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1

13C NMR spectral characterization of epimeric rotenone and some related tetrahydrobenzopyranofurobenzopyranones  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) spectra of epimers of rotenone and four 12a-hydroxy-analogues were examined to determine the stereochemical effect of the B/C ring fusion involving the 6a- and 12a-carbon centers. Chemical shift differences between the epimeric carbon resonances of cis- and trans-6a,12a-compounds were notably larger than those of diastereoisomers derived from the same B/C ring junction stereochemistry. Results of the spectral analysis have been useful for the quantification of mixtures of epimers and for the measurement of rates of epimerization and oxygenation.

Abidi, S.L.; Abidi, M.S.

1983-01-01

2

Optimized Spectral Editing of 13C MAS NMR Spectra of Rigid Solids Using Cross-Polarization Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combinations of 13C magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR experiments employing cross polarization (CP), cross polarization-depolarization (CPD), and cross polarization-depolarization-repolarization are analyzed quantitatively to derive simple and general procedures for optimized spectral editing of 13C CP/MAS NMR spectra of rigid solids by separation of the 13C resonances into CH n subspectra ( n = 0, 1, 2, and 3). Special attention is devoted to a differentiation by CPD/MAS of CH and CH 2 resonances since these groups behave quite similarly during spin lock under Hartmann-Hahn match and are therefore generally difficult to distinguish unambiguously. A general procedure for the design of subexperiments and linear combinations of their spectra to provide optimized signal-to-noise ratios for the edited subspectra is described. The technique is illustrated by a series of edited 13C CP/MAS spectra for a number of rigid solids ranging from simple organic compounds (sucrose and l-menthol) to complex pharmaceutical products (calcipotriol monohydrate and vitamin D 3) and polymers (polypropylene, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl chloride, and polystyrene).

Sangill, R.; Rastrupandersen, N.; Bildsoe, H.; Jakobsen, H. J.; Nielsen, N. C.

3

Complete 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectral analysis of the pairs of 20(S) and 20(R) ginsenosides  

PubMed Central

Background Ginsenosides, the major ingredients of Panax ginseng, have been studied for many decades in Asian countries as a result of their wide range of pharmacological properties. The less polar ginsenosides, with one or two sugar residues, are not present in nature and are produced during manufacturing processes by methods such as heating, steaming, acid hydrolysis, and enzyme reactions. 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopic data for the identification of the less polar ginsenosides are often unavailable or incomplete. Methods We isolated 21 compounds, including 10 pairs of 20(S) and 20(R) less polar ginsenosides (1–20), and an oleanane-type triterpene (21) from a processed ginseng preparation and obtained complete 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopic data for the following compounds, referred to as compounds 1–21 for rapid identification: 20(S)-ginsenosides Rh2 (1), 20(R)-Rh2 (2), 20(S)-Rg3 (3), 20(R)-Rg3 (4), 6?-O-acetyl-20(S)-Rh2 [20(S)-AcetylRh2] (5), 20(R)-AcetylRh2 (6), 25-hydroxy-20(S)-Rh2 (7), 25-hydroxy-20(S)-Rh2 (8), 20(S)-Rh1 (9), 20(R)-Rh1 (10), 20(S)-Rg2 (11), 20(R)-Rg2 (12), 25-hydroxy-20(S)-Rh1 (13), 25-hydroxy-20(R)-Rh1 (14), 20(S)-AcetylRg2 (15), 20(R)-AcetylRg2 (16), Rh4 (17), Rg5 (18), Rk1 (19), 25-hydroxy-Rh4 (20), and oleanolic acid 28-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (21). PMID:25378994

Yang, Heejung; Kim, Jeom Yong; Kim, Sun Ok; Yoo, Young Hyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

2014-01-01

4

1H, 13C and 15N NMR spectral and theoretical studies of some methyl and alkylamino derivatives of 4-halopyridine N-oxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nine new and three earlier known 4-halogen (Cl and Br) substituted pyridine N-oxides have been prepared and their 1H, 13C and 15N NMR chemical shifts assigned based on PFG 1H, X (X= 13C and 15N) HMQC and HMBC experiments as well as the comparison with our earlier results for substituted pyridine N-oxide derivatives. The 15N resonances of the pyridine nitrogen are 27-40 ppm more shielded in 4-halo-2-alkylamino-6-methyl-5-nitropyridine N-oxide than in parent 4-halopyridine N-oxide. According to quantum chemical ab initio HF/6-311G** calculations the amino tautomer of 4-chloro-2-methylamino-6-methyl-5-nitropyridine N-oxide is more stable than its imino form. Using B3LYP/6-311G** optimized structures both 13C and 15N shifts were calculated by density functional B3LYP/6-311G** CSGT methods for the amino and imino tautomers as well as for the dimeric structure for 4-chloro-2-methylamino-6-methyl-5-nitropyridine N-oxide. The 15N NMR and DFT calculations suggest the prevailing of the dimeric amino form for one congener, which is further supported by ESI-TOF MS data.

Laihia, K.; Puszko, A.; Linnanto, J.; Kolehmainen, E.

2006-02-01

5

Functional groups identified by solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Animal manure is generally high in organic matter intensity so it is well suitable for 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Solid-state 13C NMR techniques used in characterizing organic matter and its components include, but are not limited to, cross-polarization /magic angle spinning (CP...

6

Molecular structure, vibrational spectra and 13C and 1H NMR spectral analysis of 1-methylnaphthalene by ab initio HF and DFT methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and FT-Raman of 1-methylnaphthalene (1MN) have been recorded and analyzed. The equilibrium geometry, bond lengths, bond angles and harmonic vibrational frequencies have been investigated with the help of density functional theory (DFT) method. Vibrational spectroscopic assignments of 1-methylnaphthalene (1MN) are carried out with the help of quantum chemical calculation. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule are calculated by the Gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The molecular stability and bond strength have been investigated by using natural bond orbital analysis (NBO). The assignments of vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of normal co-ordinate analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field (SQMFF) methodology. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shift of the molecular is depend only on the structure of the molecule. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energy shows that charge transfer interactions take place within the molecule. Finally, the calculation results are applied to simulate infrared and Raman spectra of the title compound which show good agreement with observed spectra.

Shailajha, S.; Rajesh Kannan, U.; Sheik Abdul Kadhar, S. P.; Isac Paulraj, E.

2014-12-01

7

Development of LC-13C NMR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study involves the development of C-13 nuclear resonance as an on-line detector for liquid chromatography (LC-C-13 NMR) for the chemical characterization of aviation fuels. The initial focus of this study was the development of a high sensitivity flow C-13 NMR probe. Since C-13 NMR sensitivity is of paramount concern, considerable effort during the first year was directed at new NMR probe designs. In particular, various toroid coil designs were examined. In addition, corresponding shim coils for correcting the main magnetic field (B sub 0) homogeneity were examined. Based on these initial probe design studies, an LC-C-13 NMR probe was built and flow C-13 NMR data was obtained for a limited number of samples.

Dorn, H. C.; Wang, J. S.; Glass, T. E.

1986-01-01

8

13 C NMR and mass spectrometry of soil organic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid state, high resolution 13C NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry were used to study the composition and structure of soil organic matter (SOM) using\\u000a soil extracts from two long-term experiments at the Rothamsted Experimental Station. Both one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques\\u000a were applied. 13C NMR sub-spectra of the CH\\u000a n\\u000a (n=0...3) groups, obtained by the Distortionless Enhancement by Polarisation Transfer

Galya I. Ivanova; Edward W. Randall

2003-01-01

9

13C NMR spectroscopy applications to brain energy metabolism  

PubMed Central

13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the method of choice for studying brain metabolism. Indeed, the most convincing data obtained to decipher metabolic exchanges between neurons and astrocytes have been obtained using this technique, thus illustrating its power. It may be difficult for non-specialists, however, to grasp thefull implication of data presented in articles written by spectroscopists. The aim of the review is, therefore, to provide a fundamental understanding of this topic to facilitate the non-specialists in their reading of this literature. In the first part of this review, we present the metabolic fate of 13C-labeled substrates in the brain in a detailed way, including an overview of some general neurochemical principles. We also address and compare the various spectroscopic strategies that can be used to study brain metabolism. Then, we provide an overview of the 13C NMR experiments performed to analyze both intracellular and intercellular metabolic fluxes. More particularly, the role of lactate as a potential energy substrate for neurons is discussed in the light of 13C NMR data. Finally, new perspectives and applications offered by 13C hyperpolarization are described. PMID:24367329

Rodrigues, Tiago B.; Valette, Julien; Bouzier-Sore, Anne-Karine

2013-01-01

10

Isotopic multiplets in the /sup 13/C NMR spectra of partially deuterated ammonium derivatives. Spectral effects of isotopic asymmetry at a nitrogen atom  

SciTech Connect

Multiplets due to upfield deuterium isotope effects on the /sup 13/C chemical shifts can be observed when hydrogen exchange is slow relative to the magnitude of the isotope effect. Deuterium isotope effects have been reported for amine, amide, and amino acid systems. The chemical shift values and the magnitudes of the isotope effect for spermidine, as well as for the other substances are in the range 0.055-0.097 ppm/deuteron for the two bond isotope effect. Values at the lower end of this range are observed with higher substitution on the nitrogen or carbon atoms. The three-bond isotope effect is in the range 0.025-0.051 ppm/deuteron. For amino acids and their derivatives, partial deuteration of the ..cap alpha.. ammonium group gives rise to isotopic multiplets in the carboxyl as well as in the identification of terminal residues of peptides.

Reuben, J.

1985-03-06

11

State-of-the-Art Direct 13C and Indirect 1H-[13C] NMR Spectroscopy In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy in combination with 13C-labeled substrate infusion is a powerful technique to measure a large number of metabolic fluxes non-invasively in vivo. It has been used to quantify glycogen synthesis rates, establish quantitative relationships between energy metabolism and neurotransmission and evaluate the importance of different substrates. All measurements can, in principle, be performed through direct 13C NMR detection or via indirect 1H-[13C] NMR detection of the protons attached to 13C nuclei. The choice for detection scheme and pulse sequence depends on the magnetic field strength, whereas substrate selection depends on the metabolic pathways that are studied. 13C NMR spectroscopy remains a challenging technique that requires several non-standard hardware modifications, infusion of 13C-labeled substrates and sophisticated processing and metabolic modeling. Here the various aspects of direct 13C and indirect 1H-[13C] NMR are reviewed with the aim of providing a practical guide. PMID:21919099

de Graaf, Robin A.; Rothman, Douglas L.; Behar, Kevin L.

2013-01-01

12

Applicability of solid-state 13C CP\\/MAS NMR analysis in Spodosols: chemical removal of magnetic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of magnetic species, Fe in particular, decreases the effectiveness of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of soil organic matter (SOM), especially in Spodosols. This study was conducted to evaluate the utility of dithionite, stannous chloride, and hydrofluoric acid (HF) extraction for Fe removal and solid-state 13C NMR spectral enhancement in forested Spodosols. Extraction with 2% HF resulted in

K'o H Dai; Chris E Johnson

1999-01-01

13

A CP\\/MAS 13C NMR investigation of molecular ordering in celluloses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The individual states of order of cellulose found within Valonia, Cladophora, Halocynthia, cotton and wood cellulose were quantified by non-linear least-squares fitting of the 13C NMR spectra. The results from the spectral fittings indicated that a cellulose form giving signals at ? 104.5 (C-1 region) and ? 88.1–88.5 (C-4 region) was present in all the investigated samples. Partial signal suppression

Per Tomas Larsson; Kristina Wickholm; Tommy Iversen

1997-01-01

14

Complete 1H and 13C spectral assignment of floridoside.  

PubMed

Floridoside (2-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosylglycerol) was extracted from the red marine alga Rhodymenia palmata, and purified by ion-exchange chromatography: 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy experiments were used to unambiguously assign the complete 1H and 13C spectra. PMID:11844498

Simon-Colin, Christelle; Kervarec, Nelly; Pichon, Roger; Deslandes, Eric

2002-02-11

15

Accurate measurements of 13C-13C distances in uniformly 13C-labeled proteins using multi-dimensional four-oscillating field solid-state NMR spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of sets of 13C-13C internuclear distance restraints constitutes a typical key element in determining the structure of peptides and proteins by magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Accurate measurements of the structurally highly important 13C-13C distances in uniformly 13C-labeled peptides and proteins, however, pose a big challenge due to the problem of dipolar truncation. Here, we present novel two-dimensional (2D) solid-state NMR experiments capable of extracting distances between carbonyl (13C') and aliphatic (13Caliphatic) spins with high accuracy. The method is based on an improved version of the four-oscillating field (FOLD) technique [L. A. Straasø, M. Bjerring, N. Khaneja, and N. C. Nielsen, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 225103 (2009)] which circumvents the problem of dipolar truncation, thereby offering a base for accurate extraction of internuclear distances in many-spin systems. The ability to extract reliable accurate distances is demonstrated using one- and two-dimensional variants of the FOLD experiment on uniformly 13C,15N-labeled-L-isoleucine. In a more challenging biological application, FOLD 2D experiments are used to determine a large number of 13C'-13Caliphatic distances in amyloid fibrils formed by the SNNFGAILSS fibrillating core of the human islet amyloid polypeptide with uniform 13C,15N-labeling on the FGAIL fragment.

Straasø, Lasse Arnt; Nielsen, Jakob Toudahl; Bjerring, Morten; Khaneja, Navin; Nielsen, Niels Chr.

2014-09-01

16

Multidimensional CP-MAS 13C NMR of uniformly enriched chlorophyll  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress toward structure refinement of solid-type uniformly 13C enriched ([U-13C]) chlorophyll-containing biological preparations is summarised. Solid state carbon chemical shifts of aggregated [U-13C] bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) c in intact chlorosomes of Chlorobium tepidum and in [U-13C] BChl c aggregates were determined by the application of homonuclear (13C?13C) magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR dipolar correlation spectroscopy. It was found that the

B.-J. van Rossum; G. J. Boender; F. M. Mulder; J. Raap; T. S. Balaban; A. Holzwarth; K. Schaffner; S. Prytulla; H. Oschkinat; H. J. M. de Groot

1998-01-01

17

Compartmentalized Cerebral Metabolism of [1,6-13C]Glucose Determined by in vivo 13C NMR Spectroscopy at 14.1 T  

PubMed Central

Cerebral metabolism is compartmentalized between neurons and glia. Although glial glycolysis is thought to largely sustain the energetic requirements of neurotransmission while oxidative metabolism takes place mainly in neurons, this hypothesis is matter of debate. The compartmentalization of cerebral metabolic fluxes can be determined by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy upon infusion of 13C-enriched compounds, especially glucose. Rats under light ?-chloralose anesthesia were infused with [1,6-13C]glucose and 13C enrichment in the brain metabolites was measured by 13C NMR spectroscopy with high sensitivity and spectral resolution at 14.1 T. This allowed determining 13C enrichment curves of amino acid carbons with high reproducibility and to reliably estimate cerebral metabolic fluxes (mean error of 8%). We further found that TCA cycle intermediates are not required for flux determination in mathematical models of brain metabolism. Neuronal tricarboxylic acid cycle rate (VTCA) and neurotransmission rate (VNT) were 0.45?±?0.01 and 0.11?±?0.01??mol/g/min, respectively. Glial VTCA was found to be 38?±?3% of total cerebral oxidative metabolism, accounting for more than half of neuronal oxidative metabolism. Furthermore, glial anaplerotic pyruvate carboxylation rate (VPC) was 0.069?±?0.004??mol/g/min, i.e., 25?±?1% of the glial TCA cycle rate. These results support a role of glial cells as active partners of neurons during synaptic transmission beyond glycolytic metabolism. PMID:21713114

Duarte, João M. N.; Lanz, Bernard; Gruetter, Rolf

2011-01-01

18

Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy of (13)C methanol at less than 5 ?T.  

PubMed

Two-dimensional (2D) spectroscopy is one of the most significant applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Here, we demonstrate that the 2D NMR can be performed even at a low magnetic field of less than 5?T, which is ten times less than the Earth's magnetic field. The pulses used in the experiment were composed of circularly polarized fields for coherent as well as wideband excitations. Since the excitation band covers the entire spectral range, the simplest two-pulse sequence delivered the full 2D spectrum. At 5?T, methanol with (13)C enriched up to 99% belongs to a strongly coupled regime, and thus its 2D spectrum exhibits complicated spectral correlations, which can be exploited as a fingerprint in chemical analysis. In addition, we show that, with compressive sensing, the acquisition of the 2D spectrum can be accelerated to take only 45% of the overall duration. PMID:25063950

Shim, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Seong-Joo; Hwang, Seong-min; Yu, Kwon-Kyu; Kim, Kiwoong

2014-09-01

19

Quantitative solid-state 13C NMR with signal enhancement by multiple cross polarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple new method is presented that yields quantitative solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) 13C NMR spectra of organic materials with good signal-to-noise ratios. It achieves long (>10 ms) cross polarization (CP) from 1H without significant magnetization losses due to relaxation and with a moderate duty cycle of the radio-frequency irradiation, by multiple 1-ms CP periods alternating with 1H spin-lattice relaxation periods that repolarize the protons. The new method incorporates previous techniques that yield less distorted CP/MAS spectra, such as a linear variation (“ramp”) of the radio-frequency field strength, and it overcomes their main limitation, which is T1? relaxation of the spin-locked 1H magnetization. The ramp of the radio-frequency field strength and the asymptotic limit of cross polarization makes the spectral intensity quite insensitive to the exact field strengths used. The new multiCP pulse sequence is a “drop-in” replacement for previous CP methods and produces no additional data-processing burden. Compared to the only reliable quantitative 13C NMR method for unlabeled solids previously available, namely direct-polarization NMR, the measuring time is reduced by more than a factor of 50, enabling higher-throughput quantitative NMR studies. The new multiCP technique is validated with 14-kHz MAS on amino-acid derivatives, plant matter, a highly aromatic humic acid, and carbon materials made by low-temperature pyrolysis.

Johnson, Robert L.; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

2014-02-01

20

CP/MAS (13)C NMR study of cellulose and cellulose derivatives. 1. Complete assignment of the CP/MAS (13)C NMR spectrum of the native cellulose.  

PubMed

The precise assignments of cross polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) (13)C NMR spectra of cellulose I(alpha) and I(beta) were performed by using (13)C labeled cellulose biosynthesized by Acetobacter xylinum (A. xylinum) ATCC10245 strain from culture medium containing D-[1,3-(13)C]glycerol or D-[2-(13)C]glucose as a carbon source. On the CP/MAS (13)C NMR spectrum of cellulose from D-[1,3-(13)C]glycerol, the introduced (13)C labeling were observed at C1, C3, C4, and C6 of the biosynthesized cellulose. In the case of cellulose biosynthesized from D-[2-(13)C]glucose, the transitions of (13)C labeling to C1, C3, and C5 from C2 were observed. With the quantitative analysis of the (13)C transition ratio and comparing the CP/MAS (13)C NMR spectrum of the Cladophora cellulose with those of the (13)C labeled celluloses, the assignments of the cluster of resonances which belong to C2, C3, and C5 of cellulose, which have not been assigned before, were performed. As a result, all carbons of cellulose I(alpha) and I(beta) except for C1 and C6 of cellulose I(alpha) and C2 of cellulose I(beta) were shown in equal intensity of doublet in the CP/MAS spectrum of the native cellulose, which suggests that two inequivalent glucopyranose residues were contained in the unit cells of both cellulose I(alpha) and I(beta) allomorphs. PMID:12071760

Kono, Hiroyuki; Yunoki, Shunji; Shikano, Tamio; Fujiwara, Masashi; Erata, Tomoki; Takai, Mitsuo

2002-06-26

21

In vivo 13C-NMR studies on the metabolism of the lugworm Arenicola marina.  

PubMed

13C-NMR natural-abundance spectra of specimens of Arenicola marina obtained, showed seasonal changes in the concentration of some metabolites, with the osmolite alanine as well as triacylglyceride storage compounds present at high concentrations. Glycogen was sometimes only barely detectable due to the low natural abundance level of 13C. Glycogenic metabolism of the lugworm A. marina was studied in vivo by 13C-NMR spectroscopy using 13C-labelled glucose. During recovery from a hypoxic period [1-13C]glucose was incorporated into glycogen. [1-13C]Glucose was injected 5 h after the end of hypoxia to guarantee sufficient and reliable 13C labelling of glycogen. An earlier injection of [1-13C]glucose led to considerably diminished incorporation of 13C-labelled glucosyl units into glycogen, probably due to the consumption of the available glucose as fuel for ATP production. No scrambling of 13C into the C6 position of glycogen was observed, indicating a lack of gluconeogenic activity. 13C was also incorporated into the C3 positions of alanine and alanopine. To assign correctly this last 13C-NMR resonance, the compound was synthesized biochemically. No labelling of glycogen was observed when [3-13C]alanine was injected into the coelomic cavity with similar incubation conditions being used. The 13C of [1-13C]glucose, incorporated into glycogen, showed a very low turnover rate in normoxic lugworms as shown by two 13C(1H)-NMR spectra, one obtained 48 h after the other. On the other hand, in hypoxia lugworms the signal due to 13C-labelled glycogen decreased very rapidly proving a high turnover rate. The disappearance of 13C from glycogen during the first 24 h of hypoxia indicates that the last glycosyl units to be synthesized are the first to be utilized. Lugworms were quite sensitive to the 1H-decoupling field used for obtaining the 13C(1H)-NMR spectra, especially at 11.7 T. Using bi-level composite-pulse decoupling and long relaxation delays, no tissue damage or stress-dependent phosphagen mobilization, as judged by 31P-NMR spectroscopy, was observed. PMID:2226445

Juretschke, H P; Kamp, G

1990-10-01

22

NATURAL ABUNDANCE 13C NMR SPECTROSCOPY OF DOUBLE-STRANDED DNA  

EPA Science Inventory

Although 13C NMR spectroscopy has already proved extremely useful in studies of biopolymers, including t-RNA's, and single-stranded polynucleotides, no successful study of native double-stranded DNA has been reported. This failure is mainly due to extremely unfavorable 13C spin r...

23

Elucidating proline dynamics in spider dragline silk fibre using 2H-13C HETCOR MAS NMR.  

PubMed

(2)H-(13)C HETCOR MAS NMR is performed on (2)H/(13)C/(15)N-Pro enriched A. aurantia dragline silk. Proline dynamics are extracted from (2)H NMR line shapes and T1 in a site-specific manner to elucidate the backbone and side chain molecular dynamics for the MaSp2 GPGXX ?-turn regions for spider dragline silk in the dry and wet, supercontracted states. PMID:24686512

Shi, Xiangyan; Yarger, Jeffery L; Holland, Gregory P

2014-05-14

24

Crystallinity and structuring role of water in native and recrystallized starches by 13C CP-MAS NMR spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amorphous, native, and recrystallized starches were studied by 13C CP-MAS NMR spectroscopy with respect to their behavior with hydration. The study of space groups, associated to crystalline polymorphs (B2 and P61 for A and B forms, respectively), provided decomposition rules for the spectral part due to crystalline phases. Moreover, the subtraction of a standard amorphous spectrum apparently showed the existence

H Bizot; J Emery; J. Y Buzaré; A Buléon

1999-01-01

25

A comparative CP\\/MAS 13C-NMR study of cellulose structure in spruce wood and kraft pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

CP\\/MAS 13C-NMR spectroscopy in combination with spectral fitting was used to study the supermolecular structure of the cellulose fibril in spruce wood and spruce kraft pulp. During pulping, structures contributing to inaccessible surfaces in the wood cellulose are converted to the cellulose Iß allomorph, that is, the degree of order is increased. This increase is also accompanied by a conversion

Eva-Lena Hult; Per Tomas Larsson; Tommy Iversen

2000-01-01

26

Insights into the metabolic response to traumatic brain injury as revealed by 13C NMR spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

The present review highlights critical issues related to cerebral metabolism following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the use of 13C labeled substrates and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to study these changes. First we address some pathophysiologic factors contributing to metabolic dysfunction following TBI. We then examine how 13C NMR spectroscopy strategies have been used to investigate energy metabolism, neurotransmission, the intracellular redox state, and neuroglial compartmentation following injury. 13C NMR spectroscopy studies of brain extracts from animal models of TBI have revealed enhanced glycolytic production of lactate, evidence of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) activation, and alterations in neuronal and astrocyte oxidative metabolism that are dependent on injury severity. Differential incorporation of label into glutamate and glutamine from 13C labeled glucose or acetate also suggest TBI-induced adaptations to the glutamate-glutamine cycle. PMID:24109452

Bartnik-Olson, Brenda L.; Harris, Neil G.; Shijo, Katsunori; Sutton, Richard L.

2013-01-01

27

The use of 13C labeling to enhance the sensitivity of 13C solid-state CPMAS NMR to study polymorphism in low dose solid formulations.  

PubMed

(13)C labeling was used to enhance the sensitivity of (13)C solid-state NMR to study the effect of tabletting on the polymorphism of a steroidal drug. The steroidal drug Org OD 14 was (13)C labeled and formulated into tablets containing only 0.5-2.5% active ingredient. The tablets were subsequently studied by solid-state (13)C CPMAS NMR. The crystalline form present in tablets could readily be analyzed in tablets. No change in crystalline form was observed as a result of formulation or in subsequent stability studies. Solid-state NMR in combination with (13)C labeling can, in suitable cases, be used as a strategy to study the effect of formulation on the polymorphism of low dose drugs. PMID:15614820

Booy, Kees-Jan; Wiegerinck, Peter; Vader, Jan; Kaspersen, Frans; Lambregts, Dorette; Vromans, Herman; Kellenbach, Edwin

2005-02-01

28

Matrix-free dynamic nuclear polarization enables solid-state NMR 13C-13C correlation spectroscopy of proteins at natural isotopic abundance.  

PubMed

We introduce a general approach for dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enhanced solid-state NMR that overcomes the current problems in DNP experiments caused by the use of frozen solutions. Notably, we report for the first time a 2D (13)C-(13)C correlation spectrum of a protein without the use of isotopic labeling. PMID:24013616

Takahashi, Hiroki; Hediger, Sabine; De Paëpe, Gaël

2013-10-21

29

Measuring 13 C ? chemical shifts of invisible excited states in proteins by relaxation dispersion NMR spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A labeling scheme is introduced that facilitates the measurement of accurate 13C? chemical shifts of invisible, excited states of proteins by relaxation dispersion NMR spectroscopy. The approach makes use\\u000a of protein over-expression in a strain of E. coli in which the TCA cycle enzyme succinate dehydrogenase is knocked out, leading to the production of samples with high levels\\u000a of 13C

Patrik Lundström; Hong Lin; Lewis E. Kay

2009-01-01

30

Solid-State 13C NMR of Liquid Crystalline Polyesters: Variations in Morphology, Alignment, and Dynamics within a Homologous Series  

E-print Network

Solid-State 13C NMR of Liquid Crystalline Polyesters: Variations in Morphology, Alignment polymers was retained into the solid state if their quenchings occur while remaining within the strong NMR, the structures of these polyesters were examined by high-resolution solid-state 13C NMR. It was found that while

Frydman, Lucio

31

Magnetic susceptibility effects on 13C MAS NMR spectra of carbon materials and graphite.  

PubMed

13C high-resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was employed to study carbon materials prepared through the thermal decomposition of four different organic precursors (rice hulls, endocarp of babassu coconut, peat, and PVC). For heat treatment temperatures (HTTs) above about 600 C, all materials presented 13C NMR spectra composed of a unique resonance line associated with carbon atoms in aromatic planes. With increasing HTT a continuous broadening of this resonance and a diamagnetic shift in its central frequency were verified for all samples. The evolution of the magnitude and anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility of the heat-treated carbon samples with HTT explains well these findings. It is shown that these results are better understood when a comparison is made with the features of the 13C NMR spectrum of polycrystalline graphite, for which the magnetic susceptibility effect is also present and is much more pronounced. PMID:11529420

Freita, J C; Emmerich, F G; Cernicchiaro, G R; Sampaio, L C; Bonagamba, T J

2001-01-01

32

13C-NMR spectra and contact time experiment for Skjervatjern fulvic and humic acids  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The T(CP) and T(1p) time constants for Skjervatjern fulvic and humic acids were determined to be short with T(CP) values ranging from 0.14 ms to 0.53 ms and T(1p) values ranging from 3.3 ms to 5.9 ms. T(CP) or T(1p) time constants at a contact time of 1 ms are favorable for quantification of 13C-NMR spectra. Because of the short T(CP) values, correction factors for signal intensity for various regions of the 13C-NMR spectra would be necessary at contact times greater than 1.1 ms or less than 0.9 ms. T(CP) and T(1p) values have a limited non-homogeneity within Skjervatjern fulvic and humic acids. A pulse delay or repeat time of 700 ms is more than adequate for quantification of these 13C-NMR spectra. Paramagnetic effects in these humic substances are precluded due to low inorganic ash contents, low contents of Fe, Mn, and Co, and low organic free-radical contents. The observed T(CP) values suggest that all the carbon types in Skjervatjern fulvic and humic acids are fully cross-polarized before significant proton relaxation occurs. The 13C-NMR spectra for Skjervatjern fulvic acid is similar to most aquatic fulvic acids as it is predominantly aliphatic, low in aromaticity (fa1 = 24), low in phenolic content, high in carboxyl content, and has no resolution of a methoxyl peak. The 13C-NMR spectra for Skjervatjern humic acid is also similar to most other aquatic humic acids in that it is also predominantly aliphatic, high in aromaticity (fa1 = 38), moderate in phenolic content, moderate in carboxyl content, and has a clear resolution of a methoxyl carbon region. After the consideration of the necessary 13C-NMR experimental conditions, these spectra are considered to be quantitative. With careful consideration of the previously determined 13C-NMR experimental conditions, quantitative spectra can be obtained for humic substances in the future from the HUMEX site. Possible changes in humic substances due to acidification should be determined from 13C-NMR data.

Malcolm, R.L.

1992-01-01

33

1H-NMR and Hyperpolarized 13C-NMR Assays of Pyruvate-Lactate Exhange: a comparative study  

PubMed Central

Pyruvate-lactate exchange is mediated by the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and is central to the altered energy metabolism in cancer cells. Measurement of exchange kinetics using hyperpolarized 13C NMR has provided a biomarker of response to novel therapeutics. In this study we investigated an alternative in vitro 1H assay, using [3-13C]pyruvate, and compared the measured kinetics with a hyperpolarized 13C-NMR assay, using [1-13C]pyruvate, under the same conditions in human colorectal carcinoma SW1222 cells. The apparent forward reaction rate constants (kPL) derived from the two assays showed no significant difference, and both assays had similar reproducibility (kPL = 0.506 ± 0.054 and kPL = 0.441 ± 0.090 nmol/s/106 cells, (mean ± standard deviation, n = 3); 1H, 13C assays respectively). The apparent backward reaction rate constant (kLP) could only be measured with good reproducibility using the 1H-NMR assay (kLP = 0.376 ± 0.091 nmol/s/106 cells, (mean ± standard deviation, n = 3)). The 1H-NMR assay has adequate sensitivity to measure real-time pyruvate-lactate exchange kinetics in vitro, offering a complementary and accessible assay of apparent LDH activity. PMID:23712817

Orton, Matthew R.; Tardif, Nicolas; Parkes, Harold G.; Robinson, Simon P.; Leach, Martin O.; Chung, Yuen-Li; Eykyn, Thomas R.

2015-01-01

34

CP/MAS (13)C NMR study of cellulose and cellulose derivatives. 2. Complete assignment of the (13)C resonance for the ring carbons of cellulose triacetate polymorphs.  

PubMed

Complex ring (13)C resonance lines of the cross-polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) (13)C NMR spectra of cellulose triacetate (CTA) I and CTA II were completely assigned, for the first time, by (13)C-enriched CTA allomorphs. The (13)C-enriched CTA I was prepared by heterogeneous acetylation of bacterial cellulose which was biosynthesized by Acetobacter xylinum (A. xylinum) ATCC10245 from culture medium containing D-(2-(13)C)-, D-(3-(13)C)-, or D-(5-(13)C)glucose as a carbon source, while CTA II samples were obtained by solution acetylation of the (13)C-enriched bacterial celluloses. From comparison of the spectra of normal CTA prepared from ramie with those of the enriched CTA samples, it was revealed that all carbons composed of CTA I appeared as a singlet, while those of CTA II except for C1 were shown as equal-intensity doublets in the CP/MAS (13)C NMR spectrum. This finding suggests that CTA I is made up of one kind of glucopyranose residue while there are two magnetically inequivalent sites in the unit cell of CTA II in the same population. PMID:12071761

Kono, Hiroyuki; Erata, Tomoki; Takai, Mitsuo

2002-06-26

35

Structural aspects in ultrathin cellulose microfibrils followed by 13C CP-MAS NMR  

Microsoft Academic Search

13C CP-MAS NMR was used to study the ultrastructural aspects of ultrathin microfibrils extracted from sugar beet pulp. Depending on the stocking condition, the cellulose microfibrils contained different amounts of the polymorphs I? and I?. Structural changes were followed after a purification treatment. It was found that the crystallinity, as measured by solid-state NMR, increases as the purification proceeds. This

L. Heux; E. Dinand; M. R. Vignon

1999-01-01

36

15N and 13C NMR study of protonated monoaminopyridines in CDCl3-DMSO.  

PubMed

The 2-, 3- and 4-amino-pyridine and their protonated forms, obtained by reaction with pyridinium chloride, were investigated by 15N NMR spectroscopy. Exhaustive evidence has been found that the protonation occurs mainly on the annular nitrogen. Protonation of 4-aminopyridine by dehydrohalogenation of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TCE) was also studied by 13C NMR spectroscopy, which indicated that the protonation occurs via the formation of adducts. PMID:12396052

Beltrame, Paolo; Cadoni, Enzo; Floris, Costantino; Gelli, Gioanna; Lai, Adolfo

2002-10-01

37

Development of a 13C-Optimized 1.5-mm High Temperature Superconducting NMR Probe  

PubMed Central

We report a 1.5-mm NMR probe based on high temperature superconductors operating at 14.1 T optimized for 13C detection. The probe has a total sample volume of about 35 microliters (?L) with an active volume of 20 ?L and provides exceptional mass sensitivity for 13C detection. The probe also has excellent 1H sensitivity and employs a 2H channel lock; 15N irradiation capability can be added in the future. The coils are cooled to about 20 K using a standard Agilent cryogenic refrigeration system, and the sample temperature is regulated near room temperature. The coil design considerations are discussed in detail. This probe is ideal for directly detected 13C NMR experiments for natural products chemistry and metabolomics applications, for which 35 ?L is an optimal sample volume. The outstanding 13C sensitivity of this probe allowed us to directly determine the 13C connectivity on 1.1 mg of natural abundance histidine using an INADEQUATE experiment. We demonstrated the utility of this probe for 13C-based metabolomics using a synthetic mixture of common natural abundance metabolites whose concentrations ranged from 1 to 5 mM (40 to 200 nmol). PMID:23969086

Ramaswamy, Vijaykumar; Hooker, Jerris W.; Withers, Richard S.; Nast, Robert E.; Brey, William W.; Edison, Arthur S.

2013-01-01

38

1H and 13C NMR assignments for the sesquiterpene aldehydes, lepidozenal and isobicyclogermacrenal, from Eucalyptus dawsonii.  

PubMed

Lepidozenal and isobicyclogermacrenal were isolated from the leaves of Eucalyptus dawsonii and a complete assignment of their 1H and 13C NMR spectra was carried out using 2D NMR methods. PMID:18044810

Tucker, David J; Southwell, Ian A; Lowe, Robert F; Russell, Michael F; Brereton, Ian M

2007-12-01

39

Using multivariate methods on solid-state 13C NMR data of complex materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multivariate data analysis (MVA) has been used as an aid in the analysis and interpretation of 13C NMR spectra in the solid state. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of some important instrumental parameters and calculation strategies on the outcome of the multivariate data analysis. The samples used were two peat forming plants, Sphagnumfuscum and Carex

Hans Karlström; Mats Nilsson; Bo Nordén

1995-01-01

40

Quantitative identification of metastable magnesium carbonate minerals by solid-state (13)c NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

In the conversion of CO2 to mineral carbonates for the permanent geosequestration of CO2, there are multiple magnesium carbonate phases that are potential reaction products. Solid-state (13)C NMR is demonstrated as an effective tool for distinguishing magnesium carbonate phases and quantitatively characterizing magnesium carbonate mixtures. Several of these mineral phases include magnesite, hydromagnesite, dypingite, and nesquehonite, which differ in composition by the number of waters of hydration or the number of crystallographic hydroxyl groups. These carbonates often form in mixtures with nearly overlapping (13)C NMR resonances which makes their identification and analysis difficult. In this study, these phases have been investigated with solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy, including both static and magic-angle spinning (MAS) experiments. Static spectra yield chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) lineshapes that are indicative of the site-symmetry variations of the carbon environments. MAS spectra yield isotropic chemical shifts for each crystallographically inequivalent carbon and spin-lattice relaxation times, T1, yield characteristic information that assist in species discrimination. These detailed parameters, and the combination of static and MAS analyses, can aid investigations of mixed carbonates by (13)C NMR. PMID:25437754

Moore, Jeremy K; Surface, J Andrew; Brenner, Allison; Skemer, Philip; Conradi, Mark S; Hayes, Sophia E

2015-01-01

41

13C CP MAS NMR and GIAO-CHF calculations of coumarins.  

PubMed

13C cross-polarization magic-angle spinning NMR spectra were recorded for a series of solid coumarins. Ab initio calculations of shielding constants were performed with the use of GIAO-CHF method. The combined CPMAS NMR and theoretical approach was successful in characterizing solid-state conformations of coumarins; a relationship sigma (ppm) = -1.032 xdelta + 205.28 (R(2) = 0.9845) can be used to obtain structural information for coumarins, for which solid-state NMR or crystal structure data are not available. PMID:12633833

Zolek, Teresa; Paradowska, Katarzyna; Wawer, Iwona

2003-01-01

42

Characterization of covalent protein conjugates using solid-state sup 13 C NMR spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (CPMAS) {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy has been used to characterize covalent conjugates of alachlor, an {alpha}-chloroacetamide hapten, with glutathione (GSH) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The solid-state NMR method demonstrates definitively the covalent nature of these conjugates and can also be used to characterize the sites of hapten attachment to proteins. Three different sites of alachlor binding are observed in the BSA system. Accurate quantitation of the amount of hapten covalently bound to GSH and BSA is reported. The solid-state {sup 13}C NMR technique can easily be generalized to study other small molecule/protein conjugates and can be used to assist the development and refinement of synthetic methods needed for the successful formation of such protein alkylation products.

Garbow, J.R.; Fujiwara, Hideji; Sharp, C.R.; Logusch, E.W. (Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO (United States))

1991-07-23

43

Morphology changes during radiation-thermal degradation of polyethylene and an EPDM copolymer by 13C NMR spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ? radiation induced degradation of an EPDM copolymer was compared to that of a 13C enriched polyethylene at exposure temperatures of 22 and 80°C. Morphological changes were measured by MAS 13C NMR spectroscopy and DSC. By first examining the high quality and less complex spectra of 13C enriched polyethylene, a protocol for the interpretation and deconvolution of the more

Roger A. Assink; Mathew Celina; Kenneth T. Gillen; Roger L. Clough; Todd M. Alam

2001-01-01

44

A solid-state 13C NMR analysis of molecular dynamics in aramide polymers.  

PubMed

The local dynamics of aromatic cores was analyzed for a homologous series of polyamides in the solid phase incorporating phenyl, biphenyl and naphthyl groups. Preliminary wide-line and spin-relaxation variable-temperature (1)H NMR measurements revealed the presence of thermally activated molecular motions for each polymer studied. A number of (13)C NMR experiments were then implemented to further clarify the nature and extent of such motions. These included (1)H-(13)C 2D separate-local-field measurements, whose line shapes revealed that motions involved for all cases a superposition of states. These could in principle be associated with rigid and mobile populations in these semi-crystalline aramides, a model that yielded a proper description of the spectra at all temperatures. To further probe this model the relaxation behavior of the aramides'(13)C spins was monitored in the rotating frame as a function of temperature, in both the presence and absence of homonuclear (1)H-(1)H decoupling. The variations observed in these measurements evidenced a thermally activated, relatively broad distribution of motional rates in the polymers. Editing the 2D local-field data according to the (13)C relaxation also supported this heterogeneous dynamic model. The mechanism underlying this behavior and implications towards the (13)C analysis of motions in aramides in particular and complex polymers in general, is briefly discussed. PMID:16199142

McElheny, Dan; Frydman, Veronica; Frydman, Lucio

2006-02-01

45

15N and13C NMR investigation of hydroxylamine-derivatized humic substances  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five fulvic and humic acid samples of diverse origins were derivatized with 15N-labeled hydroxylamine and analyzed by liquid-phase 15N NMR spectrometry. The 15N NMR spectra indicated that hydroxylamine reacted similarly with all samples and could discriminate among carbonyl functional groups. Oximes were the major derivatives; resonances attributable to hydroxamic acids, the reaction products of hydroxylamine with esters, and resonances attributable to the tautomeric equilibrium position between the nitrosophenol and monoxime derivatives of quinones, the first direct spectroscopic evidence for quinones, also were evident. The 15N NMR spectra also suggested the presence of nitriles, oxazoles, oxazolines, isocyanides, amides, and lactams, which may all be explained in terms of Beckmann reactions of the initial oxime derivatives. INEPT and ACOUSTIC 15N NMR spectra provided complementary information on the derivatized samples. 13C NMR spectra of derivatized samples indicated that the ketone/quinone functionality is incompletely derivatized with hydroxylamine. ?? 1991 American Chemical Society.

Thorn, K.A.; Arterburn, J.B.; Mikita, M.A.

1992-01-01

46

Chemical shift changes and line narrowing in 13C NMR spectra of hydrocarbon clathrate hydrates.  

PubMed

The solid-state (13)C NMR spectra of various guest hydrocarbons (methane, ethane, propane, adamantane) in clathrate hydrates were measured to elucidate the local structural environments around hydrocarbon molecules isolated in guest-host frameworks of clathrate hydrates. The results show that, depending on the cage environment, the trends in the (13)C chemical shift and line width change as a function of temperature. Shielding around the carbons of the guest normal alkanes in looser cage environments tends to decrease with increasing temperature, whereas shielding in tighter cage environments tends to increase continuously with increasing temperature. Furthermore, the (13)C NMR line widths suggest, because of the reorientation of the guest alkanes, that the local structures in structure II are more averaged than those in structure I. The differences between structures I and II tend to be very large in the lower temperature range examined in this study. The (13)C NMR spectra of adamantane guest molecules in structure H hydrate show that the local structures around adamantane guests trapped in structure H hydrate cages are averaged at the same level as in the ? phase of solid adamantane. PMID:23607335

Kida, Masato; Sakagami, Hirotoshi; Takahashi, Nobuo; Nagao, Jiro

2013-05-23

47

Methylation patterns of aquatic humic substances determined by 13C NMR spectroscopy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

13C NMR spectroscopy is used to examine the hydroxyl group functionality of a series of humic and fulvic acids from different aquatic environments. Samples first are methylated with 13C-labeled diazomethane. The NMR spectra of the diazomethylated samples allow one to distinguish between methyl esters of carboxylic acids, methyl ethers of phenolic hydroxyls, and methyl ethers of phenolic hydroxyls adjacent to two substituents. Samples are then permethylated with 13C-labeled methyl iodide/NaH. 13C NMR spectra of permethylated samples show that a significant fraction of the hydroxyl groups is not methylated with diazomethane alone. In these spectra methyl ethers of carbohydrate and aliphatic hydroxyls overlap with methyl ethers of phenolic hydroxyls. Side reactions of the methyltion procedure including carbon methylation in the CH3I/NaH procedure, are also examined. Humic and fulvic acids from bog, swamp, groundwater, and lake waters showssome differences in their distribution of hydroxyl groups, mainly in the concentrations of phenolic hydroxyls, which may be attributed to their different biogeochemical origins. ?? 1987.

Thorn, K.A.; Steelink, C.; Wershaw, R.L.

1987-01-01

48

Identification of natural metabolites in mixture: a pattern recognition strategy based on (13)C NMR.  

PubMed

Because of their highly complex metabolite profile, the chemical characterization of bioactive natural extracts usually requires time-consuming multistep purification procedures to achieve the structural elucidation of pure individual metabolites. The aim of the present work was to develop a dereplication strategy for the identification of natural metabolites directly within mixtures. Exploiting the polarity range of metabolites, the principle was to rapidly fractionate a multigram quantity of a crude extract by centrifugal partition extraction (CPE). The obtained fractions of simplified chemical composition were subsequently analyzed by (13)C NMR. After automatic collection and alignment of (13)C signals across spectra, hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) was performed for pattern recognition. As a result, strong correlations between (13)C signals of a single structure within the mixtures of the fraction series were visualized as chemical shift clusters. Each cluster was finally assigned to a molecular structure with the help of a locally built (13)C NMR chemical shift database. The proof of principle of this strategy was achieved on a simple model mixture of commercially available plant secondary metabolites and then applied to a bark extract of the African tree Anogeissus leiocarpus Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae). Starting from 5 g of this genuine extract, the fraction series was generated by CPE in only 95 min. (13)C NMR analyses of all fractions followed by pattern recognition of (13)C chemical shifts resulted in the unambiguous identification of seven major compounds, namely, sericoside, trachelosperogenin E, ellagic acid, an epimer mixture of (+)-gallocatechin and (-)-epigallocatechin, 3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid 4'-O-xylopyranoside, and 3,4,3'-tri-O-methylflavellagic acid 4'-O-glucopyranoside. PMID:24555703

Hubert, Jane; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Purson, Sylvain; Hamzaoui, Mahmoud; Borie, Nicolas; Reynaud, Romain; Renault, Jean-Hugues

2014-03-18

49

Glucose and lactate metabolism in the awake and stimulated rat: a 13C-NMR study  

PubMed Central

Glucose is the major energetic substrate for the brain but evidence has accumulated during the last 20 years that lactate produced by astrocytes could be an additional substrate for neurons. However, little information exists about this lactate shuttle in vivo in activated and awake animals. We designed an experiment in which the cortical barrel field (S1BF) was unilaterally activated during infusion of both glucose and lactate (alternatively labeled with 13C) in rats. At the end of stimulation (1 h) both S1BF areas were removed and analyzed by HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy to compare glucose and lactate metabolism in the activated area vs. the non-activated one. In combination with microwave irradiation HR-MAS spectroscopy is a powerful technical approach to study brain lactate metabolism in vivo. Using in vivo 14C-2-deoxyglucose and autoradiography we confirmed that whisker stimulation was effective since we observed a 40% increase in glucose uptake in the activated S1BF area compared to the ipsilateral one. We first determined that lactate observed on spectra of biopsies did not arise from post-mortem metabolism. 1H-NMR data indicated that during brain activation there was an average 2.4-fold increase in lactate content in the activated area. When [1-13C]glucose + lactate were infused 13C-NMR data showed an increase in 13C-labeled lactate during brain activation as well as an increase in lactate C3-specific enrichment. This result demonstrates that the increase in lactate observed on 1H-NMR spectra originates from newly synthesized lactate from the labeled precursor ([1-13C]glucose). It also shows that this additional lactate does not arise from an increase in blood lactate uptake since it would otherwise be unlabeled. These results are in favor of intracerebral lactate production during brain activation in vivo which could be a supplementary fuel for neurons. PMID:23755012

Sampol, Denys; Ostrofet, Eugène; Jobin, Marie-Lise; Raffard, Gérard; Sanchez, Stéphane; Bouchaud, Véronique; Franconi, Jean-Michel; Bonvento, Gilles; Bouzier-Sore, Anne-Karine

2013-01-01

50

Double cross polarization /sup 13/C-NMR experiment in solid fossil fuel structure analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Double Cross Polarization /sup 13/C-MAS/NMR experiment has been used to derive a new operational classification of solid fossil fuels based on chemical reactivity. The method requires labeling reactive sites in the organic matrix with a magnetically active isotope not present in the precursor material, and using the local, isolated dipole-dipole interaction between this nucleus and nearby /sup 13/C nuclei to detect via cross polarization the carbon centers in the vicinity of the label. The technique is a marriage of chemistry and spectroscopy and the information content of the DCP spectra is defined by both partners. /sup 1/H-/sup 13/C-/sup 31/P DCP/MAS /sup 13/C-NMR spectroscopy has been used to statistically describe phenolic ortho-substitution patterns of coals via their aryl phosphinate or phosphate derivatives. In these applications of DCP NMR the new, detailed structure and/or reactivity information is realized by detection of carbon resonances one or more bonds removed from the reaction center, but in a volume element of intramolecular dimensions. To the extent that intermolecular contributions to the spectrum are detected, and not recognized as such, the structure/reactivity correlation is weakened. Direct substitution of phosphorus on the aromatic rings in the organic matrix of the coal is not readily accomplished. This environment potentially can be labeled with fluorine in a selective fashion using newly developed reagents. The possibility of determining the changes in average ring substitution patterns as a function of chemical treatment or coal diagenesis emerges. Recent developments in the field of DCP /sup 13/C NMR are presented.

Hagaman, E.W.; Woody, M.C.

1988-01-01

51

Determination of fructose metabolic pathways in normal and fructose-intolerant children: A sup 13 C NMR study using (U- sup 13 C)fructose  

SciTech Connect

An inborn deficiency in the ability of aldolase B to split fructose 1-phosphate is found in humans with hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI). A stable isotope procedure to elucidate the mechanism of conversion of fructose to glucose in normal children and in HFI children has been developed. A constant infusion of D-(U-{sup 13}C)fructose was given nasogastrically to control and to HFI children. Hepatic fructose conversion to glucose was estimated by examination of {sup 13}C NMR spectra of plasma glucose. Significantly lower values ({approx}3-fold) for fructose conversion to glucose were obtained for the HFI patients as compared to the controls. A quantitative determination of the metabolic pathways of fructose conversion to glucose was derived from {sup 13}C NMR measurement of plasma ({sup 13}C)glucose isotopomer populations. The finding of isotopomer populations of three adjacent {sup 13}C atoms at glucose C-4 ({sup 13}C{sub 3}-{sup 13}C{sub 4}-{sup 13}C{sub 5}) suggests that there is a direct pathway from fructose, by-passing fructose-1-phosphate aldolase, to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. The metabolism of fructose by fructose-1-phosphate aldolase activity accounts for only {approx}50% of the total amount of hepatic fructose conversion to glucose. In view of the marked decline by 67% in synthesis of glucose from fructose in HFI subjects found in this study, the extent of ({sup 13}C)glucose formation from a trace amount of (U-{sup 13}C)fructose infused into the patient can be used as a safe and noninvasive diagnostic test for inherent faulty fructose metabolism.

Gopher, A.; Lapidot, A. (Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)); Vaisman, N. (Kaplan Hospital, Rehovot (Israel)); Mandel, H. (Rambam Hospital, Haifa (Israel))

1990-07-01

52

Determining pH at Elevated Pressure and Temperature Using in Situ (13)C NMR.  

PubMed

We have developed an approach for determining pH at elevated pressures and temperatures by using (13)C NMR measurements of inorganic carbon species together with a geochemical equilibrium model. The approach can determine in situ pH with precision better than 0.1 pH units at pressures, temperatures, and ionic strengths typical of geologic carbon sequestration systems. A custom-built high pressure NMR probe was used to collect (13)C NMR spectra of (13)C-labeled CO2 reactions with NaOH solutions and Mg(OH)2 suspensions at pressures up to 107 bar and temperatures of 80 °C. The quantitative nature of NMR spectroscopy allows the concentration ratio [CO2]/[HCO3(-)] to be experimentally determined. This ratio is then used with equilibrium constants calculated for the specific pressure and temperature conditions and appropriate activity coefficients for the solutes to calculate the in situ pH. The experimentally determined [CO2]/[HCO3(-)] ratios agree well with the predicted values for experiments performed with three different concentrations of NaOH and equilibration with multiple pressures of CO2. The approach was then applied to experiments with Mg(OH)2 slurries in which the change in pH could track the dissolution of CO2 into solution, rapid initial Mg(OH)2 dissolution, and onset of magnesium carbonate precipitation. PMID:25588145

Surface, J Andrew; Wang, Fei; Zhu, Yanzhe; Hayes, Sophia E; Giammar, Daniel E; Conradi, Mark S

2015-02-01

53

Molecular structure of crude beeswax studied by solid-state 13C NMR  

PubMed Central

13C Solid-state NMR experiments were performed to investigate the structure of beeswax in the native state (crude beeswax) for the first time. From quantitative direct polarization 13C MAS NMR spectrum, it was found that the fraction of internal-chain methylene (int-(CH2)) component compared to other components of crude beeswax was over 95%. The line shape of the int-(CH2) carbon resonance region was comprehensively analyzed in terms of NMR chemical shift. The 13C broad peak component covering from 31 to 35ppm corresponds to int-(CH2) carbons with trans conformation in crystalline domains, whereas the sharp signal at 30.3 ppm corresponds to gauche conformation in the non-crystalline domain. From peak deconvolution of the aliphatic region, it was found that over 85% of the int-(CH2) has a crystal structure and several kinds of molecular packing for int-(CH2), at least three, exist in the crystalline domain. Abbreviation: NMR nuclear magnetic resonance int-(CH2) internal-chain methylene CP cross-polarization MAS magic angle spinning PMID:15861244

Kameda, Tsunenori

2004-01-01

54

1H to 13C Energy Transfer in Solid State NMR Spectroscopy of Natural Organic Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cross polarization (CP) magic angle spinning (MAS) 13C-NMR spectroscopy is a solid state NMR technique widely used to study chemical composition of organic materials with low or no solubility in the common deuterated solvents used to run liquid state NMR experiments. Based on the magnetization transfer from abundant nuclei (with spin of 1 -2) having a high gyromagnetic ratio (?), such as protons, to the less abundant 13C nuclei with low ? values, 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy is often applied in environmental chemistry to obtain quantitative information on the chemical composition of natural organic matter (NOM) (Conte et al., 2004), although its quantitative assessment is still matter of heavy debates. Many authors (Baldock et al., 1997; Conte et al., 1997, 2002; Dria et al., 2002; Kiem et al., 2000; Kögel-Knabner, 2000; Preston, 2001), reported that the application of appropriate instrument setup as well as the use of special pulse sequences and correct spectra elaboration may provide signal intensities that are directly proportional to the amount of nuclei creating a NMR signal. However, many other papers dealt with the quantitative unsuitability of 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy. Among those, Mao et al. (2000), Smernik and Oades (2000 a,b), and Preston (2001) reported that cross-polarized NMR techniques may fail in a complete excitation of the 13C nuclei. In fact, the amount of observable carbons via 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy appeared, in many cases, lower than that measured by a direct observation of the 13C nuclei. As a consequence, cross-polarized NMR techniques may provide spectra where signal distribution may not be representative of the quantitative distribution of the different natural organic matter components. Cross-polarization is obtained after application of an initial 90° x pulse on protons and a further spin lock pulse (along the y axis) having a fixed length (contact time) for both nuclei (1H and 13C) once the Hartmann-Hahn condition is matched. The Hartmann-Hahn condition can be expressed as ?HB1H = ?CB1C, where ?H and ?C are the gyromagnetic ratios of protons and carbons, whereas B1H and B1C are the 1H and 13C radio-frequency (r.f.) fields applied to the nuclei. The Hartmann-Hahn condition is affected by the H-C dipolar interaction strength (Stejskal & Memory, 1994). All the factors affecting dipolar interactions may mismatch the Hartmann-Hahn condition and prevent a quantitative representation of the NOM chemical composition (Conte et al., 2004). It has been reported that under low speed MAS conditions, broad matching profiles are centered around the Hartmann-Hahn condition....... With increasing spinning speed the Hartmann-Hahn matching profiles break down in a series of narrow matching bands separated by the rotor frequency (Stejskal & Memory, 1994). In order to account for the instability of the Hartmann-Hahn condition at higher rotor spin rates (>10 kHz), variable amplitude cross-polarization techniques (RAMP-CP) have been developed (Metz et al., 1996). So far, to our knowledge, the prevailing way used to obtain quantitative 13C-CPMAS NMR results was to optimize the 1H and 13C spin lock r.f. fields on simple standard systems such as glycine and to use those r.f. field values to run experiments on unknown organic samples. The aim of the present study was to experimentally evidence that the stability of the Hartmann-Hahn condition was different for different samples with a known structure. Moreover, Hartmann-Hahn profiles of four different humic acids (HAs) were also provided in order to show that the 1H/13C r.f. spin lock field strength must also be tested on the HAs prior to a quantitative evaluation of their 13C-CPMAS NMR spectra. Baldock, J.A., Oades, J.M., Nelson, P.N., Skene, T.M., Golchin, A. & Clarke, P., 1997. Assessing the extent of decomposition of natural organic materials using solid-state C-13 NMR spectroscopy. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 35, 1061-1083. Conte, P., Piccolo, A., van Lagen, B., Buurman, P. & de Jager, P.A., 1997. Quantitative Aspects of So

Berns, Anne E.; Conte, Pellegrino

2010-05-01

55

1H, 13C NMR studies of new 3-aminophenol isomers linked to pyridinium salts.  

PubMed

(1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic data of 20 new non-symmetrical compounds were assigned by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR experiments (DEPT, HSQC, and HMBC). These compounds contain a 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)- or 4-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pyridinium moiety and a 3-nitro-, 3-amino-, or 3-hydroxyphenyl ring, linked by p-xylene, 4,4'-dimethylbiphenyl, 1,2-bis(p-tolyl)ethane, or 1,4-bis(p-tolyl)butane. PMID:24170481

Schiaffino-Ortega, Santiago; Espinosa, Antonio; Gallo, Miguel A; López-Cara, L Carlota; Entrena, Antonio

2014-01-01

56

13C-NMR study of 4-azasteroids in solution and solid state  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of biologically active 4-azasteroids was studied by 13C-NMR spectroscopy in solution and in the solid phase. A full assignment of signals in the spectra of samples in chloroform was performed for thirteen 4-azasteroids using two-dimensional techniques. Substituent and steric effects of a nitrogen atom, and their influence on chemical shifts of the neighboring carbon atoms are discussed. CP

Jacek W. Morzycki; Iwona Wawer; Agnieszka Gryszkiewicz; Jadwiga Maj; Leszek Siergiejczyk; Alicja Zaworska

2002-01-01

57

13C NMR study of spirostanes and furostanes in solution and solid state  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of compounds deriving from 12?- and 12?-hydroxytigogenin (1, 2), pseudohecogenin 6, 23-bromo derivatives of hecogenin and sarsapogenin (3–5) and products (7–9) of their transformation was analysed by 13C NMR in solution and in the solid state. The model structures containing three or four rings have been calculated by DFT B3LYP\\/6-31G** method. On the basis of the GIAO DFT

Jacek W. Morzycki; Katarzyna Paradowska; Karolina Dabrowska-Balcerzak; Izabella Jastrzebska; Leszek Siergiejczyk; Iwona Wawer

2005-01-01

58

Demineralization of marine and freshwater sediments for CP\\/MAS 13C NMR analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed to demineralize sediment trap material and marine sediments containing labile organic matter (OM), in preparation for cross polarization and magic angle spinning (CP\\/MAS) solid-state 13C NMR analysis. Carbonate and silicate minerals were dissolved with HCl and a mixture of dilute HCl\\/HF, respectively. Demineralization kinetics were assessed for a range of freshwater and marine sediments, as well

Yves Gélinas; Jeff A. Baldock; John I. Hedges

2001-01-01

59

Interactions between locust bean gum and cellulose characterized by 13C n.m.r. spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular interactions between locust bean gum (LBG) and cellulose crystallite surfaces appear to involve most mannosyl residues of the mannan backbone, not just the small proportion contained in long segments which lack galactosyl residues. This conclusion is based on: (1) relative strengths of13C n.m.r. signals at 102.2 ppm in the cross-polarization (CP) spectrum and 101.3 ppm in the single-pulse excitation

Roger H. Newman; Jacqueline A. Hemmingson

1998-01-01

60

Using Neural Networks for 13C NMR Chemical Shift Prediction-Comparison with Traditional Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interpretation of 13C chemical shifts is essential for structure elucidation of organic molecules by NMR. In this article, we present an improved neural network approach and compare its performance to that of commonly used approaches. Specifically, our recently proposed neural network ( J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci. 2000, 40, 1169-1176) is improved by introducing an extended hybrid numerical description of the carbon atom environment, resulting in a standard deviation (std. dev.) of 2.4 ppm for an independent test data set of ˜42,500 carbons. Thus, this neural network allows fast and accurate 13C NMR chemical shift prediction without the necessity of access to molecule or fragment databases. For an unbiased test dataset containing 100 organic structures the accuracy of the improved neural network was compared to that of a prediction method based on the HOSE code ( hierarchically ordered spherical description of environment) using S PECI NFO. The results show the neural network predictions to be of quality (std. dev.=2.7 ppm) comparable to that of the HOSE code prediction (std. dev.=2.6 ppm). Further we compare the neural network predictions to those of a wide variety of other 13C chemical shift prediction tools including incremental methods (C HEMD RAW, S PECT OOL), quantum chemical calculation (G AUSSIAN, C OSMOS), and HOSE code fragment-based prediction (S PECI NFO, ACD/CNMR, P REDICTI T NMR) for the 47 13C-NMR shifts of Taxol, a natural product including many structural features of organic substances. The smallest standard deviations were achieved here with the neural network (1.3 ppm) and S PECI NFO (1.0 ppm).

Meiler, Jens; Maier, Walter; Will, Martin; Meusinger, Reinhard

2002-08-01

61

Radiation oxidation of polypropylene: A solid-state 13C NMR study using selective isotopic labeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polypropylene samples, in which the three different carbon atoms along the chain were selectively labeled with carbon-13, were subjected to radiation under inert and air atmospheres, and to post-irradiation exposure in air at various temperatures. By using solid-state 13C NMR measurements at room temperature, we have been able to identify and quantify the oxidation products. The isotopic labeling provides insight

Daniel M. Mowery; Roger A. Assink; Dora K. Derzon; Sara B. Klamo; Robert Bernstein; Roger L. Clough

2007-01-01

62

Solid state 13C-NMR spectroscopy and XRD studies of commercial and pyrolytic carbon blacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bulk chemistry of commercial carbon blacks and carbon blacks obtained by vacuum pyrolysis (CBP) of used tires was investigated by 13C-NMR spectroscopy with and without magic angle spinning of the sample. Two different kinds of carbon atoms can be distinguished: Graphite like carbon atoms in poly-condensed aromatic rings and carbon atoms in a less ordered environment. Commercial carbon blacks

Hans Darmstadt; Christian Roy; Serge Kaliaguine; Guoying Xu; Michèle Auger; Alain Tuel; Veda Ramaswamy

2000-01-01

63

Metabolism of [3-13C]pyruvate and [3-13C]propionate in normal and ischaemic rat heart in vivo: 1H- and 13C-NMR studies.  

PubMed Central

The oxidation of [3-13C]pyruvate and [3-13C]propionate was studied in vivo in infused rats. The infused [3-13C]pyruvate was quickly converted to [3-13C]lactate in the blood, and the [3-13C]lactate formed was well metabolized in both normoxic and ischaemic hearts. Large differences (200-600%) in the 13C enrichment of alanine (C-3) and acetyl-CoA (C-2) compared with lactate (C-3) were found in both normoxic and ischaemic hearts, suggesting that the extracellular [3-13C]lactate preferentially entered a region of the cytoplasm which specifically transfers the labelled pyruvate (formed from [3-13C]lactate) to the mitochondria. The highly enriched mitochondrial pyruvate gave high enrichment in alanine and acetyl-CoA, which was detected by 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Ischaemia increased 13C incorporation into the main cytoplasmic lactate pool and decreased 13C incorporation into citric acid cycle intermediates, mainly decreasing the pyruvate anaplerosis. Isoprenaline-induced ischaemia of the heart caused only a slight decrease in pyruvate oxidation. In contrast to the decreased anaplerosis of pyruvate, the anaplerosis of propionate (and propionyl-carnitine) increased significantly in ischaemic hearts, which may contribute to the protective effect of propionyl-carnitine seen in ischaemia. In addition, we found that [3-13C]propionate preferentially labelled aspartate C-3 in rat heart, suggesting incomplete randomization of label in the succinyl-CoA-malate span of the citric acid cycle. These data show that proton observed 13C edited spectroscopic methods, i.e. heteronuclear spin-echo and the one-dimensional heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence sequence, can be successfully used to study heart metabolism in vivo. PMID:7492338

Sumegi, B; Podanyi, B; Forgo, P; Kover, K E

1995-01-01

64

Calculation of the 13C NMR shieldings of the C0 2 complexes of aluminosilicates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

13C NMR shieldings have been calculated using the random-phase-approximation, localized-orbital local-origins version of ab initio coupled Hartree-Fuck perturbation theory for CO 2 and and for several complexes formed by the reaction of CO 2 with molecular models for aluminosilicate glasses, H 3TOT'H3 3-n, T,T' = Si,Al. Two isomeric forms of the CO 2-aluminosilicate complexes have been considered: (1) "CO 2-like" complexes, in which the CO 2 group is bound through carbon to a bridging oxygen and (2) "CO 3-like" complexes, in which two oxygens of a central CO 3 group form bridging bonds to the two TH 3 groups. The CO 2-like isomer of CO 2-H 3SiOSiH 3 is quite weakly bonded and its 13C isotropic NMR shielding is almost identical to that in free CO 2. As Si is progressively replaced by Al in the - H terminated aluminosilicate model, the CO 2-like isomers show increasing distortion from the free CO 2 geometry and their 13C NMR shieldings decrease uniformly. The calculated 13C shielding value for H 3AlO(CO 2)AlH 3-2 is only about 6 ppm larger than that calculated for point charge stabilized CO 3-2. However, for a geometry of H 3SiO(CO 2) AlH 3-1, in which the bridging oxygen to C bond length has been artificially increased to that found in the - OH terminated cluster (OH) 3SiO(CO 2)Al(OH) 3-1, the calculated 13C shielding is almost identical to that for free CO 2. The CO 3-like isomers of the CO 2-aluminosili-cate complexes show carbonate like geometries and 13C NMR shieldings about 4-9 ppm larger than those of carbonate for all T,T' pairs. For the Si,Si tetrahedral atom pair the CO 2-like isomer is more stable energetically, while for the Si,Al and Al,Al cases the CO 3-like isomer is more stable. Addition of Na + ions to the CO 3-2 or H 3AlO(CO 2)AlH 3-2 complexes reduces the 13C NMR shieldings by about 10 ppm. Complexation with either Na + or CO 2 also reduces the 29Si NMR shieldings of the aluminosilicate models, while the changes in 27Al shielding with Na + or CO 2 complexation are much smaller. Complexation with CO 2 greatly increases the electric field gradient at the bridging oxygen of H 3AlOAlH 3-2, raising it to a value similar to that found for Si?O?Si linkages. Comparison of these results with the experimental 13C NMR spectra support the formation of CO 2-like complexes at SiOSi bridges in albite glasses and CO 3-like complexes at SiOAl and AlOAl bridges in albite and nepheline glasses. Changes in the calculated shieldings as Na + ions are added to the complexes suggest that some of the observed complexes may be similar in their CO 2-aluminosilicate interactions, but different with respect to the positions of the charge-compensating Na + ions.

Tossell, J. A.

1995-04-01

65

Determination of Spin-Lattice Relaxation of Time Using (Super 13)C NMR: An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment designed for the physical chemistry laboratory where (super 13)C NMR is applied to determine the spin-lattice relaxation time for carbon atoms in n-hexanol is proposed. It is concluded that students learn the principles and concepts of NMR spectroscopy as well as dynamic NMR experiments.

Gasyna, Zbigniew L.; Jurkiewicz, Antoni

2004-01-01

66

NMR local range investigations in amorphous starchy substrates I. Structural heterogeneity probed by 13C CP–MAS NMR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 13C CP–MAS (Cross Polarization and Magic Angle Spinning) NMR signatures of a series of amorphous and semi-crystalline samples prepared from various starchy substrates (native potato starch, amylopectin, amylose) following different techniques of preparation (casting, freeze drying, solvent exchange) are compared. Decompositions of the C1 resonance spectra reveal the existence of four or five main types of ?(1–4) linkages, which

H Bizot; J Emery; J. Y Buzaré; A Buléon

2001-01-01

67

Solvent effects on the 13C NMR parameters (? 13C chemical shifts and 1H- 13C coupling constants) of 1-methylpyrazole and 1-methylimidazole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 13C chemical shifts and the 1J( 1H- 13C) coupling constants of the title compounds are relatively sensitive to solvent effects (?? = 2-3 ppm, ? J = 2-3 Hz), deuterochloroform values being near the averaged ones (11 solvents). The solvent induced shifts of the three heterocyclic carbons and those of the N-methyl groups are discussed using the Kamiet—Taft—Abboud formalism. As solvent (pure liquid) 1-methylimidazole appears as a highly dipolar-polarizable solvent

Abboud, Jose-Luis M.; Boyer, Gerard; Elguero, Jose; Cabildo, Pilar; Claramunt, Rosa M.

68

[superscript 2]H-DNP-enhanced [superscript 2]H-[superscript 13]C solid-state NMR correlation spectroscopy  

E-print Network

Perdeuteration of biological macromolecules for magic angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy can yield high-resolution [superscript 2]H–[superscript 13]C correlation spectra and the method is therefore of great interest ...

Maly, Thorsten

69

NMR analyses of the cold cataract. III. /sup 13/C acrylamide studies  

SciTech Connect

/sup 13/C-enriched acrylamide was employed to further delineate the action of this compound in preventing the cold cataract phenomenon when it is incorporated (in vitro) into young human and rabbit lenses. The extent of acrylamide incorporation, in the dark and with concurrent UV exposure, was monitored by /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy. These studies provide further evidence that UV exposure causes permanent acrylamide photobinding within the lens. In such lenses, the gamma crystallin fraction of the soluble lens proteins is affected to the greatest extent. It appears to become aggregated and/or combined with the alpha and beta fractions resulting in an apparent loss of most of the gamma monomers. There is also an age-related effect with respect to the amount of acrylamide that can be incorporated into the lens. The decrease in acrylamide incorporation with age directly parallels the age-related decline in gamma crystallin levels.

Lerman, S.; Megaw, J.M.; Moran, M.N.

1985-10-01

70

13C NMR spectroscopy of the insoluble carbon of carbonaceous chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

13C NMR spectra have been obtained of the insoluble carbon residues resulting from HF-digestion of three carbonaceous chondrites, Orgueil (C1), Murchison (CM2), and Allende (CV3). Spectra obtained using the cross polarization magic-angle spinning technique show two major features attributable respectively to carbon in aliphatic/olefinic structures. The spectrum obtained from the Allende sample was weak, presumably as a consequence of its low hydrogen content. Single pulse excitation spectra, which do not depend on 1H-13C polarization transfer for signal enhancement were also obtained. These spectra, which may be more representative of the total carbon in the meteorite samples, indicate a greater content of carbon in aromatic/olefinic structures. These results suggest that extensive polycyclic aromatic sheets are important structural features of the insoluble carbon of all three meteorites. The Orgueil and Murchison materials contain additional hydrogenated aromatic/olefinic and aliphatic groups.

Cronin, J. R.; Pizzarello, S.; Frye, J. S.

1987-01-01

71

Determination of the degree of acetylation of chitin materials by 13C CP\\/MAS NMR spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

13C CP\\/MAS NMR spectroscopy has been shown to be a powerful tool to quantify the degree of acetylation of chitin and chitosan. In order to optimise the parameters which afford quantitative 13C cross-polarisation magic-angle spinning NMR spectra, a detailed relaxation study has been carried out on selected chitin and deacetylated chitin samples. A relaxation delay of 5 s and a

M. L. Duarte; M. C. Ferreira; M. R. Marvão; João Rocha

2001-01-01

72

Characterisation of coke from FCC catalysts by solid state {sup 13}C NMR and mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Coke has been concentrated by demineralisation from deactivated FCC catalysts from both refinery operations with actual feeds and MAT tests using n-hexadecane to facilitate detailed characterisation by solid state {sup 13}C NMR and mass spectrometry. All the catalysts investigated contained about 1% w/w carbon. As for solid fuels, the use of a low-field spectrometer for solid state {sup 13}C NMR in conjunction with the single pulse excitation (SPE or Bloch decay) technique has enabled quantitative carbon skeletal parameters to be obtained for the cokes. Internal standard measurements demonstrated that most of the carbon was observed by SPE and, therefore, NMR-invisible graphitic layers are not thought to be major structural features of the cokes. Differences in feedstock composition were reflected in the structure of the refinery cokes with the aromatic nuclei from a residue feed (5% Conradson carbon) corresponding to 15-20 peri-condensed aromatic rings and being more highly condensed than those from a hydrotreated vacuum gas oil. Mass spectrometry (EI, CI and FIMS) has confirmed that the refinery cokes are highly condensed, but those obtained from n-hexadecane in the MAT tests displayed significant aliphatic character.

Andresen, J.M.; McGhee, B.; Snape, C.E. [Univ. of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom)] [and others

1995-12-31

73

Conformation and dynamics of the [3-(13)C]Ala, [1-(13)C]Val-labeled truncated pharaonis transducer, pHtrII(1-159), as revealed by site-directed (13)C solid-state NMR: changes due to association with phoborhodopsin (sensory rhodopsin II).  

PubMed

We have recorded (13)C NMR spectra of the [3-(13)C]Ala, [1-(13)C]Val-labeled pharaonis transducer pHtrII(1-159) in the presence and absence of phoborhodopsin (ppR or sensory rhodopsin II) in egg phosphatidylcholine or dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers by means of site-directed (amino acid specific) solid-state NMR. Two kinds of (13)C NMR signals of [3-(13)C]Ala-pHtrII complexed with ppR were clearly seen with dipolar decoupled magic angle spinning (DD-MAS) NMR. One of these resonances was at the peak position of the low-field alpha-helical peaks (alpha(II)-helix) and is identified with cytoplasmic alpha-helices protruding from the bilayers; the other was the high-field alpha-helical peak (alpha(I)-helix) and is identified with the transmembrane alpha-helices. The first peaks, however, were almost completely suppressed by cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) regardless of the presence or absence of ppR or by DD-MAS NMR in the absence of ppR. This is caused by an increased fluctuation frequency of the cytoplasmic alpha-helix from 10(5) Hz in the uncomplexed states to >10(6) Hz in the complexed states, leading to the appearance of peaks that were suppressed because of the interference of the fluctuation frequency with the frequency of proton decoupling (10(5) Hz), as viewed from the (13)C NMR spectra of [3-(13)C]Ala-labeled pHtrII. Consistent with this view, the (13)C DD-MAS NMR signals of the cytoplasmic alpha-helices of the complexed [3-(13)C]Ala-pHtrII in the dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayer were partially suppressed at 0 degrees C due to a decreased fluctuation frequency at the low temperature. In contrast, examination of the (13)C CP-MAS spectra of [1-(13)C]Val-labeled complexed pHtrII showed that the (13)C NMR signals of the transmembrane alpha-helix were substantially suppressed. These spectral changes are again interpreted in terms of the increased fluctuation frequency of the transmembrane alpha-helices from 10(3) Hz of the uncomplexed states to 10(4) Hz of the complexed states. These findings substantiate the view that the transducers alone are in an aggregated or clustered state but the ppR-pHtrII complex is not aggregated. We show that (13)C NMR is a very useful tool for achieving a better understanding of membrane proteins which will serve to clarify the molecular mechanism of signal transduction in this system. PMID:15111426

Yamaguchi, Satoru; Shimono, Kazumi; Sudo, Yuki; Tuzi, Satoru; Naito, Akira; Kamo, Naoki; Saitô, Hazime

2004-05-01

74

sup 13 C and sup 31 P NMR studies of myocardial metabolism  

SciTech Connect

The fluxes through two enzyme systems have been measured in perfused or in in vivo heart using NMR: phosphocreatine kinase, and glycogen synthase and phosphorylase. The rates of synthesis and degradation of glycogen were monitored in vivo in fed, fasted, and diabetic rat heart during infusions of {sup 13}C-1-glucose and insulin using proton-decoupled {sup 13}C-NMR at 1.9 and 4.7 tesla. The enzyme activities of glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase were also measured in this tissue which had been freeze clamped at the end of the experiment, for comparison with the synthetic rates. For normal fed, fasted, and diabetic animals, synthesis rates were 0.28, 0.16, and 0.15 {mu}mol/min.gww respectively. Glycogen synthase i activity was 0.23, 0.14, and 0.14 {mu}mol/min.gww in these hearts at the end of the experiment, when measured at appropriate substrate and activator concentrations, and follow activation time courses that are consistent with being the main rate determinant for net synthesis in all cases. Turnover of glycogen was studied by observing the preformed {sup 13}C-1-glycogen signal during infusion of {sup 12}C-glucose and insulin, and was found to be close to zero. Extracted phosphorylase a activity was approximately ten times that of synthase i under these circumstances. In order to fully interpret the turnover studies, glycogenolysis of preformed {sup 13}C-glycogen was observed after a bolus of glucagon. The glycogen had either been synthesized from {sup 13}C-1-glucose for a single hour, or during an hour of {sup 13}C-glucose and a subsequent hour of {sup 12}C-glucose infusion. The author observed that breakdown follows an exponential time course related to the phosphorylase a activation state and that the last synthesized glycogen breaks down at the rate of 2.5 {mu}mol/min.gww, five times faster than that synthesized an hour earlier.

Laughlin, M.R.

1988-01-01

75

The ratio of acetate-to-glucose oxidation in astrocytes from a single (13) C NMR spectrum of cerebral cortex.  

PubMed

The (13) C-labeling patterns in glutamate and glutamine from brain tissue are quite different after infusion of a mixture of (13) C-enriched glucose and acetate. Two processes contribute to this observation, oxidation of acetate by astrocytes but not neurons, and preferential incorporation of ?-ketoglutarate into glutamate in neurons, and incorporation of ?-ketoglutarate into glutamine in astrocytes. The acetate:glucose ratio, introduced previously for analysis of a single (13) C NMR spectrum, provides a useful index of acetate and glucose oxidation in the brain tissue. However, quantitation of relative substrate oxidation at the cell compartment level has not been reported. A simple mathematical method is presented to quantify the ratio of acetate-to-glucose oxidation in astrocytes, based on the standard assumption that neurons do not oxidize acetate. Mice were infused with [1,2-(13) C]acetate and [1,6-(13) C]glucose, and proton decoupled (13) C NMR spectra of cortex extracts were acquired. A fit of those spectra to the model indicated that (13) C-labeled acetate and glucose contributed approximately equally to acetyl-CoA (0.96) in astrocytes. As this method relies on a single (13) C NMR spectrum, it can be readily applied to multiple physiologic and pathologic conditions. Differences in (13) C labeling of brain glutamate and glutamine have been attributed to metabolic compartmentation. The acetate:glucose ratio, introduced for description of a (13) C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectrum, is an index of glucose and acetate oxidation in brain tissue. A simple mathematical method is presented to quantify the ratio of acetate-to-glucose oxidation in astrocytes from a single NMR spectrum. As kinetic analysis is not required, the method is readily applicable to analysis of tissue extracts. ?-KG = alpha-ketoglutarate; CAC = citric acid cycle; GLN = glutamine; GLU = glutamate. PMID:25231025

Marin-Valencia, Isaac; Hooshyar, M Ali; Pichumani, Kumar; Sherry, A Dean; Malloy, Craig R

2015-01-01

76

13C-NMR study of 4-azasteroids in solution and solid state.  

PubMed

A group of biologically active 4-azasteroids was studied by 13C-NMR spectroscopy in solution and in the solid phase. A full assignment of signals in the spectra of samples in chloroform was performed for thirteen 4-azasteroids using two-dimensional techniques. Substituent and steric effects of a nitrogen atom, and their influence on chemical shifts of the neighboring carbon atoms are discussed. CP MAS spectra were obtained for five 4-azasteroids including finasteride. The spectra confirmed polymorphism of the latter compound. In addition to the polymorphic forms that are already known, a new molecular complex of finasteride with dioxane is reported. PMID:11996935

Morzycki, Jacek W; Wawer, Iwona; Gryszkiewicz, Agnieszka; Maj, Jadwiga; Siergiejczyk, Leszek; Zaworska, Alicja

2002-06-01

77

CP\\/MAS 13C NMR analysis of cellulase treated bleached softwood kraft pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fully bleached softwood kraft pulps were hydrolyzed with cellulase (1,4-(1,3:1,4)-?-d-glucan 4-glucano-hydrolase, EC 3.2.1.4) from Trichoderma reesei. Supra-molecular structural features of cellulose during enzymatic hydrolysis were examined by using CP\\/MAS 13C NMR spectra in combination with line-fitting analysis. Different types of cellulose allomorphs (cellulose I?, cellulose I?, para-crystalline) and amorphous regions were hydrolyzed to a different extent by the enzyme used.

Yunqiao Pu; Cherie Ziemer; Arthur J. Ragauskas

2006-01-01

78

Molecular composition of humic substances in tundra soils (13C-NMR spectroscopic study)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functional groups and molecular fragments of humic substances (HSs) from cryohydromorphic peat gley tundra and surface-gley tundra soils have been identified by 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The analysis of HS preparations has shown that the molecules of humic acids (HAs) are enriched with aromatic fragments compared to fulvic acids (FAs). Aliphatic chains, carbohydrate- and amino acid-type structures prevail in the carbon skeleton of the FAs. An integrated parameter of the HS hydrophobicity has been proposed. The parameter represents the total portion of unoxidized carbon atoms and allows indirectly assessing the amphiphilic properties of HSs.

Lodygin, E. D.; Beznosikov, V. A.; Vasilevich, R. S.

2014-05-01

79

Analysis of epoxy resin formulations by /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

The chloroform soluble components of several epoxy resin formulations were analyzed by /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy. The technique permits the components of an epoxy resin formulation to be identified on a routine basis with a high degree of confidence. Narmco's 5208 contained MY-720 and EpiRez SU-7 or SU-8. Two versions of Ferro's CE-9000 contained ERL-0510 and EpiRez SU-7 or SU-8. Although the method is semiquantitative, it was able to distinguish between the two versions of Ferro's CE-9000 in which the concentration of ERL-0510 differs by approximately a factor of two.

Assink, R.A.; Gurule, F.T.

1981-02-01

80

High Resolution Solid State 13C NMR Spectroscopy of Sporopollenins from Different Plant Taxa  

PubMed Central

The extremely chemically resistant component of the cell wall of spores, pollens, and some microorganisms, sporopollenin, is generally accepted to be derived from carotenoids or carotenoid esters. However, we report here that 13C NMR analyses of sporopollenin from several sources shows that this widely held view is incorrect, with one possible exception. Sporopollenin is not a unique substance but rather a series of related biopolymers derived from largely saturated precursors such as fatty acids. The biopolymers contain widely varying amounts of oxygen in the form of ether, hydroxyl, carboxylic acid, ester, and ketone groups. PMID:16665854

Guilford, William J.; Schneider, Diane M.; Labovitz, Jeffrey; Opella, Stanley J.

1988-01-01

81

Investigation of methanol adsorbed on zeolite H-Zsm-5 by sup 13 C NMR spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

{sup 13}C CPMAS NMR spectra of methanol adsorbed on H-ZSM-5 samples with different Si/Al ratios indicate that aluminum content affects the conversion of methanol to dimethyl ether. Spin-lattice relaxation experiments suggest that existence of at least three adsorbed methanol species. The reorientation activation energies (E{sub a}) of these species are measured to be 10.0 ({plus minus}1.2), 1.5 ({plus minus}0.1), and 2.1 ({plus minus}0.2) kcal/mol, respectively.

Tsiao, Chihji; Dybowski, C. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark (USA)); Corbin, D.R. (E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Wilmington, DE (USA))

1990-09-26

82

The binding of metal ions and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor by 13C NMR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enalaprilat (MK-422, 1- [ N- [1 (S)-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl]- L-alanyl]- L-proline (1)) and Lisinopril (MK521, N- N- [ (s)-l-carboxy-3- phenylpropyl]- L-lysyl- L-proline, (2)) exhibit the capacity to act as a chelate, unidentate or bridge towards metal ions in aqueous solution, as determined by 13C NMR. By adding metal ions, in the series of Zn 2+, Ni 2+, Pb 2+, Pd 2+ and Cd 2+, the active site of the ACE inhibitor was well defined. MK-521 was more influenced by nuclei that were distant from the active site than MK-422.

Sakamoto, Yohko; Sakamoto, Yuko; Ishii, Tomoko; Ohmoto, Taichi

1991-06-01

83

1H and 13C resonance designation of antimycin A1 by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Complete 1H and 13C resonance assignments of antimycin A1 were accomplished by two-dimensional NMR techniques, viz. 1H homonuclear COSY correlation, heteronuclear 13C-1H chemical shift correlation and long-range heteronuclear 13C-1H COLOC correlation. Antimycin A1 was found to consist of two isomeric components in a 2:1 ratio based on NMR spectroscopic evidence. The structure of the major component was newly assigned as the 8-isopentanoic acid ester. The spectra of the minor component were consistent with the known structure of antimycin A1.

Abidi, S.L.; Adams, B.R.

1987-01-01

84

Experimental and calculated 1H, 13C, 15N NMR spectra of famotidine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Famotidine, 3-[[[2-[(aminoiminomethyl)amino]-4-thiazolyl]methyl]thio]- N-(aminosulfonyl), is a histamine H 2-receptor blocker that has been used mainly for the treatment of peptic ulcers and the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Its NMR spectra in different solvents were reported earlier; however, detailed interpretation has not been done thus far. In this work, experimental 1H, 13C and 15N NMR spectra of famotidine dissolved in DMSO-d 6 are shown. The assignment of observed chemical shifts is based on quantum chemical calculation at the Hartree-Fock/6-31G ? level. The geometry optimization of the famotidine molecule with two internal hydrogen bonds, i.e. [N(3)-H(23)⋯N(9) and N(3)⋯H(34)-N(20)], is done by using the B3LYP method with the 6-31G ? basis set.

Bara?ska, M.; Czarniecki, K.; Proniewicz, L. M.

2001-05-01

85

Signal intensities in 1H-13C CP and INEPT MAS NMR of liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral editing with CP and INEPT in 13C MAS NMR enables identification of rigid and mobile molecular segments in concentrated assemblies of surfactants, lipids, and/or proteins. In order to get stricter definitions of the terms "rigid" and "mobile", as well as resolving some ambiguities in the interpretation of CP and INEPT data, we have developed a theoretical model for calculating the CP and INEPT intensities as a function of rotational correlation time ?c and C-H bond order parameter SCH, taking the effects of MAS into account. According to the model, the range of ?c can at typical experimental settings (5 kHz MAS, 1 ms ramped CP at 80-100 kHz B1 fields) be divided into four regimes: fast (?c < 1 ns), fast-intermediate (?c ? 0.1 ?s), intermediate (?c ? 1 ?s), and slow (?c > 0.1 ms). In the fast regime, the CP and INEPT intensities are independent of ?c, but strongly dependent on |SCH|, with a cross-over from dominating INEPT to dominating CP at |SCH| > 0.1. In the intermediate regime, neither CP nor INEPT yield signal on account of fast T1? and T2 relaxation. In both the fast-intermediate and slow regimes, there is exclusively CP signal. The theoretical predictions are tested by experiments on the glass-forming surfactant n-octyl-?-D-maltoside, for which ?c can be varied continuously in the nano- to millisecond range by changing the temperature and the hydration level. The atomistic details of the surfactant dynamics are investigated with MD simulations. Based on the theoretical model, we propose a procedure for calculating CP and INEPT intensities directly from MD simulation trajectories. While MD shows that there is a continuous gradient of ?c from the surfactant polar headgroup towards the methyl group at the end of the hydrocarbon chain, analysis of the experimental CP and INEPT data indicates that this gradient gets steeper with decreasing temperature and hydration level, eventually spanning four orders of magnitude at completely dry conditions.

Nowacka, A.; Bongartz, N. A.; Ollila, O. H. S.; Nylander, T.; Topgaard, D.

2013-05-01

86

Identifying Inter-Residue Resonances in Crowded 2D 13C-13C Chemical Shift Correlation Spectra of Membrane Proteins by Solid-State MAS NMR Difference Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

The feasibility of using difference spectroscopy, i.e. subtraction of two correlation spectra at different mixing times, for substantially enhanced resolution in crowded two-dimensional 13C-13C chemical shift correlation spectra is presented. With the analyses of 13C-13C spin diffusion in simple spin systems, difference spectroscopy is proposed to partially separate the spin diffusion resonances of relatively short intra-residue distances from the longer inter-residue distances, leading to a better identification of the inter-residue resonances. Here solid-state magic-angle-spinning (MAS) NMR spectra of the full length M2 protein embedded in synthetic lipid bilayers have been used to illustrate the resolution enhancement in the difference spectra. The integral membrane M2 protein of Influenza A virus assembles as a tetrameric bundle to form a protonconducting channel that is activated by low pH and is essential for the viral lifecycle. Based on known amino acid resonance assignments from amino acid specific labeled samples of truncated M2 sequences or from time-consuming 3D experiments of uniformly labeled samples, some inter-residue resonances of the full length M2 protein can be identified in the difference spectra of uniformly 13C labeled protein that are consistent with the high resolution structure of the M2 (22–62) protein (Sharma et al. 2010). PMID:23708936

Miao, Yimin; Cross, Timothy A.; Fu, Riqiang

2013-01-01

87

1H-Detected 13C photo-CIDNP as a sensitivity enhancement tool in solution NMR.  

PubMed

NMR is a powerful yet intrinsically insensitive technique. The applicability of NMR to chemical and biological systems would be substantially extended by new approaches going beyond current signal-to-noise capabilities. Here, we exploit the large enhancements arising from (13)C photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization ((13)C photo-CIDNP) in solution to improve biomolecular NMR sensitivity in the context of heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy. The (13)C-PRINT pulse sequence presented here involves an initial (13)C nuclear spin polarization via photo-CIDNP followed by conversion to anti-phase coherence and transfer to (1)H for detection. We observe substantial enhancements, up to ?200-fold, relative to the dark (laser off) experiment. Resonances of both side-chain and backbone CH pairs are enhanced for the three aromatic residues Trp, His, and Tyr, the ?(32) peptide, and the drkN SH3 protein. The sensitivity of this experiment, defined as signal-to-noise per square root of unit time (S/N)(t), is unprecedented in the NMR polarization enhancement literature dealing with polypeptides in solution. Up to a 16-fold larger (S/N)(t) than for the (1)H-(13)C SE-HSQC reference sequence is achieved, for the ?(32) peptide. Data collection time is reduced up to 256-fold, highlighting the advantages of (1)H-detected (13)C photo-CIDNP in solution NMR. PMID:21548581

Lee, Jung Ho; Sekhar, Ashok; Cavagnero, Silvia

2011-06-01

88

Solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopic studies of soil organic matter at two magnetic field strengths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterization of soil organic matter by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy is increasingly being carried out on NMR spectrometers with higher magnetic fields, despite reservations about the quantitative reliability of spectra acquired at these high magnetic fields. In this study, the performance of 200 and 400 MHz spectrometers is compared for the quantitative analysis of two soil organic matter samples

Ronald J. Smernik

2005-01-01

89

sup 113 Cd and sup 13 C NMR of cadmium(II) transferrins  

SciTech Connect

The cadmium(II) derivatives of ovotransferrin and human serum transferrin have been investigated through {sup 113}Cd and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. A sharp {sup 113}Cd signal due to the bound Cd(II) ion is observed at 21.6 and 11.7 ppM for ovotransferrin and human serum transferrin, respectively. These chemical shift values are consistent with the involvement of only one histidine in each metal-binding set of the protein, as indicated by the recent x-ray structure of human lactoferrin. In the {sup 13}C NMR spectra the protein-bound carbonate signal is found in both cases at 168.2 ppM, and it clearly splits into a doublet (J {approximately} 20 Hz) when the protein contains {sup 113}Cd-enriched cadmium, thus giving further evidence of direct metal-carbonate binding. The addition of the nonsynergistic anion perchlorate to the ovotransferrin derivative resulted in the removal of the bound cadmium. 29 refs., 5 figs.

Sola, M. (Univ. of Modena (Italy))

1990-03-21

90

{sup 13}C chemical shift anisotropies for carbonate ions in cement minerals and the use of {sup 13}C, {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR in studies of Portland cement including limestone additions  

SciTech Connect

{sup 13}C isotropic chemical shifts and chemical shift anisotropy parameters have been determined for a number of inorganic carbonates relevant in cement chemistry from slow-speed {sup 13}C MAS or {sup 13}C({sup 1}H) CP/MAS NMR spectra (9.4 T or 14.1 T) for {sup 13}C in natural abundance. The variation in the {sup 13}C chemical shift parameters is relatively small, raising some doubts that different carbonate species in Portland cement-based materials may not be sufficiently resolved in {sup 13}C MAS NMR spectra. However, it is shown that by combining {sup 13}C MAS and {sup 13}C({sup 1}H) CP/MAS NMR carbonate anions in anhydrous and hydrated phases can be distinguished, thereby providing valuable information about the reactivity of limestone in cement blends. This is illustrated for three cement pastes prepared from an ordinary Portland cement, including 0, 16, and 25 wt.% limestone, and following the hydration for up to one year. For these blends {sup 29}Si MAS NMR reveals that the limestone filler accelerates the hydration for alite and also results in a smaller fraction of tetrahedrally coordinated Al incorporated in the C-S-H phase. The latter result is more clearly observed in {sup 27}Al MAS NMR spectra of the cement–limestone blends and suggests that dissolved aluminate species in the cement–limestone blends readily react with carbonate ions from the limestone filler, forming calcium monocarboaluminate hydrate. -- Highlights: •{sup 13}C chemical shift anisotropies for inorganic carbonates from {sup 13}C MAS NMR. •Narrow {sup 13}C NMR chemical shift range (163–171 ppm) for inorganic carbonates. •Anhydrous and hydrated carbonate species by {sup 13}C MAS and {sup 13}C({sup 1}H) CP/MAS NMR. •Limestone accelerates the hydration for alite in Portland – limestone cements. •Limestone reduces the amount of aluminium incorporated in the C-S-H phase.

Sevelsted, Tine F. [Instrument Centre for Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy, Department of Chemistry and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)] [Instrument Centre for Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy, Department of Chemistry and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Herfort, Duncan [Aalborg Portland A/S,Cementir Holding S.p.A., DK-9100 Aalborg (Denmark)] [Aalborg Portland A/S,Cementir Holding S.p.A., DK-9100 Aalborg (Denmark); Skibsted, Jørgen, E-mail: jskib@chem.au.dk [Instrument Centre for Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy, Department of Chemistry and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)] [Instrument Centre for Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy, Department of Chemistry and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

2013-10-15

91

sup 13 C and sup 31 P NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) studies of prostate tumor metabolism  

SciTech Connect

The current research on prostate cancer by NMR spectroscopy and microscopy will most significantly contribute to tumor diagnosis and characterization only if sound biochemical models of tumor metabolism are established and tested. Prior searches focused on universal markers of malignancy, have to date, revealed no universal markers by any method. It is unlikely that NMRS will succeed where other methods have failed, however, NMR spectroscopy does provide a non-invasive means to analyze multiple compounds simultaneously in vivo. In order to fully evaluate the ability of NMRS to differentiate non-malignant from malignant tissues it is necessary to determine sufficient multiple parameters from specific, well-diagnosed, histological tumor types that, in comparison to normal tissue and non-neoplastic, non-normal pathologies from which the given neoplasm must be differentiated, one has enough degrees of freedom to make a mathematically and statistically significant determination. Confounding factors may consist of tumor heterogeneity arising from regional variations in differentiation, ischemia, necrosis, hemorrhage, inflammation and the presence of intermingled normal tissue. One related aspect of our work is the development of {l brace}{sup 13}C{r brace}-{sup 1}H metabolic imaging of {sup 13}C for metabolic characterization, with enhanced spatial localization (46). This should markedly extend the range of potential clinical NMR uses because the spatial variation in prostate metabolism may prove to be just as important in tumor diagnoses as bulk (volume-averaged) properties themselves. It is our hope that NMRS and spectroscopic imaging will reveal a sound correlation between prostate metabolism and tumor properties that will be clinically straightforward and useful for diagnosis.

Sillerud, L.O.; Halliday, K.R.; Freyer, J.P; Griffey, R.H.; Fenoglio-Preiser, C.

1989-01-01

92

Uniform sup 13 C isotope labeling of proteins with sodium acetate for NMR studies: Application to human carbonic anhydrase II  

SciTech Connect

Uniform double labeling of proteins for NMR studies can be prohibitively expensive, even with an efficient expression and purification scheme, due largely to the high cost of ({sup 13}C{sub 6}, 99%)glucose. The authors demonstrate here that uniformly (>95%) {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N double-labeled proteins can be prepared for NMR structure/function studies by growing cells in defined media containing sodium (1,2-{sup 13}C{sub 2},99%)acetate as the sole carbon source and ({sup 15}N, 99%)ammonium chloride as the sole nitrogen source. In addition, the authors demonstrate that this labeling scheme can be extended to include uniform carbon isotope labeling to any desired level (below 50%) by utilizing media containing equal amounts of sodium (1-{sup 13}C, 99%)acetate and sodium (2-{sup 13}C, 99%)acetate in conjunction with unlabeled sodium acetate. This technique is less labor intensive and more straightforward than labeling using isotope-enriched algal hydrolysates. These labeling schemes have been used to successfully prepare NMR quantities of isotopically enriched human carbonic anhydrase II. The activity and the {sup 1}H NMR spectra of the protein labeled by this technique are the same as those obtained from the protein produced from media containing labeled glucose; however, the cost of the sodium (1,2-{sup 13}C{sub 2}, 99%)acetate growth media is considerably less than the cost of the ({sup 13}C{sub 6}, 99%)glucose growth media. They report here the first published {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N NMR spectra of human carbonic anhydrase II as an important step leading to the assignment of this 29-kDa zinc metalloenzyme.

Venters, R.S.; Calderone, T.L.; Spicer, L.D.; Fierke, C.A. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA))

1991-05-07

93

Identification of archaeological triterpenic resins by the non-separative techniques FTIR and 13C NMR: the case of Pistacia resin (mastic) in comparison with frankincense.  

PubMed

The use of spectroscopic techniques such as Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR) using the J-mod experiment is proposed as an effective alternative to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the analysis and identification of natural resin samples found in archaeological environments. The spectral features of the most common diterpenic and triterpenic resins and also two gum-resins are reported and discussed for both techniques. The analytical procedure based on the combined use of FTIR and (13)C NMR is then applied to two archaeological samples from the Milano of the Roman age allowing their identification as Pistacia resin, or mastic, as confirmed by the traditional GC-MS method, and also elucidating some effects of aging on such material. PMID:24291439

Bruni, Silvia; Guglielmi, Vittoria

2014-01-01

94

Probing site-specific 13C/15N-isotope enrichment of spider silk with liquid-state NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been extensively used to elucidate spider silk protein structure and dynamics. In many of these studies, site-specific isotope enrichment is critical for designing particular NMR methods for silk structure determination. The commonly used isotope analysis techniques, isotope-ratio mass spectroscopy and liquid/gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, are typically not capable of providing the site-specific isotope information for many systems because an appropriate sample derivatization method is not available. In contrast, NMR does not require any sample derivatization or separation prior to analysis. In this article, conventional liquid-state (1)H NMR was implemented to evaluate incorporation of (13)C/(15)N-labeled amino acids in hydrolyzed spider dragline silk. To determine site-specific (13)C and (15)N isotope enrichments, an analysis method was developed to fit the (1)H-(13)C and (1)H-(15)N J-splitting (J CH and J NH) (1)H NMR peak patterns of hydrolyzed silk fiber. This is demonstrated for Nephila clavipes spiders, where [U-(13)C3,(15)N]-Ala and [1-(13)C,(15)N]-Gly were dissolved in their water supplies. Overall, contents for Ala and Gly isotopomers are extracted for these silk samples. The current methodology can be applied to many fields where site-specific tracking of isotopes is of interest. PMID:23435452

Shi, Xiangyan; Yarger, Jeffery L; Holland, Gregory P

2013-05-01

95

The entry of [1- 13C]glucose into biochemical pathways reveals a complex compartmentation and metabolite trafficking between glia and neurons: a study by 13C-NMR spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glial–neuronal interactions were investigated in rats injected intraperitoneally with [1-13C]glucose and killed after 15, 30, 45, or 60 min. Brain extracts were analyzed by 13C-NMR spectroscopy and the fractional 13C-enrichment at individual carbon positions was measured for amino acids, lactate, and N-acetyl-aspartate. [1-13C]Glucose was shown to be metabolized by both neurons and glia, with the anaplerotic pathway through pyruvate carboxylase

Tommaso Aureli; Maria Enrica Di Cocco; Menotti Calvani; Filippo Conti

1997-01-01

96

Structural Characterization of Humic Materials Using ^13C NMR Techniques: A Comparison of Solution- and Solid-State Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of the carbon type distribution and chemical structure of natural organic matter (NOM) by ^13C NMR spectroscopy is an important technique for understanding its origins and reactivity. While prior work has used solution-state NMR techniques, solid-state NMR has the potential to provide this information using less instrument time and sample manipulation, while providing an array of advanced filtering techniques. Analyses of four isolated humic materials with ^13C solid-state magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR techniques are described, including three commercially available samples and one fulvic acid sample isolated from the Rio Grande in New Mexico. This study demonstrates the utility of solid-state ^13C NMR for aquatic NOM structural characterization, comparing these results to the existing solution-state determinations. The solid-state ^13C MAS NMR results are used to determine % carbon distribution, estimates of elemental composition (%C, %H, %(O+N)), aromatic fraction (fa), nonprotonated aromatic fraction (faN), an estimate of aromatic cluster size, and ratio of sp^2 to sp^3 carbons. A Gaussian deconvolution method is introduced that allows for a detailed analysis of carbon type.

Clewett, Catherine; Alam, Todd; Osantowski, Eric; Pullin, Michael

2011-10-01

97

The effect of sample hydration on 13C CPMAS NMR spectra of fulvic acids  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three fulvic acids, two of which have been well studied by a number of other groups (Armadale and Suwannee river fulvic acids) have been examined by high resolution solid-state 13C-NMR techniques to delineate the effect of absorbed water. Two main effects of absorbed water were observed: (1) changes in spin lattice relaxation times in the rotating frame and cross polarization times and (2) total loss of signal so that some fulvic acid is effectively in solution. These results suggest that discrepancies in the literature concerning observed relative signal intensities from different structural groups are due to absorbed water and emphasize the necessity for proper precautionary drying before spectroscopic analysis. ?? 1991.

Hatcher, P.G.; Wilson, M.A.

1991-01-01

98

Localized 13C-[1H] NMR of rat liver in vivo using surface-spoiling gradients.  

PubMed

An NMR spectroscopy localization method that employs an inhomogeneous surface-spoiling magnetic field gradient has been applied to detect the 13C-[1H] signals from deep-lying liver tissue of rat in vivo. The method requires small gradient driving currents (less than 1 amp) and short gradient periods (approximately 0.5-1.6 ms). Thus, it is not likely to suffer from induced eddy currents and can detect short T2 resonances. We demonstrate that by employing a pulsed surface-spoiling gradient one can eliminate "contaminating" signals from the surface-lying tissues (muscle, fat and skin) while still maintaining the resonance linewidth resolution for the deep-lying tissue of interest (liver). The feasibility of using this localization approach to trace glucose conversion into glycogen is shown. PMID:2641899

Chen, W; Ackerman, J J

1989-12-01

99

Acetate and Bicarbonate Assimilation and Metabolite Formation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: A 13C-NMR Study  

PubMed Central

Cellular metabolite analyses by 13C-NMR showed that C. reinhardtii cells assimilate acetate at a faster rate in heterotrophy than in mixotrophy. While heterotrophic cells produced bicarbonate and CO2aq, mixotrophy cells produced bicarbonate alone as predominant metabolite. Experiments with singly 13C-labelled acetate (13CH3-COOH or CH3-13COOH) supported that both the 13C nuclei give rise to bicarbonate and CO2aq. The observed metabolite(s) upon further incubation led to the production of starch and triacylglycerol (TAG) in mixotrophy, whereas in heterotrophy the TAG production was minimal with substantial accumulation of glycerol and starch. Prolonged incubation up to eight days, without the addition of fresh acetate, led to an increased TAG production at the expense of bicarbonate, akin to that of nitrogen-starvation. However, such TAG production was substantially high in mixotrophy as compared to that in heterotrophy. Addition of mitochondrial un-coupler blocked the formation of bicarbonate and CO2aq in heterotrophic cells, even though acetate uptake ensued. Addition of PSII-inhibitor to mixotrophic cells resulted in partial conversion of bicarbonate into CO2aq, which were found to be in equilibrium. In an independent experiment, we have monitored assimilation of bicarbonate via photoautotrophy and found that the cells indeed produce starch and TAG at a much faster rate as compared to that in mixotrophy and heterotrophy. Further, we noticed that the accumulation of starch is relatively more as compared to TAG. Based on these observations, we suggest that acetate assimilation in C. reinhardtii does not directly lead to TAG formation but via bicarbonate/CO2aq pathways. Photoautotrophic mode is found to be the best growth condition for the production of starch and TAG and starch in C. reinhardtii. PMID:25207648

Singh, Himanshu; Shukla, Manish R.; Chary, Kandala V. R.; Rao, Basuthkar J.

2014-01-01

100

Complete 1H and 13C NMR assignment of digeneaside, a low-molecular-mass carbohydrate produced by red seaweeds.  

PubMed

Digeneaside (alpha-D-mannopyranosyl-(1-->2)-D-glycerate) was extracted from the red algae, Bostrychia binderii, and purified by adsorption and gel-filtration chromatography. HPLC and ESI-MS techniques were used to follow purification steps and characterize digeneaside. NMR spectroscopy experiments (1D 1H, 13C, DEPT and 2D HMQC, COSY and TOCSY) were used to fully assign the 1H and 13C spectra. PMID:16442514

Ascêncio, Sérgio D; Orsato, Alexandre; França, Robson A; Duarte, M Eugênia R; Noseda, Miguel D

2006-04-10

101

The heterogeneous nature of microbial products as shown by solid-state 13 C CP\\/MAS NMR spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homoionic Na-, Ca-, and Al-clays were prepared from the 13C-labelled (99.9% atom) glucose were incorporated into the artificial soils to study the effects of clay types, exchangeable cations and clay contents on the mineralization of glucose-carbon and glucose-derived organic materials. Chemical transformation of glucose-carbon upon incorporation into microbial products and metabolites, was followed using solid-state13C CP\\/MAS NMR spectroscopy.

A. Golchin; P. Clarke; J. M. Oades

1996-01-01

102

Comparison of Lactate and Glucose Metabolism in Cultured Neocortical Neurons and Astrocytes Using 13C-NMR Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cerebral cortical neurons, synthesis of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle-derived amino acids, glutamate and aspartate as well as the neurotransmitter of these neurons, ?-aminobutyrate (GABA), was studied incubating the cells in media containing 0.5 mM [U-13C]glucose in the absence or presence of glutamine (0.5 mM). Lyophilized cell extracts were analyzed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and HPLC.

H. S. Waagepetersen; I. J. Bakken; O. M. Larsson; U. Sonnewald; A. Schousboe

1998-01-01

103

Multinuclear ( 13C, 17O, 57Fe) NMR studies of carbonmonoxy heme proteins and synthetic model compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

13C, 17O and 57Fe NMR spectra of several carbonmonoxy hemoprotein models with varying polar and steric effects of the distal organic superstructure, constraints of the proximal side, and porphyrin ruffling are reported. Both heme models and heme proteins obey a similar excellent linear ?(13C) versus ?(C–O) relationship which is primarily due to modulation of ?-back-bonding from the Fe d? to

Charalampos G. Kalodimos; Ioannis P. Gerothanassis; Roberta Pierattelli; Anastasios Troganis

2000-01-01

104

Cigarette Butt Decomposition and Associated Chemical Changes Assessed by 13C CPMAS NMR  

PubMed Central

Cigarette butts (CBs) are the most common type of litter on earth, with an estimated 4.5 trillion discarded annually. Apart from being unsightly, CBs pose a serious threat to living organisms and ecosystem health when discarded in the environment because they are toxic to microbes, insects, fish and mammals. In spite of the CB toxic hazard, no studies have addressed the effects of environmental conditions on CB decomposition rate. In this study we investigate the interactive effects of substrate fertility and N transfer dynamics on CB decomposition rate and carbon quality changes. We carried out an experiment using smoked CBs and wood sticks, used as a slow decomposing standard organic substrate, incubated in both laboratory and field conditions for two years. CB carbon quality changes during decomposition was assessed by 13C CPMAS NMR. Our experiment confirmed the low degradation rate of CBs which, on average, lost only 37.8% of their initial mass after two years of decomposition. Although a net N transfer occurred from soil to CBs, contrary to our hypothesis, mass loss in the medium-term (two years) was unaffected by N availability in the surrounding substrate. The opposite held for wood sticks, in agreement with the model that N-rich substrates promote the decomposition of other N-poor natural organic materials with a high C/N ratio. As regards CB chemical quality, after two years of decomposition 13C NMR spectroscopy highlighted very small changes in C quality that are likely to reflect a limited microbial attack. PMID:25625643

Bonanomi, Giuliano; Incerti, Guido; Cesarano, Gaspare; Gaglione, Salvatore A.; Lanzotti, Virginia

2015-01-01

105

Discovering [superscript 13]C NMR, [superscript 1]H NMR, and IR Spectroscopy in the General Chemistry Laboratory through a Sequence of Guided-Inquiry Exercises  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This sequence of three guided-inquiry labs is designed for a second-semester general chemistry course and challenges students to discover basic theoretical principles associated with [superscript 13]C NMR, [superscript 1]H NMR, and IR spectroscopy. Students learn to identify and explain basic concepts of magnetic resonance and vibrational…

Iler, H. Darrell; Justice, David; Brauer, Shari; Landis, Amanda

2012-01-01

106

Development of analytical methods for NMR spectra and application to a 13 C toxicology study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolomics offers the potential to assess the effects of toxicants on metabolite levels. To fully realize this potential,\\u000a a robust analytical workflow for identifying and quantifying treatment-elicited changes in metabolite levels by nuclear magnetic\\u000a resonance (NMR) spectrometry has been developed that isolates and aligns spectral regions across treatment and vehicle groups\\u000a to facilitate analytical comparisons. The method excludes noise regions

Gary L. Jahns; Michael N. Kent; Lyle D. Burgoon; Nicholas DelRaso; Timothy R. Zacharewski; Nicholas V. Reo

2009-01-01

107

Preparation of partially 2H/13C-labelled RNA for NMR studies. Stereo-specific deuteration of the H5?? in nucleotides  

PubMed Central

An effective in vitro enzymatic synthesis is described for the production of nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) which are stereo-specifically deuterated on the H5?? position with high selectivity (>98%), and which can have a variety of different labels (13C, 15N, 2H) in other positions. The NTPs can subsequently be employed in the enzymatic synthesis of RNAs using T7 polymerase from a DNA template. The stereo-specific deuteration of the H5?? immediately provides the stereo-specific assignment of H5? resonances in NMR spectra, giving access to important structural parameters. Stereo-chemical H-exchange was used to convert commercially available 1,2,3,4,5,6,6-2H-1,2,3,4,5,6-13C-d-glucose (d7-13C6-d-glucose) into [1,2,3,4,5,6(R)-2H-1,2,3,4,5,6-13C]-d-glucose (d6-13C6-d-glucose). [1?,3?,4?,5??-2H-1?,2?,3?,4?,5?-13C]GTP (d4-13C5-GTP) was then produced from d6-13C6-d-glucose and guanine base via in vitro enzymatic synthesis employing enzymes from the pentose-phosphate, nucleotide biosynthesis and salvage pathways. The overall yield was ?60 mg NTP per 1 g glucose, comparable with the yield of NTPs isolated from Escherichia coli grown on enriched media. The d4-13C5-GTP, together with in vitro synthesised d5-UTP, d5-CTP and non-labelled ATP, were used in the synthesis of a 31 nt RNA derived from the primer binding site of hepatitis B virus genomic RNA. (13C,1H) hetero-nuclear multiple-quantum spectra of the specifically deuterated sample and of a non-deuterated uniformly 13C/15N-labelled sample demonstrates the reduced spectral crowding and line width narrowing compared with 13C-labelled non-deuterated RNA. PMID:11917025

Cromsigt, Jenny; Schleucher, Jürgen; Gustafsson, Tomas; Kihlberg, Jan; Wijmenga, Sybren

2002-01-01

108

Multinuclear 1H, 13C and 15N NMR study of some substituted 2-amino-4-nitropyridines and their N-oxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1H, 13C and 15N NMR chemical shift assignments based on pulsed field gradient selected PFG 1H,X (X= 13C and 15N) HMQC and HMBC experiments are reported for three 4-nitropyridine N-oxides and four 4-nitropyridines. It was found that an ortho effect of a methyl group inhibits the deshielding effect of the 4-nitro group and that this effect and the so-called back donation is influenced by electronegativity and position of substituents in the multisubstituted pyridine N-oxides. The shielding effect of N-oxide group is most pronounced in the 15N NMR chemical shifts of the studied compounds. This effect is further modified by methylamino, methylnitramino, 5- or 3-methyl and 4-nitro groups. Among them the 4-nitro group exerts the highest influence on the shielding effect of the N-oxide functionality. Experimental 1H, 13C and 15N NMR chemical shifts and GIAO/DFT theoretical calculations are consistent with each other and supported by the reactivity on nucleophilic substitution, the UV spectral and the dipole moment data.

Laihia, K.; Kolehmainen, E.; Kauppinen, R.; Lorenc, J.; Puszko, A.

2002-05-01

109

Assignment of non-crystalline forms in cellulose I by CP\\/MAS 13C NMR spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-crystalline forms of cellulose in birch pulp, cotton linters and Cladophora sp were studied by CP\\/MAS 13C NMR spectroscopy. New assignments were made for the NMR-signals in the lower shift part of the C-4 region (80–86ppm). These signals were assigned to cellulose at accessible fibril surfaces, cellulose at inaccessible fibril surfaces and hemicellulose. Also, further evidence was found for para-crystalline

Kristina Wickholm; Per Tomas Larsson; Tommy Iversen

1998-01-01

110

Radiation oxidation of polypropylene: A solid-state 13C NMR study using selective isotopic labeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polypropylene samples, in which the three different carbon atoms along the chain were selectively labeled with carbon-13, were subjected to radiation under inert and air atmospheres, and to post-irradiation exposure in air at various temperatures. By using solid-state 13C NMR measurements at room temperature, we have been able to identify and quantify the oxidation products. The isotopic labeling provides insight into chemical reaction mechanisms, since oxidation products can be traced back to their positions of origin on the macromolecule. The major products include peroxides and alcohols, both formed at tertiary carbon sites along the chain. Other products include methyl ketones, acids, esters, peresters, and hemiketals formed from reaction at the tertiary carbon, together with in-chain ketones and esters from reaction at the secondary chain carbon. No evidence is found of products arising from reactions at the methyl side chain. Significant temperature-dependent differences are apparent; for example much higher yields of chain-end methyl ketones, which are the indicator product of chain scission, are generated for both elevated temperature irradiation and for post-irradiation treatment at elevated temperatures. Time-dependent plots of yields of the various oxidation products have been obtained under a wide range of conditions, including the post-irradiation oxidation of a sample at room temperature in air that has been monitored for 2 years. Radiation-oxidation products of polypropylene are contrasted to products measured for 13C-labeled polyethylene in an earlier investigation: the peroxides formed in irradiated polypropylene are remarkably longer lived, the non-peroxidic products are significantly different, and the overall ratios of oxidation products in polypropylene change relatively little as a function of the extent of oxidation.

Mowery, Daniel M.; Assink, Roger A.; Derzon, Dora K.; Klamo, Sara B.; Bernstein, Robert; Clough, Roger L.

2007-05-01

111

Acetone hydration in supercritical water: 13C-NMR spectroscopy and Monte Carlo simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 13C-NMR chemical shift of acetone ?(13C=O) was measured in aqueous solution at high temperatures up to 400 °C and water densities of 0.10-0.60 g/cm3 for the study of hydration structure in the supercritical conditions. The average number NHB of hydrogen bonds (HBs) between an acetone and solvent waters and the energy change ?E upon the HB formation were evaluated from the ? and its temperature dependence, respectively. At 400 °C, NHB is an increasing function of the water density, the increase being slower at higher water densities. The acetone-water HB formation is exothermic in supercritical water with larger negative ?E at lower water densities (-3.3 kcal/mol at 0.10 g/cm3 and -0.3 kcal/mol at 0.60 g/cm3), in contrast to the positive ?E in ambient water (+0.078 kcal/mol at 4 °C). The corresponding Monte Carlo simulations were performed to calculate the radial and orientational distribution functions of waters around the acetone molecule. The density dependence of NHB calculated at 400 °C is in a qualitative agreement with the experimental results. In the supercritical conditions, the HB angle in a neighboring acetone-water pair is weakly influenced by the water density, because of the absence of collective HB structure. This is in sharp contrast to the hydration structure in ambient water, where the acetone-water HB formation is orientationally disturbed by the tetrahedral HB network formation among the surrounding waters.

Takebayashi, Yoshihiro; Yoda, Satoshi; Sugeta, Tsutomu; Otake, Katsuto; Sako, Takeshi; Nakahara, Masaru

2004-04-01

112

Determination of octane numbers of gasoline compounds from their chemical structure by 13C NMR spectroscopy and neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new theoretical model has been developed which explains the association between the molecular structure and the knock resistance of individual gasoline compounds convincingly. The constitutions of more than 300 individual gasoline components were correlated with their knock rating (Blending Research Octane Number, BRON) simultaneously. 13C NMR spectra of all compounds were binned in 28 chemical shift regions of different

R. Meusinger; R. Moros

2001-01-01

113

1 H, 13 C and 15 N NMR assignments of Duck HBV apical stem loop of the epsilon encapsidation signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The replication of Hepatitis B virus is initiated by binding of its reverse transcriptase to the apical stem loop and primer\\u000a loop of epsilon. Here, we present the 1H\\/13C\\/15N NMR assignments of the bases and sugars of the 29 residues apical stem loop of Duck HBV epsilon.

K. A. M. Ampt; O. M. Ottink; F. C. Girard; F. Nelissen; M. Tessari; S. S. Wijmenga

2008-01-01

114

Solid-state 13C NMR and molecular modeling studies of acetyl aleuritolic acid obtained from Croton cajucara Benth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13C NMR) with magic-angle spinning (MAS) and with cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS) spectra, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to obtain structural data from a sample of acetyl aleuritolic acid (AAA) extracted from the stem bark of Croton cajucara Benth. (Euphorbiaceae) and recrystallized from acetone. Since solid-state 13C NMR results suggested the presence of more than one molecule in the unitary cell for the AAA, DSC analysis and molecular modeling calculations were used to access this possibility. The absence of phase transition peaks in the DSC spectra and the dimeric models of AAA simulated using the semi-empirical PM3 method are in agreement with that proposal.

da Silva San Gil, Rosane Aguiar; Albuquerque, Magaly Girão; de Alencastro, Ricardo Bicca; da Cunha Pinto, Angelo; do Espírito Santo Gomes, Fabiano; de Castro Dantas, Tereza Neuma; Maciel, Maria Aparecida Medeiros

2008-08-01

115

Cortical metabolism in pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency revealed by ex vivo multiplet 13C-NMR of the adult mouse brain  

PubMed Central

The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), required for complete glucose oxidation, is essential for brain development. Although PDC deficiency is associated with a severe clinical syndrome, little is known about its effects on either substrate oxidation or synthesis of key metabolites such as glutamate and glutamine. Computational simulations of brain metabolism indicated that a 25% reduction in flux through PDC and a corresponding increase in flux from an alternative source of acetyl-CoA would substantially alter the 13C NMR spectrum obtained from brain tissue. Therefore, we evaluated metabolism of [1,6-13C2]glucose (oxidized by both neurons and glia) and [1,2-13C2]acetate (an energy source that bypasses PDC) in the cerebral cortex of adult mice mildly and selectively deficient in brain PDC activity, a viable model that recapitulates the human disorder. Intravenous infusions were performed in conscious mice and extracts of brain tissue were studied by 13C NMR. We hypothesized that mice deficient in PDC must increase the proportion of energy derived from acetate metabolism in the brain. Unexpectedly, the distribution of 13C in glutamate and glutamine, a measure of the relative flux of acetate and glucose into the citric acid cycle, was not altered. The 13C labeling pattern in glutamate differed significantly from glutamine, indicating preferential oxidation of [1,2-13C]acetate relative to [1,6-13C]glucose by a readily discernible metabolic domain of the brain of both normal and mutant mice, presumably glia. These findings illustrate that metabolic compartmentation is preserved in the PDC-deficient cerebral cortex, probably reflecting intact neuron-glia metabolic interactions, and that a reduction in brain PDC activity sufficient to induce cerebral dysgenesis during development does not appreciably disrupt energy metabolism in the mature brain. PMID:22884585

Marin-Valencia, Isaac; Good, Levi B.; Ma, Qian; Malloy, Craig R.; Patel, Mulchand S.; Pascual, Juan M.

2013-01-01

116

Variable-temperature 13C solid-state NMR study of the molecular structure of honeybee wax and silk.  

PubMed

To elucidate the native-state crystal structure of beeswax from the Japanese bee, Apis cerana japonica, we determined the relationship between temperature and the 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shift of methylene carbon of beeswax, with comparison to n-alkanes and polyethylene in the orthorhombic, monoclinic, or triclinic crystal form. Variable-temperature 13C solid-state NMR observations of n-alkanes and polyethylene revealed that the chemical shifts of methylene carbon in the orthorhombic crystal form increased linearly with increasing temperature, that of the triclinic form decreased, and that of the monoclinic form was unaltered. These relations were compared with results of variable-temperature 13C solid-state NMR observation of beeswax. Results clarified that the two crystal forms comprising the beeswax in the native state are orthorhombic and monoclinic. The variable-temperature 13C solid-state NMR observations were also applied to interpret the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curve of beeswax. They were used to clarify the structural changes of beeswax for widely various temperatures. For beeswax secreted by the Japanese bee, the transition from the orthorhombic form to the rotator phase occurred at 36 degrees C, that is from the crystalline to the intermediate state at 45 degrees C. Moreover, the variable-temperature 13C solid-state NMR spectrum of honeybee silk in the native state was observed. Results demonstrated that the secondary structures of honeybee silk proteins in the native state comprised coexisting alpha-helix and beta-sheet conformations and that the amount of alpha-helices was greater. The alpha-helix content of honeybee silk was compared with that of hornet silk produced by Vespa larvae. PMID:19007807

Kameda, Tsunenori; Tamada, Yasushi

2009-01-01

117

(13)C CP MAS NMR and crystal structure of methyl glycopyranosides.  

PubMed

The X-ray diffraction analysis, (13)C CP MAS NMR spectra and powder X-ray diffraction patterns were obtained for selected methyl glycosides: alpha- and beta-d-lyxopyranosides (1, 2), alpha- and beta-l-arabinopyranosides (3, 4), alpha- and beta-d-xylopyranosides (5, 6) and beta-d-ribopyranoside (7) and the results were confirmed by GIAO DFT calculations of shielding constants. In X-ray diffraction analysis of 1 and 2, a characteristic shortening and lengthening of selected bonds was observed in molecules of 1 due to anomeric effect and, in crystal lattice of 1 and 2, hydrogen bonds of different patterns were present. Also, an additional intramolecular hydrogen bond with the participation of ring oxygen atom was observed in 1. The observed differences in chemical shifts between solid state and solution come from conformational effects and formation of various intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The changes in chemical shifts originating from intermolecular hydrogen bonds were smaller in magnitude than conformational effects. Furthermore, the powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) performed for 4, 5 and 7 revealed that 7 existed as a mixture of two polymorphs, and one of them probably consisted of two non-equivalent molecules. PMID:18547551

Paradowska, Katarzyna; Gubica, Tomasz; Temeriusz, Andrzej; Cyra?ski, Micha? K; Wawer, Iwona

2008-09-01

118

Solvent and free-radical effects on the /sup 13/C NMR spectra of hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

The proton-decoupled /sup 13/C NMR spectra of benzene, naphthalene, azulene, acenaphthylene, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, and 6,6-pentamethylenefulvene have been obtained in dilute solutions in cyclohexane, triethylamine, di-n-butyl ether, diisopropyl ether, diethyl carbon, tetrahydrofuran, butyronitrile, ..gamma..-butyrolactone, propylene carbonate, dimethyl sulfoxide, benzene, toluene, fluorobenzene, anisole, acetophenone, benzonitrile, and nitrobenzene. It has been found that (1) the chemical shifts (relative to an external reference) of both alternant and nonalternant hydrocarbons are sensitive to solvent dipolarity-polarizability effects. (2) In the case of select solvents (aliphatic, monofunctional compound with one single dominant bond moment) there is a generally good correlation between the solvent-induced chemical shifts (SICS) and the ..pi..* scale of solent dipolarity-polarizability. (3) Aromatic solvent induced shifts (ASIS) and specific interactions are significant in aromatic solvents, although dipolarity-polarizability contributions are still very important. (4) With very few exceptions, SICS (relative to cyclohexane solvent) are downfield, and the results are not in favor of the simple reaction field model. (5) For aromatic hydrocarbons, there is a clear proportionality between the SICS and the paramagnetic shifts induced by the stable free-radical 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxy (TEMPO). (6) There is no simple relationship between the SICS and the calculated electronic charge distribution of the solute molecules.

Abboud, J.M.; Auhmani, A.; Bitar, H.; El Mouhtadi, M.; Martin, J.; Rico, M.

1987-03-04

119

Method for determining molar concentrations of metabolites in complex solutions from two-dimensional 1H-13C NMR spectra.  

PubMed

One-dimensional (1D) (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is used extensively for high-throughput analysis of metabolites in biological fluids and tissue extracts. Typically, such spectra are treated as multivariate statistical objects rather than as collections of quantifiable metabolites. We report here a two-dimensional (2D) (1)H-(13)C NMR strategy (fast metabolite quantification, FMQ, by NMR) for identifying and quantifying the approximately 40 most abundant metabolites in biological samples. To validate this technique, we prepared mixtures of synthetic compounds and extracts from Arabidopsis thaliana, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Medicago sativa. We show that accurate (technical error 2.7%) molar concentrations can be determined in 12 min using our quantitative 2D (1)H-(13)C NMR strategy. In contrast, traditional 1D (1)H NMR analysis resulted in 16.2% technical error under nearly ideal conditions. We propose FMQ by NMR as a practical alternative to 1D (1)H NMR for metabolomics studies in which 50-mg (extract dry weight) samples can be obtained. PMID:17985927

Lewis, Ian A; Schommer, Seth C; Hodis, Brendan; Robb, Kate A; Tonelli, Marco; Westler, William M; Sussman, Michael R; Markley, John L

2007-12-15

120

Localized In Vivo 1H NMR Detection of Neurotransmitter Labeling in Rat Brain During Infusion of [1-13C] D-Glucose  

E-print Network

Localized In Vivo 1H NMR Detection of Neurotransmitter Labeling in Rat Brain During Infusion of [1 infusions of 13C-labeled glucose. Magn Reson Med 41:1077­1083, 1999. 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Key words] glucose infusion In vivo 13C NMR spectroscopy with localization is emerg- ing as an important tool

Jegelka, Stefanie

121

Prediction of protein 13C ? NMR chemical shifts using a combination scheme of statistical modeling and quantum-mechanical analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPRs) on the basis of constitutional, topological, geometrical, and electrostatic descriptors are developed for 2454 13C ? NMR chemical shifts of 21 structure-known, high-quality monomeric proteins. In this procedure, heuristic approach is employed to perform variable-selection for obtaining few independent and significant descriptors. Coupled with various machine learning methods, including MLR, PLS, LSSVM, RF, and GP, these selected variables are then used to create both linear and nonlinear statistical models with the experimentally determined 13C ? NMR chemical shifts of proteins. In addition, the secondary structural effect and environmental influence on protein chemical shifts are also investigated in detail through structural survey and quantum-mechanical calculations. We demonstrate that (i) relationship between 13C ? NMR chemical shifts and local structural features is, to some extent, nonlinear, and (ii) the 13C ? chemical shift values are not only determined by corresponding side-chain conformations, but also affected from the arrangement and configuration of spatially vicinal residues.

Liu, Xiuhong; Ren, Yanrong; Zhou, Peng; Shang, Zhicai

2011-05-01

122

Experimental and calculated 1H, 13C and 31P NMR spectra of (hydroxypyridin-3-yl-methyl)phosphonic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(Hydroxypyridin-3-yl-methyl)phosphonic acid named also 3-pyridylmethyl(hydroxy)-phosphonic acid, MC5, is biologically active compound and exhibits metal binding ability attributable to the presence of the phosphonic group and the pyridine nitrogen. Its proton NMR data have been previously reported, only. Thus, in this work we offer interpretation of 1H, 13C and 31P NMR spectra of this compound dissolved in D 2O in the pD range between 1.5 and 9.0. Additionally, to support our interpretation of the obtained data, we calculated NMR spectra of all expected forms that are the result of consecutive deprotonation of MC5. Theoretical calculations of the NMR spectra as well as structural parameters of the compounds (cation, zwitteranion, and two anions) were performed at the B3PW91 level with the 6-311G** and 6-311++G**basis sets.

Chruszcz, Katarzyna; Bara?ska, Ma?gorzata; Czarniecki, Krzysztof; Proniewicz, Leonard M.

2003-06-01

123

Thermal maturity of type II kerogen from the New Albany Shale assessed by13C CP/MAS NMR  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thermal maturity of oil and gas source rocks is typically quantified in terms of vitrinite reflectance, which is based on optical properties of terrestrial woody remains. This study evaluates 13C CP/MAS NMR parameters in kerogen (i.e., the insoluble fraction of organic matter in sediments and sedimentary rocks) as proxies for thermal maturity in marine-derived source rocks where terrestrially derived vitrinite is often absent or sparse. In a suite of samples from the New Albany Shale (Middle Devonian to the Early Mississippian, Illinois Basin) the abundance of aromatic carbon in kerogen determined by 13C CP/MAS NMR correlates linearly well with vitrinite reflectance. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Werner-Zwanziger, U.; Lis, G.; Mastalerz, M.; Schimmelmann, A.

2005-01-01

124

Acid–base equilibrium in aqueous solutions of 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid as studied by 13C NMR spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

13C NMR spectra of 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid in aqueous solutions of various acidities and for various solute concentrations have been recorded and interpreted. The spectra recorded at pH=2 and below contain the signals of the neutral solute molecule exclusively, while the ones recorded at pH=7 and above only the signals of the appropriate anion, which has been confirmed by theoretical GIAO-DFT

A. Gryff-Keller; A. Kraska-Dziadecka

125

13C CP\\/MAS NMR study of the interaction of bile acids with barley ?- d-glucan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary ?-d-glucan is associated with low blood cholesterol levels due to increased excretion of bile acids, but there is little evidence for the mechanism involved in enhanced bile acid clearance. Solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy has now been used to investigate the possibility of specific binding between a representative bile acid salt, glycocholic acid, and barley ?-glucan. From the similarity in

Richard K. Bowles; Keith R. Morgan; Richard H. Furneaux; Graeme D. Coles

1996-01-01

126

13C NMR and conductivity measurements of ethylene oxide-epychloridrine copolymer doped with LiClO 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethylene oxide-epychloridrine copolymer has interesting properties as an ionic conducting polymer, principally due to its low glass transition temperature (Tg = ? 40 °C). The effect of dopant concentration (LiClO4) was studied by 13C NMR spectra and conductivity measurements. These studies allowed us to identify the different carbon atoms in the copolymer and their interaction with lithium cations and

A. E. Wolfenson; R. M. Torresi; T. J. Bonagamba; M.-A. De Paoli; H. Panepucci

1996-01-01

127

Time dependent solid-state 13C NMR study on alkaline hydrolysis of polyacrylonitrile hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of alkaline hydrolysis on the chemical structure of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) hollow fiber ultrafiltration (UF) membrane were studied using solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy. The PAN membrane was hydrolyzed in an NaOH solution of pH 13, which is generally used in water industry for anti-fouling treatments of UF membranes but is much weaker than the alkaline concentrations (0.5–2.5N) used so

Yong Hun Choi; Chang Min Choi; Dae Ho Choi; Younkee Paik; Byung Jae Park; Young Kil Joo; Nam Joon Kim

2011-01-01

128

Unified and Isomer-Specific NMR Metabolomics Database for the Accurate Analysis of (13)C-(1)H HSQC Spectra.  

PubMed

A new metabolomics database and query algorithm for the analysis of (13)C-(1)H HSQC spectra is introduced, which unifies NMR spectroscopic information on 555 metabolites from both the Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank (BMRB) and Human Metabolome Database (HMDB). The new database, termed Complex Mixture Analysis by NMR (COLMAR) (13)C-(1)H HSQC database, can be queried via an interactive, easy to use web interface at http://spin.ccic.ohio-state.edu/index.php/hsqc/index . Our new HSQC database separately treats slowly exchanging isomers that belong to the same metabolite, which permits improved query in cases where lowly populated isomers are below the HSQC detection limit. The performance of our new database and query web server compares favorably with the one of existing web servers, especially for spectra of samples of high complexity, including metabolite mixtures from the model organisms Drosophila melanogaster and Escherichia coli. For such samples, our web server has on average a 37% higher accuracy (true positive rate) and a 82% lower false positive rate, which makes it a useful tool for the rapid and accurate identification of metabolites from (13)C-(1)H HSQC spectra at natural abundance. This information can be combined and validated with NMR data from 2D TOCSY-type spectra that provide connectivity information not present in HSQC spectra. PMID:25333826

Bingol, Kerem; Li, Da-Wei; Bruschweiler-Li, Lei; Cabrera, Oscar A; Megraw, Timothy; Zhang, Fengli; Brüschweiler, Rafael

2014-11-01

129

Unraveling the 13C NMR Chemical Shifts in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Dependence on Diameter and Electronic Structure  

SciTech Connect

The atomic specificity afforded by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy could enable detailed mechanistic information about single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) functionalization as well as the noncovalent molecular interactions that dictate ground-state charge transfer and separation by electronic structure and diameter. However, to date, the polydispersity present in as-synthesized SWCNT populations has obscured the dependence of the SWCNT {sup 13}C chemical shift on intrinsic parameters such as diameter and electronic structure, meaning that no information is gleaned for specific SWCNTs with unique chiral indices. In this article, we utilize a combination of {sup 13}C labeling and density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGU) to produce an array of {sup 13}C-labeled SWCNT populations with varying diameter, electronic structure, and chiral angle. We find that the SWCNT isotropic {sup 13}C chemical shift decreases systematically with increasing diameter for semiconducting SWCNTs, in agreement with recent theoretical predictions that have heretofore gone unaddressed. Furthermore, we find that the {sup 13}C chemical shifts for small diameter metallic and semiconducting SWCNTs differ significantly, and that the full-width of the isotropic peak for metallic SWCNTs is much larger than that of semiconducting nanotubes, irrespective of diameter.

Engtrakul, C.; Irurzun, V. M.; Gjersing, E. L.; Holt, J. M.; Larsen, B. A.; Resasco, D. E.; Blackburn, J. L.

2012-03-14

130

Long-distance effects of site-directed mutations on backbone conformation in bacteriorhodopsin from solid state NMR of [1-13C]Val-labeled proteins.  

PubMed Central

We have recorded 13C cross-polarization-magic angle spinning and dipolar decoupled-magic angle spinning NMR spectra of [1-13C]Val-labeled wild-type bacteriorhodopsin (bR), and the V49A, V199A, T46V, T46V/V49A, D96N, and D85N mutants, in order to study conformational changes of the backbone caused by site-directed mutations along the extracellular surface and the cytoplasmic half channel. On the basis of spectral changes in the V49A and V199A mutants, and upon specific cleavage by chymotrypsin, we assigned the three well-resolved 13C signals observed at 172.93, 172.00, and 171. 11 ppm to [1-13C]Val 69, Val 49, and Val 199, respectively. The local conformations of the backbone at these residues are revealed by the conformation-dependent 13C chemical shifts. We find that at the ambient temperature of these measurements Val 69 is not in a beta-sheet, in spite of previous observations by electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction at cryogenic temperatures, but in a flexible turn structure that undergoes conformational fluctuation. Results with the T46V mutant suggest that there is a long-distance effect on backbone conformation between Thr 46 and Val 49. From the spectra of the D85N and E204Q mutants there also appears to be coupling between Val 49 and Asp 85 and between Asp 85 and Glu 204, respectively. In addition, the T2 measurement indicates conformational interaction between Asp 96 and extracellular surface. The protonation of Asp 85 in the photocycle therefore might induce changes in conformation or dynamics, or both, throughout the protein, from the extracellular surface to the side chain of Asp 96. PMID:10388769

Tanio, M; Inoue, S; Yokota, K; Seki, T; Tuzi, S; Needleman, R; Lanyi, J K; Naito, A; Saitô, H

1999-01-01

131

Area per lipid and cholesterol interactions in membranes from separated local-field (13)C NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Investigations of lipid membranes using NMR spectroscopy generally require isotopic labeling, often precluding structural studies of complex lipid systems. Solid-state (13)C magic-angle spinning NMR spectroscopy at natural isotopic abundance gives site-specific structural information that can aid in the characterization of complex biomembranes. Using the separated local-field experiment DROSS, we resolved (13)C-(1)H residual dipolar couplings that were interpreted with a statistical mean-torque model. Liquid-disordered and liquid-ordered phases were characterized according to membrane thickness and average cross-sectional area per lipid. Knowledge of such structural parameters is vital for molecular dynamics simulations, and provides information about the balance of forces in membrane lipid bilayers. Experiments were conducted with both phosphatidylcholine (dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC)) and egg-yolk sphingomyelin (EYSM) lipids, and allowed us to extract segmental order parameters from the (13)C-(1)H residual dipolar couplings. Order parameters were used to calculate membrane structural quantities, including the area per lipid and bilayer thickness. Relative to POPC, EYSM is more ordered in the ld phase and experiences less structural perturbation upon adding 50% cholesterol to form the lo phase. The loss of configurational entropy is smaller for EYSM than for POPC, thus favoring its interaction with cholesterol in raftlike lipid systems. Our studies show that solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy is applicable to investigations of complex lipids and makes it possible to obtain structural parameters for biomembrane systems where isotope labeling may be prohibitive. PMID:25418296

Leftin, Avigdor; Molugu, Trivikram R; Job, Constantin; Beyer, Klaus; Brown, Michael F

2014-11-18

132

Practical aspects of high-sensitivity multidimensional 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy of perdeuterated proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The double nucleus enhanced recoupling (DONER) experiment employs simultaneous irradiation of protons and deuterons to promote spin diffusion processes in a perdeuterated protein. This results in 4-5 times higher sensitivity in 2D 13C-13C correlation experiments as compared to PDSD [1]. Here, a quantitative comparison of PDSD, 1H-DARR, 2H-DARR, and 1H + 2H DONER has been performed to analyze the influence of spin diffusion on polarization transfer processes. Cross peak buildup curves were analyzed to obtain guidelines for choosing the best experimental parameters. The largest cross peak intensities were observed for the DONER experiments. The fastest build-up rate was observed in the 2H-DARR experiment within a buildup range of ˜18-45 ms, whereas values between 24 and 69 ms are observed for the DONER experiment. Furthermore, the effects of direct excitation and cross polarization (CP) are compared. A comparison between DONER and RFDR experiments reveal ˜50% more intense cross peaks in the C?-CO and C?-Calip regions of the 2D 13C-13C DONER spectrum applying proton CP (1H-13C). As a parameter determining the S/N in 13C-13C correlation experiments, proton CP efficiency is investigated using deuterated samples with proton/deuterium ratios at 20%, 40%, and 100% H2O. Sufficiently strong 13C CPMAS signal intensity is observed for such proteins even with very low proton concentration. The effect of proton and/or deuterium decoupling is analyzed at various MAS spinning frequencies. Deuterium decoupling was found most crucial for obtaining high resolution. Long range correlations are readily observed representing distances up to ˜6 Å by using DONER approach.

Akbey, Ümit; van Rossum, Barth-Jan; Oschkinat, Hartmut

2012-04-01

133

Local structure and molecular motions in imidazolium hydrogen malonate crystal as studied by 2H and 13C NMR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The local structure and molecular motion of the imidazolium hydrogen malonate crystal were investigated using solid-state 2H and 13C NMR. The imidazolium ion undergoes isotropic rotation, which is correlated with a defect in the crystal, as observed by 2H NMR broadline spectra above 263 K. A 180? flip of the imidazolium ion in the regular site was observed from 2H NMR quadrupole Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (QCPMG) spectra. The Grotthuss mechanism was accompanied by a 180? flip of the imidazolium ion in regular sites. Moreover, the proton transfer associated with the imidazolium ion of the defective crystal is important for proton conductivity of the imidazolium hydrogen malonate crystal.

Mizuno, M.; Chizuwa, M.; Umiyama, T.; Kumagai, Y.; Miyatou, T.; Ohashi, R.; Ida, T.; Tansho, M.; Shimizu, T.

2014-10-01

134

(1)H-(13)C Hetero-nuclear dipole-dipole couplings of methyl groups in stationary and magic angle spinning solid-state NMR experiments of peptides and proteins.  

PubMed

(13)C NMR of isotopically labeled methyl groups has the potential to combine spectroscopic simplicity with ease of labeling for protein NMR studies. However, in most high resolution separated local field experiments, such as polarization inversion spin exchange at the magic angle (PISEMA), that are used to measure (1)H-(13)C hetero-nuclear dipolar couplings, the four-spin system of the methyl group presents complications. In this study, the properties of the (1)H-(13)C hetero-nuclear dipolar interactions of (13)C-labeled methyl groups are revealed through solid-state NMR experiments on a range of samples, including single crystals, stationary powders, and magic angle spinning of powders, of (13)C(3) labeled alanine alone and incorporated into a protein. The spectral simplifications resulting from proton detected local field (PDLF) experiments are shown to enhance resolution and simplify the interpretation of results on single crystals, magnetically aligned samples, and powders. The complementarity of stationary sample and magic angle spinning (MAS) measurements of dipolar couplings is demonstrated by applying polarization inversion spin exchange at the magic angle and magic angle spinning (PISEMAMAS) to unoriented samples. PMID:19896874

Wu, Chin H; Das, Bibhuti B; Opella, Stanley J

2010-02-01

135

1H- 13C hetero-nuclear dipole-dipole couplings of methyl groups in stationary and magic angle spinning solid-state NMR experiments of peptides and proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

13C NMR of isotopically labeled methyl groups has the potential to combine spectroscopic simplicity with ease of labeling for protein NMR studies. However, in most high resolution separated local field experiments, such as polarization inversion spin exchange at the magic angle (PISEMA), that are used to measure 1H- 13C hetero-nuclear dipolar couplings, the four-spin system of the methyl group presents complications. In this study, the properties of the 1H- 13C hetero-nuclear dipolar interactions of 13C-labeled methyl groups are revealed through solid-state NMR experiments on a range of samples, including single crystals, stationary powders, and magic angle spinning of powders, of 13C 3 labeled alanine alone and incorporated into a protein. The spectral simplifications resulting from proton detected local field (PDLF) experiments are shown to enhance resolution and simplify the interpretation of results on single crystals, magnetically aligned samples, and powders. The complementarity of stationary sample and magic angle spinning (MAS) measurements of dipolar couplings is demonstrated by applying polarization inversion spin exchange at the magic angle and magic angle spinning (PISEMAMAS) to unoriented samples.

Wu, Chin H.; Das, Bibhuti B.; Opella, Stanley J.

2010-02-01

136

Uranyl nitrate inhibits lactate gluconeogenesis in isolated human and mouse renal proximal tubules: a 13C-NMR study.  

PubMed

As part of a study on uranium nephrotoxicity, we investigated the effect of uranyl nitrate in isolated human and mouse kidney cortex tubules metabolizing the physiological substrate lactate. In the millimolar range, uranyl nitrate reduced lactate removal and gluconeogenesis and the cellular ATP level in a dose-dependent fashion. After incubation in phosphate-free Krebs-Henseleit medium with 5 mM L-[1-13C]-, or L-[2-13C]-, or L-[3-13C]lactate, substrate utilization and product formation were measured by enzymatic and NMR spectroscopic methods. In the presence of 3 mM uranyl nitrate, glucose production and the intracellular ATP content were significantly reduced in both human and mouse tubules. Combination of enzymatic and NMR measurements with a mathematical model of lactate metabolism revealed an inhibition of fluxes through lactate dehydrogenase and the gluconeogenic enzymes in the presence of 3 mM uranyl nitrate; in human and mouse tubules, fluxes were lowered by 20% and 14% (lactate dehydrogenase), 27% and 32% (pyruvate carboxylase), 35% and 36% (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), and 39% and 45% (glucose-6-phosphatase), respectively. These results indicate that natural uranium is an inhibitor of renal lactate gluconeogenesis in both humans and mice. PMID:19747499

Renault, Sophie; Faiz, Hassan; Gadet, Rudy; Ferrier, Bernard; Martin, Guy; Baverel, Gabriel; Conjard-Duplany, Agnès

2010-01-01

137

Solid-State Selective 13C Excitation and Spin Diffusion NMR to Resolve Spatial Dimensions in Plant Cell Walls  

SciTech Connect

The average spatial dimensions between major biopolymers within the plant cell wall can be resolved using a solid-state NMR technique referred to as a {sup 13}C cross-polarization (CP) SELDOM (selectively by destruction of magnetization) with a mixing time delay for spin diffusion. Selective excitation of specific aromatic lignin carbons indicates that lignin is in close proximity to hemicellulose followed by amorphous and finally crystalline cellulose. {sup 13}C spin diffusion time constants (T{sub SD}) were extracted using a two-site spin diffusion theory developed for {sup 13}C nuclei under magic angle spinning (MAS) conditions. These time constants were then used to calculate an average lower-limit spin diffusion length between chemical groups within the plant cell wall. The results on untreated {sup 13}C enriched corn stover stem reveal that the lignin carbons are, on average, located at distances {approx}0.7-2.0 nm from the carbons in hemicellulose and cellulose, whereas the pretreated material had larger separations.

Foston, M.; Katahira, R.; Gjersing, E.; Davis, M. F.; Ragauskas, A. J.

2012-02-15

138

Dynamic structure of pharaonis phoborhodopsin (sensory rhodopsin II) and complex with a cognate truncated transducer as revealed by site-directed 13C solid-state NMR.  

PubMed

We have recorded (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of [3-(13)C]Ala, [1-(13)C]Val-labeled pharaonis phoborhodopsin (ppR or sensory rhodopsin II) incorporated into egg PC (phosphatidylcholine) bilayer, by means of site-directed high-resolution solid-state NMR techniques. Seven (13)C NMR signals from transmembrane alpha-helices were resolved for [3-(13)C]Ala-ppR at almost the same positions as those of bacteriorhodopsin (bR), except for the suppressed peaks in the loop regions in spite of the presence of at least three Ala residues. In contrast, (13)C NMR signals from the loops were visible from [1-(13)C]Val-ppR but their peak positions of the transmembrane alpha-helices are not always the same between ppR and bR. The motional frequency of the loop regions in ppR was estimated as 10(5) Hz in view of the suppressed peaks from [3-(13)C]Ala-ppR due to interference with proton decoupling frequency. We found that conformation and dynamics of ppR were appreciably altered by complex formation with a cognate truncated transducer pHtr II (1-159). In particular, the C-terminal alpha-helix protruding from the membrane surface is involved in the complex formation and subsequent fluctuation frequency is reduced by one order of magnitude. PMID:12586370

Arakawa, Tadashi; Shimono, Kazumi; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Tuzi, Satoru; Sudo, Yuki; Kamo, Naoki; Saitô, Hazime

2003-02-11

139

A 13C CP\\/MAS NMR spectroscopy and AFM study of the structure of Glucagel™, a gelling ?-glucan from barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of Glucagel™, a mixed-linked (1?3), (1?4)-?-d-glucan extracted from barley, was examined using 13C CP\\/MAS NMR spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results from 13C CP\\/MAS NMR spectroscopy showed that Glucagel™ contained regions with two distinct conformations. In some of the regions the ?-glucan chains associated to form a unique conformation, the A-conformation, while in the other regions the

Keith R. Morgan; Clive J. Roberts; Saul J. B. Tendler; Martyn C. Davies; Phil M. Williams

1999-01-01

140

Source indicators of humic substances: an elemental composition, solid state 13C CP\\/MAS NMR and Py-GC\\/MS Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humic substances (HS) isolated from swamp water, surface soil, peat and brown coal were characterized using elemental composition, solid state 13C CP\\/MAS NMR and Py-GC\\/MS analysis. A substantial amount of information with regard to the source, maturity, depositional environment and degree of degradation of humic substances was obtained. The elemental composition, atomic ratio, 13C NMR spectra and Py-GC\\/MS results indicated

X. Q Lu; J. V Hanna; W. D Johnson

2000-01-01

141

Hydrolysis of post-consume poly(ethylene terephthalate) with sulfuric acid and product characterization by WAXD, 13C NMR and DSC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-consume PET was hydrolysed with commercial sulfuric acid (96%) with varying reaction times (5–120min). The structure of the material obtained was analysed by 13C NMR, DSC, and WAXD and the results were correlated with reaction time. 13C NMR shows a decrease in chain size with reaction time and an increase in the number of carboxyl groups at the end of

Gizilene M. de Carvalho; Edvani C. Muniz; Adley F. Rubira

2006-01-01

142

(13)C, (15)N CPMAS NMR and GIAO DFT calculations of stereoisomeric oxindole alkaloids from Cat's Claw (Uncaria tomentosa).  

PubMed

Oxindole alkaloids, isolated from the bark of Uncaria tomentosa [Willd. ex Schult.] Rubiaceae, are considered to be responsible for the biological activity of this herb. Five pentacyclic and two tetracyclic alkaloids were studied by solid-state NMR and theoretical GIAO DFT methods. The (13)C and (15)N CPMAS NMR spectra were recorded for mitraphylline, isomitraphylline, pteropodine (uncarine C), isopteropodine (uncarine E), speciophylline (uncarine D), rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline. Theoretical GIAO DFT calculations of shielding constants provide arguments for identification of asymmetric centers and proper assignment of NMR spectra. These alkaloids are 7R/7S and 20R/20S stereoisomeric pairs. Based on the (13)C CP MAS chemical shifts the 7S alkaloids (delta C3 70-71ppm) can be easily and conveniently distinguished from 7R (deltaC3 74.5-74.9ppm), also 20R (deltaC20 41.3-41.7ppm) from the 20S (deltaC20 36.3-38.3ppm). The epiallo-type isomer (3R, 20S) of speciophylline is characterized by a larger (15)N MAS chemical shift of N4 (64.6ppm) than the allo-type (3S, 20S) of isopteropodine (deltaN4 53.3ppm). (15)N MAS chemical shifts of N1-H in pentacyclic alkaloids are within 131.9-140.4ppm. PMID:19019638

Paradowska, Katarzyna; Wolniak, Micha?; Pisklak, Maciej; Gli?ski, Jan A; Davey, Matthew H; Wawer, Iwona

2008-11-01

143

Humic acids as proxies for assessing different Mediterranean forest soils signatures using solid-state CPMAS 13C NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Humic acids (HAs) of four representative forest soils profiles from Central Spain (two with different vegetation - pine and oak - but same parent material - granitie, and two with same vegetation - holm oak - but different parent material - granite and limestone) were investigated by solid-state cross polarization with magic angle spinning (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The objectives included the investigation of the impact of different forest properties on HA composition, assessing how the structural characteristics of the HA vary with soil depth, and evaluating the role of HA as surrogates for mapping the different forest soils signatures using structural data derived from (13)C NMR spectroscopy. On average, alkyl C is the dominant C constituent (38-48% of the total NMR peak area) in all HA samples, followed by aromatic (12-22%) and O-alkyl C (12-19%), and finally carboxyl C (7.0-10%). The NMR data also indicated that HA composition is likely to be differently affected by the soil physico-chemical properties and type of forest vegetation. The structural characteristics of the HA from soil under oak did not differ broadly downward in the profile, whereas soil HA under pine forest exhibits a somewhat higher recalcitrant nature as a consequence of a higher degree of decomposition. The soil HA from holm oak forests differed from the other two forest soils, exhibiting a progressive decomposition of the alkyl C structures with increasing depth, while the carbohydrate-like indicator (O-alkyl C) is apparently being protected from mineralization in the horizons below the ground level. Overall, these differences in soil HA NMR signatures are an important diagnostic tool for understanding the role of different soil environmental factors on the structural composition of HA from Mediterranean forest soils. PMID:23332874

Duarte, Regina M B O; Fernández-Getino, Ana P; Duarte, Armando C

2013-06-01

144

Phase behavior and 13C NMR spectroscopic analysis of the mixed methane + ethane + propane hydrates in mesoporous silica gels.  

PubMed

In this study, the phase behavior and quantitative determination of hydrate composition and cage occupancy for the mixed CH(4) + C(2)H(6) + C(3)H(8) hydrates were closely investigated through the experimental measurement of three-phase hydrate (H)-water-rich liquid (L(W))-vapor (V) equilibria and (13)C NMR spectra. To examine the effect of pore size and salinity, we measured hydrate phase equilibria for the quaternary CH(4) (90%) + C(2)H(6) (7%) + C(3)H(8) (3%) + water mixtures in silica gel pores of nominal diameters of 6.0, 15.0, and 30.0 nm and for the quinary CH(4) (90%) + C(2)H(6) (7%) + C(3)H(8) (3%) + NaCl + water mixtures of two different NaCl concentrations (3 and 10 wt %) in silica gel pores of a nominal 30.0 nm diameter. The value of hydrate-water interfacial tension for the CH(4) (90%) + C(2)H(6) (7%) + C(3)H(8) (3%) hydrate was found to be 47 ± 4 mJ/m(2) from the relation of the dissociation temperature depression with the pore size of silica gels at a given pressure. At a specified temperature, three-phase H-L(W)-V equilibrium curves of pore hydrates were shifted to higher pressure regions depending on pore sizes and NaCl concentrations. From the cage-dependent (13)C NMR chemical shifts of enclathrated guest molecules, the mixed CH(4) (90%) + C(2)H(6) (7%) + C(3)H(8) (3%) gas hydrate was confirmed to be structure II. The cage occupancies of each guest molecule and the hydration number of the mixed gas hydrates were also estimated from the (13)C NMR spectra. PMID:20964277

Lee, Seungmin; Cha, Inuk; Seo, Yongwon

2010-11-25

145

1H MAS, 13C CP/MAS, and 2H NMR spectra studies of piperidinium ph{p}-chlorobenzoate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anomalous H/D isotope effects were detected in the 1H MAS NMR spectra of piperidinium p-chlorobenzoate (C5H10NH2{+}\\cdot ClC6H4COO - ) upon deuterium substitution of hydrogen atoms which form two kinds of N-H⋯O H-bonds in the crystal; in contrast to these spectra, only slight chemical shifts were recorded in 13C CP/MAS NMR spectra. 2H NMR spectrum of the deuterated sample show quadrupole coupling constants of 148 and 108 kHz, and reveal that there are a few motions contributing to the electric-field modulation of the 2H nucleus. The 1H MAS NMR spectra of piperidinium p-chlrobenzoate- d 16 (C5D10ND2{+}\\cdot ClC6D4COO - ) and - d 14 (C5D10NH2{+}\\cdot ClC6D4COO - ) revealed that the change in the envelope is caused by chemical shifts of each signal upon deuteration. Calculations based on the density-functional-theory showed that the N-H distance along the crystallographic a-axis mainly contributes to the anomalous isotope effects on 1H MAS NMR envelopes.

Nakano, Ryo; Honda, Hisashi; Ishimaru, Shin'ichi; Noro, Sumiko

2013-05-01

146

Use of solid-state 13C NMR in structural studies of humic acids and humin from Holocene sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

13C NMR spectra of solid humic substances in Holocene sediments have been obtained using cross polarization with magic-angle sample spinning techniques. The results demonstrate that this technique holds great promise for structural characterizations of complex macromolecular substances such as humin and humic acids. Quantifiable distinctions can be made between structural features of aquatic and terrestrial humic substances. The aliphatic carbons of the humic substances are dominant components suggestive of input from lipid-like materials. An interesting resemblance is also noted between terrestrial humic acid and humin spectra. ?? 1980.

Hatcher, P.G.; VanderHart, D.L.; Earl, W.L.

1980-01-01

147

1H, 13C NMR and X-ray crystallographic studies of highly polyhalogenated derivatives of costunolide lactone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The costunolide lactone, a sesquiterpene compound isolated from Zaluzania triiloba species, reacted with several dihalocarbene sources produced by trihaloform-NaOH under successive phase transfer reactions yielding mono-, bis- and tris-dihalocyclopropane adducts. The structures, as well as the configurational assignments of the different derivatives, were established by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and assisted by X-ray crystallographic and molecular modelling studies. The specific shielding of protons in the neighbourhood of different halogens on the cyclopropane moieties was correlated to the pseudocontact interactions.

Corona, D.; Díaz, E.; Nava, J. L.; Guzmán, A.; Barrios, H.; Fuentes, A.; Hernandez-Plata, S. A.; Allard, J.; Jankowski, C. K.

2005-11-01

148

Characterization of aging in organic materials on atomic-, meso- and macro-length scales by {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

A fundamental understanding of aging in an organic material requires that one understand how aging affects the chemical structure of a material, and how these chemical changes are related to the material`s macroscopic properties. This level of understanding is usually achieved by examining the material on a variety of length scales ranging from atomic to meso-scale to macroscopic. The authors are developing and applying several {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy experiments to characterize the aging process of organic materials over a broad range of length scales. Examples of studies which range from atomic to macroscopic will be presented.

Assink, R.A.; Jamison, G.M.; Alam, T.M.; Gillen, K.T.

1997-10-01

149

Solid state 13C NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy of the cocoon silk of two common spiders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of the silk from cocoons of two common spiders, Araneus diadematus (family Araneidae) and Achaearanea tepidariorum (family Theridiidae) was investigated by means of 13C solid state NMR and FT-IR spectroscopies. The combined use of these two techniques allowed us to highlight differences in the two samples. The cocoon silk of Achaearanea tepidariorum is essentially constituted by helical and ?-sheet structures, whereas that of Araneus diadematus shows a more complex structure, containing also ?-strands and ?-turns. Moreover, the former silk is essentially crystalline while the latter contains more mobile domains. The structural differences of the two cocoon silks are ascribed to the different habitat of the two species.

Bramanti, Emilia; Catalano, Donata; Forte, Claudia; Giovanneschi, Mario; Masetti, Massimo; Veracini, Carlo Alberto

2005-11-01

150

Deuterium isotope effects in carbohydrates revisited. Cryoprobe studies of the anomerization and NH to ND deuterium isotope induced 13C NMR chemical shifts of acetamidodeoxy and aminodeoxy sugars.  

PubMed

Complete 1H and 13C NMR chemical shift assignments have been generated from a series of acetamidodeoxy and aminodeoxy sugar derivatives. For free sugars, the enhanced sensitivity of an NMR cryoprobe allowed simple 1D and 2D NMR spectra to be obtained from essentially single anomers, before significant mutarotation had occurred. The NMR assignments have been used to characterize deuterium isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts measured under conditions of slow NH to ND exchange in single solutions. Within a range of 0 to -0.138 ppm, beta, gamma, delta, and zeta deuterium isotope effects have been observed, thus providing additional reference data for assignment of the 13C NMR spectra of nitrogenous saccharides. PMID:15936003

Coxon, Bruce

2005-07-25

151

13C-13C dipolar recoupling under very fast magic angle spinning in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance: Applications to distance measurements, spectral assignments, and high-throughput secondary-structure determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique is presented to recouple homonuclear dipolar couplings between dilute spin pairs such as 13C-13C systems under very fast magic angle spinning (MAS) in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The presented technique, finite pulse rf driven recoupling (fpRFDR), restores homonuclear dipolar interactions based on constructive usage of finite pulse-width effects in a phase- and symmetry-cycled ?-pulse train in which a rotor-synchronous ? pulse is applied every rotation period. The restored effective dipolar interaction has the form of a zero-quantum dipolar Hamiltonian for static solids, whose symmetry in spin space is different from that obtained by conventional rf driven recoupling (RFDR) techniques. It is demonstrated that the efficiency of recoupling by fpRFDR is not strongly dependent on chemical shift differences or resonance offsets in contrast to previous recoupling methods under very fast MAS. To realize distance measurements without effects of spin relaxation, a constant-time version of fpRFDR (CT-fpRFDR) is introduced, in which the effective evolution period is varied by refocusing dipolar evolution with a rotor-synchronized solid echo while the total recoupling period is kept constant. From CT-fpRFDR experiments at a spinning speed of 30.3 kHz in a field of 17.6 T, the 13C-13C distance of [1-13C]Ala-[1-13C]Gly-Gly was determined to be 3.27 Å, which agrees well with the value of 3.20 Å obtained by x-ray diffraction. Also, two-dimensional (2D) 13C/13C chemical-shift correlation NMR spectrum in a field of 9.4 T was obtained with fpRFDR for fibrils of the segmentally 13C- and 15N-labeled Alzheimer's ?-Amyloid fragments, A?16-22 (residues 16-22 taken from the 40-residue A? peptide) in which Leu-17 through Ala-21 are uniformly 13C- and 15N-labeled. Most 13C resonances for the main chain as well as for the side chains are assigned based on 2D 13C/13C chemical-shift correlation patterns specific to amino-acid types. Examination of the obtained 13C chemical shifts revealed the formation of ?-strand across the entire molecule of A?16-22. Possibility of high throughput determination of global main-chain structures based on 13C shifts obtained from 2D 13C/13C chemical-shift correlation under very fast MAS is also discussed for uniformly/segmentally 13C-labeled protein/peptide samples.

Ishii, Yoshitaka

2001-05-01

152

13C NMR Metabolomic Evaluation of Immediate and Delayed Mild Hypothermia in Cerebrocortical Slices After Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation  

PubMed Central

Background Mild brain hypothermia (32°C–34°C) after human neonatal asphyxia improves neurodevelopmental outcomes. Astrocytes but not neurons have pyruvate carboxylase (PC) and an acetate uptake transporter. 13C NMR spectroscopy of rodent brain extracts after administering [1-13C]glucose and [1,2-13C]acetate can distinguish metabolic differences between glia and neurons, and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) entry via pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and PC. Methods Neonatal rat cerebrocortical slices receiving a 13C-acetate/glucose mixture underwent a 45-min asphyxia simulation via oxygen-glucose-deprivation (OGD) followed by 6 h of recovery. Protocols in three groups of N = 3 experiments were identical except for temperature management. The three temperature groups were: normothermia (37°C), hypothermia (32°C for 3.75 h beginning at OGD start), and delayed hypothermia (32°C for 3.75 h, beginning 15 min after OGD start). Multivariate analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance metabolite quantifications included principal component analyses and the L1-Penalized Regularized Regression algorithm known as the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO). Results The most significant metabolite difference (p < 0.0056) was [2-13C]glutamine’s higher final/control ratio for the Hypothermia group (1.75 ± 0.12) compared to ratios for the Delayed (1.12 ± 0.12) and Normothermia group (0.94 ± 0.06), implying a higher PC/PDH ratio for glutamine formation. LASSO found the most important metabolites associated with adenosine triphosphate preservation: [3,4-13C]glutamate—produced via PDH entry, [2-13C]taurine--an important osmolyte, and phosphocreatine. Final principal component analyses scores plots suggested separate cluster formation for the hypothermia group, but with insufficient data for statistical significance. Conclusions Starting mild hypothermia simultaneously with OGD, compared with delayed starting or no hypothermia, has higher PC throughput, suggesting that better glial integrity is one important neuroprotection mechanism of earlier hypothermia. PMID:23748856

Liu, Jia; Segal, Mark; Kelly, Mark J.S.; Pelton, Jeffrey G.; Kim, Myungwon; James, Thomas L.; Litt, Lawrence

2013-01-01

153

Experimental and calculated 1H, 13C and 31P NMR spectra of pyridine-2-phosphono-4-carboxylic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pyridine-2-phosphono-4-carboxylic acid (MC1) is a compound that possesses potential neuroactivity. In this work the 1H, 13C and 31P NMR spectra of MC1 dissolved in D 2O in solution, in the 1.5-9.0 pD range, are presented. Theoretical calculations of the NMR spectra, as well as structural parameters of expected compounds, were performed at the B3PW91/6-311G** and B3PW91/6-31G** level, respectively, for all five possible forms of MC1 (cation, zwitteranion and three anions). Consecutive deprotonation of MC1 and its influence on the structure of the ligand are discussed in detail.

Chruszcz, Katarzyna; Bara?ska, Ma?gorzata; Czarniecki, Krzysztof; Boduszek, Bogdan; Proniewicz, Leonard M.

2003-03-01

154

1H and 13C NMR data to aid the identification and quantification of residual solvents by NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

We present reference data and a javascript web page which allow the rapid identification and quantification of residual solvents by NMR. The data encompass all of the ICH-prescribed solvents and were obtained for a number of NMR solvents. We also present an example of its application. PMID:15809983

Jones, Ian C; Sharman, Gary J; Pidgeon, Julia

2005-06-01

155

Total structural assignment and absolute configuration of terreinol by 13C and 1H NMR.  

PubMed

The carbon-carbon connectivity of terreinol, a new metabolite isolated from Aspergillus terreus, and its previous (13)C assignments were confirmed by a two-dimensional INADEQUATE experiment using a few milligrams of the compound with natural (13)C abundance. The carbon-carbon correlations were determined by computational analysis (with >99% probability) of this experiment. Additionally, the absolute configuration of terreinol was achieved indirectly via its corresponding secondary alcohol by the modified Mosher method allied to conformational analysis. The shielding effect of the phenyl group of methoxytrifluoromethylphenylacetic acid (MTPA) on the substituents of the carbonylic centre gave a fully regular Deltadelta(SR) sign distribution, allowing reliable assignment of the R configuration for terreinol. PMID:15625725

de Macedo, Fernando César; Marsaioli, Anita Jocelyne

2005-03-01

156

A (13)C NMR analysis of the effects of electron radiation on graphite/polyetherimide composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Initial investigations have been made into the use of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for the characterization of radiation effects in graphite and Kevlar fibers, polymers, and the fiber/matrix interface in graphite/polyetherimide composites. Sample preparation techniques were refined. Essential equipment has been procured. A new NMR probe was constructed to increase the proton signal-to-noise ratio. Problem areas have been identified and plans developed to resolve them.

Ferguson, Milton W.

1989-01-01

157

Profiling human gut bacterial metabolism and its kinetic using [U-(13)C]glucose and NMR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study introduces a stable-isotope metabolic approach employing [U-(13)C]glucose that, as a novelty, allows selective profiling of the human intestinal microbial metabolic products of carbohydrate food components, as well as the measurement of the kinetics of their formation pathways, in a single experiment. A well-established, validated in vitro model of human intestinal fermentation was inoculated with standardized gastrointestinal microbiota from

Albert A. de Graaf; Annet Maathuis; Pieter de Waard; Nicolaas E. P. Deutz; Cor Dijkema; Vos de W. M; Koen Venema

2010-01-01

158

13C cell wall enrichment and ionic liquid NMR analysis: progress towards a high-throughput detailed chemical analysis of the whole plant cell wall.  

PubMed

The ability to accurately and rapidly measure plant cell wall composition, relative monolignol content and lignin-hemicellulose inter-unit linkage distributions has become essential to efforts centered on reducing the recalcitrance of biomass by genetic engineering. Growing (13)C enriched transgenic plants is a viable route to achieve the high-throughput, detailed chemical analysis of whole plant cell wall before and after pretreatment and microbial or enzymatic utilization by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in a perdeuterated ionic liquid solvent system not requiring component isolation. 1D (13)C whole cell wall ionic liquid NMR of natural abundant and (13)C enriched corn stover stem samples suggest that a high level of uniform labeling (>97%) can significantly reduce the total NMR experiment times up to ~220 times. Similarly, significant reduction in total NMR experiment time (~39 times) of the (13)C enriched corn stover stem samples for 2D (13)C-(1)H heteronuclear single quantum coherence NMR was found. PMID:22768393

Foston, Marcus; Samuel, Reichel; Ragauskas, Arthur J

2012-09-01

159

Modeling of brain metabolism and pyruvate compartmentation using 13C NMR in vivo: caution required  

PubMed Central

Two variants of a widely used two-compartment model were prepared for fitting the time course of [1,6-13C2]glucose metabolism in rat brain. Features common to most models were included, but in one model the enrichment of the substrates entering the glia and neuronal citric acid cycles was allowed to differ. Furthermore, the models included the capacity to analyze multiplets arising from 13C spin-spin coupling, known to improve parameter estimates in heart. Data analyzed were from a literature report providing time courses of [1,6-13C2]glucose metabolism. Four analyses were used, two comparing the effect of different pyruvate enrichment in glia and neurons, and two for determining the effect of multiplets present in the data. When fit independently, the enrichment in glial pyruvate was less than in neurons. In the absence of multiplets, fit quality and parameter values were typical of those in the literature, whereas the multiplet curves were not modeled well. This prompted the use of robust statistical analysis (the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test of goodness of fit) to determine whether individual curves were modeled appropriately. At least 50% of the curves in each experiment were considered poorly fit. It was concluded that the model does not include all metabolic features required to analyze the data. PMID:23652627

Jeffrey, F Mark; Marin-Valencia, Isaac; Good, Levi B; Shestov, Alexander A; Henry, Pierre-Gilles; Pascual, Juan M; Malloy, Craig R

2013-01-01

160

13C NMR Relaxation Studies of Molecular Motion in Peptide Fragments from Human Transthyretin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural-abundance 13C T1 and NOE measurements have been made for backbone and side-chain sites in peptide fragments of transthyretin (TTR 10-20, TTR 105-115, and TTR 105-115 Met111) at 13C Larmor frequencies of 125 and 75 MHz. These peptides have previously been implicated in the formation of amyloid fibrils, The data were systematically assessed for their consistency with theoretical relaxation parameters derived from models of molecular motion, It was shown that of four models, ranging from simple isotropic motion to one defining internal wobbling of the 13C- 1H vector, the "model-free approach" (Lipari and Szabo, J. Am. Chem. Soc.104, 4546, 1982) was best able to predict the experimental data, These peptides exhibited overall correlation times close to 1 ns. Internal motions with effective correlation times of 0.08 ns were observed for backbone carbon sites, and side-chain carbons exhibited more rapid and less ordered motions, No indication of retarded motion due to the presence of small peptide aggregates was detected, in agreement with reports of the rapid incorporation of these species into amyloid fibrils.

Jarvis, J. A.; Craik, D. J.

161

Combined 1H-NMR and 1H-13C HSQC-NMR to improve urinary screening in autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental diseases with complex genetic and environmental etiological factors. Although genetic causes play a significant part in the etiology of ASD, metabolic disturbances may also play a causal role or modulate the clinical features of ASD. The number of ASD studies involving metabolomics is increasing, and sometime with conflicting findings. We assessed the metabolomics profiling of urine samples to determine a comprehensive biochemical signature of ASD. Furthermore, to date no study has combined metabolic profiles obtained from different analytical techniques to distinguish patient with ASD from healthy individuals. We obtained (1)H-NMR spectra and 2D (1)H-(13)C HSQC NMR spectra from urine samples of patients with ASD or healthy controls. We analyzed these spectra by multivariate statistical data analysis. The OPLS-DA model obtained from (1)H NMR spectra showed a good discrimination between ASD samples and non-ASD samples (R(2)Y(cum) = 0.70 and Q(2) = 0.51). Combining the (1)H NMR spectra and the 2D (1)H-(13)C HSQC NMR spectra increased the overall quality and predictive value of the OPLS-DA model (R(2)Y(cum) = 0.84 and Q(2) = 0.71), leading to a better sensitivity and specificity. Urinary excretion of succinate, glutamate and 3-methyl-histidine differed significantly between ASD and non-ASD samples. Urinary screening of children with neurodevelopmental disorders by combining NMR spectroscopies (1D and 2D) in multivariate analysis is a better sensitive and a straightforward method that could help the diagnosis ASD. PMID:24841505

Nadal-Desbarats, Lydie; Aïdoud, Nacima; Emond, Patrick; Blasco, Hélène; Filipiak, Isabelle; Sarda, Pierre; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique; Mavel, Sylvie; Andres, Christian R

2014-07-01

162

1H and 13C NMR signal assignment of cucurbitacin derivatives from Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrader and Ecballium elaterium L. (Cucurbitaceae).  

PubMed

2D NMR-derived 1H and 13C NMR signal assignments of six structurally closely related cucurbitacin derivatives are presented. The investigated 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylcucurbitacins I, J, K, and L were obtained from Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrader whereas the aglyca cucurbitacin E and I were isolated from Ecballium elaterium L. PMID:15772995

Seger, Christoph; Sturm, Sonja; Mair, Maria-Elisabeth; Ellmerer, Ernst P; Stuppner, Hermann

2005-06-01

163

PMR and 13 C NMR Spectra of Biologically Active Compounds. XII. Taraxasterol and Its Acetate from the Aerial Part of Onopordum acanthium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystalline taraxasterol and its acetate were isolated for the first time from Onopordum acanthium. Two-dimensional COSY, HSQC, and HMBC NMR experimentswere carried out forcomplete assignment of signals in the PMR and 13C NMR. Chemical shifts of stereochemically important methyl C atoms C-28 and C-29 were measured.

L. M. Khalilov; A. Z. Khalilova; E. R. Shakurova; I. F. Nuriev; V. V. Kachala; A. S. Shashkov; U. M. Dzhemilev

2003-01-01

164

Evolution of organic matter during composting of different organic wastes assessed by CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the evolution of organic matter (OM) during composting of different mixtures of various organic wastes was assessed by means of chemical analyses and CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy measured during composting. The trends of temperatures and C/N ratios supported the correct evolution of the processes. The CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR spectra of all composting substrates indicated a reduction in carbohydrates and an increase in aromatic, phenolic, carboxylic and carbonylic C which suggested a preference by microorganisms for easily degradable C molecules. The presence of hardly degradable pine needles in one of the substrates accounted for the lowest increase in alkyl C and the lowest reduction in carbohydrates and carboxyl C as opposite to another substrate characterized by the presence of a highly degradable material such as spent yeast from beer production, which showed the highest increase of the alkyl C/O-alkyl C ratio. The highest increase of COOH deriving by the oxidative degradation of cellulose was shown by a substrate composed by about 50% of plant residues. The smallest increases in alkyl C/O-alkyl C ratio and in polysaccharides were associated to the degradation of proteins and lipids which are major components of sewage sludge. Results obtained were related to the different composition of fresh organic substrates and provided evidence of different OM evolution patterns as a function of the initial substrate composition.

Caricasole, P. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Provenzano, M.R., E-mail: Provenza@agr.uniba.it [Dipartimento di Biologia e Chimica Agroforestale ed Ambientale, Universita di Bari, Via G. Amendola 165/a, 70126 Bari (Italy); Hatcher, P.G. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Senesi, N. [Dipartimento di Biologia e Chimica Agroforestale ed Ambientale, Universita di Bari, Via G. Amendola 165/a, 70126 Bari (Italy)

2011-03-15

165

1H, 13C NMR and DFT Study of Hydrogen Bonding in Imidazolium-based Ionic Liquids.  

PubMed

The ionic liquid 1-decyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bromide [C10mim][Br], the neat material, and also dissolved (~0.01 mole fraction) in various dielectric media (acetonitrile, benzene, chloroform, dichloromethane, methanol, 2-butanol and H2O) was studied using 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The most important interaction in this compound is considered to be the Br-...H-C2+ hydrogen bond, which is formed between the anions and cations. The obtained results show that dielectric medium influence mostly the behavior of the Br-...H-C2+ bridge proton. The changes observed in 1H and 13C NMR spectra of [C10mim][Br] with increasing solvents polarity and temperature can be explained applying the model of the lengthening of the H2...Br- bond with the accompanying thickening of the solvation shell of bromine anion and C2-H bond contraction. The short-range order effects related to the configuration of neighboring dipoles of solvent molecules are more important for the solvation ability of small anions than the bulk solvent field effect. However, the solvents, molecules of which tend to associate via hydrogen bonding, can significantly affect the dynamics of anions. PMID:24062104

Balevi?ius, Vytautas; Gdaniec, Zofia; Džiaugys, Lukas; Kuliešius, Feliksas; Maršalka, Ar?nas

2011-09-01

166

Extensive backbone dynamics in the GCAA RNA tetraloop analyzed using 13C NMR spin relaxation and specific isotope labeling  

PubMed Central

Conformational dynamics play a key role in the properties and functions of proteins and nucleic acids. Heteronuclear NMR spin relaxation is a uniquely powerful site-specific probe of dynamics in proteins and has found increasing applications to nucleotide base side chains and anomeric sites in RNA. Applications to the nucleic acid ribose backbone, however, have been hampered by strong magnetic coupling among ring carbons in uniformly 13C-labeled samples. In this work, we apply a recently-developed, metabolically-directed isotope labeling scheme that places 13C with high efficiency and specificity at the nucleotide ribose C2’ and C4’ sites. We take advantage of this scheme to explore backbone dynamics in the well-studied GCAA RNA tetraloop. Using a combination of CPMG (Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill) and R1? relaxation dispersion spectroscopy to explore exchange processes on the microsecond to millisecond timescale, we find an extensive pattern of dynamic transitions connecting a set of relatively well-defined conformations. In many cases, the observed transitions appear to be linked to C3’-endo/C2’-endo sugar pucker transitions of the corresponding nucleotides, and may also be correlated across multiple nucleotides within the tetraloop. These results demonstrate the power of NMR spin relaxation based on alternate-site isotope labeling to open a new window into the dynamic properties of ribose backbone groups in RNA. PMID:19049467

Johnson, James E.; Hoogstraten, Charles G.

2009-01-01

167

Effect of Oxygen Concentration on Viability and Metabolism in a Fluidized-Bed Bioartificial Liver Using 31P and 13C NMR Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Many oxygen mass-transfer modeling studies have been performed for various bioartificial liver (BAL) encapsulation types; yet, to our knowledge, there is no experimental study that directly and noninvasively measures viability and metabolism as a function of time and oxygen concentration. We report the effect of oxygen concentration on viability and metabolism in a fluidized-bed NMR-compatible BAL using in vivo 31P and 13C NMR spectroscopy, respectively, by monitoring nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) and 13C-labeled nutrient metabolites, respectively. Fluidized-bed bioreactors eliminate the potential channeling that occurs with packed-bed bioreactors and serve as an ideal experimental model for homogeneous oxygen distribution. Hepatocytes were electrostatically encapsulated in alginate (avg. diameter, 500??m; 3.5×107 cells/mL) and perfused at 3?mL/min in a 9-cm (inner diameter) cylindrical glass NMR tube. Four oxygen treatments were tested and validated by an in-line oxygen electrode: (1) 95:5 oxygen:carbon dioxide (carbogen), (2) 75:20:5 nitrogen:oxygen:carbon dioxide, (3) 60:35:5 nitrogen:oxygen:carbon dioxide, and (4) 45:50:5 nitrogen:oxygen:carbon dioxide. With 20% oxygen, ?-NTP steadily decreased until it was no longer detected at 11?h. The 35%, 50%, and 95% oxygen treatments resulted in steady ?-NTP levels throughout the 28-h experimental period. For the 50% and 95% oxygen treatment, a 13C NMR time course (?5?h) revealed 2-13C-glycine and 2-13C-glucose to be incorporated into [2-13C-glycyl]glutathione (GSH) and 2-13C-lactate, respectively, with 95% having a lower rate of lactate formation. 31P and 13C NMR spectroscopy is a noninvasive method for determining viability and metabolic rates. Modifying tissue-engineered devices to be NMR compatible is a relatively easy and inexpensive process depending on the bioreactor shape. PMID:22835003

Jeffries, Rex E.; Gamcsik, Michael P.; Keshari, Kayvan R.; Pediaditakis, Peter; Tikunov, Andrey P.; Young, Gregory B.; Lee, Haakil; Watkins, Paul B.

2013-01-01

168

Kinetic analysis of glycogen turnover: relevance to human brain 13C-NMR spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

A biophysical model of the glycogen molecule is developed, which takes into account the points of attack of synthase and phosphorylase at the level of the individual glucose chain. Under the sole assumption of steric effects governing enzyme accessibility to glucosyl residues, the model reproduces the known equilibrium structure of cellular glycogen at steady state. In particular, experimental data are reproduced assuming that synthase (1) operates preferentially on inner chains of the molecule and (2) exhibits a faster mobility than phosphorylase in translocating from an attacked chain to another. The model is then used to examine the turnover of outer versus inner tiers during the labeling process of isotopic enrichment (IE) experiments. Simulated data are fitted to in vivo 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements obtained in the human brain under resting conditions. Within this experimental set-up, analysis of simulated label incorporation and retention shows that 7% to 35% of labeled glucose is lost from the rapidly turning-over surface of the glycogen molecule when stimulation onset is delayed by 7 to 11.5?hours after the end of [1-13C]glucose infusion as done in actual procedures. The substantial label washout before stimulation suggests that much of the subsequent activation-induced glycogenolysis could remain undetected. Overall, these results show that the molecular structure significantly affects the patterns of synthesis and degradation of glycogen, which is relevant for appropriate design of labeling experiments aiming at investigating the functional roles of this glucose reserve. PMID:23756693

DiNuzzo, Mauro

2013-01-01

169

Kinetic analysis of glycogen turnover: relevance to human brain 13C-NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

A biophysical model of the glycogen molecule is developed, which takes into account the points of attack of synthase and phosphorylase at the level of the individual glucose chain. Under the sole assumption of steric effects governing enzyme accessibility to glucosyl residues, the model reproduces the known equilibrium structure of cellular glycogen at steady state. In particular, experimental data are reproduced assuming that synthase (1) operates preferentially on inner chains of the molecule and (2) exhibits a faster mobility than phosphorylase in translocating from an attacked chain to another. The model is then used to examine the turnover of outer versus inner tiers during the labeling process of isotopic enrichment (IE) experiments. Simulated data are fitted to in vivo (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements obtained in the human brain under resting conditions. Within this experimental set-up, analysis of simulated label incorporation and retention shows that 7% to 35% of labeled glucose is lost from the rapidly turning-over surface of the glycogen molecule when stimulation onset is delayed by 7 to 11.5 hours after the end of [1-(13)C]glucose infusion as done in actual procedures. The substantial label washout before stimulation suggests that much of the subsequent activation-induced glycogenolysis could remain undetected. Overall, these results show that the molecular structure significantly affects the patterns of synthesis and degradation of glycogen, which is relevant for appropriate design of labeling experiments aiming at investigating the functional roles of this glucose reserve. PMID:23756693

DiNuzzo, Mauro

2013-10-01

170

Structural characterisation of humic acid-bound PAH residues in soil by 13C-CPMAS-NMR-spectroscopy: evidence of covalent bonds.  

PubMed

The fate of 13C-labelled phenanthrene and fluoranthene in different soil systems during biodegradation was studied. The soil humic acid fraction was isolated followed by structural characterisation using 13C-cross polarisation magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C-CPMAS-NMR). It could be demonstrated that especially the ratio between the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soil humus matrix limits the usefulness of this analytical tool. Based on these results a ratio of 13C-activity(PAH)/13C-activity(soil) approximately 1.5/1.0 in the test material was suggested. The chemical transformation of a PAH and its bound residue formation in a soil system detected by changes of chemical shifts in the 13C-NMR spectrum was proven for the first time. Structural information obtained by NMR spectra were verified by alkaline hydrolysis of PAH/humus-associations and following identification of cleavage products. Ester-bound phenanthrene metabolites such as 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, ortho-phthalic acid and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid were detected. Additional structural assignments indicated the presence of ether-bound phenanthrene derivatives as well. Using isotopic labelling techniques a quantitative evaluation of bound residue distribution was undertaken. Fifty to seventy percent of phenanthrene metabolites which could be related to the added 13C(1)-phenanthrene were ester bound via their carboxyl groups. PMID:12137049

Käcker, Thomas; Haupt, Erhard T K; Garms, Christian; Francke, Wittko; Steinhart, Hans

2002-07-01

171

Determination of Multiple ?-Torsion Angles in Proteins by Selective and Extensive 13C Labeling and Two-Dimensional Solid-State NMR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an approach to efficiently determine the backbone conformation of solid proteins that utilizes selective and extensive 13C labeling in conjunction with two-dimensional magic-angle-spinning NMR. The selective 13C labeling approach aims to reduce line broadening and other multispin complications encountered in solid-state NMR of uniformly labeled proteins while still enhancing the sensitivity of NMR spectra. It is achieved by using specifically labeled glucose or glycerol as the sole carbon source in the protein expression medium. For amino acids synthesized in the linear part of the biosynthetic pathways, [1- 13C]glucose preferentially labels the ends of the side chains, while [2- 13C]glycerol labels the C ? of these residues. Amino acids produced from the citric-acid cycle are labeled in a more complex manner. Information on the secondary structure of such a labeled protein was obtained by measuring multiple backbone torsion angles ? simultaneously, using an isotropic-anisotropic 2D correlation technique, the HNCH experiment. Initial experiments for resonance assignment of a selectively 13C labeled protein were performed using 15N- 13C 2D correlation spectroscopy. From the time dependence of the 15N- 13C dipolar coherence transfer, both intraresidue and interresidue connectivities can be observed, thus yielding partial sequential assignment. We demonstrate the selective 13C labeling and these 2D NMR experiments on a 8.5-kDa model protein, ubiquitin. This isotope-edited NMR approach is expected to facilitate the structure determination of proteins in the solid state.

Hong, Mei

1999-08-01

172

The guest ordering and dynamics in urea inclusion compounds studied by solid-state 1H and 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urea inclusion compounds with different guest species were studied by 13C CP MAS and 1H MAS NMR spectroscopy. It is possible to arrange the asymmetric guest species in three different ways: head-head, head-tail and tail-tail. 13C CP MAS NMR studies indicate that the preference arrangement is determined by the interaction strength of the end functional groups. 13C relaxation experiments are used to study the dynamic properties of urea inclusion compounds. 13C relaxation studies on urea inclusion compounds with n-alkane or decanoic acid show that the 13C T1 and 13C T1? values exhibit the position dependence towards the center of the chain, indicating internal chain mobility. The analysis of variable-temperature 13C T1? experiments on urea inclusion compounds with hexadecane and pentadecane, for the first time, suggests that chain fluctuations and lateral motion of n-alkane guests may contribute to the 13C T1? relaxation.

Yang, Xiaorong; Müller, Klaus

2011-12-01

173

(13)C and (15)N NMR characterization of amine reactivity and solvent effects in CO2 capture.  

PubMed

Factors influencing the reactivity of selected amine absorbents for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, in terms of the tendency to form amine carbamate, have been studied. Four linear primary alkanolamines at varying chain lengths (MEA, 3A1P, 4A1B , and 5A1P ), two primary amines with different substituents in the ?-position to the nitrogen (1A2P and ISOB), a secondary alkanolamine (DEA), and a sterically hindered primary amine (AMP) were investigated. The relationship between the (15)N NMR data of aqueous amines and their ability to form carbamate, as determined at equilibrium by quantitative (13)C NMR experiments, was analyzed, taking into account structural-chemical properties. For all the amines, the (15)N chemical shifts fairly reflected the observed reactivity for carbamate formation. In addition to being a useful tool for the investigation of amine reactivity, (15)N NMR data clearly provided evidence of the importance of solvent effects for the understanding of chemical dynamics in CO2 capture by aqueous amine absorbents. PMID:25093443

Perinu, Cristina; Arstad, Bjørnar; Bouzga, Aud M; Jens, Klaus-J

2014-08-28

174

Hydration properties of regioselectively etherified celluloses monitored by 2H and 13C solid-state MAS NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The hydration properties of 2,3-O-hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) and 2,3-O-hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) were analyzed by multi-nuclear solid-state MAS NMR spectroscopy. By 13C single-pulse (SP) MAS and cross-polarization (CP) MAS NMR, differences between the immobile regions and all parts of the polysaccharides were detected as a function of hydration. Complementary information about the water environments was observed by 2H MAS NMR. By this approach it was demonstrated that side chains in 2,3-O-HPC and 2,3-O-HEC were easier to hydrate than the cellulose backbone. Furthermore the motion of water was more restricted (slower) in 2,3-O-HPC than in 2,3-O-HEC. For both polysaccharides the hydration could be explained by a two-step process: in step one increased ordering of the immobile regions occurs after which the entire polymer is hydrated in step two. PMID:24750769

Larsen, Flemming H; Schöbitz, Michael; Schaller, Jens

2012-06-20

175

Molecular composition of recycled organic wastes, as determined by solid-state {sup 13}C NMR and elemental analyses  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: • Model estimated the molecular C components well for most RO wastes. • Molecular nature of organic matter in RO wastes varied widely. • Molecular composition by NMR modelling preferable to extraction techniques. • Some model shortcomings in estimating molecular composition of biochars. • Waste molecular composition important for carbon/nutrient outcomes in soil. - Abstract: Using solid state {sup 13}C NMR data and elemental composition in a molecular mixing model, we estimated the molecular components of the organic matter in 16 recycled organic (RO) wastes representative of the major materials generated in the Sydney basin area. Close correspondence was found between the measured NMR signal intensities and those predicted by the model for all RO wastes except for poultry manure char. Molecular nature of the organic matter differed widely between the RO wastes. As a proportion of organic C, carbohydrate C ranged from 0.07 to 0.63, protein C from <0.01 to 0.66, lignin C from <0.01 to 0.31, aliphatic C from 0.09 to 0.73, carbonyl C from 0.02 to 0.23, and char C from 0 to 0.45. This method is considered preferable to techniques involving imprecise extraction methods for RO wastes. Molecular composition data has great potential as a predictor of RO waste soil carbon and nutrient outcomes.

Eldridge, S.M., E-mail: simon.eldridge@dpi.nsw.gov.au [Environmental Futures Centre, School of Environment, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); NSW Department of Primary Industries, Bruxner Highway, Wollongbar, NSW 2477 (Australia); Chen, C.R. [Environmental Futures Centre, School of Environment, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Xu, Z.H. [Environmental Futures Centre, School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Nelson, P.N. [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, James Cook University, Cairns, QLD 4870 (Australia); Boyd, S.E. [Environmental Futures Centre, School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Meszaros, I. [Formerly NSW Department of Primary Industries, Richmond, NSW 2753 (Australia); Chan, K.Y. [Graduate School of Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2109 (Australia); Formerly NSW Department of Primary Industries, Richmond, NSW 2753 (Australia)

2013-11-15

176

/sup 15/N and /sup 13/C NMR determination of methionine metabolism in developing soybean cotyledons  

SciTech Connect

The metabolism of D- and L-methionine by immature cotyledons of soybean (Glycine max, L. cv Elf) grown in culture has been investigated using solid-state /sup 13/C and /sup 15/N nuclear magnetic resonance. D-Methionine is taken up by the cotyledons and converted to an amide, most likely by N-malonylation. About 16% of the L-methionine taken up is incorporated intact into protein, and 25% remains as soluble methionine. Almost two-thirds of the L-methionine that enters the cotyledons is degraded. The largest percentage of this is used in transmethylation of the carboxyl groups of pectin. Methionine is not extensively converted to polyamines. The authors attribute the stimulation of growth of the cotyledons by exogenous methionine to the bypassing of a rate-limiting methyl-transfer step in the synthesis of methionine itself, and subsequently of pectins and proteins.

Coker, G.T. III; Garbow, J.R.; Schaefer, J.

1987-03-01

177

13C NMR relaxation and conformational flexibility of the deoxyribose ring.  

PubMed Central

13C T1's and NOE's have been measured for all protonated carbons of 2'-deoxy-D-ribose (2'-d-ribose), 2'-deoxyadenosine-5'-monophosphate (5'-dAMP), thymidine-3'-monophosphate (3'-TMP) and thymidine-5'-monophosphate (5'-TMP) in D2O solutions. In all of the deoxy sugars examined, NT1 values for C-2' are significantly larger than the values for the remaining carbons. This result is interpreted in terms of rapid puckering motion of C-2'. By contrast, NT1 values measured in ribose are found to be equal, within experimental error. The results are compared with analogous data obtained for the five membered pyrrolidine ring of proline and with results for DNA itself. PMID:7145716

Levy, G C; Craik, D J; Chou, Y C; London, R E

1982-01-01

178

Solid state (13)C NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy of the cocoon silk of two common spiders.  

PubMed

The structure of the silk from cocoons of two common spiders, Araneus diadematus (family Araneidae) and Achaearanea tepidariorum (family Theridiidae) was investigated by means of (13)C solid state NMR and FT-IR spectroscopies. The combined use of these two techniques allowed us to highlight differences in the two samples. The cocoon silk of Achaearanea tepidariorum is essentially constituted by helical and beta-sheet structures, whereas that of Araneus diadematus shows a more complex structure, containing also beta-strands and beta-turns. Moreover, the former silk is essentially crystalline while the latter contains more mobile domains. The structural differences of the two cocoon silks are ascribed to the different habitat of the two species. PMID:16257700

Bramanti, Emilia; Catalano, Donata; Forte, Claudia; Giovanneschi, Mario; Masetti, Massimo; Veracini, Carlo Alberto

2005-11-01

179

Comparison between CP\\/MAS 13C-NMR and pyrolysis-GC\\/MS in the structural characterization of humins and humic acids of soil and sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical structure of humins (HUs) and humic acids (HAs) of terrestrial and marine environments was investigated by cross-polarization\\u000a magic angle spinning 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (CP\\/ MAS 13C-NMR) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (Py-GC\\/MS). Samples of HUs and HAs were obtained from sediments\\u000a of the Adriatic Sea, the Lagoon of Ravenna (Adriatic Sea) and the Bubano Lake as well as

D. Fabbri; M. Mongardi; L. Montanari; G. C. Galletti; G. Chiavari; R. Scotti

1998-01-01

180

13C-Flux Spectral Analysis of Host-Pathogen Metabolism Reveals a Mixed Diet for Intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Summary Whereas intracellular carbon metabolism has emerged as an attractive drug target, the carbon sources of intracellularly replicating pathogens, such as the tuberculosis bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which causes long-term infections in one-third of the world’s population, remain mostly unknown. We used a systems-based approach—13C-flux spectral analysis (FSA) complemented with manual analysis—to measure the metabolic interaction between M. tuberculosis and its macrophage host cell. 13C-FSA analysis of experimental data showed that M. tuberculosis obtains a mixture of amino acids, C1 and C2 substrates from its host cell. We experimentally confirmed that the C1 substrate was derived from CO2. 13C labeling experiments performed on a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mutant revealed that intracellular M. tuberculosis has access to glycolytic C3 substrates. These findings provide constraints for developing novel chemotherapeutics. PMID:23911587

Beste, Dany J.V.; Nöh, Katharina; Niedenführ, Sebastian; Mendum, Tom A.; Hawkins, Nathaniel D.; Ward, Jane L.; Beale, Michael H.; Wiechert, Wolfgang; McFadden, Johnjoe

2013-01-01

181

13C NMR Characterization of an Exchange Reaction between CO and CO2 Catalyzed by Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase†  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) catalyzes the reversible oxidation of CO to CO2 at a nickel?iron?sulfur cluster (the C-cluster). CO oxidation follows a ping-pong mechanism involving two-electron reduction of the C-cluster followed by electron transfer through an internal electron transfer chain to external electron acceptors. We describe 13C NMR studies demonstrating a CODH-catalyzed steady-state exchange reaction between CO and CO2 in the absence of external electron acceptors. This reaction is characterized by a CODH-dependent broadening of the 13CO NMR resonance; however, the chemical shift of the 13CO resonance is unchanged, indicating that the broadening is in the slow exchange limit of the NMR experiment. The 13CO line broadening occurs with a rate constant (1080 s?1 at 20 °C) that is approximately equal to that of CO oxidation. It is concluded that the observed exchange reaction is between 13CO and CODH-bound 13CO2 because 13CO line broadening is pH-independent (unlike steady-state CO oxidation), because it requires a functional C-cluster (but not a functional B-cluster) and because the 13CO2 line width does not broaden. Furthermore, a steady-state isotopic exchange reaction between 12CO and 13CO2 in solution was shown to occur at the same rate as that of CO2 reduction, which is approximately 750-fold slower than the rate of 13CO exchange broadening. The interaction between CODH and the inhibitor cyanide (CN?) was also probed by 13C NMR. A functional C-cluster is not required for 13CN? broadening (unlike for 13CO), and its exchange rate constant is 30-fold faster than that for 13CO. The combined results indicate that the 13CO exchange includes migration of CO to the C-cluster, and CO oxidation to CO2, but not release of CO2 or protons into the solvent. They also provide strong evidence of a CO2 binding site and of an internal proton transfer network in CODH. 13CN? exchange appears to monitor only movement of CN? between solution and its binding to and release from CODH. PMID:18589895

2008-01-01

182

Characterization of alkyl carbon in forest soils by CPMAS 13C NMR spectroscopy and dipolar dephasing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples obtained from forest soils at different stages of decomposition were treated sequentially with chloroform/methanol (extraction of lipids), sulfuric acid (hydrolysis), and sodium chlorite (delignification) to enrich them in refractory alkyl carbon. As revealed by NMR spectroscopy, this treatment yielded residues with high contents of alkyl carbon. In the NMR spectra of residues obtained from litter samples, resonances for carbohydrates are also present, indicating that these carbohydrates are tightly bound to the alkyl carbon structures. During decomposition in the soils this resistant carbohydrate fraction is lost almost completely. In the litter samples the alkyl carbon shows a dipolar dephasing behavior indicative of two structural components, a rigid and a more mobile component. As depth and decomposition increase, only the rigid component is observed. This fact could be due to selective degradation of the mobile component or to changes in molecular mobility during decomposition, e.g., because of an increase in cross linking or contact with the mineral matter of the soil.

Kogel-Knabner, I.; Hatcher, P.G.

1989-01-01

183

Quantitative 13C NMR spectroscopic studies on the equilibrium of formaldehyde with its releasing cosmetic preservatives.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to show that NMR spectroscopy is an excellent method to obtain reliable information about the equilibrium between free formaldehyde and its formaldehyde releasers. For this purpose, we compared several O- and N-formal-based formaldehyde releasers used in industrial and consumer products. The underlying chemical structures as well as the release of formaldehyde were followed quantitatively as a function of the pH and dilution. It was shown that only the amide-based N-formals are a reservoir for formaldehyde in the concentrations normally used in cosmetic products, whereas O-formals and the amine-based N-formals decompose completely. Since NMR spectroscopy does not affect the equilibrium between free and bound formaldehyde, we think that it is the only method for unequivocal determination of free formaldehyde. Measurements on finished products showed that free formaldehyde can be quantified down to concentrations as low as approximately 0.002 wt % in an acceptable measuring time. PMID:17249689

Emeis, Detlef; Anker, Willem; Wittern, Klaus-Peter

2007-03-01

184

Diffusion coefficient of CO(2) molecules as determined by (13)C NMR in various carbonated beverages.  

PubMed

In this paper, the NMR technique was used, for the first time, to accurately determine the diffusion coefficient D of CO(2)-dissolved molecules in various carbonated beverages, including champagne and sparkling wines. This parameter plays an important role concerning the bubble growth during its rise through the liquid (see ref 3). The diffusion coefficient of CO(2)-dissolved molecules D was compared with that deduced from the well-known Stokes-Einstein equation and found to significantly deviate from the general trend expected from Stokes-Einstein theory, i.e, D(SE) proportional, variant 1/eta, where D(SE) is the Stokes-Einstein diffusion coefficient and eta the viscosity of the liquid medium. PMID:14664507

Liger-Belair, Gerard; Prost, Elise; Parmentier, Maryline; Jeandet, Philippe; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc

2003-12-17

185

The influence of heme ruffling on spin densities in ferricytochromes c probed by heme core 13C NMR  

PubMed Central

The heme in cytochromes c undergoes a conserved out-of-plane distortion known as ruffling. For cytochromes c from the bacteria Hydrogenobacter thermophilus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, NMR and EPR spectra have been shown to be sensitive to the extent of heme ruffling and to provide insights into the effect of ruffling on electronic structure. Using mutants of each of these cytochromes that differ in the amount of heme ruffling, NMR characterization of the low-spin (S=1/2) ferric proteins has confirmed and refined the developing understanding of how ruffling influences spin distribution on heme. The chemical shifts of the core heme carbons were obtained through site-specific labeling of the heme via biosynthetic incorporation of 13C-labeled 5-aminolevulinic acid derivatives. Analysis of the contact shifts of these core heme carbons allowed Fermi contact spin densities to be estimated, and changes upon ruffling to be evaluated. The results allow a deconvolution of contributions to heme hyperfine shifts and a test of the influence of heme ruffling on electronic structure and hyperfine shifts. The data indicate that as heme ruffling increases, the spin densities on the ?-pyrrole carbons decrease, while the spin densities on the ?-pyrrole carbons and meso carbons increase. Furthermore, increased ruffling is associated with stronger bonding to the heme axial His ligand. PMID:24187968

Kleingardner, Jesse G.; Bowman, Sarah E. J.

2013-01-01

186

Determination of molecular structure of kerogens using 13C NMR spectroscopy: I. The effects of variation in kerogen type  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A "carbon type" analysis for kerogens and coals based on solid state 13C NMR is reported here. Standard CP/MAS NMR spectra and dipolar dephased spectra are acquired. Chemical shifts of appropriate carbon types, stored in a computer-based reference library, are fitted to the dipolar dephased spectrum using computer software. This step is then repeated on the difference between the standard CP/ MAS spectrum and the dipolar dephased spectrum. The method has been applied to a suite of eight immature kerogens and coals from sediments which vary from lacustrine, marine, to deltaic in origin, in order to investigate differences in molecular structure with variations in organic input. Distinct differences are observed in the distribution of oxygen-containing, aromatic and aliphatic carbon types depending on the type of organic matter contributing to the sediment (algal/bacterial or terrestrial) and the depositional setting. These differences are systematic and can be explained in the light of the chemical composition of the organic matter which originally contributed to the sediments.

Mann, A. l.; Patience, R. l.; Poplett, I. J. F.

1991-08-01

187

Determination of the structural changes by Raman and 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy on native corn starch with plasticizers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plasticizing - antiplasticizing effect of water and glycerol contents on native corn starch samples is investigated by FT-Raman and 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy. The presence of both amorphous and crystalline structural phases was evidenced in pure native corn starch and also in the samples containing plasticizers. Among the crystalline starch structures, the A- and V- types were suggested by CP/MAS NMR spectra.

Cozar, O.; Filip, C.; Cioica, N.; Coţa, C.; Tripon, C.; Nagy, E. M.

2013-11-01

188

Dynamic /sup 13/C NMR investigations of substrate interaction and catalysis by cobalt(II) human carbonic anhydrase I  

SciTech Connect

Using /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy, the authors further investigated the binding of HCO/sub 3//sup -/ in the active site of an artificial form of human carbonic anhydrase I in which the native zinc is replaced by Co(II). The Co(II) enzyme, unlike all other metal-substituded derivatives, has functional properties closely similar to those of the native zinc enzyme. By measuring the spin-lattice relaxation rate and the line width for both the CO/sub 2/ and HCO/sub 3//sup -/ at two field strengths, both the paramagnetic effects that reflect substrate binding and the exchange effects due to catalysis at chemical equilibrium were determined. The following are the results at 14 C and pH 6.3: HCO/sub 3//sup -/ is bound in the active site of the catalytically competent enzyme with the /sup 13/C of the HCO/sub 3//sup -/ located 3.22 + or - 0.02 A from the Co(II); the apparent equilibrium dissociation constant for the bound HCO/sub 3//sup -/ is 7.6 + or - 1.5 mM, determined by using the paramagnetic effects on the line widths,and 10 + or - 2 mM, determined by using the exchange effects; the lifetime of HCO/sub 3//sup -/ bound to the metal is (4.4 + or - 0.4) x .00001 the overall catalyzed reversible reaction CO/sub 2/ yields HCO/sub 3//sup -/ exchange rate constant of the Co(II) enzyme is (9.6 + or - 0.4) x 1,000/s the electron spin relaxation time of the Co(II), determined by using paramagnetic effects on the bound HCO/sub 3//sup -/, is (1.1 + or - 0.1) x 10/sup -11/ s.

Williams, T.J.; Henkens, R.W.

1985-05-07

189

and Cross-Polarization 13C NMR Evidence of Alterations in Molecular Composition of Humic Substances Following Afforestation with Eucalypt in Distinct Brazilian Biomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of planting fast growing tree species on SOM quality in tropical regions has been overlooked. In the present study 13C-NMR approaches were used to evaluate the impact of eucalypt cultivation on humic and fulvic acids molecular composition. The results indicate that the replacement of native vegetation by eucalypt plantations increased the relative contribution of aliphatic groups in HA

I. R. Silva; E. M. Soares; K. Schmidt-Rohr; R. Novais; N. Barros; S. Fernandes

2010-01-01

190

1H, 13C MAS NMR and DFT GIAO study of quercetin and its complex with Al(III) in solid state.  

PubMed

Quercetin (Q) as a pentahydroxy flavonoid, has three possible chelating sites competing in complexation processes. (1)H and (13)C MAS NMR spectra were recorded for solid quercetin and its Al(III) complex (AlQ). (1)H MAS spectrum of quercetin shows a broad resonance at ca. 12 ppm that confirms the existence of intramolecular C5-OH … O=C4 hydrogen bond. Such a signal is absent in the spectrum of AlQ, which is in accordance with other spectroscopic data and the suggested model for the solid-state structure of the complex. DFT GIAO calculations were used to verify the experimental (13)C CPMAS NMR data and to suggest the best model structure for the complex AlQ. The calculated shielding constants for different conformers of isolated quercetin molecules, quercetin trimer as taken from the X-ray data, and different model structures for possible Al(III) complexes were compared with the (13)C CPMAS NMR experimental values. The results demonstrate the importance of intermolecular interactions when dealing with structures in solid state and the successful application of the combined DFT GIAO and (13)C CPMAS NMR approach. All data confirm that the chelating site of Q in the solid complex AlQ involves the deprotonated C5-OH and the C4=O groups at ring C, in contrast to the available studies performed in solution. PMID:22459171

Ahmedova, Anife; Paradowska, Katarzyna; Wawer, Iwona

2012-05-01

191

Application of Solid-State 13C NMR Spectroscopy and Dipolar Dephasing Technique to Determine the Extent of Condensation in Technical Lignins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy and dipolar dephasing technique was used to determine the extent of condensation in various technical lignins. The accuracy of dipolar dephasing method was first investigated with the aid of some lignin model compounds and two various methods to determine the degree of condensation were compared. On the basis of the model compound experiments both methods based

T. Liitiä; S. L. Maunu; J. Sipilä; B. Hortling

2002-01-01

192

Organic matter transformations in lignocellulosic waste products composted or vermicomposted ( eisenia fetida andrei): Chemical analysis and 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignocellulosic wastes (of maple) were composted and vermicomposted for 10 months under controlled conditions. Chemical and 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopic analyses were made to characterize the transformations of the organic matter. At first, the total organic matter and carbon mass underwent a relatively rapid decrease. There was a concomitant decomposition of polysaccharides including cellulose. The degradation of aromatic structures and

M. Vinceslas-Akpa; M. Loquet

1997-01-01

193

Comparative study of two fractions of riverine dissolved organic matter using various analytical pyrolytic methods and a 13C CP\\/MAS NMR approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from a French river, the Gartempe, were obtained using the XAD resin fractionation procedure and were termed hydrophobic acid (HPOA) and transphilic acid (TPIA) according to this method. The composition of these two fractions was investigated with solid state CP\\/MAS 13C NMR, Curie point pyrolysis at 650 °C, with and without tetramethylammonium hydroxide

Joëlle Templier; Sylvie Derenne; Jean-Philippe Croué; Claude Largeau

2005-01-01

194

Solid state 13 C CP MAS NMR characterization of the chemical structure of terrestrial organic matter from areas with differing vegetational backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve samples of terrestrial organic matter from areas of different vegetational background were selected for study. The samples were examined with solid state 13C NMR using Cross Polarisation and Magic Angle Spinning (CP MAS). The examination was done on whole soil samples, because isolation and separation of humic substances may alter the chemical structure of the organic matter. The soil

Marit Krosshavn; Jon Björgum; Timothy E. Southon; Eiliv Steinnes

195

The study of a monocotyledon abscission zone using microscopic, chemical, enzymatic and solid state 13C CP\\/MAS NMR analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated distinguishing features in cells of the abscission zone of a monocotyledon fruit, the oil palm Elaeis guineensis. The cell walls of the abscission zone and the subtending mesocarp and pedicel have been analysed by light and transmission electron microscopy, by chemical methods and by solid state 13C CP\\/MAS NMR spectroscopy. Results show that these abscission zone cells

Janice Henderson; Heather A. Davies; Stephen J. Heyes; Daphne J. Osborne

2001-01-01

196

Probing self-assembled 1,3,5-benzenetrisamides in isotactic polypropylene by 13C DQ solid-state NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Using (13)C double quantum solid-state NMR spectroscopy, we were able to observe nuclei of a supramolecular BTA based additive on the nanoscale in a matrix of i-PP at a concentration of only 0.09 wt%. These nuclei exhibit the analogous structural features as the crystalline phase of the neat additive. PMID:23175351

Schmidt, Marko; Wittmann, Johannes J; Kress, Roman; Schmidt, Hans-Werner; Senker, Jürgen

2013-01-11

197

PMR and 13 C NMR spectra of biologically active compounds. XIII.* Structure and stereochemistry of a new phenylpropanoid glycoside isolated from Onopordum acanthium seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of a new compound was determined using PMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy (HHCOSY, HSBC, HMBC, ROESY) as 2-[3?-methoxy,4-O-?-D-galactopyranos-1-yl)benzyl]-3-(3?,4?-dimethoxybenzyl)-4hydroxybutyric acid, which was isolated for the first time from\\u000a seeds of Scotch thistle Onopordum acanthium L.

T. V. Tyumkina; I. F. Nuriev; L. M. Khalilov; V. R. Akhmetova; U. M. Dzhemilev

2009-01-01

198

Estimation of procyanidin/prodelphinidin and cis/trans flavanol ratios of condensed tannin fractions by 1H-13C HSQC NMR spectroscopy: Correlation with thiolysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Integration of cross-peak contours of H/C-2’,6’ signals from prodelphinidin (PD) and of H/C-6’ signals from procyanidin (PC) units in 1H-13C HSQC nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of condensed tannins yielded nuclei-adjusted PC/PD estimates that were highly correlated with PC/PD ratios obtain...

199

CHANGES IN PROTEIN AND STARCH CONFORMATION DURING VARIABLE TEMPERATURE PARBOILING OF RICE: FT-RAMAN AND 13C CP-MAS NMR SPECTROSCOPIC ASSESSMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

FT-Raman and solid-state 13C cross polarization magic-angle spinning (CP-MAS) NMR spectroscopies were employed to assess the conformational changes to protein and starch in paddy rice under variable conditions of parboiling. Rice variety, TOX 3108 from Ghana, was parboiled by the soaking-steaming-d...

200

FT-RAMAN AND 13C CP-MAS NMR SPECTROSCOPIC ASSESSMENT OF CONFORMATIONAL CHANGES IN PROTEIN AND STARCH UNDER VARIOUS PARABOILING CONDITIONS FOR RICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

FT-Raman and solid-state 13C CP-MAS NMR spectroscopies were employed to assess the conformational changes to protein and starch in rice under variable conditions of parboiling. TOX 3108 rice from Ghana, was parboiled by the soaking-steaming-drying method under conditions that mimicked various local...

201

A 13C CP\\/MAS NMR evaluation of the structural changes in wheat straw subjected to different chemical and biological pulping conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat straw pulps prepared by chemical (soda) and biological (enzymatic or fungal) treatments were analyzed by 13C CP\\/MAS NMR spectrometry under quantitative acquisition conditions. The most significant changes reflected in the spectra as a result of soda cooking correspond to: (i) decrease of methoxyl content of the residual lignin (56, 153, 147 and 135 ppm), and (ii) deacetylation of hemicellulose

M. E. Guadalix; G. Almendros; A. T. Martínez; F. J. González-Vila; U. Lankes

1997-01-01

202

Molecular structure, vibrational and 13C NMR spectra of two ent-kaurenes spirolactone type diterpenoids rabdosinate and rabdosin B: a combined experimental and density functional methods.  

PubMed

The title compounds, rabdosinate and rabdosin B, were isolated from the leaves of Isodon japonica, and characterized by IR-NMR spectroscopy. The molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies and gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO-13C) chemical shift values of the title compounds have been calculated by using DFT/B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. In addition, obtained results were related to the linear regression of experimental 13C NMR chemical shifts values. The integral equation formalism polarized continuum model (IEFPCM) was used in treating chloroform solvation effects on optimized structural parameters and 13C chemical shifts. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), HOMO-LUMO analysis were performed by the B3LYP method. PMID:25123947

Wang, Tao; Wang, Xueliang

2015-01-25

203

Molecular structure, vibrational and 13C NMR spectra of two ent-kaurenes spirolactone type diterpenoids rabdosinate and rabdosin B: A combined experimental and density functional methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The title compounds, rabdosinate and rabdosin B, were isolated from the leaves of Isodon japonica, and characterized by IR-NMR spectroscopy. The molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies and gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO-13C) chemical shift values of the title compounds have been calculated by using DFT/B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. In addition, obtained results were related to the linear regression of experimental 13C NMR chemical shifts values. The integral equation formalism polarized continuum model (IEFPCM) was used in treating chloroform solvation effects on optimized structural parameters and 13C chemical shifts. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), HOMO-LUMO analysis were performed by the B3LYP method.

Wang, Tao; Wang, Xueliang

2015-01-01

204

Synthesis and utilization of 13C and 15N backbone-labeled proline: NMR study of synthesized oxytocin with backbone-labeled C-terminal tripeptide amide.  

PubMed

The 13C and 15N backbone-labeled proline was prepared using Oppolzer's method based on application of a sultam as chiral auxiliary. This isotopomer was used in the synthesis of the 13C, 15N backbone-labeled C-terminal tripeptide amide fragment of neurohypophyseal hormone oxytocin. Finally, this tripeptide amide was coupled by segment condensation with N-Boc- or N-Fmoc-tocinoic acid, followed by N-deprotection with TFA or piperidine. The labeled oxytocin exhibited biological activity identical with that of natural oxytocin. A detailed 1H, 13C and 15N NMR study confirmed the assigned oxytocin conformation containing a beta-turn in the cyclic part of the molecule, stabilized by H-bond(s) that can be perturbed by the C-terminal tripeptide amide moiety as indicated by comparison of NMR data for both the tocine ring in oxytocin and tocinoic acid. PMID:15791394

Budesínský, M; Ragnarsson, U; Lankiewicz, L; Grehn, L; Slaninová, J; Hlavácek, J

2005-08-01

205

Specific 12C?D212C?D2S13C?HD2 Isotopomer Labeling of Methionine To Characterize Protein Dynamics by 1H and 13C NMR Relaxation Dispersion  

PubMed Central

Protein dynamics on the micro- to millisecond time scale is increasingly found to be critical for biological function, as demonstrated by numerous NMR relaxation dispersion studies. Methyl groups are excellent probes of protein interactions and dynamics because of their favorable NMR relaxation properties, which lead to sharp signals in the 1H and 13C NMR spectra. Out of the six different methyl-bearing amino acid residue types in proteins, methionine plays a special role because of its extensive side-chain flexibility and the high polarizability of the sulfur atom. Methionine is over-represented in many protein–protein recognition sites, making the methyl group of this residue type an important probe of the relationships among dynamics, interactions, and biological function. Here we present a straightforward method to label methionine residues with specific 13CHD2 methyl isotopomers against a deuterated background. The resulting protein samples yield NMR spectra with improved sensitivity due to the essentially 100% population of the desired 13CHD2 methyl isotopomer, which is ideal for 1H and 13C spin relaxation experiments to investigate protein dynamics in general and conformational exchange in particular. We demonstrate the approach by measuring 1H and 13C CPMG relaxation dispersion for the nine methionines in calcium-free calmodulin (apo-CaM). The results show that the C-terminal domain, but not the N-terminal domain, of apo-CaM undergoes fast exchange between the ground state and a high-energy state. Since target proteins are known to bind specifically to the C-terminal domain of apo-CaM, we speculate that the high-energy state might be involved in target binding through conformational selection. PMID:23106551

2012-01-01

206

Non-covalent interactions of 1-{sup 13}C-acenaphthenone with dissolved fulvic acid in a methanol/water solution as determined from {sup 13}C NMR T{sub 1} relaxation data  

SciTech Connect

The solubility of hydrophobic pollutants in the environment, in addition to their biodegradation, bioavailability, abiotic fate, and transport, is strongly influenced by non-covalent interactions with dissolved natural organic matter. Employing the combination of {sup 13}C-labeling techniques and {sup 13}C-NMR spectroscopy methods, non-covalent interactions between 1-{sup 13}C-acenaphthenone ({sup 13}C-labeled in the carbonyl position) and fulvic acid in a methanol/aqueous solvent system were examined by observing changes in the T{sub 1} relaxation Lime of the labeled carbon. Three non-covalent interactions were inferred from this data: a weak sorption interaction between acenaphthenone and the fulvic acid, an interaction causing enhanced molecular motion of acenaphthenone by fulvic acid, and an interaction between just the solvent and acenaphthenone. Those interactions were determined to be a function of the concentration of both acenaphthenone and fulvic acid, the identity of the fulvic acid cation (i.e., H{sup +} or Na{sup +}), and the solution pH.

Nanny, M.A.; Bortiatynski, J.M.; Hatcher, P.G. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1996-10-01

207

Improving the accuracy of computed 13C NMR shift predictions by specific environment error correction: fragment referencing.  

PubMed

The accuracy of both Gauge-including atomic orbital (GIAO) and continuous set of gauge transformations (CSGT) (13)C NMR spectra prediction by Density Functional Theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-31G** level is shown to be usefully enhanced by employing a 'fragment referencing' method for predicting chemical shifts without recourse to empirical scaling. Fragment referencing refers to a process of reducing the error in calculating a particular NMR shift by consulting a similar molecule for which the error in the calculation is easily deduced. The absolute accuracy of the chemical shifts predicted when employing fragment referencing relative to conventional techniques (e.g., using TMS or MeOH/benzene dual referencing) is demonstrated to be improved significantly for a range of substrates, which illustrates the superiority of the technique particularly for systems with similar chemical shifts arising from different chemical environments. The technique is particularly suited to molecules of relatively low molecular weight containing 'non-standard' magnetic environments, e.g., ? to halogen atoms, which are poorly predicted by other methods. The simplicity and speed of the technique mean that it can be employed to resolve routine structural assignment problems that require a degree of accuracy not provided by standard incremental or hierarchically ordered spherical description of environment (HOSE) algorithms. The approach is also demonstrated to be applicable when employing the MP2 method at 6-31G**, cc-pVDZ, aug-cc-pVDZ, and cc-pVTZ levels, although none of these offer advantage in terms of accuracy of prediction over the B3LYP/6-31G** DFT method. PMID:24138675

Andrews, Keith G; Spivey, Alan C

2013-11-15

208

Tracing bacterial metabolism using multi-nuclear (1H, 2H, and 13C) Solid State NMR: Realizing an Idea Initiated by James Scott  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximately 6 years ago, while at the Geophysical Laboratory, James Scott became interested in the application of Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to study bacterial metabolism. As often happens, other experiments intervened and the NMR experiments were not pursued. We have revisited Jame's question and find that using a multi-nuclear approach (1H, 2H, and 13C Solid State NMR) on laboratory cell culture has some distinct advantages. Our experiments involved batch cultures of E. coli (MG1655) harvested at stationary phase. In all experiments the growth medium consisted of MOPS medium for enterobacteria, where the substrate is glucose. In one set of experiments, 10 % of the water was D2O; in another 10 % of the glucose was per-deuterated. The control experiment used both water and glucose at natural isotopic abundance. A kill control of dead E. coli immersed in pure D2O for an extended period exhibited no deuterium incorporation. In both deuterium enriched experiments, considerable incorporation of deuterium into E. coli's biomolecular constituents was detected via 2H Solid State NMR. In the case of the D2O enriched experiment, 58 % of the incorporated deuterium is observed in a sharp peak at a frequency of 0.31 ppm, consistent with D incorporation in the cell membrane lipids, the remainder is observed in a broad peak at a higher frequency (centered at 5.4 ppm, but spanning out to beyond 10 ppm) that is consistent with D incorporation into predominantly DNA and RNA. In the case of the D-glucose experiments, 61 % of the deuterium is observed in a sharp resonance peak at 0.34 ppm, also consistent with D incorporation into membrane lipids, the remainder of the D is observed at a broad resonance peak centered at 4.3 ppm, consistent with D enrichment in glycogen. Deuterium abundance in the E. coli cells grown in 10 % D2O is nearly 2X greater than that grown with 10 % D-glucose. Very subtle differences are observed in both the 1H and 13C solid-state NMR experiments, most notably in the spectral region corresponding to glycogen H and C, respectively. Interestingly, whereas in both experiments the predominant site of incorporation was in the membrane lipids, the line width of the aliphatic-D resonance in the D2O enriched experiment is 67 % wider than that observed in the D-glucose enriched experiment. This difference could be due to greater residual 1H-2H dipolar coupling in membrane lipids synthesized with 10 % D2O due to D being incorporated during NADP(D) reduction of the fatty acid precursor during synthesis and the H-glucose being the source of carbon and hydrogen starting with acetyl-CoA. In the case of the D-glucose experiment, the narrower absorption line may be consistent with individual FA's being more homogeneously deuterated. Analysis of the membrane lipids is currently being performed via GCMS in order to gain potentially more insight to guide interpretation of the 2H solid state NMR spectra.

Cody, G.; Fogel, M. L.; Jin, K.; Griffen, P.; Steele, A.; Wang, Y.

2011-12-01

209

The studies of tautomerism in 6-mercaptopurine derivatives by 1H- 13C, 1H- 15N NMR and 13C, 15N CPMAS-experimental and quantum chemical approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tautomerism in 6-mercaptopurine (6mpH), 2,6-dimercaptopurine (2,6dmp) and 6-mercaptopurine-9-riboside (6mp-9rb) was studied in the solution with 2D NMR methods- 1H- 13C HMBC and 1H- 15N HMQC. The 15N NMR signals were assigned and the distribution of mobile protons proposed on the basis of ?13C, ?15N chemical shifts and JHC, JHN coupling constants, determined with HECADE. These heterocycles appear in DMSO- d6 as the thionic species with predominance of the following tautomers: N(1)H, N(7)H for 6mpH; N(1)H, N(3)H, N(7)H for 2,6dmp; N(1)H for 6mp-9rb. Quantum-chemical NMR calculations by GIAO method(RHF/6-31G**//B3LYP/6-31G**) allowed to evaluate the ratios of N(7)H, N(9): N(7), N(9)H tautomeric forms as ca. 3:1 for 6mpH and nearly 10:0 for 2,6dmp. The 13C and 15N CPMAS spectra were measured for solid 6mpH·H 2O, anhydrous 6mpH, 2,6dmp and 6-mercaptopurinium chloride (6mpH 2Cl), confirming the thionic character of all compounds. The 15N chemical shifts in the solid phase were calculated (B3LYP/6-31G**) for 6mpH·H 2O and 6mpH 2Cl, basing on the re-determined single crystal X-ray data (optimised with RHF/3-21G**).

Pazderski, Leszek; ?akomska, Iwona; Wojtczak, Andrzej; Sz?yk, Edward; Sitkowski, Jerzy; Kozerski, Lech; Kamie?ski, Bohdan; Ko?mi?ski, Wiktor; Tousek, Jaromír; Marek, Radek

2006-03-01

210

NMR 13C-isotopic enrichment experiments to study carbon-partitioning into organic solutes in the red alga Grateloupia doryphora.  

PubMed

The red alga Grateloupia doryphora Montagne (Howe) (Cryptonemiales, Halymeniaceae) was used as a model to investigate the effects of changes in seawater salinity on the intracellular low-molecular-weight organic compounds. Carbon-partitioning into major organic solutes was followed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy on living algae incubated in NaH13CO3-enriched seawater, and by high resolution 1H and 13C NMR experiments performed on 13C-enriched algal extracts. NMR and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses both demonstrated that floridoside level was the most affected by changes in salinity: it rose under the hypersaline treatment and decreased under hyposaline one. Moreover, at low salinity, the high labeling of floridoside (45.3% 13C-enrichment for C1) together with its low concentrations both provided evidence of great increase in the de novo biosynthesis and turnover rate. Our experiments also demonstrated a high incorporation of photosynthetic carbon into amino acids, especially glutamate, under hypoosmotic conditions. On the other hand, isethionic acid and N-methyl-methionine sulfoxide were only partly labeled, which indicates they do not directly derive from carbon photoassimilation. In algae exposed to high salinity, elevated concentrations of floridoside coupled to a low labeling (9.4%) were observed. These results suggest that hyperosmotic conditions stimulated floridoside biosynthesis from endogen storage products rather than from carbon assimilation through photosynthesis. PMID:15061080

Simon-Colin, Christelle; Kervarec, Nelly; Pichon, Roger; Deslandes, Eric

2004-01-01

211

Determination of Oxidative Glucose Metabolism in vivo in the Young Rat Brain using Localized Direct-detected 13C NMR Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Determination of oxidative metabolism in the brain using in vivo 13C NMR spectroscopy (13C MRS) typically requires repeated blood sampling throughout the study to measure blood glucose concentration and fractional enrichment (input function). However, drawing blood from small animals, such as young rats, placed deep inside the magnet is technically difficult due to their small total blood volume. In the present study, a custom-built animal holder enabled temporary removal of the animal from the magnet for blood collection, followed by accurate repositioning in the exact presampling position without degradation of B0 shimming. 13C label incorporation into glutamate C4 and C3 positions during a 120 min [1,6-13C2] glucose infusion was determined in 28-day-old rats (n = 4) under ?-chloralose sedation using localized, direct-detected in vivo 13C MRS at 9.4T. The tricarboxylic acid cycle activity rate (VTCA) determined using a one-compartment metabolic modeling was 0.67 ± 0.13 µmol/g/min, a value comparable to previous ex vivo studies. This methodology opens the avenue for in vivo measurements of brain metabolic rates using 13C MRS in small animals. PMID:21660589

Ennis, Kathleen; Deelchand, Dinesh Kumar; Tkac, Ivan; Henry, Pierre-Gilles; Rao, Raghavendra

2011-01-01

212

Study on potassium iso-propylxanthate and its decomposition products: experimental 13C CP/MAS NMR combined with DFT calculations.  

PubMed

Solid-state (13)C NMR is believed to be a valuable tool for studying adsorption and speciation of xanthates on sulfide mineral surfaces, but to do that, model compounds of possible xanthate species need to be investigated. (13)C NMR chemical shift tensors for molecular fragments of potassium iso-propylxanthate and six of its decomposition products have been determined by combining DFT calculations and (13)C CP/MAS NMR experiments. DFT calculations were performed in NWChem using GIAO method for the NMR shielding tensor calculations. The results of the calculations are in good agreement with experimental data. In the -XCYZ moiety (X, Y, Z = O, S), the more sulfur atoms, the more deshielded the chemical shift becomes and the larger the span of the chemical shift tensor. The ?11 principal value has the largest influence on the span, decreasing when the number of sulfur atoms decreases and the number of oxygen atoms increases. The significant differences in chemical shifts make it possible to distinguish between different species and, hence, in future studies, interpret surface speciation. The tensor parameters can also aid in the interpretation. PMID:21309541

Larsson, Anna-Carin; Öberg, Sven

2011-03-01

213

The 'Nuts and Bolts' of 13C NMR Spectroscopy at Elevated-Pressures and -Temperatures for Monitoring In Situ CO2 Conversion to Metal Carbonates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will present details of newly-constructed specialized NMR designed to conduct in situ elevated-pressure, elevated-temperature 13C NMR studies on unmixed slurries of minerals in the presence of CO2 or other gases. This static probe is capable of achieving 300 bar, 300C conditions, and it is designed to spectroscopically examine 13C signals in mixtures of solids, liquids, gases, and supercritical fluids. Ultimately, our aim is to monitor CO2 uptake in both ultramafic rocks and in more porous geological materials to understand the mechanisms of chemisorption as a function of temperature, pressure and pH. We will give details of the hardware setup, and we will show a variety of static in situ NMR, as well as ex situ 'magic-angle spinning' NMR to show the analyses that are possible of minerals in pure form and in mixtures. In addition, specific NMR pulse sequences, techniques, and modeling will be described in detail. In this in situ NMR probe, we are able to simulate processes at geologically relevant fluid pressures and temperatures, monitoring the kinetics of CO2 conversion to carbonates. The in situ NMR experiments consist of heterogeneous mixtures of rock, salty brine solution, and moderate pressure CO2 gas at elevated temperatures. The purpose of studying these reactions is to determine conditions that affect the efficacy of carbonate formation in various targeted geological reservoirs (i.e., peroditite, or others). Via 13C NMR, we have spectroscopically characterized and quantified the conversion of CO2 to magnesium carbonate and calcium carbonate minerals, including metastable intermediates (such as hydromagnesite, or dypingite in the case of magnesium carbonate species, or vaterite in the case of calcium carbonate species). Such species are distinguishable from a combination of the 13C isotropic chemical shift, the static 13C lineshape, and changes in spin-lattice (T1) relaxation times. We will demonstrate that NMR can be used for quantitative characterization of multiple metastable mineral phases in pure forms and in mixtures. Notably, NMR spectroscopy is able to observe signals from amorphous materials, and mixtures of both crystalline and amorphous species can be analyzed. NMR results are verified through a combination of Raman spectroscopy and powder XRD (of crystalline species). Further, we have examined the effects on mineralization reactions of pH gradients in the sample--also monitored in situ by NMR--and these results will be presented. Reference: 'In Situ Measurement of Magnesium Carbonate Formation from CO2 Using Static High-Pressure and -Temperature 13C NMR' J. Andrew Surface, Philip Skemer, Sophia E. Hayes, and Mark S. Conradi, Environ. Sci. Technol. 2013, 47, 119-125. DOI: 10.1021/es301287n

Moore, J. K.; Surface, J. A.; Skemer, P. A.; Conradi, M. S.; Hayes, S. E.

2013-12-01

214

Interaction between a recombinant prion protein and organo-mineral complexes as evidenced by CPMAS 13C-NMR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prion proteins (PrP) are the main responsible for Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE). The TSE etiological agent is a misfolded form of the normal cellular prion protein. The amyloidal aggregates accumulated in the brain of infected animals and mainly composed of PrPSc exhibit resistance to protease attack and many conventional inactivating procedures. The prion protein diseases cause an environmental issue because the environment and in particular the soil compartment can be contaminated and then become a potential reservoir and diffuser of TSEs infectivity as a consequence of (i) accidental dispersion from storage plants of meat and bone meal, (ii) incorporation of contaminated material in fertilizers, (iii) possible natural contamination of pasture soils by grazing herds, and (v) burial of carcasses. The environmental problem can be even more relevant because very low amounts of PrPSc are able to propagate the disease. Several studies evidenced that infectious prion protein remains active in soils for years. Contaminated soils result, thus, a possible critical route of TSE transmission in wild animals. Soil can also protect prion protein toward degradation processes due to the presence of humic substances and inorganic components such as clays. Mineral and organic colloids and the more common association between clay minerals and humic substances can contribute to the adsorption/entrapment of molecules and macromolecules. The polymerization of organic monomeric humic precursors occurring in soil in the presence of oxidative enzymes or manganese and iron oxides, is considered one of the most important processes contributing to the formation of humic substances. The process is very fast and produces a population of polymeric products of different molecular structures, sizes, shapes and complexity. Other molecules and possibly biomacromolecules such as proteins may be involved. The aim of the present work was to study by CPMAS 13C-NMR the interactions between a non pathogenic ovine recombinant prion protein and a model soil system represented by a manganese oxide in the form of birnessite (?-MnO2), coated with a polymerized catechol. To better understand the effect of the polymerization process, PrP was added to the birnessite-cathecol system either before or after the polymerization processes. The NMR spectra of the prion protein interacting directly with birnessite revealed disappearance of the signals due to the paramagnetic nature of manganese oxide or abiotic degradation. Conversely, the signal pattern of the protein re-appeared as it is mixed to the soil-like system either during or after the catechol polymerization process. Results suggested that the possible interactions of the prion protein on soil systems can be mediated by natural organic matter. However, deeper studies on more complex real soil systems are needed to definitely confirm such hypothesis.

Russo, F.; Scotti, R.; Gianfreda, L.; Conte, P.; Rao, M. A.

2009-04-01

215

Alkaline Hydrolysis/Polymerization of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene: Characterization of Products by 13C and 15N NMR  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Alkaline hydrolysis has been investigated as a nonbiological procedure for the destruction of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in explosives contaminated soils and munitions scrap. Nucleophilic substitutions of the nitro and methyl groups of TNT by hydroxide ion are the initial steps in the alkaline degradation of TNT. Potential applications of the technique include both in situ surface liming and ex situ alkaline treatment of contaminated soils. A number of laboratory studies have reported the formation of an uncharacterized polymeric material upon prolonged treatment of TNT in base. As part of an overall assessment of alkaline hydrolysis as a remediation technique, and to gain a better understanding of the chemical reactions underlying the hydrolysis/polymerization process, the soluble and precipitate fractions of polymeric material produced from the calcium hydroxide hydrolysis of unlabeled and 15N-labeled TNT were analyzed by elemental analysis and 13C and 15N nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Spectra indicated that reactions leading to polymerization included nucleophilic displacement of nitro groups by hydroxide ion, formation of ketone, carboxyl, alcohol, ether, and other aliphatic carbons, conversion of methyl groups to diphenyl methylene carbons, and recondensation of aromatic amines and reduced forms of nitrite, including ammonia and possibly hydroxylamine, into the polymer. Compared to the distribution of carbons in TNT as 14% sp 3- and 86% sp2-hybridized, the precipitate fraction from hydrolysis of unlabeled TNT contained 33% sp3- and 67% sp 2-hybridized carbons. The concentration of nitrogen in the precipitate was 64% of that in TNT. The 15N NMR spectra showed that, in addition to residual nitro groups, forms of nitrogen present in the filtrate and precipitate fractions include aminohydroquinone, primary amide, indole, imine, and azoxy, among others. Unreacted nitrite was recovered in the filtrate fraction. The toxicities and susceptibilities to microbial or chemical degradation of the polymeric materials remain unknown.

Thorn, K.A.; Thorne, P.G.; Cox, L.G.

2004-01-01

216

Density functional investigation of intermolecular effects on 13C NMR chemical-shielding tensors modeled with molecular clusters.  

PubMed

A quantum-chemical method for modeling solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance chemical-shift tensors by calculations on large symmetry-adapted clusters of molecules is demonstrated. Four hundred sixty five principal components of the (13)C chemical-shielding tensors of 24 organic materials are analyzed. The comparison of calculations on isolated molecules with molecules in clusters demonstrates that intermolecular effects can be successfully modeled using a cluster that represents a local portion of the lattice structure, without the need to use periodic-boundary conditions (PBCs). The accuracy of calculations which model the solid state using a cluster rivals the accuracy of calculations which model the solid state using PBCs, provided the cluster preserves the symmetry properties of the crystalline space group. The size and symmetry conditions that the model cluster must satisfy to obtain significant agreement with experimental chemical-shift values are discussed. The symmetry constraints described in the paper provide a systematic approach for incorporating intermolecular effects into chemical-shielding calculations performed at a level of theory that is more advanced than the generalized gradient approximation. Specifically, NMR parameters are calculated using the hybrid exchange-correlation functional B3PW91, which is not available in periodic codes. Calculations on structures of four molecules refined with density plane waves yield chemical-shielding values that are essentially in agreement with calculations on clusters where only the hydrogen sites are optimized and are used to provide insight into the inherent sensitivity of chemical shielding to lattice structure, including the role of rovibrational effects. PMID:25362286

Holmes, Sean T; Iuliucci, Robbie J; Mueller, Karl T; Dybowski, Cecil

2014-10-28

217

Density functional investigation of intermolecular effects on 13C NMR chemical-shielding tensors modeled with molecular clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantum-chemical method for modeling solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance chemical-shift tensors by calculations on large symmetry-adapted clusters of molecules is demonstrated. Four hundred sixty five principal components of the 13C chemical-shielding tensors of 24 organic materials are analyzed. The comparison of calculations on isolated molecules with molecules in clusters demonstrates that intermolecular effects can be successfully modeled using a cluster that represents a local portion of the lattice structure, without the need to use periodic-boundary conditions (PBCs). The accuracy of calculations which model the solid state using a cluster rivals the accuracy of calculations which model the solid state using PBCs, provided the cluster preserves the symmetry properties of the crystalline space group. The size and symmetry conditions that the model cluster must satisfy to obtain significant agreement with experimental chemical-shift values are discussed. The symmetry constraints described in the paper provide a systematic approach for incorporating intermolecular effects into chemical-shielding calculations performed at a level of theory that is more advanced than the generalized gradient approximation. Specifically, NMR parameters are calculated using the hybrid exchange-correlation functional B3PW91, which is not available in periodic codes. Calculations on structures of four molecules refined with density plane waves yield chemical-shielding values that are essentially in agreement with calculations on clusters where only the hydrogen sites are optimized and are used to provide insight into the inherent sensitivity of chemical shielding to lattice structure, including the role of rovibrational effects.

Holmes, Sean T.; Iuliucci, Robbie J.; Mueller, Karl T.; Dybowski, Cecil

2014-10-01

218

A new Schiff base compound N,N'-(2,2-dimetylpropane)-bis(dihydroxylacetophenone): synthesis, experimental and theoretical studies on its crystal structure, FTIR, UV-visible, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra.  

PubMed

The Schiff base compound, N,N'-(2,2-dimetylpropane)-bis(dihydroxylacetophenone) (NDHA) is synthesized through the condensation of 2-hydroxylacetophenone and 2,2-dimethyl 1,3-amino propane in methanol at ambient temperature. The yellow crystalline precipitate is used for X-ray single-crystal determination and measuring Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), UV-visible, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectra. Electronic structure calculations at the B3LYP, PBEPBE and PW91PW91 levels of theory are performed to optimize the molecular geometry and to calculate the FTIR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectra of the compound. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) method is used to calculate the UV-visible spectrum of NDHA. Vibrational frequencies are determined experimentally and compared with those obtained theoretically. Vibrational assignments and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compound are also performed. All theoretical methods can well reproduce the structure of the compound. The (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR chemical shifts calculated by all DFT methods are consistent with the experimental data. However, the NMR shielding tensors computed at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory are in better agreement with experimental (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectra. The electronic absorption spectrum calculated at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level by using TD-DFT method is in accordance with the observed UV-visible spectrum of NDHA. In addition, some quantum descriptors of the molecule are calculated and conformational analysis is performed and the results were compared with the crystallographic data. PMID:21763188

Saheb, Vahid; Sheikhshoaie, Iran

2011-10-15

219

Major Groove Width Variations in RNA Structures Determined by NMR and Impact of 13C residual chemical shift anisotropy and 1H-13C residual dipolar coupling on refinement  

PubMed Central

Ribonucleic acid structure determination by NMR spectroscopy relies primarily on local structural restraints provided by 1H-1H NOEs and J-couplings. When employed loosely, these restraints are broadly compatible with A- and B-like helical geometries and give rise to calculated structures that are highly sensitive to the force fields employed during refinement. A survey of recently reported NMR structures reveals significant variations in helical parameters, particularly the major groove width. Although helical parameters observed in high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of isolated A-form RNA helices are sensitive to crystal packing effects, variations among the published X-ray structures are significantly smaller than those observed in NMR structures. Here we show that restraints derived from aromatic 1H-13C residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) and residual chemical shift anisotropies (RCSAs) can overcome NMR restraint and force field deficiencies and afford structures with helical properties similar to those observed in high-resolution X-ray structures. PMID:20549304

Tolbert, Blanton S; Miyazaki, Yasuyuki; Barton, Shawn; Kinde, Benyam; Starck, Patrice; Singh, Rashmi; Bax, Ad

2010-01-01

220

Improved ^13C Natural-abundance Correction Methods in REDOR NMR Distance Measurements used for Restrained Molecular Dynamics of Shikimate-3-Phosphate and Glyphosate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1.1translation of rotational-echo double-resonance (REDOR) NMR data into dipolar couplings when ^31P or ^19F is observed. An equation for calculating dipolar couplings to specific ^13C labels in the presence of substantial natural-abundance ^13C background dephasing was derived. The equation results were compared to a calculation of REDOR dephasing that assumed a model lattice containing a central ^31P and 64 possible carbon sites. A single lattice was used to fit all data for four differently labeled protein complexes. Thus, ^31P-^13C dipolar couplings were obtained and translated into internuclear distances for complexes of 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate-3- phosphate synthase (EPSPS), shikimate-3-phosphate (S3P), and glyphosate (Glp). Restrained molecular dynamics simulations of S3P and Glp compared to unrestrained simulations of the EPSPS tetrahedral intermediate and its phosphonate analog show that Glp is unlikely to act as an intermediate or transition state analog.

McDowell, L. M.; Klug, C. A.; Beusen, D. D.; Schaefer, J.

1996-03-01

221

Measurement of interglycosidic 3JCH coupling constants of selectively 13C labeled oligosaccharides by 2D J-resolved 1H NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Tri-, tetra-, and penta-saccharide fragments of the O-specific polysaccharide of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 have been prepared in which a D-galactose residue of each oligosaccharide methyl glycoside derivative contains a 13C label at C-1. The interglycosidic coupling constants (3JCH) of these 13C nuclei with the H-3 nuclei of the adjacent 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose residues have been measured by two-dimensional, J-resolved 1H NMR spectroscopy. The magnitudes of these coupling constants indicate that the trisaccharide is conformationally different to the higher oligosaccharide homologs, in agreement with previous studies of 13C chemical shifts and 1JCH values. PMID:9675362

Pozsgay, V; Sari, N; Coxon, B

1998-03-01

222

Synthesis, NMR spectroscopic characterization and structure of a divinyldisilazane-(triphenylphosphine)platinum(0) complex: observation of isotope-induced chemical shifts (1)?(12/13)C((195)Pt).  

PubMed

Tetramethyldivinyldisilazane-(triphenylphosphine)platinum(0) was prepared, characterized in solid state by X-ray crystallography and in solution by multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H, (13)C, (15)N, (29)Si, (31)P and (195)Pt NMR). Numerous signs of spin-spin coupling constants were determined by two-dimensional heteronuclear shift correlations (HETCOR) and two-dimensional (1)H/(1)H COSY experiments. Isotope-induced chemical shifts (1)?(12/13)C((195)Pt) were measured from (195)Pt NMR spectra of the title compound as well as of other Pt(0), Pt(II) and Pt(IV) compounds for comparison. In contrast to other heavy nuclei such as (199)Hg or (207)Pb, the "normal" shifts of the heavy isotopomers to low frequencies are found, covering a range of >500 ppb. PMID:23483657

Wrackmeyer, Bernd; Klimkina, Elena V; Schmalz, Thomas; Milius, Wolfgang

2013-05-01

223

Mechanism of formation of humus coatings on mineral surfaces 3. Composition of adsorbed organic acids from compost leachate on alumina by solid-state 13C NMR  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The adsorption of compost leachate DOC on alumina is used as a model for elucidation of the mechanism of formation of natural organic coatings on hydrous metal oxide surfaces in soils and sediments. Compost leachate DOC is composed mainly of organic acid molecules. The solid-state 13C NMR spectra of these organic acids indicate that they are very similar in composition to aquatic humic substances. Changes in the solid-state 13C NMR spectra of compost leachate DOC fractions adsorbed on alumina indicate that the DOC molecules are most likely adsorbed on metal oxide surfaces through a combination of polar and hydrophobic interaction mechanisms. This combination of polar and hydrophobic mechanism leads to the formation of bilayer coatings of the leachate molecules on the oxide surfaces.

Wershaw, R.L.; Llaguno, E.C.; Leenheer, J.A.

1996-01-01

224

Specific molecular structure changes and radical evolution during biomass-polyethylene terephthalate co-pyrolysis detected by (13)C and (1)H solid-state NMR.  

PubMed

Co-pyrolysis of biomass with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was studied as a function of blend ratio and co-pyrolysis temperature by (13)C and (1)H solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The (13)C NMR spectra showed that upon heating to 400°C in presence of the biomass, the formation of crystallites in PET was completely suppressed and that at higher temperatures there was increased formation and growth of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This change in the PET degradation behaviour was attributed to the presence of radicals formed in char from biomass. The measurement of the (1)H-T1 relaxation enabled monitoring the changes in the concentrations of radicals formed, as a function of the blend ratios and the co-pyrolysis temperatures. It indicated that the increase in the radical concentrations correlated well with the increased degradation of the PET and growth of PAHs. PMID:25146317

Ko, Kwang-Hyun; Sahajwalla, Veena; Rawal, Aditya

2014-10-01

225

Theoretical predictions of the two-dimensional solid-state NMR spectra: A case study of the 13C-1H correlations in metergoline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for the treatment of data from multidimensional solid-state NMR investigations is described. It approximates the theoretical NMR chemical shifts from the chemical shielding values obtained by first-principles calculations and subsequently treats these results to quantify the similarity between predicted and experimental chemical shift correlations. The test case of this approach is performed for the measured and several sets of computed 13C-1H heteronuclear correlations in the polymorphic form I of metergoline, which is relatively large, pharmaceutically active system. The proposed protocol is general, however, and it can be immediately applied to study other compounds and nuclei.

Czernek, Ji?í; Brus, J.

2013-10-01

226

Mixed oxo-hydroxy bile acids as actual or potential impurities in ursodeoxycholic acid preparation: a 1H and 13C NMR study.  

PubMed

Some distinctive unprecedented 1H NMR signals and the complete 13C NMR resonances are assigned for the entire set of mixed oxo-hydroxy bile acid isomers, obtained by selective oxidation of the hydroxy groups at positions (3,7), (3,12) and (3,7,12) of chenodesoxycholic acid, desoxycholic acid and cholic acid, respectively. Partially or totally oxidized products are the major actual or potential impurities formed during the preparation of the pharmaceutically active ursodeoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids. PMID:10755232

Bettarello, L; Bortolini, O; Fantin, G; Guerrini, A

2000-01-01

227

13C NMR Observation of Molecular Motions at the Smectic-A-Smectic-C (Smectic-C*) Transition in a Recemic (Chiral) Smectic Liquid Crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied molecular motions and the microscopic environment at the SmA-SmC (SmC*) transition in a racemic (chiral) smectic liquid crystal by means of 13C NMR with CP/MAS and without sample spinning. Fast overall fluctuation caused by the existence of the molecular chirality has been observed in the SmA phase by T1 measurements. Static NMR spectra indicate that the conformation of the enantiomer in the SmC* phase is different from that of the corresponding racemic compound in the SmC phase.

Yoshizawa, Atsushi; Kikuzaki, Hiroshi; Hirai, Toshihiro; Yamane, Mamoru

1990-07-01

228

Bioreaction Network Topology and Metabolic Flux Ratio Analysis by Biosynthetic Fractional 13C Labeling and Two-Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosynthetically directed fractional 13C labeling of the proteinogenic amino acids is achieved by feeding a mixture of uniformly 13C-labeled and unlabeled carbon source compounds into a bioreaction network. Analysis of the resulting labeling pattern enables both a comprehensive characterization of the network topology and the determination of metabolic flux ratios. Attractive features with regard to routine applications are (i) an

Thomas Szyperski; Ralf W. Glaser; Michel Hochuli; Jocelyne Fiaux; Uwe Sauer; James E. Bailey; Kurt Wüthrich

1999-01-01

229

Solid state CP\\/MAS 13C NMR of the insoluble organic matter of the Orgueil and Murchison meteorites: quantitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid state CP\\/MAS 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study of the insoluble organic fraction isolated by HF\\/HCl treatment under an inert atmosphere from the Orgueil and Murchison carbonaceous meteorites is reported. Based on these spectra, eight different types of carbons (aro- and ali-linked CH3, CH2, aliphatic C-linked to heteroelements, protonated and non-protonated aromatic C, carboxyls and carbonyls) were identified, their

Alain Gardinier; Sylvie Derenne; François Robert; Françoise Behar; Claude Largeau; Jocelyne Maquet

2000-01-01

230

Characterization of soil organic matter in different particle-size fractions in humid subalpine soils by CP\\/MAS 13C NMR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The particle-size separation of subalpine soils was used for delineating the different functional C pools of soil organic matter (SOM) by solid-state cross-polarization\\/magic-angle-spinning (CP\\/MAS) 13C NMR spectroscopy. The soils collected from hemlock forest and dwarfed bamboo grassland along the slope positions at elevations from 2550 to 3200 m in central Taiwan, received high precipitation (>3000 mm). The obtained data show

Jenn-Shing Chen; Chih-Yu Chiu

2003-01-01

231

Quantitative determination of the content of cis\\/trans configurations of maleic anhydride units in p -methoxystyrene-maleic anhydride copolymers by 13 C NMR DEPT experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The configuration of maleic anhydride units in p-methoxystyrene-maleic anhydride copolymers prepared in methyl ethyl ketone at 50°C was studied using 13C NMR DEPT experiments. The ratio of cis (erythro) to trans (threo) configurations was found to increase with the tendency of the monomer units to alternate, remaining almost constant at approximately 1.33 when the mole fraction of maleic anhydride in

Paul G. Brown; Kiyohisa Fujimori; David J. Tucker

1992-01-01

232

Assignment of 13C NMR chemical shift and microstructure of copolymers of 2-chloroethyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydride and n-butyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a The chemical shift in the 13C NMR spectra of copolymers of 2-chloroethyl vinyl ether (CEVE) and maleic anhydride (MA), and of n-butyl vinyl ether (BVE)\\u000a and MA is assigned. It is found that both copolymers are made of completely alternating monomer unit sequences and that the\\u000a proportion of cis linkage configuration at the cyclic MA units is 45 %

Nguyen T. H. Ha; Kiyohisa Fujimori; Peter C. Henry; David J. Tucker

1999-01-01

233

1H, 13C and 15N NMR study of 2-alkylnitrosoamino-4-nitropyridines and N-oxides: An example on restricted inversion of sp 3 nitrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1H, 13C and 15N NMR chemical shifts of seven 2-alkylnitrosoamino-4-nitropyridines and seven 2-alkylnitrosoamino-4-nitropyridine N-oxides have been assigned. The GIAO/DFT 13C chemical shifts of energetically optimized structures have been calculated. The results were compared to the chemical shifts of previously studied 2-alkylamino and 2-alkylnitramino derivatives of 4-nitropyridine and 4-nitropyridine N-oxide. In sterically crowded ortho-substituted congener (2-ethylnitrosoamino-3-methyl-4-nitropyridine N-oxide) restricted inversion of pyramidal amino nitrogen forms a chiral center in the molecule and makes the geminal protons of N-CH 2-moiety diastereotopic. In 5- and 6-CH 3-substituted derivatives this diastereotopism disappears, but the rotation around N-CH 2 sigma bond in all congeners is so slow in NMR time scale, that 1H, 13C and 15N NMR chemical shifts could be detected for two conformers. In 4-nitropyridine and 4-nitropyridine N-oxide derivatives the shielding of aromatic nitrogen is very sensitive to the ring substituents. 2-Alkylnitrosoamino group produces a significant shielding based on conjugation between the ring and the nitrosoamino group.

Laihia, K.; Puszko, A.; Kolehmainen, E.; Lorenc, J.

2007-04-01

234

Chemical and nanometer-scale structure of kerogen and its change during thermal maturation investigated by advanced solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We have used advanced and quantitative solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to investigate structural changes in a series of type II kerogen samples from the New Albany Shale across a range of maturity (vitrinite reflectance R0 from 0.29% to 1.27%). Specific functional groups such as CH3, CH2, alkyl CH, aromatic CH, aromatic C-O, and other nonprotonated aromatics, as well as "oil prone" and "gas prone" carbons, have been quantified by 13C NMR; atomic H/C and O/C ratios calculated from the NMR data agree with elemental analysis. Relationships between NMR structural parameters and vitrinite reflectance, a proxy for thermal maturity, were evaluated. The aromatic cluster size is probed in terms of the fraction of aromatic carbons that are protonated (???30%) and the average distance of aromatic C from the nearest protons in long-range H-C dephasing, both of which do not increase much with maturation, in spite of a great increase in aromaticity. The aromatic clusters in the most mature sample consist of ???30 carbons, and of ???20 carbons in the least mature samples. Proof of many links between alkyl chains and aromatic rings is provided by short-range and long-range 1H-13C correlation NMR. The alkyl segments provide most H in the samples; even at a carbon aromaticity of 83%, the fraction of aromatic H is only 38%. While aromaticity increases with thermal maturity, most other NMR structural parameters, including the aromatic C-O fractions, decrease. Aromaticity is confirmed as an excellent NMR structural parameter for assessing thermal maturity. In this series of samples, thermal maturation mostly increases aromaticity by reducing the length of the alkyl chains attached to the aromatic cores, not by pronounced growth of the size of the fused aromatic ring clusters. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Mao, J.; Fang, X.; Lan, Y.; Schimmelmann, A.; Mastalerz, M.; Xu, L.; Schmidt-Rohr, K.

2010-01-01

235

Recoupling of chemical shift anisotropies in solid-state NMR under high-speed magic-angle spinning and in uniformly 13C-labeled systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the possibility of recoupling chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) interactions in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) under high-speed magic-angle spinning (MAS) while retaining a static CSA powder pattern line shape and simultaneously attenuating homonuclear dipole-dipole interactions. CSA recoupling is accomplished by a rotation-synchronized radio-frequency pulse sequence with symmetry properties that permit static CSA line shapes to be obtained. We suggest a specific recoupling sequence, which we call ROCSA, for which the scaling factors for CSA and homonuclear dipole-dipole interactions are 0.272 and approximately 0.05, respectively. This sequence is suitable for high-speed 13C MAS NMR experiments on uniformly 13C-labeled organic compounds, including biopolymers. We demonstrate the ROCSA sequence experimentally by measuring the 13C CSA patterns of the uniformly labeled, polycrystalline compounds L-alanine and N-acetyl-D,L-valine at MAS frequencies of 11 and 20 kHz. We also present experimental data for amyloid fibrils formed by a 15-residue fragment of the ?-amyloid peptide associated with Alzheimer's disease, in which four amino acid residues are uniformly labeled, demonstrating the applicability to biochemical systems of high molecular weight and significant complexity. Analysis of the CSA patterns in the amyloid fibril sample demonstrates the utility of ROCSA measurements as probes of peptide and protein conformation in noncrystalline solids.

Chan, Jerry C. C.; Tycko, Robert

2003-05-01

236

Stoichiometric Relationship between Na+ Ions Transported and Glucose Consumed in Human Erythrocytes: Bayesian Analysis of 23Na and 13C NMR Time Course Data  

PubMed Central

We examined the response of Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA) to monensin, a Na+ ionophore, with and without ouabain, an NKA inhibitor, in suspensions of human erythrocytes (red blood cells). A combination of 13C and 23Na NMR methods allowed the recording of intra- and extracellular Na+, and 13C-labeled glucose time courses. The net influx of Na+ and the consumption of glucose were measured with and without NKA inhibited by ouabain. A Bayesian analysis was used to determine probability distributions of the parameter values of a minimalist mathematical model of the kinetics involved, and then used to infer the rates of Na+ transported and glucose consumed. It was estimated that the numerical relationship between the number of Na+ ions transported by NKA per molecule of glucose consumed by a red blood cell was close to the ratio 6.0:1.0, agreeing with theoretical prediction. PMID:23601315

Puckeridge, Max; Chapman, Bogdan E.; Conigrave, Arthur D.; Grieve, Stuart M.; Figtree, Gemma A.; Kuchel, Philip W.

2013-01-01

237

Multidimensional solid-state NMR studies of the structure and dynamics of pectic polysaccharides in uniformly 13C-labeled Arabidopsis primary cell walls  

SciTech Connect

Plant cell wall (CW) polysaccharides are responsible for the mechanical strength and growth of plant cells; however, the high-resolution structure and dynamics of the CW polysaccharides are still poorly understood because of the insoluble nature of these molecules. Here, we use 2D and 3D magic-angle-spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR (SSNMR) to investigate the structural role of pectins in the plant CW. Intact and partially depectinated primary CWs of Arabidopsis thaliana were uniformly labeled with 13C and their NMR spectra were compared. Recent 13C resonance assignment of the major polysaccharides in Arabidopsis thaliana CWs allowed us to determine the effects of depectination on the intermolecular packing and dynamics of the remaining wall polysaccharides. 2D and 3D correlation spectra show the suppression of pectin signals, confirming partial pectin removal by chelating agents and sodium carbonate. Importantly, higher cross peaks are observed in 2D and 3D 13C spectra of the depectinated CW, suggesting higher rigidity and denser packing of the remaining wall polysaccharides compared with the intact CW. 13C spin–lattice relaxation times and 1H rotating-frame spin–lattice relaxation times indicate that the polysaccharides are more rigid on both the nanosecond and microsecond timescales in the depectinated CW. Taken together, these results indicate that pectic polysaccharides are highly dynamic and endow the polysaccharide network of the primary CW with mobility and flexibility, which may be important for pectin functions. This study demonstrates the capability of multidimensional SSNMR to determine the intermolecular interactions and dynamic structures of complex plant materials under near-native conditions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Dick-Perez, Marilu; Wang, Tuo; Salazar, Andre; Zabotina, Olga A.; Hong, Mei

2012-07-08

238

Mn(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) p-coumarates: FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H and 13C NMR and thermogravimetric studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manganese(II), copper(II) and cadmium(II) complexes of p-coumaric acid (p-hydroxycinnamic acid) were synthesized. Their composition was established by means of elementary and thermogravimetric analysis. To study the molecular structure of synthesized compounds many miscellaneous analytical methods, which complement one another, were used: infrared (FT-IR), Raman (FT-Raman) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H, 13C NMR). The spectroscopic studies lead to conclusions concerning the distribution of the electronic charge in complexes in comparison with p-coumaric acid molecule and the type of metal ion coordination.

Kalinowska, M.; Laderiere, B.; Champagne, P.; Kowczyk-Sadowy, M.; Lewandowski, W.

2013-02-01

239

1H and 13C NMR Chemical Shift Assignments and Conformational Analysis for the Two Diastereomers of the Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase Inhibitor Brodifacoum  

SciTech Connect

Proton and 13C NMR chemical shift assignments and 1H-1H scalar couplings for the two diastereomers of the vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) inhibitor brodifacoum have been determined from acetone solutions containing both diastereomers. Data were obtained from homo- and heteronuclear correlation spectra acquired at 1H frequencies of 750 and 900 MHz over a 268-303 K temperature range. Conformations inferred from scalar coupling and 1-D NOE measurements exhibit large differences between the diastereomers. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

Cort, John R.; Cho, Herman M.

2009-10-01

240

A 13C NMR approach to categorizing potential limitations of alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl systems in drug-like molecules.  

PubMed

Compounds that contain an alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl moiety are often flagged as potential Michael acceptors. All alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl moieties are not equivalent, however, and we sought to better understand this system and its potential implications in drug-like molecules. Measurement of the (13)C NMR shift of the beta-carbon and correlation to in vitro results allowed compounds in our collection to be categorized as potential Michael acceptors, potential substrates for NADPH, or as photoisomerizable. PMID:15482913

Cusack, Kevin P; Arnold, Lee D; Barberis, Claude E; Chen, Haipeng; Ericsson, Anna M; Gaza-Bulseco, Georgeen S; Gordon, Thomas D; Grinnell, Christine M; Harsch, Andreas; Pellegrini, Maria; Tarcsa, Edit

2004-11-15

241

Determining hydrogen-bond interactions in spider silk with 1H-13C HETCOR fast MAS solid-state NMR and DFT proton chemical shift calculations.  

PubMed

Two-dimensional (2D) (1)H-(13)C heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) solid-state NMR spectra collected with fast magic angle spinning (MAS) are used in conjunction with density functional theory (DFT) proton chemical shift calculations to determine the hydrogen-bonding strength for ordered ?-sheet and disordered 310-helical structures in spider dragline silk. The hydrogen-bond strength is determined to be identical for both structures in spider silk with a 1.83-1.84 Å NH···OC hydrogen-bond distance. PMID:23774714

Holland, Gregory P; Mou, Qiushi; Yarger, Jeffery L

2013-07-28

242

Relationship between gas chromatographic retention indices and chemical shifts in the 13C NMR spectra of structural isomers of compounds of tetracoordinated phosphorus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for determining the gas chromatographic retention indices of structural isomers of compounds of tetracoordinated phosphorus, based on the correlation between chemical shifts in 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and the retention indices of the structural isomers, and on the theory of intermolecular interactions, is proposed. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated for structural isomers of O-alkylmethylfluorophosphonates, which are typical representatives of compounds from the class of tetracoordinated phosphonates. The results from using the correlation approach are compared to experimental data.

Zhokhov, A. K.; Fomenko, P. V.; Aparkin, A. M.; Belousov, E. B.

2015-01-01

243

Plant cell wall profiling by fast maximum likelihood reconstruction (FMLR) and region-of-interest (ROI) segmentation of solution-state 2D 1H–13C NMR spectra  

PubMed Central

Background Interest in the detailed lignin and polysaccharide composition of plant cell walls has surged within the past decade partly as a result of biotechnology research aimed at converting biomass to biofuels. High-resolution, solution-state 2D 1H–13C HSQC NMR spectroscopy has proven to be an effective tool for rapid and reproducible fingerprinting of the numerous polysaccharides and lignin components in unfractionated plant cell wall materials, and is therefore a powerful tool for cell wall profiling based on our ability to simultaneously identify and comparatively quantify numerous components within spectra generated in a relatively short time. However, assigning peaks in new spectra, integrating them to provide relative component distributions, and producing color-assigned spectra, are all current bottlenecks to the routine use of such NMR profiling methods. Results We have assembled a high-throughput software platform for plant cell wall profiling that uses spectral deconvolution by Fast Maximum Likelihood Reconstruction (FMLR) to construct a mathematical model of the signals present in a set of related NMR spectra. Combined with a simple region of interest (ROI) table that maps spectral regions to NMR chemical shift assignments of chemical entities, the reconstructions can provide rapid and reproducible fingerprinting of numerous polysaccharide and lignin components in unfractionated cell wall material, including derivation of lignin monomer unit (S:G:H) ratios or the so-called SGH profile. Evidence is presented that ROI-based amplitudes derived from FMLR provide a robust feature set for subsequent multivariate analysis. The utility of this approach is demonstrated on a large transgenic study of Arabidopsis requiring concerted analysis of 91 ROIs (including both assigned and unassigned regions) in the lignin and polysaccharide regions of almost 100 related 2D 1H–13C HSQC spectra. Conclusions We show that when a suitable number of replicates are obtained per sample group, the correlated patterns of enriched and depleted cell wall components can be reliably and objectively detected even prior to multivariate analysis. The analysis methodology has been implemented in a publicly-available, cross-platform (Windows/Mac/Linux), web-enabled software application that enables researchers to view and publish detailed annotated spectra in addition to summary reports in simple spreadsheet data formats. The analysis methodology is not limited to studies of plant cell walls but is amenable to any NMR study where ROI segmentation techniques generate meaningful results. Please see Research Article: http://www.biotechnologyforbiofuels.com/content/6/1/46/. PMID:23622232

2013-01-01

244

(1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shift assignments and conformational analysis for the two diastereomers of the vitamin K epoxide reductase inhibitor brodifacoum.  

PubMed

Proton and (13)C NMR chemical shifts and (1)H-(1)H scalar couplings for the two diastereomers of the potent vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) inhibitor brodifacoum have been determined at 293 K from acetone solutions containing both diastereomers. To facilitate difficult assignments, homo- and heteronuclear correlation spectra were acquired at 750 and 900 MHz over 268-303 K temperature range. Conformations of both diastereomers inferred from the scalar couplings and 1-D NOE measurements reveal that one diastereomer (SS/RR) adopts a strained geometry in the cyclohexene ring system of the tetralin group. The NMR spectra also show evidence of line broadening due to conformational exchange at room temperature for the SR/RS diastereomer. These assignments and conformational analyses may be useful in studies of biomolecular interactions of brodifacoum with target proteins such as VKOR and in source determination of brodifacoum. PMID:19569076

Cort, John R; Cho, Herman

2009-10-01

245

Solid-state 13C NMR study of banana liquid crystals - 1: Two different alkyl tail-group packing environments in the B7 phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements were performed for the B7 phase of the banana-shaped molecule P-8-O-PIMB(NO 2). In this phase, NMR chemical shifts assigned to five methylene carbons on the alkyl tail appear as at least seven peaks, indicating that the two alkyl tails within a single molecule have different packing structures. Combined CP/MAS and PST/MAS measurements show that one of the alkyl tails has dense packing with low molecular mobility and the other has loose packing with high molecular mobility. Thus, it can be concluded that both the polar bent and molecular axes are tilted toward the layer in the B7 phase of P-8-O-PIMB(NO 2), exhibiting molecular leaning.

Kurosu, Hiromichi; Nakanishi, Saki; Kimura, Saori; Kang, Sungmin; Li, Xiaodong; Sone, Masato; Watanabe, Junji

2012-01-01

246

Solid-state 13C NMR study of banana liquid crystals - 2: Alkyl tail-group packing environments in the hexagonal columnar phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements were performed in order to obtain the packing structure of alkyl tail in the hexagonal columnar phase of the banana-shaped N(1,7)-S16 molecule. In this phase, NMR chemical shifts assigned to the internal methylene carbons at an amorphous state appear as two peaks, indicating that the two alkyl tails are placed under two different chemical environments. From combined cross-polarization/magic-angle spinning and pulse saturation transfer/magical-angle spinning measurements, two alkyl tails were found to have the different mobility. Such two different environments are not unusual in conventional mesophases, but in the hexagonal columnar phase formed by cylindrical columns composed of enclosed smectic layers; one of the alkyl tails is located inside and the other is located outside the columnar structure.

Kurosu, Hiromichi; Endo, Yumi; Kimura, Saori; Hashimoto, Tomoko; Harada, Motoi; Lee, Eun-Woo; Sone, Masato; Watanabe, Junji; Kang, Sungmin

2013-05-01

247

Complete (1) H and (13) C NMR spectral assignments for the glycoalkaloid dehydrocommersonine.  

PubMed

The normal levels and types of glycoalkaloids found in commercial varieties of potato (Solanum tuberosum) appear to present no hazard to human health. However when wild Solanum species are used in breeding endeavors, new and untested glycoalkaloids may be introduced. Recent studies of domestic crosses with a wild Solanum oplocense accession indicated that the levels of a non-indigenous glycoalkaloid appeared associated with reduced defoliation by the Colorado potato beetle. The non-indigenous glycoalkaloid was isolated from foliage of the wild S. oplocense accession and unambiguously characterized by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and NM analysis as the glycoalkaloid dehydrocommersonine. PMID:22847870

King, Russell R; Calhoun, Larry A

2012-09-01

248

Solution Structures of the Prototypical 18 kDa Translocator Protein Ligand, PK 11195, Elucidated with 1H/13C NMR Spectroscopy and Quantum Chemistry  

PubMed Central

Eighteen kilodalton translocator protein (TSPO) is an important target for drug discovery and for clinical molecular imaging of brain and peripheral inflammatory processes. PK 11195 [1a; 1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-methyl-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinoline carboxamide] is the major prototypical high-affinity ligand for TSPO. Elucidation of the solution structure of 1a is of interest for understanding small-molecule ligand interactions with the lipophilic binding site of TSPO. Dynamic 1H/13C NMR spectroscopy of 1a revealed four quite stable but interconverting rotamers, due to amide bond and 2-chlorophenyl group rotation. These rotamers have been neglected in previous descriptions of the structure of 1a and of the binding of 1a to TSPO. Here, we used quantum chemistry at the level of B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p) to calculate 13C and 1H chemical shifts for the rotamers of 1a and for the very weak TSPO ligand, N-desmethyl-PK 11195 (1b). These data, plus experimental NMR data, were then used to characterize the structures of rotamers of 1a and 1b in organic solution. Energy barriers for both the amide bond and 2?-chlorophenyl group rotation of 1a were determined from dynamic 1H NMR to be similar (ca.17 to 18 kcal/mol), and they compared well with those calculated at the level of B3LYP/6-31G*. Furthermore, the computed barrier for Z to E rotation is considerably lower in 1a(18.7 kcal/mol) than in 1b (25.4 kcal/mol). NMR (NOE) unequivocally demonstrated that the E rotamer of 1a is the more stable in solution by about 0.4 kcal/mol. These detailed structural findings will aid future TSPO ligand design and support the notion that TSPO prefers to bind ligands as amide E-rotamers. PMID:22860199

2012-01-01

249

Residue-specific millisecond to microsecond fluctuations in bacteriorhodopsin induced by disrupted or disorganized two-dimensional crystalline lattice, through modified lipid–helix and helix–helix interactions, as revealed by 13C NMR  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recorded 13C NMR spectra of [3-13C]-, [1-13C]Ala-, and [1-13C]Val-labeled bacteriorhodopsin (bR), W80L and W12L mutants and bacterio-opsin (bO) from retinal-deficient E1001 strain, in order to examine the possibility of their millisecond to microsecond local fluctuations with correlation time in the order of 10?4 to 10?5 s, induced or prevented by disruption or assembly of two-dimensional (2D) crystalline lattice,

Hazime Saitô; Takahiro Tsuchida; Keizi Ogawa; Tadashi Arakawa; Satoru Yamaguchi; Satoru Tuzi

2002-01-01

250

Effects of added paramagnetic ions on the 13 C CP\\/MAS NMR spectrum of a de-ashed soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A de-ashed soil was reacted with a series of paramagnetic (Mn2+, Fe3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Pr3+, Eu3+) and non-paramagnetic (Na+, Ca2+, Zn2+) ions. Amendment with non-paramagnetic ions did not effect the NMR properties of the soil organic matter (SOM), whereas a number of NMR properties including signal intensity, broadness and relaxation rate constants (T1?H, T1H, T1C) were effected by the

Ronald J Smernik; J. Malcolm Oades

1999-01-01

251

Application of /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy in structural investigations of Vinca indole alkaloids  

SciTech Connect

This paper considers the laws connecting the parameters of the H 1 and C 13 NMR spectra with the structure of the substances and the use of these laws for solving structural and stereochemical problems of the Vinca indole alkaloids and other compounds of closely related structure. For each type of alkaloid, characteristic features of the PMR and C 13 NMR spectra are given that permit the structures of similar bases to be established and their stereochemical identification to be performed.

Yagudaev, M.R.

1986-07-01

252

The biochemical and elemental compositions of marine plankton: A NMR perspective  

E-print Network

resonance (CP/MAS 13 C NMR). Using a mixing model that relates NMR spectral data to biochemical compositionThe biochemical and elemental compositions of marine plankton: A NMR perspective J.I. Hedges a,*, J. Although preliminary, this 13 C NMR-based estimate indicates elemental compositions and respiratory oxygen

Long, Bernard

253

13C NMR, 15N NMR and quantum-chemical study of the tautomerism of 2-substituted 5-Me-7-OH-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 13C and 15N NMR spectra of a series of differently 2-substituted 5-Me-7-OH-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines were recorded and the chemical shifts assigned by employing the whole arsenal of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic methods. Both the 13C chemical shifts of the C-7 carbon atoms and the line shape of the 15N resonances of N-3 and N-4, respectively, were not sufficiently characteristic to differentiate the lactim and the three lactam tautomers of the compounds studied. However, by calculating both the formation energies and the 13C as well as 15N chemical shifts of the various tautomers by quantumchemical ab-initio calculations at the 6-31G? level, the preferred tautomer(s) could be unequivocally assigned. The solvent effect on the present tautomerism, which proved very strong, could be studied quantitatively by including the present NMR solvent in the accompanying calculations employing a self-consistent isodensity polarized continuum model (SCIPCM).

Kleinpeter, E.; Koch, A.; Fischer, G.; Askolin, C.-P.

1997-11-01

254

Distance measurements in spin-1/2 systems by 13C and 31P solid-state NMR in dense dipolar networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article solid-state NMR methods for the determination of internuclear dipole-dipole couplings between homonuclear spin-1/2 nuclei are presented. They are suitable for relatively dense dipolar networks which are still dominated by 2-spin interactions. C-/R-symmetry theory is applied to create a double-quantum average Hamiltonian using phase-modulated radio-frequency irradiation and magic-angle sample-rotation. Symmetry derived pulse sequences with improved compensation against chemical shift anisotropies were found assuming a small isotropic chemical shift difference and using numerical calculations of the spin dynamics. Moreover it is shown that a constant time procedure can be used to acquire reliable double-quantum build-up curves even in systems in which damping obscures oscillations in their symmetric build-up curve. This technique is demonstrated on four crystalline model compounds with 31P and 13C spin systems typical for inorganic and biological applications. Comparison to crystal structure data indicates that the distances derived this way from 31P and 13C double-quantum NMR carry only small systematic errors caused for example by anisotropic J-coupling, dipolar contributions from adjacent spins and relaxation.

Schmedt auf der Günne, Jörn

2003-11-01

255

Mechanism of Au(III) reduction by chitosan: Comprehensive study with (13)C and (1)H NMR analysis of chitosan degradation products.  

PubMed

The mechanism of Au(III) reduction by chitosan has been proposed on the basis of comprehensive study of kinetics of Au(III) reduction and chitosan chain degradation using UV-vis spectroscopy and viscosimetry, and identification of reaction products using colloid titration and (13)C, (1)H NMR spectroscopy. We have shown that formation of gold nanoparticles in H[AuCl4]/chitosan solutions starts with hydrolysis of chitosan catalyzed by Au(III). The products of chitosan hydrolysis rather than chitosan itself act as the main reducing species. According to (13)C and (1)H NMR spectroscopy data, chitosan/Au(0) composites contain chitosan with reduced molecular weight and acetylation degree, whereas water-soluble by-products consist of chitosan oligomers with higher acetylation degree, derivatives of glucosamine acids, and formate ion. Chitosan degradation has significantly contributed to the decrease of its efficiency as a gold nanoparticles stabilizer. The gold particle size increased from 6.9nm to 16.2nm, when Au(III)/chitosan molar ratio changed from 1:80 to 1:10. PMID:25498610

Pestov, Alexander; Nazirov, Alexander; Modin, Evgeny; Mironenko, Alexander; Bratskaya, Svetlana

2015-03-01

256

sup 13 C and sup 15 N NMR studies on the interaction between 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine and lumazine protein  

SciTech Connect

The interaction between the prosthetic group 6,7-dimethyl-8-(1{prime}-D-ribityl)lumazine and the lumazine apoproteins from two marine bioluminescent bacteria, one from a relatively thermophilic species, Photobacterium leiognathi, and the other from a psychrophilic species, Photobacterium phosphoreum, was studied by {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N NMR using various selectively enriched derivatives. It is shown that the electron distribution in the protein-bound 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine differs from that of free 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine in buffer. The {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N chemical shifts indicate that the protein-bound 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine is embedded in a polar environment and that the ring system is strongly polarized. It is concluded that the two carbonyl groups play an important role in the polarization of the molecule. The N(3)-H group is not accessible to bulk solvent. The N(8) atom is sp{sup 2} hybridized and has {delta}+ character. Nuclear Overhauser effect studies indicate that the 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine ring is rigidly bound with no internal mobility. The NMR results indicate that the interaction between the ring system and the two apoproteins is almost the same.

Vervoort, J.; Mueller, F. (Agricultural Univ., Wageningen (Netherlands)); O'Kane, D.J.; Lee, J. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA)); Bacher, A.; Strobl, G. (Technical Univ. of Munich (West Germany))

1990-02-20

257

Backbone 1H, 13C, and 15N NMR assignments for the Cyanothece 51142 protein cce_0567: a protein associated with nitrogen fixation in the DUF683 family  

SciTech Connect

The recently sequenced genome of the diurnal cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. PCC 51142 (contig 83.1_1_243_746) contains the sequence for an hypothetical protein that falls into the DUF683 family. As observed for the other 54 DUF683 proteins currently listed in the GenBank database, this 78-residue (9.0 kDa) protein in Cyanothece is also found in a nitrogen fixation gene cluster suggesting that it is involved in the process. To date no structural information exists for any of the proteins in the DUF683 family. In an effort to elucidate the biochemical role DUF683 may play in nitrogen fixation and to obtain structural information for a member of the DUF683 protein family, a construct containing DUF683 from Cyanothece 51142 was generated, expressed, purified, and the solution properties characterized. A total rotational correlation time (tc) of 17.1 ns was estimated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy suggesting a molecular weight of ~ 40 kDa, an observation dictating that DUF683 is a tetramer in solution. Using triple-labeled (2H, 13C, 15N) and residue-specific 15N-labeled amino acids (L, K, V, and E/Q) samples, most of the backbone and side chain resonances for DUF683 were assigned. The 13C alpha chemical shifts and NOESY NMR data indicate that the protein is helical from K18-E75.

Buchko, Garry W.; Sofia, Heidi J.

2008-06-01

258

Trace level detection of compounds related to the chemical weapons convention by 1H-detected 13C NMR spectroscopy executed with a sensitivity-enhanced, cryogenic probehead.  

PubMed

Two-dimensional 1H-13C HSQC (heteronuclear single quantum correlation) and fast-HMQC (heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation) pulse sequences were implemented using a sensitivity-enhanced, cryogenic probehead for detecting compounds relevant to the Chemical Weapons Convention present in complex mixtures. The resulting methods demonstrated exceptional sensitivity for detecting the analytes at trace level concentrations. 1H-13C correlations of target analytes at < or = 25 microg/mL were easily detected in a sample where the 1H solvent signal was approximately 58,000-fold more intense than the analyte 1H signals. The problem of overlapping signals typically observed in conventional 1H spectroscopy was essentially eliminated, while 1H and 13C chemical shift information could be derived quickly and simultaneously from the resulting spectra. The fast-HMQC pulse sequences generated magnitude mode spectra suitable for detailed analysis in approximately 4.5 h and can be used in experiments to efficiently screen a large number of samples. The HSQC pulse sequences, on the other hand, required roughly twice the data acquisition time to produce suitable spectra. These spectra, however, were phase-sensitive, contained considerably more resolution in both dimensions, and proved to be superior for detecting analyte 1H-13C correlations. Furthermore, a HSQC spectrum collected with a multiplicity-edited pulse sequence provided additional structural information valuable for identifying target analytes. The HSQC pulse sequences are ideal for collecting high-quality data sets with overnight acquisitions and logically follow the use of fast-HMQC pulse sequences to rapidly screen samples for potential target analytes. Use of the pulse sequences considerably improves the performance of NMR spectroscopy as a complimentary technique for the screening, identification, and validation of chemical warfare agents and other small-molecule analytes present in complex mixtures and environmental samples. PMID:18345646

Cullinan, David B; Hondrogiannis, George; Henderson, Terry J

2008-04-15

259

1H, 13C, NH, HH, CH COSY, HH NOESY NMR and UV-vis studies of Solophenyl red 3BL dye azo-hydrazone tautomerism in various solvents.  

PubMed

Azo-hydrazone tautomeric behavior of polyazo Solophenyl red 3BL (C.I. Direct 80) dye in different solvents (water, methanol and DMSO) was investigated using 1H, 13C, NH, HH, CH COSY, HH NOESY NMR techniques and UV-vis spectroscopy. Two-dimensional NMR experiments were used to assign 1H, 13C and 15N NMR lines unambiguously. Results showed that the hydrazone-form proton NMR signal appeared in the weakest field with respect to tetramethylsilane, in comparison with the amide and phenolic proton NMR signals. UV-vis absorption spectroscopic evidences showed that azo-hydrazone mixture exists in water and DMSO solvents, but in methanol, only azo tautomer was dominant, which was in a good agreement with NMR spectroscopic results. PMID:16406789

Hassanzadeh, A; Zeini-Isfahani, A; Habibi, M H; Heravi, M R A Poor; Abdollahi-Alibeik, M

2006-02-01

260

Solid state 13C NMR analysis of shales and coals from Laramide Basins. Final report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This Western Research Institute (WRI) jointly sponsored research (JSR) project augmented and complemented research conducted by the University of Wyoming Institute For Energy Research for the Gas Research Institute. The project, {open_quotes}A New Innovative Exploitation Strategy for Gas Accumulations Within Pressure Compartments,{close_quotes} was a continuation of a project funded by the GRI Pressure Compartmentalization Program that began in 1990. That project, {open_quotes}Analysis of Pressure Chambers and Seals in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana,{close_quotes} characterized a new class of hydrocarbon traps, the discovery of which can provide an impetus to revitalize the domestic petroleum industry. In support of the UW Institute For Energy Research`s program on pressure compartmentalization, solid-state {sup 13}C NMR measurements were made on sets of shales and coals from different Laramide basins in North America. NMR measurements were made on samples taken from different formations and depths of burial in the Alberta, Bighorn, Denver, San Juan, Washakie, and Wind River basins. The carbon aromaticity determined by NMR was shown to increase with depth of burial and increased maturation. In general, the NMR data were in agreement with other maturational indicators, such as vitrinite reflectance, illite/smectite ratio, and production indices. NMR measurements were also obtained on residues from hydrous pyrolysis experiments on Almond and Lance Formation coals from the Washakie Basin. These data were used in conjunction with mass and elemental balance data to obtain information about the extent of carbon aromatization that occurs during artificial maturation. The data indicated that 41 and 50% of the original aliphatic carbon in the Almond and Lance coals, respectively, aromatized during hydrous pyrolysis.

Miknis, F.P.; Jiao, Z.S.; Zhao, Hanqing; Surdam, R.C.

1998-12-31

261

Solid-state 13C NMR investigations of cyclophanes: [2.2]paracyclophane and 1,8-dioxa[8](2,7)pyrenophane.  

PubMed

Solid-state NMR (ssNMR) and ab initio quantum mechanical calculations are used in order to understand and to better characterize the molecular conformation and properties of [2.2]paracyclophane and 1,8-dioxa[8](2,7)pyrenophane. Both molecules are cyclophanes, consisting of an aromatic ring assembly and a cyclic aliphatic chain connected to both ends of the aromatic portion. The aliphatic chain causes curvature in the six-membered aromatic ring structures. This led us to examine how the ring strain due to curvature affects the chemical shifts. Using X-ray structures of both [2.2]paracyclophane and 1,8-dioxa[8](2,7)pyrenophane as our starting model, we calculate the chemical shielding tensors and compare these data with those collected from the (13)C ssNMR FIREMAT experiment. We define curvature of [2.2]paracyclophane and 1,8-dioxa[8](2,7)pyrenophane using the ?-orbital axis vector (POAV) pyramidalization angle (?(p)). PMID:22480194

Halling, Merrill D; Unikela, Kiran Sagar; Bodwell, Graham J; Grant, David M; Pugmire, Ronald J

2012-05-31

262

Solid-state 13C NMR studies of a large fossil gymnosperm from the Yallourn Open Cut, Latrobe Valley, Australia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A series of samples taken from the cross section of a 3-m-diameter fossilized gymnospermous log (Araucariaceae) in the Yallourn Seam of the Australian brown coals was examined by solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance to delineate chemical changes related to the combined processes of peatification and coalification. The results show that cellulosic materials were degraded and lost on the periphery of the log, however, the degree of such degradation in the central core is substantially less. The lignin is uniformly altered by coalification reactions to a macromolecular substance displaying decreased aryl ether linkages but significantly greater amounts of carbon linkages compared to modern lignin. Changes in the methoxyl carbon contents of lignin in cross section reveal demethylation reactions, but these do not appear to be related to degree of carbon linking. Both the degredation of cellulosic materials and demethylation of lignin appear to be early diagenetic processes occurring during peatification independently of the coalification reactions. ?? 1989.

Bates, A.L.; Hatcher, P.G.

1989-01-01

263

A comparison of dissolved humic substances from seawater with Amazon River counterparts by sup 13 C-NMR spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Although dissolved organic matter (DOM) in seawater constitutes one of the major reservoirs of reduced carbon on earth, the biochemical and geographic origins of this material and its hydrophobic humic component remain unclear. Rivers have been suggested as a potentially important source of marine DOM, but this implication has not yet been systematically tested by direct comparisons of the bulk structural characteristics of DOM isolated from representative ocean reservoirs and their major river sources. The authors report here such a comparison and find that dissolved humic substances isolated from surface and deep seawater in the East Equatorial and north Central Pacific are enriched in nitrogen and {sup 13}C and depleted in unsaturated carbon with respect to counterparts from the Amazon River system. Based on these observations, riverine dissolved humic substances appear to comprise a small fraction of seawater humic substances and therefore must be efficiently and rapidly removed from the ocean.

Hedges, J.I. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States)); Hatcher, P.G. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)); Ertel, J.R. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (United States)); Meyers-Schulte, K.J. (Naval Ocean Research Group, San Diego, CA (United States))

1992-04-01

264

In vivo 31P- and 13C-NMR studies of ATP synthesis and methane formation by Methanosarcina barkeri.  

PubMed

Carbon and phosphorus metabolism of cell suspensions of Methanosarcina barkeri strain MS (DSM 800), grown on methanol, were probed in vivo by NMR. The experimental conditions, which involved thick cell suspensions, did not significantly affect the efficiency of the rate of methanol uptake by cells. Following exposure to methanol an acidification of both the intracellular and the extracellular spaces was observed and a gradient of 0.5 pH units across the cytoplasmic membrane was determined from the 31P-NMR data. High levels of intracellular ATP up to 4 mM were detected. The ADP concentration determined in a suspension of starved cells was only 2 mM, suggesting that a significant amount of ADP may be immobilized and is thus not detectable by NMR. In the presence of the protonophore, 3,3',4',5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide, the proton gradient was dissipated and the synthesis of ATP stopped. The inhibitor of the ATP synthase, N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, was rather inefficient in inhibiting ATP synthesis. High concentrations of N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (corresponding to 300 nmol/mg protein-1) were required to decrease the ATP content by approximately 60%, and, under these conditions, formation of acetyl phosphate was detected. However, the methanol consumption rate was not affected. PMID:2924775

Santos, H; Fareleira, P; Toci, R; LeGall, J; Peck, H D; Xavier, A V

1989-03-15

265

Use of 13C NMR and ftir for elucidation of degradation pathways during natural litter decomposition and composting I. early stage leaf degradation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Oxidative degradation of plant tissue leads to the formation of natural dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and humus. Infrared (IR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry have been used to elucidate the chemical reactions of the early stages of degradation that give rise to DOC derived from litter and compost. The results of this study indicate that oxidation of the lignin components of plant tissue follows the sequence of O-demethylation, and hydroxylation followed by ring-fission, chain-shortening, and oxidative removal of substituents. Oxidative ring-fission leads to the formation of carboxylic acid groups on the cleaved ends of the rings and, in the process, transforms phenolic groups into aliphatic alcoholic groups. The carbohydrate components are broken down into aliphatic hydroxy acids and aliphatic alcohols.

Wershaw, R.L.; Leenheer, J.A.; Kennedy, K.R.; Noyes, T.I.

1996-01-01

266

13C-NMR analysis of components of chernozem humic acids and their fractions with different molecular sizes and electrophoretic mobilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tandem size-exclusion chromatography and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were used for obtaining stable fractions of different molecular sizes and electrophoretic mobilities from chernozem humic acids (HAs). The obtained fractions were analyzed using solid-phase 13C NMR. The tendencies of the changes in the aromatic and aliphatic components of the HA fractions with different molecular sizes and electrophoretic mobilities were experimentally revealed. The aromatic-to-aliphatic carbon ratio Carom (165-108 ppm)/Caliph (108-0 ppm) was used for comparing the degrees of aliphaticity and aromaticity of the HA macromolecules. This ratio increased by more than five times when going from the high-molecular-weight to the low-molecular-weight fractions and largely determined their hydrophilic properties. The obtained results can be useful for the interpretation of the structural organization and the ecological functions of soil HAs and their fractions.

Trubetskoi, O. A.; Trubetskaya, O. E.

2011-03-01

267

FT-IR, 1H, 13C NMR, ESI-MS and semiempirical investigation of the structures of Monensin phenyl urethane complexes with the sodium cation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper three forms of phenyl urethane of Monensin i.e. its acid form (H-MU) and its 1:1 complex with NaClO4 (H-MU-Na) and its sodium salt (Na-MU) were obtained and their structures were studied by FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR, ESI MS and PM5 methods. The FT-IR data of Na-MU complexes demonstrate that the Cdbnd O urethane group is not engaged in the complexation of the sodium cation. However spectroscopic studies of H-MU-Na complex show that the structure in which this Cdbnd O urethane groups participate in the complexation is also present, but it is in the minority. The PM5 semiempirical calculations allow visualisation of all structures and determination of the hydrogen bond parameters.

Huczy?ski, Adam

2013-06-01

268

Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Loaded with Surfactant: Low Temperature Magic Angle Spinning 13C and 29Si NMR Enhanced by Dynamic Nuclear Polarization  

SciTech Connect

We show that dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can be used to enhance NMR signals of 13C and 29Si nuclei located in mesoporous organic/inorganic hybrid materials, at several hundreds of nanometers from stable radicals (TOTAPOL) trapped in the surrounding frozen disordered water. The approach is demonstrated using mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN), functionalized with 3-(N-phenylureido)propyl (PUP) groups, filled with the surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The DNP-enhanced proton magnetization is transported into the mesopores via 1H–1H spin diffusion and transferred to rare spins by cross-polarization, yielding signal enhancements ?on/off of around 8. When the CTAB molecules are extracted, so that the radicals can enter the mesopores, the enhancements increase to ?on/off ? 30 for both nuclei. A quantitative analysis of the signal enhancements in MSN with and without surfactant is based on a one-dimensional proton spin diffusion model. The effect of solvent deuteration is also investigated.

Lafon, Olivier [Universite de Lille Nord de France; Thankamony, Aany S. Lilly [Universite de Lille Nord de France; Kokayashi, Takeshi [Ames Laboratory; Carnevale, Diego [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne; Vitzthum, Veronika [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne; Slowing, Igor I. [Ames Laboratory; Kandel, Kapil [Ames Laboratory; Vezin, Herve [Universite de Lille Nord de France; Amoureux, Jean-Paul [Universite de Lille Nord de France; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne; Pruski, Marek [Ames Laboratory

2012-12-21

269

Detecting a new source for photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization in the LOV2 domain of phototropin by magnetic-field dependent (13)C NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Phototropin is a flavin mononucleotide (FMN) containing blue-light receptor, which regulates, governed by its two LOV domains, the phototropic response of higher plants. Upon photoexcitation, the FMN cofactor triplet state, (3)F, reacts with a nearby cysteine to form a covalent adduct. Cysteine-to-alanine mutants of LOV domains instead generate a flavin radical upon illumination. Here, we explore the formation of photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (CIDNP) in LOV2-C450A of Avena sativa phototropin and demonstrate that photo-CIDNP observed in solution (13)C NMR spectra can reliably be interpreted in terms of solid-state mechanisms including a novel triplet mechanism. To minimize cross-polarization, which transfers light-induced magnetization to adjacent (13)C nuclei, our experiments were performed on proteins reconstituted with specifically (13)C-labeled flavins. Two potential sources for photo-CIDNP can be identified: The photogenerated triplet state, (3)F, and the triplet radical pair (3)(F(-•)W(+•)), formed by electron abstraction of (3)F from tryptophan W491. To separate the two contributions, photo-CIDNP studies were performed at four different magnetic fields ranging from 4.7 to 11.8 T. Analysis revealed that, at fields <9 T, both (3)(F(-•)W(+•)) and (3)F contribute to photo-CIDNP, whereas at high magnetic fields, the calculated enhancement factors of (3)F agree favorably with their experimental counterparts. Thus, we have for the first time detected that a triplet state is the major source for photo-CIDNP in a photoactive protein. Since triplet states are frequently encountered upon photoexcitation of flavoproteins, the novel triplet mechanism opens up new means of studying electronic structures of the active cofactors in these proteins at atomic resolution. PMID:25207844

Kothe, Gerd; Lukaschek, Michail; Link, Gerhard; Kacprzak, Sylwia; Illarionov, Boris; Fischer, Markus; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Bacher, Adelbert; Weber, Stefan

2014-10-01

270

Solid-state NMR characterization of cross-linking in EPDM/PP blends from 1H-13C polarization transfer dynamics.  

PubMed

A novel approach for solid-state NMR characterization of cross-linking in polymer blends from the analysis of (1)H-(13)C polarization transfer dynamics is introduced. It extends the model of residual dipolar couplings under permanent cross-linking, typically used to describe (1)H transverse relaxation techniques, by considering a more realistic distribution of the order parameter along a polymer chain in rubbers. Based on a systematic numerical analysis, the extended model was shown to accurately reproduce all the characteristic features of the cross-polarization curves measured on such materials. This is particularly important for investigating blends of great technological potential, like thermoplastic elastomers, where (13)C high-resolution techniques, such as CP-MAS, are indispensable to selectively investigate structural and dynamical properties of the desired component. The validity of the new approach was demonstrated using the example of the CP build-up curves measured on a well resolved EPDM resonance line in a series of EPDM/PP blends. PMID:15681133

Aluas, Mihaela; Filip, Claudiu

2005-05-01

271

Assignment of the (13)C NMR spectrum by correlation to dipolar coupled proton-pairs and estimation of order parameters of a thiophene based liquid crystal.  

PubMed

Materials with widely varying molecular topologies and exhibiting liquid crystalline properties have attracted considerable attention in recent years. (13)C NMR spectroscopy is a convenient method for studying such novel systems. In this approach the assignment of the spectrum is the first step which is a non-trivial problem. Towards this end, we propose here a method that enables the carbon skeleton of the different sub-units of the molecule to be traced unambiguously. The proposed method uses a heteronuclear correlation experiment to detect pairs of nearby carbons with attached protons in the liquid crystalline core through correlation of the carbon chemical shifts to the double-quantum coherences of protons generated through the dipolar coupling between them. Supplemented by experiments that identify non-protonated carbons, the method leads to a complete assignment of the spectrum. We initially apply this method for assigning the (13)C spectrum of the liquid crystal 4-n-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl oriented in the magnetic field. We then utilize the method to assign the aromatic carbon signals of a thiophene based liquid crystal thereby enabling the local order-parameters of the molecule to be estimated and the mutual orientation of the different sub-units to be obtained. PMID:25429708

Reddy, Y Jayasubba; Ramanathan, K V

2015-01-14

272

Profiling sulfation/epimerization pattern of full-length heparan sulfate by NMR following cell culture 13C-glucose metabolic labeling.  

PubMed

Through its ability to interact with proteins, heparan sulfate (HS) fulfills a large variety of functions. Protein binding depends on the level of HS sulfation and epimerization which are cell specific and dynamically regulated. Characterization of this molecule, however, has been restricted to oligosaccharide fragments available in large amount for structural investigation or to sulfate distribution through compositional analysis. Here we developed a (1)H-(13)C 2D NMR-based approach, directly performed on HS isolated from (13)C-labeled cells. By integrating the peak volumes measured at different chemical shifts, this non-destructive analysis allows us to determine both the sulfation and the iduronic/glucuronic profiles of the polysaccharide. Applied to wild-type and N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-deficient fibroblasts as well as to epithelial cells differentiation, it also gives insights into the functional relationships existing between HS biosynthetic enzymes. This approach should be of significant interest to better understand HS changes that occur through physiologic regulations or during pathological development. PMID:25335974

Pegeot, Mathieu; Sadir, Rabia; Eriksson, Inger; Kjellen, Lena; Simorre, Jean-Pierre; Gans, Pierre; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues

2015-02-01

273

Changes in the compound classes of dissolved organic matter along an estuarine transect: A study using FTIR and 13C NMR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we use Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 13C NMR) data to quantify the changes of major chemical compound classes (carboxylic acid, amide, ester, aliphatic, aromatic and carbohydrate) in high molecular weight (HMW, >1 kDa) dissolved organic matter (DOM) isolated along a transect through the Elizabeth River/Chesapeake Bay system to the coastal Atlantic Ocean off Virginia, USA. Results show that carboxylic acids and aromatic compounds are lost along the transect, while HMW DOC becomes enriched in carbohydrate moieties that could have a mid-transect source, perhaps the intensive red tide bloom ( Choclodinium polykrikoides) which occurred during our sampling period. Taking the second derivative of the FTIR spectra resolved three pools of de-protonated carboxylic acids at our Dismal Swamp site (used to represent terrestrial organic matter in this area): one carboxylic acid pool, complexed with iron, seems to be lost between the Dismal Swamp and river sites; the second appears biogeochemically active throughout the riverine transect, disappearing in the coastal ocean sample; the third seems refractory, with the potential to be transported to and to accumulate within the open ocean. Five-member ring esters (?-lactones) were the major ester form in the Dismal Swamp; aliphatic and acetate esters were the dominant esters in the estuary/marine DOM. No amide groups were detectable in Dismal Swamp DOM; secondary amides were present at the estuarine/marine sites. Coupling FTIR with 13C NMR provides new insights into the biogeochemical roles of carboxylic acid, amide and ester compounds in aquatic ecosystems.

Abdulla, Hussain A. N.; Minor, Elizabeth C.; Dias, Robert F.; Hatcher, Patrick G.

2010-07-01

274

Interactions of fullerenes and calixarenes in the solid state studied with [sup 13]C CP-MAS NMR  

SciTech Connect

We report our findings on the interactions of fullerenes with calixarenes, forming a solid-state complex between C[sub 60] and 4-tert-butylcalix[8]arene, and solid state NMR of this complex. Complexation of C[sub 60] with calix[8]arene can occur in CS[sub 2] and in benzene solution, leading to the formation of a solid-state complex. The experiments indicate a 1:1 stoichiometry for the complex. C[sub 70] does not form similar complexes with calix[8]arenes, leading to the possibility of transferring C[sub 60] to the solid phase, separating it from C[sub 70] remaining in solution. The solid-state complexation in benzene, leading to precipitation, provides strong evidence for establishment of an interaction between C[sub 60] and 1. A change of the conformation of the calixarene upon complexation is indicated by the OH shift in the IR and the solid-state CP-MAS NMR data. 17 refs., 2 figs.

Williams, R.M.; Zwier, J.M.; Verhoeven, J.W. (Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Nachtegaal, G.H.; Kentgens, A.P.M. (Univ. of Nijmegen (Netherlands))

1994-07-27

275

Solid-state 13C NMR studies of dissolved organic matter in pore waters from different depositional environments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in pore waters from sediments of a number of different depositional environments was isolated by ultrafiltration using membranes with a nominal molecular weight cutoff of 500. This > 500 molecular weight DOM represents 70-98% of the total DOM in these pore waters. We determined the gross chemical structure of this material using both solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Our results show that the DOM in these pore waters appears to exist as two major types: one type dominated by carbohydrates and paraffinic structures and the second dominated by paraffinic and aromatic structures. We suggest that the dominance of one or the other structural type of DOM in the pore water depends on the relative oxidizing/reducing nature of the sediments as well as the source of the detrital organic matter. Under dominantly anaerobic conditions carbohydrates in the sediments are degraded by bacteria and accumulate in the pore water as DOM. However, little or no degradation of lignin occurs under these conditions. In contrast, sediments thought to be predominantly aerobic in character have DOM with diminished carbohydrate and enhanced aromatic character. The aromatic structures in the DOM from these sediments are thought to arise from the degradation of lignin. The large amounts of paraffinic structures in both types of DOM may be due to the degradation of unidentified paraffinic materials in algal or bacterial remains. ?? 1987.

Orem, W.H.; Hatcher, P.G.

1987-01-01

276

Spectral editing through laser-flash excitation in two-dimensional photo-CIDNP MAS NMR experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In solid-state photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP) MAS NMR experiments, strong signal enhancement is observed from molecules forming a spin-correlated radical pair in a rigid matrix. Two-dimensional 13C-13C dipolar-assisted rotational resonance (DARR) photo-CIDNP MAS NMR experiments have been applied to obtain exact chemical shift assignments from those cofactors. Under continuous illumination, the signals are enhanced via three-spin mixing (TSM) and differential decay (DD) and their intensity corresponds to the electron spin density in pz orbitals. In multiple-13C labelled samples, spin diffusion leads to propagation of signal enhancement to all 13C spins. Under steady-state conditions, direct signal assignment is possible due to the uniform signal intensity. The original intensities, however, are inaccessible and the information of the local electron spin density is lost. Upon laser-flash illumination, the signal is enhanced via the classical radical pair mechanism (RPM). The obtained intensities are related to isotropic hyperfine interactions aiso and both enhanced absorptive and emissive lines can be observed due to differences in the sign of the local isotropic hyperfine interaction. Exploiting the mechanism of the polarization, selectivity can be increased by the novel time-resolved two-dimensional dipolar-assisted rotational resonance (DARR) MAS NMR experiment which simplifies the signal assignment compared to complex spectra of the same RCs obtained by continuous illumination. Here we present two-dimensional time-resolved photo-CIDNP MAS NMR experiments providing both directly: signal assignment and spectral editing by sign and strength of aiso. Hence, this experiment provides a direct key to the electronic structure of the correlated radical pair.

Sai Sankar Gupta, Karthick Babu; Daviso, Eugenio; Jeschke, Gunnar; Alia, A.; Ernst, Matthias; Matysik, Jörg

2014-09-01

277

Spectral editing through laser-flash excitation in two-dimensional photo-CIDNP MAS NMR experiments.  

PubMed

In solid-state photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP) MAS NMR experiments, strong signal enhancement is observed from molecules forming a spin-correlated radical pair in a rigid matrix. Two-dimensional (13)C-(13)C dipolar-assisted rotational resonance (DARR) photo-CIDNP MAS NMR experiments have been applied to obtain exact chemical shift assignments from those cofactors. Under continuous illumination, the signals are enhanced via three-spin mixing (TSM) and differential decay (DD) and their intensity corresponds to the electron spin density in pz orbitals. In multiple-(13)C labelled samples, spin diffusion leads to propagation of signal enhancement to all (13)C spins. Under steady-state conditions, direct signal assignment is possible due to the uniform signal intensity. The original intensities, however, are inaccessible and the information of the local electron spin density is lost. Upon laser-flash illumination, the signal is enhanced via the classical radical pair mechanism (RPM). The obtained intensities are related to isotropic hyperfine interactions aiso and both enhanced absorptive and emissive lines can be observed due to differences in the sign of the local isotropic hyperfine interaction. Exploiting the mechanism of the polarization, selectivity can be increased by the novel time-resolved two-dimensional dipolar-assisted rotational resonance (DARR) MAS NMR experiment which simplifies the signal assignment compared to complex spectra of the same RCs obtained by continuous illumination. Here we present two-dimensional time-resolved photo-CIDNP MAS NMR experiments providing both directly: signal assignment and spectral editing by sign and strength of aiso. Hence, this experiment provides a direct key to the electronic structure of the correlated radical pair. PMID:25063951

Sai Sankar Gupta, Karthick Babu; Daviso, Eugenio; Jeschke, Gunnar; Alia, A; Ernst, Matthias; Matysik, Jörg

2014-09-01

278

Assessing the Comparative use of 13C {1H} CPMAS NMR Analyses Across Soil and Dissolved Organic Matter Samples from a Boreal Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In aquatic ecosystems, dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a major role in carbon (C), energy and nutrient budgets, particularly in boreal watersheds. Understanding the sources of DOM and what regulates its cycling in the aquatic environment can be increased by a more thorough understanding of its chemical and structural components. 13C cross polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (13C {1H} CPMAS NMR, hereafter referred to as CP) spectroscopy has been used extensively in the study of both DOM and soil organic matter. It allows assignment of functional groups of C in relative proportions, which informs our understanding of the chemical composition, source, and diagenetic state of DOM. It is well known that CP introduces a matrix effect caused by the dependence of signal strength of different C groups on the hydrogen environment surrounding it, resulting in functional groups of C being over- or under-represented in terms of relative proportion. To better understand the actual composition of the sample, 13C single pulse NMR (13C SPMAS NMR, hereafter referred to as SP) can be performed to determine the actual proportions of C functional groups. Two stream DOM samples were run using both CP and SP to see if an average correction factor could be applied by functional group across a wide range of DOM samples taken from a large boreal watershed in western Newfoundland. Five C functional groups (aliphatic, carbohydrate, aromatic, carboxylic, and carbonyl) were assessed across all samples and sample types. Amplification or under representation of C groups via CP was consistent in both DOM samples. The greatest effect observed was the underrepresentation of aromatic C (by a factor of greater than four), while both carbohydrate and aliphatic C were the most amplified (by a factor of approximately two). Applying this correction across the larger sample dataset for this watershed changed the overall interpretation of these stream DOM samples significantly, particularly in regards to aromaticity and diagenetic state. This same methodological comparison was applied to organic horizon soil and DOM derived from organic horizon soils (leachate) to determine if these corrections would be consistent across sample types. While aromatic C was again underrepresented and the aliphatic and carbohydrate groups amplified in the CP technique, the magnitude of these differences was less than that observed in stream DOM samples, and varied between soil and leachate samples, indicating that comparisons of CP results is not valid across different sample types. The large correction factors required for stream DOM samples may be due to the lower C abundance relative to other matrix components and are particularly important as we consider how the chemical composition of watershed DOM relates to the landscape. The large correction required for aromatic C is critical as it and the diagenetic indices that stem from these measures are greatly impacted. This work indicates that using CP across these sample types is not appropriate but application of a correction factor using SP measurements may be a useful approach enabling such comparisons.

Bonnell, J.; Schneider, C.; Ziegler, S. E.

2011-12-01

279

In Situ 13C and 23Na Magic Angle Spinning NMR Investigation of Supercritical CO2 Incorporation in Smectite-Natural Organic Matter Composites  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an in situ NMR study of clay-natural organic polymer systems (a hectoritehumic acid [HA] composite) under CO2 storage reservoir conditions (90 bars CO2 pressure, 50°C). The 13C and 23Na NMR data show that supercritical CO2 interacts more strongly with the composite than with the base clay and does not react to form other C-containing species over several days at elevated CO2. With and without organic matter, the data suggest that CO2 enters the interlayer space of Na-hectorite equilibrated at 43% relative humidity. The presence of supercritical CO2 also leads to increased 23Na signal intensity, reduced line width at half height, increased basal width, more rapid 23Na T1 relaxation rates, and a shift to more positive resonance frequencies. Larger changes are observed for the hectorite-HA composite than for the base clay. In light of recently reported MD simulations of other polymer-Na-smectite composites, we interpret the observed changes as an increase in the rate of Na+ site hopping in the presence of supercritical CO2, the presence of potential new Na+ sorption sites when the humic acid is present, and perhaps an accompanying increase in the number of Na+ ions actively involved in site hopping. The results suggest that the presence of organic material either in clay interlayers or on external particle surfaces can significantly affect the behavior of supercritical CO2 and the mobility of metal ions in reservoir rocks.

Bowers, Geoffrey M.; Hoyt, David W.; Burton, Sarah D.; Ferguson, Brennan O.; Varga, Tamas; Kirkpatrick, Robert J.

2014-01-29

280

Conformational analysis, spectroscopic study (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV, 1H and 13C NMR), molecular orbital energy and NLO properties of 5-iodosalicylic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, 5-iodosalicylic acid (5-ISA, C7H5IO3) is structurally characterized by FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR and UV spectroscopies. There are eight conformers, Cn, n = 1-8 for this molecule therefore the molecular geometry for these eight conformers in the ground state are calculated by using the ab-initio density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method approach with the aug-cc-pVDZ-PP basis set for iodine and the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set for the other elements. The computational results identified that the most stable conformer of 5-ISA is the C1 form. The vibrational spectra are calculated DFT method invoking the same basis sets and fundamental vibrations are assigned on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method with PQS program. Total density of state (TDOS) and partial density of state (PDOS) and also overlap population density of state (COOP or OPDOS) diagrams analysis for C1 conformer were calculated using the same method. The energy and oscillator strength are calculated by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) results complement with the experimental findings. Besides, charge transfer occurring in the molecule between HOMO and LUMO energies, frontier energy gap, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) are calculated and presented. The NMR chemical shifts (1H and 13C) spectra are recorded and calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. Mulliken atomic charges of the title molecule are also calculated, interpreted and compared with salicylic acid. The optimized bond lengths, bond angles and calculated NMR and UV, vibrational wavenumbers showed the best agreement with the experimental results.

Karaca, Caglar; Atac, Ahmet; Karabacak, Mehmet

2015-02-01

281

Elucidating Metabolic Pathways for Amino Acid Incorporation Into Dragline Spider Silk using 13C Enrichment and Solid State NMR  

PubMed Central

Spider silk has been evolutionarily optimized for contextual mechanical performance over the last 400 million years. Despite precisely balanced mechanical properties, which have yet to be reproduced, the underlying molecular architecture of major ampullate spider silk can be simplified being viewed as a versatile block copolymer. Four primary amino acid motifs: polyalanine, (GA)n, GPGXX, and GGX (X = G,A,S,Q,L,Y) will be considered in this study. Although synthetic mimetics of many of these amino acid motifs have been produced in several biological systems, the source of spider silk’s mechanical integrity remains elusive. Mechanical robustness may be a product not only of the amino acid structure but also of the tertiary structure of the silk. Historically, solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR) has been used to reveal the crystalline structure of the polyalanine motif; however, limitations in amino acid labeling techniques have obscured the structures of the GGX and GPGXX motifs thought to be responsible for the structural mobility of spider silk. We describe the use of metabolic pathways to label tyrosine for the first time as well as to improve the labeling efficiency of proline. These improved labeling techniques will allow the previously unknown tertiary structures of major ampullate silk to be probed. PMID:21334448

Creager, Melinda S.; Izdebski, Thomas; Brooks, Amanda E.; Lewis, Randolph V.

2013-01-01

282

Quantification of xylooligomers in hot water wood extract by (1)H-(13)C heteronuclear single quantum coherence NMR.  

PubMed

A new method that employs 2D-HSQCNMRwasdeveloped to determine xylooligomer concentrations in the hot water extracts of Paulownia elongata, aspen, sugar maple, southern hardwood mixture, and willow woodchips. Equations for computing oligomer concentrations calculation were developed based on HSQC corresponding resonance integrals of xylooligomer C1H1 and monomeric sugar standard curves. The degree of polymerization (DP) of xylooligomers in the hot water extract was computed by equation obtained from a series of xylooligomer standard solutions with DPs that ranged from 2 to 6. Another group of hot water wood extract that is served as a control group was hydrolyzed by 4% sulfuric acid at 121°C for 60min in order to convert all xylooligomer into xylose. As 2D-HSQC resonance response is different for acetylated xylo-units, as compared with non-acetylated units, proton NMR was used to calibrate the acetylated xylooligomer concentration. Xylooligomer concentrations determined from HSQC compared fairly well with data after hydrolysis. PMID:25498715

Yan, Jipeng; Kiemle, David; Liu, Shijie

2015-03-01

283

Application of ChemDraw NMR Tool: Correlation of Program-Generated (Super 13)C Chemical Shifts and pK[subscript a] Values of Para-Substituted Benzoic Acids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study uses the ChemDraw nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) tool to process 15 para-substituted benzoic acids and generate (super 13)C NMR chemical shifts of C1 through C5. The data were plotted against their pK[subscript a] value and a fairly good linear fit was found for pK[subscript a] versus delta[subscript c1].

Hongyi Wang

2005-01-01

284

Effect of organic matter application on CP-MAS-13C-NMR spectra of humic acids from a brown soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The humified SOM or humic substances (HS) composed of humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA) and humin (HM) represent the most microbially recalcitrant and stable reservoir of organic carbon in soil (Piccolo et al., 2004). OM applications can influence the amount and structural characteristics of HS(Dou et al., 2008). During the past few decades, there has been much research on HS, but their chemical structure is still not fully understood (Dong, 2006).CP-MAS-13C-NMR spectroscopy was considered as an effective method to study structures of HS without dissolving problem compared with liquid 13C-NMR (Conte et al., 1997; Dou et al., 2008). It can directly measure the carbon framework and reflect the nature of HS transformation after OM application (Spaccini et al., 2000). For that reason, this method was applied in this study. The objective of this paper was to clarify the effect of long term OM application on the changes of structural characteristics in HAs, which provided new information for improving soil fertility by OM application. The experiment was carried out on a brown soil (Paleudalf in USDA Soil Taxonomy) at Shenyang Agricultural University, Liaoning province, China (N41°48'-E123°25'). The experiment included 3 treatments: zero-treatment (CKbr), and two pig manure (PM) treatments (O1 and O2) at the rates of 0.9 t ha-1 and 1.8 t ha-1 of organic carbon, respectively. The samples of the HA fraction were extracted, separated and purified according to the method described by Dou et al. (1991). Elemental composition, Differential thermal analysis (DTA), -lgK value, FT-IR and CP-MAS- 13C-NMR of HAs were performed. Effects on the contents of orgaic carbon and its composition. The contents of TOC were from 8.77 g kg-1 to 12.25 g kg-1. The relative contents in TOC for WSS, HA, and FA were 6.87%, 14.2% and 19.8%. Comparing the CKbr, the contents of WSS, HA and FA for O1 and O2 increased, but relative contents of WSS and FA decreased. The content of the HA increased after OM application, which was consistent with other studies (Wang et al., 2001). The content of the WSS increased after the OM application indicating that the increase of labile organic carbon. The C/H mole ratio of the HS could reflect the degree of condensation (Dou et al., 1995). Effects on HA chemical and optical properties. The chemical and optical properties of HA were listed. The C/H ratios decreased after OM application, from 0.830 (CKbr) to 0.754 (O2). While ?lgK increased, from 0.623 (CKbr) to 0.658 (O2). The HA structure tended to become simpler. The C/H ratio of the HA decreased after OM application. This indicates that OM application decreased the degree of condensation. The ?lgK values can be used as the index of HA molecule complexity in the soil. If ?lgK increased, the molecular structure becomes simpler. After OM application, ?lgK increased indicating that the molecular structure became simpler. Effects on HA thermal properties. It could be seen that HA had exothermic peaks in moderate and high temperature regions. After OM application, heat (H2) of exothermic peak increased in moderate temperature region, while heat (H3) of exothermic peak decreased in high temperature region. The the heat ratio of exothermic peaks in high temperature region to moderate (H3/H2) decreased. From CKbr to O2, H3/H2 decreased from 4.31 to0.86. The HA had moderate and high temperature exothermic peaks. The heat of exothermic peaks in the moderate temperature region might show that aliphatic compounds decomposed and peripheral functional groups decarboxylated. The heat of the exothermic peaks in the high temperature region might show that the HA was oxidized completely and inter-aromatic structures in the molecule decomposed. The heat ratio of the high to moderate temperature exothermic regions (H3/H2) decreased significantly after PM application, indicating that the proportion of aromatic structure decreased and the HA molecular structure simplified. Effects on CP-MAS-13C-NMR spectrum of HA. The CP-MAS- 13C-NMR spectra of the HA were quite similar to each other

Dou, S.

2009-04-01

285

The NMR investigation of alkaloids. IX. /sup 13/C NMR spectra and stereochemistry of convolvine, convolamine, convoline, convolidine, subhirsine and 6-hydroxyhyoscyamine  

SciTech Connect

A correlation has been made on the basis of the results of a study of the C 13 NMR spectra, of the CSs of the C 13 carbon nuclei with the structure and stereochemistry of the tropane alkaloids convolvine, convolamine, convoline, convolidine, subhirsine, and 6-hydroxyhyoscyamine. It has been established that the N-CH/sub 3/ group in convolamine and the -OH group in convoline are oriented equatorially, and the N-CH/sub 3/ in hydroxyhyoscyamine axially.

Yagudaev, M.R.; Aripova, S.F.

1986-07-01

286

Solid-state 13C NMR investigation of the oxidative degradation of selectively labeled polypropylene by thermal aging and y-irradiation.  

SciTech Connect

Unstabilized polypropylene (PP) films having selective {sup 13}C isotopic labeling were subjected to thermal aging at 50, 80, and 109 C and to {gamma}-irradiation at 24 and 80 C. The oxidized films were examined using solid-state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Dramatic differences were found in the type and distribution of oxidation products originating from the three carbon atom sites within the PP macromolecule (tertiary carbon, secondary carbon, and methyl side group). Most of the oxidation products that formed on the polymer chain originated through chemical reactions at the PP tertiary carbons. Under all of the aging conditions examined, tertiary peroxides (from the PP tertiary site) were the most abundant functional group produced. Also originating from the PP tertiary carbon were significant amounts of tertiary alcohols, together with several more minor products that included 'chain-end' methyl ketones. No significant amount of peroxides or alcohols associated with the PP secondary carbon sites was detected. A substantial yield of carboxylate groups was identified (acids, esters, etc.). The majority of these originated from the PP secondary carbon site, from which other minor products also formed, including in-chain ketones. We found no measurable yield of oxidation products originating from reaction at the PP methyl group. Remarkably similar distributions of the major oxidation products were obtained for thermal aging at different temperatures, whereas the product distributions obtained for irradiation at the different temperatures exhibited significant differences. Time-dependent concentration plots have been obtained, which show the amounts of the various oxidation products originating at the different PP sites, as a function of the extent of material oxidation.

Mowery, Daniel Michael; Assink, Roger Alan; Klamo, Sara B. (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA); Clough, Roger Lee; Bernstein, Robert; Derzon, Dora Kay

2004-12-01

287

Acetate stimulates flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle in rabbit renal proximal tubules synthesizing glutamine from alanine: a 13C NMR study.  

PubMed Central

Although glutamine synthesis has a major role in the control of acid-base balance and ammonia detoxification in the kidney of herbivorous species, very little is known about the regulation of this process. We therefore studied the influence of acetate, which is readily metabolized by the kidney and whose metabolism is accompanied by the production of bicarbonate, on glutamine synthesis from variously labelled [(13)C]alanine and [(14)C]alanine molecules in isolated rabbit renal proximal tubules. With alanine as sole exogenous substrate, glutamine and, to a smaller extent, glutamate and CO(2), were the only significant products of the metabolism of this amino acid, which was removed at high rates. Absolute fluxes through the enzymes involved in alanine conversion into glutamine were assessed by using a novel model describing the corresponding reactions in conjunction with the (13)C NMR, and to a smaller extent, the radioactive and enzymic data. The presence of acetate (5 mM) led to a large stimulation of fluxes through citrate synthase and alpha-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase. These effects were accompanied by increases in the removal of alanine, in the accumulation of glutamate and in flux through the anaplerotic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase. Acetate did not alter fluxes through glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase; as a result, acetate did not change the accumulation of ammonia, which was negligible under both experimental conditions. We conclude that acetate, which seems to be an important energy-provider to the rabbit renal proximal tubule, simultaneously traps as glutamate the extra nitrogen removed as alanine, thus preventing the release of additional ammonia by the glutamate dehydrogenase reaction. PMID:10477267

Dugelay, S; Chauvin, M F; Megnin-Chanet, F; Martin, G; Laréal, M C; Lhoste, J M; Baverel, G

1999-01-01

288

Metal Carbonation of Forsterite in Supercritical CO2 and H2O Using Solid State 29Si, 13C NMR Spectroscop  

SciTech Connect

Ex situ solid state NMR was used for the first time to study fundamental mineral carbonation processes and reaction extent relevant to geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) using a model silicate mineral forsterite (Mg2SiO4)+supercriticalCO2 with and without H2O. Run conditions were 80 C and 96 atm. 29Si NMR clearly shows that in the absence of CO2, the role of H2O is to hydrolyze surface Mg-O-Si bonds to produce dissolved Mg2+, and mono- and oligomeric hydroxylated silica species. Surface hydrolysis products contain only Q0 (Si(OH)4) and Q1(Si(OH)3OSi) species. An equilibrium between Q0, Q1 and Mg2+ with a saturated concentration equivalent to less than 3.2% of the Mg2SiO4 conversion is obtained at a reaction time of up to 7 days. Using scCO2 without H2O, no reaction is observed within 7 days. Using both scCO2 and H2O, the surface reaction products for silica are mainly Q3 (SiOH(OSi)3) species accompanied by a lesser amount of Q2 (Si(OH)2(OSi)2) and Q4 (Si(OSi)4). However, no Q0 and Q1 were detected, indicating the carbonic acid formation/deprotonation and magnesite (MgCO3) precipitation reactions are faster than the forsterite hydrolysis process. Thus it can be concluded that the Mg2SiO4 hydrolysis process is the rate limiting step of the overall mineral carbonation process. 29Si NMR combined with XRD, TEM, SAED and EDX further reveal that the reaction is a surface reaction with the Mg2SiO4 crystallite in the core and with condensed Q2-Q4 species forming amorphous surface layers. 13C MAS NMR identified a possible reaction intermediate as (MgCO3)4-Mg(OH)2-5H2O. However, at long reaction times only crystallite magnesite MgCO3 products are observed.

Kwak, Ja Hun; Hu, Jian Z.; Hoyt, David W.; Sears, Jesse A.; Wang, Chong M.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Felmy, Andrew R.

2010-03-11

289

- and Cross-Polarization 13C NMR Evidence of Alterations in Molecular Composition of Humic Substances Following Afforestation with Eucalypt in Distinct Brazilian Biomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of planting fast growing tree species on SOM quality in tropical regions has been overlooked. In the present study 13C-NMR approaches were used to evaluate the impact of eucalypt cultivation on humic and fulvic acids molecular composition. The results indicate that the replacement of native vegetation by eucalypt plantations increased the relative contribution of aliphatic groups in HA from soils previously under Atlantic Forest, Grassland, and the Cerrado (Curvelo site only). The same trend was observed for FA, except in the Curvelo site. A trend for degradation and smaller contribution of O-alkyl C (carbohydrates) in HA was observed in soils under eucalyptus in Atlantic Forest and Cerrado. For FA such decreases were seen in Cerrado and Grassland biomes after eucalypt planting. In the area cultivated with pasture in the Atlantic Forest biome and in the Grassland soil, the largest contributions of lignin-derived compounds were detected in HA. The HA from the Cerrado at the Curvelo site, where the woody vegetation is virtually devoid of grassy species, showed the lowest intensity of lignin signal then those from the Cerrado sensu stricto in Itacambira, where grass species are more abundant. At our study sites, charred material are most likely derived from burning of the native vegetation, as naturally occurs in the Cerrado region, or anthropogenic fires in the Grassland biome. Burning of harvest residues in eucalypt fields was also a common practice in the early rotations. The replacement of native vegetation by eucalypt plantations increases the relative contribution of nonpolar alkyl groups in HA from soils previously under Atlantic Forest, Grassland, and the Cerrado (Curvelo site only) biomes. There is evidence of substantial contribution of lignin-derived C to HA and FA, especially in sites planted with Brachiaria sp pastures. Eucalypt introduction decreases the relative contribution of carbohydrates in HA and FA. 13C DP/MAS NMR functional groups in the humic and fulvic acid samples from the Eucalypt and native vegetation soils in the Atlantic Forest, Cerrado and Grassland biomes

Silva, I. R.; Soares, E. M.; Schmidt-Rohr, K.; Novais, R.; Barros, N.; Fernandes, S.

2010-12-01

290

Optimization of {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR methods for structural characterization of acetone and pyridine soluble/insoluble fractions of a coal tar pitch  

SciTech Connect

{sup 1}H and {sup 13}C high-resolution liquid-state NMR methods were used for the quantitative characterization of different molecular weight fractions of a coal tar pitch (CTP). Three fractions were studied: pitch acetone solubles (PAS), pitch pyridine soluble-acetone insolubles (PPS), and pitch pyridine insolubles (PPI). Standard liquid-state NMR methods were modified and calibrated for use with undeuterated quinoline or undeuterated 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) as the solvent. This made it possible to calculate the average structural parameters for the higher molecular weight (MW) fractions of the coal tar pitch. Quantitative comparisons of structural differences between the solubility-separated fractions of the pitch are reported. The aromaticity and the average number of aromatic rings per polynuclear aromatic structure were both found to decrease with increasing solubility. Similarly, pericondensed and all other quaternary carbon species were found to decrease with increasing solubility. This suggests that 'continental' type structures become more dominant as the solvent solubility of these coal derived fractions diminishes. The estimated average number of aromatic rings ranged from 1 to 2 rings in the PAS fraction, 4 to 21 rings in the PPS fraction, and 11 to 210 rings in the PPI fraction. These ring-numbers were directly related to the number average molecular mass (M{sub n}) assigned to the particular fraction in the average structural parameter (ASP) calculations. The lower-limit of the M{sub n} values was derived from the ASP calculations as 200, 450, and 6200 u for the PAS, PPS, and PPI fractions, respectively. 66 refs., 7 figs., 15 tabs.

Trevor J. Morgan; Anthe George; David B. Davis; Alan A. Herod; Rafael Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology

2008-05-15

291

A comparative study of the conformational equilibria, vibrational, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of isobutyranilide and its derivative the anticancer drug flutamide.  

PubMed

The molecular structure of isobutyranilide and flutamide were investigated by DFT-B3LYP/6-311G(**) and MP2/6-311G(**) calculations. Isobutyranilide was predicted to exist predominantly in a planar cis conformation, while flutamide in non-planar structures with the CF3 and the NO2 groups adopting an out of the phenyl-plane configuration. The vibrational frequencies of the low energy structures of the two molecules were computed at the DFT-B3LYP level of theory. From the calculated Gibb's free energies, isobutyranilide is estimated to have an equilibrium mixture of 91% cis and 9% trans structures, while flutamide is calculated to have a mixture of 65% cis-cis and 28% trans-cis structures at 298.15K. The analysis of the observed vibrational spectra supports the presence of isobutyranilide in only one conformation at room temperature. From a 1:1 acetonitrile solvent experiment flutamide is determined to exist in more than one conformation at ambient temperature. Complete vibrational assignments of the normal modes of isobutyranilide and flutamide were provided on the basis of combined normal coordinate calculations and experimental Infrared and Raman spectra. The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of isobutyranilide were measured and their chemical shifts were compared to the corresponding ones of flutamide. PMID:24835733

Badawi, Hassan M; Förner, Wolfgang; Ali, Shaikh A

2014-10-15

292

Early diagenesis of mangrove leaves in a tropical estuary: Bulk chemical characterization using solid-state 13C NMR and elemental analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in the chemical composition of mangrove ( Rhizophora mangle) leaves during decomposition in tropical estuarine waters were characterized using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and elemental (CHNO) analysis. Carbohydrates were the most abundant components of the leaves accounting for about 50 wt% of senescent tissues. Tannins were estimated to account for about 20 wt% of leaf tissues, and lipid components, cutin, and possibly other aliphatic biopolymers in leaf cuticles accounted for about 15 wt%. Carbohydrates were generally less resistant to decomposition than the other constituents and decreased in relative concentration during decomposition. Tannins were of intermediate resistance to decomposition and remained in fairly constant proportion during decomposition. Paraffinic components were very resistant to decomposition and increased in relative concentration as decomposition progressed. Lignin was a minor component of all leaf tissues. Standard methods for the colorimetric determination of tannins (Folin-Dennis reagent) and the gravimetric determination of lignin (Klason lignin) were highly inaccurate when applied to mangrove leaves. The N content of the leaves was particularly dynamic with values ranging from 1.27 wt% in green leaves to 0.65 wt% in senescent yellow leaves attached to trees. During decomposition in the water the N content initially decreased to 0.51 wt% due to leaching, but values steadily increased thereafter to 1.07 wt% in the most degraded leaf samples. The absolute mass of N in the leaves increased during decomposition indicating that N immobilization was occurring as decomposition progressed.

Benner, Ronald; Hatcher, Patrick G.; Hedges, John I.

1990-07-01

293

Early estrogen-induced metabolic changes and their inhibition by actinomycin D and cycloheximide in human breast cancer cells: sup 31 P and sup 13 C NMR studies  

SciTech Connect

Metabolic changes following estrogen stimulation and the inhibition of these changes in the presence of actinomycin D and cycloheximide were monitored continuously in perfused human breast cancer T47D clone 11 cells with {sup 31}P and {sup 13}C NMR techniques. The experiments were performed by estrogen rescue of tamoxifen-treated cells. Immediately after perfusion with estrogen-containing medium, a continuous enhancement in the rates of glucose consumption, lactate production by glycolysis, and glutamate synthesis by the Krebs cycle occurred with a persistent 2-fold increase at 4 hr. Pretreatment with either actinomycin D or cycloheximide, at concentrations known to inhibit mRNA and protein synthesis, respectively, and simultaneous treatment with estrogen and each inhibitor prevented the estrogen-induced changes in glucose metabolism. This suggested that the observed estrogen stimulation required synthesis of mRNA and protein. These inhibitors also modulated several metabolic activities that were not related to estrogen stimulation. The observed changes in the in vivo kinetics of glucose metabolism may provide a means for the early detection of the response of human breast cancer cells to estrogen versus tamoxifen treatment.

Neeman, M.; Degani, H. (Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel))

1989-07-01

294

Early diagenesis of mangrove leaves in a tropical estuary: Bulk chemical characterization using solid-state 13C NMR and elemental analyses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Changes in the chemical composition of mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) leaves during decomposition in tropical estuarine waters were characterized using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and elemental (CHNO) analysis. Carbohydrates were the most abundant components of the leaves accounting for about 50 wt% of senescent tissues. Tannins were estimated to account for about 20 wt% of leaf tissues, and lipid components, cutin, and possibly other aliphatic biopolymers in leaf cuticles accounted for about 15 wt%. Carbohydrates were generally less resistant to decomposition than the other constituents and decreased in relative concentration during decomposition. Tannins were of intermediate resistance to decomposition and remained in fairly constant proportion during decomposition. Paraffinic components were very resistant to decomposition and increased in relative concentration as decomposition progressed. Lignin was a minor component of all leaf tissues. Standard methods for the colorimetric determination of tannins (Folin-Dennis reagent) and the gravimetric determination of lignin (Klason lignin) were highly inaccurate when applied to mangrove leaves. The N content of the leaves was particularly dynamic with values ranging from 1.27 wt% in green leaves to 0.65 wt% in senescent yellow leaves attached to trees. During decomposition in the water the N content initially decreased to 0.51 wt% due to leaching, but values steadily increased thereafter to 1.07 wt% in the most degraded leaf samples. The absolute mass of N in the leaves increased during decomposition indicating that N immobilization was occurring as decomposition progressed. ?? 1990.

Benner, R.; Hatcher, P.G.; Hedges, J.I.

1990-01-01

295

Effects of environmental hypercapnia on animal physiology: a 13C NMR study of protein synthesis rates in the marine invertebrate Sipunculus nudus.  

PubMed

Global climate change is associated with a progressive rise in ocean CO(2) concentrations (hypercapnia) and, consequently, a drop in seawater pH. However, a comprehensive picture of the physiological mechanisms affected by chronic CO(2) stress in marine biota is still lacking. Here we present an analysis of protein biosynthesis rates in isolated muscle of the marine invertebrate Sipunculus nudus, a sediment dwelling worm living at various water depths. We followed the incorporation of (13)C-labelled phenylalanine into muscular protein via high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. Protein synthesis decreased by about 60% at a medium pH of 6.70 and a consequently lowered intracellular pH (pHi). The decrease in protein synthesis rates is much stronger than the concomitant suppression of protein degradation (60% versus 10-15%) possibly posing a threat to the cellular homeostasis of structural as well as functional proteins. Considering the progressive rise in ocean CO(2) concentrations, permanent disturbances of cellular protein turnover might seriously affect growth and reproductive performance in many marine organisms with as yet unexplored impacts on species density and composition in marine ecosystems. PMID:16753322

Langenbuch, M; Bock, C; Leibfritz, D; Pörtner, H O

2006-08-01

296

Effects of cooking on the cell walls (dietary fiber) of 'Scarlet Warren' winter squash ( Cucurbita maxima ) studied by polysaccharide linkage analysis and solid-state (13)C NMR.  

PubMed

Cell wall polysaccharides of 'Scarlet Warren' winter squash ( Cucurbita maxima ) were investigated before and after thermal processing. Linkage analysis of polysaccharides was done by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The linkage analysis showed the cell wall polysaccharide compositions of raw and cooked squash were similar. The total pectic polysaccharides (galacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan, arabinan, and arabinogalactan) contents of the cell walls of both raw and cooked squash were 39 mol %. The amounts of pectic polysaccharides and xyloglucan in the cell walls of squash showed little alteration on heating. The cellulose content of the raw and cooked cell walls was relatively high at 47 mol %, whereas the xyloglucan content was low at 4 mol %. Solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy techniques were used to examine the molecular motion of the polysaccharides in the cell walls. The mobility of highly flexible galactan depends on the water content of the sample, but no difference was seen between raw and cooked samples. Likewise, the mobility of semimobile pectic polysaccharides was apparently unaltered by cooking. No change was detected in the rigid cellulose microfibrils on cooking. PMID:21604813

Ratnayake, R M Sunil; Sims, Ian M; Newman, Roger H; Melton, Laurence D

2011-07-13

297

Early estrogen-induced metabolic changes and their inhibition by actinomycin D and cycloheximide in human breast cancer cells: 31P and 13C NMR studies.  

PubMed Central

Metabolic changes following estrogen stimulation and the inhibition of these changes in the presence of actinomycin D and cycloheximide were monitored continuously in perfused human breast cancer T47D clone 11 cells with 31P and 13C NMR techniques. The experiments were performed by estrogen rescue of tamoxifen-treated cells. Immediately after perfusion with estrogen-containing medium, a continuous enhancement in the rates of glucose consumption, lactate production by glycolysis, and glutamate synthesis by the Krebs cycle occurred with a persistent 2-fold increase at 4 hr. The content of phosphocholine had increased by 10% to 30% within the first hour of estrogen stimulation, but the content of the other observed phosphate metabolites as well as the pH remained unchanged. Pretreatment with either actinomycin D or cycloheximide, at concentrations known to inhibit mRNA and protein synthesis, respectively, and simultaneous treatment with estrogen and each inhibitor prevented the estrogen-induced changes in glucose metabolism. This suggested that the observed estrogen stimulation required synthesis of mRNA and protein. These inhibitors also modulated several metabolic activities that were not related to estrogen stimulation. The observed changes in the in vivo kinetics of glucose metabolism may provide a means for the early detection of the response of human breast cancer cells to estrogen versus tamoxifen treatment. PMID:2748604

Neeman, M; Degani, H

1989-01-01

298

A comparative study of the conformational equilibria, vibrational, 1H and 13C NMR spectra of isobutyranilide and its derivative the anticancer drug flutamide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molecular structure of isobutyranilide and flutamide were investigated by DFT-B3LYP/6-311G** and MP2/6-311G** calculations. Isobutyranilide was predicted to exist predominantly in a planar cis conformation, while flutamide in non-planar structures with the CF3 and the NO2 groups adopting an out of the phenyl-plane configuration. The vibrational frequencies of the low energy structures of the two molecules were computed at the DFT-B3LYP level of theory. From the calculated Gibb's free energies, isobutyranilide is estimated to have an equilibrium mixture of 91% cis and 9% trans structures, while flutamide is calculated to have a mixture of 65% cis-cis and 28% trans-cis structures at 298.15 K. The analysis of the observed vibrational spectra supports the presence of isobutyranilide in only one conformation at room temperature. From a 1:1 acetonitrile solvent experiment flutamide is determined to exist in more than one conformation at ambient temperature. Complete vibrational assignments of the normal modes of isobutyranilide and flutamide were provided on the basis of combined normal coordinate calculations and experimental Infrared and Raman spectra. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of isobutyranilide were measured and their chemical shifts were compared to the corresponding ones of flutamide.

Badawi, Hassan M.; Förner, Wolfgang; Ali, Shaikh A.

2014-10-01

299

Magic-angle-spinning NMR on solid biological systems. Analysis Of the origin of the spectral linewidths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magic-angle-spinning (MAS) high-power 1H-decoupled 13C and 31P NMR has been applied to solid biological materials to obtain information about the mechanisms that determine the spectral linewidths. The line broadening in MAS 31P NMR spectra of solid tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) has been investigated by selective saturation and T2 measurements. About 90 Hz stems from homogeneous effects, whereas the inhomogeneous contribution is approximately 100 Hz. The inhomogeneous line broadening is assigned to macroscopic inhomogeneities in the sample and not to variations in the nucleotide bases along the RNA strand in TMV. It is concluded that sample preparation is of vital importance for obtaining well-resolved spectra. Under optimal preparation techniques the isotropic values of the chemical shift of the different 31P sites have been determined to obtain information about the secondary structure of the viral RNA. The chemical shift anisotropy has been determined from the relative intensities of the spinning side bands in the spectra. The chemical shift information is used to make a tentative assignment of the resonance in terms of the three structurally distinguishable phosphate groups in TMV. The origin of the linewidths in MAS NMR has been examined further by 13C NMR of approximately 10% 13C-enriched coat protein of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus, using selective excitation and saturation techniques, as well as measurements of the relaxation times T1 ? and T2. The C?O resonance in the spectrum is composed of an inhomogeneous and homogeneous part with a total linewidth of 700 Hz. The homogeneous linewidth, contributing with 200 Hz, is found to arise from slow molecular motions in the solid on a millisecond timescale.

Hemminga, M. A.; de Jager, P. A.; Krüse, J.; Lamerichs, R. M. J. N.

300

Spectroscopic (FTIR, FT-Raman, 13C and 1H NMR) investigation, molecular electrostatic potential, polarizability and first-order hyperpolarizability, FMO and NBO analysis of 1-methyl-2-imidazolethiol.  

PubMed

In this work, experimental and theoretical study on the molecular structure and vibrational spectra of 1-methyl-2-imidazolethiol (MIME) were presented. The vibrational frequencies of the title compound were obtained theoretically by ab initio HF and DFT (B3LYP/LSDA) employing 6-311G (d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets and compared with experimental spectral bands (FTIR and FT-Raman). The thermodynamic properties of the studied compound have been computed at different temperatures. The atomic charges and charge delocalization of the molecule have been analyzed by natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The reactivity sites are identified by mapping the molecular electrostatic potential (MESP) surface. Electronic properties HOMO and LUMO energies were measured by time-dependent TD-DFT approach. Besides, (13)C and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule in chloroform solvent calculated using the Gauge-Independent Atomic Orbital (GIAO) method are found to be in good agreement with experimental values. PMID:24184581

Xavier, R John; Dinesh, P

2014-01-24

301

I: Low Frequency NMR and NQR Using a dc SQUID. II: Variable-temperature 13C CP/MAS of Organometallics  

SciTech Connect

NMR and NQR at low frequencies are difficult prospects due to small nuclear spin polarization. Furthermore, the sensitivity'of the inductive pickup circuitry of standard spectrometers is reduced as the frequency is lowered. I have used a cw-SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) spectrometer, which has no such frequency dependence, to study the local atomic environment of {sup 14}N via the quadrupolar interaction. Because {sup 14}N has spin I = 1 and a 0-6 MHz frequency range, it is not possible to obtain well-resolved spectra in high magnetic fields. I have used a technique to observe {sup 14}N NQR resonances via their effect on neighboring protons mediated by the heteronuclear dipolar interaction to study peptides and narcotics. The sensitivity of the SQUID is not enough to measure low-frequency surface (or other low spin density) systems. The application of spin-polarized xenon has been previously used to enhance polarization in conventional NMR experiments. Because xenon only polarizes spins with which it is in contact, it is surface selective. While differences in chemical shifts between surface and bulk spins are not large, it is expected that the differences in quadrupole coupling constant should be very large due to the drastic change of the electric field gradient surrounding spins at the surface. With this in mind, I have taken preliminary steps to measure SQUID detected polarization transfer from Xe to another spin species at 4.2 K and in small magnetic fields (<50 G). In this regime, the spin-lattice relaxation of xenon is dependent on the applied magnetic field. The results of our efforts to characterize the relaxation of xenon are presented. The final section describes the solid-state variable-temperature (VT) one- and two-dimensional {sup 13}C cross polarization (CP)/magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR of Hf({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2}({eta}{sup 1}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2}, Zr({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 3}({eta}{sup 1}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5}) and Sn({eta}{sup 1}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 4}. This work was undertaken in the hope of gaining insight into the intramolecuhrr dynamics, specifically which fluxional processes exist in the solid state, by what mechanism rearrangements are occurring, and the activation energies by which these processes are governed.

Ziegeweid, M.A.

1995-11-29

302

13C and 15N—Chemical Shift Anisotropy of Ampicillin and Penicillin-V Studied by 2D-PASS and CP\\/MAS NMR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal values of the chemical shift tensors of all13C and15N sites in two antibiotics, ampicillin and penicillin-V, were determined by 2-dimensionalphaseadjustedspinningsideband (2D-PASS) and conventional CP\\/MAS experiments. The13C and15N chemical shift anisotropies (CSA), and their confidence limits, were evaluated using a Mathematica program. The CSA values suggest a revised assignment of the 2-methyl13C sites in the case of ampicillin. We

Oleg N. Antzutkin; Young K. Lee; Malcolm H. Levitt

1998-01-01

303

Acid-base interactions and secondary structures of poly-L-lysine probed by 15N and 13C solid state NMR and Ab initio model calculations.  

PubMed

The interactions of the 15N-labeled amino groups of dry solid poly-L-lysine (PLL) with various halogen and oxygen acids HX and the relation to the secondary structure have been studied using solid-state 15N and 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy (CP = cross polarization and MAS = magic angle spinning). For comparison, 15N NMR spectra of an aqueous solution of PLL were measured as a function of pH. In order to understand the effects of protonation and hydration on the 15N chemical shifts of the amino groups, DFT and chemical shielding calculations were performed on isolated methylamine-acid complexes and on periodic halide clusters of the type (CH3NH3(+)X(-))n. The combined experimental and computational results reveal low-field shifts of the amino nitrogens upon interaction with the oxygen acids HX = HF, H2SO4, CH3COOH, (CH3)2POOH, H3PO4, HNO3, and internal carbamic acid formed by reaction of the amino groups with gaseous CO2. Evidence is obtained that only hydrogen-bonded species of the type (Lys-NH2***H-X)n are formed in the absence of water. 15N chemical shifts are maximum when H is located in the hydrogen bond center and then decrease again upon full protonation, as found for aqueous solution at low pH. By contrast, halogen acids interact in a different way. They form internal salts of the type (Lys-NH3(+)X(-))n via the interaction of many acid-base pairs. This salt formation is possible only in the beta-sheet conformation. By contrast, the formation of hydrogen-bonded complexes can occur both in beta-sheet domains as well as in alpha-helical domains. The 15N chemical shifts of the protonated ammonium groups increase when the size of the interacting halogen anions is increased from chloride to iodide and when the number of the interacting anions is increased. Thus, the observed high-field 15N shift of ammonium groups upon hydration is the consequence of replacing interacting halogen atoms by oxygen atoms. PMID:19367899

Dos, Alexandra; Schimming, Volkmar; Tosoni, Sergio; Limbach, Hans-Heinrich

2008-12-11

304

13C and 15N—Chemical Shift Anisotropy of Ampicillin and Penicillin-V Studied by 2D-PASS and CP/MAS NMR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principal values of the chemical shift tensors of all 13C and 15N sites in two antibiotics, ampicillin and penicillin-V, were determined by 2-dimensional phase adjusted spinning sideband (2D-PASS) and conventional CP/MAS experiments. The 13C and 15N chemical shift anisotropies (CSA), and their confidence limits, were evaluated using a Mathematica program. The CSA values suggest a revised assignment of the 2-methyl 13C sites in the case of ampicillin. We speculate on a relationship between the chemical shift principal values of many of the 13C and 15N sites and the ?-lactam ring conformation.

Antzutkin, Oleg N.; Lee, Young K.; Levitt, Malcolm H.

1998-11-01

305

Solid-state {sup 19}F and {sup 13}C NMR of room temperature fluorinated graphite and samples thermally treated under fluorine: Low-field and high-resolution studies  

SciTech Connect

Room temperature graphite fluorides consisting of raw material and samples post-treated in pure fluorine atmosphere in the temperature range 100-500 deg. C have been studied by solid-state NMR. Several NMR approaches have been used, both high and low-field {sup 19}F, {sup 19}F MAS and {sup 13}C MAS with {sup 19}F to {sup 13}C cross polarization. The modifications, in the graphitic lattice, of the catalytic iodine fluorides products have been examined. A transformation of the C-F bond character from semi-ionic to covalent has been found to occur at a post-treatment temperature close to 400 deg. C. It is shown that covalency increases with temperature.

Giraudet, J. [Matiere Condensee et Resonance Magnetique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Faculte des Sciences, CP 232, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 (Belgium); Dubois, M. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, UMR-CNRS 6002-Universite Blaise Pascal, 24 av. des Landais, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Guerin, K. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, UMR-CNRS 6002-Universite Blaise Pascal, 24 av. des Landais, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Pinheiro, J.P. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, UMR-CNRS 6002-Universite Blaise Pascal, 24 av. des Landais, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Hamwi, A. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, UMR-CNRS 6002-Universite Blaise Pascal, 24 av. des Landais, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Stone, W.E.E. [Matiere Condensee et Resonance Magnetique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Faculte des Sciences, CP 232, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 (Belgium); Pirotte, P. [Matiere Condensee et Resonance Magnetique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Faculte des Sciences, CP 232, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 (Belgium); Masin, F. [Matiere Condensee et Resonance Magnetique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Faculte des Sciences, CP 232, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 (Belgium)]. E-mail: fmasin@ulb.ac.be

2005-04-15

306

Selective chemical shift assignment of bacteriochlorophyll a in uniformly [13C-15N]-labeled light-harvesting 1 complexes by solid-state NMR in ultrahigh magnetic field.  

PubMed

Magic-angle spinning (MAS) (13)C-(13)C correlation NMR spectroscopy was used to resolve the electronic ground state characteristics of the bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) cofactors in light-harvesting 1 (LH1) complexes of Rhodopseudomonas acidophila (strain 10050). The BChl a (13)C isotropic chemical shifts of the LH1 complexes are compared to the (13)C chemical shifts for BChl a dissolved in acetone-d(6) and to (13)C NMR data that has been obtained for the B800 and B850 BChl molecules in Rps. acidophila peripheral light-harvesting complexes (LH2). Since both complexes contain BChl a cofactors, we can address the chemical shift variability for specific carbon responses between the two types of antennae. The global shift pattern of the LH1 BChl's resembles the shift patterns of the LH2 alpha- and beta-B850 BChl's, while some carbon responses, in particular the C3 and C3(1), show significant deviations. A comparison with density functional theory (DFT) shift calculations provides insight into the BChl concomitant structural and electronic interactions in the ground state. The differences in the LH1 BChl observed chemical shifts relative to the (13)C responses of BChl a in solution cannot be explained by local side chain interactions, such as hydrogen bonding or nonplanarity of the C3 acetyl, but appear to be dominated by protein-induced macrocycle distortion. Such shaping of the macrocycle will contribute significantly to the red shift of the BChl Q(y) absorbance band in purple bacterial light-harvesting complexes. PMID:20408539

Pandit, Anjali; Buda, Francesco; van Gammeren, Adriaan J; Ganapathy, Swapna; de Groot, Huub J M

2010-05-13

307

Rotation isomers of bis(diethyldithiocarbamato)zinc(II) adduct with pyridine, Zn(EDtc) 2·Py: ESR, 13C and 15N CP\\/MAS NMR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adduct of bis(diethyldithiocarbamato)zinc(II) with pyridine, Zn(EDtc)2·Py, was prepared and studied by means of ESR (63Cu2+ and 65Cu2+ were used as spin labels), solid-state natural abundance 13C and 15N CP\\/MAS NMR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction data analysis. Two rotation isomers of the adduct were unambiguously determined by these three independent methods. It was found that these two isomers have

Alexander V. Ivanov; Valentina I. Mitrofanova; Mikael Kritikos; Oleg N. Antzutkin

1999-01-01

308

6-Allyl-5,6-dihydro-5-hydroxypyran-2-one, a lactone produced by a new Drechslera species: specified 1H and 13C NMR assignments, mutagenic and immunomodulating testings.  

PubMed

A lactone (6-allyl-5,6-dihydro-5-hydroxypyran-2-one) was isolated from a new Drechslera sp. 1H and 13C NMR assignments, not previously specified, are published. No mutagenic activity on Ames/Salmonella test (strains TA98 and TA100 has been observed. Results on the respiratory metabolism of J774.1 murine macrophage indicate that the lactone might exhibit immunomodulating activity as a function of time of cellular contact and of concentration. PMID:7938150

Krivobok, S; Thomasson, F; Seigle-Murandi, F; Steiman, R; Bottex-Gauthier, C

1994-08-01

309

13 C NMR cross polarization and magic angle spinning (CPMAS) and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry analysis of the products from a soda pulp mill effluent decolourised by two Streptomyces strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two Streptomyces strains, UAH 30 and UAH 51, have been shown to decolourise a paper-mill effluent obtained after semichemical alkaline pulping\\u000a of wheat straw. Fractionation of the effluent decolourised by strains UAH 30 and UAH 51 showed that 60% and 80% respectively\\u000a of the alkali-lignin fraction have been removed from the effluent after 7 days of growth. 13C NMR cross

M. Hernández; J. Rodríguez; M. I. Pérez; A. S. Ball; M. E. Arias

1997-01-01

310

Structure elucidation and complete NMR spectral assignments of two new sesquiterpene lactone xylosides from Lactuca triangulata.  

PubMed

Two new sesquiterpene lactone xylosides, derivatives of the guaianolides 9alpha-hydroxyleucodin and 9alpha-hydroxy-11,13-dehydroleucodin, were isolated from roots of Lactuca triangulata. Their structures were established on the basis of (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra, 2D NMR (HMQC, HMBC, COSY, NOESY) techniques and comparison with the literature data. The compounds represent the first example of sesquiterpene lactone xylosides. PMID:18785195

Michalska, Klaudia; Zylewski, Marek; Kisiel, Wanda

2008-12-01

311

A spectral atlas of the nu(sub 12) fundamental of (13)C(12)CH6 in the 12 micron region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recent discovery of the minor isotopomer of ethane, (13)C(12)CH6, in the planetary atmospheres of Jupiter and Neptune, added ethane to the molecules which can be used to determine isotopic (12)C(12)C ratios for the jovian planets. The increased spectral resolution and coverage of the IR and far-IR instruments to be carried on the Cassini mission to Saturn and Titan may enable the detection of the minor isotopomer. Accurate frequency and cross-section measurements of the nu(sub 12) fundamental under controlled laboratory condition are important to interpret current and future planetary spectra. High resolution spectra of the minor isotopomer (13)C(12)CH6 have been recorded in the 12.2 micron region using the Kitt Peak Fourier Transform (FTS) and the Goddard Tunable Diode Laser spectrometer (TDL). In a global fit to 19 molecular constants in a symmetric top Hamiltonian, transition frequencies of the nu(sub 12) fundamental ranging up to J=35 and K=20 have been determined with a standard deviation of less than 0.0005 cm(exp -1). From selected line intensity measurements, a vibrational dipole moment for the nu(sub 12) fundamental has been derived. Observed and calculated spectra covering the region from 740 cm(exp -1) and to 910 cm(exp -1) are presented. A compilation of transition frequencies, line intensities, and lower state energies are included for general use in the astronomical community.

Weber, Mark; Reuter, Dennis C.; Sirota, J. Marcos; Blass, William E.; Hillman, John J.

1994-01-01

312

Regioselective Syntheses of [13C]4-Labelled Sodium 1-Carboxy-2-(2-ethylhexyloxycarbonyl)ethanesulfonate and Sodium 2-Carboxy-1-(2-ethylhexyloxycarbonyl)ethanesulfonate from [13C]4-Maleic Anhydride  

PubMed Central

The entitled monohydrolysis products, also known as ?- and ?-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate ('EHSS'), of the surfactant diisooctyl sulfosuccinate ('DOSS') were synthesized in stable isotope labelled form from [13C]4-maleic anhydride. Sodium [13C]4-1-carboxy-2-(2-ethylhexyloxycarbonyl)ethanesulfonate (?-EHSS) was prepared by the method of Larpent by reaction of 2-ethylhexan-1-ol with [13C]4-maleic anhydride followed by regioselective conjugate addition of sodium bisulfite to the resulting monoester (38% overall yield). The regiochemical outcome of bisulfite addition was confirmed by a combination of 13C/13C (INADEQUATE) and 1H/13C (HMBC) NMR spectral correlation experiments. Sodium [13C]4-2-carboxy-1-(2-ethylhexyloxycarbonyl)ethanesulfonate (?-EHSS) was prepared in four steps by reaction of 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol (PMBOH) with [13C]4-maleic anhydride, regioselective sodium bisulfite addition, DCC mediated esterification with 2-ethylhexan-1-ol, and PMB ester deprotection with trifluoroacetic acid (13% overall yield). The regiochemical outcome of the second synthesis was confirmed by a combination of 1JCC scalar coupling constant analysis and 1H/13C (HMBC) NMR spectral correlation. The materials prepared are required as internal standards for the LC-MS/MS trace analysis of the degradation products of DOSS, the anionic surfactant found in Corexit, the oil dispersant used during emergency response efforts connected to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill of April 2010. PMID:24700711

Barsamian, Adam L.; Perkins, Matt J.; Field, Jennifer A.; Blakemore, Paul R.

2014-01-01

313

Regioselective syntheses of [13C]4-labelled sodium 1-carboxy-2-(2-ethylhexyloxycarbonyl)ethanesulfonate and sodium 2-carboxy-1-(2-ethylhexyloxycarbonyl)ethanesulfonate from [13C]4-maleic anhydride.  

PubMed

The entitled monohydrolysis products, also known as ?-ethylhexyl and ?-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate (EHSS), of the surfactant diisooctyl sulfosuccinate (DOSS) were synthesized in stable isotope-labelled form from [(13)C]4 -maleic anhydride. Sodium [(13)C]4 -1-carboxy-2-(2-ethylhexyloxycarbonyl)ethanesulfonate (?-EHSS) was prepared by the method of Larpent by reaction of 2-ethylhexan-1-ol with [(13)C]4 -maleic anhydride followed by regioselective conjugate addition of sodium bisulfite to the resulting monoester (38% overall yield). The regiochemical outcome of bisulfite addition was confirmed by a combination of (13)C/(13)C (incredible natural abundance double quantum transfer) and (1)H/(13)C (heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation (HMBC)) NMR spectral correlation experiments. Sodium [(13)C]4 -2-carboxy-1-(2-ethylhexyloxycarbonyl)ethanesulfonate (?-EHSS) was prepared in four steps by reaction of 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol with [(13)C]4 -maleic anhydride, regioselective sodium bisulfite addition, N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-mediated esterification with 2-ethylhexan-1-ol, and p-methoxybenzyl ester deprotection with trifluoroacetic acid (13% overall yield). The regiochemical outcome of the second synthesis was confirmed by a combination of (1)JCC scalar coupling constant analysis and (1)H/(13)C (HMBC) NMR spectral correlation. The materials prepared are required as internal standards for the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/MS trace analysis of the degradation products of DOSS, the anionic surfactant found in Corexit, the oil dispersant used during emergency response efforts connected to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill of April 2010. PMID:24700711

Barsamian, Adam L; Perkins, Matt J; Field, Jennifer A; Blakemore, Paul R

2014-05-15

314

1H assisted 13C/15N heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy in oriented sample solid-state NMR of single crystal and magnetically aligned samples.  

PubMed

(1)H-irradiation under mismatched Hartmann-Hahn conditions provides an alternative mechanism for carrying out (15)N/(13)C transfers in triple-resonance heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy (HETCOR) on stationary samples of single crystals and aligned samples of biopolymers, which improve the efficiency especially when the direct (15)N-(13)C dipolar couplings are small. In many cases, the sensitivity is improved by taking advantage of the (13)C(?) labeled sites in peptides and proteins with (13)C detection. The similarities between experimental and simulated spectra demonstrate the validity of the recoupling mechanism and identify the potential for applying these experiments to virus particles or membrane proteins in phospholipid bilayers; however, further development is needed in order to derive quantitative distance and angular constraints from these measurements. PMID:21543244

Lin, Eugene C; Opella, Stanley J

2011-07-01

315

High Resolution 1H Detected 1H,13C Correlation Spectra in MAS Solid-State NMR using Deuterated Proteins with Selective 1  

E-print Network

in the crystallization buffersresulted in a 4-fold reduction in the 1H line width (compared to a sample recrystallized,13C]-labeled pyruvate as the sole carbon source. Methyl groups of alanine, valine, leucine

Skrynnikov, Nikolai

316

2H-13C HETCOR MAS NMR for indirect detection of 2H quadrupole patterns and spin-lattice relaxation rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-dimensional (2D) cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) 2H-13C heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) experiments were utilized to indirectly detect site-specific deuterium MAS powder patterns. The 2H-13C cross-polarization efficiency is orientation-dependent and non-uniform for all crystallites. This leads to difficulty in extracting the correct 2H MAS quadrupole powder patterns. In order to obtain accurate deuterium line shapes, 13C spin lock rf field, spin lock rf ramp and CP contact time were carefully calibrated with the assistance of theoretical simulations. The extracted quadrupole patterns for U-[2H/13C/15N]-alanine indicate that the methyl deuterium undergoes classic, three-site jumping in the fast motion regime (10-8-10-12 s) and the methine deuterium has a rigid deuterium powder pattern. For U-[2H/13C/15N]-phenylalanine, indirectly detected deuterium line shapes illustrate that the aromatic ring undergoes 180° flips in the fast motion regime while 2H? and 2H? are completely rigid. The experimental deuterium line shapes for U-[2H/13C/15N]-proline reflect that 2H?, 2H? and 2H? are subjected to fast, two-site reorientations at an angle of (15 ± 5)°, (30 ± 5)° and (25 ± 10)° respectively. In addition, an approach that combines a composite inversion pulse with 2H-13C CP-MAS is applied to measure 2H spin-lattice relaxation times in a site-specific, 13C-detected fashion.

Shi, Xiangyan; Yarger, Jeffery L.; Holland, Gregory P.

2013-01-01

317

Performic acid oxidation of exo-2-syn-7-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-enediol. 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic structure elucidation of the reaction products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performic acid oxidation of exo-2-syn-7-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-enediol (norborn-5-enediol) gives exo-3-exo-5-syn-7-tricyclo[2.2.1.0 2,6]heptanetriol-(nortricyclenetriol), exo-2-endo-3-endo-5-syn-7-, exo-2-endo-3-endo5-anti-7- and exo-2-endo-3-exo-5-anti-7-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptanetetrols (norbornanetetrols) as reaction products, the relative amounts being 13.7%, 48.1%, 20.2% and 10.4% respectively. The structures of these polyols were elucidated using 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy including 2D 1H? 1H NOESY, 1H? 1H COSY, 13C? 1H COSY and 13C? 13C INADEQUATE spectra. The reaction mechanism, which consists first of the formation of a norbornyl cation gives, after deprotonation, a triol as an end product. The mechanism leading to the three tetrols includes (1) a Wagner-Meerwein (W-M) rearrangement, (2) a 6,2-hydride shift, (3) another W-M rearrangement and (4) exo attack of the formate anion. The mechanism has been described using the known classical carbocation intermediates. The absence of three theoretically possible reaction products can be explained by intermediates, where the attack of the formate anion on a carbocation is hindered by the vicinal exo hydroxyl group.

Laihia, K.; Kolehmainen, E.; Mänttäri, P.; Ryynänen, R.; Messala-Rannanpiha, M.; Vepsäläinen, J.; Sundelin, J.-P.

1996-05-01

318

Secondary interactions as driving force in heterocomplex formation of 2,7-disubstituted-1,8-naphthyridines: Quantum chemical, NMR and mass spectral investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tautomerism and dimerization of 2,7-disubstituted-1,8-naphtyridines has been studied theoretically by quantum chemical methods and experimentally by liquid and solid state NMR and ESI-TOF mass spectral techniques. The heterocomplex formation has been proven in solution by variable temperature 1H NMR and in solid state by 13C CPMAS NMR spectra of a grinded mixture of two congeners. Secondary interactions have been proposed as driving forces in the heterocomplex formation. The energy differences between homo- and heterocomplexes were calculated with recently developed DFT + D methods. The energy data obtained by the quantum chemical methods are in agreement with the concept of secondary interactions and with the experimental observations.

Osmialowski, Borys; Kolehmainen, Erkki; Sievanen, Elina; Kauppinen, Reijo; Behera, Babita

2009-08-01

319

Plakilactones G and H from a marine sponge. Stereochemical determination of highly flexible systems by quantitative NMR-derived interproton distances combined with quantum mechanical calculations of 13C chemical shifts  

PubMed Central

Summary In this paper the stereostructural investigation of two new oxygenated polyketides, plakilactones G and H, isolated from the marine sponge Plakinastrella mamillaris collected at Fiji Islands, is reported. The stereostructural studies began on plakilactone H by applying an integrated approach of the NOE-based protocol and quantum mechanical calculations of 13C chemical shifts. In particular, plakilactone H was used as a template to extend the application of NMR-derived interproton distances to a highly flexible molecular system with simultaneous assignment of four non-contiguous stereocenters. Chemical derivatization and quantum mechanical calculations of 13C on plakilactone G along with a plausible biogenetic interconversion between plakilactone G and plakilactone H allowed us to determine the absolute configuration in this two new oxygenated polyketides. PMID:24454574

Di Micco, Simone; Zampella, Angela; D’Auria, Maria Valeria; Festa, Carmen; De Marino, Simona; Riccio, Raffaele

2013-01-01

320

Phosphorus-31, sup 15 N, and sup 13 C NMR of glyphosate: Comparison of pH titrations to the herbicidal dead-end complex with 5-enolpyruvoylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase  

SciTech Connect

The herbicidal dead-end ternary complex (E{sup S3P}{sub Glyph}) of glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) with 5-enolpyruvoylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) and the substrate shikimate 3-phosphate (S3P) has been characterized by {sup 31}P, {sup 15}N, and {sup 13}C NMR. The NMR spectra of EPSPS-bound glyphosate show unique chemical shifts ({delta}) for each of the three nuclei. By {sup 31}P NMR, glyphosate in the dead-end complex is a distinct species 3.5 ppm downfield from free glyphosate. The {sup 13}C signal of glyphosate in the dead-end complex is shifted 4 ppm downfield from that of free glyphosate. The {sup 15}N signal for glyphosate (99%) in the dead-end complex is 5 ppm further downfield than that of any free zwitterionic species and 10 ppm downfield from that of the average free species at pH 10.1. The structures of each ionic state of glyphosate are modeled with force field calculations by using MacroModel. A correlation is made for the {sup 31}P {delta} and the C-P-O bond angle, and the {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N {delta} values are postulated to be related to C-C-O and C-N-C bond angles, respectively. The downfield {sup 31}P chemical shift perturbation for S3P in the EPSPS binary complex is consistent with ionization of the 3-phosphate of S3P upon binding. Comparison with the S3P {sup 31}P {delta} vs pH titration curve specifies predominantly the dianion of the 3-phosphate in the E{sup S3P} binary complex, while the E{sup S3P}{sub Glyph} complex indicates net protonation at the 3-phosphate. Chemical shift perturbations of this latter type may be explained by changes in the O-P-O bond angle.

Castellino, S.; Leo, G.C.; Sammons, R.D.; Sikorski, J.A. (Monsanto Agricultural Company, St. Louis, MO (USA))

1989-05-02

321

Backbone and side chain 1H, 13C, and 15N NMR assignments for the organic hydroperoxide resistance protein (Ohr) from Burkholderia pseudomallei  

PubMed Central

Burkholderia pseudomallei is a NIAID Category B microorganism responsible for melioidosis. Here we report backbone and side chain NMR assignments for the 139-residue, homodimeric, organic hydroperoxide resistance protein (Ohr) from this organism. PMID:19888681

Buchko, Garry W.; Hewitt, Stephen N.; Napuli, Alberto J.; van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Myler, Peter J.

2009-01-01

322

Solid-State 13C NMR Study of Chiral Twisted Conformation Attributable to Chirality in Smectic Phases of Achiral Banana-Shaped Molecules  

E-print Network

Yamada Department of Textile and Apparel Science, Faculty of Human Life and EnVironment, Nara Women's Uni are circumstanced in different electronic environments on the NMR time scale. The chemical shifts of the two peaks

Walba, David

323

The role of irregular unit, GAAS, on the secondary structure of Bombyx mori silk fibroin studied with 13C CP/MAS NMR and wide-angle X-ray scattering  

PubMed Central

Bombyx mori silk fibroin is a fibrous protein whose fiber is extremely strong and tough, although it is produced by the silkworm at room temperature and from an aqueous solution. The primary structure is mainly Ala-Gly alternative copolypeptide, but Gly-Ala-Ala-Ser units appear frequently and periodically. Thus, this study aims at elucidating the role of such Gly-Ala-Ala-Ser units on the secondary structure. The sequential model peptides containing Gly-Ala-Ala-Ser units selected from the primary structure of B. mori silk fibroin were synthesized, and their secondary structure was studied with 13C CP/MAS NMR and wide-angle X-ray scattering. The 13C isotope labeling of the peptides and the 13C conformation-dependent chemical shifts were used for the purpose. The Ala-Ala units take antiparallel ?-sheet structure locally, and the introduction of one Ala-Ala unit in (Ala-Gly)15 chain promotes dramatical structural changes from silk I (repeated ?-turn type II structure) to silk II (antiparallel ?-sheet structure). Thus, the presence of Ala-Ala units in B. mori silk fibroin chain will be one of the inducing factors of the structural transition for silk fiber formation. The role of Tyr residue in the peptide chain was also studied and clarified to induce "locally nonordered structure." PMID:12142441

Asakura, Tetsuo; Sugino, Rena; Okumura, Tatsushi; Nakazawa, Yasumoto

2002-01-01

324

X-ray Crystallographic, Scanning Microprobe X-ray Diffraction, and Cross-Polarized/Magic Angle Spinning [superscript 13]C NMR Studies of the Structure of Cellulose III[subscript II  

SciTech Connect

The X-ray crystallographic structure of cellulose III{sub II} is characterized by disorder; the unit cell (space group P2{sub 1}; a = 4.45 {angstrom}, b = 7.64 {angstrom}, c = 10.36 {angstrom}, {alpha} = {beta} = 90{sup o}, {gamma} = 106.96{sup o}) is occupied by one chain that is the average of statistically disordered antiparallel chains. {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR studies reveal the presence of three distinct molecular conformations that can be interpreted as a mixture of two different crystal forms, one equivalent to cellulose III{sub I}, and another with two independent glucosyl conformations in the asymmetric unit. Both X-ray crystallographic and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopic results are consistent with an aggregated microdomain structure for cellulose III{sub II}. This structure can be generated from a new crystal form (space group P2{sub 1}; a = 4.45 {angstrom}, b = 14.64 {angstrom}, c = 10.36 {angstrom}, {alpha} = {beta} = 90{sup o}, {gamma} = 90.05{sup o}; two crystallographically independent and antiparallel chains; gt hydroxymethyl groups) by multiple dislocation defects. These defects produce microdomains of the new crystal form and cellulose III{sub I} that scanning microprobe diffraction studies show are distributed consistently through the cellulose III{sub II} fiber.

Wada, Masahisa; Heux, Laurent; Nishiyama, Yoshiharu; Langan, Paul; (U of Tokyo); (CNRS-CRMD); (LANL)

2009-03-16

325

N,N-Di- n-octyl- N,N-dimethyl and N,N-di- n-nonyl- N,N-dimethyl ammonium cholates: 13C and 15N CPMAS NMR, powder X-ray diffraction and thermoanalytical characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

N,N-Di- n-octyl- N,N-dimethyl cholate ( 1) and N,N-di- n-nonyl- N,N-dimethyl ammonium cholate ( 2) have been prepared by crystallization from equimolar mixtures of sodium cholate and quaternary N,N-di- n-alkyl- N,N-dimethyl ( n-octyl or n-nonyl) ammonium bromides. The formed crystalline materials have been structurally characterized by 13C and 15N cross polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and thermoanalytical (TGA/DTA and DSC) methods and compared with each other. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns of 1 and 2 reveal clear similarities. Combined with the thermoanalytical data of these structures an existence of two hydrated polymorphs (most probably mono- and dihydrates) can be proposed. This presumption is further supported by 13C CPMAS NMR showing clearly double resonances for the carboxylic and majority of other carbons in these quaternary ammonium cholates. Owing to the endogenous character of cholate anion these ionic structures possess great potential in many pharmaceutical applications such as controlled drug delivery.

Kolehmainen, Erkki; Lahtinen, Manu; Valkonen, Arto; Behera, Babita; Kauppinen, Reijo

2009-07-01

326

Structure and reactivity of lithium amides. /sup 6/Li, /sup 13/C, and /sup 15/N NMR spectroscopic studies and colligative measurements of lithium diphenylamide and lithium diphenylamide-lithium bromide complex solvated by tetrahydrofuran  

SciTech Connect

/sup 6/Li, /sup 13/C, and /sup 15/N NMR spectroscopic studies of lithium diphenylamide in THF/hydrocarbon solutions (THF = tetrahydrofuran) detected two different species. /sup 6/Li and /sup 15/N NMR spectroscopic studies of (/sup 6/Li, /sup 15/N)lithium diphenylamide showed the species observed at low THF concentrations to be a cyclic oligomer. Structural analogies provided strong support for a dimer while colligative measurements at 0/degrees/C indicated the dimer to be di- or trisolvated. On the basis of the observed mass action effects, the species appearing at intermediate THF concentrations is assigned as a contact or solvent-separated ion-paired monomer. Lithium diphenylamide forms a 1:1 adduct with lithium bromide at low THF concentrations. A combination of /sup 6/Li-/sup 15/N double labeling studies and colligative measurements supports a trisolvated cyclic mixed dimer structure. Although detailed spectroscopic studies at elevated THF concentrations were precluded by high fluctionality, the similarity of the /sup 13/C chemical shifts of lithium diphenylamide in the presence and absence of lithium bromide provide indirect evidence that the mixed dimer undergoes a THF concentration dependent dissociation to the monomeric amide and free lithium bromide. 24 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

DePue, J.S.; Collum, D.B.

1988-08-03

327

¹³C NMR metabolomics: applications at natural abundance.  

PubMed

(13)C NMR has many advantages for a metabolomics study, including a large spectral dispersion, narrow singlets at natural abundance, and a direct measure of the backbone structures of metabolites. However, it has not had widespread use because of its relatively low sensitivity compounded by low natural abundance. Here we demonstrate the utility of high-quality (13)C NMR spectra obtained using a custom (13)C-optimized probe on metabolomic mixtures. A workflow was developed to use statistical correlations between replicate 1D (13)C and (1)H spectra, leading to composite spin systems that can be used to search publicly available databases for compound identification. This was developed using synthetic mixtures and then applied to two biological samples, Drosophila melanogaster extracts and mouse serum. Using the synthetic mixtures we were able to obtain useful (13)C-(13)C statistical correlations from metabolites with as little as 60 nmol of material. The lower limit of (13)C NMR detection under our experimental conditions is approximately 40 nmol, slightly lower than the requirement for statistical analysis. The (13)C and (1)H data together led to 15 matches in the database compared to just 7 using (1)H alone, and the (13)C correlated peak lists had far fewer false positives than the (1)H generated lists. In addition, the (13)C 1D data provided improved metabolite identification and separation of biologically distinct groups using multivariate statistical analysis in the D. melanogaster extracts and mouse serum. PMID:25140385

Clendinen, Chaevien S; Lee-McMullen, Brittany; Williams, Caroline M; Stupp, Gregory S; Vandenborne, Krista; Hahn, Daniel A; Walter, Glenn A; Edison, Arthur S

2014-09-16

328

Vibrational (FT-IR and FT-Raman), electronic (UV-Vis), NMR (1H and 13C) spectra and reactivity analyses of 4,5-dimethyl-o-phenylenediamine.  

PubMed

The structure of 4,5-dimethyl-o-phenylenediamine (C8H12N2, DMPDA) was investigated on the basis of spectroscopic data and theoretical calculations. The sterochemical structure was determined by FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV, 1H and 13C NMR spectra. An experimental study and a theoretical analysis were associated by using the B3LYP method with Gaussian09 package program. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra were recorded in the region of 4000-400 cm(-1) and 4000-10 cm(-1), respectively. The vibrational spectra were calculated by DFT method and the fundamental vibrations were assigned on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED), calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method with Parallel Quantum Solutions (PQS) program. The UV absorption spectrum of the compound that dissolved in ethanol solution were recorded in the range of 190-400 nm. Total density of state (TDOS) and partial density of state (PDOS) of the DMPDA in terms of HOMOs and LUMOs were calculated and analyzed. Chemical shifts were reported in ppm relative to tetramethylsilane (TMS) for 1H and 13C NMR spectra. The compound was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Also, 1H and 13C chemical shifts calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. Mullikan atomic charges and other thermo-dynamical parameters were investigated with the help of B3LYP (DFT) method using 6-311++G** basis set. On the basis of the thermodynamic properties of the title compound at different temperatures have been carried out, revealing the correlations between heat capacity (C), entropy (S), enthalpy changes (H) and temperatures. The optimized bond lengths, bond angles, chemical shifts and vibrational wavenumbers showed the best agreement with the experimental results. PMID:24813280

Atac, Ahmet; Karaca, Caglar; Gunnaz, Salih; Karabacak, Mehmet

2014-09-15

329

Quantifying the hydrogen-bonding interaction between cation and anion of pure [EMIM][Ac] and evidencing the ion pairs existence in its extremely diluted water solution: Via 13C, 1H, 15N and 2D NMR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acetate-based ionic liquid (AcIL) [EMIM][Ac] does not fully dissociated into isolated ions in extremely diluted water solution (0.5 mol% of IL). Still, ion pairs exist via the through-space weak van der Waals force between H6 of the cation and Hb of the anion. In this ion pairs, except for H6 and Hb, all other hydrogen atoms (i.e., H2, H4, H5, H7, H8) are totally hydrated by water; the acetate anion suffers from a more extent of hydration due to its higher hydrophilicity. One dimension (1D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (1H, 13C, 15N,) and two dimensions (2D) NMR are used in this study. 2D NMR used includes through-space 1H-1H NOSEY (nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy), through-bond 1H-13C HSQC COSY (heteronuclear single-quantum correlation spectroscopy), and HMBC COSY (heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation spectroscopy). The much stronger (H245/anion) or weaker (H78/anion) hydrogen-bonding interaction in the pure [EMIM][Ac] disfavors the association of ions in the diluted state due to a better hydrogen-bonding donor or a weaker hydrogen-bonding strength, respectively. However, H6/anion with the moderate hydrogen-bonding strength and the moderate hydrogen-bonding donating ability existed in the pure [EMIM][Ac] plays the role in determining the associating ion pairs. The proportion of hydrogen-bonding interaction between hydrogens in the cation with anion (100%) is approximately quantified in descending order as follows: H2 (42%), H4 (24%), H5 (22%), H6 (6%), H7 (5%), and H8 (1%).

Chen, Yu; Li, Shehong; Xue, Zhimin; Hao, Mingyang; Mu, Tiancheng

2015-01-01

330

I: Low Frequency NMR and NQR Using a dc SQUID. II: Variable-temperature 13C CP\\/MAS of Organometallics  

Microsoft Academic Search

NMR and NQR at low frequencies are difficult prospects due to small nuclear spin polarization. Furthermore, the sensitivity'of the inductive pickup circuitry of standard spectrometers is reduced as the frequency is lowered. I have used a cw-SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) spectrometer, which has no such frequency dependence, to study the local atomic environment of ¹N via the quadrupolar interaction.

Ziegeweid

1995-01-01

331

Solid-state 13C NMR investigations of 4,7-dihydro-1H-tricyclopenta[def,jkl,pqr]triphenylene (sumanene) and indeno[1,2,3-cd]fluoranthene: Buckminsterfullerene moieties.  

PubMed

4,7-Dihydro-1H-tricyclopenta[def,jkl,pqr]triphenylene (sumanene) and indeno[1,2,3-cd]fluoranthene (indenofluoranthene) are structural moieties related to Buckminsterfullerene (C(60)). As such, understanding their structural characteristics is of great interest because of the insight they shed upon C(60). Hence, solid-state NMR (ssNMR) and ab initio quantum mechanical calculations with Gaussian03 are used in order to understand and to better characterize the molecular conformation and properties of sumanene and indenofluoranthene. Sumanene has bowl shaped curvature in its natural conformation and indenofluoranthene is planar in its natural conformation, which led us to examine how altering the curvature affects the chemical shifts in relation to those of C(60). Using X-ray structures of both sumanene and indenofluoranthene as our starting model, we calculate the energy and chemical shielding tensors and compare these data with those collected utilizing the (13)C ssNMR FIREMAT experiment. We define curvature of sumanene and indenofluoranthene using the pi-orbital axis vector (POAV) pyramidalization angle (theta(p)). We calculate the energy of varying conformations of indenofluoranthene versus their theta(p) associated with each deformed conformation. PMID:20512180

Halling, Merrill D; Orendt, Anita M; Strohmeier, Mark; Solum, Mark S; Tsefrikas, Vikki M; Hirao, Toshikazu; Scott, Lawrence T; Pugmire, Ronald J; Grant, David M

2010-07-28

332

Quantum mechanical and spectroscopic (FT-IR, 13C, 1H NMR and UV) investigations of potent antiepileptic drug 1-(4-chloro-phenyl)-3-phenyl-succinimide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study represents an integrated approach towards understanding the vibrational, electronic, NMR, and structural aspects, and reactivity of 1-(4-chloro-phenyl)-3-phenyl-succinimide (CPPS). A detailed interpretation of the FT-IR, UV and NMR spectra were reported. The equilibrium geometry, bonding features, and harmonic vibrational frequencies have been investigated with the help of density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method using 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The scaled theoretical wavenumber showed very good agreement with the experimental values. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by the Gauge-Invariant Atomic Orbital (GIAO) method. Stability of the molecule, arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization, has been analyzed using Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis. The results show that ED in the ?* and ?* antibonding orbitals and second order delocalization energies E(2) confirm the occurrence of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) within the molecule. UV-Vis spectrum of the compound was recorded and the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies, were calculated by Time-Dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. To estimate chemical reactivity of the molecule, the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surface map is calculated for the optimized geometry of the molecule.

Vitnik, Vesna D.; Vitnik, Željko J.; Banjac, Nebojša R.; Valenti?, Nataša V.; Uš?umli?, Gordana S.; Jurani?, Ivan O.

2014-01-01

333

Quantum mechanical and spectroscopic (FT-IR, 13C, 1H NMR and UV) investigations of potent antiepileptic drug 1-(4-chloro-phenyl)-3-phenyl-succinimide.  

PubMed

This study represents an integrated approach towards understanding the vibrational, electronic, NMR, and structural aspects, and reactivity of 1-(4-chloro-phenyl)-3-phenyl-succinimide (CPPS). A detailed interpretation of the FT-IR, UV and NMR spectra were reported. The equilibrium geometry, bonding features, and harmonic vibrational frequencies have been investigated with the help of density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method using 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The scaled theoretical wavenumber showed very good agreement with the experimental values. The (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by the Gauge-Invariant Atomic Orbital (GIAO) method. Stability of the molecule, arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization, has been analyzed using Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis. The results show that ED in the ?(*) and ?(*) antibonding orbitals and second order delocalization energies E(2) confirm the occurrence of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) within the molecule. UV-Vis spectrum of the compound was recorded and the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies, were calculated by Time-Dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. To estimate chemical reactivity of the molecule, the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surface map is calculated for the optimized geometry of the molecule. PMID:23981413

Vitnik, Vesna D; Vitnik, Željko J; Banjac, Nebojša R; Valenti?, Nataša V; Uš?umli?, Gordana S; Jurani?, Ivan O

2014-01-01

334

Model-free estimation of the effective correlation time for C-H bond reorientation in amphiphilic bilayers: (1)H-(13)C solid-state NMR and MD simulations.  

PubMed

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations give atomically detailed information on structure and dynamics in amphiphilic bilayer systems on timescales up to about 1 ?s. The reorientational dynamics of the C-H bonds is conventionally verified by measurements of (13)C or (2)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) longitudinal relaxation rates R1, which are more sensitive to motional processes with correlation times close to the inverse Larmor frequency, typically around 1-10 ns on standard NMR instrumentation, and are thus less sensitive to the 10-1000 ns timescale motion that can be observed in the MD simulations. We propose an experimental procedure for atomically resolved model-free estimation of the C-H bond effective reorientational correlation time ?e, which includes contributions from the entire range of all-atom MD timescales and that can be calculated directly from the MD trajectories. The approach is based on measurements of (13)C?R1 and R1? relaxation rates, as well as (1)H-(13)C dipolar couplings, and is applicable to anisotropic liquid crystalline lipid or surfactant systems using a conventional solid-state NMR spectrometer and samples with natural isotopic composition. The procedure is demonstrated on a fully hydrated lamellar phase of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine, yielding values of ?e from 0.1 ns for the methyl groups in the choline moiety and at the end of the acyl chains to 3 ns for the g1 methylene group of the glycerol backbone. MD simulations performed with a widely used united-atom force-field reproduce the ?e-profile of the major part of the acyl chains but underestimate the dynamics of the glycerol backbone and adjacent molecular segments. The measurement of experimental ?e-profiles can be used to study subtle effects on C-H bond reorientational motions in anisotropic liquid crystals, as well as to validate the C-H bond reorientation dynamics predicted in MD simulations of amphiphilic bilayers such as lipid membranes. PMID:25638007

Ferreira, Tiago Mendes; Ollila, O H Samuli; Pigliapochi, Roberta; Dabkowska, Aleksandra P; Topgaard, Daniel

2015-01-28

335

Model-free estimation of the effective correlation time for C-H bond reorientation in amphiphilic bilayers: 1H-13C solid-state NMR and MD simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations give atomically detailed information on structure and dynamics in amphiphilic bilayer systems on timescales up to about 1 ?s. The reorientational dynamics of the C-H bonds is conventionally verified by measurements of 13C or 2H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) longitudinal relaxation rates R1, which are more sensitive to motional processes with correlation times close to the inverse Larmor frequency, typically around 1-10 ns on standard NMR instrumentation, and are thus less sensitive to the 10-1000 ns timescale motion that can be observed in the MD simulations. We propose an experimental procedure for atomically resolved model-free estimation of the C-H bond effective reorientational correlation time ?e, which includes contributions from the entire range of all-atom MD timescales and that can be calculated directly from the MD trajectories. The approach is based on measurements of 13C R1 and R1? relaxation rates, as well as 1H-13C dipolar couplings, and is applicable to anisotropic liquid crystalline lipid or surfactant systems using a conventional solid-state NMR spectrometer and samples with natural isotopic composition. The procedure is demonstrated on a fully hydrated lamellar phase of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine, yielding values of ?e from 0.1 ns for the methyl groups in the choline moiety and at the end of the acyl chains to 3 ns for the g1 methylene group of the glycerol backbone. MD simulations performed with a widely used united-atom force-field reproduce the ?e-profile of the major part of the acyl chains but underestimate the dynamics of the glycerol backbone and adjacent molecular segments. The measurement of experimental ?e-profiles can be used to study subtle effects on C-H bond reorientational motions in anisotropic liquid crystals, as well as to validate the C-H bond reorientation dynamics predicted in MD simulations of amphiphilic bilayers such as lipid membranes.

Ferreira, Tiago Mendes; Ollila, O. H. Samuli; Pigliapochi, Roberta; Dabkowska, Aleksandra P.; Topgaard, Daniel

2015-01-01

336

Complexation of lead(II) with O, O ?-dialkyldithiophosphate ligands: 31P and 13C CP\\/MAS NMR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycrystalline lead(II) complexes with O,O?-dipropyl- and O,O?-di-cyclo-hexyldithiophosphate ions were prepared and studied by means of 31P, 31C CP\\/MAS NMR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Prepared complexes are characterised by polynuclear structures, in which pairs of dithiophosphate groups asymmetrically link neighbouring lead atoms, forming infinite linear zigzag chains. In spite of the same combined structural function, dithiophosphate ligands in both complexes

Anna-Carin Larsson; Alexander V Ivanov; Oleg N Antzutkin; Andrey V Gerasimenko; Willis Forsling

2004-01-01

337

Solution structure by 1 H and dynamics by natural abundance 13 C NMR of a receptor recognising peptide derived from a C-terminal fragment of neuropeptide Y  

Microsoft Academic Search

A peptide consisting of 20 amino acid residues, derived from a C-terminal fragment of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and showing high affinity to NPY receptors, was synthesised. Its sequence is PAADLARYRHYIN-LITRQRY-NH2, and the solution structure was calculated from NMR-derived distance and torsion angle restraints, obtained at 15°C in a solvent mixture of water and 30% (v\\/v) 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol, by using DIANA and

Klas Arvidsson; Jiiri Jarvet; Peter Allard; Anders Ehrenberg

1994-01-01

338

{sup 13}C NMR hyperfine couplings, {ital T}{sub 1} anisotropy, and Korringa relations in Rb{sub 2}CsC{sub 60}: Search for effects of strong correlation  

SciTech Connect

Initial considerations lead one to suspect that effects of strong correlation might be present in the alkali fulleride superconductors. We report {ital direct} measurements of {sup 13}C {ital T}{sub 1} anisotropy at 80 K in Rb{sub 2}CsC{sub 60} and compare, in the context of the Korringa relation, the inferred spin-dipolar contribution to 1/{ital T}{sub 1} with the widths of the measured powder pattern line shape. The results demonstrate that the Korringa relation, valid in the limit of noninteracting electrons, holds in this case. Taken together with other normal-state NMR behavior this result makes important effects of strong correlation appear unlikely. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Pennington, C.H.; Stenger, V.A.; Recchia, C.H.; Hahm, C.; Gorny, K.; Nandor, V. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 174 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)] [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 174 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Buffinger, D.R.; Lee, S.M.; Ziebarth, R.P. [Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State University, 120 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State University, 120 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

1996-02-01

339

Structure of N-(5-ethyl-[1,3,4]-thiadiazole-2-yl)toluenesulfonamide by combined X-ray powder diffraction, 13C solid-state NMR and molecular modelling.  

PubMed

The crystal structure solution of the title compound is determined from microcrystalline powder using a multi-technique approach that combines X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) data analysis based on direct-space methods with information from (13)C solid-state NMR (SSNMR), and molecular modelling using the GIPAW (gauge including projector augmented-wave) method. The space group is Pbca with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. The proposed methodology proves very useful for unambiguously characterizing the supramolecular arrangement adopted by the N-(5-ethyl-[1,3,4]-thiadiazole-2-yl)toluenesulfonamide molecules in the crystal, which consists of extended double strands held together by C-H···? non-covalent interactions. PMID:21099024

Hangan, Adriana; Borodi, Gheorghe; Filip, Xenia; Tripon, Carmen; Morari, Cristian; Oprean, Luminita; Filip, Claudiu

2010-12-01

340

Solid state structural analysis of new pentamidine analogs designed as chemotherapeutics that target DNA by X-ray diffraction and 13C, 15N CP/MAS NMR methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the solid-state analysis of the crystalline form of 1,5- bis[(4-cyanophenyl)- N-methylamino]pentane ( 1) and polycrystalline powder sample of 1,5- bis[(4-amidinophenyl)- N-methylamino]pentane dihydrochloride ( 2). The methods used are X-ray diffraction technique and 13C, 15N CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy in an attempt to detect the effects of possible polymorphism. Both methods indicate that only single conformers exist in the solid-state for 1 and 2. 1,5- Bis[(4-cyanophenyl)- N-methylamino]pentane 1, crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group P2 12 12. The asymmetric unit contains one half of the ordered molecule. Only weak intermolecular interactions were found in solid-state, in which methyl groups are engaged.

?abi?ski, Jerzy; Maciejewska, Dorota; Wolska, Irena

2010-12-01

341

Z and E rotamers of N-formyl-1-bromo-4-hydroxy-3-methoxymorphinan-6-one and their interconversion as studied by 1H/13C NMR spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations  

PubMed Central

N-Formyl-1-bromo-4-hydroxy-3-methoxymorphinan-6-one (2), an important intermediate in the NIH Opiate Total Synthesis, presumably exists as a mixture of two rotamers (Z and E) in both CHCl3 and DMSO at room temperature due to the hindered rotation of its N-C18 bond in the amide moiety. By comparing the experimental 1H and 13C chemical shifts of a single rotamer and the mixture of 2 in CDCl3 with the calculated chemical shifts of the geometry optimized Z and E rotamers utilizing density functional theory, the crystalline rotamer of 2 was characterized as having the E configuration. The energy barrier between the two rotamers was also determined with the temperature dependence of 1H and 13C NMR coalescence experiments, and then compared with that from the reaction path for the interconversion of the two rotamers calculated at the level of B3LYP/6-31G*. Detailed geometry of the ground state and the transition states of both rotamers are given and discussed. PMID:23233124

Sulima, Agnieszka; Cheng, Kejun; Jacobson, Arthur E.; Rice, Kenner C.; Gawrisch, Klaus; Lee, Yong-Sok

2012-01-01

342

Determination of the tautomeric equilibria of pyridoyl benzoyl ?-diketones in the liquid and solid state through the use of deuterium isotope effects on 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts and spin coupling constants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tautomeric equilibria for 2-pyridoyl-, 3-pyridoyl-, and 4-pyridoyl-benzoyl methane have been investigated using deuterium isotope effects on 1H and 13C chemical shifts both in the liquid and the solid state. Equilibria are established both in the liquid and the solid state. In addition, in the solution state the 2-bond and 3-bond J(1H-13C) coupling constants have been used to confirm the equilibrium positions. The isotope effects due to deuteriation at the OH position are shown to be superior to chemical shift in determination of equilibrium positions of these almost symmetrical -pyridoyl-benzoyl methanes. The assignments of the NMR spectra are supported by calculations of the chemical shifts at the DFT level. The equilibrium positions are shown to be different in the liquid and the solid state. In the liquid state the 4-pyridoyl derivative is at the B-form (C-1 is OH), whereas the 2-and 3-pyridoyl derivatives are in the A-form. In the solid state all three compounds are on the B-form. The 4-pyridoyl derivative shows unusual deuterium isotope effects in the solid, which are ascribed to a change of the crystal structure of the deuteriated compound.

Hansen, Poul Erik; Borisov, Eugeny V.; Lindon, John C.

2015-02-01

343

Determination of the tautomeric equilibria of pyridoyl benzoyl ?-diketones in the liquid and solid state through the use of deuterium isotope effects on (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts and spin coupling constants.  

PubMed

The tautomeric equilibria for 2-pyridoyl-, 3-pyridoyl-, and 4-pyridoyl-benzoyl methane have been investigated using deuterium isotope effects on (1)H and (13)C chemical shifts both in the liquid and the solid state. Equilibria are established both in the liquid and the solid state. In addition, in the solution state the 2-bond and 3-bond J((1)H-(13)C) coupling constants have been used to confirm the equilibrium positions. The isotope effects due to deuteriation at the OH position are shown to be superior to chemical shift in determination of equilibrium positions of these almost symmetrical -pyridoyl-benzoyl methanes. The assignments of the NMR spectra are supported by calculations of the chemical shifts at the DFT level. The equilibrium positions are shown to be different in the liquid and the solid state. In the liquid state the 4-pyridoyl derivative is at the B-form (C-1 is OH), whereas the 2-and 3-pyridoyl derivatives are in the A-form. In the solid state all three compounds are on the B-form. The 4-pyridoyl derivative shows unusual deuterium isotope effects in the solid, which are ascribed to a change of the crystal structure of the deuteriated compound. PMID:24070650

Hansen, Poul Erik; Borisov, Eugeny V; Lindon, John C

2015-02-01

344

Synthesis, spectral (IR, UV-Vis and variable temperature NMR) characterization and crystal structure of (N-benzyl-N-furfuryldithicarbamato-S,S')(thiocyanato-N)(triphenylphosphine)nickel(II).  

PubMed

Planar (N-benzyl-N-furfuryldithiocarbamato-S,S')(thiocyanato-N)(triphenylphospine)nickel(II), [Ni(bfdtc)(NCS)(PPh3)], (1) was prepared from bis(N-benzyl-N-furfuryldithiocarbamato-S,S')nickel(II), [Ni(bfdtc)2], (2) and characterized by elemental analysis, cyclic voltammetry, electronic, IR and variable temperature (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra. For complex 1, the thioureide vCN value is shifted to higher wavenumber compared to 2 and N(13)CS2 carbon signal observed for 1 is additionally shielded compared to the parent complex 2, suggesting increased strength of the thioureide bond due to the presence of the ?-accepting phosphine. In the room temperature (13)C NMR spectrum of 1, two pseudo doublets are observed in the aliphatic region. Variable temperature (13)C NMR spectral studies suggest that the fast thiocyanate exchange appears to be responsible for the appearance of pseudo doublets. Single crystal X-ray structural analysis of 1 and 2 confirm the presence of four coordinated nickel in a distorted square planar arrangement with the NiS2PN and NiS4 chromophores, respectively. The NiS bonds are symmetric in 2 (2.1914(14) and 2.2073(13)Å). But significant asymmetry in NiS bond distances was observed in 1 (2.2202(8)Å and 2.1841Å). This observation clearly supports the less effective trans effect of SCN(-) over PPh3. Cyclic voltammetric studies revealed easier reduction of nickel(II) to nickel(I) in complex 1 compared to 2. PMID:24747850

Valarmathi, P; Thirumaran, S; Sarmal, Lovely; Kant, Rajni

2014-08-14

345

Photochemically induced nuclear spin polarization in reaction centers of photosystem II observed by 13C-solid-state NMR reveals a strongly asymmetric electronic structure of the P680.+ primary donor chlorophyll  

PubMed Central

We report 13C magic angle spinning NMR observation of photochemically induced dynamic nuclear spin polarization (photo- CIDNP) in the reaction center (RC) of photosystem II (PS2). The light-enhanced NMR signals of the natural abundance 13C provide information on the electronic structure of the primary electron donor P680 (chlorophyll a molecules absorbing around 680 nm) and on the pz spin density pattern in its oxidized form, P680?. Most centerband signals can be attributed to a single chlorophyll a (Chl a) cofactor that has little interaction with other pigments. The chemical shift anisotropy of the most intense signals is characteristic for aromatic carbon atoms. The data reveal a pronounced asymmetry of the electronic spin density distribution within the P680?. PS2 shows only a single broad and intense emissive signal, which is assigned to both the C-10 and C-15 methine carbon atoms. The spin density appears shifted toward ring III. This shift is remarkable, because, for monomeric Chl a radical cations in solution, the region of highest spin density is around ring II. It leads to a first hypothesis as to how the planet can provide itself with the chemical potential to split water and generate an oxygen atmosphere using the Chl a macroaromatic cycle. A local electrostatic field close to ring III can polarize the electronic charge and associated spin density and increase the redox potential of P680 by stabilizing the highest occupied molecular orbital, without a major change of color. This field could be produced, e.g., by protonation of the keto group of ring V. Finally, the radical cation electronic structure in PS2 is different from that in the bacterial RC, which shows at least four emissive centerbands, indicating a symmetric spin density distribution over the entire bacteriochlorophyll macrocycle. PMID:10944191

Matysik, Jörg; Alia; Gast, Peter; van Gorkom, Hans J.; Hoff, Arnold J.; de Groot, Huub J. M.

2000-01-01

346

Degradation of mangrove tissues by arboreal termites (Nasutitermes acajutlae) and their role in the mangrove C cycle (Puerto Rico): Chemical characterization and organic matter provenance using bulk ?13C, C/N, alkaline CuO oxidation-GC/MS, and solid-state 13C NMR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arboreal termites are wood decaying organisms that play an important role in the first stages of C cycling in mangrove systems. The chemical composition of Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans, and Laguncularia racemosa leaf, stem, and pneumatophore tissues as well as associated sediments was compared to that of nests of the termite Nasutitermes acajutlae. Nests gave ?13C values of -26.1 to -27.2‰ (±0.1) and C/N of 43.3 (±2.0) to 98.6 (±16.2) which were similar to all stem and pneumatophores but distinct from mangrove leaves or sediments. Organic matter processed by termites yielded lignin phenol concentrations (?, lambda) that were 2-4 times higher than stem or pneumatophores and 10-20 times higher than that of leaves or sediments, suggesting that the nests were more resistant to biodegradation than the mangrove vegetation source. 13C NMR revealed that polysaccharide content of mangrove tissues (50-69% C) was higher than that of the nests (46-51% C). Conversely, lignin accounted for 16.2-19.6% C of nest material, a threefold increase relative to living mangrove tissues; a similar increase in aromatic methoxyl content was also observed in the nests. Lipids (aliphatic and paraffinic moieties) were also important but rather variable chemical components of all three mangrove species, representing between 13.5 and 28.3% of the C content. Termite nests contained 3.14 Mg C ha-1 which represents approximately 2% of above ground C storage in mangroves, a value that is likely to increase upon burial due to their refractory chemical composition.

Vane, Christopher H.; Kim, Alexander W.; Moss-Hayes, Vicky; Snape, Colin E.; Diaz, Miguel Castro; Khan, Nicole S.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Horton, Benjamin P.

2013-08-01

347

Inverse methods in two-dimensional NMR spectral analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid-state NMR is a valuable technique for the study of disordered materials. Analysis of such spectra usually involves solution of so-called ill-posed inverse problems. Here we present a strategy for the analysis of two-parameter two-dimensional NMR problems and test it on 2D DECODER and DOQSY experiments. Using Monte Carlo tests, constraints are determined for the resolution and accuracy of the analysis for both experiments. The methods are finally applied to spectra of spider dragline silk, a heterogeneous solid fibrous protein.

van Beek, Jacco D.; Meier, Beat H.; Schäfer, Hartmut

2003-05-01

348

Metabolic flux analysis of recombinant Pichia pastoris growing on different glycerol/methanol mixtures by iterative fitting of NMR-derived (13)C-labelling data from proteinogenic amino acids.  

PubMed

The yeast Pichia pastoris has emerged as one of the most promising yeast cell factories for the production of heterologous proteins. The readily available genetic tools and the ease of high-cell density cultivations using methanol or glycerol/methanol mixtures are among the key factors for this development. Previous studies have shown that the use of mixed feeds of glycerol and methanol seem to alleviate the metabolic burden derived from protein production, allowing for higher specific and volumetric process productivities. However, initial studies of glycerol/methanol co-metabolism in P. pastoris by classical metabolic flux analyses using (13)C-derived Metabolic Flux Ratio (METAFoR) constraints were hampered by the reduced labelling information obtained when using C3:C1 substrate mixtures in relation to the conventional C6 substrate, that is, glucose. In this study, carbon flux distributions through the central metabolic pathways in glycerol/methanol co-assimilation conditions have been further characterised using biosynthetically directed fractional (13)C labelling. In particular, metabolic flux distributions were obtained under 3 different glycerol/methanol ratios and growth rates by iterative fitting of NMR-derived (13)C-labelling data from proteinogenic amino acids using the software tool (13)CFlux2. Specifically, cells were grown aerobically in chemostat cultures fed with 80:20, 60:40 and 40:60 (w:w) glycerol/methanol mixtures at two dilutions rates (0.05 hour(-1) and 0.16 hour(-1)), allowing to obtain additional data (biomass composition and extracellular fluxes) to complement pre-existing datasets. The performed (13)C-MFA reveals a significant redistribution of carbon fluxes in the central carbon metabolism as a result of the shift in the dilution rate, while the ratio of carbon sources has a lower impact on carbon flux distribution in cells growing at the same dilution rate. At low growth rate, the percentage of methanol directly dissimilated to CO2 ranges between 50% and 70%. At high growth rate the methanol is completely dissimilated to CO2 by the direct pathway, in the two conditions of highest methanol content. PMID:23845285

Jordà, Joel; de Jesus, Sérgio S; Peltier, Solenne; Ferrer, Pau; Albiol, Joan

2014-01-25

349

(1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic studies of hexane-extractable lipids from soils under shelterbelts of different age and composition of plants.  

PubMed

Comparative study of the composition of lipids extracted with n-hexane from soils under shelterbelts of different age and composition of plants and adjoining cultivated fields in agrolandscape has been carried out with the application of (1)? and (13)? NMR spectroscopy. The lipid content correlates with the organic carbon content in soils and is the highest in the soil under the 200-years old shelterbelt. The data received indicate that hexane-extractable lipids from the soil under the 200-years old shelterbelt have undergone the most significant biochemical and chemical transformations (oxidation, hydrolysis, polymerization) with the accumulation of resistant compounds and destruction of esters of o-phthalic acid as anthropogenic contaminants compared to the lipids from the soil under the 14-years old shelterbelt and soils of adjoining arable fields. PMID:25454205

Szajdak, Lech Wojciech; Maryganova, Victoria; Skakovskii, Eugene; Tychinskaya, Ludmila

2015-01-01

350

Reversed-phase liquid chromatography with electrospray mass detection and (1) H and (13) C NMR characterization of new process-related impurities, including forced degradants of Efavirenz: Related substances correlated to the synthetic pathway.  

PubMed

In this study, a stability-indicating reversed-phase liquid chromatographic electrospray mass spectrometric method was developed and validated for the determination of process-related impurities and forced degradants of Efavirenz in bulk drugs. Efavirenz was subjected to acid, alkaline hydrolysis, H2 O2 oxidation, photolysis, and thermal stress. Significant degradation was observed during alkaline hydrolysis, and the degradants were isolated on a mass-based purification system and characterized by high-resolution mass spectrometry, positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, and (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopy. Accurate mass measurement and NMR spectroscopy revealed the possible structure of process-related impurities and degradant under stress conditions. The acceptable separation was accomplished on Waters bondapak C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm; 5 ?m), using 5 mM ammonium acetate and acetonitrile as a mobile phase in a gradient elution mode at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The eluents were monitored by diode array detector at 247 nm and quantitation limits were obtained in the range of 0.1-2.5 ?g/mL for Efavirenz, degradants, and process-related impurities. The liquid chromatography method was validated with respect to accuracy, precision, linearity, robustness, and limits of detection and quantification as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. PMID:25385054

Gadapayale, Kamalesh; Kakde, Rajendra; Sarma, Vum

2015-01-01

351

Earth field NMR with chemical shift spectral resolution: theory and proof of concept.  

PubMed

A new method for obtaining an NMR signal in the Earth's magnetic field (EF) is presented. The method makes use of a simple pulse sequence with only DC fields which is much less demanding than previous approaches in terms of the pulses' rise and fall times. Furthermore, it offers the possibility of obtaining NMR data with enough spectral resolution to allow retrieving high resolution molecular chemical shift (CS) information - a capability that was not considered possible in EF NMR until now. Details of the pulse sequence, the experimental system, and our specially tailored EF NMR probe are provided. The experimental results demonstrate the capability to differentiate between three types of samples made of common fluorine compounds, based on their CS data. PMID:22595293

Katz, Itai; Shtirberg, Lazar; Shakour, Gubrail; Blank, Aharon

2012-06-01

352

Structure-based predictions of 13C-NMR chemical shifts for a series of 2-functionalized 5-(methylsulfonyl)-1-phenyl-1H-indoles derivatives using GA-based MLR method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental values for the 13C NMR chemical shifts (ppm, TMS = 0) at 300 K ranging from 96.28 ppm (C4' of indole derivative 17) to 159.93 ppm (C4' of indole derivative 23) relative to deuteride chloroform (CDCl3, 77.0 ppm) or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, 39.50 ppm) as internal reference in CDCl3 or DMSO-d6 solutions have been collected from literature for thirty 2-functionalized 5-(methylsulfonyl)-1-phenyl-1H-indole derivatives containing different substituted groups. An effective quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models were built using hybrid method combining genetic algorithm (GA) based on stepwise selection multiple linear regression (SWS-MLR) as feature-selection tools and correlation models between each carbon atom of indole derivative and calculated descriptors. Each compound was depicted by molecular structural descriptors that encode constitutional, topological, geometrical, electrostatic, and quantum chemical features. The accuracy of all developed models were confirmed using different types of internal and external procedures and various statistical tests. Furthermore, the domain of applicability for each model which indicates the area of reliable predictions was defined.

Ghavami, Raouf; Sadeghi, Faridoon; Rasouli, Zolikha; Djannati, Farhad

2012-12-01

353

Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H- and 13C-NMR), Theoretical and Microbiological Study of trans o-Coumaric Acid and Alkali Metal o-Coumarates.  

PubMed

This work is a continuation of research on a correlation between the molecular structure and electronic charge distribution of phenolic compounds and their biological activity. The influence of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium cations on the electronic system of trans o-coumaric (2-hydroxy-cinnamic) acid was studied. We investigated the relationship between the molecular structure of the tested compounds and their antimicrobial activity. Complementary molecular spectroscopic techniques such as infrared (FT-IR), Raman (FT-Raman), ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H- and 13C-NMR) were applied. Structures of the molecules were optimized and their structural characteristics were calculated by the density functional theory (DFT) using the B3LYP method with 6-311++G** as a basis set. Geometric and magnetic aromaticity indices, atomic charges, dipole moments and energies were also calculated. Theoretical parameters were compared to the experimental characteristics of investigated compounds. Correlations between certain vibrational bands and some metal parameters, such as electronegativity, ionization energy, atomic and ionic radius, were found. The microbial activity of studied compounds was tested against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans. PMID:25689641

Kowczyk-Sadowy, Ma?gorzata; ?wis?ocka, Renata; Lewandowska, Hanna; Piekut, Jolanta; Lewandowski, W?odzimierz

2015-01-01

354

Powder X-ray diffraction, infrared and (13)C NMR spectroscopic studies of the homologous series of some solid-state zinc(II) and sodium(I) n-alkanoates.  

PubMed

A comparative study of the room temperature molecular packing and lattice structures for the homologous series of zinc(II) and sodium(I) n-alkanoates adduced from Fourier transform infrared and solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopic data in conjunction with X-ray powder diffraction measurements is carried out. For zinc carboxylates, metal-carboxyl bonding is via asymmetric bridging bidentate coordination whilst for the sodium adducts, coordination is via asymmetric chelating bidentate bonding. All compounds are packed in a monoclinic crystal system. Furthermore, the fully extended all-trans hydrocarbon chains are arranged as lamellar bilayers. For zinc compounds, there is bilayer overlap, for long chain adducts (nc>8) but not for sodium compounds where methyl groups from opposing layers in the lamellar are only closely packed. Additionally, the hydrocarbon chains are extended along the a-axis of the unit cell for zinc compounds whilst for sodium carboxylates they are extended along the c-axis. These packing differences are responsible for different levels of Van der Waals effects in the lattices of these two series of compounds, hence, observed odd-even alternation is different. The significant difference in lattice packing observed for these two series of compounds is proposed to be due to the difference in metal-carboxyl coordination mode, arising from the different electronic structure of the central metal ions. PMID:25582567

Nelson, Peter N; Taylor, Richard A

2015-03-01

355

Comprehensive quantum chemical and spectroscopic (FTIR, FT-Raman, 1H, 13C NMR) investigations of (1,2-epoxyethyl)benzene and (1,2-epoxy-2-phenyl)propane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aromatic epoxides are causative factors for mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of polycyclic arenes. The 1,2- or 2,3-epoxy compounds are widely used to a considerable extent in the textile, plastics, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, detergent and photochemical industries. The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of (1,2-epoxyethyl)benzene and (1,2-epoxy-2-phenyl)propane are recorded in the regions 4000-400 cm-1 and 4000-100 cm-1, respectively. The observed fundamentals are assigned to different normal modes of vibration. The structure of the compound has been optimised with B3LYP method using 6-311++G** and cc-pVTZ basis sets. The IR and Raman intensities are determined. The total electron density and molecular electrostatic potential surfaces of the molecule are constructed by using B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method to display electrostatic potential (electron + nuclei) distribution. The electronic properties HOMO and LUMO energies were measured. Natural bond orbital analysis of the compounds has been performed to indicate the presence of intramolecular charge transfer. The 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of the molecules have been analysed.

Arjunan, V.; Anitha, R.; Devi, L.; Mohan, S.; Yang, Haifeng

2015-01-01

356

Comprehensive quantum chemical and spectroscopic (FTIR, FT-Raman, (1)H, (13)C NMR) investigations of (1,2-epoxyethyl)benzene and (1,2-epoxy-2-phenyl)propane.  

PubMed

Aromatic epoxides are causative factors for mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of polycyclic arenes. The 1,2- or 2,3-epoxy compounds are widely used to a considerable extent in the textile, plastics, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, detergent and photochemical industries. The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of (1,2-epoxyethyl)benzene and (1,2-epoxy-2-phenyl)propane are recorded in the regions 4000-400 cm(-1) and 4000-100 cm(-1), respectively. The observed fundamentals are assigned to different normal modes of vibration. The structure of the compound has been optimised with B3LYP method using 6-311++G(**) and cc-pVTZ basis sets. The IR and Raman intensities are determined. The total electron density and molecular electrostatic potential surfaces of the molecule are constructed by using B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method to display electrostatic potential (electron+nuclei) distribution. The electronic properties HOMO and LUMO energies were measured. Natural bond orbital analysis of the compounds has been performed to indicate the presence of intramolecular charge transfer. The (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts of the molecules have been analysed. PMID:25062058

Arjunan, V; Anitha, R; Devi, L; Mohan, S; Yang, Haifeng

2015-01-25

357

Transmission of Electronic Substituent Effects across the 1,12-Dicarba-closo-dodecaborane Cage: A Computational Study Based on Structural Variation, Atomic Charges, and (13)C NMR Chemical Shifts.  

PubMed

The ability of the 1,12-dicarba-closo-dodecaborane cage to transmit long-range substituent effects has been investigated by analyzing the structural variation of a phenyl probe bonded to C1, as caused by a remote substituent X at C12. The geometries of 41 Ph-CB10H10C-X molecules, including 11 charged species, have been determined by MO calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. The structural variation of the phenyl probe is best represented by a linear combination of the internal ring angles, termed SF(CARB). Multiple regression analysis of SF(CARB), using appropriate explanatory variables, reveals the presence of resonance effects, superimposed onto the field effect of the remote substituent. The ability of the para-carborane cage to transmit resonance effects is, on average, about one-half of that of the para-phenylene frame in coplanar para-substituted biphenyls. Analysis of the ?-charge variation of the phenyl probe confirms that the para-carborane frame is less capable than the coplanar para-phenylene frame of transmitting ?-electrons from the remote substituent to the phenyl probe, or vice versa. The para-carborane cage is a better ?-acceptor than ?-donor; this makes ?-donor substituents less effective than ?-acceptors in exchanging ?-electrons with the phenyl probe across the cage. When the remote substituent is an uncharged group, the para-carborane cage acts as a very weak ?-acceptor toward the phenyl probe. The structural variation of the para-carborane cage has also been investigated. It consists primarily of a change of the C1···C12 nonbonded separation, coupled with a change of the five B-C-B angles at C12. This concerted geometrical change is controlled by the electronegativity of the substituent and the resonance interactions occurring between substituent and cage. These, however, appear to be important only when ?-donor substituents are involved. The (13)C NMR chemical shifts of the para-carbon of the phenyl probe correlate nicely with SF(CARB), pointing to the reliability of these quantities as measures of long-range substituent effects. On the contrary, the (11)B and (13)C chemical shifts of the cage atoms do not convey information on electronic substituent effects. PMID:25488467

Campanelli, Anna Rita; Domenicano, Aldo; Hnyk, Drahomír

2015-01-01

358

1H and 13C MAS NMR analysis for the role of chemically inequivalent a-N(CH3)4 and b-N(CH3)4 ions in [N(CH3)4]2CuCl4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spin-lattice relaxation times in the laboratory frame, T1, and in the rotating frame, T1?, for 1H and 13C in [N(CH3)4]2CuCl4 were measured by static NMR and magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR as functions of temperature. The intensities of the 1H and 13C signals changed near phase transition temperatures TC1 and TC3, which indicated that N(CH3)4 plays an important role in these phase transitions. It was thus apparent that the T1 and T1? for 1H are governed by the same molecular motions. Two inequivalent ions, a-N(CH3)4 and b-N(CH3)4, were identified by 13C cross-polarization (CP)/MAS NMR. From these results, the behaviors of these two chemically inequivalent N(CH3)4 groups in the paraelastic and ferroelastic phases are discussed.

Lim, Ae Ran

2014-01-01

359

CONNJUR spectrum translator: an open source application for reformatting NMR spectral data.  

PubMed

NMR spectroscopists are hindered by the lack of standardization for spectral data among the file formats for various NMR data processing tools. This lack of standardization is cumbersome as researchers must perform their own file conversion in order to switch between processing tools and also restricts the combination of tools employed if no conversion option is available. The CONNJUR Spectrum Translator introduces a new, extensible architecture for spectrum translation and introduces two key algorithmic improvements. This first is translation of NMR spectral data (time and frequency domain) to a single in-memory data model to allow addition of new file formats with two converter modules, a reader and a writer, instead of writing a separate converter to each existing format. Secondly, the use of layout descriptors allows a single fid data translation engine to be used for all formats. For the end user, sophisticated metadata readers allow conversion of the majority of files with minimum user configuration. The open source code is freely available at http://connjur.sourceforge.net for inspection and extension. PMID:21409563

Nowling, Ronald J; Vyas, Jay; Weatherby, Gerard; Fenwick, Matthew W; Ellis, Heidi J C; Gryk, Michael R

2011-05-01

360

Getting your peaks in line: a review of alignment methods for NMR spectral data.  

PubMed

One of the most significant challenges in the comparative analysis of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) metabolome profiles is the occurrence of shifts between peaks across different spectra, for example caused by fluctuations in pH, temperature, instrument factors and ion content. Proper alignment of spectral peaks is therefore often a crucial preprocessing step prior to downstream quantitative analysis. Various alignment methods have been developed specifically for this purpose. Other methods were originally developed to align other data types (GC, LC, SELDI-MS, etc.), but can also be applied to NMR data. This review discusses the available methods, as well as related problems such as reference determination or the evaluation of alignment quality. We present a generic alignment framework that allows for comparison and classification of different alignment approaches according to their algorithmic principles, and we discuss their performance. PMID:24957991

Vu, Trung Nghia; Laukens, Kris

2013-01-01

361

Getting Your Peaks in Line: A Review of Alignment Methods for NMR Spectral Data  

PubMed Central

One of the most significant challenges in the comparative analysis of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) metabolome profiles is the occurrence of shifts between peaks across different spectra, for example caused by fluctuations in pH, temperature, instrument factors and ion content. Proper alignment of spectral peaks is therefore often a crucial preprocessing step prior to downstream quantitative analysis. Various alignment methods have been developed specifically for this purpose. Other methods were originally developed to align other data types (GC, LC, SELDI-MS, etc.), but can also be applied to NMR data. This review discusses the available methods, as well as related problems such as reference determination or the evaluation of alignment quality. We present a generic alignment framework that allows for comparison and classification of different alignment approaches according to their algorithmic principles, and we discuss their performance. PMID:24957991

Vu, Trung Nghia; Laukens, Kris

2013-01-01

362

Structure of the 2:1 complex of 1-piperidineacetic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid studied by X-ray, FTIR, 1H, 13C NMR, and DFT methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crystals of the 2:1 complex of piperidineacetic acid with p-hydroxybenzoic acid, (PAA) 2·HBA, are monoclinic, space group C2 and Z = 4, a = 29.666(4), b = 6.1208(10), c = 14.200(2) Å, ? = 117.755(16)°, R = 0.035. The crystals of the complex contain molecules of three types: 1-piperidiniumacetate (zwitterion, ZPAA), protonated piperidineacetic acid (HPAA), and p-hydroxybenzoate anion (AHBA). Two piperidiniumacetate moieties, ZPAA, and HPAA, form a non-symmetric cyclic dimer through two N +sbnd H···O sbnd C hydrogen bonds of the lengths of 2.773(3) and 2.820(3) Å. The COOH group of the cation HPAA is engaged in the O sbnd H···O hydrogen bond of 2.519(2) Å with the carboxylate group of p-hydroxybenzoate anion (AHBA), while the COO - group of the zwitterion ZPAA interacts with the OH group of p-hydroxybenzoate anion (AHBA) of the neighboring complex molecule through the O···H sbnd O hydrogen bond of 2.589(2) Å, which links molecules into infinite chains. The structures of two complexes, denoted as A and B, have been optimized by the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method. In both complexes two molecules of ZPAA form a cyclic dimer. In A one molecule of ZPAA interacts with the carboxylic group of HBA via the O···H sbnd O hydrogen bond of 2.582 Å, without the proton transfer, while in B with the phenolic group of HBA via the O···H sbnd O hydrogen bond of 2.629 Å. Complex B is more stable than A by 1.55 kcal/mol. The FTIR spectrum shows a broad band in the 3120-2070 cm -1 region assigned to the ?NH vibrations and a broad absorption in the 1750-800 cm -1 region corresponding to the short O sbnd H···O hydrogen bonds. Three bands: one attributed to the ?C dbnd O and two ones to the ?asCOO vibrations at 1675, 1634, and 1606 cm -1, respectively, are observed in the second-derivative spectrum, which is in agreement with the X-ray results. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra have been analyzed to elucidate the complex structure in solution.

Dega-Szafran, Z.; Dutkiewicz, G.; Kosturkiewicz, Z.; Szafran, M.

2007-11-01

363

Simultaneous Multiagent Hyperpolarized 13C Perfusion Imaging  

PubMed Central

Purpose To demonstrate simultaneous hyperpolarization and imaging of three 13C-labeled perfusion MRI contrast agents with dissimilar molecular structures ([13C]urea, [13C]hydroxymethyl cyclopropane, and [13C]t-butanol) and correspondingly variable chemical shifts and physiological characteristics, and to exploit their varying diffusibility for simultaneous measurement of vascular permeability and perfusion in initial preclinical studies. Methods Rapid and efficient dynamic multislice imaging was enabled by a novel pulse sequence incorporating balanced steady state free precession excitation and spectral-spatial readout by multiband frequency encoding, designed for the wide, regular spectral separation of these compounds. We exploited the varying bilayer permeability of these tracers to quantify vascular permeability and perfusion parameters simultaneously, using perfusion modeling methods that were investigated in simulations. “Tripolarized” perfusion MRI methods were applied to initial preclinical studies with differential conditions of vascular permeability, in normal mouse tissues and advanced transgenic mouse prostate tumors. Results Dynamic imaging revealed clear differences among the individual tracer distributions. Computed permeability maps demonstrated differential permeability of brain tissue among the tracers, and tumor perfusion and permeability were both elevated over values expected for normal tissues. Conclusion Tripolarized perfusion MRI provides new molecular imaging measures for specifically monitoring permeability, perfusion, and transport simultaneously in vivo. PMID:24382698

von Morze, Cornelius; Bok, Robert A.; Reed, Galen D.; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Kurhanewicz, John; Vigneron, Daniel B.

2014-01-01

364

Molecular structure, spectroscopic (FTIR, FT-Raman, 13C and 1H NMR, UV), polarizability and first-order hyperpolarizability, HOMO-LUMO analysis of 2,4-difluoroacetophenone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of 2,4-difluoroacetophenone (DFAP) have been recorded in the regions 4000-400 cm-1 and 3500-50 cm-1, respectively. Utilizing the observed FTIR and FT-Raman data, a complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compound were carried out. The optimum molecular geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities and Raman scattering activities, were calculated by density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-31+G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets. The difference between the observed and scaled wavenumber values of most of the fundamentals is very small. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of DFAP is also reported based on total energy distribution (TED). Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions, charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The MEP map shows the negative potential sites are on oxygen atom as well as the positive potential sites are around the hydrogen atoms. The UV-Vis spectral analysis of DFAP has also been done which confirms the charge transfer of DFAP. The chemical shifts of H atoms and C atoms were calculated using NMR analysis. Furthermore, the polarizability, the first hyperpolarizability and total dipole moment of the molecule have been calculated.

Jeyavijayan, S.

2015-02-01

365

Molecular structure, spectroscopic (FTIR, FT-Raman, (13)C and (1)H NMR, UV), polarizability and first-order hyperpolarizability, HOMO-LUMO analysis of 2,4-difluoroacetophenone.  

PubMed

The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of 2,4-difluoroacetophenone (DFAP) have been recorded in the regions 4000-400cm(-1) and 3500-50cm(-1), respectively. Utilizing the observed FTIR and FT-Raman data, a complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compound were carried out. The optimum molecular geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities and Raman scattering activities, were calculated by density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-31+G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets. The difference between the observed and scaled wavenumber values of most of the fundamentals is very small. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of DFAP is also reported based on total energy distribution (TED). Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions, charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The MEP map shows the negative potential sites are on oxygen atom as well as the positive potential sites are around the hydrogen atoms. The UV-Vis spectral analysis of DFAP has also been done which confirms the charge transfer of DFAP. The chemical shifts of H atoms and C atoms were calculated using NMR analysis. Furthermore, the polarizability, the first hyperpolarizability and total dipole moment of the molecule have been calculated. PMID:25448956

Jeyavijayan, S

2015-02-01

366

DFT calculations and experimental FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR, UV-Vis spectral studies of 3-fluorophenylboronic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H and 13C NMR, UV-Vis), structural, electronic and thermodynamical properties of 3-fluorophenylboronic acid (C6H4FB(OH)2), 3FPBA) were submitted by using both experimental techniques and theoretical methods (quantum chemical calculations) in this work. The experimental infrared and Raman spectra were obtained in the region 4000-400 cm-1 and 3500-10 cm-1, respectively. The equilibrium geometry and vibrational spectra were calculated by using DFT (B3LYP) with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The vibrational wavenumbers were also corrected with scale factor to take better results for the calculated data. The total energy distributions (TED) of the vibrational modes were performed for the assignments of the title molecule by using scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method. The NMR chemical shifts (1H and 13C) were recorded in DMSO solution. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra were computed by using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method, showing a good agreement with the experimental ones. The last one UV-Vis absorption spectra were analyzed in two solvents (ethanol and water), saved in the range of 200-400 nm. In addition these, HOMO and LUMO energies, the excitation energies, density of states (DOS) diagrams, thermodynamical properties and molecular electrostatic potential surface (MEPs) were presented. Nonlinear optical (NLO) properties and thermodynamic features were performed. The experimental results are combined with the theoretical calculations using DFT calculations to fortification of the paper. At the end of this work, the results were proved our paper had been indispensable for the literature backing.

Karabacak, M.; Kose, E.; Sas, E. B.; Kurt, M.; Asiri, A. M.; Atac, A.

2015-02-01

367

13C NMR, 10428944 231 1H NMR, 10428944 231  

E-print Network

Brain, 10347905 · 215 Addiction, 10316795 · 249 10331959 · 248 10404668 · 254 10429012 · 251 11469973 pregnancy outcomes, 11873944 · 178 adverse renal effects of therapeutic agents and other drugs, 10139927 Adaptation of the developing brain to injury, 10373116 · 172 Adaptations of Dialectical Behavior Therapy

368

A method for simultaneous echo planar imaging of hyperpolarized 13C pyruvate and 13C lactate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rapid echo planar imaging sequence for dynamic imaging of [1-13C] lactate and [1-13C] pyruvate simultaneously was developed. Frequency-based separation of these metabolites was achieved by spatial shifting in the phase-encoded direction with the appropriate choice of echo spacing. Suppression of the pyruvate-hydrate and alanine resonances is achieved through an optimized spectral-spatial RF waveform. Signal sampling efficiency as a function of pyruvate and lactate excitation angle was simulated using two site exchange models. Dynamic imaging is demonstrated in a transgenic mouse model, and phantom validations of the RF pulse frequency selectivity were performed.

Reed, Galen D.; Larson, Peder E. Z.; von Morze, Cornelius; Bok, Robert; Lustig, Michael; Kerr, Adam B.; Pauly, John M.; Kurhanewicz, John; Vigneron, Daniel B.

2012-04-01

369

A Method for Simultaneous Echo Planar Imaging of Hyperpolarized 13C Pyruvate and 13C Lactate  

PubMed Central

A rapid echo planar imaging sequence for dynamic imaging of [1-13C] lactate and [1-13C] pyruvate simultaneously was developed. Frequency-based separation of these metabolites was achieved by spatial shifting in the phase-encoded direction with the appropriate choice of echo spacing. Suppression of the pyruvate-hydrate and alanine resonances is achieved through an optimized spectral-spatial RF waveform. Signal sampling efficiency as a function of pyruvate and lactate excitation angle was simulated using two site exchange models. Dynamic imaging is demonstrated in a transgenic mouse model, and phantom validations of the RF pulse frequency selectivity were performed. PMID:22405760

Reed, Galen D.; Larson, Peder E. Z.; von Morze, Cornelius; Bok, Robert; Lustig, Michael; Kerr, Adam B.; Pauly, John M.; Kurhanewicz, John; Vigneron, Daniel B.

2012-01-01

370

QUANTIFICATION OF MYOINOSITOL HEXAKISPHOSPHATE IN ALKALINE SOIL EXTRACTS BY SOLUTION 31P NMR SPECTROSCOPY AND SPECTRAL DECONVOLUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inositol phosphates are the dominant class of organic phosphorus (P) compounds in most soils, but they are poorly understood because they are not easily identified in soil extracts. This study reports a relatively simple technique using solution 31 P NMR spectroscopy and spectral de- convolution for the quantification of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytic acid), the most abundant soil inositol phosphate, in

Benjamin L. Turner; Nathalie Mahieu; Leo M. Condron

371

WebSpectra: Problems in NMR and IR Spectroscopy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of California at Los Angeles's Chemistry Department, WebSpectra provides chemistry students with a searchable library of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Infrared (IR) spectroscopy problems. According to the makers of this innovative site, "Interpretation of spectra is a technique that requires practice - this site provides 1H NMR and 13C NMR, DEPT, COSY and IR spectra of various compounds for students to interpret." A set of instructional documents are entitled Solving Spectral Problems, Overview of NMR Spectroscopy, Notes on NMR Solvents, Types of NMR Spectra, Introduction to IR Spectra, and a Table of IR Absorptions. A wide variety of compounds and their spectra are available for interpretation and have been organized in categories from Beginning to Advanced. Spectrum for each compound may be magnified 16X by clicking on peaks. This is an outstanding learning tool for students coming to grips with interpreting NMR and IR spectra.

372

Proton NMR spectral study of UV treated live Escherichia coli Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lethal effects of ultraviolet radiation on microorganisms have been known and utilized for many years. In sufficiently high photon fluences, light and in particular, UV light, is an effective and subtle means of killing or at least immobilizing most, if not all cells and micro-organisms. Because of their small size, light can penetrate the enclosing protective walls and enter the inner volumes where it can break organic bonds in components that are vital to cell function. Despite the fact that a very low dose of UV light (1-9 mJ/cm2) has been shown to inactivate many micro-organisms, there remains a dearth of biological information about light induced effects in molecules and their interactions within living microbial systems. The use of 1H NMR as a spectroscopic tool was chosen to undertake an examination of the possible effects resulting from exposing E. coli to lethal fluencies of UV radiation. Once sample preparation, treatment, and NMR mounting methods were optimized, the high sensitivity and high resolution capabilities of the method produced reproducible results for a series of experiments. These results reveal significant changes in the ratio of the 1H NMR spectra of the treated to untreated E.coli samples when the treated sample was exposed to a lethal fluence of 275nm light. Photons at the 275nm wavelength, used in this study, have enough energy to break all of the principle bonds in an organic molecule. The difference spectrum between treated to untreated samples appears to be fitted well using specific component spectra from these groups of compounds. Increases in NMR peak amplitudes are observed and appear to be correlated with the spectral locations of several amino acids, membrane components and several sugars/saccharides. Increases in peak intensities of 4-8% were observed in the 0.8-1.1 ppm chemical shift region, characteristic of lipid and amino acid groups. A 3.5-4% increase was observed in the 2 ppm and 3.4-4 ppm region characteristic of various sugars and possibly amino acid components.

Sorokopud, Michael

373

Access to c? backbone dynamics of biological solids by (13)c t1 relaxation and molecular dynamics simulation.  

PubMed

We introduce a labeling scheme for magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR that is based on deuteration in combination with dilution of the carbon spin system. The labeling strategy achieves spectral editing by simplification of the H?C? and aliphatic side chain spectral region. A reduction in both proton and carbon spin density in combination with fast spinning (?50 kHz) is essential to retrieve artifact-free (13)C-R1 relaxation data for aliphatic carbons. We obtain good agreement between the NMR experimental data and order parameters extracted from a molecular dynamics (MD) trajectory, which indicates that carbon based relaxation parameters can yield complementary information on protein backbone as well as side chain dynamics. PMID:25564702

Asami, Sam; Porter, Justin R; Lange, Oliver F; Reif, Bernd

2015-01-28

374

?-NMR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ?-NMR facility at ISAC is constructed specifically for experiments in condensed matter physics with radioactive ion beams. Using co-linear optical pumping, a 8Li + ion beam having a large nuclear spin polarisation and low energy (nominally 30 keV) can be generated. When implanted into materials these ions penetrate to shallow depths comparable to length scales of interest in the physics of surfaces and interfaces between materials. Such low-energy ions can be decelerated with simple electrostatic optics to enable depth-resolved studies of near-surface phenomena over the range of about 2-200 nm. Since the ?-NMR signal is extracted from the asymmetry intrinsic to beta-decay and therefore monitors the polarisation of the radioactive probe nuclear magnetic moments, this technique is fundamentally a probe of local magnetism. More generally though, any phenomena which affects the polarisation of the implanted spins by, for example, a change in resonance frequency, line width or relaxation rate can be studied. The ?-NMR program at ISAC currently supports a number of experiments in magnetism and superconductivity as well as novel ultra-thin heterostructures exhibiting properties that cannot occur in bulk materials. The general purpose zero/low field and high field spectrometers are configured to perform CW and pulsed RF nuclear magnetic resonance and spin relaxation experiments over a range of temperatures (3-300 K) and magnetic fields (0-9 T).

Morris, Gerald D.

2014-01-01

375

1H NMR Relaxation in Urea  

E-print Network

Duer. Solid state 13 C CP MAS NMR study of molecular motionsKey Words: NMR; 1 H NMR; 13 C CP/MAS; 15 N CP/MAS; spin-NMR techniques are used to study such systems, the standard cross- polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/

Taylor, Robert E; Bacher, Alfred D; Dybowski, C.

2007-01-01

376

13C6-[Benzene Ring]-Indole-3-Acetic Acid  

PubMed Central

Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) labeled with 13C in the six carbons of the benzene ring is described for use as an internal standard for quantitative mass spectral analysis of IAA by gas chromatography/selected ion monitoring. [13C6]IAA was compared to the available deuterium labeled compounds and shown to offer the advantages of nonexchangeability of the isotope label, high isotopic enrichment, and chromatographic properties identical to that of the unlabeled compound. The utility of [13C6]IAA for measurement of endogenous IAA levels was demonstrated by analysis of IAA in Lemna gibba G-3. PMID:16664570

Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Slovin, Janet Pernise

1986-01-01

377

Quality assurance of PASADENA hyperpolarization for 13C biomolecules  

PubMed Central

Object Define MR quality assurance procedures for maximal PASADENA hyperpolarization of a biological 13C molecular imaging reagent. Materials and methods An automated PASADENA polarizer and a parahydrogen generator were installed. 13C enriched hydroxyethyl acrylate, 1-13C, 2,3,3-d3 (HEA), was converted to hyperpolarized hydroxyethyl propionate, 1-13C, 2,3,3-d3 (HEP) and fumaric acid, 1-13C, 2,3-d2 (FUM) to hyperpolarized succinic acid, 1-13C, 2,3-d2 (SUC), by reaction with parahydrogen and norbornadiene rhodium catalyst. Incremental optimization of successive steps in PASADENA was implemented. MR spectra and in vivo images of hyperpolarized 13C imaging agents were acquired at 1.5 and 4.7 T. Results Application of quality assurance (QA) criteria resulted in incremental optimization of the individual steps in PASADENA implementation. Optimal hyperpolarization of HEP of P = 20% was achieved by calibration of the NMR unit of the polarizer (B0 field strength ± 0.002 mT). Mean hyperpolarization of SUC, P = [15.3 ± 1.9]% (N = 16) in D2O, and P = [12.8 ± 3.1]% (N = 12) in H2O, was achieved every 5–8 min (range 13–20%). An in vivo 13C succinate image of a rat was produced. Conclusion PASADENA spin hyperpolarization of SUC to 15.3% in average was demonstrated (37,400 fold signal enhancement at 4.7 T). The biological fate of 13C succinate, a normally occurring cellular intermediate, might be monitored with enhanced sensitivity. PMID:19067009

Hövener, Jan-Bernd; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.; Harris, Kent C.; Perman, William H.; Tran, Thao T.; Bhattacharya, Pratip

2009-01-01

378

Application of mixture analysis to crude materials from natural resources (III): NMR spectral studies to analyze chalcones from Angelica keiskei.  

PubMed

This study presents the application of the NMR-based analyses, DOSY and ROSY, to the chalcones, xanthoangelol (1) and 4-hydroxyderricin (2) from Angelica keiskei. We investigated whether virtual separation and structural information from each compound can be obtained. DOSY displays spectra of (1) and (2) in one dimension and diffusion spectra in the other. And the 1H slice spectra were analyzed in detail by comparison with authentic samples previously isolated from the same material. The resulting ROSY spectrum clearly showed two distinct peaks in the 1H T1 dimension. Each slice of the ROSY spectrum along the 13C dimension contains over-lapped signals, which are difficult to assign at this time. PMID:22428234

Fukuda, Eriko; Baba, Masaki; Uesawa, Yoshihiro; Kamo, Osamu; Arifuku, Kazunori; Tsubono, Koji; Okada, Yoshihito

2012-01-01

379

A selective inversion recovery method for the improvement of 23Na NMR spectral resolution in isolated perfused rat hearts.  

PubMed

Shift-reagent-aided 23Na NMR spectroscopy allows differentiation of the intracellular (Na(i)) and extracellular sodium (Na(o)) signals. The goal of the present study has been to develop a 23Na NMR spectroscopic method to minimize the intensity of the shift-reagent-shifted Na(o) signal and thus increase Na(i) resolution. This is achieved by a selective inversion recovery (SIR) method which enhances the resolution between the Na(i) and Na(o) peaks in shift-reagent-aided 23Na NMR spectroscopy. The application of SIR with Dy(TTHA), Tm(DOTP), or with low concentrations of Dy(PPP)2 results in both good spectral resolution and physiologically acceptable contractile function in the isolated, perfused rat heart model. PMID:8347454

Simor, T; Kim, S K; Chu, W J; Pohost, G M; Elgavish, G A

1993-01-01

380

Theoretical and practical aspects of NMR studies of cells.  

PubMed

Various theoretical and practical aspects of biological nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy that are relevant to the study of immune cells are discussed as a prelude to the following papers in this issue of ImmunoMethods. We explain some of the salient features of modern Fourier-transform NMR spectroscopy, including spectral acquisition, Fourier transformation, signal averaging, apodization, and relaxation phenomena. The major features of the one-dimensional NMR spectrum are summarized prior to a brief description of two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. We consider various practical questions, such as which NMR-receptive nuclide might be most useful for discerning the metabolic information being sought; in particular, the relative advantages and disadvantages of 1H, 13C, 19F, and 31P NMR spectroscopy are discussed in the context of elucidating metabolic information. The relative merits and pitfalls of using cell extracts, cell suspensions, and perfused immobilized cells for studies of immune cell activation are also considered. PMID:8069538

King, G F; Kuchel, P W

1994-04-01

381

Rapid solid-state NMR of deuterated proteins by interleaved cross-polarization from 1H and 2H nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel sampling strategy, interleaving acquisition of multiple NMR spectra by exploiting initial polarization subsequently from 1H and 2H spins, taking advantage of their different T1 relaxation times. Different 1H- and 2H-polarization based spectra are in this way simultaneously recorded improving either information content or sensitivity by adding spectra. The so-called Relaxation-optimized Acquisition of Proton Interleaved with Deuterium (RAPID) 1H ? 13C/ 2H ? 13C CP/MAS multiple-acquisition method is demonstrated by 1D and 2D experiments using a uniformly 2H, 15N, 13C-labeled ?-spectrin SH3 domain sample with all or 30% back-exchanged labile 2H to 1H. It is demonstrated how 1D 13C CP/MAS or 2D 13C- 13C correlation spectra initialized with polarization from either 1H or 2H may be recorded simultaneously with flexibility to be added or used individually for spectral editing. It is also shown how 2D 13C- 13C correlation spectra may be recorded interleaved with 2H- 13C correlation spectra to obtain 13C- 13C correlations along with information about dynamics from 2H sideband patterns.

Bjerring, Morten; Paaske, Berit; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Akbey, Ümit; Nielsen, Niels Chr.

2012-01-01

382

The structural reorganisation of bis(diethyldithiocarbamato)morpholine–zinc(II) and –copper(II) in the course of solid-state solvation with morpholine and benzene molecules studied by ESR, solid-state 13C and 15N CP\\/MAS NMR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six forms of both non-solvated and solvated adducts of bis(diethyldithiocarbamato)–zinc(II) and –copper(II) with morpholine, of general formulas [M{O(CH2)4NH}{S2CN(C2H5)2}2] and [M{O(CH2)4NH}{S2CN(C2H5)2}2]·L (M=Zn(II) (1): L=O(CH2)4NH (2), C6H6 (3); M=Cu(II) (4): L=O(CH2)4NH (5), C6H6 (6)), have been prepared and studied by means of ESR, solid-state natural abundance 13C and 15N CP\\/MAS NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction data. The existence of two

Alexander V. Ivanov; Mikael Kritikos; Oleg N. Antzutkin; Willis Forsling

2001-01-01

383

Assignment of the ferriheme resonances of high- and low-spin forms of the symmetrical hemin-reconstituted nitrophorins 1-4 by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy: the dynamics of heme ruffling deformations.  

PubMed

The four major nitrophorins (NPs) of the adult blood-sucking insect Rhodnius prolixus have been reconstituted with the "symmetrical hemin" 2,4-dimethyldeuterohemin, and their NMR spectra have been investigated as the high-spin (S=5/2) aqua and low-spin (S=1/2) N-methylimidazole (NMeIm) and cyanide complexes. The NMeIm complexes allow assignment of the high-spin hemin resonances by saturation transfer difference spectroscopy. The cyanide complexes were investigated as paramagnetic analogues of the NO complexes. It is shown that the hemin ring is highly distorted from planarity, much more so for NP2 than for NP1 and NP4 (with ruffling being the major distortion mode), for both high- and low-spin forms. For the cyanide complexes, the conformation of the distorted ring changes on the NMR timescale to yield chemical exchange (exchange spectroscopy, EXSY) cross peaks for NP1sym(CN), NP3sym(CN) and NP4sym(CN) but not for NP2sym(CN). These changes in nonplanar conformation are visualized as a "rolling" of the ruffled macrocycle ridges through some number of degrees, the lowest-energy ruffling mode. This probably occurs in response to slow protein dynamics that cause the I120 and L132 side chains in the distal heme pocket to move in opposite directions (up and away vs. down and toward the hemin ring). This in turn changes the out-of-plane displacements of the 2M and 3M of the symmetrical hemin on the NMR timescale. Two other types of dynamics, i.e., changes in heme seating and NMeIm rotation, are also observed. The highly distorted heme and the dynamics it causes are unique to the NPs and a few other heme proteins with highly distorted macrocycles. PMID:18458965

Shokhireva, Tatiana K; Shokhirev, Nikolai V; Berry, Robert E; Zhang, Hongjun; Walker, F Ann

2008-08-01

384

NBO, conformational, NLO, HOMO-LUMO, NMR and electronic spectral study on 1-phenyl-1-propanol by quantum computational methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR and UV spectra of 1-phenyl-1-propanol, an intermediate of anti-depressant drug fluoxetine, has been investigated. The theoretical vibrational frequencies and optimized geometric parameters have been calculated by using HF and density functional theory with the hybrid methods B3LYP, B3PW91 and 6-311+G(d,p)/6-311++G(d,p) basis sets. The theoretical vibrational frequencies have been found in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data. 1H and 13C NMR spectra were recorded and chemical shifts of the molecule were compared to TMS by using the Gauge-Independent Atomic Orbital (GIAO) method. A study on the electronic and optical properties, absorption wavelengths, excitation energy, dipole moment and frontier molecular orbital energies are performed using HF and DFT methods. The thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy and enthalpy) at different temperatures are also calculated. NBO analysis is carried out to picture the charge transfer between the localized bonds and lone pairs. The local reactivity of the molecule has been studied using the Fukui function. NLO properties related to polarizability and hyperpolarizability are also discussed.

Xavier, S.; Periandy, S.; Ramalingam, S.

2015-02-01

385

NBO, conformational, NLO, HOMO-LUMO, NMR and electronic spectral study on 1-phenyl-1-propanol by quantum computational methods.  

PubMed

In this study, FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR and UV spectra of 1-phenyl-1-propanol, an intermediate of anti-depressant drug fluoxetine, has been investigated. The theoretical vibrational frequencies and optimized geometric parameters have been calculated by using HF and density functional theory with the hybrid methods B3LYP, B3PW91 and 6-311+G(d,p)/6-311++G(d,p) basis sets. The theoretical vibrational frequencies have been found in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra were recorded and chemical shifts of the molecule were compared to TMS by using the Gauge-Independent Atomic Orbital (GIAO) method. A study on the electronic and optical properties, absorption wavelengths, excitation energy, dipole moment and frontier molecular orbital energies are performed using HF and DFT methods. The thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy and enthalpy) at different temperatures are also calculated. NBO analysis is carried out to picture the charge transfer between the localized bonds and lone pairs. The local reactivity of the molecule has been studied using the Fukui function. NLO properties related to polarizability and hyperpolarizability are also discussed. PMID:25228039

Xavier, S; Periandy, S; Ramalingam, S

2015-02-25

386

Solution conformations of CaCl sub 2 and Ca(NO sub 3 ) sub 2 complexes of chiral tetramethyl 18-crown-6 macrocycles: A 1D and 2D sup 1 H and sup 13 C NMR investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

One- and two-dimensional NMR techniques have been used to investigate the solution structures of (2S,6S,11S,15S)-2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaoxacyclooctadecane (I) and (2R,3R,11R,12R)-2,3,11,12-tetramethyl-1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaoxyacyclooctadecane (II) macrocycle complexes of CaClâ and Ca(NOâ)â in CDClâ. Previous chiroptical studies of these and similar crown complexes by circularly polarized luminescence (CPL), total luminescence (TL), and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy have shown that the macrocycle asymmetric carbons in these complexes constrain

J. F. Lewison; R. G. Ghirardelli; R. A. Palmer

1989-01-01

387

Quantitative Quantum Mechanical Spectral Analysis (qQMSA) of 1H NMR spectra of complex mixtures and biofluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantitative interpretation of 1H NMR spectra of mixtures like the biofluids is a demanding task due to spectral complexity and overlap. Complications may arise also from water suppression, T2-editing, protein interactions, relaxation differences of the species, experimental artifacts and, furthermore, the spectra may contain unknown components and macromolecular background which cannot be easily separated from baseline. In this work, tools and strategies for quantitative Quantum Mechanical Spectral Analysis (qQMSA) of 1H NMR spectra from complex mixtures were developed and systematically assessed. In the present approach, the signals of well-defined, stoichiometric components are described by a QM model, while the background is described by a multiterm baseline function and the unknown signals using optimizable and adjustable lines, regular multiplets or any spectral structures which can be composed from spectral lines. Any prior knowledge available from the spectrum can also be added to the model. Fitting strategies for weak and strongly overlapping spectral systems were developed and assessed using two basic model systems, the metabolite mixtures without and with macromolecular (serum) background. The analyses show that if the spectra are measured in high-throughput manner, the consistent absolute quantification demands some calibration to compensate the different response factors of the protons and compounds. On the other hand, the results show that also the T2-edited spectra can be measured so that they obey well the QM rules. In general, qQMSA exploits and interprets the spectral information in maximal way taking full advantage from the QM properties of the spectra and, at the same time, offers chemical confidence which means that individual components can be identified with high confidence on the basis of their accurate spectral parameters.

Tiainen, Mika; Soininen, Pasi; Laatikainen, Reino

2014-05-01

388

Spectroscopic (FT-IR, 1H, 13C NMR, UV), DOS and orbital overlap population analysis of copper complex of (E)-4-(2-(4-nitrophenyl) diazenyl)-N, N bis ((pyridin-2-yl) methyl) benzamine by density functional theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geometric parameters, chemical shifts, FTIR, NMR and orbital overlap population along with DOS (density of states) to know different kinds of interactions for binding of copper atom with (E)-4-(2-(4-nitrophenyl) diazenyl)-N, N bis ((pyridin-2-yl) methyl) benzamine to form its copper complex has been reported by DFT methods. The theoretically predicted values for structural parameters are in agreement with the experimentally reported values. NMR chemical shifts calculated using B3LYP/DFT/GIAO level of theory gives information about binding of copper atom with three nitrogen atoms namely N (3, 8 and 11). Orbital overlap population analysis using DFT/B3LYP/SDD level of theory is used to study the kind of interactions involved in binding of copper with the three nitrogen atoms. DOS studies are done to know about the contribution of alpha, beta electrons to the valence and conduction band. IR spectroscopy investigations gave the absorption bands for the formation of title compound. Electronic spectrum along with HOMO-LUMO energies of the title compound has been investigated using Time-dependent (TD-DFT) approach.

Diwaker

2015-02-01

389

Assignment of Ferriheme Resonances for High- and Low-Spin Forms of Nitrophorin 3 by 1H and 13C NMR Spectroscopy and Comparison to Nitrophorin 2: Heme Pocket Structural Similarities and Differences  

PubMed Central

Nitrophorin 3 (NP3) is the only one of the four major NO-binding heme proteins found in the saliva of the blood-sucking insect Rhodnius prolixus (also called the Kissing Bug) for which it has not been possible to obtain crystals of diffraction quality for structure determination by X-ray crystallography. Thus we have used NMR spectroscopy, mainly of the hyperfine-shifted ferriheme substituent resonances, to learn about the similarities and differences in the heme pocket and the iron active site of NP3 as compared to NP2, which has previously been well-characterized by both X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy. Only one residue in the heme pocket differs between the two, F27 of NP2 is Y27 for NP3; in both cases this residue is expected to interact strongly with the 2-vinyl side chain of the B heme rotational isomer or the 4-vinyl of the A heme rotational isomer. Both the high-spin (S = 5/2) aquo complex, NP3-H2O, and the low-spin (S = 1/2) N-methylimidazole (NMeIm) complex of NP3 have been studied. It is found that the chemical shifts of the protons of both forms are similar to those of the corresponding NP2 complexes, but with minor differences that indicate a slightly different angle for the proximal histidine (H57) ligand plane. The B heme rotational isomer is preferred by both NP3 and NP2 in both spin states, but to a greater extent when phenylalanine is present at position 27 (A:B = 1:8 for NP2, 1:6 for NP3-Y27F, 1:4 for NP3, and 1:3 for NP2-F27Y). Careful analysis of the 5Me and 8Me shifts of the A and B isomers of the two high-spin nitrophorins leads to the conclusion that the heme environment for the two isomers differs in some way that cannot be explained at the present time. The kinetics of deprotonation of the high-spin complexes of NP2 and NP3 are very different, with NP2 giving well-resolved high-spin aquo and “low-spin” hydroxo proton NMR spectra until close to the end of the titration, while NP3 exhibits broadened 1H NMR spectra indicative of an intermediate rate of exchange on the NMR timescale between the two forms throughout the titration. The heme methyl shifts of NP2-OH are similar in magnitude and spread to those of NP2-CN, while those of metmyoglobin-hydroxo complexes are much larger in magnitude but not spread. It is concluded that the hydroxo complex of NP2 is likely S = 1/2 with a mixed (dXY)2(dXZ,dYZ)3/(dxy)1(dxz,dyz)4 electron configuration, while those of met-Mb-OH are likely S = 1/2,3/2 mixed spin systems. PMID:19262680

Shokhireva, Tatiana Kh.; Berry, Robert E.; Zhang, Hongjun; Shokhirev, Nikolai V.; Walker, F. Ann

2008-01-01

390

Imaging considerations for in vivo 13C metabolic mapping using hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate.  

PubMed

One of the challenges of optimizing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and image quality in (13)C metabolic imaging using hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate is associated with the different MR signal time-courses for pyruvate and its metabolic products, lactate and alanine. The impact of the acquisition time window, variation of flip angles, and order of phase encoding on SNR and image quality were evaluated in mathematical simulations and rat experiments, based on multishot fast chemical shift imaging (CSI) and three-dimensional echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (3DEPSI) sequences. The image timing was set to coincide with the peak production of lactate. The strategy of combining variable flip angles and centric phase encoding (cPE) improved image quality while retaining good SNR. In addition, two aspects of EPSI sampling strategies were explored: waveform design (flyback vs. symmetric EPSI) and spectral bandwidth (BW = 500 Hz vs. 267 Hz). Both symmetric EPSI and reduced BW trended toward increased SNR. The imaging strategies reported here can serve as guidance to other multishot spectroscopic imaging protocols for (13)C metabolic imaging applications. PMID:19319902

Yen, Y-F; Kohler, S J; Chen, A P; Tropp, J; Bok, R; Wolber, J; Albers, M J; Gram, K A; Zierhut, M L; Park, I; Zhang, V; Hu, S; Nelson, S J; Vigneron, D B; Kurhanewicz, J; Dirven, H A A M; Hurd, R E

2009-07-01

391

Studies on the biosynthesis of clavulanic acid. III. Incorporation of DL-[3,4-13C2]glutamic acid.  

PubMed

The role of glutamate in clavulanic acid biosynthesis was investigated by feeding DL-[3,4-13C2]glutamate to a Streptomyces clavuligerus fermentation. The DL-[3,4-13C2]glutamate was synthesised by reacting [2-13C]diethylmalonate with O-tosyl-N-benzoyl-[3-13C]dehydroserine ethyl ester, which in turn was synthesised by condensing [13C]ethylformate with N-benzoylglycine ethyl ester. 13C NMR examination of the benzyl clavulanate derived from the fermentation revealed the predicted labelling of carbons 2 and 8 with accompanying 13C-13C spin-spin coupling. Other enrichments and couplings were observed which could be explained by metabolism of the labelled glutamate via the tricarboxylic acid cycle to give further clavulanic acid precursors. These results confirm that glutamate provides the oxazolidine carbon skeleton as predicted by previous experiments. PMID:6121786

Elson, S W; Oliver, R S; Bycroft, B W; Faruk, E A

1982-01-01

392

Characterization of the structural morphology of chemically modified silica prepared by surface polymerization of a mixture of long and short alkyl chains using 13C and 29Si NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

A series of bonded phases were prepared by the chemical modification of silica using the surface polymerization of trifunctional and difunctional ligands, and the structural morphology was characterized by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy using cross-polarization and magic angle spinning (CP/MAS). Mixed-phase surfaces were prepared using mixtures of trifunctional long-chain (C18) ligands with trifunctional and difunctional short-chain (C1) ligands, and these surfaces were compared to the corresponding single-phase surfaces consisting of only long- or short-chain ligands. For both types of mixed-phase surfaces, the incorporation of short chains increases the overall ligand density, the density of long chains, and the degree of cross-linking between ligands compared to that of the single-phase surface consisting exclusively of long chains. When the percentage of long-chain ligands in the mixture is high, a horizontally polymerized monolayer of chains is formed on the silica surface for both trifunctional and difunctional short chains. However, essentially all of the long chains adopt a trans conformation when trifunctional short chains are used, and a significant number of gauche defects are observed for the long chains when mixed with difunctional short chains. Furthermore, the ligands on the mixed-phase surface are more rigid when the short chains are trifunctional. When the percentage of trifunctional short chains is increased, some vertical polymerization occurs, caused by the molecular stacking of the highly reactive short chains near the surface. However, this does not preclude cross-linking between the ligands necessary to seal the surface, and the degree of cross-linking is quite high, suggesting that the short chains cross-link both vertically, away from the surface, and horizontally, across the surface. No such vertical polymerization is observed for the bulkier difunctional short chains. For both trifunctional and difunctional short chains, the surface chains are more mobile, with a greater number of gauche conformations among the long chains when the percentage of short-chain ligands in the reaction mixture is increased. PMID:23530776

Fatunmbi, Hafeez O; Bruch, Martha D

2013-04-23

393

NMR crystallography: The effect of deuteration on high resolution 13 state NMR spectra of a 7-TM protein  

E-print Network

-transmembrane; NMR, nuclear magnetic resonance; MAS, magic angle spinning; DGK, diaglycerol kinase; CP, crossNMR crystallography: The effect of deuteration on high resolution 13 C solid state NMR spectra, and indirect, 9­17 ppm, dimensions). The measured 13 C NMR line-widths observed for both protonated

Watts, Anthony

394

Deuterium isotope shifts for backbone 1H, 15N and 13C nuclei in intrinsically disordered protein -synuclein  

PubMed Central

Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are abundant in nature and characterization of their potential structural propensities remains a widely pursued but challenging task. Analysis of NMR secondary chemical shifts plays an important role in such studies, but the output of such analyses depends on the accuracy of reference random coil chemical shifts. Although uniform perdeuteration of IDPs can dramatically increase spectral resolution, a feature particularly important for the poorly dispersed IDP spectra, the impact of deuterium isotope shifts on random coil values has not yet been fully characterized. Very precise 2H isotope shift measurements for 13C?, 13C?, 13C’, 15N, and 1HN have been obtained by using a mixed sample of protonated and uniformly perdeuterated -synuclein, a protein with chemical shifts exceptionally close to random coil values. Decomposition of these isotope shifts into one-bond, two-bond and three-bond effects as well as intra- and sequential residue contributions shows that such an analysis, which ignores conformational dependence, is meaningful but does not fully describe the total isotope shift to within the precision of the measurements. Random coil 2H isotope shifts provide an important starting point for analysis of such shifts in structural terms in folded proteins, where they are known to depend strongly on local geometry. PMID:22960996

Maltsev, Alexander S.; Ying, Jinfa; Bax, Ad

2012-01-01

395

Conditions to obtain precise and true measurements of the intramolecular 13C distribution in organic molecules by isotopic 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry.  

PubMed

Intramolecular (13)C composition gives access to new information on the (bio) synthetic history of a given molecule. Isotopic (13)C NMR spectrometry provides a general tool for measuring the position-specific (13)C content. As an emerging technique, some aspects of its performance are not yet fully delineated. This paper reports on (i) the conditions required to obtain satisfactory trueness and precision for the determination of the internal (13)C distribution, and (ii) an approach to determining the "absolute" position-specific (13)C content. In relation to (i), a precision of <1% can be obtained whatever the molecule on any spectrometer, once quantitative conditions are met, in particular appropriate proton decoupling efficiency. This performance is a prerequisite to the measurement of isotope fractionation either on the transformed or residual compound when a chemical reaction or process is being studied. The study of the trueness has revealed that the response of the spectrometer depends on the (13)C frequency range of the studied molecule, i.e. the chemical shift range. The "absolute value" and, therefore, the trueness of the (13)C NMR measurements has been assessed on acetic acid and