Science.gov

Sample records for 14th national passive

  1. National Conference on Campus Safety (14th, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, June 26-28, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jack N. Ed.

    Presentations made at the fourteenth National Conference on Campus Safety. The topics dealt with include--(1) Provisions for Safety in Design of Campus Buildings, (2) Disposal of Chemical And Radioactive Waste, (3) Fire Prevention, (4) The Human Factor in Accidents, (5) Public Liability through Design, (6) A Professor's Views on Safety, (7)…

  2. NEWTON'S APPLE 14th Season Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichmann, Sue, Ed.

    This guide was developed to help teachers use the 14th season of NEWTON'S APPLE in their classrooms and contains lessons formatted to follow the National Science Education Standards. The "Overview,""Main Activity," and "Try-This" sections were created with inquiry-based learning in mind. Each lesson page begins with "Getting Started," which…

  3. Environmental Education, The Last Measure of Man. An Anthology of Papers for the Consideration of the 14th and 15th Conference of the U.S. National Commission for UNESCO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Raymond F.

    An anthology of papers for consideration by delegates to the 14th and 15th conferences of the United States National Commission for UNESCO are presented in this book. As a wide-ranging collection of ideas, it is intended to serve as background materials for the conference theme - our responsibility for preserving and defending a human environment…

  4. Annual report of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (14th).administrative report including Technical Reports nos. 283 to 308

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    Report includes the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics letter of submittal to the president, congressional report, summaries of the committee's activities and research accomplished, bibliographies, and financial report.

  5. National Incomes Policy and Manpower Problems. Proceedings of the Annual Research Conference in Industrial Relations (14th, Los Angeles, California, March 16, 1971).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Inst. of Industrial Relations.

    Two current economic dilemmas concern how to increase the supply of money without risking further inflation and how to influence wage-price decisions. The major purposes of the conference presented in this document were to define a national incomes policy, to explore alternative approaches to wage-price decisions, and to assess their implications…

  6. 14th International Conference 'Laser Optics 2010'

    SciTech Connect

    Mak, Artur A

    2010-10-15

    The 14th International Conference 'Laser Optics 2010' in which more than 800 scientists and experts from 35 countries took part, was held from June 28 to July 2, 2010, in St. Petersburg. (information)

  7. 77 FR 52693 - Request for Comments on U.S. Technical Participation in the 14th Conference of the International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... 14th Conference of the International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML) AGENCY: National Institute... 14th Conference of the International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML). This conference is held... Conference. DATES: Written comments should be submitted to the NIST International Legal Metrology Program...

  8. 14th Young Scientists Conference on Astronomy and Space Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashchenko, G.; Golovin, A.

    2007-12-01

    The present Proceedings of Contributed Papers include 21 papers presented during 14th Young Scientists Conference on Astronomy and Space Physics which was held in Kyiv, at Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University, Faculty of Physics, from April, 23 to April 28, 2007. The aim of the annual Open Young Scientists Conference on Astronomy and Space Physics is to provide young scientists a possibility to communicate and present their scientific work. The conference is intended for participation of students, PhD students and young researches who are involved in research in one of the following fields: astrometry and geophysics, plasma physics and physics of the near space, planetary systems, small bodies of the solar system, solar physics and physics of heliosphere, stellar astrophysics, interstellar medium, extragalactic astrophysics, high-energy astrophysics, cosmology, history of astronomy and related to the mentioned above.

  9. Passive solar progress: a simplified guide to the 3rd national passive solar conference

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, H.; Howell, Y.; Richards, D.

    1980-10-01

    Some of the concepts and practices that have come to be known as passive solar heating and cooling are introduced, and a current picture of the field is presented. Much of the material presented is derived from papers given at the 3rd National Passive Solar Conference held in San Jose, California in January 1979 and sponsored by the US Department of Energy. Extracts and data from these papers have been integrated in the text with explanatory and descriptive material. In this way, it is attempted to present technical information in an introductory context. Topics include design considerations, passive and hybrid systems and applications, sizing methods and performance prediction, and implementation issues. A glossary is included. (WHK)

  10. The passive autocatalytic recombiner test program at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchat, T.K.; Malliakos, A.

    1997-10-01

    Passive autocatalytic recombiners (PARs) are being considered by the nuclear power industry as a combustible gas control system in operating plants and advanced light water reactor (ALWR) containments for design basis events. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed systems and methodologies to measure the amount of hydrogen that can be depleted in a containment by a PAR. Experiments were performed that determined the hydrogen depletion rate of a PAR in the presence of steam and also evaluated the effect of scale (number of cartridges) on the PAR performance at both low and high hydrogen concentrations.

  11. Restoring the Trust in Native Education. Annual NIEA Legislative Summit (14th, February 7-9, 2011). Briefing Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Indian Education Association, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Several briefing papers were presented during the 14th Annual National Indian Education Association (NIEA) Legislative Summit. This briefing book contains the following papers presented during the summit: (1) Restoring the Trust in Native Education; (2) NIEA Legislative Priorities for 2011: "Talking Points"; (3) Reauthorization of the Elementary…

  12. Military Librarians Workshop; Department of Defense Libraries in Transition (14th, 30 November - 2 December 1970). Conference Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Industrial Coll. of the Armed Forces (DOD), Washington, DC.

    The theme of the 14th Annual Military Librarians Workshop is: "Department of Defense Libraries in Transition." The National War College and the Industrial College libraries seek to see what support they can give each other. The ten workshops are: (1) Standardization of Bibliographic Data, (2) Evolution of Technical Reports, (3) DOD Coordination of…

  13. 14th International Headache Congress: basic science highlights.

    PubMed

    Schwedt, Todd J; Goadsby, Peter J

    2010-03-01

    During the 14th International Headache Congress the results of several innovative studies that contribute to our understanding of headache pathophysiology and treatment were presented. Here we summarize work expected to contribute substantially to understanding headache mechanisms, while an accompanying manuscript summarizes presentations regarding the treatment of headache. This manuscript highlights research on mechanisms of photophobia and phonophobia, pharmacologic inhibition of cortical spreading depression, a proposed mechanism by which oxygen effectively treats cluster headache, identification of functional and structural aberrations in people with hypnic headache, and research on functional imaging markers of a migraine attack. PMID:20456146

  14. Viruses in a 14th-century coprolite.

    PubMed

    Appelt, Sandra; Fancello, Laura; Le Bailly, Matthieu; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel; Desnues, Christelle

    2014-05-01

    Coprolites are fossilized fecal material that can reveal information about ancient intestinal and environmental microbiota. Viral metagenomics has allowed systematic characterization of viral diversity in environmental and human-associated specimens, but little is known about the viral diversity in fossil remains. Here, we analyzed the viral community of a 14th-century coprolite from a closed barrel in a Middle Ages site in Belgium using electron microscopy and metagenomics. Viruses that infect eukaryotes, bacteria, and archaea were detected, and we confirmed the presence of some of them by ad hoc suicide PCR. The coprolite DNA viral metagenome was dominated by sequences showing homologies to phages commonly found in modern stools and soil. Although their phylogenetic compositions differed, the metabolic functions of the viral communities have remained conserved across centuries. Antibiotic resistance was one of the reconstructed metabolic functions detected. PMID:24509925

  15. Viruses in a 14th-Century Coprolite

    PubMed Central

    Appelt, Sandra; Fancello, Laura; Le Bailly, Matthieu; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Coprolites are fossilized fecal material that can reveal information about ancient intestinal and environmental microbiota. Viral metagenomics has allowed systematic characterization of viral diversity in environmental and human-associated specimens, but little is known about the viral diversity in fossil remains. Here, we analyzed the viral community of a 14th-century coprolite from a closed barrel in a Middle Ages site in Belgium using electron microscopy and metagenomics. Viruses that infect eukaryotes, bacteria, and archaea were detected, and we confirmed the presence of some of them by ad hoc suicide PCR. The coprolite DNA viral metagenome was dominated by sequences showing homologies to phages commonly found in modern stools and soil. Although their phylogenetic compositions differed, the metabolic functions of the viral communities have remained conserved across centuries. Antibiotic resistance was one of the reconstructed metabolic functions detected. PMID:24509925

  16. 14th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells& Modules: Materials and Processes; Summary of Discussion Sessions

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B.; Tan, T.; Sinton, R.; Swanson, D.

    2004-10-01

    The 14th Workshop discussion sessions addressed funding needs for Si research and for R&D to enhance U.S. PV manufacturing. The wrap-up session specifically addressed topics for the new university silicon program. The theme of the workshop, Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Leapfrogging the Barriers, was selected to reflect the astounding progress in Si PV technology during last three decades, despite a host of barriers and bottlenecks. A combination of oral, poster, and discussion sessions addressed recent advances in crystal growth technology, new cell structures and doping methods, silicon feedstock issues, hydrogen passivation and fire through metallization, and module issues/reliability. The following oral/discussion sessions were conducted: (1) Technology Update; (2) Defects and Impurities in Si/Discussion; (3) Rump Session; (4) Module Issues and Reliability/Discussion; (5) Silicon Feedstock/Discussion; (6) Novel Doping, Cells, and Hetero-Structure Designs/Discussion; (7) Metallization/Silicon Nitride Processing/Discussion; (8) Hydrogen Passivation/Discussion; (9) Characterization/Discussion; and (10) Wrap-Up. This year's workshop lasted three and a half days and, for the first time, included a session on Si modules. A rump session was held on the evening of August 8, which addressed efficiency expectations and challenges of c Si solar cells/modules. Richard King of DOE and Daren Dance of Wright Williams& Kelly (formerly of Sematech) spoke at two of the luncheon sessions. Eleven students received Graduate Student Awards from funds contributed by the PV industry.

  17. The Moon in the 14th Century Frescoes in Padova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellinati, Claudio

    Padova, already in the 14th century a great cultural center of international reputation, struggled with the problems posed by the Moon with Pietro d'Abano, physician and astronomer. But it was with the great painters of that time, namely Giotto and Giusto de'Menabuoi, that its most intimate connections with the contemporary popular culture and theology were illustrated. Giotto depicts the Moon in the Giudizio Universale of the Scrovegni Chapel (1305). The Moon appears on the upper part of the painting, to the left of Christ the Judge, to crown together with the Sun, His presence. The Moon is a heavenly body similar to those appearing on Roman coins of emperors, to signify the Judge is an immortal creature. The color is pale, witeish, almost veiled. More important, the Moon has a face that by popular belief was that of Cain, condemned to amass `mucchi di rovi spinosi' for the fire of the damned (Dante Alighieri, Divina Commedia, Inferno XX, 126). Giusto de' Menabuoi on the other hand expounds, in the Crucifixion of the Duomo (1375 ca), a theological interpretation. The day of God's justice, following the death of the Savior, the Moon will burn and the Sun will pale (Isaiah, 24, 23). And indeed the Moon has a dark reddish colour. Therefore, while in Giotto the Moon is seen as in the popular beliefs, Giusto underlines the theological visions of his times with the words of the prophets.

  18. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference on Outdoor Recreation and Education (ICORE) (14th, Oxford, Ohio, November 7-12, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freidline, Mark, Ed.; Phipps, Maurice, Ed.; Moore, Tim, Ed.; Versteeg, Julie, Ed.

    This proceedings contains 15 conference papers and presentation summaries from the 14th annual International Conference on Outdoor Recreation and Education (ICORE). Titles are: "The Hidden Costs of Outdoor Education/Recreation Academic Training" (Christian Bisson); "The Service Learning Concept: Service Learning in the National Parks" (Tom…

  19. 1. NORTH APPROACH TO SE 14TH STREET BRIDGE CROSSING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTH APPROACH TO SE 14TH STREET BRIDGE CROSSING THE DES MOINES RIVER, LOOKING SOUTH. - Southeast Fourteenth Street Bridge, Spanning Des Moines River at U.S. Highway 65/69, Des Moines, Polk County, IA

  20. Research on ambient temperature passive magnetic bearings at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.; Ryitov, D.D.` Smith, J.R.; Tung, L.S.

    1997-04-01

    Research performed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on the equilibrium and stability of a new class of ambient-temperature passive bearing systems is described. The basic concepts involved are: (1) Stability of the rotating system is only achieved in the rotating state. That is, disengaging mechanical systems are used to insure stable levitation at rest (when Earnshaw`s theorem applies). (2) Stable levitation by passive magnetic elements can be achieved if the vector sum of the force derivatives of the several elements of the system is net negative (i.e. restoring) for axial, transverse, and tilt-type perturbations from equilibrium. To satisfy the requirements of (2) using only permanent magnet elements we have employed periodic ``Halbach arrays.`` These interact with passive inductive loaded circuits and act as stabilizers, with the primary forces arising from axially symmetric permanent-magnet elements. Stabilizers and other elements needed to create compact passive magnetic bearing systems have been constructed. Novel passive means for stabilizing classes of rotor-dynamic instabilities in such systems have also been investigated.

  1. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces (Met & Props 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wei-En

    2014-03-01

    Proceedings of the 14th International Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, 17th-21st June, 2013 Taiwan Organized by: Center for Measurement Standards/Industrial Technology Research Institute Mechanical and Systems Research Laboratories/Industrial Technology Research Institute National Taiwan University National Cheng Kung University National Taiwan University of Science and Technology National Tsing Hua University Greetings from Chairman of International Programme CommitteeTom Thomas When Professor Ken Stout and I founded this series of conferences in the United Kingdom more than thirty years ago, we did not anticipate its longevity or its success. Since that first meeting at Leicester, the conference has been often held in England, but also in several other European countries: France, Poland and Sweden, as well as in the United States. Ken, sadly no longer with us, would be proud of what it has achieved and has come to represent. Generations of researchers have presented their new ideas and innovations here which are now embodied in many textbooks and international standards. But this conference in 2013 marks a new departure and perhaps a new future. For the first time it is being held in Asia, reflecting the historic rise of the economies of the Pacific Rim, adding modern technology to their long-existing traditions of ordered insight and precise craftsmanship. Many of you have travelled far to attend this meeting, and we hope you will feel your trouble has been rewarded. We have an excellent selection of papers from all over the world from many of the world's experts, embodying the consolidation of tested ideas as well as the latest advances in the subject. These will be set in context by a glittering array of keynote and invited speakers. On behalf of the International Programme Committee, I am glad to acknowledge the hard work of the members of the Local Organising Committee in putting the programme together and making all the arrangements, and to accept their

  2. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces (Met & Props 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wei-En

    2014-03-01

    Proceedings of the 14th International Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, 17th-21st June, 2013 Taiwan Organized by: Center for Measurement Standards/Industrial Technology Research Institute Mechanical and Systems Research Laboratories/Industrial Technology Research Institute National Taiwan University National Cheng Kung University National Taiwan University of Science and Technology National Tsing Hua University Greetings from Chairman of International Programme CommitteeTom Thomas When Professor Ken Stout and I founded this series of conferences in the United Kingdom more than thirty years ago, we did not anticipate its longevity or its success. Since that first meeting at Leicester, the conference has been often held in England, but also in several other European countries: France, Poland and Sweden, as well as in the United States. Ken, sadly no longer with us, would be proud of what it has achieved and has come to represent. Generations of researchers have presented their new ideas and innovations here which are now embodied in many textbooks and international standards. But this conference in 2013 marks a new departure and perhaps a new future. For the first time it is being held in Asia, reflecting the historic rise of the economies of the Pacific Rim, adding modern technology to their long-existing traditions of ordered insight and precise craftsmanship. Many of you have travelled far to attend this meeting, and we hope you will feel your trouble has been rewarded. We have an excellent selection of papers from all over the world from many of the world's experts, embodying the consolidation of tested ideas as well as the latest advances in the subject. These will be set in context by a glittering array of keynote and invited speakers. On behalf of the International Programme Committee, I am glad to acknowledge the hard work of the members of the Local Organising Committee in putting the programme together and making all the arrangements, and to accept their

  3. Passive soil venting at the Chemical Waste Landfill Site at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, J.M.; Reavis, B.; Cheng, W.C.

    1995-05-01

    Passive Soil Vapor Extraction was tested at the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) site at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNLIW). Data collected included ambient pressures, differential pressures between soil gas and ambient air, gas flow rates into and out of the soil and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in vented soil gas. From the differential pressure and flow rate data, estimates of permeability were arrived at and compared with estimates from other studies. Flow, differential pressure, and ambient pressure data were collected for nearly 30 days. VOC data were collected for two six-hour periods during this time. Total VOC emissions were calculated and found to be under the limit set by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Although a complete process evaluation is not possible with the data gathered, some of the necessary information for designing a passive venting process was determined and the important parameters for designing the process were indicated. More study is required to evaluate long-term VOC removal using passive venting and to establish total remediation costs when passive venting is used as a polishing process following active soil vapor extraction.

  4. PREFACE: 14th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorescu, Liliana; Britton, David; Glover, Nigel; Heinrich, Gudrun; Lauret, Jérôme; Naumann, Axel; Speer, Thomas; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro

    2012-06-01

    ACAT2011 This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to scientific contributions presented at the 14th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT 2011) which took place on 5-7 September 2011 at Brunel University, UK. The workshop series, which began in 1990 in Lyon, France, brings together computer science researchers and practitioners, and researchers from particle physics and related fields in order to explore and confront the boundaries of computing and of automatic data analysis and theoretical calculation techniques. It is a forum for the exchange of ideas among the fields, exploring and promoting cutting-edge computing, data analysis and theoretical calculation techniques in fundamental physics research. This year's edition of the workshop brought together over 100 participants from all over the world. 14 invited speakers presented key topics on computing ecosystems, cloud computing, multivariate data analysis, symbolic and automatic theoretical calculations as well as computing and data analysis challenges in astrophysics, bioinformatics and musicology. Over 80 other talks and posters presented state-of-the art developments in the areas of the workshop's three tracks: Computing Technologies, Data Analysis Algorithms and Tools, and Computational Techniques in Theoretical Physics. Panel and round table discussions on data management and multivariate data analysis uncovered new ideas and collaboration opportunities in the respective areas. This edition of ACAT was generously sponsored by the Science and Technology Facility Council (STFC), the Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology (IPPP) at Durham University, Brookhaven National Laboratory in the USA and Dell. We would like to thank all the participants of the workshop for the high level of their scientific contributions and for the enthusiastic participation in all its activities which were, ultimately, the key factors in the

  5. The 14th Annual James L. Waters Symposium at Pittcon: Raman Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Charles W.

    2007-01-01

    Raman Spectroscopy was the main topic of the 14th Annual James L. Waters Symposium, which was held in March 2003 at Pittcon. The development of the enabling technologies that have made Raman spectroscopy a routine analysis tool in many laboratories worldwide is discussed.

  6. 14th International Conference on Particle Induced X-ray Emission ("PIXE 2015")

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybyłowicz, Wojciech Józef; Pineda-Vargas, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B contains the proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Particle Induced X-ray Emission ("PIXE 2015") that was held in Somerset West (South Africa) from 25th February to 3rd March 2015.

  7. 76 FR 19373 - The 14th Annual Food and Drug Administration-Orange County Regulatory Affairs Educational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration The 14th Annual Food and Drug Administration-Orange County... announcing the following conference: 14th Annual Educational Conference co-sponsored with the Orange County...: 949-608-4417; or Orange County Regulatory Affairs Discussion Group, Attention to Detail,...

  8. Business of biosimilars - 14th annual conference (October 15-17, 2013 - Boston, Massachusetts, USA).

    PubMed

    Bourgoin, A

    2013-12-01

    Competition in the biological market offers a new set of opportunities and challenges within the healthcare industry. Biosimilars, like generic small-molecule drugs, can provide cost savings and increase patient access, while also promoting innovation. While large molecule manufacturers face many challenges unique to complex therapeutics, it is becoming clear that the commercialization of biosimilars shares many of the same hurdles as the generics market. The 14th Annual Business of Biosimilars Conference provided quality presentations from industry leaders regarding many commercial considerations for stakeholders interested in entering the biosimilars market. Opportunities to network with industry experts were offered, with over 120 attendees. PMID:24524098

  9. EDITORIAL: The 14th International Symposium on Flow Visualization, ISFV14 The 14th International Symposium on Flow Visualization, ISFV14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Chun; Lee, Sang Joon

    2011-06-01

    The 14th International Symposium on Flow Visualization (ISFV14) was held in Daegu, Korea, on 21-24 June 2010. There were 304 participants from 17 countries. The state of the art in many aspects of flow visualization was presented and discussed, and a total of 243 papers from 19 countries were presented. Two special lectures and four invited lectures, 48 paper sessions and one poster session were held in five session rooms and in a lobby over four days. Among the paper sessions, those on 'biological flows', 'micro/nano fluidics', 'PIV/PTV' and 'compressible and sonic flows' received great attention from the participants of ISFV14. Special events included presentations of 'The Asanuma Award' and 'The Leonardo Da Vinci Award' to prominent contributors. Awards for photos and movies were given to three scientists for their excellence in flow visualizations. Sixteen papers were selected by the Scientific Committee of ISFV14. After the standard peer review process of this journal, six papers were finally accepted for publication. We wish to thank the editors of MST for making it possible to publish this special feature from ISFV14. We also thank the authors for their careful and insightful work and cooperation in the preparation of revised papers. It will be our pleasure if readers appreciate the hot topics in flow visualization research as a result of this special feature. We also hope that the progress in flow visualization will create new research fields. The 15th International Symposium on Flow Visualization will be held in Minsk, Belarus in 2012. We would like to express sincere thanks to the staff at IOP Publishing for their kind support.

  10. Comparison of detection rates of breeding marsh birds in passive and playback surveys at Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, T.; Finkbeiner, S.L.; Johnson, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    We compared detection rates of passive and playback breeding bird survey techniques on elusive marsh birds - Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps), American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus), Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis), Virginia Rail (Rallus limicola), and Sora (Porzana carolina) - during a two-year study at Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge, in southwestern South Dakota. We conducted 151 passive point counts followed by playback-response surveys at the same points in marsh-bird habitat on the refuge. Playback surveys detected secretive water birds more frequently than our passive surveys, increasing rates for each species by factors of 2.4 to 7.0. The distance a bird was detected from a point varied with the species and the survey technique.

  11. 14th Annual international meeting of wind turbine test stations: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    These proceedings are of the 14th Annual International Meeting of Test Stations. As the original charter states these meetings are intended to be an international forum for sharing wind turbine testing experiences. By sharing their experiences they can improve testing skills and techniques. As with all new industries the quality of the products is marked by how well they learn from their experiences and incorporate this learning into the next generation of products. The test station`s role in this process is to provide accurate information to the companies they serve. This information is used by designers to conform and improve their designs. It is also used by certification agencies for confirming the quality of these designs. By sharing of experiences they are able to accomplished these goals, serve these customers better and ultimately improve the international wind energy industry.

  12. The 14th Ile residue is essential for Leptin function in regulating energy homeostasis in rat

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shuyang; Zhu, Xianmin; Li, Hong; Hu, Youtian; Zhou, Jinping; He, Di; Feng, Yun; Lu, Lina; Du, Guizhen; Hu, Youjin; Liu, Tiancheng; Wang, Zhen; Ding, Guohui; Chen, Jiayu; Gao, Shaorong; Wu, Fang; Xue, Zhigang; Li, Yixue; Fan, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    LEPTIN (LEP) is a circulating hormone released primarily from white adipocytes and is crucial for regulating satiety and energy homeostasis in humans and animals. Using the CRISPR technology, we created a set of Lep mutant rats that carry either null mutations or a deletion of the 14th Ile (LEP∆I14) in the mature LEP protein. We examined the potential off-target sites (OTS) by whole-genome high-throughput sequencing and/or Sanger-sequencing analysis and found no OTS in mutant rats. Mature LEP∆I14 is incessantly produced and released to blood at a much elevated level due to the feedback loop. Structure modeling of binding conformation between mutant LEP∆I14 and LEPTIN receptor (LEPR) suggests that the conformation of LEP∆I14 impairs its binding with LEPR, consistent with its inability to activate STAT3-binding element in the luciferase reporter assay. Phenotypic study demonstrated that Lep∆I14 rats recapitulate phenotypes of Lep-null mutant rats including obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, nephropathy, and infertility. Compared to the existing ob/ob mouse models, this Lep∆I14/∆I14 rat strain provides a robust tool for further dissecting the roles of LEP in the diabetes related kidney disease and reproduction problem, beyond its well established function in regulating energy homeostasis. PMID:27378381

  13. Radio imaging of synchrotron emission associated with a CME on the 14th of August 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, H. M.; Krucker, S.; Raftery, C. L.; Saint-Hilaire, P.

    2012-12-01

    Radio observations can be used to identify sources of electron acceleration within flares and CMEs. In a small number of events, radio imaging has revealed the presence of synchrotron emission from nonthermal electrons in the expanding loops of the CME (Bastian et al. (2001), Maia et al. (2007) and Démoulin et al. (2012)). Events in which the synchrotron emission is sufficiently bright to be identified in the presence of plasma emission from radio bursts, which are prevalent at meter wavelengths, are infrequent. Using radio images from the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH) we present observations of synchrotron emission associated with a CME which occurred on the 14th of August 2010. Using context observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, the SWAP instrument onboard Proba2, the LASCO coronograph onboard SOHO and the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), we follow the propagation of the CME out to 2-3 solar radii and characterize the associated electron distribution. We find that the synchrotron emission is cospatial with the CME core.

  14. Report of the 14th Genomic Standards Consortium Meeting, Oxford, UK, September 17-21, 2012.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Neil; Field, Dawn; Amaral-Zettler, Linda; Barker, Katharine; Bicak, Mesude; Bourlat, Sarah; Coddington, Jonathan; Deck, John; Drummond, Alexei; Gilbert, Jack A.; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Kottmann, Renzo; Meyer, Chris; Morrison, Norman; Obst, Matthias; Robbins, Robert; Schriml, Lynn; Sterk, Peter; Stones-Havas, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of the 14th workshop of the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) held at the University of Oxford in September 2012. The primary goal of the workshop was to work towards the launch of the Genomic Observatories (GOs) Network under the GSC. For the first time, it brought together potential GOs sites, GSC members, and a range of interested partner organizations. It thus represented the first meeting of the GOs Network (GOs1). Key outcomes include the formation of a core group of “champions” ready to take the GOs Network forward, as well as the formation of working groups. The workshop also served as the first meeting of a wide range of participants in the Ocean Sampling Day (OSD) initiative, a first GOs action. Three projects with complementary interests – COST Action ES1103, MG4U and Micro B3 – organized joint sessions at the workshop. A two-day GSC Hackathon followed the main three days of meetings.

  15. The 14th Ile residue is essential for Leptin function in regulating energy homeostasis in rat.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuyang; Zhu, Xianmin; Li, Hong; Hu, Youtian; Zhou, Jinping; He, Di; Feng, Yun; Lu, Lina; Du, Guizhen; Hu, Youjin; Liu, Tiancheng; Wang, Zhen; Ding, Guohui; Chen, Jiayu; Gao, Shaorong; Wu, Fang; Xue, Zhigang; Li, Yixue; Fan, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    LEPTIN (LEP) is a circulating hormone released primarily from white adipocytes and is crucial for regulating satiety and energy homeostasis in humans and animals. Using the CRISPR technology, we created a set of Lep mutant rats that carry either null mutations or a deletion of the 14(th) Ile (LEP(∆I14)) in the mature LEP protein. We examined the potential off-target sites (OTS) by whole-genome high-throughput sequencing and/or Sanger-sequencing analysis and found no OTS in mutant rats. Mature LEP(∆I14) is incessantly produced and released to blood at a much elevated level due to the feedback loop. Structure modeling of binding conformation between mutant LEP(∆I14) and LEPTIN receptor (LEPR) suggests that the conformation of LEP(∆I14) impairs its binding with LEPR, consistent with its inability to activate STAT3-binding element in the luciferase reporter assay. Phenotypic study demonstrated that Lep(∆I14) rats recapitulate phenotypes of Lep-null mutant rats including obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, nephropathy, and infertility. Compared to the existing ob/ob mouse models, this Lep(∆I14/∆I14) rat strain provides a robust tool for further dissecting the roles of LEP in the diabetes related kidney disease and reproduction problem, beyond its well established function in regulating energy homeostasis. PMID:27378381

  16. "May the force be with you": 14th Samuel Haughton lecture.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, P J

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents the 14th Samuel Haughton lecture delivered on the 26th of January 2008. The lecture began by describing Haughton's research on animal mechanics. Haughton opposed Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection using the argument that the skeleton obeys the 'principle of least action' and therefore must have been designed with that principle in mind. In the course of his research he dissected many animals, including albatrosses, cassowaries, llamas, tigers, jackals and jaguars. He took anatomical measurements and did calculations to prove that muscle attachment sites were optimally located. The relationship between optimality and evolution continues to be studied. Computer simulations show optimality is difficult to achieve. This is because, even if optimality could be defined, the gene recombinations required to evolve an optimal phenotype may not exist. The drive towards optimality occurs under gravitational forces. Simulations to predict mechano-regulation of tissue differentiation and remodelling have been developed and tested. They have been used to design biomechanically optimized scaffolds for regenerative medicine and to identify the mechanoregularory mechanisms in osteoporosis. It is proposed that an important development in bioengineering will be the discovery of algorithms that can be used for the prediction of mechano-responsiveness in biological tissues. PMID:18641919

  17. Investigation of acceleration processes of the 14th july 2005 flare series occurred in ar 10786

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizykh, Tatyana; Kashapova, Larisa

    We present the results of acceleration process study in the flare series occurred 14th July 2005 on the western limb of the Sun. Our investigation is based on HXR data obtained by RHESSI. It was observed increasing of solar flare activity with X1.2 class flare at its culmination. The presence of accelerated electrons (the power-law component of HXR spectrum for energies more than 25 keV) was clearly signified only in the first (C3.8) and the last of studied flares. We applied lgT-1/2lgEM diagrams ( Jakimiec et al,1986) for quantitative study of HXR spectrums for all flares. For analysis of the flares showed presence of significant flux of accelerated electrons we also used diagrams made on base of parameters obtained from non-thermal part of the spectrum (flux, spectral index, spectral curvature, Grigis Benz 2009). The possible scenario of evolution of this active region is discussed.

  18. Reading and Reality. Proceedings of the Annual Reading Conference (14th, Terre Haute, Indiana, June 14, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Vanita M., Comp.; Waterman, David C., Comp.

    Intended for reading teachers, this pamphlet contains the presentations of the 14th annual reading conference at Indiana State University, beginning with opening remarks by David C. Waterman and welcoming comments by J. Stephen Hazlett. In the opening address, "What Good is Comprehension without Composition?" by Sharon and David Moore, the role of…

  19. Passive and active soil gas sampling at the Mixed Waste Landfill, Technical Area III, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    McVey, M.D.; Goering, T.J.; Peace, J.L.

    1996-02-01

    The Environmental Restoration Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico is tasked with assessing and remediating the Mixed Waste Landfill in Technical Area III. The Mixed Waste Landfill is a 2.6 acre, inactive radioactive and mixed waste disposal site. In 1993 and 1994, an extensive passive and active soil gas sampling program was undertaken to identify and quantify volatile organic compounds in the subsurface at the landfill. Passive soil gas surveys identified levels of PCE, TCE, 1,1, 1-TCA, toluene, 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane, dichloroethyne, and acetone above background. Verification by active soil gas sampling confirmed concentrations of PCE, TCE, 1,1,1-TCA, and 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane at depths of 10 and 30 feet below ground surface. In addition, dichlorodifluoroethane and trichlorofluoromethane were detected during active soil gas sampling. All of the volatile organic compounds detected during the active soil gas survey were present in the low ppb range.

  20. 14th St. Gallen International Breast Cancer Conference 2015: Evidence, Controversies, Consensus – Primary Therapy of Early Breast Cancer: Opinions Expressed by German Experts

    PubMed Central

    Jackisch, Christian; Harbeck, Nadia; Huober, Jens; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Gerber, Bernd; Kreipe, Hans-Heinrich; Liedtke, Cornelia; Marschner, Norbert; Möbus, Volker; Scheithauer, Heike; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Thomssen, Christoph; Loibl, Sibylle; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Blohmer, Jens-Uwe; Costa, Serban-Dan; Decker, Thomas; Diel, Ingo; Fasching, Peter A.; Fehm, Tanja; Janni, Wolfgang; Lück, Hans-Joachim; Maass, Nicolai; Scharl, Anton; Untch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Summary The key topics of this year's 14th St. Gallen Consensus Conference on the diagnosis and therapy of primary breast cancer were again questions about breast surgery and axillary surgery, radio-oncology and systemic therapy options in consideration of tumor biology, and the clinical application of multigene assays. This year, the consensus conference took place in Vienna. From a German perspective, it makes sense to substantiate the results of the vote of the international panel representing 19 countries in light of the updated national therapy recommendations of the AGO (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie). Therefore, 14 German breast cancer experts, 3 of whom are members of the International St. Gallen Panel, have commented on the voting results of the St. Gallen Consensus Conference 2015 in relation to clinical routine in Germany. PMID:26557827

  1. PREFACE: 14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilbao, Luis; Minotti, Fernando; Kelly, Hector

    2012-06-01

    These proceedings present the written contributions from participants of the Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP), which was held in Mar del Plata, Argentina, on 20-25 November 2011. This was the 14th session of the series of LAWPP biennial meetings, which started in 1982. The five-day scientific program of LAWPP 2011 consisted of 32 talks and various poster sessions, with the participation of 135 researchers from Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Puerto Rico, USA, Venezuela, as well as others from Europe and Asia. In addition, a School on Plasma Physics and a Workshop on Industrial Applications of Plasma Technology (AITP) were organized together with the main meeting. The five-day School held in the week previous to the meeting was intended for young scientists starting their research in Plasma Physics. On the other hand, the objective of the AITP Workshop was to enhance regional academic and industrial cooperation in the field of plasma assisted surface technology. Topics addressed at LAWPP 2011 included space plasmas, dusty plasmas, nuclear fusion, non-thermal plasmas, basic plasma processes, plasma simulation and industrial plasma applications. This variety of subjects is reflected in these proceedings, which the editors hope will result in enjoyable and fruitful reading for those interested in Plasma Physics. It is a pleasure to thank the Institutions that sponsored the meeting, as well as all the participants and collaborators for making this meeting possible. The Editors Luis Bilbao, Fernando Minotti and Hector Kelly LAWPP participants Participants of the 14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics, 20-25 November 2011, Mar del Plata, Argentina International Scientific Committee Carlos Alejaldre, Spain María Virginia Alves, Brazil Ibere Caldas, Brazil Luis Felipe Delgado-Aparicio, Peru Mayo Villagrán, Mexico Kohnosuke Sato, Japan Héctor Kelly, Argentina Edberto Leal-Quirós, Puerto Rico George Morales, USA Julio Puerta

  2. Radio imaging of a type IVM radio burst on the 14th of August 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Bain, H. M.; Krucker, S.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Raftery, C. L.

    2014-02-10

    Propagating coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are often accompanied by burst signatures in radio spectrogram data. We present Nançay Radioheliograph observations of a moving source of broadband radio emission, commonly referred to as a type IV radio burst (type IVM), which occurred in association with a CME on the 14th of August 2010. The event was well observed at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths by SDO/AIA and PROBA2/SWAP, and by the STEREO SECCHI and SOHO LASCO white light (WL) coronagraphs. The EUV and WL observations show the type IVM source to be cospatial with the CME core. The observed spectra is well fitted by a power law with a negative slope, which is consistent with optically thin gyrosynchrotron emission. The spectrum shows no turn over at the lowest Nançay frequencies. By comparing simulated gyrosynchrotron spectra with Nançay Radioheliograph observations, and performing a rigorous parameter search we are able to constrain several key parameters of the underlying plasma. Simulated spectra found to fit the data suggest a nonthermal electron distribution with a low energy cutoff of several tens to 100 keV, with a nonthermal electron density in the range 10{sup 0}-10{sup 2} cm{sup –3}, in a magnetic field of a few Gauss. The nonthermal energy content of the source is found to contain 0.001%-0.1% of the sources thermal energy content. Furthermore, the energy loss timescale for this distribution equates to several hours, suggesting that the electrons could be accelerated during the CME initiation or early propagation phase and become trapped in the magnetic structure of the CME core without the need to be replenished.

  3. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on Transport in Interacting Disordered Systems (TIDS-14)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frydman, Aviad

    2012-07-01

    The '14th Transport in interacting disordered systems - TIDS14' conference took place during 5-8 September 2011 in Acre Israel. The conference was a continuation of the biennial meeting traditionally called HRP (hopping and related phenomena) and later named TIDS (transport in interacting disordered systems). Previous conferences took place in Trieste (1985), Bratislava (1987), Chapel Hill (1989), Marburg (1991), Glasgow (1993), Jerusalem (1995), Rackeve (1997), Murcia (1999), Shefayim (2001), Trieste (2003), Egmond, aan Zee (2005), Marburg (2007) and Rackeve (2009). Central to these conferences are systems that are characterized by a large degree of disorder and hence they lack translational symmetry. In such systems interactions are usually very important. Dramatic differences in the behavior of crystalline solids and the 'disordered' systems are possible. Some examples of the latter are amorphous materials, polymer aggregates, materials whose properties are governed by impurities, granular systems and biological systems. This conference series is notable for the pleasant atmosphere and fruitful exchange of ideas between theoreticians and experimentalists in these areas. This tradition was also maintained in the conference in Israel. Specific topics of TIDS14 included: hopping, electron and Coulomb glasses, Anderson localization and many body localization, noise, magneto-transport, metal-insulator and superconductor-insulator transition, transport through low dimensional and nanostructures, quantum coherence, interference and dephasing and other related topics. Over sixty scientists from fourteen countries participated in the conference and presented papers either as oral presentations or as posters in two sessions that took place during the conference. Many of these papers are included in these proceedings. I would like to thank all the conference participants for the interesting presentations, debates and discussions that created a stimulating but pleasant

  4. Radio Imaging of a Type IVM Radio Burst on the 14th of August 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, H. M.; Krucker, S.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Raftery, C. L.

    2014-02-01

    Propagating coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are often accompanied by burst signatures in radio spectrogram data. We present Nançay Radioheliograph observations of a moving source of broadband radio emission, commonly referred to as a type IV radio burst (type IVM), which occurred in association with a CME on the 14th of August 2010. The event was well observed at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths by SDO/AIA and PROBA2/SWAP, and by the STEREO SECCHI and SOHO LASCO white light (WL) coronagraphs. The EUV and WL observations show the type IVM source to be cospatial with the CME core. The observed spectra is well fitted by a power law with a negative slope, which is consistent with optically thin gyrosynchrotron emission. The spectrum shows no turn over at the lowest Nançay frequencies. By comparing simulated gyrosynchrotron spectra with Nançay Radioheliograph observations, and performing a rigorous parameter search we are able to constrain several key parameters of the underlying plasma. Simulated spectra found to fit the data suggest a nonthermal electron distribution with a low energy cutoff of several tens to 100 keV, with a nonthermal electron density in the range 100-102 cm-3, in a magnetic field of a few Gauss. The nonthermal energy content of the source is found to contain 0.001%-0.1% of the sources thermal energy content. Furthermore, the energy loss timescale for this distribution equates to several hours, suggesting that the electrons could be accelerated during the CME initiation or early propagation phase and become trapped in the magnetic structure of the CME core without the need to be replenished.

  5. National Passive Solar Conference, 4th, Kansas City, MO, October 3-5, 1979, Proceedings. Volume 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franta, G.

    1981-10-01

    Papers concern recent experience in the research, development and application of passive solar technology. Specific topics include the legislative barriers and incentives to passive solar systems, coupled thermal and lighting simulations for evaluating daylighting design effectiveness, passive solar applications in inner city housing, radiative cooling in a desert climate, salinity gradient solar ponds, the retrofit of a masonry home for passive space heating, the performances of active and passive solar domestic hot water systems, builder experience with passive solar home construction, the use of solar energy installations on farm buildings, and a method of determining the thermal performance of passive storage walls.

  6. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Chikashi

    2009-07-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI2008), held at the University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo, Japan from 1-5 September 2008. This series of conferences began in Stockholm, Sweden in 1982 and has since been held every other year; in Oxford, UK (1984), Groningen, the Netherlands (1986), Grenoble, France (1988), Giessen, Germany (1990), Manhattan, Kansas, USA (1992), Vienna, Austria (1994), Omiya, Japan (1996), Bensheim, Germany (1998), Berkeley, USA (2000), Caen, France (2002), Vilnius, Lithuania (2004) and Belfast, UK (2006). Highly charged ions (HCI), which are defined as highly ionized (i.e. positively charged atomic) ions here, mainly exist in hot plasmas such as the solar corona and fusion plasmas. It is true that its importance in plasma physics has driven researchers to the spectroscopic studies of HCIs, but the spectroscopy of few-electron ions is not only important for plasmas but also interesting for fundamental atomic physics. Electrons moving fast near a heavy nucleus give a suitable system to test the fundamental atomic theory involving relativistic and quantum electro-dynamic effects in a strong field. Also, the huge potential energy of a HCI induces drastic reaction in the interaction with matter. This unique property of HCIs, coupled with the recent development of efficient ion sources, is opening the possibility to utilize them in new technologies in the field such as nano-fabrication, surface analysis, medical physics, and so on. Hence, this conference is recognized as a valuable gathering place for established practitioners and also for newcomers; we exchange information, we are introduced to the subject itself, and to unexpected interfaces with other fields. On 31 August, the day before the opening of HCI2008, we welcomed the delegates at the university's restaurant—and we were greeted with an unusually heavy summer shower! The conference then opened on

  7. Seismic passive: an experiment for the campus of the National University of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateus Reyes, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    The generation of seismic image, in areas where the use of active sources it is restricted (like dynamite) or just the area where the area is an active source, it is possible to do it with passive seismic, using seismic interferometry, retrieving the impulse response (Function Green) from the cross-correlation of the ambient noise. It was cross-correlated ambient seismic noise, of a recording made along a line lying on the university campus in Bogota, on that line were located the virtual-source and the traces. For processing, the surface waves were removed and subsequently, it was applied energy normalization to each of the noise panel and were correlated each noise panels with the trace at the chosen virtual-source position. When it was retrieved common-source gathers it was made a new stacking. And with this stack, seismic image was generated. The image obtained was compared with the geological surveys of the area and found that the reflectors match, showing 2 matching reflections. It was determined from this study of seismic exploration on one line, using retrieved reflection data it posible to obtain a migrated reflection imageof the subsurface.

  8. The Successive CME on 13th; 14th and 15th February 2011 and Forbush decrease on 18 February 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maričić, D.; Bostasyan, N.; Dumbović, M.; Chilingarian, A.; Mailyan, B.; Rostomyan, H.; Arakelyan, K.; Vršnak, B.; Roša, D.; Hržina, D.; Romštajn, I.; Veronig, A.

    2013-02-01

    Aims. We analyze the kinematics of three interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) that occurred on 13th, 14th and 15th February 2011 in the active region AR 11155 and have shown that they appeared at the Earth orbit on February, 18th and caused Forbush decrease (FD). Methods. The solar coordinates of flares are (S19W03), (S20W14) and (S21W18). The kinematic curves were obtained using STEREO (A&B) data. Additionally, we explore the possibility of the CME-CME interaction for these three events. We compare obtained estimates of ICME arrival with the in-situ measurements from WIND satellite at L1 point and with ground-based cosmic ray data obtained from SEVAN network. Results. The acceleration of each CME is highly correlated with the associated SXR flares energy release. CMEs that erupted at 13 and 14 Feb 2011 are not associated with prominence eruption; maximum velocity was vmax550 ± 50 km/s and vmax400 ± 50 km/s, respectively. However, 15 Feb 2011 CME is connected with much more violent eruption associated with a prominence, with maximum velocity of vmax 1400 ± 50 km/s. The last overtakes 13th and 14th Feb CMEs at distances of 32 and 160 Rsolar, respectively.

  9. Radio imaging spectroscopy of synchrotron emission associated with a CME on the 14th of August 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Hazel; Krucker, S.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Raftery, C.

    2013-07-01

    We present Nancay Radioheliograph observations of a moving type IV solar radio burst which occurred in association with a CME on the 14th of August 2010. The event was well observed at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, the SWAP instrument onboard Proba2 and by the LASCO white light coronograph. The burst emission was found to be cospatial with the core of the CME. Using radio imaging spectroscopy we are able to characterize the underlying electron distribution and plasma parameters within the source. Fitted spectra reveal a clear power law component consistent with optically thin synchrotron emission from accelerated electrons trapped in the erupting flux rope. As is often observed in type IV bursts, polarization measurements show the source to be moderately polarized during the peak of the burst, before steadily increasing to around 70% as the brightness temperature of the burst decays.

  10. 14th congress of combustion by-products and their health effects-origin, fate, and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources.

    PubMed

    Weidemann, Eva; Andersson, Patrik L; Bidleman, Terry; Boman, Christoffer; Carlin, Danielle J; Collina, Elena; Cormier, Stephania A; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C; Gullett, Brian K; Johansson, Christer; Lucas, Donald; Lundin, Lisa; Lundstedt, Staffan; Marklund, Stellan; Nording, Malin L; Ortuño, Nuria; Sallam, Asmaa A; Schmidt, Florian M; Jansson, Stina

    2016-04-01

    The 14th International Congress on Combustion By-Products and Their Health Effects was held in Umeå, Sweden from June 14th to 17th, 2015. The Congress, mainly sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program and the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, focused on the "Origin, fate and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources". The international delegates included academic and government researchers, engineers, scientists, policymakers and representatives of industrial partners. The Congress provided a unique forum for the discussion of scientific advances in this research area since it addressed in combination the health-related issues and the environmental implications of combustion by-products. The scientific outcomes of the Congress included the consensus opinions that: (a) there is a correlation between human exposure to particulate matter and increased cardiac and respiratory morbidity and mortality; (b) because currently available data does not support the assessment of differences in health outcomes between biomass smoke and other particulates in outdoor air, the potential human health and environmental impacts of emerging air-pollution sources must be addressed. Assessment will require the development of new approaches to characterize combustion emissions through advanced sampling and analytical methods. The Congress also concluded the need for better and more sustainable e-waste management and improved policies, usage and disposal methods for materials containing flame retardants. PMID:26906006

  11. Dealing with Diversity: A Key Issue for Educational Management. Proceedings of the ENIRDEM Conference (14th, Brno and Telc, the Czech Republic, September 22-25, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Milan, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    An anthology of speeches of the 14th conference of the European Network for Improving Research and Development in Educational Management (ENIRDEM), held on 22 to 25 September 2005 in Brno and Telc, the Czech Republic, this book contains 13 contributions by 19 speakers and co-authors, covering various questions related to the topic of diversity in…

  12. Familial Aggregation between the 14th and 21st Century and Type 2 Diabetes Risk in an Isolated Dutch Population

    PubMed Central

    de Visser, Kees L.; Landman, Gijs W. D.; Meyboom-de Jong, Betty; de Visser, Wim; te Meerman, Gerard J.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The development of type 2 diabetes results from an interaction of hereditary factors and environmental factors. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of interrelatedness to the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in an isolated Dutch population. Materials and Methods A genealogical database from inhabitants living on the former island Urk between the 14th and 21st century was constructed. In a case-control study, effects of interrelatedness and the risk of type 2 diabetes were estimated with Kinship Coefficients (KCs). Relative risks in first, second, and third degree relatives and spouses of inhabitants with type 2 diabetes were compared to matched controls. Results Patients with type 2 diabetes were more interrelated, expressed by a higher KC compared to controls (7.2 vs. 5.2, p=0.001). First, second and third degree relatives had an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Second degree relatives had a similar risk,1.7 (1.5-2.0) as third degree relatives,1.8 (1.5-2.2). Spouses of patients with diabetes had a 3.4 (2.7-4.4) higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Conclusions Interrelatedness was higher among inhabitants with type 2 diabetes compared to controls. This differences extended beyond the nuclear family, thereby supporting the hypothesis that interrelatedness contributed to the development of type 2 diabetes on Urk. However, the size of this effect was small and the patterns of risk in first, second and third degree relatives suggested that factors other than interrelatedness were the main contributors to the development of type 2 diabetes on Urk. PMID:26193086

  13. PREFACE: 14th Annual International Astrophysics Conference: Linear and Nonlinear Particle Energization throughout the Heliosphere and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zank, G. P.

    2015-09-01

    The 14th Annual International Astrophysics Conference was held at the Sheraton Tampa Riverwalk Hotel, Tampa, Florida, USA, during the week of 19-24 April 2015. The meeting drew some 75 participants from all over the world, representing a wide range of interests and expertise in the energization of particles from the perspectives of theory, modelling and simulations, and observations. The theme of the meeting was "Linear and Nonlinear Particle Energization throughout the Heliosphere and Beyond." Energetic particles are ubiquitous to plasma environments, whether collisionless such as the supersonic solar wind, the magnetospheres of planets, the exospheres of nonmagnetized planets and comets, the heliospheric-local interstellar boundary regions, interstellar space and supernova remnant shocks, and stellar wind boundaries. Energetic particles are found too in more collisional regions such as in the solar corona, dense regions of the interstellar medium, accretion flows around stellar objects, to name a few. Particle acceleration occurs wherever plasma boundaries, magnetic and electric fields, and turbulence are present. The meeting addressed the linear and nonlinear physical processes underlying the variety of particle acceleration mechanisms, the role of particle acceleration in shaping different environments, and acceleration processes common to different regions. Both theory and observations were addressed with a view to encouraging crossdisciplinary fertilization of ideas, concepts, and techniques. The meeting addressed all aspects of particle acceleration in regions ranging from the Sun to the interplanetary medium to magnetospheres, exospheres, and comets, the boundaries of the heliosphere, and beyond to supernova remnant shocks, galactic jets, stellar winds, accretion flows, and more. The format of the meeting included 25-minute presentations punctuated by two 40-minute talks, one by Len Fisk that provided an historical overview of particle acceleration in the

  14. 2.5 Gbps clock data recovery using 1/4th-rate quadricorrelator frequency detector and skew-calibrated multi-phase clock generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tontisirin, S.; Tielert, R.

    2006-09-01

    A Gb/s clock and data recovery (CDR) circuit using 1/4th-rate digital quadricorrelator frequency detector and skew-calibrated multi-phase voltage-controlled oscillator is presented. With 1/4th-rate clock architecture, the coil-free oscillator can have lower operation frequency providing sufficient low-jitter operation. Moreover, it is an inherent 1-to-4 DEMUX. The skew calibration scheme is applied to reduce phase offset in multi-phase clock generator. The CDR with frequency detector can have small loop bandwidth, wide pull-in range and can operate without the need for a local reference clock. This 1/4th-rate CDR is implemented in standard 0.18 μm CMOS technology. It has an active area of 0.7 mm2 and consumes 100 mW at 1.8 V supply. The CDR has low jitter operation in a wide frequency range from 1-2.25 Gb/s. Measurement of Bit-Error Rate is less than 10-12 for 2.25 Gb/s incoming data 27-1 PRBS, jitter peak-to-peak of 0.7 unit interval (UI) modulation at 10 MHz.

  15. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-11-01

    It is our great pleasure to welcome you to the 14th International Conference on Micro- and Nano-Technology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications, or PowerMEMS 2014, in Awaji Island, Japan. The aim of PowerMEM is to present the latest research results in the field of miniature, micro- and nano-scale technologies for power generation and energy conversion. The conference will also- give us the opportunity to exchange informations and new ideas in the field of Power MEMS/NEMS. The current status of the field of PowerMEMS spans the full spectrum from basic research to practical applications. We will enjoy valuable discussions not only from the viewpoint of academia but from commercial and industrial perspectives. In the conference, three invited speakers lead the technical program. We received 172 abstracts and after a careful reviewing process by the Technical Program Committee a total of 133 papers were selected for presentation. These have been organized into 16 Oral sessions in two parallel streams and two poster sessions including some late-news papers. The oral and regular poster papers are published by the Institute of Physics (IOP). We have also organized a PowerMEMS School in Kobe-Sannomiya contiguous to the main conference. This two-day school will cover various topics of energy harvesting. World leading experts will give invited lectures on their main topics. This is a new experiment to broaden the technology remit of our conference by organizing mini symposiums that aim to gather the latest research on the following topics by the organizers: Microscale Combustion, Wideband Vibration Energy Harvesting, RF Energy Transfer and Industrial Application. We hope this, and other activities will make PowerMEMS2014 a memorable success. One of the important programs in an international conference is the social program, and we prepare the PowerMEMS2014 banquet in the banquet room at the Westin Awaji Island Hotel. This will provide an opportunity to

  16. Passive Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, Robert J.; Baugher, Charles; Alexander, Iwan

    1992-01-01

    Motion of ball in liquid indicates acceleration. Passive accelerometer measures small accelerations along cylindrical axis. Principle of operation based on Stokes' law. Provides accurate measurements of small quasi-steady accelerations. Additional advantage, automatically integrates out unwanted higher-frequency components of acceleration.

  17. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph located in National Park Service, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original photograph located in National Park Service, U.S.S. Arizona Memorial, 14th Naval District Photograph Collection), 14th ND PHOG no. PH 00-46. U.S. Navy photograph, 1946. FACILITY 250 AT MAKALAPA WITH ADDED WOOD-FRAMED STORIES. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Headquarters, Commander-in-Chief of the Pacific Fleet, Intersection of Halawa & Makalapa Drives, Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph located in the National Park ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original photograph located in the National Park Service, U.S.S. Arizona Memorial, 14th Naval District Photograph Collection), 14th ND PHOG No. P.H. 4175-42. U.S. Navy photograph, 1942. THE NAVAL SUPPLY DEPOT’S HUGE FUELING PIER (FACILITY H1-H4) HELPED KEEP THE FLEET MOVING DURING WORLD WAR II. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waterfront Facilities, Various locations throughout base, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. On the possibility of the determining the average mass composition near 10 to the 14th power eV through the solar magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd-Evans, J.

    1985-01-01

    The discovery of primary ultrahigh energy (UHE) gamma-rays has spawned plans for a new generation of air shower experiments with unprecedented directional resolution. Such accuracy permits observation of a cosmic ray shadow due to the solar disc. Particle trajectory simulations through models of the large scale solar magnetic field were performed. The shadow is apparent above 10 to the 15th power eV for all cosmic ray charges /Z/ 26; at lower energies, trajectories close to the Sun are bent sufficiently for this shadow to be lost. The onset of the shadow is rigidity dependent, and occurs at an energy per nucleus of approx. Z x 10 to the 13th power eV. The possibility of determining the average mass composition near 10 to the 14th power eV from 1 year's observation at a mountain altitude array is investigated.

  20. Better vaccines for healthier life. Part II. Conference report of the DCVMN International 14th Annual General Meeting Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Tippoo, Patrick; Sivaramakrishnan, Venkatraman; Nguyen, Thuvan

    2014-11-12

    New vaccines are required to meet the public health challenges of the next generation and many unmet global health needs can be addressed by developing countries vaccine manufacturers such as lower-cost vaccines based on single-dose, thermostable formulations, efficacious in children with compromised gastrointestinal tracts. GMP compliance is also a challenge, as sometimes innovation and clinical development focus is not accompanied by command of scale-up and quality assurance for large volume manufacturing and supply. Identifying and addressing such challenges, beyond cost and cold-chain space, including safety considerations and health worker behavior, regulatory alliances and harmonization to foster access to vaccines, will help countries to ensure sustainable immunization. There needs to be continuous and close management of the global vaccine supply both at national and international levels, requiring careful risk management, coordination and cooperation with manufacturers. Successful partnership models based on sharing a common goal, mutual respect and good communication were discussed among stakeholders. PMID:24923638

  1. Forging Connections in Adult Higher Education. National Conference on Alternative and External Degree Programs for Adults (14th, San Francisco, California, October 6-8, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC.

    This document contains the following 25 papers from a conference on adult higher educational practices: "Learning and Workplace Linkages via Applied Research Projects" (Elaine Cahalan Hollensbe, Linda Hauber); "Practical Action Research in Non-Traditional Students' Senior Projects" (Elliott Lauderdale); "Obtaining the Elusive: An Innovative Degree…

  2. Workers and Workplaces: Diversity, Challenge, Excellence! The Annual National State Occupational Information Coordinating Committee (SOICC) Conference (14th, Albany, New York, July 22-24, 1991). Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR. NOICC Training Support Center.

    This document contains highlights from a conference focused on helping the United States meet current and future workplace needs in a rapidly changing economy in which occupational information and career development skills are becoming more and more crucial. The report is organized in five sections: conference highlights; selected workshop…

  3. The Magic of Technology. NECC 1993: Proceedings of the Annual National Educational Computing Conference (14th, Orlando, Florida, June 27-30, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brubaker, Thomas, A., Ed.; And Others

    These conference proceedings address the capabilities of technology in education. Papers and summaries of presentations are provided on the following topics: programs for special needs students; virtual realities; funding opportunities; videodiscs; future programs and perspectives; telecomputing; computer networks in the classroom; human…

  4. Productivity in Education: Measuring and Financing. Proceedings of NEA Committee on Educational Finance National Conference on School Finance (14th, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, March 28-30, 1971.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Committee on Educational Finance.

    This report consists of 19 conference papers, most of which focus on the current problems, issues, and trends in educational finance; while several deal with cost effectiveness and levels of productivity. Since the concept of productivity focuses on outputs, other papers are concerned with the output-oriented concepts of accountability and…

  5. Image Understanding, 14th Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, L. S.

    1983-06-01

    Technical and annual progress reports of principal investigators of image understanding are presented. Topics covered include: surface constraint from linear entents; computing visual correspondance; smoothing optical flow fields; viewframes; a connectionist model of form perception; use of difference fields in processing sensor motion; a facet approach to optic flow; special purpose automatic programming for 3-d model-based vision; MAPS: organization of a spatial data base system using imagery, terrain, and map data; segment-based stereo matching; software metrics for performance analysis of parallel hardware; scene analysis algorithms; and robot vehicles.

  6. Diffuse gamma rays with energies greater than 1 x 10 to the 14th eV observed in the Southern Hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    Suga, K.; Toyoda, Y.; Kamata, K.; Murakami, K.; Lapointe, M.

    1988-03-01

    The data of extensive air showers with a low content of muons and hadrons, observed in the period 1964-1966 at Mount Chacaltaya in Bolivia, have been reanalyzed. Arrival directions of those showers selected so as to favor small initiation depths in the atmosphere (to enhance the contribution from gamma-ray-initiated showers) reveal a 3.8 sigma peak above an expected background from the region of alpha = 180-210 deg in the band of delta = 0 to -40 deg. The integral flux of diffuse gamma-rays above 1 x 10 to the 14th eV estimated from this excess is about 6.0 x 10 to the -12th/sq cm per sec per sr. In order to explain this very high flux, the possible contribution of gamma-rays from Loop 1 as well as the inverse Compton photons produced in the 2.7 K photon background as progeny of gamma-rays from Cyg X-3-like sources. 24 references.

  7. Genotyping Yersinia pestis in Historical Plague: Evidence for Long-Term Persistence of Y. pestis in Europe from the 14th to the 17th Century

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Lisa; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Harbeck, Michaela; Thomas, Astrid; Grupe, Gisela; Projahn, Michaela; Scholz, Holger C.; Riehm, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) recovered from plague victims of the second plague pandemic (14th to 17th century), excavated from two different burial sites in Germany, and spanning a time period of more than 300 years, was characterized using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Of 30 tested skeletons 8 were positive for Yersinia pestis-specific nucleic acid, as determined by qPCR targeting the pla gene. In one individual (MP-19-II), the pla copy number in DNA extracted from tooth pulp was as high as 700 gene copies/μl, indicating severe generalized infection. All positive individuals were identical in all 16 SNP positions, separating phylogenetic branches within nodes N07_N10 (14 SNPs), N07_N08 (SNP s19) and N06_N07 (s545), and were highly similar to previously investigated plague victims from other European countries. Thus, beside the assumed continuous reintroduction of Y. pestis from central Asia in multiple waves during the second pandemic, long-term persistence of Y. pestis in Europe in a yet unknown reservoir host has also to be considered. PMID:26760973

  8. Initial deployment of the 14th Parachutist Forward Surgical Team at the beginning of the operation Sangaris in Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Malgras, Brice; Barbier, Olivier; Pasquier, Pierre; Petit, Ludovic; Polycarpe, Aristide; Rigal, Sylvain; Pons, Francois

    2015-05-01

    As part of the operation Sangaris begun in December 2013 in the Central African Republic, the 14th Parachutist Forward Surgical Team (FST) was deployed to support French troops. The FST (role 2 in the NATO classification) is a mobile surgical-medical treatment facility. The main goal of the FST is to assure the initial damage control surgery and resuscitation for combat casualties, allowing for the early evacuation to combat support hospitals (roles 3 or 4), where further treatments are completed. During the first trimester of the operation Sangaris, 42 patients were treated at FST, of whom 29 underwent surgery. Almost 50% of patients operated on were French servicemen. All admissions were emergency admissions. Orthopedic surgery represented two-thirds of surgical interventions executed as a result of the high proportion of limb injuries. Fifty percent of injuries were specifically linked to combat. Surgery in an FST is primarily dedicated to the treatment of combat casualties with hemorrhagic injuries, but additionally plays a part in supporting general medical care of French troops. Medical aid to the general civilian population is justifiable because of the presence of medical treatment facilities, even in the initial implementation of a military operation. PMID:25939107

  9. Genotyping Yersinia pestis in Historical Plague: Evidence for Long-Term Persistence of Y. pestis in Europe from the 14th to the 17th Century.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Lisa; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Harbeck, Michaela; Thomas, Astrid; Grupe, Gisela; Projahn, Michaela; Scholz, Holger C; Riehm, Julia M

    2016-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) recovered from plague victims of the second plague pandemic (14th to 17th century), excavated from two different burial sites in Germany, and spanning a time period of more than 300 years, was characterized using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Of 30 tested skeletons 8 were positive for Yersinia pestis-specific nucleic acid, as determined by qPCR targeting the pla gene. In one individual (MP-19-II), the pla copy number in DNA extracted from tooth pulp was as high as 700 gene copies/μl, indicating severe generalized infection. All positive individuals were identical in all 16 SNP positions, separating phylogenetic branches within nodes N07_N10 (14 SNPs), N07_N08 (SNP s19) and N06_N07 (s545), and were highly similar to previously investigated plague victims from other European countries. Thus, beside the assumed continuous reintroduction of Y. pestis from central Asia in multiple waves during the second pandemic, long-term persistence of Y. pestis in Europe in a yet unknown reservoir host has also to be considered. PMID:26760973

  10. Employment and Disability: Trends and Issues for the 1990's. A Report on the 14th Mary E. Switzer Memorial Seminar (Washington, D.C., May 7-9, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Leonard G., Ed.; Hansen, Carl E., Ed.

    This report on the 14th Mary E. Switzer Memorial Seminar addresses trends and prospects for employment of persons with disabilities. The monograph begins with an introduction by Leonard G. Perlman and Carl E. Hansen, a foreword by Richard S. Materson, a list of seminar sponsors and Switzer scholars, a statement on the legacy of Mary Elizabeth…

  11. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on the 14th-18th days of gestation on postnatal growth and development in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1988-11-01

    Thirty-nine pregnant adult Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to one of three exposure groups: 0, 0.75, or 1.50 Gy X-radiation total exposure. Animals were exposed from the 14th to the 18th days of gestation at 0, 0.15, or 0.30 Gy per day. At term, 15 rats were killed and morphologic analyses were completed. Twenty-four rats were allowed to deliver their offspring. On the first day of postnatal life, litters were reduced to a maximum of eight pups per litter, with equal numbers of male and female offspring wherever possible. A total of 187 pups were observed for the age of acquisition of five reflexes (air righting, surface righting, visual placing, negative geotaxis, auditory startle) and the appearance of four physiologic markers (pinna detachment, eye opening, vaginal opening, testes descent). There was significant dose-related weight reduction in term fetuses and offspring throughout the 86-day postnatal period. Postnatal growth rate (g gained/day) was unaffected. Adult offspring brain and gonadal weight and organ weight:body weight ratios were reduced. Using the PAC50 methodology, dose-related alterations occurred in the acquisition of several reflexes. All physiologic markers exhibited a dose-related delay in appearance. These results indicate that fractionated exposure to X-radiation during the fetal period in the rat results in dose-dependent alterations in postnatal growth and physiologic development. These studies are important for our understanding of the long-range effects of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation late in gestation.

  12. Passive solar technology

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, D

    1981-04-01

    The present status of passive solar technology is summarized, including passive solar heating, cooling and daylighting. The key roles of the passive solar system designer and of innovation in the building industry are described. After definitions of passive design and a summary of passive design principles are given, performance and costs of passive solar technology are discussed. Passive energy design concepts or methods are then considered in the context of the overall process by which building decisions are made to achieve the integration of new techniques into conventional design. (LEW).

  13. Fundamental studies of passivity and passivity breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D.D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M.; Song, H.; Biaggio-Rocha, S.; Searson, P.

    1991-11-01

    This report summarizes the findings of our fundamental research program on passivity and passivity breakdown. During the past three and one half years in this program (including the three year incrementally-funded grant prior to the present grant), we developed and experimentally tested various physical models for the growth and breakdown of passive films on metal surfaces. These models belong to a general class termed point defects models'' (PDMs), in which the growth and breakdown of passive films are described in terms of the movement of anion and cation vacancies.

  14. PREFACE: European Microbeam Analysis Society's 14th European Workshop on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis (EMAS 2015), Portorož, Slovenia, 3-7 May 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llovet, Xavier; Matthews, Michael B.; Čeh, Miran; Langer, Enrico; Žagar, Kristina

    2016-02-01

    This volume of the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 14th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from the 3rd to the 7th of May 2015 in the Grand Hotel Bernardin, Portorož, Slovenia. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a unique format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field.This workshop was organized in collaboration with the Jožef Stefan Institute and SDM - Slovene Society for Microscopy. The technical programme included the following topics: electron probe microanalysis, STEM and EELS, materials applications, cathodoluminescence and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and their applications. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2016 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Columbus, Ohio. The prize went to Shirin Kaboli, of the Department of Metals and Materials Engineering of McGill University (Montréal, Canada), for her talk entitled "Electron channelling contrast reconstruction with electron backscattered diffraction". The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 71 posters from 16 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada, USA, and Australia. A selection of participants with posters was invited

  15. Fundamental studies on passivity and passivity breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D.D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M.

    1993-06-01

    Using photoelectrochemical impedance and admittance spectroscopies, a fundamental and quantitative understanding of the mechanisms for the growth and breakdown of passive films on metal and alloy surfaces in contact with aqueous environments is being developed. A point defect model has been extended to explain the breakdown of passive films, leading to pitting and crack growth and thus development of damage due to localized corrosion.

  16. 77 FR 59888 - National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... Forest Service National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council will meet... Forestry Advisory Council, 201 14th Street SW., Yates Building (1 Central) MS-1151, Washington, DC...

  17. Tropospheric Passive Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The long term role of airborne/spaceborne passive remote sensing systems for tropospheric air quality research and the identification of technology advances required to improve the performance of passive remote sensing systems were discussed.

  18. Passive storage technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittel, P.

    1984-04-01

    Advances in storage technology and how passive techniques could be applied to the storage of propellants at the space station are described. The devices considered are passive orbital disconnect struts, cooled shield optimization, liftweight shields and catalytic converters.

  19. Passive storage technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, P.

    1984-01-01

    Advances in storage technology and how passive techniques could be applied to the storage of propellants at the space station are described. The devices considered are passive orbital disconnect struts, cooled shield optimization, liftweight shields and catalytic converters.

  20. Interlanguage Passive Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simargool, Nirada

    2008-01-01

    Because the appearance of the passive construction varies cross linguistically, differences exist in the interlanguage (IL) passives attempted by learners of English. One such difference is the widely studied IL pseudo passive, as in "*new cars must keep inside" produced by Chinese speakers. The belief that this is a reflection of L1 language…

  1. Historical flood data series of Eastern Spanish Coast (14th-20th centuries). Improving identification of climatic patterns and human factors of flood events from primary documentary sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberola, Armando; Barriendos, Mariano; Gil-Guirado, Salvador; Pérez-Morales, Alfredo; Balasch, Carles; Castelltort, Xavier; Mazón, Jordi; Pino, David; Lluís Ruiz-Bellet, Josep; Tuset, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Historical flood data series of Eastern Spanish Coast (14th-20th centuries). Improving identification of climatic patterns and human factors of flood events from primary documentary sources Armando Alberola, Barriendos, M., Gil-Guirado, S., Pérez Morales, A., Balasch, C., Castelltort, X., Mazón, J., Pino, D., Ruiz-Bellet, J.L., Tuset, J. Historical flood events in eastern spanish coast have been studied by different research groups and projects. Complexity of flood processes, involving atmospheric, surface and human factors, is not easily understandable when long time series are required. Present analysis from PREDIFLOOD Project Consortium defines a new step of flood event databases: Improved access to primary (documentary) and secondary (bibliographical) sources, data collection for all possible locations where floods are detected, and improved system of classification (Barriendos et al., 2014). A first analysis is applied to 8 selected flood series. Long chronologies from PREDIFLOOD Project for Catalonia region (Girona, Barcelona, Tarragona, Lleida, Tortosa). In addition, to cover all sector of spanish mediterranean coast, we introduce Valencia city in Turia River basin. South Eastern sector is cover with Murcia and Caravaca cities, Segura River basin. Extension of area under study required contributions of research teams experienced in work of documentary primary sources (Alberola, 2006; Gil-Guirado, 2013). Flood frequency analysis for long scale periods show natural climatic oscillations into so-called Little Ice Age. There are general patterns, affecting most of basins, but also some local anomalies or singularities. To explain these differences and analogies it is not enough to use purely climatic factors. In this way, we analyze human factors that have been able to influence the variability of floods along last 6 centuries (demography, hydraulic infrastructures, urban development...). This approach improves strongly understanding of mechanisms producing

  2. Sources and distribution of organic compounds using passive samplers in Lake Mead national recreation area, Nevada and Arizona, and their implications for potential effects on aquatic biota.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Michael R; Alvarez, David A; Goodbred, Steven L; Leiker, Thomas J; Patiño, Reynaldo

    2010-01-01

    The delineation of lateral and vertical gradients of organic contaminants in lakes is hampered by low concentrationsand nondetection of many organic compounds in water. Passive samplers (semipermeable membrane devices [SPMDs] and polar organic chemical integrative samplers [POCIS]) are well suited for assessing gradients because they can detect synthetic organic compounds (SOCs) at pg L(-1) concentrations. Semi-permeable membrane devices and POCIS were deployed in Lake Mead, at two sites in Las Vegas Wash, at four sites across Lake Mead, and in the Colorado River downstream from Hoover Dam. Concentrations of hydrophobic SOCs were highest in Las Vegas Wash downstream from waste water and urban inputs and at 8 m depth in Las Vegas Bay (LVB) where Las Vegas Wash enters Lake Mead. The distribution of hydrophobic SOCs showed a lateral distribution across 10 km of Lake Mead from LVB to Boulder Basin. To assess possible vertical gradient SOCs, SPMDs were deployed at 4-m intervals in 18 m of water in LVB. Fragrances and legacy SOCs were found at the greatest concentrations at the deepest depth. The vertical gradient of SOCs indicated that contaminants were generally confined to within 6 m of the lake bottom during the deployment interval. The high SOC concentrations, warmer water temperatures, and higher total dissolved solids concentrations at depth are indicative of a plume of Las Vegas Wash water moving along the lake bottom. The lateral and vertical distribution of SOCs is discussed in the context of other studies that have shown impaired health of fish exposed to SOCs. PMID:20830903

  3. Transient Astronomical Events as Inspiration Sources of Medieval Art. III: the 13th and 14th Centuries, and the case of the French "Ordre de L'Étoile"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bònoli, F.; Incerti, M.; Polcaro, V. F.

    2015-05-01

    Going ahead in our long-term project of analysis of the role of transient astronomical events as inspirational sources of medieval art, we extend our interest towards the 13th and 14th centuries, epochs of strong changes either in society, art or science. It is our aim to verify if the relationship we found in the 11th century between the number of artworks where a star is represented, and astonishing transient astronomical events was, in this new situation, still valid. Moreover, in order to check the influence of astronomical events on the 14th-century social and cultural environment, we focus on the case of the Ordre de l'Étoile, a chivalrous society founded by John II of France (Jan le Bon, roi de France) at the end of 1351, looking in ancient chronicles for some relevant contemporary astronomical event as an inspiration source for the "star" in the Order's name, in the garb of its knights and in its motto.

  4. Passive magnetic bearing configurations

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    2011-01-25

    A journal bearing provides vertical and radial stability to a rotor of a passive magnetic bearing system when the rotor is not rotating and when it is rotating. In the passive magnetic bearing system, the rotor has a vertical axis of rotation. Without the journal bearing, the rotor is vertically and radially unstable when stationary, and is vertically stable and radially unstable when rotating.

  5. Precision timekeeping using a small passive hydrogen maser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walls, F. L.; Howe, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The timekeeping ability of a prototype passive hydrogen maser which is a factor of 5 smaller in size, weight, and cost than any previously designed, was compared to UTC (NBS) based on 10 cesium frequency standards including a large primary standard, NBS-4. The frequency of the prototype was monitored as a function of source pressure, cavity temperature, microwave power, modulation width, and magnetic field. Based on these measurements, a frequency stability of better than 6 x 10 to the -15 power was expected, implying a timekeeping ability of order 0.5 ns/day. Measurements vs UTC(NBS) indicate a joint timekeeping a stability of order 1.2 ns/day. Simultaneous measurements made between NBS-4, UTC(6600), and the small passive me maser show peak to peak time variations of the small maser vs UTC(6600) was 10 ns for the full 32 days if the average rate and drift are considered. Frequency stability of the small prototype vs UTC (NBS) was to 1.1 x 10 to the -14th power for tau = 1 to 8 days.

  6. Passive solar construction handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-08-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  7. Annual Conference on Composites and Advanced Ceramic Materials, 14th, Cocoa Beach, FL, Jan. 14-17, 1990, Collection of Papers. Parts 1 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Attention is given to such topics as national goals in engineering ceramics, microstructural effects on the mechanical properties of monolithic ceramics, whisker-reinforced composites, and reaction-based processing. Processing-microstructure-property relations in fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites are also considered.

  8. 75 FR 56502 - National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection AGENCY.... App. 2, that the National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI) will hold a... Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection, USDA, FSIS, 14th & Independence Avenue, SW., Room 1180,...

  9. International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, 14th, San Jose, Costa Rica, April 23-30, 1980, Proceedings. Volumes 1, 2 and 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Papers are presented on remote sensing applications in resource monitoring and management, data classification and modeling procedures, and the use of remote sensing techniques in developing nations. The subjects of land use/land cover, soil mapping, crop identification, mapping of geological resources, renewable resource analysis, and oceanographic applications are discussed. Papers from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, the Syrian Arab Republic, the People's Republic of China, the Phillipines, Italy, Upper Volta and the United States are included.

  10. International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, 14th, San Jose, Costa Rica, April 23-30, 1980, Proceedings. Volumes 1, 2 & 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Papers are presented on remote sensing applications in resource monitoring and management, data classification and modeling procedures, and the use of remote sensing techniques in developing nations. The subjects of land use/land cover, soil mapping, crop identification, mapping of geological resources, renewable resource analysis, and oceanographic applications are discussed. Papers from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, the Syrian Arab Republic, the People's Republic of China, the Phillipines, Italy, Upper Volta and the United States are included.

  11. Immunizations: Active vs. Passive

    MedlinePlus

    ... they’ve been exposed. For example, the passive rabies immunization (rabies immune globulin) is commonly used after a certain ... of your pediatrician. There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual ...

  12. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

  13. AIAA International Communication Satellite Systems Conference and Exhibit, 14th, Washington, DC, Mar. 22-26, 1992, Technical Papers. Pts. 1-3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The present conference on international communication satellite systems discusses GEO launch vehicle development, military Satcom systems, GEO mobile Satcom systems, advanced transponder technology, and digital network architecture. Attention is given to digital network architecture, the optical Satcom system, emerging launch alternatives, military and government Satcom systems, satellite communications developments in newly industrialized nations, launch options to nongeostationary orbits, and data relay satellite technology. Topics addressed include LEO satellite systems, earth terminal technology, personal communications, high data rate links via satellite, Italsat, antenna systems, Intelsat system and service development, new spacecraft system concepts, orbit/spectrum allocation and use, and ACTS technology. Also discussed are array antenna technology, VSAT and other small terminal systems, orbits, propagation, onboard satellite switching, reflector antenna technology, and panel small communication satellite systems.

  14. Forecasting the impact of storm waves and sea-level rise on Midway Atoll and Laysan Island within the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument—a comparison of passive versus dynamic inundation models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Berkowitz, Paul; Reynolds, Michelle H.; Logan, Joshua B.

    2013-01-01

    Two inundation events in 2011 underscored the potential for elevated water levels to damage infrastructure and affect terrestrial ecosystems on the low-lying Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. The goal of this study was to compare passive "bathtub" inundation models based on geographic information systems (GIS) to those that include dynamic water levels caused by wave-induced set-up and run-up for two end-member island morphologies: Midway, a classic atoll with islands on the shallow (2-8 m) atoll rim and a deep, central lagoon; and Laysan, which is characterized by a deep (20-30 m) atoll rim and an island at the center of the atoll. Vulnerability to elevated water levels was assessed using hindcast wind and wave data to drive coupled physics-based numerical wave, current, and water-level models for the atolls. The resulting model data were then used to compute run-up elevations using a parametric run-up equation under both present conditions and future sea-level-rise scenarios. In both geomorphologies, wave heights and wavelengths adjacent to the island shorelines increased more than three times and four times, respectively, with increasing values of sea-level rise, as more deep-water wave energy could propagate over the atoll rim and larger wind-driven waves could develop on the atoll. Although these increases in water depth resulted in decreased set-up along the islands’ shorelines, the larger wave heights and longer wavelengths due to sea-level rise increased the resulting wave-induced run-up. Run-up values were spatially heterogeneous and dependent on the direction of incident wave direction, bathymetry, and island configuration. Island inundation was modeled to increase substantially when wave-driven effects were included, suggesting that inundation and impacts to infrastructure and terrestrial habitats will occur at lower values of predicted sea-level rise, and thus sooner in the 21st century, than suggested

  15. Passive Wake Vortex Control

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, J M

    2001-10-18

    The collapse of the Soviet Union and ending of the Cold War brought about many significant changes in military submarine operations. The enemies that the US Navy faces today and in the future will not likely be superpowers armed with nuclear submarines, but rather smaller, rogue nations employing cheaper diesel/electric submarines with advanced air-independent propulsion systems. Unlike Cold War submarine operations, which occurred in deep-water environments, future submarine conflicts are anticipated to occur in shallow, littoral regions that are complex and noisy. Consequently, non-acoustic signatures will become increasingly important and the submarine stealth technology designed for deep-water operations may not be effective in these environments. One such non-acoustic signature is the surface detection of a submarine's trailing vortex wake. If a submarine runs in a slightly buoyant condition, its diving planes must be inclined at a negative angle of attack to generate sufficient downforce, which keeps the submarine from rising to the surface. As a result, the diving planes produce a pair of counter-rotating trailing vortices that propagate to the water surface. In previous deep-water operations, this was not an issue since the submarines could dive deep enough so that the vortex pair became incoherent before it reached the water surface. However, in shallow, littoral environments, submarines do not have the option of diving deep and, hence, the vortex pair can rise to the surface and leave a distinct signature that might be detectable by synthetic aperture radar. Such detection would jeopardize not only the mission of the submarine, but also the lives of military personnel on board. There has been another attempt to solve this problem and reduce the intensity of trailing vortices in the wakes of military submarines. The research of Quackenbush et al. over the past few years has been directed towards an idea called ''vortex leveraging.'' This active concept

  16. Wireless passive radiation sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G; Limmer, Steven J

    2013-12-03

    A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.

  17. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1990-06-19

    A method is described for passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  18. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    1990-01-01

    A method of passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  19. Ethnicity, Race, and Nationality in Education: A Global Perspective. The Rutgers Invitational Symposium on Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimahara, N. Ken, Ed.; Holowinsky, Ivan Z., Ed.; Tomlinson-Clarke, Saundra, Ed.

    This volume contains 12 papers originally presented at the 14th Rutgers Invitational Symposium on Education in 1999. The symposium explored contemporary issues of ethnic, cultural, and national identities and their influence on the social construction of identity. Papers include: (1) "Reconceptualizing Ethnicity and Educational Achievement"…

  20. Passive Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    Magnetic bearing for limited rotation devices requires no feedback control system to sense and correct shaft position. Passive Magnetic Torsion Bearing requires no power supply and has no rubbing parts. Torsion wire restrains against axial instability. Magnetic flux geometry chosen to assure lateral stability with radial restoring force that maintains alignment.

  1. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  2. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, David

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  3. 14th Annual ALS Users' Association meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Art

    2001-11-29

    Sponsored by the Users' Executive Committee (UEC) and spread over three days from October 15-17, the fourteen annual ALS Users' Association Meeting featured an exceptional program with science as the main theme. While the first day was reserved for the traditional facility and Washington reports and for science highlights, the following two days, devoted to several workshops covering topics from theory to detectors, new experimental facilities, and forefront science, were strong draws. As a result, it should not be surprising that the number of registered attendees jumped to a record level of 352, more than 100 above the typical attendance in recent years. The successful commissioning of the long-awaited superconducting bend magnets, or superbends, in the ALS storage-ring lattice just before the meeting opened also helped stimulate interest.

  4. 14th international symposium on molecular beams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This report discusses research being conducted with molecular beams. The general topic areas are as follows: Clusters I; reaction dynamics; atomic and molecular spectroscopy; clusters II; new techniques; photodissociation & dynamics; and surfaces.

  5. 14th international symposium on molecular beams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted with molecular beams. The general topic areas are as follows: Clusters I; reaction dynamics; atomic and molecular spectroscopy; clusters II; new techniques; photodissociation dynamics; and surfaces.

  6. The hospital microbiome project: meeting report for the UK science and innovation network UK-USA workshop ‘beating the superbugs: hospital microbiome studies for tackling antimicrobial resistance’, October 14th 2013

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The UK Science and Innovation Network UK-USA workshop ‘Beating the Superbugs: Hospital Microbiome Studies for tackling Antimicrobial Resistance’ was held on October 14th 2013 at the UK Department of Health, London. The workshop was designed to promote US-UK collaboration on hospital microbiome studies to add a new facet to our collective understanding of antimicrobial resistance. The assembled researchers debated the importance of the hospital microbial community in transmission of disease and as a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes, and discussed methodologies, hypotheses, and priorities. A number of complementary approaches were explored, although the importance of the built environment microbiome in disease transmission was not universally accepted. Current whole genome epidemiological methods are being pioneered in the UK and the benefits of moving to community analysis are not necessarily obvious to the pioneers; however, rapid progress in other areas of microbiology suggest to some researchers that hospital microbiome studies will be exceptionally fruitful even in the short term. Collaborative studies will recombine different strengths to tackle the international problems of antimicrobial resistance and hospital and healthcare associated infections.

  7. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE): an underestimated risk…still: report of the 14th annual meeting of the International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE).

    PubMed

    Kunze, Ursula

    2012-06-01

    Today, the risk of getting tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is still underestimated in many parts of Europe and worldwide. Therefore, the 14th meeting of the International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE) - a group of neurologists, general practitioners, clinicians, travel physicians, virologists, pediatricians, and epidemiologists - was held under the title "Tick-borne encephalitis: an underestimated risk…still". Among the discussed issues were: TBE, an underestimated risk in children, a case report in two Dutch travelers, the very emotional report of a tick victim, an overview of the epidemiological situation, investigations to detect new TBE cases in Italy, TBE virus (TBEV) strains circulation in Northern Europe, TBE Program of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), efforts to increase the TBE vaccination rate in the Czech Republic, positioning statement of the World Health Organization (WHO), and TBE in dogs. To answer the question raised above: Yes, the risk of getting TBE is underestimated in children and adults, because awareness is still too low. It is still underestimated in several areas of Europe, where, for a lack of human cases, TBEV is thought to be absent. It is underestimated in travelers, because they still do not know enough about the risk, and diagnostic awareness in non-endemic countries is still low. PMID:22765977

  8. Passivated niobium cavities

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Hjorvarsson, Bjorgvin; Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2006-12-19

    A niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients is provided by treating a niobium cavity through a process comprising: 1) removing surface oxides by plasma etching or a similar process; 2) removing hydrogen or other gases absorbed in the bulk niobium by high temperature treatment of the cavity under ultra high vacuum to achieve hydrogen outgassing; and 3) assuring the long term chemical stability of the niobium cavity by applying a passivating layer of a superconducting material having a superconducting transition temperature higher than niobium thereby reducing losses from electron (cooper pair) scattering in the near surface region of the interior of the niobium cavity. According to a preferred embodiment, the passivating layer comprises niobium nitride (NbN) applied by reactive sputtering.

  9. Passive broadband acoustic thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anosov, A. A.; Belyaev, R. V.; Klin'shov, V. V.; Mansfel'd, A. D.; Subochev, P. V.

    2016-04-01

    The 1D internal (core) temperature profiles for the model object (plasticine) and the human hand are reconstructed using the passive acoustothermometric broadband probing data. Thermal acoustic radiation is detected by a broadband (0.8-3.5 MHz) acoustic radiometer. The temperature distribution is reconstructed using a priori information corresponding to the experimental conditions. The temperature distribution for the heated model object is assumed to be monotonic. For the hand, we assume that the temperature distribution satisfies the heat-conduction equation taking into account the blood flow. The average error of reconstruction determined for plasticine from the results of independent temperature measurements is 0.6 K for a measuring time of 25 s. The reconstructed value of the core temperature of the hand (36°C) generally corresponds to physiological data. The obtained results make it possible to use passive broadband acoustic probing for measuring the core temperatures in medical procedures associated with heating of human organism tissues.

  10. Passive fetal monitoring sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Hall, Earl T. (Inventor); Baker, Donald A. (Inventor); Bryant, Timothy D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An ambulatory, passive sensor for use in a fetal monitoring system is discussed. The invention is comprised of a piezoelectric polymer film, combined with a metallic mounting plate fastened to a belt, and electrically connected to a signal processing unit by means of a shielded cable. The purpose of the sensor is to receive pressure pulses emitted by a fetus inside an expectant mother. Additionally, the monitor will filter out pressure pulses arising from other sources, such as the maternal heart.

  11. Passively actuated valve

    SciTech Connect

    Modro, S. Michael; Ougouag, Abderrafi M.

    2005-09-20

    A passively actuated valve for isolating a high pressure zone from a low pressure zone and discontinuing the isolation when the pressure in the high pressure zone drops below a preset threshold. If the pressure in the high pressure zone drops below the preset threshold, the valve opens and allows flow from the high pressure zone to the low pressure zone. The valve remains open allowing pressure equalization and back-flow should a pressure inversion between the two pressure zone occur.

  12. Passive fetal monitoring sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Hall, Earl T.; Baker, Donald A.; Bryant, Timothy D.

    1992-08-01

    An ambulatory, passive sensor for use in a fetal monitoring system is discussed. The invention is comprised of a piezoelectric polymer film, combined with a metallic mounting plate fastened to a belt, and electrically connected to a signal processing unit by means of a shielded cable. The purpose of the sensor is to receive pressure pulses emitted by a fetus inside an expectant mother. Additionally, the monitor will filter out pressure pulses arising from other sources, such as the maternal heart.

  13. Calibration of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Passive-Active Neutron Drum Shuffler for Measurement of Highly Enriched Uranium in Oxides within DOE-STD-3013-2000 Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, M E; O'Connell, W J

    2005-06-03

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses the LLNL passive-active neutron drum (PAN) shuffler (Canberra Model JCC-92) for accountability measurement of highly enriched uranium (HEU) oxide and HEU in mixed uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) oxide. In June 2002, at the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Institute of Nuclear Material Management, LLNL reported on an extensive effort to calibrate this shuffler, based on standards measurements and extensive simulations, for HEU oxides and mixed U-Pu oxides in thin-walled primary and secondary containers. In August 2002, LLNL began to also use DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers for HEU oxide and mixed U-Pu oxide. These DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers are comprised of a stainless steel convenience can enclosed in welded stainless steel primary and secondary containers. Compared to the double thin-walled containers, the DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers have substantially thicker walls, and the density of materials in these containers was found to extend over a greater range (1.35 g/cm{sup 3} to 4.62 g/cm{sup 3}) than foreseen for the double thin-walled containers. Further, the DOE-STD-3013-2000 Standard allows for oxides containing at least 30 wt% Pu plus U whereas the calibration algorithms for thin-walled containers were derived for virtually pure HEU or mixed U-Pu oxides. An initial series of Monte Carlo simulations of the PAN shuffler response to given quantities of HEU oxide and mixed U-Pu oxide in DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers was generated and compared with the response predicted by the calibration algorithms for thin-walled containers. Results showed a decrease on the order of 10% in the count rate, and hence a decrease in the calculated U mass for measured unknowns, with some varying trends versus U mass. Therefore a decision was made to develop a calibration algorithm for the PAN shuffler unique to the DOE-STD-3013-2000 container. This paper describes that effort and selected unknown item measurement results.

  14. Passive Time Coincidence Measurements with HEU Oxide Fuel Pins

    SciTech Connect

    McConchie, Seth M; Hausladen, Paul; Mihalczo, John T

    2008-01-01

    Passive time coincidence measurements have been performed on highly enriched uranium (HEU) oxide fuel pins at the Idaho National Laboratory Power Burst Facility. These experiments evaluate HEU detection capability using passive coincidence counting when utilizing moderated 3He tubes. Data acquisition was performed with the Nuclear Material Identification System (NMIS) to calculate the neutron coincidence time distributions. The amounts of HEU measured were 1 kg, 4 kg, and 8 kg in sealed 55-gallon drums. Data collected with the 3He tubes also include passive measurement of 31 kg of depleted uranium (DU) in order to determine the ability to distinguish HEU from DU. This paper presents results from the measurements.

  15. National Faculty Salary Survey by Discipline and Rank in Private Four-Year Colleges and Universities, 1995-96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachian State Univ., Boone, NC.

    This volume presents data from the 14th annual survey of faculty salaries by discipline and rank in the nation's private colleges and universities. Three hundred and thirty-one institutions participated in the survey. Data are presented by 55 disciplines and major fields and for institutions with and without collective bargaining. A final table…

  16. Fundamental studies of passivity and passivity breakdown. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D.D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M.; Song, H.; Biaggio-Rocha, S.; Searson, P.

    1991-11-01

    This report summarizes the findings of our fundamental research program on passivity and passivity breakdown. During the past three and one half years in this program (including the three year incrementally-funded grant prior to the present grant), we developed and experimentally tested various physical models for the growth and breakdown of passive films on metal surfaces. These models belong to a general class termed ``point defects models`` (PDMs), in which the growth and breakdown of passive films are described in terms of the movement of anion and cation vacancies.

  17. Passive Immunization Against Poliomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldo, Charles R.

    2005-01-01

    Poliomyelitis has gone from being one of the worst scourges of the 20th century to nearing eradication in the 21st. This success is well known to be attributable to the Salk inactivated and Sabin attenuated poliovirus vaccines. However, before introduction of these vaccines, William McDowall Hammon of the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health led the first major breakthrough in prevention of the disease by using passive immunization in one of the earliest double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. This study provided the first evidence that antibodies to poliovirus could prevent the disease in humans. PMID:15855454

  18. Passive propellant system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, D. A.; Regnier, W. W.; Jacobs, V. L. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A passive propellant acquisition and feed system is disclosed which acquires and feeds gas-free propellant in low or zero-g environments during orbital maneuvers and retains this propellant under high axially directed acceleration such as may be experienced during launch of a space vehicle and orbit-to-orbit transfer is described. The propellant system includes a dual compartment propellant tank with independent surface tension acquisition channels in each compartment to provide gas-free flow of pressurized liquid propellant from one compartment to the other in one direction only.

  19. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph located in National Park Service, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original photograph located in National Park Service, U.S.S. Arizona Memorial, 14th Naval District Photograph Collection), PHOG No. P.H. 3470-42. U.S. Navy photograph, August 1942. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE HOSPITAL POINT POWER PLANT (FACILITY 177). - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Bombproof Facilities, Various locations throughout base, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph located in National Park Service, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original photograph located in National Park Service, U.S.S. Arizona Memorial, 14th Naval District Photograph Collection), PHOG No. P.H. 3309-42. U.S. Navy photograph, 1942. BEGINNING CONSTRUCTION ON THE BOMBPROOF POWER PLANT (FACILITY 177) AT HOSPITAL POINT. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Bombproof Facilities, Various locations throughout base, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. Passive bistatic radar analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hagan, Daniel W.; Kuschel, H.; Schiller, Joachim

    2009-06-01

    Passive Bistatic Radar (PBR) research is at its zenith with several notable PBR systems currently operational, or available for deployment. Such PBRs include the Manastash Ridge Radar (MRR) developed for and by academia; Silent Sentry developed as a commercial concern by Lockheed Martin; and Homeland Alerter (HA100) also a commercial system developed by Thales. However at present, despite the existence of numerous PBR prototypes, take up of commercial passive radar technology remains slow. This is due in part to technology immaturity, in part to politics, and particularly due to the fact that monostatic radars perform so well. If PBRs are to enjoy longevity as a viable technology then it is imperative that they address certain niche application areas, with the aforementioned MRR being one prime example of this. The focus of this paper will be an analysis of a PBR system that utilised FM radio signals of opportunity to detect aircraft targets with an RCS generally not lower than 20 m2. The paper will demonstrate the theoretical detection coverage of an FM based PBR operating in a severe interference environment.

  2. Passive field reflectance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Christian; Schinca, Daniel C.; Tocho, Jorge O.; Videla, Fabian

    2008-10-01

    The results of reflectance measurements performed with a three-band passive radiometer with independent channels for solar irradiance reference are presented. Comparative operation between the traditional method that uses downward-looking field and reference white panel measurements and the new approach involving duplicated downward- and upward-looking spectral channels (each latter one with its own diffuser) is analyzed. The results indicate that the latter method performs in very good agreement with the standard method and is more suitable for passive sensors under rapidly changing atmospheric conditions (such as clouds, dust, mist, smog and other scatterers), since a more reliable synchronous recording of reference and incident light is achieved. Besides, having separate channels for the reference and the signal allows a better balancing of gains in the amplifiers for each spectral channel. We show the results obtained in the determination of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) corresponding to the period 2004-2007 field experiments concerning weed detection in soybean stubbles and fertilizer level assessment in wheat. The method may be used to refine sensor-based nitrogen fertilizer rate recommendations and to determine suitable zones for herbicide applications.

  3. Volcanic passive margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geoffroy, Laurent

    2005-12-01

    Compared to non-volcanic ones, volcanic passive margins mark continental break-up over a hotter mantle, probably subject to small-scale convection. They present distinctive genetic and structural features. High-rate extension of the lithosphere is associated with catastrophic mantle melting responsible for the accretion of a thick igneous crust. Distinctive structural features of volcanic margins are syn-magmatic and continentward-dipping crustal faults accommodating the seaward flexure of the igneous crust. Volcanic margins present along-axis a magmatic and tectonic segmentation with wavelength similar to adjacent slow-spreading ridges. Their 3D organisation suggests a connection between loci of mantle melting at depths and zones of strain concentration within the lithosphere. Break-up would start and propagate from localized thermally-softened lithospheric zones. These 'soft points' could be localized over small-scale convection cells found at the bottom of the lithosphere, where adiabatic mantle melting would specifically occur. The particular structure of the brittle crust at volcanic passive margins could be interpreted by active and sudden oceanward flow of both the unstable hot mantle and the ductile part of the lithosphere during the break-up stage. To cite this article: L. Geoffroy, C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  4. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOEpatents

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  5. Mechanical passive logic module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay; Caulfield, H. John

    2015-02-01

    Nothing from nothing gives simple simile, but something from nothing is an interesting and challenging task. Adolf Lohmann once proposed 'do nothing machine' in optics, which only copies input to output. Passive logic module (PALM) is a special type of 'do nothing machine' which can converts inputs into one of 16 possible binary outputs. This logic module is not like the conventional irreversible one. It is a simple type of reversible Turing machine. In this manuscript we discussed and demonstrated PALM using mechanical movement of plane mirrors. Also we discussed the theoretical model of micro electro mechanical system (MEMS) based PALM in this manuscript. It may have several valuable properties such as passive operation (no need for nonlinear elements as other logic device require) and modular logic (one device implementing any Boolean logic function with simple internal changes). The result is obtained from the demonstration by only looking up the output. No calculation is required to get the result. Not only that, PALM is a simple type of the famous 'billiard ball machine', which also discussed in this manuscript.

  6. Passive load control for large wind turbines.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwill, Thomas D.

    2010-05-01

    Wind energy research activities at Sandia National Laboratories focus on developing large rotors that are lighter and more cost-effective than those designed with current technologies. Because gravity scales as the cube of the blade length, gravity loads become a constraining design factor for very large blades. Efforts to passively reduce turbulent loading has shown significant potential to reduce blade weight and capture more energy. Research in passive load reduction for wind turbines began at Sandia in the late 1990's and has moved from analytical studies to blade applications. This paper discusses the test results of two Sandia prototype research blades that incorporate load reduction techniques. The TX-100 is a 9-m long blade that induces bend-twist coupling with the use of off-axis carbon in the skin. The STAR blade is a 27-m long blade that induces bend-twist coupling by sweeping the blade in a geometric fashion.

  7. Passive-solar construction handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-02-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

  8. End-of-Mission Passivation: Successes and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Matney, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The passivation of spacecraft and launch vehicle orbital stages at end-of-mission has been a principal space debris mitigation measure world-wide since the 1980 s. Space vehicle passivation includes the removal of stored energies, especially those associated with propulsion and electrical power systems. Prior to 2007 the breakup of non-functioning, non-passivated space vehicles was the major source of hazardous debris in Earth orbit. The United Nations and the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee have both included passivation in their formal space debris mitigation guidelines. This often simple countermeasure has been adopted by many spacefaring countries and organizations and has undoubtedly prevented numerous major satellite breakups. For some existing space vehicle designs, passivation requires changes in hardware, software, and/or operational procedures. Questions about the permissible degree of passivation for both current and future space vehicles have arisen and are addressed herein. An important element to be considered is the potentially long period in which the space vehicle will remain in orbit, i.e., up to 25 years after mission termination in LEO and for centuries in orbits above LEO. Finally, the issue of passivation of space vehicles which have failed prematurely is addressed.

  9. Passive detection of vehicle loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Troy R.; Salvaggio, Carl; Faulring, Jason W.; Salvaggio, Philip S.; McKeown, Donald M.; Garrett, Alfred J.; Coleman, David H.; Koffman, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  10. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  11. Commentary on "Capturing the Evasive Passive"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillo-Martin, Diane; Snyder, William

    2009-01-01

    Passives has been the focus of much research in language acquisition since the 1970s. It has been clear from this research that young children seldom produce passives spontaneously, particularly "long" or "full" passives with a by-phrase; and they usually perform poorly on experimental tests of the comprehension of passives, especially passives of…

  12. Passive Ball Capture Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cloyd, Richard A. (Inventor); Bryan, Thomas C. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A passive ball capture joint has a sleeve with a plurality of bores distributed about a circumference thereof and formed therethrough at an acute angle relative to the sleeve's longitudinal axis. A spring-loaded retainer is slidingly fitted in each bore and is biased such that, if allowed, will extend at least partially into the sleeve to retain a ball therein. A ring, rotatably mounted about the bores, has an interior wall defining a plurality of shaped races that bear against the spring-loaded retainers. A mechanized rotational force producer is coupled to the ring. The ring can be rotated from a first position (that presses the retainers into the sleeve to lock the ball in place) to a second position (that allows the retainers to springback out of the sleeve to release the ball).

  13. Passive magnetic bearing system

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    2014-09-02

    An axial stabilizer for the rotor of a magnetic bearing provides external control of stiffness through switching in external inductances. External control also allows the stabilizer to become a part of a passive/active magnetic bearing system that requires no external source of power and no position sensor. Stabilizers for displacements transverse to the axis of rotation are provided that require only a single cylindrical Halbach array in its operation, and thus are especially suited for use in high rotation speed applications, such as flywheel energy storage systems. The elimination of the need of an inner cylindrical array solves the difficult mechanical problem of supplying support against centrifugal forces for the magnets of that array. Compensation is provided for the temperature variation of the strength of the magnetic fields of the permanent magnets in the levitating magnet arrays.

  14. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

    1994-01-25

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

  15. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, Paul F.; Cooke, Franklin E.; Fitch, James R.

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

  16. Highlights from the 14th St Gallen International Breast Cancer Conference 2015 in Vienna: Dealing with classification, prognostication, and prediction refinement to personalize the treatment of patients with early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Angela; Criscitiello, Carmen; Curigliano, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The refinement of the classification, the risk of relapse and the prediction of response to multidisciplinary treatment for early breast cancer has been the major theme of the 14th St Gallen International Breast Cancer Consensus Conference 2015. The meeting, held in Vienna, assembled 3500–4000 participants from 134 countries worldwide. It culminated, on the final day, with the International Consensus Session, delivered by 40–50 of the world’s most experienced opinion leaders in the field of breast cancer treatment. The panelist addressed the “semantic” classification of breast cancer subtypes by pathology-based biomarkers (e.g. estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER2) vs genomic classifiers. They also refined the biomarker prognostication dissecting the impact of the various gene signatures and pathologic variables in predicting the outcome of patients with early breast cancer in terms of early and late relapse. Finally they addressed the challenges stemming from the intra- and inter-observer variability in the assessment of pathologic variables and the role of gene signatures for the prediction of response to specific therapeutic approach such as endocrine therapy and chemotherapy and for personalizing local treatment of patients with early breast cancer. The vast majority of the questions asked during the consensus were about controversial issues. The opinion of the panel members has been used to implement guidance for treatment choice. This is the unique feature of the St. Gallen Consensus, ensuring that the resulting recommendations will take due cognizance of the variable resource limitations in different countries. Information derived from evidence based medicine and large meta-analyses is of obvious and enormous value. The weakness of this approach is that it gives particular weight to older trials (which have accumulated more event endpoints) and is frequently unable to collect sufficient detail on the patients and tumors in the trials

  17. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

  18. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1994-01-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

  19. Antireflection/Passivation Step For Silicon Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crotty, Gerald T.; Kachare, Akaram H.; Daud, Taher

    1988-01-01

    New process excludes usual silicon oxide passivation. Changes in principal electrical parameters during two kinds of processing suggest antireflection treatment almost as effective as oxide treatment in passivating cells. Does so without disadvantages of SiOx passivation.

  20. Passive sensor systems for nuclear material monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M.L.; Boatner, L.A.; Holcomb, D.E.; McElhaney, S.A.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Muhs, J.D.; Roberts, M.R.; Hill, N.W.

    1993-09-01

    Passive fiber optic sensor systems capable of confirming the presence of special nuclear materials in storage or process facilities are being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These sensors provide completely passive, remote measurement capability. No power supplies, amplifiers, or other active components that could degrade system reliability are required at the sensor location. ORNL, through its research programs in scintillator materials, has developed a variety of materials for use in alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and neutron-sensitive scintillator detectors. In addition to sensors for measuring radiation flux, new sensor materials have been developed which are capable of measuring weight, temperature, and source location. An example of a passive sensor for temperature measurement is the combination of a thermophosphor (e.g., rare-earth activated Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) with {sup 6}LiF (95% {sup 6}Li). This combination results in a new class of scintillators for thermal neutrons that absorb energy from the radiation particles and remit the energy as a light pulse, the decay rate of which, over a specified temperature range, is temperature dependent. Other passive sensors being developed include pressure-sensitive triboluminescent materials, weight-sensitive silicone rubber fibers, scintillating fibers, and other materials for gamma and neutron detection. The light from the scintillator materials of each sensor would be sent through optical fibers to a monitoring station, where the attribute quantity could be measured and compared with previously recorded emission levels. Confirmatory measurement applications of these technologies are being evaluated to reduce the effort, costs, and employee exposures associated with inventorying stockpiles of highly enriched uranium at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant.

  1. Passive-solar greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Our project objective was to design, construct, and operate a commercialized (16' x 50') passive, solar greenhouse. The structure was originally intended as a vegetable forcing facility to produce vegetable crops in the off-season. Building and size constraints and economic considerations convinced us to use the greenhouse for producing bedding plants and vegetable starts in the spring, high value vegetables (tomatoes, cucumbers) in the fall and forced bulbs in the winter. This crop sequence allows us to use the greenhouse all year without additional heat as the crops are adopted to the temperature regime of the greenhouse during each particular season. In our first season, the greenhouse performed beautifully. The lowest temperature recorded was 38/sup 0/F after 4 cold, cloudy days in February. The production of bedding plants has allowed us to diversify our products and the early transplants we produced were a great asset to our vegetable farming operation. Although construction cost (4.57 sq. ft.) is higher than that of a conventional polyethylene-covered, quonset-type greenhouse (approx. $1.92 sq. ft.), our annual operating cost is cheaper than that of a conventional greenhouse (0.49 cents sq. ft. versus 0.67 cents sq. ft.) due to a longer usable lifetime of the structure and the elimination of heating costs. Our structure has been toured by interested individuals, school and farm groups. We plan to publicize the structure and its advantages by promoting more visits to the site.

  2. Passive Vaporizing Heat Sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowles, TImothy R.; Ashford, Victor A.; Carpenter, Michael G.; Bier, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    A passive vaporizing heat sink has been developed as a relatively lightweight, compact alternative to related prior heat sinks based, variously, on evaporation of sprayed liquids or on sublimation of solids. This heat sink is designed for short-term dissipation of a large amount of heat and was originally intended for use in regulating the temperature of spacecraft equipment during launch or re-entry. It could also be useful in a terrestrial setting in which there is a requirement for a lightweight, compact means of short-term cooling. This heat sink includes a hermetic package closed with a pressure-relief valve and containing an expendable and rechargeable coolant liquid (e.g., water) and a conductive carbon-fiber wick. The vapor of the liquid escapes when the temperature exceeds the boiling point corresponding to the vapor pressure determined by the setting of the pressure-relief valve. The great advantage of this heat sink over a melting-paraffin or similar phase-change heat sink of equal capacity is that by virtue of the =10x greater latent heat of vaporization, a coolant-liquid volume equal to =1/10 of the paraffin volume can suffice.

  3. Passive blast pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

    2013-03-19

    A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

  4. The soil moisture active passive (SMAP) mission and validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite will be launched by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in October 2014. This satellite is the culmination of basic research and applications development over the past thirty years. During most of this period, research and development o...

  5. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) applications activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first-tier satellite missions recommended by the U.S. National Research Council Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space. The SMAP mission 1 is under development by NASA and is scheduled for launch late in 2014. The SMAP mea...

  6. Soil moisture active/passive (SMAP) mission concept

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) Mission is one of the first satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council's Decadal Survey. SMAP will make global measurements of the moisture present at Earth's land surface and will distinguish frozen from thawed land surfaces. ...

  7. The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council’s Decadal Survey. SMAP will make global measurements of the moisture present at Earth's land surface and will distinguish frozen f...

  8. Preparing for NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) Mission is one of the first satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council’s Decadal Survey. SMAP will make global measurements of the moisture present at Earth's land surface and will distinguish frozen from thawed land surfaces. ...

  9. Passive Solar Is Common Sense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Rita

    1979-01-01

    A checklist of concepts concerning passive solar energy techniques. Many can be applied immediately to existing buildings, while others should be brought into the initial planning of buildings. (Author/MLF)

  10. Orion Passive Thermal: Control Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez-Hermandez, Angel; Miller, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    A general overview of the NASA Orion Passive Thermal Control System (PTCS) is presented. The topics include: 1) Orion in CxP Hierarchy; 2) General Orion Description/Orientation; and 3) Orion PTCS Overview.

  11. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-06-30

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm.

  12. Microgravity Passive Phase Separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paragano, Matthew; Indoe, William; Darmetko, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    A new invention disclosure discusses a structure and process for separating gas from liquids in microgravity. The Microgravity Passive Phase Separator consists of two concentric, pleated, woven stainless- steel screens (25-micrometer nominal pore) with an axial inlet, and an annular outlet between both screens (see figure). Water enters at one end of the center screen at high velocity, eventually passing through the inner screen and out through the annular exit. As gas is introduced into the flow stream, the drag force exerted on the bubble pushes it downstream until flow stagnation or until it reaches an equilibrium point between the surface tension holding bubble to the screen and the drag force. Gas bubbles of a given size will form a front that is moved further down the length of the inner screen with increasing velocity. As more bubbles are added, the front location will remain fixed, but additional bubbles will move to the end of the unit, eventually coming to rest in the large cavity between the unit housing and the outer screen (storage area). Owing to the small size of the pores and the hydrophilic nature of the screen material, gas does not pass through the screen and is retained within the unit for emptying during ground processing. If debris is picked up on the screen, the area closest to the inlet will become clogged, so high-velocity flow will persist farther down the length of the center screen, pushing the bubble front further from the inlet of the inner screen. It is desired to keep the velocity high enough so that, for any bubble size, an area of clean screen exists between the bubbles and the debris. The primary benefits of this innovation are the lack of any need for additional power, strip gas, or location for venting the separated gas. As the unit contains no membrane, the transport fluid will not be lost due to evaporation in the process of gas separation. Separation is performed with relatively low pressure drop based on the large surface

  13. Passive-solar retrofit study for the United States Navy

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, W.O.; Miles, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    A passive solar retrofit study has been conducted for the United States Navy at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of the study was to determine the energy savings obtainable in concrete block buildings from several passive solar heating strategies. A procedure involving the use of test cell data and computer simulation was employed to assess the merits of six retrofit options. The six strategies selected were chosen on the basis of providing a series of options that will deliver increasing energy savings at the cost of correspondingly increased levels of commitment.

  14. Passive-solar-retrofit study for the United States Navy

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, W.O.; Miles, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    A passive solar retrofit study has been conducted for the United States Navy at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of the study was to determine the energy savings obtainable in concrete block buildings from several passive solar heating strategies. A procedure involving the use of test cell data and computer simulation was employed to assess the merits of six retrofit options. The six strategies selected were chosen on the basis of providing a series of options that will deliver increasing energy savings at the cost of correspondingly increased levels of commitment.

  15. Passive solar design: final evaluation, the Passive Studio

    SciTech Connect

    Bremer, Duncan S.; Rose, Stuart

    1980-08-01

    The further evaluation of the workshops in passive design for practicing architects and engineers through delayed interviews with a sample of the participants is reported with particular emphasis on the extent to which the participants have practiced passive design in the three-four months since attending. Also discussed is an unsuccessful attempt to conduct a lower-cost version of the program outside of normal office hours. Finally, the follow-on programs and improvements that the interviews indicated are needed are identified. (MHR)

  16. Photocopy of photograph (Source: National Park Service, U.S.S. Arizona Memorial, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (Source: National Park Service, U.S.S. Arizona Memorial, from 14th Naval District Photograph Collection, PHOG No. P.H. 4464-45) Official USN Photo, 1945. REMOVAL OF SPLINTERPROOF SHELTER (FORMER FACILITY S 1122), LOCATED BETWEEN FACILITIES 1 AND 3 IN NAVAL SHIPYARD. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Splinterproof Air Raid Shelters, Various locations throughout base, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. Passivated ambipolar black phosphorus transistors.

    PubMed

    Yue, Dewu; Lee, Daeyeong; Jang, Young Dae; Choi, Min Sup; Nam, Hye Jin; Jung, Duk-Young; Yoo, Won Jong

    2016-07-01

    We report the first air-passivated ambipolar BP transistor formed by applying benzyl viologen, which serves as a surface charge transfer donor for BP flakes. The passivated BP devices exhibit excellent stability under both an ambient atmosphere and vacuum; their transistor performance is maintained semi-permanently. Unlike their intrinsic p-type properties, passivated BP devices present advantageous ambipolar properties with much higher electron mobility up to ∼83 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) from 2-terminal measurement at 300 K, compared to other reported studies on n-type BP transistors. On the basis of the n-type doping effect that originated from benzyl viologen, we also systematically investigated the BP thickness dependence of our devices on electrical properties, in which we found the best electron transport performance to be attained when an ∼10 nm thick BP flake was used. PMID:27283027

  18. Passivation of fluorinated activated charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Del Cul, G.D.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Simmons, D.W.; Williams, D.F.; Toth, L.M.

    1997-10-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969 when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N tanks at the reactor site. In 1995, a multiyear project was launched to remediate the potentially hazardous conditions generated by the movement of fissile material and reactive gases from the storage tanks into the piping system and an auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The top 12 in. of the ACB is known by gamma scan and thermal analysis to contain about 2.6 kg U-233. According to the laboratory tests, a few feet of fluorinated charcoal are believed to extend beyond the uranium front. The remainder of the ACB should consist of unreacted charcoal. Fluorinated charcoal, when subjected to rapid heating, can decompose generating gaseous products. Under confined conditions, the sudden exothermic decomposition can produce high temperatures and pressures of near-explosive characteristics. Since it will be necessary to drill and tap the ACB to allow installation of piping and instrumentation for remediation and recovery activities, it is necessary to chemically convert the reactive fluorinated charcoal into a more stable material. Ammonia can be administered to the ACB as a volatile denaturing agent that results in the conversion of the C{sub x}F to carbon and ammonium fluoride, NH{sub 4}F. The charcoal laden with NH{sub 4}F can then be heated without risking any sudden decomposition. The only consequence of heating the treated material will be the volatilization of NH{sub 4}F as a mixture of NH{sub 3} and HF, which would primarily recombine as NH{sub 4}F on surfaces below 200 C. The planned scheme for the ACB denaturing is to flow diluted ammonia gas in steps of increasing NH{sub 3} concentration, 2% to 50%, followed by the injection of pure ammonia. This report summarizes the planned passivation treatment scheme to stabilize the ACB and remove the potential hazards. It also includes basic information

  19. Thermodynamic treatment of passive monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Posner, J.C.; Moore, G.

    1985-05-01

    Previous mathematical descriptions of sampling using passive monitors have used Fick's First Law of diffusion and the assumption that the concentration of adsorbate in the vapor phase above the sorbent is zero. This paper shows that by introducing a simplified expression for the equilibrium vapor pressure, behavior more nearly resembling that observed for passive monitors is predicted. The theory can also be applied to the case of loss of sample from a diffusive monitor. Experimental evidence is also provided which demonstrates that the theory adequately describes the observed results.

  20. Passivation of high temperature superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Richard P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The surface of high temperature superconductors such as YBa2Cu3O(7-x) are passivated by reacting the native Y, Ba and Cu metal ions with an anion such as sulfate or oxalate to form a surface film that is impervious to water and has a solubility in water of no more than 10(exp -3) M. The passivating treatment is preferably conducted by immersing the surface in dilute aqueous acid solution since more soluble species dissolve into the solution. The treatment does not degrade the superconducting properties of the bulk material.

  1. Passive maser development at NRL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. D.; Frank, A.; Folen, V.

    1981-01-01

    The application of passive hydrogen masers to satellites was investigated. The NRL maser is of compact design suitable for the space environment. It is based on a dielectrically loaded sapphire cavity and uses a computer optimized set of four shields. The servo design is a phase sensitive method which directly measures the phase dispersion of the interrogating signal as it passes through the cavity.

  2. Orion Passive Thermal Control Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Stephen W.

    2007-01-01

    An viewgraph presentation of Orion's passive thermal control system is shown. The topics include: 1) Orion in CxP Hierarchy; 2) General Orion Description/Orientation; 3) Module Descriptions and Images; 4) Orion PTCS Overview; 5) Requirements/Interfaces; 6) Design Reference Missions; 7) Natural Environments; 8) Thermal Models; 9) Challenges/Issues; and 10) Testing

  3. The Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the Passive Aggressive Conflict Cycle (PACC) helps observers to be able to look beyond behavior and better understand what is occurring beneath the surface. This article presents a real-life example of a seemingly minor conflict between a teacher and child that elicited an apparent major overreaction by the adult. Also provided is a…

  4. Passivated ambipolar black phosphorus transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Dewu; Lee, Daeyeong; Jang, Young Dae; Choi, Min Sup; Nam, Hye Jin; Jung, Duk-Young; Yoo, Won Jong

    2016-06-01

    We report the first air-passivated ambipolar BP transistor formed by applying benzyl viologen, which serves as a surface charge transfer donor for BP flakes. The passivated BP devices exhibit excellent stability under both an ambient atmosphere and vacuum; their transistor performance is maintained semi-permanently. Unlike their intrinsic p-type properties, passivated BP devices present advantageous ambipolar properties with much higher electron mobility up to ~83 cm2 V-1 s-1 from 2-terminal measurement at 300 K, compared to other reported studies on n-type BP transistors. On the basis of the n-type doping effect that originated from benzyl viologen, we also systematically investigated the BP thickness dependence of our devices on electrical properties, in which we found the best electron transport performance to be attained when an ~10 nm thick BP flake was used.We report the first air-passivated ambipolar BP transistor formed by applying benzyl viologen, which serves as a surface charge transfer donor for BP flakes. The passivated BP devices exhibit excellent stability under both an ambient atmosphere and vacuum; their transistor performance is maintained semi-permanently. Unlike their intrinsic p-type properties, passivated BP devices present advantageous ambipolar properties with much higher electron mobility up to ~83 cm2 V-1 s-1 from 2-terminal measurement at 300 K, compared to other reported studies on n-type BP transistors. On the basis of the n-type doping effect that originated from benzyl viologen, we also systematically investigated the BP thickness dependence of our devices on electrical properties, in which we found the best electron transport performance to be attained when an ~10 nm thick BP flake was used. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Transfer characteristics of BP field effect transistors (BV1-BV4) (Fig. S1 and S2 and Table S1); output characteristics of BP field effect transistors in different directions (Fig. S3

  5. Antenna for passive RFID tags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiopu, Paul; Manea, Adrian; Cristea, Ionica; Grosu, Neculai; Vladescu, Marian; Craciun, Anca-Ileana; Craciun, Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    Minuscule devices, called RFID tags are attached to objects and persons and emit information which positioned readers may capture wirelessly. Many methods of identification have been used, but that of most common is to use a unique serial number for identification of person or object. RFID tags can be characterized as either active or passive [1,2]. Traditional passive tags are typically in "sleep" state until awakened by the reader's emitted field. In passive tags, the reader's field acts to charge the capacitor that powers the badge and this can be a combination of antenna and barcodes obtained with SAW( Surface Acoustic Wave) devices [1,2,3] . The antenna in an RFID tag is a conductive element that permits the tag to exchange data with the reader. The paper contribution are targeted to antenna for passive RFID tags. The electromagnetic field generated by the reader is somehow oriented by the reader antenna and power is induced in the tag only if the orientation of the tag antenna is appropriate. A tag placed orthogonal to the reader yield field will not be read. This is the reason that guided manufacturers to build circular polarized antenna capable of propagating a field that is alternatively polarized on all planes passing on the diffusion axis. Passive RFID tags are operated at the UHF frequencies of 868MHz (Europe) and 915MHz (USA) and at the microwave frequencies of 2,45 GHz and 5,8 GHz . Because the tags are small dimensions, in paper, we present the possibility to use circular polarization microstrip antenna with fractal edge [2].

  6. Building on Family Strengths: Research and Services in Support of Children and Their Families. Proceedings of the Building on Family Strengths Annual Conference (14th, Portland, Oregon, May 31-June 2, 2007) and State of the Science Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swart, Sandra, Ed.; Friesen, Barbara, Ed.; Holman, Ariel, Ed.; Aue, Nicole, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The State of the Science conference was held in May, 2007 as part of the ongoing series of national conferences, "Building on Family Strengths," conducted by the Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health at Portland State University. The theme of this State-of-the Science conference was "Effective services for all…

  7. Passive solar design handbook. Volume 3: Passive solar design analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. W.; Bascomb, J. D.; Kosiewicz, C. E.; Lazarus, G. S.; McFarland, R. D.; Wray, W. O.

    1982-07-01

    Simple analytical methods concerning the design of passive solar heating systems are presented with an emphasis on the average annual heating energy consumption. Key terminology and methods are reviewed. The solar load ratio (SLR) is defined, and its relationship to analysis methods is reviewed. The annual calculation, or Load Collector Ratio (LCR) method, is outlined. Sensitivity data are discussed. Information is presented on balancing conservation and passive solar strategies in building design. Detailed analysis data are presented for direct gain and sunspace systems, and details of the systems are described. Key design parameters are discussed in terms of their impact on annual heating performance of the building. These are the sensitivity data. The SLR correlations for the respective system types are described. The monthly calculation, or SLR method, based on the SLR correlations, is reviewed. Performance data are given for 9 direct gain systems and 15 water wall and 42 Trombe wall systems.

  8. User evaluation study of passive solar residences

    SciTech Connect

    Towle, S.

    1980-03-01

    Speculation exists regarding the readiness of various passive techniques for commercialization and the market potential for residential applications. This paper discusses the preliminary findings of a market assessment study designed to document user experiences with passive solar energy. Owners and builders of passive solar homes were interviewed and asked to comment on personal experiences with their homes.

  9. Silicon surface passivation by silicon nitride deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, L. C.

    1984-01-01

    Silicon nitride deposition was studied as a method of passivation for silicon solar cell surfaces. The following three objectives were the thrust of the research: (1) the use of pecvd silicon nitride for passivation of silicon surfaces; (2) measurement techniques for surface recombination velocity; and (3) the importance of surface passivation to high efficiency solar cells.

  10. Development of Verbal Passive in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perovic, Alexandra; Wexler, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To experimentally investigate knowledge of passives of actional ("hold") and psychological ("love") verbs in children with Williams syndrome (WS). Passives are usually reported to be in line with mental age in WS. However, studies usually focus on passives of actional verbs only. Method: Twenty-six children with WS, ages 6-16, and 3…

  11. The Development of the Full Passive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horgan, Dianne

    Spontaneous full passives and related constructions from 234 children aged 2;0 to 13;11 and elicited passives from 262 college students were analyzed. Full passives were classified as reversible (The dog was chased by the girl), instrumental non-reversible (The lamp was broken by [or with] the ball), or agentive non-reversible (The lamp was broken…

  12. High performance AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with AlN/SiNx passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Tan; Yuanjie, Lü; Guodong, Gu; Li, Wang; Shaobo, Dun; Xubo, Song; Hongyu, Guo; Jiayun, Yin; Shujun, Cai; Zhihong, Feng

    2015-07-01

    AlGaN/GaN high electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) with 5 nm AlN passivation by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) were fabricated, covered by 50 nm SiNx which was grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). With PEALD AlN passivation, current collapse was suppressed more effectively and the devices show better subthreshold characteristics. Moreover, the insertion of AlN increased the RF transconductance, which lead to a higher cut-off frequency. Temperature dependence of DC characteristics demonstrated that the degradations of drain current and maximum transconductance at elevated temperatures for the AlN/SiNx passivated devices were much smaller compared with the devices with SiNx passivation, indicating that PEALD AlN passivation can improve the high temperature operation of the AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 60890192).

  13. Fundamental studies of passivity and passivity breakdown. Final report, [September 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D.D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M.

    1994-02-21

    Purpose is to understand the mechanisms for growth and breakdown of passive films on metal and alloy surfaces in aqueous medium; a secondary goal is to devise methods for predicting localized corrosion damage in industrial systems. Tasks currently being studied are: formation of bilayer structures in passive films on metals and alloys; passivity breakdown on solid vs. liquid gallium; roles of alloying elements in passivity breakdown; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of passive films; electronic structure of passive oxide films; photoelectrochemical impedance spectroscopy of passive films; and kinetics of localized attack.

  14. Incremental cooling load determination for passive direct gain heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, P.W.; Mahone, D.; Fuller, W.; Gruber, J.; Kammerud, R.; Place, W.; Andersson, B.

    1981-05-01

    This paper examines the applicability of the National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) full load compressor hour method for predicting the cooling load increase in a residence, attributable to direct gain passive heating systems. The NAHB method predictions are compared with the results of 200 hour-by-hour simulations using BLAST and the two methods show reasonable agreement. The degree of agreement and the limitations of the NAHB method are discussed.

  15. Simulation of selective passive compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Spikings, C.R.; Putley, D. )

    1991-01-01

    Compulsators have attracted a great deal of interest over the last few years as a way of providing repetitive high current millisecond pulses. The compulsator stores energy in a rotational form and works on a similar principle to a conventional alternator except that its internal impedance is reduced through compensating currents allowing greater currents to be drawn. This paper presents the theory behind selective passive compensation and presents some results from the computer simulation of a railgun powered by a selective passive compulsator. These results show that compulsator can be configured to produce flat topped current pulses into a railgun load. A test compulsator with active compensation has previously been designed and built by Culham Laboratory.

  16. All-passive nonreciprocal metastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M.; Davoyan, Arthur R.; Engheta, Nader

    2015-09-01

    One-way propagation of light, analogous to the directional flow of electrons in the presence of electric potential difference, has been an important goal in the wave-matter interaction. Breaking time-reversal symmetry in photonic flows is faced with challenges different from those for electron flows. In recent years several approaches and methods have been offered towards achieving this goal. Here we investigate another systematic approach to design all-passive relatively high-throughput metastructures that exhibit nonreciprocal properties and achieve wave-flow isolation. Moreover, we build on those findings and propose a paradigm for a quasi-two-dimensional metastructure that mimics the nonreciprocal property of Faraday rotation without using any magnetic or electric biasing. We envision that the proposed approaches may serve as a building block for all-passive time-reversal symmetry breaking with potential applications for future nonreciprocal systems and devices

  17. All-passive nonreciprocal metastructure

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M.; Davoyan, Arthur R.; Engheta, Nader

    2015-01-01

    One-way propagation of light, analogous to the directional flow of electrons in the presence of electric potential difference, has been an important goal in the wave–matter interaction. Breaking time-reversal symmetry in photonic flows is faced with challenges different from those for electron flows. In recent years several approaches and methods have been offered towards achieving this goal. Here we investigate another systematic approach to design all-passive relatively high-throughput metastructures that exhibit nonreciprocal properties and achieve wave-flow isolation. Moreover, we build on those findings and propose a paradigm for a quasi-two-dimensional metastructure that mimics the nonreciprocal property of Faraday rotation without using any magnetic or electric biasing. We envision that the proposed approaches may serve as a building block for all-passive time-reversal symmetry breaking with potential applications for future nonreciprocal systems and devices PMID:26414528

  18. New England style passive solar

    SciTech Connect

    Kriescher, P.

    2000-06-01

    There are homeowners throughout New England who planned for and built homes that allow them to avoid the sting of winter's high heating bills. These climate-responsive homes rely on passive solar heating, cooling and lighting. An example of such a climate-responsive/passive solar house is the home that Arthur and Terry Becker build on 6 beautiful acres (2.4 hectares) of rolling farm and woodland southeast of Andover, Connecticut, in 1981. They worked very closely with their designer, Al Eggan of K.T. Lear and Associates, to ensure that they would never have to pay for home heating oil, and that they would enjoy a level of year-round comfort that they had not experienced in conventionally built homes.

  19. Neglect mars passive solar progress

    SciTech Connect

    Holzman, D.

    1984-02-01

    The development of solar technology in the United States was reviewed at the annual Passive Solar Update Conference held in Washington D.C. in Sept. 1983. Though it lacked the technological breakthroughs of some past conferences, this conference was notable because the mood was definitely upbeat. The promise of many solar approaches is as great as ever and they now seem to be reliazable.

  20. Active and Passive Hybrid Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carswell, James R.

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid ocean wind sensor (HOWS) can map ocean vector wind in low to hurricane-level winds, and non-precipitating and precipitating conditions. It can acquire active and passive measurements through a single aperture at two wavelengths, two polarizations, and multiple incidence angles. Its low profile, compact geometry, and low power consumption permits installation on air craft platforms, including high-altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).

  1. Interior design for passive solar homes

    SciTech Connect

    Breen, J. C.

    1981-07-01

    The increasing emphasis on refinement of passive solar systems has brought recognition to interior design as an integral part of passive solar architecture. Interior design can be used as a finetuning tool minimizing many of the problems associated with passive solar energy use in residential buildings. In addition, treatment of interior space in solar model homes may be a prime factor in determining sales success. A new style of interior design is evolving in response to changes in building form incorporating passive solar design features. The psychology behind passive solar architecture is reflected in interiors, and selection of interior components increasingly depends on the functional suitability of various interior elements.

  2. Characterization of the passive state on zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D.D.; Ismail, K.M.; Sikora, E.

    1998-09-01

    Despite intensive investigations, the nature of the passive state is one of the most complex and unresolved subjects in the electrochemistry of zinc in alkaline solutions. In this paper, the authors explore the electrochemistry of the passive state on zinc in 0.1 M sodium borate/1 M sodium hydroxide solution of pH 10.5. During the course of passivation, several characteristic features in the anodic region are observed, including a wide passive range extending over >2 V and a secondary passivation phenomenon that occurs at high anodic potentials. the steady-state current in the passive state is found to be independent of the applied voltage, which is consistent with the barrier layer being an interstitial zinc conductor or an oxygen vacancy conductor (or both) with interstitial zinc being the most likely defect. This model is also consistent with the well-known n-type character of the passive film on zinc.

  3. Evaluation of Alternate Surface Passivation Methods (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E

    2005-05-31

    Stainless steel containers were assembled from parts passivated by four commercial vendors using three passivation methods. The performance of these containers in storing hydrogen isotope mixtures was evaluated by monitoring the composition of initially 50% H{sub 2} 50% D{sub 2} gas with time using mass spectroscopy. Commercial passivation by electropolishing appears to result in surfaces that do not catalyze hydrogen isotope exchange. This method of surface passivation shows promise for tritium service, and should be studied further and considered for use. On the other hand, nitric acid passivation and citric acid passivation may not result in surfaces that do not catalyze the isotope exchange reaction H{sub 2} + D{sub 2} {yields} 2HD. These methods should not be considered to replace the proprietary passivation processes of the two current vendors used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facility.

  4. Alternative to Nitric Acid for Passivation of Stainless Steel Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie L.; Kolody, Mark; Curran, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Corrosion is an extensive problem that affects the Department of Defense (DoD) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The deleterious effects of corrosion result in steep costs, asset downtime affecting mission readiness, and safety risks to personnel. Consequently, it is vital to reduce corrosion costs and risks in a sustainable manner. The DoD and NASA have numerous structures and equipment that are fabricated from stainless steel. The standard practice for protection of stainless steel is a process called passivation. Typical passivation procedures call for the use of nitric acid; however, there are a number of environmental, worker safety, and operational issues associated with its use. Citric acid offers a variety of benefits including increased safety for personnel, reduced environmental impact, and reduced operational cost. DoD and NASA agreed to collaborate to validate citric acid as an acceptable passivating agent for stainless steel. This paper details our investigation of prior work developing the citric acid passivation process, development of the test plan, optimization of the process for specific stainless steel alloys, ongoing and planned testing to elucidate the process' resistance to corrosion in comparison to nitric acid, and preliminary results.

  5. Will Passive Protection Save Congo Forests?

    PubMed Central

    Galford, Gillian L.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.; Sonter, Laura J.; Laporte, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Central Africa’s tropical forests are among the world’s largest carbon reserves. Historically, they have experienced low rates of deforestation. Pressures to clear land are increasing due to development of infrastructure and livelihoods, foreign investment in agriculture, and shifting land use management, particularly in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The DRC contains the greatest area of intact African forests. These store approximately 22 billion tons of carbon in aboveground live biomass, yet only 10% are protected. Can the status quo of passive protection — forest management that is low or nonexistent — ensure the preservation of this forest and its carbon? We have developed the SimCongo model to simulate changes in land cover and land use based on theorized policy scenarios from 2010 to 2050. Three scenarios were examined: the first (Historical Trends) assumes passive forest protection; the next (Conservation) posits active protection of forests and activation of the national REDD+ action plan, and the last (Agricultural Development) assumes increased agricultural activities in forested land with concomitant increased deforestation. SimCongo is a cellular automata model based on Bayesian statistical methods tailored for the DRC, built with the Dinamica-EGO platform. The model is parameterized and validated with deforestation observations from the past and runs the scenarios from 2010 through 2050 with a yearly time step. We estimate the Historical Trends trajectory will result in average emissions of 139 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s, a 15% increase over current emissions. The Conservation scenario would result in 58% less clearing than Historical Trends and would conserve carbon-dense forest and woodland savanna areas. The Agricultural Development scenario leads to emissions of 212 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s. These scenarios are heuristic examples of policy’s influence on forest conservation and carbon storage. Our results

  6. Will Passive Protection Save Congo Forests?

    PubMed

    Galford, Gillian L; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Sonter, Laura J; Laporte, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Central Africa's tropical forests are among the world's largest carbon reserves. Historically, they have experienced low rates of deforestation. Pressures to clear land are increasing due to development of infrastructure and livelihoods, foreign investment in agriculture, and shifting land use management, particularly in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The DRC contains the greatest area of intact African forests. These store approximately 22 billion tons of carbon in aboveground live biomass, yet only 10% are protected. Can the status quo of passive protection - forest management that is low or nonexistent - ensure the preservation of this forest and its carbon? We have developed the SimCongo model to simulate changes in land cover and land use based on theorized policy scenarios from 2010 to 2050. Three scenarios were examined: the first (Historical Trends) assumes passive forest protection; the next (Conservation) posits active protection of forests and activation of the national REDD+ action plan, and the last (Agricultural Development) assumes increased agricultural activities in forested land with concomitant increased deforestation. SimCongo is a cellular automata model based on Bayesian statistical methods tailored for the DRC, built with the Dinamica-EGO platform. The model is parameterized and validated with deforestation observations from the past and runs the scenarios from 2010 through 2050 with a yearly time step. We estimate the Historical Trends trajectory will result in average emissions of 139 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s, a 15% increase over current emissions. The Conservation scenario would result in 58% less clearing than Historical Trends and would conserve carbon-dense forest and woodland savanna areas. The Agricultural Development scenario leads to emissions of 212 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s. These scenarios are heuristic examples of policy's influence on forest conservation and carbon storage. Our results suggest that 1

  7. FOSTERING APPLICATIONS OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NASA SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE PASSIVE (SMAP) MISSION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Decadal Survey, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond. SMAP will ma...

  8. Gibbs free energy assisted passivation layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salihoglu, Omer; Tansel, T.; Hostut, M.; Ergun, Y.; Aydinli, A.

    2016-05-01

    Reduction of surface leakage is a major challenge in most photodetectors that requires the elimination of surface oxides on etched mesas during passivation. Engineering the passivation requires close attention to chemical reactions that take place at the interface during the process. In particular, removal of surface oxides may be controlled via Gibbs reactivity. We have compared electrical performance of type-II superlattice photodetectors, designed for MWIR operation, passivated by different passivation techniques. We have used ALD deposited Al2O3, HfO2, TiO2, ZnO, PECVD deposited SiO2, Si3N4 and sulphur containing octadecanethiol (ODT) selfassembled monolayers (SAM) passivation layers on InAs/GaSb p-i-n superlattice photodetectors with cutoff wavelength at 5.1 μm. In this work, we have compared the result of different passivation techniques which are done under same conditions, same epitaxial structure and same fabrication processes. We have found that ALD deposited passivation is directly related to the Gibbs free energy of the passivation material. Gibbs free energies of the passivation layer can directly be compared with native surface oxides to check the effectiveness of the passivation layer before the experimental study.

  9. The passive-aggressive organization.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert S; Norton, David P

    2005-10-01

    Passive-aggressive organizations are friendly places to work: People are congenial, conflict is rare, and consensus is easy to reach. But, at the end of the day, even the best proposals fail to gain traction, and a company can go nowhere so imperturbably that it's easy to pretend everything is fine. Such companies are not necessarily saddled with mulishly passive-aggressive employees. Rather, they are filled with mostly well-intentioned people who are the victirms of flawed processes and policies. Commonly, a growing company's halfhearted or poorly thought-out attempts to decentralize give rise to multiple layers of managers, whose authority for making decisions becomes increasingly unclear. Some managers, as a result, hang back, while others won't own up to the calls they've made, inviting colleagues to second-guess or overturn the decisions. In such organizations, information does not circulate freely, and that makes it difficult for workers to understand the impact of their actions on company performance and for managers to correctly appraise employees' value to the organization. A failure to accurately match incentives to performance stifles initiative, and people do just enough to get by. Breaking free from this pattern is hard; a long history of seeing corporate initiatives ignored and then fade away tends to make people cynical. Often it's best to bring in an outsider to signal that this time things will be different. He or she will need to address every obstacle all at once: clarify decision rights; see to it that decisions stick; and reward people for sharing information and adding value, not for successfully negotiating corporate politics. If those steps are not taken, it's only a matter of time before the diseased elements of a passive-aggressive organization overwhelm the remaining healthy ones and drive the company into financial distress. PMID:16250627

  10. Passive mitigation of mode instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauregui, C.; Otto, H.-J.; Stutzki, F.; Jansen, F.; Limpert, J.; Tünnermann, A.

    2014-03-01

    The phenomenon of mode instabilities has quickly become the most limiting effect for a further scaling of the average power of fiber laser systems. Consequently it is of great importance to find solutions for this problem. In this work we propose two concrete possible passive mitigation strategies: the first one is based on the reduction of the heat load in the fiber, whereas the second one is based on the reduction of the pump absorption. In both cases a significant increase of the threshold is expected.

  11. Immunoregulation of passively induced allergic encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Willenborg, D O; Sjollema, P; Danta, G

    1986-03-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) can be readily induced passively by transfer of lymphocytes from neuroantigen immunized rats to naive recipients. This passively induced disease runs an acute, monophasic, self-limiting course, much the same as is usually seen in actively induced diseases. Here we examine the mechanisms regulating passive EAE. We report that splenectomy, thymectomy, and increasing age of recipients, manipulations which have been reported to influence recovery from actively induced EAE, have no effect on passively induced disease. EAE effector cells are not inactivated when transferred into recipients that have been actively sensitized and are beginning their recovery from clinical signs; this being a time when recovery associated suppressor cells are thought to be present. Finally, in the absence of suppressor T cells in both the recipient and in the transfer cell population, recovery from passive EAE still occurs. We conclude that suppressor T cells play no role in regulating passively induced EAE. PMID:2936807

  12. Gap between active and passive solar heating

    SciTech Connect

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The gap between active and passive solar could hardly be wider. The reasons for this are discussed and advantages to narrowing the gap are analyzed. Ten years of experience in both active and passive systems are reviewed, including costs, frequent problems, performance prediction, performance modeling, monitoring, and cooling concerns. Trends are analyzed, both for solar space heating and for service water heating. A tendency for the active and passive technologies to be converging is observed. Several recommendations for narrowing the gap are presented.

  13. Passive solar in China: traditional and new

    SciTech Connect

    Balcomb, J D; Balcomb, S A

    1986-04-01

    The authors' observations of a tradition of passive solar architecture in northern China are described. Tendencies for modern buildings to depart from this tradition are noted. Major passive solar research programs are discussed and experimental buildings are illustrated. It is concluded that the Chinese could realize a major advantage by combining their strong tradition of passive solar architecture with modern insulation methods and improved glazing systems.

  14. Passive electroreception in aquatic mammals.

    PubMed

    Czech-Damal, Nicole U; Dehnhardt, Guido; Manger, Paul; Hanke, Wolf

    2013-06-01

    Passive electroreception is a sensory modality in many aquatic vertebrates, predominantly fishes. Using passive electroreception, the animal can detect and analyze electric fields in its environment. Most electric fields in the environment are of biogenic origin, often produced by prey items. These electric fields can be relatively strong and can be a highly valuable source of information for a predator, as underlined by the fact that electroreception has evolved multiple times independently. The only mammals that possess electroreception are the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and the echidnas (Tachyglossidae) from the monotreme order, and, recently discovered, the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) from the cetacean order. Here we review the morphology, function and origin of the electroreceptors in the two aquatic species, the platypus and the Guiana dolphin. The morphology shows certain similarities, also similar to ampullary electroreceptors in fishes, that provide cues for the search for electroreceptors in more vertebrate and invertebrate species. The function of these organs appears to be very similar. Both species search for prey animals in low-visibility conditions or while digging in the substrate, and sensory thresholds are within one order of magnitude. The electroreceptors in both species are innervated by the trigeminal nerve. The origin of the accessory structures, however, is completely different; electroreceptors in the platypus have developed from skin glands, in the Guiana dolphin, from the vibrissal system. PMID:23187861

  15. Applications of passivated silicon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyung, Richard; Park, Chan Ho

    2012-03-01

    We can postulate that dark matter are WIMPS, more specifically, Majorana particles called neutralinos floating through space. Upon neutralino-neutralino annihilation, they create a greater burst of other particles into space: these being all kinds of particles including anti-deuterons which are the indications of the existence of dark matter. For the study of the applications of passivated silicon detectors, this paper shows following procedures in two categories. Painting on little pieces of silicon (Polyimid and Boxcar Red) :Took clean paint brush and painted on Polyimid and Boxcar red samples onto little pieces of sample silicon and dried for a certain number of hours in different conditions. Cooling test : usually done in 7 cycles, cool until usually -35 degrees or -40 degrees Celsius with thermoelectric cooler, dry out, evapate the moisture in the fume hood, take pictures with the microscope and check for irregularities every 1, 4 and 7 times. The results show us how the passivated silicon will act in the real experiment--the vacuum chamber and x-rays (from the radioactive source), and different atmospheric pressures simulate what it will be like in space.

  16. The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Peggy; Entekhabi, Dara; Njoku, Eni; Kellogg, Kent

    2011-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council?s Decadal Survey [1]. Its mission design consists of L-band radiometer and radar instruments sharing a rotating 6-m mesh reflector antenna to provide high-resolution and high-accuracy global maps of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state every 2-3 days. The combined active/passive microwave soil moisture product will have a spatial resolution of 10 km and a mean latency of 24 hours. In addition, the SMAP surface observations will be combined with advanced modeling and data assimilation to provide deeper root zone soil moisture and net ecosystem exchange of carbon. SMAP is expected to launch in the late 2014 - early 2015 time frame.

  17. Passive fluorescence measurements during SIFLEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moya, I.; Ounis, A.; Louis, J.; Evain, S.; Ducruet, J.-M.

    The goal of the participation of the LURE team to the SIFLEX campaign was %to provide clear evidence of quantitative absolute measurements of natural fluorescence andfluorescence flux evaluation by passive methods in the Fraunhofer lines. More specifically, to quantify the fluorescence flux in A and B absorption bands of atmospheric oxygen. The measurements have been focus on: Testing specific passive fluorescence instrumentation recently developed at LURE for assessing the sun induced fluorescence radiance from vegetation. Investigating diurnal and seasonal change of fluorescence and its behaviour with respect to plant condition, pigment content, global radiation amount and its correlation against accumulated biomass during growing period, Cross-correlate the fluorescence signal with hyperspectral reflectance and thermal IR radiance. A special attention has been paid to diurnal cycle and seasonal variations. Comparing fluorescence fluxes with CO2 fluxes measured by the already existing gas exchange equipment of the site. Instrumentation PMFD (Passive Multiwavelength Fluorescence Detector) was the main instrument used to asses fluorescence fluxes. The instrument was based on the Fraunhofer line principle, applied in the atmospheric oxygen A and B bands (760nm and 687nm, respectively). The output parameters were two stationary fluorescence flux at 687nm and 760nm and the NDVI (NDVI = (R760-R687) / (R760+R687)) index. Two additional channels of the instrument are devoted to measure reflectance variations at 531nm and 570 nm in order to calculate the PRI (PRI = (R531-R570) / (R531+R570)) index. This instrument was installed on the main tower, 10 m above the crown of the trees and maintained in the same viewing direction during the campaign (towards the north direction). The zenith angle was set to about 50-65 degrees. The footprint of the instrument contained the crowns of several trees. BD was a second passive detector operating solely in the atmospheric oxygen A

  18. Passive cavitation imaging with ultrasound arrays

    PubMed Central

    Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Datta, Saurabh; Holland, Christy K.; Mast, T. Douglas

    2009-01-01

    A method is presented for passive imaging of cavitational acoustic emissions using an ultrasound array, with potential application in real-time monitoring of ultrasound ablation. To create such images, microbubble emissions were passively sensed by an imaging array and dynamically focused at multiple depths. In this paper, an analytic expression for a passive image is obtained by solving the Rayleigh–Sommerfield integral, under the Fresnel approximation, and passive images were simulated. A 192-element array was used to create passive images, in real time, from 520-kHz ultrasound scattered by a 1-mm steel wire. Azimuthal positions of this target were accurately estimated from the passive images. Next, stable and inertial cavitation was passively imaged in saline solution sonicated at 520 kHz. Bubble clusters formed in the saline samples were consistently located on both passive images and B-scans. Passive images were also created using broadband emissions from bovine liver sonicated at 2.2 MHz. Agreement was found between the images and source beam shape, indicating an ability to map therapeutic ultrasound beams in situ. The relation between these broadband emissions, sonication amplitude, and exposure conditions are discussed. PMID:20000921

  19. Estimating primaries from passive seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hao; Wang, De-Li; Feng, Fei; Zhu, Heng

    2015-12-01

    Passive seismic sources can generally be divided into transient sources and noise sources. Noise sources are particularly the continuous, random small bursts, like background noise. The virtual-shot gathers obtained by the traditional cross-correlation algorithm from passive seismic data not only contain primaries, but also include surface-related multiples. Through estimating primaries by sparse inversion, we can directly obtain primaries from passive seismic data activated by transient sources, which are free of surface-related multiples. The problem of estimating primaries from passive seismic data activated by noise sources has not been discussed to date. First, by introducing the optimisation problem via the L1-norm constraint, this paper makes the traditional method of estimating primaries by sparse inversion from passive seismic data activated by transient sources improved, which overcomes the time-window problem. During the sparse inversion, the sparsifying transform, S = C2⊗W, is introduced. In the sparsifying-transform domain, the transformed data is more sparse, so the solution becomes more accurate. Second, this paper proposes estimating primaries from passive seismic data activated by noise sources. In the case of the sparse assumption not holding, we use the least-squares method based on the principle of minimum energy to estimate primaries from passive seismic data using the noise sources. Finally, we compare the primaries estimated from passive seismic data using transient sources and noise sources and analyse the characteristics of the estimated primaries obtained from two passive seismic data.

  20. Passive tamper-indicating secure container

    SciTech Connect

    Bartberger, J.C.

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes a passive tamper-indicating secure container that has been designed to demonstrate concepts, features, and materials that can be used in passive container applications. (In a passive security system, physical phenomena provide visual indication of tampering.) The basic container {open_quotes}volume within a volume{close_quotes} assembly consists of a transparent plastic outer container and an aluminum inner container. Both containers incorporate passive, fingerprinted layers as part of the tamper-indicating container system. Many of the tamper-indicating features can be visually inspected without disassembling the container. The status of container development and potential applications for the container are addressed.

  1. Passive tracking with sensors of opportunity using passive coherent location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramaniam, Mahes; Tharmarasa, R.; McDonald, Mike; Kirubarajan, T.

    2008-04-01

    Passive coherent location (PCL), which uses the commercial signals as illuminators of opportunity, is an emerging technology in air defense systems. The advantages of PCL are low cost, low vulnerability to electronic counter measures, early detection of stealthy targets and low-altitude detection. However, limitations of PCL include lack of control over illuminators, poor bearing accuracy, time-varying sensor parameters and limited observability. In this paper, multiple target tracking using PCL with high bearing error is considered. In this case, the challenge is to handle high nonlinearity due to high measurement error. In this paper, we implement the converted measurement Kalman filter, unscented Kalman filter and particle filter based PHD filter for PCL radar measurements and compare their performances.

  2. Estimate of deaths attributable to passive smoking among UK adults: database analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jamrozik, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    Objective To estimate deaths from passive smoking in employees of the hospitality industry as well as in the general workforce and general population of the United Kingdom. Design Calculation, using the formula for population attributable proportion, of deaths likely to have been caused by passive smoking at home and at work in the UK according to occupation. Sensitivity analyses to examine impact of varying assumptions regarding prevalence and risks of exposure. Setting National UK databases of causes of death, employment, structure of households, and prevalences of active and passive smoking. Main outcome measures Estimates of deaths due to passive smoking according to age group (< 65 or ≥ 65) and site of exposure (domestic or workplace). Results Across the United Kingdom as a whole, passive smoking at work is likely to be responsible for the deaths of more than two employed people per working day (617 deaths per year), including 54 deaths in the hospitality industry each year. Each year passive smoking at home might account for another 2700 deaths in persons aged 20-64 years and 8000 deaths among people aged ≥ 65. Conclusion Exposure at work might contribute up to one fifth of all deaths from passive smoking in the general population aged 20-64 years, and up to half of such deaths among employees of the hospitality industry. Adoption of smoke free policies in all workplaces and reductions in the general prevalence of active smoking would lead to substantial reductions in these avoidable deaths. PMID:15741188

  3. Modeling Chemical Detection Sensitivities of Active and Passive Remote Sensing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Scharlemann, E T

    2003-07-28

    During nearly a decade of remote sensing programs under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), LLNL has developed a set of performance modeling codes--called APRS--for both Active and Passive Remote Sensing systems. These codes emphasize chemical detection sensitivity in the form of minimum detectable quantities with and without background spectral clutter and in the possible presence of other interfering chemicals. The codes have been benchmarked against data acquired in both active and passive remote sensing programs at LLNL and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The codes include, as an integral part of the performance modeling, many of the data analysis techniques developed in the DOE's active and passive remote sensing programs (e.g., ''band normalization'' for an active system, principal component analysis for a passive system).

  4. Photodiode-Based, Passive Ultraviolet Dosimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Gray, Perry

    2004-01-01

    Simple, passive instruments have been developed for measuring the exposure of material specimens to vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation from the Sun. Each instrument contains a silicon photodiode and a coulometer. The photocharge generated in the photodiode is stored in the coulometer. The accumulated electric charge measured by use of the coulometer is assumed to be proportional to the cumulative dose of VUV radiation expressed in such convenient units as equivalent Sun hours (ESH) [defined as the number of hours of exposure to sunlight at normal incidence]. Intended originally for use aboard spacecraft, these instruments could also be adapted to such terrestrial uses as monitoring the curing of ultraviolet-curable epoxies. Each instrument includes a photodiode and a coulometer assembly mounted on an interface plate (see figure). The photodiode assembly includes an aluminum housing that holds the photodiode, a poly(tetrafluoroehylene) cosine receptor, and a narrow-band optical filter. The cosine receptor ensures that the angular response of the instrument approximates the ideal angular response (proportional to the cosine of the angle of incidence). The filter is chosen to pass the ultraviolet wavelength of interest in a specific experiment. The photodiode is electrically connected to the coulometer. The factor of proportionality between the charge stored in the coulometer and ultraviolet dosage (in units of ESH) is established, prior to use, in calibration experiments that involve the use of lamps and current sources traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  5. Passive equilibrium studies on ZT-P

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, M.M.; Reass, W.A.

    1987-12-01

    The poloidal field system of ZT-P was modified by the addition of a transformer, which coupled the magnetizing and equilibrium circuits. ZT-P is a small, air core, Reversed Field Pinch, operated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. It is used as test bed for the much larger ZT-H, RFP experiment, now under construction at LANL. Planned experiments include size scaling measurements and determining the effect of low time constant measurements and determining the effect of low time constant shell operation. ZT-P has had an entirely passive equilibrium system, which did not provide a well centered equilibrium, although a tolerable equilibrium was realized by removing half of the equilibrium coil set. The transformer was added to the poloidal field system to adjust the equilibrium current for a centered plasma, while using the entire coil set. It also had the effect of reducing the dependence of the equilibrium on the plasma resistance. Stable, well centered discharges were achieved over a broad range of plasma currents. The improved equilibrium also lowered the loop voltage and extended the discharge lifetime. These experiments also investigated the unique problems of equilibrium systems on air core RFP devices. 26 refs., 6 figs.

  6. An Event-Structural Account of Passive Acquisition in Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kwee-Ock; Lee, Youngjoo

    2008-01-01

    Some peculiar properties of children's passives have long been observed in various languages such as an asymmetry between actional passives and nonactional passives. These peculiarities have been accounted for under the hypothesis that children's early passives are adjectival, and as such exhibit properties of adjectival passives in adult grammar.…

  7. Passive Tracking System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Chen, Henry A. (Inventor); Phan, Chau T. (Inventor); Bourgeois, Brian A. (Inventor); Dusl, Jon (Inventor); Hill, Brent W. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Systems and methods are disclosed for passively determining the location of a moveable transmitter utilizing a pair of phase shifts at a receiver for extracting a direction vector from a receiver to the transmitter. In a preferred embodiment, a phase difference between the transmitter and receiver is extracted utilizing a noncoherent demodulator in the receiver. The receiver includes an antenna array with three antenna elements, which preferably are patch antenna elements spaced apart by one-half wavelength. Three receiver channels are preferably utilized for simultaneously processing the received signal from each of the three antenna elements. Multipath transmission paths for each of the three receiver channels are indexed so that comparisons of the same multipath component are made for each of the three receiver channels. The phase difference for each received signal is determined by comparing only the magnitudes of received and stored modulation signals to determine a winning modulation symbol.

  8. A Passive Magnetic Bearing Flywheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siebert, Mark; Ebihara, Ben; Jansen, Ralph; Fusaro, Robert L.; Morales, Wilfredo; Kascak, Albert; Kenny, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    A 100 percent passive magnetic bearing flywheel rig employing no active control components was designed, constructed, and tested. The suspension clothe rotor was provided by two sets of radial permanent magnetic bearings operating in the repulsive mode. The axial support was provided by jewel bearings on both ends of the rotor. The rig was successfully operated to speeds of 5500 rpm, which is 65 percent above the first critical speed of 3336 rpm. Operation was not continued beyond this point because of the excessive noise generated by the air impeller and because of inadequate containment in case of failure. Radial and axial stiffnesses of the permanent magnetic bearings were experimentally measured and then compared to finite element results. The natural damping of the rotor was measured and a damping coefficient was calculated.

  9. Passive Tracking System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Chen, Henry A. (Inventor); Phan, Chau T. (Inventor); Bourgeois, Brian A. (Inventor); Dusl, John (Inventor); Hill, Brent W. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    System and methods are disclosed for passively determining the location of a moveable transmitter utilizing a pair of phase shifts at a receiver for extracting a direction vector from a receiver to the transmitter. In a preferred embodiment, a phase difference between the transmitter and receiver is extracted utilizing a noncoherent demodulator in the receiver. The receiver includes antenna array with three antenna elements, which preferably are patch antenna elements placed apart by one-half wavelength. Three receiver channels are preferably utilized for simultaneously processing the received signal from each of the three antenna elements. Multipath transmission paths for each of the three receiver channels are indexed so that comparisons of the same multipath component are made for each of the three receiver channels. The phase difference for each received signal is determined by comparing only the magnitudes of received and stored modulation signals to determine a winning modulation symbol.

  10. Conception of Passive Optonavigational System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makar, Artur

    2010-05-01

    Thermovision is known physical phenomenon based on emission of electromagnetic fields by each body with temperature above than absolute zero. This emission is called, for the sake of the length of the wave, infrared emission and for the sake of its property - thermoemission. Intensity of thermoemission is proportional to the temperature of the body. So, during measurement of infrared emission of the body there is possible to indirect measure its temperature. Characteristic application of the thermovision can be usage of thermoemission radiated by moving object for its localization. The conception of passive navigational system working on the basis of thermovision cameras has been presented. There has been assumed, that at least two cameras placed on the land are used for detection and tracking objects emitting infrared waves.

  11. Passive adaptive imaging through turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofsted, David

    2016-05-01

    Standard methods for improved imaging system performance under degrading optical turbulence conditions typically involve active adaptive techniques or post-capture image processing. Here, passive adaptive methods are considered where active sources are disallowed, a priori. Theoretical analyses of short-exposure turbulence impacts indicate that varying aperture sizes experience different degrees of turbulence impacts. Smaller apertures often outperform larger aperture systems as turbulence strength increases. This suggests a controllable aperture system is advantageous. In addition, sub-aperture sampling of a set of training images permits the system to sense tilts in different sub-aperture regions through image acquisition and image cross-correlation calculations. A four sub-aperture pattern supports corrections involving five realizable operating modes (beyond tip and tilt) for removing aberrations over an annular pattern. Progress to date will be discussed regarding development and field trials of a prototype system.

  12. Passive Thermal Management of Foil Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods for passive thermal management of foil bearing systems are disclosed herein. The flow of the hydrodynamic film across the surface of bearing compliant foils may be disrupted to provide passive cooling and to improve the performance and reliability of the foil bearing system.

  13. Passive ice freezing-releasing heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Gorski, Anthony J.; Schertz, William W.

    1982-01-01

    A heat pipe device has been developed which permits completely passive ice formation and periodic release of ice without requiring the ambient temperature to rise above the melting point of water. This passive design enables the maximum amount of cooling capacity to be stored in the tank.

  14. Understanding Passives with Non-Action Verbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Villiers, Jill; And Others

    Research in the active-passive verb relation has indicated that there is an interaction between syntactic form and verb semantics among children of preschool age. The present study examines the contribution of active-passive syntax and verb semantics to comprehension difficulty for preschoolers, 6-year-olds, 7-year-olds, and adults. An additional…

  15. NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Barron; Moran, M. Susan; Escobar, Vanessa; Brown, Molly E.

    2014-05-01

    The launch of the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission in 2014 will provide global soil moisture and freeze-thaw measurements at moderate resolution (9 km) with latency as short as 24 hours. The resolution, latency and global coverage of SMAP products will enable new applications in the fields of weather, climate, drought, flood, agricultural production, human health and national security. To prepare for launch, the SMAP mission has engaged more than 25 Early Adopters. Early Adopters are users who have a need for SMAP-like soil moisture or freeze-thaw data, and who agreed to apply their own resources to demonstrate the utility of SMAP data for their particular system or model. In turn, the SMAP mission agreed to provide Early Adopters with simulated SMAP data products and pre-launch calibration and validation data from SMAP field campaigns, modeling, and synergistic studies. The applied research underway by Early Adopters has provided fundamental knowledge of how SMAP data products can be scaled and integrated into users' policy, business and management activities to improve decision-making efforts. This presentation will cover SMAP applications including weather and climate forecasting, vehicle mobility estimation, quantification of greenhouse gas emissions, management of urban potable water supply, and prediction of crop yield. The presentation will end with a discussion of potential international applications with focus on the ESA/CEOS TIGER Initiative entitled "looking for water in Africa", the United Nations (UN) Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) which carries a specific mandate focused on Africa, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) which lists soil moisture as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV), and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) which reported a food and nutrition crisis in the Sahel.

  16. Aerodynamic control with passively pitching wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravish, Nick; Wood, Robert

    Flapping wings may pitch passively under aerodynamic and inertial loads. Such passive pitching is observed in flapping wing insect and robot flight. The effect of passive wing pitch on the control dynamics of flapping wing flight are unexplored. Here we demonstrate in simulation and experiment the critical role wing pitching plays in yaw control of a flapping wing robot. We study yaw torque generation by a flapping wing allowed to passively rotate in the pitch axis through a rotational spring. Yaw torque is generated through alternating fast and slow upstroke and and downstroke. Yaw torque sensitively depends on both the rotational spring force law and spring stiffness, and at a critical spring stiffness a bifurcation in the yaw torque control relationship occurs. Simulation and experiment reveal the dynamics of this bifurcation and demonstrate that anomalous yaw torque from passively pitching wings is the result of aerodynamic and inertial coupling between the pitching and stroke-plane dynamics.

  17. The University's Role in National Life--Passive or Active?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, G. T.

    1980-01-01

    Some kind of coalition of universities, corporations, and other private organizations, it is argued, will be necessary to gain sufficient credibility to influence public policy. The complexities of modern mass media communication and of public policy issues have reached levels that justify a review of university and corporate roles. (MLW)

  18. CMR Shuffler System: Passive Mode Calibration and Certification Report

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, Katherine C.; Gomez, Cipriano D.; Salazar, William R.; Mayo, Douglas R.; Vigil, Georgiana M.; Crooks, William J.; Stange, Sy

    2012-07-20

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels (CVs) remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1 to 2 inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the vessels. As debris is removed from the vessels, material will be placed in waste drums. Far-field gamma ray assay will be used to determine when a drum is nearing a {sup 239}Pu equivalent mass of less than 200 g. The drum will then be assayed using a waste drum shuffler operated in passive mode using a neutron coincidence counting method for accountability. This report focuses on the testing and calibration of the CMR waste drum shuffler in passive mode operation. Initial testing was performed to confirm previously accepted measurement parameters. The system was then calibrated using a set of weapons grade Pu (WGPu, {sup 239}Pu > 93%) oxide standards placed inside a 55 gallon drum. The calibration data ranges from Pu mass of 0.5 g to 188.9 g. The CMR waste drum shuffler has been tested and calibrated in passive mode in preparation for safeguards accountability measurements of waste drums containing material removed from CVs for the CVD project.

  19. Active and passive computed tomography for nondestructive assay

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardi, R T; Camp, D E; Clard, D; Jackson, J A; Martz, H E, Decman, D J; Roberson, G P

    1998-10-28

    Traditional gamma-ray methods used to characterize nuclear waste introduce errors that are related to non-uniform measurement responses associated with unknown radioactive source and matrix material distributions. These errors can be reduced by applying an active and passive tomographic technique (A&PCT) developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The technique uses an external radioactive source and active tomography to map the attenuation within a waste barrel as a function of mono-energetic gamma-ray energy. Passive tomography is used to localize and identify specific radioactive waste within the same container. Reconstruction of the passive data using the attenuation maps at specific energies allows internal waste radioactivity to be corrected for any overlying heterogeneous materials, thus yielding an absolute assay of the waste activity. LLNL and Bio-Imaging Research, Inc. have collaborated in a technology transfer effort to integrate an A&PCT assay system into a mobile waste characterization trailer. This mobile system has participated in and passed several formal DOE-sponsored performance demonstrations, tests and evaluations. The system is currently being upgraded with multiple detectors to improve throughput, automated gamma-ray analysis code to simplify the assay, and a new emission reconstruction code to improve accuracy

  20. Prognostics Health Management for Advanced Small Modular Reactor Passive Components

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Coble, Jamie B.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Henager, Charles H.

    2013-10-18

    In the United States, sustainable nuclear power to promote energy security is a key national energy priority. Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMR), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts using non-light-water reactor (LWR) coolants such as liquid metal, helium, or liquid salt may provide a longer-term alternative to more conventional LWR-based concepts. The economics of AdvSMRs will be impacted by the reduced economy-of-scale savings when compared to traditional LWRs and the controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs are expected to be dominated by operations and maintenance costs. Therefore, achieving the full benefits of AdvSMR deployment requires a new paradigm for plant design and management. In this context, prognostic health management of passive components in AdvSMRs can play a key role in enabling the economic deployment of AdvSMRs. In this paper, the background of AdvSMRs is discussed from which requirements for PHM systems are derived. The particle filter technique is proposed as a prognostics framework for AdvSMR passive components and the suitability of the particle filter technique is illustrated by using it to forecast thermal creep degradation using a physics-of-failure model and based on a combination of types of measurements conceived for passive AdvSMR components.

  1. Passive-sensor data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolitz, Stephan E.

    1991-08-01

    Problems in multi-sensor data fusion are addressed for passive (angle-only) sensors; the example used is a constellation of IR sensors on satellites in low-earth orbit, viewing up to several hundred ballistic missile targets. The sensor data used in the methodology of the report is 'post-detection,' with targets resolved on single pixels (it is possible for several targets to be resolved on the same pixel). A 'scan' by a sensor is modeled by the formation of a rectangular focal plane image of lit pixels (bits with value 1), representing the presence of at least one target, and unlit pixels (bits with value 0), representing the absence of a target, at a particular time. Approaches and algorithmic solutions are developed which address the following passive sensor data fusion problems: scan-to-scan target association, and association classification. The ultimate objective is to estimate target states, for use in a larger battle management system. Results indicate that successful scan-to-scan target association is feasible at scan rates >=2 Hz, independent of resolution. Sensor-to-sensor target association is difficult at low resolution; even with high-resolution sensors the performance of a standard two-sensor single scan approach is variable and unpredictable, since it is a function of the relative geometry of sensors and targets. A single-scan approach using the Varad algorithm and three sensors is not as sensitive to this relative geometry, but is usable only for high-resolution sensors. Innovative multi-scan and multi-sensor modifications of the three- sensor Varad algorithm are developed which provide excellent performance for a wide range of sensor resolutions. The multi-sensor multi-scan methodology also provides accurate information on the classification of target associations as correct or incorrect. For the scenarios examined with resolution cell sizes ranging from 300 m to 2 km, association errors are less than 5% and essentially no classification errors

  2. Citric Acid Passivation of Stainless Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasensky, David; Reali, John; Larson, Chris; Carl, Chad

    2009-01-01

    Passivation is a process for cleaning and providing corrosion protection for stainless steel. Currently, on Kennedy Space Center (KSC), only parts passivated with nitric acid are acceptable for use. KSC disposes of approximately 125gal of concentrated nitric acid per year, and receives many parts from vendors who must also dispose of used nitric acid. Unfortunately, nitric acid presents health and environmental hazards. As a result, several recent industry studies have examined citric acid as an alternative. Implementing a citric acid-based passivation procedure would improve the health and environmental safety aspects of passivation process. However although there is a lack of published studies that conclusively prove citric acid is a technically sound passivation agent. In 2007, NASA's KSC Materials Advisory Working Group requested the evaluation of citric acid in place of nitric acid for passivation of parts at KSC. United Space Alliance Materials & Processes engineers have developed a three-phase test plan to evaluate citric acid as an alternative to nitric acid on three stainless steels commonly used at KSC: UNS S30400, S41000, and S17400. Phases 1 and 2 will produce an optimized citric acid treatment based on results from atmospheric exposure at NASA's Beach Corrosion Facility. Phase 3 will compare the optimized solution(s) with nitric acid treatments. If the results indicate that citric acid passivates as well or better than nitric acid, NASA intends to approve this method for parts used at the Kennedy Space Center.

  3. Proceedings of the 14th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Technological areas covered include aviation propulsion, aerodynamic devices, and crew safety; space vehicle propulsion, guidance and control; spacecraft deployment, positioning, and pointing; spacecraft bearings, gimbals, and lubricants; and large space structures. Devices for payload deployment, payload retention, and crew extravehicular activity on the space shuttle orbiter are also described.

  4. Proceedings of the 14th Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Several software related topics are presented. Topics covered include studies and experiment at the Software Engineering Laboratory at the Goddard Space Flight Center, predicting project success from the Software Project Management Process, software environments, testing in a reuse environment, domain directed reuse, and classification tree analysis using the Amadeus measurement and empirical analysis.

  5. History of On-orbit Satellite Fragmentations (14th Edition)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.; Stansbery, Eugene; Whitlock, David O.; Abercromby, Kira J.; Shoots, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Since the first serious satellite fragmentation occurred in June 1961 (which instantaneously increased the total Earth satellite population by more than 400%) the issue of space operations within the finite region of space around the Earth has been the subject of increasing interest and concern. The prolific satellite fragmentations of the 1970s and the marked increase in the number of fragmentations in the 1980s served to widen international research into the characteristics and consequences of such events. Continued events in all orbits in later years make definition and historical accounting of those events crucial to future research. Large, manned space stations and the growing number of operational robotic satellites demand a better understanding of the hazards of the dynamic Earth satellite population.

  6. Passive Cooling of Body Armor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtz, Ronald; Matic, Peter; Mott, David

    2013-03-01

    Warfighter performance can be adversely affected by heat load and weight of equipment. Current tactical vest designs are good insulators and lack ventilation, thus do not provide effective management of metabolic heat generated. NRL has undertaken a systematic study of tactical vest thermal management, leading to physics-based strategies that provide improved cooling without undesirable consequences such as added weight, added electrical power requirements, or compromised protection. The approach is based on evaporative cooling of sweat produced by the wearer of the vest, in an air flow provided by ambient wind or ambulatory motion of the wearer. Using an approach including thermodynamic analysis, computational fluid dynamics modeling, air flow measurements of model ventilated vest architectures, and studies of the influence of fabric aerodynamic drag characteristics, materials and geometry were identified that optimize passive cooling of tactical vests. Specific architectural features of the vest design allow for optimal ventilation patterns, and selection of fabrics for vest construction optimize evaporation rates while reducing air flow resistance. Cooling rates consistent with the theoretical and modeling predictions were verified experimentally for 3D mockups.

  7. Remote electrically passive position transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducharme, Alfred D.; Markos, Constantine T.; Rieder, R. J.; Wijntjes, Geert J.

    1999-02-01

    We will report on the design and testing of a precision, remote, via fiber optics position transducer suitable for incorporation in a closed loop fly-by-light positioning system. The design is based on Visidyne developed technology for an ultra high resolution optical radar based on Continuous Wave modulated light at a frequency of 1 GHz. It produces digital position data with 12 bit precision e.g., for a travel distance, stroke of 6 inches or greater at a bandwidth, update rate of 1 KHz. The passive nature of the transducer at the actuator location and the high operating frequency makes it highly tolerant to even extreme levels of Electro Magnetic Interference and when constructed from high temperature material is can operate at temperatures well in excess of 300 degrees C. We will discuss transducer performance, precision and position stability with particular emphasis on the effects of length changes within the multi-mode optical fibers used to deliver and collect the light to and from the transducer. We will also discuss cost aspects of the design and their effect on overcoming market entry barriers.

  8. Passive states for essential observers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strich, Robert

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this note is to present a unified approach to the results given by Borchers and Buchholz ["Global properties of vacuum states in de Sitter space," Ann. Inst. Henri Poincare, Sect. A. 70, 23-40 (1999)] and by Buchholz and Summers ["Stable quantum systems in anti-de Sitter space: Causality, independence and spectral properties," J. Math. Phys. 45, 4810-4831 (2004)] which also covers examples of models not presented in these two papers (e.g., d-dimensional Minkowski space-time for d ⩾3). Assuming that a state is passive for an observer traveling along certain (essential) worldlines, we show that this state is invariant under the isometry group, is a temperature equilibrium state for the observer at a temperature uniquely determined by the structure constants of the Lie algebra involved, and fulfills (a variant of) the Reeh-Schlieder property. Also, the modular objects associated with such a state and the observable algebra of an observer are computed and a version of weak locality is examined.

  9. Passive states for essential observers

    SciTech Connect

    Strich, Robert

    2008-02-15

    The aim of this note is to present a unified approach to the results given by Borchers and Buchholz ['Global properties of vacuum states in de Sitter space', Ann. Inst. Henri Poincare, Sect. A. 70, 23-40 (1999)] and by Buchholz and Summers ['Stable quantum systems in anti-de Sitter space: Causality, independence and spectral properties', J. Math. Phys. 45, 4810-4831 (2004)] which also covers examples of models not presented in these two papers (e.g., d-dimensional Minkowski space-time for d{>=}3). Assuming that a state is passive for an observer traveling along certain (essential) worldlines, we show that this state is invariant under the isometry group, is a temperature equilibrium state for the observer at a temperature uniquely determined by the structure constants of the Lie algebra involved, and fulfills (a variant of) the Reeh-Schlieder property. Also, the modular objects associated with such a state and the observable algebra of an observer are computed and a version of weak locality is examined.

  10. Passive fault current limiting device

    DOEpatents

    Evans, D.J.; Cha, Y.S.

    1999-04-06

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment. 6 figs.

  11. Passive fault current limiting device

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Daniel J.; Cha, Yung S.

    1999-01-01

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment.

  12. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of NASA and the GSDO Program, the objective of this project is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys. This project is a direct follow-on to United Space Alliance (USA) work at KSC to optimize the parameters for the use of citric acid and verify effectiveness. This project will build off of the USA study to further evaluate citric acids effectiveness and suitability for corrosion protection of a number of stainless steels alloys used by NASA, the Department of Defense (DoD), and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  13. [Passive euthanasia and living will].

    PubMed

    Julesz, Máté

    2014-07-01

    This article deals with the intentional distinction between murder of first degree and passive euthanasia. In Hungary, active euthanasia is considered to be a murder of first degree, whilst the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg and Switzerland have legalized the active form of mercy killing in Europe. The palliative terminal care, when e.g. giving pain-killer morphine to the patient, might result in decreasing the patient's life-span, and thus causing indirect euthanasia. However, the legal institution of living will exists in several counter-euthanasia countries. The living will allows future patients to express their decision in advance to refuse a life-sustaining treatment, e.g. in case of irreversible coma. The institution of living will exists in Germany and in Hungary too. Nevertheless, the formal criteria of living will make it hardly applicable. The patient ought to express his/her will before a notary public in advance, and he/she should hand it over when being hospitalized. If the patient is not able to present his/her living will to his/her doctor in the hospital, then his/her only hope remains that he/she has given a copy of the living will to the family doctor previously, and the family doctor will notify the hospital. PMID:24974840

  14. Passive environmental temperature control system

    DOEpatents

    Corliss, John M.; Stickford, George H.

    1981-01-01

    Passive environmental heating and cooling systems are described, which utilize heat pipes to transmit heat to or from a thermal reservoir. In a solar heating system, a heat pipe is utilized to carry heat from a solar heat absorber plate that receives sunlight, through a thermal insulation barrier, to a heat storage wall, with the outer end of the pipe which is in contact with the solar absorber being lower than the inner end. The inclining of the heat pipe assures that the portion of working fluid, such as Freon, which is in a liquid phase will fall by gravity to the outer end of the pipe, thereby assuring diode action that prevents the reverse transfer of heat from the reservoir to the outside on cool nights. In a cooling system, the outer end of the pipe which connects to a heat dissipator, is higher than the inner end that is coupled to a cold reservoir, to allow heat transfer only out of the reservoir to the heat dissipator, and not in the reverse direction.

  15. Passivation Effects in Copper Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Wiederhirn, G.; Nucci, J.; Richter, G.; Arzt, E.; Balk, T. J.; Dehm, G.

    2006-02-07

    We studied the influence of a 10 nm AlxOy passivation on the stress-temperature behavior of 100 nm and 1 {mu}m thick Cu films. At low temperatures, the passivation induces a large tensile stress increase in the 100 nm film; however, its effect on the 1 {mu}m film is negligible. At high temperatures, the opposite behavior is observed; while the passivation does not change the 100 nm film behavior, it strengthens the 1 {mu}m film by driving it deeper into compression. These observations are explained in light of a combination of constrained diffusional creep and dislocation dynamics unique to ultra-thin films.

  16. Passive decoy-state quantum key distribution using weak coherent pulses with modulator attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Hong-Wei; Zhou, Chun; Wang, Yang

    2015-11-01

    Passive decoy-state quantum key distribution is more desirable than the active one in some scenarios. It is also affected by the imperfections of the devices. In this paper, the influence of modulator attenuation on the passive decoy-state method is considered. We introduce and analyze the unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer, briefly, and combining with the virtual source and imaginary unitary transformation, we characterize the passive decoy-state method using a weak coherent photon source with modulator attenuation. According to the attenuation parameter δ, the pass efficiencies are given. Then, the key generation rate can be acquired. From numerical simulations, it can be seen that modulator attenuation has a nonnegligible influence on the performance of passive-state QKD protocol. Based on the research, the analysis method of virtual source and imaginary unitary transformation are preferred in analyzing passive decoy state protocol, and the passive decoy-state method is better than the active one and is close to the active vacuum + weak decoy state under the condition of having the same modulator attenuation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11304397).

  17. Safety significance of ATR (Advanced Test Reactor) passive safety response attributes

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was designed with some passive safety response attributes which contribute to the safety posture of the facility. The three passive safety attributes being evaluated in the paper are: (1) In-core and in-vessel natural convection cooling, (2) a passive heat sink capability of the ATR primary coolant system (PCS) for the transfer of decay power from the uninsulated piping to the confinement, and (3) gravity feed of emergency coolant makeup. The safety significance of the ATR passive safety response attributes is that the reactor can passively respond for most transients, given a reactor scram, to provide adequate decay power removal and a significant time for operator action should the normal active heat removal systems and their backup systems both fail. The ATR Interim Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) model ands results were used to evaluate the significance to ATR fuel damage frequency (or probability) of the above three passive response attributes. The results of the evaluation indicate that the first attribute is a major safety characteristic of the ATR. The second attribute has a noticeable but only minor safety significance. The third attribute has no significant influence on the ATR Level 1 PRA because of the diversity and redundancy of the ATR firewater injection system (emergency coolant system). 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission and opportunities for applications users

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of four first-tier missions recommended by the National Research Council's Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space. Set to launch in 2014, SMAP soil moisture and freeze/thaw measurements will have an accuracy, resolution, and glob...

  19. Soil moisture active passive (SMAP) satellite status and cal/val activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite will be launched by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in November 2014. This satellite is the culmination of basic research and applications development over the past thirty years. During most of this period, research and development ...

  20. Lipid-Based Passivation in Nanofluidics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Stretching DNA in nanochannels is a useful tool for direct, visual studies of genomic DNA at the single molecule level. To facilitate the study of the interaction of linear DNA with proteins in nanochannels, we have implemented a highly effective passivation scheme based on lipid bilayers. We demonstrate virtually complete long-term passivation of nanochannel surfaces to a range of relevant reagents, including streptavidin-coated quantum dots, RecA proteins, and RecA–DNA complexes. We show that the performance of the lipid bilayer is significantly better than that of standard bovine serum albumin-based passivation. Finally, we show how the passivated devices allow us to monitor single DNA cleavage events during enzymatic degradation by DNase I. We expect that our approach will open up for detailed, systematic studies of a wide range of protein–DNA interactions with high spatial and temporal resolution. PMID:22432814

  1. Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni G.; Entekhabi, Dara

    1994-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing provides a unique capability for direct observation of soil moisture... This Paper outlines the basic principles of the passive microwave technique for soil moisture sensing, and reviews briefly the status of current retrieval methods.

  2. A Microfluidic Passive Pumping Coulter Counter

    PubMed Central

    McPherson, Amy L.; Walker, Glenn M.

    2013-01-01

    A microfluidic device using on-chip passive pumping was characterized for use as a particle counter. Flow occurred due to a Young-Laplace pressure gradient between two 1.2 mm diameter inlets and a 4 mm diameter reservoir when 0.5μ L fluid droplets were applied to the inlets using a micropipette. Polystyrene particles (10μm diameter) were enumerated using the resistive pulse technique. Particle counts using passive pumping were within 13% of counts from a device using syringe pumping. All pumping methods produced particle counts that were within 16% of those obtained with a hemocytometer. The effect of intermediate wash steps on particle counts within the passive pumping device was determined. Zero, one, or two wash droplets were loaded after the first of two sample droplets. No statistical difference was detected in the mean particle counts among the loading patterns (p > 0.05). Hydrodynamic focusing using passive pumping was also demonstrated. PMID:23930109

  3. Passive Earth Entry Vehicle Energy Absorbing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellas, S.; Maddock, R. W.

    2014-06-01

    A critical element of a passive EEV performance is the energy absorbing system required to attenuate the dynamic landing loads. Two design approaches are described and the pros and cons based on particular mission requirements are discussed.

  4. Climate-Specific Passive Building Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Graham S.; Klingenberg, Katrin

    2015-07-29

    In 2012, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recognized the value of performance-based passive building standards when it joined with Passive House Institute US (PHIUS) to promote DOE’s Challenge Home program in tandem with the PHIUS+ Certification program. Since then, the number of passive building projects that have been certified under the partnership has grown exponentially because of some synergy. Passive building represents a well-developed approach to arrive at the envelope basis for zero energy and energy-positive projects by employing performance-based criteria and maximizing cost-effective savings from conservation before implementing renewable energy technologies. The Challenge Home program evolved into the Zero Energy Ready Home (ZERH) program in a move toward 1) attaining zero energy and 2) including active renewable energy generation such as photovoltaics (PV)—toward the zero energy goal.

  5. How can I quit passive smoking?

    PubMed

    Richardson, George; Eick, Susan

    2005-10-01

    Passive smoking is a topical subject and there is a concerted movement to increase public understanding of the dangers of passive smoking. Although it looks likely that smoking could be banned in public places in the UK by the year 2008, it will still be difficult to enforce smoking bans in the last bastion for the smokers--their homes. Many smokers are aware of the risk their smoking causes their families through passive smoking but do not realise that the only true method for them to reduce exposure for their family is to smoke outside the home. This is partly because of a lack of understanding of the behaviour of environmental tobacco smoke and how smoking in restricted areas alone will not eliminate passive smoking for other family members in their homes. PMID:16245673

  6. Galaxy Zoo: passive red spirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Karen L.; Mosleh, Moein; Romer, A. Kathy; Nichol, Robert C.; Bamford, Steven P.; Schawinski, Kevin; Lintott, Chris J.; Andreescu, Dan; Campbell, Heather C.; Crowcroft, Ben; Doyle, Isabelle; Edmondson, Edward M.; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Slosar, Anže; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vandenberg, Jan

    2010-06-01

    We study the spectroscopic properties and environments of red (or passive) spiral galaxies found by the Galaxy Zoo project. By carefully selecting face-on disc-dominated spirals, we construct a sample of truly passive discs (i.e. they are not dust reddened spirals, nor are they dominated by old stellar populations in a bulge). As such, our red spirals represent an interesting set of possible transition objects between normal blue spiral galaxies and red early types, making up ~6 per cent of late-type spirals. We use optical images and spectra from Sloan Digital Sky Survey to investigate the physical processes which could have turned these objects red without disturbing their morphology. We find red spirals preferentially in intermediate density regimes. However, there are no obvious correlations between red spiral properties and environment suggesting that environment alone is not sufficient to determine whether a galaxy will become a red spiral. Red spirals are a very small fraction of all spirals at low masses (M* < 1010 Msolar), but are a significant fraction of the spiral population at large stellar masses showing that massive galaxies are red independent of morphology. We confirm that as expected, red spirals have older stellar populations and less recent star formation than the main spiral population. While the presence of spiral arms suggests that a major star formation could not have ceased a long ago (not more than a few Gyr), we show that these are also not recent post-starburst objects (having had no significant star formation in the last Gyr), so star formation must have ceased gradually. Intriguingly, red spirals are roughly four times as likely than the normal spiral population to host optically identified Seyfert/low-ionization nuclear emission region (LINER; at a given stellar mass and even accounting for low-luminosity lines hidden by star formation), with most of the difference coming from the objects with LINER-like emission. We also find a

  7. Passive Energy Building Design Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-11-01

    SOLAR5 is a computer aided design tool to help architects design better, more energy efficient buildings. It is intended for use at the beginning of the design process. To get started, only four pieces of information are necessary to compute the energy needed: the square footage, the number of stories, the kind of building (such as school, home, hotel, or any one of 20 types), and its location (the program stores the temperature ranges formore » fourty major cities). Additional information may be given later to fine tune the design. An expert system using heuristics from a wide range of sources, automatically creates a passive solar baseline building from the four facts specified for that project. By modifying and adapting prior designs the user can create and work upon as many as nine schemes simultaneously. SOLAR5 can analyze the buildings thermal performance for each hour of each month and plot its total heat gain or loss as a three-dimensional surface. After reading the plot, the user can immediately redesign the building and rerun the analysis. Separate heat gain/loss surfaces can be plotted for each of the different parts of the building or schemes that add together to make up the total, including walls, roof, windows, skylights, floor, slab on grade, people, lights, equipment, and infiltration. Two different schemes can be instantly compared by asking for a three-dimensional plot showing only the difference in their performances. The objective of SOLAR5 is to allow the designer to make changes easily and quickly with detailed instantaneous pictorial feedback of the implications of the change.« less

  8. Expansion-based passive ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barniv, Yair

    1993-01-01

    A new technique of passive ranging which is based on utilizing the image-plane expansion experienced by every object as its distance from the sensor decreases is described. This technique belongs in the feature/object-based family. The motion and shape of a small window, assumed to be fully contained inside the boundaries of some object, is approximated by an affine transformation. The parameters of the transformation matrix are derived by initially comparing successive images, and progressively increasing the image time separation so as to achieve much larger triangulation baseline than currently possible. Depth is directly derived from the expansion part of the transformation. To a first approximation, image-plane expansion is independent of image-plane location with respect to the focus of expansion (FOE) and of platform maneuvers. Thus, an expansion-based method has the potential of providing a reliable range in the difficult image area around the FOE. In areas far from the FOE the shift parameters of the affine transformation can provide more accurate depth information than the expansion alone, and can thus be used similarly to the way they were used in conjunction with the Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) and Kalman filtering. However, the performance of a shift-based algorithm, when the shifts are derived from the affine transformation, would be much improved compared to current algorithms because the shifts - as well as the other parameters - can be obtained between widely separated images. Thus, the main advantage of this new approach is that, allowing the tracked window to expand and rotate, in addition to moving laterally, enables one to correlate images over a very long time span which, in turn, translates into a large spatial baseline - resulting in a proportionately higher depth accuracy.

  9. Expansion-based passive ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barniv, Yair

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique of passive ranging which is based on utilizing the image-plane expansion experienced by every object as its distance from the sensor decreases. This technique belongs in the feature/object-based family. The motion and shape of a small window, assumed to be fully contained inside the boundaries of some object, is approximated by an affine transformation. The parameters of the transformation matrix are derived by initially comparing successive images, and progressively increasing the image time separation so as to achieve much larger triangulation baseline than currently possible. Depth is directly derived from the expansion part of the transformation. To a first approximation, image-plane expansion is independent of image-plane location with respect to the focus of expansion (FOE) and of platform maneuvers. Thus, an expansion-based method has the potential of providing a reliable range in the difficult image area around the FOE. In areas far from the FOE the shift parameters of the affine transformation can provide more accurate depth information than the expansion alone, and can thus be used similarly to the way they have been used in conjunction with the Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) and Kalman filtering. However, the performance of a shift-based algorithm, when the shifts are derived from the affine transformation, would be much improved compared to current algorithms because the shifts--as well as the other parameters--can be obtained between widely separated images. Thus, the main advantage of this new approach is that, allowing the tracked window to expand and rotate, in addition to moving laterally, enables one to correlate images over a very long time span which, in turn, translates into a large spatial baseline resulting in a proportionately higher depth accuracy.

  10. Hydrogen passivation of silicon nanowire structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aouida, S.; Benabderrahmane Zaghouani, R.; Bachtouli, N.; Bessais, B.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we focus on hydrogen passivation of silicon nanowire structures (SiNWs) obtained by metal assisted chemical etching (MACE) intended to be used in silicon-based solar cells. SiNWs present high surface defects density causing the minority carrier lifetime reduction. Our results show that hydrogen passivation of SiNWs ameliorates minority carrier lifetime by reducing the dangling bonds and then the surface recombination velocity. This enhancement is limited by SiNWs distribution.