Science.gov

Sample records for 14th-18th cc skeletal

  1. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on the 14th-18th days of gestation on postnatal growth and development in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1988-11-01

    Thirty-nine pregnant adult Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to one of three exposure groups: 0, 0.75, or 1.50 Gy X-radiation total exposure. Animals were exposed from the 14th to the 18th days of gestation at 0, 0.15, or 0.30 Gy per day. At term, 15 rats were killed and morphologic analyses were completed. Twenty-four rats were allowed to deliver their offspring. On the first day of postnatal life, litters were reduced to a maximum of eight pups per litter, with equal numbers of male and female offspring wherever possible. A total of 187 pups were observed for the age of acquisition of five reflexes (air righting, surface righting, visual placing, negative geotaxis, auditory startle) and the appearance of four physiologic markers (pinna detachment, eye opening, vaginal opening, testes descent). There was significant dose-related weight reduction in term fetuses and offspring throughout the 86-day postnatal period. Postnatal growth rate (g gained/day) was unaffected. Adult offspring brain and gonadal weight and organ weight:body weight ratios were reduced. Using the PAC50 methodology, dose-related alterations occurred in the acquisition of several reflexes. All physiologic markers exhibited a dose-related delay in appearance. These results indicate that fractionated exposure to X-radiation during the fetal period in the rat results in dose-dependent alterations in postnatal growth and physiologic development. These studies are important for our understanding of the long-range effects of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation late in gestation.

  2. Chlorination-Promoted Skeletal-Cage Transformations of C88 Fullerene by C2 Losses and a C-C Bond Rotation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shangfeng; Wei, Tao; Scheurell, Kerstin; Kemnitz, Erhard; Troyanov, Sergey I

    2015-10-19

    High-temperature chlorination of fullerene C88 (isomer 33) with VCl4 gives rise to skeletal transformations affording several nonclassical (NC) fullerene chlorides, C86 (NC1)Cl24/26 and C84 (NC2)Cl26 , with one and two heptagons, respectively, in the carbon cages. The branched skeletal transformation including C2 losses as well as a Stone-Wales rearrangement has been comprehensively characterized by the structure determination of two intermediates and three final chlorination products. Quantum-chemical calculations demonstrate that the average energy of the C-Cl bond is significantly increased in chlorides of nonclassical fullerenes with a large number of chlorinated sites of pentagon-pentagon adjacency. PMID:26332709

  3. OASIS-CC presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Operations and Science Instrument Support (OASIS) project is a long-term effort to help produce operations capabilities that can support space science missions of the next century. Portions of the OASIS concept in software have been implemented under the general name OASIS-R/T. OASIS-CC is the OASIS Command and Control, for monitoring and controlling science instruments and spacecraft during test, integration, launch and on-orbit operations. Viewgraphs are presented on the OASIS-CC functionality description, OASIS-CC support, and OASIS-CC as a tool.

  4. MODIFICATION OF CC WHITEFLY TRAPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modifications of CC whitefly traps are in progress to improve their potential for adult whitefly control in greenhouses. Adult catches in the modified CC traps have been increased by 50% by coating trap tops with Tanglefoot and removing the deflector plates. In laboratory studies, installation of ...

  5. CC Pressure Test

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K.; /Fermilab

    1990-07-12

    The inner vessel heads including bypass and beam tubes had just been welded into place and dye penetrant checked. The vacuum heads were not on at this time but the vacuum shell was on covering the piping penetrating into the inner vessel. Signal boxes with all feed through boards, the instrumentation box, and high voltage boxes were all installed with their pump outs capped. All 1/4-inch instrumentation lines were terminated at their respective shutoff valves. All vacuum piping used for pumping down the inner vessel was isolated using o-ring sealed blind flanges. PV215A (VAT Series 12), the 4-inch VRC gate valve isolating the cyropump, and the rupture disk had to be removed and replaced with blind flanges before pressurizing due to their pressure limitations. Stresses in plates used as blind flanges were checked using Code calcualtions. Before the CC test, vacuum style blanks and clamps were hydrostatically pressure tested to 150% of the maximum test pressure, 60 psig. The Code inspector and Research Division Safety had all given their approval to the test pressure and procedure prior to filling the vessel with argon. The test was a major success. Based on the lack of any distinguishable pressure drop indicated on the pressure gages, the vessel appeared to be structurally sound throughout the duration of the test (approx. 3 hrs.). A major leak in the instrumentation tubing was discovered at half of the maximum test pressure and was quickly isolated by crimping and capping with a compression fitting. There were some slight deviations in the actual procedure used. The 44 psig relief valve located just outside the cleanroom had to be capped until the pressure in the vessel indicated 38 psi. This was to allow higher supply pressures and hence, higher flows through the pressurizing line. Also, in order to get pressure readings at the cryostat without exposing any personnel to the potentially dangerous stored energy near the maximum test pressure, a camera was installed

  6. Skeletal radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Bowerman, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The main emphasis of the chapter on skeletal radiology is CAT scanning and its use in the diagnosis of neoplasms. Other topics that are discussed include infections, arthritis, trauma, and metabolic and endocrine diseases as they relate to skeletal radiology. (KRM)

  7. Skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Krakow, Deborah

    2015-06-01

    The skeletal dysplasias are a group of more than 450 heritable disorders of bone. They frequently present in the newborn period with disproportion, radiographic abnormalities, and occasionally other organ system abnormalities. For improved clinical care, it is important to determine a precise diagnosis to aid in management, familial recurrence, and identify those disorders highly associated with mortality. Long-term management of these disorders is predicated on an understanding of the associated skeletal system abnormalities, and these children are best served by a team approach to health care surveillance. PMID:26042906

  8. Skeletal Dysplasias

    PubMed Central

    Krakow, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Synoposis The skeletal dysplasias are a group of more than 450 heritable disorders of bone. They frequently present in the newborn period with disproportion, radiographic abnormalities, and occasionally other organ system abnormalities. For improved clinical care it is important to determine a precise diagnosis to aid in management, familial recurrence and identify those disorders highly associated with mortality. Long-term management of these disorders is predicated on an understanding of the associated skeletal system abnormalities and these children are best served by a team approach to health care surveillance. PMID:26042906

  9. Skeletal muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  10. RB1CC1 Protein Suppresses Type II Collagen Synthesis in Chondrocytes and Causes Dwarfism*

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Ichiro; Chano, Tokuhiro; Kita, Hiroko; Matsusue, Yoshitaka; Okabe, Hidetoshi

    2011-01-01

    RB1-inducible coiled-coil 1 (RB1CC1) functions in various processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, senescence, apoptosis, and autophagy. The conditional transgenic mice with cartilage-specific RB1CC1 excess that were used in the present study were made for the first time by the Cre-loxP system. Cartilage-specific RB1CC1 excess caused dwarfism in mice without causing obvious abnormalities in endochondral ossification and subsequent skeletal development from embryo to adult. In vitro and in vivo analysis revealed that the dwarf phenotype in cartilaginous RB1CC1 excess was induced by reductions in the total amount of cartilage and the number of cartilaginous cells, following suppressions of type II collagen synthesis and Erk1/2 signals. In addition, we have demonstrated that two kinds of SNPs (T-547C and C-468T) in the human RB1CC1 promoter have significant influence on the self-transcriptional level. Accordingly, human genotypic variants of RB1CC1 that either stimulate or inhibit RB1CC1 transcription in vivo may cause body size variations. PMID:22049074

  11. RB1CC1 protein suppresses type II collagen synthesis in chondrocytes and causes dwarfism.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Ichiro; Chano, Tokuhiro; Kita, Hiroko; Matsusue, Yoshitaka; Okabe, Hidetoshi

    2011-12-23

    RB1-inducible coiled-coil 1 (RB1CC1) functions in various processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, senescence, apoptosis, and autophagy. The conditional transgenic mice with cartilage-specific RB1CC1 excess that were used in the present study were made for the first time by the Cre-loxP system. Cartilage-specific RB1CC1 excess caused dwarfism in mice without causing obvious abnormalities in endochondral ossification and subsequent skeletal development from embryo to adult. In vitro and in vivo analysis revealed that the dwarf phenotype in cartilaginous RB1CC1 excess was induced by reductions in the total amount of cartilage and the number of cartilaginous cells, following suppressions of type II collagen synthesis and Erk1/2 signals. In addition, we have demonstrated that two kinds of SNPs (T-547C and C-468T) in the human RB1CC1 promoter have significant influence on the self-transcriptional level. Accordingly, human genotypic variants of RB1CC1 that either stimulate or inhibit RB1CC1 transcription in vivo may cause body size variations. PMID:22049074

  12. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-31

    This report summarizes EMaCC activities for fiscal year 1990 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the department. The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the department. (JL)

  13. Skeletal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Dugoff, L; Thieme, G; Hobbins, J C

    2000-12-01

    It is possible to identify many types of skeletal dysplasias and conditions involving limb deformities prenatally using ultrasound. It is likely that in the future, with the advancing technology and discoveries in molecular genetics, specific mutation analysis will become available for many of these conditions. This will make first trimester diagnosis an option in many cases. Because of the complex nature of many of these cases, it may be helpful to use a multidisciplinary approach involving a radiologist and a geneticist at times. In utero radiographs may help clarify a diagnosis. In lethal cases where a specific diagnosis has not been confirmed, it may be helpful postpartum to obtain an autopsy; photographs; complete body radiographs; karyotypic analysis; and specimens of bone, cartilage, and fetal blood for further analysis. PMID:11816496

  14. Skeletal Scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, I. Ross

    1979-01-01

    Skeletal scintigraphy, using phosphates or diphosphonates labeled with technetium 99m, is a sensitive method of detecting bone abnormalities. The most important and most frequent role of bone scanning is evaluating the skeletal areas in patients who have a primary cancer, especially a malignant condition that has a tendency to spread to bone areas. The bone scan is superior to bone radiographs in diagnosing these abnormalities; 15 percent to 25 percent of patients with breast, prostate or lung cancer, who have normal roentgenograms, also have abnormal scintigrams due to metastases. The majority of bone metastases appear as hot spots on the scan and are easily recognized. The incidence of abnormal bone scans in patients with early stages (I and II) of breast cancer varies from 6 percent to 26 percent, but almost invariably those patients with scan abnormalities have a poor prognosis and should be considered for additional therapies. Progression or regression of bony lesions can be defined through scanning, and abnormal areas can be identified for biopsy. The incidence of metastases in solitary scan lesions in patients with known primary tumors varies from 20 percent to 64 percent. Bone scintigraphy shows positive uptake in 95 percent of cases with acute osteomyelitis. Stress fractures and trauma suspected in battered babies can be diagnosed by scanning before there is radiological evidence. The procedure is free from acute or long-term side effects and, except in cases of very young patients, sedation is seldom necessary. Although the test is sensitive, it is not specific and therefore it is difficult to overemphasize the importance of clinical, radiographic, biochemical and scanning correlation in each patient. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:390886

  15. Chemistry and the 10cc Syringe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatton, Hyrum W.

    1973-01-01

    The use of 10cc. syringes in high school chemistry experiments can reduce the expense of equipment and lead to imaginative experimental designs. Describes the equipment and experimental procedures for four experiments utilizing syringes. (JR)

  16. PERI-CC2: A Polarizable Embedded RI-CC2 Method.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, Tobias; Sneskov, Kristian; Haugaard Olsen, Jógvan Magnus; Kongsted, Jacob; Christiansen, Ove; Hättig, Christof

    2012-09-11

    We present a combination of the polarizable embedding (PE) method with the resolution-of-the-identity implementation of the approximate coupled-cluster singles and doubles method CC2. The new approach, termed PERI-CC2, allows one to study excited state phenomena of large solvated molecular systems with an accurate correlated wave function method. Central to the PE approach is the advanced description of the environmental electrostatic potential and inclusion of polarization, and the quintessence of RI-CC2 is efficient access to excited state properties while retaining the accuracy associated with CC theory. To maintain efficiency, an approximate truncated CC2 density is introduced to calculate the PE contributions. Explicitly, we derive the central equations and outline an implementation of polarizable embedding for the RI-CC2 approach. The new method is tested against previous PE-CC2 and PE-CCSD results for solvatochromic shifts, demonstrating how the important effects of polarization are incorporated well with PERI-CC2 but with a dramatically reduced overall computational cost. A follow-up investigation of the solvatochromic shift of uracil in aqueous solution further illustrates the potential of PERI-CC2. We discuss the need to explicitly incorporate several water molecules into the region treated by quantum mechanics in order to obtain a reliable and accurate description of the physical effects when specific solute/solvent interactions as, e.g., hydrogen-bonds are involved. PMID:26605734

  17. Grout Analysis for EC and CC Calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Engstrom, L.L.; /Fermilab

    1987-01-06

    The EC and CC calorimeters roll on Two parallel hardened steel ways which reside on the top of the D0 platform's center beam. The ways will be grouted to the center beam once their correct elevation has been established. The purpose of this report is to evaluate and compare three different epoxy grouts and their properties for this application.

  18. ASME Code Calculations for the CC Cryostat

    SciTech Connect

    Luther, R.D.; /Fermilab

    1987-11-04

    This engineering note contains the ASHE Code calculations for the CC Cryostat prepared by the manufacturer, Richmond-Lox Equipment Company. Most of these were taken from calculations initially prepared by Fermilab personne1and pub1ished in Eng. Note 68.

  19. Skeletal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Paolo; Robey, Pamela G

    2015-03-15

    Skeletal stem cells (SSCs) reside in the postnatal bone marrow and give rise to cartilage, bone, hematopoiesis-supportive stroma and marrow adipocytes in defined in vivo assays. These lineages emerge in a specific sequence during embryonic development and post natal growth, and together comprise a continuous anatomical system, the bone-bone marrow organ. SSCs conjoin skeletal and hematopoietic physiology, and are a tool for understanding and ameliorating skeletal and hematopoietic disorders. Here and in the accompanying poster, we concisely discuss the biology of SSCs in the context of the development and postnatal physiology of skeletal lineages, to which their use in medicine must remain anchored. PMID:25758217

  20. 40 CFR Appendix to Subpart Cc of... - Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 63, subpart CC. 63.428(h)(1) through (h)(3) Excess emissions report loading rack information Required to be submitted with the Periodic Report required under 40 CFR part 63, subpart CC. a... required under 40 CFR part 63, subpart CC. 63.565(b) Performance test data requirements 63.567(a)...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix to Subpart Cc of... - Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 63, subpart CC. 63.428(h)(1) through (h)(3) Excess emissions report loading rack information Required to be submitted with the Periodic Report required under 40 CFR part 63, subpart CC. a... required under 40 CFR part 63, subpart CC. 63.565(b) Performance test data requirements 63.567(a)...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix to Subpart Cc of... - Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 63, subpart CC. 63.428(h)(1) through (h)(3) Excess emissions report loading rack information Required to be submitted with the Periodic Report required under 40 CFR part 63, subpart CC. a... required under 40 CFR part 63, subpart CC. 63.565(b) Performance test data requirements 63.567(a)...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix to Subpart Cc of... - Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 63, subpart CC. 63.428(h)(1) through (h)(3) Excess emissions report loading rack information Required to be submitted with the Periodic Report required under 40 CFR part 63, subpart CC. a... required under 40 CFR part 63, subpart CC. 63.565(b) Performance test data requirements 63.567(a)...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix to Subpart Cc of... - Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 63, subpart CC. 63.428(h)(1) through (h)(3) Excess emissions report loading rack information Required to be submitted with the Periodic Report required under 40 CFR part 63, subpart CC. a... required under 40 CFR part 63, subpart CC. 63.565(b) Performance test data requirements 63.567(a)...

  5. [Radiological diagnosis and intervention of cholangiocarcinomas (CC)].

    PubMed

    Vogl, T J; Zangos, S; Eichler, K; Gruber-Rouh, T; Hammerstingl, R M; Trojan, J; Weisser, P

    2012-10-01

    To present current data on diagnosis, indication and different therapy options in patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CC) based on an analysis of the current literature and clinical experience. The diagnostic routine includes laboratory investigations with parameters of cholestasis and also serum tumor markers CA19 - 9 and CEA. After ultrasound for clarifying a tumor and/or dilated bile ducts, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be performed with magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRCP). The accuracy (positive predictive value) for diagnosing a CC is 37-84% (depending on the location) for ultrasound, 79-94% for computed tomography (CT), and 95% for MRI and MRCP. An endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP) can then be planned, especially if biliary drainage or cytological or histological specimen sampling is intended. A curative approach can be achieved by surgical resection, rarely by liver transplantation. However, many patients are not eligible for surgery. In addition to systemic chemotherapy, locoregional therapies such as transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), hepatic arterial infusion (HAI)--also known as chemoperfusion--, drug eluting beads-therapy (DEB) as well as thermoablative procedures, such as laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT), microwave ablation (MWA) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) can be provided with a palliative intention. PMID:22711249

  6. CC5 and CC8, two homologous disintegrins from Cerastes cerastes venom, inhibit in vitro and ex vivo angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ben-Mabrouk, Hazem; Zouari-Kessentini, Raoudha; Montassar, Fadoua; Koubaa, Zeineb Abdelkefi-; Messaadi, Erij; Guillonneau, Xavier; ElAyeb, Mohamed; Srairi-Abid, Najet; Luis, José; Micheau, Olivier; Marrakchi, Naziha

    2016-05-01

    Angiogenesis constitutes a fundamental step in tumor progression. Thus, targeting tumour angiogenesis has been identified to be promising in cancer treatment. In this work, CC5 and CC8, two highly homologous disintegrins isolated from the venom Cerastes cerastes viper from the south of Tunisia, were assessed for their anti-angiogenic effect by testing their ability to interfere with viability, adhesion, migration and angiogenesis of Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells, HMEC-1 and HBMEC. We found that CC5 and CC8 displayed pro-apoptotic potential in HMEC-1 cells. Anoïkis like induced by these two disintegrins was evidenced by cell detachment, down regulation of FAK/AKT/PI3K axis and caspase activation. In addition, both CC5 and CC8 exhibited in vitro anti-adhesive, anti-migratory and anti-proliferative effects on endothelial cells HBMEC. These effects appeared to require RGD and/or WGD loops disintegrin. CC5 and CC8 also inhibited tube-formation on matrigel and displayed potent anti-angiogenic activities as assessed ex vivo, using both the embryo chick chorioallantoic membrane model (CAM) and rat aortic ring assay. Altogether our results demonstrate that CC5 and CC8, are potent inhibitors of angiogenesis, by disrupting αvβ3 and α5β1 binding. The use of CC5 and/or CC8 could provide a beneficial tool to inhibit abnormal angiogenesis and to induce cancer regression. PMID:26853827

  7. Endemic skeletal fluorosis

    PubMed Central

    Teotia, M.; Teotia, S. P. S.; Kunwar, K. B.

    1971-01-01

    Endemic skeletal fluorosis is described in 6 children aged 11 or over. Four cases were crippled with severe deformities in the spine, hips, and knees. All showed positive phosphorus, magnesium, and nitrogen balances and excessively positive calcium balances. The skeletal x-rays, histology, and chemical composition of the bones revealed diagnostic changes in each case. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:5118057

  8. First North American 50 cc Total Artificial Heart Experience: Conversion from a 70 cc Total Artificial Heart.

    PubMed

    Khalpey, Zain; Kazui, Toshinobu; Ferng, Alice S; Connell, Alana; Tran, Phat L; Meyer, Mark; Rawashdeh, Badi; Smith, Richard G; Sweitzer, Nancy K; Friedman, Mark; Lick, Scott; Slepian, Marvin J; Copeland, Jack G

    2016-01-01

    The 70 cc total artificial heart (TAH) has been utilized as bridge to transplant (BTT) for biventricular failure. However, the utilization of 70 cc TAH has been limited to large patients for the low output from the pulmonary as well as systemic vein compression after chest closure. Therefore, the 50 cc TAH was developed by SynCardia (Tucson, AZ) to accommodate smaller chest cavity. We report the first TAH exchange from a 70 to 50 cc due to a fit difficulty. The patient failed to be closed with a 70 cc TAH, although the patient met the conventional 70 cc TAH fit criteria. We successfully closed the chest with a 50 cc TAH. PMID:26809081

  9. [Muscle-skeletal pain].

    PubMed

    Vygonskaya, M V; Filatova, E G

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the most complicated aspects of low back pain. The differences between specific and nonspecific low back pain using the "red flags" system is highlighted. The authors consider the causes of pain chronification (the "yellow flags" system) and the necessity of using a biopsychosocial model. Main pathogenetic mechanisms of chronic muscle/skeletal pain are considered and the possible involvement of several mechanism in the pathogenesis of chronic pain as well as the use of complex therapy is discussed. The high efficacy and safety of ketorolac in treatment of nonspecific muscle/skeletal pain is demonstrated. PMID:27042717

  10. Autyomatic Differentiation of C/C++

    SciTech Connect

    Beata Winnicka, Boyana Norris

    2005-11-14

    Automatic differentiation (AD) tools mechanize the process of developing code for the computation of derivatives. AD avoids the inaccuracies inherent in numerical approximations. Furthermore, sophisticated AD algoirthms can often produce c ode that is more reliable and more efficient than code written by an expert programmer. ADIC is the first and only AD tool for C and C++ based on compiler technology. This compiler foundation makes possible analyses and optimizations not available in toos based on operator overloading. The earliest implementations of ADIC included support for ANSI C applications, ADIC 2.0 lverages EDG, a commercial C/C++ parser, to provide robust C++ differentiation support. Modern AD tools, including ADIC are implemented in a modular way, aiming to isolate language-dependent program analyses and semantic transformations. The component design leads to much higher implementation quality because the different components can be implemented by experts in each of the different domains involved. For example, a compiler expert can focus on parsing, canonicalizing, and unparising C and C++, while an expert in graph theory and algorithms can produce new differentiation modules without having to worry about the complexity of parsing and generating C++ code. Thsi separation of concerns was achieved through the use of language-independent program analysis interfaces (in collaboration with researcgers at Rice University) and a language-independent XML representation of the computational portions of programs (XAIF). In addition to improved robustness and faster development times, this design naturally enables the reuse of program analysis algorithms and differentiation modules in compiler-based AD tools for other languages. In fact, the analysis and differention components are used in both ADIC and the Open AD Fortran front-end (based on Rice's Open64 compiler.

  11. Autyomatic Differentiation of C/C++

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-11-14

    Automatic differentiation (AD) tools mechanize the process of developing code for the computation of derivatives. AD avoids the inaccuracies inherent in numerical approximations. Furthermore, sophisticated AD algoirthms can often produce c ode that is more reliable and more efficient than code written by an expert programmer. ADIC is the first and only AD tool for C and C++ based on compiler technology. This compiler foundation makes possible analyses and optimizations not available in toos basedmore » on operator overloading. The earliest implementations of ADIC included support for ANSI C applications, ADIC 2.0 lverages EDG, a commercial C/C++ parser, to provide robust C++ differentiation support. Modern AD tools, including ADIC are implemented in a modular way, aiming to isolate language-dependent program analyses and semantic transformations. The component design leads to much higher implementation quality because the different components can be implemented by experts in each of the different domains involved. For example, a compiler expert can focus on parsing, canonicalizing, and unparising C and C++, while an expert in graph theory and algorithms can produce new differentiation modules without having to worry about the complexity of parsing and generating C++ code. Thsi separation of concerns was achieved through the use of language-independent program analysis interfaces (in collaboration with researcgers at Rice University) and a language-independent XML representation of the computational portions of programs (XAIF). In addition to improved robustness and faster development times, this design naturally enables the reuse of program analysis algorithms and differentiation modules in compiler-based AD tools for other languages. In fact, the analysis and differention components are used in both ADIC and the Open AD Fortran front-end (based on Rice's Open64 compiler.« less

  12. Roof Plans: Section "CC", Roof Plan; Roof Framing Plans: Section ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Roof Plans: Section "C-C", Roof Plan; Roof Framing Plans: Section "C-C", Section "D-D"; Roof Framing Sections: Cross Section "G-G", Cross Section "H-H" - Fort Washington, Fort Washington Light, Northeast side of Potomac River at Fort Washington Park, Fort Washington, Prince George's County, MD

  13. Understanding Rotation about a C=C Double Bond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrows, Susan E.; Eberlein, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    The study focuses on the process and energetic cost of twisting around a C=C double bond and provides instructors with a simple vehicle for rectifying the common misrepresentation of C=C double bonds as rigid and inflexible. Discussions of cis and trans isomers of cycloalkenes are a good entry point for introducing students to the idea of a…

  14. Structure of Skeletal Muscle

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cells, Tissues, & Membranes Cell Structure & Function Cell Structure Cell Function Body Tissues Epithelial Tissue Connective Tissue Muscle Tissue ... nerves. This is directly related to the primary function of skeletal muscle, ... an impulse from a nerve cell. Generally, an artery and at least one vein ...

  15. Charmonium suppression with cc¯ dissociation by strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiss, J.; Greiner, C.; Bratkovskaya, E. L.; Cassing, W.; Mosel, U.

    1999-02-01

    We study the production of cc¯ pairs in nuclear reactions at SPS energies within the covariant transport approach HSD. The production of cc¯ pairs is treated perturbatively employing experimental cross sections while the interactions of cc¯ pairs with baryons are included by conventional cascade-type two-body collisions. Adopting 6 mb for the cc¯-baryon cross section the data on J/Ψ suppression in p+A reactions are reproduced in line with calculations based on the Glauber model. Additionally the dissociation of the cc¯ pairs by strings is included in a purely geometrical way. We find good agreement with the experimental data from the NA38 and NA50 Collaborations with an estimate for the string radius of Rs~0.2-0.25 fm.

  16. Gravity and Skeletal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily; Turner, Russell T.

    1999-01-01

    Two simultaneous experiments were performed using 5-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats; in one study, the rats were flown in low earth orbit; in the other study, the hindlimbs of the growing rats were elevated to prevent weight bearing. Following 9 d of unloading, weight bearing was restored for 4, 28, and 76 hrs. Afterwards, additional hindlimb unloading experiments were performed to evaluate the skeletal response to 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, and 24 hrs of restored weight bearing following 7 d of unloading. Cancellous and cortical bone histomorphometry were evaluated in the left tibia at the proximal metaphysis and in the left femur at mid-diaphysis, respectively. Steady-state mRNA levels for bone matrix proteins and skeletal signaling peptides were determined in total cellular RNA extracted from trabeculae from the right proximal tibiametaphysis and periosteum from the right femur. Spaceflight and hindlimb unloading each resulted in cancellous osteopenia, as well as a tendency towards decreased periosteal bone formation. Both models for skeletal unloading resulted in site specific reductions in mRNA levels for transforming growth factor-beta (sub 1) (TGF-beta) osteocalcin (OC), and prepro-alpha (I) subunit of type 1 collagen (collagen) and little or no changes in mRNA levels for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Restoration of normal weight bearing resulted in transient increases in mRNA levels for the bone matrix proteins and TGF-beta in the proximal metaphysis and periosteum and no changes in either GAP or IGF-I mRNA levels. The timecourse for the response differed between the two skeletal compartments; the tibial metaphysis responded much more quickly to reloading. These results suggest that the skeletal adaptation to acute physiological changes in mechanical usage are mediated, in part, by changes in mRNA levels for bone matrix proteins and TGF-beta.

  17. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC), Fiscal year 1990

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1991-05-31

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. Four topical subcommittees are established and are continuing their own programs: Structural Ceramics, Electrochemical Technologies, Radioactive Waste Containment, and Superconductivity. In addition, the EMaCC aids in obtaining materialsrelated inputs for both intra- and inter-agency compilations. Membership in the EMaCC is open to any Department organizational unit; participants are appointed by Division or Office Directors. The current active membership is listed on the following four pages. The EMaCC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research in his capacity as overseer of the technical programs of the Department. This annual technical report is mandated by the EMaCC terms of reference. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1990 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department. The Chairman of EMaCC for FY 1990 was Scott L. Richlen; the Executive Secretary was Dr. Jerry Smith.

  18. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) CC chemokines: Diversity and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Borza, Tudor; Stone, Cynthia; Rise, Matthew L; Bowman, Sharen; Johnson, Stewart C

    2010-08-01

    Chemokines are a large, diverse group of small cytokines that can be classified into several families, including the CC chemokines that are characterized by two adjacent cysteines near their amino terminus. CC chemokines play a pivotal role in host defense mechanisms by inducing leukocyte chemotaxis under physiological and inflammatory conditions. Analysis of CC chemokines from teleost fishes indicates that the number of CC chemokine genes and their tissue expression patterns vary largely in this group of vertebrates. Here we describe 32 distinct CC chemokine sequences from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) identified by analysis of approximately 206,000 ESTs. Phylogenetic analysis of Atlantic cod CC chemokines placed these sequences in seven clusters, most likely resulting from species-specific gene duplications, and two unique sequences; 12 of these CC chemokines, including at least one member of each cluster, were analyzed by QPCR using four immune-related tissues (head kidney, liver, spleen and blood) obtained from unstimulated, polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (pIC)-stimulated and formalin-killed atypical Aeromonas salmonicida-stimulated individuals. EST abundance and QPCR analysis indicate that the expression of closely related CC chemokines GmSCYA101 and GmSCYA102, GmSCYA108 and GmSCYA109 or GmSCYA122 and GmSCYA124 can be highly tissue-specific despite substantial sequence identity. Stimulation with the viral mimic pIC or formalin-killed atypical A. salmonicida resulted in increased expression of most of the CC chemokines, indicating that they can be regarded as either inducible (inflammatory) or dual-function rather than constitutive (homeostatic). Tissue specificity, and the level of induction, varied broadly; for example, GmSCYA123 was at least 4-fold up-regulated by both inducers in all tissues analyzed, whereas pIC increased the expression of GmSCYA124 in liver over 1500 times. PMID:20381521

  19. Section BB, Section DD, Plan AA, Plan CC, Typical Framing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section B-B, Section D-D, Plan A-A, Plan C-C, Typical Framing Detail of Upper Stringers, Typical Framing Detail of Lower Stringers - Covered Bridge, Spanning Connecticut River, Orford, Grafton County, NH

  20. 30. Part of South Elevation / Section CC / Section ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Part of South Elevation / Section CC / Section BB / Elevation of Skylight (drawing 7) - Whittier State School, Hospital & Receiving Building, 11850 East Whittier Boulevard, Whittier, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. Radiology of skeletal trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, L.F.

    1982-01-01

    This 1000-page book contains over 1700 illustrations, is presented in two volumes and subdivided into 23 chapters. After brief chapters of Introduction and General Anatomy, a section on Skeletal Biomechanics is presented. The Epidemiology of Fractures chapter examines, among other things, the effects of age on the frequency and distribution of fractures. In the chapter on Classifications of Fractures, the author describes the character of traumatic forces such as angulating, torsional, avulsive, and compressive, and then relates these to the resultant fracture configurations. The Fracture Treatment chapter presents an overview of treatment principles. Other chapters deal with specific problems in pediatric trauma, fracture healing and nonhealing, and fracture complications.

  2. Glucocorticoids and Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Bodine, Sue C; Furlow, J David

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are known to regulate protein metabolism in skeletal muscle, producing a catabolic effect that is opposite that of insulin. In many catabolic diseases, such as sepsis, starvation, and cancer cachexia, endogenous glucocorticoids are elevated contributing to the loss of muscle mass and function. Further, exogenous glucocorticoids are often given acutely and chronically to treat inflammatory conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and rheumatoid arthritis, resulting in muscle atrophy. This chapter will detail the nature of glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy and discuss the mechanisms thought to be responsible for the catabolic effects of glucocorticoids on muscle. PMID:26215994

  3. Internal friction and gas desorption of {C}/{C} composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serizawa, H.; Sato, S.; Kohyama, A.

    1994-09-01

    {C}/{C} composites are the most promising candidates as high heat flux component materials, where temperature dependence of mechanical properties and gas desorption behavior at elevated temperature are important properties. At the beginning, the newly developed internal friction measurement apparatus, which enables the accurate measurement of dynamic elastic properties up to 1373 K along with the measurement of gas desorption behavior, was used. The materials studied were unidirectional (UD) {C}/{C} composites reinforced with mesophase pitch-based carbon fibers, which were heat treated at temperatures ranging from 1473 to 2773 K which produced a variety of graphitized microstructures. Two-dimensional (2D) {C}/{C} composites reinfored with flat woven fabrics of PAN type carbon fibers were also studied. These materials were heat treated at 1873 K. From the temperature spectrum of internal friction of 2D {C}/{C} composites, these internal friction peaks were detected and were related to gas desorption. Also the temperature dependence of Young's modulus of UD {C}/{C} composites, negative and positive dependence of Young's modulus were observed reflecting microstructure changes resulting from the heat treatments.

  4. [Skeletal nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, I

    1995-05-01

    Bone scintigraphy with 99mTc-phosphate compounds is the most popular examination in clinical nuclear medicine. This was developed more than 20 years ago and its roles in various skeletal disorders are well established. Furthermore, improvement of imaging apparatus and application of SPECT strengthened its value extensively. From scintigram alone, in many cases, differentiation between bone metastasis and other "benign" disorders is easily capable. Further improvement in resolution of scinticamera should strengthen its value more. Other recent developments in skeletal nuclear medicine are those in bone densitometry and in measurement of metabolic bone markers. Bone densitometry using DXA is applied on diagnosis and monitoring of therapeutic effects in various metabolic bone diseases, especially, in osteoporosis. Bone mass measurement combined with assessments of specific bone markers such as bone specific alkaline phosphatase and collagen cross-link metabolites might replace the bone biopsy in evaluating bone metabolism. Treatment of bone metastasis in patients with prostate cancer by administering radiolabeled bone seeking substances is another topics in this field and awaits for more extensive clinical evaluation. PMID:7596073

  5. Alkali metal mediated C-C bond coupling reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, Hiroto

    2015-02-01

    Metal catalyzed carbon-carbon (C-C) bond formation is one of the important reactions in pharmacy and in organic chemistry. In the present study, the electron and hole capture dynamics of a lithium-benzene sandwich complex, expressed by Li(Bz)2, have been investigated by means of direct ab-initio molecular dynamics method. Following the electron capture of Li(Bz)2, the structure of [Li(Bz)2]- was drastically changed: Bz-Bz parallel form was rapidly fluctuated as a function of time, and a new C-C single bond was formed in the C1-C1' position of Bz-Bz interaction system. In the hole capture, the intermolecular vibration between Bz-Bz rings was only enhanced. The mechanism of C-C bond formation in the electron capture was discussed on the basis of theoretical results.

  6. Effects of Loading or Unloading on the Regenerative Potential of Injured Skeletal Muscle in Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Katsumasa; Matsuba, Yusuke; Ohno, Yoshitaka; Sugiura, Takao; Hashimoto, Naohiro; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Yoshioka, Toshitada

    2008-06-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the influence of unloading on the regenerative process of injured skeletal muscle. Male mice (C57BL/6J), aged 8 weeks, were randomly divided into 4 groups; normal cage control (CC), cardiotoxin (CTX)-injected (CX), hindlimb suspended (HS), and HS+CX (SX) groups. HS, as the preconditioning, was performed for 2 weeks in group HS and SX. The animals in group CC and CX were maintained in 1-G environment. And then, CTX was injected into soleus muscles bilaterally in CX and SX groups. HS was continued for additional 6 weeks in group HS and SX. Soleus muscles were dissected after 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Wet weight and protein content of soleus in group CX decreased, but recovered to the level of group CC after 6 weeks. Atrophy, caused by 2-week HS, in group HS and SX was maintained throughout the experimental period. The numbers of satellite cells in HS and SX groups after 2, 4, and 6 weeks were lower than those in group CC. The number of satellite cells in CX group was increased by the CTX-injection compared with group CC. On the other hand, satellite cell number in CTX-injected group SX after 2, 4, and 6 weeks were lower than that in group HS. Percentage of fibers with central nuclei, relative to the total muscle fibers, in HS and SX groups at week 6 was higher than that in group CC. That in group CX was also increased at 2nd and 4th week, but was lowered toward the control level after 6 week. It was suggested that loading plays a key role for the activation of the regenerating potential of injured skeletal muscle.

  7. Thalidomide analogue CC1069 inhibits development of rat adjuvant arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, S J; Freeman, S L; Corral, L G; Ocampo, C J; Kaplan, G

    1999-01-01

    The cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) has been implicated in the aetiology of rheumatoid arthritis in humans as well as of experimental arthritis in rodents. Thalidomide, and to a greater extent the new thalidomide analogue CC1069, inhibit monocyte TNF-α production both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study is to establish whether these drugs block production of TNF-α as well as IL-2 by rat leucocytes and whether this inhibition affects the development of rat adjuvant arthritis (AA). Cultured splenocytes were stimulated with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or concanavalin A (Con A) in the presence of thalidomide, CC1069, or solvent, and the production of TNF-α and IL-2 were compared. Next, adjuvant was injected into the base of the tail of rats without or with daily intraperitoneal injections with 100–200 mg/kg per day thalidomide or 50–200 mg/kg per day CC1069. Disease activity, including ankle swelling, hind limb radiographic and histological changes, weight gain, and ankle joint cytokine mRNA levels, were monitored. CC1069, but not the parent drug thalidomide, inhibited in vitro production of TNF-α and IL-2 by stimulated splenocytes in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, a dose-dependent suppression of AA disease activity occurred in the CC1069-treated animals. In contrast, thalidomide-treated rats experienced comparable arthritis severity to placebo-treated animals. There was also a reduction in TNF-α and IL-2 mRNA levels in the ankle joints of CC1069-treated rats compared with thalidomide- and placebo-treated arthritic rats. Early initiation of CC1069 treatment suppressed AA inflammation more efficiently than delayed treatment. We conclude that thalidomide, which did not suppress TNF-α or IL-2 production in vitro by Lewis rat cells, did not suppress development of rat AA. However, the development of rat AA can be blocked by the thalidomide analogue CC1069, which is an efficient inhibitor of TNF-α production and IL-2 in vitro

  8. Mechanotransduction in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Burkholder, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical signals are critical to the development and maintenance of skeletal muscle, but the mechanisms that convert these shape changes to biochemical signals is not known. When a deformation is imposed on a muscle, changes in cellular and molecular conformations link the mechanical forces with biochemical signals, and the close integration of mechanical signals with electrical, metabolic, and hormonal signaling may disguise the aspect of the response that is specific to the mechanical forces. The mechanically induced conformational change may directly activate downstream signaling and may trigger messenger systems to activate signaling indirectly. Major effectors of mechanotransduction include the ubiquitous mitogen activated protein kinase (MAP) and phosphatidylinositol-3’ kinase (PI-3K), which have well described receptor dependent cascades, but the chain of events leading from mechanical stimulation to biochemical cascade is not clear. This review will discuss the mechanics of biological deformation, loading of cellular and molecular structures, and some of the principal signaling mechanisms associated with mechanotransduction. PMID:17127292

  9. Engineering skeletal muscle repair.

    PubMed

    Juhas, Mark; Bursac, Nenad

    2013-10-01

    Healthy skeletal muscle has a remarkable capacity for regeneration. Even at a mature age, muscle tissue can undergo a robust rebuilding process that involves the formation of new muscle cells and extracellular matrix and the re-establishment of vascular and neural networks. Understanding and reverse-engineering components of this process is essential for our ability to restore loss of muscle mass and function in cases where the natural ability of muscle for self-repair is exhausted or impaired. In this article, we will describe current approaches to restore the function of diseased or injured muscle through combined use of myogenic stem cells, biomaterials, and functional tissue-engineered muscle. Furthermore, we will discuss possibilities for expanding the future use of human cell sources toward the development of cell-based clinical therapies and in vitro models of human muscle disease. PMID:23711735

  10. Reversibility of skeletal fluorosis.

    PubMed Central

    Grandjean, P; Thomsen, G

    1983-01-01

    At two x ray examinations in 1957 and 1967, 17 cases of skeletal fluorosis were identified among long term cryolite workers in Copenhagen. In 1982 four of these patients were alive, eight to 15 years after exposure had ended. Radiographs were obtained, and the urinary fluoride excretion was measured. A similar picture emerged in all four cases: extensive fading of the sclerosis of trabecular bone in ribs, vertebral bodies, and pelvis, whereas cortical bone thickening and calcification of muscle insertions and ligaments remained virtually unchanged. The fluoride excretion was increased in three cases (with the shortest exposure free period). These findings indicate that with continuous remodelling of bone tissue trabecular sclerosis is slowly reversible and the excess fluoride is excreted in the urine. Images PMID:6626475

  11. Reversibility of skeletal fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, P; Thomsen, G

    1983-11-01

    At two x ray examinations in 1957 and 1967, 17 cases of skeletal fluorosis were identified among long term cryolite workers in Copenhagen. In 1982 four of these patients were alive, eight to 15 years after exposure had ended. Radiographs were obtained, and the urinary fluoride excretion was measured. A similar picture emerged in all four cases: extensive fading of the sclerosis of trabecular bone in ribs, vertebral bodies, and pelvis, whereas cortical bone thickening and calcification of muscle insertions and ligaments remained virtually unchanged. The fluoride excretion was increased in three cases (with the shortest exposure free period). These findings indicate that with continuous remodelling of bone tissue trabecular sclerosis is slowly reversible and the excess fluoride is excreted in the urine. PMID:6626475

  12. The Gas Leakage Analysis in C/C Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Yuichi; Hatta, Hiroshi; Bando, Takamasa; Sugibayashi, Toshio

    Gas leakage through carbon fiber reinforcement carbon composites, C/Cs, was discussed so as to apply C/Cs to heat exchangers in an engine system for a future space-plane. Since C/Cs include many cracks and pores, gas easily leaks through C/Cs. To predict and to prevent the gas flow through a C/C, leakage rate was measured as a function of pressure and gas flow path was identified by micro-observation of the C/C. Then, several analytical models were examined to clarify principal mechanism yielding gas flow resistance. It was found that laminar flow models gave far small flow resistance compared with experimental results, but a model based on adiabatic expansion and compression flow, used for gas leak through labyrinth seals, resulted in reasonable agreement. Finally, Si impregnation in a C/C was examined to minimize the gas leakage. This treatment was shown to be an excellent measure to reduce the gas leakage through C/C.

  13. A LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE EQUIPPED CC TRAP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trap catches of adult Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), biotype-B, and their Eretmocerus spp. and Encarsia spp. parasitoids were compared in cage studies in the greenhouse. Average catches of adult B. tabaci in CC traps were 41% of the numbers caught on 100 cm^2 yellow sticky card (YC) traps. Coating th...

  14. 32. SECTIONS AA, BB, CC, DD, AND EE WASTE CALCINATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. SECTIONS A-A, B-B, C-C, D-D, AND E-E WASTE CALCINATION FACILITY SHOWING RELATIONSHIPS OF DIFFERENT FLOOR LEVELS TO ONE ANOTHER. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106353. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. BB: Half Section; Top of Engine; Valve Gear Detail; CC: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    B-B: Half Section; Top of Engine; Valve Gear Detail; C-C: Top of Condenser; D-D: Condenser Interior; Air Pump Piston; Air Pump Lever; Water Pump - Steamboat COLUMBUS, Submerged south-southeast of Point Lookout, Scotland, St. Mary's County, MD

  16. Crossing Levels and Representations: The Connected Chemistry (CC1) Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Sharona T.; Wilensky, Uri

    2009-01-01

    Connected Chemistry (named CC1 to denote Connected Chemistry Chapter 1) is a computer-based environment for learning the topics of gas laws and kinetic molecular theory in chemistry. It views chemistry from an "emergent" perspective, how macroscopic phenomena result from the interaction of many submicroscopic particles. Connected Chemistry employs…

  17. Cohort Profile: Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC)

    PubMed Central

    May, Margaret T; Ingle, Suzanne M; Costagliola, Dominique; Justice, Amy C; de Wolf, Frank; Cavassini, Matthias; D’Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Casabona, Jordi; Hogg, Robert S; Mocroft, Amanda; Lampe, Fiona C; Dabis, François; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Sterling, Timothy R; del Amo, Julia; Gill, M John; Crane, Heidi M; Saag, Michael S; Guest, Jodie; Brodt, Hans-Reinhard; Sterne, Jonathan AC

    2014-01-01

    The advent of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1996 resulted in fewer patients experiencing clinical events, so that some prognostic analyses of individual cohort studies of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals had low statistical power. Because of this, the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC) of HIV cohort studies in Europe and North America was established in 2000, with the aim of studying the prognosis for clinical events in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the mortality of adult patients treated for HIV-1 infection. In 2002, the ART-CC collected data on more than 12,000 patients in 13 cohorts who had begun combination ART between 1995 and 2001. Subsequent updates took place in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010. The ART-CC data base now includes data on more than 70 000 patients participating in 19 cohorts who began treatment before the end of 2009. Data are collected on patient demographics (e.g. sex, age, assumed transmission group, race/ethnicity, geographical origin), HIV biomarkers (e.g. CD4 cell count, plasma viral load of HIV-1), ART regimen, dates and types of AIDS events, and dates and causes of death. In recent years, additional data on co-infections such as hepatitis C; risk factors such as smoking, alcohol and drug use; non-HIV biomarkers such as haemoglobin and liver enzymes; and adherence to ART have been collected whenever available. The data remain the property of the contributing cohorts, whose representatives manage the ART-CC via the steering committee of the Collaboration. External collaboration is welcomed. Details of contacts are given on the ART-CC website (www.art-cohort-collaboration.org). PMID:23599235

  18. Efficient gene targeting in ΔCc.ku70 or ΔCc.lig4 mutants of the agaricomycete Coprinopsis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Takehito; Ando, Yuki; Kitaaki, Kohei; Nakahori, Kiyoshi; Kamada, Takashi

    2011-10-01

    Coprinopsis cinerea is a model for studies of sexual development in agaricomycetes (homobasidiomycetes). Efficient gene targeting should facilitate such studies, especially because increasing genome and transcriptome information is now available in C. cinerea. To estimate the frequency of gene disruption by homologous integration in this fungus, we tried to disrupt Cc.wc-2, which encodes a WC-2 homolog, a partner of the fungal blue-light photoreceptor, WC-1. Disruption of Cc.wc-2 did not occur when recipients (protoplasts) of the disrupting construct were prepared from asexual spores, oidia, from the wild type, 326, while it occurred when protoplasts were prepared from mycelial cells from the same strain, albeit at a low frequency (3%). Double-stranded RNA-mediated silencing of a ku70 homolog, named Cc.ku70, or the lig4 homolog Cc.lig4 more or less increased the frequency of Cc.wc-2 targeting. On the basis of these results, we disrupted Cc.ku70 using a Cc.lig4-silenced strain. We then disrupted Cc.lig4 using the Cc.ku70 disruptant. We found that the disruption of Cc.ku70 or Cc.lig4 greatly enhanced gene targeting. In addition, this study demonstrates that Cc.wc-2 is involved in blue light perception in this fungus. PMID:21704178

  19. [Key regulators of skeletal myogenesis].

    PubMed

    Kopantseva, E E; Belyavsky, A V

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal myogenesis has been extensively studied at both morphological and molecular levels. This review considers the main stages of embryonic skeletal myogenesis and myogenic factors that trigger their initiation, focusing on specific protein interactions involved in somitic myogenesis, head myogenesis, and limb myogenesis. The second part of the review describes the role of noncoding RNAs (microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs) in myogenesis. This information is of particular interest, because regulation of cell processes by noncoding RNAs is an actively developing field of molecular biology. Knowledge of mechanisms of skeletal myogenesis is of applied significance. Various transcription factors, noncoding RNAs, and other myogenic regulators can be employed in the induction of myogenic reprogramming in stem cells and differentiated somatic cells. Current trends and strategies in the field of skeletal myogenic reprogramming are discussed in the last part of the review. PMID:27239841

  20. Effects in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Young, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    The first biological action of amylin to be described was the inhibition of insulin-stimulated incorporation of radiolabeled glucose into glycogen in the isolated soleus muscle of the rat. This antagonism of insulin action in muscle was non-competitive, occurring with equal potency and efficacy at all insulin concentrations. Amylin inhibited activation of glycogen synthase, partially accounting for the inhibition of radiolabeled glucose incorporation. However, this did not account for a low rate of labeling at higher amylin concentrations, wherein the radioglycogen accumulation was even less than in incubations where insulin was absent. The principal action of amylin accounting for reduction of insulin-stimulated accumulation of glycogen was activation of glycogen phosphorylase via a cyclic AMP-, protein kinase C-dependent signaling pathway to cause glycogenolysis (glycogen breakdown). At physiological concentrations, amylin activated glycogen phosphorylase at its ED50, but because glycogen phosphorylase is present in such high activity, the resulting flux out of glycogen was estimated to be similar to insulin-mediated flux of glucosyl moieties into glycogen. Thus, in the rat, endogenous amylin secreted in response to meals appeared to mobilize carbon from skeletal muscle. Amylin-induced glycogenolysis resulted in intramuscular accumulation of glucose-6-phosphate and release of lactate from tissue beds that included muscle. When muscle glycogen was pre-labeled with tritium in the three position, amylin could be shown to evoke the release of free glucose. This is made possible by glucosyl moieties cleaved at the branch points in glycogen being released as free glucose, rather than being phosphorylated, as occurs with the bulk of the glycogen glucosyls. Free glucose is free to exit cells via facilitated transport, down a concentration gradient that might exist under such circumstances. When measured by a sensitive technique utilizing efflux of labeled glucose, amylin

  1. The neurobiology of skeletal pain.

    PubMed

    Mantyh, Patrick W

    2014-02-01

    Disorders of the skeleton are one of the most common causes of chronic pain and long-term physical disability in the world. Chronic skeletal pain is caused by a remarkably diverse group of conditions including trauma-induced fracture, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, low back pain, orthopedic procedures, celiac disease, sickle cell disease and bone cancer. While these disorders are diverse, what they share in common is that when chronic skeletal pain occurs in these disorders, there are currently few therapies that can fully control the pain without significant unwanted side effects. In this review we focus on recent advances in our knowledge concerning the unique population of primary afferent sensory nerve fibers that innervate the skeleton, the nociceptive and neuropathic mechanisms that are involved in driving skeletal pain, and the neurochemical and structural changes that can occur in sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers and the CNS in chronic skeletal pain. We also discuss therapies targeting nerve growth factor or sclerostin for treating skeletal pain. These therapies have provided unique insight into the factors that drive skeletal pain and the structural decline that occurs in the aging skeleton. We conclude by discussing how these advances have changed our understanding and potentially the therapeutic options for treating and/or preventing chronic pain in the injured, diseased and aged skeleton. PMID:24494689

  2. Aneuploidy and Skeletal Health

    PubMed Central

    Kamalakar, Archana; Harris, John R.; McKelvey, Kent D.; Suva, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    The normal human chromosome complement consists of 46 chromosomes comprising 22 morphologically different pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. Variations in either chromosome number and/or structure frequently result in significant mental impairment, and/or a variety of other clinical problems, among them, altered bone mass and strength. Chromosomal syndromes associated with specific chromosomal abnormalities are classified as either numerical or structural and may involve more than one chromosome. Aneuploidy refers to the presence of an extra copy of a specific chromosome, or trisomy, as seen in Down’s syndrome (trisomy 21), or the absence of a single chromosome, or monosomy, as seen in Turner syndrome (a single X chromosome in females: 45, X). Aneuploidies have diverse phenotypic consequences, ranging from severe mental retardation and developmental abnormalities to increased susceptibility to various neoplasms and premature death. In fact, trisomy 21 is the prototypical aneuploidy in humans, is the most common genetic abnormality associated with longevity and is one of the most widespread genetic causes of intellectual disability. In this review, the impact of trisomy 21 on the bone mass, architecture, skeletal health and quality of life of people with Down syndrome will be discussed. PMID:24980541

  3. Glycosylation of Skeletal Calsequestrin

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Emiliano J.; Lewis, Kevin M.; Munske, Gerhard R.; Nissen, Mark S.; Kang, ChulHee

    2012-01-01

    Calsequestrin (CASQ) serves as a major Ca2+ storage/buffer protein in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). When purified from skeletal muscle, CASQ1 is obtained in its glycosylated form. Here, we have confirmed the specific site and degree of glycosylation of native rabbit CASQ1 and have investigated its effect on critical properties of CASQ by comparison with the non-glycosylated recombinant form. Based on our comparative approach utilizing crystal structures, Ca2+ binding capacities, analytical ultracentrifugation, and light-scattering profiles of the native and recombinant rabbit CASQ1, we propose a novel and dynamic role for glycosylation in CASQ. CASQ undergoes a unique degree of mannose trimming as it is trafficked from the proximal endoplasmic reticulum to the SR. The major glycoform of CASQ (GlcNAc2Man9) found in the proximal endoplasmic reticulum can severely hinder formation of the back-to-back interface, potentially preventing premature Ca2+-dependent polymerization of CASQ and ensuring its continuous mobility to the SR. Only trimmed glycans can stabilize both front-to-front and the back-to-back interfaces of CASQ through extensive hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions. Therefore, the mature glycoform of CASQ (GlcNAc2Man1–4) within the SR can be retained upon establishing a functional high capacity Ca2+ binding polymer. In addition, based on the high resolution structures, we propose a molecular mechanism for the catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT2) mutation, K206N. PMID:22170046

  4. New CC units seamlessly tied into existing cogen plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, R.A.; Cromer, D.A.; Atkins, T.W.; Coburn, R.G.

    1995-05-01

    This article examines how, at Selkirk, two combined-cycle units were added and fully integrated to an existing one. Generating capacity quadrupled, steam output doubled--all without disrupting existing power and steam sales obligations. The Selkirk Phase 2 cogeneration project is a 266-MW natural-gas/distillate-oil-fired combined-cycle (CC) station in Bethlehem, NY, on General Electric Plastics Co.`s (GEP) Selkirk site, near Albany. The project has been expeditiously integrated with its sister plant, Selkirk Phase 1, to provide process steam and power in a highly efficient manner. Selkirk Phase 1, a 93-MW CC cogeneration station was completed in 1992 (POWER, April 1992, p. 169). This facility produces upwards of 400,000 lb/hr of process steam to steam host GEP. Phase 1 power sales are to Niagara Mohawk Power Corp. and Phase-2 sales to Consolidated Edison Co. of New York Inc.

  5. [Study on spectral emissivity of C/C composites].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo; Cao, Wei-Wei; Jing, Min; Dong, Xing-Guang; Wang, Cheng-Guo

    2009-11-01

    Different types of C/C composites were prepared by conventional molding, and the changes in normal spectral emissivity of samples were tested. The testing results show that spectral emissivity of C/C composite reinforced by short cut carbon fibers is generally higher than the sample reinforced by carbon cloth in the entire 2500-13000nm wavelength region. The structure of short cut carbon fibers is relatively loose and the number of material particles is less than other samples in unit volume, which increases the penetration depth of electromagnetic waves. This is the reason for higher normal spectral emissivity and better heat radiation property. Meanwhile, the test results of normal spectral emissivity for fiber perform and C/C composite samples show that the spectral emissivity of resin carbon is better than fiber carbon because of the difference in microstructure for the two kinds of carbon materials. Laser Raman spectroscopy was employed to analyze the microstructures of different carbon materials, and the results show that because sp3 and sp2 hybrid states of carbon atoms in resin carbon produced more vibration modes, the resin carbon also has higher normal spectral emissivity and better characteristics of heat radiation. PMID:20101951

  6. Accurate Anharmonic IR Spectra from Integrated Cc/dft Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, Vincenzo; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Bloino, Julien; Carnimeo, Ivan; Puzzarini, Cristina

    2014-06-01

    The recent implementation of the computation of infrared (IR) intensities beyond the double harmonic approximation [1] paved the route to routine calculations of infrared spectra for a wide set of molecular systems. Contrary to common beliefs, second-order perturbation theory is able to deliver results of high accuracy provided that anharmonic resonances are properly managed [1,2]. It has been already shown for several small closed- and open shell molecular systems that the differences between coupled cluster (CC) and DFT anharmonic wavenumbers are mainly due to the harmonic terms, paving the route to introduce effective yet accurate hybrid CC/DFT schemes [2]. In this work we present that hybrid CC/DFT models can be applied also to the IR intensities leading to the simulation of highly accurate fully anharmonic IR spectra for medium-size molecules, including ones of atmospheric interest, showing in all cases good agreement with experiment even in the spectral ranges where non-fundamental transitions are predominant[3]. [1] J. Bloino and V. Barone, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 124108 (2012) [2] V. Barone, M. Biczysko, J. Bloino, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 16, 1759-1787 (2014) [3] I. Carnimeo, C. Puzzarini, N. Tasinato, P. Stoppa, A. P. Charmet, M. Biczysko, C. Cappelli and V. Barone, J. Chem. Phys., 139, 074310 (2013)

  7. Skeletal muscle involvement in cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Limongelli, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Raffaella; Maddaloni, Valeria; Rea, Alessandra; Sarkozy, Anna; McKenna, William J

    2013-12-01

    The link between heart and skeletal muscle disorders is based on similar molecular, anatomical and clinical features, which are shared by the 'primary' cardiomyopathies and 'primary' neuromuscular disorders. There are, however, some peculiarities that are typical of cardiac and skeletal muscle disorders. Skeletal muscle weakness presenting at any age may indicate a primary neuromuscular disorder (associated with creatine kinase elevation as in dystrophinopathies), a mitochondrial disease (particularly if encephalopathy, ocular myopathy, retinitis, neurosensorineural deafness, lactic acidosis are present), a storage disorder (progressive exercise intolerance, cognitive impairment and retinitis pigmentosa, as in Danon disease), or metabolic disorders (hypoglycaemia, metabolic acidosis, hyperammonaemia or other specific biochemical abnormalities). In such patients, skeletal muscle weakness usually precedes the cardiomyopathy and dominates the clinical picture. Nevertheless, skeletal involvement may be subtle, and the first clinical manifestation of a neuromuscular disorder may be the occurrence of heart failure, conduction disorders or ventricular arrhythmias due to cardiomyopathy. ECG and echocardiogram, and eventually, a more detailed cardiovascular evaluation may be required to identify early cardiac involvement. Paediatric and adult cardiologists should be proactive in screening for neuromuscular and related disorders to enable diagnosis in probands and evaluation of families with a focus on the identification of those at risk of cardiac arrhythmia and emboli who may require specific prophylactic treatments, for example, pacemaker, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and anticoagulation. PMID:24149064

  8. Rhodium(i)-catalysed skeletal reorganisation of benzofused spiro[3.3]heptanes via consecutive carbon-carbon bond cleavage.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Takanori; Yuihara, Itaru; Kondo, Kazuki

    2016-08-01

    Skeletal reorganisation of benzofused spiro[3.3]heptanes has been achieved using rhodium(i) catalysts. The reaction of benzofused 2-(2-pyridylmethylene)spiro[3.3]heptanes proceeds via sequential C-C bond oxidative addition and β-carbon elimination. On the other hand, benzofused spiro[3.3]heptan-2-ols undergo two consecutive β-carbon elimination processes. In both cases, substituted naphthalenes are obtained. PMID:27357097

  9. Skeletal complications of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Abigail A; Gordon, Catherine M

    2015-09-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric illness with profound medical consequences. Among the many adverse physical sequelae of AN, bone health is impacted by starvation and can be permanently impaired over the course of the illness. In this review of skeletal complications associated with eating disorders, we discuss the epidemiology, neuroendocrine changes, adolescent vs. adult skeletal considerations, orthopedic concerns, assessment of bone health, and treatment options for individuals with AN. The focus of the review is the skeletal sequelae associated with anorexia nervosa, but we also briefly consider other eating disorders that may afflict adolescents and young adults. The review presents updates to the field of bone health in AN, and also suggests knowledge gaps and areas for future investigation. PMID:26166318

  10. Skeletal Complications of Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Abigail A.; Gordon, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric illness with profound medical consequences. Among the many adverse physical sequelae of AN, bone health is impacted by starvation and can be permanently impaired over the course of the illness. In this review of skeletal complications associated with eating disorders, we discuss the epidemiology, neuroendocrine changes, adolescent vs. adult skeletal considerations, orthopedic concerns, assessment of bone health, and treatment options for individuals with AN. The focus of the review is the skeletal sequelae associated with anorexia nervosa, but we also briefly consider other eating disorders that may afflict adolescents and young adults. The review presents updates to the field of bone health in AN, and also suggests knowledge gaps and areas for future investigation. PMID:26166318

  11. Bone marrow-derived cell regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dongxu; Martinez, Carlo O; Ochoa, Oscar; Ruiz-Willhite, Lourdes; Bonilla, Jose R; Centonze, Victoria E; Waite, Lindsay L; Michalek, Joel E; McManus, Linda M; Shireman, Paula K

    2009-02-01

    Limb regeneration requires the coordination of multiple stem cell populations to recapitulate the process of tissue formation. Therefore, bone marrow (BM) -derived cell regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration was examined in mice lacking the CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2). Myofiber size, numbers of myogenic progenitor cells (MPCs), and recruitment of BM-derived cells and macrophages were assessed after cardiotoxin-induced injury of chimeric mice produced by transplanting BM from wild-type (WT) or CCR2(-/-) mice into irradiated WT or CCR2(-/-) host mice. Regardless of the host genotype, muscle regeneration and recruitment of BM-derived cells and macrophages were similar in mice replenished with WT BM, whereas BM-derived cells and macrophage accumulation were decreased and muscle regeneration was impaired in all animals receiving CCR2(-/-) BM. Furthermore, numbers of MPCs (CD34(+)/Sca-1(-)/CD45(-) cells) were significantly increased in mice receiving CCR2(-/-) BM despite the decreased size of regenerated myofibers. Thus, the expression of CCR2 on BM-derived cells regulated macrophage recruitment into injured muscle, numbers of MPC, and the extent of regenerated myofiber size, all of which were independent of CCR2 expression on host-derived cells. Future studies in regenerative medicine must include consideration of the role of BM-derived cells, possibly macrophages, in CCR2-dependent events that regulate effective skeletal muscle regeneration. PMID:18827026

  12. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss. PMID:24508740

  13. Cross-correlation Doppler global velocimetry (CC-DGV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadel, Daniel R.; Lowe, K. Todd

    2015-08-01

    A flow velocimetry method, cross-correlation Doppler global velocimetry (CC-DGV), is presented as a robust, simplified, and high dynamic range implementation of the Doppler global/planar Doppler velocimetry technique. A sweep of several gigahertz of the vapor absorption spectrum is used for each velocity sample, with signals acquired from both Doppler-shifted scattered light within the flow and a non-Doppler shifted reference beam. Cross-correlation of these signals yields the Doppler shift between them, averaged over the duration of the scan. With presently available equipment, velocities from 0 ms-1 to over 3000 ms-1 can notionally be measured simultaneously, making the technique ideal for high speed flows. The processing routine is shown to be robust against large changes in the vapor pressure of the iodine cell, benefiting performance of the system in facilities where ambient conditions cannot be easily regulated. Validation of the system was performed with measurements of a model wind turbine blade boundary layer made in a 1.83 m by 1.83 m subsonic wind tunnel for which laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) measurements were acquired alongside the CC-DGV results. CC-DGV uncertainties of ±1.30 ms-1, ±0.64 ms-1, and ±1.11 ms-1 were determined for the orthogonal stream-wise, transverse-horizontal, and transverse-vertical velocity components, and root-mean-square deviations of 2.77 ms-1 and 1.34 ms-1 from the LDV validation results were observed for Reynolds numbers of 1.5 million and 2 million, respectively. Volumetric mean velocity measurements are also presented for a supersonic jet, with velocity uncertainties of ±4.48 ms-1, ±16.93 ms-1, and ±0.50 ms-1 for the orthogonal components, and self-validation done by collapsing the data with a physical scaling.

  14. Selected CC and CXC chemokines in children with atopic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Machura, Edyta; Mazur, Bogdan; Chrobak, Ewelina; Ziora, Katarzyna; Ziora, Dariusz; Kasperska-Zajac, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There are only limited data on CC and CXC chemokines regulation in children with asthma. Aim We compared the serum profile of selected CC and CXC chemokines in patients with atopic asthma and healthy children. Material and methods Serum concentration of CC chemokines RANTES, MCP-1, and CXC chemokines IP-10, MIG, IL-8, RANTES was measured using cytometric bead array in 44 children with atopic asthma and 17 healthy subjects. Results The concentration of RANTES was significantly higher and the MIG level was lower in all children with asthma as compared to their control counterparts. We observed increased RANTES and decreased MIG levels also in patients with stable asthma when compared with children in the control group. The IP-10 concentration was similar between the whole asthma group and healthy controls, while significantly increased levels of this chemokine in acute asthma have been observed when compared to stable asthma. For MCP-1 and IL-8, the serum concentration was similar in all compared groups. The MIG concentration correlated positively with IP-10, IL-8, and CRP levels and negatively with the eosinophil count. A negative correlation between the IP-10 and eosinophil count and a negative correlation between FEV1 and IP-10 were found. Conclusions An increased serum RANTES level in children with asthma may result in enhancement of Th2 lymphocyte recruitment into the airway. A decreased expression of Th1 chemokine MIG in children with stable asthma may contribute to a diminished antagonizing effect on Th2 cytokine production and hence intensify Th2 predominance. An increased IP-10 level in children during an asthma attack suggest that this chemokine is a serological marker of disease exacerbation. PMID:27279817

  15. Serotype IV Streptococcus agalactiae ST-452 has arisen from large genomic recombination events between CC23 and the hypervirulent CC17 lineages.

    PubMed

    Campisi, Edmondo; Rinaudo, C Daniela; Donati, Claudio; Barucco, Mara; Torricelli, Giulia; Edwards, Morven S; Baker, Carol J; Margarit, Imma; Rosini, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) causes life-threatening infections in newborns and adults with chronic medical conditions. Serotype IV strains are emerging both among carriers and as cause of invasive disease and recent studies revealed two main Sequence Types (STs), ST-452 and ST-459 assigned to Clonal Complexes CC23 and CC1, respectively. Whole genome sequencing of 70 type IV GBS and subsequent phylogenetic analysis elucidated the localization of type IV isolates in a SNP-based phylogenetic tree and suggested that ST-452 could have originated through genetic recombination. SNPs density analysis of the core genome confirmed that the founder strain of this lineage originated from a single large horizontal gene transfer event between CC23 and the hypervirulent CC17. Indeed, ST-452 genomes are composed by two parts that are nearly identical to corresponding regions in ST-24 (CC23) and ST-291 (CC17). Chromosome mapping of the major GBS virulence factors showed that ST-452 strains have an intermediate yet unique profile among CC23 and CC17 strains. We described unreported large recombination events, involving the cps IV operon and resulting in the expansion of serotype IV to CC23. This work sheds further light on the evolution of GBS providing new insights on the recent emergence of serotype IV. PMID:27411639

  16. Serotype IV Streptococcus agalactiae ST-452 has arisen from large genomic recombination events between CC23 and the hypervirulent CC17 lineages

    PubMed Central

    Campisi, Edmondo; Rinaudo, C. Daniela; Donati, Claudio; Barucco, Mara; Torricelli, Giulia; Edwards, Morven S.; Baker, Carol J.; Margarit, Imma; Rosini, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) causes life-threatening infections in newborns and adults with chronic medical conditions. Serotype IV strains are emerging both among carriers and as cause of invasive disease and recent studies revealed two main Sequence Types (STs), ST-452 and ST-459 assigned to Clonal Complexes CC23 and CC1, respectively. Whole genome sequencing of 70 type IV GBS and subsequent phylogenetic analysis elucidated the localization of type IV isolates in a SNP-based phylogenetic tree and suggested that ST-452 could have originated through genetic recombination. SNPs density analysis of the core genome confirmed that the founder strain of this lineage originated from a single large horizontal gene transfer event between CC23 and the hypervirulent CC17. Indeed, ST-452 genomes are composed by two parts that are nearly identical to corresponding regions in ST-24 (CC23) and ST-291 (CC17). Chromosome mapping of the major GBS virulence factors showed that ST-452 strains have an intermediate yet unique profile among CC23 and CC17 strains. We described unreported large recombination events, involving the cps IV operon and resulting in the expansion of serotype IV to CC23. This work sheds further light on the evolution of GBS providing new insights on the recent emergence of serotype IV. PMID:27411639

  17. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Cc of... - Standard Hand Signals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard Hand Signals A Appendix A to Subpart CC of Part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Construction Pt. 1926, Subpt. CC, App. A Appendix A to Subpart CC of Part 1926—Standard Hand Signals...

  18. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Cc of... - Standard Hand Signals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard Hand Signals A Appendix A to Subpart CC of Part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Construction Pt. 1926, Subpt. CC, App. A Appendix A to Subpart CC of Part 1926—Standard Hand Signals...

  19. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Cc of... - Standard Hand Signals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard Hand Signals A Appendix A to Subpart CC of Part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Construction Pt. 1926, Subpt. CC, App. A Appendix A to Subpart CC of Part 1926—Standard Hand Signals...

  20. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Cc of... - Standard Hand Signals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard Hand Signals A Appendix A to Subpart CC of Part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Construction Pt. 1926, Subpt. CC, App. A Appendix A to Subpart CC of Part 1926—Standard Hand Signals...

  1. Skeletal myoblasts for cardiac repair

    PubMed Central

    Durrani, Shazia; Konoplyannikov, Mikhail; Ashraf, Muhammad; Haider, Khawaja Husnain

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells provide an alternative curative intervention for the infarcted heart by compensating for the cardiomyocyte loss subsequent to myocardial injury. The presence of resident stem and progenitor cell populations in the heart, and nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells with genetic induction of pluripotency markers are the emerging new developments in stem cell-based regenerative medicine. However, until safety and feasibility of these cells are established by extensive experimentation in in vitro and in vivo experimental models, skeletal muscle-derived myoblasts, and bone marrow cells remain the most well-studied donor cell types for myocardial regeneration and repair. This article provides a critical review of skeletal myoblasts as donor cells for transplantation in the light of published experimental and clinical data, and indepth discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of skeletal myoblast-based therapeutic intervention for augmentation of myocardial function in the infarcted heart. Furthermore, strategies to overcome the problems of arrhythmogenicity and failure of the transplanted skeletal myoblasts to integrate with the host cardiomyocytes are discussed. PMID:21082891

  2. Atlas of fetal skeletal radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Ornov, A.; Borochowitz, Z.; Lachman, R.; Rimoin, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    This atlas presents anterior, posterior and lateral views of normal but spontaneously aborted fetuses from 10 weeks through 27 weeks of gestation. The series of radiographs exhibits a wide array of skeletal dysplasia, and a chapter on the normal chondroosseous development - the formation of cartilage and bone and ossification of individual bones is included for further clarification.

  3. Choosing a skeletal muscle relaxant.

    PubMed

    See, Sharon; Ginzburg, Regina

    2008-08-01

    Skeletal muscle relaxants are widely used in treating musculoskeletal conditions. However, evidence of their effectiveness consists mainly of studies with poor methodologic design. In addition, these drugs have not been proven to be superior to acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for low back pain. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses support using skeletal muscle relaxants for short-term relief of acute low back pain when nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acetaminophen are not effective or tolerated. Comparison studies have not shown one skeletal muscle relaxant to be superior to another. Cyclobenzaprine is the most heavily studied and has been shown to be effective for various musculoskeletal conditions. The sedative properties of tizanidine and cyclobenzaprine may benefit patients with insomnia caused by severe muscle spasms. Methocarbamol and metaxalone are less sedating, although effectiveness evidence is limited. Adverse effects, particularly dizziness and drowsiness, are consistently reported with all skeletal muscle relaxants. The potential adverse effects should be communicated clearly to the patient. Because of limited comparable effectiveness data, choice of agent should be based on side-effect profile, patient preference, abuse potential, and possible drug interactions. PMID:18711953

  4. The cryogenic system for ITER CC superconducting conductor test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jinqing; Wu, Yu; Liu, Huajun; Shi, Yi; Chen, Jinglin; Ren, Zhibin

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the cryogenic system of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Correction Coils (CC) test facility, which consists of a 500 W/4.5 K helium refrigerator, a 50 kA superconducting transformer cryostat (STC) and a background field magnet cryostat (BFMC). The 500 W/4.5 K helium refrigerator synchronously produces both the liquid helium (LHe) and supercritical helium (SHe). The background field magnet and the primary coil of the superconducting transformer (PCST) are cooled down by immersing into 4.2 K LHe. The secondary Cable-In-Conduit Conductor (CICC) coil of the superconducting transformer (SCST), superconducting joints and the testing sample of ITER CC are cooled down by forced-flow supercritical helium. During the commissioning experiment, all the superconducting coils were successfully translated into superconducting state. The background field magnet was fully cooled by immersing it into 4.2 K LHe and generated a maximal background magnetic field of 6.96 T; the temperature of transformer coils and current leads was reduced to 4.3 K; the inlet temperature of SHe loop was 5.6 K, which can meet the cooling requirements of CIC-Conductor and joint boxes. It is noted that a novel heat cut-off device for High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) binary current leads was introduced to reduce the heat losses of transformer cryostat.

  5. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC), Fiscal year 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1991-03-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. Four topical subcommittees are established and are continuing their own programs: Structural Ceramics, Electrochemical Technologies, Radioactive Waste Containment, and Superconductivity. In addition, the EMaCC aids in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and inter-agency compilations. The first part of the Program Descriptions consists of a funding summary for each Assistant Secretary office and the Office of Energy Research. This is followed by a summary of project titles and objectives, including the program/project manager(s) and principal investigator. The second part of the Program Descriptions consists of more detailed project summaries with project goals and accomplishments.

  6. Improved Hybrid Genome Assemblies of Two Strains of Bacteroides xylanisolvens, SD_CC_1b and SD_CC_2a, Obtained Using Illumina and 454 Sequencing Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Ramaraj, Thiruvarangan; Sundararajan, Anitha; Schilkey, Faye D.; DelVecchio, Vito G.; Donlon, Mildred; Ziemer, Cherie

    2014-01-01

    Bacteroides xlyanisolvens strains (SD_CC_1b, SD_CC_2a) isolated from human feces were grown on crystalline cellulose. Cellulolytic properties are not common in Bacteroides species. Here, we report improved genome sequences of both of the B. xlyanisolvens strains. PMID:24699955

  7. Improved hybrid genome assemblies of 2 strains of Bacteroides xylanisolvens SD-CC-1b and SD-CC-2a using Illumina and 454 sequencing technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteroides xlyanisolvens strains (SD_CC_1b, SD_CC_2a) isolated from human feces were able to grow on crystalline cellulose. Cellulolytic properties are not common in Bacteroides species. Here, we report improved genome sequences of both the B. xlyanisolvens strains....

  8. MRSA CC398 in the pig production chain.

    PubMed

    Broens, E M; Graat, E A M; van der Wolf, P J; van de Giessen, A W; van Duijkeren, E; Wagenaar, J A; van Nes, A; Mevius, D J; de Jong, M C M

    2011-02-01

    In 2005, a distinct clone of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA CC398) was found in pigs and people in contact with pigs. The structure of the pig production chain in high technology pig husbandry enables pathogens to spread during animal trading, with an increasing prevalence in herds further down the chain. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the MRSA status of the supplying herd on the MRSA status of the receiving herd in order to gain more insight into the role of animal trading as a transmission route for MRSA CC398. Nasal samples (60-80 pigs per herd) were collected from 38 herds; in 20 herds, environmental samples were collected as well. Ten MRSA-positive herds (based on the results of nasal swabs of 10 individual pigs per herd) from a prior study were included in the data analysis. Herds were classified as MRSA positive if at least one sample tested positive. The 48 herds were part of 14 complete (40 herds) and 4 incomplete (8 herds) pig production chains. Fifty-six percent of the herds were classified as MRSA positive. MRSA-positive herds were observed at the start (breeding herds), middle (farrowing herds) and the end (finishing herds) of the pig production chain. All of the herds in 8 chains tested MRSA positive;, all of the herds in 5 chains tested MRSA negative and in the remaining 5 chains, MRSA-positive and MRSA-negative herds were detected. Seven spa types were found, which were all previously confirmed to belong to CC398. All of the isolates were susceptible to mupirocin, linezolid, rifampicin, fusidic acid and cotrimoxazole. Resistance against tetracycline, erythromycin and clindamycin was found in 100, 74 and 76% of the isolates, respectively. Seventy-nine percent of herds with a MRSA-positive supplier of pigs were MRSA positive, whereas 23% of herds with a MRSA-negative supplier were MRSA positive (OR=10.8; 95% CI: 1.5-110.1; P=0.011). The presence of entirely MRSA-positive and MRSA-negative chains and the

  9. [Comporison Sduty of Microstructure by Metallographicalk on the Polarized Light and Texture by XRD of CC 5083 and CC 5182 Aluminium Alloy after Cold Rolling and Recrystallization].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-biao; Li, Yong-wei; Tan, Yuan-biao; Ma, Min; Wang, Xue-min; Liu, Wen-chang

    2015-03-01

    At present the study of relation between microstructure, texture and performance of CC 5083 aluminium alloy after cold tolling and recrystallization processes is still finitude. So that the use of the CC 5083 aluminium alloy be influenced. Be cased into electrical furnace, hot up with unlimited speed followed the furnace hot up to different temperature and annealed 2h respectively, and be cased into salt-beth furnace, hot up quickly to different temperature and annealed 30 min respectively for CC 5083 and CC 5182 aluminum alloy after cold roling with 91.5% reduction. The microstructure be watched use metallographic microscope, the texture be inspected by XRD. The start temperature of recrystallization and grain grow up temperature within annealing in the electric furnace of CC 5083 aluminum alloy board is 343 degrees C, and the shap of grain after grow up with long strip (the innovation point ); The start temperature of recrystallization within annealling in the salt bath furnace of CC 5083 is 343 degrees C. The start temperature and end temperature of recrystallization within annealling of CC 5083 and CC 5182 aluminum alloy is 371 degrees C. The grain grow up outstanding of cold rooled CC 5152 aluminum alloy after annealed with 454 degrees C in the electric furnace and salt bath furnace. The start temperature of grain grow up of CC 5083 alluminurn alloy annealed in the electric furnace and salt bath furnace respectively is higher than the start temperature of grain grow up of CC 5182 alluminum alloy annealed in the electric furnace and salt bath furnace respectively. The strat temperature of recrystallization grain grow up is higher than which annealled with other three manner annealing process. The recrystallization temperature of CC 5182 annealed in the salt bath furnace is higher than which annealed in the electric furnace. The recrystallization temperature of the surface layer of CC 5083 and CC 5182 aluminum alloy is higher than the inner layer (the innovation

  10. Results of the BETS Survey of the CC Cryostat

    SciTech Connect

    Luther, R.D.; /Fermilab

    1988-01-07

    This Engineering Note presents results of dimensional surveys of the CC Cryostat. The surveys were performed by members of the Fermilab Alignment Group using a computerized optical system known as BETS. The coordinate system used is described on page 1 of the note. Locations of the support bosses in the inner vessel are given on pages 2 and 3. The bosses control the position of the module array within the cryostat. Locations of the center cylinders (bores) and bypass tubes in both vessels are given on pages 2 and 4 through 6. Elevations and locations of the nozzles on top of the cryostat are given on page 9. Measurements of the stack-up heights of the support stanchions are given on page 13. Raw BETS data are included in Appendix A of the Note.

  11. Simulating CC and MLO compressions with the Surface Evolver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchetta do Nascimento, Marcelo; Ramos Batista, Valério

    2015-01-01

    Mammographies are X-ray images of the breast under external compressions called Craniocaudal (CC) and Mediolateral Oblique (MLO). Together they increase the chances of detecting cancer but the breast is shown in strongly deformed shapes. Cancer location is highly uncertain for the surgery and so the breast is commonly taken out entirely, a serious trauma for the patient. In this paper we present a fully virtual mammography procedure that faithfully reproduces all shapes of the breast and in its inside tracks the cancer at any step. The cancer is then precisely located for the surgery and can be removed through a small incision. So the whole structure is preserved and cured as an integral benefit to the patient.

  12. Skeletal and body composition evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazess, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    Research on radiation detectors for absorptiometry; analysis of errors affective single photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation; analysis of errors affecting dual photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation; comparison of skeletal measurements with other techniques; cooperation with NASA projects for skeletal evaluation in spaceflight (Experiment MO-78) and in laboratory studies with immobilized animals; studies of postmenopausal osteoporosis; organization of scientific meetings and workshops on absorptiometric measurement; and development of instrumentation for measurement of fluid shifts in the human body were performed. Instrumentation was developed that allows accurate and precise (2% error) measurements of mineral content in compact and trabecular bone and of the total skeleton. Instrumentation was also developed to measure fluid shifts in the extremities. Radiation exposure with those procedures is low (2-10 MREM). One hundred seventy three technical reports and one hundred and four published papers of studies from the University of Wisconsin Bone Mineral Lab are listed.

  13. Skeletal fluorosis in immobilized extremities.

    PubMed

    Rosenquist, J B

    1975-11-01

    The effect of immobilization on skeletal fluorosis was studied in growing rabbits. One hind leg was immobilized by an external fixation device extending below the wrist joint and above the knee joint, the extremity being in a straight position after severance of the sciatic nerve. The animals, aged 7 weeks at the beginning of the experiment, were given 10 mg of fluoride per kg body weight and day during 12 weeks. In the tibiae, development of the skeletal fluorosis was more irregular than that observed in previous studies of normally active animals, being most excessive in the mobile bone. The immobilization effect was most profound in the femora as the cortical thickness and the femur score were significantly higher than those in the mobile femora. It was suggested that an altered muscular activity was the reason for the observed changes. PMID:1189918

  14. The complexities of skeletal biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karsenty, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    For a long time, the skeleton was seen as an amorphous tissue of little biological interest. But such a view ignored the large number of genetic and degenerative diseases affecting this organ. Over the past 15 years, molecular and genetic studies have modified our understanding of skeletal biology. By so doing this progress has affected our understanding of diseases and suggested in many instances new therapeutic opportunities.

  15. Molecular characterization of miiuy croaker CC chemokine gene and its expression following Vibrio anguillarum injection.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuan-zhi; Wang, Ri-xin; Sun, Yue-na; Xu, Tian-jun

    2011-07-01

    A CC chemokine gene was isolated from miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy) by expressed sequence tag analysis. The Mimi-CC cDNA contains an open reading frame of 429 nucleotides encoding 142 amino acid residues. The deduced Mimi-CC possesses the typical arrangement of four cysteines as found in other known CC chemokines (C³¹, C³², C⁵⁶, and C⁷⁰). It shares 15.3%-37.4% identity to CC chemokines of mammal and teleost. Phylogenetic analysis showed that miiuy croaker was most closely related to Atlantic cod. Genomic analysis revealed that Mimi-CC gene consists of four exons and three introns, which is not typical of CC chemokines but resembles that of CXC chemokines. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that Mimi-CC is constitutively expressed in most tissues including lymphoid organs, and the highest expression of Mimi-CC transcripts in normal tissues was observed in muscle. Challenge of miiuy croaker with Vibrio anguillarum resulted in significant changes in the expression of CC chemokine transcripts in four tissues, especially in kidney and spleen. PMID:21414411

  16. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of a CC chemokine gene from miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuanzhi; Sun, Yuena; Shi, Ge; Wang, Rixin; Xu, Tianjun

    2012-12-01

    Chemokines are a family of structurally related chemotactic cytokines that regulate the migration of leukocytes, under both physiological and inflammatory conditions. A partial cDNA of CC chemokine gene designed as Mimi-CC3 was isolated from miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy) spleen cDNA library. Unknown 3' part of the cDNA was amplified by 3'-RACE. The complete cDNA of Mimi-CC3 contains an 89-nt 5'-UTR, a 303-nt open reading frame and a 441-nt 3'-UTR. Three exons and two introns were identified in Mimi-CC3. The deduced Mimi-CC3 protein sequences contain a 22 amino acids signal peptide and a 78 amino acids mature polypeptide, which possesses the typical arrangement of four cysteines as found in other known CC chemokines. It shares low amino acid sequence identities with most other fish and mammalian CC chemokines (less than 54.1 %), but shares very high identities with large yellow croaker CC chemokine (94.6 %). Phylogenetic analysis showed that Mimi-CC3 gene may have an orthologous relationship with mammalian/amphibian CCL25 gene. Tissue expression distributed analysis showed that Mimi-CC3 gene was constitutively expressed in all nine tissues examined, although at different levels. Upon stimulated with Vibrio anguillarum, the time-course analysis using a real-time PCR showed that Mimi-CC3 transcript in kidney and liver was obviously up-regulated and reached the peak levels, followed by a recovery. Mimi-CC3 expression in kidney was more strongly increased than in liver. However, down-regulation was observed in spleen. These results indicated that Mimi-CC3 plays important roles in miiuy croaker immune response as well as in homeostatic mechanisms. PMID:22736236

  17. Binding of imidazole, 1-methylimidazole and 4-nitroimidazole to yeast cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) and the distal histidine mutant, CcP(H52L).

    PubMed

    Erman, James E; Chinchilla, Diana; Studer, Jason; Vitello, Lidia B

    2015-08-01

    Imidazole, 1-methylimidazole and 4-nitroimidazole bind to yeast cytochrome c peroxidase (yCcP) with apparent equilibrium dissociation constants (KD(app)) of 3.3±0.4, 0.85±0.11, and ~0.2M, respectively, at pH7. This is the weakest imidazole binding to a heme protein reported to date and it is about 120 times weaker than imidazole binding to metmyoglobin. Spectroscopic changes associated with imidazole and 1-methylimidazole binding to yCcP suggest partial ionization of bound imidazole to imidazolate. The pKa for ionization of bound imidazole is estimated to be 7.4±0.2, about 7 units lower than that of free imidazole and about 3 units lower than imidazole bound to metmyoglobin. Equilibrium binding of imidazole to CcP(H52L) is biphasic with low- and high-affinity phases having KD(app) values of 9.5±4.5 and 0.13±0.04M, respectively. CcP(H52L) binding of 1-methylimidazole is monophasic with an affinity similar to those of yCcP and rCcP. Binding of 1-methylimidazole to rCcP is associated with two kinetic phases, the initial binding complete within 10s, followed by a process that is consistent with 1-methylimidazole binding to a cavity created by movement of Trp-191 from the interior of the protein to the surface. Both the equilibrium binding and kinetics of 1-methylimidazole binding to yCcP are pH dependent. yCcP has a four-fold increase in 1-methylimidazole binding affinity on decreasing the pH from 7.5 to 4.0, an observation that is unique among the many studies on binding of imidazole and imidazole derivatives to heme proteins. PMID:25907133

  18. Binding of imidazole, 1-methylimidazole and 4-nitroimidazole to yeast cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) and the distal histidine mutant, CcP(H52L)

    PubMed Central

    Erman, James E.; Chinchilla, Diana; Studer, Jason; Vitello, Lidia B.

    2015-01-01

    Imidazole, 1-methylimidazole and 4-nitroimidazole bind to yeast cytochrome c peroxidase (yCcP) with apparent equilibrium dissociation constants (KDapp) of 3.3 ± 0.4, 0.85 ± 0.11, and ~0.2 M, respectively, at pH 7. This is the weakest imidazole binding to a heme protein reported to date and it is about 120 times weaker than imidazole binding to metmyoglobin. Spectroscopic changes associated with imidazole and 1-methylimidazole binding to yCcP suggest partial ionization of bound imidazole to imidazolate. The pKa for ionization of bound imidazole is estimated to be 7.4 ± 0.2, about 7 units lower than that of free imidazole and about 3 units lower than imidazole bound to metmyoglobin. Equilibrium binding of imidazole to CcP(H52L) is biphasic with low- and high-affinity phases having KDapp values of 9.5 ± 4.5 and 0.13 ± 0.04 M, respectively. CcP(H52L) binding of 1-methylimidazole is monophasic with an affinity similar to those of yCcP and rCcP. Binding of 1-methylimidazole to rCcP is associated with two kinetic phases, the initial binding complete within 10 s, followed by a process that is consistent with 1-methylimidazole binding to a cavity created by movement of Trp-191 from the interior of the protein to the surface. Both the equilibrium binding and kinetics of 1-methylimidazole binding to yCcP are pH dependent. yCcP has a four-fold increase in 1-methylimidazole binding affinity on decreasing the pH from 7.5 to 4.0, an observation that is unique among the many studies on binding of imidazole and imidazole derivatives to heme proteins. PMID:25907133

  19. Preferential carriage of class 2 integrons in Acinetobacter baumannii CC113 and novel singletons.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, M S; Montaña, S; Cassini, M; Centrón, D

    2015-10-01

    Our understanding of the distribution of integrons associated with multidrug resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates around the world remains incomplete. The association between the class 1 and 2 integron A. baumannii-positive isolates (n = 60), recovered since 1982 from 11 Argentinean hospitals, and the circulating lineages, was investigated. While class 2 integrons were highly significantly associated with clonal lineage CC113B/CC79P (P = 0·009) and novel singletons (P = 0·001), class 1 integrons were found not to be associated with CC109B/CC1P or other lineages. The study reveals a differential distribution of class 2 integrons in lineages, and suggests that the prevalence of intI2 in Argentina is related to the emergence of novel singletons in recent years and to the abundance of CC113B/CC79P, which has been the local dominant lineage for several decades. PMID:25697643

  20. Effect of salt stress on the physiology of Frankia sp strain CcI6.

    PubMed

    Oshone, Rediet; Mansour, Samira R; Tisa, Louis S

    2013-11-01

    Actinorhizal plants are able to overcome saline soils and reclaim land. Frankia sp strain CcI6 was isolated from nodules of Casuarina cunninghamiana found in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis of Frankia sp. strain CcI6 revealed that the strain is closely related to Frankia sp. strain CcI3. The strain displays an elevated level of NaCl tolerance. Vesicle production and nitrogenase activity were also influenced by NaCl. PMID:24287648

  1. JMS Proxy and C/C++ Client SDK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolgast, Paul; Pechkam, Paul

    2007-01-01

    JMS Proxy and C/C++ Client SDK (JMS signifies "Java messaging service" and "SDK" signifies "software development kit") is a software package for developing interfaces that enable legacy programs (here denoted "clients") written in the C and C++ languages to communicate with each other via a JMS broker. This package consists of two main components: the JMS proxy server component and the client C library SDK component. The JMS proxy server component implements a native Java process that receives and responds to requests from clients. This component can run on any computer that supports Java and a JMS client. The client C library SDK component is used to develop a JMS client program running in each affected C or C++ environment, without need for running a Java virtual machine in the affected computer. A C client program developed by use of this SDK has most of the quality-of-service characteristics of standard Java-based client programs, including the following: Durable subscriptions; Asynchronous message receipt; Such standard JMS message qualities as "TimeToLive," "Message Properties," and "DeliveryMode" (as the quoted terms are defined in previously published JMS documentation); and Automatic reconnection of a JMS proxy to a restarted JMS broker.

  2. Application of Aquaculture Monitoring System Based on CC2530

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. L.; Liu, X. Q.

    In order to improve the intelligent level of aquaculture technology, this paper puts forward a remote wireless monitoring system based on ZigBee technology, GPRS technology and Android mobile phone platform. The system is composed of wireless sensor network (WSN), GPRS module, PC server, and Android client. The WSN was set up by CC2530 chips based on ZigBee protocol, to realize the collection of water quality parameters such as the water level, temperature, PH and dissolved oxygen. The GPRS module realizes remote communication between WSN and PC server. Android client communicates with server to monitor the level of water quality. The PID (proportion, integration, differentiation) control is adopted in the control part, the control commands from the android mobile phone is sent to the server, the server again send it to the lower machine to control the water level regulating valve and increasing oxygen pump. After practical testing to the system in Liyang, Jiangsu province, China, temperature measurement accuracy reaches 0.5°C, PH measurement accuracy reaches 0.3, water level control precision can be controlled within ± 3cm, dissolved oxygen control precision can be controlled within ±0.3 mg/L, all the indexes can meet the requirements, this system is very suitable for aquaculture.

  3. Beam to Shell Temperature Differencees for the CC Cryostat

    SciTech Connect

    Luther, R.; /Fermilab

    1991-02-05

    This note documents the calculation of stresses resulting from temperature differences between the CC cryostat shell and the module array support beams, and the calculation of corresponding maximum allowable temperature differences to be monitored during the cooldown of the cryostat. A finite element model of a portion of the inner vessel shell was analyzed for a uniform temperature change. The shell was assumed to be completely restrained by the support beams. A maximum allowable temperature difference was determined based on limits on secondary stress ranges prescribed by the ASME Code (Section VID, Division 2). The maximum allowable difference between the cryostat shell and the support beams was found to vary from about 18K near room temperature to about 30K as the shell temperature approaches liquid argon temperature. The allowable values are tabulated below and plotted in Figure 1. The variation results from the decrease in the coefficient of thermal expansion of stainless steels at lower temperatures. As shown in the plot, the variation is roughly linear. Note that although the shell is assumed to be at the lower temperature in Fig. 1, the limitation on temperature difference will also apply during warmup, when the shell will likely be warmer than the beams.

  4. Crossing Levels and Representations: The Connected Chemistry (CC1) Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Sharona T.; Wilensky, Uri

    2009-06-01

    Connected Chemistry (named CC1 to denote Connected Chemistry Chapter 1) is a computer-based environment for learning the topics of gas laws and kinetic molecular theory in chemistry. It views chemistry from an "emergent" perspective, how macroscopic phenomena result from the interaction of many submicroscopic particles. Connected Chemistry employs agent-based models built in NetLogo (Wilensky, NetLogo, Northwestern University, Evanston, 1999a), embedded in scripts that structure and log the students' activities. A conceptual framework was developed to structure students' experiences and learning through exploring the models. The framework describes three spheres of knowledge (conceptual, symbolic and physical) and four forms of access to understanding the system (submicro, macro, mathematical and experiential). Activities were designed to help students build an integrated view of the chemical system, by focusing on understanding within each form of access, and promoting transitions between the spheres of knowledge. The macro-level descriptions were used to bridge between the three spheres and support these shifts. The conceptual framework for the Connected Chemistry curriculum is discussed and demonstrated. Further development directions are suggested.

  5. D0 CC Cryostat Test Cooldown - Cooldown Time

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerst, J.D.; /Fermilab

    1987-08-19

    The D0 CC Cryostat is to be cold tested with LN{sub 2}. Calculations show that the time required for the 12.5 ton stainless steel inner vessel to reach equilibrium is around 5 hours if the vessel is cooled by introducing liquid into a nozzle at the bottom. The heat transfer calculations contain many assumptions. As a result, the vessel will be cooled by spraying LN{sub 2} through a nozzle at the vessel top, providing as fast a cooldown as desired. Although calculations of the bottom-fill cooldown method indicate a reasonable cooldown time, the assumption of uniform gas temperature (absence of stratification) is vital to the analysis and in fast may not be valid. Initially, as liquid is introduced into the bottom of the vessel, it will boil rapidly creating large amounts of cold gas which then cool the walls above. As the vessel bottom cools and LN{sub 2} begins to pool, however, the boiloff rate could decrease significantly. Thus the cold gas assumed in the free convection calculations is not generated. For this reason and in the interest of a speedy cooldown it has been decided to fill the vessel by spraying LN{sub 2} in through a nozzle in the vessel top.

  6. Mitochondrial isolation from skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Cazarin, Mary L; Snider, Natalie N; Andrade, Francisco H

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondria are organelles controlling the life and death of the cell. They participate in key metabolic reactions, synthesize most of the ATP, and regulate a number of signaling cascades. Past and current researchers have isolated mitochondria from rat and mice tissues such as liver, brain and heart. In recent years, many researchers have focused on studying mitochondrial function from skeletal muscles. Here, we describe a method that we have used successfully for the isolation of mitochondria from skeletal muscles. Our procedure requires that all buffers and reagents are made fresh and need about 250-500 mg of skeletal muscle. We studied mitochondria isolated from rat and mouse gastrocnemius and diaphragm, and rat extraocular muscles. Mitochondrial protein concentration is measured with the Bradford assay. It is important that mitochondrial samples be kept ice-cold during preparation and that functional studies be performed within a relatively short time (~1 hr). Mitochondrial respiration is measured using polarography with a Clark-type electrode (Oxygraph system) at 37°C⁷. Calibration of the oxygen electrode is a key step in this protocol and it must be performed daily. Isolated mitochondria (150 μg) are added to 0.5 ml of experimental buffer (EB). State 2 respiration starts with addition of glutamate (5 mM) and malate (2.5 mM). Then, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (150 μM) is added to start state 3. Oligomycin (1 μM), an ATPase synthase blocker, is used to estimate state. Lastly, carbonyl cyanide p-[trifluoromethoxy]-phenyl-hydrazone (FCCP, 0.2 μM) is added to measurestate, or uncoupled respiration. The respiratory control ratio (RCR), the ratio of state 3 to state 4, is calculated after each experiment. An RCR ≥ 4 is considered as evidence of a viable mitochondria preparation. In summary, we present a method for the isolation of viable mitochondria from skeletal muscles that can be used in biochemical (e.g., enzyme activity, immunodetection, proteomics

  7. Exposure to bloom-like concentrations of two marine Synechococcus cyanobacteria (strains CC9311 and CC9902) differentially alters fish behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, T. J.; Paz-Yepes, J.; Morrison, R. A.; Palenik, B.; Tresguerres, M.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal California experiences large-scale blooms of Synechococcus cyanobacteria, which are predicted to become more prevalent by the end of the 21st century as a result of global climate change. This study investigated whether exposure to bloom-like concentrations of two Synechococcus strains, CC9311 and CC9902, alters fish behaviour. Black perch (Embiotoca jacksoni) were exposed to Synechococcus strain CC9311 or CC9902 (1.5 × 106 cells ml−1) or to control seawater in experimental aquaria for 3 days. Fish movement inside a testing arena was then recorded and analysed using video camera-based motion-tracking software. Compared with control fish, fish exposed to CC9311 demonstrated a significant preference for the dark zone of the tank in the light–dark test, which is an indication of increased anxiety. Furthermore, fish exposed to CC9311 also had a statistically significant decrease in velocity and increase in immobility and they meandered more in comparison to control fish. There was a similar trend in velocity, immobility and meandering in fish exposed to CC9902, but there were no significant differences in behaviour or locomotion between this group and control fish. Identical results were obtained with a second batch of fish. Additionally, in this second trial we also investigated whether fish would recover after a 3 day period in seawater without cyanobacteria. Indeed, there were no longer any significant differences in behaviour among treatments, demonstrating that the sp. CC9311-induced alteration of behaviour is reversible. These results demonstrate that blooms of specific marine Synechococcus strains can induce differential sublethal effects in fish, namely alterations light–dark preference behaviour and motility. PMID:27293641

  8. Effect of hemiplegia on skeletal maturation.

    PubMed

    Roberts, C D; Vogtle, L; Stevenson, R D

    1994-11-01

    Children with cerebral palsy have been reported to have poor growth and delayed skeletal maturation, but it is unclear whether these effects are related to the underlying brain injury or to concomitant malnutrition. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of hemiplegic cerebral palsy on skeletal maturation and growth, with the unaffected side used as each subject's control. Bilateral hand-wrist radiographs were obtained for 19 children with spastic hemiplegia. Skeletal maturation was determined in a blinded fashion with the Fels method. The skeletal age of the affected (hemiplegic) side was less than that of the unaffected (control) side in all 19 subjects; the mean difference in skeletal age was 7.3 months (p < 0.001). The delay in skeletal maturation of the affected side correlated linearly with age and upper extremity function. These findings show that brain injury results in delayed skeletal maturation independent of malnutrition. This effect on skeletal maturation may explain, in part, the reason that some children with cerebral palsy grow poorly. PMID:7965443

  9. CC chemokine receptor 5 gene polymorphisms in beryllium disease.

    PubMed

    Sato, H; Silveira, L; Spagnolo, P; Gillespie, M; Gottschall, E B; Welsh, K I; du Bois, R M; Newman, L S; Maier, L A

    2010-08-01

    CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is expressed on type-1 T-helper cells, which are involved in the pathogenesis of the granulomatous lung disease chronic beryllium disease (CBD). CCR5 gene (CCR5) polymorphisms are associated with sarcoidosis severity. The present study explores associations between CCR5 polymorphisms and CBD and its disease progression. Eight CCR5 polymorphisms were genotyped in CBD (n = 88), beryllium sensitisation (BeS; n = 86) and beryllium-exposed nondiseased controls (n = 173) using PCR with sequence-specific primers. Pulmonary function and bronchoalveolar lavage data were examined for associations with genotypes. There were no significant differences in genotype and allele frequency between CBD, BeS individuals and controls. In CBD, associations were found with decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity and the CCR5 -3458 thymidine (T)T genotype (p<0.0001), and an increase in alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference at rest (p = 0.003) and at maximum exercise (p = 0.01) and the -5663 adenine allele. Increased bronchoalveolar lavage lymphocyte numbers were associated with CCR5 -2459 guanine/-2135T (p = 0.01) only in the combined CBD and BeS group. This is the first study showing that CCR5 polymorphisms are associated with worsening pulmonary function over time in CBD, suggesting that CCR5 is important in the progression of pulmonary function in CBD. Further studies would be useful to clarify the mechanism whereby CCR5 polymorphisms affect progression of CBD. PMID:20075058

  10. Regulation of NADPH oxidases in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Leonardo F; Laitano, Orlando

    2016-09-01

    The only known function of NAD(P)H oxidases is to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Skeletal muscles express three isoforms of NAD(P)H oxidases (Nox1, Nox2, and Nox4) that have been identified as critical modulators of redox homeostasis. Nox2 acts as the main source of skeletal muscle ROS during contractions, participates in insulin signaling and glucose transport, and mediates the myocyte response to osmotic stress. Nox2 and Nox4 contribute to skeletal muscle abnormalities elicited by angiotensin II, muscular dystrophy, heart failure, and high fat diet. Our review addresses the expression and regulation of NAD(P)H oxidases with emphasis on aspects that are relevant to skeletal muscle. We also summarize: i) the most widely used NAD(P)H oxidases activity assays and inhibitors, and ii) studies that have defined Nox enzymes as protagonists of skeletal muscle redox homeostasis in a variety of health and disease conditions. PMID:27184955

  11. Association of Overt Diabetes Mellitus with the Non-CC but not the CC Genotype of Interleukin-28B in Hepatitis C Virus Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashish; Gupta, Varun; Sharma, Praveen; Bansal, Naresh; Singla, Vikas; Arora, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Background: Interleukin-28B (IL-28B) polymorphism is an important predictor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment response. Whether IL-28b genotypes also influence other nontreatment related clinical parameters is unclear. Methods: Patients with HCV-related chronic liver diseases who attended our department during 2012-2014 were retrospectively analyzed. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of rs12979860 (IL-28B) were correlated with various clinical parameters. We also compared these parameters in patients with and without overt diabetes to identify possible associations. Results: A total of 115 patients were included (median age 48, range 15-76 years; 70% males). Overall, 43/115 (37%) patients had chronic hepatitis, while the remaining 72/115 (63%) had cirrhosis. The most common IL-28B genotype was CC, which was found in 53% of patients (61/115), while the remaining 47% were nonCC [CT 42% (48/115) and TT 5% (6/115)]. Clinical and laboratory parameters like Hb, white blood cell (WBC), platelets, bilirubin, transaminases, and albumin were similar in the CC and nonCC genotypes. Overt diabetes mellitus was present in 22% (25/115) of patients. Patients with nonCC genotype had significantly higher prevalence of overt diabetes mellitus than patients with CC genotype (31% [17/54] versus 13% [8/61]; p < 0.05). When parameters were compared in patients with and without overt diabetes mellitus, only IL-28B and age were significantly associated with overt diabetes mellitus (p < 0.05). Conclusion: In HCV patients, overt diabetes mellitus was more commonly associated with the nonCC genotype of IL-28B than the CC genotype. Carriers of the T-allele of SNP rs12979860 were more likely to have insulin resistance than CC homozygotes, and this finding may explain the higher prevalence of diabetes in non-CC genotypes. Thus, an IL-28B test may be useful in patients of HCV in order to determine their likelihood of developing diabetes mellitus. PMID:27047769

  12. Choosing the Right CC Welding Unit: Student Success Depends on It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borchert, Neal

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the personality of a constant current (CC) dc welding machine can make the difference between a successful or unsuccessful weld test or between a student who pursues a career in welding and one who may quit in frustration. In this article, the author explains the two different "personalities" of CC welders. He also explains how…

  13. Dehydration, skeletal muscle damage and inflammation before the competitions among the elite wrestlers

    PubMed Central

    Ozkan, Isik; Ibrahim, Cicioglu H.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to identify weight-loss and hydration levels before competitions among elite wrestlers and determine the skeletal muscle damage and inflammation levels after dehydration. [Subjects] Seventy-two elite wrestlers who participated in the Turkish Wrestling Championship. [Methods] With the help of specialists, 5 cc of blood were drawn from the forearm veins of the wrestlers. Laboratory analyses of Na+, BUN, Glucose, CK, LDH, AST, ALT, C-RP levels were performed. Using a mathematical formula for hydration the POsm levels of the athletes were calculated. [Results] The wrestlers were divided into two groups based on hydration status. There were significant correlations between hydration indicators of Na+, BUN and PBWL values. There were significant differences between AST, LDH, CK values and skeletal muscle damage indicators of the two groups, but there were no significant differences between the inflammation levels and C-RP values of the groups. [Conclusion] No differences existed in inflammation levels among the wrestlers, although dehydrated wrestlers suffered from higher level of skeletal muscle damage than wrestlers who were not dehydrated. PMID:26957750

  14. Dehydration, skeletal muscle damage and inflammation before the competitions among the elite wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Isik; Ibrahim, Cicioglu H

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to identify weight-loss and hydration levels before competitions among elite wrestlers and determine the skeletal muscle damage and inflammation levels after dehydration. [Subjects] Seventy-two elite wrestlers who participated in the Turkish Wrestling Championship. [Methods] With the help of specialists, 5 cc of blood were drawn from the forearm veins of the wrestlers. Laboratory analyses of Na(+), BUN, Glucose, CK, LDH, AST, ALT, C-RP levels were performed. Using a mathematical formula for hydration the POsm levels of the athletes were calculated. [Results] The wrestlers were divided into two groups based on hydration status. There were significant correlations between hydration indicators of Na(+), BUN and PBWL values. There were significant differences between AST, LDH, CK values and skeletal muscle damage indicators of the two groups, but there were no significant differences between the inflammation levels and C-RP values of the groups. [Conclusion] No differences existed in inflammation levels among the wrestlers, although dehydrated wrestlers suffered from higher level of skeletal muscle damage than wrestlers who were not dehydrated. PMID:26957750

  15. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC): Fiscal year 1996. Annual technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department`s materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. The EMaCC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research in his or her capacity as overseer of the technical programs of the Department. This annual technical report is mandated by the EMaCC terms of reference. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1996 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department.

  16. Osteolytic lesions, cytogenetic features and bone marrow levels of cytokines and chemokines in multiple myeloma patients: Role of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20.

    PubMed

    Palma, B Dalla; Guasco, D; Pedrazzoni, M; Bolzoni, M; Accardi, F; Costa, F; Sammarelli, G; Craviotto, L; De Filippo, M; Ruffini, L; Omedè, P; Ria, R; Aversa, F; Giuliani, N

    2016-02-01

    The relationship between bone marrow (BM) cytokine and chemokine levels, cytogenetic profiles and skeletal involvement in multiple myeloma (MM) patients is not yet defined. This study investigated a cohort of 455 patients including monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS), smoldering MM and symptomatic MM patients. Skeletal surveys, positron emission tomography (PET)/computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to identify myeloma bone disease. Significantly higher median BM levels of both C-C motif Ligand (CCL)3 and CCL20 were found in MM patients with radiographic evidence of osteolytic lesions as compared with those without, and in all MM patients with positive PET/CT scans. BM levels of CCL3, CCL20, Activin-A and Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) were significantly higher in patients with high bone disease as compared with patients with low bone disease. Moreover, CCL20 BM levels were significant predictors of osteolysis on X-rays by multivariate logistic analysis. On the other hand, DKK-1 levels were related to the presence of MRI lesions independently of the osteolysis at the X-rays. Our data define the relationship between bone disease and the BM cytokine and chemokine patterns highlighting the tight relationship between CCL20 BM levels and osteolysis in MM. PMID:26419509

  17. Design and Test of the CC Cryostat Head Cart

    SciTech Connect

    Jaques, Al; /Fermilab

    1989-08-08

    This Engineering Note documents the design of the stand to be used to transport the CC Cryostat heads into the D-Zero clean room. Due to the width of the clean room access door, the heads will have to be upright to fit through. This head cart will hold the heads upright and wheel them into the clean room on a guided track. Before the wheels are placed on the heat cart, it will be used as a stand to place the heads on for the purpose of test fitting the super insulation. The head cart will not only be structurally sufficient to support the weight of the heads but also stiff enough to allow a maximum deflection of 1/2-inch at the end of the 48-inch cylinder. The heaviest head assembly weighs about 9000 pounds. Following A.I.S.C. specifications and using a 9000 pound design load, the head cart was initially designed and built and later modified in order to meet the deflection requirements. Bending and tension stresses were limited to two thirds the yield strength. Weld and shear stresses are limited to 0.4*Fy. The C7 X 12.25 channels, the L2.5 X 2.5 X 0.25 angles adn the 1/2-inch plate are all A36 steel. In order to validate the need for an end plate in the 48-inch cylinder, an ANSYS model was created of the cylinder itself to determine it's rigidity under a point load applied at it's outer end. Appendix D contains the results which demonstrate the rigidity of the cylinder-end plate assembly. Also included is a Frame-Mac simulation of the head cart which was used to estimate the deflection at the cylinder end. A load test was performed to 133% of the rated capacity, or 12,000 pounds. The test load was incrementally applied using a crane and hook scale. A graph of deflection vs. load is shown in Appendix E. A spreader beam was designed and built to properly test the head cart. Stress calculations for this test spreader beam are included in Appendix C.

  18. Exercise Promotes Healthy Aging of Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Cartee, Gregory D; Hepple, Russell T; Bamman, Marcas M; Zierath, Juleen R

    2016-06-14

    Primary aging is the progressive and inevitable process of bodily deterioration during adulthood. In skeletal muscle, primary aging causes defective mitochondrial energetics and reduced muscle mass. Secondary aging refers to additional deleterious structural and functional age-related changes caused by diseases and lifestyle factors. Secondary aging can exacerbate deficits in mitochondrial function and muscle mass, concomitant with the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Exercise opposes deleterious effects of secondary aging by preventing the decline in mitochondrial respiration, mitigating aging-related loss of muscle mass and enhancing insulin sensitivity. This review focuses on mechanisms by which exercise promotes "healthy aging" by inducing modifications in skeletal muscle. PMID:27304505

  19. Deciphering skeletal patterning: clues from the limb.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Francesca V; Martin, Gail R

    2003-05-15

    Even young children can distinguish a Tyrannosaurus rex from a Brontosaurus by observing differences in bone size, shape, number and arrangement, that is, skeletal pattern. But despite our extensive knowledge about cartilage and bone formation per se, it is still largely a mystery how skeletal pattern is established. Much of what we do know has been learned from studying limb development in chicken and mouse embryos. Based on the data from such studies, models for how limb skeletal pattern is established have been proposed and continue to be hotly debated. PMID:12748649

  20. Multifocal skeletal tuberculosis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, LIANG; WANG, JINGCHENG; FENG, XINMIN; TAO, YUPING; YANG, JIANDONG; ZHANG, SHENFEI; CAI, JUN

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) of the musculoskeletal system is a rare clinical condition. Multifocal bone involvement is extremely rare and difficult to recognize. Thus, due to the diverse and atypical clinical manifestations of multifocal skeletal TB, the disease is easy to misdiagnose. In the present study, a rare case of atypical disseminated multifocal skeletal TB was reported, which exhibited uncommon findings in radiological images that were more suggestive of a hematological malignancy or metastatic disease. In conclusion, the diagnosis of this condition by conventional diagnostic methods is challenging. The importance of CT-guided needle biopsy and open biopsy in the diagnosis of skeletal TB was emphasized. PMID:27073438

  1. Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering: Methods to Form Skeletal Myotubes and Their Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ostrovidov, Serge; Hosseini, Vahid; Ahadian, Samad; Fujie, Toshinori; Parthiban, Selvakumar Prakash; Ramalingam, Murugan; Bae, Hojae; Kaji, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue engineering (SMTE) aims to repair or regenerate defective skeletal muscle tissue lost by traumatic injury, tumor ablation, or muscular disease. However, two decades after the introduction of SMTE, the engineering of functional skeletal muscle in the laboratory still remains a great challenge, and numerous techniques for growing functional muscle tissues are constantly being developed. This article reviews the recent findings regarding the methodology and various technical aspects of SMTE, including cell alignment and differentiation. We describe the structure and organization of muscle and discuss the methods for myoblast alignment cultured in vitro. To better understand muscle formation and to enhance the engineering of skeletal muscle, we also address the molecular basics of myogenesis and discuss different methods to induce myoblast differentiation into myotubes. We then provide an overview of different coculture systems involving skeletal muscle cells, and highlight major applications of engineered skeletal muscle tissues. Finally, potential challenges and future research directions for SMTE are outlined. PMID:24320971

  2. Dissemination of Methicillin-Susceptible CC398 Staphylococcus aureus Strains in a Rural Greek Area

    PubMed Central

    Sarrou, Styliani; Liakopoulos, Apostolos; Chasioti, Markella; Foka, Antigoni; Fthenakis, Georgios; Billinis, Charalampos; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Pantelidi, Kleoniki; Roussaki-Schulze, Angeliki; Lachanas, Vassilios; Makaritsis, Konstantinos; Skoulakis, Charalampos; Daikos, Georgios L.; Dalekos, Georgios; Spiliopoulou, Iris; Petinaki, Efthymia

    2015-01-01

    A large collection of Staphylococcus aureus including a. 745 clinically significant isolates that were consecutively recovered from human infections during 2012–2013, b. 19 methicillin-susceptible (MSSA), randomly selected between 2006–2011 from our Staphylococcal Collection, c. 16 human colonizing isolates, and d. 10 strains from colonized animals was investigated for the presence and the molecular characteristics of CC398. The study was conducted in Thessaly, a rural region in Greece. The differentiation of livestock-associated clade from the human clade was based on canSNPs combined with the presence of the φ3 bacteriophage and the tetM, scn, sak, and chp genes. Among the 745 isolates, two MRSA (0.8% of total MRSA) and thirteen MSSA (2.65% of total MSSA) were found to belong to CC398, while, between MSSA of our Staphylococcal Collection, one CC398, isolated in 2010, was detected. One human individual, without prior contact with animals, was found to be colonized by a MSSA CC398. No CC398 was identified among the 10 S. aureus isolated from animals. Based on the molecular markers, the 17 CC398 strains were equally placed in the livestock-associated and in the human clades. This is the first report for the dissemination of S. aureus CC398 among humans in Greece. PMID:25835293

  3. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics with Extended Dosing of CC-486 in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Cogle, Christopher R.; Gore, Steven D.; Hetzer, Joel; Kumar, Keshava; Skikne, Barry; MacBeth, Kyle J.

    2015-01-01

    CC-486 (oral azacitidine) is an epigenetic modifier in development for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia. In part 1 of this two-part study, a 7-day CC-486 dosing schedule showed clinical activity, was generally well tolerated, and reduced DNA methylation. Extending dosing of CC-486 beyond 7 days would increase duration of azacitidine exposure. We hypothesized that extended dosing would therefore provide more sustained epigenetic activity. Reported here are the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profiles of CC-486 extended dosing schedules in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) from part 2 of this study. PK and/or PD data were available for 59 patients who were sequentially assigned to 1 of 4 extended CC-486 dosing schedules: 300mg once-daily or 200mg twice-daily for 14 or 21 days per 28-day cycle. Both 300mg once-daily schedules and the 200mg twice-daily 21-day schedule significantly (all P < .05) reduced global DNA methylation in whole blood at all measured time points (days 15, 22, and 28 of the treatment cycle), with sustained hypomethylation at cycle end compared with baseline. CC-486 exposures and reduced DNA methylation were significantly correlated. Patients who had a hematologic response had significantly greater methylation reductions than non-responding patients. These data demonstrate that extended dosing of CC-486 sustains epigenetic effects through the treatment cycle. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00528983 PMID:26296092

  4. Structural Insights into the Interaction Between a Potent Anti-Inflammatory Protein, Viral CC Chemokine Inhibitor (vCCI), and the Human CC Chemokine, Eotaxin-1

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Nai-Wei; Gao, Yong; Schill, Megan S.; Isern, Nancy G.; Dupureur, Cynthia M.; Liwang, Patricia J.

    2014-01-30

    Chemokines play important roles in the immune system, not only recruiting leukocytes to the site of infection and inflammation but also guiding cell homing and cell development. The soluble poxvirusencoded protein vCCI, a CC chemokine inhibitor, can bind to human CC chemokines tightly to impair the host immune defense. This protein has no known homologs in eukaryotes, and may represent a potent method to stop inflammation. Previously, our structure of the vCCI:MIP-1β complex indicated that vCCI uses negatively charged residues in β-sheet II to interact with positively charged residues in the MIP-1βN-terminus, 20’s region and 40’s loop. However, the interactions between vCCI and other CC chemokines have not yet been fully explored. Here, we used NMR and fluorescence anisotropy to study the interaction between vCCI and eotaxin-1 (CCL11), another CC chemokine that is an important factor in the asthma response. NMR results reveal that the binding pattern is very similar to the vCCI:MIP-1βcomplex, and suggest that electrostatic interactions provide a major contribution to binding. Fluorescence anisotropy results on variants of eotaxin-1 further confirm the critical roles of the charged residues in eotaxin. Compared to wild-type eotaxin, single, double, or triple mutations at these critical charged residues weaken the binding. One exception is the K47A mutation that exhibits increased affinity for vCCI, which can be explained structurally. In addition, the binding affinity between vCCI and other wild type CC chemokines, MCP-1, MIP-1β and RANTES, were determined as 1.09 nM, 1.16 nM, and 0.22 nM, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first work quantitatively measuring the binding affinity between vCCI and different CC chemokines.

  5. Catalysis by unsupported skeletal gold catalysts.

    PubMed

    Wittstock, Arne; Bäumer, Marcus

    2014-03-18

    temperatures well below water's freezing point (-30 °C) and with turnover frequencies up to 0.5 s(-1) (at 30 °C). Yet, we can anticipate the surface chemistry of these unsupported and extended gold surfaces based on model experiments under UHV conditions. We have demonstrated this for the selective oxidation of primary alcohols at low temperatures employing npAu catalysts. Chemists have paid growing interest to oxidation and reduction reactions in liquid phase catalysis, most suitable for synthetic organic chemistry. Early work on the aerobic oxidation of d-glucose in 2008 using Raney type npAu already showed the potential of this type of catalyst for liquid phase reactions. Since then, researchers have investigated further oxidation reactions (silanes to silanols) and reduction reactions of alkynes, as well as C-C coupling reactions ([4 + 2] benzannulation) and azo compound decomposition, with likely several more reactions to be reported in the next years. The advantage of this unsupported skeletal type of catalyst is its recyclability and retrievability without leaching of gold into the reaction medium, owing to its monolithic structure. Even though these materials contain nanoscopic structures, they are macroscopic in their geometric dimensions and pose no threat to the environment or health as discussed for other nanomaterials. PMID:24266888

  6. A Protective Role For Club Cell Secretory Protein-16 (CC16) In The Development of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    PubMed Central

    Laucho-Contreras, Maria E.; Polverino, Francesca; Gupta, Kushagra; Taylor, Katherine L.; Kelly, Emer; Pinto-Plata, Victor; Divo, Miguel; Afshaq, Naveed; Petersen, Hans; Stripp, Barry; Pilon, Aprile L.; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes; Celli, Bartolome R.; Owen, Caroline A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Club cell secretory protein-16 (CC16) is the major secreted product of airway Club cells, but its role in the pathogenesis of COPD is unclear. We measured CC16 airway expression in humans with and without COPD and CC16 function in a cigarette smoke (CS)-induced COPD mice model. Methods Airway CC16 expression was measured in COPD patients, smokers without COPD, and non-smokers. We exposed wild-type (WT) and CC16-/- mice to CS or air for up to 6 months, and measured airway CC16 expression, pulmonary inflammation, alveolar septal cell apoptosis, airspace enlargement, airway MUC5AC expression, small airway remodeling, and pulmonary function. Results Smokers and COPD patients had reduced airway CC16 immunostaining that decreased with increasing COPD severity. Exposing mice to CS reduced airway CC16 expression. CC16-/- mice had greater CS-induced emphysema, airway remodeling, pulmonary inflammation, alveolar cell apoptosis, airway MUC5AC expression, and more compliant lungs than WT mice. These changes were associated with increased nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) activation in CC16-/- lungs. CS-induced acute pulmonary changes were reversed by adenoviral-mediated over-expression of CC16. Conclusions CC16 protects lungs from CS-induced injury by reducing lung NFκB activation. CS-induced airway CC16 deficiency increases CS-induced pulmonary inflammation and injury and likely contributes to the pathogenesis of COPD. PMID:25700379

  7. Extinction coefficients of CC and CC bands in ethyne and ethene molecules interacting with Cu+ and Ag+ in zeolites--IR studies and quantumchemical DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Kozyra, Paweł; Góra-Marek, Kinga; Datka, Jerzy

    2015-02-01

    The values of extinction coefficients of CC and CC IR bands of ethyne and ethene interacting with Cu+ and Ag+ in zeolites were determined in quantitative IR experiments and also by quantumchemical DFT calculations with QM/MM method. Both experimental and calculated values were in very good agreement validating the reliability of calculations. The values of extinction coefficients of ethyne and ethene interacting with bare cations and cations embedded in zeolite-like clusters were calculated. The interaction of organic molecules with Cu+ and Ag+ in zeolites ZSM-5 and especially charge transfers between molecule, cation and zeolite framework was also discussed in relation to the values of extinction coefficients. PMID:25307963

  8. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) Fiscal Year 1999 annual technical report

    SciTech Connect

    2000-10-31

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department`s materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1999 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department.

  9. Proteomic profiling of skeletal muscle plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Ohlendieck, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Summary One of the most striking physiological features of skeletal muscle tissues are their enormous capacity to adapt to changed functional demands. Muscle plasticity has been extensively studied by histological, biochemical, physiological and genetic methods over the last few decades. With the recent emergence of high-throughput and large-scale proteomic techniques, mass spectrometry-based surveys have also been applied to the global analysis of the skeletal muscle protein complement during physiological modifications and pathophysiological alterations. This review outlines and discusses the impact of recent proteomic profiling studies of skeletal muscle transitions, including the effects of chronic electro-stimulation, physical exercise, denervation, disuse atrophy, hypoxia, myotonia, motor neuron disease and age-related fibre type shifting. This includes studies on the human skeletal muscle proteome, animal models of muscle plasticity and major neuromuscular pathologies. The biomedical importance of establishing reliable biomarker signatures for the various molecular and cellular transition phases involved in muscle transformation is critically examined. PMID:23738259

  10. Redox regulation of autophagy in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Rodney, George G; Pal, Rituraj; Abo-Zahrah, Reem

    2016-09-01

    Autophagy is a cellular degradative pathway that involves the delivery of cytoplasmic components, including proteins and organelles, to the lysosome for degradation. Autophagy is implicated in the maintenance of skeletal muscle; increased autophagy leads to muscle atrophy while decreased autophagy leads to degeneration and weakness. A growing body of work suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important cellular signal transducers controlling autophagy. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases and mitochondria are major sources of ROS generation in skeletal muscle that are likely regulating autophagy through different signaling cascades based on localization of the ROS signals. This review aims to provide insight into the redox control of autophagy in skeletal muscle. Understanding the mechanisms by which ROS regulate autophagy will provide novel therapeutic targets for skeletal muscle diseases. PMID:27184957

  11. Proteomic profiling of skeletal muscle plasticity.

    PubMed

    Ohlendieck, Kay

    2011-10-01

    One of the most striking physiological features of skeletal muscle tissues are their enormous capacity to adapt to changed functional demands. Muscle plasticity has been extensively studied by histological, biochemical, physiological and genetic methods over the last few decades. With the recent emergence of high-throughput and large-scale proteomic techniques, mass spectrometry-based surveys have also been applied to the global analysis of the skeletal muscle protein complement during physiological modifications and pathophysiological alterations. This review outlines and discusses the impact of recent proteomic profiling studies of skeletal muscle transitions, including the effects of chronic electro-stimulation, physical exercise, denervation, disuse atrophy, hypoxia, myotonia, motor neuron disease and age-related fibre type shifting. This includes studies on the human skeletal muscle proteome, animal models of muscle plasticity and major neuromuscular pathologies. The biomedical importance of establishing reliable biomarker signatures for the various molecular and cellular transition phases involved in muscle transformation is critically examined. PMID:23738259

  12. Role of Akirin in Skeletal Myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoling; Huang, Zhiqing; Wang, Huan; Jia, Gang; Liu, Guangmang; Guo, Xiulan; Tang, Renyong; Long, Dingbiao

    2013-01-01

    Akirin is a recently discovered nuclear factor that plays an important role in innate immune responses. Beyond its role in innate immune responses, Akirin has recently been shown to play an important role in skeletal myogenesis. In this article, we will briefly review the structure and tissue distribution of Akirin and discuss recent advances in our understanding of its role and signal pathway in skeletal myogenesis. PMID:23396110

  13. Cardiac assistance from skeletal muscle: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Salmons, Stanley

    2009-02-01

    Cardiac assistance from skeletal muscle offers an attractive surgical solution to the problem of end-stage heart failure, yet it is widely regarded as a failed approach. I argue here that this is an outdated assessment. Systematic progress has been made over the last 25 years in understanding the relevant basic science. In the light of these advances we should be reconsidering the place of skeletal muscle assist in the surgical armamentarium. PMID:18954996

  14. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization enhances insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Akerstrom, Thorbjorn; Laub, Lasse; Vedel, Kenneth; Brand, Christian Lehn; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Lindqvist, Anna Kaufmann; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Hellsten, Ylva

    2014-12-15

    Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. However, a possible causal relationship has not previously been identified. Therefore, we investigated whether increased skeletal muscle capillarization increases insulin sensitivity. Skeletal muscle-specific angiogenesis was induced by adding the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin to the drinking water of Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 33), whereas 34 rats served as controls. Insulin sensitivity was measured ≥40 h after termination of the 3-wk prazosin treatment, which ensured that prazosin was cleared from the blood stream. Whole body insulin sensitivity was measured in conscious, unrestrained rats by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Tissue-specific insulin sensitivity was assessed by administration of 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose during the plateau phase of the clamp. Whole body insulin sensitivity increased by ∼24%, and insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose disposal increased by ∼30% concomitant with an ∼20% increase in skeletal muscle capillarization. Adipose tissue insulin sensitivity was not affected by the treatment. Insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake was enhanced independent of improvements in skeletal muscle insulin signaling to glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, suggesting that the improvement in insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake could be due to improved diffusion conditions for glucose in the muscle. The prazosin treatment did not affect the rats on any other parameters measured. We conclude that an increase in skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with increased insulin sensitivity. These data point toward the importance of increasing skeletal muscle capillarization for prevention or treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25352432

  15. Role of akirin in skeletal myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoling; Huang, Zhiqing; Wang, Huan; Jia, Gang; Liu, Guangmang; Guo, Xiulan; Tang, Renyong; Long, Dingbiao

    2013-01-01

    Akirin is a recently discovered nuclear factor that plays an important role in innate immune responses. Beyond its role in innate immune responses, Akirin has recently been shown to play an important role in skeletal myogenesis. In this article, we will briefly review the structure and tissue distribution of Akirin and discuss recent advances in our understanding of its role and signal pathway in skeletal myogenesis. PMID:23396110

  16. Draft Genome Sequences of Exfoliative Toxin A-Producing Staphylococcus aureus Strains B-7772 and B-7777 (CC8/ST2993) and B-7774 (CC15/ST2126), Isolated in a Maternity Hospital in the Central Federal District of Russia

    PubMed Central

    Skryabin, Yury; Kislichkina, Angelina; Bogun, Alexandr; Korobova, Olga; Mayskaya, Nadezhda; Shemyakin, Igor; Dyatlov, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 8 (CC8) has not been associated with staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome (SSSS) in newborns and exfoliative toxin genes. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of exfoliative toxin A-producing B-7772, B-7777 (both CC8), and B-7774 (CC15) strains associated with SSSS in newborns. PMID:26941146

  17. Redox control of skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Powers, Scott K; Morton, Aaron B; Ahn, Bumsoo; Smuder, Ashley J

    2016-09-01

    Skeletal muscles comprise the largest organ system in the body and play an essential role in body movement, breathing, and glucose homeostasis. Skeletal muscle is also an important endocrine organ that contributes to the health of numerous body organs. Therefore, maintaining healthy skeletal muscles is important to support overall health of the body. Prolonged periods of muscle inactivity (e.g., bed rest or limb immobilization) or chronic inflammatory diseases (i.e., cancer, kidney failure, etc.) result in skeletal muscle atrophy. An excessive loss of muscle mass is associated with a poor prognosis in several diseases and significant muscle weakness impairs the quality of life. The skeletal muscle atrophy that occurs in response to inflammatory diseases or prolonged inactivity is often associated with both oxidative and nitrosative stress. In this report, we critically review the experimental evidence that provides support for a causative link between oxidants and muscle atrophy. More specifically, this review will debate the sources of oxidant production in skeletal muscle undergoing atrophy as well as provide a detailed discussion on how reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species modulate the signaling pathways that regulate both protein synthesis and protein breakdown. PMID:26912035

  18. Skeletal disorders in the fowl: a review.

    PubMed

    Thorp, B H

    1994-06-01

    Selection pressure for production traits in modern lines of poultry has placed increasing demands on skeletal integrity. Disruption of the normal process of skeletal growth and homeostasis results in bone diseases that are manifest throughout the modern poultry industry. Bone conditions in poultry can be grouped under three headings based on the age and type of fowls affected, and are indicative of the genetic and production stresses applied to the skeleton. In broilers during growth it is primarily pathologies of the growth plate that lead to most skeletal disorders. In broiler and turkey breeding stock the progressive degeneration of the articular cartilage results in osteoarthrosis, lameness and a consequential loss of reproductive performance. In laying hens bone fragility is most frequently the result of osteoporosis. Before attempting to determine the aetiology of a skeletal disorder an accurate diagnosis must be made. Only then can short- and long-term strategies be developed for the prevention and control of skeletal disorders. Diagnosis requires gross and histological examination, and also dietary, environmental and management analyses. The pathology often reflects lesions initiated when the bird was considerably younger and analyses must extend to assessing the factors prevalent during the initiation of lesions. Current studies are furthering the understanding of the aetiopathogenesis of avian skeletal disorders. For example, structural bone loss at the onset of follicular activity before egg-laying is pivotal to the development of osteoporosis in layers and deficiencies in growth factor expression are integral to the development of tibial dyschondroplasia. PMID:18671088

  19. Symbiodinium Clade Affects Coral Skeletal Isotopic Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carilli, J.; Charles, C. D.; Garren, M.; McField, M.; Norris, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    The influence of different physiologies of Symbiodinium dinoflagellate symbiont clades on the skeletal chemistry of associated coral hosts has not previously been investigated. This is an important issue because coral skeletons are routinely used for tropical paleoclimatic reconstructions. We analyzed coral skeletal samples collected simultaneously from neighboring colonies off Belize and found that those harboring different clades of Symbiodinium displayed significantly different skeletal oxygen isotopic compositions. We also found evidence for mean shifts in skeletal oxygen isotopic composition after coral bleaching (the loss and potential exchange of symbionts) in two of four longer coral cores from the Mesoamerican Reef, though all experienced similar climatic conditions. Thus, we suggest that symbiont clade identity leaves a signature in the coral skeletal archive and that this influence must be considered for quantitative environmental reconstruction. In addition, we suggest that the skeletal isotopic signature may be used to identify changes in the dominant symbiont clade that have occurred in the past, to identify how common and widespread this phenomenon is--a potential adaptation to climate change.

  20. Skeletal muscle functions around the clock.

    PubMed

    Mayeuf-Louchart, A; Staels, B; Duez, H

    2015-09-01

    In mammals, the central clock localized in the central nervous system imposes a circadian rhythmicity to all organs. This is achieved thanks to a well-conserved molecular clockwork, involving interactions between several transcription factors, whose pace is conveyed to peripheral tissues through neuronal and humoral signals. The molecular clock plays a key role in the control of numerous physiological processes and takes part in the regulation of metabolism and energy balance. Skeletal muscle is one of the peripheral organs whose function is under the control of the molecular clock. However, although skeletal muscle metabolism and performances display circadian rhythmicity, the role of the molecular clock in the skeletal muscle has remained unappreciated for years. Peripheral organs such as skeletal muscle, and the liver, among others, can be desynchronized from the central clock by external stimuli, such as feeding or exercise, which impose a new rhythm at the organism level. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the clock in skeletal muscle circadian physiology, focusing on the control of myogenesis and skeletal muscle metabolism. PMID:26332967

  1. Male ironman triathletes lose skeletal muscle mass.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Baumann, Barbara; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether male triathletes in an Ironman triathlon lose body mass in the form of fat mass or skeletal muscle mass in a field study at the Ironman Switzerland in 27 male Caucasian non-professional Ironman triathletes. Pre- and post-race body mass, fat mass and skeletal muscle mass were determined. In addition, total body water, hematological and urinary parameters were measured in order to quantify hydration status. Body mass decreased by 1.8 kg (p< 0.05), skeletal muscle decreased by 1.0 kg (p< 0.05) whereas fat mass showed no changes. Urinary specific gravity, plasma urea and plasma volume increased (p< 0.05). Pre- to post-race change (Delta) in body mass was not associated with ? skeletal muscle mass. Additionally, there was no association between Delta plasma urea and Delta skeletal muscle mass; Delta plasma volume was not associated with Delta total body water (p< 0.05). We concluded that male triathletes in an Ironman triathlon lose 1.8 kg of body mass and 1 kg of skeletal muscle mass, presumably due to a depletion of intramyocellular stored glycogen and lipids. PMID:20199992

  2. Pyrazole prevention of CC14-induced ultrastructural changes in rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Bernacchi, A. S.; de Castro, C. R.; de Toranzo, E. G.; Marzi, A.; de Ferreyra, E. C.; de Fenos, O. M.; Castro, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CC14) administration to rats leads to an early dilatation, vesiculation and disorganization of the liver endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This hepatotoxin also causes detachment of ribosomes from ER membranes, dilatation of the Golgi cisternae and occasionally dilatation of the perinuclear membrane. Prior treatment of the rats with pyrazole completely prevents CC14- induced ultrastructural alterations observed in liver at 3 h. This drug is known to decrease the intensity of the irreversible binding of CC14 reactive metabolites to cellular constituents without modifying the intensity of the CC14- induced lipid peroxidation, either in vitro or in vivo, as measured by the diene conjugation procedure or by decreases inthe arachidonic acid content of microsomal phospholipids. Results suggest that interaction of reactive metabolites rather than lipid peroxidation mediates deleterious effects of CCl4 on the liver ER. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7448119

  3. Section CC PreRehabilitation 2009; Section DD PostRehabilitation Gilpin's Falls ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section C-C Pre-Rehabilitation 2009; Section D-D Post-Rehabilitation - Gilpin's Falls Covered Bridge, Spanning North East Creek at Former (Bypassed) Section of North East Road (SR 272), North East, Cecil County, MD

  4. Conformational changes of 1-4-glucopyranosyl residues of a sulfated C-C linked hexasaccharide.

    PubMed

    Coletti, Alessia; Elli, Stefano; Macchi, Eleonora; Galzerano, Patrizia; Zamani, Leila; Guerrini, Marco; Torri, Giangiacomo; Vismara, Elena

    2014-05-01

    This work describes the structure of a fully sulfated maltotriose alpha-beta C-C linked dimer, where a central glycosidic bond was substituted by a non natural, hydrolase-resistant C-C bond. Such compound shows anti-metastatic properties being an inhibitor of the heparanase enzymatic activity and of P-selectin-mediated cell-cell interactions. NMR spectroscopy was applied to investigate the structure and conformational properties of this C-C linked hexasaccharide. The presence of sulfate substituents and the internal C-C bond drives the two internal rings in an unusual (1)C(4) chair conformation, while the external rings linked by glycosidic bonds retain the typical (4)C(1) conformation. The NMR results were confirmed by molecular mechanics calculations using structure corresponding di- and tetrasaccharides as models. PMID:24680506

  5. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey C.C. Woodburn, Photographer. January 12, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey C.C. Woodburn, Photographer. January 12, 1934 DETAIL OF ENTRANCE (WEST ELEVATION) - Ferdinand Daniel Pulver House, County Road F-70 Vicinity, Vandalia, Jasper County, IA

  6. C/C composite brake disk nondestructive evaluation by IR thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Tsuchin P.; Poudel, Anish; Filip, Peter

    2012-06-01

    This paper discusses the non-destructive evaluation of thick Carbon/Carbon (C/C) composite aircraft brake disks by using transient infrared thermography (IRT) approach. Thermal diffusivity measurement technique was applied to identify the subsurface anomalies in thick C/C brake disks. In addition, finite element analysis (FEA) modeling tool was used to determine the transient thermal response of the C/C disks that were subjected to flash heating. For this, series of finite element models were built and thermal responses with various thermal diffusivities subjected to different heating conditions were investigated. Experiments were conducted to verify the models by using custom built in-house IRT system and commercial turnkey system. The analysis and experimental results showed good correlation between thermal diffusivity value and anomalies within the disk. It was demonstrated that the step-heating transient thermal approach could be effectively applied to obtain the whole field thermal diffusivity value of C/C composites.

  7. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 2003

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-10-18

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Topical subcommittees of the EMaCC are responsible for conducting seminars and otherwise facilitating information flow between DOE organizational units in materials areas of particular importance to the Department. The EMaCC Terms of Reference were recently modified and developed into a Charter that was approved on June 5, 2003. As a result of this reorganization, the existing subcommittees were disbanded and new subcommittees are being formed.

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Porcine Circovirus 2b Strain CC1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xin; Chen, Fuwang; Cao, Yuhang; Pang, Daxing

    2012-01-01

    A porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) strain, designated CC1, was isolated and purified from tissue samples from pigs with wasting syndromes in China. We report the complete genome sequence of PCV2b strain CC1 with a deletion of C at position 1053 resulting in elongation of open reading frame 2 (ORF2) and formation of ORF5. There were 11 ORFs in the genome. PMID:22879609

  9. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, Fiscal Year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-08-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations.

  10. Aspects of skeletal muscle modelling.

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Marcelo; Herzog, Walter

    2003-01-01

    The modelling of skeletal muscle raises a number of philosophical questions, particularly in the realm of the relationship between different possible levels of representation and explanation. After a brief incursion into this area, a list of desiderata is proposed as a guiding principle for the construction of a viable model, including: comprehensiveness, soundness, experimental consistency, predictive ability and refinability. Each of these principles is illustrated by means of simple examples. The presence of internal constraints, such as incompressibility, may lead to counterintuitive results. A one-panel example is exploited to advocate the use of the principle of virtual work as the ideal tool to deal with these situations. The question of stability in the descending limb of the force-length relation is addressed and a purely mechanical analogue is suggested. New experimental results confirm the assumption that fibre stiffness is positive even in the descending limb. The indeterminacy of the force-sharing problem is traditionally resolved by optimizing a, presumably, physically meaningful target function. After presenting some new results in this area, based on a separation theorem, it is suggested that a more fundamental approach to the problem is the abandoning of optimization criteria in favour of an explicit implementation of activation criteria. PMID:14561335

  11. Channelopathies of skeletal muscle excitability

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Stephen C.

    2016-01-01

    Familial disorders of skeletal muscle excitability were initially described early in the last century and are now known to be caused by mutations of voltage-gated ion channels. The clinical manifestations are often striking, with an inability to relax after voluntary contraction (myotonia) or transient attacks of severe weakness (periodic paralysis). An essential feature of these disorders is fluctuation of symptoms that are strongly impacted by environmental triggers such as exercise, temperature, or serum K+ levels. These phenomena have intrigued physiologists for decades, and in the past 25 years the molecular lesions underlying these disorders have been identified and mechanistic studies are providing insights for therapeutic strategies of disease modification. These familial disorders of muscle fiber excitability are “channelopathies” caused by mutations of a chloride channel (ClC-1), sodium channel (NaV1.4), calcium channel (CaV1.1) and several potassium channels (Kir2.1, Kir2.6, Kir3.4). This review provides a synthesis of the mechanistic connections between functional defects of mutant ion channels, their impact on muscle excitability, how these changes cause clinical phenotypes, and approaches toward therapeutics. PMID:25880512

  12. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 57 - DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education, and Related Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education... SERVICES TO ELIGIBLE DOD DEPENDENTS Pt. 57, App. E Appendix E to Part 57—DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education, and Related Services A. Committee Membership The DoD-CC shall meet at least yearly...

  13. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 57 - DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education, and Related Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education... SERVICES TO ELIGIBLE DOD DEPENDENTS Pt. 57, App. E Appendix E to Part 57—DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education, and Related Services A. Committee Membership The DoD-CC shall meet at least yearly...

  14. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 57 - DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education, and Related Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education... SERVICES TO ELIGIBLE DOD DEPENDENTS Pt. 57, App. E Appendix E to Part 57—DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education, and Related Services A. Committee Membership The DoD-CC shall meet at least yearly...

  15. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 57 - DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education, and Related Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education... SERVICES TO ELIGIBLE DOD DEPENDENTS Pt. 57, App. E Appendix E to Part 57—DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education, and Related Services A. Committee Membership The DoD-CC shall meet at least yearly...

  16. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC): Annual technical report, fiscal year 1988

    SciTech Connect

    1989-06-30

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. Four topical subcommittees are established and are continuing their own programs: Structural Ceramics, Batteries and Fuel Cells, Radioactive Waste Containment, and Superconductivity (established in FY 1987). In addition, the EMaCC aids in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Membership in the EMaCC is open to any Department organizational unit; participants are appointed by Division or Office Directors. The current active membership is listed on the following four pages. The EMaCC reports to the Director of the Office of Energy Research in his capacity as overseer of the technical programs of the Department. This annual technical report is mandated by the EMaCC terms of reference. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1988 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department.

  17. Improving Forecast Skill by Assimilation of AIRS Cloud Cleared Radiances RiCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Rosenberg, Robert I.; Iredell, Lena

    2015-01-01

    ECMWF, NCEP, and GMAO routinely assimilate radiosonde and other in-situ observations along with satellite IR and MW Sounder radiance observations. NCEP and GMAO use the NCEP GSI Data Assimilation System (DAS).GSI DAS assimilates AIRS, CrIS, IASI channel radiances Ri on a channel-by-channel, case-by-case basis, only for those channels i thought to be unaffected by cloud cover. This test excludes Ri for most tropospheric sounding channels under partial cloud cover conditions. AIRS Version-6 RiCC is a derived quantity representative of what AIRS channel i would have seen if the AIRS FOR were cloud free. All values of RiCC have case-by-case error estimates RiCC associated with them. Our experiments present to the GSI QCd values of AIRS RiCC in place of AIRS Ri observations. GSI DAS assimilates only those values of RiCC it thinks are cloud free. This potentially allows for better coverage of assimilated QCd values of RiCC as compared to Ri.

  18. How sex hormones promote skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Velders, Martina; Diel, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration efficiency declines with age for both men and women. This decline impacts on functional capabilities in the elderly and limits their ability to engage in regular physical activity and to maintain independence. Aging is associated with a decline in sex hormone production. Therefore, elucidating the effects of sex hormone substitution on skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration after injury or disuse is highly relevant for the aging population, where sarcopenia affects more than 30 % of individuals over 60 years of age. While the anabolic effects of androgens are well known, the effects of estrogens on skeletal muscle anabolism have only been uncovered in recent times. Hence, the purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic insight into the regulation of skeletal muscle regenerative processes by both androgens and estrogens. Animal studies using estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists and receptor subtype selective agonists have revealed that estrogens act through both genomic and non-genomic pathways to reduce leukocyte invasion and increase satellite cell numbers in regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. Although animal studies have been more conclusive than human studies in establishing a role for sex hormones in the attenuation of muscle damage, data from a number of recent well controlled human studies is presented to support the notion that hormonal therapies and exercise induce added positive effects on functional measures and lean tissue mass. Based on the fact that aging human skeletal muscle retains the ability to adapt to exercise with enhanced satellite cell activation, combining sex hormone therapies with exercise may induce additive effects on satellite cell accretion. There is evidence to suggest that there is a 'window of opportunity' after the onset of a hypogonadal state such as menopause, to initiate a hormonal therapy in order to achieve maximal benefits for skeletal muscle health. Novel receptor subtype selective

  19. Notch signaling in skeletal health and disease.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, Stefano; Canalis, Ernesto

    2013-06-01

    Notch receptors are single-pass transmembrane proteins that determine cell fate. Upon Notch ligand interactions, proteolytic cleavages release the Notch intracellular domain, which translocates to the nucleus to regulate the transcription of target genes, including Hairy enhancer of split (Hes) and Hes related to YRPW motif (Hey). Notch is critical for skeletal development and activity of skeletal cells, and dysregulation of Notch signaling is associated with human diseases affecting the skeleton. Inherited or sporadic mutations in components of the Notch signaling pathway are associated with spondylocostal dysostosis, spondylothoracic dysostosis and recessive brachydactyly, diseases characterized by skeletal patterning defects. Inactivating mutations of the Notch ligand JAG1 or of NOTCH2 are associated with Alagille syndrome, and activating mutations in NOTCH2 are associated with Hajdu-Cheney syndrome (HCS). Individuals affected by HCS exhibit osteolysis in distal phalanges and osteoporosis. NOTCH is activated in selected tumors, such as osteosarcoma, and in breast cancer cells that form osteolytic bone metastases. In conclusion, Notch regulates skeletal development and bone remodeling, and gain- or loss-of-function mutations of Notch signaling result in important skeletal diseases. PMID:23554451

  20. Lip prints: The barcode of skeletal malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Raghav, Pradeep; Kumar, Naveen; Shingh, Shishir; Ahuja, N.K.; Ghalaut, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In orthodontics, apart from essential diagnostic aids, there are so many soft tissue analyses in which lips are major part of concern. However, lip prints have never been used in orthodontics as diagnostic aid or forensic tool. Therefore, this study was designed to explore the possible association of lip prints with skeletal malocclusion. Materials and Methods: A sample of 114 subjects in the age group of 18-30 years, from North Indian adult population were selected on the basis of skeletal class I, class II and class III malocclusion, each comprising of 38 subjects with equal number of males and females. Lip prints of all the individuals were recorded and digital soft copies of lateral cephalograms were taken. Lip prints were compared between different skeletal malocclusions. Results: It was found that branched lip pattern was most common in North Indian adult population with no sexual dimorphism. The Z-test for proportion showed that the prevalence of vertical lip pattern was significantly higher in subjects having skeletal class III malocclusion. Conclusion: A definite co-relation of vertical lip patterns with skeletal class III malocclusion was revealed. PMID:24255559

  1. Combining texture features from the MLO and CC views for mammographic CAD x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Shalini; Zhang, David; Sampat, Mehul P.; Markey, Mia K.

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate approaches for combining information from the MLO and CC mammographic views for Computer-aided Diagnosis (CADx) algorithms. Feature level and classifier output level combinations were explored. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) with step-wise feature selection from a set of Haralick's texture features was used to develop classifiers for distinguishing between benign and malignant mammographic lesions. The effect of correlation between features from the two views on the performance of classifiers was investigated. The single view models included: (a) an LDA model with stepwise selection based on the MLO view only (MLO-Only) and similarly (b) a CC-Only LDA model. The feature-level combination models included: (a) LDA based on concatenation of feature sets selected independently from the two views (FEAT_CON), (b) LDA based on the concatenated feature sets along with the corresponding value of each feature from the opposite view (FEAT_COR_CON) if the correlation was below a threshold, (c) LDA based on the average of the MLO and CC feature values (FEAT_AVG). The classifier output level combination models investigated included: (a) average of the outputs of the MLO-Only and CC-Only classifiers (OUTPUT_AVG), (b) maximum of the outputs of the MLO-Only and CC-Only classifiers (OUTPUT_MAX), (c) minimum of the outputs of the MLO-Only and CC-Only classifiers (OUTPUT_MIN), (d) a second level LDA classifier on the outputs of the MLO-Only and CC-Only classifiers (OUTPUT_LDA), (e) product of the output values of the two classifiers (OUTPUT_PROD). The performance of the models was assessed and compared using the ROC methodology to determine if combination models performed better than the single-view models.

  2. Gene cloning, expression and characterization of avian cathelicidin orthologs, Cc-CATHs, from Coturnix coturnix.

    PubMed

    Feng, Feifei; Chen, Chen; Zhu, Wenjuan; He, Weiyu; Guang, Huijuan; Li, Zheng; Wang, Duo; Liu, Jingze; Chen, Ming; Wang, Yipeng; Yu, Haining

    2011-05-01

    Cathelicidins comprise a family of antimicrobial peptides sharing a highly conserved cathelin domain, which play a central role in the early innate host defense against infection. In the present study, we report three novel avian cathelicidin orthologs cloned from a constructed spleen cDNA library of Coturnix coturnix, using a nested-PCR-based cloning strategy. Three coding sequences containing ORFs of 447, 465 and 456 bp encode three mature antimicrobial peptides (named Cc-CATH1, 2 and 3) of 26, 32 and 29 amino acid residues, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that precursors of Cc-CATHs are significantly conserved with known avian cathelicidins. Synthetic Cc-CATH2 and 3 displayed broad and potent antimicrobial activity against most of the 41 strains of bacteria and fungi tested, especially the clinically isolated drug-resistant strains, with minimum inhibitory concentration values in the range 0.3-2.5 μm for most strains with or without the presence of 100 mm NaCl. Cc-CATH2 and 3 showed considerable reduction of cytotoxic activity compared to other avian cathelicidins, with average IC(50) values of 20.18 and 17.16 μm, respectively. They also exerted a negligible hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes, lysing only 3.6% of erythrocytes at a dose up to 100 μg·mL(-1) . As expected, the recombinant Cc-CATH2 (rCc-CATH2) also showed potent bactericidal activity. All these features of Cc-CATHs encourage further studies aiming to estimate their therapeutic potential as drug leads, as well as coping with current widespread antibiotic resistance, especially the new prevalent and dangerous 'superbug' that is resistant to almost all antibiotics. PMID:21375690

  3. Association of Children’s Urinary CC16 Levels with Arsenic Concentrations in Multiple Environmental Media

    PubMed Central

    Beamer, Paloma I.; Klimecki, Walter T.; Loh, Miranda; Van Horne, Yoshira Ornelas; Sugeng, Anastasia J.; Lothrop, Nathan; Billheimer, Dean; Guerra, Stefano; Lantz, Robert Clark; Canales, Robert A.; Martinez, Fernando D.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with decreased club cell secretory protein (CC16) levels in adults. Further, both arsenic exposure and decreased levels of CC16 in childhood have been associated with decreased adult lung function. Our objective was to determine if urinary CC16 levels in children are associated with arsenic concentrations in environmental media collected from their homes. Yard soil, house dust, and tap water were taken from 34 homes. Urine and toenail samples were collected from 68 children. All concentrations were natural log-transformed prior to data analysis. There were associations between urinary CC16 and arsenic concentration in soil (b = −0.43, p = 0.001, R2 = 0.08), water (b = −0.22, p = 0.07, R2 = 0.03), house dust (b = −0.37, p = 0.07, R2 = 0.04), and dust loading (b = −0.21, p = 0.04, R2 = 0.04). In multiple analyses, only the concentration of arsenic in soil was associated with urinary CC16 levels (b = −0.42, p = 0.02, R2 = 0.14 (full model)) after accounting for other factors. The association between urinary CC16 and soil arsenic may suggest that localized arsenic exposure in the lungs could damage the airway epithelium and predispose children for diminished lung function. Future work to assess this possible mechanism should examine potential associations between airborne arsenic exposures, CC16 levels, lung function, and other possible confounders in children in arsenic-impacted communities. PMID:27223295

  4. Association of Children's Urinary CC16 Levels with Arsenic Concentrations in Multiple Environmental Media.

    PubMed

    Beamer, Paloma I; Klimecki, Walter T; Loh, Miranda; Van Horne, Yoshira Ornelas; Sugeng, Anastasia J; Lothrop, Nathan; Billheimer, Dean; Guerra, Stefano; Lantz, Robert Clark; Canales, Robert A; Martinez, Fernando D

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with decreased club cell secretory protein (CC16) levels in adults. Further, both arsenic exposure and decreased levels of CC16 in childhood have been associated with decreased adult lung function. Our objective was to determine if urinary CC16 levels in children are associated with arsenic concentrations in environmental media collected from their homes. Yard soil, house dust, and tap water were taken from 34 homes. Urine and toenail samples were collected from 68 children. All concentrations were natural log-transformed prior to data analysis. There were associations between urinary CC16 and arsenic concentration in soil (b = -0.43, p = 0.001, R² = 0.08), water (b = -0.22, p = 0.07, R² = 0.03), house dust (b = -0.37, p = 0.07, R² = 0.04), and dust loading (b = -0.21, p = 0.04, R² = 0.04). In multiple analyses, only the concentration of arsenic in soil was associated with urinary CC16 levels (b = -0.42, p = 0.02, R² = 0.14 (full model)) after accounting for other factors. The association between urinary CC16 and soil arsenic may suggest that localized arsenic exposure in the lungs could damage the airway epithelium and predispose children for diminished lung function. Future work to assess this possible mechanism should examine potential associations between airborne arsenic exposures, CC16 levels, lung function, and other possible confounders in children in arsenic-impacted communities. PMID:27223295

  5. Quartic scaling second-order approximate coupled cluster singles and doubles via tensor hypercontraction: THC-CC2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohenstein, Edward G.; Kokkila, Sara I. L.; Parrish, Robert M.; Martínez, Todd J.

    2013-03-01

    The second-order approximate coupled cluster singles and doubles method (CC2) is a valuable tool in electronic structure theory. Although the density fitting approximation has been successful in extending CC2 to larger molecules, it cannot address the steep O(N^5) scaling with the number of basis functions, N. Here, we introduce the tensor hypercontraction (THC) approximation to CC2 (THC-CC2), which reduces the scaling to O(N^4) and the storage requirements to O(N^2). We present an algorithm to efficiently evaluate the THC-CC2 correlation energy and demonstrate its quartic scaling. This implementation of THC-CC2 uses a grid-based least-squares THC (LS-THC) approximation to the density-fitted electron repulsion integrals. The accuracy of the CC2 correlation energy under these approximations is shown to be suitable for most practical applications.

  6. Myoglobinuria and Skeletal Muscle Phosphorylase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, J. C.; Hobbs, W. K.; Greenblatt, J.

    1966-01-01

    Investigation of a patient complaining of exercise-induced dark urine, pain, stiffness and tenderness of skeletal muscle revealed findings characteristic of McArdle's disease. The dark urine was attributable to the excretion of myoglobin, and an ischemic exercise test failed to demonstrate the usual rise and fall in blood lactate and pyruvate. Enzyme assays of skeletal muscle showed an absence of phosphorylase, a slight increase in phosphorylase b kinase and a slight decrease in phosphoglucomutase. Chemical and histochemical analyses demonstrated an increase in the skeletal muscle glycogen content and an enlargement of the muscle cells. No abnormality of liver glycogen metabolism was found. In the absence of specific therapy, an effective and practical form of treatment is reduction of exercise below the threshold of symptoms. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4952390

  7. Birth prevalence rates of skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Stoll, C; Dott, B; Roth, M P; Alembik, Y

    1989-02-01

    This study establishes the prevalence rates at birth of the skeletal dysplasias which can be diagnosed in the perinatal period or during pregnancy. Using a population-based register of congenital anomalies, a prevalence rate of 3.22 0/000 was observed. The most frequent types of skeletal dysplasia were achondroplasia and osteogenesis imperfecta (0.64 0/000, 1/15,000 births), thanatophoric dysplasia and achondrogenesis (0.28 0/000). The mutation rate for achondroplasia was higher in our material than in the other studies: 3.3 x 10(-5) per gamete per generation. Our study demonstrates that prenatal diagnosis by ultrasound is possible in some skeletal dysplasias. PMID:2785882

  8. Skeletal Muscle Autophagy: A New Metabolic Regulator

    PubMed Central

    Neel, Brian A.; Lin, Yuxi; Pessin, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy classically functions as a physiological process to degrade cytoplasmic components, protein aggregates, and/or organelles, as a mechanism for nutrient breakdown, and as a regulator of cellular architecture. Proper autophagic flux is vital for both functional skeletal muscle, which controls support and movement of the skeleton, and muscle metabolism. The role of autophagy as a metabolic regulator in muscle has been previously studied; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms that control autophagy in skeletal muscle have only just begun to emerge. Here, we review recent literature on the molecular pathways controlling skeletal muscle autophagy, and discuss how they connect autophagy to metabolic regulation. We also focus on the implications these studies hold for understanding metabolic and muscle wasting diseases. PMID:24182456

  9. Skeletal cryptococcosis from 1977 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Heng-Xing; Lu, Lu; Chu, Tianci; Wang, Tianyi; Cao, Daigui; Li, Fuyuan; Ning, Guangzhi; Feng, Shiqing

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal cryptococcosis, an aspect of disseminated cryptococcal disease or isolated skeletal cryptococcal infection, is a rare but treatable disease. However, limited information is available regarding its clinical features, treatment, and prognosis. This systematic review examined all cases published between April 1977 and May 2013 with regard to the factors associated with this disease, including patient sex, age, and epidemiological history; affected sites; clinical symptoms; underlying diseases; laboratory tests; radiological manifestations; and delays in diagnosis, treatment, follow-up assessments, and outcomes. We found that immune abnormality is a risk factor but does not predict mortality; these observations are due to recent Cryptococcus neoformans var gattii (CNVG) outbreaks (Chaturvedi and Chaturvedi, 2011). Dissemination was irrespective of immune status and required combination therapy, and dissemination carried a worse prognosis. Therefore, a database of skeletal cryptococcosis cases should be created. PMID:25642211

  10. cis-acting elements that confer lung epithelial cell expression of the CC10 gene.

    PubMed

    Stripp, B R; Sawaya, P L; Luse, D S; Wikenheiser, K A; Wert, S E; Huffman, J A; Lattier, D L; Singh, G; Katyal, S L; Whitsett, J A

    1992-07-25

    To define cis-acting genetic elements responsible for cell-specific transcriptional regulation of the CC10 gene, DNA sequences spanning nucleotides -2338 to +49 of the rat CC10 gene were linked to a reporter gene coding for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT). In transient expression assays, CC10 sequences were capable of restricting CAT expression to a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line similar to pulmonary Clara cells. Transgenic mice harboring the hybrid RtCC10-CAT construct expressed high levels of CAT activity specifically within protein extracts of lung and trachea. Transcripts for the CAT reporter gene colocalized with those for the endogenous murine CC10 gene within the airways of transgenic mice. Functional analysis of deletion mutants identified stimulatory, inhibitory, and cell type-specific transcriptional regulatory elements. The results of gel retention and DNaseI protection assays suggest that a transcriptional stimulatory region located between -320 and -175, and a cell type-specific regulatory element located between -175 and +49, result from a series of protein-DNA interactions occurring at -220 to -205 and -128 to -86, respectively. Lung epithelial specific transcriptional regulatory elements described herein will be useful for expression of chimeric genes within epithelial cells lining the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles of mice. PMID:1634515

  11. Excited state polarizabilities for CC2 using the resolution-of-the-identity approximation.

    PubMed

    Graf, Nora K; Friese, Daniel H; Winter, Nina O C; Hättig, Christof

    2015-12-28

    We report an implementation of static and frequency-dependent excited state polarizabilities for the approximate coupled cluster single and doubles model CC2 as analytic second derivatives of an excited state quasienergy Lagrangian. By including appropriate conditions for the normalization and the phase of the eigenvectors, divergent secular terms are avoided. This leads to response equations in a subspace orthogonal to the unperturbed eigenvectors. It is shown how these projected equations can be solved without storage of the double excitation part of the eigenvectors. By exploiting the resolution-of-the-identity approximation and a numerical Laplace transformation, the quadratic scaling of the main memory demands of RI-CC2 with the system size could be preserved. This enables calculations of excited state polarizabilities for large molecules, e.g., linear polyacenes up to decacene with almost 2500 basis functions on a single compute node within a few days. For a test set of molecules where measurements are available as reference data, we compare the orbital-relaxed and unrelaxed CC2 approaches with experiment to validate its accuracy. The approach can be easily extended to other response methods, in particular CIS(D∞). The latter gives results which, in the orbital-relaxed case, are within a few percent of the CC2 values, while coupled cluster singles results deviate typically by about 20% from orbital-relaxed CC2 and experimental reference data. PMID:26723652

  12. Exogenous lytic activity of SPN9CC endolysin against gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jeong-A; Shin, Hakdong; Heu, Sunggi; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2014-06-28

    Concerns over drug-resistant bacteria have stimulated interest in developing alternative methods to control bacterial infections. Endolysin, a phage-encoded enzyme that breaks down bacterial peptidoglycan at the terminal stage of the phage reproduction cycle, is reported to be effective for the control of bacterial pathogenic bacteria. Bioinformatic analysis of the SPN9CC bacteriophage genome revealed a gene that encodes an endolysin with a domain structure similar to those of the endolysins produced by the P1 and P22 coliphages. The SPN9CC endolysin was purified with a C-terminal oligo-histidine tag. The endolysin was relatively stable and active over a broad temperature range (from 24°C to 65°C). It showed maximal activity at 50°C, and its optimum pH range was from pH 7.5 to 8.5. The SPN9CC endolysin showed antimicrobial activity against only gram-negative bacteria and functioned by cutting the glycosidic bond of peptidoglycan. Interestingly, the SPN9CC endolysin could lyse intact gram-negative bacteria in the absence of EDTA as an outer membrane permeabilizer. The exogenous lytic activity of the SPN9CC endolysin makes it a potential therapeutic agent against gram-negative bacteria. PMID:24690638

  13. Inflicted Skeletal Trauma: The Relationship of Perpetrators to Their Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starling, Suzanne P.; Sirotnak, Andrew P.; Heisler, Kurt W.; Barnes-Eley, Myra L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Although inflicted skeletal trauma is a very common presentation of child abuse, little is known about the perpetrators of inflicted skeletal injuries. Studies exist describing perpetrators of inflicted traumatic brain injury, but no study has examined characteristics of perpetrators of inflicted skeletal trauma. Methods: All cases of…

  14. Effects of Anti-Oxidant Migration on Friction and Wear of C/C Aircraft Brakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Don, Jarlen; Wang, Zhe

    2009-04-01

    The surfaces of carbon-carbon (C/C) aircraft brakes are usually coated with anti-oxidant to protect them from oxidation. These surfaces do not include the friction surfaces since it is known that when anti-oxidant get onto the friction surface, the friction coefficient decreases. The anti-oxidant migration (AOM), however, happens during processing, heat treatment and application. In this study, phosphorus based anti-oxidants inhibited 3-D C/C aircraft brake system was investigated. The effects of their migration on friction and wear in the 3-D C/C brakes were revealed by sub-scale dynamometer tests and microscopic analysis. Dynamometer results showed that when AOM occurred, both landing and taxi coefficients decreased in humid environment and the wear was slightly lowered. Microscopic study showed that under high humidity conditions there was no formation of the friction film.

  15. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC): Annual technical report, fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department`s materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1993 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department. The program descriptions consist of a funding summary for each Assistant Secretary office and the Office of Energy Research, and detailed project summaries with project goals and accomplishments. The FY 1993 budget summary table for DOE Materials Activities in each of the programs is presented.

  16. Genetic transformation of marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. CC9311 (Cyanophyceae) by electroporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huaxin; Lin, Hanzhi; Jiang, Peng; Li, Fuchao; Qin, Song

    2013-03-01

    Synechococcus sp. CC9311 is a marine cyanobacterium characterized by type IV chromatic acclimation (CA). A genetic transformation system was developed as a first step to elucidate the molecular mechanism of CA. The results show that Synechococcus sp. CC9311 cells were sensitive to four commonly used antibiotics: ampicillin, kanamycin, spectinomycin, and chloramphenicol. An integrative plasmid to disrupt the putative phycoerythrin lyase gene mpeV, using a kanamycin resistance gene as selectable marker, was constructed by recombinant polymerase chain reaction. The plasmid was then transformed into Synechococcus sp. CC9311 via electroporation. High transformation efficiency was achieved at a field strength of 2 kV/cm. DNA analysis showed that mpeV was fully disrupted following challenge of the transformants with a high concentration of kanamycin. In addition, the transformants that displayed poor growth on agar SN medium could be successfully plated on agarose SN medium.

  17. Iterative reactions of transient boronic acids enable sequential C-C bond formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battilocchio, Claudio; Feist, Florian; Hafner, Andreas; Simon, Meike; Tran, Duc N.; Allwood, Daniel M.; Blakemore, David C.; Ley, Steven V.

    2016-04-01

    The ability to form multiple carbon-carbon bonds in a controlled sequence and thus rapidly build molecular complexity in an iterative fashion is an important goal in modern chemical synthesis. In recent times, transition-metal-catalysed coupling reactions have dominated in the development of C-C bond forming processes. A desire to reduce the reliance on precious metals and a need to obtain products with very low levels of metal impurities has brought a renewed focus on metal-free coupling processes. Here, we report the in situ preparation of reactive allylic and benzylic boronic acids, obtained by reacting flow-generated diazo compounds with boronic acids, and their application in controlled iterative C-C bond forming reactions is described. Thus far we have shown the formation of up to three C-C bonds in a sequence including the final trapping of a reactive boronic acid species with an aldehyde to generate a range of new chemical structures.

  18. Extinction coefficient of H2CC(3B2) at 137 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahr, A.; Laufer, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    In spite of the conduction of numerous studies regarding the vinylidene free radical, its role and importance as a reactive intermediate is not well characterized. Laufer (1980, 1983) has reported the absorption spectrum of metastable H2CC(3B2), the lowest excited state, in the vacuum ultraviolet and has measured several aspects of its quenching properties. The present study provides a measurement of the extinction coefficient of H2CC(3B2). Knowledge of the vinylidene concentration is required to convert readily available absorption data into an extinction coefficient or cross section. In the current work, the H2CC(3B2) concentration was determined in an investigation of the photodissociation of vinyl chloride.

  19. FinCC and the National Documentation Model in EHR--user feedback and development suggestions.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Ulla-Mari; Junttila, Kristiina; Liljamo, Pia; Sonninen, Anna Liisa; Härkönen, Mikko; Ensio, Anneli

    2014-01-01

    The structure of the Finnish nursing documentation model is based on the decision-making process and a standardized nursing terminology: Finnish Care Classification (FinCC). Nearly 20,000 nurses use the FinCC although not all healthcare organizations utilize it. Development projects for the common national nursing documentation framework have been carried out, for example, in 2010-2011 the aim of a project by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health and the National Institute of Health and Welfare was to suggest recommendations for the Finnish nursing documentation model. The final report of the project was sent to different organizations all over the country for further feedback statements. The aim of this paper is to summarize the message of the statements (n=37) from primary and specialized care, universities including universities of applied science, professional nursing associations, trade unions and national authorities. Development suggestions for the FinCC and electronic health records will be introduced. PMID:24943544

  20. The Mammalian Orthologs of Drosophila Lgd, CC2D1A and CC2D1B, Function in the Endocytic Pathway, but Their Individual Loss of Function Does Not Affect Notch Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Drusenheimer, Nadja; Migdal, Bernhard; Jäckel, Sandra; Tveriakhina, Lena; Scheider, Kristina; Schulz, Katharina; Gröper, Jieny; Köhrer, Karl; Klein, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    CC2D1A and CC2D1B belong to the evolutionary conserved Lgd protein family with members in all multi-cellular animals. Several functions such as centrosomal cleavage, involvement in signalling pathways, immune response and synapse maturation have been described for CC2D1A. Moreover, the Drosophila melanogaster ortholog Lgd was shown to be involved in the endosomal trafficking of the Notch receptor and other transmembrane receptors and physically interacts with the ESCRT-III component Shrub/CHMP4. To determine if this function is conserved in mammals we generated and characterized Cc2d1a and Cc2d1b conditional knockout mice. While Cc2d1b deficient mice displayed no obvious phenotype, we found that Cc2d1a deficient mice as well as conditional mutants that lack CC2D1A only in the nervous system die shortly after birth due to respiratory distress. This finding confirms the suspicion that the breathing defect is caused by the central nervous system. However, an involvement in centrosomal function could not be confirmed in Cc2d1a deficient MEF cells. To analyse an influence on Notch signalling, we generated intestine specific Cc2d1a mutant mice. These mice did not display any alterations in goblet cell number, proliferating cell number or expression of the Notch reporter Hes1-emGFP, suggesting that CC2D1A is not required for Notch signalling. However, our EM analysis revealed that the average size of endosomes of Cc2d1a mutant cells, but not Cc2d1b mutant cells, is increased, indicating a defect in endosomal morphogenesis. We could show that CC2D1A and its interaction partner CHMP4B are localised on endosomes in MEF cells, when the activity of the endosomal protein VPS4 is reduced. This indicates that CC2D1A cycles between the cytosol and the endosomal membrane. Additionally, in rescue experiments in D. melanogaster, CC2D1A and CC2D1B were able to functionally replace Lgd. Altogether our data suggest a functional conservation of the Lgd protein family in the ESCRT

  1. Exercise but not mannitol provocation increases urinary Clara cell protein (CC16) in elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Romberg, Kerstin; Bjermer, Leif; Tufvesson, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Elite swimmers have an increased risk of developing asthma, and exposure to chloramine is believed to be an important trigger factor. The aim of the present study was to explore pathophysiological mechanisms behind induced bronchoconstriction in swimmers exposed to chloramine, before and after swim exercise provocation as well as mannitol provocation. Urinary Clara cell protein (CC16) was used as a possible marker for epithelial stress. 101 elite aspiring swim athletes were investigated and urinary samples were collected before and 1 h after completed exercise and mannitol challenge. CC16, 11β-prostaglandin (PG)F(2α) and leukotriene E(4) (LTE(4)) were measured. Urinary levels of CC16 were clearly increased after exercise challenge, while no reaction was seen after mannitol challenge. Similar to CC16, the level of 11β-PGF(2α) was increased after exercise challenge, but not after mannitol challenge, while LTE(4) was reduced after exercise. There was no significant difference in urinary response between those with a negative compared to positive challenge, but a tendency of increased baseline levels of 11β-PGF(2α) and LTE(4) in individuals with a positive mannitol challenge. The uniform increase of CC16 after swim exercise indicates that CC16 is of importance in epithelial stress, and may as such be an important pathogenic factor behind asthma development in swimmers. The changes seen in urinary levels of 11β-PGF(2α) and LTE(4) indicate a pathophysiological role in both mannitol and exercise challenge. PMID:20696561

  2. Longitudinal study on transmission of MRSA CC398 within pig herds

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since the detection of MRSA CC398 in pigs in 2004, it has emerged in livestock worldwide. MRSA CC398 has been found in people in contact with livestock and thus has become a public health issue. Data from a large-scale longitudinal study in two Danish and four Dutch pig herds were used to quantify MRSA CC398 transmission rates within pig herds and to identify factors affecting transmission between pigs. Results Sows and their offspring were sampled at varying intervals during a production cycle. Overall MRSA prevalence of sows increased from 33% before farrowing to 77% before weaning. Overall MRSA prevalence of piglets was > 60% during the entire study period. The recurrent finding of MRSA in the majority of individuals indicates true colonization or might be the result of contamination. Transmission rates were estimated using a Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible (SIS-)model, which resulted in values of the reproduction ratio (R0) varying from 0.24 to 8.08. Transmission rates were higher in pigs treated with tetracyclins and β-lactams compared to untreated pigs implying a selective advantage of MRSA CC398 when these antimicrobials are used. Furthermore, transmission rates were higher in pre-weaning pigs compared to post-weaning pigs which might be explained by an age-related susceptibility or the presence of the sow as a primary source of MRSA CC398. Finally, transmission rates increased with the relative increase of the infection pressure within the pen compared to the total infection pressure, implying that within-pen transmission is a more important route compared to between-pen transmission and transmission through environmental exposure. Conclusion Our results indicate that MRSA CC398 is able to spread and persist in pig herds, resulting in an endemic situation. Transmission rates are affected by the use of selective antimicrobials and by the age of pigs. PMID:22607475

  3. Measurements of the absolute branching fractions of B+/- --> K+/-X(cc).

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Weinstein, A J R; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Minamora, J S; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dickopp, M; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Won, E; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Schott, G; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Gaillard, J R; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Vazquez, W Panduro; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mader, W F; Mallik, U; Mohapatra, A K; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Yi, J; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Giroux, X; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Cormack, C M; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Green, M G; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Edgar, C L; Hodgkinson, M C; Kelly, M P; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Viaud, B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pacetti, S; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Marco, E Di; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Gioi, L Li; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Tehrani, F Safai; Voena, C; Schröder, H; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Graziani, G; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Yumiceva, F X; Abe, T; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Martinez-Vidal, F; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Graham, M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mellado, B; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Tan, P; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2006-02-10

    We study the two-body decays of B+/- mesons to K+/- and a charmonium state X(cc) in a sample of 210.5 fb(-1) of data from the BABAR experiment. We perform measurements of absolute branching fractions beta(B+/- --> K+/-X(cc)) using a missing mass technique, and report several new or improved results. In particular, the upper limit beta(B+/- --> K+/- X(3872)) < 3.2 x 10(-4) at 90% C.L. and the inferred lower limit beta(X(3872)J/psipi+ pi-) > 4.2% will help in understanding the nature of the recently discovered X(3872). PMID:16486923

  4. Proposed changes to FED-STD-209 and IES-RP-CC006

    SciTech Connect

    Mielke, R.L.

    1992-12-31

    In the United States, two documents have been considered basic to work with cleanrooms and controlled environments. They are {ital Cleanroom and Work Station Requirements, Controlled Environment{emdash}Federal Standard 209D}, published by the U.S. General Services Administration, and {ital Recommended Practice for Testing Cleanrooms} (IES-RP-CC006), published by the Institute of Environmental Sciences (IES). FED-STD-209 is the authoritative document on air cleanliness classification and cleanroom certification. Recommended Practice 006 is the recognized source for testing cleanroom performance. This paper covers the purpose and proposed changes for both FED-STD-209D and IES-RP-CC006. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Onto-CC: a web server for identifying Gene Ontology conceptual clusters

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Zaliz, R.; del Val, C.; Cobb, J. P.; Zwir, I.

    2008-01-01

    The Gene Ontology (GO) vocabulary has been extensively explored to analyze the functions of coexpressed genes. However, despite its extended use in Biology and Medical Sciences, there are still high levels of uncertainty about which ontology (i.e. Molecular Process, Cellular Component or Molecular Function) should be used, and at which level of specificity. Moreover, the GO database can contain incomplete information resulting from human annotations, or highly influenced by the available knowledge about a specific branch in an ontology. In spite of these drawbacks, there is a trend to ignore these problems and even use GO terms to conduct searches of gene expression profiles (i.e. expression + GO) instead of more cautious approaches that just consider them as an independent source of validation (i.e. expression versus GO). Consequently, propagating the uncertainty and producing biased analysis of the required gene grouping hypotheses. We proposed a web tool, Onto-CC, as an automatic method specially suited for independent explanation/validation of gene grouping hypotheses (e.g. coexpressed genes) based on GO clusters (i.e. expression versus GO). Onto-CC approach reduces the uncertainty of the queries by identifying optimal conceptual clusters that combine terms from different ontologies simultaneously, as well as terms defined at different levels of specificity in the GO hierarchy. To do so, we implemented the EMO-CC methodology to find clusters in structural databases [GO Directed acyclic Graph (DAG) tree], inspired on Conceptual Clustering algorithms. This approach allows the management of optimal cluster sets as potential parallel hypotheses, guided by multiobjective/multimodal optimization techniques. Therefore, we can generate alternative and, still, optimal explanations of queries that can provide new insights for a given problem. Onto-CC has been successfully used to test different medical and biological hypotheses including the explanation and prediction of

  6. Onto-CC: a web server for identifying Gene Ontology conceptual clusters.

    PubMed

    Romero-Zaliz, R; Del Val, C; Cobb, J P; Zwir, I

    2008-07-01

    The Gene Ontology (GO) vocabulary has been extensively explored to analyze the functions of coexpressed genes. However, despite its extended use in Biology and Medical Sciences, there are still high levels of uncertainty about which ontology (i.e. Molecular Process, Cellular Component or Molecular Function) should be used, and at which level of specificity. Moreover, the GO database can contain incomplete information resulting from human annotations, or highly influenced by the available knowledge about a specific branch in an ontology. In spite of these drawbacks, there is a trend to ignore these problems and even use GO terms to conduct searches of gene expression profiles (i.e. expression + GO) instead of more cautious approaches that just consider them as an independent source of validation (i.e. expression versus GO). Consequently, propagating the uncertainty and producing biased analysis of the required gene grouping hypotheses. We proposed a web tool, Onto-CC, as an automatic method specially suited for independent explanation/validation of gene grouping hypotheses (e.g. coexpressed genes) based on GO clusters (i.e. expression versus GO). Onto-CC approach reduces the uncertainty of the queries by identifying optimal conceptual clusters that combine terms from different ontologies simultaneously, as well as terms defined at different levels of specificity in the GO hierarchy. To do so, we implemented the EMO-CC methodology to find clusters in structural databases [GO Directed acyclic Graph (DAG) tree], inspired on Conceptual Clustering algorithms. This approach allows the management of optimal cluster sets as potential parallel hypotheses, guided by multiobjective/multimodal optimization techniques. Therefore, we can generate alternative and, still, optimal explanations of queries that can provide new insights for a given problem. Onto-CC has been successfully used to test different medical and biological hypotheses including the explanation and prediction of

  7. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC). Annual Technical Report, Fiscal Year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2001-07-31

    The Energy Materials Coordinating Committee Annual Report (attached, DOE/SC-0040) provides an annual summary of non-classified materials-related research programs supported by various elements within the Department of Energy. The EMaCC Annual Report is a useful working tool for project managers who want to know what is happening in other divisions, and it provides a guide for persons in industry and academia to the materials program within the Department. The major task of EMaCC this year was to make the Annual Report a more user-friendly document by removing redundant program information and shortening the project summaries.

  8. Maxillary protraction using skeletal anchorage and intermaxillary elastics in Skeletal Class III patients

    PubMed Central

    Ağlarcı, Cahide; Albayrak, Gayem Eroğlu; Fındık, Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to describe the treatment of a patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion with maxillary retrognathia using skeletal anchorage devices and intermaxillary elastics. Miniplates were inserted between the mandibular lateral incisor and canine teeth on both sides in a male patient aged 14 years 5 months. Self-drilling mini-implants (1.6 mm diameter, 10 mm length) were installed between the maxillary second premolar and molar teeth, and Class III elastics were used between the miniplates and miniscrews. On treatment completion, an increase in the projection of the maxilla relative to the cranial base (2.7 mm) and significant improvement of the facial profile were observed. Slight maxillary counterclockwise (1°) and mandibular clockwise (3.3°) rotations were also observed. Maxillary protraction with skeletal anchorage and intermaxillary elastics was effective in correcting a case of Skeletal Class III malocclusion without dentoalveolar side effects. PMID:25798416

  9. New Skeletal-Space-Filling Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Frank H.

    1977-01-01

    Describes plastic, skeletal molecular models that are color-coded and can illustrate both the conformation and overall shape of small molecules. They can also be converted to space-filling counterparts by the additions of color-coded polystyrene spheres. (MLH)

  10. Connexins in skeletal muscle development and disease.

    PubMed

    Merrifield, Peter A; Laird, Dale W

    2016-02-01

    Gap junctions consist of clusters of intercellular channels composed of connexins that connect adjacent cells and allow the exchange of small molecules. While the 21 member multi-gene family of connexins are ubiquitously found in humans, only Cx39, Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45 have been documented in developing myoblasts and injured adult skeletal muscle while healthy adult skeletal muscle is devoid of connexins. The use of gap junctional blockers and cultured myoblast cell lines have suggested that these connexins play a critical role in myotube formation and muscle regeneration. More recent genetically-modified mouse models where Cx43 function is greatly compromized or ablated have further supported a role for Cx43 in regulating skeletal muscle development. In the last decade, we have become aware of a cohort of patients that have a development disorder known as oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD). These patients harbor either gain or loss of Cx43 function gene mutations that result in many organ anomalies raising questions as to whether they suffer from defects in skeletal muscle formation or regeneration upon injury. Interesting, some ODDD patients report muscle weakness and loss of limb control but it is not clear if this is neurogenic or myogenic in origin. This review will focus on the role connexins play in muscle development and repair and discuss the impact of Cx43 mutants on muscle function. PMID:26688333

  11. Skeletal muscle pathology in Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Zielonka, Daniel; Piotrowska, Izabela; Marcinkowski, Jerzy T.; Mielcarek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine stretch within the huntingtin protein (HTT). The neurological symptoms, that involve motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances, are caused by neurodegeneration that is particularly widespread in the basal ganglia and cereberal cortex. HTT is ubiquitously expressed and in recent years it has become apparent that HD patients experience a wide array of peripheral organ dysfunction including severe metabolic phenotype, weight loss, HD-related cardiomyopathy and skeletal muscle wasting. Although skeletal muscles pathology became a hallmark of HD, the mechanisms underlying muscular atrophy in this disorder are unknown. Skeletal muscles account for approximately 40% of body mass and are highly adaptive to physiological and pathological conditions that may result in muscle hypertrophy (due to increased mechanical load) or atrophy (inactivity, chronic disease states). The atrophy is caused by degeneration of myofibers and their replacement by fibrotic tissue is the major pathological feature in many genetic muscle disorders. Under normal physiological conditions the muscle function is orchestrated by a network of intrinsic hypertrophic and atrophic signals linked to the functional properties of the motor units that are likely to be imbalanced in HD. In this article, we highlight the emerging field of research with particular focus on the recent studies of the skeletal muscle pathology and the identification of new disease-modifying treatments. PMID:25339908

  12. Advances and challenges in skeletal muscle angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Olfert, I Mark; Baum, Oliver; Hellsten, Ylva; Egginton, Stuart

    2016-02-01

    The role of capillaries is to serve as the interface for delivery of oxygen and removal of metabolites to/from tissues. During the past decade there has been a proliferation of studies that have advanced our understanding of angiogenesis, demonstrating that tissue capillary supply is under strict control during health but poorly controlled in disease, resulting in either excessive capillary growth (pathological angiogenesis) or losses in capillarity (rarefaction). Given that skeletal muscle comprises nearly 40% of body mass in humans, skeletal muscle capillary density has a significant impact on metabolism, endocrine function, and locomotion and is tightly regulated at many different levels. Skeletal muscle is also high adaptable and thus one of the few organ systems that can be experimentally manipulated (e.g., by exercise) to study physiological regulation of angiogenesis. This review will focus on the methodological concerns that have arisen in determining skeletal muscle capillarity and highlight the concepts that are reshaping our understanding of the angio-adaptation process. We also summarize selected new findings (physical influences, molecular changes, and ultrastructural rearrangement of capillaries) that identify areas of future research with the greatest potential to expand our understanding of how angiogenesis is normally regulated, and that may also help to better understand conditions of uncontrolled (pathological) angiogenesis. PMID:26608338

  13. IQ Measurement in Children with Skeletal Dysplasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, John G.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    IQ studies on 68 children (5 months-15 years) with skeletal dysplasia (dwarfism) were reviewed to provide counseling to parents of newborn affected children. Results of the study show that this population performs intellectually in the same range as other children. Journal availability: see EC 115 198. (PHR)

  14. Triadin Deletion Induces Impaired Skeletal Muscle Function*

    PubMed Central

    Oddoux, Sarah; Brocard, Julie; Schweitzer, Annie; Szentesi, Peter; Giannesini, Benoit; Brocard, Jacques; Fauré, Julien; Pernet-Gallay, Karine; Bendahan, David; Lunardi, Joël; Csernoch, Laszlo; Marty, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    Triadin is a multiple proteins family, some isoforms being involved in muscle excitation-contraction coupling, and some having still unknown functions. To obtain clues on triadin functions, we engineered a triadin knock-out mouse line and characterized the physiological effect of triadin ablation on skeletal muscle function. These mice presented a reduced muscle strength, which seemed not to alter their survival and has been characterized in the present work. We first checked in these mice the expression level of the different proteins involved in calcium homeostasis and observed in fast muscles an increase in expression of dihydropyridine receptor, with a large reduction in calsequestrin expression. Electron microscopy analysis of KO muscles morphology demonstrated the presence of triads in abnormal orientation and a reduction in the sarcoplasmic reticulum terminal cisternae volume. Using calcium imaging on cultured myotubes, we observed a reduction in the total amount of calcium stored in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Physiological studies have been performed to evaluate the influence of triadin deletion on skeletal muscle function. Muscle strength has been measured both on the whole animal model, using hang test or electrical stimulation combined with NMR analysis and strength measurement, or on isolated muscle using electrical stimulation. All the results obtained demonstrate an important reduction in muscle strength, indicating that triadin plays an essential role in skeletal muscle function and in skeletal muscle structure. These results indicate that triadin alteration leads to the development of a myopathy, which could be studied using this new animal model. PMID:19843516

  15. Advances and challenges in skeletal muscle angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Oliver; Hellsten, Ylva; Egginton, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    The role of capillaries is to serve as the interface for delivery of oxygen and removal of metabolites to/from tissues. During the past decade there has been a proliferation of studies that have advanced our understanding of angiogenesis, demonstrating that tissue capillary supply is under strict control during health but poorly controlled in disease, resulting in either excessive capillary growth (pathological angiogenesis) or losses in capillarity (rarefaction). Given that skeletal muscle comprises nearly 40% of body mass in humans, skeletal muscle capillary density has a significant impact on metabolism, endocrine function, and locomotion and is tightly regulated at many different levels. Skeletal muscle is also high adaptable and thus one of the few organ systems that can be experimentally manipulated (e.g., by exercise) to study physiological regulation of angiogenesis. This review will focus on the methodological concerns that have arisen in determining skeletal muscle capillarity and highlight the concepts that are reshaping our understanding of the angio-adaptation process. We also summarize selected new findings (physical influences, molecular changes, and ultrastructural rearrangement of capillaries) that identify areas of future research with the greatest potential to expand our understanding of how angiogenesis is normally regulated, and that may also help to better understand conditions of uncontrolled (pathological) angiogenesis. PMID:26608338

  16. Mechanotransduction pathways in skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Yamada, André Katayama; Verlengia, Rozangela; Bueno Junior, Carlos Roberto

    2012-02-01

    In the last decade, molecular biology has contributed to define some of the cellular events that trigger skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Recent evidence shows that insulin like growth factor 1/phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (IGF-1/PI3K/Akt) signaling is not the main pathway towards load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. During load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy process, activation of mTORC1 does not require classical growth factor signaling. One potential mechanism that would activate mTORC1 is increased synthesis of phosphatidic acid (PA). Despite the huge progress in this field, it is still early to affirm which molecular event induces hypertrophy in response to mechanical overload. Until now, it seems that mTORC1 is the key regulator of load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. On the other hand, how mTORC1 is activated by PA is unclear, and therefore these mechanisms have to be determined in the following years. The understanding of these molecular events may result in promising therapies for the treatment of muscle-wasting diseases. For now, the best approach is a good regime of resistance exercise training. The objective of this point-of-view paper is to highlight mechanotransduction events, with focus on the mechanisms of mTORC1 and PA activation, and the role of IGF-1 on hypertrophy process. PMID:22171534

  17. Tissue engineering skeletal muscle for orthopaedic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payumo, Francis C.; Kim, Hyun D.; Sherling, Michael A.; Smith, Lee P.; Powell, Courtney; Wang, Xiao; Keeping, Hugh S.; Valentini, Robert F.; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    2002-01-01

    With current technology, tissue-engineered skeletal muscle analogues (bioartificial muscles) generate too little active force to be clinically useful in orthopaedic applications. They have been engineered genetically with numerous transgenes (growth hormone, insulinlike growth factor-1, erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor), and have been shown to deliver these therapeutic proteins either locally or systemically for months in vivo. Bone morphogenetic proteins belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily are osteoinductive molecules that drive the differentiation pathway of mesenchymal cells toward the chondroblastic or osteoblastic lineage, and stimulate bone formation in vivo. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells endogenously expressing bone morphogenetic proteins might serve as a vehicle for systemic bone morphogenetic protein delivery in vivo, proliferating skeletal myoblasts (C2C12) were transduced with a replication defective retrovirus containing the gene for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6 (C2BMP-6). The C2BMP-6 cells constitutively expressed recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6 and synthesized bioactive recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6, based on increased alkaline phosphatase activity in coincubated mesenchymal cells. C2BMP-6 cells did not secrete soluble, bioactive recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6, but retained the bioactivity in the cell layer. Therefore, genetically-engineered skeletal muscle cells might serve as a platform for long-term delivery of osteoinductive bone morphogenetic proteins locally.

  18. Space travel directly induces skeletal muscle atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, H.; Chromiak, J.; Shansky, J.; Del Tatto, M.; Lemaire, J.

    1999-01-01

    Space travel causes rapid and pronounced skeletal muscle wasting in humans that reduces their long-term flight capabilities. To develop effective countermeasures, the basis of this atrophy needs to be better understood. Space travel may cause muscle atrophy indirectly by altering circulating levels of factors such as growth hormone, glucocorticoids, and anabolic steroids and/or by a direct effect on the muscle fibers themselves. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells are directly affected by space travel, tissue-cultured avian skeletal muscle cells were tissue engineered into bioartificial muscles and flown in perfusion bioreactors for 9 to 10 days aboard the Space Transportation System (STS, i.e., Space Shuttle). Significant muscle fiber atrophy occurred due to a decrease in protein synthesis rates without alterations in protein degradation. Return of the muscle cells to Earth stimulated protein synthesis rates of both muscle-specific and extracellular matrix proteins relative to ground controls. These results show for the first time that skeletal muscle fibers are directly responsive to space travel and should be a target for countermeasure development.

  19. Sexual selection on skeletal shape in Carnivora.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jeremy S; Carrier, David R

    2016-04-01

    Lifetime reproductive success of males is often dependent upon the ability to physically compete for mates. However, species variation in social structure leads to differences in the relative importance of intraspecific aggression. Here, we present a large comparative dataset on sexual dimorphism in skeletal shape in Carnivora to test the hypotheses that carnivorans exhibit sexual dimorphism in skeletal anatomy that is reflective of greater specialization for physical aggression in males relative to females and that this dimorphism is associated with the intensity of sexual selection. We tested these hypotheses using a set of functional indices predicted to improve aggressive performance. Our results indicate that skeletal shape dimorphism is widespread within our sample. Functional traits thought to enhance aggressive performance are more pronounced in males. Phylogenetic model selection suggests that the evolution of this dimorphism is driven by sexual selection, with the best-fitting model indicating greater dimorphism in polygynous versus nonpolygynous species. Skeletal shape dimorphism is correlated with body size dimorphism, a common indicator of the intensity of male-male competition, but not with mean body size. These results represent the first evidence of sexual dimorphism in the primary locomotor system of a large sample of mammals. PMID:26969835

  20. The cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grizzard, W S; O'Donnell, J J; Carey, J C

    1980-02-01

    A 3 1/2-month-old boy with the cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal syndrome had low birth weight, microcephaly, microphthalmia, cataracts, blepharophimosis, high nasal bridge, micrognathia, kyphosis, rocker-bottom feet, and a longitudinal foot groove. The product of a consanguineous parentage, he showed marked developmental retardation, suggesting abnormal recessive inheritance. PMID:7355980

  1. Skeletal Muscle Loading Changes its Regenerative Capacity.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Eduardo; Duarte, José Alberto

    2016-06-01

    Whenever skeletal muscle insults occur, both by functional impositions or other injury forms, skeletal muscle repair (SMR) follows. The SMR succeeds when proper skeletal muscle regeneration and limited fibrosis ensue. Muscle fiber replenishment by fibrosis negatively affects the tissue quality and functionality and, furthermore, represents the worst post-injury phenotypic adaptation. Acute muscle injury treatment commonly follows the RICE method-rest, ice, compression, and elevation. This immediate immobilization seems to be beneficial to preserving the tissue structure and avoiding further destruction; however, if these interventions are delayed, the risk of muscle atrophy and its deleterious-related effects increase, with resultant impaired SMR. Moreover, a growing body of evidence shows positive skeletal muscle loading (SML) effects during SMR since it seems to effectively increase satellite cells (SCs) in their activation, proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation capacities. Additionally, recent data show that SML may also influence the functions of other participants in SMR, compelling SMR to achieve less fibrotic accretion and accelerated muscle mass recovery. Moreover, given the SML effects on SCs, it is plausible to consider that these can increase the myofibers' basal myogenic potential. Thus, it seems relevant to scrutinize the possible acute and chronic SML therapeutic and prophylactic effects regarding the SMR process. PMID:26838984

  2. miRNAs Related to Skeletal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Seeliger, Claudine; Balmayor, Elizabeth R; van Griensven, Martijn

    2016-09-01

    miRNAs as non-coding, short, double-stranded RNA segments are important for cellular biological functions, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. miRNAs mainly contribute to the inhibition of important protein translations through their cleavage or direct repression of target messenger RNAs expressions. In the last decade, miRNAs got in the focus of interest with new publications on miRNAs in the context of different diseases. For many types of cancer or myocardial damage, typical signatures of local or systemically circulating miRNAs have already been described. However, little is known about miRNA expressions and their molecular effect in skeletal diseases. An overview of published studies reporting miRNAs detection linked with skeletal diseases was conducted. All regulated miRNAs were summarized and their molecular interactions were illustrated. This review summarizes the involvement and interaction of miRNAs in different skeletal diseases. Thereby, 59 miRNAs were described to be deregulated in tissue, cells, or in the circulation of osteoarthritis (OA), 23 miRNAs deregulated in osteoporosis, and 107 miRNAs deregulated in osteosarcoma (OS). The molecular influences of miRNAs regarding OA, osteoporosis, and OS were illustrated. Specific miRNA signatures for skeletal diseases are described in the literature. Some overlapped, but also unique ones for each disease exist. These miRNAs may present useful targets for the development of new therapeutic approaches and are candidates for diagnostic evaluations. PMID:27418331

  3. Development of Sensory Receptors in Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSantis, Mark

    2000-01-01

    The two major goals for this project is to (1) examine the hindlimb walking pattern of offspring from the Flight dams as compared with offspring of the ground control groups from initiation of walking up to two months thereafter; and (2) examine skeletal muscle.

  4. [Effects of lycopene on the skeletal system].

    PubMed

    Sołtysiak, Patrycja; Folwarczna, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant substances of plant origin, such as lycopene, may favorably affect the skeletal system. Lycopene is a carotenoid pigment, responsible for characteristic red color of tomatoes. It is believed that lycopene may play a role in the prevention of various diseases; despite theoretical premises and results of experimental studies, the effectiveness of lycopene has not yet been clearly demonstrated in studies carried out in humans. The aim of the study was to present the current state of knowledge on the effects of lycopene on the osseous tissue in in vitro and in vivo experimental models and on the skeletal system in humans. Results of the studies indicate that lycopene may inhibit bone resorption. Favorable effects of high doses of lycopene on the rat skeletal system in experimental conditions, including the model of osteoporosis induced by estrogen deficiency, have been demonstrated. The few epidemiological and clinical studies, although not fully conclusive, suggest a possible beneficial effect of lycopene present in the diet on the skeletal system. PMID:25720611

  5. The skeletal endocannabinoid system: clinical and experimental insights.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Bitya; Gabet, Yankel

    2016-05-01

    Recently, there has been a rapidly growing interest in the role of cannabinoids in the regulation of skeletal remodeling and bone mass, addressed in basic, translational and clinical research. Since the first publications in 2005, there are more than 1000 publications addressing the skeletal endocannabinoid system. This review focuses on the roles of the endocannabinoid system in skeletal biology via the cannabinoid receptors CB1, CB2 and others. Endocannabinoids play important roles in bone formation, bone resorption and skeletal growth, and are sometimes age, gender, species and strain dependent. Controversies in the literature and potential therapeutic approaches targeting the endocannabinoid system in skeletal disorders are also discussed. PMID:26457774

  6. Skeletal muscle as an endogenous nitrate reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Piknova, Barbora; Park, Ji Won; Swanson, Kathryn M.; Dey, Soumyadeep; Noguchi, Constance Tom; Schechter, Alan N

    2015-01-01

    The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) family of enzymes form nitric oxide (NO) from arginine in the presence of oxygen. At reduced oxygen availability NO is also generated from nitrate in a two step process by bacterial and mammalian molybdopterin proteins, and also directly from nitrite by a variety of five-coordinated ferrous hemoproteins. The mammalian NO cycle also involves direct oxidation of NO to nitrite, and both NO and nitrite to nitrate by oxy-ferrous hemoproteins. The liver and blood are considered the sites of active mammalian NO metabolism and nitrite and nitrate concentrations in the liver and blood of several mammalian species, including human, have been determined. However, the large tissue mass of skeletal muscle had not been generally considered in the analysis of the NO cycle, in spite of its long-known presence of significant levels of active neuronal NOS (nNOS or NOS1). We hypothesized that skeletal muscle participates in the NO cycle and, due to its NO oxidizing heme protein, oxymyoglobin, has high concentrations of nitrate ions. We measured nitrite and nitrate concentrations in rat and mouse leg skeletal muscle and found unusually high concentrations of nitrate but similar levels of nitrite, when compared to the liver. The nitrate reservoir in muscle is easily accessible via the bloodstream and therefore nitrate is available for transport to internal organs where it can be reduced to nitrite and NO. Nitrate levels in skeletal muscle and blood in nNOS−/− mice were dramatically lower when compared with controls, which support further our hypothesis. Although the nitrate reductase activity of xanthine oxidoreductase in muscle is less than that of liver, the residual activity in muscle could be very important in view of its total mass and the high basal level of nitrate. We suggest that skeletal muscle participates in overall NO metabolism, serving as a nitrate reservoir, for direct formation of nitrite and NO, and for determining levels of nitrate

  7. Gene Regions Responding to Skeletal Muscle Atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Frank W.

    1997-01-01

    Our stated specific aims for this project were: 1) Identify the region(s) of the mouse IIb myosin heavy chain (MHC) promoter necessary for in vivo expression in mouse fast-twitch muscle, and 2) Identify the region(s) of the mouse IIb MHC promoter responsive to immobilization in mouse slow-twitch muscle in vivo. We sought to address these specific aims by introducing various MHC IIb promoter/reporter gene constructs directly into the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles of living mice. Although the method of somatic gene transfer into skeletal muscle by direct injection has been successfully used in our laboratory to study the regulation of the skeletal alpha actin gene in chicken skeletal muscle, we had many difficulties utilizing this procedure in the mouse. Because of the small size of the mouse soleus and the difficulty in obtaining consistent results, we elected not to study this muscle as first proposed. Rather, our MHC IIb promoter deletion experiments were performed in the gastrocnemius. Further, we decided to use hindlimb unloading via tail suspension to induce an upregulation of the MHC IIb gene, rather than immobilization of the hindlimbs via plaster casts. This change was made because tail suspension more closely mimics spaceflight, and this procedure in our lab results in a smaller loss of overall body mass than the mouse hindlimb immobilization procedure. This suggests that the stress level during tail suspension is less than during immobilization. This research has provided an important beginning point towards understanding the molecular regulation of the MHC lIb gene in response to unweighting of skeletal muscle Future work will focus on the regulation of MHC IIb mRNA stability in response to altered loading of skeletal muscle

  8. CC-Modeler: a topology generator for 3-D city models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruen, Armin; Wang, Xinhua

    In this paper, we introduce a semi-automated topology generator for 3-D objects, CC-Modeler (CyberCity Modeler). Given the data as point clouds measured on Analytical Plotters or Digital Stations, we present a new method for fitting planar structures to the measured sets of point clouds. While this topology generator has been originally designed to model buildings, it can also be used for other objects, which may be approximated by polyhedron surfaces. We have used it so far for roads, rivers, parking lots, ships, etc. The CC-Modeler is a generic topology generator. The problem of fitting planar faces to point clouds is treated as a Consistent Labelling problem, which is solved by probabilistic relaxation. Once the faces are defined and the related points are determined, we apply a simultaneous least-squares adjustment in order to fit the faces jointly to the given measurements in an optimal way. We first present the processing flow of the CC-Modeler. Then, the algorithm of structuring the 3-D point data is outlined. Finally, we show the results of several data sets that have been produced with the CC-Modeler.

  9. Synthesis of 2-Benzylphenyl Ketones by Aryne Insertion into Unactivated C-C Bonds.

    PubMed

    Rao, Bin; Tang, Jinghua; Zeng, Xiaoming

    2016-04-01

    A transition-metal-free procedure to access to functionalized 2-benzylphenyl ketones is described by direct insertion of arynes into benzylic C-C bonds. This reaction was promoted by cesium fluoride at room temperature, allowing the products to form in high selectivity and achieve good functional group tolerance. PMID:27004731

  10. The photometric solution of CC COM by use of the Wilson and Devinney card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hong-Nan

    1988-02-01

    The data of Rucinski et al. (1977) on the photometric observations of CC Comae system (conducted in February 1975 with a 91-cm telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory) and the synthetic light curve technique of Wilson and Devinney (1971, 1973) were used to calculate the photometric orbit of the system. The results indicate that the CC Com belongs to the late-type eclipsing binary system with the spectral type of components K5V and K6V. The component masses M1 and M2 equal to 0.62 and 0.36 solar mass, respectively; and the radii R1 and R2 equal to 0.70 and 0.52 solar radii. The mass ratio of the CC Com is 0.58732 + or - 0.0021, and the orbital inclination equals to 87.714 + or - 1.44 deg. The temperatures of the two components are T1 = 4300 K and T2 = 4265 K. These parameters indicate that the system cannot be explained by Lucy's (1968) theoretical model for late W-type systems, since the two CC Com components have low mass, temperature, and size, and hence are more similar to each other than the model specifies.

  11. Narrowing the broader autism phenotype: A study using the Communication Checklist - Adult Version (CC-A)

    PubMed Central

    Whitehouse, AJ; Coon, H; Miller, J; Salisbury, B; Bishop, DV

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether the Communication Checklist – Adult (CC-A) could identify subtypes of social and communication dysfunction in autism probands and their parents. The CC-A is divided into subscales measuring linguistic ability as well as two aspects of social communication: the Pragmatic Skills subscale assesses the level of pragmatic oddities (e.g., excessive talking), while the Social Engagement subscale picks up on those behaviours that reflect a more passive communication style (e.g., failure to engage in social interactions). CC-A data were collected for 69 autism probands, 238 parents of autism probands and 187 typical participants. The CC-A proved sensitive to the communication difficulties of autism probands and a proportion of their parents. The majority of parents who demonstrated the broader phenotype scored poorly on either the Pragmatic Skills or Social Engagement scale only. The Social Engagement scale was particularly sensitive to the difficulties of the parents, indicating that social-communicative passivity may be an important part of the broader autism phenotype. The findings provide evidence for the existence of more constrained pragmatic phenotypes in autism. Molecular genetic studies in this area may benefit from stratifying samples according to these phenotypes. PMID:20923891

  12. Rh(I)-Catalyzed Insertion of Allenes into C-C Bonds of Benzocyclobutenols.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunliang; Liu, Li-Chuan; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Chenran; Zhang, Qing-Wei; He, Wei

    2016-01-15

    Herein we report a Rh(I)-catalyzed two carbon insertion into C-C bonds of benzocyclobutenols by employing symmetrical and unsymmetrical allenes. This reaction provides rapid access to alkylidene tetralins bearing two adjacent stereogenic centers in good yields and diasteroselectivities. PMID:26727276

  13. Human Cases of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC398, Finland

    PubMed Central

    Lyytikäinen, Outi; Vainio, Anni; Myllyniemi, Anna-Liisa; Raulo, Saara; Kanerva, Mari; Rantala, Merja; Thomson, Katariina; Seppänen, Jaana; Vuopio, Jaana

    2010-01-01

    Nationwide surveillance identified 10 human isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 398. Further typing in comparison with animal isolates identified 4 clusters: 1 related to a horse epidemic and 3 to persons who had no direct contact with animals or each other. These findings may indicate unrecognized community transmission. PMID:20875297

  14. Calculation of excitation energies from the CC2 linear response theory using Cholesky decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Baudin, Pablo; Marín, José Sánchez; Cuesta, Inmaculada García; Sánchez de Merás, Alfredo M. J.

    2014-03-14

    A new implementation of the approximate coupled cluster singles and doubles CC2 linear response model is reported. It employs a Cholesky decomposition of the two-electron integrals that significantly reduces the computational cost and the storage requirements of the method compared to standard implementations. Our algorithm also exploits a partitioning form of the CC2 equations which reduces the dimension of the problem and avoids the storage of doubles amplitudes. We present calculation of excitation energies of benzene using a hierarchy of basis sets and compare the results with conventional CC2 calculations. The reduction of the scaling is evaluated as well as the effect of the Cholesky decomposition parameter on the quality of the results. The new algorithm is used to perform an extrapolation to complete basis set investigation on the spectroscopically interesting benzylallene conformers. A set of calculations on medium-sized molecules is carried out to check the dependence of the accuracy of the results on the decomposition thresholds. Moreover, CC2 singlet excitation energies of the free base porphin are also presented.

  15. Modelling of c-C2H4O formation on grain surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Occhiogrosso, A.; Viti, S.; Ward, M. D.; Price, S. D.

    2012-12-01

    Despite its potential reactivity due to ring strain, ethylene oxide (c-C2H4O) is a complex molecule that seems to be stable under the physical conditions of an interstellar dense core; indeed, it has been detected towards several high-mass star-forming regions with a column density of the order of 1013 cm-2. To date, its observational abundances cannot be reproduced by chemical models and this may be due to the significant contribution played by its chemistry on grain surfaces. Recently, Ward & Price have performed experiments in order to investigate the surface formation of ethylene oxide starting with oxygen atoms and ethylene ice as reactants. We present a chemical model which includes the most recent experimental results from Ward & Price on the formation of c-C2H4O. We study the influence of the physical parameters of dense cores on the abundances of c-C2H4O. We verify that ethylene oxide can indeed be formed during the cold phase (when the interstellar medium dense cores are formed), via addition of an oxygen atom across the C=C double bond of the ethylene molecule, and released by thermal desorption during the hot core phase. A qualitative comparison between our theoretical results and those from the observations shows that we are able to reproduce the abundances of ethylene oxide towards high-mass star-forming regions.

  16. 76 FR 44800 - Election of Reduced Research Credit Under Section 280C(c)(3)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... claiming the reduced research credit under section 280C(c)(3). On July 16, 2009, a notice of proposed rulemaking (REG-130200-08) was published in the Federal Register (74 FR 34523). No public hearing was...(c)(3) AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final regulations. SUMMARY:...

  17. Light Induced C-C Coupling of 2-Chlorobenzazoles with Carbamates, Alcohols, and Ethers.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Alexander; Lahm, Günther; Opatz, Till

    2016-06-01

    A light induced, transition-metal-free C-C coupling reaction of 2-chlorobenzazoles with aliphatic carbamates, alcohols, and ethers is presented. Inexpensive reagents, namely sodium acetate, benzophenone, water, and acetonitrile, are employed in a simple reaction protocol using a cheap and widely available 25 W energy saving UV-A lamp at ambient temperature. PMID:27128627

  18. Urinary CC16 after challenge with dry air hyperpnoea and mannitol in recreational summer athletes.

    PubMed

    Kippelen, Pascale; Tufvesson, Ellen; Ali, Leena; Bjermer, Leif; Anderson, Sandra D

    2013-12-01

    Airway epithelial injury is regarded as a key contributing factor to the pathogenesis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in athletes. The concentration of the pneumoprotein club cell (Clara cell) CC16 in urine has been found to be a non-invasive marker for hyperpnoea-induced airway epithelial perturbation. Exercise-hyperpnoea induces mechanical, thermal and osmotic stress to the airways. We investigated whether osmotic stress alone causes airway epithelial perturbation in athletes with suspected EIB. Twenty-four recreational summer sports athletes who reported respiratory symptoms on exertion performed a standard eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea test with dry air and a mannitol test (osmotic challenge) on separate days. Median urinary CC16 increased from 120 to 310 ρg μmol creatinine(-1) after dry air hyperpnoea (P = 0.002) and from 90 to 191 ρg μmol creatinine(-1) after mannitol (P = 0.021). There was no difference in urinary CC16 concentration between athletes who did or did not bronchoconstrict after dry air hyperpnoea or mannitol. We conclude that, in recreational summer sports athletes with respiratory symptoms, osmotic stress per se to the airway epithelium induces a rise in urinary excretion of CC16. This suggests that hyperosmolarity of the airway surface lining perturbs the airway epithelium in symptomatic athletes. PMID:24120076

  19. Students' Learning with the Connected Chemistry (CC1) Curriculum: Navigating the Complexities of the Particulate World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Sharona T.; Wilensky, Uri

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this study is students' learning with a Connected Chemistry unit, CC1 (denotes Connected Chemistry, chapter 1), a computer-based environment for learning the topics of gas laws and kinetic molecular theory in chemistry (Levy and Wilensky 2009). An investigation was conducted into high-school students' learning with Connected…

  20. Anomalous cross-linking by mechlorethamine of DNA duplexes containing C-C mismatch pairs.

    PubMed

    Romero, R M; Mitas, M; Haworth, I S

    1999-03-23

    Nitrogen mustards such as mechlorethamine have previously been shown to covalently cross-link DNA through the N7 position of the two guanine bases of a d[GXC].d[GYC] duplex sequence, a so-called 1,3 G-G-cross-link, when X-Y = C-G or T-A. Here, we report the formation of a new mechlorethamine cross-link with the d[GXC].d[GYC] fragment when X-Y is a C-C mismatch pair. Mechlorethamine cross-links this fragment preferentially between the two mismatched cytosine bases, rather than between the guanine bases. The cross-link also forms when one or both of the guanine bases of the d[GCC].d[GCC] fragment are replaced by N7-deazaguanine, and, more generally, forms with any C-C mismatch, regardless of the flanking base pairs. Piperidine cleavage of the cross-link species containing the d[GCC].d[GCC] sequence gives DNA fragments consistent with alkylation at the mismatched cytosine bases. We also provide evidence that the cross-link reaction occurs between the N3 atoms of the two cytosine bases by showing that the formation of the C-C cross-link is pH dependent for both mechlorethamine and chlorambucil. Dimethyl sulfate (DMS) probing of the cross-linked d[GCC].d[GCC] fragment showed that the major groove of the guanine adjacent to the C-C mismatch is still accessible to DMS. In contrast, the known minor groove binder Hoechst 33258 inhibits the cross-link formation with a C-C mismatch pair flanked by A-T base pairs. These results suggest that the C-C mismatch is cross-linked by mechlorethamine in the minor groove. Since C-C pairs may be involved in unusual secondary structures formed by the trinucleotide repeat sequence d[CCG]n, and associated with triplet repeat expansion diseases, mechlorethamine may serve as a useful probe for these structures. PMID:10090751

  1. A polymorphism of the CC16 gene is associated with an increased risk of asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Laing, I A; Goldblatt, J; Eber, E; Hayden, C M; Rye, P J; Gibson, N A; Palmer, L J; Burton, P R; Le Souëf, P N

    1998-01-01

    Several quantitative traits associated with the asthma phenotype have been linked to markers on chromosome 11q13, although the gene responsible has yet to be well established. The gene for Clara cell secretory protein (CC16) is an ideal candidate for involvement in an inherited predisposition to asthma because of its chromosomal location, the role of the CC16 protein in controlling airway inflammation, and differences in levels of the protein between asthmatics and healthy controls. All three CC16 exons were screened in an unselected population of 266 subjects from 76 families and a cohort of 52 severely asthmatic children. A combination of single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, heteroduplex analysis, DNA sequencing, and restriction digestion was used. Mutation detection methods identified an adenine to guanine substitution in the CC16 gene at position 38 (A38G) downstream from the transcription initiation site within the non-coding region of exon 1. In the unselected population, 43.6% were homozygous for the polymorphic sequence (38GG) and 46.2% were heterozygous (38AG). All the asthmatic and unaffected children from both populations were selected for an unmatched case control analysis consisting of 67 asthmatic and 46 unaffected subjects. Those homozygous for the published sequence (38AA) had a 6.9-fold increased risk of developing asthma (p=0.049) and heterozygotes (38AG) a 4.2-fold increased risk (p=0.028). Modelling of genotype as a continuous covariate indicated evidence of a significant linear trend across the three genotypes (odds ratio=2.84 per unit increase in genotype code, p=0.018). These associations were independent of age, gender, and tobacco smoke exposure. These data and the known anti-inflammatory role of CC16 in the respiratory tract suggest that alteration to the gene at position 38 may contribute to asthma. Images PMID:9643286

  2. Molecular basis for sequence-specific DNA alkylation by CC-1065

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, L.H.; Lee, C.S.; McGovren, J.P.; Warpehoski, M.A.; Mitchell, M.A.; Kelly, R.C.; Aristoff, P.A.

    1988-05-17

    CC-1065 is a potent antitumor antibiotic that binds covalently to N3 of adenine in the minor groove of DNA. The CC-1065 molecule is made up of three repeating pyrroloindole subunits, one of which (the left-hand one or A subunit) contains a reactive cyclopropyl function. The drug reacts with adenines in DNA in a highly sequence-specific manner, overlapping four base pairs to the 5'-side of the covalently modified base. Concomitant with CC-1065 covalent binding to DNA is an asymmetric effect on local DNA structure which extends more than one helix to turn the 5'-side of the covalent binding site. The DNA alkylation, sequence specificity, and biological potency of CC-1065 and a select group of trimeric synthetic analogues were evaluated. The results suggest that (a) noncovalent interactions between this series of compounds and DNA do not lead to the formation of complexes stable enough to be detected by footprinting methods, (b) sequence specificity and alkylation intensity can be modulated by the substituents on the nonreactive middle and right-hand segments, and (c) biological potency correlates well with ability to alkylate DNA. In addition, the extent and the sequence specificity of covalent adduct formation between linear DNA fragments and three analogues comprised of the CC-1065 alkylating subunit linked to zero (analogue A), one (analogue AB), or two (analogue ABC) nonreactive indole subunits were compared. These results provide strong experimental evidence for the importance of sequence-dependent site reactivity, rather than noncovalent minor groove interactions, in determining the alkylation specificity of some DNA-reactive molecules.

  3. Spin-Free CC2 Implementation of Induced Transitions between Singlet Ground and Triplet Excited States.

    PubMed

    Helmich-Paris, Benjamin; Hättig, Christof; van Wüllen, Christoph

    2016-04-12

    In most organic molecules, phosphorescence has its origin in transitions from triplet exited states to the singlet ground state, which are spin-forbidden in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. A sufficiently accurate description of phosphorescence lifetimes for molecules that contain only light elements can be achieved by treating the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) with perturbation theory (PT). We present an efficient implementation of this approach for the approximate coupled cluster singles and doubles model CC2 in combination with the resolution-of-the-identity approximation for the electron repulsion integrals. The induced oscillator strengths and phosphorescence lifetimes from SOC-PT are computed within the response theory framework. In contrast to previous work, we employ an explicitly spin-coupled basis for singlet and triplet operators. Thereby, a spin-orbital treatment can be entirely avoided for closed-shell molecules. For compounds containing only light elements, the phosphorescence lifetimes obtained with SOC-PT-CC2 are in good agreement with those of exact two-component (X2C) CC2, whereas the calculations are roughly 12 times faster than with X2C. Phosphorescence lifetimes computed for two thioketones with the SOC-PT-CC2 approach agree very well with reference results from experiment and are similar to those obtained with multireference spin-orbit configuration interaction and with X2C-CC2. An application to phosphorescent emitters for metal-free organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with almost 60 atoms and more than 1800 basis functions demonstrates how the approach extends the applicability of coupled cluster methods for studying phosphorescence. The results indicate that other decay channels like vibrational relaxation may become important in such systems if lifetimes are large. PMID:26881830

  4. Energy materials coordinating committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, fiscal year 2002

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2003-08-08

    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. Topical subcommittees of the EMaCC are responsible for conducting seminars and otherwise facilitating information flow between DOE organizational units in materials areas of particular importance to the Department. The EMaCC Terms of Reference were recently modified and developed into a Charter that was approved on June 5, 2003. As a result of this reorganization, the existing subcommittees were disbanded and new subcommittees are being formed. The EMaCC Charter and the memorandum approving it are presented in the Appendix of this report. The FY 2002 budget summary for DOE Materials Activities is presented on page 8. The distribution of these funds between DOE laboratories, private industry, academia and other organizations is presented in tabular form on page 10. Following the budget summary is a set of detailed program descriptions for the FY 2002 DOE Materials activities. These descriptions are presented according to the organizational structure of the Department. A mission statement, a budget summary listing the project titles and FY 2002 funding, and detailed project summaries are presented for each Assistant Secretary office, the Office of Science, and the National Nuclear Security Administration. The project summaries also provide DOE, laboratory, academic and industrial contacts for each project, as appropriate.

  5. Emergence of a novel subpopulation of CC398 Staphylococcus aureus infecting animals is a serious hazard for humans

    PubMed Central

    van der Mee-Marquet, Nathalie L.; Corvaglia, Anna; Haenni, Marisa; Bertrand, Xavier; Franck, Jean-Baptiste; Kluytmans, Jan; Girard, Myriam; Quentin, Roland; François, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, Staphylococcus aureus from clonal complex (CC)398 were mostly described as colonizing asymptomatic raised pigs and pig-farmers. Currently, the epidemiology of the CC398 lineage is becoming more complex. CC398 human-adapted isolates are increasingly being identified in bloodstream infections in humans living in animal-free environments. In addition, CC398 isolates are increasingly responsible for invasive infections in various animals. CC398 isolates that colonize asymptomatic pigs and the isolates that infect humans living in animal-free environments (human-adapted isolates) both lack several clinically important S. aureus–associated virulence factors but differ on the basis of their prophage content. Recent findings have provided insight into the influence of a φMR11-like helper prophage on the ability of CC398 isolates to infect humans. To assess the recent spread of the CC398 lineage to various animal species and to investigate the links between the φMR11-like prophage and the emergence of CC398 isolates infecting animals, we studied 277 isolates causing infections in unrelated animals. The prevalence of CC398 isolates increased significantly between 2007 and 2013 (p < 0.001); 31.8% of the animal isolates harbored the φMR11-like prophage. High-density DNA microarray experiments with 37 representative infected-animal isolates positive for φMR11-like DNA established that most infected-animal isolates carried many genetic elements related to antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes, and a φ3 prophage encoding immune-modulating proteins and associated with animal-to-human jumps. Our findings suggest recent clonal expansion and dissemination of a new subpopulation of CC398 isolates, responsible for invasive infections in various animals, with a considerable potential to colonize and infect humans, probably greater than that of human-adapted CC398 isolates, justifying active surveillance. PMID:25538688

  6. Laminin-211 in skeletal muscle function

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Johan; Durbeej, Madeleine

    2013-01-01

    A chain is no stronger than its weakest link is an old idiom that holds true for muscle biology. As the name implies, skeletal muscle’s main function is to move the bones. However, for a muscle to transmit force and withstand the stress that contractions give rise to, it relies on a chain of proteins attaching the cytoskeleton of the muscle fiber to the surrounding extracellular matrix. The importance of this attachment is illustrated by a large number of muscular dystrophies caused by interruption of the cytoskeletal-extracellular matrix interaction. One of the major components of the extracellular matrix is laminin, a heterotrimeric glycoprotein and a major constituent of the basement membrane. It has become increasingly apparent that laminins are involved in a multitude of biological functions, including cell adhesion, differentiation, proliferation, migration and survival. This review will focus on the importance of laminin-211 for normal skeletal muscle function. PMID:23154401

  7. Skeletal and body composition evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mazess, R.B.

    1983-03-01

    Research on radiation detectors for absorptiometry analysis of errors affecting single photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation, analysis of errors affecting dual photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation, comparison of skeletal measurements with other techniques, cooperation with NASA projects for skeletal evaluation in spaceflight (Experiment MO-78) and in laboratory studies with immobilized animals, studies of postmenopausal osteoporosis, organization of scientific meetings and workshops on absorptiometric measurement, and development of instrumentation for measurement of fluid shifts in the human body were performed. Instrumentation was developed that allows accurate and precise (2% error) measurements of mineral content in compact and trabecular bone and of the total skeleton. Instrumentation was also developed to measure fluid shifts in the extremities. Radiation exposure with those procedures is low (2-10 MREM). One hundred seventy three technical reports and one hundred and four published papers of studies from the University of Wisconsin Bone Mineral Lab are listed.

  8. Primary and secondary skeletal blast trauma.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Angi M; Smith, Victoria A; Ramos, Vanessa; Shegogue, Candie; Whitworth, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This study examines primary (resulting from blast wave) and secondary (resulting from disintegrated, penetrating fragments) blast trauma to the skeleton. Eleven pigs were exposed to semi-controlled blast events of varying explosive type, charge size, and distance, including some cases with shrapnel. Skeletal trauma was found to be extensive, presenting as complex, comminuted fractures with numerous small, displaced bone splinters and fragments. Traumatic amputation of the limbs and cranium was also observed. Fractures were concentrated in areas nearer the blast, but there was generally no identifiable point of impact. Fractures were more random in appearance and widespread than those typically associated with gunshot or blunt force injury events. These patterns appear to be uniquely associated with blast trauma and may therefore assist forensic anthropologists and other forensic examiners in the interpretation of skeletal trauma by enabling them to differentiate between blast trauma and trauma resulting from some other cause. PMID:21981586

  9. Extraction of DNA from Human Skeletal Material.

    PubMed

    Pajnič, Irena Zupanič

    2016-01-01

    In recent years the recovery and analysis of DNA from skeletal remains has been applied to several contexts ranging from disaster victim identification to the identification of the victims of conflict. Here are described procedures for processing the bone and tooth samples including mechanical and chemical cleaning, cutting and powdering in the presence of liquid nitrogen, complete demineralization of bone and tooth powder, DNA extraction, DNA purification using magnetic beads, and the precautions and strategies implemented to avoid and detect contamination. It has proven highly successful in the analysis of bones and teeth from Second World War victims' skeletal remains that have been excavated from mass graves in Slovenia and is also suitable for genetic identification of relatively fresh human remains. PMID:27259733

  10. Bone Proteoglycan Changes During Skeletal Unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, M.; Uzawa, K.; Pornprasertsuk, S.; Arnaud, S.; Grindeland, R.; Grzesik, W.

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal adaptability to mechanical loads is well known since the last century. Disuse osteopenia due to the microgravity environment is one of the major concerns for space travelers. Several studies have indicated that a retardation of the mineralization process and a delay in matrix maturation occur during the space flight. Mineralizing fibrillar type I collagen possesses distinct cross-linking chemistries and their dynamic changes during mineralization correlate well with its function as a mineral organizer. Our previous studies suggested that a certain group of matrix proteoglycans in bone play an inhibitory role in the mineralization process through their interaction with collagen. Based on these studies, we hypothesized that the altered mineralization during spaceflight is due in part to changes in matrix components secreted by cells in response to microgravity. In this study, we employed hindlimb elevation (tail suspension) rat model to study the effects of skeletal unloading on matrix proteoglycans in bone.

  11. Epigenetic regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism.

    PubMed

    Howlett, Kirsten F; McGee, Sean L

    2016-07-01

    Normal skeletal muscle metabolism is essential for whole body metabolic homoeostasis and disruptions in muscle metabolism are associated with a number of chronic diseases. Transcriptional control of metabolic enzyme expression is a major regulatory mechanism for muscle metabolic processes. Substantial evidence is emerging that highlights the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in this process. This review will examine the importance of epigenetics in the regulation of muscle metabolism, with a particular emphasis on DNA methylation and histone acetylation as epigenetic control points. The emerging cross-talk between metabolism and epigenetics in the context of health and disease will also be examined. The concept of inheritance of skeletal muscle metabolic phenotypes will be discussed, in addition to emerging epigenetic therapies that could be used to alter muscle metabolism in chronic disease states. PMID:27215678

  12. YAP-Mediated Mechanotransduction in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Martina; Rikeit, Paul; Knaus, Petra; Coirault, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is not only translating chemical energy into mechanical work, it is also a highly adaptive and regenerative tissue whose architecture and functionality is determined by its mechanical and physical environment. Processing intra- and extracellular mechanical signaling cues contributes to the regulation of cell growth, survival, migration and differentiation. Yes-associated Protein (YAP), a transcriptional coactivator downstream of the Hippo pathway and its paralog, the transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), were recently found to play a key role in mechanotransduction in various tissues including skeletal muscle. Furthermore, YAP/TAZ modulate myogenesis and muscle regeneration and abnormal YAP activity has been reported in muscular dystrophy and rhabdomyosarcoma. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of mechanosensing and -signaling in striated muscle. We highlight the role of YAP signaling and discuss the different routes and hypotheses of its regulation in the context of mechanotransduction. PMID:26909043

  13. Skeletal Implications of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Misof, Barbara M; Moreira, Carolina A; Klaushofer, Klaus; Roschger, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with numerous comorbidities, among which osteoporosis is of high significance. Low bone mass and the occurrence of fragility fractures is a common finding in patients with COPD. Typical risk factors related directly or indirectly to these skeletal complications include systemic inflammation, tobacco smoking, vitamin D deficiency, and treatment with oral or inhaled corticosteroids. In particular, treatment with glucocorticoids appears to be a strong contributor to bone changes in COPD, but does not fully account for all skeletal complications. Additional to the effects of COPD on bone mass, there is evidence for COPD-related changes in bone microstructure and material properties. This review summarizes the clinical outcomes of low bone mass and increased fracture risk, and reports on recent observations in bone tissue and material in COPD patients. PMID:26861899

  14. Coaxing stem cells for skeletal muscle repair

    PubMed Central

    McCullagh, Karl J.A.; Perlingeiro, Rita C. R.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle has a tremendous ability to regenerate, attributed to a well-defined population of muscle stem cells called satellite cells. However, this ability to regenerate diminishes with age and can also be dramatically affected by multiple types of muscle diseases, or injury. Extrinsic and/or intrinsic defects in the regulation of satellite cells are considered to be major determinants for the diminished regenerative capacity. Maintenance and replenishment of the satellite cell pool is one focus for muscle regenerative medicine, which will be discussed. There are other sources of progenitor cells with myogenic capacity, which may also support skeletal muscle repair. However, all of these myogenic cell populations have inherent difficulties and challenges in maintaining or coaxing their derivation for therapeutic purpose. This review will highlight recent reported attributes of these cells and new bioengineering approaches to creating a supply of myogenic stem cells or implants applicable for acute and/or chronic muscle disorders. PMID:25049085

  15. Smad Signaling in Skeletal Development and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Song, Buer; Estrada, Kristine D.; Lyons, Karen M.

    2009-01-01

    Smad proteins are intracellular molecules that mediate the canonical signaling cascade of TGFβ superfamily growth factors. The TGFβ superfamily comprises two groups of growth factors, BMPs and TGFβs. Both groups can be further divided into several sub-groups based on sequence homologies and functional similarities. Ligands of the TGFβ superfamily bind to cell surface receptors to activate Smad proteins in the cytoplasm; then the activated Smad proteins translocate into the nucleus to activate or repress specific target gene transcription. Both groups of growth factors play important roles in skeletal development and regeneration. However, whether these effects reflect signaling through canonical Smad pathways, or other non-canonical signaling pathways in vivo remains a mystery. Moreover, the mechanisms utilized by Smad proteins to initiate nuclear events and their interactions with cytoplasmic proteins are still under intensive investigation. This review will discuss the most recent progress understanding Smad signaling in the context of skeletal development and regeneration. PMID:19926329

  16. Cellular Players in Skeletal Muscle Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ceafalan, Laura Cristina; Popescu, Bogdan Ovidiu; Hinescu, Mihail Eugen

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle, a tissue endowed with remarkable endogenous regeneration potential, is still under focused experimental investigation mainly due to treatment potential for muscle trauma and muscular dystrophies. Resident satellite cells with stem cell features were enthusiastically described quite a long time ago, but activation of these cells is not yet controlled by any medical interventions. However, after thorough reports of their existence, survival, activation, and differentiation there are still many questions to be answered regarding the intimate mechanism of tissue regeneration. This review delivers an up-to-date inventory of the main known key players in skeletal muscle repair, revealed by various models of tissue injuries in mechanical trauma, toxic lesions, and muscular dystrophy. A better understanding of the spatial and temporal relationships between various cell populations, with different physical or paracrine interactions and phenotype changes induced by local or systemic signalling, might lead to a more efficient approach for future therapies. PMID:24779022

  17. Cytokine Signaling in Skeletal Muscle Wasting.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Liu, Bin; Liang, Chun; Li, Yangxin; Song, Yao-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting occurs in a variety of diseases including diabetes, cancer, Crohn's disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), disuse, and denervation. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is involved in mediating the wasting effect. To date, a causal relationship between TNF-α signaling and muscle wasting has been established in animal models. However, results from clinical trials are conflicting. This is partly due to the fact that other factors such as TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are also involved in skeletal muscle wasting. Because muscle wasting is often associated with physical inactivity and reduced food intake, therapeutic interventions will be most effective when multiple approaches are used in conjunction with nutritional support and exercise. PMID:27025788

  18. Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Energetic Efficiency and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive loss of maximal cell functionality, and mitochondria are considered a key factor in aging process, since they determine the ATP availability in the cells. Mitochondrial performance during aging in skeletal muscle is reported to be either decreased or unchanged. This heterogeneity of results could partly be due to the method used to assess mitochondrial performance. In addition, in skeletal muscle the mitochondrial population is heterogeneous, composed of subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondria. Therefore, the purpose of the present review is to summarize the results obtained on the functionality of the above mitochondrial populations during aging, taking into account that the mitochondrial performance depends on organelle number, organelle activity, and energetic efficiency of the mitochondrial machinery in synthesizing ATP from the oxidation of fuels. PMID:25970752

  19. Skeletal adaptation in altered gravity environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Tony S.; Strauss, Alvin M.

    1990-01-01

    It is generally agreed that the single factor that most limits human survivability in non Earth environments is the phenomenon of bone demineralization and the medical problems induced by the subsequent imbalance in the calcium metabolism. Alterations of skeletal properties occur as a result of disturbances in the normal mechanical loading environment of bone. These alterations or adaptations obey physical laws, but the precise mathematical relationship remains to be determined. Principles governing unloading and overloading of bone are gaining more attention as a consequence of the planning of manned space stations, Moon and Mars bases and spaceflights of long duration. A mathematical framework which allows for the prediction of skeletal adaptation on Earth and in non Earth gravity environments by power law relationships is presented.

  20. Denervation and reinnervation of skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, R. F.; Max, S. R.

    1983-01-01

    A review is presented of the physiological and biochemical changes that occur in mammalian skeletal muscle after denervation and reinnervation. These changes are compared with those observed after altered motor function. Also considered is the nature of the trophic influence by which nerves control muscle properties. Topics examined include the membrane and contractile properties of denervated and reinnervated muscle; the cholinergic proteins, such as choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholinesterase, and the acetylcholine receptor; and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

  1. Pannexin 1 channels in skeletal muscles

    PubMed Central

    Cea, Luis A.; Riquelme, Manuel A.; Vargas, Anibal A.; Urrutia, Carolina; Sáez, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Normal myotubes and adult innervated skeletal myofibers express the glycoprotein pannexin1 (Panx1). Six of them form a “gap junction hemichannel-like” structure that connects the cytoplasm with the extracellular space; here they will be called Panx1 channels. These are poorly selective channels permeable to ions, small metabolic substrate, and signaling molecules. So far little is known about the role of Panx1 channels in muscles but skeletal muscles of Panx1−/− mice do not show an evident phenotype. Innervated adult fast and slow skeletal myofibers show Panx1 reactivity in close proximity to dihydropyridine receptors in the sarcolemma of T-tubules. These Panx1 channels are activated by electrical stimulation and extracellular ATP. Panx1 channels play a relevant role in potentiation of muscle contraction because they allow release of ATP and uptake of glucose, two molecules required for this response. In support of this notion, the absence of Panx1 abrogates the potentiation of muscle contraction elicited by repetitive electrical stimulation, which is reversed by exogenously applied ATP. Phosphorylation of Panx1 Thr and Ser residues might be involved in Panx1 channel activation since it is enhanced during potentiation of muscle contraction. Under denervation, Panx1 levels are upregulated and this partially explains the reduction in electrochemical gradient, however its absence does not prevent denervation-induced atrophy but prevents the higher oxidative state. Panx1 also forms functional channels at the cell surface of myotubes and their functional state has been associated with intracellular Ca2+ signals and regulation of myotube plasticity evoked by electrical stimulation. We proposed that Panx1 channels participate as ATP channels and help to keep a normal oxidative state in skeletal muscles. PMID:24782784

  2. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P.; McKay, Bryon R.; Joanisse, Sophie; Verdijk, Lex B.; van Loon, Luc J. C.; Parise, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodeling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodeling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodeling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models. PMID:26557092

  3. Redox Characterization of Functioning Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Li; Pannell, Benjamin K.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle physiology is influenced by the presence of chemically reactive molecules such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). These molecules regulate multiple redox-sensitive signaling pathways that play a critical role in cellular processes including gene expression and protein modification. While ROS have gained much attention for their harmful effects in muscle fatigue and dysfunction, research has also shown ROS to facilitate muscle adaptation after stressors such as physical exercise. This manuscript aims to provide a comprehensive review of the current understanding of redox signaling in skeletal muscle. ROS-induced oxidative stress and its role in the aging process are discussed. Mitochondria have been shown to generate large amounts of ROS during muscular contractions, and thus are susceptible to oxidative stress. ROS can modify proteins located in the mitochondrial membrane leading to cell death and osmotic swelling. ROS also contribute to the necrosis and inflammation of muscle fibers that is associated with muscular diseases including Duchenne muscular dystrophy. It is imperative that future research continues to investigate the exact role of ROS in normal skeletal muscle function as well as muscular dysfunction and disease. PMID:26635624

  4. Regulation of skeletal muscle perfusion during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delp, M. D.; Laughlin, M. H.

    1998-01-01

    For exercise to be sustained, it is essential that adequate blood flow be provided to skeletal muscle. The local vascular control mechanisms involved in regulating muscle perfusion during exercise include metabolic control, endothelium-mediated control, propagated responses, myogenic control, and the muscle pump. The primary determinant of muscle perfusion during sustained exercise is the metabolic rate of the muscle. Metabolites from contracting muscle diffuse to resistance arterioles and act directly to induce vasodilation, or indirectly to inhibit noradrenaline release from sympathetic nerve endings and oppose alpha-adrenoreceptor-mediated vasoconstriction. The vascular endothelium also releases vasodilator substances (e.g., prostacyclin and nitric oxide) that are prominent in establishing basal vascular tone, but these substances do not appear to contribute to the exercise hyperemia in muscle. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells may also be involved in propagating vasodilator signals along arterioles to parent and daughter vessels. Myogenic autoregulation does not appear to be involved in the exercise hyperemia in muscle, but the rhythmic propulsion of blood from skeletal muscle veins facilitates venous return to the heart and muscle perfusion. It appears that the primary determinants of sustained exercise hyperemia in skeletal muscle are metabolic vasodilation and increased vascular conductance via the muscle pump. Additionally, sympathetic neural control is important in regulating muscle blood flow during exercise.

  5. Antenatal diagnosis of lethal skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Tretter, A E; Saunders, R C; Meyers, C M; Dungan, J S; Grumbach, K; Sun, C C; Campbell, A B; Wulfsberg, E A

    1998-02-17

    Lethal skeletal dysplasias (LSD) are a heterogeneous group of rare but important genetic disorders characterized by abnormal growth and development of bone and cartilage. We describe the diagnosis and outcome of 29 cases of lethal skeletal dysplasias evaluated between January 1989 and December 1996 at the University of Maryland Medical Center and the Ultrasound Institute of Baltimore. Two cases presented at delivery with no prenatal care while the remaining 27 cases were identified by antenatal sonography. Final diagnoses included thanatophoric dysplasia (14), osteogenesis imperfecta, type II (6), achondrogenesis (2), short rib syndromes (3), campomelic syndrome (2), atelosteogenesis (1), and no evidence of a skeletal dysplasia (1). Twenty out of 27 pregnancies were terminated with an average at detection of 21.6 weeks. The other 7 pregnancies that went on to deliver had an average age at detection of 29.2 weeks. Fetal abnormalities in the terminated pregnancies were identified at a significantly earlier gestational age (P = 0.0016) than the pregnancies that continued. While the identification of LSD by sonography was excellent (26/27), only 13/27 (48%) were given an accurate specific antenatal diagnosis. In 8/14 (57%) cases with an inaccurate or nonspecific diagnosis there was a significant or crucial change in the genetic counseling. Thus, while antenatal sonography is an excellent method for discovering LSD, clinical examination, radiographs, and autopsy are mandatory for making a specific diagnosis. PMID:9489797

  6. Manganese-catalyzed regiospecific sp(3) C-S bond formation through C-C bond cleavage of cyclobutanols.

    PubMed

    Ren, Rongguo; Wu, Zhen; Zhu, Chen

    2016-06-21

    A manganese-catalyzed regioselective sp(3) C-S bond formation through C-C bond cleavage of cyclobutanols is described. A variety of primary and secondary alkyl thioethers are efficiently prepared under mild reaction conditions. The mechanistic pathways involving radical-mediated tandem C-C bond cleavage and C-S bond formation are proposed. PMID:27279018

  7. 78 FR 6811 - Country Code Top-Level Domain (ccTLD) for the United States; Policies and Requirements; Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Telecommunications and Information Administration RIN 0660-XC005 Country Code Top-Level Domain (cc... Administration (NTIA) administers the contract for the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the...

  8. Pseudopotential-Based Correlation Consistent Composite Approach (rp-ccCA) for First- and Second-Row Transition Metal Thermochemistry.

    PubMed

    Manivasagam, Sivabalan; Laury, Marie L; Wilson, Angela K

    2015-07-01

    The relativistic-pseudopotential correlation consistent composite approach (rp-ccCA) was used to determine the enthalpy of formation (ΔHf) of 24 first row (3d) transition metal compounds. The rp-ccCA-derived ΔHf's were compared to ΔHf's previously obtained with an all-electron composite method for transition metals (ccCA-TM). For the 3d metal systems, rp-ccCA achieves transition metal accuracy, within 3 kcal/mol of reliable experimental data, overall. By utilizing pseudopotentials within the rp-ccCA methodology, we observed a significant computational time savings (53%) in comparison to the all-electron basis sets employed within ccCA-TM. With the proven reliability and accuracy of rp-ccCA, the methodology was employed to construct a calibration set of 210 second-row (4d) transition metal compounds and their ΔHf's. The 4d calibration set is referred to as 4dHf-210. Within the 4dHf-210 set, there were 61 molecules with available experimental data. The average experimental uncertainty was 4.05 kcal/mol and the mean absolute deviation of rp-ccCA was 3.64 kcal/mol, excluding outliers (10 total). This study provides a large set of energetics that can be used to gauge existing and future computational methodologies and to aid experimentalists in reaction design. PMID:26000954

  9. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 57 - DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education, and Related Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education, and Related Services E Appendix E to Part 57 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... SERVICES TO ELIGIBLE DOD DEPENDENTS Pt. 57, App. E Appendix E to Part 57—DoD-CC on Early...

  10. Narrowing the Broader Autism Phenotype: A Study Using the Communication Checklist-Adult Version (CC-A)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Coon, Hilary; Miller, Judith; Salisbury, Bryanna; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether the Communication Checklist-Adult (CC-A) could identify subtypes of social and communication dysfunction in autism probands and their parents. The CC-A is divided into subscales measuring linguistic ability as well as two aspects of social communication: the Pragmatic Skills subscale assesses the level of pragmatic…