

    Transport measurements of interlayer magnetoresistance with the field parallel to the current direction have been performed on single crystals of organic superconductor {beta}{sup {double_prime}}-(BEDT{endash}TTF){sub 2}SF{sub 5}CH{sub 2}CF{sub 2}SO{sub 3}. The magnetoresistance is found to display a pronounced peak as a function of magnetic field below the superconducting transition temperature, similar to those of {kappa}-(BEDT{endash}TTF){sub 2}X compounds. Analysis of the magnetoresistance peak in terms of a simple pair and quasiparticle tunneling model gives a physically negligible gap energy. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Effect of Beta Glucan on Quality of Life in Women with Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Esfahani, Ali; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Eivazi Ziaei, Jamal; Movassaghpourakbari, Aliakbar; Farrin, Nazila

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Breast cancer is the most common female malignancy in the world. Beta glucan may improve quality of life in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. The aim of this trial was to determine the effect of Beta glucan on quality of life in women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Methods: This study was conducted on 30 women with breast carcinoma. The eligible participants were randomly assigned to intervention (n=15) or placebo (n=15) groups using a block randomization procedure. Patients in the intervention group received two 10-mg capsules of soluble 1-3, 1-6, D-beta glucan daily and the placebo group received placebo for 21 days, in an interval between two courses of chemotherapy. Health - related quality of life (HRQL) was evaluated using the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire version.3.0 (EORTC QLQ-C30) at the beginning and end of the study. Results: At the end of the study, the Global health status /QoL score for the Beta glucan group was significantly increased (P=0.023), but the difference between the two groups was not significant. After intervention, the Functional scales score showed no significant change (P=0.099) between the two groups or within the groups. At the end of the study, the Symptom scales\\items score was decreased significantly in Beta glucan group comparing the placebo group (P=0.048), as well as after adjusting for baseline score. The Symptom scales\\items score’s change was significant (P=0.012) within the Beta glucan group, compared with the baseline score. Conclusion: The findings suggest that Beta glucan may be useful as a complementary or adjuvant therapy for improving quality of life in breast cancer patients in combination with cancer therapies. PMID:25364665

  20. AMoRE: Collaboration for searches for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of the isotope of {sup 100}Mo with the aid of {sup 40}Ca{sup 100}MoO{sub 4} as a cryogenic scintillation detector

    SciTech Connect

    Khanbekov, N. D.

    2013-09-15

    The AMoRE (Advanced Mo based Rare process Experiment) Collaboration is planning to employ {sup 40}Ca{sup 100}MoO{sub 4} single crystals as a cryogenic Scintillation detector for studying the neutrinoless double-beta decay of the isotope {sup 100}Mo. A simultaneous readout of phonon and scintillation signals is performed in order to suppress the intrinsic background. The planned sensitivity of the experiment that would employ 100 kg of {sup 40}Ca{sup 100}MoO{sub 4} over five years of data accumulation would be T{sub 1/2}{sup 0{nu}} = 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 26} yr, which corresponds to values of the effective Majorana neutrino mass in the range of Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket m{sub {nu}} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {approx} 0.02-0.06 eV.

  1. In-place ESR microwave conductivity measurements and electronic band structure studies of the organic superconductor {beta}{double_prime}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}SF{sub 5}CH{sub 2}CF{sub 2}SO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.H.; VanZile, M.L.; Schlueter, J.A.

    1999-07-01

    The electronic structure of the organic superconductor {beta}{double_prime}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}SF{sub 5}CH{sub 2}CF{sub 2}SO{sub 3} (BEDT-TTF is bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene) was characterized with the use of electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and electronic band structure calculations. The room-temperature ESR line width is 24--27 G in the plane of a donor molecule layer (i.e., in the ab-plane) and {approximately} 32 G along the normal to this plane (i.e., along the c*-direction). The ab-plane anisotropy of the microwave conductivity was extracted for the first time from the ESR Dysonian line shape analysis. The in-plane conductivity varies sinusoidally, is maximal along the interstack direction (b-axis), and is minimal along the donor stack direction ({alpha}-axis). The Fermi surfaces of the title compound consist of a 2D hole pocket and a pair of 1D wavy lines. The directions for the in-plane conductivity maximum and minimum are in excellent agreement with the electronic band structure calculated for {beta}{double_prime}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}SF{sub 5}CH{sub 2}CF{sub 2}SO{sub 3}, and the origin of the in-plane conductivity anisotropy lies in the one-dimensional part of the Fermi surface. This is the first time that an organic conductor shows Dysonian ESR line shape due to its 2D and strongly metallic nature, yet the 1D character is revealed simultaneously through the in-plane conductivity anisotropy.

  2. CUORE and Beyond: Bolometric Techniques to Explore Inverted Neutrino Mass Hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Cai, X. Z.; Camacho, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X. G.; Capelli, S.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Carrettoni, M.; Casali, N.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Copello, S.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Dafinei, I.; Dally, A.; Datskov, V.; De Biasi, A.; Deninno, M. M.; Di Domizio, S.; di Vacri, M. L.; Ejzak, L.; Fang, D. Q.; Farach, H. A.; Faverzani, M.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Goett, J.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Kazkaz, K.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Li, Y. L.; Ligi, C.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maiano, C.; Maino, M.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Napolitano, T.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; O'Donnell, T.; Orio, F.; Orlandi, D.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Piperno, G.; Pira, C.; Pirro, S.; Previtali, E.; Rampazzo, V.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sala, E.; Sangiorgio, S.; Scielzo, N. D.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tian, W. D.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Wielgus, L.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Zanotti, L.; Zarra, C.; Zhu, B. X.; Zucchelli, S.

    The CUORE (Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events) experiment will search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te. With 741 kg of TeO2 crystals and an excellent energy resolution of 5 keV (0.2%) at the region of interest, CUORE will be one of the most competitive neutrinoless double beta decay experiments on the horizon. With five years of live time, CUORE projected neutrinoless double beta decay half-life sensitivity is 1.6 × 1026 y at 1σ (9.5 × 1025 y at the 90% confidence level), which corresponds to an upper limit on the effective Majorana mass in the range 40-100 meV (50-130 meV). Further background rejection with auxiliary light detector can significantly improve the search sensitivity and competitiveness of bolometric detectors to fully explore the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy with 130Te and possibly other double beta decay candidate nuclei.

  3. Estrogen receptor-beta mediates the protective effects of aromatase induction in the MMTV-Her-2/neu x aromatase double transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Nair, Hareesh B; Perla, Rao P; Kirma, Nameer B; Krishnegowda, Naveen K; Ganapathy, Manonmani; Rajhans, Rajib; Nair, Sujit S; Saikumar, Pothana; Vadlamudi, Ratna K; Tekmal, Rajeshwar Rao

    2012-04-01

    Breast cancers amplified for the tyrosine kinase receptor Her-2/neu constitute ~30% of advanced breast cancer cases, and are characterized by hormone independence and aggressive growth, implicating this pathway in breast oncogenesis. The induction of Her-2/neu leads to tumor development in 60% of transgenic mice. We have previously examined the effects of estrogen in the MMTV-Her-2/neu background by generating the MMTV-Her-2/neu x aromatase double transgenic mouse strain. MMTV-Her-2/neu x aromatase mice developed fewer mammary tumors than the Her-2/neu parental strain. Our present data show the induction of several estrogen-related genes, including the tumor suppressors BRCA1 and p53, and a decrease in several angiogenic factors. The phosphorylated forms of MAPK p42/44 and AKT were lower in the MMTV-Her-2/neu x aromatase double transgenic mice compared to the MMTV-Her-2/neu parental strain; conversely, phospho-p38 levels were higher in the double transgenic strain. The ERβ-selective antagonist THC reversed these changes. The regulation of these factors by ERβ was confirmed in clones of MCF7 breast cancer cells overexpressing Her-2/neu in combination with ERβ, suggesting that ERβ may play a direct role in regulating MAPK and AKT pathways. In summary, the data suggest that ERβ may play a major role in decreasing tumorigenesis and that it may affect breast cancer cell proliferation and survival by altering MAPK and AKT activation as well as modulation of tumor suppressor and angiogenesis factors. Treatment with selective ERβ agonist may provide therapeutic advantages for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. PMID:22006184

  4. Markov random fields reveal an N-terminal double beta-propeller motif as part of a bacterial hybrid two-component sensor system

    PubMed Central

    Menke, Matt; Berger, Bonnie; Cowen, Lenore

    2010-01-01

    The recent explosion in newly sequenced bacterial genomes is outpacing the capacity of researchers to try to assign functional annotation to all the new proteins. Hence, computational methods that can help predict structural motifs provide increasingly important clues in helping to determine how these proteins might function. We introduce a Markov Random Field approach tailored for recognizing proteins that fold into mainly β-structural motifs, and apply it to build recognizers for the β-propeller shapes. As an application, we identify a potential class of hybrid two-component sensor proteins, that we predict contain a double-propeller domain. PMID:20147619

  5. Shape Transitional Nuclei: What can we learn from the Yrare States? or Hello the Double Vacuum; Goodbye {beta}-vibrations{exclamation_point}

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpey-Schafer, J. F.; Mullins, S. M.; Bark, R. A.; Gueorguieva, E.; Kau, J.; Komati, F.; Lawrie, J. J.; Murray, S. H. T.; Ncapayi, N. J.; Maine, P.; Minkova, A.; Vymers, P.

    2008-05-12

    The results of our measurements on the yrare states up to spin 20({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) in {sup 152,154,155}Gd, using ({alpha},xn) reactions and the AFRODITE {gamma}-ray spectrometer, are presented. We find that in {sup 155}Gd the decay scheme is divided into levels feeding the [505]11/2{sup -} band, that is extruded by the prolate deformation from the h{sub 11/2} orbital, and levels feeding the i{sub 13/2}[651]3/2{sup +} intruder orbital and the h{sub 9/2}[521]3/2{sup -} orbital. The decay scheme of {sup 154}Gd is very complex. We find no evidence for the existence of {beta}-vibrational levels below 1.5 MeV. We discover that the level scheme can be best understood as a set of collective states built on the ground state configuration |0{sub 1}{sup +}> plus a 'congruent' set of collective states based on the |0{sub 2}{sup +}> state at 681 keV. The data suggest that this second vacuum has reduced pairing. Our data do not support IBA and phonon interpretations of these transitional nuclei.

  6. Beta experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A focused laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) system was developed for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter (beta) from aerosols at infrared wavelengths. A Doppler signal generator was used in mapping the coherent sensitive focal volume of a focused LDV system. System calibration data was analyzed during the flight test activity scheduled for the Beta system. These analyses were performed to determine the acceptability of the Beta measurement system's performance.

  7. Anisotropic magnetoresistance in the organic superconductor {beta}{sup {double_prime}}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}SF{sub 5}CH{sub 2}CF{sub 2}SO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Su, X.; Zuo, F.; Schlueter, J.A.; Williams, J.M.; Nixon, P.G.; Winter, R.W.; Gard, G.L.

    1999-02-01

    In this paper, we report transport measurements of interlayer magnetoresistance with field parallel and perpendicular to the current direction in an all organic superconductor {beta}{sup {double_prime}}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}SF{sub 5}CH{sub 2}CF{sub 2}SO{sub 3}. For H{parallel}I, the isothermal magnetoresistance R(H) at low temperatures (T{le}T{sub c}) displays a peak effect as a function of field. For H{perpendicular}I, R(H) increases monotonically with increasing field. The results are very analogous to the interlayer magnetoresistance in {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}X compounds. The observation of the peak effect or negative magnetoresistance in different systems for H{parallel}I{perpendicular} plane suggests that it is intrinsic to the layered organic superconductors. For H{perpendicular}I, the large positive magnetoresistance is in a general agreement with a two band model for charge transport. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. Effect of beta blockade and beta stimulation on stage fright.

    PubMed

    Brantigan, C O; Brantigan, T A; Joseph, N

    1982-01-01

    Stage fright, physiologically the "fight or flight" reaction, is a disabling condition to the professional musician. Because it is mediated by the sympathetic nervous system, we have investigated the effects of beta blockade on musical performance with propranolol in a double blind fashion and the effects of beta stimulation using terbutaline. Stage fright symptoms were evaluated in two trials, which included a total of 29 subjects, by questionnaire and by the State Trai Anxiety Inventory. Quality of musical performance was evaluated by experienced music critics. Beta blockade eliminates the physical impediments to performance caused by stage fright and even eliminates the dry mouth so frequently encountered. The quality of musical performance as judged by experienced music critics is significantly improved. This effect is achieved without tranquilization. Beta stimulating drugs increase stage fright problems, and should be used in performing musicians only after consideration of the detrimental effects which they may have on musical performance. PMID:6120650

  9. Double-Stranded RNA Binding of Influenza B Virus Nonstructural NS1 Protein Inhibits Protein Kinase R but Is Not Essential To Antagonize Production of Alpha/Beta Interferon▿

    PubMed Central

    Dauber, Bianca; Schneider, Jana; Wolff, Thorsten

    2006-01-01

    Expression of alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) in virus-infected vertebrate cells is a key event in the establishment of a sustained antiviral response, which is triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) produced during viral replication. These antiviral cytokines initiate the expression of cellular proteins with activities that limit the replication and spread of the invading viruses. Within this response, the dsRNA-dependent protein kinase R (PKR) that is expressed at constitutive levels and upregulated by IFN-α/β acts as an important antiviral effector that can block the cellular translational machinery. We previously demonstrated that efficient replication of influenza B virus depends on the viral dsRNA-binding NS1 protein that inhibits the transcriptional activation of IFN-α/β genes. Here we tested the postulate that the viral NS1 protein counteracts antiviral responses through sequestering intracellular dsRNA by analyzing a collection of recombinant influenza B viruses. As expected, viruses expressing dsRNA-binding-defective NS1 proteins were strongly attenuated for replication in IFN-competent hosts. Interestingly, these virus mutants failed to prevent activation of PKR but could effectively limit IFN induction. Conversely, a mutant virus expressing the N-terminal dsRNA-binding domain of NS1 prevented PKR activation, but not IFN induction, suggesting an important role for the NS1 C-terminal part in silencing the activation route of IFN-α/β genes. Thus, our findings indicate an unexpected mechanistic dichotomy of the influenza B virus NS1 protein in the suppression of antiviral responses, which involves at least one activity that is largely separable from dsRNA binding. PMID:16987984

  10. Characterization of the energy resolution and the tracking capabilities of a hybrid pixel detector with CdTe-sensor layer for a possible use in a neutrinoless double beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipenko, Mykhaylo; Gleixner, Thomas; Anton, Gisela; Durst, Jürgen; Michel, Thilo

    2013-04-01

    Many different experiments are being developed to explore the existence of the neutrinoless double beta decay (0 νββ) since it would imply fundamental consequences for particle physics. In this work we present results on the evaluation of Timepix detectors with cadmium-telluride sensor material to search for 0 νββ in 116Cd. This work was carried out with the COBRA collaboration and the Medipix collaboration. Due to the relatively small pixel dimension of 110×110×1000 μm3 the energy deposited by particles typically extends over several detector pixels leading to a track in the pixel matrix. We investigated the separation power regarding different event-types like α-particles, atmospheric muons, single electrons and electron-positron pairs produced at a single vertex. We achieved excellent classification power for α-particles and muons. In addition, we achieved good separation power between single electron and electron-positron pair production events. These separation abilities indicate a very good background reduction for the 0 νββ search. Further, in order to distinguish between 2 νββ and 0 νββ, the energy resolution is of particular importance. We carried out simulations which demonstrate that an energy resolution of 0.43 % is achievable at the Q-value for 0 νββ of 116Cd at 2.814 MeV. We measured an energy resolution of 1.6 % at a nominal energy of 1589 keV for electron-positron tracks which is about two times worse that predicted by our simulations. This deviation is probably due to the problem of detector calibration at energies above 122 keV which is discussed in this paper as well.

  11. Double-helix stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Moroz, P.E.

    1997-09-01

    A new stellarator configuration, the Double-Helix Stellarator (DHS), is introduced. This novel configuration features a double-helix center post as the only helical element of the stellarator coil system. The DHS configuration has many unique characteristics. One of them is the extreme low plasma aspect ratio, A {approx} 1--1.2. Other advantages include a high enclosed volume, appreciable rotational transform, and a possibility of extreme-high-{beta} MHD equilibria. Moreover, the DHS features improved transport characteristics caused by the absence of the magnetic field ripple on the outboard of the torus. Compactness, simplicity and modularity of the coil system add to the DHS advantages for fusion applications.

  12. Spectrometers for Beta Decay Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yong; Hirshfield, Jay

    2015-04-01

    Inspired by the neutrino mass direct measurement experiment Project 8, precision spectrometers are proposed to simultaneously measure energy and momentum of beta-decay electrons produced in rare nuclear events with improved energy resolution. For detecting single beta decay electrons near the end-point from a gaseous source such as tritium, one type of spectrometer is proposed to utilize stimulated cyclotron resonance interaction of microwaves with electrons in a waveguide immersed in a magnetic mirror. In the external RF fields, on-resonance electrons will satisfy both the cyclotron resonance condition and waveguide dispersion relationship. By correlating the resonances at two waveguide modes, one can associate the frequencies with both the energy and longitudinal momentum of an on-resonance electron to account for the Doppler shifts. For detecting neutrino-less double-beta decay, another spectrometer is proposed with thin foil of double-beta-allowed material immersed in a magnetic field, and RF antenna array for detection of synchrotron radiation from electrons. It utilizes the correlation between the antenna signals including higher harmonics of radiation to reconstruct the total energy distribution.

  13. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-01-01

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows’ milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed. PMID:26404362

  14. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-09-01

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows' milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows' milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows' milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed. PMID:26404362

  15. Structure and magnetotransport properties of the new quasi-two-dimensional molecular metal {beta} Double-Prime -(BEDT-TTF){sub 4}H{sub 3}O[Fe(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}] {center_dot} C{sub 6}H{sub 4}Cl{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Zorina, L. V.; Prokhorova, T. G.; Simonov, S. V. Khasanov, S. S.; Shibaeva, R. P.; Manakov, A. I.; Zverev, V. N.; Buravov, L. I.; Yagubskii, E. B.

    2008-02-15

    The {beta} Double-Prime -(BEDT-TTF){sub 4}A{sup I}[M{sup III}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}] {center_dot} G(A{sup I}=NH{sub 4}{sup +}, H{sub 3}O{sup +}, K{sup +}, Rb{sup +}; M{sup III}=Fe, Cr; G = 'guest' solvent molecule) family of layered molecular conductors with magnetic metal oxalate anions exhibits a pronounced dependence of the conducting properties on the type of neutral solvent molecules introduced into the complex anion layer. A new organic dichlorobenzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 4}Cl{sub 2})-containing conductor of this family, namely, {beta} Double-Prime -(BEDT-TTF){sub 4}H{sub 3}O[Fe(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}] {center_dot} C{sub 6}H{sub 4}Cl{sub 2}, is synthesized. The structure of the synthesized single crystals studied by X-ray diffraction is characterized by the following parameters: a = 10.421(1) A, b= 19.991(2) A, c= 35.441(3) A, {beta} = 92.87(1) Degree-Sign , V= 7374(1) A{sup 3}, space groupC2/c, and Z = 4. In the temperature range 0.5 and 2-300 K, the conductivity of the crystals is metallic without changing into a superconducting state. The magnetotransport properties of the crystals are examined in magnetic fields up to 17 T at T = 0.5 K. In fields higher than 10 T, Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations are detected, and the Fourier spectrum of these oscillations contains two frequencies with maximum amplitudes of about 80 and 375 T. The experimental results are compared with the related data obtained for other phases of this family. The possible structural mechanisms of the effect of a guest solvent molecule on the transport properties of the {beta} Double-Prime -(BEDT-TTF){sub 4}A{sup I}[M{sup III}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}] {center_dot} G crystals are analyzed.

  16. Nuclear Matrix Elements for two-neutrino DBD in Te isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Bes, D. R.; Civitarese, O.

    2009-11-09

    Theoretical matrix elements, for the ground-state to ground-state two-neutrino double-beta-decay mode of {sup 128,130}Te isotopes, are calculated within a formalism which describes interactions between neutrons in a superfluid phase and protons in a normal phase. The model is basically a parameter-free one, since all relevant parameters are fixed from phenomenology. A comparison with the available experimental data is presented.

  17. Optical Calibration of SNO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneira, J.; Peeters, S.; Sinclair, J.

    2015-04-01

    SNO is being upgraded to SNO+, which has as its main goal the search for neutrinoless double-beta decay. The upgrade is defined by filling with a novel scintillator mixture containing 130Te. With a lower energy threshold than SNO, SNO+ will be sensitive to other exciting new physics. Here we are describing new optical calibration system that meets new, more stringent radiopurity requirements has been developed.

  18. Measurement of $\\beta_s$ at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Oakes, Louise; /Oxford U.

    2011-02-01

    The latest results for the measurement of the CP violating phase {beta}{sub s} in B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} J/{Psi}{phi} decays, from 5.2 fb{sup -1} integrated luminosity of CDF data are presented. For the first time, this measurement includes the contribution of B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} J/{Psi}K{sup +}K{sup -} or B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} J/{Psi}f{sub 0} events to the signal sample, where the f{sub 0} and non-resonant K{sup +}K{sup -} are S-wave states. Additional improvements to the analysis include more than doubling the signal sample, improved selection and particle ID, and fully calibrated flavour tagging for the full dataset. Additionally, the world's most precise single measurements of the B{sub s}{sup 0} lifetime, {tau}{sub s}, and width difference, {Delta}{Gamma}{sub s} are given.

  19. Cereal beta-glucans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal beta-glucans occur predominantly in oats and barley, but can be found in other cereals. Beta-glucan structure is a mixture of single beta-1,3-linkages and consecutive beta-1,4-linkages, and cellotriosyl and cellotetraosyl units typically make up 90-95% of entire molecule. Lichenase can hydr...

  20. A cylinder-shaped double ribbon structure formed by an amyloid hairpin peptide derived from the beta-sheet of murine PrP: an X-ray and molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Croixmarie, Vincent; Briki, Fatma; David, Gabriel; Coïc, Yves-Marie; Ovtracht, Ludmila; Doucet, Jean; Jamin, Nadège; Sanson, A

    2005-06-01

    A structural model of the murine PrP small beta-sheet was obtained by synthesizing the RGYMLGSADPNGNQVYYRG peptide comprising the two beta-strands 127-133 and 159-164 linked by a four-residue sequence of high turn propensity. The DPNG turn sequence is a "short circuit" replacing the original protein sequence between the two strands. This 19-residue peptide spontaneously forms very long single fibrils as observed by electron microscopy. The X-ray diffraction patterns of a partially oriented sample reveals an average arrangement of the hairpin peptides into a structure which can be geometrically approximated by an empty-core cylinder. The hairpins are oriented perpendicular to the cylinder axis and a 130 A helix period is observed. Based on X-ray diffraction constraints and on more indirect general protein structure considerations, a precise and consistent fibril model was built. The structure consists of two beta-sheet ribbons wound around a cylinder and assembled into a single fibril with a hairpin orientation perpendicular to the fibril axis. Subsequent implicit and explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations provided the final structure at atomic resolution and further insights into the stabilizing interactions. Particularly important are the zipper-like network of polar interactions between the edges of the two ribbons, including the partially buried water molecules. The hydrophobic core is not optimally compact explaining the low density of this region seen by X-ray diffraction. The present findings provide also a simple model for further investigating the sequence-stability relationship using a mutational approach with a quasi-independent consideration of the polar and apolar interactions. PMID:15890277

  1. beta-Hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    beta - Hexachlorocyclohexane ( beta - HCH ) ; CASRN 319 - 85 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Asses

  2. Search for Low-Energy Events with CUORE-0 and CUORE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Kyungeun; Cuore Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    CUORE-0 is a cryogenic detector that uses an array of tellurium dioxide bolometers with the primary physics goal of searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 130Te. The detector consists of 52 natTeO2 crystal bolometers, which amounts to a total 130Te mass of 11kg, held in a ultra-pure copper frame. It was assembled using new low-background techniques developed for CUORE. The first results on the search for neutrinoless double-beta decay with CUORE-0 combined with Cuoricinio, a predecessor to CUORE-0, set the most stringent limit on the half-life of 130Te. Successful background mitigation, along with continuous data acquisition make CUORE-0 also suitable for other low-energy, rare event searches such as dark matter. I will discuss the status of the low-energy event search with CUORE-0 and prospects for CUORE. CUORE is in the final stages of construction and scheduled to begin data-taking in late 2015.

  3. Polyfluorinated. cap alpha. ,. beta. -unsaturated ketons

    SciTech Connect

    Latypov, R.R.; Belogai, V.D.; Pashkevich, K.I.

    1986-07-10

    The ..cap alpha..,..beta..-unsaturated ketones (..cap alpha..,..beta..-UK), particularly those groups containing fluoroalkyl groups, are of interest as highly reactive compounds having two nonequivalent electrophilic centers. In the present investigation, by boiling polyfluorinated aldehydes with methylketones in glacial acetic acid, they have obtained for the first time the polyfluorinated ..beta..-hydroxy-ketones, the dehydration of which has been used to synthesize the corresponding polyfluorinated ..cap alpha..,..beta..-UK, and their structure and reactions with the nucleophiles NH/sub 3/, PhNH/sub 2/, MeOH have been studied. In the PMR spectra of the ..cap alpha..,..beta..-UK (X)-(XVI) two doublets of triplets are observed at 6.9 and 7.9 ppm, caused by the spin-spin coupling of the olefin protons with the CF/sub 2/ group of the substituent. For ..cap alpha..,..beta..-UK, apart from the cis-trans isomerism relative to the C=C bond, a rotational isomerism is possible, caused by rotation around the C-C single bond. The presence in the IR spectra of absorption bands from nonplanar torsion-deformation vibrations of C-H for a double bond (nu = 975-980 cm/sup -1/) and the high value of the spin-spin coupling constant of the olefin protons (J/sub HH/ = 15 Hz) indicate unambiguously the transconfiguration of the olefin protons.

  4. Radioimmunoassay of beta lipoprotein—protein of rat serum

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, R. Philip; Kipnis, David M.

    1969-01-01

    A double antibody radioimmunoassay for rat serum beta lipoprotein-protein (beta Lp-protein) is described. The protein was purified by ultracentrifugation, selective heparin-manganous precipitation, and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. Antiserum was prepared in rabbits by biweekly immunization and absorbed with nonbeta lipoprotein containing rat serum. Iodination with 125I and purification by gel filtration provided a radiolabeled protein which was > 98% displaced by purified beta lipoprotein in the immunoassay. The radioimmunoassay was sensitive to beta Lp-protein concentrations from 0.1 to 1.5 μg. Specificity of the immunoassay for beta Lp-protein was established by comparison of the displacement curves obtained with serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and density (d) > 1.21 fractions and with the beta and alpha migrating lipoproteins eluted from paper electrophoretograms. Suitability of the assay for measuring beta Lp-protein in serum was established by demonstrating 100% recovery of beta lipoprotein added to whole serum and by the absence of immunoreactive beta Lp-protein in serum of orotic acid-treated rats. Examination of sera from six other vertebrates species revealed partial cross-reactivity. Normal rat serum was found to contain 0.25±0.01 mg/ml of beta Lp-protein and hepatic production by an isolated perfused rat liver system was determined as 0.145 mg/hr. Images PMID:4978731

  5. Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation phase 1 studies evaluating BTH1677, a 1, 3-1,6 beta glucan pathogen associated molecular pattern, in healthy volunteer subjects.

    PubMed

    Halstenson, C E; Shamp, T; Gargano, M A; Walsh, R M; Patchen, M L

    2016-04-01

    Background BTH1677 is a beta glucan pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) currently being investigated as a novel cancer therapy. Here, the initial safety and pharmacokinetic (PK) results of BTH1677 in healthy subjects are reported. Subjects and Methods In the Phase 1a single-dosing study, subjects were randomized (3:1 per cohort) to a single intravenous (iv) infusion of BTH1677 at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, or 6 mg/kg or placebo, respectively. In the Phase 1b multi-dosing study, subjects were randomized (3:1 per cohort) to 7 daily iv infusions of BTH1677 at 1, 2, or 4 mg/kg or placebo, respectively. Safety and PK non-compartmental analyses were performed. Results Thirty-six subjects (N = 24 Phase 1a; N = 12 Phase 1b) were randomized to treatment. No deaths or serious adverse events occurred in either study. Mild or moderate adverse events (AEs) occurred in 67 % of BTH1677-treated subjects in both studies. Treatment-related AEs (occurring in ≥10 % of subjects) included dyspnea, flushing, headache, nausea, paraesthesia, and rash in Phase 1a and conjunctivitis and headache in Phase 1b. BTH1677 serum concentration was linear with dose. Clearance, serum elimination half-life (t1/2) and volume of distribution (Vss) were BTH1677 dose-independent. In Phase 1b, area under the curve, t1/2, and Vss values were larger at steady state on days 6-30 versus day 0. Conclusions BTH1677 was well tolerated after single doses up to 6 mg/kg and after 7 daily doses up to 4 mg/kg. PMID:26865390

  6. Tyrosine residues 654 and 670 in {beta}-cat enin are crucial in regulation of Met-{beta}-catenin interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Gang; Apte, Udayan; Micsenyi, Amanda; Bell, Aaron; Monga, Satdarshan P.S. . E-mail: smonga@pitt.edu

    2006-11-01

    {beta}-catenin, a key component of the canonical Wnt pathway, is also regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation that regulates its association to E-cadherin. Previously, we reported its association with the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor Met at the membrane. HGF induced Met-{beta}-catenin dissociation and nuclear translocation of {beta}-catenin, which was tyrosine-phosphorylation-dependent. Here, we further investigate the Met-{beta}-catenin interaction by selectively mutating several tyrosine residues, alone or in combination, in {beta}-catenin. The mutants were subcloned into FLAG-CMV vector and stably transfected into rat hepatoma cells, which were treated with HGF. All single or double-mutant-transfected cells continued to show HGF-induced nuclear translocation of FLAG-{beta}-catenin except the mutations affecting 654 and 670 simultaneously (Y654/670F), which coincided with the lack of formation of {beta}-catenin-TCF complex and DNA synthesis, in response to the HGF treatment. In addition, the Y654/670F-transfected cells also showed no phosphorylation of {beta}-catenin or dissociation from Met in response to HGF. Thus, intact 654 and 670 tyrosine residues in {beta}-catenin are crucial in HGF-mediated {beta}-catenin translocation, activation and mitogenesis.

  7. Efficacy of the long-acting nitro vasodilator pentaerithrityl tetranitrate in patients with chronic stable angina pectoris receiving anti-anginal background therapy with beta-blockers: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Münzel, Thomas; Meinertz, Thomas; Tebbe, Ulrich; Schneider, Heinrich Theodor; Stalleicken, Dirk; Wargenau, Manfred; Gori, Tommaso; Klingmann, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Background The organic nitrate pentaerithrityl tetranitrate (PETN) has been shown to have ancillary properties that prevent the development of tolerance and endothelial dysfunction. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study (‘CLEOPATRA’ study) was designed to investigate the anti-ischaemic efficacy of PETN 80 mg b.i.d. (morning and mid-day) over placebo in patients with chronic stable angina pectoris. Methods and results A total of 655 patients were evaluated in the intention-to-treat population, randomized to PETN (80 mg b.i.d., n = 328) or placebo (n = 327) and completed the study. Patients underwent treadmill exercise tests at randomization, after 6 and 12 weeks of treatment. Treatment with PETN over 12 weeks did not modify the primary endpoint total exercise duration (TED, P = 0.423). In a pre-specified sub-analysis of patients with reduced exercise capacity (TED at baseline ≤9 min, n = 257), PETN appeared more effective than placebo treatment (P = 0.054). Superiority of PETN over placebo was evident in patients who were symptomatic at low exercise levels (n = 120; P = 0.017). Pentaerithrityl tetranitrate 80 mg b.i.d. was well tolerated, and the overall safety profile was comparable with placebo. Conclusion Although providing no additional benefit in unselected patients with known coronary artery disease, PETN therapy, administered in addition to modern anti-ischaemic therapy, could increase exercise tolerance in symptomatic patients with reduced exercise capacity. PMID:24071762

  8. Imperfect World of beta beta-decay Nuclear Data Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.

    2015-01-03

    The precision of double-beta ββ-decay experimental half lives and their uncertainties is reanalyzed. The method of Benford's distributions has been applied to nuclear reaction, structure and decay data sets. First-digit distribution trend for ββ-decay T2v1/2 is consistent with large nuclear reaction and structure data sets and provides validation of experimental half-lives. A complementary analysis of the decay uncertainties indicates deficiencies due to small size of statistical samples, and incomplete collection of experimental information. Further experimental and theoretical efforts would lead toward more precise values of-decay half-lives and nuclear matrix elements.

  9. The Double Chooz Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfahler, Patrick; Double Chooz Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    Double Chooz is a reactor bar nue-disappearance experiment situated at the commercial nuclear power plant of Chooz in northern France. The experiment aims for the revelation of the last unknown mixing angle Θ13 as a part of the neutrino mixing matrix or the improvement of the upper limit for sin2(2Θ13), which is currently < 0.14 (90% CL). A newly developed gadolinium-loaded liquid scintillator as target allows the detection of electron-anti-neutrinos (bar nue) using the inverse beta decay and its distinct decay pattern (bar nue + p → e+ +n). Double Chooz uses two identical detectors at different distances in order to reduce systematic uncertainties. This will allow, after a data taking phase of 4 years, an improvement on sin2(2Θ13) down to < 0.03 (90% CL). The first (far) detector has successfully been installed and filled, and takes data since April of 2011. A preliminary analysis of first 120 days revealed about 4000 Neutrino-candidates and a stable detector-setup with low backgrounds. The commissioning of the second (near) detector is expected for the beginning of 2013 and will provide maximum sensitivity for the experiment.

  10. Double Layers in Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Alton C. (Editor); Moorehead, Tauna W. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: laboratory double layers; ion-acoustic double layers; pumping potential wells; ion phase-space vortices; weak double layers; electric fields and double layers in plasmas; auroral double layers; double layer formation in a plasma; beamed emission from gamma-ray burst source; double layers and extragalactic jets; and electric potential between plasma sheet clouds.

  11. Predicting a double mutant in the twilight zone of low homology modeling for the skeletal muscle voltage-gated sodium channel subunit beta-1 (Nav1.4 β1)

    PubMed Central

    Scior, Thomas; Paiz-Candia, Bertin; Islas, Ángel A.; Sánchez-Solano, Alfredo; Millan-Perez Peña, Lourdes; Mancilla-Simbro, Claudia; Salinas-Stefanon, Eduardo M.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular structure modeling of the β1 subunit of the skeletal muscle voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav1.4) was carried out in the twilight zone of very low homology. Structural significance can per se be confounded with random sequence similarities. Hence, we combined (i) not automated computational modeling of weakly homologous 3D templates, some with interfaces to analogous structures to the pore-bearing Nav1.4 α subunit with (ii) site-directed mutagenesis (SDM), as well as (iii) electrophysiological experiments to study the structure and function of the β1 subunit. Despite the distant phylogenic relationships, we found a 3D-template to identify two adjacent amino acids leading to the long-awaited loss of function (inactivation) of Nav1.4 channels. This mutant type (T109A, N110A, herein called TANA) was expressed and tested on cells of hamster ovary (CHO). The present electrophysiological results showed that the double alanine substitution TANA disrupted channel inactivation as if the β1 subunit would not be in complex with the α subunit. Exhaustive and unbiased sampling of “all β proteins” (Ig-like, Ig) resulted in a plethora of 3D templates which were compared to the target secondary structure prediction. The location of TANA was made possible thanks to another “all β protein” structure in complex with an irreversible bound protein as well as a reversible protein–protein interface (our “Rosetta Stone” effect). This finding coincides with our electrophysiological data (disrupted β1-like voltage dependence) and it is safe to utter that the Nav1.4 α/β1 interface is likely to be of reversible nature. PMID:25904995

  12. Double screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratia, Pierre; Hu, Wayne; Joyce, Austin; Ribeiro, Raquel H.

    2016-06-01

    Attempts to modify gravity in the infrared typically require a screening mechanism to ensure consistency with local tests of gravity. These screening mechanisms fit into three broad classes; we investigate theories which are capable of exhibiting more than one type of screening. Specifically, we focus on a simple model which exhibits both Vainshtein and kinetic screening. We point out that due to the two characteristic length scales in the problem, the type of screening that dominates depends on the mass of the sourcing object, allowing for different phenomenology at different scales. We consider embedding this double screening phenomenology in a broader cosmological scenario and show that the simplest examples that exhibit double screening are radiatively stable.

  13. Heidelberg-Moscow {beta}{beta} experiment with {sup 76}Ge: Full setup with five detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, M.; Hellmig, J.; Heusser, G.; Hirsch, M.; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V.; Maier, B.; Paes, H.; Petry, F.; Ramachers, Y.; Strecker, H.; Voellinger, M.; Balysh, A.; Belyaev, S.T.; Demehin, A.; Gurov, A.; Kondratenko, I.; Kotelnikov, D.; Lebedev, V.I.; Mueller, A.

    1997-01-01

    The full setup of the Heidelberg-Moscow double {beta} decay experiment is presented. This experiment gives at present the most stringent upper bound, improving the neutrino mass limit into the sub-eV range. Out of 19.2 kg of 86{percent} enriched {sup 76}Ge five crystals were grown with a total mass of 11.51 kg. Since February 1995 all five detectors, corresponding to 10.96 kg active mass, are in regular operation in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory, four of them in a common shield. No signal is observed for the neutrinoless double {beta} decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}). The measured data from the first three enriched detectors with a statistical significance of 13.60 kgyr result in a new half-life limit of T{sub 1/2}(0{sup +}{r_arrow}0{sup +}){gt}7.4{times}10{sup 24} yr (90{percent} C.L.). With this limit a Majorana mass of the neutrinos larger than 0.6 eV (90{percent} C.L.) is excluded. From the data taken in the previously operated setup with three enriched detectors in a common shielding and a statistical significance of 10.58 kgyr new results are extracted for the two neutrino double {beta} decay (2{nu}{beta}{beta}) of {sup 76}Ge. The procedure of a quantitative and model-independent description of the background via a Monte Carlo simulation is outlined in some detail. The combined result is T{sub 1/2}{sup 2{nu}}=[1.77{sub {minus}0.01}{sup +0.01}(stat){sub {minus}0.11}{sup +0.13}(sys)]{times}10{sup 21} yr. Further on the results concerning new Majoron models and the impact on SUSY parameters are briefly reviewed. Future improvements on the background with the application of digital pulse shape analysis are discussed and an outlook on the future of {beta}{beta} research is given. {copyright} {ital 1996} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. The selectivity of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists at the human beta1, beta2 and beta3 adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jillian G

    2005-02-01

    Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists ("beta-blockers") are one of the most widely used classes of drugs in cardiovascular medicine (hypertension, ischaemic heart disease and increasingly in heart failure) as well as in the management of anxiety, migraine and glaucoma. Where known, the mode of action in cardiovascular disease is from antagonism of endogenous catecholamine responses in the heart (mainly at beta1-adrenoceptors), while the worrisome side effects of bronchospasm result from airway beta2-adrenoceptor blockade. The aim of this study was to determine the selectivity of beta-antagonists for the human beta-adrenoceptor subtypes. (3)H-CGP 12177 whole cell-binding studies were undertaken in CHO cell lines stably expressing either the human beta1-, beta2- or the beta3-adrenoceptor in order to determine the affinity of ligands for each receptor subtype in the same cell background. In this study, the selectivity of well-known subtype-selective ligands was clearly demonstrated: thus, the selective beta1 antagonist CGP 20712A was 501-fold selective over beta2 and 4169-fold selective over beta3; the beta2-selective antagonist ICI 118551 was 550- and 661-fold selective over beta1 and beta3, respectively, and the selective beta3 compound CL 316243 was 10-fold selective over beta2 and more than 129-fold selective over beta1. Those beta2-adrenoceptor agonists used clinically for the treatment of asthma and COPD were beta2 selective: 29-, 61- and 2818-fold for salbutamol, terbutaline and salmeterol over beta1, respectively. There was little difference in the affinity of these ligands between beta1 and beta3 adrenoceptors. The clinically used beta-antagonists studied ranged from bisoprolol (14-fold beta1-selective) to timolol (26-fold beta2-selective). However, the majority showed little selectivity for the beta1- over the beta2-adrenoceptor, with many actually being more beta2-selective. This study shows that the beta1/beta2 selectivity of most clinically used beta-blockers is

  15. High Beta Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Cowley, S.

    1998-11-14

    Perhaps the ideal tokamak would have high {beta} ({beta} {approx}> 1) and classical confinement. Such a tokamak has not been found, and we do not know if one does exist. We have searched for such a possibility, so far without success. In 1990, we obtained analytic equilibrium solutions for large aspect ratio tokamaks at {beta} {approx} {Omicron}(1) [1]. These solutions and the extension at high {beta} poloidal to finite aspect ratio [2] provided a basis for the study of high {beta} tokamaks. We have shown that these configurations can be stable to short scale MHD modes [3], and that they have reduced neoclassical transport [4]. Microinstabilities (such as the {del}T{sub i} mode) seem to be stabilized at high {beta} [5] - this is due to the large local shear [3] and the magnetic well. We have some concerns about modes associated with the compressional branch which may appear at high {beta}. Bill Dorland and Mike Kotschenreuther have studied this issue and our concerns may be unfounded. It is certainly tantalizing, especially given the lowered neoclassical transport values, that these configurations could have no microinstabilities and, one could assume, no anomalous transport. Unfortunately, while this work is encouraging, the key question for high {beta} tokamaks is the stability to large scale kink modes. The MHD {beta} limit (Troyon limit) for kink modes at large aspect ratio is problematically low. There is ample evidence from computations that the limit exists. However, it is not known if stable equilibria exist at much higher {beta}--none have been found. We have explored this question in the asymptotic high {beta} poloidal limit. Unfortunately, we are unable to find stable equilibrium and also unable to show that they don't exist. The results of these calculations will be published when a more definitive answer is found.

  16. Occupancies of individual orbits, and the nuclear matrix element of the {sup 76}Ge neutrinoless {beta}{beta} decay

    SciTech Connect

    Menendez, J.; Poves, A.

    2009-10-15

    We discuss the variation of the nuclear matrix element (NME) for the neutrinoless double beta (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay of {sup 76}Ge when the wave functions are constrained to reproduce the experimental occupancies of the two nuclei involved in the transition. In the interacting shell model description the value of the NME is enhanced about 15% compared to previous calculations, whereas in the QRPA the NME's are reduced by 20%-30%. This diminishes the discrepancies between both approaches. In addition, we discuss the effect of the short-range correlations on the NME in light of the recently proposed parametrizations based on a consistent renormalization of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} transition operator.

  17. Beta-Carotene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beta-carotene is a pigment that occurs naturally in many photosynthetic plants and organisms and one of the most abundant carotenoids found in human blood. The richest dietary sources of beta-carotene are yellow, orange, and leafy green fruits and vegetables, such as carrots, spinach, sweet potatoes...

  18. BETA GAUGE OPERATION MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual provides description and operating instructions for a redesigned Beta Gauge for measuring particles from vehicle exhaust. The improvements and a new control system including a control unit which is radically different from the prior unit, are described. Complete Beta ...

  19. CUORE and beyond: Bolometric techniques to explore inverted neutrino mass hierarchy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; et al

    2015-03-24

    The CUORE (Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events) experiment will search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te. With 741 kg of TeO2 crystals and an excellent energy resolution of 5 keV (0.2%) at the region of interest, CUORE will be one of the most competitive neutrinoless double beta decay experiments on the horizon. With five years of live time, CUORE projected neutrinoless double beta decay half-life sensitivity is 1.6 × 1026 y at 1σ (9.5 × 1025 y at the 90% confidence level), which corresponds to an upper limit on the effective Majorana mass in the range 40–100 meVmore » (50–130 meV). Further background rejection with auxiliary light detector can significantly improve the search sensitivity and competitiveness of bolometric detectors to fully explore the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy with 130Te and possibly other double beta decay candidate nuclei.« less

  20. Influence of Pairing on the Nuclear Matrix Elements of the Neutrinoless {beta}{beta} Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Caurier, E.; Nowacki, F.

    2008-02-08

    We study in this Letter the neutrinoless double beta decay nuclear matrix elements (NME's) in the framework of the interacting shell model. We analyze them in terms of the total angular momentum of the decaying neutron pair and as a function of the seniority truncations in the nuclear wave functions. This point of view turns out to be very adequate to gauge the accuracy of the NME's predicted by different nuclear models. In addition, it gives back the protagonist role in this process to the pairing interaction, the one which is responsible for the very existence of double beta decay emitters. We show that low seniority approximations, comparable to those implicit in the quasiparticle RPA in a spherical basis, tend to overestimate the NME's in several decays.

  1. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  2. Beta experiment flight report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A focused laser Doppler velocimeter system was developed for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter (beta) from aerosols at infrared wavelengths. The system was flight tested at several different locations and the results of these tests are summarized.

  3. Beta-carotene

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain in people who drink alcohol. Preventing abdominal aortic aneurysm, or the enlargement of a large vessel running ... years does not reduce the occurrence of abdominal aortic aneurysm in male smokers. Cancer. Beta-carotene does not ...

  4. Beta-carotene

    MedlinePlus

    ... blindness during pregnancy, as well as diarrhea and fever after giving birth. Some people who sunburn easily, ... seems to reduce the incidence of diarrhea and fever post-childbirth. Pregnancy-related complications. Taking beta-carotene ...

  5. High beta multipoles

    SciTech Connect

    Prager, S C

    1982-05-01

    Multipoles are being employed as devices to study fusion issues and plasma phenomena at high values of beta (plasma pressure/magnetic pressure) in a controlled manner. Due to their large volume, low magnetic field (low synchrotron radiation) region, they are also under consideration as potential steady state advanced fuel (low neutron yield) reactors. Present experiments are investigating neoclassical (bootstrap and Pfirsch-Schlueter) currents and plasma stability at extremely high beta.

  6. Elucidation of the beta-carotene hydroxylation pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Alessia; Dall'osto, Luca; Fraser, Paul D; Bassi, Roberto; Giuliano, Giovanni

    2006-08-21

    The first dedicated step in plant xanthophyll biosynthesis is carotenoid hydroxylation. In Arabidopsis thaliana, this reaction is performed by both heme (LUT1 and LUT5) and non-heme (CHY1 and CHY2) hydroxylases. No mutant completely abolishing alpha- or beta-carotene hydroxylation has been described to date. We constructed double and triple mutant combinations in CHY1, CHY2, LUT1, LUT5 and LUT2 (lycopene epsilon-cyclase). In chy1chy2lut2, 80% of leaf carotenoids is represented by beta-carotene. In chy1chy2lut5, beta-carotene hydroxylation is completely abolished, while hydroxylation of the beta-ring of alpha-carotene is still observed. The data are consistent with a role of LUT5 in beta-ring hydroxylation, and with the existence of an additional hydroxylase, acting on the beta-ring of alpha-, but not beta-carotene. PMID:16890225

  7. Stereoselective entry to beta-linked C-disaccharides using a carbon-Ferrier reaction.

    PubMed

    Gemmell, Natasha; Meo, Paul; Osborn, Helen M I

    2003-05-15

    [structure: see text] The synthesis of unsaturated beta-linked C-disaccharides by the Lewis acid-mediated reaction of 3-O-acetylated glycals with monosaccharide-derived alkenes is described. Deprotection and selective hydrogenation of an exocyclic carbon-carbon double, in the presence of an endocyclic double bond, for representative targets is also illustrated. PMID:12735743

  8. Status of the COBRA double beta decay experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janutta, B.; Cobra Collaboration

    2011-08-01

    COBRA is an R&D project, using CdZnTe (CZT) semiconductor detectors to search for the 0νββ decay. CZT is a room temperature semiconductor detector with good energy resolution. The experiment is located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS). In addition to pure energy measurements, pixelated detectors allow for tracking, further reducing the background significantly. The current status of the experiment is presented, including the latest analysis results.

  9. Double Beta Decay of Tellurium-130: Current Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshik, A. P.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Pravdivtseva, O. V.; Bernatowicz, T. J.

    2002-01-01

    Geochemically measured values of Te-130 half-life form two distinct clusters. Two different experiments were performed to check two proposed explanations: Xe loss and Xe inheritance. Neither is observed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. Recent developments in the theory of double beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Iachello, F.; Kotila, J.; Barea, J.

    2013-12-30

    We report results of a novel calculation of phase space factors for 2νβ{sup +}β{sup +}, 2νβ{sup +}EC, 2νECEC, 0νβ{sup +}β{sup +}, and 0νβ{sup +}EC using exact Dirac wave functions, and finite nuclear size and electron screening corrections. We present results of expected half-lives for 0νβ{sup +}β{sup +} and 0νβ{sup +}EC decays obtained by combining the calculation of phase space factors with IBM-2 nuclear matrix elements.

  11. Limits on sterile neutrino contributions to neutrinoless double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barea, J.; Kotila, J.; Iachello, F.

    2015-11-01

    Nuclear matrix elements (NME) for exchange of arbitrary mass neutrinos are calculated in the interacting boson model (IBM-2). By combining the NME with the phase space factors (PSF), expected half-lives for neutrinos of mass mN and coupling Ue N are estimated. Limits on sterile neutrinos with masses in the eV, keV, MeV-GeV, and TeV range are given.

  12. Long-range contributions to double beta decay revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helo, J. C.; Hirsch, M.; Ota, T.

    2016-06-01

    We discuss the systematic decomposition of all dimension-7 ( d = 7) lepton number violating operators. These d = 7 operators produce momentum enhanced contributions to the long-range part of the 0νββ decay amplitude and thus are severely constrained by existing half-live limits. In our list of possible models one can find contributions to the long-range amplitude discussed previously in the literature, such as the left-right symmetric model or scalar leptoquarks, as well as some new models not considered before. The d = 7 operators generate Majorana neutrino mass terms either at tree-level, 1-loop or 2-loop level. We systematically compare constraints derived from the mass mechanism to those derived from the long-range 0 νββ decay amplitude and classify our list of models accordingly. We also study one particular example decomposition, which produces neutrino masses at 2-loop level, can fit oscillation data and yields a large contribution to the long-range 0 νββ decay amplitude, in some detail.

  13. Beta-limiting MHD Instabilities in Improved-performance NSTX Spherical Torus Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    J.E. Menard; M.G. Bell; R.E. Bell; E.D. Fredrickson D.A. Gates: S.M. Kaye; B.P. LeBlanc; R. Maingi; D. Mueller; S.A. Sabbagh; D. Stutman; C.E. Bush; D.W. Johnson; R. Kaita; H.W. Kugel; R.J. Maqueda; F. Paoletti; S.F Paul; M. Ono; Y.-K.M. Peng; C.H. Skinner; E.J. Synakowski; the NSTX Research Team

    2003-05-29

    Global magnetohydrodynamic stability limits in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have increased significantly recently due to a combination of device and operational improvements. First, more routine H-mode operation with broadened pressure profiles allows access to higher normalized beta and lower internal inductance. Second, the correction of a poloidal field coil induced error-field has largely eliminated locked tearing modes during normal operation and increased the maximum achievable beta. As a result of these improvements, peak beta values have reached (not simultaneously) {beta}{sub t} = 35%, {beta}{sub N} = 6.4, <{beta}{sub N}> = 4.5, {beta}{sub N}/l{sub i} = 10, and {beta}{sub P} = 1.4. High {beta}{sub P} operation with reduced tearing activity has allowed a doubling of discharge pulse-length to just over 1 second with sustained periods of {beta}{sub N} {approx} 6 above the ideal no-wall limit and near the with-wall limit. Details of the {beta} limit scalings and {beta}-limiting instabilities in various operating regimes are described.

  14. Inhaled beta agonists.

    PubMed

    Op't Holt, Timothy B

    2007-07-01

    The beta(2) adrenoreceptor is a large molecule of some 413 amino acids. The duration of stimulation of this receptor depends on where and for how long a beta(2) adrenergic drug attaches itself to the beta(2) adrenoreceptor. beta(2) adrenergic drugs have been used for over 5,000 years, but only recently have we had the advantage of adrenergic drugs specific to the beta(2) adrenoreceptor. The short-acting beta(2) adrenergic drugs most frequently used include albuterol, pirbuterol, and levalbuterol. Levalbuterol, the R enantiomer of albuterol, has been described by some as a more effective bronchodilator than racemic albuterol, because it contains none of the S enantiomer. Some contend that the S isomer has pro-inflammatory properties. The 2 long-acting beta(2) adrenergic drugs are salmeterol and formoterol. These drugs have a duration of 12 h and reportedly improve forced expiratory volume in the first second, quality of life, and symptoms. Some recent reports indicate that these drugs are associated with higher mortality, but several authors have registered the opinion that it is not the bronchodilator that should be questioned, but instead that the fault lies in the patient recruitment in those studies. Regardless, if these long-acting drugs are effective for a given patient, it would seem inadvisable to withdraw them, given the current state of evidence. Arformoterol tartrate, the R enantiomer of formoterol, was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in October 2006; it is available as a nebulizer solution, to be administered every 12 h. Several other long-acting R isomers and RR isomers are in the approval pipeline. PMID:17594727

  15. Seeing Double

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesic, Peter

    2003-10-01

    The separateness and connection of individuals is perhaps the central question of human life: What, exactly, is my individuality? To what degree is it unique? To what degree can it be shared, and how? To the many philosophical and literary speculations about these topics over time, modern science has added the curious twist of quantum theory, which requires that the elementary particles of which everything consists have no individuality at all. All aspects of chemistry depend on this lack of individuality, as do many branches of physics. From where, then, does our individuality come? In Seeing Double, Peter Pesic invites readers to explore this intriguing set of questions. He draws on literary and historical examples that open the mind (from Homer to Martin Guerre to Kafka), philosophical analyses that have helped to make our thinking and speech more precise, and scientific work that has enabled us to characterize the phenomena of nature. Though he does not try to be all-inclusive, Pesic presents a broad range of ideas, building toward a specific point of view: that the crux of modern quantum theory is its clash with our ordinary concept of individuality. This represents a departure from the usual understanding of quantum theory. Pesic argues that what is bizarre about quantum theory becomes more intelligible as we reconsider what we mean by individuality and identity in ordinary experience. In turn, quantum identity opens a new perspective on us. Peter Pesic is a Tutor and Musician-in-Residence at St. John's College, Santa Fe, New Mexico. He has a Ph.D. in physics from Stanford University.

  16. Double inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Silk, J.; Turner, M.S.

    1986-04-01

    The Zel'dovich spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations is a generic prediction of inflation. There is increasing evidence that when the spectrum is normalized by observational data on small scales, there is not enough power on large scales to account for the observed large-scale structure in the Universe. Decoupling the spectrum on large and small scales could solve this problem. As a means of decoupling the large and small scales we propose double inflation (i.e., two episodes of inflation). In this scenario the spectrum on large scales is determined by the first episode of inflation and those on small scales by a second episode of inflation. We present three models for such a scenario. By nearly saturating the large angular-scale cosmic microwave anisotropy bound, we can easily account for the observed large-scale structure. We take the perturbations on small scales to be very large, deltarho/rho approx. = 0.1 to 0.01, which results in the production of primordial black holes (PBHs), early formation of structure, reionization of the Universe, and a rich array of astrophysical events. The ..cap omega..-problem is also addressed by our scenario. Allowing the density perturbations produced by the second episode of inflation to be large also lessens the fine-tuning required in the scalar potential and makes reheating much easier. We briefly speculate on the possibility that the second episode of inflation proceeds through the nucleation of bubbles, which today manifest themselves as empty bubbles whose surfaces are covered with galaxies. 37 refs., 1 fig.

  17. High-beta discharges in the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Ferron, J.R.; Chu, M.S.; Helton, F.J.; Howl, W.; Kellman, A.G.; Lao, L.L.; Lazarus, E.A.; Lee, J.K.; Osborne, T.H.; Strait, E.J.; Taylor, T.S.; Turnbull, A.D. )

    1990-06-01

    Low-{ital q} ({ital q}{sub 95}{lt}3) double-null divertor discharges with values of the volume-average toroidal beta as high as 9.3% have been operated in the DIII-D tokamak (Fusion Technol. {bold 8}, 441 (1985)). In discharges with {ital q}{sub 95}{approx}5, values of {beta}{sub {ital T}}/({ital I}/{ital aB}) as high as 5 have been obtained. These discharges are shown to be at or below the stability limit to the value of beta for infinite-{ital n}, ideal ballooning modes. The discharges are significantly below the beta limit for ideal,low toroidal mode number kink modes. The kink mode beta limit is shown to be strongly dependent on the radial profiles of plasma pressure and current. The theoretical beta limit in DIII-D is shown to be in the range {beta}{sub {ital T}}/({ital I}/{ital aB})=4 --5 depending on the value of {ital I}/{ital aB}, and this is consistent with the experiment. High-beta discharges have been operated with ion temperature up to 17 keV. Steady-state, high-beta, low-{ital q} operation is demonstrated by a discharge with {ital I}/{ital aB}=2.6, {ital q}{sub 95}=2.7, in which {beta}{sub {ital T}}{gt}7% is maintained for 1.5 sec.

  18. Implementation of Double-Waist Chicane Optics in SPEAR3

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, J.; Cornacchia, M.; Dao, T.; Dell'Orco, D.; Rafael, F.; Harrington, D.; Hettel, R.; Huang, X.; Nosochkov, Y.; Rabedeau, T.; Rarback, H.; Ringwall, A.; Safranek, J.; Scott, B.; Sebek, J.; Tanabe, J.; Terebilo, A.; Wermelskirchen, C.; Widmeyer, M.; Yoon, Moohyun; /POSTECH

    2006-08-16

    The SPEAR3 accelerator upgrade opened up two 7.6m racetrack straights in the magnet lattice. In one of these straights, we recently added a magnetic chicane to separate two insertion device (ID) beam lines by 10mrad. A quadrupole triplet in the center creates a ''double focus'' optics with {beta}y = 1.6m at the middle of each ID, hence the term ''double-waist chicane''. The new optics also reduced {beta}y in the four matching straights adjacent to the racetrack straights to 2.5m. In this paper, we outline design features of the optics and physical implementation of the lattice.

  19. Boosted Beta Regression

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Matthias; Wickler, Florian; Maloney, Kelly O.; Mitchell, Richard; Fenske, Nora; Mayr, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Regression analysis with a bounded outcome is a common problem in applied statistics. Typical examples include regression models for percentage outcomes and the analysis of ratings that are measured on a bounded scale. In this paper, we consider beta regression, which is a generalization of logit models to situations where the response is continuous on the interval (0,1). Consequently, beta regression is a convenient tool for analyzing percentage responses. The classical approach to fit a beta regression model is to use maximum likelihood estimation with subsequent AIC-based variable selection. As an alternative to this established - yet unstable - approach, we propose a new estimation technique called boosted beta regression. With boosted beta regression estimation and variable selection can be carried out simultaneously in a highly efficient way. Additionally, both the mean and the variance of a percentage response can be modeled using flexible nonlinear covariate effects. As a consequence, the new method accounts for common problems such as overdispersion and non-binomial variance structures. PMID:23626706

  20. Role of 24- and 28-hydroxylated intermediates in the metabolism of beta-sitosterol in the insect Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed Central

    Nicotra, F; Ronchetti, F; Russo, G; Toma, L

    1979-01-01

    1. [28-3H]Stigmast-5-ene-3 beta, 28-diol and [23,23,25-3H]stigmast-5-ene-3 beta, 24-diol were synthesized. 2. Each of the samples was mixed with beta-[4-14C]sitosterol and administered to Tenebrio molitor larvae. 3. The former compound is not utilized by the insect; the latter, although metabolized to 24(28)-ethylidene sterols and cholesterol, is not a beta-sitosterol metabolite. 4. The above results are discussed in relation to the mechanism of formation of the 24(28)-double bond in beta-sitosterol metabolism in T. molitor. PMID:540027

  1. IO SUBSYSTEM 1 BETA

    SciTech Connect

    Sjaardema, Greg

    2002-08-21

    "IO Subsystem Ver. 1.0 Beta" uses standard object-oriented principles to minimize dependencies between the underlying input or output database format and the client code (i.e., Sierra) using the io subsystem. The interface and priciples are simolar to the Facade pattern described in the "Design Patterns" book by Gamma, et.al. The software uses data authentication algorithms to ensure data input/output is consistent with model being defined. "IO Subsystem Ver. 1.0 Beta" is a database independent input/output library for finite element analysis, preprocessing, post processing, and translation programs.

  2. IO SUBSYSTEM 1 BETA

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-08-21

    "IO Subsystem Ver. 1.0 Beta" uses standard object-oriented principles to minimize dependencies between the underlying input or output database format and the client code (i.e., Sierra) using the io subsystem. The interface and priciples are simolar to the Facade pattern described in the "Design Patterns" book by Gamma, et.al. The software uses data authentication algorithms to ensure data input/output is consistent with model being defined. "IO Subsystem Ver. 1.0 Beta" is a database independent input/outputmore » library for finite element analysis, preprocessing, post processing, and translation programs.« less

  3. A scintillator purification plant and fluid handling system for SNO+

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Richard J.

    2015-08-17

    A large capacity purification plant and fluid handling system has been constructed for the SNO+ neutrino and double-beta decay experiment, located 6800 feet underground at SNOLAB, Canada. SNO+ is a refurbishment of the SNO detector to fill the acrylic vessel with liquid scintillator based on Linear Alkylbenzene (LAB) and 2 g/L PPO, and also has a phase to load natural tellurium into the scintillator for a double-beta decay experiment with {sup 130}Te. The plant includes processes multi-stage dual-stream distillation, column water extraction, steam stripping, and functionalized silica gel adsorption columns. The plant also includes systems for preparing the scintillator with PPO and metal-loading the scintillator for double-beta decay exposure. We review the basis of design, the purification principles, specifications for the plant, and the construction and installations. The construction and commissioning status is updated.

  4. A scintillator purification plant and fluid handling system for SNO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Richard J.

    2015-08-01

    A large capacity purification plant and fluid handling system has been constructed for the SNO+ neutrino and double-beta decay experiment, located 6800 feet underground at SNOLAB, Canada. SNO+ is a refurbishment of the SNO detector to fill the acrylic vessel with liquid scintillator based on Linear Alkylbenzene (LAB) and 2 g/L PPO, and also has a phase to load natural tellurium into the scintillator for a double-beta decay experiment with 130Te. The plant includes processes multi-stage dual-stream distillation, column water extraction, steam stripping, and functionalized silica gel adsorption columns. The plant also includes systems for preparing the scintillator with PPO and metal-loading the scintillator for double-beta decay exposure. We review the basis of design, the purification principles, specifications for the plant, and the construction and installations. The construction and commissioning status is updated.

  5. A continuous-wave electron-nuclear double resonance (X-band) study of the Cu2+ sites of particulate methane mono-oxygenase of Methylococcus capsulatus (strain M) in membrane and pure dopamine beta-mono-oxygenase of the adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Katterle, Bettina; Gvozdev, Rudolf I; Abudu, Ntei; Ljones, Torbjørn; Andersson, K Kristoffer

    2002-05-01

    All methanotrophic bacteria express a membrane-bound (particulate) methane mono-oxygenase (pMMO). In the present study, we have investigated pMMO in membrane fragments from Methylococcus capsulatus (strain M). pMMO contains a typical type-2 Cu(2+) centre with the following EPR parameters: g(z) 2.24, g(x,y) 2.06, A(Cu)(z) 19.0 mT and A(Cu)(x,y) 1.0 mT. Simulation of the Cu(2+) spectrum yielded a best match by using four equivalent nitrogens (A(N)=1.5 mT, 42 MHz). Incubation with ferricyanide neither changed nor increased the amount of EPR-active Cu(2+), in contrast with other reports. The EPR visible copper seems not to be part of any cluster, as judged from the microwave power saturation behaviour. Continuous-wave electron-nuclear double resonance (CW ENDOR; 9.4 GHz, 5-20 K) experiments at g( perpendicular) of the Cu(II) spectrum show a weak coupling to protons with an A(H) of 2.9 MHz that corresponds to a distance of 3.8 A (1 A identical with 0.1 nm), assuming that it is a purely dipolar coupling. Incubation in (2)H(2)O leads to a significant decrease in these (1)H-ENDOR intensities, showing that these protons are exchangeable. This result strongly suggests that the EPR visible copper site of pMMO is accessible to solvent, which was confirmed by the chelation of the Cu(2+) by diethyldithiocarbamic acid. The (1)H and (14)N hyperfine coupling constants confirm a histidine ligation of the EPR visible copper site in pMMO. The hyperfine structure in the ENDOR or EPR spectra of pMMO is not influenced by the inhibitors azide, cyanide or ammonia, indicating that they do not bind to the EPR visible copper. We compared pMMO with the type-2 Cu(2+) enzyme, dopamine beta-mono-oxygenase (DbetaM). For DbetaM, it is assumed that the copper site is solvent-accessible. CW ENDOR shows similar weakly coupled and (2)H(2)O-exchangeable protons (2.9 MHz), as observed in pMMO, as well as the strongly coupled nitrogens (40 MHz) from the co-ordinating N of the histidines in DbetaM. In

  6. A continuous-wave electron-nuclear double resonance (X-band) study of the Cu2+ sites of particulate methane mono-oxygenase of Methylococcus capsulatus (strain M) in membrane and pure dopamine beta-mono-oxygenase of the adrenal medulla.

    PubMed Central

    Katterle, Bettina; Gvozdev, Rudolf I; Abudu, Ntei; Ljones, Torbjørn; Andersson, K Kristoffer

    2002-01-01

    All methanotrophic bacteria express a membrane-bound (particulate) methane mono-oxygenase (pMMO). In the present study, we have investigated pMMO in membrane fragments from Methylococcus capsulatus (strain M). pMMO contains a typical type-2 Cu(2+) centre with the following EPR parameters: g(z) 2.24, g(x,y) 2.06, A(Cu)(z) 19.0 mT and A(Cu)(x,y) 1.0 mT. Simulation of the Cu(2+) spectrum yielded a best match by using four equivalent nitrogens (A(N)=1.5 mT, 42 MHz). Incubation with ferricyanide neither changed nor increased the amount of EPR-active Cu(2+), in contrast with other reports. The EPR visible copper seems not to be part of any cluster, as judged from the microwave power saturation behaviour. Continuous-wave electron-nuclear double resonance (CW ENDOR; 9.4 GHz, 5-20 K) experiments at g( perpendicular) of the Cu(II) spectrum show a weak coupling to protons with an A(H) of 2.9 MHz that corresponds to a distance of 3.8 A (1 A identical with 0.1 nm), assuming that it is a purely dipolar coupling. Incubation in (2)H(2)O leads to a significant decrease in these (1)H-ENDOR intensities, showing that these protons are exchangeable. This result strongly suggests that the EPR visible copper site of pMMO is accessible to solvent, which was confirmed by the chelation of the Cu(2+) by diethyldithiocarbamic acid. The (1)H and (14)N hyperfine coupling constants confirm a histidine ligation of the EPR visible copper site in pMMO. The hyperfine structure in the ENDOR or EPR spectra of pMMO is not influenced by the inhibitors azide, cyanide or ammonia, indicating that they do not bind to the EPR visible copper. We compared pMMO with the type-2 Cu(2+) enzyme, dopamine beta-mono-oxygenase (DbetaM). For DbetaM, it is assumed that the copper site is solvent-accessible. CW ENDOR shows similar weakly coupled and (2)H(2)O-exchangeable protons (2.9 MHz), as observed in pMMO, as well as the strongly coupled nitrogens (40 MHz) from the co-ordinating N of the histidines in DbetaM. In

  7. Background reduction in the SNO+ experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segui, L.

    2015-08-01

    SNO+ is a large multi-purpose liquid scintillator experiment, which first aim is to detect the neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te. It is placed at SNOLAB, at 6000 m.w.e. and it is based on the SNO infrastructure. SNO+ will contain approximately 780 tonnes of liquid scintillator, loaded with 130Te inside an acrylic vessel (AV) with an external volume of ultra pure water to reduce the external backgrounds. Light produced in the scintillator by the interaction of particles will be detected with about 9,000 photomultiplier's. For the neutrinoless double beta decay phase, due to its the extremely low rate expected, the control, knowledge and reduction of the background is essential. Moreover, it will also benefit other phases of the experiment focused on the study of solar neutrinos, nucleon decay, geoneutrinos and supernovae. In order to reduce the internal background level, a novel purification technique for tellurium loaded scintillators has been developed by the collaboration that reduces the U/Th concentration and several cosmic-activated isotopes by at least a factor 102 -103 in a single pass. In addition, different rejection techniques have been developed for the remaining internal backgrounds based on Monte-Carlo simulations. In this work, the scintillator purification technique and the levels obtained with it will be discussed. Furthermore, an overview of the different backgrounds for the double-beta phase will be presented, highlighting some of the techniques developed to reject the remained decays based on their expected timing differences.

  8. Dark Matter Search with CUORE-0 and CUORE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, C. P.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Cai, X. Z.; Camacho, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X.; Capelli, S.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Carrettoni, M.; Casali, N.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Dafinei, I.; Dally, A.; Datskov, V.; De Biasi, A.; Deninno, M. M.; Di Domizio, S.; di Vacri, M. L.; Ejzak, L.; Fang, D. Q.; Farach, H. A.; Faverzani, M.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Goett, J.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Kazkaz, K.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Li, Y. L.; Ligi, C.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maiano, C.; Maino, M.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Napolitano, T.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; O'Donnell, T.; Orio, F.; Orlandi, D.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pessina, G.; Piperno, G.; Pira, C.; Pirro, S.; Previtali, E.; Rampazzo, V.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sala, E.; Sangiorgio, S.; Scielzo, N. D.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tian, W. D.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Wielgus, L.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Zanotti, L.; Zarra, C.; Zhu, B. X.; Zucchelli, S.

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is a ton-scale experiment made of TeO2 bolometers that will probe the neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te. Excellent energy resolution, low threshold and low background make CUORE sensitive to nuclear recoils, allowing a search for dark matter interactions. With a total mass of 741 kg of TeO2, CUORE can search for an annual modulation of the counting rate at low energies. We present data obtained with CUORE-like detectors and the prospects for a dark matter search in CUORE-0, a 40-kg prototype, and CUORE.

  9. CUORE-0 detector: design, construction and operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alduino, C.; Alfonso, K.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T., III; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J. W.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biare, D.; Biassoni, M.; Bragazzi, F.; Brofferio, C.; Buccheri, A.; Bucci, C.; Bulfon, C.; Caminata, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X. G.; Capelli, S.; Capodiferro, M.; Cappelli, L.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Cariello, M.; Carniti, P.; Casali, N.; Cassina, L.; Cereseto, R.; Ceruti, G.; Chiarini, A.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Conventi, D.; Copello, S.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Cushman, J. S.; D'Addabbo, A.; Dafinei, I.; Davis, C. J.; Dell'Oro, S.; Deninno, M. M.; Di Domizio, S.; Di Vacri, M. L.; DiPaolo, L.; Drobizhev, A.; Erme, G.; Fang, D. Q.; Faverzani, M.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Gaigher, R.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gladstone, L.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Guetti, M.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Hansen, E.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Hickerson, K. P.; Huang, H. Z.; Iannone, M.; Ioannucci, L.; Kadel, R.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Leder, A.; Lim, K. E.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maino, M.; Marini, L.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mazza, R.; Mei, Y.; Meijer, S.; Michinelli, R.; Miller, D.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Mosteiro, P. J.; Nastasi, M.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; O'Donnell, T.; Orio, F.; Orlandi, D.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pagliarone, C. E.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pancaldi, G.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pedrotta, R.; Pelosi, A.; Perego, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Piperno, G.; Pirro, S.; Pozzi, S.; Previtali, E.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sala, E.; Sangiorgio, S.; Santone, D.; Scielzo, N. D.; Singh, V.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Stivanello, F.; Taffarello, L.; Tatananni, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tessaro, M.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.; Wagaarachchi, S. L.; Wallig, J.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Zanotti, L.; Zarra, C.; Zhang, G. Q.; Zhu, B. X.; Zimmermann, S.; Zucchelli, S.

    2016-07-01

    The CUORE experiment will search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 130Te with an array of 988 TeO2 bolometers arranged in 19 towers. CUORE-0, the first tower assembled according to the CUORE procedures, was built and commissioned at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, and took data from March 2013 to March 2015. In this paper we describe the design, construction and operation of the CUORE-0 experiment, with an emphasis on the improvements made over a predecessor experiment, Cuoricino. In particular, we demonstrate with CUORE-0 data that the design goals of CUORE are within reach.

  10. Neutron radiative capture reactions on nuclei of relevance to 0νββ, dark matter and neutrino/antineutrino searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornow, W.; Bhike, Megha

    2015-05-01

    A program is underway at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) to measure the neutron capture cross section in the 0.5 to 15 MeV energy range on nuclei whose radioactive daughters could potentially create backgrounds in searches for rare events. Here, we refer to neutrino-less double-beta decay and dark-matter searches, and to detectors built for neutrino and/or antineutrino studies. Neutron capture cross-section data obtained by using the activation method are reported for 40Ar, 74,76Ge, 128,130Te and 136Xe and compared to model calculations and evaluations.

  11. Status of the SNO+ Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grullon, Sean

    2015-03-01

    The SNO+ experiment is the follow-up to the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). The heavy water that was in SNO will be replaced with a liquid scintillator of linear alkylbenzene. The primary physics goal is the search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te by loading 0.3% of natural Te into the liquid scintillator. The broader physics program of SNO+ will also include measuring the pep and CNO solar neutrino flux, detecting geo-neutrinos, studying reactor neutrino oscillations, and serving as a supernova neutrino detector. We summarize the SNO+ physics program and the timeline for commissioning.

  12. Naloxone, tardive dyskinesia, and endogenous beta-endorphin.

    PubMed

    Reker, D; Anderson, B; Yackulic, C; Cooper, T B; Banay-Schwartz, M; Leon, C; Volavka, J

    1982-12-01

    The subjects were 13 psychiatric inpatients with tardive dyskinesia. Each subject participated in two sessions. Either naloxone (10 mg) or placebo was administered intravenously during each session. In a subset of subjects (n = 7), blood samples for beta-endorphin were drawn before and at 30 and 60 minutes after the injection. The Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale was administered before and at 10, 20, 40, 60, 120, and 360 minutes after the injection. Double-blind procedures were maintained throughout the experiment. Neither naloxone nor placebo had any appreciable effect on the involuntary movements. Naloxone elicited a significant increase in the plasma beta-endorphin. PMID:6298849

  13. Applied Beta Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of beta and/or nonpenetrating exposure results is complicated and past techniques and capabilities have resulted in significant inaccuracies in recorded results. Current developments have resulted in increased capabilities which make the results more accurate and should result in less total exposure to the work force. Continued development of works in progress should provide equivalent future improvements.

  14. beta-Chloronaphthalene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    beta - Chloronaphthalene ; CASRN 91 - 58 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  15. beta-Propiolactone

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    beta - Propiolactone ; CASRN 57 - 57 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  16. Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: B2M; B 2 M; β2-Microglobulin; Thymotaxin Formal name: Beta 2 ...

  17. Protection of transforming growth factor-beta 1 activity by heparin and fucoidan.

    PubMed

    McCaffrey, T A; Falcone, D J; Vicente, D; Du, B; Consigli, S; Borth, W

    1994-04-01

    The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family of proteins exert diverse and potent effects on proliferation, differentiation, and extracellular matrix synthesis. However, relatively little is known about the stability or processing of endogenous TGF-beta activity in vitro or in vivo. Our previous work indicated that 1) TGF-beta 1 has strong heparin-binding properties that were not previously recognized because of neutralization by iodination, and 2) heparin, and certain other polyanions, could block the binding of TGF-beta 1 to alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2-M). The present studies investigated the influence of heparin-like molecules on the stability of the TGF-beta 1 signal in the pericellular environment. The results indicate that heparin and fucoidan, a naturally occurring sulfated L-fucose polymer, suppress the formation of an initial non-covalent interaction between 125I-TGF-beta 1 and activated alpha 2-M. Electrophoresis of 125I-TGF-beta 1 showed that fucoidan protects TGF-beta 1 from proteolytic degradation by plasmin and trypsin. While plasmin caused little, if any, activation of latent TGF-beta derived from vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC), plasmin degraded acid-activated TGF-beta, and purified TGF-beta 1, and this degradation was inhibited by fucoidan. In vitro, heparin and fucoidan tripled the half-life of 125I-TGF-beta 1 and doubled the amount of cell-associated 125I-TGF-beta 1. Consistent with this protective effect, heparin- and fucoidan-treated SMC demonstrated elevated levels of active, but not latent, TGF-beta activity. PMID:7511146

  18. Misleading Betas: An Educational Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, James; Halcoussis, Dennis; Phillips, G. Michael

    2012-01-01

    The dual-beta model is a generalization of the CAPM model. In the dual-beta model, separate beta estimates are provided for up-market and down-market days. This paper uses the historical "Anscombe quartet" results which illustrated how very different datasets can produce the same regression coefficients to motivate a discussion of the…

  19. Angular anisotropy parameters and recoil-ion momentum distribution in two-photon double ionization of helium

    SciTech Connect

    Kheifets, A. S.; Ivanov, I. A.; Bray, Igor

    2007-08-15

    We present convergent-close-coupling (CCC) calculations of the angular anisotropy parameters {beta}{sub 2},{beta}{sub 4} and the recoil ion momentum distribution d{sigma}/dp in two-photon double ionization (TPDI) of helium. In a stark contrast to single-photon double ionization (SPDI), where the {beta}{sub 2} parameter varies widely changing the angular distribution from isotropic to nearly dipole for slow and fast photoelectrons, respectively, the {beta} parameters for TPDI show very little change. The angular distribution of the recoil ion is fairly isotropic in TPDI as opposed to a strong alignment with the polarization of light in SPDI.

  20. Recent Developments in Neutrino Science: A Whole Lot About Almost Nothing

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, E B

    2005-08-22

    Results from Super-K, SNO, and KamLAND provide strong evidence that neutrinos undergo flavor-changing oscillations and therefore have non-zero mass. The {nu}-disappearance observations by KamLAND, assuming CPT conservation, point to matter enhanced (MSW) oscillations with large mixing angles as the solution to the solar neutrino problem--a result consistent with the MSW parameters recently defined by these experiments. This requires that the observed neutrino flavors (e, {mu}, and tau) are not mass eigenstates, but are linear combinations of the mass eigenstates of the neutrino. However, such oscillation experiments can only determine the differences in the masses of the neutrinos, not the absolute scale of neutrino mass. What can be inferred from these experiments is that at least one species of neutrino has a mass greater than 55 meV. In fact, the WMAP observations of large-scale structure point to a sum-neutrino mass of {approx} 0.7 eV (roughly 0.25 eV/species assuming democracy between the flavors). Furthermore, there is still the important issue of whether the neutrino and anti-neutrino are distinct particles (i.e. Dirac type) or not (Majorana type). The only way to answer both of these questions is through neutrinoless double beta decay (DBD) experiments. CUORE (Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events) is a proposed next generation experiment designed to search for the neutrinoless DBD of {sup 130}Te using a bolometric technique. The source/detector will be composed of 988 5 x 5 x 5-cm single crystals of TeO{sub 2} all housed in a common dilution refrigerator and operated at a temperature of 8-10 mK. The total mass of {sup 130}Te contained in CUORE will be approximately 203 kg. Attached to each crystal will be one or more neutron-transmutation doped (NTD) germanium thermistors that will measure the small temperature rise produced in a crystal when radiation is absorbed. A schematic illustration of the CUORE detector is shown in Figure 1. Details

  1. Effects of mutations in the {beta} subunit hinge domain on ATP synthase F{sub 1} sector rotation: Interaction between Ser 174 and Ile 163

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiwagi, Sachiko; Iwamoto-Kihara, Atsuko; Kojima, Masaki; Nonaka, Takamasa; Futai, Masamitsu Nakanishi-Matsui, Mayumi

    2008-01-11

    A complex of {gamma}, {epsilon}, and c subunits rotates in ATP synthase (F{sub o}F{sub 1}) coupling with proton transport. Replacement of {beta}Ser174 by Phe in {beta}-sheet4 of the {beta} subunit ({beta}S174F) caused slow {gamma} subunit revolution of the F{sub 1} sector, consistent with the decreased ATPase activity [M. Nakanishi-Matsui, S. Kashiwagi, T. Ubukata, A. Iwamoto-Kihara, Y. Wada, M. Futai, Rotational catalysis of Escherichia coli ATP synthase F1 sector. Stochastic fluctuation and a key domain of the {beta} subunit, J. Biol. Chem. 282 (2007) 20698-20704]. Modeling of the domain including {beta}-sheet4 and {alpha}-helixB predicted that the mutant {beta}Phe174 residue undergoes strong and weak hydrophobic interactions with {beta}Ile163 and {beta}Ile166, respectively. Supporting this prediction, the replacement of {beta}Ile163 in {alpha}-helixB by Ala partially suppressed the {beta}S174F mutation: in the double mutant, the revolution speed and ATPase activity recovered to about half of the levels in the wild-type. Replacement of {beta}Ile166 by Ala lowered the revolution speed and ATPase activity to the same levels as in {beta}S174F. Consistent with the weak hydrophobic interaction, {beta}Ile166 to Ala mutation did not suppress {beta}S174F. Importance of the hinge domain [phosphate-binding loop (P-loop)/{alpha}-helixB/loop/{beta}-sheet4, {beta}Phe148-{beta}Gly186] as to driving rotational catalysis is discussed.

  2. Limit on majoron emission in beta-beta decay of Mo-100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alston-Garnjost, M.; Dougherty, B.; Kenney, R.; Krivicich, J.; Tripp, R.

    1988-05-01

    Results are reported from an experimental search for double-beta decay of Mo-100, conducted in a disused silver mine in northern Idaho at a depth of 4000 ft below the surface to eliminate cosmic-ray background. No evidence is found for the decay mode with majoron emission, yielding a half-life limit of 3.3 x 10 to the 20th yr with 90-percent confidence. The lower limit for the two-neutrino mode is found to be 3.8 x 10 to the 18th yr.

  3. Beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Galanello, Renzo; Origa, Raffaella

    2010-01-01

    Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands), dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis). Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes), gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely, deletions in the beta

  4. Beta-thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands), dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis). Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes), gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely, deletions in the beta

  5. Thermophilic Beta-Glycosidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grogan, Dennis W.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes identification of thermophilic Beta-glycosidase enzyme from isolate of Sulfolobus solfataricus, sulfur-metabolizing archaebacteria growing aerobically and heterotrophically to relatively high cell yields. Enzyme useful in enzymatic conversion of cellulose to D-glucose and important in recycling of biomass. Used for removal of lactose from milk products. Offers promise as model substance for elucidation of basic principles of structural stabilization of proteins.

  6. A double-double/double-single computation package

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.

    2004-12-01

    The DDFUNIDSFUN software permits a new or existing Fortran-90 program to utilize double-double precision (approx. 31 digits) or double-single precision (approx. 14 digits) arithmetic. Double-double precision is required by a rapidly expandirtg body of scientific computations in physics and mathematics, for which the conventional 64-bit IEEE computer arithmetic (about 16 decimal digit accuracy) is not sufficient. Double-single precision permits users of systems that do not have hardware 64-bit IEEE arithmetic (such as some game systems) to perform arithmetic at a precision nearly as high as that of systems that do. Both packages run significantly faster Than using multiple precision or arbitrary precision software for this purpose. The package includes an extensive set of low-level routines to perform high-precision arithmetic, including routines to calculate various algebraic and transcendental functions, such as square roots, sin, ccc, exp, log and others. In addition, the package includes high-level translation facilities, so that Fortran programs can utilize these facilities by making only a few changes to conventional Fortran programs. In most cases, the only changes that are required are to change the type statements of variables that one wishes to be treated as multiple precision, plus a few other minor changes. The DDFUN package is similar in functionality to the double-double part of the GD package, which was previously written at LBNL. However, the DDFUN package is written exclusively in Fortran-90, thus avoidIng difficulties that some users experience when using GD, which includes both Fortran-90 and C++ code.

  7. A double-double/double-single computation package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-12-01

    The DDFUNIDSFUN software permits a new or existing Fortran-90 program to utilize double-double precision (approx. 31 digits) or double-single precision (approx. 14 digits) arithmetic. Double-double precision is required by a rapidly expandirtg body of scientific computations in physics and mathematics, for which the conventional 64-bit IEEE computer arithmetic (about 16 decimal digit accuracy) is not sufficient. Double-single precision permits users of systems that do not have hardware 64-bit IEEE arithmetic (such as some game systems)more » to perform arithmetic at a precision nearly as high as that of systems that do. Both packages run significantly faster Than using multiple precision or arbitrary precision software for this purpose. The package includes an extensive set of low-level routines to perform high-precision arithmetic, including routines to calculate various algebraic and transcendental functions, such as square roots, sin, ccc, exp, log and others. In addition, the package includes high-level translation facilities, so that Fortran programs can utilize these facilities by making only a few changes to conventional Fortran programs. In most cases, the only changes that are required are to change the type statements of variables that one wishes to be treated as multiple precision, plus a few other minor changes. The DDFUN package is similar in functionality to the double-double part of the GD package, which was previously written at LBNL. However, the DDFUN package is written exclusively in Fortran-90, thus avoidIng difficulties that some users experience when using GD, which includes both Fortran-90 and C++ code.« less

  8. Expression of transforming growth factors beta-1, beta 2 and beta 3 in human bladder carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Eder, I. E.; Stenzl, A.; Hobisch, A.; Cronauer, M. V.; Bartsch, G.; Klocker, H.

    1997-01-01

    We previously detected elevated transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1) serum levels in patients with invasive bladder carcinomas. In this study, we therefore investigated whether elevated serum levels correlate with enhanced TGF-beta expression in human bladder tumours. mRNA levels of TGF-beta1, -beta2 and -beta3 were reduced in bladder tumour tissue to 86%, 68% and 56%, respectively, of the levels in normal urothelium. On the other hand, TGF-beta1 protein levels were found to be higher in superficial tumours (Ta-T1) (mean level of 0.153 ng mg(-1)) and in invasive T2/T3 tumours (mean level of 0.104 ng mg(-1)) compared with normal urothelium (mean level of 0.065 ng mg(-1)). Invasive T4 tumours, however, contained only low amounts of TGF-beta1 (mean level of 0.02 ng mg(-1)). Neither in mean nor in individual patients were serum and tissue TGF-beta levels correlated with each other. Cell culture experiments on primary bladder cells revealed a 57% decrease in TGF-beta1 mRNA levels in tumour compared with normal epithelial cells. Tumour epithelial cells contained about two times higher levels of TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 mRNA than normal epithelial cells. Fibroblasts expressed about the same amount of TGF-beta1 or TGF-beta2 as epithelial cells. Yet, fibroblasts released only 19% and 13% of the amount secreted by tumour epithelial cells into the supernatant. TGF-beta3, on the other hand, was expressed by fibroblasts with higher levels than by epithelial cells. TGF-beta1 was the predominent isoform in bladder tissue and cells at protein as well as on mRNA levels indicating that TGFs-beta2 and -beta3 are of minor importance in bladder cancer. In summary, there is a lack of correlation between TGF-beta serum levels and TGF-beta expression in tumour tissue in bladder cancer. Images Figure 1 PMID:9192977

  9. The Cambridge Double Star Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacEvoy, Bruce; Tirion, Wil

    2015-12-01

    Preface; What are double stars?; The binary orbit; Double star dynamics; Stellar mass and the binary life cycle; The double star population; Detecting double stars; Double star catalogs; Telescope optics; Preparing to observe; Helpful accessories; Viewing challenges; Next steps; Appendices: target list; Useful formulas; Double star orbits; Double star catalogs; The Greek alphabet.

  10. Ionizing radiation predisposes non-malignant human mammaryepithelial cells to undergo TGF beta-induced epithelial to mesenchymaltransition

    SciTech Connect

    Andarawewa, Kumari L.; Erickson, Anna C.; Chou, William S.; Costes, Sylvain; Gascard, Philippe; Mott, Joni D.; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2007-04-06

    Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}) is a tumor suppressor during the initial stage of tumorigenesis, but it can switch to a tumor promoter during neoplastic progression. Ionizing radiation (IR), both a carcinogen and a therapeutic agent, induces TGF{beta}, activation in vivo. We now show that IR sensitizes human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to undergo TGF{beta}-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Non-malignant HMEC (MCF10A, HMT3522 S1 and 184v) were irradiated with 2 Gy shortly after attachment in monolayer culture, or treated with a low concentration of TGF{beta} (0.4 ng/ml), or double-treated. All double-treated (IR+TGF{beta}) HMEC underwent a morphological shift from cuboidal to spindle-shaped. This phenotype was accompanied by decreased expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin, {beta}-catenin and ZO-1, remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, and increased expression of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin, fibronectin and vimentin. Furthermore, double-treatment increased cell motility, promoted invasion and disrupted acinar morphogenesis of cells subsequently plated in Matrigel{trademark}. Neither radiation nor TGF{beta} alone elicited EMT, even though IR increased chronic TGF{beta} signaling and activity. Gene expression profiling revealed that double treated cells exhibit a specific 10-gene signature associated with Erk/MAPK signaling. We hypothesized that IR-induced MAPK activation primes non-malignant HMEC to undergo TGF{beta}-mediated EMT. Consistent with this, Erk phosphorylation were transiently induced by irradiation, persisted in irradiated cells treated with TGF{beta}, and treatment with U0126, a Mek inhibitor, blocked the EMT phenotype. Together, these data demonstrate that the interactions between radiation-induced signaling pathways elicit heritable phenotypes that could contribute to neoplastic progression.

  11. Double outlet right ventricle

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007328.htm Double outlet right ventricle To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a heart disease that is ...

  12. Beta* and beta-waist measurement and control at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Ptitsyn,V.; Della Penna, A.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Malitsky, N.; Satogata, T.

    2009-05-04

    During the course of last RHIC runs the beta-functions at the collision points ({beta}*) have been reduced gradually to 0.7m. In order to maximize the collision luminosity and ensure the agreement of the actual machine optics with the design one, more precise measurements and control of {beta}* value and {beta}-waist location became necessary. The paper presents the results of the implementation of the technique applied in last two RHIC runs. The technique is based on well-known relation between the tune shift and the beta function and involves precise betatron tune measurements using BBQ system as well as specially developed knobs for {beta}-waist location control.

  13. Chromosome doubling method

    DOEpatents

    Kato, Akio

    2006-11-14

    The invention provides methods for chromosome doubling in plants. The technique overcomes the low yields of doubled progeny associated with the use of prior techniques for doubling chromosomes in plants such as grasses. The technique can be used in large scale applications and has been demonstrated to be highly effective in maize. Following treatment in accordance with the invention, plants remain amenable to self fertilization, thereby allowing the efficient isolation of doubled progeny plants.

  14. [Beta blockers in migraine prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Toshihiko

    2009-10-01

    Beta blockers (beta-adrenoceptor blockers) are known to be used for the prophylactic treatment of migraine. The improvement of migraine in the patients who recieved propranolol for angina pectoris revealed the effectiveness of propranolol in migraine prophylaxis. Many clinical trials have confirmed that propranolol is effective in the prophylactic treatment of migraine. Other beta-blocking drugs, namely nadolol, metoprolol, atenolol, timolol and bisoprolol, have also been demonstrated to be effective in the prophylaxis of migraine. In contrast, several beta blockers with intrinsic sympathetic activity (ISA), such as alprenolol, oxprenolol, pindolol and acebutolol, have not been demonstrated to be effective in migraine prophylaxis. In this review, we have descrived the pharmacologic background and pharmacokinetics of the beta blockers that demonstrated a prophylactic effect for migraine will be described. We have also reviewed the results of clinical trials of beta-blocking drugs for migraine. PMID:19882938

  15. Solergy (Beta Version 1)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-03-30

    SOLERGY simulates the operation and power output of a user-defined solar central receiver power plant for a time period of up to one year. SOLERGY utilizes recorded or simulated weather data and plant component performance models to calculate the power flowing through each part of the solar plant. A plant control subroutine monitors these powers and determines when to operate the various plant subsystems. The original version of the code was released in May 1987,more » within SAND86-8060 and was widely distributed. The Beta Version 1 to be released in 2009, includes some relatively small modifications to the original code.« less

  16. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  17. Dystrophin, utrophin and {beta}-dystroglycan expression in skeletal muscle from patients with Becker muscular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Kawajiri, Masakazu; Mitsui, Takao; Kawai, Hisaomi

    1996-08-01

    The precise localization and semiquantitative correlation of dystrophin, utrophin and {beta}-dystroglycan expression on the sarcolemma of skeletal muscle cells obtained from patients with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) was studied using three types of double immunofluorescence. Staining intensity was measured using a confocal laser microscope. Each of these proteins was identified at the same locus on the sarcolemma. The staining intensities of dystrophin and utrophin were approximately reciprocal at sarcolemmal sites where dystrophin expression was obviously observed. The staining intensity of {beta}-dystroglycan was strong in areas where dystrophin staining was also strong and utrophin expression was weak. Quantitative analysis revealed that the staining intensity of {beta}-dystroglycan minus that of dystrophin approximated the staining intensity of utrophin, indicating that the sum of dystrophin and utrophin expression corresponds to that of {beta}-dystroglycan. These results suggest that utrophin may compensate for dystrophin deficiency found in BMD by binding to {beta}-dystroglycan. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Nuclear and particle physics aspects of the 2{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay of {sup 150}Nd

    SciTech Connect

    Dvornicky, R.; Simkovic, F.; Faessler, A.

    2007-10-12

    A discussion is given on possible realization of the Single State Dominance (SSD) hypothesis in the case of the two-neutrino double beta decay (2{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay) of {sup l50}Nd with 1{sup -} ground state of the intermediate nucleus. We conclude that the SSD hypothesis is expected to be ruled out by precision measurement of differential characteristics of this process in running NEMO 3 or planed SuperNEMO experiments unlike some unknown low-lying 1{sup +} state of {sup 150}Pm does exist. This problem can be solved via (d,{sup 2}He) charge-exchange experiment on {sup l50}Sm. Further, we address the question about possible violation of the Pauli exclusion principle for neutrinos and its consequences for the energy distributions of the 2{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay of {sup l50}Nd. This phenomenon might be a subject of interest of NEMO 3 and SuperNEMO experiments as well.

  19. Amyloid Beta Mediates Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Osta, Ana; Alberini, Cristina M.

    2009-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) undergoes sequential cleavages to generate various polypeptides, including the amyloid [beta] (1-42) peptide (A[beta][1-42]), which is believed to play a major role in amyloid plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we provide evidence that, in contrast with its pathological role when accumulated,…

  20. Beta systems error analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The atmospheric backscatter coefficient, beta, measured with an airborne CO Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) system operating in a continuous wave, focussed model is discussed. The Single Particle Mode (SPM) algorithm, was developed from concept through analysis of an extensive amount of data obtained with the system on board a NASA aircraft. The SPM algorithm is intended to be employed in situations where one particle at a time appears in the sensitive volume of the LDV. In addition to giving the backscatter coefficient, the SPM algorithm also produces as intermediate results the aerosol density and the aerosol backscatter cross section distribution. A second method, which measures only the atmospheric backscatter coefficient, is called the Volume Mode (VM) and was simultaneously employed. The results of these two methods differed by slightly less than an order of magnitude. The measurement uncertainties or other errors in the results of the two methods are examined.

  1. Non-linear evolution of double tearing modes in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, E.; Bell, M.; Budny, R.V.; Synakowski, E.

    1999-12-17

    The delta prime formalism with neoclassical modifications has proven to be a useful tool in the study of tearing modes in high beta, collisionless plasmas. In this paper the formalism developed for the inclusion of neoclassical effects on tearing modes in monotonic q-profile plasmas is extended to plasmas with hollow current profiles and double rational surfaces. First, the classical formalism of tearing modes in the Rutherford regime in low beta plasmas is extended to q profiles with two rational surfaces. Then it is shown that this formalism is readily extended to include neoclassical effects.

  2. Observing Double Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, Russell M.; Fulton, B. J.; Bianco, Federica B.; Martinez, John; Baxter, John; Brewer, Mark; Carro, Joseph; Collins, Sarah; Estrada, Chris; Johnson, Jolyon; Salam, Akash; Wallen, Vera; Warren, Naomi; Smith, Thomas C.; Armstrong, James D.; McGaughey, Steve; Pye, John; Mohanan, Kakkala; Church, Rebecca

    2012-05-01

    Double stars have been systematically observed since William Herschel initiated his program in 1779. In 1803 he reported that, to his surprise, many of the systems he had been observing for a quarter century were gravitationally bound binary stars. In 1830 the first binary orbital solution was obtained, leading eventually to the determination of stellar masses. Double star observations have been a prolific field, with observations and discoveries - often made by students and amateurs - routinely published in a number of specialized journals such as the Journal of Double Star Observations. All published double star observations from Herschel's to the present have been incorporated in the Washington Double Star Catalog. In addition to reviewing the history of visual double stars, we discuss four observational technologies and illustrate these with our own observational results from both California and Hawaii on telescopes ranging from small SCTs to the 2-meter Faulkes Telescope North on Haleakala. Two of these technologies are visual observations aimed primarily at published "hands-on" student science education, and CCD observations of both bright and very faint doubles. The other two are recent technologies that have launched a double star renaissance. These are lucky imaging and speckle interferometry, both of which can use electron-multiplying CCD cameras to allow short (30 ms or less) exposures that are read out at high speed with very low noise. Analysis of thousands of high speed exposures allows normal seeing limitations to be overcome so very close doubles can be accurately measured.

  3. High Temperature Stability of Potassium Beta Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    None. From Objectives section: Evaluate the stability of potassium beta alumina under potassium AMTEC operating conditions. Evaluate the stability regime in which potassium beta alumina can be fabricated.

  4. Developments for a measurement of the beta -- nu correlation and determination of the recoil charge-state distribution in 6He beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Ran

    The beta-nu of a pure Gamow-Teller beta decay such as the 6He decay is sensitive to tensor-type weak currents predicted by theories beyond the Standard Model. An experiment is developed at University of Washington aiming at measuring the coefficient a_{beta-nu} of 6He decays to the 0.1% level and looking for its deviation from the Standard-Model prediction -1/3 using laser-trapped 6He atoms. The beta particle is detected by a scintillator and a multi-wire proportional chamber, and the recoil ion is detected by a microchannel plate with delay-line anodes for position readouts. a_{beta-nu} is extracted by fitting the measured time-of-flight spectrum of the recoil ions to templates generated by Monte Carlo simulations. This dissertation describes the developments of this experiment for the intermediate goal of a 1% level a_{beta-nu} measurement, such as the detector design, Monte Carlo simulation software, and data analysis frame work. Particularly, detector calibrations are described in detail. The analysis of a 2% level proof-of-principle run in October 2015 is presented as well. Shake-off probabilities for decays of trapped 6He atoms matter for the high-precision a_{beta-nu} measurement. The charge state distribution of recoil ions is obtained by analyzing their time-of-flight distribution using the same experimental setups for the a_{beta-nu} measurement. An analysis approach that is independent of the beta-nu correlation is developed. The measured upper limit of the double shake-off probability is 2x10. {-4} at 90% confidence level. This result is 100 times lower than the most recent calculation by Schulhoff and Drake. This disagreement is significant for the a_{beta-nu} measurement and needs to be addressed by improved atomic theory calculations.

  5. Mammalian mitochondrial beta-oxidation.

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, S; Bartlett, K; Pourfarzam, M

    1996-01-01

    The enzymic stages of mammalian mitochondrial beta-oxidation were elucidated some 30-40 years ago. However, the discovery of a membrane-associated multifunctional enzyme of beta-oxidation, a membrane-associated acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and characterization of the carnitine palmitoyl transferase system at the protein and at the genetic level has demonstrated that the enzymes of the system itself are incompletely understood. Deficiencies of many of the enzymes have been recognized as important causes of disease. In addition, the study of these disorders has led to a greater understanding of the molecular mechanism of beta-oxidation and the import, processing and assembly of the beta-oxidation enzymes within the mitochondrion. The tissue-specific regulation, intramitochondrial control and supramolecular organization of the pathway is becoming better understood as sensitive analytical and molecular techniques are applied. This review aims to cover enzymological and organizational aspects of mitochondrial beta-oxidation together with the biochemical aspects of inherited disorders of beta-oxidation and the intrinsic control of beta-oxidation. PMID:8973539

  6. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 in experimental autoimmune neuritis. Cellular localization and time course.

    PubMed Central

    Kiefer, R.; Funa, K.; Schweitzer, T.; Jung, S.; Bourde, O.; Toyka, K. V.; Hartung, H. P.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) is a monophasic inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nervous system that resolves spontaneously by molecular mechanisms as yet unknown. We have investigated whether the immunosuppressive cytokine transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) might be endogenously expressed in the peripheral nervous system of Lewis rats with actively induced and adoptive transfer EAN. TGF-beta 1 mRNA was upregulated to high levels in sensory and motor roots, spinal ganglia, and sciatic nerve as revealed by quantitative Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization histochemistry, with peak levels just preceding the first signs of clinical recovery. TGF-beta 1 mRNA was localized to scattered round cells and dense cellular infiltrates, but only rarely to Schwann cell profiles. Double labeling studies revealed macrophages and subpopulations of T cells as the major cellular source of TGF-beta 1 mRNA. TGF-beta 1 protein was visualized immunocytochemically and localized to infiltrating mononuclear cells with peak expression around the same time as mRNA, in addition to some constitutive expression in axons and Schwann cells. Our studies suggest that the spontaneous recovery observed in Lewis rat EAN might be mediated by the endogenous elaboration of TGF-beta 1 within the peripheral nerve, and that macrophages might control their own cytotoxicity by expressing TGF-beta 1. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8546208

  7. Enzymatic cyclization of 22,23-dihydro-2,3-oxidosqualene into euph-7-en-3beta-ol and bacchar-12-en-3beta-ol by recombinant beta-amyrin synthase.

    PubMed

    Abe, Ikuro; Sakano, Yuichi; Tanaka, Hideya; Lou, Weiwei; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Shibuya, Masaaki; Ebizuka, Yutaka

    2004-03-24

    Recombinant beta-amyrin synthase from Pisum sativum converted 22,23-dihydro-2,3-oxidosqualene, a substrate analogue lacking the terminal double bond of 2,3-oxidosqualene, into a 4:1 mixture of euph-7-en-3beta-ol and bacchar-12-en-3beta-ol. This is the first demonstration of the enzymatic formation of the baccharene skeleton with a six-membered D-ring. In the absence of the terminal double bond, the proton-initiated cyclization first generated the tetracyclic dammarenyl cation, followed by a backbone rearrangement with loss of H-7alpha leading to the formation of euph-7-en-3beta-ol, while D-ring expansion to the baccharenyl cation and subsequent 1,2-hydride shifts with H-12alpha elimination yielded bacchar-12-en-3beta-ol. It is remarkable that the formation of the anti-Markovnikov six-membered D-ring did not depend on the participation of the terminal pi-electrons. PMID:15025461

  8. Variants of beta-glucosidase

    SciTech Connect

    Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Gorre-Clancy, Brian

    2015-07-14

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  9. Variants of beta-glucosidases

    SciTech Connect

    Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Gorre-Clancy, Brian

    2014-10-07

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  10. Variants of beta-glucosidases

    DOEpatents

    Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Clancy, Brian Gorre

    2008-08-19

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  11. Variants of beta-glucosidase

    DOEpatents

    Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Gorre-Clancy, Brian

    2009-12-29

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  12. Low-dosage micronized 17 beta-estradiol prevents bone loss in postmenopausal women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ettinger, B.; Genant, H. K.; Steiger, P.; Madvig, P.

    1992-01-01

    With the use of a double-blind, randomized, dose-ranging design, we tested during an 18-month period the degree of protection against postmenopausal bone loss afforded by micronized 17 beta-estradiol in dosages of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg. All subjects received supplementation to ensure a minimum of 1500 mg calcium daily. Fifty-one subjects completed at least 1 year of follow-up bone density measurements by quantitative computed tomography and by single- and dual-photon absorptiometry. In the placebo group spinal trabecular bone density decreased 4.9% annually (p less than 0.001), whereas in those taking micronized 17 beta-estradiol bone density tended to increase (annual increases of 0.3% in the 0.5 mg micronized 17 beta-estradiol group, 1.8% in the 1.0 mg micronized 17 beta-estradiol group, and 2.5% in the 2.0 mg micronized 17 beta-estradiol group). After completing the double-blind phase, 41 subjects completed an additional 18 months of follow-up while taking 1.0 mg micronized 17 beta-estradiol. During this time one third of the subjects were randomly assigned to discontinue calcium supplements. Among those who previously received placebo, trabecular bone density increased 4.3% annually, whereas among those who had used micronized 17 beta-estradiol, trabecular bone density response was inversely related to the dosage previously used. Additionally and independently, the level of calcium intake showed a statistically significant correlation with the change in spinal trabecular bone density (r = 0.37, p = 0.02). We conclude that micronized 17 beta-estradiol has a continuous skeletal dose-response effect in the range of 0.5 to 2.0 mg and that calcium intake positively modifies the skeletal response to 1.0 mg micronized 17 beta-estradiol.

  13. Qualitative Aspects of UV-Vis Spectrophotometry of Beta-Carotene and Lycopene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Barrie; Soderstrom, David N.

    1989-01-01

    Explores the structural behavior of polyenic pi systems such as isomerization and conjugation. Uses the simultaneous spectrophotometric analysis of a beta-carotene and lycopene mixture. Presents an empirical method to determine the number of double bonds in the polyenic carotenoid. (MVL)

  14. Measuring θ13 in the Double Chooz experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Keith

    2013-04-01

    Double Chooz measures θ13 by searching for the disappearance of reactor electron antineutrinos (νe) interacting via inverse beta decay (IBD) in a liquid scintillator-based detector. The signature of IBD is the coincidence of positron annihilation followed by the capture of a neutron. Although Double Chooz was primarily designed to detect νe by searching for neutron capture on gadolinium, we can also search for neutron capture on hydrogen. We developed separate analyses for neutron capture on hydrogen and gadolinium as the two elements have different capture energies, capture lifetimes, and spatial distributions within our detector.

  15. R and D of crystal scintillators from enriched isotopes for high sensitivity double β decay experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Danevich, F. A.

    2013-12-30

    Experiments to search for neutrinoless double beta decay enters to a new phase when a sensitivity on the level of T{sub 1/2}∼10{sup 26}−10{sup 28} yr is required. Scintillating low temperature detectors possess important properties required for high-sensitivity double beta decay experiments: presence of elements of interest, high energy resolution and detection efficiency, low level of background thanks to excellent particle discrimination ability. High concentration of isotope of interest and as low as possible radioactive contamination are important requirements to crystal scintillators. Other crucial issues are maximal output of detectors and minimal loss of enriched materials. Prospects of several scintillation materials, enriched in isotopes promising for double beta decay experiments, are discussed.

  16. Minimally allowed beta beata 0_nu rates from approximate flavor symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, James

    2008-01-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay ({beta}{beta}0{nu}) is the only realistic probe of Majorana neutrinos. In the standard scenario, dominated by light neutrino exchange, the process amplitude is proportional to m{sub ee} , the e - e element of the Majorana mass matrix. This is expected to hold true for small {beta}{beta}{nu} rates ({Gamma}{sub {beta}{beta}0{nu}}), even in the presence of new physics. Naively, current data allows for vanishing m{sub ee} , but this should be protected by an appropriate flavor symmetry. All such symmetries lead to mass matrices inconsistent with oscillation phenomenology. Hence, Majorana neutrinos imply nonzero {Gamma}{sub {beta}{beta}0{nu}}. I perform a spurion analysis to break all possible abelian symmetries that guarantee {Gamma}{sub {beta}{beta}0{nu}} = 0 and search for minimally allowed m{sub ee} values. Specifically, I survey 259 broken structures to yield m{sub ee} values and current phenomenological constraints under a variety of scenarios. This analysis also extracts predictions for both neutrino oscillation parameters and kinematic quantities. Assuming reasonable tuning levels, I find that m{sub ee} > 4 x 10{sup -6} eV at 99% confidence. Bounds below this value would indicate the Dirac neutrino nature or the existence of new light (eV-MeV scale) degrees of freedom that can potentially be probed elsewhere. This limit can be raised by improvements in neutrino parameter measurements, particularly of the reactor mixing angle, depending on the best fit parameter values. Such improvements will also significantly constrain the available model space and aid in future constructions.

  17. Astrocytic expression of the Alzheimer's disease beta-secretase (BACE1) is stimulus-dependent.

    PubMed

    Hartlage-Rübsamen, Maike; Zeitschel, Ulrike; Apelt, Jenny; Gärtner, Ulrich; Franke, Heike; Stahl, Tobias; Günther, Albrecht; Schliebs, Reinhard; Penkowa, Milena; Bigl, Volker; Rossner, Steffen

    2003-01-15

    The beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE1) is a prerequisite for the generation of beta-amyloid peptides, which give rise to cerebrovascular and parenchymal beta-amyloid deposits in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. BACE1 is neuronally expressed in the brains of humans and experimental animals such as mice and rats. In addition, we have recently shown that BACE1 protein is expressed by reactive astrocytes in close proximity to beta-amyloid plaques in the brains of aged transgenic Tg2576 mice that overexpress human amyloid precursor protein carrying the double mutation K670N-M671L. To address the question whether astrocytic BACE1 expression is an event specifically triggered by beta-amyloid plaques or whether glial cell activation by other mechanisms also induces BACE1 expression, we used six different experimental strategies to activate brain glial cells acutely or chronically. Brain sections were processed for the expression of BACE1 and glial markers by double immunofluorescence labeling and evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. There was no detectable expression of BACE1 protein by activated microglial cells of the ameboid or ramified phenotype in any of the lesion paradigms studied. In contrast, BACE1 expression by reactive astrocytes was evident in chronic but not in acute models of gliosis. Additionally, we observed BACE1-immunoreactive astrocytes in proximity to beta-amyloid plaques in the brains of aged Tg2576 mice and Alzheimer's disease patients. PMID:12509807

  18. Regulation of. beta. -cell glucose transporter gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ling; Alam, Tausif; Johnson, J.H.; Unger, R.H. Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Dallas, TX ); Hughes, S.; Newgard, C.B. )

    1990-06-01

    It has been postulated that a glucose transporter of {beta} cells (GLUT-2) may be important in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. To determine whether this transporter is constitutively expressed or regulated, the authors subjected conscious unrestrained Wistar rats to perturbations in glucose homeostasis and quantitated {beta}-cell GLUT-2 mRNA by in situ hybridization. After 3 hr of hypoglycemia, GLUT-2 and proinsulin mRNA signal densities were reduced by 25% of the level in control rats. After 4 days, GLUT-2 and proinsulin mRNA densities were reduced by 85% and 65%, respectively. After 12 days of hypoglycemia, the K{sub m} for 3-O-methyl-D-glucose transport in isolated rat islets, normally 18-20 mM, was 2.5 mM. This provides functional evidence of a profound reduction of high K{sub m} glucose transporter in {beta} cells. In contrast, GLUT-2 was only slightly reduced by hypoglycemia in liver. To determine the effect of prolonged hyperglycemia, they also infused animals with 50% (wt/vol) glucose for 5 days. Hyperglycemic clamping increased GLUT-2 mRNA by 46% whereas proinsulin mRNA doubled. They conclude that GLUT-2 expression in {beta} cells, but not liver, is subject to regulation by certain perturbations in blood glucose homeostasis.

  19. Beta-blocking agents during electroconvulsive therapy: a review.

    PubMed

    Boere, E; Birkenhäger, T K; Groenland, T H N; van den Broek, W W

    2014-07-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is associated with at least transient episodes of hypertension and tachycardia. Beta-blocking agents may be indicated to prevent cardiovascular complications and may shorten seizure duration. This review evaluates studies that used beta-blocking agents during ECT to determine which agent has the most favourable outcomes on cardiovascular variables and seizure duration. A Medline database search was made using the combined keywords 'adrenergic beta-antagonists' and 'electroconvulsive therapy'. The search was restricted to double-blind randomized controlled trials and yielded 29 original studies. With the use of esmolol, significant attenuating effects were found on cardiovascular parameters in the first 5 min after stimulation; its shortening effects on seizure duration may be dose-related. With the use of labetalol, findings on cardiovascular effects were inconsistent during the first minutes after stimulation but were significant after 5 min and thereafter; seizure duration was scarcely studied. Landiolol attenuates heart rate but with inconsistent findings regarding arterial pressure (AP); seizure duration was mostly unaffected. Esmolol appears to be effective in reducing the cardiovascular response, although seizure duration may be affected with higher dosages. Landiolol can be considered a suitable alternative, but effects on AP need further investigation. Labetalol has been studied to a lesser extent and may have prolonged cardiovascular effects. The included studies varied in design, methodology, and the amount of exact data provided in the publications. Further study of beta-blocking agents in ECT is clearly necessary. PMID:24942714

  20. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... interferon beta-1b injection at around the same time of day each time you inject it. Follow ...