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Sample records for 14-month-old abyssinian cat

  1. Chronic intermittent diarrhea in a 14-month-old Abyssinian cat

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Dorothy

    2009-01-01

    A 14-month-old intact, female Abyssinian cat was presented for chronic intermittent diarrhea and bilateral enlargement of the mammary glands. Gastrointestinal coccidiosis was diagnosed; therapy with sulfadi-methoxine was unsuccessful in the elimination of Isospora felis and clinical signs. Infection with Tritrichomonas foetus was diagnosed by fecal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and successfully treated with ronidazole and dietary modification. PMID:19337620

  2. Persistent haematuria and proteinuria due to glomerular disease in related Abyssinian cats.

    PubMed

    White, Joanna D; Norris, Jacqueline M; Bosward, Katrina L; Fleay, R; Lauer, Chris; Malik, Richard

    2008-07-01

    Eight cases of glomerular disease in young, related Abyssinian cats are described. Haematuria was the most consistent feature. Six cats developed the nephrotic syndrome. The short-term prognosis was good for cats with haematuria and fair for cats with the nephrotic syndrome as oedema resolved in three of the six cats. Light microscopic examination of renal biopsies from three cats was considered normal or revealed only mild abnormalities. In the three cases subjected to necropsy, histological abnormalities included mild mesangial hypercellularity and adhesions between the glomerular tuft and Bowman's capsule consistent with a focal proliferative glomerulopathy. Further investigation into this glomerulopathy will require ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies to characterise the glomerular abnormality and genetic analyses to investigate its potential to be an inherited disease. Glomerular disease, potentially a familial one, should be considered in the investigation of persistent haematuria or proteinuria in Abyssinian and related cats. PMID:18455462

  3. Acute idiopathic polyneuritis with spontaneous remission in an Abyssinian cat

    PubMed Central

    Jeandel, Aurélien; Matiasek, Kaspar; Blot, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    An Abyssinian kitten was presented after a sudden onset of neurological disorders consistent with a polyneuropathy. Electrophysiological and histological investigations revealed an inflammatory polyneuropathy. No infectious agents were detected. Spontaneous recovery occurred rapidly without relapse (2 years follow-up). This is the first description of a histologically confirmed self-limiting feline polyneuritis. PMID:26663925

  4. Tissue distribution of amyloid deposits in Abyssinian cats with familial amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    DiBartola, S P; Tarr, M J; Benson, M D

    1986-07-01

    The tissue distribution of amyloid deposits was studied in 15 related Abyssinian cats with familial amyloidosis. There was interstitial medullary amyloidosis in the kidneys of all 15 cats but only 11 had detectable glomerular involvement. The thyroid glands, stomach and colon were affected in all cats examined. Most of the cats also had amyloid deposits in the small intestine, spleen, heart, adrenals, pancreas, liver, lymph nodes and bladder. In 50 per cent or fewer of the cats examined, there was involvement of the parathyroids, lung and gonads. The central nervous system was not involved in any of the 3 cats evaluated. In 8 of the cats, no concurrent inflammatory disease could be detected. The tissue distribution of amyloid deposits resembled that found in other breeds of domestic cats with systemic amyloidosis. Despite the wide tissue distribution of amyloid deposits, clinical signs were related to renal amyloidosis. Familial amyloidosis in the Abyssinian cat may represent a valuable spontaneous animal model for the study of Familial Mediterranean Fever in man and the pathogenesis of reactive amyloidosis in general. PMID:3734172

  5. TAENIA SAGINATA INFECTION IN A 14-MONTH-OLD TODDLER.

    PubMed

    Sitcharungsil, Raweerat; Watthanakulpanich, Dorn

    2016-05-01

    A 14-month-old female toddler presented with a 3-day history of pass- ing gravid proglottids of Taenia saginata. Neither she nor her family members had a history of eating raw beef or other raw meat. Single doses of praziquantel and niclosamide were administered. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest described patient with T. saginata infection to date. PMID:27405121

  6. Sound Symbolism Facilitates Word Learning in 14-Month-Olds

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Mutsumi; Miyazaki, Michiko; Yeung, H. Henny; Hidaka, Shohei; Kantartzis, Katerina; Okada, Hiroyuki; Kita, Sotaro

    2015-01-01

    Sound symbolism, or the nonarbitrary link between linguistic sound and meaning, has often been discussed in connection with language evolution, where the oral imitation of external events links phonetic forms with their referents (e.g., Ramachandran & Hubbard, 2001). In this research, we explore whether sound symbolism may also facilitate synchronic language learning in human infants. Sound symbolism may be a useful cue particularly at the earliest developmental stages of word learning, because it potentially provides a way of bootstrapping word meaning from perceptual information. Using an associative word learning paradigm, we demonstrated that 14-month-old infants could detect Köhler-type (1947) shape-sound symbolism, and could use this sensitivity in their effort to establish a word-referent association. PMID:25695741

  7. The Reliability of a Model Influences 14-Month-Olds' Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmyj, Norbert; Buttelmann, David; Carpenter, Malinda; Daum, Mortiz M.

    2010-01-01

    Human infants have an enormous amount to learn from others to become full-fledged members of their culture. Thus, it is important that they learn from reliable, rather than unreliable, models. In two experiments, we investigated whether 14-month-olds (a) imitate instrumental actions and (b) adopt the individual preferences of a model differently…

  8. Abstract Rule Learning in 11- and 14-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koulaguina, Elena; Shi, Rushen

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that distributional information can guide infants in the generalization of word order movement rules at the initial stage of language acquisition. Participants were 11- and 14-month-old infants. Stimuli were sentences in Russian, a language that was unknown to our infants. During training the word order of each…

  9. Acute airway obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides in a 14-month-old boy.

    PubMed

    Gan, Richard Wei Chern; Gohil, Rohit; Belfield, Katherine; Davies, Patrick; Daniel, Matija

    2014-10-01

    We describe the case of a 14-month-old child with airway obstruction caused by a mature Ascaris lumbricoides worm. The child had been admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit due to overwhelming sepsis, and during the course of his illness developed acute airway obstruction that resolved once the worm was removed from the airway. The Ascaris life-cycle is detailed, and a literature review of patients with airway obstruction due to Ascaris worms is presented. PMID:25129847

  10. Craniometaphyseal dysplasia in a 14-month old: a case report and review of imaging differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sumit; Qin, Curtis; Medarametla, Srikanth; Hegde, Shilpa V

    2016-09-01

    We report a 14-month-old male with craniometaphyseal dysplasia (CMD). The patient presented with a history of diminishing vision and hearing loss. Cranial computed tomography scan showed diffuse calvarial and skull base hyperostosis with excessive bone narrowing the internal auditory canals and skull base foramina. A subsequent skeletal survey revealed other skeletal abnormalities, which led to the diagnosis of CMD. This was later confirmed by ANKH mutation. CMD is a rare genetic disorder that belongs to the group of craniotubular bone dysplasias. It is important to recognize this condition from other causes of craniotubular bone dysplasias to institute early treatment and explain prognosis. PMID:27594963

  11. Fatal Meningitis in a 14-Month-Old with Currarino Triad.

    PubMed

    Al Qahtani, Hanan Mohammed; Suliman Aljoqiman, Khalid; Arabi, Hisham; Al Shaalan, Hesham; Singh, Sumit

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 14-month-old girl with undiagnosed Currarino triad presenting acutely with meningitis caused by enteric commensals. Head CT demonstrated a large pneumocephalus. A fistulous neurenteric tract through a presacral mass was present on spine MRI and abdominal CT. The patient had a history of constipation for the last three months. However, an underlying diagnosis of Currarino triad had not been suspected. In retrospect, a sickle-shaped sacral anomaly was present on a previous abdominal radiograph. The patient succumbed to complications of meningitis. The purpose of the case report is to highlight the potentially fatal complication of Currarino triad and sensitize radiologists to look actively for sacral anomalies on abdominal radiographs, especially of children with chronic constipation. PMID:27597920

  12. Fatal Meningitis in a 14-Month-Old with Currarino Triad

    PubMed Central

    Suliman Aljoqiman, Khalid; Arabi, Hisham; Al Shaalan, Hesham

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 14-month-old girl with undiagnosed Currarino triad presenting acutely with meningitis caused by enteric commensals. Head CT demonstrated a large pneumocephalus. A fistulous neurenteric tract through a presacral mass was present on spine MRI and abdominal CT. The patient had a history of constipation for the last three months. However, an underlying diagnosis of Currarino triad had not been suspected. In retrospect, a sickle-shaped sacral anomaly was present on a previous abdominal radiograph. The patient succumbed to complications of meningitis. The purpose of the case report is to highlight the potentially fatal complication of Currarino triad and sensitize radiologists to look actively for sacral anomalies on abdominal radiographs, especially of children with chronic constipation. PMID:27597920

  13. The reliability of a model influences 14-month-olds' imitation.

    PubMed

    Zmyj, Norbert; Buttelmann, David; Carpenter, Malinda; Daum, Moritz M

    2010-08-01

    Human infants have an enormous amount to learn from others to become full-fledged members of their culture. Thus, it is important that they learn from reliable, rather than unreliable, models. In two experiments, we investigated whether 14-month-olds (a) imitate instrumental actions and (b) adopt the individual preferences of a model differently depending on the model's previous reliability. Infants were shown a series of videos in which a model acted on familiar objects either competently or incompetently. They then watched as the same model demonstrated a novel action on an object (imitation task) and preferentially chose one of two novel objects (preference task). Infants' imitation of the novel action was influenced by the model's previous reliability; they copied the action more often when the model had been reliable. However, their preference for one of the novel objects was not influenced by the model's previous reliability. We conclude that already by 14 months of age, infants discriminate between reliable and unreliable models when learning novel actions. PMID:20427052

  14. Action Type and Goal Type Modulate Goal-Directed Gaze Shifts in 14-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gredeback, Gustaf; Stasiewicz, Dorota; Falck-Ytter, Terje; von Hofsten, Claes; Rosander, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    Ten- and 14-month-old infants' gaze was recorded as the infants observed videos of different hand actions directed toward multiple goals. Infants observed an actor who (a) reached for objects and displaced them, (b) reached for objects and placed them inside containers, or (c) moved his fisted hand. Fourteen-month-olds, but not 10-month-olds,…

  15. Selective Imitation of In-Group over Out-Group Members in 14-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttelmann, David; Zmyj, Norbert; Daum, Moritz; Carpenter, Malinda

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown that infants are more likely to engage with in-group over out-group members. However, it is not known whether infants' learning is influenced by a model's group membership. This study investigated whether 14-month-olds ("N" = 66) selectively imitate and adopt the preferences of in-group versus out-group members. Infants…

  16. Neural Correlates of Action Observation and Execution in 14-Month-Old Infants: An Event-Related EEG Desynchronization Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Peter J.; Young, Thomas; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing interest in neurobiological methods for investigating the shared representation of action perception and production in early development. We explored the extent and regional specificity of EEG desynchronization in the infant alpha frequency range (6-9 Hz) during action observation and execution in 14-month-old infants.…

  17. The relationship between deferred imitation, associative memory, and communication in 14-months-old children. Behavioral and electrophysiological indices

    PubMed Central

    Nordqvist, Emelie; Rudner, Mary; Johansson, Mikael; Lindgren, Magnus; Heimann, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    The present study combines behavioral observations of memory (deferred imitation, DI, after a brief delay of 30 min and after a long delay of 2–3 weeks) and electrophysiological (event-related potentials, ERPs) measures of associative memory, as well as parental reports of non-verbal and verbal communication in sixteen 14-months-old children. Results show that for DI, the children remembered the stimulus after the brief but not after the long delay. There was a clear electrophysiological response indicating associative memory. Furthermore, a correlation between DI and ERP suggests that both measures of memory (DI and associative memory) tap into similar mechanisms in 14-months-old children. There was also a statistically significant relation between parental report of receptive (verbal) language and the ERP, showing an association between receptive language skills and associative memory. PMID:25852588

  18. Rat bite fever, a fatal case of Streptobacillus moniliformis infection in a 14-month-old boy.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Priya; Ali, Zabiullah; Fowler, David R

    2011-03-01

    Streptobacillus moniliformis is the primary cause of rat bite fever in North America. Children under 12 years of age are primarily infected, presenting with an acute syndrome of fever, rash, and polyarthritis. Common vectors include rats and mice. Transmission is predominantly from a bite or scratch, but contact with or ingestion of food contaminated with feces or saliva has also been reported. We report a fatal case of S. moniliformis infection in a 14-month-old-boy. At home, the child was exposed to filthy living conditions and the family had pet ferrets. Autopsy revealed a red-pink, mostly confluent rash and a circumscribed area suspicious for a possible bite mark. Cerebrospinal fluid cultures were positive for S. moniliformis. This case highlighted key features, such as the morbiliform rash, but lacked lymphadenopathy or joint manifestations. It is important to consider rat or rodent exposure as a source of infection. PMID:21306374

  19. Synovial haemangioma of the knee joint: an unusual cause of knee pain in a 14-month old girl.

    PubMed

    Wen, D W; Tan, T J; Rasheed, S

    2016-06-01

    We report a histologically proven case of synovial haemangioma of the knee in a 14-month old girl who presented to the emergency department with an acute 1-day history of refusing to weight-bear on the right leg and a preceding 3-week history of a right knee lump. Physical examination revealed a non-tender, soft lump over the lateral infrapatellar region. Radiographs revealed a poorly defined soft tissue density over the infrapatellar fat pad and a suprapatellar joint effusion. Ultrasound was used to confirm the presence of a vascular soft tissue mass compatible with a synovial haemangioma within the infrapatellar fat pad which showed both intra-articular and extra-articular extension. There was good correlation of the ultrasound findings with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), highlighting the potential clinical utility of ultrasound as an alternative imaging modality in establishing the pre-operative diagnosis and extent of a synovial haemangioma about the knee joint. PMID:26960422

  20. Treatment of an open book pelvic fracture and bilateral femoral fractures with an external fixator in a 14-month-old: a case report.

    PubMed

    Atherton, Thomas G; Chase, Helen E; Stohr, Kuldeep; Melton, Joel T K

    2016-05-01

    A 14-month-old girl was involved in a road traffic accident that resulted in an open book pelvic fracture and bilateral femoral fractures. Acute treatment involved a novel collar and the cuff pelvic closure technique to tamponade the pelvis and reduce bleeding. The patient was treated surgically with an external fixator, which provided good reduction of the pelvic and femoral fractures. A literature search found no previous information on open book pelvic fractures in infants younger than 2 years. The success of this surgery led us to suggest that the use of an external fixator is a potential treatment method for open book pelvic fractures and bilateral femoral fractures in extremely young infants. PMID:26717190

  1. In-Plane Ultrasound-Guided Lumbar Plexus Block Using Catheter-Over-Needle Technique in a 14-Month-Old Baby.

    PubMed

    Tognù, Andrea; Cauli, Veronica; de Simone, Nicola; Aurini, Lucia; Manfrini, Marco; Bonarelli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    This case report details the feasibility of a continuous lumbar plexus block obtained with a paramedian transverse scan of the lumbar paravertebral region, using a catheter-over-needle system, as a main postoperative orthopedic analgesia, in a 14-month-old patient undergoing surgical treatment of a localized Ewing family tumor of the right proximal femur. After surgery, the patient remained in the intensive care unit for 3 days; pain was assessed regularly using the Children's and Infants' Postoperative Pain Scale, and comfort was monitored. Analgesia was provided with continuous levobupivacaine 0.2% infusion 0.2 mL kg h, rectal paracetamol 15 mg kg, and oral ibuprofen 60 mg twice per day, with a dose of morphine 0.05 mg kg intravenously as rescue. Pain relief was excellent, and no additional morphine was needed during the postoperative course. Nausea, vomiting, and disturbed sleep were not reported. Oral diet was resumed on the first postoperative day. In conclusion, this case represents successful postoperative management of orthopedic pain in a child using continuous posterior lumbar plexus infusion. PMID:27281724

  2. Massive Transfusion of 5 U Packed Redblood Cells, 3 U Fresh Frozen Plasma, and 160 cc of Platelets in a 14-Month-Old Patient

    PubMed Central

    Sparkle, Tanaya; Cameron, Staci

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 1 Final Diagnosis: Parietooccipital brain tumor Symptoms: Drowsiness • failure to thrive • irritability • seizure-like activity Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Massive transfusion during tumor resection Specialty: Anesthesiology Objective: Management of emergency care Background: We present a case in which extremely rapid massive transfusion was successfully used to combat severe acute bleeding during a parietooccipital tumor resection in a 14-month-old patient. Case Report: An 8-kg patient was found to have a 4×5×5-cm parietooccipital tumor on computed tomography scan, for which resection was urgently planned. Sudden acute bleeding was encountered, which was communicated to the anesthesia team. Transfusion was initiated and a total of 5 units of packed red blood cells, 3 units of fresh frozen plasma, 160 ml of platelets, 200 ml of albumin, and 500 ml of 0.9% normal saline were transfused during a 4-h period. We administered 4 g of mannitol and 0.8 mg of furosemide to deal with anticipated fluid overload. The patient was sent to the intensive care unit and extubated the next day. No clinically significant hemostatic or fluid overload complications were noted after the treatment. Conclusions: Massive transfusion (MT) was found to be safe and effective in this case. Most of what we know about pediatric MT is an extrapolation of data from adult studies. Although practical, it might not be ideal due to the differences in the physiology and incomplete development of hemostatic mechanisms in children, especially those younger than 12 months. Studies evaluating the use of pediatric MT protocols have not shown a significant advantage over transfusion per clinician discretion. PMID:27032708

  3. Cats

    MedlinePlus

    ... found on the skin of people and animals. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the same bacterium that has become resistant to some antibiotics. Cats and other animals often can carry MRSA ...

  4. Reproductive patterns of pedigree cats.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, I

    1987-07-01

    A survey of Brisbane catteries was carried out to investigate reproductive patterns of pedigree cats. Eighteen breeders supplied data on 751 litters with a total of 3171 kittens covering the Persian, Chinchilla, Siamese, Burmese and Abyssinian breeds. The overall sex ratio at birth was 100 males to 92 females. There was a significant seasonal effect on sex ratio with litters conceived during the wet season (September to February) producing more males than expected and litters conceived during the dry season producing more females than expected. Litter size and breed had no significant effect on the sex ratio. The average litter size varied with the breed with the most prolific being the Burmese (5.0) then the Siamese (4.5), Persian (3.9), Abyssinian (3.5) and Chinchilla (2.8). The average litter size was smaller for the first litter than for the subsequent 3 litters. The maximum average litter size was reached at 6 years with only a moderate decline thereafter. There was a seasonal fluctuation in births with the greatest numbers being born in spring and the least in late autumn. Longhair cats showed a more marked seasonal distribution of births than the shorthairs which reproduced for most of the year, particularly the Burmese breed. PMID:3675409

  5. A cross-sectional study of Tritrichomonas foetus infection in feral and shelter cats in Prince Edward Island, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Raab, Oriana; Greenwood, Spencer; Vanderstichel, Raphael; Gelens, Hans

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study examined the occurrence of Tritrichomonas foetus, and other intestinal parasites, in feral and shelter cats in Prince Edward Island (PEI). Fecal samples were collected from 100 feral cats, 100 cats from the PEI Humane Society, and 5 cats from a private residence. The occurrence of T. foetus, based on fecal culture, was 0% in feral and shelter cats. A single positive sample was obtained from an owned Abyssinian cat that was imported to PEI. Intestinal parasites were identified via fecal flotation in 76% of feral cats and 39% of cats from the humane society. Feral cats had a higher incidence of Toxocara cati than cats from the humane society (P < 0.001), conversely, shelter cats had a higher incidence of Cystoisospora spp. (P < 0.001). These results suggest that while T. foetus is not of importance in feral and shelter cats in PEI, imported cats could serve as reservoirs. PMID:26933262

  6. A cross-sectional study of Tritrichomonas foetus infection in feral and shelter cats in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    PubMed

    Raab, Oriana; Greenwood, Spencer; Vanderstichel, Raphael; Gelens, Hans

    2016-03-01

    A cross-sectional study examined the occurrence of Tritrichomonas foetus, and other intestinal parasites, in feral and shelter cats in Prince Edward Island (PEI). Fecal samples were collected from 100 feral cats, 100 cats from the PEI Humane Society, and 5 cats from a private residence. The occurrence of T. foetus, based on fecal culture, was 0% in feral and shelter cats. A single positive sample was obtained from an owned Abyssinian cat that was imported to PEI. Intestinal parasites were identified via fecal flotation in 76% of feral cats and 39% of cats from the humane society. Feral cats had a higher incidence of Toxocara cati than cats from the humane society (P < 0.001), conversely, shelter cats had a higher incidence of Cystoisospora spp. (P < 0.001). These results suggest that while T. foetus is not of importance in feral and shelter cats in PEI, imported cats could serve as reservoirs. PMID:26933262

  7. Monks and Masons at the Monastery of St. Moses the Abyssinian, Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, R.

    2009-04-01

    The monastery of St. Moses the Abyssinian is located about 90 km north of Damascus, in the Syrian desert mountains. Like many other monasteries, it was founded in the 5th century, but more unusually it survived the Muslim conquest and thrived through the medieval period. It comprises a complex of central buildings, and a system of cave-hermitages spread across the landscape where the monks would have actually lived. Since 2004 the monastery has been the site of fieldwork by the Royal Ontario Museum. Archaeological research at the site has so far included survey of the region to map caves and other features, especially those that help the monks survive in this desert environment; analysis of the architectural history, including assessment of the seismic history; and petrographic analysis of the ceramics to examine place of production.

  8. Erythrocyte Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency mutation identified in multiple breeds of domestic cats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Erythrocyte pyruvate kinase deficiency (PK deficiency) is an inherited hemolytic anemia that has been documented in the Abyssinian and Somali breeds as well as random bred domestic shorthair cats. The disease results from mutations in PKLR, the gene encoding the regulatory glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase (PK). Multiple isozymes are produced by tissue-specific differential processing of PKLR mRNA. Perturbation of PK decreases erythrocyte longevity resulting in anemia. Additional signs include: severe lethargy, weakness, weight loss, jaundice, and abdominal enlargement. In domestic cats, PK deficiency has an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance with high variability in onset and severity of clinical symptoms. Results Sequence analysis of PKLR revealed an intron 5 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position 304 concordant with the disease phenotype in Abyssinian and Somali cats. Located 53 nucleotides upstream of the exon 6 splice site, cats with this SNP produce liver and blood processed mRNA with a 13 bp deletion at the 3’ end of exon 5. The frame-shift mutation creates a stop codon at amino acid position 248 in exon 6. The frequency of the intronic SNP in 14,179 American and European cats representing 38 breeds, 76 western random bred cats and 111 cats of unknown breed is 6.31% and 9.35% when restricted to the 15 groups carrying the concordant SNP. Conclusions PK testing is recommended for Bengals, Egyptian Maus, La Perms, Maine Coon cats, Norwegian Forest cats, Savannahs, Siberians, and Singapuras, in addition to Abyssinians and Somalis as well an any new breeds using the afore mentioned breeds in out crossing or development programs. PMID:23110753

  9. Neural precursors isolated from the developing cat brain show retinal integration following transplantation to the retina of the dystrophic cat.

    PubMed

    Klassen, Henry; Schwartz, Philip H; Ziaeian, Boback; Nethercott, Hubert; Young, Michael J; Bragadottir, Ragnheidur; Tullis, Gregory E; Warfvinge, Karin; Narfstrom, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    The cat has served as an important nonrodent research model for neurophysiology and retinal degenerative disease processes, yet very little is known about feline neural precursor cells. To culture these cells and evaluate marker expression, brains were dissected from 45-day-old fetuses, enzymatically dissociated, and grown in the presence of EGF, bFGF and PDGF. Expanded cells widely expressed nestin, Sox2, Ki-67, fusin (CXCR4) and vimentin, while subpopulations expressed A2B5, GFAP, or beta-III tubulin. Precursors prelabeled with BrdU and/or transduced with a recombinant lentivirus that expresses GFP were transplanted subretinally in five dystrophic Abyssinian cats. Two to 4 weeks following surgery, histology showed survival of grafted cells in three of the animals. Labeled cells were found in the neuroretina and RPE layer, as well as in the vitreous and the vicinity of Bruch's membrane. There was no evidence of an immunologic response in any of the eyes. Neural precursor cells can therefore be cultured from the developing cat brain and survive as allografts for up to 4 weeks without immune suppression. The feasibility of deriving and transplanting feline neural precursor cells, combined with the availability of the dystrophic Abyssinian cat, provide a new feline model system for the study of retinal repair. PMID:17565557

  10. [Characteristics of pedigree cat breeding in the Netherlands: breeds, population increase and litter size].

    PubMed

    Gerrits, P O; Huisman, T; Knol, B W

    1999-03-01

    A survey of the Dutch Cat Fancy was carried out to determine reproductive, patterns of pedigree cats. The data of the present study were obtained by questioning the pedigree registers of the cat clubs participating in the foundation 'Overleg Platform van de Nederlandse Cat Fancy'. The Dutch Cat Fancy registers 34 different cat breeds. From 1992 up to 1996 a total of 25.985 litters were registered. Over this period the number of litters increased from 4989 to 5313. Litters from Longhair and Exotic Shorthair cats comprised the biggest group and accounted for 55% of the total number of litters. However, over this period, the number of Longhair and Exotic Shorthair litters decreased by 9%. Litters from British Shorthair, Birman, Maine Coon and Norwegian Forrest Cat increased in number as did litters from small breeds such as Ragdoll, Bengal and Sphynx. Litters from Abyssinian, Siamese, Oriental Shorthair cats remained relatively the same. The average litter size of the total cat population, based on pedigree certificates, was calculated at 3.3 kittens per litter. For different breeds litter size varied from 2.7 (Longhair and Exotic Shorthair) to 4.3 (Burmese and Maine Coon). Taking into account an average age of 14 years, the total Dutch pedigree cat population was estimated at 240,000 viz. about 10% of the total cat population. PMID:10084198

  11. Patterns of contact call differentiation in the panmictic East African Abyssinian White-eye Zosterops abyssinicus (Aves: Passeriformes).

    PubMed

    Habel, Jan Christian; Husemann, Martin; Ulrich, Werner

    2015-12-01

    Species distribution patterns range from highly disjunct to continuous, depending on their ecological demands and the availability of respective habitats. East African savannahs are mostly interconnected and ecologically comparatively homogenous and thus provide a prerequisite for a rather panmictic distribution pattern for species occurring in this habitat. The Abyssinian white-eye Zosterops abyssinicus is a savannah inhabiting bird species, representing such a continuous distribution. This species occurs in high abundances and is very mobile, and past population genetic studies have suggested that gene flow is high and genetic differentiation is low even across relatively large geographic distances. Further, only little morphological differences were found. In order to test for potential divergence in acoustic traits despite its interconnected geographic distribution, we analyzed 2795 contact calls of Z. abyssinicus, which were recorded at 19 sites across Kenya. Our data indicate weak, but significant differentiation in call characteristics across latitudinal gradients. We found strong changes in call characteristics in populations where Z. abyssinicus occurs in sympatry with its highland congener, Zosterops poliogaster. However, the changes in call characteristics in sympatry were in different directions and lead to strong differentiation of the sympatric populations to other conspecific populations potentially representing a case of cascade reinforcement. The detected spatial gradients likely result from ecological differences and balancing effects of natural and sexual selection. PMID:26811769

  12. Visual Cues Generated during Action Facilitate 14-Month-Old Infants' Mental Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antrilli, Nick K.; Wang, Su-hua

    2016-01-01

    Although action experience has been shown to enhance the development of spatial cognition, the mechanism underlying the effects of action is still unclear. The present research examined the role of visual cues generated during action in promoting infants' mental rotation. We sought to clarify the underlying mechanism by decoupling different…

  13. Thalamic Massa Intermedia Duplication in a Dysmorphic 14 month-old Toddler

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Matthew T

    2015-01-01

    The massa intermedia is an inconstant parenchymal band connecting the medial thalami. It may be thickened in various disease processes such as Chiari II malformation or absent in other disease states. However, the massa intermedia may also be absent in up to 30% of normal human brains. To the best of my knowledge, detailed imaging findings of massa intermedia duplication have only been described in a single case report. An additional case of thalamic massa intermedia duplication discovered on a routine brain MR performed for dysmorphic facial features is reported herein. PMID:26622932

  14. "Shall We 'Blick'?": Novel Words Highlight Actors' Underlying Intentions for 14-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Marian L.; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2013-01-01

    By 14 months, infants have become exquisite observers of others' behavior and successful word learners. But do they coordinate their early observational and language capacities to gain insight into the intentions of others? Building upon Gergely, Bekkering, and Kiraly's (2002) classic head-touch phenomenon, we consider the contribution of language…

  15. Initial sequence and comparative analysis of the cat genome

    PubMed Central

    Pontius, Joan U.; Mullikin, James C.; Smith, Douglas R.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Gnerre, Sante; Clamp, Michele; Chang, Jean; Stephens, Robert; Neelam, Beena; Volfovsky, Natalia; Schäffer, Alejandro A.; Agarwala, Richa; Narfström, Kristina; Murphy, William J.; Giger, Urs; Roca, Alfred L.; Antunes, Agostinho; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Yuhki, Naoya; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Johnson, Warren E.; Bourque, Guillaume; Tesler, Glenn; O’Brien, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    The genome sequence (1.9-fold coverage) of an inbred Abyssinian domestic cat was assembled, mapped, and annotated with a comparative approach that involved cross-reference to annotated genome assemblies of six mammals (human, chimpanzee, mouse, rat, dog, and cow). The results resolved chromosomal positions for 663,480 contigs, 20,285 putative feline gene orthologs, and 133,499 conserved sequence blocks (CSBs). Additional annotated features include repetitive elements, endogenous retroviral sequences, nuclear mitochondrial (numt) sequences, micro-RNAs, and evolutionary breakpoints that suggest historic balancing of translocation and inversion incidences in distinct mammalian lineages. Large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), deletion insertion polymorphisms (DIPs), and short tandem repeats (STRs), suitable for linkage or association studies were characterized in the context of long stretches of chromosome homozygosity. In spite of the light coverage capturing ∼65% of euchromatin sequence from the cat genome, these comparative insights shed new light on the tempo and mode of gene/genome evolution in mammals, promise several research applications for the cat, and also illustrate that a comparative approach using more deeply covered mammals provides an informative, preliminary annotation of a light (1.9-fold) coverage mammal genome sequence. PMID:17975172

  16. Increased risk for lymphoma and glomerulonephritis in a closed population of cats exposed to feline leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Francis, D P; Essex, M; Jakowski, R M; Cotter, S M; Lerer, T J; Hardy, W D

    1980-03-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-associated diseases were observed in a household in eastern Connecticut having 134 cats over a period of five and a half years. FeLV-positive cats had a much higher mortality rate (34.6 deaths per 1000 cat-months of follow-up) than did FeLV-negative cats (8.9 deaths per 1000 cat-months of follow-up). The leading cause of death was glomerulonephritis followed by lymphoma. The relative risk for virus-positive cats as compared to virus-negative cats for the two diseases was 9.9 and 9.6, respectively. The major risk factors for the development of lymphoma were virus positivity and low antibody titer to the feline oncornavirus-associated cell membrane antigen (FOCMA). No significant differences in cancer incidence were seen between the two major breeds (Abyssinian and Burmese) in the household. An older age at arrival in the house decreased death rates for all causes in the household, but it did not significantly affect death rates from lymphoma, although there was a positive trend. PMID:6244730

  17. Characterization of an Early-Onset, Autosomal Recessive, Progressive Retinal Degeneration in Bengal Cats

    PubMed Central

    Ofri, Ron; Reilly, Christopher M.; Maggs, David J.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael; Good, Kathryn L.; Grahn, Robert A.; Splawski, Danielle D.; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A form of retinal degeneration suspected to be hereditary was discovered in a family of Bengal cats. A breeding colony was established to characterize disease progression clinically, electrophysiologically, and morphologically, and to investigate the mode of inheritance. Methods Affected and related cats were donated by owners for breeding trials and pedigree analysis. Kittens from test and complementation breedings underwent ophthalmic and neuro-ophthalmic examinations and ERG, and globes were evaluated using light microscopy. Results Pedigree analysis, along with test and complementation breedings, indicated autosomal recessive inheritance and suggested that this disease is nonallelic to a retinal degeneration found in Persian cats. Mutation analysis confirmed the disease is not caused by CEP290 or CRX variants found predominantly in Abyssinian and Siamese cats. Ophthalmoscopic signs of retinal degeneration were noted at 9 weeks of age and became more noticeable over the next 4 months. Visual deficits were behaviorally evident by 1 year of age. Electroretinogram demonstrated reduced rod and cone function at 7 and 9 weeks of age, respectively. Rod responses were mostly extinguished at 14 weeks of age; cone responses were minimal by 26 weeks. Histologic degeneration was first observed at 8 weeks, evidenced by reduced photoreceptor numbers, then rapid deterioration of the photoreceptor layer and, subsequently, severe outer retinal degeneration. Conclusions A recessively inherited primary photoreceptor degeneration was characterized in the Bengal cat. The disease is characterized by early onset, with histologic, ophthalmoscopic, and electrophysiological signs evident by 2 months of age, and rapid progression to blindness. PMID:26258614

  18. Evidence of selection signatures that shape the Persian cat breed.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Francesca; Gandolfi, Barbara; Kim, Eui Soo; Haase, Bianca; Lyons, Leslie A; Rothschild, Max F

    2016-04-01

    The Persian cat is mainly characterized by an extremely brachycephalic face as part of the standard body conformation. Despite the popularity, world-wide distribution, and economic importance of the Persian cat as a fancy breed, little is known about the genetics of their hallmark morphology, brachycephaly. Over 800 cats from different breeds including Persian, non-Persian breeds (Abyssinian, Cornish Rex, Bengal, La Perm, Norwegian Forest, Maine Coon, Manx, Oriental, and Siamese), and Persian-derived breeds (British Shorthair, Scottish Fold, Selkirk Rex) were genotyped with the Illumina 63 K feline DNA array. The experimental strategy was composed of three main steps: (i) the Persian dataset was screened for runs of homozygosity to find and select highly homozygous regions; (ii) selected Persian homozygous regions were evaluated for the difference of homozygosity between Persians and those considered non-Persian breeds, and, (iii) the Persian homozygous regions most divergent from the non-Persian breeds were investigated by haplotype analysis in the Persian-derived breeds. Four regions with high homozygosity (H > 0.7) were detected, each with an average length of 1 Mb. Three regions can be considered unique to the Persian breed, with a less conservative haplotype pattern in the Persian-derived breeds. Moreover, two genes, CHL1 and CNTN6 known to determine face shape modification in humans, reside in one of the identified regions and therefore are positional candidates for the brachycephalic face in Persians. In total, the homozygous regions contained several neuronal genes that could be involved in the Persian cat behavior and can provide new insights into cat domestication. PMID:26956354

  19. Cat Batiks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buban, Marcia H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses an art activity where fourth-grade students created backgrounds using melted paraffin and a variety of paints for their cat batik/collage. Explains that after the students created their backgrounds, they assembled their paper cats for the collage using smaller shapes glued together and wax to add texture for fur. (CMK)

  20. [Treatment of Tritrichomonas foetus in a cat colony with delayed release ronidazole tablets in the small intestine].

    PubMed

    Reinert, Jacqueline; Gerold, Susanne; Scheurlen, Ulf; Daniels, Rolf; Wolm, Matthias; Iglauer, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Seven abyssinian cats (two male, five female) showed intermittent green-yellow mucous diarrhoea, sometimes an inflammation of the anal region and faecal incontinence even after long-time treatment with fenbendazole against Giardia. During necropsy of one of the cats, which had to be euthanized due to another disease, the gut wall of small and large intestine appeared macroscopically thickened. Histological examination indicated flagellates in the lumen of the intestine (initiating at the jejunum) and in the crypts. However Giardia could be excluded. in this case. By PCR of the faeces Tritrichomonas (T) foetus was diagnosed in five of six cats of this colony. Five remaining animals (another cat had to be euthanized) were treated with about 30 mg per kg BW ronidazole p. o. (rededication; Ridzol 10% Bt®, Dr. Hesse Tierpharma GmbH & Co. KG, Germany) daily over 14 days. The special gastro-resistant processing of the ronidazole should ensure a targeted effects. Animals were treated consecutively, isolated from the other cats and were daily examined clinically and neurologically. Neurotoxic adverse effects appeared slightly, therefore--as a precaution--the treatment of two cats was paused for one day. After treatment of all cats, T. foetus wasn't diagnosed by PCR over the period of 345 to > 800 days in any cat. One animal had dubious findings in the ninth week after treatment. Hence it was still kept isolated from the group and PCR showed a negative result at all times afterwards. The treatment protocol shows that elimination of problematic protozoal infections is possible in cat colonies. PMID:26591381

  1. Cat scratch disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease is an infectious illness associated with cat scratches, bites, or exposure to cat saliva, causing chronic swelling of the lymph nodes. Cat scratch disease is possibly the most common cause of ...

  2. Cat Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry ... infection does not make cats sick. However, the scratch or bite of an infected cat can cause ...

  3. Cat scratch disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease is an infectious illness associated with cat scratches, bites, or exposure to cat saliva, causing chronic swelling of the lymph nodes. Cat scratch disease is possibly the most common cause of chronic ...

  4. The Contribution of Visual and Vestibular Information to Spatial Orientation by 6- to 14-Month-Old Infants and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, J. Gavin; Hatton, Fran; Foster, Kirsty A.; Mason, Uschi

    2011-01-01

    Although there is much research on infants' ability to orient in space, little is known regarding the information they use to do so. This research uses a rotating room to evaluate the relative contribution of visual and vestibular information to location of a target following bodily rotation. Adults responded precisely on the basis of visual flow…

  5. Twelve- to 14-Month-Old Infants Can Predict Single-Event Probability with Large Set Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denison, Stephanie; Xu, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has revealed that infants can reason correctly about single-event probabilities with small but not large set sizes (Bonatti, 2008; Teglas "et al.", 2007). The current study asks whether infants can make predictions regarding single-event probability with large set sizes using a novel procedure. Infants completed two trials: A…

  6. Twelve- to 14-month-old infants can predict single-event probability with large set sizes.

    PubMed

    Denison, Stephanie; Xu, Fei

    2010-09-01

    Previous research has revealed that infants can reason correctly about single-event probabilities with small but not large set sizes (Bonatti, 2008; Teglas et al., 2007). The current study asks whether infants can make predictions regarding single-event probability with large set sizes using a novel procedure. Infants completed two trials: A preference trial to determine whether they preferred pink or black lollipops and a test trial where infants saw two jars, one containing mostly pink lollipops and another containing mostly black lollipops. The experimenter removed one occluded lollipop from each jar and placed them in two separate opaque cups. Seventy-eight percent of infants searched in the cup that contained a lollipop from the jar with a higher proportion of their preferred color object, significantly better than chance. Thus infants can reason about single-event probabilities with large set sizes in a choice paradigm, and contrary to most findings in the infant literature, the prediction task used here appears a more sensitive measure than the standard looking-time task. PMID:20712746

  7. Cat-Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... and how do people get it? Cat-scratch disease is an infection caused by a type of bacteria (germs) carried in cat saliva. This bacteria is called Bartonella henselae and can be passed from a cat to a human. Doctors and ... from fleas. Cat-scratch disease is not a severe illness in people who ...

  8. Cat and Dog Bites

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites How should I take care of a bite from a cat or a dog? Whether from a family pet or a neighborhood stray, cat and dog bites are common. Here are some ...

  9. Cat Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  10. Cat-Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients Infants and Young Children Publications & Materials Announcements Cat-Scratch Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ( ... play and learn how to attack prey. How cats and people become infected Kitten playing with a ...

  11. Getting a CAT Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  12. Pulmonary thromboembolism in cats.

    PubMed

    Schermerhorn, Thomas; Pembleton-Corbett, Julie R; Kornreich, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is rarely diagnosed in cats, and the clinical features of the disease are not well known. PTE was diagnosed at postmortem examination in 17 cats, a prevalence of 0.06% over a 24-year period. The age of affected cats ranged from 10 months to 18 years, although young (<4 years) and old (>10 years) cats were more commonly affected than were middle-aged cats. Males and females were equally affected. The majority of cats with PTE (n = 16) had concurrent disease, which was often severe. The most common diseases identified in association with PTE were neoplasia, anemia of unidentified cause, and pancreatitis. Cats with glomerulonephritis, encephalitis, pneumonia, heart disease, and hepatic lipidosis were also represented in this study. Most cats with PTE demonstrated dyspnea and respiratory distress before death or euthanasia, but PTE was not recognized ante mortem in any cat studied. In conclusion, PTE can affect cats of any age and is associated with a variety of systemic and inflammatory disorders. It is recommended that the same clinical criteria used to increase the suspicion of PTE in dogs should also be applied to cats. PMID:15320593

  13. That Fat Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  14. Diseases Transmitted by Cats.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Abrahamian, Fredrick M

    2015-10-01

    Humans and cats have shared a close relationship since ancient times. Millions of cats are kept as household pets, and 34% of households have cats. There are numerous diseases that may be transmitted from cats to humans. General modes of transmission, with some overlapping features, can occur through inhalation (e.g., bordetellosis); vector-borne spread (e.g., ehrlichiosis); fecal-oral route (e.g., campylobacteriosis); bite, scratch, or puncture (e.g., rabies); soil-borne spread (e.g., histoplasmosis); and direct contact (e.g., scabies). It is also likely that the domestic cat can potentially act as a reservoir for many other zoonoses that are not yet recognized. The microbiology of cat bite wound infections in humans is often polymicrobial with a broad mixture of aerobic (e.g., Pasteurella, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus) and anaerobic (e.g., Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Bacteroides) microorganisms. Bacteria recovered from infected cat bite wounds are most often reflective of the oral flora of the cat, which can also be influenced by the microbiome of their ingested prey and other foods. Bacteria may also originate from the victim's own skin or the physical environment at the time of injury. PMID:26542039

  15. Sex-related differences of morphometric, densitometric, and geometric parameters of tibia and tarsometatarsal bone in 14-month-old ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    Charuta, A; Dzierzecka, M; Pierzchala, M; Cooper, R G; Polawska, E; Horbanczuk, J O

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate basic morphometric, geometric, and densitometric parameters of tibia and tarsometatarsus in 14-mo-old male and female ostriches, and interrelationships between these parameters. The study was conducted on 20 tibiae and 20 tarsometatarsal bones of the left pelvic limb derived from 20 healthy 14-mo-old ostriches (Struthio camelus): 10 males and 10 females. The following parameters were determined using peripheral quantitative computed tomography: bone mineral content (BMC), volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), cortical content (CRT_CNT), cortical density (CRT_DEN), trabecular content, trabecular density (TRAB_DEN), bone area (TOT_A), trabecular area (TRAB_A), cortical area (CRT_A), cortical thickness (CRT_THK_C), periosteal circumference (PERI_C), endocortical circumference (ENDO_C), and strength-strain index (SSI) in the metaphysis and diaphysis of the bones. Statistical evaluation of the obtained results was performed using Student's t-test, and the Pearson correlation coefficient between the investigated parameters was determined. The obtained results have shown significant differences in proximal metaphysis between males and females when evaluating such parameters as CRT_DEN, TOT_A, TRAB_A, PERI_C, SSI in tibia (P < 0.05), and BMC, vBMD, TRAB_DEN, CRT_CNT, TOT_A, TRAB_A, cortical area, PERI_C, ENDO_C, SSI in tarsometatarsus (P < 0.05). Significant differences between the 2 sexes were found in all the investigated parameters of diaphysis of tibia, except for CRT_DEN and ENDO_C (P < 0.05). Significant positive correlations between BW and bone weight were found (P < 0.05). Furthermore, numerous correlations of morphometric, geometric, and densitometric parameters of metaphysis and diaphysis of the tibia and tarsometatarsus were stated (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the present investigation demonstrated sex-related differences in morphometric, densitometric, and geometric properties of tibia and tarsometatarsus in 14-mo-old ostriches. Numerous correleations observed between the investigated parameters have shown that ostrich tibia and tarsometatarsus may present a valuable model for further studies on bone tissue metabolism regulation in breeding birds. PMID:24135601

  16. Cats protecting birds revisited.

    PubMed

    Fan, Meng; Kuang, Yang; Feng, Zhilan

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, we revisit the dynamical interaction among prey (bird), mesopredator (rat), and superpredator (cat) discussed in [Courchamp, F., Langlais, M., Sugihara, G., 1999. Cats protecting birds: modelling the mesopredator release effect. Journal of Animal Ecology 68, 282-292]. First, we develop a prey-mesopredator-superpredator (i.e., bird-rat-cat, briefly, BRC) model, where the predator's functional responses are derived based on the classical Holling's time budget arguments. Our BRC model overcomes several model construction problems in Courchamp et al. (1999), and admits richer, reasonable and realistic dynamics. We explore the possible control strategies to save or restore the bird by controlling or eliminating the rat or the cat when the bird is endangered. We establish the existence of two types of mesopredator release phenomena: severe mesopredator release, where once superpredators are suppressed, a burst of mesopredators follows which leads their shared prey to extinction; and mild mesopredator release, where the mesopredator release could assert more negative impact on the endemic prey but does not lead the endemic prey to extinction. A sharp sufficient criterion is established for the occurrence of severe mesopredator release. We also show that, in a prey-mesopredator-superpredator trophic food web, eradication of introduced superpredators such as feral domestic cats in the BRC model, is not always the best solution to protect endemic insular prey. The presence of a superpredator may have a beneficial effect in such systems. PMID:15998496

  17. Membranous nephropathy in sibling cats.

    PubMed

    Nash, A S; Wright, N G

    1983-08-20

    Membranous nephropathy was diagnosed in two sibling cats from the same household. Both cases presented with the nephrotic syndrome but 33 months elapsed before the second cat became ill, by which time the first cat had been in full clinical remission for over a year. PMID:6623883

  18. Cat Scratch Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Cat Scratch Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Cat Scratch Disease Print A A A Text Size ... Doctor en español Enfermedad por arañazo de gato Cat scratch disease is a bacterial infection that a ...

  19. CAT altitude avoidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for indicating the altitude of the tropopause or of an inversion layer wherein clear air turbulence (CAT) may occur, and the likely severity of any such CAT, includes directing a passive microwave radiometer on the aircraft at different angles with respect to the horizon. The microwave radiation measured at a frequency of about 55 GHz represents the temperature of the air at an ""average'' range of about 3 kilometers, so that the sine of the angle of the radiometer times 3 kilometers equals the approximate altitude of the air whose temperature is measured. A plot of altitude (with respect to the aircraft) versus temperature of the air at that altitude, can indicate when an inversion layer is present and can indicate the altitude of the tropopause or of such an inversion layer. The plot can also indicate the severity of any CAT in an inversion layer. If CAT has been detected in the general area, then the aircraft can be flown at an altitude to avoid the tropopause or inversion layer.

  20. Vibrational Schroedinger Cats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kis, Z.; Janszky, J.; Vinogradov, An. V.; Kobayashi, T.

    1996-01-01

    The optical Schroedinger cat states are simple realizations of quantum states having nonclassical features. It is shown that vibrational analogues of such states can be realized in an experiment of double pulse excitation of vibrionic transitions. To track the evolution of the vibrational wave packet we derive a non-unitary time evolution operator so that calculations are made in a quasi Heisenberg picture.

  1. Cat scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Bozhkov, V; Madjov, R; Plachkov, I; Arnaudov, P; Chernopolsky, P; Krasnaliev, I

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 24,000 people are infected with cat scratch disease (CSD) every year. CSD is caused by the bacteria Bartonella henselae, a gram-negative bacteria most often transmitted to humans through a bite or scratch from an infected cat or kitten. Although CSD is often a benign and self-limiting condition, it can affect any major organ system in the body, manifesting in different ways and sometimes leading to lifelong sequelae. It is a disease that is often overlooked in primary care because of the wide range of symptom presentation and relative rarity of serious complications. It is important for health care providers to recognize patients at risk for CSD, know what laboratory testing and treatments are available, and be aware of complications that may arise from this disease in the future. PMID:25199244

  2. The square cat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putterman, E.; Raz, O.

    2008-11-01

    We present a simple two-dimensional model of a "cat"—a body with zero angular momentum that can rotate itself with no external forces. The model is used to explain the nature of a gauge theory and to illustrate the importance of noncommutative operators. We compare the free-space cat in Newtonian mechanics and the same problem in Aristotelian mechanics at low Reynolds numbers (with the velocity proportional to the force rather than to the acceleration). This example shows the analogy between (angular) momentum in Newtonian mechanics and (torque) force in Aristotelian mechanics. We discuss a topological invariant common to the model in free space and at low Reynolds number.

  3. Big cat genomics.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E

    2005-01-01

    Advances in population and quantitative genomics, aided by the computational algorithms that employ genetic theory and practice, are now being applied to biological questions that surround free-ranging species not traditionally suitable for genetic enquiry. Here we review how applications of molecular genetic tools have been used to describe the natural history, present status, and future disposition of wild cat species. Insight into phylogenetic hierarchy, demographic contractions, geographic population substructure, behavioral ecology, and infectious diseases have revealed strategies for survival and adaptation of these fascinating predators. Conservation, stabilization, and management of the big cats are important areas that derive benefit from the genome resources expanded and applied to highly successful species, imperiled by an expanding human population. PMID:16124868

  4. Hypereosinophilic syndrome in two cats.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Matsuura, Shinobu; Fujino, Yasuhito; Nakajima, Mayumi; Takahashi, Masashi; Nakashima, Ko; Sakai, Yusuke; Uetsuka, Koji; Ohno, Koichi; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2008-10-01

    Two cats showing chronic vomiting, diarrhea and weight loss were found to have leukocytosis with marked eosinophilia. Both cats were diagnosed with hypereosinophilic syndrome by the findings of increased eosinophils and their precursors in the bone marrow, eosinophilic infiltration into multiple organs, and exclusion of other causes for eosinophilia. Although cytoreductive chemotherapy with hydroxycarbamide and prednisolone was performed, these two cats died 48 days and 91 days after the initial presentation. PMID:18981665

  5. [Glomerulonephritis in dogs and cats].

    PubMed

    Reinacher, M; Frese, K

    1991-04-01

    Immunohistology and special staining of plastic sections allow diagnosis and differentiation of subtypes of glomerulonephritis in dogs. Frequency and clinical importance of these forms of glomerulonephritis vary significantly. In cats, glomerulonephritis occurs frequently in FIV-positive cats but is rare in animals suffering from persistent FeLV infection or FIP. PMID:2068715

  6. College Students and Their Cats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Alexander, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-two Siamese and 32 mixed breed cats' personalities were rated by their respective college student owners and compared. Further, the owners' self rated personality traits were correlated with the pets'; significant Siamese and Mixed differences and correlations were obtained. These are the first data to examine breed of cat on a personality…

  7. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  8. Neurolymphomatosis in a cat

    PubMed Central

    SAKURAI, Masashi; AZUMA, Kazushi; NAGAI, Arata; FUJIOKA, Toru; SUNDEN, Yuji; SHIMADA, Akinori; MORITA, Takehito

    2016-01-01

    A 9-year-old male mixed breed cat showed chronic progressive neurological symptoms, which are represented by ataxia and seizures. At necropsy, spinal roots and spinal ganglions at the level of sixth cervical nerve to second thoracic nerve were bilaterally swollen and replaced by white mass lesions. Right brachial plexus and cranial nerves (III, V and VII) were also swollen. A mass lesion was found in the right frontal lobe of the cerebrum. Histologically, neoplastic lymphocytes extensively involved the peripheral nerves, and they infiltrated into the cerebral and spinal parenchyma according to the peripheral nerve tract. Immunohistochemically, most neoplastic lymphocytes were positive for CD20. The clinical and histological features in this case resemble those of neurolymphomatosis in humans. PMID:26960326

  9. Like herding cats.

    PubMed

    Muller-Smith, P

    1997-12-01

    In an effort to be a good manager, it is easy to lose sight of the fact that knowledge workers require a unique approach from their manager. Because nurses are independent and capable individuals that prosper in an environment that recognizes them as knowledge workers, nurse managers often find that traditional management techniques are not sufficient. Trying to manage all of the nurses on a unit as a single group is much like trying to herd cats. It might be less frustrating for the nurse manager to lead gently rather than manage with a firm hand. Warren Bennis suggests that this approach may provide a valuable key to successfully managing in a world of constant change. PMID:9464034

  10. Neurolymphomatosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Masashi; Azuma, Kazushi; Nagai, Arata; Fujioka, Toru; Sunden, Yuji; Shimada, Akinori; Morita, Takehito

    2016-07-01

    A 9-year-old male mixed breed cat showed chronic progressive neurological symptoms, which are represented by ataxia and seizures. At necropsy, spinal roots and spinal ganglions at the level of sixth cervical nerve to second thoracic nerve were bilaterally swollen and replaced by white mass lesions. Right brachial plexus and cranial nerves (III, V and VII) were also swollen. A mass lesion was found in the right frontal lobe of the cerebrum. Histologically, neoplastic lymphocytes extensively involved the peripheral nerves, and they infiltrated into the cerebral and spinal parenchyma according to the peripheral nerve tract. Immunohistochemically, most neoplastic lymphocytes were positive for CD20. The clinical and histological features in this case resemble those of neurolymphomatosis in humans. PMID:26960326

  11. Acquired retinal folds in the cat.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, A D

    1976-06-01

    Retinal folds were found in 5 cats. The apparent cause of the folding was varied: in 1 cat the folds appeared after a localized retinal detachment; in 2 cats the condition accompanied other intraocular abnormalities associated with feline infectious peritonitis; 1 cat had active keratitis, and the retinal changes were thought to have been injury related; and 1 cat, bilaterally affected, had chronic glomerulonephritis. PMID:945253

  12. Primary hypoadrenocorticism in ten cats.

    PubMed

    Peterson, M E; Greco, D S; Orth, D N

    1989-01-01

    Primary hypoadrenocorticism was diagnosed in ten young to middle-aged cats of mixed breeding. Five of the cats were male, and five were female. Historic signs included lethargy (n = 10), anorexia (n = 10), weight loss (n = 9), vomiting (n = 4), and polyuria (n = 3). Dehydration (n = 9), hypothermia (n = 8), prolonged capillary refill time (n = 5), weak pulse (n = 5), collapse (n = 3), and sinus bradycardia (n = 2) were found on physical examination. Results of initial laboratory tests revealed anemia (n = 3), absolute lymphocytosis (n = 2), absolute eosinophilia (n = 1), and azotemia and hyperphosphatemia (n = 10). Serum electrolyte changes included hyponatremia (n = 10), hyperkalemia (n = 9), hypochloremia (n = 9), and hypercalcemia (n = 1). The diagnosis of primary adrenocortical insufficiency was established on the basis of results of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation tests (n = 10) and endogenous plasma ACTH determinations (n = 7). Initial therapy for hypoadrenocorticism included intravenous administration of 0.9% saline and dexamethasone and intramuscular administration of desoxycorticosterone acetate in oil. Three cats were euthanatized shortly after diagnosis because of poor clinical response. Results of necropsy examination were unremarkable except for complete destruction of both adrenal cortices. Seven cats were treated chronically with oral prednisone or intramuscular methylprednisolone acetate for glucocorticoid supplementation and with oral fludrocortisone acetate or intramuscular injections of repository desoxycorticosterone pivalate for mineralocorticoid replacement. One cat died after 47 days of therapy from unknown causes; the other six cats are still alive and well after 3 to 70 months of treatment. PMID:2469793

  13. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats.

    PubMed

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne; Bennett, Pauleen; Paterson, Mandy; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (p<0.01). All interactions and caretaking behaviours were more likely to be displayed towards cats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (p<0.05) and included association time, attachment, perceived cat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and

  14. The Cat's Eye Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows one of the most complex planetary nebulae ever seen, NGC 6543, nicknamed the 'Cat's Eye Nebula.' Hubble reveals surprisingly intricate structures including concentric gas shells, jets of high-speed gas and unusual shock-induced knots of gas. Estimated to be 1,000 years old, the nebula is a visual 'fossil record' of the dynamics and late evolution of a dying star. A preliminary interpretation suggests that the star might be a double-star system. The suspected companion star also might be responsible for a pair of high-speed jets of gas that lie at right angles to this equatorial ring. If the companion were pulling in material from a neighboring star, jets escaping along the companion's rotation axis could be produced. These jets would explain several puzzling features along the periphery of the gas lobes. Like a stream of water hitting a sand pile, the jets compress gas ahead of them, creating the 'curlicue' features and bright arcs near the outer edge of the lobes. The twin jets are now pointing in different directions than these features. This suggests the jets are wobbling, or precessing, and turning on and off episodically. This color picture, taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2, is a composite of three images taken at different wavelengths. (red, hydrogen-alpha; blue, neutral oxygen, 6300 angstroms; green, ionized nitrogen, 6584 angstroms). The image was taken on September 18, 1994. NGC 6543 is 3,000 light- years away in the northern constellation Draco. The term planetary nebula is a misnomer; dying stars create these cocoons when they lose outer layers of gas. The process has nothing to do with planet formation, which is predicted to happen early in a star's life.

  15. Genetic testing in domestic cats

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    Varieties of genetic tests are currently available for the domestic cat that support veterinary health care, breed management, species identification, and forensic investigations. Approximately thirty-five genes contain over fifty mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat’s appearance. Specific genes, such as sweet and drug receptors, have been knocked-out of Felidae during evolution and can be used along with mtDNA markers for species identification. Both STR and SNP panels differentiate cat race, breed, and individual identity, as well as gender-specific markers to determine sex of an individual. Cat genetic tests are common offerings for commercial laboratories, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, and their various applications in different fields of science. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat’s genome. PMID:22546621

  16. Spatial Stream Segregation by Cats.

    PubMed

    Javier, Lauren K; McGuire, Elizabeth A; Middlebrooks, John C

    2016-06-01

    Listeners can perceive interleaved sequences of sounds from two or more sources as segregated streams. In humans, physical separation of sound sources is a major factor enabling such stream segregation. Here, we examine spatial stream segregation with a psychophysical measure in domestic cats. Cats depressed a pedal to initiate a target sequence of brief sound bursts in a particular rhythm and then released the pedal when the rhythm changed. The target bursts were interleaved with a competing sequence of bursts that could differ in source location but otherwise were identical to the target bursts. This task was possible only when the sources were heard as segregated streams. When the sound bursts had broad spectra, cats could detect the rhythm change when target and competing sources were separated by as little as 9.4°. Essentially equal levels of performance were observed when frequencies were restricted to a high, 4-to-25-kHz, band in which the principal spatial cues presumably were related to sound levels. When the stimulus band was restricted from 0.4 to 1.6 kHz, leaving interaural time differences as the principal spatial cue, performance was severely degraded. The frequency sensitivity of cats in this task contrasts with that of humans, who show better spatial stream segregation with low- than with high-frequency sounds. Possible explanations for the species difference includes the smaller interaural delays available to cats due to smaller sizes of their heads and the potentially greater sound-level cues available due to the cat's frontally directed pinnae and higher audible frequency range. PMID:26993807

  17. The paradox of Schrodinger's cat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villars, C. N.

    1986-07-01

    Erwin Schrodinger first described the thought-experiment which has since become known as 'the paradox of Schrodinger's cat' 51 years ago. In recent years, popular accounts of quantum mechanics have tended to adopt one or other of the philosophically most extreme solutions to this paradox, i.e. the consciousness hypothesis or the many worlds interpretation. The author attempts to redress the balance by describing what he takes to be the orthodox solution to the paradox which explains the paradox, without recourse to such counterintuitive notions as a cat simultaneously dead and alive or a universe continually splitting into multiple worlds, as being due to a misapplication of the quantum formalism.

  18. Unusual hyperparathyroidism in a cat.

    PubMed

    Gnudi, G; Bertoni, G; Luppi, A; Cantoni, A M

    2001-01-01

    A 5 month-old, male, domestic short hair cat was presented with inappetence and vomiting. it was depressed and reluctant to move. The cat had difficulties in keeping the standing position and grossly deformed thighs. Lytic changes and disruption of normal architecture of the bone were observed, involving mainly the femoral diaphyses. An inverse Ca/P ratio and kidney failure were diagnosed. The possibility of whether the bone changes could have been related to primary or secondary renal hyperparathyroidism is discussed. PMID:11405269

  19. Toxoplasmosis: An Important Message for Cat Owners

    MedlinePlus

    ... a s t is O : wAnneIrmsportant What role do cats play in the spread of toxoplasmosis? Cats get Toxoplasma infection by eating infected rodents, birds ... animals, or anything contaminated with feces from another cat that is shedding the microscopic parasite in its ...

  20. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  1. A strange cat in Dublin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2012-11-01

    Not many life stories in physics involve Nazis, illicit sex, a strange cat and the genetic code. Thus, a new biography of the great Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger is always of interest, and with Erwin Schrödinger and the Quantum Revolution, veteran science writer John Gribbin does not disappoint.

  2. Lessons from the Cheshire Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinberg, Donna

    2012-01-01

    "If you don't know where you're going, any road will take you there." This oft-cited but not-quite-accurate quote is from the Lewis Carroll's classic children's tale, Alice in Wonderland. In Carroll's altered reality, the conversation between the disoriented Alice and the mysterious Cheshire Cat actually went like this: "Would you tell me, please,…

  3. Chyloabdomen in a mature cat.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, K L

    2001-01-01

    A mature, castrated male cat presented with progressive lethargy and a severely distended abdomen. Abdominal radiographs, abdominocentesis, and evaluation of the fluid obtained led to a diagnosis of chyloabdomen. The underlying pathology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment associated with this disease are discussed. PMID:11360862

  4. Assessing CAT Test Security Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Qing; Zhang, Jinming; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2006-01-01

    In addition to its precision superiority over nonadaptive tests, another known advantage of computerized adaptive tests (CATs) is that they can be offered on a continuous basis. This is advantageous to examinees in terms of flexibility of test scheduling, as well as advantageous to schools and other testing centers in terms of both space and…

  5. CATS Data and Information Page

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-10-05

    ... of atmospheric aerosols and clouds from the International Space Station (ISS).   CATS will provide vertical profiles at three ... with nearly a three-day repeat cycle.  For the first time, it will allow scientist to study diurnal (day-to-night) changes in cloud ...

  6. A CAT scan for cells

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a team of scientists from Berkeley Lab, Stanford University, and the University of California, San Francisco used Berkeley Lab's National Center for X-ray Tomography to capture the changes that occur when Candida albicans is exposed to a new and promising antifungal therapy. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2009/12/10/cat-scan-cells/

  7. Audiogenic reflex seizures in cats

    PubMed Central

    Lowrie, Mark; Bessant, Claire; Harvey, Robert J; Sparkes, Andrew; Garosi, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to characterise feline audiogenic reflex seizures (FARS). Methods An online questionnaire was developed to capture information from owners with cats suffering from FARS. This was collated with the medical records from the primary veterinarian. Ninety-six cats were included. Results Myoclonic seizures were one of the cardinal signs of this syndrome (90/96), frequently occurring prior to generalised tonic–clonic seizures (GTCSs) in this population. Other features include a late onset (median 15 years) and absence seizures (6/96), with most seizures triggered by high-frequency sounds amid occasional spontaneous seizures (up to 20%). Half the population (48/96) had hearing impairment or were deaf. One-third of cats (35/96) had concurrent diseases, most likely reflecting the age distribution. Birmans were strongly represented (30/96). Levetiracetam gave good seizure control. The course of the epilepsy was non-progressive in the majority (68/96), with an improvement over time in some (23/96). Only 33/96 and 11/90 owners, respectively, felt the GTCSs and myoclonic seizures affected their cat’s quality of life (QoL). Despite this, many owners (50/96) reported a slow decline in their cat’s health, becoming less responsive (43/50), not jumping (41/50), becoming uncoordinated or weak in the pelvic limbs (24/50) and exhibiting dramatic weight loss (39/50). These signs were exclusively reported in cats experiencing seizures for >2 years, with 42/50 owners stating these signs affected their cat’s QoL. Conclusions and relevance In gathering data on audiogenic seizures in cats, we have identified a new epilepsy syndrome named FARS with a geriatric onset. Further studies are warranted to investigate potential genetic predispositions to this condition. PMID:25916687

  8. Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-06-30

    The parallel analysis toolkit (ParCAT) provides parallel statistical processing of large climate model simulation datasets. ParCAT provides parallel point-wise average calculations, frequency distributions, sum/differences of two datasets, and difference-of-average and average-of-difference for two datasets for arbitrary subsets of simulation time. ParCAT is a command-line utility that can be easily integrated in scripts or embedded in other application. ParCAT supports CMIP5 post-processed datasets as well as non-CMIP5 post-processed datasets. ParCAT reads and writes standard netCDF files.

  9. Evaluation of the electroencephalogram in young cats

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Melissa J.; Williams, D. Colette; Vite, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize the electroencephalogram (EEG) in young cats. Animals 23 clinically normal cats. Procedures Cats were sedated with medetomidine hydrochloride and butorphanol tartrate at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks of age and an EEG was recorded. Recordings were visually inspected for electrical continuity, interhemispheric synchrony, amplitude and frequency of background electrical activity, and frequency of transient activity. Computer-aided analysis was used to perform frequency spectral analysis and to calculate absolute and relative power of the background activity at each age. Results Electrical continuity was evident in cats ≥ 4 weeks old, and interhemispheric synchrony was evident in cats at all ages evaluated. Analysis of amplitude of background activity and absolute power revealed significant elevations in 6-week-old cats, compared with results for 2-, 20-, and 24-week-old cats. No association between age and relative power or frequency was identified. Transient activity, consisting of sleep spindles and K complexes, was evident at all ages, but spike and spike or wave discharges were observed in cats at 2 weeks of age. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Medetomidine and butorphanol were administered in accordance with a sedation protocol that allowed investigators to repeatedly obtain EEG data from cats. Age was an important consideration when interpreting EEG data. These data on EEG development in clinically normal cats may be used for comparison in future studies conducted to examine EEGs in young cats with diseases that affect the cerebral cortex. PMID:21355743

  10. Intervertebral disc extrusion in six cats.

    PubMed

    Knipe, M F; Vernau, K M; Hornof, W J; LeCouteur, R A

    2001-09-01

    Existing reports concerning intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) have focused almost exclusively on dogs, although a small number of individual case reports of IVDD of cats has been published. The medical records of six cats with IVDD were reviewed. Radiographic studies confirmed narrowed intervertebral disc spaces, mineralised intervertebral discs, and one or more extradural compressive lesions of the spinal cord in each cat. All disc extrusions were located in the thoracolumbar region. Surgical decompression of the spinal cord was achieved in all cats by means of hemilaminectomy and removal of compressive extradural material confirmed to be degenerative disc material. Good to excellent neurological recovery was noted in five of the six cats included in this report. Based on this review, it appears that IVDD of cats has many similarities to IVDD of dogs, and that healthy cats with acute intervertebral disc extrusion(s) respond favourably to surgical decompression of the spinal cord. PMID:11876633

  11. The Fecal Microbiome in Cats with Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Suchodolski, Jan S.; Foster, Mary L.; Sohail, Muhammad U.; Leutenegger, Christian; Queen, Erica V.; Steiner, Jörg M.; Marks, Stanley L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21) and cats with acute (n = 19) or chronic diarrhea (n = 29) and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration), while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001) altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or therapeutic

  12. Differences between vocalization evoked by social stimuli in feral cats and house cats.

    PubMed

    Yeon, Seong C; Kim, Young K; Park, Se J; Lee, Scott S; Lee, Seung Y; Suh, Euy H; Houpt, Katherine A; Chang, Hong H; Lee, Hee C; Yang, Byung G; Lee, Hyo J

    2011-06-01

    To investigate how socialization can affect the types and characteristics of vocalization produced by cats, feral cats (n=25) and house cats (n=13) were used as subjects, allowing a comparison between cats socialized to people and non-socialized cats. To record vocalization and assess the cats' responses to behavioural stimuli, five test situations were used: approach by a familiar caretaker, by a threatening stranger, by a large doll, by a stranger with a dog and by a stranger with a cat. Feral cats showed extremely aggressive and defensive behaviour in most test situations, and produced higher call rates than those of house cats in the test situations, which could be attributed to less socialization to other animals and to more sensitivity to fearful situations. Differences were observed in the acoustic parameters of feral cats in comparison to those of house cats. The feral cat produced significantly higher frequency in fundamental frequency, peak frequency, 1st quartile frequency, 3rd quartile frequency of growls and hisses in agonistic test situations. In contrast to the growls and hisses, in meow, all acoustic parameters like fundamental frequency, first formant, peak frequency, 1st quartile frequency, and 3rd quartile frequency of house cats were of significantly higher frequency than those of feral cats. Also, house cats produced calls of significantly shorter in duration than feral cats in agonistic test situations. These results support the conclusion that a lack of socialization may affect usage of types of vocalizations, and the vocal characteristics, so that the proper socialization of cat may be essential to be a suitable companion house cat. PMID:21443933

  13. Experimental cochlear hydrops in cats.

    PubMed

    Eby, T L

    1986-11-01

    An experimental model of cochlear hydrops was created in cats. Ten cats underwent surgical procedures to obliterate the saccule, and their temporal bones were studied by light microscopy after sacrifice at 10 weeks. In one group the saccules were destroyed by maceration and aspiration. However, in these ears the saccular lumens were not obliterated and endolymphatic hydrops did not develop. Obliteration of the saccules was achieved in the second group after fascia was introduced into the area of the injured saccules. Cochlear endolymphatic hydrops was a consistent finding in these ears except when a fistula of the membranous labyrinth was present. However, in addition to fibrosis and new bone formation in the vestibules there were also degenerative changes in the hair cells, tectorial membranes, and striae vasculares of these cochleae. The results supported the longitudinal flow theory of endolymph and are consistent with the reported examples of cochlear endolymphatic hydrops in man. PMID:3812642

  14. Eosinophilic leukaemia in a cat.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Hassan; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Esmaelli, Hossein; Khoshnegah, Javad

    2007-12-01

    A 14-year-old female domestic shorthair cat was presented to Tehran University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for a persistent fever, anorexia, intermittent vomiting, weight loss and weakness. The main clinical signs were pale mucous membranes, dehydration and splenomegaly. The complete blood count and serum biochemistry tests revealed non-regenerative anaemia, thrombocytopenia and increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for feline leukaemia virus was negative. Blood film and bone marrow examination revealed a large number of immature eosinophils with variable sizes and numbers of faintly azurophilic granules. Cytochemical staining of blood film demonstrated 70% positive cells for ALP activity. Four percent CD34 positive cells were detected by flow cytometry. As eosinophilic leukaemia is difficult to identify by light microscopy, well-defined diagnostic criteria and the use of flow cytometry and cytochemical staining can improve the ability to correctly diagnose this type of leukaemia in cats. PMID:17669677

  15. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats

    PubMed Central

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people’s perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (p<0.01). All interactions and caretaking behaviours were more likely to be displayed towards cats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (p<0.05) and included association time, attachment, perceived cat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner “gatekeepers” could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and

  16. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1984-03-01

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine (/sup 131/I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of /sup 131/I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of /sup 131/I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that /sup 131/I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined.

  17. A review of feral cat control.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Sheilah A

    2008-08-01

    Animal overpopulation including feral cats is an important global problem. There are many stakeholders involved in the feral cat debate over 'what to do about the problem', including those who consider them a nuisance, the public at risk from zoonotic disease, people who are concerned about the welfare of feral cats, those concerned with wildlife impacts, and the cats themselves. How best to control this population is controversial and has ranged from culling, relocation, and more recently 'trap neuter return' (TNR) methods. Data support the success of TNR in reducing cat populations, but to have a large impact it will have to be adopted on a far greater scale than it is currently practised. Non-surgical contraception is a realistic future goal. Because the feral cat problem was created by humans, concerted educational efforts on responsible pet ownership and the intrinsic value of animals is an integral part of a solution. PMID:17913531

  18. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis in Humans, Cats, and Cat Fleas in Bangladesh, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rajib; Paul, Shyamal Kumar; Hossain, Muhammad Akram; Ahmed, Salma; Mahmud, Muhammad Chand; Nasreen, Syeda Anjuman; Ferdouse, Faria; Sharmi, Rumana Hasan; Ahamed, Farid; Ghosh, Souvik; Urushibara, Noriko; Aung, Meiji Soe; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2016-05-01

    High prevalence of Rickettsia felis in patients with fever of unknown origin was revealed in the north-central Bangladesh from 2012 to 2013. Subsequently, in this study, prevalence of R. felis in cats and cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), together with febrile patients, was studied by PCR detection of 17 kDa antigen gene and DNA sequencing. R. felis was detected in 28% (28/100) and 21% (14/68) of cat blood and cat flea samples, respectively, whereas 42% (21/50) of patients were positive for R. felis. R. felis-positive cat fleas were detected at significantly higher rate on R. felis-positive cats. The results suggested a potential role of cats and cat fleas for transmission of R. felis to humans in Bangladesh. PMID:26901499

  19. Axial pattern skin flaps in cats.

    PubMed

    Remedios, A M; Bauer, M S; Bowen, C V; Fowler, J D

    1991-01-01

    The major direct cutaneous vessels identified in the cat include the omocervical, thoracodorsal, deep circumflex iliac, and caudal superficial epigastric arteries. Axial pattern skin flaps based on the thoracodorsal and caudal superficial epigastric arteries have been developed in cats. Rotation of these flaps as islands allows skin coverage to the carpus and metatarsus, respectively. The thoracodorsal and caudal superficial epigastric flaps provide a practical, one-step option in the reconstruction of large skin defects involving the distal extremities of cats. PMID:2011063

  20. Incidence of pyometra in Swedish insured cats.

    PubMed

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease. PMID:24726694

  1. Cats and Toxoplasma: implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Dabritz, H A; Conrad, P A

    2010-02-01

    Cats are popular as pets worldwide because they are easy to care for and provide companionship that enriches the lives of human beings. Little attention has been focused on their potential to contaminate the environment with zoonotic pathogens. One such pathogen, the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, rarely causes clinical manifestations in cats or immunocompetent humans; however, it can have serious adverse effects on human foetuses and immunocompromised patients. Many human infections are believed to be acquired from eating undercooked or raw meat, such as pork and lamb (Tenter et al. Int. J. Parasitol., 30, 2000, 1217; Dubey et al. J. Parasitol. 91, 2005, 1082). However, the prevalence of T. gondii infection in human populations that do not consume meat or eat it well-cooked suggests that the acquisition of infection from the environment, via oocysts in soil, water or on uncooked vegetables, is also important (Rawal. Trans. Royal Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 53, 1959, 61; Roghmann et al. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 60, 1999, 790; Chacin-Bonilla et al. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 65, 2001, 131). In the past 20 years, two changes occurred that significantly increased the size of the cat population in the USA. Pet cat ownership grew from 50 million to 90 million animals, and animal welfare activists created feeding stations for abandoned and free-roaming cats. As many cat owners allow their cats to deposit faeces outside and cats maintained in colonies always defecate outside, ample opportunity exists for T. gondii oocysts to enter the environment and be transmitted to humans. Prevention efforts should focus on educating cat owners about the importance of collecting cat faeces in litter boxes, spaying owned cats to reduce overpopulation, reducing the numbers of feral cats and promoting rigorous hand hygiene after gardening or soil contact. PMID:19744306

  2. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  3. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  4. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  5. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  6. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  7. Minimal change glomerulopathy in a cat.

    PubMed

    Backlund, Brianna; Cianciolo, Rachel E; Cook, Audrey K; Clubb, Fred J; Lees, George E

    2011-04-01

    A 6-year-old domestic shorthair male castrated cat was evaluated for sudden onset of vomiting and anorexia. A diagnosis of hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) was made, and the cat was treated with imatinib mesylate. The cat had an initial clinical improvement with the normalization of the peripheral eosinophil count. After approximately 8 weeks of treatment, lethargy and anorexia recurred despite the normal eosinophil count and a significant proteinuric nephropathy was identified. Treatment with imatinib was discontinued. Ultrasound guided renal biopsies exhibited histologic, ultrastructural, and immunostaining changes indicative of a minimal change glomerulopathy (MCG) which has not previously been reported in the literature in a cat. The proteinuria and HES initially improved while the cat was treated with more traditional medications; however, both the problems persisted for 30 months that the cat was followed subsequently. Previous studies demonstrating the safety and efficacy of imatinib in cats do not report any glomerular injury or significant adverse drug reactions, and the exact cause of this cat's proteinuric nephropathy is uncertain. Nonetheless, the possibility of an adverse drug reaction causing proteinuria should be considered when initiating treatment with imatinib in a cat. PMID:21414552

  8. Proteinuria in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria. PMID:23204582

  9. Proteinuria in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy

    2012-06-01

    Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria. PMID:23204582

  10. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-07-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats' impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on "predation awareness" campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  11. Experimental proliferative glomerulonephritis in the cat.

    PubMed

    Bishop, S A; Stokes, C R; Lucke, V M

    1992-01-01

    A model of chronic serum sickness was used to induce immune-complex glomerulonephritis in seven experimental cats, by daily intravenous inoculation of an increasing dose (5 to 35 mg) of human serum albumin (HSA). At week four, two of the seven animals developed anterior uveitis. At week 23, two different animals developed the subcutaneous oedema characteristic of the nephrotic syndrome (NS), whilst the other five cats appeared clinically normal. The kidneys were examined at necropsy by light microscopy and by transmission electron microscopy. The glomeruli of four animals (three with both proteinuria and uraemia, and one with proteinuria only) showed morphological changes under light microscopy. The abnormalities suggested that a diffuse mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (GN) had been induced in three cats and diffuse membranoproliferative GN induced in another. Ultrastructural studies revealed electron-dense deposits (immune-complexes) in six of the seven cats. Two cats without glomerular abnormalities by light microscopy had mesangial deposits and three cats with mesangial proliferative GN had deposits at mesangial, subendothelial and/or subepithelial sites. The single cat with membranoproliferative GN had deposits at mesangial, subendothelial, subepithelial and intramembranous sites. Immunohistological examination (peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique) showed that HSA and immunoglobulin (IgG and IgM) were deposited in the glomeruli of these cats. Deposits were the most dense in cats with more severe renal lesions. Deposits of IgM were most abundant. An extensive cellular infiltrate, comprising macrophages, neutrophils and plasma cells, was observed only in the four animals which showed abnormalities in glomerular ultrastructure. The disease induced in these cats thus appears to differ from the membranous nephropathy previously described in the cat and bears a close resemblance to immune complex (IC) disease in man. In view of the relatively few specific

  12. Adrenocortical suppression in cats given megestrol acetate.

    PubMed

    Chastain, C B; Graham, C L; Nichols, C E

    1981-12-01

    Megestrol acetate was given orally to 8 cats at a dose of 2.5 mg every other day for 2 weeks and to 8 cats at a dose of 5.0 mg every day for 2 weeks. Four cats were designated nontreated controls. Pre-ACTH-stimulated plasma concentrations of cortisol (hydrocortisone) and ACTH-stimulated cortisol and tolerance to large-dose glucose infusion (IV) were determined on each of the 20 cats given megestrol acetate. Cats were restrained with acepromazine maleate and ketamine hydrochloride during blood sample collection and large-dose glucose infusion. Adrenocortical function and tolerance to large-dose glucose infusion were reevaluated for 4 weeks--after 1st and 2nd weeks of megestrol acetate treatment of the treated groups, and after 1st and 2nd weeks when treatment was stopped (ie, experiment weeks 3 and 4). Each week a cat from the control group and 2 cats from the 2 treated groups were selected to determine the changes occurring during the experiment for that week; after collection of plasma samples, each week's 5 selected cats were euthanatized and necropsied. Significant impairment of adrenocortical function and alteration of adrenocortical morphology occurred with both treated groups. The most severe adrenocortical alterations occurred in the cats 1 week after megestrol acetate was no longer given (ie, experiment week 3). Megestrol acetate-induced adrenocortical suppression contributed to the death of 1 cat. It was concluded that if stress occurs to cats on treatment or soon after treatment with megestrol acetate, glucocorticoids should be supplemented. The effects of megestrol acetate on glucose tolerance were overshadowed by the unforeseen intolerance caused by chemical restraint with acepromazine maleate and ketamine hydrochloride. PMID:6280517

  13. Respiratory nematodes in cat populations of Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Angela; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Grillotti, Eleonora; Manzocchi, Simone; Perrucci, Stefania; Beraldo, Paola; Cazzin, Stefania; De Liberato, Claudio; Barros, Luciano A; Simonato, Giulia; Traversa, Donato

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of common respiratory parasites of domestic cats (the metastrongyloid "cat lungworm" Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and the trichuroid Capillaria aerophila) and of neglected respiratory nematodes of felids (Troglostrongylus brevior, Angiostrongylus chabaudi and Oslerus rostratus) was here evaluated in two and three geographical sites of Northern and Central Italy, respectively. In 2014-2015, individual fecal samples of 868 domestic cats were examined microscopically and genetically, and epidemiological data related to parasitic infections were evaluated as possible risk factors by binary logistic regression models. The most common parasite was A. abstrusus in both mono- and poli-specific infections, followed by T. brevior and C. aerophila, while cats scored negative for other parasites. Cats positive for A. abstrusus (1.9-17 % infection rate) and C. aerophila (0.9-4.8 % infection rate) were found in all examined sites, while cats scored positive for T. brevior (1-14.3 % infection rate) in four sites. Also, T. brevior was here found for the first time in a domestic cat from a mountainous area of Northern Italy. The occurrence of lungworms was statistically related to the presence of respiratory signs and more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. Cats living in site C of Central Italy resulted statistically more at risk of infection for lungworms than cats living in the other study sites, while animals ageing less than 1 year were at more risk for troglostrongylosis. Finally, the presence of lungworms was more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. These results are discussed under epidemiological and clinical points of views. PMID:26319524

  14. Renal leiomyosarcoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Evans, Dawn; Fowlkes, Natalie

    2016-05-01

    Renal leiomyosarcoma was diagnosed in a 10-year-old Domestic Shorthair cat with a 3-year history of clinically managed, chronic renal disease. Sudden death was preceded by a brief episode of mental dullness and confusion. At postmortem examination, the gross appearance of the left kidney was suggestive of hydronephrosis, and a nephrolith was present in the contralateral kidney. However, histology revealed an infiltrative, poorly differentiated, spindle cell sarcoma bordering the grossly cavitated area. Neoplastic cells were immunoreactive for vimentin and smooth muscle actin, which led to a diagnosis of renal leiomyosarcoma; neoplastic cells were not immunoreactive for desmin. Leiomyosarcoma arising in the kidney is a rare occurrence in humans and an even rarer occurrence in veterinary medicine with no prior cases being reported in cats in the English literature. The macroscopic appearance of the tumor at postmortem examination was misleadingly suggestive of hydronephrosis as a result of the large cavitation and may be similar to particularly unusual cases of renal leiomyosarcomas in humans that have a cystic or cavitated appearance. PMID:26975352

  15. Quantum Computer Games: Schrodinger Cat and Hounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

    2012-01-01

    The quantum computer game "Schrodinger cat and hounds" is the quantum extension of the well-known classical game fox and hounds. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. "Schrodinger cat and hounds" demonstrates the effects of superposition, destructive and constructive interference, measurements and…

  16. Evaluating "Cat Country": The Humor within Satire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chung-chien Karen

    2010-01-01

    Satire, as a mode, is not frequently employed in Chinese narratives. "Cat Country," or "Mao Cheng Ji," written by Lao She (pen name of Shu Qing Chun, 1898--1966) has come under much attack of its literary values. Whereas most critics have no doubt that this work sets out to satirize China through the portrayal of a society of cats on Mars, the…

  17. Cool Cats: Feline Fun with Abstract Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2002-01-01

    Presents a lesson that teaches students about abstract art in a fun way. Explains that students draw cats, learn about the work of Pablo Picasso, and, in the style of Picasso, combine the parts of the cats (tail, legs, head, body) together in unconventional ways. (CMK)

  18. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-01-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats’ impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on “predation awareness” campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  19. Feral Cats: Too Long a Threat to Hawaiian Wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.; Banko, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Domestic cats (Felis catus) were first brought to Hawai`i aboard sailing ships of European explorers and colonists. The job of these predators was to control mice and rats on the ships during the long voyages. As in other places, cats were taken in and adopted by the families of Hawai`i and soon became household pets known as popoki. But cats have always been very well equipped to live and hunt on their own. On tropical archipelagos like the Hawaiian Islands where no other predatory mammals of comparable size existed, abundant and naive prey were particularly easy game, and cats soon thrived in the wild. Although the details of when cats first came to live in the wild remain little known, adventurers, writers, and naturalists of the day recorded some important observations. Feral cats were observed in remote wilderness around K?ilauea volcano on Hawai`i Island as early as 1840 by explorer William Brackenridge. Mark Twain was so impressed by the great abundance of cats when he visited Honolulu in 1866 that he reported his observations in the Sacramento Union newspaper, which were later reprinted in his book Roughing It: I saw... tame cats, wild cats, singed cats, individual cats, groups of cats, platoons of cats, companies of cats, regiments of cats, armies of cats, multitudes of cats, millions of cats...

  20. Spontaneous occurrence of chromosome abnormality in cats.

    PubMed

    THULINE, H C; NORBY, D W

    1961-08-25

    A syndrome in male cats analogous to chromatin-positive Klinefelter's syndrome in human males has been demonstrated. The physical characteristics which suggested an abnormality of chromosome number in cats were "calico" or "tortoise-shell" coat colors in a male. Buccal mucosal smears were found to have "female-type" patterns in two out of 12 such male cats screened, and these two were found to have a diploid chromosome number of 39 rather than the normal 38. Testicular biopsy performed on one revealed an abnormal pattern; no gonadal tissue was found in the other cat with an abnormal chromosome number. These findings indicate that the cat, in addition to the mouse, is available for experimental study of chromosome number abnormalities. PMID:13776765

  1. Lesions of structures showing FOS expression to cat presentation: effects on responsivity to a Cat, Cat odor, and nonpredator threat.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, D Caroline; Canteras, Newton S; Markham, Chris M; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Blanchard, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    Exposure of rats to a cat elicits Fos activity in a number of brain areas or structures. Based on hodological relationships of these, Canteras has proposed a medial hypothalamic defense system, with input from several forebrain sites. Both electrolytic and neurotoxic lesions of the dorsal premammillary nucleus, which shows the strongest Fos response to cat exposure, produce striking decrements in a number of defensive behaviors to a cat or to cat odor stimuli, but do not have a major effect on either postshock freezing, or responsivity to the odor of a female in estrus. Neurotoxic lesions of the medial amygdala produce decrements in defensiveness to predator stimuli, particularly odor stimuli, that are consistent with a view of this structure as involved with allomonal cues. While dorsal hippocampal lesions had little effect on responsivity to predator stimuli, neurotoxic lesions of the ventral hippocampus reduced freezing and enhanced a variety of nondefensive behaviors to both cat odor and footshock, with similar reductions in defensiveness during context conditioning tests for cat odor, cat exposure and footshock. These results support the view that the dorsal premammillary nucleus is strongly and selectively involved in control of responsivity to predator stimuli. Structures with important input into the medial hypothalamic defense system appear also to be functionally involved with antipredator defensive behaviors, and these lesion studies may suggest specific hypotheses as to the particular defense functions of different areas. PMID:16084591

  2. Chronic methylmercurialism in the cat.

    PubMed

    Gruber, T A; Costigan, P; Wilkinson, G T; Seawright, A A

    1978-04-01

    The mercury levels in 69 muscle samples from fish weighing from 0.3 to 200 kg caught in Moreton Bay, Queensland, in the latter half of 1976 ranged from less than 10 to 2,030 ng/g. Mercury levels in blood samples from 53 humans and 100 dogs in Brisbane almost all contained less than 10 ng/ml while the level in 162 cats sampled ranged from less than 10 to 329 ng/ml. Chronic methylmercurialism developed in 2 cats dosed daily with methylmercury, bound to cysteine, at the rate of 0.6 mg/kg body weight for 74 and 77 days respectively. Terminal clinical signs included anorexia, weight loss, knuckling over at the carpus and tarsus, hypermetria initially involving the forelegs and later the hindlegs, sluggish reflexes, paresis involving all limbs, persistent crying, apparent blindness, tonic and clonic convulsions and salivation. Pathological changes were confined to the nervous system and included degeneration of neurones and perivascular cuffing in the cerebrocortical grey matter, focal atrophy of the granular layer, focal spongiosus of the molecular layer and degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum and demyelination in the fibre tracts of the dorsal funiculus, mainly the fasciculus cuneatus and in the lateral and ventral corticospinal tracts. Terminal blood methylmercury levels were in excess of 18 microgram/ml, while brain methylmercury levels ranged from 21.0 to 28.4 microgram/g. The liver and kidney contained the highest total levels of mercury of 50 to 80 microgram/g, of which 23 to 37% was inorganic. PMID:687273

  3. Albendazole therapy for experimentally induced Paragonimus kellicotti infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Hoover, E A; Stromberg, P C; Toussant, M J

    1978-06-01

    The effect of albendazole therapy was studied in 6 cats with pulmonary paragonimiasis induced by experimental inoculation of metacercariae (25/cat) of Paragonimus kellicotti. At 76 to 101 days after they were inoculated, 5 cats were administered an oral aqueous suspension of albendazole in 2 divided doses totaling 20 mg (2 cats), 50 mg (1 cat), or 100 mg (2 cats)/kg of body weight each day for 14 to 21 days. The 6th cat (control) was not administered albendazole. Nine days after cats were given the 50- and 100-mg/kg dosages, Paragonimus ova were not seen in the feces of 3 cats. There was marked reduction in ova production in the feces of the 2 cats administered 20 mg/kg of albendazole. Live flukes were not recovered from the lungs of 3 cats necropsied 4 or 5 weeks after dosing with 50 or 100 mg/kg, but the lungs of the 2 cats administered 20 mg of albendazole/kg yielded 9 and 7 apparently viable flukes. Seventeen live flukes were recovered from the control cat not treated with albendazole. In 4 noninoculated normal cats administered 20 mg (1 cat), 100 mg (1 cat), and 200 mg (2 cats) of albendazole/kg of body weight each day for 14 days, there were no gross or microscopic lesions attributable to the drug. PMID:666077

  4. Reduction of feral cat (Felis catus Linnaeus 1758) colony size following hysterectomy of adult female cats.

    PubMed

    Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Remy, Gabriella L; Gershony, Liza C; Rodrigues, Daniela P; Chame, Marcia; Labarthe, Norma V

    2011-06-01

    The size of urban cat colonies is limited only by the availability of food and shelter; therefore, their population growth challenges all known population control programs. To test a new population control method, a free-roaming feral cat colony at the Zoological Park in the city of Rio de Janeiro was studied, beginning in 2001. The novel method consisted of performing a hysterectomy on all captured female cats over 6 months of age. To estimate the size of the colony and compare population from year to year, a method of capture-mark-release-recapture was used. The aim was to capture as many individuals as possible, including cats of all ages and gender to estimate numbers of cats in all population categories. Results indicated that the feral cat population remained constant from 2001 to 2004. From 2004 to 2008, the hysterectomy program and population estimates were performed every other year (2006 and 2008). The population was estimated to be 40 cats in 2004, 26 in 2006, and 17 cats in 2008. Although pathogens tend to infect more individuals as the population grows older and maintains natural behavior, these results show that free-roaming feral cat colonies could have their population controlled by a biannual program that focuses on hysterectomy of sexually active female cats. PMID:21440475

  5. Exocrine Pancreas in Cats With Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zini, E; Ferro, S; Lunardi, F; Zanetti, R; Heller, R S; Coppola, L M; Guscetti, F; Osto, M; Lutz, T A; Cavicchioli, L; Reusch, C E

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatitis has been described in cats with diabetes mellitus, although the number of studies currently available is very limited. In addition, ketoacidosis has been hypothesized to be associated with pancreatitis in diabetic cats. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether diabetic cats have pancreatitis and to determine if pancreatitis is more frequent with ketoacidosis. Samples of pancreas were collected postmortem from 37 diabetic cats, including 15 with ketoacidosis, and 20 control cats matched for age, sex, breed, and body weight. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, double-labeled for insulin/CD3, insulin/CD20, insulin/myeloperoxidase, insulin/PCNA, and glucagon/Ki67, and single-labeled for Iba1. A previously proposed semiquantitative score was used to characterize pancreatitis, along with counts of inflammatory cells. Scores of pancreatitis and the number of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes in the exocrine pancreas did not differ between diabetic and control cats or between diabetic cats with and without ketoacidosis. Of note, PCNA-positive acinar cells were increased (P = .002) in diabetic cats, particularly near islets (P < .001). Ki67-positive acinar cells were increased only near islets (P = .038). Ketoacidosis was not linked to proliferation. The results suggest that histopathologic evidence of pancreatitis may not be more frequent in diabetic cats and that ketoacidosis may not be associated with it at the time of death. Augmented PCNA-positive acinar cells might indicate increased proliferation due to chronic pancreatitis. The reason behind the prevalent proliferation of acinar cells surrounding pancreatic islets deserves further investigation. PMID:26319779

  6. Endocrine Pancreas in Cats With Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zini, E; Lunardi, F; Zanetti, R; Heller, R S; Coppola, L M; Ferro, S; Guscetti, F; Osto, M; Lutz, T A; Reusch, C E; Cavicchioli, L

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic amyloidosis and loss of α and β cells have been shown to occur in cats with diabetes mellitus, although the number of studies currently available is very limited. Furthermore, it is not known whether pancreatic islet inflammation is a common feature. The aims of the present study were to characterize islet lesions and to investigate whether diabetic cats have inflammation of the pancreatic islets. Samples of pancreas were collected postmortem from 37 diabetic and 20 control cats matched for age, sex, breed, and body weight. Histologic sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Congo red; double labeled for insulin/CD3, insulin/CD20, insulin/myeloperoxidase, insulin/proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and glucagon/Ki67; and single labeled for amylin and Iba1. Mean insulin-positive cross-sectional area was approximately 65% lower in diabetic than control cats (P = .009), while that of amylin and glucagon was similar. Surprisingly, amyloid deposition was similar between groups (P = .408). Proliferation of insulin- and glucagon-positive cells and the number of neutrophils, macrophages, and T (CD3) and B (CD20) lymphocytes in the islets did not differ. The presence of T and B lymphocytes combined tended to be more frequent in diabetic cats (n = 8 of 37; 21.6%) than control cats (n = 1 of 20; 5.0%). The results confirm previous observations that loss of β cells but not α cells occurs in diabetic cats. Islet amyloidosis was present in diabetic cats but was not greater than in controls. A subset of diabetic cats had lymphocytic infiltration of the islets, which might be associated with β-cell loss. PMID:26113611

  7. Cat-scratch disease simulating lyphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, T.Z.; Kruskal, J.; Kane, R.A.; Trey, G.

    1996-01-01

    Cat-scratch disease is the most common cause of benign lymphadenopathy in children and young adults. Rare cases of systemic involvement with deep adenopathy with or without hepatic and/or splenic involvement have been reported. We present an unusual case of cat-scratch disease with imaging findings indistinguishable from lymphoma. Cat-scratch disease should be considered as a possible benign etiology for adenopathy with hepatic or splenic nodules in a young patient, especially if the involved nodes are tender. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Cat scratch disease from a domestic dog.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lin, Wei-Ru; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2007-02-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD), caused by Bartonella henselae, is a zoonosis and characterized by self-limited lymphadenopathy. It is transmitted commonly by scratch or bite from cats or kitten. We report an unusual case of CSD caused by a domestic dog scratch that we believe is the first report in Taiwan. A 23-year-old healthy woman developed cervical lymphadenopathy, mild fever, headache, and malaise 3 days after dog scratch. Her symptoms improved after azithromycin treatment. Serology proved B. henselae infection. The owners of a domestic dog might be at risk of "cat" scratch disease. PMID:17493900

  9. Caring for the retrovirus infected cat.

    PubMed

    McCaw, D

    1995-11-01

    No commercial vaccine [correction of vacine] exists for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and although feline leukemia virus (FeLV) vaccines are available, they are neither 100% effective nor used in all cats. These realities clearly indicate the veterinarian will be required to treat either FeLV- or FIV-positive cats for some time to come. The management of FIV- or FeLV-positive cats may require supportive therapies as well as virus-specific therapies such as zidovudine (AZT; Retrovir, Burroughs Wellcome, Research Triangle Park, NC). PMID:8820595

  10. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the...

  11. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the...

  12. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the...

  13. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the...

  14. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the...

  15. Reliability and Validity of a Survey of Cat Caregivers on Their Cats' Socialization Level in the Cat's Normal Environment.

    PubMed

    Slater, Margaret; Garrison, Laurie; Miller, Katherine; Weiss, Emily; Makolinski, Kathleen; Drain, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Stray cats routinely enter animal welfare organizations each year and shelters are challenged with determining the level of human socialization these cats may possess as quickly as possible. However, there is currently no standard process to guide this determination. This study describes the development and validation of a caregiver survey designed to be filled out by a cat's caregiver so it accurately describes a cat's personality, background, and full range of behavior with people when in its normal environment. The results from this survey provided the basis for a socialization score that ranged from unsocialized to well socialized with people. The quality of the survey was evaluated based on inter-rater and test-retest reliability and internal consistency and estimates of construct and criterion validity. In general, our results showed moderate to high levels of inter-rater (median of 0.803, range 0.211-0.957) and test-retest agreement (median 0.92, range 0.211-0.999). Cronbach's alpha showed high internal consistency (0.962). Estimates of validity did not highlight any major shortcomings. This survey will be used to develop and validate an effective assessment process that accurately differentiates cats by their socialization levels towards humans based on direct observation of cats' behavior in an animal shelter. PMID:26479758

  16. Transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) among cohabiting cats in two cat rescue shelters.

    PubMed

    Litster, Annette L

    2014-08-01

    Conflicting accounts have been published in the veterinary literature regarding transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) between cohabiting cats in mixed households, and the mechanics of possible casual transmission, if it occurs, are poorly understood. Similarly, there are conflicting reports of vertical transmission of FIV. The aim of the present study was to document the FIV serological status of cats taken into two rescue shelters. At rescue shelter 1 (Rescue 1), cats cohabited in a multi-cat household of FIV-negative and naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats. A study was performed that combined a retrospective review of records of FIV serological status at intake (Test 1) and prospective FIV serological testing (Tests 2 and 3). Retrospective records were analyzed at rescue shelter 2 (Rescue 2), where FIV-positive queens with litters of nursing kittens were taken into the shelter, before being rehomed. FIV serology was performed on all kittens after weaning. Initial test results (Test 1) for 138 cohabiting cats from Rescue 1 showed that there were 130 FIV-negative cats and eight FIV-positive cats (six male neutered and two female spayed). A second test (Test 2), performed in 45 of the FIV-negative and five of the FIV-positive cats at median 28 months after Test 1 (range, 1 month to 8.8 years) showed that results were unchanged. Similarly, a third test (Test 3), performed in four of the original FeLV-negative cats and one remaining FIV-positive cat at median 38 months after Test 1 (range, 4 months to 4 years), also showed that results were unchanged. These results show a lack of evidence of FIV transmission, despite years of exposure to naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats in a mixed household. At Rescue 2, records were available from five FIV-positive queens with 19 kittens. All 19 kittens tested FIV-negative, suggesting that vertical transmission had not occurred. PMID:24698667

  17. "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" infections in 21 client-owned cats.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Caryn Alice; Lappin, Michael R

    2007-01-01

    Medical records were reviewed for 21 clinically ill cats testing positive for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" in their blood. Fever, anorexia, lethargy, and anemia were among the most common abnormalities recorded. Thirteen cats were anemic; seven had evidence of other diseases that could have been the primary cause of anemia or activated hemoplasmosis. For six cats, "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" was the only recognizable cause of the anemia. Of these cats, anemia resolved in one cat without treatment and in three cats that were treated with doxycycline, with or without prednisone. Results of the study suggest that this hemoplasma species can be a primary pathogen in cats. PMID:17823473

  18. Cats of the Pharaohs: Genetic Comparison of Egyptian Cat Mummies to their Feline Contemporaries.

    PubMed

    Kurushima, Jennifer D; Ikram, Salima; Knudsen, Joan; Bleiberg, Edward; Grahn, Robert A; Lyons, Leslie A

    2012-10-01

    The ancient Egyptians mummified an abundance of cats during the Late Period (664 - 332 BC). The overlapping morphology and sizes of developing wildcats and domestic cats confounds the identity of mummified cat species. Genetic analyses should support mummy identification and was conducted on two long bones and a mandible of three cats that were mummified by the ancient Egyptians. The mummy DNA was extracted in a dedicated ancient DNA laboratory at the University of California - Davis, then directly sequencing between 246 and 402 bp of the mtDNA control region from each bone. When compared to a dataset of wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris, F. s. tristrami, and F. chaus) as well as a previously published worldwide dataset of modern domestic cat samples, including Egypt, the DNA evidence suggests the three mummies represent common contemporary domestic cat mitotypes prevalent in modern Egypt and the Middle East. Divergence estimates date the origin of the mummies' mitotypes to between two and 7.5 thousand years prior to their mummification, likely prior to or during Egyptian Predyanstic and Early Dynastic Periods. These data are the first genetic evidence supporting that the ancient Egyptians used domesticated cats, F. s. catus, for votive mummies, and likely implies cats were domesticated prior to extensive mummification of cats. PMID:22923880

  19. Cats of the Pharaohs: Genetic Comparison of Egyptian Cat Mummies to their Feline Contemporaries

    PubMed Central

    Kurushima, Jennifer D.; Ikram, Salima; Knudsen, Joan; Bleiberg, Edward; Grahn, Robert A.; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    The ancient Egyptians mummified an abundance of cats during the Late Period (664 - 332 BC). The overlapping morphology and sizes of developing wildcats and domestic cats confounds the identity of mummified cat species. Genetic analyses should support mummy identification and was conducted on two long bones and a mandible of three cats that were mummified by the ancient Egyptians. The mummy DNA was extracted in a dedicated ancient DNA laboratory at the University of California – Davis, then directly sequencing between 246 and 402 bp of the mtDNA control region from each bone. When compared to a dataset of wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris, F. s. tristrami, and F. chaus) as well as a previously published worldwide dataset of modern domestic cat samples, including Egypt, the DNA evidence suggests the three mummies represent common contemporary domestic cat mitotypes prevalent in modern Egypt and the Middle East. Divergence estimates date the origin of the mummies’ mitotypes to between two and 7.5 thousand years prior to their mummification, likely prior to or during Egyptian Predyanstic and Early Dynastic Periods. These data are the first genetic evidence supporting that the ancient Egyptians used domesticated cats, F. s. catus, for votive mummies, and likely implies cats were domesticated prior to extensive mummification of cats. PMID:22923880

  20. Bilateral calcaneal stress fractures in two cats.

    PubMed

    Cantatore, M; Clements, D N

    2015-06-01

    Two cats that developed bilateral calcaneal stress fractures are reported. One cat developed lameness associated with incomplete fractures at the base of both calcanei, both of which progressed to acute, complete fractures 2 months later. The second cat presented with acute complete calcaneal fracture, with evidence of remodelling of the contralateral calcaneus, which subsequently fractured two years later. The calcaneal fractures were successfully stabilised with lateral bone plates in each case. Stress fractures were suspected because of the bilateral nature, the simple and similar configuration, the consistent location of the fractures, the absence of other signs of trauma in both cases and the suspected insidious onset of the lameness. The feline calcaneus is susceptible to stress fracture, and cats presenting with calcaneal fractures without evidence of trauma should be evaluated for concurrent skeletal pathology. PMID:25929309

  1. Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-03-05

    ... build-to-cost project development with streamlined management structure.  Conducted successful underflights of opportunity ... build-to-cost project development with streamlined management structure.  For more information, please see the  CATS ...

  2. SWMM-CAT User’s Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Storm Water Management Model Climate Adjustment Tool (SWMM-CAT) is a simple to use software utility that allows future climate change projections to be incorporated into the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM).

  3. Sonographic pleural fluid volume estimation in cats.

    PubMed

    Shimali, Jerry; Cripps, Peter J; Newitt, Anna L M

    2010-02-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate whether a recently published study used to objectively monitor pleural fluid volumes in dogs could be successfully employed in cats and secondly to assess its accuracy. Eleven feline cadavers were selected. Using the trans-sternal view employed in dogs, linear measurements from the pleural surface of the midline of the sternebra at the centre of the heart to the furthest ventro-lateral point of both right and left lung edges were recorded. Isotonic saline was injected using ultrasound guidance into both right and left pleural spaces and the measurements were repeated using standard increments until 400 ml total volume was reached. The mean measurement increased in a linear relationship with the cube root of fluid volume for all cats individually. An equation was produced to predict the volume of fluid from the mean linear measurement for all cats combined: Volume=[-3.75+2.41(mean)](3)(P<0.001) but variability in the slope of the curve for individual cats limited the accuracy of the combined equation. Equations were derived to predict the constant and slope of the curve for individual cats using the thoracic measurements made, but the residual diagnostic graphs demonstrated considerable variability. As in dogs, good correlation was found between the ultrasonographic measurement and fluid volume within individual cats. An accurate equation to predict absolute pleural fluid volume was not identified. Further analysis with reference to thoracic measurements did not increase accuracy. In conclusion, this study does provide a method of estimating absolute pleural fluid volume in cats, which may be clinical useful for pleural fluid volume monitoring but this is yet to be validated in live cats. PMID:19744872

  4. ParCAT: Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brian E.; Steed, Chad A.; Shipman, Galen M.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Thornton, Peter E.; Wehner, Michael; Williams, Dean N.

    2013-01-01

    Climate science is employing increasingly complex models and simulations to analyze the past and predict the future of Earth s climate. This growth in complexity is creating a widening gap between the data being produced and the ability to analyze the datasets. Parallel computing tools are necessary to analyze, compare, and interpret the simulation data. The Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT) provides basic tools to efficiently use parallel computing techniques to make analysis of these datasets manageable. The toolkit provides the ability to compute spatio-temporal means, differences between runs or differences between averages of runs, and histograms of the values in a data set. ParCAT is implemented as a command-line utility written in C. This allows for easy integration in other tools and allows for use in scripts. This also makes it possible to run ParCAT on many platforms from laptops to supercomputers. ParCAT outputs NetCDF files so it is compatible with existing utilities such as Panoply and UV-CDAT. This paper describes ParCAT and presents results from some example runs on the Titan system at ORNL.

  5. Serological survey of paracoccidioidomycosis in cats.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Gabriela Gonçalves de; Belitardo, Donizeti Rodrigues; Balarin, Mara Regina Stipp; Freire, Roberta Lemos; Camargo, Zoilo Pires de; Ono, Mario Augusto

    2013-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate infection of cats by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Serum samples of 136 cats from rural (n = 86) and urban areas (n = 50) were analyzed by indirect ELISA and immunodiffusion test using P. brasiliensis gp43 and exoantigen as antigens, respectively, and an overall reactivity of 31.6 % was observed by ELISA although no reactivity was detected by immunodiffusion. The positivity observed in animals living in rural areas (48.8 %) with free access to soil was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than among urban animals (2 %) with limited access to soil, although no significant difference was observed in relation to age or sex. The high rates of positivity observed in cats from rural areas suggest that not diagnosed cases of this mycosis may be occurring in cats living in endemic areas for human paracoccidioidomycosis. This is the first report showing serological evidence of P. brasiliensis infection in cats. PMID:23912468

  6. Are cats (Felis catus) from multi-cat households more stressed? Evidence from assessment of fecal glucocorticoid metabolite analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramos, D; Reche-Junior, A; Fragoso, P L; Palme, R; Yanasse, N K; Gouvêa, V R; Beck, A; Mills, D S

    2013-10-01

    Given the social and territorial features described in feral cats, it is commonly assumed that life in multi-cat households is stressful for domestic cats and suggested that cats kept as single pets are likely to have better welfare. On the other hand, it has been hypothesized that under high densities cats can organize themselves socially thus preventing stress when spatial dispersion is unavailable. This study was aimed at comparing the general arousal underpinning emotional distress in single housed cats and in cats from multi-cat households (2 and 3-4 cats) on the basis of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) measured via enzyme immunoassay (EIA). GCM did not significantly vary as a function of living style (single, double or group-housing); highly stressed individuals were equally likely in the three groups. Young cats in multi-cat households had lower GCM, and overall cats that tolerate (as opposed to dislike) petting by the owners tended to have higher GCM levels. Other environmental aspects within cat houses (e.g. relationship with humans, resource availability) may play a more important role in day to day feline arousal levels than the number of cats per se. PMID:24021924

  7. Oral Mucosa Bleeding Times of Normal Cats and Cats with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome or Hageman Trait (Factor XII Deficiency).

    PubMed

    Parker, M T; Collier, L L; Kier, A B; Johnson, G S

    1988-01-01

    A commercially available, disposable blade in a spring-loaded cassette was used to measure oral mucosa bleeding times (OMBT) of ketamine/acepromazine-anesthetized cats. The OMBT were determined in cats homozygous for Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS, n = 7), cats heterozygous for CHS (n = 6), and cats homozygous for Hageman factor (factor XII) deficiency (n = 5). In addition, OMBT were determined in three groups of normal cats: random-source cats (n = 14), inbred normal relatives of the cats with CHS (n = 7), and inbred normal relatives of Hageman factor deficient cats (n = 9). No significant differences were found in the OMBT of the three groups of normal cats. The mean OMBT for all 30 normal cats was 1.9 minutes +/- 0.5 minutes s.d. Compared to the normal cats, those homozygous for CHS had significantly prolonged OMBT (14.1 +/- 3.3 minutes; p < 0.05). The mean OMBT of cats heterozygous for CHS (2.6 +/- 0.8 minutes) was also significantly longer than the OMBT of the combined normal group. The mean OMBT of the CHS heterozygotes, however, was not significantly longer than that of their normal relatives (OMBT = 1.8 +/- 0.5 minutes), probably because of the low number of cats in this subgroup of normals. As expected, the OMBT of cats homozygous for Hageman factor deficiency (2.3 +/- 0.3 minutes) were not significantly prolonged. PMID:15162339

  8. Born to roam? Surveying cat owners in Tasmania, Australia, to identify the drivers and barriers to cat containment.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Bengsen, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Free-roaming domestic cats, Felis catus, are a major public nuisance in neighbourhoods across the world, and have been linked to biodiversity loss and a host of community health problems. Owners who let their cats roam, also place their cats at risk of serious injury. One management strategy that is gaining considerable support involves encouraging cat owners to contain their pets within their property. Contemporary behaviour change models highlight the importance of identifying drivers and barriers that encourage and discourage target behaviours such as cat containment. Results from a random dial phone survey of 356 cat owners in northern Tasmania identified four distinct cat containment profiles: owners who contained their cat all the time, owners who only contained their cat at night, owners who sporadically contained their cat with no set routine, and owners who made no attempt to contain their pet. Our results indicated that cat-owners' decisions to contain or not contain their cats were guided by a range of factors including owners' beliefs about their ability to implement an effective containment strategy and their views about the physical and psychological needs of their cats. The results are discussed in terms of improving the behavioural effectiveness of cat containment interventions by selecting appropriate behavioural change tools for the identified drivers and barriers, and developing targeted engagement strategies and messaging. PMID:26603046

  9. Dacryocystography in a cat with orbital pneumatosis.

    PubMed

    Meomartino, Leonardo; Pasolini, Maria P; Lamagna, Francesco; Santangelo, Bruna; Mennonna, Giuseppina; Della Valle, Giovanni; Lamagna, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    A 2-year-old neutered male European short-haired cat was presented for a persistent discharge from the scar of previous left eye enucleation, performed 6 months prior by the referring veterinarian. A surgical exploration of the orbit was performed and retained nictitating membrane glandular and conjunctival tissues were removed. Eleven days later, the cat developed an orbital pneumatosis caused by retrograde movement of air through a patent nasolacrimal system and diagnosed by survey radiographic examination of the skull. Nasolacrimal system patency was assessed by dacryocystography performed by injection of iodinated contrast medium under pressure into the orbital cavity. Computed tomography dacryocystography confirmed the radiographic findings. The condition resolved following dacryocystography, possibly as an inflammatory response to the contrast medium. To our knowledge, this is the first case of orbital pneumatosis reported in a cat. PMID:24118801

  10. X monosomy in a virilized female cat.

    PubMed

    Szczerbal, I; Nizanski, W; Dzimira, S; Nowacka-Woszuk, J; Ochota, M; Switonski, M

    2015-04-01

    An infertile Siamese female cat was subjected for clinical, histological, cytogenetic and molecular studies due to ambiguous external genitalia (vulva, vagina, rudimentary penis and scrotum-like structure) and masculine behaviour. An elevated oestrogen activity and a detectable level of testosterone were found. The cat underwent laparotomy. The gonads and the uterus were removed and subjected for histological studies, which showed ovaries with corpora lutea and a some primordial follicles. Chromosome studies of lymphocyte and fibroblast cultures, with the use of Giemsa staining, G-banding and whole X chromosome painting by fluorescence in situ hybridization, revealed pure X monosomy. Molecular analysis showed the absence of the SRY gene. Our study revealed for the first time that X monosomy in cats may be associated with virilization, in spite of the lack of the SRY gene. PMID:25611903

  11. [Passive immunization in dogs and cats].

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Michèle; Friedl, Yvonne; Hartmann, Katrin

    2016-08-17

    Antibodies play an important role in the defense against infectious diseases. Passive immunization provides immediate protection through transfer of exogenous antibodies to a recipient. It is mainly used for prophylaxis in dogs and cats that failed to receive maternal antibodies through the colostrum or when there is an acute risk to acquire infectious diseases. Only a small number of placebo-controlled studies have been published regarding the therapeutic use of passive immunization in small animals. While positive effects were reported in cats with acute virus infections of the upper respiratory tract and in dogs with distemper, no statistically significant influence could be demonstrated in the treatment of canine parvovirosis. Prospective, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled studies using adequate numbers of patients are warranted for a definitive statement regarding the therapeutic and prophylactic use of passive immunization in dogs and cats. PMID:27410719

  12. Thyroid tumors in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Barber, Lisa G

    2007-07-01

    The clinical presentation and biologic behavior of thyroid tumors vary widely among dogs, cats, and human beings. Although thyroid tumors in dogs are rare, they are most likely to be malignant. Clinical signs are usually the result of impingement on surrounding structures, and clinical hyperthyroidism is rare. In contrast, hyperthyroidism resulting from benign thyroid proliferation is relatively common among older cats. Malignant tumors are extremely uncommon but have high metastatic potential. Irrespective of the tumor's ability to produce functional thyroid hormone, scintigraphy is often helpful in the diagnosis and staging of thyroid tumors in all three species. Treatment with surgery is a reasonable treatment option for noninvasive tumors. Iodine 131 is a well-established treatment for thyroid nodules in cats, but its effectiveness in dogs is controversial. In dogs, external beam radiation therapy has produced more consistent results in affording local tumor control when surgery is not possible. PMID:17619010

  13. Postanesthetic death in a cat with myopathy.

    PubMed

    Remmers, G; Hayden, D W; Jaeger, M A; Ervasti, J M; Valberg, S J

    2015-01-01

    There are few reports of naturally occurring muscular dystrophy in domestic animals. Herein, we describe a case of muscular dystrophy in a 4-year-old neutered male American domestic shorthair cat that died unexpectedly following anesthesia for an elective surgical procedure. Macroscopic muscular hypertrophy and histologic evidence of myofiber size variation, mineralization, myofiber degeneration, and necrosis were compatible with a diagnosis of muscular dystrophy. Extensive endomysial fibrosis was noted histologically in the diaphragm. A complete absence of dystrophin protein in Western blot confirmed the diagnosis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed reduced levels of dystrophin-associated proteins and an upregulation of utrophin at the sarcolemma. Anesthetic deaths can occur in dystrophin-deficient cats, and therefore muscular dystrophy and the associated cardiomyopathy should be considered in the differential diagnoses for perianesthetic death in cats. PMID:24577720

  14. Tuna fish diet influences cat behavior. [Elevated levels of selenium and mercury in commercial tuna fish cat food

    SciTech Connect

    Houpt, K.A.; Essick, L.A.; Shaw, E.B.; Alo, D.K.; Gilmartin, J.E.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    When observed in their home cages, cats fed commercial tuna fish cat food were less active, vocalized less, and spent more time on the floor and more time eating than cats fed commercial beef cat food. There were no differences in response to human handling between the two groups. There were no differences in learning ability on a two-choice point maze or in reversal learning in the same maze between beef- and tuna-fed cats. The behavior of the groups differed in a 15-min open field test only in the number of toys contacted. Cats fed the tuna had elevated tissue levels of mercury and selenium.

  15. Factor X deficiency in a cat.

    PubMed

    Gookin, J L; Brooks, M B; Catalfamo, J L; Bunch, S E; Muñana, K R

    1997-09-01

    Severe congenital deficiency of factor X was diagnosed in a 3-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat with clinical signs of generalized seizures and prolonged bleeding after venipuncture. Heritability of factor X deficiency was suspected because of a prolonged Russell's viper venom time in the dam and reductions in factor X activity in the dam and 1 sibling. To our knowledge, factor X deficiency in cats has not been reported previously. Definitive diagnosis for animals with clinical signs of coagulopathy may require repetition of coagulation screening tests using different assay methods or specific coagulation factor analyses. PMID:9290823

  16. Immune-mediated disorders of cats.

    PubMed

    Werner, L L; Gorman, N T

    1984-09-01

    Immune-mediated disorders in cats share many clinical and pathologic similarities with their counterparts in other species. Cats, however, are unique among domestic animals owing to the involvement of feline leukemia virus. In addition, a number of other infectious organisms can produce immune-mediated sequelae--that is, FIP virus, FeSFV, and H. felis. Therefore, the diagnostic and therapeutic aims in the management of feline immune-mediated disorders must take into account the probability of a primary or underlying disease process. PMID:6149649

  17. Parathyroid adenocarcinoma in a nephropathic Persian cat.

    PubMed

    Cavana, Paola; Vittone, Valentina; Capucchio, Maria T; Farca, Anna M

    2006-10-01

    This report describes an uncommon clinical case of cystic parathyroid adenocarcinoma. A 17-year-old male Persian cat was presented for evaluation of a ventral cervical mass. The cat was inappetent and showed weight loss, polydipsia and vomiting. Serum biochemistry and urinalysis revealed moderate hypercalcaemia, a mild increase of creatinine, isosthenuria and proteinuria. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-agarose gel electrophoresis showed a mixed tubular proteinuric pattern, in accordance with histological examination that revealed interstitial nephritis and glomerulonephritis. Diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma was based on histopathological findings. PMID:16651017

  18. Laryngeal disease in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Macphail, Catriona

    2014-01-01

    The most common disease process involving the larynx is laryngeal paralysis, which occurs much more frequently in dogs than in cats. Diagnosis of laryngeal paralysis requires close attention to anesthetic plane and coordination of respiratory effort with laryngeal motion. Surgical arytenoid lateralization improves respiration and quality of life in dogs with laryngeal paralysis; however, aspiration pneumonia is a recognized complication, and generalized neuropathy can progress. Laryngeal collapse can result from any cause of chronic upper airway obstruction, but is most often associated with unaddressed brachycephalic airway syndrome. Laryngeal neoplasia, while generally uncommon, occurs more frequently in cats than in dogs. PMID:24268331

  19. Clinical management of pregnancy in cats.

    PubMed

    Root Kustritz, Margaret V

    2006-07-01

    Average gestation length in domestic cats is 65.6 days, with a range of 52-74 days. Average reported litter size is 4.0 kittens per litter; litter size is not correlated with number of matings in a given estrus. Superfecundation is common in domestic cats; superfetation never has been definitively proven to occur. Eclampsia may occur during pregnancy in queens, with non-specific clinical signs. Ectopic pregnancy and uterine torsion have been reported. Pregnancy loss may be due to infectious causes, including bacteria, viruses or protozoa, or non-infectious causes, such as hypoluteoidism and chromosome errors. PMID:16620942

  20. Feline lost: making microchipping compulsory for domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Roberts, M

    2016-08-13

    The independent nature of cats means that they are more likely to become lost or injured than dogs. Maggie Roberts believes that microchipping of cats should be compulsory in the UK as is the case with dogs. PMID:27516564

  1. Incomplete dominant osteochondrodysplasia in heterozygous Scottish Fold cats.

    PubMed

    Takanosu, M; Takanosu, T; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, K

    2008-04-01

    This report describes an autosomal incomplete dominant pattern of inheritance for osteochondrodysplasia in the Scottish Fold cats. A three-generation pedigree was analysed. Cats with folded ears were mated with cats with normal ears. All cats with folded ears, which were presumably heterozygous for the mutated allele, developed osteochondrodysplasia in distal fore- and hindlimbs but not in other bones, including the tail in which bone deformity had been demonstrated in previous studies. The severity of the skeletal lesions of osteochondrodysplasia was different in each affected cat. Most of the cats with severe osteochondrodysplasia showed some clinical signs, but cats with mild disease were clinically unaffected. All Scottish Fold-related cats with folded-ear phenotype, even if heterozygotes, suffered from some degree of osteochondrodysplasia of the distal limbs. PMID:18339089

  2. Could Germ from Cat Poop Trigger Rage Disorder in People?

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_157922.html Could Germ From Cat Poop Trigger Rage Disorder in People? Those with ... 2016 WEDNESDAY, March 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Your cat's litter box could be a source of explosive ...

  3. 2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF OVENS ALONG CATS RUN LOOKING NORTHEAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF OVENS ALONG CATS RUN LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING OVEN NOS. 159 (RIGHT) THROUGH 163 (LEFT) - Griffin No. 1 Coke Works, Along Cats Run, Southeast of Masontown Bourough (Nicholson Township), Masontown, Fayette County, PA

  4. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter.

    PubMed

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive

    2015-01-01

    The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters' cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6-12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of "low-cost" adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of "low-cost" adoptions as an option for attempting to increase adoption rates. In addition, the results provide information that can be used to inform future campaigns aimed at increasing the number of adult cat adoptions, particularly in devising marketing strategies for adult cats. PMID:26479236

  5. Acute renal failure in four cats treated with paromomycin.

    PubMed

    Gookin, J L; Riviere, J E; Gilger, B C; Papich, M G

    1999-12-15

    Acute renal failure was diagnosed in 4 cats receiving paromomycin orally for treatment of infectious enteritis. All 4 cats responded to fluid therapy and recovered normal or near-normal renal function; however, 3 of the cats subsequently became deaf and developed cataracts. Toxicoses were attributed to a combination of an excessive dosage of paromomycin and absorption of the drug across injured intestinal mucosal epithelium. Pharmacokinetic studies are needed to further define the disposition of paromomycin after oral administration to cats. PMID:10613215

  6. Presumptive acute lung injury following multiple surgeries in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Masaaki; Okamura, Yasuhiko; Katayama, Rieko; Sasaki, Jun; Shimamura, Shunsuke; Uzuka, Yuji; Kamishina, Hiroaki; Nezu, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    A 12-year-old, 3.5-kg spayed female domestic shorthair cat had a tracheal mass identified as malignant B-cell lymphoma. The cat had tracheal resection and subsequently developed laryngeal paralysis. Due to multiple episodes of respiratory distress the cat subsequently had tracheal surgeries. Finally, the cat had a sudden onset of severe respiratory distress and collapsed. Computed tomography imaging and arterial blood gas analysis supported a diagnosis of acute lung injury. PMID:24082167

  7. When Cognitive Diagnosis Meets Computerized Adaptive Testing: CD-CAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is a mode of testing which enables more efficient and accurate recovery of one or more latent traits. Traditionally, CAT is built upon Item Response Theory (IRT) models that assume unidimensionality. However, the problem of how to build CAT upon latent class models (LCM) has not been investigated until recently,…

  8. Prevalence of Bartonella species in domestic cats in The Netherlands.

    PubMed Central

    Bergmans, A M; de Jong, C M; van Amerongen, G; Schot, C S; Schouls, L M

    1997-01-01

    Cats have been shown to provide the only known reservoir of Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of cat scratch disease. To determine the prevalence of Bartonella bacteremia and antibodies in Dutch cats, blood samples from 113 cats from shelters (sheltered cats), 50 pet cats, and 25 specific-pathogen-free (SPF) cats were analyzed. Culture and subsequent PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic region and 16S rRNA gene PCR-hybridization assays revealed a prevalence of Bartonella bacteremia in 22% of the sheltered cats and showed no bacteremia in the SPF cats. Three spacer RFLP types were found: types A, B, and G, with type B being predominant over types A and G. An important finding was the existence of mixtures of different Bartonella species. Bartonella DNA was detected in 7 of 27 DNA extracts from fleas combed from the sheltered cats (26%). Seropositivity was 50% for sheltered cats and 56% for pet cats, as determined by a B. henselae enzyme-linked immunoassay. PMID:9276397

  9. Accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Sarah A.; Gaunt, Matthew C.; Taylor, Susan M.; Snead, Elizabeth C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Two clinical cases of accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines are described. One cat died the day after presentation as a result of aspiration pneumonia and head trauma, despite supportive care. The second cat survived with supportive treatment, but developed dermatologic complications 10 d later. PMID:21119868

  10. Bilateral flexor tendon contracture following onychectomy in 2 cats.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Maureen A; Laverty, Peter H; Soiderer, Emily E

    2005-03-01

    Two cats presented with bilateral flexor tendon contracture following onychectomy. This previously unreported complication proved to be painful and debilitating. Deep digital flexor tenectomy successfully resolved the problem. Twelve months after surgery, the first cat remains free of complications. The second cat recovered full limb function, but died of unrelated causes. PMID:15884646

  11. Bilateral flexor tendon contracture following onychectomy in 2 cats

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Two cats presented with bilateral flexor tendon contracture following onychectomy. This previously unreported complication proved to be painful and debilitating. Deep digital flexor tenectomy successfully resolved the problem. Twelve months after surgery, the first cat remains free of complications. The second cat recovered full limb function, but died of unrelated causes. PMID:15884646

  12. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cats are essential in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally-resistant oocysts in nature. Nothing is known of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Sri Lanka. Serum samples from 86 cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka were tested f...

  13. Dermatophilus congolensis in a feral cat.

    PubMed

    Barger, Anne M; Weedon, G Robert; Maddox, Carol W; Galloway, Kimberly A

    2014-10-01

    A young adult feral cat presented to the Champaign County Humane Society with a subcutaneous mass near the stifle. The mass was aspirated. Chains of paired cocci organisms were identified, consistent with Dermatophilus congolensis. The identity of these organisms was confirmed by culture and polymerase chain reaction. PMID:24496323

  14. Song Prompts: I Had a Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Susan Hobson

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses song prompts as a way to encourage children to sing during exploratory play. A song prompt for "I Had a Cat" is included for educators to try in their own classrooms or preschools. Educators are invited to share ideas they have used that encourage children to sing during free play.

  15. Making a Cat's Eye in a Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovsek, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Three plain mirrors, perpendicular to each other, reflect a beam of light back into the direction it came from. An activity is suggested where pupils can employ this feature of perpendicular mirrors and make their own corner cube retroreflector--a kind of cat's eye. (Contains 7 figures and 1 footnote.)

  16. Look What the Cat Brought In.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erslev, Carole

    1984-01-01

    The small, uneaten, slate-gray, pointed-nose animal that is distasteful to the cat because of foul-tasting scent glands is the shrew. Describes the short-tailed shrew's physical characteristics, lifespan, habitat, eating habits, and senses. (ERB)

  17. Diagnosis of pancreatitis in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Xenoulis, P G

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatitis is the most common disorder of the exocrine pancreas in both dogs and cats. Ante-mortem diagnosis of canine and feline pancreatitis can be challenging. The clinical picture of dogs and cats with pancreatitis varies greatly (from very mild to severe or even fatal) and is characterised by non-specific findings. Complete blood count, serum biochemistry profile and urinalysis should always be performed in dogs and cats suspected of having pancreatitis, although findings are not-specific for pancreatitis. Serum amylase and lipase activities and trypsin-like immunoreactivity (TLI) concentrations have no or only limited clinical value for the diagnosis of pancreatitis in either dogs or cats. Conversely, serum pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (PLI) concentration is currently considered to be the clinicopathological test of choice for the diagnosis of canine and feline pancreatitis. Abdominal radiography is a useful diagnostic tool for the exclusion of other diseases that may cause similar clinical signs to those of pancreatitis. Abdominal ultrasonography can be very useful for the diagnosis of pancreatitis, but this depends largely on the clinician's experience. Histopathological examination of the pancreas is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis and classification of pancreatitis, but it is not without limitations. In clinical practice, a combination of careful evaluation of the animal's history, serum PLI concentration and abdominal ultrasonography, together with pancreatic cytology or histopathology when indicated or possible, is considered to be the most practical and reliable means for an accurate diagnosis or exclusion of pancreatitis compared with other diagnostic modalities. PMID:25586803

  18. Diet and breeding performance in cats.

    PubMed

    Olovson, S G

    1986-07-01

    A conventional cat breeding colony with 70 queens (female cats) was studied during a 4 year period 1979-1982. During that time the fat content in the diet was increased from 15% to 27% of dry matter. An increase in the number of kittens per litter (from 4.5 to 5.5) and in the annual number of litters per queen (from 1.4 to 2.3) was found. In addition, the mortality decreased from over 20% to 9%. Bodyweight gain under the new diet was such that the males reached 2500 g in 4 months while the females showed this same weight at 5 months of age. Litter size and sex distribution as a function of queen age, litter interval and time of year are presented. It is concluded that husbandry and diet are factors which are of great importance in a cat breeding unit. It is shown that under our conditions it is possible to breed conventional cats with good results. PMID:3795859

  19. Head movement during walking in the cat.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Humza N; Beloozerova, Irina N; Sun, Hai; Marlinski, Vladimir

    2016-09-22

    Knowledge of how the head moves during locomotion is essential for understanding how locomotion is controlled by sensory systems of the head. We have analyzed head movements of the cat walking along a straight flat pathway in the darkness and light. We found that cats' head left-right translations, and roll and yaw rotations oscillated once per stride, while fore-aft and vertical translations, and pitch rotations oscillated twice. The head reached its highest vertical positions during second half of each forelimb swing, following maxima of the shoulder/trunk by 20-90°. Nose-up rotation followed head upward translation by another 40-90° delay. The peak-to-peak amplitude of vertical translation was ∼1.5cm and amplitude of pitch rotation was ∼3°. Amplitudes of lateral translation and roll rotation were ∼1cm and 1.5-3°, respectively. Overall, cats' heads were neutral in roll and 10-30° nose-down, maintaining horizontal semicircular canals and utriculi within 10° of the earth horizontal. The head longitudinal velocity was 0.5-1m/s, maximal upward and downward linear velocities were ∼0.05 and ∼0.1m/s, respectively, and maximal lateral velocity was ∼0.05m/s. Maximal velocities of head pitch rotation were 20-50°/s. During walking in light, cats stood 0.3-0.5cm taller and held their head 0.5-2cm higher than in darkness. Forward acceleration was 25-100% higher and peak-to-peak amplitude of head pitch oscillations was ∼20°/s larger. We concluded that, during walking, the head of the cat is held actively. Reflexes appear to play only a partial role in determining head movement, and vision might further diminish their role. PMID:27339731

  20. Earliest "Domestic" Cats in China Identified as Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis).

    PubMed

    Vigne, Jean-Denis; Evin, Allowen; Cucchi, Thomas; Dai, Lingling; Yu, Chong; Hu, Songmei; Soulages, Nicolas; Wang, Weilin; Sun, Zhouyong; Gao, Jiangtao; Dobney, Keith; Yuan, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The ancestor of all modern domestic cats is the wildcat, Felis silvestris lybica, with archaeological evidence indicating it was domesticated as early as 10,000 years ago in South-West Asia. A recent study, however, claims that cat domestication also occurred in China some 5,000 years ago and involved the same wildcat ancestor (F. silvestris). The application of geometric morphometric analyses to ancient small felid bones from China dating between 5,500 to 4,900 BP, instead reveal these and other remains to be that of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis). These data clearly indicate that the origins of a human-cat 'domestic' relationship in Neolithic China began independently from South-West Asia and involved a different wild felid species altogether. The leopard cat's 'domestic' status, however, appears to have been short-lived--its apparent subsequent replacement shown by the fact that today all domestic cats in China are genetically related to F. silvestris. PMID:26799955

  1. Molecular basis for the CAT-2 null phenotype in maize

    SciTech Connect

    Bethards, L.A.; Scandalios, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    Previous reports have described several maize lines whose developmental patterns of catalase gene expression vary from the typical maize line, W64A. Among these variants are the lines A16 and A338, both found to be null for the CAT-2 protein. Identification of a third CAT-2 null line, designated A340, is described. RNA blots and S1 nuclease protection analysis, using (/sup 32/P)-labeled dCTP, indicate that all three CAT-2 null lines produce a similarly shortened Cat2 transcript. The molecular basis for this aberrant Cat2 transcript is discussed.

  2. Stress in owned cats: behavioural changes and welfare implications.

    PubMed

    Amat, Marta; Camps, Tomàs; Manteca, Xavier

    2016-08-01

    Domestic cats are exposed to a variety of stressful stimuli, which may have a negative effect on the cats' welfare and trigger a number of behavioural changes. Some of the stressors most commonly encountered by cats include changes in environment, inter-cat conflict, a poor human-cat relationship and the cat's inability to perform highly motivated behaviour patterns. Stress is very likely to reduce feed intake, and stress-related anorexia may contribute to the development of potentially serious medical conditions. Stress also increases the risk of cats showing urine marking and some forms of aggression, including redirected aggression. A number of compulsive disorders such as over-grooming may also develop as a consequence of stressful environments. Some of the main strategies to prevent or reduce stress-related behavioural problems in cats are environmental enrichment, appropriate management techniques to introduce unfamiliar cats to each other and the use of the synthetic analogue of the feline facial pheromone. As the stress response in cats depends, to a large extent, on the temperament of the animal, breeding and husbandry strategies that contribute to the cat developing a well-balanced temperament are also very useful. PMID:26101238

  3. [Tritrichomonas fetus: a new intestinal parasite in Swiss cats].

    PubMed

    Burgener, I; Frey, C; Kook, P; Gottstein, B

    2009-08-01

    Recent reports identified Tritrichomonas fetus, the causative agent of bovine trichomonosis, in cats with large-bowel diarrhea in the US. Between July 2007 and August 2008, a total of 105 Swiss cats were tested for T. fetus with the InPouchTM culture system and/or PCR, whereof 27 (26%) yielded positive results. All positive cats were pedigree cats, whereof 22 (81%) were less than 1 year of age (median 5 months). 25 (93%) of these cats lived in multi-cat households, and all but one were kept indoor. The clinical picture was dominated by large bowel diarrhea with increased frequency of defecation and fresh blood and mucus. Furthermore, inflamed anus and fecal incontinence was common. 52% of the T. fetus-positive cats were tested positive for Giardia before, but the treatment with fenbendazole or metronidazole only temporarily alleviated the clinical signs. The treatment with 30 mg/kg of ronidazole q12h p.o. was successful in all but 1 cat with only minor transient adverse effects in 3 cats. In conclusion, T. fetus has to be considered an important causative agent of large bowel diarrhea in cats in Switzerland, especially in young indoor pedigree cats. PMID:19653162

  4. Opinions from the front lines of cat colony management conflict.

    PubMed

    Peterson, M Nils; Hartis, Brett; Rodriguez, Shari; Green, Matthew; Lepczyk, Christopher A

    2012-01-01

    Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs) and bird conservation professionals (BCPs) across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia) and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators). Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals. PMID:22970269

  5. Ocular manifestation of lymphoma in newly diagnosed cats.

    PubMed

    Nerschbach, V; Eule, J C; Eberle, N; Höinghaus, R; Betz, D

    2016-03-01

    Ocular manifestations of lymphoma are described in humans and dogs but rarely in cats. In this prospective study, cats with newly diagnosed and treatment-naïve lymphoma were evaluated concerning clinical stage and ophthalmologic findings. Twenty-six cats were included. In 12 cats (48%), ocular changes were documented. Uveitis anterior and posterior were predominant findings, being present in 58% of affected individuals. Other findings included exophthalmos, corneal surface lesions and chemosis. Eight cats received chemotherapy, two of which had ocular involvement. In these two cats, a complete remission of an anterior and a partial remission of a posterior uveitis were documented. Due to the detection of ocular involvement, a stage migration from stage IV to V occurred in four patients. In the light of these findings, an opthalmological examination may be considered as an important part of staging in feline lymphoma as well as of follow-up examination in affected cats. PMID:24102737

  6. The cat fur mite, Lynxacarus radovskyi Tenorio, 1974 (Acarina: Astigmata: Listrophoridae) from cat, Felis catus in peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, J; Norhidayu, S; Mohd Zain, S N; Noor Hayati, M I; Nurazila, B

    2012-06-01

    The cat fur mite, Lynxacarus radovskyi Tenorio, 1974 (Acarina: Astigmata: Listrophoridae) is reported from cats, Felis catus from three sites in peninsular Malaysia. The first site is a Malay village, Kampong Menteri in Taiping, Perak, where the mites were found on local pet cats. The other two sites are urban cities of Kuala Lumpur, in the Federal Territory and Georgetown, in the island of Penang. Mites from the urban areas were collected from stray cats. Although several ectoparasites (fleas, mites, ticks and lice) have been previously reported, L. radovskyi is recorded herein for the first time on cats from peninsular Malaysia. PMID:22735855

  7. Metabolizable energy intake of client-owned adult cats.

    PubMed

    Thes, M; Koeber, N; Fritz, J; Wendel, F; Dobenecker, B; Kienzle, E

    2015-12-01

    A retrospective analysis of the metabolizable energy (ME) intake of privately owned pet cats from the authors' nutrition consultation practice (years 2007-2011) was carried out to test whether current recommendations are suitable for pet cats. Data of 80 adult cats (median age: 9.0 years, median deviation from ideal weight: +22.5%, majority neutered) at maintenance were available. Six percentage of the cats were healthy and the others were affected by various chronic diseases. A standardized questionnaire was used, cat owners weighed cat and food. For ration calculation, the software Diet Check Munich(™) was used (ME prediction according to National Research Council, 2006: Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats. National Academy Press, Washington, DC). Data were analysed for the factors deviation from ideal weight, breed, age, gender, disease and type of feeding [prepared food (dry, wet) vs. home-made]. Over- or underweight were defined as ≥15% deviation from ideal body weight (BW) according to Kienzle and Moik (British Journal of Nutrition 2011, 106, Suppl 1: S113). Cat owner's estimation of ideal BW was higher than literature data from Kienzle and Moik (2011). Based on literature data, 26.3% of the pet cats were normal weight, 63.7% overweight and 10% underweight. The mean ME intake of all adult cats amounted to 0.40 ± 0.14 MJ/kg actual BW(0.67) (n = 80). When the data were analysed according to normal, over- and underweight, there was a significant effect with normal weight cats eating 0.46 MJ/kg BW(0.67) . Underweight cats ate even more (0.49 MJ/kg BW(0.67) ), whereas overweight cats ate considerably less (0.36 MJ/kg BW(0.67) ). The other factors had no influence on ME intake of adult cats. PMID:26456847

  8. Observation and Modeling of Clear Air Turbulence (CAT) over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprenger, M.; Mayoraz, L.; Stauch, V.; Sharman, B.; Polymeris, J.

    2012-04-01

    CAT represents a very relevant phenomenon for aviation safety. It can lead to passenger injuries, causes an increase in fuel consumption and, under severe intensity, can involve structural damages to the aircraft. The physical processes causing CAT remain at present not fully understood. Moreover, because of its small scale, CAT cannot be represented in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. In this study, the physical processes related to CAT and its representation in NWP models is further investigated. First, 134 CAT events over Europe are extracted from a flight monitoring data base (FDM), run by the SWISS airline and containing over 100'000 flights. The location, time, and meteorological parameters along the turbulent spots are analysed. Furthermore, the 7-km NWP model run by the Swiss National Weather Service (Meteoswiss) is used to calculate model-based CAT indices, e.g. Richardson number, Ellrod & Knapp turbulence index and a complex/combined CAT index developed at NCAR. The CAT indices simulated with COSMO-7 is then compared to the observed CAT spots, hence allowing to assess the model's performance, and potential use in a CAT warning system. In a second step, the meteorological conditions associated with CAT are investigated. To this aim, CAT events are defined as coherent structures in space and in time, i.e. their dimension and life cycle is studied, in connection with jet streams and upper-level fronts. Finally, in a third step the predictability of CAT is assessed, by comparing CAT index predictions based on different lead times of the NWP model COSMO-7

  9. Serological survey of vector-borne zoonotic pathogens in pet cats and cats from animal shelters and feral colonies.

    PubMed

    Case, Joseph Brad; Chomel, Bruno; Nicholson, William; Foley, Janet E

    2006-04-01

    Although cats and their arthropod parasites can sometimes be important sources of zoonotic diseases in humans, the extent of exposure among various cat populations to many potential zoonotic agents remains incompletely described. In this study, 170 domestic cats living in private homes, feral cat colonies, and animal shelters from California and Wisconsin were evaluated by serology to determine the levels of exposure to a group of zoonotic vector-borne pathogens. Serological positive test results were observed in 17.2% of cats for Rickettsia rickettsii, 14.9% for R akari, 4.9% for R typhi, 11.1% for R felis, and 14.7% for Bartonella henselae. Although vector-borne disease exposure has been documented previously in cats, the evaluation of multiple pathogens and diverse cat populations simultaneously performed here contributes to our understanding of feline exposure to these zoonotic pathogens. PMID:16434226

  10. Eigenvalue spacings for quantized cat maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamburd, Alex; Lafferty, John; Rockmore, Dan

    2003-03-01

    According to one of the basic conjectures in quantum chaos, the eigenvalues of a quantized chaotic Hamiltonian behave like the spectrum of the typical member of the appropriate ensemble of random matrices. We study one of the simplest examples of this phenomenon in the context of ergodic actions of groups generated by several linear toral automorphisms - 'cat maps'. Our numerical experiments indicate that for 'generic' choices of cat maps, the unfolded consecutive spacing distribution in the irreducible components of the Nth quantization (given by the N-dimensional Weil representation) approaches the GOE/GSE law of random matrix theory. For certain special 'arithmetic' transformations, related to the Ramanujan graphs of Lubotzky, Phillips and Sarnak, the experiments indicate that the unfolded consecutive spacing distribution follows Poisson statistics; we provide a sharp estimate in that direction.

  11. Habituation of motion sickness in the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crampton, George H.; Lucot, James B.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty femal cats were subjected to a motion sickness stimulus in three series of tests. A series consisted of five tests given biweekly, weekly, or daily. Each test consisted of 30 min of stimulation followed by 1 min of rest, and series were separated by a period of not less than 14 d. Retching was the dependent variable. No habituation (reduction in the incidence of retching) was found with biweekly testing but pronounced habituation was observed with weekly and daily testing. The 30 cats were divided evenly into high and low susceptibility groups based on the results of the biweekly tests. The rate of habituation was the same for the two susceptibility groups in both the weekly and daily series.

  12. Hepatosplenic Cat Scratch Disease in Immunocompetent Adults

    PubMed Central

    García, Juan C.; Núñez, Manuel J.; Castro, Begoña; Fernández, Jesús M.; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is the most frequent presentation of Bartonella henselae infection. It has a worldwide distribution and is associated with a previous history of scratch or bite from a cat or dog. CSD affects children and teenagers more often (80%) than adults, and it usually has a self-limiting clinical course. Atypical clinical course or systemic symptoms are described in 5%–20% of patients. Among them, hepatosplenic (HS) forms (abscess) have been described. The majority of published cases have affected children or immunosuppressed patients. Few cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adult hosts have been reported, and data about the management of this condition are scarce. Herein, we present 3 new cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adults and review 33 other cases retrieved from the literature. We propose an approach to clinical diagnosis and treatment with oral azithromycin. PMID:25398062

  13. Noncongophilic fibrillary glomerulonephritis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Cavana, P; Capucchio, M T; Bovero, A; Ripanti, D; Catalano, D; Scaglione, F E; Miller, J; Blunden, T; Farca, A M

    2008-05-01

    This report describes an uncommon case of nonamyloidotic fibrillary glomerulonephritis. A 5-year-old female European cat was presented with nephrotic syndrome. Serum biochemistry and urinalysis revealed a mild increase in cholesterol, low total protein, severe hypoalbuminemia, and high proteinuria with a high protein-to-creatinine ratio. An histologic examination revealed an interstitial nephritis and a diffuse glomerulonephritis, with multifocal thickening of the Bowman's capsule. Transmission electron microscopy showed widespread fibrillary deposits in the glomerular basement membrane and in the mesangium. These fibrils ranged between 18 and 26 nm in diameter and were Congo red negative, which allowed their differentiation from amyloid. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated expression for immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) within the mesangium. Renal deposits of Congo red-negative amyloid-like fibrils have been described in humans, horses, monkeys, and dogs. This is the first report of noncongophilic fibrillary glomerulopathy in a cat. PMID:18487491

  14. Atypical membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Inoue, K; Kami-ie, J; Ohtake, S; Wakui, S; Machida, S; Shirota, K

    2001-07-01

    Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis was observed in a 2-year-old male Japanese domestic cat with clinical renal failure. In the glomeruli, moderate mesangial hypercellularity with an increased mesangial matrix and thickening of the capillary walls were prominent. In addition, frequent duplication of the capillary walls, splitting, and spike formation were observed in the glomerular basement membrane. Granular cat IgG and complement component deposition were detected globally along the glomerular capillary walls and in the mesangium. Transmission electron microscopy revealed dense deposits in the subendothelial and subepithelial regions and the mesangium. Mesangial interposition was also observed. These glomerular lesions are also found in humans with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type III, which has not been reported in animals. PMID:11467485

  15. [Blood group typing in the cat].

    PubMed

    Haarer, M; Grünbaum, E G

    1993-08-01

    Blood group serological diagnosis in cats is clinically relevant for the prophylaxis of blood group incompatibility reactions. In permanent blood donors, cats used for breeding and recipients with a history of prior blood transfusions, testing should consist of blood typing and antibody detection. As test sera and test cells are not commercially available and since parallel tests for various antibody qualities are necessary, they are usually performed in specialized laboratories. Incompatibility testing has a practical clinical relevance in finding a serological diagnosis before each blood transfusion and in cases of kitten mortality. In emergency situations, cross matching can be performed on slides as a screening test. Negative slide test results then should be verified using the more sensitive test tube or microtiter plate tests. PMID:8211961

  16. Vasopressin and motion sickness in cats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, R. A.; Keil, L. C.; Daunton, N. G.; Crampton, G. H.; Lucot, J.

    1987-01-01

    Levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured in cats under several motion-sickness-inducing conditions. Plasma AVP increased significantly in both susceptible and resistant animals exposed to motion. When vomiting occurred, levels of plasma AVP were drmatically elevated (up to 27 times resting levels). There was no difference in resting levels of AVP of susceptible and resistant cats. Levels of CSF-AVP were not elevated immediately after vomiting, but the testing levels of CSF-AVP were lower in animals that vomited during motion than in those animals which did not vomit during motion. The results of these experiments show that changes in systemic AVP are directly related to vomiting induced by motion, however, CSF-AVP apparently does not change in association with vomiting. CSF-AVP does appear to be lower in animals that reach frank vomiting during motion stimulation than in animals which do not vomit.

  17. 1993 CAT workshop on beamline optical designs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    An Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) Workshop on Beamline Optical Designs was held at Argonne National Laboratory on July 26--27, 1993. The goal of this workshop was to bring together experts from various synchrotron sources to provide status reports on crystal, reflecting, and polarizing optics as a baseline for discussions of issues facing optical designers for CAT beamlines at the APS. Speakers from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the University of Chicago, the National Synchrotron Light Source, and the University of Manchester (England) described single- and double-crystal monochromators, mirrors, glass capillaries, and polarizing optics. Following these presentations, the 90 participants divided into three working groups: Crystal Optics Design, Reflecting Optics, and Optics for Polarization Studies. This volume contains copies of the presentation materials from all speakers, summaries of the three working groups, and a ``catalog`` of various monochromator designs.

  18. CATS landline installed beneath the river Tees

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    Press Construction Ltd. has completed installation of the land portion of a new gas pipeline from the North Sea, including a tunnel beneath the River Tees in the north of England. The work was carried out under a multi-million dollar contract from Amoco (UK) Exploration Co. The pipeline is the land portion of the Central Area Transmission System. The 4.6-mile, 36-in. onshore pipeline connects a valve station at the CATS landfall at Coatham Sands, just south of Tees Bay, to a gas terminal north of the River Tees. This paper reports on the entire CATS system which runs for nearly 250 miles from a riser platform in the Central Graben area of the North Sea to the Coatham Sands landfall and then overland to the gas terminal. The gas will fuel a new combined heat-and-power generating plant on Teesside, currently under construction by Teesside Power.

  19. [Bacteriological and virological status in upper respiratory tract infections of cats (cat common cold complex)].

    PubMed

    Adler, Kerstin; Radeloff, Isabel; Stephan, Bernd; Greife, Heinrich; Hellmann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Between October 2002 and January 2005,460 bacteriological samples from cats with an acute upper respiratory tract infection were analysed in clinical field studies in two accredited laboratories in Germany. Oropharyngeal swabs were taken from these cats and sent to the laboratories for routine diagnostics. In the swab samples of 460 cats 382 bacteria strains were isolated. The following bacteria were isolated most frequently: Pasteurella spp. (32.5 %), Staphylococcus spp. (18.5 %), Escherichia coli (17.0 %), Streptococcus spp. (9.1 %), Pseudomonas spp. (6.9 %) and Klebsiella spp. (3.0 %). Bordetella bronchiseptica was found in 0.4 % of the animals To evaluate possible regional and time influences, the animals were split into three populations: 1: Germany, laboratory A; 2: Germany, laboratory B; 3: France and Belgium, laboratory B. In population 1 an 2 Pasteurella spp. were found most frequently with 42.2 % and 36.5 %, respectively. The second most frequently isolated bacterial species were Staphylococcus spp. with 14.1 % and 21.4 % and E. coli with 13.6 % and 17.5 % respectively. In population 3 Staphylococcus spp., E. coli (20 % each) and Pasteurella spp. (18.5 %) were isolated at almost the same frequency. Virological parameter were additionally analysed in 328 cats (population 2 and 3). Serum samples were analysed for antibodies specific for Feline Calicivirus (FCV) and Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and for Feline Leukaemia Virus (FeLV) antigen. Oropharyngeal swabs were analysed for Feline Herpesvirus (FHV) by using PCR. Calicivirus-specific antibodies were found in 99.6 % of the cats of population 2 and in 100 % of the animals in population 3. Herpesvirus was detected in 15.3 % and 23.3 % of the cats, respectively. FeLV-Antigen was found in 0.4 % of the animals in population 2 and in 10.1 % of the cats in population 3, while FIV-antibodies were identified in 8.7 % of the animals of population 2 and in 6.1 % of the cats of population 3. In total FHV was

  20. Atomic Schroedinger cat-like states

    SciTech Connect

    Enriquez-Flores, Marco; Rosas-Ortiz, Oscar

    2010-10-11

    After a short overview of the basic mathematical structure of quantum mechanics we analyze the Schroedinger's antinomic example of a living and dead cat mixed in equal parts. Superpositions of Glauber kets are shown to approximate such macroscopic states. Then, two-level atomic states are used to construct mesoscopic kittens as appropriate linear combinations of angular momentum eigenkets for j = 1/2. Some general comments close the present contribution.

  1. Breeding laboratory cats during artificially induced estrus.

    PubMed

    Cline, E M; Jennings, L L; Sojka, N J

    1980-12-01

    Mature female cats of known reproductive history were randomly divided into groups for natural breeding or mating following hormonal induction of estrus. Treatment with a single injection of 100 international units of pregnant mares' serum followed in 7 days by 50 international units of human chorionic gonadotropin produced results comparable to natural breeding. Daily injections of pregnant mares' serum (300-500 international units total) resulted in fewer successful pregnancies and adversely affected the ability of kittens to survive to weaning. PMID:7464025

  2. CAT: the INGV Tsunami Alert Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, A.

    2014-12-01

    After the big 2004 Sumatra earthquake, the tsunami threat posed by large earthquakes occurring in the Mediterranean sea was formally taken into account by many countries around the Mediterranean basin. In the past, large earthquakes that originated significant tsunamis occurred nearly once per century (Maramai et al., 2014, Annals of Geophysics). The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC-UNESCO) received a mandate from the international community to coordinate the establishment of the ICG/NEAMTWS (http://neamtic.ioc-unesco.org) through Resolution IOC-XXIII-14. Since then, several countries (France, Turkey, Greece) have started operating as candidate Tsunami Watch Provider (cTWP) in the Mediterranean. Italy started operating as cTWP on October 1st, 2014. The Italian cTWP is formed by INGV ("Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia)", DPC ("Dipartimento di Protezione Civile") and ISPRA ("Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale"). INGV is in charge of issuing the alert for potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes, ISPRA provides the sea level recordings and DPC is in charge of disseminating the alert. INGV established the tsunami alert center (CAT, "Centro di Allerta Tsunami") at the end of 2013. CAT is co-located with the INGV national seismic surveillance center operated since many years. In this work, we show the technical and personnel organization of CAT, its response to recent earthquakes, and the new procedures under development for implementation. (*) INGV-CAT WG: Amato A., Basili R., Bernardi F., Bono A., Danecek P., De Martini P.M., Govoni A., Graziani L., Lauciani V., Lomax, A., Lorito S., Maramai A., Mele F., Melini D., Molinari I., Nostro C., Piatanesi A., Pintore S., Quintiliani M., Romano F., Selva J., Selvaggi G., Sorrentino D., Tonini R.

  3. The contribution of cat owners' attitudes and behaviours to the free-roaming cat overpopulation in Tel Aviv, Israel.

    PubMed

    Finkler, Hilit; Terkel, Joseph

    2012-04-01

    The attitudes and behaviours of cat owners in regard to treatment of cats may have a cumulative effect on the food availability, reproduction, density and welfare of the free-roaming cat population and thus also on the extent of cat overpopulation. Understanding this is thus a vital step in the a priori planning of cat management programs on any scale, as well as in developing public education programs on this issue. Although recent years have seen an accumulation of knowledge in regard to cat owners' attitudes and behaviours, the findings vary among countries and locations and in Israel this has never been investigated systematically. Using a questionnaire provided to cat owners in veterinary clinics, this study aimed at identifying those attitudes and behaviours that may be contributing to cat overpopulation in Tel Aviv, Israel, and at exploring the socio-economic factors that influence this problem. The findings show that the influential factors can be predicted from the cat owners' socio-economic status, mainly education and income, as well as gender and age. A consistency in those cat owner behaviours that contribute to cat overpopulation was also uncovered, revealing a sub-population of individuals who persist in the undesirable behaviours. Finally, a strong relationship between attitude and consequent behaviour was demonstrated, indicating the importance of education and targeted publicity as a means to influence attitudes and thereby change behaviours in this respect. We propose several measures by which to reduce the current extent of cat owners' contribution to the cat overpopulation: discouraging unwanted owner behaviours such as abandonment of their cats and allowing them to breed; promoting awareness of the neutering option among cat caretakers; and increasing pre-adoption neutering rates in shelters. Regional and national laws promoting responsible pet ownership need to be enacted. By improving the current level of knowledge and awareness among cat

  4. A Population Genetic Database of Cat Breeds Developed in Coordination with a Domestic Cat STR Multiplex*

    PubMed Central

    Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; David, Victor A.; Weir, Bruce S.; O’Brien, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    A simple tandem repeat (STR) PCR-based typing system developed for the genetic individualization of domestic cat samples has been used to generate a population genetic database of domestic cat breeds. A panel of 10 tetranucleotide STR loci and a gender-identifying sequence tagged site (STS) were co-amplified in genomic DNA of 1043 individuals representing 38 cat breeds. The STR panel exhibits relatively high heterozygosity in cat breeds, with an average 10-locus heterozygosity of 0.71, which represents an average of 38 breed-specific heterozygosities for the 10-member panel. When the entire set of breed individuals was analyzed as a single population, a heterozygosity of 0.87 was observed. Heterozygosities obtained for the 10 loci range from 0.72 to 0.96. The power for genetic individualization of domestic cat samples of the multiplex is high, with a probability of match (pm) of 6.2E-14, using a conservative θ = 0.05. PMID:22268511

  5. Earliest “Domestic” Cats in China Identified as Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis)

    PubMed Central

    Vigne, Jean-Denis; Evin, Allowen; Cucchi, Thomas; Dai, Lingling; Yu, Chong; Hu, Songmei; Soulages, Nicolas; Wang, Weilin; Sun, Zhouyong; Gao, Jiangtao; Dobney, Keith; Yuan, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The ancestor of all modern domestic cats is the wildcat, Felis silvestris lybica, with archaeological evidence indicating it was domesticated as early as 10,000 years ago in South-West Asia. A recent study, however, claims that cat domestication also occurred in China some 5,000 years ago and involved the same wildcat ancestor (F. silvestris). The application of geometric morphometric analyses to ancient small felid bones from China dating between 5,500 to 4,900 BP, instead reveal these and other remains to be that of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis). These data clearly indicate that the origins of a human-cat ‘domestic’ relationship in Neolithic China began independently from South-West Asia and involved a different wild felid species altogether. The leopard cat’s ‘domestic’ status, however, appears to have been short-lived—its apparent subsequent replacement shown by the fact that today all domestic cats in China are genetically related to F. silvestris. PMID:26799955

  6. Parasitic infections of domestic cats, Felis catus, in western Hungary.

    PubMed

    Capári, B; Hamel, D; Visser, M; Winter, R; Pfister, K; Rehbein, S

    2013-02-18

    During 2011, faeces from 235 owned domestic cats from a rural area in western Hungary were examined using standard coproscopical techniques. The overall prevalence of cats with endoparasites was 39.6% (95% CI 33.3-46.1). The most frequently identified faecal forms were those of ascarids (Toxocara, 17.4%; Toxascaris 7.2%), followed by those of Aelurostrongylus lungworms (14.5%), hookworms (11.1%), taeniid cestodes (4.7%), Cystoisospora coccidians (4.3%), and capillarids (3.8%). Single and multiple infections with up to five parasites concurrently were founded in 24.7% and 14.9% of the cats, respectively. Mixed endoparasite infections were recorded more frequently (p=0.0245) in cats greater than one year old compared to younger cats. Young cats (≤ 1 year) were parasitized more frequently (p<0.05) with ascarids and Cystoisospora spp. but demonstrated infections of hookworms, lungworms and taeniid cestodes less often than the older cats. Cats with taeniid infection were more likely (p<0.05) to harbour Toxocara, hookworm, Aelurostrongylus, and capillarid infections than cats without taeniid cestodes. Cats of owners who claimed the use of wormers were less frequently helminth-positive compared to cats whose owners did not use anthelmintics (21.2% vs. 44.4%; p=0.001). A subset of 115 faecal samples screened by a coproantigen ELISA revealed Giardia-specific antigen in 37.4% samples. Giardia cysts were found by immunofluorescent staining in 30 of the 43 samples tested positive for Giardia by ELISA. In addition, ectoparasites collected from 82 cats by body search and combing were identified. Fleas (1-30 per cat), biting lice (Felicola subrostratus), and ticks (1-5 per cat) were isolated from 58, 1 and 43 cats, respectively. Ctenocephalides felis was identified on all flea infested cats while single specimens of C. canis and Pulex irritans were recovered from three and two cats, respectively. All but one tick collected were adult Ixodes ricinus; the single other tick was a

  7. Folliculogenesis in the domestic cat (Felis catus).

    PubMed

    Bristol-Gould, Sarah; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2006-07-01

    The dynamic regulation of mammalian folliculogenesis is a key component of the reproductive process. Traditionally, the rodent had been used as a model to study ovarian function and reproductive physiology due to the availability of animals, their relatively short cycle length, high rate of fecundity and short generation interval. We maintain that much basic information can be determined using domestic cat ovaries retrieved from local veterinary clinics following routine spaying, without having the expense of maintaining a colony of laboratory cats. Studies of normal feline reproductive physiology and advances in reproductive technology may be extrapolated for use in endangered non-domestic felids. Increased understanding of feline reproduction will be beneficial to veterinary medicine, and to groups working to control feral cat populations. It is important to examine reproductive mechanisms in alternative animal models as there are a vast number of threatened and endangered species in which we lack the critical reproductive information needed to assist in preserving their long-term survival. PMID:16620931

  8. Meniscal mineralisation in little spotted cats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the stifle joints of little spotted cats in captivity using radiographic and CT studies. The hypothesis was that these animals would have meniscal mineralisation that could be detectable by imaging studies. Twelve intact little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus), 2 females and 10 males, aged from 1.5 to 11.11 years old and weighing 1.9–3.05 kg were studied. These animals, which were living in the Quinzinho de Barros Municipal Zoo, had no symptoms or known disease processes at the time of the study. The plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans of both stifle joints were performed under general anaesthesia. Sequential transverse images were acquired on a spiral scanner. Results No signs of articular disease were observed in any of the animals. Radiographically, the meniscal mineralisation was detected as an oval radiopacity in the cranial compartment on the mediolateral projection, located within the area of the medial meniscus. On craniocaudal projection, the mineralisation was more difficult to visualise. In one of the animals, it was not possible to identify the meniscal mineralisation in either of the stifle joints. Using CT, meniscal mineralisation was best identified in the transverse plane images. Conclusions Meniscal mineralisation appears to be a normal anatomic feature in little spotted cats. PMID:23506083

  9. Cats as an aid to teaching genetics.

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, A C

    2000-01-01

    I have used an exercise involving domestic cats in the General Genetics course at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln for the past 5 years. Using a coherent set of traits in an organism familiar to the students makes it easy to illustrate principles of transmission and population genetics. The one-semester course consists primarily of sophomores and juniors who have either taken a one-semester introductory biology course, a one-semester cell biology course, or have a strong high school biology background. The students are given a handout and asked to determine the genotype at seven unlinked loci of at least one cat. To fill out the form, the students have to grasp such concepts as dominance, incomplete dominance, temperature-sensitive mutations, epistatic interactions, sex linkage, and variable expressivity. Completing the form reinforces these concepts as they observe the cat's phenotype and fill in the genotype. I then analyze the collected data and use it in my lectures on population genetics to illustrate the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, calculate allele frequencies, and use statistics. This allows the students to look at population genetics in a very positive light and provides concrete examples of some often misunderstood principles. PMID:10880464

  10. Computed tomography of nonanesthetized cats with upper airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Krystina; O'Brien, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Upper airway obstruction is a potentially life-threatening problem in cats and for which a noninvasive, sensitive method rapid diagnosis is needed. The purposes of this prospective study were to describe a computed tomography (CT) technique for nonanesthetized cats with upper airway obstruction, CT characteristics of obstructive diseases, and comparisons between CT findings and findings from other diagnostic tests. Ten cats with clinical signs of upper airway obstruction were recruited for the study. Four cats with no clinical signs of upper airway obstruction were recruited as controls. All cats underwent computed tomography imaging without sedation or anesthesia, using a 16-slice helical CT scanner and a previously described transparent positional device. Three-dimensional (3D) internal volume rendering was performed on all CT image sets and 3D external volume rendering was also performed on cats with evidence of mass lesions. Confirmation of upper airway obstruction was based on visual laryngeal examination, endoscopy, fine-needle aspirate, biopsy, or necropsy. Seven cats were diagnosed with intramural upper airway masses, two with laryngotracheitis, and one with laryngeal paralysis. The CT and 3D volume-rendered images identified lesions consistent with upper airway disease in all cats. In cats with mass lesions, CT accurately identified the mass and location. Findings from this study supported the use of CT imaging as an effective technique for diagnosing upper airway obstruction in nonanesthetized cats. PMID:23441677

  11. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Peter B S; Yurchenko, Andrey A; David, Victor A; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O'Brien, Stephen J; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2016-03-01

    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (<3.5kg) mammals. We analyzed the population structure of 830 cats using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) genomic markers. Their origin appears to come exclusively from European founders. Feral cats in continental Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris). PMID:26647063

  12. Nosocomial spread of Mycobacterium bovis in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Murray, Aisling; Dineen, Andrea; Kelly, Pamela; McGoey, Karen; Madigan, Gillian; NiGhallchoir, Eadaoin; Gunn-Moore, Danièlle A

    2015-02-01

    Five domestic cats were euthanased owing to confirmed or suspected Mycobacterium bovis infection. The initial source of infection remains unclear. Cat A was presented to a veterinary clinic in County Kildare, Ireland, with a discharging submandibular lesion. The infection appears to have been transmitted to four other cats through direct (cats B and C living in the same household as cat A) and non-direct (nosocomial spread during routine operations; cats D and E) contact over a 13.5-week period. Of the five cases, two (B and D) had post-mortem examinations in which gross changes consistent with tuberculosis were seen, moderate numbers of acid-fast bacteria (AFB) were seen on microscopy and M bovis (spoligotype SB0978) was confirmed on culture. Of the remaining three cats, one had a swab taken from its draining ovariohysterectomy wound, which revealed large numbers of AFB with morphology consistent with M bovis (cat E). Two cases were euthanased without diagnostic tests; however, their history and clinical presentations were highly suggestive of tuberculosis (cats A and C). To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of nosocomial spread of M bovis in cats. PMID:24710594

  13. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter

    PubMed Central

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Commonly, more adult cats than kittens are euthanized in animal shelters. We surveyed 382 cat adopters to assess adoption outcomes and potential determinants of adopters’ choice of cat age group and price. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and responsible ownership requirements. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive in all age and adoption price groups. This study provides evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. Abstract The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters’ cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6–12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of “low-cost” adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of “low-cost” adoptions as an option for

  14. Bartonella and Toxoplasma Infections in Stray Cats from Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Switzer, Alexandra D.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Kass, Philip H.; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies. PMID:24062480

  15. Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections in stray cats from Iraq.

    PubMed

    Switzer, Alexandra D; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C; Kasten, Rickie W; Stuckey, Matthew J; Kass, Philip H; Chomel, Bruno B

    2013-12-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies. PMID:24062480

  16. Pinch-induced behavioral inhibition ('clipnosis') in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Pozza, Megan E; Stella, Judi L; Chappuis-Gagnon, Anne-Claire; Wagner, Susan O; Buffington, C A Tony

    2008-02-01

    Research has documented immobilization of rodents, rabbits, guinea pigs and dogs by mechanical means, typically using neck clips or inversion ('animal hypnosis'). In contrast, only a few studies of mechanical immobilization of cats are available, although some success has been reported in the literature. Domestic cats may be effectively immobilized by clips placed along the animal's dorsum. We use the term 'pinch-induced behavioral inhibition' (PIBI) for this behavior because it describes both the method and the response, while avoiding the more anthropomorphic term 'hypnosis'. We investigated the effectiveness of PIBI and its neurological and habituation effects in healthy cats and cats with idiopathic cystitis (IC). Although not all cats were susceptible to PIBI and effectiveness varied among individuals, PIBI was useful for gentle restraint in most cats. PMID:18222719

  17. Membranous nephropathy in the cat: a clinical and pathological study.

    PubMed

    Nash, A S; Wright, N G; Spencer, A J; Thompson, H; Fisher, E W

    1979-07-28

    A series of 13 cases of feline membranous nephropathy is presented. Two groups were distinguished clinically; eight cats had the nephrotic syndrome and five others were in renal failure but not nephrotic. The definitive diagnosis was based on histological, immunofluorescence and ultrastructural examinations of renal tissue obtained at renal biopsy or necropsy. Glomerular lesions were classified according to the degree of glomerular change into three distinct groups; mild, moderately severe and advanced. A relationship was established between the mild and moderately severe groups and cats with the nephrotic syndrome, and the advanced group and cats in renal failure. Diuretic therapy was satisfactory in initial control of oedema in the nephrotic cases. Monitoring of previously nephrotic cats for up to three years indicated that the disease is progressive, although in some cases it is sufficiently slow for a cat to live a relatively normal life without continuing treatment. The prognosis for cats presented in renal failure is hopeless. PMID:552741

  18. Development of an operational specific CAT risk (SCATR) index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, J. L.; Haines, P. A.; Luers, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    The original formulations of Roach (1970) and Oard (1974) for the calculation of clear air turbulence (CAT) potential from synoptic scale data were extended. An index which gives a measure of the specific risk of encountering CAT - the specific clear air turbulence risk (SCATR) index - was defined. This index takes into account both the locally and advected contributions to the energy necessary for CAT. The advected contribution is associated with the role of atmospheric gravity waves. The SCATR index was calculated for a number of cases where documented encounters with CAT occurred. Of particular interest were those made for cases involving severe CAT. The results for the two severe CAT cases run were quite impressive and elicited considerable interest from operational aviation meteorologists.

  19. Hypereosinophilic syndrome in cats: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    McEwen, S A; Valli, V E; Hulland, T J

    1985-07-01

    The clinical, clinicopathological and pathological findings in three cats with hypereosinophilic syndrome are described. The cats chosen for the study had marked eosinophilia and evidence of tissue infiltration by eosinophils. Necropsies were performed on two cats, biopsy and blood samples were provided for the third cat. At necropsy, there was diffuse reddening of femoral bone marrow with ulceration and thickening of the duodenum. The livers had an enhanced lobular pattern with multiple, white, 1-3 mm nodules throughout the parenchyma. One cat had splenomegaly and the other had several enlarged, white, firm lymph nodes. Histopathologically, there was eosinophil infiltration of intestine, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, adrenal medulla and beneath the endocardium. Ultrastructurally, the eosinophils from lymph node and bone marrow of cat II were morphologically normal. The rigid criteria for eosinophilic leukemia were not fulfilled by these cases and the etiology of the eosinophilia in each case is not known. Possible pathogenic mechanisms are discussed. PMID:4041970

  20. Straelensiosis in two cats and ten dogs from Israel.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, R; Bourdeau, P; Waldman, L; Amiel, S; Zur, G

    2015-12-01

    Straelensiosis is uncommonly described outside Europe. This report describes straelensiosis in two cats and in ten dogs diagnosed with the disease outside Europe. Both cats displayed erythematous macules or nodules on the abdominal skin. One cat was extremely pruritic, while in the other the lesions were incidental findings when the cat was presented for neutering. The mites were noted in skin scrapings in both cats and histopathologically in one cat. All dogs showed a general distribution of papules, and intense pruritus was noted in six dogs. The diagnosis in all dogs was based on histopathology. Treatment of the animals in this study varied, and among the various administrated treatments, amitraz showed promising results. PMID:26735777

  1. Ferrokinetic and erythrocyte survival studies in healthy and anemic cats

    SciTech Connect

    Madewell, B.R.; Holmes, P.H.; Onions, D.E.

    1983-03-01

    Erythrocyte survival and ferrokinetic studies were adapted to the cat. For 5 clinically healthy 4- to 9-month-old cats, mean /sup 51/Cr-labeled erythrocyte survival was 144 hours, and mean plasma /sup 59/Fe-labeled transferrin disappearance halftime was 51 minutes. Erythrocyte use of radioiron was rapid and efficient, with 50% to 80% of labeled iron incorporated into the erythron by 100 hours after injection into the cat. Six cats with feline leukemia virus infection were studied. For 2 cats with erythroid aplasia associated with C subgroup of feline leukemia virus, erythrocyte survival times were similar to those determined for the healthy cats, but plasma radioiron disappearance half time and erythrocyte use of radioiron were markedly diminished.

  2. Limited sampling pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous ondansetron in healthy geriatric cats, cats with chronic kidney disease, and cats with liver disease.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, R L; Wittenburg, L A; Hansen, R J; Gustafson, D L; Quimby, J M

    2016-08-01

    Ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, is an effective anti-emetic in cats. The purpose of this study was to compare pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous (SQ) ondansetron in healthy geriatric cats to cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or liver disease using a limited sampling strategy. 60 cats participated; 20 per group. Blood was drawn 30 and 120 min following one 2 mg (mean 0.49 mg/kg, range 0.27-1.05 mg/kg) SQ dose of ondansetron. Ondansetron concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Drug exposure represented as area under the curve (AUC) was predicted using a limited sampling approach based on multiple linear regression analysis from previous full sampling studies, and clearance (CL/F) estimated using noncompartmental methods. Kruskal-Wallis anova was used to compare parameters between groups. Mean AUC (ng/mL·h) of subcutaneous ondansetron was 301.4 (geriatric), 415.2 (CKD), and 587.0 (liver). CL/F (L/h/kg) of SQ ondansetron was 1.157 (geriatric), 0.967 (CKD), and 0.795 (liver). AUC was significantly higher in liver and CKD cats when compared to geriatric cats (P < 0.05). CL/F in liver cats was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) compared to geriatric cats. In age-matched subset analysis, AUC and CL/F in liver cats remained significantly different from geriatric cats. PMID:26667224

  3. RadCat 2.0 User Guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, Douglas.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Mills, George Scott; Hamp, Steve C.; O'Donnell, Brandon, M.; Orcutt, David J.; Heames, Terence J.; Hinojosa, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This document provides a detailed discussion and a guide for the use of the RadCat 2.0 Graphical User Interface input file generator for the RADTRAN 5.5 code. The differences between RadCat 2.0 and RadCat 1.0 can be attributed to the differences between RADTRAN 5 and RADTRAN 5.5 as well as clarification for some of the input parameters. 3

  4. Faecal microbiota of cats with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bell, Erin T; Suchodolski, Jan S; Isaiah, Anitha; Fleeman, Linda M; Cook, Audrey K; Steiner, Jörg M; Mansfield, Caroline S

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms within the gastrointestinal tract significantly influence metabolic processes within their mammalian host, and recently several groups have sought to characterise the gastrointestinal microbiota of individuals affected by metabolic disease. Differences in the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota have been reported in mouse models of type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as in human patients. Diabetes mellitus in cats has many similarities to type 2 diabetes in humans. No studies of the gastrointestinal microbiota of diabetic cats have been previously published. The objectives of this study were to compare the composition of the faecal microbiota of diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and secondarily to determine if host signalment and dietary factors influence the composition of the faecal microbiota in cats. Faecal samples were collected from insulin-treated diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and quantitative PCR were performed on each sample. ANOSIM based on the unweighted UniFrac distance metric identified no difference in the composition of the faecal microbiota between diabetic and non-diabetic cats, and no significant differences in the proportions of dominant bacteria by phylum, class, order, family or genus as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were identified between diabetic and non-diabetic cats. qPCR identified a decrease in Faecalibacterium spp. in cats aged over ten years. Cat breed or gender, dietary carbohydrate, protein or fat content, and dietary formulation (wet versus dry food) did not affect the composition of the faecal microbiota. In conclusion, the composition of the faecal microbiota was not altered by the presence of diabetes mellitus in cats. Additional studies that compare the functional products of the microbiota in diabetic and non-diabetic cats are warranted to further investigate the potential impact of the gastrointestinal microbiota on metabolic diseases such as

  5. Earliest evidence for commensal processes of cat domestication

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yaowu; Hu, Songmei; Wang, Weilin; Wu, Xiaohong; Marshall, Fiona B.; Chen, Xianglong; Hou, Liangliang; Wang, Changsui

    2014-01-01

    Domestic cats are one of the most popular pets globally, but the process of their domestication is not well understood. Near Eastern wildcats are thought to have been attracted to food sources in early agricultural settlements, following a commensal pathway to domestication. Early evidence for close human–cat relationships comes from a wildcat interred near a human on Cyprus ca. 9,500 y ago, but the earliest domestic cats are known only from Egyptian art dating to 4,000 y ago. Evidence is lacking from the key period of cat domestication 9,500–4,000 y ago. We report on the presence of cats directly dated between 5560–5280 cal B.P. in the early agricultural village of Quanhucun in Shaanxi, China. These cats were outside the wild range of Near Eastern wildcats and biometrically smaller, but within the size-range of domestic cats. The δ13C and δ15N values of human and animal bone collagen revealed substantial consumption of millet-based foods by humans, rodents, and cats. Ceramic storage containers designed to exclude rodents indicated a threat to stored grain in Yangshao villages. Taken together, isotopic and archaeological data demonstrate that cats were advantageous for ancient farmers. Isotopic data also show that one cat ate less meat and consumed more millet-based foods than expected, indicating that it scavenged among or was fed by people. This study offers fresh perspectives on cat domestication, providing the earliest known evidence for commensal relationships between people and cats. PMID:24344279

  6. Infectious diseases in large-scale cat hoarding investigations.

    PubMed

    Polak, K C; Levy, J K; Crawford, P C; Leutenegger, C M; Moriello, K A

    2014-08-01

    Animal hoarders accumulate animals in over-crowded conditions without adequate nutrition, sanitation, and veterinary care. As a result, animals rescued from hoarding frequently have a variety of medical conditions including respiratory infections, gastrointestinal disease, parasitism, malnutrition, and other evidence of neglect. The purpose of this study was to characterize the infectious diseases carried by clinically affected cats and to determine the prevalence of retroviral infections among cats in large-scale cat hoarding investigations. Records were reviewed retrospectively from four large-scale seizures of cats from failed sanctuaries from November 2009 through March 2012. The number of cats seized in each case ranged from 387 to 697. Cats were screened for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in all four cases and for dermatophytosis in one case. A subset of cats exhibiting signs of upper respiratory disease or diarrhea had been tested for infections by PCR and fecal flotation for treatment planning. Mycoplasma felis (78%), calicivirus (78%), and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (55%) were the most common respiratory infections. Feline enteric coronavirus (88%), Giardia (56%), Clostridium perfringens (49%), and Tritrichomonas foetus (39%) were most common in cats with diarrhea. The seroprevalence of FeLV and FIV were 8% and 8%, respectively. In the one case in which cats with lesions suspicious for dermatophytosis were cultured for Microsporum canis, 69/76 lesional cats were culture-positive; of these, half were believed to be truly infected and half were believed to be fomite carriers. Cats from large-scale hoarding cases had high risk for enteric and respiratory infections, retroviruses, and dermatophytosis. Case responders should be prepared for mass treatment of infectious diseases and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of feline or zoonotic infections during the emergency response and when

  7. The electric cat: Rotation without net overall spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Richard D.

    2013-02-01

    Two schools of thought have developed regarding the method used by a falling cat to rotate in air: the "legs in-legs out" method and the "tuck and turn" or rotating spine method. Since photographic evidence has not settled the debate, we develop a mathematical model called the "electric cat" to show quantitatively that the first method is not sufficient for a cat's full rotation in air during a safe drop.

  8. Cat Flea Infestation in a Hospital: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Norhayati, Moktar; Lee, Yin Yin

    2012-01-01

    Cat flea bite in humans results in extremely pruritic skin lesions. It has been reported to occur among those living in domiciliary accommodation. However, nosocomial infestation with cat flea has not been reported. We hereby report a case of nosocomial infestation of cat flea in a hospital facility. Identification of the parasite, its appropriate eradication, and adequate medical management of the patients resulted in a satisfactory outcome. PMID:22451739

  9. The Communication Attitude Test (CAT-S): Normative Values for 220 Swedish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannisson, Tove B.; Wennerfeldt, Susanna; Havstam, Christina; Naeslund, Maria; Jacobson, Kajsa; Lohmander, Anette

    2009-01-01

    Background: The risk of developing a negative attitude to communication as a consequence of having a speech disorder has been in focus for decades in research concerning fluency disorders in relation to both children and adults. The Communication Attitude Test (CAT), which was created to measure children's attitudes towards their own…

  10. COMPARISON OF PBDES IN CAT SERUM TO LEVELS IN CAT FOOD: EVIDENCE OF DECA DEBROMINATION?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Since the introduction of brominated flame retardants (such as the PBDEs), increases in feline hyperthyroidism have been observed. We hypothesized that PBDE exposure was linked to the increased occurrence of hyperthyroidism in cats. Herein, PBDEs in serum of pet ...

  11. Renal glomerular fibrosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, S; Shibata, S; Shirota, K; Abe, K; Uetsuka, K; Nakayama, H; Goto, N; Doi, K

    1996-11-01

    Renal glomerular fibrosis was observed in a 1-year-old spayed female Japanese domestic cat that showed clinically advanced renal failure. In the glomeruli, increased homogeneous materials were stained strongly with aniline blue by Masson's trichrome and positive for anti-type III collagen antibody by immunohistochemical staining, causing mesangial sclerosis and capillary collapse. By electron microscopy, randomly arranged fibrils were observed in the expanded subendothelial and mesangial areas, and the fibrils showed periodicity characteristic of collagen fibers in longitudinal sections. These findings of glomerular lesions closely resemble those of human "collagenofibrotic glomerulonephropathy," which has recently been described as a new type of glomerulonephropathy. PMID:8952029

  12. Osteochondrodysplasia in three Scottish Fold cats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jinhwa; Jung, Joohyun; Oh, Sunkyoung; Lee, Sungok; Kim, Gyeongmin; Kim, Haksang; Kweon, Ohkyeong; Yoon, Junghee; Choi, Mincheol

    2007-09-01

    This report explains typical radiographic features of Scottish Fold osteochondrodysplasia. Three Scottish Fold cats suffering from lameness were referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, Seoul National University, Korea. Based on the breed predisposition, history, clinical signs, physical examination, and radiographic findings, Scottish Fold osteochondrodysplasia was confirmed in three cases. Radiographic changes mainly included exostosis and secondary arthritis around affected joint lesions, and defective conformation in the phalanges and caudal vertebrae. The oral chondroprotective agents such as glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate make the patients alleviate their pain without adverse effects. PMID:17679781

  13. Error Generation in CATS-Based Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd

    2003-01-01

    This research presents a methodology for generating errors from a model of nominally preferred correct operator activities, given a particular operational context, and maintaining an explicit link to the erroneous contextual information to support analyses. It uses the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) model as the basis for error generation. This report describes how the process works, and how it may be useful for supporting agent-based system safety analyses. The report presents results obtained by applying the error-generation process and discusses implementation issues. The research is supported by the System-Wide Accident Prevention Element of the NASA Aviation Safety Program.

  14. Skin diseases of old dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Halliwell, R E

    1990-04-21

    The ageing process tends to predispose dogs and cats to certain skin diseases. Impaired immunosurveillance is believed to render the animals more susceptible to neoplasia which can affect any organ including the skin. Endocrinopathies are also more common in older animals. There are some diseases of internal organs which can affect the skin, and some of these tend to occur with increased frequency in old animals. Finally, seborrhoeic diseases are either more common in older animals, or become increasingly severe with age. PMID:2195753

  15. From Pedigree Cats to Fluffy-Bunnies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunningham, Jacob; Rau, Alexander; Burnett, Keith

    2005-02-01

    We consider two distinct classes of quantum mechanical entanglement. The first ``pedigree'' class consists of delicate highly entangled states, which hold great potential for use in future quantum technologies. By focusing on Schrödinger cat states, we demonstrate not only the possibilities these states hold but also the difficulties they present. The second ``fluffy-bunny'' class is made up of robust states that arise naturally as a result of measurements and interactions between particles. This class of entanglement may be responsible for the classical-like world we see around us.

  16. A comparison of lymphatic tissues from cats with spontaneous feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), cats with FIP virus infection but no FIP, and cats with no infection.

    PubMed

    Kipar, A; Köhler, K; Leukert, W; Reinacher, M

    2001-01-01

    Lymphatic tissues (spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, thymus) from 24 cats with spontaneous feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) were examined by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry for cellularity, cellular composition, and degree of cellular turnover. Additionally, the formation of granulomatous lesions in lymphatic tissues in cats with FIP was examined. For comparison, tissues from 14 specific pathogen-free (SPF) cats and seven cats infected with FIP virus (FIPV; as the result of long-term exposure) but free from FIP were examined. In cats with FIP, the precardial mediastinum (including site of the thymus) and mesenteric lymph node parenchyma were often affected by granulomatous-necrotizing processes. In general, lymphoid tissues showed T- and B-cell depletion, often including massive to complete thymic involution or atrophy. In some cases, the number of apoptotic lymphocytes was increased in lymphoid follicles as well as in T-cell zones. The number of macrophages was increased in the splenic red pulp. In contrast, the FIPV-exposed cats without FIP generally showed a distinct lymphoid hyperplasia. The findings indicated that the major difference in lymphatic tissues between FIPV-infected cats with FIP and those without FIP was the development of lymphocyte depletion in the first group and lymphocyte proliferation in the second. PMID:11578135

  17. Thyroglossal Duct Carcinoma in a Cat.

    PubMed

    Moorer, Jeremiah D; Breshears, Melanie A; Dugat, Danielle R

    2016-01-01

    A 14 yr old castrated domestic shorthair cat presented for a fluid-filled structure in the ventral cervical region that had been present for 1 yr and had not resolved after repeated aspiration and drainage. Cervical computed tomography showed an approximately 10 cm, fluid-filled, multilobulated mass located on the ventrolateral right side of the cervical region extending into the thoracic inlet. Cytologic examination of the fluid revealed cystic fluid with evidence of chronic hemorrhage. The mass was surgically removed, and histopathologic examination revealed a thyroglossal duct carcinoma. Thyroid and parathyroid gland origin were ruled out by negative immunohistochemical staining for thyroglobulin, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and synaptophysin. No adjunctive treatment was performed and no recurrence was noted at 14 mo. Thyroglossal duct carcinoma has not been previously reported in a cat. There are two previous reports of squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroglossal duct in dogs. In humans, with complete removal and no evidence of metastasis, carcinoma of the thyroglossal duct has a good prognosis for recovery. PMID:27259027

  18. Treatment with Suprelorin in a pregnant cat.

    PubMed

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra; Georgiev, Plamen; Atanasov, Anatoli; Wehrend, Axel

    2013-04-01

    Suppression of oestrus is of major interest in feral cat populations, but also in breeding queens temporarily not intended for breeding. Slow release gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist implants are a new off-label approach for reproduction control in cats. However, initially, oestrus induction may occur and no data exist regarding what happens if previously mated queens are treated. This case report presents a queen mismated 9 and 8 days before treatment with a 4.7 mg deslorelin implant. The queen delivered four healthy kittens 66 days after mismating, but showed no interest in the kittens and lactation was not adequate. Progesterone and oestradiol concentrations were monitored and the queen was followed until the return of oestrus and subsequent breeding. The next oestrus was observed 498 days after treatment and the queen was mated in the second oestrus afterwards, became pregnant and delivered two healthy kittens, both of which were raised successfully by the queen. This case report clearly shows that pregnancy following a GnRH-agonist implant may go to term, but maternal care might be influenced owing to hormonal changes induced by treatment. In addition, this is the first report demonstrating reversibility of effects induced by long-term treatment with a deslorelin implant (return to oestrus, fertility and normal maternal care). PMID:23186637

  19. Cat scratch disease: The story continues

    PubMed Central

    Opavsky, Mary Anne

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a perspective on the current state of knowledge of cat scratch disease (CSD), including the evidence for Bartonella henselae as the etiological agent, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the disease, available diagnostic tests and current therapeutic options. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE search of the literature published from 1966 to 1995 using ‘cat scratch disease’, ‘Bartonella henselae’, ‘Rochalimaea henselae’ as key words and bibliographies of selected papers. DATA EXTRACTION: Selected studies reporting data on etiology, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis and therapy of CSD were evaluated. DATA SYNTHESIS AND CONCLUSIONS: Evidence accumulated to date supports B henselae as the etiological agent of CSD. The most significant risk factors for CSD are being licked on the face, scratched or bitten by a kitten and owning a kitten with fleas. Available serological tests can confirm classic CSD and identify B henselae as the cause of more atypical presentations, such as fever of unknown origin, granulomatous hepatitis, encephalitis and osteomyelitis. Symptomatic management is appropriate for isolated lymphadenopathy caused by CSD in healthy individuals; however, antibiotic therapy may be indicated for patients with more severe manifestations of the disease and immunocompromised hosts. Further study of CSD, in particular the epidemiology and therapy, is warranted. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of B henselae infection will have important implications in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. PMID:22514476

  20. Electroencephalographic features of familial spontaneous epileptic cats.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Daisuke; Mizoguchi, Shunta; Kuwabara, Takayuki; Hamamoto, Yuji; Ogawa, Fukie; Matsuki, Naoaki; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Fujita, Michio

    2014-08-01

    A feline strain of familial spontaneous epileptic cats (FSECs) with typical limbic seizures was identified in 2010, and have been maintained as a novel animal model of genetic epilepsy. In this study, we characterized the electroencephalographic (EEG) features of FSECs. On scalp EEG under sedation, FSECs showed sporadic, but comparatively frequent interictal discharges dominantly in the uni- or bilateral temporal region. Bemegride activation was performed in order to evaluate the predisposition of epileptogenicity of FSECs. The threshold doses of the first paroxysmal discharge, clinical myoclonus and generalized convulsion in FSECs were significantly lower than those in control cats. Chronic video-intracranial EEG monitoring revealed subclinical or clinical focal seizures with secondarily generalization onset from the unilateral amygdala and/or hippocampus. Clinical generalized seizures were also recorded, but we were unable to detect the onset site. The results of the present study show that FSECs resemble not only feline kindling or the kainic acid model and El mouse, but also human familial or sporadic mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. In addition, our results indicate that FSECs are a natural and valuable model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:24893833

  1. Sarcocystis sp. encephalomyelitis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Bisby, Tricia M; Holman, Patricia J; Pitoc, George A; Packer, Rebecca A; Thompson, Craig A; Raskin, Rose E

    2010-03-01

    A 5-month-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for spinal pain, ataxia, and anisocoria. Neuroanatomic localization indicated diffuse or multifocal central nervous system disease. On cerebrospinal fluid analysis, neutrophilic pleocytosis and intracellular protozoal merozoites were observed. The merozoites were oval, 2-4 microm in width and 4-6 microm in length, and had linear arrays of nuclear material concentrated at one pole. Serum was positive for Sarcocystis sp. antibodies and negative for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The organism was determined to be either Sarcocystis neurona or Sarcocystis dasypi based on sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 ribosomal RNA genomic region. Clinical disease resolved following treatment with 3 different protocols for protozoal infection. This case is the first to demonstrate the antemortem diagnosis and survival of a domestic cat with Sarcocystis sp.-associated encephalomyelitis. Clinicians and cytopathologists should include Sarcocystis sp. as a differential for feline inflammatory central nervous system disease characterized by neutrophilic pleocytosis. PMID:19548967

  2. Systemic Trichosporon loubieri infection in a cat.

    PubMed

    Rissi, Daniel R; Kirby, Kerry D; Sanchez, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Our study describes a case of systemic Trichosporon loubieri infection in a cat with acute dyspnea, anorexia, and aggressiveness. Physical examination revealed multiple ulcerative cutaneous lesions on the abdomen, neck, and thorax. Thoracic radiographs and ultrasound showed multiple mediastinal nodules and marked pleural effusion, respectively. A cutaneous biopsy from the ulcerated wounds revealed necrogranulomatous dermatitis and panniculitis with numerous intralesional fungal hyphae. Fungal culture on fresh swab samples from the cutaneous lesions yielded growth of a fungal organism that was further identified as Trichosporon loubieri by PCR and DNA sequencing. The cat was subsequently euthanized and submitted to autopsy. Gross pathology changes consisted of multifocal to coalescing white nodules ranging from 5 to 10 mm in diameter that expanded the mediastinal fat, intrathoracic lymph nodes, lungs, and costal pleura. These lesions consisted of areas of necrogranulomatous inflammation with numerous intralesional fungal hyphae morphologically similar to those observed in the cutaneous biopsy sample. Gross and histologic changes were consistent with a systemic fungal infection, and the etiologic diagnosis was supported by fungal culture. Fungal identity was confirmed by DNA sequencing of D1-D2 and TS1 regions. PMID:27016724

  3. Hypo-osmotic test in cat spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Comercio, E A; Monachesi, N E; Loza, M E; Gambarotta, M; Wanke, M M

    2013-10-01

    The hypo-osmotic (HOS) test has been used in other species as an indicator of the fertilising capacity of spermatozoa. The aims of this study were to assess the response of domestic cat spermatozoa to the hypo-osmotic test, to determine the type of solution, concentration and time of incubation needed to obtain a maximum percentage of swelling, to correlate the selected combination with the percentages of progressive motility and to evaluate whether dilution of the ejaculate alters the results. Incubation for 30 and 45 min in solutions of fructose and of citrate of 50 and 100 mOsmol kg⁻¹ was evaluated. The highest percentage of swelling was obtained using the 50 mOsmol kg⁻¹ solution, and no significant differences were observed between the times of exposure to the solutions. A positive correlation was observed between the percentage of individual progressive motility and the percentage of sperm swelling in a 50 mOsmol kg⁻¹ fructose solution, with no significant differences being observed between raw and diluted semen samples. The results of this study suggest that the HOS test could be useful for evaluating membrane function in domestic cat spermatozoa, both in raw semen and in samples diluted in the EZ Mixin® commercial extender, and thus could be incorporated into routine semen evaluation protocols. PMID:22928866

  4. Deterministic Creation of Macroscopic Cat States

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Daniel; Twamley, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Despite current technological advances, observing quantum mechanical effects outside of the nanoscopic realm is extremely challenging. For this reason, the observation of such effects on larger scale systems is currently one of the most attractive goals in quantum science. Many experimental protocols have been proposed for both the creation and observation of quantum states on macroscopic scales, in particular, in the field of optomechanics. The majority of these proposals, however, rely on performing measurements, making them probabilistic. In this work we develop a completely deterministic method of macroscopic quantum state creation. We study the prototypical optomechanical Membrane In The Middle model and show that by controlling the membrane’s opacity, and through careful choice of the optical cavity initial state, we can deterministically create and grow the spatial extent of the membrane’s position into a large cat state. It is found that by using a Bose-Einstein condensate as a membrane high fidelity cat states with spatial separations of up to ∼300 nm can be achieved. PMID:26345157

  5. [Echocardiographic reference ranges of sedated cats].

    PubMed

    Dümmel, C; Neu, H; Hüttig, A; Failing, K

    1996-04-01

    The aim of this study was to get echocardiographic values of sedated healthy cats of the race European short hair for further reference. After the preliminary examinations checking on the state of health (anamnesis, general and special clinical examinations, ECG, X-ray of thorax and preparation of selected laboratory parameters), 74 sedated animals and additionally 33 cats without sedation were echocardiographically measured. For sedatives we used ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine in order to minimize defending movements of the animals and to reduce the heart rate, which facilitated the echocardiographical measurements. The covariance analysis of the measured values showed a statistically significant dependence on the weight. This did not hold for the two calculated values of the fractional shortening (FS) and the quotient of left atrium and aorta (LA/Ao), where the weight-dependence of each component was compensated by the calculation of the quotient. All stated weight-dependent reference values refer to an average bodyweight of 4.0 kg. A dependence on the age did not show in the covariance analysis. Due to the sedation, the diameter of the left atrium (LA) and the diameter of the left ventricular lumen in the diastole (LVDd) as well as the fractional shortening decreased significantly. PMID:8650689

  6. Deterministic Creation of Macroscopic Cat States.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Daniel; Twamley, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Despite current technological advances, observing quantum mechanical effects outside of the nanoscopic realm is extremely challenging. For this reason, the observation of such effects on larger scale systems is currently one of the most attractive goals in quantum science. Many experimental protocols have been proposed for both the creation and observation of quantum states on macroscopic scales, in particular, in the field of optomechanics. The majority of these proposals, however, rely on performing measurements, making them probabilistic. In this work we develop a completely deterministic method of macroscopic quantum state creation. We study the prototypical optomechanical Membrane In The Middle model and show that by controlling the membrane's opacity, and through careful choice of the optical cavity initial state, we can deterministically create and grow the spatial extent of the membrane's position into a large cat state. It is found that by using a Bose-Einstein condensate as a membrane high fidelity cat states with spatial separations of up to ∼300 nm can be achieved. PMID:26345157

  7. On the Trail of a Cosmic Cat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-01-01

    ESO has just released a stunning new image of the vast cloud known as the Cat's Paw Nebula or NGC 6334. This complex region of gas and dust, where numerous massive stars are born, lies near the heart of the Milky Way galaxy, and is heavily obscured by intervening dust clouds. Few objects in the sky have been as well named as the Cat's Paw Nebula, a glowing gas cloud resembling the gigantic pawprint of a celestial cat out on an errand across the Universe. British astronomer John Herschel first recorded NGC 6334 in 1837 during his stay in South Africa. Despite using one of the largest telescopes in the world at the time, Herschel seems to have only noted the brightest part of the cloud, seen here towards the lower left. NGC 6334 lies about 5500 light-years away in the direction of the constellation Scorpius (the Scorpion) and covers an area on the sky slightly larger than the full Moon. The whole gas cloud is about 50 light-years across. The nebula appears red because its blue and green light are scattered and absorbed more efficiently by material between the nebula and Earth. The red light comes predominantly from hydrogen gas glowing under the intense glare of hot young stars. NGC 6334 is one of the most active nurseries of massive stars in our galaxy and has been extensively studied by astronomers. The nebula conceals freshly minted brilliant blue stars - each nearly ten times the mass of our Sun and born in the last few million years. The region is also home to many baby stars that are buried deep in the dust, making them difficult to study. In total, the Cat's Paw Nebula could contain several tens of thousands of stars. Particularly striking is the red, intricate bubble in the lower right part of the image. This is most likely either a star expelling large amount of matter at high speed as it nears the end of its life or the remnant of a star that already has exploded. This new portrait of the Cat's Paw Nebula was created from images taken with the Wide Field

  8. European consensus statement on leptospirosis in dogs and cats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution affecting most mammalian species. Clinical leptospirosis is common in dogs but seems to be rare in cats. Both dogs and cats however, can shed leptospires in the urine. This is problematic as it can lead to exposure of humans. The control ...

  9. Using the Domestic Cat in the Teaching of Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnear, Judith F.

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on genetic concepts that form key components of transmission genetics and illustrates how the domestic cat can be used in the teaching of these concepts. Offers examples of how laboratory experiences with the cat can enhance student learning of genetics. (ML)

  10. Cats: their history and our evolving relationship with them.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Cats have had a long relationship with people, and their history as a domesticated animal can be traced back as far as 2000 BC. Delegates at a recent conference titled 'People, cats and vets through history' delved a little deeper into the changing nature of this relationship. Georgina Mills reports. PMID:27389749

  11. Bilateral congenital ureteral strictures in a young cat

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Namsoon; Choi, Mihyun; Keh, Seoyeon; Oh, Yein; Seo, Jimin; Choi, Heeyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Yoon, Junghee

    2014-01-01

    An 8-month-old cat was presented with bilateral hydronephrosis. Bilateral ureteral obstructions were identified by diagnostic imaging and confirmed by necropsy. Histopathologic findings revealed polypoid transitional epithelial hyperplasia with chronic lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. This report documents congenital ureteral strictures as a cause of ureteral obstruction in a young cat. PMID:25183890

  12. Multiple invasions of an infectious retrovirus in cat genomes

    PubMed Central

    Shimode, Sayumi; Nakagawa, So; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are remnants of ancient retroviral infections of host germ-line cells. While most ERVs are defective, some are active and express viral proteins. The RD-114 virus is a replication-competent feline ERV, and several feline cell lines produce infectious RD-114 viral particles. All domestic cats are considered to have an ERV locus encoding a replication-competent RD-114 virus in their genomes; however, the locus has not been identified. In this study, we investigated RD-114 virus-related proviral loci in genomes of domestic cats, and found that none were capable of producing infectious viruses. We also found that all domestic cats have an RD-114 virus-related sequence on chromosome C2, termed RDRS C2a, but populations of the other RDRSs are different depending on the regions where cats live or breed. Our results indicate that RDRS C2a, the oldest RD-114-related provirus, entered the host genome before an ancestor of domestic cats started diverging and the other new RDRSs might have integrated into migrating cats in Europe. We also show that infectious RD-114 virus can be resurrected by the recombination between two non-infectious RDRSs. From these data, we conclude that cats do not harbor infectious RD-114 viral loci in their genomes and RD-114-related viruses invaded cat genomes multiple times. PMID:25641657

  13. Cat-transmitted Sporotrichosis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Barros, Mônica Bastos de Lima; Wanke, Bodo

    2005-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is an emerging zoonosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From 1998 to 2003, 497 humans and 1,056 cats with culture-proven sporotrichosis were studied. A total of 421 patients, 67.4% with a history of a scratch or bite, reported contact with cats that had sporotrichosis. PMID:16485488

  14. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  15. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  16. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  17. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  18. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  19. EzCatDB: the enzyme reaction database, 2015 update.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Nozomi; Nakayama, Naoko; Ikeda, Kazuyoshi; Fukuie, Masaru; Yokota, Kiyonobu; Doi, Takuo; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Tomii, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    The EzCatDB database (http://ezcatdb.cbrc.jp/EzCatDB/) has emphasized manual classification of enzyme reactions from the viewpoints of enzyme active-site structures and their catalytic mechanisms based on literature information, amino acid sequences of enzymes (UniProtKB) and the corresponding tertiary structures from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Reaction types such as hydrolysis, transfer, addition, elimination, isomerization, hydride transfer and electron transfer have been included in the reaction classification, RLCP. This database includes information related to ligand molecules on the enzyme structures in the PDB data, classified in terms of cofactors, substrates, products and intermediates, which are also necessary to elucidate the catalytic mechanisms. Recently, the database system was updated. The 3D structures of active sites for each PDB entry can be viewed using Jmol or Rasmol software. Moreover, sequence search systems of two types were developed for the EzCatDB database: EzCat-BLAST and EzCat-FORTE. EzCat-BLAST is suitable for quick searches, adopting the BLAST algorithm, whereas EzCat-FORTE is more suitable for detecting remote homologues, adopting the algorithm for FORTE protein structure prediction software. Another system, EzMetAct, is also available to searching for major active-site structures in EzCatDB, for which PDB-formatted queries can be searched. PMID:25324316

  20. Overview of Practical Issues in a CAT Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has become increasingly common in large-scale testing programs. This paper considers relevant practical issues that are likely to be faced by the developers and managers of a CAT program. The first cluster of issues is that of item pool development and maintenance. It includes such considerations as item pool…

  1. CatSper channel, sperm function and male fertility.

    PubMed

    Singh, Akhand Pratap; Rajender, Singh

    2015-01-01

    A number of physiological events, such as sperm hyperactivation, chemotaxis towards the egg, capacitation and acrosome reaction, are triggered by activation of sperm ion channels in response to a diverse range of chemical cues. Cation channel of sperm (CatSper), a sperm-specific ion channel, is unique in orchestrating the events for fertilization, and seems to be exclusively evolved for sperm function and male fertility. CatSper acts as a polymodal, chemosensory calcium channel and plays a vital role in the regulation of sperm hyperactivation. CatSper knockout models and application of patch clamp recordings have shown that it is indispensable for male fertility, and mutations and deletions in CatSper gene(s) may lead to infertility. In fact, mutations in CatSper1 and 2 have been identified in infertile individuals; however, CatSper3 and 4 have not been explored. Restricted localization and expression of CatSper in sperm offer an added advantage to developing gamete-based safe non-hormonal contraceptives. This review concisely covers identification, structure, function, and mechanism of action of CatSper channels. The functional importance of this complex ion channel in sperm motility and male fertility is highlighted for further research on male fertility, infertility, and contraception. PMID:25457194

  2. The evolution of the knowledge of cat and dog coccidia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Before the discovery of Toxoplasma gondii as a coccidium of the cat in 1970, cat and dog coccidia were classified in the genus Isospora and considered of little clinical or zoonotic significance. Since 1970, several new (Hammondia sp., Neospora sp.) and previously described species, including Sarcoc...

  3. Multiple invasions of an infectious retrovirus in cat genomes.

    PubMed

    Shimode, Sayumi; Nakagawa, So; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are remnants of ancient retroviral infections of host germ-line cells. While most ERVs are defective, some are active and express viral proteins. The RD-114 virus is a replication-competent feline ERV, and several feline cell lines produce infectious RD-114 viral particles. All domestic cats are considered to have an ERV locus encoding a replication-competent RD-114 virus in their genomes; however, the locus has not been identified. In this study, we investigated RD-114 virus-related proviral loci in genomes of domestic cats, and found that none were capable of producing infectious viruses. We also found that all domestic cats have an RD-114 virus-related sequence on chromosome C2, termed RDRS C2a, but populations of the other RDRSs are different depending on the regions where cats live or breed. Our results indicate that RDRS C2a, the oldest RD-114-related provirus, entered the host genome before an ancestor of domestic cats started diverging and the other new RDRSs might have integrated into migrating cats in Europe. We also show that infectious RD-114 virus can be resurrected by the recombination between two non-infectious RDRSs. From these data, we conclude that cats do not harbor infectious RD-114 viral loci in their genomes and RD-114-related viruses invaded cat genomes multiple times. PMID:25641657

  4. CatReg Software for Categorical Regression Analysis (Nov 2006)

    EPA Science Inventory

    CatReg is a computer program, written in the R (http://cran.r-project.org) programming language, to support the conduct of exposure-response analyses by toxicologists and health scientists. CatReg can be used to perform categorical regressi...

  5. CatReg Software for Categorical Regression Analysis (Jul 2012)

    EPA Science Inventory

    CatReg is a computer program, written in the R (http://cran.r-project.org) programming language, to support the conduct of exposure-response analyses by toxicologists and health scientists. CatReg can be used to perform categorical regressi...

  6. CatReg Software for Categorical Regression Analysis (Feb 2011)

    EPA Science Inventory

    CatReg is a computer program, written in the R (http://cran.r-project.org) programming language, to support the conduct of exposure-response analyses by toxicologists and health scientists. CatReg can be used to perform categorical regressi...

  7. Isolation of Actinobacillus suis from a cat's lung.

    PubMed Central

    Daignault, D; Chouinard, L; Møller, K; Ahrens, P; Messier, S; Higgins, R

    1999-01-01

    Actinobacillus suis has been isolated from the lungs of 9-month-old cat. The bacterium was characterized biochemically as well as genetically, and its sensitivity profile to different antimicrobial agents was established. The role of this isolate in the cat's condition is discussed. PMID:9919368

  8. "catR": An R Package for Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magis, David; Raiche, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is an active current research field in psychometrics and educational measurement. However, there is very little software available to handle such adaptive tasks. The R package "catR" was developed to perform adaptive testing with as much flexibility as possible, in an attempt to provide a developmental and…

  9. Zoonotic diseases associated with free-roaming cats.

    PubMed

    Gerhold, R W; Jessup, D A

    2013-05-01

    Free-roaming cat populations have been identified as a significant public health threat and are a source for several zoonotic diseases including rabies, toxoplasmosis, cutaneous larval migrans because of various nematode parasites, plague, tularemia and murine typhus. Several of these diseases are reported to cause mortality in humans and can cause other important health issues including abortion, blindness, pruritic skin rashes and other various symptoms. A recent case of rabies in a young girl from California that likely was transmitted by a free-roaming cat underscores that free-roaming cats can be a source of zoonotic diseases. Increased attention has been placed on trap-neuter-release (TNR) programmes as a viable tool to manage cat populations. However, some studies have shown that TNR leads to increased immigration of unneutered cats into neutered populations as well as increased kitten survival in neutered groups. These compensatory mechanisms in neutered groups leading to increased kitten survival and immigration would confound rabies vaccination campaigns and produce naïve populations of cats that can serve as source of zoonotic disease agents owing to lack of immunity. This manuscript is a review of the various diseases of free-roaming cats and the public health implications associated with the cat populations. PMID:22830565

  10. SEROPREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII ANTIBODIES IN CATS FROM PENNSLYVANIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was determined in sera from 122 domestic cats from Bensalem, Pennsylvania. Using a modified agglutination test, antibodies to this parasite were found in 25 (20.4%) of the 122 cats with titers of 1:25 in 1, 1:50 in 4, 1:100 in 6, 1:200 in 3, 1:400...

  11. Prevalence of enterococci from dogs and cats in the US.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contribution of dogs and cats as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant enterococci remains largely undefined. This is increasingly important considering the possibility of transfer of bacteria from companion animals to the human host. In this study, dogs and cats from veterinary clinics were s...

  12. Glenoid dysplasia and osteochondritis dissecans in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Schwarze, Rebecca A.; Tano, Cheryl A.; Carroll, Vincent W.

    2015-01-01

    A 2-year-old Maine coon cat was presented for a right forelimb lameness. Computed tomography of the shoulder revealed a shallow glenoid, osteophyte deposition at the caudal humeral head and medial glenoid, and an intra-articular osseous body. This cat had glenoid dysplasia and osteochondritis dissecans of the glenoid. PMID:26130839

  13. SEROLOGIC RESPONSES OF CATS AGAINST EXPERIMENTAL SARCOCYSTIS NEURONA INFECTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sarcocystis neurona is the most important cause of a neurologic disease of horses, equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Cats and other carnivores can act as its intermediate hosts and horses are aberrant hosts. Little is known of the sero-epidemiology of S. neurona infections in cats. In the...

  14. Toxoplasmosis and other intestinal coccidial infections in cats and dogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much needs to be learned concerning the pathogenesis of clinical coccidiosis in dogs. Why does coccidiosis occurs after shipping, and nothing is known of biologic differences among isolates of Isospora species of dogs and cats. Transmission of Isospora felis in cats in breeding colonies despite of s...

  15. Microcomputer Network for Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT): Program Listing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quan, Baldwin; And Others

    This program listing is a supplement to the Microcomputer Network for Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT). The driver textfile program allows access to major subprograms of the CAT project. The test administration textfile program gives examinees a prescribed set of subtests. The parameter management textfile program establishes a file containing…

  16. Visual discrimination learning under switching procedure in visually deprived cats.

    PubMed

    Zernicki, B

    1999-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that fine visual discrimination learning is severely impaired in cats binocularly deprived in the early period of life (BD cats) and also somewhat in control cats reared with open eyes in the limited laboratory environment (C cats) compared with cats reared in a normal rural environment (N cats). It was concluded that visual deprivation impairs perceptual learning. In the present study discriminative stimuli were dissimilar and so the task was perceptually easy, but using a switching procedure made it associatively difficult. In regular trials a gate with a grating pattern was positive and a blank gate negative, whereas in switching trials the meaning of the gates was reversed. The switching stimulus was intermittent light in some stages of training and intermittent tone in others. Learning was severely impaired in BD cats and somewhat in C cats and the deficit was similar under visual and auditory switching. Thus, early visual deprivation impairs associative learning. The impairment probably includes associations between switching stimulus and instrumental responses and configural associations between switching stimulus and discriminative stimuli. PMID:10212071

  17. Local Dependence in an Operational CAT: Diagnosis and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pommerich, Mary; Segall, Daniel O.

    2008-01-01

    The accuracy of CAT scores can be negatively affected by local dependence if the CAT utilizes parameters that are misspecified due to the presence of local dependence and/or fails to control for local dependence in responses during the administration stage. This article evaluates the existence and effect of local dependence in a test of…

  18. Haemorrhage in seven cats with suspected anticoagulant rodenticide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kohn, B; Weingart, C; Giger, U

    2003-10-01

    Clinical features were evaluated in seven adult cats (six males, one female) with haemorrhage and presumptive anticoagulant rodenticide intoxication. Haemorrhage appeared as thoracic haemorrhage, otic bleeding, haematoma, melena, haematochezia, and petechiation. The most common other presenting signs were lethargy, anorexia, and tachypnoea or dyspnoea. Six cats were anaemic, four cats were mildly thrombocytopenic (58000-161000/ microL), and three had slightly decreased plasma protein or albumin values. The prothrombin time (30.3->100 s, reference range: 16.5-27.5 s) and activated partial thromboplastin time values (32.6->100 s; reference range: 14-25 s) were markedly prolonged in all cats. All cats received vitamin K(1)subcutaneously or orally (3.7-5 mg/kg body weight initially) and depending on severity of signs five cats were transfused with fresh whole blood. Plasma coagulation times improved in all cats and returned to normal in 1-5 days. Rodenticide poisons represent an important but relatively rare cause of haemorrhage in cats and can be effectively treated. PMID:12948505

  19. 33 CFR 117.1001 - Cat Point Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cat Point Creek. 117.1001 Section 117.1001 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1001 Cat Point Creek. The draw of...

  20. 33 CFR 117.1001 - Cat Point Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cat Point Creek. 117.1001 Section 117.1001 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1001 Cat Point Creek. The draw of...

  1. 33 CFR 117.1001 - Cat Point Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cat Point Creek. 117.1001 Section 117.1001 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1001 Cat Point Creek. The draw of...

  2. 33 CFR 117.1001 - Cat Point Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cat Point Creek. 117.1001 Section 117.1001 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1001 Cat Point Creek. The draw of...

  3. 33 CFR 117.1001 - Cat Point Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cat Point Creek. 117.1001 Section 117.1001 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1001 Cat Point Creek. The draw of...

  4. Extraterritorial hunting expeditions to intense fire scars by feral cats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, Hugh W.; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E.; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2016-03-01

    Feral cats are normally territorial in Australia’s tropical savannahs, and hunt intensively with home-ranges only two to three kilometres across. Here we report that they also undertake expeditions of up to 12.5 km from their home ranges to hunt for short periods over recently burned areas. Cats are especially likely to travel to areas burned at high intensity, probably in response to vulnerability of prey soon after such fires. The movements of journeying cats are highly directed to specific destinations. We argue that the effect of this behaviour is to increase the aggregate impact of cats on vulnerable prey. This has profound implications for conservation, considering the ubiquity of feral cats and global trends of intensified fire regimes.

  5. A Schrödinger cat living in two boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Gao, Yvonne Y.; Reinhold, Philip; Heeres, R. W.; Ofek, Nissim; Chou, Kevin; Axline, Christopher; Reagor, Matthew; Blumoff, Jacob; Sliwa, K. M.; Frunzio, L.; Girvin, S. M.; Jiang, Liang; Mirrahimi, M.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2016-05-01

    Quantum superpositions of distinct coherent states in a single-mode harmonic oscillator, known as “cat states,” have been an elegant demonstration of Schrödinger’s famous cat paradox. Here, we realize a two-mode cat state of electromagnetic fields in two microwave cavities bridged by a superconducting artificial atom, which can also be viewed as an entangled pair of single-cavity cat states. We present full quantum state tomography of this complex cat state over a Hilbert space exceeding 100 dimensions via quantum nondemolition measurements of the joint photon number parity. The ability to manipulate such multicavity quantum states paves the way for logical operations between redundantly encoded qubits for fault-tolerant quantum computation and communication.

  6. A Schrödinger cat living in two boxes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Gao, Yvonne Y; Reinhold, Philip; Heeres, R W; Ofek, Nissim; Chou, Kevin; Axline, Christopher; Reagor, Matthew; Blumoff, Jacob; Sliwa, K M; Frunzio, L; Girvin, S M; Jiang, Liang; Mirrahimi, M; Devoret, M H; Schoelkopf, R J

    2016-05-27

    Quantum superpositions of distinct coherent states in a single-mode harmonic oscillator, known as "cat states," have been an elegant demonstration of Schrödinger's famous cat paradox. Here, we realize a two-mode cat state of electromagnetic fields in two microwave cavities bridged by a superconducting artificial atom, which can also be viewed as an entangled pair of single-cavity cat states. We present full quantum state tomography of this complex cat state over a Hilbert space exceeding 100 dimensions via quantum nondemolition measurements of the joint photon number parity. The ability to manipulate such multicavity quantum states paves the way for logical operations between redundantly encoded qubits for fault-tolerant quantum computation and communication. PMID:27230374

  7. Extraterritorial hunting expeditions to intense fire scars by feral cats

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Hugh W.; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E.; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2016-01-01

    Feral cats are normally territorial in Australia’s tropical savannahs, and hunt intensively with home-ranges only two to three kilometres across. Here we report that they also undertake expeditions of up to 12.5 km from their home ranges to hunt for short periods over recently burned areas. Cats are especially likely to travel to areas burned at high intensity, probably in response to vulnerability of prey soon after such fires. The movements of journeying cats are highly directed to specific destinations. We argue that the effect of this behaviour is to increase the aggregate impact of cats on vulnerable prey. This has profound implications for conservation, considering the ubiquity of feral cats and global trends of intensified fire regimes. PMID:26932268

  8. Diagnosis of congenital and adult-onset hypothyroidism in cats.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2006-02-01

    Whereas hyperthyroidism is the most common endocrine disorder in the cat, hypothyroidism is the least common feline endocrine disorder. This is a the result of several factors including low index of suspicion, rarity of the naturally occurring hypothyroidism in cats, and a lack of species specific tests for endogenous TSH and antithyroglobulin antibodies. Nonetheless, hypothyroidism does occur in cats, especially in kittens and after radioactive treatment for hyperthyroidism. The clinician should become familiar with the common presentations of congenital and adult-onset hypothyroidism in cats. In addition, some of the tests specific to dogs (such as endogenous canine TSH) may be utilized to diagnose subclinical hypothyroidism in cats. Fortunately, the treatment of feline hypothyroidism with synthetic levothyroxine is both straightforward and effective. PMID:16584030

  9. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in wild Pallas' cats.

    PubMed

    Brown, Meredith A; Munkhtsog, Bariushaa; Troyer, Jennifer L; Ross, Steve; Sellers, Rani; Fine, Amanda E; Swanson, William F; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2010-03-15

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a feline lentivirus related to HIV, causes immune dysfunction in domestic and wild cats. The Pallas' cat is the only species from Asia known to harbor a species-specific strain of FIV designated FIV(Oma) in natural populations. Here, a 25% seroprevalence of FIV is reported from 28 wild Mongolian Pallas' cats sampled from 2000 to 2008. Phylogenetic analysis of proviral RT-Pol from eight FIV(Oma) isolates from Mongolia, Russia, China and Kazakhstan reveals a unique monophyletic lineage of the virus within the Pallas' cat population, most closely related to the African cheetah and leopard FIV strains. Histopathological examination of lymph node and spleen from infected and uninfected Pallas' cats suggests that FIV(Oma) causes immune depletion in its' native host. PMID:19926144

  10. Investigation of Bartonella henselae in cats in Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Celebi, B; Kilic, S; Aydin, N; Tarhan, G; Carhan, A; Babur, C

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine Bartonella henselae prevalance in cats in Ankara. Whole bloods and sera collected from 256 cats were investigated for the presence feline Bartonella species by culture and sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against B. henselae IgG using immunofluorescence assay. Bartonella species were isolated by blood culture from 24 (9.4%) cats. Bartonella isolates were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) by using TaqI and HhaI endonucleases to identify species. Twenty-one isolates were determined as B. henselae and three of 24 isolates were determined as Bartonella clarridgeiae with RFLP. The bacteraemia prevalence and seroprevalence of B. henselae IgG antibodies in cats was detected as 8.2% and 18.6% respectively. This is the first report on B. henselea and B. clarridgeiae in cats in Turkey. PMID:18990198

  11. Extraterritorial hunting expeditions to intense fire scars by feral cats.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Hugh W; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E; Johnson, Christopher N

    2016-01-01

    Feral cats are normally territorial in Australia's tropical savannahs, and hunt intensively with home-ranges only two to three kilometres across. Here we report that they also undertake expeditions of up to 12.5 km from their home ranges to hunt for short periods over recently burned areas. Cats are especially likely to travel to areas burned at high intensity, probably in response to vulnerability of prey soon after such fires. The movements of journeying cats are highly directed to specific destinations. We argue that the effect of this behaviour is to increase the aggregate impact of cats on vulnerable prey. This has profound implications for conservation, considering the ubiquity of feral cats and global trends of intensified fire regimes. PMID:26932268

  12. Recent developments in nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs in cats.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Gwendolyn L; Simonson, Stephanie M

    2005-01-01

    Pain, particularly chronic pain, is an underestimated ailment in cats. Veterinarians tend to under-diagnose and under-treat pain in this aloof and stoic species. Until recently, there was only one analgesic (i.e., butorphanol) approved in the United States for use in cats; but many analgesics, particularly opioids, have been used extra-label for this purpose. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been used sparingly in cats because of safety concerns, which are less of an issue with the newer agents. Meloxicam is the only NSAID labeled for use in cats in the United States, but other agents are available in this country and are labeled for use in cats in other countries. PMID:16267058

  13. Cat and Dog Exposure and Respiratory Morbidities in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Christopher B.; Raraigh, Karen S.; Green, Deanna M.; Blackman, Scott M.; Cutting, Garry R.; Collaco, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the triggers that may impact respiratory health in cystic fibrosis (CF), including the effects of pets, because environmental factors contribute to one-half of the variation in lung function in patients with CF. Study design A total of 703 subjects with CF were recruited through the U.S. CF Twin-Sibling Study. Questionnaires were used to determine the presence/absence of cats and dogs in households with a child with CF. Questionnaires, chart review, and U.S. CF Foundation Patient Registry data were used to track respiratory and infection outcomes. Results Within the sample 47% of subjects reported owning a dog, and 28% reported owning a cat. After adjustment for demographic factors, dog ownership was not associated with any adverse clinical outcomes, and cat ownership was associated an increased risk in developing nasal polyps (adjusted OR 1.66; p=0.024) compared with non-cat owners. Subjects who owned both cats and dogs were twice as likely to report wheezing compared with other subjects (adjusted OR: 2.01; p=0.009). There were no differences in prevalence and age of acquisition for the common CF respiratory pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus between cat/dog owners and non-cat/dog owners. Conclusions Cat ownership was associated with a higher frequency of developing nasal polyps and combined cat-dog ownership was associated with a higher rate of wheezing. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these associations and the potential psychosocial benefits of cat and/or dog ownership. PMID:25027361

  14. What's inside your cat's head? A review of cat (Felis silvestris catus) cognition research past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Vitale Shreve, Kristyn R; Udell, Monique A R

    2015-11-01

    The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) has shared an intertwined existence with humans for thousands of years, living on our city streets and in our homes. Yet, little scientific research has focused on the cognition of the domestic cat, especially in comparison with human's other companion, the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris). This review surveys the current status of several areas of cat cognition research including perception, object permanence, memory, physical causality, quantity and time discrimination, cats' sensitivity to human cues, vocal recognition and communication, attachment bonds, personality, and cognitive health. Although interest in cat cognition is growing, we still have a long way to go until we have an inclusive body of research on the subject. Therefore, this review also identifies areas where future research must be conducted. In addition to the scientific value of future work in this area, future research on cat cognition could have an important influence on the management and welfare of pet and free-roaming cats, leading to improved human-cat interactions. PMID:26154131

  15. Relationship between the Presence of Bartonella Species and Bacterial Loads in Cats and Cat Fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) under Natural Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit

    2015-01-01

    Cats are considered the main reservoir of three zoonotic Bartonella species: Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, and Bartonella koehlerae. Cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) have been experimentally demonstrated to be a competent vector of B. henselae and have been proposed as the potential vector of the two other Bartonella species. Previous studies have reported a lack of association between the Bartonella species infection status (infected or uninfected) and/or bacteremia levels of cats and the infection status of the fleas they host. Nevertheless, to date, no study has compared the quantitative distributions of these bacteria in both cats and their fleas under natural conditions. Thus, the present study explored these relationships by identifying and quantifying the different Bartonella species in both cats and their fleas. Therefore, EDTA-blood samples and fleas collected from stray cats were screened for Bartonella bacteria. Bacterial loads were quantified by high-resolution melt real-time quantitative PCR assays. The results indicated a moderate correlation between the Bartonella bacterial loads in the cats and their fleas when both were infected with the same Bartonella species. Moreover, a positive effect of the host infection status on the Bartonella bacterial loads of the fleas was observed. Conversely, the cat bacterial loads were not affected by the infection status of their fleas. Our results suggest that the Bartonella bacterial loads of fleas are positively affected by the presence of the bacteria in their feline host, probably by multiple acquisitions/accumulation and/or multiplication events. PMID:26070666

  16. Reasons People Surrender Unowned and Owned Cats to Australian Animal Shelters and Barriers to Assuming Ownership of Unowned Cats.

    PubMed

    Zito, Sarah; Morton, John; Vankan, Dianne; Paterson, Mandy; Bennett, Pauleen C; Rand, Jacquie; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-01-01

    Most cats surrendered to nonhuman animal shelters are identified as unowned, and the surrender reason for these cats is usually simply recorded as "stray." A cross-sectional study was conducted with people surrendering cats to 4 Australian animal shelters. Surrenderers of unowned cats commonly gave surrender reasons relating to concern for the cat and his/her welfare. Seventeen percent of noncaregivers had considered adopting the cat. Barriers to assuming ownership most commonly related to responsible ownership concerns. Unwanted kittens commonly contributed to the decision to surrender for both caregivers and noncaregivers. Nonowners gave more surrender reasons than owners, although many owners also gave multiple surrender reasons. These findings highlight the multifactorial nature of the decision-making process leading to surrender and demonstrate that recording only one reason for surrender does not capture the complexity of the surrender decision. Collecting information about multiple reasons for surrender, particularly reasons for surrender of unowned cats and barriers to assuming ownership, could help to develop strategies to reduce the number of cats surrendered. PMID:27045191

  17. Kinematic analysis of reaching in the cat.

    PubMed

    Martin, J H; Cooper, S E; Ghez, C

    1995-01-01

    The present study examines the kinematic features of forelimb movements made by cats reaching for food in horizontal target wells located at different heights and distances. Wrist paths consisted of two relatively straight segments joined at a "via-point" in front of the aperture of the food well. In the initial lift phase, the paw was raised to the via-point in front of the target. In the second, or thrust phase, the paw was directed forward into the food well. During the lift, the paw was moved toward the target primarily by elbow flexion, accompanied by a sequence of biphasic shoulder and wrist movements. Thrust was accomplished primarily by shoulder flexion while the wrist and the paw were maintained at near-constant angles. The animals varied the height of the reach primarily by varying elbow flexion with proportional changes in elbow angular velocity and angular acceleration and with corresponding variations in wrist speed. Thus, cats reached for targets at different heights by scaling a common kinematic profile. Over a relatively large range of target heights, animals maintained movement duration constant, according to a simple "pulse-height" control strategy (isochronous scaling). For reaches to a given target height, animals compensated for variability in peak acceleration by variations in movement time. We examined the coordination between the shoulder and the wrist with the elbow. Early during the lift, peak shoulder extensor and peak elbow flexor accelerations were synchronized. Late during the lift phase, wrist extensor acceleration was found to occur during the period of elbow flexor deceleration. We hypothesize that these linkages could, in part, be due to passive mechanical interactions. To determine how the angular trajectories of the different joints were organized in relation to target location, we plotted joint kinematic changes directly on the wrist and MCP joint paths. These plots revealed that for all target heights and movement speeds, wrist

  18. Coupled Aerodynamic-Thermal-Structural (CATS) Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Coupled Aerodynamic-Thermal-Structural (CATS) Analysis is a focused effort within the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) program to streamline multidisciplinary analysis of aeropropulsion components and assemblies. Multidisciplinary analysis of axial-flow compressor performance has been selected for the initial focus of this project. CATS will permit more accurate compressor system analysis by enabling users to include thermal and mechanical effects as an integral part of the aerodynamic analysis of the compressor primary flowpath. Thus, critical details, such as the variation of blade tip clearances and the deformation of the flowpath geometry, can be more accurately modeled and included in the aerodynamic analyses. The benefits of this coupled analysis capability are (1) performance and stall line predictions are improved by the inclusion of tip clearances and hot geometries, (2) design alternatives can be readily analyzed, and (3) higher fidelity analysis by researchers in various disciplines is possible. The goals for this project are a 10-percent improvement in stall margin predictions and a 2:1 speed-up in multidisciplinary analysis times. Working cooperatively with Pratt & Whitney, the Lewis CATS team defined the engineering processes and identified the software products necessary for streamlining these processes. The basic approach is to integrate the aerodynamic, thermal, and structural computational analyses by using data management and Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) based data mapping. Five software products have been defined for this task: (1) a primary flowpath data mapper, (2) a two-dimensional data mapper, (3) a database interface, (4) a blade structural pre- and post-processor, and (5) a computational fluid dynamics code for aerothermal analysis of the drum rotor. Thus far (1) a cooperative agreement has been established with Pratt & Whitney, (2) a Primary Flowpath Data Mapper has been prototyped and delivered to General Electric

  19. Feline immunodeficiency virus testing in stray, feral, and client-owned cats of Ottawa.

    PubMed

    Little, Susan E

    2005-10-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) seroprevalence is evaluated in 3 groups of cats. Seventy-four unowned urban strays were tested, as well as 20 cats from a small feral cat colony, and 152 client-owned cats. Of the 246 cats tested, 161 (65%) were male and 85 (35%) were female. Seroprevalence for FIV was 23% in the urban strays, 5% in the feral cat colony, and 5.9% in the client-owned cats. Ten cats (4%) were also positive for Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, including 2 cats coinfected with FeLV and FIV. Seroprevalence for FIV in cats from Ottawa is similar to that found in other nonrandom studies of cats in North America. PMID:16454381

  20. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Very little is known regarding the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in companion animals. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms. Most studies of thoracic neoplasia have focused on the pathology of primary and metastatic neoplasms of the lung with little attention given to diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Although the cited incidence rate for primary respiratory tract neoplasia is low, 8.5 cases per 100,000 dogs and 5.5 cases per 100,000 cats, intrathoracic masses often attract attention out of proportion to their actual importance since they are often readily visualized on routine thoracic radiographs.

  1. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in a young cat.

    PubMed

    Asano, Tomoko; Tsukamoto, Atsushi; Ohno, Koichi; Ogihara, Kikumi; Kamiie, Junichi; Shirota, Kinji

    2008-12-01

    A 9-month-old male Japanese domestic cat showed pleural effusion, ascites, azotemia, hypoproteinemia and severe proteinuria. Histopathology of the percutaneous renal biopsy specimen revealed that all glomeruli showed intense mesangial hypercellularity with an increased mesangial matrix and thickening of the capillary walls, resulting in lobular accentuation of the glomerular tufts. Frequent duplication of the capillary walls was also observed. Immunostaining for alpha-smooth muscle actin distinctly revealed mesangial interposition. Diffuse global and linear deposition of C3 and IgG was observed mostly along the peripheral capillary loops. Electron microscopy confirmed frequent circumferential mesangial interposition and subendothelial dense-deposits in the glomerulus. The glomerular lesion was consistent with human membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type I, and might be a rare case that developed at young age. PMID:19122409

  2. Parasite meningomyelitis in cats in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Rodolfo; Matto, Carolina; Adrien, María de Lourdes; Nan, Fernando; Bell, Todd; Gardiner, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Two outbreaks of progressive hind limb paresis in cats (Felis catus) caused by parasitic meningomyelitis in Uruguay are reported. The case studies occurred in 2008 and 2009 respectively, in the rural areas of Fray Bentos (33° 07' 40.39'' S) and were characterized by hindquarter paralysis. This paralysis was progressive and had a chronic progression of approximately 12 months until the death or euthanasia of the animals. Clinical symptoms started with ataxia of the hindquarters with lateral side-to-side swaying and culminated in total paralysis. Two animals were sent for necropsy in 2009. The main histopathological findings were severe myelitis in the lumbar spinal cord with perivascular cuffing and white matter necrosis, severe nonsuppurative meningitis with thrombi in subarachnoid blood vessels, and intravascular presence of multiple adult parasites. From the morphological characteristics of the parasites and location in the leptomeninges, the parasite was identified as the nematode Gurltia paralysans. PMID:21961761

  3. AAHA anesthesia guidelines for dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Bednarski, Richard; Grimm, Kurt; Harvey, Ralph; Lukasik, Victoria M; Penn, W Sean; Sargent, Brett; Spelts, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Safe and effective anesthesia of dogs and cats rely on preanesthetic patient assessment and preparation. Patients should be premedicated with drugs that provide sedation and analgesia prior to anesthetic induction with drugs that allow endotracheal intubation. Maintenance is typically with a volatile anesthetic such as isoflurane or sevoflurane delivered via an endotracheal tube. In addition, local anesthetic nerve blocks; epidural administration of opioids; and constant rate infusions of lidocaine, ketamine, and opioids are useful to enhance analgesia. Cardiovascular, respiratory, and central nervous system functions are continuously monitored so that anesthetic depth can be modified as needed. Emergency drugs and equipment, as well as an action plan for their use, should be available throughout the perianesthetic period. Additionally, intravenous access and crystalloid or colloids are administered to maintain circulating blood volume. Someone trained in the detection of recovery abnormalities should monitor patients throughout recovery. Postoperatively attention is given to body temperature, level of sedation, and appropriate analgesia. PMID:22058343

  4. EPSP depression following neocortical seizures in cat.

    PubMed

    Nita, Dragos A; Cissé, Youssouf; Timofeev, Igor

    2008-04-01

    To study the possible mechanism(s) underlying unresponsiveness following neocortical seizures, we recorded excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) of cortical neurons evoked by ipsilateral cortical stimulation before and after spontaneous or elicited seizures. Regular-spiking neurons (n = 32) were intracellularly recorded in association area five of cats under ketamine-xylazine or barbiturate anesthesia. Compared with control responses, cortically evoked EPSPs were characterized by decreased amplitude after electrographic seizures. Synaptic responses and intrinsic properties were measured by applying extracellular electrical stimuli followed by intracellular hyperpolarizing current pulses. The input resistance decreased during seizures but quickly recovered to control level after the paroxysms, whereas the amplitude of evoked EPSPs remained lower following seizures, generally for 2-12 min, suggesting that the decreased EPSPs were not due to an alteration of intrinsic response. Data demonstrate a long-lasting decreased synaptic responsiveness following generalized spike-wave seizures slowly recovering in time. PMID:18031546

  5. Stabilization of cat paw trajectory during locomotion.

    PubMed

    Klishko, Alexander N; Farrell, Bradley J; Beloozerova, Irina N; Latash, Mark L; Prilutsky, Boris I

    2014-09-15

    We investigated which of cat limb kinematic variables during swing of regular walking and accurate stepping along a horizontal ladder are stabilized by coordinated changes of limb segment angles. Three hypotheses were tested: 1) animals stabilize the entire swing trajectory of specific kinematic variables (performance variables); and 2) the level of trajectory stabilization is similar between regular and ladder walking and 3) is higher for forelimbs compared with hindlimbs. We used the framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis to quantify the structure of variance of limb kinematics in the limb segment orientation space across steps. Two components of variance were quantified for each potential performance variable, one of which affected it ("bad variance," variance orthogonal to the UCM, VORT) while the other one did not ("good variance," variance within the UCM, VUCM). The analysis of five candidate performance variables revealed that cats during both locomotor behaviors stabilize 1) paw vertical position during the entire swing (VUCM > VORT, except in mid-hindpaw swing of ladder walking) and 2) horizontal paw position in initial and terminal swing (except for the entire forepaw swing of regular walking). We also found that the limb length was typically stabilized in midswing, whereas limb orientation was not (VUCM ≤ VORT) for both limbs and behaviors during entire swing. We conclude that stabilization of paw position in early and terminal swing enables accurate and stable locomotion, while stabilization of vertical paw position in midswing helps paw clearance. This study is the first to demonstrate the applicability of the UCM-based analysis to nonhuman movement. PMID:24899676

  6. Stabilization of cat paw trajectory during locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Klishko, Alexander N.; Farrell, Bradley J.; Beloozerova, Irina N.; Latash, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated which of cat limb kinematic variables during swing of regular walking and accurate stepping along a horizontal ladder are stabilized by coordinated changes of limb segment angles. Three hypotheses were tested: 1) animals stabilize the entire swing trajectory of specific kinematic variables (performance variables); and 2) the level of trajectory stabilization is similar between regular and ladder walking and 3) is higher for forelimbs compared with hindlimbs. We used the framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis to quantify the structure of variance of limb kinematics in the limb segment orientation space across steps. Two components of variance were quantified for each potential performance variable, one of which affected it (“bad variance,” variance orthogonal to the UCM, VORT) while the other one did not (“good variance,” variance within the UCM, VUCM). The analysis of five candidate performance variables revealed that cats during both locomotor behaviors stabilize 1) paw vertical position during the entire swing (VUCM > VORT, except in mid-hindpaw swing of ladder walking) and 2) horizontal paw position in initial and terminal swing (except for the entire forepaw swing of regular walking). We also found that the limb length was typically stabilized in midswing, whereas limb orientation was not (VUCM ≤ VORT) for both limbs and behaviors during entire swing. We conclude that stabilization of paw position in early and terminal swing enables accurate and stable locomotion, while stabilization of vertical paw position in midswing helps paw clearance. This study is the first to demonstrate the applicability of the UCM-based analysis to nonhuman movement. PMID:24899676

  7. Effects of interstitial cystitis on the acoustic startle reflex in cats

    PubMed Central

    Hague, Devon W.; Stella, Judi L.; Tony Buffington, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare acoustic startle reflexes (ASRs) of healthy cats and cats with interstitial cystitis (IC). Animals 28 healthy cats (11 males and 17 females) and 20 cats with IC (13 males and 7 females). Procedures To evaluate the effect of neutering on ASRs, ASRs in neutered and unneutered healthy cats were measured. To evaluate the effect of housing facility acclimation on ASRs in cats with IC, ASRs were measured in cats with IC within 1 month after arrival at the housing facility and again 2 to 3 months after arrival. To evaluate the effect of the environment on ASRs, ASRs were evaluated in all cats with and without IC after acclimation but before and then after environmental enrichment. Results Neutering led to a significant decrease in overall ASR in the healthy cats. Habituation to the housing facility resulted in a significant decrease in overall ASR of female but not male cats with IC. Environmental enrichment led to a significant decrease in ASR in cats with IC but not in healthy cats. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance The magnitude of the ASR appeared to be sensitive to environmental conditions and affected by sex, both in healthy cats and cats with IC. It was also higher in cats with IC versus healthy cats, except when cats were housed in a highly enriched environment. Impact for Human Medicine Treatment approaches that include reduction of a patient’s perception of environmental unpredictability may benefit humans with IC. PMID:23270359

  8. Prevalence of Haemoplasma Infections in Stray Cats in Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Spada, Eva; Proverbio, Daniela; Della Pepa, Alessandra; Perego, Roberta; Ferro, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of feline haemoplasma infections in a number of stray cat colonies in Milan, Northern Italy. Blood samples from 260 stray cats were evaluated, with conventional PCR, for the presence of DNA associated with Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf) and “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum” (CMhm). Odd ratios (OR) were calculated to identify risk factors for haemoplasma infections. PCR was positive in 86 out of 260 subjects (33.1%), with a prevalence of 10.8% (28/260 cats) for Mhf and 22.3% (58/260 cats) for CMhm. No coinfections were registered. There were significant associations between infections and season of sampling, that is, a negative association between winter sampling and a haemoplasma positive status (OR = 0.29, P = 0.001), or CMhm positive status (OR = 0.29, P = 0.01). Haemoplasma infections are common in stray cats in Milan. Thus, domestic cats with outdoor access should be routinely monitored and treated for ectoparasites to minimize risks of disease acquisition. Moreover, as these infections are transmitted via blood, feline blood donors from this area should be screened by PCR and preferably be drawn from a population of indoor cats regularly treated for fleas. PMID:24707436

  9. Genetic susceptibility to feline infectious peritonitis in Birman cats.

    PubMed

    Golovko, Lyudmila; Lyons, Leslie A; Liu, Hongwei; Sørensen, Anne; Wehnert, Suzanne; Pedersen, Niels C

    2013-07-01

    Genetic factors are presumed to influence the incidence of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), especially among pedigreed cats. However, proof for the existence of such factors has been limited and mainly anecdotal. Therefore, we sought evidence for genetic susceptibility to FIP using feline high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays in a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Birman cats were chosen for GWAS because they are highly inbred and suffer a high incidence of FIP. DNA from 38 Birman cats that died of FIP and 161 healthy cats from breeders in Denmark and USA were selected for genotyping using 63K SNPs distributed across the feline genome. Danish and American Birman cats were closely related and the populations were therefore combined and analyzed in two manners: (1) all cases (FIP) vs. all controls (healthy) regardless of age, and (2) cases 1½ years of age and younger (most susceptible) vs. controls 2 years of age and older (most resistant). GWAS of the second cohort was most productive in identifying significant genome-wide associations between case and control cats. Four peaks of association with FIP susceptibility were identified, with two being identified on both analyses. Five candidate genes ELMO1, RRAGA, TNFSF10, ERAP1 and ERAP2, all relevant to what is known about FIP virus pathogenesis, were identified but no single association was fully concordant with the disease phenotype. Difficulties in doing GWAS in cats and interrogating complex genetic traits were discussed. PMID:23619280

  10. High Prevalence of Covert Infection With Gastrointestinal Helminths in Cats.

    PubMed

    Little, Susan; Adolph, Chris; Downie, Kathryn; Snider, Tim; Reichard, Mason

    2015-01-01

    Fecal flotation is routinely used to identify feline helminth infections in clinical practice, but it is known to have limitations of sensitivity, particularly for cestodes. To determine the prevalence of helminths in a contemporary population of cats and evaluate the ability of fecal flotation to detect these infections, helminths were recovered from intestinal tracts removed from 116 adult cats humanely euthanized by an animal control shelter in northeastern Oklahoma. Results were compared to those of fecal flotation performed using both passive and centrifugal techniques. Helminths were identified in 78/116 (67.2%) cats, including Toxocara cati (48/116; 41.4%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (8/116; 6.9%), Dipylidium caninum (40/116; 34.5%), and Taenia taeniaeformis (30/116; 25.9%). Cats with T. cati were significantly more likely to harbor T. taeniaeformis (P = .001) than cats without ascarids. Centrifugal fecal flotation with sugar solution identified 37/48 (77.1%) T. cati infections, 8/30 (26.7%) T. taeniaeformis infections, and no D. caninum infections. Proglottids were detected on external examination in 19.0% (12/63) of cats with cestodes. Cestodes were present in over half of the cats examined in this study, but the majority of these infections were not evident by the detection of external proglottids or recovery of characteristic stages on fecal flotation. PMID:26535453

  11. Feline leukaemia virus and its clinical effects in cats.

    PubMed

    Mackey, L

    1975-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection is common among cats where contact is high. The virus can be transmitted readily between cats. It causes a variety of haemopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms; the most common types are alimentary, multicentric and thymic lymphosarcoma and lymphatic leukaemia. The virus is involved in the aetiology of certain other diseases including anaemia, glomerulonephritis and an immunosuppressive syndrome which predisposes cats to intercurrent infections. Many infected cats mount an immune response and do not suffer from any of these. The immune status is shown by serum antibody levels to feline leukaemia virus associated cell membrane antigens. Cats with a titre of 32 or more are most unlikely to suffer any ill effects and may eliminate the virus infection. The outcome of infection in an individual cat depends on the immunological competence of the cat, the dose of virus received and its ability to induce immunosuppression. FeLV infection can be detected by examination of tissues by electron microscopy, and by culture of virus from plasma and other tissues. In the United States, a method is now in use for the detection of leukaemia virus antigen in peripheral blood leukocytes; this is carried out on ordinary blood films. Successful prototype vaccines have been developed against FeLV. This paper describes the natural history of the virus, the diseases in which it is implicated and discusses recently developed diagnostic methods. PMID:163515

  12. Genetic Susceptibility to Feline Infectious Peritonitis in Birman Cats

    PubMed Central

    Golovko, Lyudmila; Lyons, Leslie A.; Liu, Hongwei; Sorensen, Anne; Wehnert, Suzanne; Pedersen, Niels C.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic factors are presumed to influence the incidence of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), especially among pedigreed cats. However, proof for the existence of such factors has been limited and mainly anecdotal. Therefore, we sought evidence for genetic susceptibility to FIP using feline high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays in a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Birman cats were chosen for GWAS because they are highly inbred and suffer a high incidence of FIP. DNA from 38 Birman cats that died of FIP and 161 healthy cats from breeders in Denmark and USA were selected for genotyping using 63K SNPs distributed across the feline genome. Danish and American Birman cats were closely related and the populations were therefore combined and analyzed in two manners: 1) all cases (FIP) vs. all controls (healthy) regardless of age, and 2) cases 1–1/2 years of age and younger (most susceptible) vs. controls 2 years of age and older (most resistant). GWAS of the second cohort was most productive in identifying significant genome-wide associations between case and control cats. Four peaks of association with FIP susceptibility were identified, with two being identified on both analyses. Five candidate genes ELMO1, RRAGA, TNFSF10, ERAP1 and ERAP2, all relevant to what is known about FIP virus pathogenesis, were identified but no single association was fully concordant with the disease phenotype. Difficulties in doing GWAS in cats and interrogating complex genetic traits were discussed. PMID:23619280

  13. Systematic review of ground reaction force measurements in cats.

    PubMed

    Schnabl, E; Bockstahler, B

    2015-10-01

    Although orthopaedic abnormalities in cats are frequently observed radiographically, they remain clinically underdiagnosed, and kinetic motion analysis, a fundamental aspect of orthopaedic research in dogs and horses, is not commonly performed. More information obtained with non-invasive measurement techniques to assess normal and abnormal gait in cats would provide a greater insight into their locomotion and biomechanics and improve the objective measurement of disease alterations and treatment modalities. In this systematic review, 12 previously performed studies that investigated ground reaction force measurements in cats during locomotion were evaluated. The aims of these studies, the measurement methods and equipment used, and the outcomes of parameters used to assess both sound and diseased cats are summarised and discussed. All reviewed studies used pressure sensitive walkways to gain data and all provided an acclimatisation period as a prerequisite for measurements. In sound cats during walking, the forelimb peak vertical force was greater than in the hindlimb and the peak vertical force in the hindlimb was greater in cats than in dogs. This review confirms that ground reaction forces can be used to evaluate lameness and treatment effects in the cat. PMID:26118478

  14. Biases Towards Internal Features in Infants' Reasoning about Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, George E.; Herrmann, Patricia; Wynn, Karen; Keil, Frank C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the results of two sets of studies demonstrating 14-month-olds' tendency to associate an object's behavior with internal, rather than external features. In Experiment 1 infants were familiarized to two animated cats that each exhibited a different style of self-generated motion. Infants then saw a novel individual that had an…

  15. Maintenance energy requirement determination of cats after spaying.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Yuka; Chamberlin, Amy J; Bigley, Karen E; Bauer, John E

    2011-10-01

    Neutering is often associated with obesity in companion animals. However, the maintenance energy requirement (MER) for these animals has not been clearly defined. The present study investigated the MER for spayed cats whose body weights (BW) began to increase shortly after ovariohysterectomy. A total of twenty-two shorthair adult female cats were fed complete and balanced diets in amounts to maintain their BW and body condition score (BCS) before the present study. All cats were spayed and the diet was fed for 11 weeks using the same MER as previously. During these weeks, all cats gained weight. Beginning with week 12, a weight-loss regimen was initiated until each cat achieved a BCS of 5 out of 9. After each cat obtained a BCS of 5, an appropriate amount of diet was fed to maintain its BW for at least 4 weeks to determine a modified MER. Daily food consumption, weekly BW and BCS were monitored. Blood was collected before and after weight loss for plasma biochemistry profiles. BW and BCS increased by 16 % and one point (P < 0.01), respectively, during the first 11 weeks after surgery, although food consumption was constant both pre- and post-surgery. The mean MER after obtaining a BCS of 5 was 313.6 (SEM 23.6) kJ/BW(0.67), which is 25 % lower than the current National Research Council recommendation and lower than the cat's requirement before surgery (P < 0.05). In conclusion, spaying significantly increased BW when using MER values for intact cats. Thus, 313.6 × ideal BW(0.67) kJ is proposed for the MER of spayed adult cats. PMID:22005410

  16. Some differences in uveal reactions between cats and rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Ambache, N.; Kavanagh, L.; Whiting, Judith

    1966-01-01

    1. Miosis was observed after enucleation in unopened eyes from normal or atropinized, atropinesterase-free rabbits. Such a phenomenon was not seen in enucleated cat eyes, in which the pupils remained widely dilated, whether atropine had been administered or not. 2. Pre-treatment of the animals with reserpine did not alter this difference between the species. 3. The difference does not appear to be due to absence of irins from the cat iris, since aqueous extracts of cat irides contained a smooth-muscle-contracting activity (cat irin) extractable into ether at pH 3 and therefore consisting of lipid acid(s). 4. The difference is not due to insensitivity of the cat sphincter pupillae muscle to irins, since injections of ether-purified cat or rabbit irins into the anterior chamber of enucleated cat eyes kept at room temperature constricted the pupil; injections of histamine were ineffective. 5. In experiments on animals treated with atropine ± mepyramine I.V., photographic measurements revealed a further difference, namely in the speed of miosis after stroking the iris in vivo. The response started later in the cat, and developed more slowly, but often to a fuller extent than in the rabbit. 6. In a proportion of cat eyes there was little or no change in intraocular pressure after irritation of the iris adequate to induce maximum pupillary constriction; this was so whether mepyramine had been administered or not. 7. Possible reasons for the above species differences are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 5Fig. 8 PMID:4380012

  17. The Use of Refuges by Communally Housed Cats

    PubMed Central

    Sicuto de Oliveira, Adriana; Terçariol, César Augusto Sangaletti; Genaro, Gelson

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Captive domestic cats frequently suffer from the lack of physical space and opportunities to perform species-typical behaviors, such as climbing or hiding. Environmental enrichment is a technique that helps transform the space available to animals into a more appropriate habitat. In this study, we tested horizontal and vertical refuge boxes as environmental enrichment for cats living communally in a cat rescue shelter. The provision of boxes in the environment increases the use of available space by the cats. We suggest this improves the cats’ welfare while in communally-housed rescue shelters. Abstract The increase of domestic animals kept in shelters highlights the need to ensure animal welfare. Environmental enrichment can improve animal welfare in many ways, such as encouraging captive animals to use all the space available to them. The effects of physical environmental enrichment on the spatial distribution and behavioral repertoire of 35 neutered domestic cats housed communally were analyzed. The provision of boxes in the environment increases the use of available space by the cats. We suggest this improves the cats’ welfare while in communally-housed rescue shelters. The frequencies of active and especially inactive behaviors also increased in the enriched condition. In a test with vertical environmental enrichment, the animals showed an increased length of stay in refuges located at a height of 0.5 m compared to those on the ground (0.0 m). However, the entry frequency was higher in refuges at 0.0 m. Both horizontal and vertical environmental enrichment increased the use of available space, demonstrating that box refuges as enrichment are effective in providing a refuge when at a height, or a place to explore at ground level. We suggest it enhances the welfare of cats in communally housed shelters. This information adds to the body of evidence relating to cat enrichment and can be useful in designing cat housing in veterinary clinics

  18. Vitamin D status predicts 30 day mortality in hospitalised cats.

    PubMed

    Titmarsh, Helen; Kilpatrick, Scott; Sinclair, Jennifer; Boag, Alisdair; Bode, Elizabeth F; Lalor, Stephanie M; Gaylor, Donna; Berry, Jacqueline; Bommer, Nicholas X; Gunn-Moore, Danielle; Reed, Nikki; Handel, Ian; Mellanby, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency, defined as low serum concentrations of the major circulating form of vitamin D, 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), has been associated with the development of numerous infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic disorders in humans. In addition, vitamin D insufficiency has been found to be predictive of mortality for many disorders. However, interpretation of human studies is difficult since vitamin D status is influenced by many factors, including diet, season, latitude, and exposure to UV radiation. In contrast, domesticated cats do not produce vitamin D cutaneously, and most cats are fed a commercial diet containing a relatively standard amount of vitamin D. Consequently, domesticated cats are an attractive model system in which to examine the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and health outcomes. The hypothesis of this study was that vitamin D status would predict short term, all-cause mortality in domesticated cats. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D, together with a wide range of other clinical, hematological, and biochemical parameters, were measured in 99 consecutively hospitalised cats. Cats which died within 30 days of initial assessment had significantly lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations than cats which survived. In a linear regression model including 12 clinical variables, serum 25(OH)D concentration in the lower tertile was significantly predictive of mortality. The odds ratio of mortality within 30 days was 8.27 (95% confidence interval 2.54-31.52) for cats with a serum 25(OH)D concentration in the lower tertile. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that low serum 25(OH)D concentration status is an independent predictor of short term mortality in cats. PMID:25970442

  19. Vitamin D Status Predicts 30 Day Mortality in Hospitalised Cats

    PubMed Central

    Titmarsh, Helen; Kilpatrick, Scott; Sinclair, Jennifer; Boag, Alisdair; Bode, Elizabeth F.; Lalor, Stephanie M.; Gaylor, Donna; Berry, Jacqueline; Bommer, Nicholas X.; Gunn-Moore, Danielle; Reed, Nikki; Handel, Ian; Mellanby, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency, defined as low serum concentrations of the major circulating form of vitamin D, 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), has been associated with the development of numerous infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic disorders in humans. In addition, vitamin D insufficiency has been found to be predictive of mortality for many disorders. However, interpretation of human studies is difficult since vitamin D status is influenced by many factors, including diet, season, latitude, and exposure to UV radiation. In contrast, domesticated cats do not produce vitamin D cutaneously, and most cats are fed a commercial diet containing a relatively standard amount of vitamin D. Consequently, domesticated cats are an attractive model system in which to examine the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and health outcomes. The hypothesis of this study was that vitamin D status would predict short term, all-cause mortality in domesticated cats. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D, together with a wide range of other clinical, hematological, and biochemical parameters, were measured in 99 consecutively hospitalised cats. Cats which died within 30 days of initial assessment had significantly lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations than cats which survived. In a linear regression model including 12 clinical variables, serum 25(OH)D concentration in the lower tertile was significantly predictive of mortality. The odds ratio of mortality within 30 days was 8.27 (95% confidence interval 2.54-31.52) for cats with a serum 25(OH)D concentration in the lower tertile. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that low serum 25(OH)D concentration status is an independent predictor of short term mortality in cats. PMID:25970442

  20. [Hemangioma, the most frequent hepatic tumor. Diagnosis with dynamic CAT].

    PubMed

    Cuevas Ibáñez, A; Santos Cores, J; Molina López-Nava, P; Fernández Iglesias, P; Bones Purkiss, J

    1994-08-01

    The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of dynamic CAT with contrast piston-stroke performed at a single cut are described for the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas. We analyzed the correlation between the findings obtained through dynamic CAT and those obtained through echography, PAAF, analytic and clinical study of the patients with suspicion of hepatic hemangioma. The following values were obtained: sensitivity 92.3%; specificity 50%; VPP 88.8%; VPN 60%; and global diagnostic affectivity 84.37%. According to these results, we think that dynamic CAT is a highly reliable test for the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas. PMID:7772685

  1. Carpal arthrodesis in cats. Long-term functional outcome.

    PubMed

    Calvo, I; Farrell, M; Chase, D; Aisa, J; Rayward, R; Carmichael, S

    2009-01-01

    Pancarpal and partial carpal arthrodesis were performed in 22 carpi (20 cats) using various surgical methods. Short and long-term outcomes were assessed using a retrospective review of the case notes and via owner questionnaires. Carpal arthrodesis was associated with complications that did not affect the functional outcome, and in most cases, did not necessitate major revision surgery. Following arthrodesis, the cats did not jump as high, and showed a reduction in their willingness to jump and climb. Based on our results, carpal arthrodesis is a suitable salvage surgery to treat severe carpal injuries in the cat. PMID:19876518

  2. Chronic Vomiting in Cats: Etiology and Diagnostic Testing.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Shannon Ryan; Gisselman, Kelly; Cordner, Amy; Nicholson, Angela Gasser

    2016-01-01

    Chronic vomiting in cats is a common presenting problem seen in veterinary practice today. The initial step when presented with a vomiting patient is to differentiate between vomiting and regurgitation or dysphagia. There are numerous causes for chronic vomiting in cats, and therefore a detailed and comprehensive patient history and a systematic diagnostic approach are key steps in determining the cause for vomiting and the most appropriate treatment plan. Common causes for chronic vomiting in cats may include inflammatory bowel disease, food allergy, gastrointestinal motility disorders, neoplasia, and extra-gastrointestinal diseases, such as renal disease, hepatobiliary disease, and hyperthyroidism. PMID:27487349

  3. PET examination in intracranial tumor diagnosis of a cat

    SciTech Connect

    Angyal, G.; Csepura, G.; Balkay, L.; Galuska, L.; Molnar, J.; Valastyan, I.

    2008-12-08

    This paper shows the significance of the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in the veterinary medication through a case study of a cat brain tumor. A castrated male cat with bilateral mydriasis and blindness arrived at the veterinary clinic. After physical, laboratory and neurological investigations other sickness was ruled out and the inkling of the intracranial lesion had come to light. Brain tumor seemed the most likely to cause the illness because other symptoms appeared (for example: anorexia, depression) and they progrediated fast. PET examination, using {sup 18}F-FDG isotope, was performed to confirm the possible causes of the cat's symptoms.

  4. Cat's claw: an Amazonian vine decreases inflammation in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Sonya R

    2007-02-01

    Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa and Uncaria guianesis) is a medicinal plant from the Amazon commonly used to treat disorders such as arthritis, gastritis and osteoarthritis. The mechanism of cat's claw appears to be as an inhibitor of TNFalpha and antioxidant. Understanding the processes in osteoarthritis may facilitate and clarify the potential role of cat's claw as a complementary therapy to assist in the reduction of pro-inflammatory mediators and effectors. The clinical relevance of this therapy as a viable modality of intervention will be discussed. PMID:17210508

  5. Erosive polyarthritis associated with Mycoplasma gateae in a cat.

    PubMed

    Zeugswetter, Florian; Hittmair, Katharina M; de Arespacochaga, Abigail G; Shibly, Sarina; Spergser, Joachim

    2007-06-01

    Erosive polyarthritis was diagnosed in an 11-month-old neutered male Egyptian Mau-cross cat with concurrent glucocorticoid-responsive dermatitis. Clinical signs, synovial fluid analysis, serological tests and radiographic appearance could not differentiate between immune-mediated and infective arthritis. Mycoplasma gateae was isolated by strictly anaerobic culture of the synovial fluid. Treatment with Enrofloxacin led to a rapid improvement of the cat's condition. Two months later the cat was euthanased because of severe glomerulonephritis and direct Coombs' test positive anaemia, possibly caused by mycoplasma infection. M gateae could not be isolated at post-mortem examination. PMID:17175189

  6. PET examination in intracranial tumor diagnosis of a cat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angyal, G.; Csepura, G.; Balkay, L.; Galuska, L.; Molnár, J.; Valastyán, I.

    2008-12-01

    This paper shows the significance of the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in the veterinary medication through a case study of a cat brain tumor. A castrated male cat with bilateral mydriasis and blindness arrived at the veterinary clinic. After physical, laboratory and neurological investigations other sickness was ruled out and the inkling of the intracranial lesion had come to light. Brain tumor seemed the most likely to cause the illness because other symptoms appeared (for example: anorexia, depression) and they progrediated fast. PET examination, using 18F-FDG isotope, was performed to confirm the possible causes of the cat's symptoms

  7. Congenital factor XI deficiency in a domestic shorthair cat.

    PubMed

    Troxel, Mark T; Brooks, Marjory B; Esterline, Meredith L

    2002-01-01

    A 6-month-old, female, domestic shorthair cat was examined after onychectomy and ovariohysterectomy because of bleeding from the paws. Prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time was discovered, Coagulation factor analyses revealed deficiency of factor XI coagulant activity. Plasma mixing studies indicated factor deficiency or dysfunction rather than factor inhibition. Feline factor XI deficiency in one adult cat has been previously reported but was attributed to factor XI inhibitors. The signalment, lack of primary disease, and the finding of persistent factor XI deficiency in the absence of coagulation inhibitors were considered compatible with congenital factor XI deficiency in the cat of this report. PMID:12428887

  8. VISTA Captures Celestial Cat's Hidden Secrets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    The Cat's Paw Nebula, NGC 6334, is a huge stellar nursery, the birthplace of hundreds of massive stars. In a magnificent new ESO image taken with the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile, the glowing gas and dust clouds obscuring the view are penetrated by infrared light and some of the Cat's hidden young stars are revealed. Towards the heart of the Milky Way, 5500 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Scorpius (the Scorpion), the Cat's Paw Nebula stretches across 50 light-years. In visible light, gas and dust are illuminated by hot young stars, creating strange reddish shapes that give the object its nickname. A recent image by ESO's Wide Field Imager (WFI) at the La Silla Observatory (eso1003) captured this visible light view in great detail. NGC 6334 is one of the most active nurseries of massive stars in our galaxy. VISTA, the latest addition to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Chilean Atacama Desert, is the world's largest survey telescope (eso0949). It works at infrared wavelengths, seeing right through much of the dust that is such a beautiful but distracting aspect of the nebula, and revealing objects hidden from the sight of visible light telescopes. Visible light tends to be scattered and absorbed by interstellar dust, but the dust is nearly transparent to infrared light. VISTA has a main mirror that is 4.1 metres across and it is equipped with the largest infrared camera on any telescope. It shares the spectacular viewing conditions with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), which is located on the nearby summit. With this powerful instrument at their command, astronomers were keen to see the birth pains of the big young stars in the Cat's Paw Nebula, some nearly ten times the mass of the Sun. The view in the infrared is strikingly different from that in visible light. With the dust obscuring the view far less, they can learn much more about how these stars form and develop in their first

  9. VISTA Captures Celestial Cat's Hidden Secrets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    The Cat's Paw Nebula, NGC 6334, is a huge stellar nursery, the birthplace of hundreds of massive stars. In a magnificent new ESO image taken with the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile, the glowing gas and dust clouds obscuring the view are penetrated by infrared light and some of the Cat's hidden young stars are revealed. Towards the heart of the Milky Way, 5500 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Scorpius (the Scorpion), the Cat's Paw Nebula stretches across 50 light-years. In visible light, gas and dust are illuminated by hot young stars, creating strange reddish shapes that give the object its nickname. A recent image by ESO's Wide Field Imager (WFI) at the La Silla Observatory (eso1003) captured this visible light view in great detail. NGC 6334 is one of the most active nurseries of massive stars in our galaxy. VISTA, the latest addition to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Chilean Atacama Desert, is the world's largest survey telescope (eso0949). It works at infrared wavelengths, seeing right through much of the dust that is such a beautiful but distracting aspect of the nebula, and revealing objects hidden from the sight of visible light telescopes. Visible light tends to be scattered and absorbed by interstellar dust, but the dust is nearly transparent to infrared light. VISTA has a main mirror that is 4.1 metres across and it is equipped with the largest infrared camera on any telescope. It shares the spectacular viewing conditions with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), which is located on the nearby summit. With this powerful instrument at their command, astronomers were keen to see the birth pains of the big young stars in the Cat's Paw Nebula, some nearly ten times the mass of the Sun. The view in the infrared is strikingly different from that in visible light. With the dust obscuring the view far less, they can learn much more about how these stars form and develop in their first

  10. 21 CFR 589.1001 - Propylene glycol in or on cat food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propylene glycol in or on cat food. 589.1001... or on cat food. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that propylene glycol in or on cat... on cat food causes the feed to be adulterated and in violation of the Federal Food, Drug,...

  11. 21 CFR 589.1001 - Propylene glycol in or on cat food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Propylene glycol in or on cat food. 589.1001... or on cat food. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that propylene glycol in or on cat... on cat food causes the feed to be adulterated and in violation of the Federal Food, Drug,...

  12. 21 CFR 589.1001 - Propylene glycol in or on cat food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Propylene glycol in or on cat food. 589.1001... or on cat food. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that propylene glycol in or on cat... on cat food causes the feed to be adulterated and in violation of the Federal Food, Drug,...

  13. 21 CFR 589.1001 - Propylene glycol in or on cat food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Propylene glycol in or on cat food. 589.1001... or on cat food. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that propylene glycol in or on cat... on cat food causes the feed to be adulterated and in violation of the Federal Food, Drug,...

  14. 21 CFR 589.1001 - Propylene glycol in or on cat food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Propylene glycol in or on cat food. 589.1001... or on cat food. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that propylene glycol in or on cat... on cat food causes the feed to be adulterated and in violation of the Federal Food, Drug,...

  15. Sickness behaviors in response to unusual external events in healthy cats and cats with feline interstitial cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Judi L.; Lord, Linda K.; Buffington, C. A. Tony

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare sickness behaviors (SB) in response to unusual external events (UEE) in healthy cats with those of cats with feline interstitial cystitis (FIC). Design Prospective observational study. Animals 12 healthy cats and 20 donated cats with FIC. Procedures Cats were housed in a vivarium. Sickness behaviors referable to the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, the skin, and behavior problems were recorded by a single observer for 77 weeks. Instances of UEE (eg, changes in caretakers, vivarium routine, and lack of interaction with the investigator) were identified during 11 of the 77 weeks. No instances of UEE were identified during the remaining 66 weeks, which were considered control weeks. Results An increase in age and exposure to UEE, but not disease status, significantly increased total number of SB when results were controlled for other factors. Evaluation of individual SB revealed a protective effect of food intake for healthy males. An increase in age conferred a small increase in relative risk (RR) for upper gastrointestinal tract signs (RR, 1.2) and avoidance behavior (1.7). Exposure to UEE significantly increased the RR for decreases in food intake (RR, 9.3) and for no eliminations in 24 hours (6.4). Exposure to UEE significantly increased the RR for defecation (RR, 9.8) and urination (1.6) outside the litter box. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance SB, including some of the most commonly observed abnormalities in client-owned cats, were observed after exposure to UEE in both groups. Because healthy cats and cats with FIC were comparably affected by UEE, clinicians should consider the possibility of exposure to UEE in cats evaluated for these signs. PMID:21194324

  16. Nuisances and welfare of free-roaming cats in urban settings and their association with cat reproduction.

    PubMed

    Gunther, I; Raz, T; Berke, O; Klement, E

    2015-05-01

    Free roaming cats (FRC) are highly abundant in cities around the world. Increasing populations of these cats might result in impairment of cat welfare and cause nuisances and public health risks. In order to study the seasonal dynamics of FRC populations and its association with events of cat welfare impairment and nuisances, we analyzed a database of FRC-associated citizens' telephone complaint events, which were registered in five cities in Israel (total human population of 1.42 million residents) during the years 2007-2011. These complaint events were classified to the following six categories: cat's carcasses, kittens, parturition, aggressive behavior toward people, invasion to human facilities, and cat injuries and distress. Overall, 87,764 complaint events associated with these categories were registered in the five cities during the study period (123.2 complaint events per 10,000 citizens per year). Length of daylight was moderately correlated with the rate of complaints on kittens in the same month (r=0.64) and parturition in the previous month (r=0.54) (P<0.001). Both kitten and parturition-related complaints showed a prominent seasonal pattern, peaking in April and May, respectively, and declining gradually until November. 'Kittens' or 'parturition' were explicitly mentioned in 38%, 39% and 19%, respectively, of the complaints regarding cat aggressiveness toward people, cat invasion to human facilities and cat injuries and distress. In most of the cities the rate of citizen complaints regarding carcasses, aggression, invasion and injuries were still significantly correlated with rate of complaints regarding kittens after omission of these joint complaints and remained significant after controlling for seasonality. These findings imply an association of cat welfare impairment and nuisances with FRC reproduction intensity. The current study revealed the high rate of nuisances and potential public health hazards related to FRC, as well as the impairment of

  17. Who's behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat's Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed.

    PubMed

    Gershony, L C; Penedo, M C T; Davis, B W; Murphy, W J; Helps, C R; Lyons, L A

    2014-12-01

    Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (A(P) (be) ) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats. PMID:25143047

  18. Evolutionary Genomics Reveals Lineage-Specific Gene Loss and Rapid Evolution of a Sperm-Specific Ion Channel Complex: CatSpers and CatSperβ

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xinjiang; Clapham, David E.

    2008-01-01

    The mammalian CatSper ion channel family consists of four sperm-specific voltage-gated Ca2+ channels that are crucial for sperm hyperactivation and male fertility. All four CatSper subunits are believed to assemble into a heteromultimeric channel complex, together with an auxiliary subunit, CatSperβ. Here, we report a comprehensive comparative genomics study and evolutionary analysis of CatSpers and CatSperβ, with important correlation to physiological significance of molecular evolution of the CatSper channel complex. The development of the CatSper channel complex with four CatSpers and CatSperβ originated as early as primitive metazoans such as the Cnidarian Nematostella vectensis. Comparative genomics revealed extensive lineage-specific gene loss of all four CatSpers and CatSperβ through metazoan evolution, especially in vertebrates. The CatSper channel complex underwent rapid evolution and functional divergence, while distinct evolutionary constraints appear to have acted on different domains and specific sites of the four CatSper genes. These results reveal unique evolutionary characteristics of sperm-specific Ca2+ channels and their adaptation to sperm biology through metazoan evolution. PMID:18974790

  19. Acceptance of domestic cat mitochondrial DNA in a criminal proceeding.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Leslie A; Grahn, Robert A; Kun, Teri J; Netzel, Linda R; Wictum, Elizabeth E; Halverson, Joy L

    2014-11-01

    Shed hair from domestic animals readily adheres to clothing and other contact items, providing a source of transfer evidence for criminal investigations. Mitochondrial DNA is often the only option for DNA analysis of shed hair. Human mitochondrial DNA analysis has been accepted in the US court system since 1996. The murder trial of the State of Missouri versus Henry L. Polk, Jr. represents the first legal proceeding where cat mitochondrial DNA analysis was introduced into evidence. The mitochondrial DNA evidence was initially considered inadmissible due to concerns about the cat dataset and the scientific acceptance of the marker. Those concerns were subsequently addressed, and the evidence was deemed admissible. This report reviews the case in regards to the cat biological evidence and its ultimate admission as generally accepted and reliable. Expansion and saturation analysis of the cat mitochondrial DNA control region dataset supported the initial interpretation of the evidence. PMID:25086413

  20. The Cat Cry Syndrome (5p-) in Adolescents and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niebuhr, E.

    1971-01-01

    Summarized are clinical findings (including chromosome analysis and dermatoglyphics, as well as cytogenic findings in relatives) on five female and three male patients (age 15 years or older) with the cat cry or cri du chat syndrome. (KW)

  1. A rare case of uterine adenomyosis in a Siamese cat

    PubMed Central

    Bulman-Fleming, Julie

    2008-01-01

    A 12-year-old, female Siamese cat with a long-term history of megestrol acetate treatment for suppression of estrus was presented with vomiting and abdominal pain. Uterine adenomyosis was diagnosed after an ovariohysterectomy. PMID:18827849

  2. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Belgian house cats.

    PubMed

    De Craeye, Stéphane; Francart, Aurelie; Chabauty, Julie; De Vriendt, Veerle; Van Gucht, Steven; Leroux, Ingrid; Jongert, Erik

    2008-10-20

    Five hundred and sixty seven sera of healthy house cats aged 3 months to 7 years, were examined for the presence of anti-toxoplasma antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assay and compared to SAG1 and TLA enzyme linked immunosorbent assays as alternative test. Twenty-five percent of cats tested positive for IgG and/or IgM. Seroprevalence increased with age from 2% below 12 months of age up to 44% at age 7. Sensitivities of SAG1 and TLA ELISA were 84.1% and 88.6%, respectively. Peak levels in seroprevalence were correlated to increased IgG titers in TLA ELISA. Our results suggest that T. gondii infections are common in house cats and that there is a high chance for a negative cat to seroconvert in its second life-year. PMID:18707811

  3. 59. A YOUNG RALPH HULL WITH DOG AND CAT IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. A YOUNG RALPH HULL WITH DOG AND CAT IN FRONT OF FAMILY HOME IN DAWSON. PHOTOGRAPHER: UNKNOWN. DATE: 1939. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  4. Auditory lateralization of conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations in cats.

    PubMed

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Laddago, Serena; Quaranta, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Auditory lateralization in response to both conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations (dog vocalizations) was observed in 16 tabby cats (Felis catus). Six different vocalizations were used: cat "purring," "meowing" and "growling" and dog typical vocalizations of "disturbance," "isolation" and "play." The head-orienting paradigm showed that cats turned their head with the right ear leading (left hemisphere activation) in response to their typical-species vocalization ("meow" and "purring"); on the other hand, a clear bias in the use of the left ear (right hemisphere activation) was observed in response to vocalizations eliciting intense emotion (dogs' vocalizations of "disturbance" and "isolation"). Overall these findings suggest that auditory sensory domain seems to be lateralized also in cat species, stressing the role of the left hemisphere for intraspecific communication and of the right hemisphere in processing threatening and alarming stimuli. PMID:26618245

  5. Evaluation of medetomidine, ketamine and buprenorphine for neutering feral cats.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Kelly A; Robertson, Sheilah A; Levy, Julie K; Isaza, Natalie M

    2011-12-01

    A combination of medetomidine (M, 100 μg/kg), ketamine (K, 10 mg/kg) and buprenorphine (B, 10 μg/kg), administered by intramuscular injection, was evaluated for spaying and castration (neutering) of feral cats (n = 101). Eleven animals (11%) required supplemental anesthesia (isoflurane by mask) to maintain an adequate plane of surgical anesthesia. Atipamezole (A, 125 μg/kg) was administered subcutaneously at the completion of surgery. All cats recovered from surgery and were released the following day. A hemoglobin saturation (SpO(2)) value of < 95% was recorded at least once during anesthesia in all cats. This MKB combination can be used in a feral cat sterilization clinic, but isoflurane supplementation may be necessary. Further research is indicated to determine the clinical significance of the low SpO(2) values associated with this anesthetic regimen. PMID:21885310

  6. Inbreeding rate and genetic structure of cat populations in Poland.

    PubMed

    Mucha, S; Wolc, A; Gradowska, A; Szwaczkowski, T

    2011-02-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze effective population size and inbreeding level in populations of cat breeds registered in the Polish Studbook. The Association of Purebred Cat Breeders in Poland provided access to pedigrees of 26725 cats from seven breeds. The most frequent breed was Persian, however increasing tendency in numbers of registered animals from other breeds was recorded in later years. Although the percentage of inbred individuals was increasing over time, mating of close relatives was avoided by most of the breeders, and the average inbreeding coefficient exceeded 5% only for Siberian and Russian breeds. Current analysis suggests that the Polish pedigree cat populations are not threatened by negative effects of inbreeding. PMID:21128045

  7. CEREBRAL CYSTICERCOSIS BY TAENIA CRASSICEPS IN A DOMESTIC CAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carnivorous domestic mammals occasionally become atypical intermediate hosts of taeniid tapeworms. In cases of intermittent relapsing neurological disease in cats, cerebral cysticercosis e. g., by Taenia crassiceps may be considered. Significantly this case represents the first record of neurocystic...

  8. Acceptance of Domestic Cat Mitochondrial DNA in a Criminal Proceeding

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Leslie A.; Grahn, Robert A.; Kun, Teri J.; Netzel, Linda R.; Wictum, Elizabeth E.; Halverson, Joy L.

    2014-01-01

    Shed hair from domestic animals readily adheres to clothing and other contact items, providing a source of transfer evidence for criminal investigations. Mitochondrial DNA is often the only option for DNA analysis of shed hair. Human mitochondrial DNA analysis has been accepted in the US court system since 1996. The murder trial of the State of Missouri versus Henry L. Polk, Jr. represents the first legal proceeding where cat mitochondrial DNA analysis was introduced into evidence. The mitochondrial DNA evidence was initially considered inadmissible due to concerns about the cat dataset and the scientific acceptance of the marker. Those concerns were subsequently addressed, and the evidence was deemed admissible. This report reviews the case in regards to the cat biological evidence and its ultimate admission as generally accepted and reliable. Expansion and saturation analysis of the cat mitochondrial DNA control region dataset supported the initial interpretation of the evidence. PMID:25086413

  9. Tritrichomonas foetus infection in cat - first detection in Poland.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowska, Joanna; Karamon, Jacek; Kochanowski, Maciej; Jędryczko, Roman; Cencek, Tomasz

    2015-12-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus, a parasite of cattle reproductive system, has been recently discovered as a cause of disease in cats in many countries. T. foetus infects and colonizes cat's ileum, caecum, colon and can lead to enteritis. This paper presents the first clinical case of cat intestinal trichomonosis caused by T. foetus in Poland. The material for this study was a smear collected from a 6-month-old male British Shorthair cat. The presence of parasitic protozoan was determined via microscopic examination and confirmed by amplification of T. foetus rDNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. In the first PCR reaction, a DNA of Trichomonadidae was identified and in the second PCR, T. foetus was detected. The T. foetus positive products from the second PCR reaction were sequenced. Interpretation of the sequencing results of obtained amplicons by comparing them with the GenBank database proved that the causative agent, in this case, was T. foetus. PMID:26408578

  10. How to write a critically appraised topic (CAT).

    PubMed

    Sadigh, Gelareh; Parker, Robert; Kelly, Aine Marie; Cronin, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Medical knowledge and the volume of scientific articles published have expanded rapidly over the past 50 years. Evidence-based practice (EBP) has developed to help health practitioners get more benefit from the increasing volume of information to solve complex health problems. A format for sharing information in EBP is the critically appraised topic (CAT). A CAT is a standardized summary of research evidence organized around a clinical question, aimed at providing both a critique of the research and a statement of the clinical relevance of results. In this review, we explain the five steps involved in writing a CAT for a clinical purpose ("Ask," "Search," "Appraise," "Apply," and "Evaluate") and introduce some of the useful electronic resources available to help in creating CATs. PMID:22480959

  11. Effect of yohimbine on xylazine-ketamine anesthesia in cats.

    PubMed

    Hsu, W H; Lu, Z X

    1984-10-15

    Xylazine and ketamine are an anesthetic combination used in feline practice for routine surgical procedures. In a controlled study, we evaluated the effects of yohimbine, an antagonist of xylazine, on the anesthesia induced by this anesthetic combination in cats. Two intramuscular doses of xylazine and ketamine (2.2 mg of xylazine/kg plus 6.6 mg of ketamine/kg and 4.4 mg of xylazine/kg plus 6.6 mg of ketamine/kg) caused approximately 60 and 100 minutes of anesthesia, respectively, in control cats. When yohimbine (0.1 mg/kg) was given intravenously 45 minutes after ketamine administration, the cats regained consciousness within 3 minutes. They were ambulatory 1 to 2 minutes after regaining consciousness. Yohimbine also reversed the bradycardia and respiratory depression elicited by xylazine-ketamine. The results indicated that yohimbine may be useful for controlling the duration of xylazine-ketamine anesthesia in cats. PMID:6501048

  12. Diagnosis and Outcome of Periosteal Chondrosarcoma in Two Cats.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Elizabeth; Fauber, Amy E; Pool, Roy R

    2016-01-01

    Two cats, both over 10 yr old, were presented for evaluation of non-painful bony proliferations on the appendicular skeleton. These proliferations were identifiable via palpation. Radiographs showed a smooth, proliferative bony lesion of the distal femur (case 1) and tarsus (case 2) with mild soft tissue swelling. Surgical debulking with incomplete resection was performed in each cat. Subsequent histopathology resulted in a diagnosis of periosteal chondrosarcoma (PC). Although both cats have experienced local recurrence, both are still alive more than 2.5 yr after mass debulking. Periosteal chondrosarcoma is a differential diagnosis in proliferative cortical bony lesions near an articular surface in older cats. Partial resection of these masses can lead to an excellent quality of life, and proper diagnosis can avoid amputation or even euthanasia. PMID:27487347

  13. Surgical access to separate branches of the cat vestibular nerve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radkevich, L. A.; Ayzikov, G. S.

    1981-01-01

    A posteroventral approach for access to separate branches of the cat vestibular nerve is presented which permits simultaneous surgical access to the ampullary and otolithic nerves. Surgical procedures are discussed.

  14. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI in cats - clarification regarding genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Leslie A; Grahn, Robert A; Genova, Francesca; Beccaglia, Michela; Hopwood, John J; Longeri, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The release of new DNA-based diagnostic tools has increased tremendously in companion animals. Over 70 different DNA variants are now known for the cat, including DNA variants in disease-associated genes and genes causing aesthetically interesting traits. The impact genetic tests have on animal breeding and health management is significant because of the ability to control the breeding of domestic cats, especially breed cats. If used properly, genetic testing can prevent the production of diseased animals, causing the reduction of the frequency of the causal variant in the population, and, potentially, the eventual eradication of the disease. However, testing of some identified DNA variants may be unwarranted and cause undo strife within the cat breeding community and unnecessary reduction of gene pools and availability of breeding animals. Testing for mucopolysaccharidosis Type VI (MPS VI) in cats, specifically the genetic testing of the L476P (c.1427T>C) and the D520N (c.1558G>A) variants in arylsulfatase B (ARSB), has come under scrutiny. No health problems are associated with the D520N (c.1558G>A) variant, however, breeders that obtain positive results for this variant are speculating as to possible correlation with health concerns. Birman cats already have a markedly reduced gene pool and have a high frequency of the MPS VI D520N variant. Further reduction of the gene pool by eliminating cats that are heterozygous or homozygous for only the MPS VI D520N variant could lead to more inbreeding depression effects on the breed population. Herein is debated the genetic testing of the MPS VI D520N variant in cats. Surveys from different laboratories suggest the L476P (c.1427T>C) disease-associated variant should be monitored in the cat breed populations, particularly breeds with Siamese derivations and outcrosses. However, the D520N has no evidence of association with disease in cats and testing is not recommended in the absence of L476P genotyping. Selection

  15. Nuclear transfer of synchronized african wild cat somatic cells into enucleated domestic cat oocytes.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Martha C; Jenkins, Jill A; Giraldo, Angelica; Harris, Rebecca F; King, Amy; Dresser, Betsy L; Pope, Charles Earle

    2003-09-01

    The African wild cat is one of the smallest wild cats and its future is threatened by hybridization with domestic cats. Nuclear transfer, a valuable tool for retaining genetic variability, offers the possibility of species continuation rather than extinction. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of somatic cell nuclei of the African wild cat (AWC) to dedifferentiate within domestic cat (DSH) cytoplasts and to support early development after nuclear transplantation. In experiment 1, distributions of AWC and DSH fibroblasts in each cell-cycle phase were assessed by flow cytometry using cells cultured to confluency and disaggregated with pronase, trypsin, or mechanical separation. Trypsin (89.0%) and pronase (93.0%) yielded higher proportions of AWC nuclei in the G0/G1 phase than mechanical separation (82.0%). In contrast, mechanical separation yielded higher percentages of DSH nuclei in the G0/G1 phase (86.6%) than pronase (79.7%) or trypsin (74.2%) treatments. In both species, pronase induced less DNA damage than trypsin. In experiment 2, the effects of serum starvation, culture to confluency, and exposure to roscovitine on the distribution of AWC and DSH fibroblasts in various phases of the cell cycle were determined. Flow cytometry analyses revealed that the dynamics of the cell cycle varied as culture conditions were modified. Specifically, a higher percentage of AWC and DSH nuclei were in the G0/G1 phase after cells were serum starved (83% vs. 96%) than were present in cycling cells (50% vs. 64%), after contact inhibition (61% vs. 88%), or after roscovitine (56% vs. 84%) treatment, respectively. In experiment 3, we evaluated the effects of cell synchronization and oocyte maturation (in vivo vs. in vitro) on the reconstruction and development of AWC-DSH- and DSH-DSH-cloned embryos. The method of cell synchronization did not affect the fusion and cleavage rate because only a slightly higher percentage of fused couplets cleaved when donor nuclei

  16. Nuclear transfer of synchronized African wild cat somatic cells into enucleated domestic cat oocytes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomez, M.C.; Jenkins, J.A.; Giraldo, A.; Harris, R.F.; King, A.; Dresser, B.L.; Pope, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    The African wild cat is one of the smallest wild cats and its future is threatened by hybridization with domestic cats. Nuclear transfer, a valuable tool for retaining genetic variability, offers the possibility of species continuation rather than extinction. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of somatic cell nuclei of the African wild cat (AWC) to dedifferentiate within domestic cat (DSH) cytoplasts and to support early development after nuclear transplantation. In experiment 1, distributions of AWC and DSH fibroblasts in each cell-cycle phase were assessed by flow cytometry using cells cultured to confluency and disaggregated with pronase, trypsin, or mechanical separation. Trypsin (89.0%) and pronase (93.0%) yielded higher proportions of AWC nuclei in the G0/G1 phase than mechanical separation (82.0%). In contrast, mechanical separation yielded higher percentages of DSH nuclei in the G0/G1 phase (86.6%) than pronase (79.7%) or trypsin (74.2%) treatments. In both species, pronase induced less DNA damage than trypsin. In experiment 2, the effects of serum starvation, culture to confluency, and exposure to roscovitine on the distribution of AWC and DSH fibroblasts in various phases of the cell cycle were determined. Flow cytometry analyses revealed that the dynamics of the cell cycle varied as culture conditions were modified. Specifically, a higher percentage of AWC and DSH nuclei were in the G0/G1 phase after cells were serum starved (83% vs. 96%) than were present in cycling cells (50% vs. 64%), after contact inhibition (61% vs. 88%), or after roscovitine (56% vs. 84%) treatment, respectively. In experiment 3, we evaluated the effects of cell synchronization and oocyte maturation (in vivo vs. in vitro) on the reconstruction and development of AWC-DSH- and DSH-DSH-cloned embryos. The method of cell synchronization did not affect the fusion and cleavage rate because only a slightly higher percentage of fused couplets cleaved when donor nuclei

  17. Evaluation of posterior fossa lesions by computer assisted tomography (CAT).

    PubMed

    Lott, T; El Gammal, T; Volcan, I

    1977-07-01

    Valuable neuroradiologic information can be obtained with routine examination of the posterior fossa by computer assisted tomography (CAT). The diagnosis can be difficult in the posterior fossa due to the relatively small size of the compartment and its proximities to large bony masses and air in the mastoid cells. However, many lesions can be accurately diagnosed when close attention is given to anatomic detail and the frequent use of contrast enhancement. We introduced a new CAT classification of posterior fossa neoplasms. PMID:877637

  18. RADTRAN 6/RadCat 6 user guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Hinojosa, Daniel; Heames, Terence John; Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna

    2013-09-01

    This document provides a detailed discussion and a guide for the use of the RadCat 6.0 Graphical User Interface input file generator for the RADTRAN code, Version 6. RadCat 6.0 integrates the newest analysis capabilities of RADTRAN 6.0, including an economic model, updated loss-of-lead shielding model, a new ingestion dose model, and unit conversion. As of this writing, the RADTRAN version in use is RADTRAN 6.02.

  19. Progesterone intoxication inducing marked sedation in a cat.

    PubMed

    Dhumeaux, Marc P; Snead, Elisabeth C R; Hung, Germaine C; Taylor, Susan M

    2010-10-01

    A 3-year-old, male castrated domestic shorthair cat presented for sudden onset of severe lethargy and loss of balance a few hours after potentially ingesting capsules containing progesterone. Elevated serum progesterone was confirmed. Supportive care and time resulted in complete resolution of the clinical signs with no long-term complications or recurrence of clinical signs noticed after 1-month follow-up. This is the first description of progesterone intoxication inducing neurological signs in a cat. PMID:20817586

  20. The indoor air and asthma: the role of cat allergens

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Libby A.; Erwin, Elizabeth A.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review The objective is to discuss recent progress in our understanding of the role of the indoor environment in asthma, focusing on the special role of cat allergens. Recent findings Sensitization to Fel d 1 is the dominant event in inhalant responses to cat; however, there are also IgE responses to the lipocalin (Fel d 4), to cat albumin (Fel d 2), and to the oligosaccharide galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal) on cat IgA (Fel d 5w) and other molecules. The dose response and routes of sensitization for these allergens are now thought to be diverse. It is important to remember that exposure outside a house with a cat is sufficient to cause sensitization. Furthermore, the only solid evidence about a role in asthma relates to Fel d 1. Recently, it has been shown that tolerance associated with early exposure to cats can persist to age 18 and that IgE to alpha-gal (on cat IgA) is not related to asthma. In addition, a recent study of anti-IgE reinforces the evidence that IgE antibodies to indoor allergens make a major contribution to asthma severity. Summary Exposure to Fel d 1 in a home with a cat is far higher than the levels necessary to induce an allergic (IgE antibody) response. In keeping with that, children may develop tolerance, which can be long-lived. In addition, there is increasing evidence that IgE antibodies to an inhalant allergen, such as Fel d 1, dust mite, or cockroach, are causally related to lung inflammation and asthma. PMID:22081090

  1. Experimental infection with Trichinella T12 in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Ribicich, M; Krivokapich, S; Pasqualetti, M; Gonzalez Prous, C L; Gatti, G M; Falzoni, E; Aronowicz, T; Arbusti, P; Fariña, F; Rosa, A

    2013-05-20

    Trichinella spiralis has been documented in wild animals in Argentina, including puma, armadillos, rats and wild boars. In 2008, molecular analysis identified Trichinella T12 from a naturally infected puma (Puma concolor) from Patagonia. The aim of the present work was to study the relationship between the infectivity and pathology of Trichinella T12 in the puma and in domestic cats, and the possible risks that may be present for transmission among these animals. Two cats (A and B) were orally-infected with 3300 and 1850 Trichinella T12 muscle larvae, respectively; one additional cat was used as a control. During the 54 days post-infection, a daily examination was performed which included monitoring body temperature, and cardiac and respiration rates; the animals were then euthanized. Hematological studies included hematocrit (%), hemoglobin (g/dl), and white cell, neutrophil, lymphocyte and eosinophil counts. Blood biochemistry included urea, creatinine, AST, ALT, CK, LDH and ALP. An ELISA assay was also performed. At necropsy, organs (liver, spleen, brain, cerebellum and kidney), nails and muscle samples were obtained for histopathology studies and artificial digestion. The muscles that were studied included the diaphragm, massetter, cutaneous, temporal, intercostals, lumbar, tongue, limbs, neck and tail. Clinical signs, such as anorexia, diarrhea, vomiting, shaggy hair, decay and muscle pain, were observed in both cats. The eosinophil counts were elevated in both cats A and B. Trichinella larvae were recovered from all of the muscles analyzed where the histopathology showed larvae in several muscles without degenerative reaction. Neither larvae nor lesions were observed in non-muscular organs. Cat A had a maximum of 246 larvae per gram (lpg) in the temporal muscle and a minimum of 80 lpg in the tongue, while cat B had a maximum of 65 lpg in muscles of the leg and a minimum of 10 lpg in tail muscles. This study represents the first record of experimental

  2. Severe hypoglycaemia in a cat with primary hypoadrenocorticism.

    PubMed

    Kasabalis, Dimitris; Bodina, Efi; Saridomichelakis, Manolis N

    2012-10-01

    This case report describes a 3-year-old, castrated male, mixed-breed cat with historical, clinical and laboratory findings compatible with primary hypoadrenocorticism, confirmed by adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test. Severe but asymptomatic hypoglycaemia was an unexpected biochemical finding and resolved after fludrocortisone acetate and prednisolone treatment. This case demonstrates that hypoadrenocorticism should be included in the differentials list of severe hypoglycaemia in cats. PMID:22628270

  3. Studying Cat (Felis catus) Diabetes: Beware of the Acromegalic Imposter

    PubMed Central

    Niessen, Stijn J. M.; Forcada, Yaiza; Mantis, Panagiotis; Lamb, Christopher R.; Harrington, Norelene; Fowkes, Rob; Korbonits, Márta; Smith, Ken; Church, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Naturally occurring diabetes mellitus (DM) is common in domestic cats (Felis catus). It has been proposed as a model for human Type 2 DM given many shared features. Small case studies demonstrate feline DM also occurs as a result of insulin resistance due to a somatotrophinoma. The current study estimates the prevalence of hypersomatotropism or acromegaly in the largest cohort of diabetic cats to date, evaluates clinical presentation and ease of recognition. Diabetic cats were screened for hypersomatotropism using serum total insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1; radioimmunoassay), followed by further evaluation of a subset of cases with suggestive IGF-1 (>1000 ng/ml) through pituitary imaging and/ or histopathology. Clinicians indicated pre-test suspicion for hypersomatotropism. In total 1221 diabetic cats were screened; 319 (26.1%) demonstrated a serum IGF-1>1000 ng/ml (95% confidence interval: 23.6–28.6%). Of these cats a subset of 63 (20%) underwent pituitary imaging and 56/63 (89%) had a pituitary tumour on computed tomography; an additional three on magnetic resonance imaging and one on necropsy. These data suggest a positive predictive value of serum IGF-1 for hypersomatotropism of 95% (95% confidence interval: 90–100%), thus suggesting the overall hypersomatotropism prevalence among UK diabetic cats to be 24.8% (95% confidence interval: 21.2–28.6%). Only 24% of clinicians indicated a strong pre-test suspicion; most hypersomatotropism cats did not display typical phenotypical acromegaly signs. The current data suggest hypersomatotropism screening should be considered when studying diabetic cats and opportunities exist for comparative acromegaly research, especially in light of the many detected communalities with the human disease. PMID:26023776

  4. Calcium homeostasis in thyroid disease in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Schenck, Patricia A

    2007-07-01

    Hyperthyroidism is the most common endocrine disorder of cats, and hypothyroidism is the most common endocrine disorder of dogs. Little is known regarding the effects of hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, or treatment of these disorders on calcium metabolism in the dog or cat, however, especially any potential effects on bone. With better diagnostic tools, better treatments, and increased longevity of pets, the clinical impact of thyroid disorders on calcium metabolism and bone may be uncovered. PMID:17619006

  5. Chromogranins can be measured in samples from cats and dogs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Methods for objective evaluation of stress in animals are important, but clinically difficult. An alternative method to study the sympathetic activity may be to investigate Chromogranin A (CGA), Chromogranin B (CGB) and Secretogranin II (SG2). The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-reactivity of CGA, CGB and SG2 between man, cat and dog and to explore possibilities to measure these proteins in samples from cats and dogs. Results Adrenal gland extracts from feline and canine species were measured by region-specific radioimmunoassays in different dilution steps to explore possible inter species cross reactivity. High cross reactivity was found for cats in the CGA17-38, CGA324-337, CGA361-372, CGB and SG2 assays. High cross reactivity was found for dogs in the CGA17-38, CGA361-372, CGB and SN assays. The method measuring the intact CGA was not useful for measurements in cats and dogs. Conclusions Region-specific assays measuring defined parts of CGA, CGB and SG2 can be used for measurements in samples from cats and dogs. These results are promising and will allow for further studies of these proteins as possible clinical biomarkers in cats and dogs. PMID:24899097

  6. Diabetic cataracts: different incidence between dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Salgado, D; Reusch, C; Spiess, B

    2000-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrinopathies in the dog and cat. Diabetic cataract primarily affects the canine species and is rarely observed in the cat. It has been proposed that the incidence of cataracts in diabetic dogs is high because many of these patients have significant hyperglycemia despite insulin therapy. Age, gender, levels of serum glucose (before and during insulin therapy) and cataract formation were evaluated, retrospectively, in 23 dogs and 22 cats with diabetes mellitus. In the canine population, the groups with the highest frequency of presentation were females and sexually intact animals. In contrast, males and neutered animals were the most prevalent groups in the feline diabetic population. Over 80% of diabetic cats and dogs were older than 7 years. Our results confirm the almost total lack of cataracts in diabetic cats, while they were present in more than half of the dogs. A relation between the incidence of cataracts and the correspondent level of hyperglycemia in the canine and feline species could not be established. The estimation of the relative risk for the development of cataracts in diabetic dogs shows that some population groups have a higher probability for suffering from this ocular alteration. A relation between relative risk and the correspondent level of hyperglycemia in the various groups was not found. This fact indicates that other factors are involved in the unequal appearance of diabetic cataracts in dogs and cats. PMID:10892302

  7. More or less: spontaneous quantity discrimination in the domestic cat.

    PubMed

    Bánszegi, Oxána; Urrutia, Andrea; Szenczi, Péter; Hudson, Robyn

    2016-09-01

    We examined spontaneous quantity discrimination in untrained domestic cats in three food choice experiments. In Experiment 1, we presented the cats with two different quantities of food in eight numerical combinations. Overall, the subjects chose the larger quantity more often than the smaller one, and significantly so when the ratio between the quantities was less than 0.5. In Experiment 2, we presented the cats with two pieces of food in four different size combinations. Again, subjects chose the larger piece above chance, although not in the combination where the largest item was presented. In Experiment 3, a subset of the cats was presented multiple times with two different quantities of food, which were hidden from view. In this case, the cats did not choose the larger quantity more often than the smaller one, suggesting that in the present experiments they mainly used visual cues when comparing quantities. We conclude that domestic cats are capable of spontaneously discriminating quantities when faced with different numbers or sizes of food items, and we suggest why they may not always be motivated to choose the larger quantity. In doing so, we highlight the advantages of testing spontaneous choice behavior, which is more likely to reflect animals' everyday manner of responding than is the case when training them in order to test their absolute limits of performance which may not always coincide with their daily needs. PMID:27106666

  8. Ultrasonographic appearance of adrenal glands in healthy and sick cats.

    PubMed

    Combes, Anaïs; Pey, Pascaline; Paepe, Dominique; Rosenberg, Dan; Daminet, Sylvie; Putcuyps, Ingrid; Bedu, Anne-Sophie; Duchateau, Luc; de Fornel-Thibaud, Pauline; Benchekroun, Ghita; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2013-06-01

    The first part of the study aimed to describe prospectively the ultrasonographic features of the adrenal glands in 94 healthy cats and 51 chronically sick cats. It confirmed the feasibility of ultrasonography of adrenal glands in healthy and chronically sick cats, which were not statistically different. The typical hypoechoic appearance of the gland surrounded by hyperechoic fat made it recognisable. A sagittal plane of the gland, not in line with the aorta, may be necessary to obtain the largest adrenal measurements. The reference intervals of adrenal measurements were inferred from the values obtained in the healthy and chronically sick cats (mean ± 0.96 SD): adrenal length was 8.9-12.5 mm; cranial height was 3.0-4.8 mm; caudal height was 3.0-4.5 mm. The second part of the study consisted of a retrospective analysis of the ultrasonographic examination of the adrenal glands in cats with adrenal diseases (six had hyperaldosteronism and four had pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism) and a descriptive comparison with the reference features obtained in the control groups from the prospective study. Cats with hyperaldosteronism presented with unilateral severely enlarged adrenal glands. However, a normal contralateral gland did not preclude a contralateral infiltration in benign or malignant adrenal neoplasms. The ultrasonographic appearance of the adrenal glands could not differentiate benign and malignant lesions. The ultrasonographic appearance of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism was mainly a symmetrical adrenal enlargement; however, a substantial number of cases were within the reference intervals of adrenal size. PMID:23234721

  9. Feline hepatic biotransformation of diazepam: Differences between cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    van Beusekom, Cyrina D; van den Heuvel, Jeroen J M W; Koenderink, Jan B; Russel, Frans G M; Schrickx, Johannes A

    2015-12-01

    In contrast to humans and dogs, diazepam has been reported to induce severe hepatic side effects in cats, particularly after repeated dosing. With the aim to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this apparent sensitivity of cats to drug-induced liver injury, in a series of in vitro experiments, the feline-specific biotransformation of diazepam was studied with liver microsomes obtained from cats and dogs and the possible inhibition of the bile salt export pump (Bsep) was measured in isolated membrane vesicles overexpressing feline and canine Bsep. In line with previous in vivo studies, the phase I metabolites nordiazepam, temazepam and oxazepam were measurable in microsomal incubations, although enzyme velocity of demethylases and hydroxylases differed significantly between cats and dogs. In cats, the main metabolite was temazepam, which also could be glucuronidated. In contrast to dogs, no other glucuronidated metabolites could be observed. In addition, in the membrane vesicles an inhibition of the transport of the Bsep substrate taurocholic acid could be observed in the presence of diazepam and its metabolites. It was concluded that both mechanisms, the slow biotransformation of diazepam as well the inhibition of the bile acid efflux that results in an accumulation of bile acids in the hepatocytes, seem to contribute to the liver injury observed in cats following repetitive treatment with diazepam. PMID:26679806

  10. Quarantine protects Falkland Islands (Malvinas) cats from feline coronavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Addie, Diane D; McDonald, Mike; Audhuy, Stéphane; Burr, Paul; Hollins, Jonathan; Kovacic, Rémi; Lutz, Hans; Luxton, Zoe; Mazar, Shlomit; Meli, Marina L

    2012-02-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Since 2002, when 20 cats on the Falkland Islands were found to be FCoV seronegative, only seronegative cats could be imported. Between 2005-2007, 95 pet and 10 feral cats tested negative by indirect immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) analysis using two strains of type II FCoV, two transmissible gastroenteritis virus assays, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and rapid immunomigration test. Twenty-four samples (23%) showed non-specific fluorescence, mostly attributable to anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA). The reason for ANA was unclear: reactive samples were negative for Erhlichia canis antibodies; seven were feline immunodeficiency virus positive, but 15 were negative. It was not possible to determine retrospectively whether the cats had autoimmune disease, hyperthyroidism treatment, or recent vaccination which may also cause ANA. The FCoV/ FIP-free status of the Falkland Islands cats should be maintained by FCoV testing incoming cats. However, ANA can complicate interpretation of IFA tests. PMID:22314098

  11. Prevalence of selected rickettsial infections in cats in Southern Germany.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Michèle; Englert, Theresa; Stuetzer, Bianca; Hawley, Jennifer R; Lappin, Michael R; Hartmann, Katrin

    2015-10-01

    Prevalence of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, and Wolbachia DNA in blood of 479 cats collected in different veterinary clinics in Southern Germany was determined using a previously published conventional PCR using 16S-23S intergenic spacer primers (5' CTG GGG ACT ACG GTC GCA AGA C 3' - forward; 5' CTC CAG TTT ATC ACT GGA AGT T 3' - reverse). Purified amplicons were sequenced to confirm genus and species. Associations between rickettsial infections, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), as well as feline leukemia virus (FeLV) status were evaluated. Rickettsial prevalence was 0.4% (2/479; CI: 0.01-1.62%). In the two infected cats, Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was amplified. These cats came from different environment and had outdoor access. Both were ill with many of their problems likely related to other diseases. However, one cat had neutrophilia with left shift and the other thrombocytopenia potentially caused by their A. phagocytophilum infection. There was no significant difference in the FIV and FeLV status between A. phagocytophilum-negative and -positive cats. A. phagocytophilum can cause infection in cats in Southern Germany, and appropriate tick control is recommended. PMID:26387062

  12. Adverse events in 50 cats with allergic dermatitis receiving ciclosporin.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Nicole A; McKeever, Patrick J; Eisenschenk, Melissa C

    2011-12-01

    Ciclosporin is an immunosuppressive drug that has been used to treat allergies and other immune-mediated diseases in cats, dogs and humans. Information about the adverse effects of ciclosporin in cats has been limited to smaller studies and case reports. Adverse effects in dogs are mainly gastrointestinal in nature, but humans can also experience hypertension and altered renal function. The aim of this retrospective case series study was to document the occurrence and clinical appearance of adverse events in cats receiving ciclosporin to treat allergic skin disease. The medical records of 50 cats with allergic dermatitis treated with oral ciclosporin (1.9-7.3 mg/kg/day) were reviewed. Adverse events occurred in 66% (33 cats). Adverse events likely to be associated with ciclosporin included the following: vomiting or diarrhoea within 1-8 weeks of receiving ciclosporin (24%), weight loss (16%), anorexia and subsequent hepatic lipidosis (2%) and gingival hyperplasia (2%). Other adverse events less likely to be associated with ciclosporin therapy included the following: weight gain (14%), dental tartar and gingivitis (10%), otitis (4%), chronic diarrhoea (4%), inflammatory bowel disease with indolent gastrointestinal lymphoma (2%), urinary tract infection (2%), cataract (2%), elevated liver enzymes (2%), hyperthyroidism and renal failure (2%) and transient inappropriate urination (2%). Some cats experienced multiple adverse events. Case-control studies are needed to prove cause and effect of ciclosporin with regard to these adverse events. PMID:21545660

  13. Home range and diet of feral cats in Hawaii forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smucker, T.D.; Lindsey, G.D.; Mosher, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Feral cat Felis catus home range in a Hawaiian montane wet forest and their diet in three habitats - montane wet forest, subalpine dry forest, and lowland dry forest - were determined to provide baseline ecological data and to assess potential impacts to native terrestrial fauna. Seven cats (three males and four females) were captured in 624 trap nights. Mean weight of adult cats was 2.85 ?? 0.27 (SE) Kg for males and 1.87 ?? 0.03 kg for females. Mean diumal home range using the adaptive kernel method was 5.74 ?? 2.73 km2 for three males and 2.23 ?? 0.44 km2 for two females. Daytime locations were always within the montane wet forest with the borders on one or more sides of the home ranges of all cats defined by open grassland pastures. Rodents comprised the majority of the cat diets in all three habitats, with the frequencies of occurence between 0.88 and 0.91. Bird remains were a regular component of the diet of cats, with montane wet forest having the highest frequency of occurence (0.68), followed by subalpine dry forest (0.53), and lowland dry forest (0.21).

  14. Water uptake in stimulated cat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Watson, P D; Garner, R P; Ward, D S

    1993-04-01

    Isolated vasodilated cat hindlimb skeletal muscles were perfused at constant flow and stimulated at 4 Hz for 2-4 min in three studies. Water uptake rates were measured gravimetrically or calculated from venous protein concentration changes. Venous plasma sodium, potassium, chloride, and osmolality were also measured. Maximum water uptake rates averaged 1.8 +/- 0.2 (SE) ml.min-1 x 100 g-1, reaching twice that in some experiments. Water uptake continued after stimulation had ceased. Constant-flow perfusion maintained a constant capillary pressure that was corroborated by measurements of arterial and venous perfusate pressures. Water uptake rate was not influenced by hematocrit but was highly correlated with plasma flow rate. The evidence strongly suggests that small-molecule osmotic pressure was the primary pressure causing the transcapillary water flux. Venous plasma sodium and chloride concentrations increased almost as much as protein (108 and 87% of the protein increase, respectively), as would be expected when water fluxes are driven by small-molecule osmotic pressure. Peak potassium efflux averaged 36 +/- 3 mu eq.min-1 x 100 g-1, but potassium did not contribute significantly to the osmotic gradient. PMID:8476122

  15. Intracranial cholesterol granuloma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Emanuele; Abbiati, Gianluca; Cantile, Carlo

    2010-11-01

    A case of intracranial cholesterol granuloma is described in a 4-year-old neutered European male cat presented with a 5-month history of progressive weakness, ataxia and depression. On clinical evaluation, haematological and biochemical profiles revealed only mild hypercholesterolemia and magnetic resonance imaging showed a large space-occupying extra-axial mass in the area of the falx, not homogeneous after contrast enhancement. At post-mortem examination, an orange-yellowish mass of 22 mm in diameter extended from the right frontal lobe to the temporo-parietal region, causing atrophy of the prosencephalic region of the brain. The site of origin of the mass was within the subarachnoid space of the supracallosum sulcus of the right cerebral hemisphere. Histological examination of the lesion revealed abundant deposits of cholesterol clefts, surrounded by clusters of macrophages and multinucleated giant cells. Neither inflammatory lesions, nor cholesterol deposits were detected in other areas of the brain and in other organs. On the basis of the histological examination, a diagnosis of intracranial cholesterol granuloma was made. PMID:20543528

  16. Epilepsy in cats: theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Pakozdy, A; Halasz, P; Klang, A

    2014-01-01

    The veterinary literature on epilepsy in cats is less extensive than that for dogs. The present review summarizes the most important human definitions related to epilepsy and discusses the difficulties in applying them in daily veterinary practice. Epileptic seizures can have a wide range of clinical signs and are not necessarily typical in all cases. Whether a seizure event is epileptic can only be suspected based on clinical, laboratory, and neuroimaging findings as electroencephalography diagnostic techniques have not yet been developed to a sufficiently accurate level in veterinary medicine. In addition, the present review aims to describe other diagnoses and nonepileptic conditions that might be mistaken for epileptic seizures. Seizures associated with hippocampal lesions are described and discussed extensively, as they seem to be a special entity only recognized in the past few years. Furthermore, we focus on clinical work-up and on treatment that can be recommended based on the literature and summarize the limited data available relating to the outcome. Critical commentary is provided as most studies are based on very weak evidence. PMID:24438024

  17. [Measurement of electrooculogram in the cat].

    PubMed

    Sakai, H; Mitsui, Y

    1995-06-01

    In humans, the light peak/dark trough ratio (L/D ratio or Arden ratio) of the electrooculogram (EOG) is conventionally used as an index to estimate the function of the retinal pigment epithelium, but it is rarely in animals. We obtained stable EOG recording in the cat under general anesthesia during light and dark adaptations by applying mechanical forced duction of approximately 3.0 mm in width to one eye of an animal. In five animals, voltages of the dark baseline, the light peak, and dark trough were 580-1,800 (mean, 1,312 microV), 825-2,660 microV (mean, 1,881 microV) and 415-1,480 microV (mean, 1,030 microV), respectively. The L/D ratio in the five animals was 1.70-1.99 (mean, 1.83), similar to that in humans. The present results suggest that the EOG recording by forced duction in experimental animals can be developed into another method to evaluate the retinal pigment epithelial function, particularly to evaluate its potential disorder induced by fluoroquinolones. PMID:7611001

  18. Perceptual and acoustic evidence for species-level differences in meow vocalizations by domestic cats (Felis catus) and African wild cats (Felis silvestris lybica).

    PubMed

    Nicastro, Nicholas

    2004-09-01

    To test for possible anthropogenic selection effects on meows in domestic felids, vocalizations by domestic cats (Felis catus) were compared with cries by their closest wild relative, the African wild cat (Felis silvestris lybica). Comparisons included analysis of acoustic characteristics and perceptual studies with human (Homo sapiens) listeners. The perceptual studies obtained human listener ratings of call pleasantness. Both the acoustic and perceptual comparisons revealed clear species-level differences: The domestic cat meows were significantly shorter in mean duration than the wild cat meows, showed higher mean formant frequencies, and exhibited higher mean fundamental frequencies. Human listeners at all levels of experience and affinity for cats rated domestic cat meows as far more pleasant sounding than wild cat vocalizations. These results are consistent with a model of cat domestication that posits selective pressure on meows based on human perceptual biases. PMID:15482056

  19. Natural FCoV infection: cats with FIP exhibit significantly higher viral loads than healthy infected cats.

    PubMed

    Kipar, Anja; Baptiste, Keith; Barth, Andreas; Reinacher, Manfred

    2006-02-01

    Natural feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection has been shown to not only induce intestinal infection with viral shedding, but also systemic infection which either remains without clinical signs or leads to feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). As systemic infection is not the key event in the development of FIP, the question arises as to whether a potential difference in viral load might be of importance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantitatively assess feline coronavirus (FCoV) RNA loads in haemolymphatic tissues of healthy, long-term FCoV-infected cats and cats with FIP. In cats that died from FIP, viral loads were significantly higher, indicating a higher rate of viral replication or a reduced capacity for viral clearance in cats developing and/or suffering from FIP. PMID:16213766

  20. Isolation and purification of cat albumin from cat serum by copper ion affinity chromatography: further analysis of its primary structure.

    PubMed

    Dandeu, J P; Rabillon, J; Guillaume, J L; Camoin, L; Lux, M; David, B

    1991-02-22

    Proteins, regardless of their origin, have to be highly purified, particularly from the immunochemical point of view, if they are to be used to study their allergenicity. It is shown that cat albumin, a highly potent allergen for cat-sensitive humans, can be isolated and purified from cat serum using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (copper ions) instead of a salting-out process or precipitation with alcohol, techniques generally used for the preparation of serum proteins. During the process described, immunoglobulins are concomitantly isolated in a relatively pure form. Cat albumin amino acid composition and sequence were analysed after an ultimate purification by ion-exchange chromatography. The highest homology (greater than 80%) was found with the rat serum albumin. PMID:2045457

  1. Cloning and characterization of two catA genes in Acinetobacter lwoffii K24.

    PubMed

    Kim, S I; Leem, S H; Choi, J S; Chung, Y H; Kim, S; Park, Y M; Park, Y K; Lee, Y N; Ha, K S

    1997-08-01

    Two novel type I catechol 1,2-dioxygenases inducible on aniline media were isolated from Acinetobacter lwoffii K24. Although the two purified enzymes, CD I1 and CD I2, had similar intradiol cleavage activities, they showed different substrate specificities for catechol analogs, physicochemical properties, and amino acid sequences. Two catA genes, catA1 and catA2, encoding by CD I1 and CD I2, respectively, were isolated from the A. lwoffii K24 genomic library by using colony hybridization and PCR. Two DNA fragments containing the catA1 and catA2 genes were located on separate regions of the chromosome. They contained open reading frames encoding 33.4- and 30.4-kDa proteins. The amino acid sequences of the two proteins matched well with previously determined sequences. Interestingly, further analysis of the two DNA fragments revealed the locations of the catB and catC genes as well. Moreover, the DNA fragment containing catA1 had a cluster of genes in the order catB1-catC1-catA1 while the catB2-catA2-catC2 arrangement was found in the catA2 DNA fragment. These results may provide an explanation of the different substrate specificities and physicochemical properties of CD I1 and CD I2. PMID:9260969

  2. Study of the effect on shelter cat intakes and euthanasia from a shelter neuter return project of 10,080 cats from March 2010 to June 2014.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Karen L; Cicirelli, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable-rehabilitatable impounds beginning in 2008. San Jose Animal Care and Services implemented a new strategy designed to control overall feral cat reproduction by altering and returning feral cats entering the shelter system, rather than euthanizing the cats. The purpose of this case study was to determine how the program affected the shelter cat intakes over time. In just over four years, 10,080 individual healthy adult feral cats, out of 11,423 impounded at the shelter during this time frame, were altered and returned to their site of capture. Included in the 11,423 cats were 862 cats impounded from one to four additional times for a total of 958 (9.5%) recaptures of the previously altered 10,080 cats. The remaining 385 healthy feral cats were euthanized at the shelter from March 2010 to June 2014. Four years into the program, researchers observed cat and kitten impounds decreased 29.1%; euthanasia decreased from over 70% of intakes in 2009, to 23% in 2014. Euthanasia in the shelter for Upper Respiratory Disease decreased 99%; dead cat pick up off the streets declined 20%. Dog impounds did not similarly decline over the four years. No other laws or program changes were implemented since the beginning of the program. PMID:25374785

  3. Study of the effect on shelter cat intakes and euthanasia from a shelter neuter return project of 10,080 cats from March 2010 to June 2014

    PubMed Central

    Cicirelli, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable-rehabilitatable impounds beginning in 2008. San Jose Animal Care and Services implemented a new strategy designed to control overall feral cat reproduction by altering and returning feral cats entering the shelter system, rather than euthanizing the cats. The purpose of this case study was to determine how the program affected the shelter cat intakes over time. In just over four years, 10,080 individual healthy adult feral cats, out of 11,423 impounded at the shelter during this time frame, were altered and returned to their site of capture. Included in the 11,423 cats were 862 cats impounded from one to four additional times for a total of 958 (9.5%) recaptures of the previously altered 10,080 cats. The remaining 385 healthy feral cats were euthanized at the shelter from March 2010 to June 2014. Four years into the program, researchers observed cat and kitten impounds decreased 29.1%; euthanasia decreased from over 70% of intakes in 2009, to 23% in 2014. Euthanasia in the shelter for Upper Respiratory Disease decreased 99%; dead cat pick up off the streets declined 20%. Dog impounds did not similarly decline over the four years. No other laws or program changes were implemented since the beginning of the program. PMID:25374785

  4. Quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy in normal cats and in cats with experimental cholangiohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Newell, S M; Graham, J P; Roberts, G D; Ginn, P E; Greiner, E C; Cardwell, A; Mauragis, D; Knutsen, C; Harrison, J M; Martin, F G

    2001-01-01

    Quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy using 99mTc-mebrofenin was performed on eight normal cats and on the same cats after induction of experimental cholangiohepatitis by infection with the liver fluke Platynosomum concinnum. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy was performed 3 times at 10 weeks, 4 months and 6 months after infection. In addition, routine biochemical tests, hepatic ultrasound and ultrasound guided hepatic biopsy samples were obtained at the same time points, and the results compared with hepatobiliary scintigraphy. The normal hepatic extraction fraction was determined to be 85%, and the normal hepatic excretion half time (T 1/2) was 14 minutes. There was no significant change in scintigraphic parameters compared to pre-infection values at any time following infection with the liver fluke. No correlation between scintigraphic parameters and histologic scores was found; however, significant correlation was identified between parasite burden and histologic scores 6 months following infection. Despite the presence of severe multifocal histologic abnormalities, minimal clinical, biochemical and scintigraphic derangements were identified using this model of cholangiohepatitis. Based on this study, hepatobiliary scintigraphy appears to be an insensitive test for structural hepatobiliary abnormalities. The role of hepatobiliary scintigraphy in functional hepatobiliary abnormalities of the feline liver has not been determined. PMID:11245241

  5. [Feline leishmaniasis: what's the epidemiological role of the cat?].

    PubMed

    Mancianti, F

    2004-06-01

    Feline leishmaniasis (FL) is a quite uncommon feature. Clinical disease has been described in cats since nineties begin. More than 40 reports in world literature have been referred, but the clinical cases have been only recently well defined. Most of the reports focus on infected cats living in endemic areas, even if, more recently FL due to Leishmania infantum was found in Sao Paulo State, in Brazil where autochthonous human or canine leishmaniasis cases have never reported. In Europe clinical cases of FL have been described from Portugal, France, Spain and Italy from 1996 to 2002. When a typing of the etiological agent was performed L. infantum was identified in all reported cases. In some endemic areas serological surveys have also been carried out in cats, using IHAT in Egypt, Western blot in France or IFAT in Italy. Sixty Egyptian cats had low serological antibody titers, from 1/32 to 1/128, in the endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis of Alpes Maritimes 12 out of 97 (12.5%) cats showed antibodies versus antigens 14 and/or 18 kDa of L. infantum. A previous survey by means of IFAT in Liguria and Toscana on 110 and 158 feline sera respectively reports a seroprevalence of 0.9% with low titer, while sera from Sicily seem to be positive at higher dilutions. Animals living in an endemic area can develop specific antibodies against leishmania and, in our experience, they can be evidentiated by means of IFAT. The antibody titers appear to be lower in affected cats than in dogs, even if the number of clinical cases is very scanty. PCR tests on feline blood samples are in progress, but preliminary results confirm the presence of leishmania DNA in such specimens. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the more frequent form in cats and it was reported from several countries. Typical signs include nodular to ulcer or crusty lesions on the nose, lips, ears, eyelids, alopecia: clinical signs of cutaneous FL are unspecific and in endemic area this infection must be taken into account

  6. CATS-based Air Traffic Controller Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes intelligent agents that function as air traffic controllers. Each agent controls traffic in a single sector in real time; agents controlling traffic in adjoining sectors can coordinate to manage an arrival flow across a given meter fix. The purpose of this research is threefold. First, it seeks to study the design of agents for controlling complex systems. In particular, it investigates agent planning and reactive control functionality in a dynamic environment in which a variety perceptual and decision making skills play a central role. It examines how heuristic rules can be applied to model planning and decision making skills, rather than attempting to apply optimization methods. Thus, the research attempts to develop intelligent agents that provide an approximation of human air traffic controller behavior that, while not based on an explicit cognitive model, does produce task performance consistent with the way human air traffic controllers operate. Second, this research sought to extend previous research on using the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) as the basis for intelligent agents. The agents use a high-level model of air traffic controller activities to structure the control task. To execute an activity in the CATS model, according to the current task context, the agents reference a 'skill library' and 'control rules' that in turn execute the pattern recognition, planning, and decision-making required to perform the activity. Applying the skills enables the agents to modify their representation of the current control situation (i.e., the 'flick' or 'picture'). The updated representation supports the next activity in a cycle of action that, taken as a whole, simulates air traffic controller behavior. A third, practical motivation for this research is to use intelligent agents to support evaluation of new air traffic control (ATC) methods to support new Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts. Current approaches that use large, human

  7. Binocular interaction in the cat's superior colliculus.

    PubMed Central

    Berman, N; Blakemore, C; Cynader, M

    1975-01-01

    1. Binocularly driven neurones with small receptive fields near the area centralis were recorded in the cat's superior colliculus. 2. Binocular interaction was tested by stimulating both eyes simultaneously with a single moving stimulus at various retinal disparities. 3. Collicular cells in general showed strong summation or even facilitation when the images of the stimulus were in exact correspondence on the receptive fields, sometimes with occlusion when they were out of register. The range of retinal disparity over which there was additive interaction could be as little as 1 or 2 deg, almost as narrow as for the most precisely tuned neurones in the visual cortex. Even cells with large receptive fields sometimes showed a narrow range of binocular interaction. 4. Non-directional cells generally exhibited weaker summation and broader disparity selectivity than did direction-selective cells. 5. Some neurones with virtually no response to a stimulus in one of the eyes can exhibit marked binocular interaction. Other apparently monocular cells show little or no binocular interaction. 6. The disparity of the centres of the receptive fields was measured after correcting for small eye movements, which were assessed by two different techniques. For 132 cells the measured distribution of horizontal disparity (range 4.5 deg; S.D. 0.93 deg) was significantly broader than that of vertical disparity (range 2.2 deg; S.D. 0.52 deg). Sources of error in these measurements are considered. 7. The results are discussed in relation to the known connexions between visual cortex and superior colliculus and the possible role of the latter in the regulation of eye movements. PMID:1133788

  8. Secnidazole for the treatment of giardiasis in naturally infected cats.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Castro, Verônica S P; Tonin, Alexandre A; Brendler, Sabrina; Costa, Marcio M; Jaques, Jeandre A; Bertoletti, Bianca; Zanette, Régis A; Raiser, Alceu G; Mazzanti, Cinthia M; Lopes, Sonia T A; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2011-12-01

    Giardia duodenalis causes enteric infections in humans and animals worldwide. Inefficiency of metronidazole is commonly reported in the veterinary clinic routine in the treatment of giardiasis in dogs and cats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of secnidazole in the control of infection caused by G. duodenalis in naturally infected cats. For this purpose two experiments were carried out. In the first experiment seven cats were infected with G. duodenalis and treated orally with a single dose of secnidazole (30 mg kg(-1)). In the second experiment a total of 16 cats were used, 11 naturally infected with G. duodenalis and five negative for the parasite. Animals were divided into three groups: group A (n=5) was composed by non-infected animals (negative control), group B (n=5) consisted of infected but untreated animals and group C (n=6) was composed by cats treated orally with a single dose of secnidazole (30 mg kg(-1)). Hematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated before and after treatment. The first experiment reached 100% of efficacy because no cysts were found in the feces after treatment. However, doubts about intoxication and interference with hematological and biochemical parameters came to light. No side effects were observed, and the biochemical and hematological parameters of treated animals remained within physiological range, except for one feline which had elevation of liver enzymes. Based on these results, the utilization of secnidazole could be suggested for the treatment of giardiasis in cats. The main advantage of this treatment is that only a single dose is required, which is interesting in animals hard to handle like cats. PMID:21763779

  9. Detection of seasonal asymptomatic dermatophytes in Van cats

    PubMed Central

    Ilhan, Ziya; Karaca, Mehmet; Ekin, Ismail Hakki; Solmaz, Hasan; Akkan, Hasan Altan; Tutuncu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The Van cat is a domestic landrace found in the Van province of eastern Turkey. In this study, we aimed to determine the seasonal carriage of dermatophytes in Van cats without clinical lesions. A total of 264 hair specimens were collected from clinically healthy cats in and around the Van Province. Of these samples, 30.3% were obtained in spring, 30.6% in summer, 16.6% in autumn, and 22.3% in winter; 45.1% of samples were from male cats and the rest from female ones. Of the studied cats, 118 were younger than 1 year, 78 were 1–3 years old, and 68 were older than 3 years. The specimens were subjected to direct microscopic examination with 15% potassium hydroxide and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and dermatophyte test medium supplemented with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol. Dermatophyte identification was carried out based on macroscopic and microscopic colony morphology, urease activities, in vitro hair perforation test, growth at 37 °C, and pigmentation on corn meal agar. Dermatophytes were isolated from 19 (7.1%) of the 264 specimens examined. The most frequently isolated fungi were Trichophyton terrestre (4.1%), followed by Microsporum gypseum (1.1%), M. nanum (1.1%), and T. mentagrophytes (0.7%), and these fungi may represent a health risk for humans in contact with clinically healthy Van cats. M. canis was not isolated from any of the specimens. Our results show no significant (p > 0.05) association between carriage of dermatophytes and the gender of cats. The carriage rate of dermatophytes was high in spring and winter, and the only possible risk factor for infection was age of the animal. PMID:26887249

  10. Detection of seasonal asymptomatic dermatophytes in Van cats.

    PubMed

    Ilhan, Ziya; Karaca, Mehmet; Ekin, Ismail Hakki; Solmaz, Hasan; Akkan, Hasan Altan; Tutuncu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The Van cat is a domestic landrace found in the Van province of eastern Turkey. In this study, we aimed to determine the seasonal carriage of dermatophytes in Van cats without clinical lesions. A total of 264 hair specimens were collected from clinically healthy cats in and around the Van Province. Of these samples, 30.3% were obtained in spring, 30.6% in summer, 16.6% in autumn, and 22.3% in winter; 45.1% of samples were from male cats and the rest from female ones. Of the studied cats, 118 were younger than 1 year, 78 were 1-3 years old, and 68 were older than 3 years. The specimens were subjected to direct microscopic examination with 15% potassium hydroxide and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and dermatophyte test medium supplemented with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol. Dermatophyte identification was carried out based on macroscopic and microscopic colony morphology, urease activities, in vitro hair perforation test, growth at 37°C, and pigmentation on corn meal agar. Dermatophytes were isolated from 19 (7.1%) of the 264 specimens examined. The most frequently isolated fungi were Trichophyton terrestre (4.1%), followed by Microsporum gypseum (1.1%), M. nanum (1.1%), and T. mentagrophytes (0.7%), and these fungi may represent a health risk for humans in contact with clinically healthy Van cats. M. canis was not isolated from any of the specimens. Our results show no significant (p>0.05) association between carriage of dermatophytes and the gender of cats. The carriage rate of dermatophytes was high in spring and winter, and the only possible risk factor for infection was age of the animal. PMID:26887249

  11. Effects of maropitant in cats receiving dexmedetomidine and morphine.

    PubMed

    Martin-Flores, Manuel; Sakai, Daniel M; Learn, McKenzie M; Mastrocco, Alicia; Campoy, Luis; Boesch, Jordyn M; Gleed, Robin D

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of maropitant in cats receiving dexmedetomidine and morphine. DESIGN Randomized controlled trial. ANIMALS 66 healthy female domestic shorthair cats. PROCEDURES Cats were randomly assigned to receive maropitant (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], SC; maropitant group; n = 32) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.1 mL/kg [0.045 mL/lb], SC; control group; 34) 20 hours before IM administration of dexmedetomidine (20 μg/kg [9.1 μg/lb]) and morphine (0.1 mg/kg). Following administration of dexmedetomidine and morphine, the incidences of emesis, retching, and signs of nausea (sialorrhea and lip licking) were compared between the 2 groups. The aversive behavioral response of each cat to injection of maropitant or saline solution was scored on a visual analogue scale by each of 4 observers who were unaware of the treatment administered. RESULTS Only 1 of 32 cats in the maropitant group vomited, whereas 20 of 34 control cats vomited. The incidences of emesis and retching for the maropitant group were significantly lower than those for the control group. The incidence of signs of nausea did not differ between the 2 groups. Visual analogue scale scores for the maropitant group were significantly higher than those for the control group. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of the present study indicated that administration of maropitant to healthy cats approximately 20 hours prior to administration of dexmedetomidine and morphine significantly decreased the incidence of emesis but did not decrease the incidence of signs of nausea. However, maropitant appeared to cause substantial discomfort when injected SC. PMID:27172341

  12. Feline ischemic myelopathy and encephalopathy secondary to hyaline arteriopathy in five cats.

    PubMed

    Rylander, Helena; Eminaga, Salih; Palus, Viktor; Steinberg, Howard; Caine, Abby; Summers, Brian A; Gehrke, Joshua; West, Chad; Fox, Philip R; Donovan, Taryn; Cherubini, Giunio Bruto

    2014-10-01

    Five cats presented with acute-onset neurological signs. Magnetic resonance imaging in four cats showed a T2-weighted hyperintense spinal cord lesion that was mildly contrast-enhancing in three cats. Owing to inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid changes three cats were treated with immunosuppression. One cat was treated with antibiotics. All cats improved initially, but were eventually euthanased owing to the recurrence of neurological signs. Histopathology in all cats showed hyaline degeneration of the ventral spinal artery, basilar artery or associated branches with aneurysmal dilation, thrombosis and ischemic degeneration and necrosis of the spinal cord and brain. Two cats also had similar vascular changes in meningeal vessels. Vascular hyaline degeneration resulting in vascular aneurysmal dilation and thrombosis should be a differential diagnosis in cats presenting with acute central nervous system signs. PMID:24518252

  13. Rabies prevention and management of cats in the context of trap-neuter-vaccinate-release programmes.

    PubMed

    Roebling, A D; Johnson, D; Blanton, J D; Levin, M; Slate, D; Fenwick, G; Rupprecht, C E

    2014-06-01

    Domestic cats are an important part of many Americans' lives, but effective control of the 60-100 million feral cats living throughout the country remains problematic. Although trap-neuter-vaccinate-return (TNVR) programmes are growing in popularity as alternatives to euthanizing feral cats, their ability to adequately address disease threats and population growth within managed cat colonies is dubious. Rabies transmission via feral cats is a particular concern as demonstrated by the significant proportion of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis associated with exposures involving cats. Moreover, TNVR has not been shown to reliably reduce feral cat colony populations because of low implementation rates, inconsistent maintenance and immigration of unsterilized cats into colonies. For these reasons, TNVR programmes are not effective methods for reducing public health concerns or for controlling feral cat populations. Instead, responsible pet ownership, universal rabies vaccination of pets and removal of strays remain integral components to control rabies and other diseases. PMID:23859607

  14. Understanding public perceptions of risk regarding outdoor pet cats to inform conservation action.

    PubMed

    Gramza, Ashley; Teel, Tara; VandeWoude, Susan; Crooks, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    Free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) incur and impose risks on ecosystems and represent a complex issue of critical importance to biodiversity conservation and cat and human health globally. Prior social science research on this topic is limited and has emphasized feral cats even though owned cats often comprise a large proportion of the outdoor cat population, particularly in urban areas. To address this gap, we examined public risk perceptions and attitudes toward outdoor pet cats across varying levels of urbanization, including along the wildland-urban interface, in Colorado (U.S.A.), through a mail survey of 1397 residents. Residents did not view all types of risks uniformly. They viewed risks of cat predation on wildlife and carnivore predation on cats as more likely than disease-related risks. Additionally, risk perceptions were related to attitudes, prior experiences with cats and cat-wildlife interactions, and cat-owner behavior. Our findings suggest that changes in risk perceptions may result in behavior change. Therefore, knowledge of cat-related risk perceptions and attitudes could be used to develop communication programs aimed at promoting risk-aversive behaviors among cat owners and cat-management strategies that are acceptable to the public and that directly advance the conservation of native species. PMID:26379227

  15. Serological response of cats to experimental Besnoitia darlingi and Besnoitia neotomofelis infections and prevalence of antibodies to these parasites in cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Houk, Alice E; Rosypal, Alexa C; Grant, David C; Dubey, J P; Zajac, Anne M; Yabsley, Michael J; Lindsay, David S

    2011-04-01

    Besnoitia darlingi and Besnoitia neotomofelis are cyst-forming tissue apicomplexan parasites that use domestic cats (Felis domesticus) as definitive hosts and opossums (Didelphis virginiana ) and Southern Plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) as intermediate hosts, respectively. Nothing is known about the prevalence of B. darlingi or B. neotomofelis in cats from the United States. Besnoitia darlingi infections have been reported in naturally infected opossums from many states in the United States, and B. neotomofelis infections have been reported from Southern Plains woodrats from Texas, but naturally infected cats have not been identified. The present study examined the IgG antibody response of cats to experimental infection (B. darlingi n  =  1 cat; B. neotomofelis n  =  3 cats). Samples from these cats were used to develop an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT), which was then used to examine seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to tachyzoites of B. darlingi and B. neotomofelis in a population of domestic cats from Virginia (N  =  232 cats) and Pennsylvania (N  =  209). The serum from cats inoculated with B. darlingi or B. neotomofelis cross-reacted with each other's tachyzoites. The titers to heterologous tachyzoites were 1 to 3 dilutions lower than to homologous tachyzoites. Sera from B. darlingi- or B. neotomofelis-infected cats did not react with tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii or Neospora caninum or merozoites of Sarcocystis neurona using the IFAT. Antibodies to B. darlingi were found in 14% and 2% of cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania, respectively. Antibodies to B. neotomofelis were found in 5% and 4% of cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania, respectively. Nine cats from Virginia and 1 cat from Pennsylvania were positive for both. PMID:21506782

  16. Harvesting implementation for the GI-cat distributed catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldrini, Enrico; Papeschi, Fabrizio; Bigagli, Lorenzo; Mazzetti, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    GI-cat framework implements a distributed catalog service supporting different international standards and interoperability arrangements in use by the geoscientific community. The distribution functionality in conjunction with the mediation functionality allows to seamlessly query remote heterogeneous data sources, including OGC Web Services - e.e. OGC CSW, WCS, WFS and WMS, community standards such as UNIDATA THREDDS/OPeNDAP, SeaDataNet CDI (Common Data Index), GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility) services and OpenSearch engines. In the GI-cat modular architecture a distributor component carry out the distribution functionality by query delegation to the mediator components (one for each different data source). Each of these mediator components is able to query a specific data source and convert back the results by mapping of the foreign data model to the GI-cat internal one, based on ISO 19139. In order to cope with deployment scenarios in which local data is expected, an harvesting approach has been experimented. The new strategy comes in addition to the consolidated distributed approach, allowing the user to switch between a remote and a local search at will for each federated resource; this extends GI-cat configuration possibilities. The harvesting strategy is designed in GI-cat by the use at the core of a local cache component, implemented as a native XML database and based on eXist. The different heterogeneous sources are queried for the bulk of available data; this data is then injected into the cache component after being converted to the GI-cat data model. The query and conversion steps are performed by the mediator components that were are part of the GI-cat framework. Afterward each new query can be exercised against local data that have been stored in the cache component. Considering both advantages and shortcomings that affect harvesting and query distribution approaches, it comes out that a user driven tuning is required to take the best

  17. Ultrasonographic characteristics of lipiduria in clinically normal cats.

    PubMed

    Sislak, Meg D; Spaulding, Kathy A; Zoran, Debra L; Bauer, John E; Thompson, James A

    2014-01-01

    Echoes are frequently seen in the urinary bladder of cats during abdominal ultrasound. These have been attributed to hematuria, pyuria, crystalluria, and lipid. However, sonographic findings have not been previously correlated with urinalysis. We prospectively evaluated 40 clinically normal cats via ultrasound, serum chemistry, and urinalysis. Thin layer chromatography was performed on the urine to determine the amount (mg) of lipid subfractions including diacylglycerol, triglyceride, phospholipid, free fatty acid, cholesterol, and cholesterol ester. Ninety percent (36/40) of the cats in our population had sonographic echoes suspended in the urinary bladder, with most having a subjective score of mild echoes (n = 20). None of the sonographic echoes were gravity dependent or caused distal acoustic shadowing, reverberation, or twinkle artifact. Of the cats with sonographic echoes in the urine, 66% (24/36) had no significant findings on urinalysis other than the presence of lipid. The total amount of subjective sonographic echoes was not significantly related to the total amount of fat measured on thin layer chromatography or the number of lipid droplets seen on urinalysis. An increased amount of urine diacylglycerol was significantly associated with clumping of echoes (P = 0.02) and the amount of lipid droplets seen on urinalysis (P = 0.04). An association between increased amounts of urine diacylglycerol and the amount of echoes seen on ultrasound approached significance (P = 0.05). Findings from this study support previously published theories that sonographic echoes within the urinary bladder of clinically normal cats may be due to urine lipid. PMID:24102935

  18. Ronidazole in the treatment of trichomonad infections in cats.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Gigi S

    2006-01-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus, a microscopic single-celled flagellated protozoan parasite, traditionally identified as a cause of reproductive disease in cattle, has been demonstrated as an important cause of diarrhea in cats. Until recently, an effective antimicrobial treatment for feline Tritrichomonas foetus had not been idnetified. Since recommended dosages of antimicrobial drugs have failed in cats infected with Tritrichomonas foetus and in vitro studies have revealed multiple drug resistance, investigations continue in the effort to find an effective treatment. One particular study by Dr.Jody Gookin noted no clinicopathological abnormalities or adverse effects with the use of ronidazole, and the research concluded that ronidazole administered at 30 to 50 mg/kg orally twice daily for 2 weeks was capable of resolving diarrhea and eradicating infections of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats. Clinical use of ronidazole has revealed a reversible, possibly dose-related, neurotoxicity. Cats receiving ronidazole should be monitored for signs of nystagmus, ataxia, or behavior change, and ronidazole should be discontinued immediately if any of these signs are observed. Many compounding pharmacists have begun stocking pure ronidazole powder to prepare veterinarian prescriptions for the treatnment of Tritrichomonas foetus. Doses of ronidazole are usually prepared as capsules, the most desirable dosage form because (1)the capsules mask the extremely bitter taste of ronidazole, (2)exact dosing reduces the risk of neurotoxicity that has been reported at higher doses, and (3)the owner can be assured that the entire dose is ingested by the cat after administration of a capsule. PMID:23974416

  19. AIDS virus restriction factor transgenesis in the domestic cat

    PubMed Central

    Wongsrikeao, Pimprapar; Saenz, Dyana; Rinkoski, Tommy; Otoi, Takeshige; Poeschla, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The domestic cat is a neurobehaviorally complex, accessible species with specific value in research situations where rodents are unsuited on the basis of disease susceptibility, size, or other factors. For example, studies in the cat have revealed much of our present knowledge of the organization of the mammalian brain, in particular the cerebral cortex, and humans and cats are each afflicted with pandemic AIDS lentiviruses that are susceptible to species-specific restriction factors. A capability for feline transgenesis is needed to realize the distinctive potential. Here we introduced a retroviral restriction factor, rhesus macaque TRIMCyp, and GFP, into the domestic cat germline. The method establishes transgenesis by direct gamete genetic modification for the first time in any carnivore. We produced uniformly transgenic outcomes and observed widespread expression, no mosaicism, and germline transmission without F1 silencing. TRIMCyp-transgenic cat lymphocytes resisted FIV replication. The approach yields a first capability to experimentally manipulate AIDS virus restriction factors at the systemic, whole animal level in a susceptible species. In addition to determining if a species can be made genetically immune to its AIDS virus, it can be used to test HIV-1 gene therapy potential, and to build feline models relevant to other diseases. PMID:21909101

  20. Recurrent faulting and petroleum accumulation, Cat Creek Anticline, central Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.J. )

    1991-06-01

    The Cat Creek anticline, scene of central Montana's first significant oil discovery, is underlain by a south-dipping high-angle fault (Cat Creek fault) that has undergone several episodes of movement with opposite sense of displacement. Borehole data suggest that the Cat Creek fault originated as a normal fault during Proterozoic rifting concurrent with deposition of the Belt Supergroup. Reverse faulting took place in Late Cambrian time, and again near the end of the Devonian Period. The Devonian episode, coeval with the Antler orogeny, raised the southern block several hundred feet. The southern block remained high through Meramecian time, then began to subside. Post-Atokan, pre-Middle Jurassic normal faulting lowered the southern block as much as 1,500 ft. During the Laramide orogeny (latest Cretaceous-Eocene) the Cat Creek fault underwent as much as 4,000 ft of reverse displacement and a comparable amount of left-lateral displacement. The Cat Creek anticline is a fault-propagation fold; en echelon domes and listric normal faults developed along its crest in response to wrenching. Oil was generated mainly in organic-rich shales of the Heath Formation (upper Chesterian Series) and migrated upward along tectonic fractures into Pennsylvanian, Jurassic, and Cretaceous reservoir rocks in structural traps in en echelon domes. Production has been achieved only from those domes where structural closure was retained from Jurassic through Holocene time.

  1. FASconCAT: Convenient handling of data matrices.

    PubMed

    Kück, Patrick; Meusemann, Karen

    2010-09-01

    FASconCAT is a user-friendly software that concatenates rapidly different kinds of sequence data into one supermatrix file. Output files are either in FASTA, PHYLIP or NEXUS format and are directly loadable in phylogenetic programs like PAUP *, RAxML or MrBayes. FASconCAT can handle FASTA, PHYLIP and CLUSTAL formatted input files in one single run. It provides useful information about each input file and the concatenated supermatrix. For example, the program provides the range information of each concatenated gene (partition) and delivers a check list of all concatenated sequences (taxa). Information about the base composition of single input files and the resulting supermatrix is supplied for nucleotide data. For given structure strings (e.g. secondary structures) it displays single unpaired (loop) and paired (stem) positions after the concatenation process. Optionally, FASconCAT generates NEXUS files of concatenated sequences, either with MrBayes commands directly executable in PAUP * and MrBayes, or without any specific commands. If favoured, FASconCAT dispenses output files in PHYLIP format with relaxed (unlimited signs) or restricted taxon names (up to ten signs) while sequences are printed in non-interleaved format. FASconCAT is implemented in Perl and freely available from http://software.zfmk.de. It runs on UNIX and MS Windows operating systems. PMID:20416383

  2. Characterization of neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis in 3 cats.

    PubMed

    Chalkley, M D; Armien, A G; Gilliam, D H; Johnson, G S; Zeng, R; Wünschmann, A; Kovi, R C; Katz, M L

    2014-07-01

    Three young domestic shorthair cats were presented for necropsy with similar histories of slowly progressive visual dysfunction and neurologic deficits. Macroscopic examination of each cat revealed cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, dilated lateral ventricles, and slight brown discoloration of the gray matter. Histologically, there was bilateral loss of neurons within the limbic, motor, somatosensory, visual, and, to a lesser extent, vestibular systems with extensive astrogliosis in the affected regions of all 3 cases. Many remaining neurons and glial cells throughout the entire central nervous system were distended by pale yellow to eosinophilic, autofluorescent cytoplasmic inclusions with ultrastructural appearances typical of neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinoses (NCLs). Differences in clinical presentation and neurological lesions suggest that the 3 cats may have had different variants of NCL. Molecular genetic characterization in the 1 cat from which DNA was available did not reveal any plausible disease-causing mutations of the CLN1 (PPT1), CLN3, CLN5, CLN8, and CLN10 (CTSD) genes. Further investigations will be required to identify the mutations responsible for NCLs in cats. PMID:24026940

  3. Laser Acupuncture for Postoperative Pain Management in Cats

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Virgínia I.; Cassu, Renata N.; Nascimento, Felipe F.; Tavares, Rafaela C. P.; Crociolli, Giulliane C.; Guilhen, Rafael C.; Nicácio, Gabriel M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate laser acupuncture as an adjuvant for postoperative pain management in cats. Twenty cats, undergoing ovariohysterectomy, were sedated with intramuscular (IM) ketamine (5 mg kg−1), midazolam (0.5 mg kg−1), and tramadol (2 mg kg−1). Prior to induction of anaesthesia, the subjects were randomly distributed into two groups of 10 cats: Laser: bilateral stomach 36 and spleen 6 acupoints were stimulated with infrared laser; Control: no acupuncture was applied. Anaesthesia was induced using intravenous propofol (4 mg kg−1) and maintained with isoflurane. Postoperative analgesia was evaluated by a blinded assessor for 24 h following extubation using the Dynamic Interactive Visual Analogue Scale and Multidimensional Composite Pain Scale. Rescue analgesia was provided with IM tramadol (2 mg kg−1), and the pain scores were reassessed 30 min after the rescue intervention. If the analgesia remained insufficient, meloxicam (0.2 mg kg−1 IM, single dose) was administered. Data were analyzed using t-tests, the Mann-Whitney test, and the Friedman test (P < 0.05). The pain scores did not differ between groups. However, postoperative supplemental analgesia was required by significantly more cats in the Control (5/10) compared with the Laser group (1/10) (P = 0.038). Laser acupuncture reduced postoperative analgesic requirements in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy. PMID:26170879

  4. Videographic evidence of endangered species depredation by feral cat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Judge, Seth; Lippert, Jill S.; Misajon, Kathleen; Hu, Darcy; Hess, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    Feral cats (Felis cafus) have long been implicated as nest predators of endangered 'Ua'u (Hawaiian Petrel; Pterodroma sandwichensis) on Hawaii Island, but until recently, visual confirmation has been limited by available technology. 'Ua'u nest out of view, deep inside small cavities, on alpine lava flows. During the breeding seasons of 2007 and 2008, we monitored known burrows within Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Digital infrared video cameras assisted in determining the breeding behaviour and nesting success at the most isolated of burrows. With 7 cameras, we collected a total of 819 videos and 89 still photographs of adult and nestling 'Ua'u at 14 burrows. Videos also confirmed the presence of rats (Rattus spp.) at 2 burrows, 'Ōmao (Myadestes obscurus) at 8 burrows, and feral cats at 6 burrows. A sequence of videos showed a feral cat taking a downy 'Ua'u chick from its burrow, representing the first direct evidence of 'Ua'u depredation by feral cat in Hawai'i. This technique provides greater understanding of feral cat behaviour in 'Ua'u colonies, which may assist in the development of more targeted management strategies to reduce nest predation on endangered insular bird species.

  5. A trap, neuter, and release program for feral cats on Prince Edward Island

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Karen L.; Keizer, Karen; Golding, Christine

    2002-01-01

    A new program to address the feral cat population on Prince Edward Island was undertaken during the spring and summer of 2001. Feral cats from specific geographic areas were trapped, sedated, and tested for feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus. Healthy cats were neutered, dewormed, vaccinated, tattooed, and released to their area of origin. A total of 185 cats and kittens were trapped and tested during a 14-week period; 158 cats and kittens as young as 6 weeks of age were neutered and released. Twenty-three adult cats were positive for feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, or both, and were euthanized. PMID:12240526

  6. The legal status of cats in New Zealand: a perspective on the welfare of companion, stray, and feral domestic cats (Felis catus).

    PubMed

    Farnworth, Mark J; Dye, Nicholson G; Keown, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    Pinpointing and safeguarding the welfare status of domestic cats is problematic, especially in New Zealand where cats are introduced predators with significant impact on indigenous fauna. Usually the identification of welfare status depends on conservational, legal, and public attitudes that are often contrasting. Cats may rapidly transgress definitions placed on them, confounding attempts to categorize them. In 1 generation, cats can move from a human-dependent state ("stray" or "companion") to wild ("feral"). Often this categorization uses arbitrary behavioral and or situational parameters; consequent treatment and welfare protection for these cats are similarly affected. Terminology used to describe cats is not equitable across research. However, the New Zealand Animal Welfare (Companion Cats) Code of Welfare 2007 seeks to create a new definition of the terms companion, stray, and feral. It distinguishes between cats who live within and without human social constructs. This legislation mandates that cats in human environments or indirectly dependent on humans cannot be classified as feral. Such definitions may prove vital when safeguarding the welfare of free-living domestic cats and cat colonies. PMID:20349383

  7. A functional microcircuit for cat visual cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, R J; Martin, K A

    1991-01-01

    1. We have studied in vivo the intracellular responses of neurones in cat visual cortex to electrical pulse stimulation of the cortical afferents and have developed a microcircuit that simulates much of the experimental data. 2. Inhibition and excitation are not separable events, because individual neurones are embedded in microcircuits that contribute strong population effects. Synchronous electrical activation of the cortex inevitably set in motion a sequence of excitation and inhibition in every neurone we recorded. The temporal form of this response depends on the cortical layer in which the neurone is located. Superficial layer (layers 2+3) pyramidal neurones show a more marked polysynaptic excitatory phase than the pyramids of the deep layers (layers 5+6). 3. Excitatory effects on pyramidal neurones, particularly the superficial layer pyramids, are in general not due to monosynaptic input from thalamus, but polysynaptic input from cortical pyramids. Since the thalamic input is transient it does not provide the major, sustained excitation arriving at any cortical neurone. Instead the intracortical excitatory connections provide the major component of the excitation. 4. The polysynaptic excitatory response would be sustained well after the stimulus, were it not for the suppressive effect of intracortical inhibition induced by the pulse stimulation. 5. Intracellular recording combined with ionophoresis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists and antagonists showed that intracortical inhibition is mediated by GABAA and GABAB receptors. The GABAA component occurs in the early phase of the impulse response. It is reflected in the strong hyperpolarization that follows the excitatory response and lasts about 50 ms. The GABAB component occurs in the late phase of the response, and is reflected in a sustained hyperpolarization that lasts some 200-300 ms. Both components are seen in all cortical pyramidal neurones. However, the GABAA component appears more powerful

  8. Ticks associated with domestic dogs and cats in Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Burroughs, Jennifer E; Thomasson, J Alex; Marsella, Rosanna; Greiner, Ellis C; Allan, Sandra A

    2016-05-01

    Voluntary collections of ticks from domestic dogs and cats by veterinary practitioners across Florida, USA, were conducted over a 10 month period. Of the 1337 ticks submitted, five species of ixodid ticks were identified and included Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, Dermacentor variabilis, and Ixodes scapularis. Most ticks were collected from dogs (98.4 %) with the most predominant species being R. sanguineus (94.3 %). Of the ticks collected from cats (1.6 %), A. americanum were the most common (74 %). Only R. sanguineus were collected throughout the state, with the other species collected only in central and north Florida. The tick species collected from dogs and cats represent a risk to these domestic species as well as associated humans for a range of tick-borne diseases in Florida. PMID:26888081

  9. Congenital hypothyroidism of dogs and cats: a review.

    PubMed

    Bojanic, K; Acke, E; Jones, B R

    2011-05-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism is a rare and underdiagnosed congenital endocrine disorder in dogs and cats and the true incidence is unknown. The disorder may cause a range of clinical signs depending on the primary defect, which affect production of thyroid hormones; some cases present when adult. Hallmark clinical signs of congenital hypothyroidism are mental impairment and skeletal developmental abnormalities, resulting in disproportionate dwarfism; goitre may or may not be present. Documented causes of congenital hypothyroidism in dogs include deficiency of, or unresponsiveness to, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid dysgenesis, dyshormonogenesis and iodine deficiency. In cats, TSH unresponsiveness, thyroid dysgenesis, dyshormonogenesis and iodine deficiency have been confirmed. Adequate replacement therapy results in a successful outcome in the majority of cases, especially when started early in life, as permanent developmental abnormalities can be prevented. This review describes reported cases in dogs and cats, diagnostic investigation, and recommendations for treatment. PMID:21541884

  10. [A case of human infection with brucellosis from a cat].

    PubMed

    Repina, L P; Nikulina, A I; Kosilov, I A

    1993-01-01

    The epidemiological study of a focus of Brucella infection revealed that an outbreak of brucellosis occurred in a small town, and the source of this infection was a domestic cat. As the result of contacts with this cat, six persons, among them three children aged 3, 8 and 12 years, had brucellosis. In all these patients acute brucellosis was diagnosed. Simultaneously with the clinical manifestations of the disease, a rise in antibody titer from 1:50 to 1:1,600 was observed. Brucella cultures isolated from the blood of one of the patients and from the internal organs of the cat exhibited the properties, similar to those of "rodent" strains, i. e. their differential signs permit their classification with B. suis, serovar 5. PMID:8067119

  11. Suppression of phase synchronisation in network based on cat's brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lameu, Ewandson L.; Borges, Fernando S.; Borges, Rafael R.; Iarosz, Kelly C.; Caldas, Iberê L.; Batista, Antonio M.; Viana, Ricardo L.; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    We have studied the effects of perturbations on the cat's cerebral cortex. According to the literature, this cortex structure can be described by a clustered network. This way, we construct a clustered network with the same number of areas as in the cat matrix, where each area is described as a sub-network with a small-world property. We focus on the suppression of neuronal phase synchronisation considering different kinds of perturbations. Among the various controlling interventions, we choose three methods: delayed feedback control, external time-periodic driving, and activation of selected neurons. We simulate these interventions to provide a procedure to suppress undesired and pathological abnormal rhythms that can be associated with many forms of synchronisation. In our simulations, we have verified that the efficiency of synchronisation suppression by delayed feedback control is higher than external time-periodic driving and activation of selected neurons of the cat's cerebral cortex with the same coupling strengths.

  12. Symptomatic Capillaria plica infection in a young European cat.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Moreno; Messina, Nicoletta; Ariti, Gaetano; Riggio, Francesca; Perrucci, Stefania

    2011-10-01

    An 8-month-old owned European cat showing abdominal pain, fever, distended painful bladder and urinary blockage was presented. Intravenous fluids were immediately administered and, after sedation, a urinary catheter was applied. Blood and urine analysis revealed cystitis and a moderate-to-severe degree of renal failure. About 20 thread-like nematodes, identified as Capillaria plica larvae and fragments of adult stages, were found in the urine sediment. After treatment with an oral formulation of fenbendazole at 25 mg/kg q 12 h for 10 days, urinary signs and bladder worms disappeared. Cases of Capillaria species bladder worms in cats are rarely reported and most infected cats show no clinical signs, presumably because of a low parasite burden. In the present study, feline capillariosis was associated to urethral obstruction, severe difficulties in urination, cystitis and renal failures. PMID:21835667

  13. Cat-scratch disease: a wide spectrum of clinical pictures

    PubMed Central

    Mania, Anna; Kemnitz, Paweł; Figlerowicz, Magdalena; Służewski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Bartonella henselae. The wide spectrum of diseases connected with these bacteria varies from asymptomatic cases, to skin inflammation, fever of unknown origin, lymphadenopathy, eye disorders, encephalitis and endocarditis. The reservoirs of B. henselae are domestic animals like cats, guinea pigs, rabbits and occasionally dogs. Diagnosis is most often based on a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titres of the immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, however, azithromycin has been shown to speed recovery. PMID:26161064

  14. Cat-scratch disease: a wide spectrum of clinical pictures.

    PubMed

    Mazur-Melewska, Katarzyna; Mania, Anna; Kemnitz, Paweł; Figlerowicz, Magdalena; Służewski, Wojciech

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this review is to present an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Bartonella henselae. The wide spectrum of diseases connected with these bacteria varies from asymptomatic cases, to skin inflammation, fever of unknown origin, lymphadenopathy, eye disorders, encephalitis and endocarditis. The reservoirs of B. henselae are domestic animals like cats, guinea pigs, rabbits and occasionally dogs. Diagnosis is most often based on a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titres of the immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, however, azithromycin has been shown to speed recovery. PMID:26161064

  15. Molecular identification of Giardia and Cryptosporidium from dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Sotiriadou, Isaia; Pantchev, Nikola; Gassmann, Doreen; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to diagnose the presence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in household animals using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence analysis. One hundred faecal samples obtained from 81 dogs and 19 cats were investigated. The Cryptosporidium genotypes were determined by sequencing a fragment of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, while the Giardia Assemblages were determined through analysis of the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) locus. Isolates from five dogs and two cats were positive by PCR for the presence of Giardia, and their sequences matched the zoonotic Assemblage A of Giardia. Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from one dog and one cat were both found to be C. parvum. One dog isolate harboured a mixed infection of C. parvum and Giardia Assemblage A. These findings support the growing evidence that household animals are potential reservoirs of the zoonotic pathogens Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. for infections in humans. PMID:23477297

  16. "Photonic" Cat States from Strongly Interacting Matter Waves.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Uwe R; Kang, Myung-Kyun

    2015-12-31

    We consider ultracold quantum gases of scalar bosons residing in a coupling strength-density regime in which they constitute a twofold fragmented condensate trapped in a single well. It is shown that the corresponding quantum states are, in the appropriate Fock space basis, identical to the photon cat states familiar in quantum optics, which correspond to superpositions of coherent states of the light field with a phase difference of π. In marked distinction to photon cat states, however, the very existence of matter-wave cat states crucially depends on the many-body correlations of the constituent bosons. We consequently establish that the quadratures of the effective "photons," expressing the highly nonclassical nature of the macroscopic matter-wave superposition state, can be experimentally accessed by measuring the density-density correlations of the interacting quantum gas. PMID:26764977

  17. RadCat 3.0 user guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Hinojosa, Daniel; Penisten, Janelle J.; Dennis, Matthew L.; Osborn, Douglas M.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Heames, Terence John; Marincel, Michelle K.

    2009-05-01

    RADTRAN is an internationally accepted program and code for calculating the risks of transporting radioactive materials. The first versions of the program, RADTRAN I and II, were developed for NUREG-0170 (USNRC, 1977), the first environmental statement on transportation of radioactive materials. RADTRAN and its associated software have undergone a number of improvements and advances consistent with improvements in both available data and computer technology. The version of RADTRAN currently bundled with RadCat is RADTRAN 6.0. This document provides a detailed discussion and a guide for the use of the RadCat 3.0 Graphical User Interface input file generator for the RADTRAN code. RadCat 3.0 integrates the newest analysis capabilities of RADTRAN 6.0 which includes an economic model, updated loss-of-lead shielding model, and unit conversion. As of this writing, the RADTRAN version in use is RADTRAN 6.0.

  18. Actinomyces endogenous endophthalmitis in a cat following multiple dental extractions.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, Hans D; Ward, Daniel A; Whittemore, Jacqueline C; Lyons, Jeremiah A

    2013-11-01

    An 8-year-old, brachycephalic, mixed breed cat underwent full mouth tooth extractions for the treatment of tooth root abscessation. Subsequently, the cat developed anterior uveitis refractory to topical therapy that eventually necessitated enucleation. Actinomyces species were isolated from both the tooth root abscesses and the anterior chamber after enucleation. Histopathology of the enucleated eye revealed panophthalmitis with abundant intralesional bacteria morphologically consistent with Actinomyces. Between the time of tooth root extraction and enucleation (20 weeks), the cat was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and treated with oral steroids for inflammatory bowel syndrome. We believe this report represents a rare case of endogenous endophthalmitis secondary to dental disease, possibly precipitated by concurrent immunosuppression. PMID:23281798

  19. Metabolism of cysteine and cysteinesulfinate in rat and cat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa, J; Drake, M R; Stipanuk, M H

    1987-03-01

    The metabolism of cysteine and cysteinesulfinate was studied in freshly isolated hepatocytes from fed rats and cats. In incubations of rat hepatocytes with cysteinesulfinate, the rate of hypotaurine plus taurine production was approximately the same as the rate of conversion of the 1-carbon of cysteinesulfinate to CO2. In contrast, no significant production of hypotaurine plus taurine occurred in incubations of cat hepatocytes with cysteinesulfinate. These data are consistent with the species difference in the activity of hepatic cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase, which converts cysteinesulfinate to hypotaurine. In incubations of either rat or cat hepatocytes with cysteine, no hypotaurine plus taurine production was detected. However, the 1-carbon of cysteine was converted to CO2 and the production of urea plus ammonia nitrogen was significantly increased over the rates observed in incubations of cells without substrate. Our results suggest that most cysteine oxidation by hepatocytes occurs by pathways that do not involve formation of cysteinesulfinate. PMID:3106599

  20. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats

    PubMed Central

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A.; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research. PMID:27622188

  1. Parasite communities in stray cat populations from Lisbon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Waap, H; Gomes, J; Nunes, T

    2014-12-01

    Stray cats live in high-density colonies in urban areas and pose a health hazard to household cats and humans. In Portugal, information on the parasitic fauna of stray cats is limited and relies mostly on results from faecal analysis. The present survey aimed to determine the prevalence, diversity and intensity of parasites in stray cats from the urban area of Lisbon by means of parasitological necropsy. Internal organs were collected from 162 cats captured in different areas of the city and systematically subjected to parasitological dissection. Helminths were identified by macro- and microscopic examination and protozoa by faecal floatation and sedimentation techniques. The overall prevalence of parasites was 90.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 85.3-94.6%). A total of 12 parasite species was recorded: Cystoisospora felis (14.2%), Cystoisospora rivolta (46.3%), Sarcocystis sp. (1.2%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (19.1%), Toxocara cati (38.3%), Ollulanus tricuspis (30.9%), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (12.4%), Eucoleus aerophilus (0.6%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3.1%), Dipylidium caninum (53.1%), Joyeuxiella pasqualei (15.4%) and Diplopylidium nölleri (3.7%). Overall mean species richness was 2.36 ±  1.52. Helminth mean intensity was highest for O. tricuspis (285.8), followed by D. caninum (42.4), J. pasqualei (14.4), A. tubaeforme (8.1) and T. cati (5.9). The prevalence and variety of parasites found in our sampling are substantially higher than the numbers previously reported in Portugal. Some of the parasites, including T. cati and A. tubaeforme, are zoonotic, which emphasizes the need for parasite control strategies based on demographic containment of stray cat populations in urban areas to promote public health protection. PMID:23719370

  2. Amyloidosis in black-footed cats (Felis nigripes).

    PubMed

    Terio, K A; O'Brien, T; Lamberski, N; Famula, T R; Munson, L

    2008-05-01

    A high prevalence of systemic amyloidosis was documented in the black-footed cat (Felis nigripes) based on a retrospective review of necropsy tissues (n = 38) submitted as part of ongoing disease surveillance. Some degree of amyloid deposition was present in 33 of 38 (87%) of the examined cats, and amyloidosis was the most common cause of death (26/38, 68%). Amyloid deposition was most severe in the renal medullary interstitium (30/33, 91%) and glomeruli (21/33, 63%). Other common sites included the splenic follicular germinal centers (26/31, 84%), gastric lamina propria (9/23, 39%), and intestinal lamina propria (3/23, 13%). Amyloid in all sites stained with Congo red, and in 13 of 15 (87%) cats, deposits had strong immunoreactivity for canine AA protein by immunohistochemistry. There was no association with concurrent chronic inflammatory conditions (P = .51), suggesting that amyloidosis was not secondary to inflammation. Adrenal cortical hyperplasia, a morphologic indicator of stress that can predispose to amyloid deposition, was similarly not associated (P = .09) with amyloidosis. However, adrenals were not available from the majority of cats without amyloidosis; therefore, further analysis of this risk factor is warranted. Heritability estimation suggested that amyloidosis might be familial in this species. Additionally, tissues from a single free-ranging black-footed cat had small amounts of amyloid deposition, suggesting that there could be a predilection for amyloidosis in this species. Research to identify the protein sequence of serum amyloid A (SAA) in the black-footed cat is needed to further investigate the possibility of an amyloidogenic SAA in this species. PMID:18487501

  3. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats.

    PubMed

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research. PMID:27622188

  4. A Multivariate Model of Stakeholder Preference for Lethal Cat Management

    PubMed Central

    Wald, Dara M.; Jacobson, Susan K.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying stakeholder beliefs and attitudes is critical for resolving management conflicts. Debate over outdoor cat management is often described as a conflict between two groups, environmental advocates and animal welfare advocates, but little is known about the variables predicting differences among these critical stakeholder groups. We administered a mail survey to randomly selected stakeholders representing both of these groups (n = 1,596) in Florida, where contention over the management of outdoor cats has been widespread. We used a structural equation model to evaluate stakeholder intention to support non-lethal management. The cognitive hierarchy model predicted that values influenced beliefs, which predicted general and specific attitudes, which in turn, influenced behavioral intentions. We posited that specific attitudes would mediate the effect of general attitudes, beliefs, and values on management support. Model fit statistics suggested that the final model fit the data well (CFI = 0.94, RMSEA = 0.062). The final model explained 74% of the variance in management support, and positive attitudes toward lethal management (humaneness) had the largest direct effect on management support. Specific attitudes toward lethal management and general attitudes toward outdoor cats mediated the relationship between positive (p<0.05) and negative cat-related impact beliefs (p<0.05) and support for management. These results supported the specificity hypothesis and the use of the cognitive hierarchy to assess stakeholder intention to support non-lethal cat management. Our findings suggest that stakeholders can simultaneously perceive both positive and negative beliefs about outdoor cats, which influence attitudes toward and support for non-lethal management. PMID:24736744

  5. Hypernatremia in a Cat with Toxoplasma-Induced Panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Weingart, Christiane; Gruber, Achim D; Brunnberg, Mathias; Kohn, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    A 12 yr old female neutered Carthusian crossbreed cat was presented due to progressive neurological signs. Clinical signs included dehydration, stupor, and anisocoria. Laboratory examination revealed severe hypernatremia, azotemia, hyperglobulinemia, and an erythrocytosis. Clinical signs and hypernatremia suggested an intracranial process. Imaging studies revealed a loss of structure in the cerebrum, hypothalamus, and pituitary gland. Due to a poor prognosis, the cat was euthanatized. Histopathological examination revealed a subacute granulomatous and necrotizing panencephalitis with Toxoplasma-typical protozoa. The Toxoplasma-induced dysfunction of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland led to diabetes insipidus, which was, in combination with insufficient water intake, the most likely cause for the hypernatremia. PMID:26606207

  6. Transitional cell carcinoma forming a perirenal cyst in a cat.

    PubMed

    Raffan, E; Kipar, A; Barber, P J; Freeman, A I

    2008-03-01

    An eight-year-old, neutered male Burmese cat presented with five days vomiting and anorexia. Physical examination, clinical pathology and diagnostic imaging findings suggested a perirenal pseudocyst. After partial resection of the perirenal capsule clinical signs temporarily resolved, but the cat was euthanased 34 days postoperatively as a result of seizures and recurrence of vomiting. Postoperative histopathology showed neoplastic transitional cells within and lining the resected perirenal capsule; a diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma was confirmed post-mortem. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of this presentation of transitional cell carcinoma. Transitional cell carcinoma should be a differential diagnosis for the aetiology of perirenal pseudocyst. PMID:17784930

  7. Reversible myocardial failure in a cat with primary hypoparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Lie, Andrew R; MacDonald, Kristin A

    2013-10-01

    A 4-year-old domestic shorthair cat presented with tetany. Laboratory testing confirmed severe hypocalcemia and primary hypoparathyroidism. The cat subsequently developed congestive heart failure secondary to myocardial failure and was treated with pimobendan, enalapril, furosemide, calcitriol and calcium salts. All clinical signs resolved and cardiac function returned to normal within 1 month, and remained normal after cessation of all medications except calcitriol. Hypocalcemia-associated cardiomyopathy is a rare, reversible condition that has not previously been reported in a veterinary patient, and it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with myocardial failure. PMID:23492352

  8. Dermatitis caused by Ctenocephalides felis (cat flea) in human

    PubMed Central

    Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Ebrahimpour, Soheil; Rezaei, Mojtaba; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Rakhshanpour, Arash; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human infestation to ectoparasites such as ticks, lice, cimex, fleas, mites and others agents may result in intensive allergic reaction with symptoms of itching, skin infection and severe irritation. In this case report, we present a case of dermatitis caused by cat flea. Case presentation: A three-member family referred to dermatology clinic in Babol due to dermal complications. They complained of irritation and the unrest caused by intense itching. Samples of tiny live insects were detected from their clothing which was recognized as C. felis (cat flea). Conclusion: This report highlights the importance of ectoparasites causing dermatitis. PMID:25489439

  9. Duranta erecta poisoning in nine dogs and a cat.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, S N A; Eagles, D A; Vacher, N E; Irvine, M A; Ryan, C J; McKenzie, R A

    2006-10-01

    Four incidents of Duranta erecta (golden dewdrop, Sheena's Gold, Geisha Girl) poisoning affecting nine dogs and a cat produced drowsiness, hyperaesthesia and tetanic seizures in all affected animals with evidence of alimentary tract irritation (vomiting, gastric and intestinal haemorrhage, diarrhoea, melaena) in five dogs and the cat. Fruits and leaves were seen to be eaten by affected animals. Therapy was successful in three of the dogs. Repeated diazepam doses and, in some cases, additional pentobarbitone or propofol anaesthesia, were successful in controlling seizures. PMID:17359477

  10. European consensus statement on leptospirosis in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Schuller, S; Francey, T; Hartmann, K; Hugonnard, M; Kohn, B; Nally, J E; Sykes, J

    2015-03-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution affecting most mammalian species. Clinical leptospirosis is common in dogs but appears to be rare in cats. Both dogs and cats, however, can shed leptospires in the urine. This is problematic as it can lead to exposure of humans. The control of leptospirosis, therefore, is important not only from an animal but also from a public health perspective. The aim of this consensus statement is to raise awareness of leptospirosis and to outline the current knowledge on the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic tools, prevention and treatment measures relevant to canine and feline leptospirosis in Europe. PMID:25754092

  11. Acyanotic tetralogy of Fallot in a Persian cat.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Jin; Suh, Sang-Il; Choi, Ran; Hyun, Changbaig

    2016-06-01

    An 8-year-old, intact male Persian cat was presented with a prominent heart murmur, exercise intolerance, anorexia, and periodontitis. There was no cyanosis and no laboratory evidence for systemic hypoxemia. Echocardiography showed a dextropositioned aorta, moderate pulmonic stenosis (maximal velocity 4.06 m/s), ventricular septal defect, and right ventricular hypertrophy. The shunt direction was predominantly left-to-right in systole and minimally right-to-left in diastole. The cat was diagnosed with acyanotic (pink) tetralogy of Fallot and was managed medically with atenolol. PMID:27247457

  12. QconCAT: Internal Standard for Protein Quantification.

    PubMed

    Scott, Kerry Bauer; Turko, Illarion V; Phinney, Karen W

    2016-01-01

    Protein quantification based on stable isotope labeling-mass spectrometry involves adding known quantities of stable isotope-labeled internal standards into biological samples. The internal standards are analogous to analyte molecules and quantification is achieved by comparing signals from isotope-labeled and analyte molecules. This methodology is broadly applicable to proteomics research, biomarker discovery and validation, and clinical studies, which require accurate and precise protein abundance measurements. One such internal standard platform for protein quantification is concatenated peptides (QconCAT). This chapter describes a protocol for the design, expression, characterization, and application of the QconCAT strategy for protein quantification. PMID:26791984

  13. Prevalence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona in cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Vasha; Grant, David C; Dubey, J P; Zajac, Anne M; Lindsay, David S

    2010-08-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is best known as the causative agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis of horses in the Americas. Domestic cats ( Felis domesticus ) were the first animals described as an intermediate host for S. neurona . However, S. neurona -associated encephalitis has also been reported in naturally infected cats in the United States. Thus, cats can be implicated in the life cycle of S. neurona as natural intermediate hosts. The present study examined the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to merozoites of S. neurona in populations of domestic cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania. Overall, sera or plasma from 441 cats (Virginia = 232, Pennsylvania = 209) were tested by an indirect immunofluorescent assay at a 1ratio50 dilution. Antibodies to S. neurona were found in 32 (7%) of 441 cats. Of these, 22 (9%) of the 232 cats from Virginia and 10 (5%) of the 209 cats from Pennsylvania were seropositive for S. neurona . PMID:20476809

  14. 77 FR 61468 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Balthus: Cats and Girls”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Balthus: Cats and Girls'' SUMMARY... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Balthus: Cats and Girls,'' imported from abroad for...

  15. 78 FR 48216 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Balthus: Cats and Girls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Balthus: Cats and Girls--Paintings... ``Balthus: Cats and Girls--Paintings and Provocations,'' imported from abroad for temporary...

  16. CATS-ISS_L1B_N-M7.2-V2-06

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-04-27

    ... The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength, polarization-sensitive lidar that provides ... profile measurements of clouds and aerosols in the Earth's atmosphere. Project Title:  CATS ...

  17. CATS-ISS_L1B_D-M7.1-V2-04

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-04-27

    ... The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength, polarization-sensitive lidar that provides ... profile measurements of clouds and aerosols in the Earth's atmosphere. Project Title:  CATS ...

  18. Variation of Cats under Domestication: Genetic Assignment of Domestic Cats to Breeds and Worldwide Random Bred Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kurushima, J. D.; Lipinski, M. J.; Gandolfi, B.; Froenicke, L.; Grahn, J. C.; Grahn, R. A.; Lyons, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Both cat breeders and the lay public have interests in the origins of their pets, not only in the genetic identity of the purebred individuals, but also the historical origins of common household cats. The cat fancy is a relatively new institution with over 85% of its 40–50 breeds arising only in the past 75 years, primarily through selection on single-gene aesthetic traits. The short, yet intense cat breed history poses a significant challenge to the development of a genetic marker-based breed identification strategy. Using different breed assignment strategies and methods, 477 cats representing 29 fancy breeds were analysed with 38 short tandem repeats, 148 intergenic and five phenotypic single nucleotide polymorphisms. Results suggest the frequentist method of Paetkau (accuracy single nucleotide polymorphisms = 0.78, short tandem repeats = 0.88) surpasses the Bayesian method of Rannala and Mountain (single nucleotide polymorphisms = 0.56, short tandem repeats = 0.83) for accurate assignment of individuals to the correct breed. Additionally, a post-assignment verification step with the five phenotypic single nucleotide polymorphisms accurately identified between 0.31 and 0.58 of the mis-assigned individuals raising the sensitivity of assignment with the frequentist method to 0.89 and 0.92 single nucleotide polymorphisms and short tandem repeats respectively. This study provides a novel multi-step assignment strategy and suggests that, despite their short breed history and breed family groupings, a majority of cats can be assigned to their proper breed or population of origin, i.e. race. PMID:23171373

  19. Variation of cats under domestication: genetic assignment of domestic cats to breeds and worldwide random-bred populations.

    PubMed

    Kurushima, J D; Lipinski, M J; Gandolfi, B; Froenicke, L; Grahn, J C; Grahn, R A; Lyons, L A

    2013-06-01

    Both cat breeders and the lay public have interests in the origins of their pets, not only in the genetic identity of the purebred individuals, but also in the historical origins of common household cats. The cat fancy is a relatively new institution with over 85% of its 40-50 breeds arising only in the past 75 years, primarily through selection on single-gene aesthetic traits. The short, yet intense cat breed history poses a significant challenge to the development of a genetic marker-based breed identification strategy. Using different breed assignment strategies and methods, 477 cats representing 29 fancy breeds were analysed with 38 short tandem repeats, 148 intergenic and five phenotypic single nucleotide polymorphisms. Results suggest the frequentist method of Paetkau (single nucleotide polymorphisms = 0.78, short tandem repeats = 0.88) surpasses the Bayesian method of Rannala and Mountain (single nucleotide polymorphisms = 0.56, short tandem repeats = 0.83) for accurate assignment of individuals to the correct breed. Additionally, a post-assignment verification step with the five phenotypic single nucleotide polymorphisms accurately identified between 0.31 and 0.58 of the misassigned individuals raising the sensitivity of assignment with the frequentist method to 0.89 and 0.92 for single nucleotide polymorphisms and short tandem repeats respectively. This study provides a novel multistep assignment strategy and suggests that, despite their short breed history and breed family groupings, a majority of cats can be assigned to their proper breed or population of origin, that is, race. PMID:23171373

  20. Cat3vl and Cat3vao cataract mutations on mouse chromosome 10: phenotypic characterization, linkage studies and analysis of candidate genes.

    PubMed

    Löster, J; Immervoll, T; Schmitt-John, T; Graw, J

    1997-12-01

    Cat3vl and Cat3vao are two allelic, dominant cataract mutations that arose independently in the F1 generation after gamma-irradiation of male mice. The cataracts are already present at birth. Examination of the eyes with a slit lamp revealed completely vacuolated lenses in Cat3vl mutants and anteriorly located opacity in Cat3vao mutants. The appearance of the opacities does not differ between the individuals or between heterozygotes and homozygotes. Penetrance of the mutations is complete. Viability and fertility of the mutants are normal except in the case of the Cat3vl homozygotes. Cat3vao was assigned to the distal part of mouse chromosome 10, 3.2 +/- 0.9 cM away from the visible marker Steel (SlgbH). Using polymorphic markers the following locus order was found: D10Mit230-(0.2 +/- 0.1 cM)-Cat3vao-(2.5 +/- 0.6 cM)-D10Mit70. No recombinants were found between Cat3vao and the markers D10Mit4l and D10Mit95 among 921 offspring. The results exclude allelism of Cat3vao with CatLop or To2, which also map to chromosome 10. Candidate genes were tested by examination of their expression in the eye of newborn mice and by analysis of cDNA sequences. So far, negative results have been obtained for the genes encoding the proteoglycans lumican and decorin, the nuclear orphan receptor Tr2-11 and the transcription factor Elk3. Based on syntenic homology of the Cat3 region to the human chromosome 12q, the Cat3 mutants are discussed as mouse models for cornea plana congenita in man. The recovery of the Cat3 mutations demonstrates the importance of the corresponding locus for proper eye development. PMID:9439574

  1. Desires and management preferences of stakeholders regarding feral cats in the Hawaiian islands.

    PubMed

    Lohr, Cheryl A; Lepczyk, Christopher A

    2014-04-01

    Feral cats are abundant in many parts of the world and a source of conservation conflict. Our goal was to clarify the beliefs and desires held by stakeholders regarding feral cat abundance and management. We measured people's desired abundance of feral cats in the Hawaiian Islands and identified an order of preference for 7 feral cat management techniques. In 2011 we disseminated a survey to 5407 Hawaii residents. Approximately 46% of preidentified stakeholders and 20% of random residents responded to the survey (1510 surveys returned). Results from the potential for conflict index revealed a high level of consensus (86.9% of respondents) that feral cat abundance should be decreased. The 3 most common explanatory variables for respondents' stated desires were enjoyment from seeing feral cats (84%), intrinsic value of feral cats (12%), and threat to native fauna (73%). The frequency with which respondents saw cats and change in the perceived abundance of cats also affected respondent's desired abundance of cats; 41.3% of respondents stated that they saw feral cats daily and 44.7% stated that the cat population had increased in recent years. Other potential environmental impacts of feral cats had little affect on desired abundance. The majority of respondents (78%) supported removing feral cats from the natural environment permanently. Consensus convergence models with data from 1388 respondents who completed the relevant questions showed live capture and lethal injection was the most preferred technique and trap-neuter-release was the least preferred technique for managing feral cats. However, the acceptability of each technique varied among stakeholders. Our results suggest that the majority of Hawaii's residents would like to see effective management that reduces the abundance of feral or free-roaming cats. PMID:24372971

  2. Configuration Analysis Tool (CAT). System Description and users guide (revision 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, W.; Taylor, W.; Mcgarry, F. E.; Merwarth, P.

    1982-01-01

    A system description of, and user's guide for, the Configuration Analysis Tool (CAT) are presented. As a configuration management tool, CAT enhances the control of large software systems by providing a repository for information describing the current status of a project. CAT provides an editing capability to update the information and a reporting capability to present the information. CAT is an interactive program available in versions for the PDP-11/70 and VAX-11/780 computers.

  3. Prospective evaluation of healthy Ragdoll cats for chronic kidney disease by routine laboratory parameters and ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Paepe, Dominique; Bavegems, Valérie; Combes, Anaïs; Saunders, Jimmy H; Daminet, Sylvie

    2013-10-01

    Ragdoll breeder organisations often forewarn Ragdoll cat owners that renal problems may develop as a result of polycystic kidney disease (PKD), chronic interstitial nephritis, familial renal dysplasia or nephrocalcinosis. Healthy Ragdoll and non-Ragdoll cats were prospectively evaluated by measuring serum creatinine and urea concentrations, routine urinalysis and abdominal ultrasonography. All Ragdoll cats also underwent genetic PKD testing. One hundred and thirty-three Ragdoll and 62 control cats were included. Ragdoll cats had significantly lower serum urea concentrations and higher urinary specific gravity. However, median creatinine concentration, median urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio, and the proportion of cats with serum creatinine or urea concentration exceeding the reference interval did not differ. One or more renal ultrasonographical changes were detected in 66/133 (49.6%) Ragdoll and in 25/62 (40%) control cats. Ragdoll cats showed significantly more frequent segmental cortical lesions (7.5% versus 0%), abnormal renal capsule (19.5% versus 8%) and echogenic urine (51.9% versus 25.8%). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was ultrasonographically suspected in 7/133 (5.3%) Ragdoll and in none of the control cats, which approached significance. Laboratory parameters confirmed kidney dysfunction only in 1/7 of these Ragdoll cats. All Ragdoll cats were PKD negative. In conclusion, first, breed-specific serum creatinine reference intervals are not likely required for Ragdoll cats. Second, renal ultrasonographical abnormalities are common, both in Ragdoll and non-Ragdoll cats. Third, healthy young Ragdoll cats are uncommonly affected by PKD and CKD, but an increased susceptibility of Ragdoll cats to develop CKD cannot be excluded. Finally, Ragdoll cats are predisposed to segmental cortical lesions, which may indicate renal infarction or cortical scarring. PMID:23413268

  4. 9 CFR 2.133 - Certification for random source dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certification for random source dogs... dogs and cats. (a) Each of the entities listed in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section that acquire any live dog or cat shall, before selling or providing the live dog or cat to a dealer, hold...

  5. 9 CFR 355.29 - Composition of certified products for dogs, cats, and other carnivora.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... dogs, cats, and other carnivora. 355.29 Section 355.29 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER... Composition of Certified Products § 355.29 Composition of certified products for dogs, cats, and...

  6. 9 CFR 355.29 - Composition of certified products for dogs, cats, and other carnivora.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... dogs, cats, and other carnivora. 355.29 Section 355.29 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER... Composition of Certified Products § 355.29 Composition of certified products for dogs, cats, and...

  7. 9 CFR 2.133 - Certification for random source dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certification for random source dogs... dogs and cats. (a) Each of the entities listed in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section that acquire any live dog or cat shall, before selling or providing the live dog or cat to a dealer, hold...

  8. 9 CFR 3.14 - Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Transportation Standards § 3.14 Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3... live dogs and cats. 3.14 Section 3.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  9. 9 CFR 2.133 - Certification for random source dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certification for random source dogs... dogs and cats. (a) Each of the entities listed in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section that acquire any live dog or cat shall, before selling or providing the live dog or cat to a dealer, hold...

  10. 9 CFR 355.29 - Composition of certified products for dogs, cats, and other carnivora.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... dogs, cats, and other carnivora. 355.29 Section 355.29 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER... Composition of Certified Products § 355.29 Composition of certified products for dogs, cats, and...

  11. 9 CFR 2.133 - Certification for random source dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certification for random source dogs... dogs and cats. (a) Each of the entities listed in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section that acquire any live dog or cat shall, before selling or providing the live dog or cat to a dealer, hold...

  12. 9 CFR 355.29 - Composition of certified products for dogs, cats, and other carnivora.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... dogs, cats, and other carnivora. 355.29 Section 355.29 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER... Composition of Certified Products § 355.29 Composition of certified products for dogs, cats, and...

  13. 9 CFR 2.133 - Certification for random source dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification for random source dogs... dogs and cats. (a) Each of the entities listed in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section that acquire any live dog or cat shall, before selling or providing the live dog or cat to a dealer, hold...

  14. 9 CFR 3.14 - Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Transportation Standards § 3.14 Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3... live dogs and cats. 3.14 Section 3.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  15. 9 CFR 3.14 - Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Transportation Standards § 3.14 Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3... live dogs and cats. 3.14 Section 3.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  16. 9 CFR 3.14 - Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Transportation Standards § 3.14 Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3... live dogs and cats. 3.14 Section 3.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  17. 9 CFR 3.14 - Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Transportation Standards § 3.14 Primary enclosures used to transport live dogs and cats. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3... live dogs and cats. 3.14 Section 3.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  18. 9 CFR 355.29 - Composition of certified products for dogs, cats, and other carnivora.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... dogs, cats, and other carnivora. 355.29 Section 355.29 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER... Composition of Certified Products § 355.29 Composition of certified products for dogs, cats, and...

  19. CATS-ISS_L1B_D-M7.2-V2-06

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-04-27

    CATS-ISS_L1B_D-M7.2-V2-06 The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength, polarization-sensitive lidar that provides ... in the Earth's atmosphere. Project Title:  CATS Discipline:  Clouds Aerosols Version:  ...

  20. CATS-ISS_L1B_N-M7.1-V2-04

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-04-27

    CATS-ISS_L1B_N-M7.1-V2-04 The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength, polarization-sensitive lidar that provides ... in the Earth's atmosphere. Project Title:  CATS Discipline:  Clouds Aerosols Version:  ...

  1. CATS-ISS_L1B_N-M7.2-V2-05

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-04-27

    CATS-ISS_L1B_N-M7.2-V2-05 The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength, polarization-sensitive lidar that provides ... in the Earth's atmosphere. Project Title:  CATS Discipline:  Clouds Aerosols Version:  ...

  2. Online Calibration Methods for the DINA Model with Independent Attributes in CD-CAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ping; Xin, Tao; Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Item replenishing is essential for item bank maintenance in cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT). In regular CAT, online calibration is commonly used to calibrate the new items continuously. However, until now no reference has publicly become available about online calibration for CD-CAT. Thus, this study investigates the…

  3. SimulCAT: Windows Software for Simulating Computerized Adaptive Test Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Kyung T.

    2012-01-01

    Most, if not all, computerized adaptive testing (CAT) programs use simulation techniques to develop and evaluate CAT program administration and operations, but such simulation tools are rarely available to the public. Up to now, several software tools have been available to conduct CAT simulations for research purposes; however, these existing…

  4. The Theory about CD-CAT Based on FCA and Its Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuqun, Yang; Shuliang, Ding; Zhiqiang, Yao

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive diagnosis (CD) plays an important role in intelligent tutoring system. Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is adaptive, fair, and efficient, which is suitable to large-scale examination. Traditional cognitive diagnostic test needs quite large number of items, the efficient and tailored CAT could be a remedy for it, so the CAT with…

  5. 78 FR 62648 - Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge; West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge; West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana AGENCY...) documents for Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). We provide this notice in compliance with our CCP... notice, we initiate our process for developing a CCP for Cat Island NWR, West Feliciana Parish,...

  6. Cross-clade immunity in cats vaccinated with a canarypox-vectored avian influenza vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several felid species have been shown to be susceptible to infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype. Infection of felids by H5N1 HPAI virus is often fatal, and cat-to-cat transmission has been documented. Domestic cats may then be involved in the transmis...

  7. Evaluation of cats as the source of endemic sporotrichosis in Peru.

    PubMed

    Kovarik, Carrie L; Neyra, Edgar; Bustamante, Beatriz

    2008-02-01

    Although contact with domestic cats has been shown to be a risk factor for sporotrichosis in endemic areas, systematic evaluation of apparently unaffected cats as possible reservoirs for infection has not been explored. The goals of this study were to identify the following aspects of sporotrichosis in the endemic area of Abancay, Peru: (i) the overall prevalence of sporotrichosis in the cat population, (ii) the most common site where the fungus can be isolated from these cats, and (iii) whether cats without identifiable skin lesions may be carriers of the fungus in the oral mucosa, nasal mucosa, or nails. One household cat in each of 85 neighborhoods within the endemic area of Abancay, Peru was randomly selected. Oral and nasal swabs, as well as nail clippings were taken from 84 of the cats. In addition, samples from skin lesions that were suspected to be due to sporotrichosis were collected from cats or members of families that owned the pets. Cultures inoculated with two nasal swabs and one set of nail clippings from two different cats yielded Sporothrix schenckii, the identity of which were confirmed by rDNA sequencing. The overall prevalence of Sporothrix schenckii colonization was 2.38% (95% CI 0.41-9.14) in this cat population. None of the skin lesion samples from the cats and only one such sample from a family member were positive for Sporothrix schenckii in culture. These results suggest a role for domestic cats as a possible reservoir for sporotrichosis infection in Abancay. PMID:17885948

  8. Risk behaviours exhibited by free-roaming cats in a suburban US town.

    PubMed

    Loyd, K A T; Hernandez, S M; Abernathy, K J; Shock, B C; Marshall, G J

    2013-09-28

    Free-roaming cats may experience numerous hazardous encounters in the outdoor environment, including: vehicular accidents, aggression from other animals and exposure to infectious disease. This research quantitatively examined the outdoor activities of 55 owned cats by monitoring pets outfitted with 'KittyCam' video cameras. KittyCams are a type of Crittercam, designed by National Geographic to allow recording of a cat-eye view without disrupting behaviour. We investigated the activities of free-roaming cats in suburban Athens-Clarke County, Georgia, during all four seasons. Research objectives included documenting the type and regularity of risk behaviours exhibited by free-roaming cats and identifying characteristics of pet cats (eg, age, sex, roaming habitat) which predict risky behaviour in the outdoors. The most common risk behaviours exhibited by suburban free-roaming cats included crossing roads (45 per cent of our sample), encountering strange cats (25 per cent), eating and drinking substances away from home (25 per cent), exploring storm drain systems (20 per cent), and entering crawlspaces of houses (20 per cent). Male cats were more likely to engage in risk behaviours than female cats, and older cats engaged in fewer risk behaviours than younger individuals. We hope this information can be used to encourage the public to keep cats indoors more often (with consideration for their indoor quality of life) or supervise them while outdoors. PMID:23913174

  9. CATS-ISS_L1B_D-M7.2-V2-05

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-03

    CATS-ISS_L1B_D-M7.2-V2-05 The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength, polarization-sensitive lidar that provides ... in the Earth's atmosphere. Project Title:  CATS Discipline:  Clouds Aerosols Version:  ...

  10. Dural tear and myelomalacia caused by an airgun pellet in a cat

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Cristian; Ródenas, Sergio; Pumarola, Martí; Añor, Sònia

    2013-01-01

    An 8-year-old cat was presented with severe neurological deficits secondary to a traumatic cervical spinal cord injury caused by an airgun pellet. This report describes, for the first time, the myelographic findings of a dural rupture in a cat and also describes a bilateral Horner’s syndrome in a cat. PMID:24155462

  11. Dural tear and myelomalacia caused by an airgun pellet in a cat.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Cristian; Ródenas, Sergio; Pumarola, Martí; Añor, Sònia

    2013-07-01

    An 8-year-old cat was presented with severe neurological deficits secondary to a traumatic cervical spinal cord injury caused by an airgun pellet. This report describes, for the first time, the myelographic findings of a dural rupture in a cat and also describes a bilateral Horner's syndrome in a cat. PMID:24155462

  12. 21 CFR 500.50 - Propylene glycol in or on cat food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propylene glycol in or on cat food. 500.50 Section... Propylene glycol in or on cat food. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that propylene glycol in or on cat food is not generally recognized as safe and is a food additive subject to section 409...

  13. 21 CFR 500.50 - Propylene glycol in or on cat food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Propylene glycol in or on cat food. 500.50 Section... Propylene glycol in or on cat food. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that propylene glycol in or on cat food is not generally recognized as safe and is a food additive subject to section 409...

  14. 21 CFR 500.50 - Propylene glycol in or on cat food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Propylene glycol in or on cat food. 500.50 Section... Propylene glycol in or on cat food. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that propylene glycol in or on cat food is not generally recognized as safe and is a food additive subject to section 409...

  15. CATS-ISS_L1B_D-M7.2-V2-07

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-22

    CATS-ISS_L1B_D-M7.2-V2-07 The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength, polarization-sensitive lidar that provides ... in the Earth's atmosphere. Project Title:  CATS Discipline:  Clouds Aerosols Version:  ...

  16. Life cycle of Cystoisospora felis (Coccidia: Apicomplexa) in cats and mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cystoisospora felis is a ubiquitous apicomplexan protozoon of cats. The endogenous development of C. felis was studied in cats after feeding them infected mice. For this, 5 newborn cats were killed at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h after having been fed mesenteric lymph nodes and spleens of mice that wer...

  17. CATS-ISS_L1B_N-M7.2-V2-07

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-22

    CATS-ISS_L1B_N-M7.2-V2-07 The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength, polarization-sensitive lidar that provides ... in the Earth's atmosphere. Project Title:  CATS Discipline:  Clouds Aerosols Version:  ...

  18. Serum thyroxine concentrations after radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Meric, S.M.; Hawkins, E.C.; Washabau, R.J.; Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.

    1986-05-01

    Thirty-one cats with hyperthyroidism were given one dose of radioactive iodine (131I) IV. Serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations were measured before treatment in all cats, at 12-hour intervals after treatment in 10 cats, and at 48-hour intervals after treatment in 21 cats. Serum T4 concentrations also were measured one month after /sup 131/I therapy in 29 cats. Activity of 131I administered was 1.5 to 6.13 mCi, resulting in a dose of 20,000 rads to the thyroid. Serum T4 concentrations before /sup 131/I administration were 5.3 to 51.0 micrograms/dl, with a median T4 concentration of 11.0 micrograms/dl. Serum T4 decreased most rapidly during the first 3 to 6 days after treatment. Sixteen cats (55%) had normal serum thyroxine concentrations by day 4 after 131I administration, and 23 cats (74%) were euthyroxinemic by day 8 after treatment. One month after administration of 131I, the 29 cats evaluated were clinically improved, and 24 (83%) of the 29 cats evaluated had normal serum T4 concentrations, 3 cats (10%) remained hyperthyroxinemic, and 2 cats (7%) were hypothyroxinemic. Therefore, administration of 131I was a safe and effective method to quickly decrease serum T4 concentrations in hyperthyroid cats.

  19. 21 CFR 500.50 - Propylene glycol in or on cat food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Propylene glycol in or on cat food. 500.50 Section... Propylene glycol in or on cat food. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that propylene glycol in or on cat food is not generally recognized as safe and is a food additive subject to section 409...

  20. 21 CFR 500.50 - Propylene glycol in or on cat food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Propylene glycol in or on cat food. 500.50 Section... Propylene glycol in or on cat food. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that propylene glycol in or on cat food is not generally recognized as safe and is a food additive subject to section 409...

  1. Bordetella bronchiseptica and fatal pneumonia of dogs and cats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica frequently causes nonfatal tracheobronchitis, but its role in fatal pneumonia is less well-studied. The objectives of this study were to identify the frequency of Bordetella bronchiseptica infection in fatal cases of bronchopneumonia in dogs and cats and to compare the diag...

  2. Ticks associated with domestic dogs and cats in Florida, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Voluntary collections of ticks from domestic dogs and cats by veterinary practitioners across Florida were conducted over a 10 month period. Of the 1,337 ticks submitted, five species of ixodid ticks were identified and included Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, Dermacen...

  3. [Cutaneous atypical mycobacteriosis due to Mycobacterium massiliense in a cat].

    PubMed

    Albini, S; Mueller, S; Bornand, V; Gutzwiller, M E Ricklin; Burnand, C; Hüssy, D; Abril, C; Reitt, K; Korczak, B M; Miserez, R

    2007-12-01

    Fast growing mycobacteria are saprophytic bacteria that prevail in water and soil. They are opportunistic pathogens and may cause various infections if gaining entry into the body through a trauma. We herein describe the clinical presentation, pathology and diagnosis of the first case of cutaneous atypical mycobacteriosis due to Mycobacterium massiliense in a cat. PMID:18225411

  4. Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia mimicking cutaneous lymphoma in a hyperthyroid cat

    PubMed Central

    Snead, Elisabeth; Kerr, Moira; MacDonald, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    A 12-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat presented for chronic, localized, swelling and crusting of the left upper lip, weight loss, sporadic vomiting, and focal alopecia between the scapulae was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and regional eosinophilic lymphadenitis. Treatment with methimazole exacerbated an underlying hypersensitivity disorder leading to marked generalized lymphadenopathy that histologically mimicked lymphoma. PMID:24155419

  5. Updated Item Parameter Estimates Using Sparse CAT Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert L.; Rizavi, Saba; Paez, Roxanna; Rotou, Ourania

    A study was conducted to investigate whether augmenting the calibration of items using computerized adaptive test (CAT) data matrices produced estimates that were unbiased and improved the stability of existing item parameter estimates. Item parameter estimates from four pools of items constructed for operational use were used in the study to…

  6. The Tail-less Cat in Free-Fall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredrickson, J. E.

    1989-01-01

    Describes four kinds of movement by a cat with or without angular momentum and tail or tail-less during free falling. Presents many pictures illustrating the movement. Supports the position that the angular momentum of the tail plays an important role in free fall. (YP)

  7. The Benefits of Neutering Cats and Dogs: A Conversation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The castration of a dog or cat can be an emotion laden issue. In many cases it is the best solution for resolving behavior related problems as well as an important method for decreasing pet overpopulation. Sometimes the idea is met with resistance, particularly by some male owner...

  8. Open WorldCat and Its Impact on Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sherbini, Magda

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes librarians' reactions to the Open OCLC WorldCat. A detailed survey was sent to ARL libraries to explore what, if anything, the libraries are currently doing to prepare for these changes and how they plan to cope with the probability of having all their records open to the whole world. Survey findings indicate that most of the…

  9. Spontaneous capital femoral physeal fracture in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Galya

    2013-01-01

    A young neutered male cat was presented with a 1-week history of left hind limb lameness. Pain and crepitus were identified on manipulation of the left coxofemoral joint. Radiographic evaluation led to the diagnosis of physeal dysplasia with slipped capital femoral epiphysis of the left femur, which did not respond to conservative management. PMID:24155467

  10. Measure Development: The Children's Attitudes toward Technology Scale (CATS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantom, Catherine G.; Green, Kathy E.; Hoffman, Eleanor R.

    2002-01-01

    This study describes the development of the Children's Attitude toward Technology Scale (CATS) with 574 children in a rural school district. Discuses differences between elementary and middle school students, gender differences, interest and aptitude, and alternative preferences (for videos and books). (Author/LRW)

  11. Oral, subcutaneous, and intravenous pharmacokinetics of ondansetron in healthy cats

    PubMed Central

    Quimby, J. M.; Lake, R. C.; Hansen, R. J.; Lunghofer, P. J.; Gustafson, D. L.

    2014-01-01

    Ondansetron is a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist that is an effective anti-emetic in cats. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ondansetron in healthy cats. Six cats with normal complete blood count, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis received 2 mg oral (mean 0.43 mg/kg), subcutaneous (mean 0.4 mg/kg), and intravenous (mean 0.4 mg/kg) ondansetron in a cross-over manner with a 5-day wash out. Serum was collected prior to, and at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 h after administration of ondansetron. Ondansetron concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic modeling and dose interval modeling were performed. Repeated measures anova was used to compare parameters between administration routes. Bioavailability of ondansetron was 32% (oral) and 75% (subcutaneous). Calculated elimination half-life of ondansetron was 1.84 ± 0.58 h (intravenous), 1.18 ± 0.27 h (oral) and 3.17 ± 0.53 h (subcutaneous). The calculated elimination half-life of subcutaneous ondansetron was significantly longer (P < 0.05) than oral or intravenous administration. Subcutaneous administration of ondansetron to healthy cats is more bioavailable and results in a more prolonged exposure than oral administration. This information will aid management of emesis in feline patients. PMID:24330064

  12. Bartonella spp. in cats from Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; Brambati, Diego F; De Gennaro, María F; Carmona, Fernando; Isturiz, María L; Pujol, Laura E; Belerenian, Guillermo C; Gil, Horacio

    2014-01-10

    In Argentina, data on the presence of members of the genus Bartonella is scarce. To increase knowledge about these zoonotic pathogens in this country, the presence and variability of Bartonella spp. was investigated in cats and dogs from Buenos Aires. Bartonella spp. was detected in 17.8% of cats, while all dogs tested negative by PCR and Reverse Line Blot. B. henselae was the most frequent species, being detected in 11.9% (14/101), while B. clarridgeiae was found in only 5.9% (6/101) of the cats. Afterwards, B. henselae isolates and positive blood samples were characterized by Multiple Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) and Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA). As result, four different MLST sequence types (ST) and eight MLVA profiles were identified. ST 1 was the most frequent variant found in cats, followed by ST 8. Interestingly, some of the MLVA profiles that were detected in this study have been previously associated with human disease, and represents a potential risk of infection. Veterinarians and physicians should consider the presence of these emerging pathogens in their diagnostic routine. PMID:24247021

  13. End-stage hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a cat

    PubMed Central

    White, Andrew J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A 14-year-old Persian cat was referred for evaluation of the progression of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) after an acute episode of congestive heart failure. The diagnosis of HCM had been made almost 13 years ago. Echocardiography and electrocardiography revealed end-stage hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and multifocal atrial tachycardia. The patient was discharged on medical management with a grave prognosis. PMID:25969586

  14. End-stage hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a cat.

    PubMed

    White, Andrew J M

    2015-05-01

    A 14-year-old Persian cat was referred for evaluation of the progression of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) after an acute episode of congestive heart failure. The diagnosis of HCM had been made almost 13 years ago. Echocardiography and electrocardiography revealed end-stage hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and multifocal atrial tachycardia. The patient was discharged on medical management with a grave prognosis. PMID:25969586

  15. Storm Water Management Model Climate Adjustment Tool (SWMM-CAT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA’s newest tool, the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) – Climate Adjustment Tool (CAT) is meant to help municipal stormwater utilities better address potential climate change impacts affecting their operations. SWMM, first released in 1971, models hydrology and hydrauli...

  16. Communicative and Psychological Dimensions of the KiddyCAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Chagit E.; Conture, Edward G.; Frankel, Carl B.; Walden, Tedra A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the underlying constructs of the Communication Attitude Test for Preschool and Kindergarten Children Who Stutter (KiddyCAT; Vanryckeghem & Brutten, 2007), especially those related to awareness of stuttering and negative speech-associated attitudes. Method: Participants were 114…

  17. Sufism in the Novel: "Cat's Eyes"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miniawi, Nayera

    2013-01-01

    "Cat's Eyes" is a novel about suffering and endurance, early marriage, spirituality and the sanctuary it provides, and Sufism in particular. It uses certain motifs to depict the psychological suffering of a young girl, caused by her conservative father and unsatisfactory marriage, which persists until she finally reaches a moment of…

  18. Flexible Applications of the Coping Cat Program for Anxious Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Puleo, Connor M.; Edmunds, Julie M.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    The current article offers suggestions for ways to adapt empirically supported treatments (ESTs). A specific manualized EST (Coping Cat; Kendall & Hedtke, 2006a) is used to illustrate the concept of "flexibility within fidelity" (Kendall & Beidas, 2007; Kendall, Gosch, Furr, & Sood, 2008). Flexibility within fidelity stresses the importance of…

  19. Large granular lymphocyte leukemia/lymphoma in six cats.

    PubMed

    Darbès, J; Majzoub, M; Breuer, W; Hermanns, W

    1998-09-01

    This report describes six cases of feline large granular lymphocyte lymphoma identified by light microscopy on the basis of their characteristic azurophilic granulation in Giemsa-stained plastic sections and by electron microscopy on the basis of their typical granules. Although the granules of all the tumor cells were negative for peroxidase activity, they all demonstrated chloroacetate-esterase and acid phosphatase activity. All the tumors reacted with cross-reacting antibodies against the CD3 antigen (epsilon chain) and did not react with a cross-reacting monoclonal antibody directed against epitopes on cytoplasmic domains of the CD20 antigen. Three tumors had a positive reaction with a monoclonal human CD57-like antibody. This is highly suggestive of either a cytotoxic T cell or a natural killer cell origin of the neoplasias. In three cats, although other abdominal organs were affected to a variable extent, the main neoplastic lesions were localized in the gastrointestinal tract and the jejunal lymph nodes. In contrast, in the other three cats, organ involvement was more widespread, affecting the lung (two), myocardium (two), precardiac mediastinum (one), salivary gland (one), and spinal cord (one); in addition, leukemia was present in two of these cats. The data presented indicate that tumors made up of large granular lymphocytes occur more frequently in cats than previously assumed and that they share many characteristic features with specific subtypes of clonal disorders of large granular lymphocytes in humans. PMID:9754542

  20. Gastrointestinal parasites of cats in Brazil: frequency and zoonotic risk.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Maria Fernanda Melo; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Calado, Andréa Maria Campos; Lima, Victor Fernando Santana; Ramos, Ingrid Carla do Nascimento; Tenório, Rodrigo Ferreira Lima; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Glória; Alves, Leucio Câmara

    2016-04-12

    Gastrointestinal helminths are considered to be the most common parasites affecting cats worldwide. Correct diagnosis of these parasites in animals living in urban areas is pivotal, especially considering the zoonotic potential of some species (e.g. Ancylostoma sp. and Toxocara sp.). In this study, a copromicroscopic survey was conducted using fecal samples (n = 173) from domestic cats living in the northeastern region of Brazil. Samples were examined through the FLOTAC technique and the overall results showed positivity of 65.31% (113/173) among the samples analyzed. Coinfections were observed in 46.01% (52/113) of the positive samples. The most common parasites detected were Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara cati, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris sp., Dipylidium caninum and Cystoisospora sp. From an epidemiological point of view, these findings are important, especially considering that zoonotic parasites (e.g. Ancylostoma sp. and Toxocara sp.) were the nematodes most frequently diagnosed in this study. Therefore, the human population living in close contact with cats is at risk of infection caused by the zoonotic helminths of these animals. In addition, for the first time the FLOTAC has been used to diagnosing gastrointestinal parasites of cats in Brazil. PMID:27096530