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Sample records for 15-year prospective study

  1. Individuality and Contextual Influences on Drug Dependence: A 15-Year Prospective Longitudinal Study of Adolescents from Harlem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Brown, Elaine N.; Finch, Stephen J.; Brook, David W.

    2012-01-01

    In this 15-year longitudinal study the authors investigated individual and contextual factors that predispose adolescents from a disadvantaged urban area to drug dependence in adulthood. Adolescents were recruited from schools serving East Harlem in New York City. Of the 838 participants followed to adulthood, 59% were women, 55% were African…

  2. Family- and School-Related Factors in 9- to 15-Year-Olds Predicting Educational Attainment in Adulthood: A Prospective 27-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintsanen, Mirka; Hintsa, Taina; Merjonen, Paivi; Leino, Mare; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This prospective longitudinal study examined several selected family- and school-related factors simultaneously in order to investigate the importance of well known and less examined predictors of educational attainment. Method: The participants were 844 (486 girls) nine-, 12-, and 15-years old comprehensive school students. Family-…

  3. Caries incidence and lesion progression from adolescence to young adulthood: a prospective 15-year cohort study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Mejàre, I; Stenlund, H; Zelezny-Holmlund, C

    2004-01-01

    The objectives were (1) to assess caries development, including the incidence and rate of lesion progression, in a Swedish cohort from adolescence to young adulthood and (2) to compare the caries incidence rates in adolescents with those of young adults. The original material consisted of 536 children aged 11-13 years at baseline. This cohort had been followed through annual bitewing radiographs to 21-22 years of age. In 1998-1999, 250 of these individuals were re-examined at the age of 26-27, and the new caries data were added to the original data. The results showed that fewer new enamel lesions developed on approximal surfaces during young adulthood than during adolescence; the caries incidence rates for enamel lesions decreased from 4.3 in the age group 12-15 years to 2.7 new caries lesions/100 surface-years in the age group 20-27 years. The same applied to the rate of lesion progression, where the corresponding values from the enamel-dentin border to the outer dentin were 32.5 for the youngest and 10.9 new lesions/100 surface-years for the oldest age group. The caries incidence of outer dentin lesions on approximal surfaces was low but increased from 0.2 in the age group 12-15 years to 0.9 new outer dentin lesions/100 surface-years in the age group 20-27 years. The incidence rates varied considerably between different tooth surfaces. Also for occlusal surfaces, fewer new dentin lesions developed during young adulthood than during adolescence; the incidence was 2.0 new dentin lesions/100 surface-years in the youngest age group and 0.7 during young adulthood. At the age of 13, the proportion of DFS of occlusal surfaces predominated over DFS of approximal surfaces but at the age of 26-27 the proportions of occlusal and approximal DFS were almost equal. PMID:14767170

  4. Neonatal clinical screening of the hip in the diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip: a 15-year prospective longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Mace, J; Paton, R W

    2015-02-01

    Over a 15-year prospective period, 201 infants with a clinically unstable hip at neonatal screening were subsequently reviewed in a 'one stop' clinic where they were assessed clinically and sonographically. Their mean age was 1.62 weeks (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35 to 1.89). Clinical neonatal hip screening revealed a sensitivity of 62% (mean, 62.6 95%CI 50.9 to 74.3), specificity of 99.8% (mean, 99.8, 95% CI 99.7 to 99.8) and positive predictive value (PPV) of 24% (mean, 26.2, 95% CI 19.3 to 33.0). Static and dynamic sonography for Graf type IV dysplastic hips had a 15-year sensitivity of 77% (mean, 75.8 95% CI 66.9 to 84.6), specificity of 99.8% (mean, 99.8, 95% CI 99.8 to 99.8) and a PPV of 49% (mean, 55.1, 95% CI 41.6 to 68.5). There were 36 infants with an irreducible dislocation of the hip (0.57 per 1000 live births), including six that failed to resolve with neonatal splintage. Most clinically unstable hips referred to a specialist clinic are female and stabilise spontaneously. Most irreducible dislocations are not identified from this neonatal instability group. There may be a small subgroup of females with instability of the hip which may be at risk of progression to irreducibility despite early treatment in a Pavlik harness. A controlled study is required to assess the value of neonatal clinical screening programmes. PMID:25628293

  5. Elevated Circulating Osteoprotegerin and Renal Dysfunction Predict 15-Year Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality: A Prospective Study of Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Kun; Lim, Ee M.; Bollerslev, Jens; Prince, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Data on the predictive role of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) for cardiovascular (CVD) and all-cause mortality risk have been presented by our group and others. We now present data on the interactions between OPG with stage I to III chronic kidney disease (CKD) for all-cause and CVD mortality. Methods and Results The setting was a 15-year study of 1,292 women over 70 years of age initially randomized to a 5-year controlled trial of 1.2 g of calcium daily. Serum OPG and creatinine levels with complete mortality records obtained from the Western Australian Data Linkage System were available. Interactions were detected between OPG levels and eGFR for both CVD and all-cause mortality (P < 0.05). Compared to participants with eGFR ≥60ml/min/1.73m2 and low OPG, participants with eGFR of <60ml/min/1.73m2 and elevated OPG had a 61% and 75% increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality respectively (multivariate-adjusted HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.27-2.05; P < 0.001 and HR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.22-2.55; P = 0.003). This relationship with mortality was independent of decline in renal function (P<0.05). Specific causes of death in individuals with elevated OPG and stage III CKD highlighted an excess of coronary heart disease, renal failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease deaths (P < 0.05). Conclusion The association between elevated OPG levels with CVD and all-cause mortality was more evident in elderly women with poorer renal function. Assessment of OPG in the context of renal function may be important in studies investigating its relationship with all-cause and CVD mortality. PMID:26222774

  6. The impact of self-reported exposure to whole-body-vibrations on the risk of disability pension among men: a 15 year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Whole-body-vibrations are often associated with adverse health effect but the long term effects are less known. This study investigates the association between occupational exposures to whole-body vibrations, and subsequent transition to disability pension. Methods A total of 4215 male employees were followed up for subsequent disability pension retirement. Exposure to whole-body-vibration was self-reported while new cases of disability pension were retrieved from a national register. Results The hazard ratio (HR) for disability pension retirement among men exposed to whole-body-vibrations was 1.61 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-2.40) after adjustment for age, smoking habits, BMI, physical job demands and awkward work postures. In our model, with the available explanatory variables, 5.6% of the male disability pension cases were attributable to whole-body-vibrations. Conclusions Exposure to whole-body-vibrations predicts subsequent disability pension retirement. Continued reduction of whole-body-vibrations may reduce the number of new cases of disability pension. PMID:20525268

  7. Investigating Sexual Abuse: Findings of a 15-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Bob; Kavanagh, Denise; Caffrey, Shay; Power, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of longitudinal large-scale studies of sexual abuse in intellectual disability services. Such studies offer opportunities to examine patterns in disclosure, investigation and outcomes, and to report on incidence and trends. Methods: All allegations of sexual abuse (n = 250) involving service users as victims or…

  8. The WIYN Open Cluster Study: A 15-Year Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieu, Robert D.; WOCS Collaboration

    2013-06-01

    The WIYN 3.5m telescope combines large aperture, wide field of view and superb image quality. The WIYN consortium includes investigators in numerous areas of open cluster research. The combination spawned the WIYN Open Cluster Study (WOCS) over a decade ago, with the goals of producing 1) comprehensive photometric, astrometric and spectroscopic data for new fundamental open clusters and 2) addressing key astrophysical problems with these data. The set of core WOCS open clusters spans age and metallicity. Low reddening, solar proximity and richness were also desirable features in selecting core open clusters. More than 50 WIYN Open Cluster Study papers have been published in refereed journals. Highlights include: deep and wide-field photometry of NGC 188, NGC 2168 (M35), and NGC 6819 (WOCS I, II, XI and LII); deep and wide-field proper-motion studies of the old open clusters NGC 188, NGC 2682 (M67) and NGC 6791 (WOCS XVII, XXXIII and XLVI); comprehensive radial-velocity surveys of NGC 188, NGC 2168 and NGC 6819 (WOCS XXXII, XXIV, and XXXVIII); metallicity and lithium abundances in NGC 2168 (WOCS V); comprehensive definition of the hard-binary populations of NGC 188 and NGC 2168 (WOCS XXII and XLVIII); rotation period distributions in NGC 1039 (M34) and NGC 2168 (WOCS XXXV, XLIII, and XLV); study of chromospheric activity in NGC 2682 (WOCS XVIII); photometric variability surveys in NGC 188 and NGC 2682 (IX and XV); new Bayesian techniques for determination of cluster parameters (WOCS XXIII); a new infrared age-diagnostic for open clusters (WOCS XL); theoretical studies of stellar rotation (WOCS XIII and XIV); sophisticated N-body simulations of NGC 188 (WOCS LI); and the discovery of a high binary frequency and white dwarf companions among NGC 188 blue stragglers. While the WIYN 3.5m telescope remains at its heart, today the WIYN Open Cluster Study collaboration extends beyond both the WIYN observatory and consortium, and continues as a vital and productive

  9. Non-neoplastic salivary gland lesions: a 15-year study.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Harsh; Tahlan, Anita; Mundi, Irneet; Punia, R P S; Dass, Arjun

    2011-08-01

    The spectrum of salivary gland lesions is wide and the relative incidence of neoplastic versus non-neoplastic lesions is variable in different studies. A series of non-neoplastic salivary gland lesions is reviewed to analyze their spectrum and their relative frequency. This is a retrospective study of salivary gland excisions and biopsies received in our department from January 1994 to December 2008. Routine hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of all the salivary gland excisions and biopsies received were analyzed. Of the 393 salivary gland excisions and biopsies received, 216 cases were reported as non-neoplastic (55%) and formed our study group; 177 (45%) were neoplastic. Non-neoplastic lesions were more frequent in major salivary glands (65.7%) and submandibular gland was the most commonly involved (66.2%). Lip was the most frequent site (81.7%) for minor salivary gland lesions. Inflammation was the predominant pathological finding (49.5%), of which non-specific chronic sialadenitis constituted the majority (86.9%). Sialolithiasis was present in 22 cases (20.6%); all of these cases were of non-specific chronic sialadenitis. Cysts were second in frequency (36.6%), of which mucocele was the most common (54.5%). There were 5.6% cases of benign lympho-epithelial lesions, while normal salivary gland tissue was seen in 6.5% cases. Non-neoplastic salivary gland diseases are more common than neoplastic diseases and have a wide disease spectrum. PMID:21170719

  10. Defining emergency department episodes by severity and intensity: A 15-year study of Medicare beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Episodes of Emergency Department (ED) service use among older adults previously have not been constructed, or evaluated as multi-dimensional phenomena. In this study, we constructed episodes of ED service use among a cohort of older adults over a 15-year observation period, measured the episodes by severity and intensity, and compared these measures in predicting subsequent hospitalization. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of the prospective cohort study entitled the Survey on Assets and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old (AHEAD). Baseline (1993) data on 5,511 self-respondents ≥70 years old were linked to their Medicare claims for 1991-2005. Claims then were organized into episodes of ED care according to Medicare guidelines. The severity of ED episodes was measured with a modified-NYU algorithm using ICD9-CM diagnoses, and the intensity of the episodes was measured using CPT codes. Measures were evaluated against subsequent hospitalization to estimate comparative predictive validity. Results Over 15 years, three-fourths (4,171) of the 5,511 AHEAD participants had at least 1 ED episode, with a mean of 4.5 episodes. Cross-classification indicated the modified-NYU severity measure and the CPT-based intensity measure captured different aspects of ED episodes (kappa = 0.18). While both measures were significant independent predictors of hospital admission from ED episodes, the CPT measure had substantially higher predictive validity than the modified-NYU measure (AORs 5.70 vs. 3.31; p < .001). Conclusions We demonstrated an innovative approach for how claims data can be used to construct episodes of ED care among a sample of older adults. We also determined that the modified-NYU measure of severity and the CPT measure of intensity tap different aspects of ED episodes, and that both measures were predictive of subsequent hospitalization. PMID:20565949

  11. The Asset-Burden Paradox of Giftedness: A 15-Year Phenomenological, Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jean Sunde

    2012-01-01

    A 15-year phenomenological case study of an exceptional female from age 15 through 30 was focused on exploring the subjective experience of development during adolescence and young adulthood, with attention to how giftedness and context interacted. The main focus became her response to trauma, which was revealed early in the study. Data, including…

  12. Pattern of acute poisonings in children below 15 years--a study from Mangalore, South India.

    PubMed

    Ram, Pradhum; Kanchan, Tanuj; Unnikrishnan, B

    2014-07-01

    Acute poisoning in children is a problem ubiquitous in distribution and is an important paediatric emergency. The present research was aimed to study the pattern and outcome of childhood poisoning under the age of 15 years at a tertiary care centre in South India to characterize the problem of acute paediatric poisoning among the children in different age group in the region. Medical records of all poisoning patients admitted during 2010 and 2011 were reviewed, and the information relating to the sociodemographic and clinical profile of the patients was recorded. Acute poisoning was reported in 81 children aged below 15 years during the study period. 50.6% were boys (n = 41) and 49.4% girls (n = 40). The mean age of the study sample was 6.8 years. Mean age was observed to be higher in females than males. The maximum number of cases were observed in the below 5 years age group (n = 45). A male predominance was evident in the below 5 years age group, while a female predominance in the age group between 10 and 15 years. Kerosene (n = 23, 28.4%) and organophosphate compounds (n = 16, 19.8%) were the most common agents responsible for poisoning in children. The majority of the poisoning cases were reported to the hospital within 12 h of the incident (n = 65, 83.3%). The mortality in paediatric poisoning was observed to be 7.4%. The majority of the children (n = 68, 84.0%) recovered, while seven patients had left the hospital against medical advice (8.6%). The study reports agrochemicals and hydrocarbons to be the most commonly implicated agents in paediatric poisoning. The cause of paediatric poisonings varies in different age groups and hence, preventive strategies should be planned accordingly. PMID:24931857

  13. Locus of Control: Relation to Schizophrenia, to Recovery, and to Depression and Psychosis - A 15-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Harrow, Martin; Hansford, Barry G.; Astrachan-Fletcher, Ellen B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The present prospectively designed 15-year longitudinal research was conducted to study whether locus of control is linked to diagnosis, to major symptoms, to functioning and recovery, and to personality for schizophrenia patients, depressive patients, and patients with other major disorders. Procedure The research studied 128 patients from the Chicago Follow-up Study at the acute phase and reassessed them 5 times over a 15-year period. Patients were evaluated on locus of control, global outcome, recovery, premorbid developmental achievements, psychosis, diagnosis, depression, and personality variables. Results 1.) After the acute phase, schizophrenia patients were not more external than other diagnostic groups. 2.) Internality is associated with increased recovery in schizophrenia (p<.05). 3.) A more external locus of control was related to depression (p=.01). 4.) The relationship between externality and psychosis was significant (p<.05). Conclusions In severe psychiatric disorders a more external locus of control is not specific to schizophrenia and after the acute phase is not associated with one particular diagnostic group. A more external locus of control is related to fewer periods of recovery, to both depressed mood and psychosis, and to various aspects of personality (p<.05). PMID:19573929

  14. Does Breastfeeding Protect Against Substantiated Child Abuse and Neglect? A 15-Year Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Strathearn, Lane; Mamun, Abdullah A.; Najman, Jake M.; O'Callaghan, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Child maltreatment is associated with multiple adverse developmental outcomes in children. Surprisingly, the most frequently reported perpetrator is the biological mother. Understanding early relationship factors that may help prevent maltreatment is of utmost importance. We explored whether breastfeeding may protect against maternally-perpetrated child maltreatment. Methods 7223 Australian mother-infant pairs were followed prospectively over 15 years. In 6621 cases (91.7%), the duration of breastfeeding was analyzed with respect to child maltreatment (including neglect, physical abuse and emotional abuse), based on substantiated child protection agency reports. Multinomial logistic regression was used to compare no maltreatment with non-maternal and maternally-perpetrated maltreatment, and to adjust for confounding in 5890 cases with complete data (81.5%). Potential confounders included sociodemographic factors, pregnancy wantedness, substance abuse during pregnancy, postpartum employment, attitudes regarding infant caregiving, and symptoms of anxiety or depression. Results Of 512 children with substantiated maltreatment reports, over 60% experienced at least one episode of maternally-perpetrated abuse or neglect (4.3% of cohort). The odds ratio (OR) for maternal maltreatment increased as breastfeeding duration decreased, with the odds of maternal maltreatment in non-breastfed children 4.8 times the odds for children breastfed 4 or more months (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 3.3−6.9). After adjusting for confounding, the odds for non-breastfed infants remained 2.6 times higher (95% CI 1.7−3.9), with no association seen between breastfeeding and non-maternal maltreatment. Maternal neglect was the only maltreatment subtype independently associated with breastfeeding duration (adjusted OR 3.8, 95% CI 2.1−7.0). Conclusion Among other factors, breastfeeding may also help to protect against maternally-perpetrated child maltreatment, particularly child

  15. A 15-year warranty period for asymptomatic individuals without coronary artery calcium: a prospective follow-up of 9715 individuals

    PubMed Central

    Valenti, Valentina; Hartaigh, Bríain ó; Heo, Ran; Cho, Iksung; Schulman-Marcus, Joshua; Gransar, Heidi; Truong, Quynh A.; Shaw, Leslee J.; Knapper, Joseph; Kelkar, Anita A.; Sandesara, Pratik; Lin, Fay Y.; Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Callister, Tracy Q.; Min, James K

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine long-term prognosis of a zero coronary artery calcium (CAC) score among asymptomatic individuals and its associated warranty period. Background Emerging evidence supports CAC=0 as a favorable cardiovascular short-to-intermediate term prognostic factor. Methods 9715 individuals undergoing CAC imaging were stratified by age, Framingham risk score (FRS) and Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) categories and followed for a mean of 14.6 (12.9–16.8) years. Cox regression, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and net reclassification information (NRI) were used to assess all-cause mortality, discrimination and reclassification of CAC=0 compared with FRS and NCEP ATP III, respectively. A warranty period was pre-defined as <1% annual mortality rate. Vascular age was estimated by linear regression. Results Among 4864 individuals with baseline CAC=0 (mean age 52.1±10.8 years; 57.9% male), 229 deaths occurred. The warranty period of CAC=0 was almost 15 years for individuals at low and intermediate risk with no significant differences regarding age and gender. CAC=0 was associated with a vascular age of 1, 10, 20, and 30 years below chronologic age for individuals between 50–59, 60–69, 70–79, and ≥80 years, respectively. CAC score was the strongest predictor of death (HR 2.67, 95% CI 2.29–3.11) that enabled discrimination and consistent reclassification beyond FRS (AUC 0.71 vs. 0.64, p<0.001) and NCEP ATP III (AUC 0.72 vs. 0.64, p<0.001). Conclusions CAC=0 confers a 15-year warranty period against mortality among individuals at low-to-intermediate risk, which is unaffected by age or gender. Furthermore, in individuals considered at high-risk by clinical risk scores the presence of CAC=0 confers better survival than in individuals at low-to-intermediate risk but with any CAC. PMID:26189116

  16. Fatal Passenger Vehicle Crashes with At Least 1 Driver Younger than 15 Years: A Fatality Analysis Reporting System Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Larry; Plessinger, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Context: A small number of fatalities continue to occur due to motor vehicle crashes on highways in which at least 1 passenger vehicle (automobile, van, or small truck) is driven by a child younger than 15 years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to extend previous work suggesting that such crashes occur frequently in the Southern states and…

  17. What Can Influence Students' Environmental Attitudes? Results from a Study of 15-Year-Old Students in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Hebel, Florence; Montpied, Pascale; Fontanieu, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the environmental attitudes (EA) in the population of 15-year-old French students and, to check if the French student population presents similar EA categorization as described in the different models in the literature (e.g. the Model of Ecological Values, Wiseman & Bogner 2003). The second aim of…

  18. Traumatic brain injury in children in Denmark: a national 15-year study.

    PubMed

    Engberg, A; Teasdale, T W

    1998-02-01

    Demographic trends are reported concerning three types of traumatic brain injury (concussions, cranial fractures, and intracranial contusions/haemorrhages) among children in Denmark of ages up to and including 14 years, for a fifteen year period from 1979 through 1993. The data were derived from a national computer-based hospitalization register and include 49,594 children, of whom 60% were boys and 89% had suffered a concussion. Virtually all injuries were the result of accidents. A major finding was that there has been a general decline in the incidence of traumatic brain injuries, especially for boys from 5 to 14 years old, suggesting a degree of success in preventive measures, particularly regarding road safety. The incidence of fatal cases of intracranial contusions/haemorrhages approximately halved over the 15 year period. However, as a proportion of all diagnosed cases, mortality from intracranial contusions/haemorrhages remained fairly constant at about 22%, perhaps because there have been no markedly successful innovations in acute care. Among children surviving a intracranial contusions/haemorrhages, rather considerable numbers were found to have been awarded disability pension at ages under 30. PMID:9556176

  19. Marine mammal strandings and environmental changes: a 15-year study in the St. Lawrence ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Truchon, Marie-Hélène; Measures, Lena; L'Hérault, Vincent; Brêthes, Jean-Claude; Galbraith, Peter S; Harvey, Michel; Lessard, Sylvie; Starr, Michel; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the effects of climatic variability on marine mammals is challenging due to the complexity of ecological interactions. We used general linear models to analyze a 15-year database documenting marine mammal strandings (1994-2008; n = 1,193) and nine environmental parameters known to affect marine mammal survival, from regional (sea ice) to continental scales (North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). Stranding events were more frequent during summer and fall than other seasons, and have increased since 1994. Poor ice conditions observed during the same period may have affected marine mammals either directly, by modulating the availability of habitat for feeding and breeding activities, or indirectly, through changes in water conditions and marine productivity (krill abundance). For most species (75%, n = 6 species), a low volume of ice was correlated with increasing frequency of stranding events (e.g. R(2)adj = 0.59, hooded seal, Cystophora cristata). This likely led to an increase in seal mortality during the breeding period, but also to increase habitat availability for seasonal migratory cetaceans using ice-free areas during winter. We also detected a high frequency of stranding events for mysticete species (minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and resident species (beluga, Delphinapterus leucas), correlated with low krill abundance since 1994. Positive NAO indices were positively correlated with high frequencies of stranding events for resident and seasonal migratory cetaceans, as well as rare species (R(2)adj = 0.53, 0.81 and 0.34, respectively). This contrasts with seal mass stranding numbers, which were negatively correlated with a positive NAO index. In addition, an unusual multiple species mortality event (n = 114, 62% of total annual mortality) in 2008 was caused by a harmful algal bloom. Our findings provide an empirical baseline in understanding marine mammal survival when faced with climatic variability. This is a promising

  20. Marine Mammal Strandings and Environmental Changes: A 15-Year Study in the St. Lawrence Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Truchon, Marie-Hélène; Measures, Lena; L’Hérault, Vincent; Brêthes, Jean-Claude; Galbraith, Peter S.; Harvey, Michel; Lessard, Sylvie; Starr, Michel; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the effects of climatic variability on marine mammals is challenging due to the complexity of ecological interactions. We used general linear models to analyze a 15-year database documenting marine mammal strandings (1994–2008; n = 1,193) and nine environmental parameters known to affect marine mammal survival, from regional (sea ice) to continental scales (North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). Stranding events were more frequent during summer and fall than other seasons, and have increased since 1994. Poor ice conditions observed during the same period may have affected marine mammals either directly, by modulating the availability of habitat for feeding and breeding activities, or indirectly, through changes in water conditions and marine productivity (krill abundance). For most species (75%, n = 6 species), a low volume of ice was correlated with increasing frequency of stranding events (e.g. R2adj = 0.59, hooded seal, Cystophora cristata). This likely led to an increase in seal mortality during the breeding period, but also to increase habitat availability for seasonal migratory cetaceans using ice-free areas during winter. We also detected a high frequency of stranding events for mysticete species (minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and resident species (beluga, Delphinapterus leucas), correlated with low krill abundance since 1994. Positive NAO indices were positively correlated with high frequencies of stranding events for resident and seasonal migratory cetaceans, as well as rare species (R2adj = 0.53, 0.81 and 0.34, respectively). This contrasts with seal mass stranding numbers, which were negatively correlated with a positive NAO index. In addition, an unusual multiple species mortality event (n = 114, 62% of total annual mortality) in 2008 was caused by a harmful algal bloom. Our findings provide an empirical baseline in understanding marine mammal survival when faced with climatic variability. This is a promising

  1. Early Childhood Caries and Caries Experience in Permanent Dentition: A 15-year Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Jordan, A Rainer; Becker, Natascha; Jöhren, Hans-Peter; Zimmer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In Germany, caries of young people has been declining since the late 1980s, while the prevalence of early childhood caries has remained steady. Data from a number of regional studies suggest a current prevalence between 10% and 15%. However, there is a dearth of longitudinal observational study data on the risk of caries in the permanent teeth of persons who as children had to undergo comprehensive treatment for caries under intubation general anesthesia. The aim of this study was to compare caries experience in the permanent teeth of patients who had to undergo surgical treatment under general anesthesia as a result of non-compliance with caries treatment in early childhood with the experience of patients who did not develop caries at a young age. Analysis of the data revealed that severe caries experience during early childhood resulted in a more severe caries experience during adulthood (difference: 14.8 DMFS; p = 0.001). This increase in caries experience applied to both untreated and treated carious surfaces, and was also apparent in relation to tooth extractions. When compared with persons whose first teeth had been caries-free, patients with severe childhood caries experience tended to show poorer dental hygiene in relation to smooth (p < 0.06) and interproximal (p < 0.04) surfaces. Patients who had been non-compliant as young children were not found to suffer from dental anxiety as young adults. Patients in the treatment and control groups differed with regard to dental health. Aside from being statistically relevant, these differences also have implications for clinical dental practice. PMID:26915485

  2. Early childhood precursors for eating problems in adolescence: a 15-year longitudinal community study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This longitudinal community study investigated the role of individual risk factors in early childhood (before age five) for the development of eating problems in adolescence. Nine hundred twenty-one mothers completed the first questionnaire when their child was 1.5 years old, and again when their child was 2.5 (n = 784) and 4.5 (n = 737) years old. Three hundred seventy-three of these children completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) when they were 16 years old. Results Mother-rated early childhood sleep problems (assessed before the age of five) predicted self-rated eating problems in adolescents, with gender, birth weight, and a number of early childhood internal and environmental factors controlled. Unexpectedly, early childhood eating problems were not associated with later eating problems. Conclusions The possible role of sleep in the development of eating problems needs further investigation. In particular, mediating mechanisms should be studied more closely. PMID:24999414

  3. Herpes zoster as a risk factor for osteoporosis: A 15-year nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chieh-Hsin; Chai, Chee-Yin; Tung, Yi-Ching; Lu, Ying-Yi; Su, Yu-Feng; Tsai, Tai-Hsin; Tzou, Rong-Dar; Lin, Chih-Lung

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of osteoporosis in patients with herpes zoster (HZ) infection using a nationwide population-based dataset. The Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database was used to compare data between 11,088 patients aged 20 to 49 years diagnosed with HZ during 1996 to 2010 and a control group of 11,088 patients without HZ. Both cohorts were followed up until the end of 2010 to measure the incidence of osteoporosis. Cox proportional-hazards regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to calculate hazard ratio and cumulative incidences of osteoporosis, respectively. The overall risk of osteoporosis was 4.55 times greater in the HZ group than in the control group (2.48 vs. 0.30 per 1000 person-years, respectively) after adjusting for age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and related comorbidities. Compared with controls, patients with HZ and subsequent postherpetic neuralgia had a 4.76-fold higher likelihood of developing osteoporosis (95% confidence interval: 2.44-9.29), which was a statistically significant difference (P <0.001). Osteoporosis risk factors included female gender, age, advanced Charlson Comorbidity Index, depression, and postherpetic neuralgia. This study identified HZ is associated with an increased osteoporosis risk. Further evaluation of the value of bone mineral density test in detecting osteoporosis after HZ may be suggested. HZ vaccination could also be evaluated to lower the incidence of HZ and possibly subsequent osteoporosis. Physicians should be alerted to this association to improve early identification of osteoporosis in patients with HZ. PMID:27336887

  4. Homicidal deaths in the Western suburbs of Paris: a 15-year-study.

    PubMed

    Cros, Jérôme; Alvarez, Jean-Claude; Sbidian, Emilie; Charlier, Philippe; Lorin de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy

    2012-12-01

    The aim of our study was to analyze the homicide pattern in the Western suburbs of Paris and its evolution between 1994 and 2008. All autopsy reports regarding homicides from the period January 1, 1994, to December 31, 2008, were retrospectively reviewed. Five hundred eleven homicide cases were selected of 4842 autopsy cases. The following data were recorded: assailants and victims characteristics, crime scene location, homicide motive, cause of death, and victim's postmortem toxicological results. Homicide rate steadily declined over the period at the exception of the number of homicide-suicide per year, which remained constant. Homicide victims remained unidentified after medicolegal investigations in 2% of the cases. Child and elder homicide cases represented, respectively, 10.7% and 8.2% of the cases. Offenders were male in 88% of the cases. Male and female assailants showed distinct homicide patterns: females were involved more frequently in familial quarrel and child abuse. They never killed a stranger and committed homicide exclusively in a private place with a predominance of sharp weapons. Males, in contrast, assaulted almost equally a stranger or an acquaintance, often in a public place with a predominance of firearm. Victim knew the assailant(s) in 57% of the cases. Homicides mostly took place at the residence of the assailant or the victim. Homicide motive was clearly determined in 71% of the cases. Argument was the most common motive in 44% of the cases. Sexual assault was rarely found (10 cases). Gunshot wounds were the most common cause of death (37%), followed by stab wounds (27%), blunt trauma (19%), and asphyxia (13%). A decrease of gunshot wounds as a cause of death was found over the studied period. Alcohol was the most common toxic detected in blood of the victim, in 48.5% of the cases when toxicological results were available. Blood alcohol concentration ranged from 1 to 500 mg/dL with a mean value of 150 mg/dL. PMID:22922553

  5. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Acids and Serum Testosterone Concentrations at 15 Years of Age in Female ALSPAC Study Participants

    PubMed Central

    Calafat, Antonia M.; Marcus, Michele; Jaakkola, Jouni J.K.; Lashen, Hany

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) or to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increases mouse and human peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor alpha (PPARα) subtype activity, which influences lipid metabolism. Because cholesterol is the substrate from which testosterone is synthesized, exposure to these substances has the potential to alter testosterone concentrations. Objectives We explored associations of total testosterone and sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations at age 15 years with prenatal exposures to PFOS, PFOA, perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluoronanoic acid (PFNA) in females. Methods Prenatal concentrations of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were measured in serum collected from pregnant mothers at enrollment (1991–1992) in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The median gestational age when the maternal blood sample was obtained was 16 weeks (interquartile range, 11–28 weeks). Total testosterone and SHBG concentrations were measured in serum obtained from their daughters at 15 years of age. Associations between prenatal PFAAs concentrations and reproductive outcomes were estimated using linear regression models (n = 72). Results Adjusted total testosterone concentrations were on average 0.18-nmol/L (95% CI: 0.01, 0.35) higher in daughters with prenatal PFOS in the upper concentration tertile compared with daughters with prenatal PFOS in the lower tertile. Adjusted total testosterone concentrations were also higher in daughters with prenatal concentrations of PFOA (β = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.43) and PFHxS (β = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.35) in the upper tertile compared with daughters with concentrations in the lower tertile. We did not find evidence of associations between PFNA and total testosterone or between any of the PFAAs and SHBG. Conclusions Our findings were based on a small study sample and should be interpreted with caution. However, they suggest that prenatal

  6. Assessment of the Dietary Intake of Schoolchildren in South Africa: 15 Years after the First National Study

    PubMed Central

    Steyn, Nelia; Eksteen, Gabriel; Senekal, Marjanne

    2016-01-01

    There has not been a national dietary study in children in South Africa since 1999. Fortification of flour and maize meal became mandatory in October 2003 to address micronutrient deficiencies found in the national study in 1999. The purpose of this review was to identify studies done after 1999 in schoolchildren, 6–15 years old, in order to determine whether dietary intakes reflected improvements in micronutrients, namely: iron, zinc, vitamin A, folate, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and niacin. An electronic and hand search was done to identify all studies complying with relevant inclusion criteria. The search yielded 10 studies. Overall, there is a paucity of dietary studies which have included the fortified nutrients; only four, of which only one, reported on all micronutrients; making it difficult to determine whether fortification has improved the micronutrient intake of schoolchildren. This is further complicated by the fact that different dietary methods were used and that studies were only done in three of the nine provinces and thus are not generalizable. The results of these studies clearly point to the importance of doing a national study on the dietary intake of schoolchildren in order to confirm the outcomes of the fortification process. PMID:27548214

  7. Assessment of the Dietary Intake of Schoolchildren in South Africa: 15 Years after the First National Study.

    PubMed

    Steyn, Nelia; Eksteen, Gabriel; Senekal, Marjanne

    2016-01-01

    There has not been a national dietary study in children in South Africa since 1999. Fortification of flour and maize meal became mandatory in October 2003 to address micronutrient deficiencies found in the national study in 1999. The purpose of this review was to identify studies done after 1999 in schoolchildren, 6-15 years old, in order to determine whether dietary intakes reflected improvements in micronutrients, namely: iron, zinc, vitamin A, folate, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and niacin. An electronic and hand search was done to identify all studies complying with relevant inclusion criteria. The search yielded 10 studies. Overall, there is a paucity of dietary studies which have included the fortified nutrients; only four, of which only one, reported on all micronutrients; making it difficult to determine whether fortification has improved the micronutrient intake of schoolchildren. This is further complicated by the fact that different dietary methods were used and that studies were only done in three of the nine provinces and thus are not generalizable. The results of these studies clearly point to the importance of doing a national study on the dietary intake of schoolchildren in order to confirm the outcomes of the fortification process. PMID:27548214

  8. Gingival proliferative lesions in children and adolescents in Brazil: A 15-year-period cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    daSilva, Fabiana Caroline; Piazzetta, Cleto Mariosvaldo; Torres-Pereira, Cassius Carvalho; Schussel, Juliana Lucena; Amenábar, José Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of oral lesions in children and adolescents, particularly in gingiva are scarce in the literature. The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of gingival proliferative lesions based on clinical and histopathological diagnoses in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: A review of clinical charts of children and adolescents aged between 0 and 18 years old, admitted to the Oral Medicine Outpatient Unit, of Universidade Federal do Paraná, for 15 years (1994–2009) was performed. Results: Six hundred and sixty-nine out of 5,129 patients treated during this period were aged between 0 and 18 years old, and 45 of these had gingival lesions. The largest number of lesions was observed between 11 and 16 years old. The majority of the patients were referred by Curitiba's public health system. Pyogenic granuloma was the most frequent lesion (19 = 42.2%), followed by peripheral giant cell lesion (11 = 24.4%), gingival fibromatosis (10 = 22.2%), and peripheral ossifying fibroma (5 = 11.1%). Conclusion: Gingival proliferative lesions can show similar clinical characteristics. Appropriate clinical and histopathological diagnoses are necessary to guide the healthcare professional to establish the adequate treatment and to estimate the risk of recurrence. PMID:27041840

  9. Factors influencing the decision about orthodontic treatment. A longitudinal study among 11- and 15-year-olds and their parents.

    PubMed

    Birkeland, K; Katle, A; Løvgreen, S; Bøe, O E; Wisth, P J

    1999-01-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the attitude towards orthodontic treatment among 11-(T1) and 15-year-old children (T2) and their parents, to present the distribution of referral rate and treatment uptake by a treatment need index assessed at T1 and to elucidate factors influencing the decision about orthodontic treatment in the period from T1 to T2. A group of 359 children and their parents answered separate questionnaires at T1, and 293 families responded to a follow-up study 4 years later. For the clinical examination, 224 children participated after exclusion of children in active treatment. The dental study casts were assessed by the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). The mean referral rate was 56%, with a variation from 40% to 71% among different dental clinics. About 44% of the children had completed or were undergoing orthodontic treatment at T2. No significant sex differences among referred and treated children were discovered. Aesthetic motives were the most frequently reported subjective reason for orthodontic care. The untreated group expressed diminishing treatment desire in the follow-up period. The logistic regression analysis selected Dental Health Component (DHC) grades as a strong predictor for treatment uptake, followed by parents' concern and attitude to braces, while the 11-year-olds' own orthodontic concern was less significant. Children in the untreated group with late treatment decisions (T2) were best predicted by Aesthetic Component (AC) changes from T1 to T2. The results indicate that dentists play a key role in determining orthodontic treatment levels. High referral rates secured low risk of denying care to some patients. Treatment decision may be guided by the orthodontist. However, individual variation in attitude and desire influence treatment uptake even among children with great need. PMID:10546413

  10. Dental pain among 10–15 year old children attending oral health promoting schools: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Saheer, Abdul; Kousalya, Pallavi Swami; Raju, Rekha; Gubbihal, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dental pain is a major public health problem and one of the consequences of oral diseases which requires significant adjustments in life management leading to decreased quality of life. Objective: To assess prevalence of dental pain and its impact on daily life and to explore its relationship with oral health behavior and clinical oral status among 10-15 year old school children attending oral health promoting schools. Method: This cross sectional study was conducted in 6 schools serving low -middle socio economic strata in Bangalore, India. A total of 1237 children were surveyed for history of dental pain during past 3 month. Participants who reported dental pain completed self-reported oral health behaviour and Child dental pain questionnaire. Clinical oral examination included assessment of dental caries, periodontal status. Data was analyzed using t - test, Chi-square test, ANOVA and Regression Analysis. Results: Prevalence of dental pain was 15.6% (n = 194). Among children with pain, 17%, 43% and 40% reported mild, moderate and severe pain. Impact on daily activities was reported by 66%. Mean DMFT and DMFS was 1.80 and 2.11 Mean deft and defs was 2.47 and 3.41. Multiple logistic regression revealed that severity and impact of dental pain was associated with gender, frequency of tooth brushing, consumption of sweets and deciduous dental caries experience. Conclusion: Prevalence of Dental pain is associated with brushing behavior, consumption of sweets and deciduous dental caries experience, showing need for further attention to these conditions and a need to strengthen preventive and therapeutic dental services. PMID:26942112

  11. Toxin Levels and Profiles in Microalgae from the North-Western Adriatic Sea—15 Years of Studies on Cultured Species

    PubMed Central

    Pistocchi, Rossella; Guerrini, Franca; Pezzolesi, Laura; Riccardi, Manuela; Vanucci, Silvana; Ciminiello, Patrizia; Dell’Aversano, Carmela; Forino, Martino; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Tartaglione, Luciana; Milandri, Anna; Pompei, Marinella; Cangini, Monica; Pigozzi, Silvia; Riccardi, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The Northern Adriatic Sea is the area of the Mediterranean Sea where eutrophication and episodes related to harmful algae have occurred most frequently since the 1970s. In this area, which is highly exploited for mollusk farming, the first occurrence of human intoxication due to shellfish consumption occurred in 1989, nearly 10 years later than other countries in Europe and worldwide that had faced similar problems. Until 1997, Adriatic mollusks had been found to be contaminated mostly by diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins (i.e., okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) that, along with paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (i.e., saxitoxins), constitute the most common marine biotoxins. Only once, in 1994, a toxic outbreak was related to the occurrence of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in the Adriatic coastal waters. Moreover, in the past 15 years, the Adriatic Sea has been characterized by the presence of toxic or potentially toxic algae, not highly widespread outside Europe, such as species producing yessotoxins (i.e., Protoceratium reticulatum, Gonyaulax spinifera and Lingulodinium polyedrum), recurrent blooms of the potentially ichthyotoxic species Fibrocapsa japonica and, recently, by blooms of palytoxin-like producing species of the Ostreopsis genus. This review is aimed at integrating monitoring data on toxin spectra and levels in mussels farmed along the coast of the Emilia-Romagna region with laboratory studies performed on the species involved in the production of those toxins; toxicity studies on toxic or potentially toxic species that have recently appeared in this area are also reviewed. Overall, reviewed data are related to: (i) the yessotoxins producing species P. reticulatum, G. spinifera and L. polyedrum, highlighting genetic and toxic characteristics; (ii) Adriatic strains of Alexandrium minutum, Alexandrium ostenfeldii and Prorocentrum lima whose toxic profiles are compared with those of strains of different geographic origins; (iii) F

  12. The characteristics of head wounds inflicted by "humane killer" (captive-bolt gun)--a 15-year study.

    PubMed

    Simic, Milan; Draskovic, Dragan; Stojiljkovic, Goran; Vukovic, Radenko; Budimlija, Zoran M

    2007-09-01

    The "humane killer" or captive-bolt gun, is the tool/weapon widely used in meat industry and private farmer households for slaughtering animal stock. Out of 17,250 autopsies performed at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Novi Sad during the 15-year period (1991-2005), 29 cases of suicides and two homicides were committed by captive-bolt pistols. Wounds inflicted by captive-bolt guns have specific morphological features, distinctive from wounds made by other kinds of hand firearms. Selected features of the captive-bolt wounds (punched round entrance and a double pattern of smoke soiling) depend on distance and angle of instrument at the time of firing. Autopsy findings were compared with an experimental model consisting of 20 domestic pigs. Obtained results confirmed that the appearance of the entrance hole and soot deposits, along with differences in shape, location, extent, and density of soot blackening, could be useful in identification of weapon, direction of discharge, shooting distance, and angle of the muzzle to the frontal and sagittal planes of the head at the moment of fire. PMID:17767661

  13. Within-person reproducibility of red blood cell mercury over a 10- to 15-year period among women in the Nurses' Health Study II.

    PubMed

    Kioumourtzoglou, Marianthi-Anna; Roberts, Andrea L; Nielsen, Flemming; Tworoger, Shelley S; Grandjean, Philippe; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2016-01-01

    Most epidemiologic studies of methylmercury (MeHg) health effects rely on a single measurement of a MeHg biomarker to assess long-term exposures. Long-term reproducibility data are, therefore, needed to assess the reliability of a single measure to reflect long-term exposures. In this study, we assessed within-person reproducibility of red blood cell (RBC) mercury (Hg), a marker of methyl-mercury, over 10-15 years in a sample of 57 women. Fifty-seven women from the Nurses' Health Study II provided two blood samples 10-15-years apart (median: 12 years), which were analyzed for mercury levels in the red blood cells (B-Hg*). To characterize within-person reproducibility, we estimated correlation and intraclass correlation coefficients (r and ICC) across the two samples. Further, we compared different prediction models, including variables on fish and seafood consumption, for B-Hg* at the first sample, using leave-one-out cross-validation to assess predictive ability. Overall, we observed strong correlations over 10-15 years (r=0.69), as well as a high ICC (0.67; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.79). Fish and seafood consumption reported concurrently with the first B-Hg* sample accounted for 26.8% of the variability in that B-Hg*, giving a correlation of r=0.52. Despite decreasing B-Hg* levels over time, we observed strong correlations and high ICC estimates across B-Hg* measured 10-15 years apart, suggesting good relative within-person stability over time. Our results indicate that a single measurement of B-Hg* likely is adequate to represent long-term exposures. PMID:25492240

  14. Children's Sexual Thinking: A Comparative Study of Children Aged 5 to 15 Years in Australia, North America, Britain and Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Ronald; Goldman, Juliette

    The purpose of this cross-national descriptive study is to measure the extent of children's sexual knowledge and sexual understanding at various ages and to identify what processes of thought children use in trying to explain biological functions and the phenomena of their own bodies as they grow and change. Sexual thinking is defined as thinking…

  15. Violence, Bullying and Academic Achievement: A Study of 15-Year-Old Adolescents and Their School Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Ida Frugard; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dyb, Grete

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated academic achievement among adolescents exposed to violence, sexual abuse and bullying. Moreover, we sought to determine the individual and contextual influence of the adolescents' school environment in terms of bullying, classmate relationships and teacher support on academic achievement. Finally, we wished to…

  16. Saccadic Eye Movements in Normal Children from 8 to 15 Years of Age: A Developmental Study of Visuospatial Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Randal G.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study used saccadic eye movements to assess visuospatial attention in 53 normal children (ages 8-15). Saccadic latency, the ability to suppress extraneous saccades during fixation, and the ability to inhibit task-provoked anticipatory saccades all improved with age. Developmental patterns varied by task. Analyses of age-related changes may be…

  17. Medical expenses in treating acute esophageal variceal bleeding: A 15-year nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chueh-Ling; Wu, Cheng-Kun; Shi, Hon-Yi; Tai, Wei-Chen; Liang, Chih-Ming; Yang, Shih-Cheng; Wu, Keng-Liang; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Chuah, Seng-Kee

    2016-07-01

    Acute variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis is related to high mortality and medical expenses. The purpose of present studies was to analyze the medical expenses in treating acute esophageal variceal bleeding among patients with cirrhosis and potential influencing clinical factors.A total of 151,863 patients with cirrhosis with International Classification of Diseases-9 codes 456.0 and 456.20 were analyzed from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2010. Time intervals were divided into three phases for analysis as T1 (1996-2000), T2 (2001-2005), and T3 (2006-2010). The endpoints were prevalence, length of hospital stay, medical expenses, and mortality rate.Our results showed that more patients were <65 years (75.6%) and of male sex (78.5%). Patients were mostly from teaching hospitals (90.8%) with high hospital volume (50.9%) and high doctor service load (51.1%). The prevalence of acute esophageal variceal bleeding and mean length of hospital stay decreased over the years (P < 0.001), but the overall medical expenses increased (P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed that older age, female sex, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) score >1, patients from teaching hospitals, and medium to high or very high patient numbers were independent factors for longer hospital stay and higher medical expenses. Aged patients, female sex, increased CCI score, and low doctor service volume were independent factors for both in-hospital and 5-year mortality. Patients from teaching hospitals and medium to high or very high service volume hospitals were independent factors for in-hospital mortality, but not 5-year mortality.Medical expenses in treating acute esophageal variceal bleeding increased despite the decreased prevalence rate and length of hospital stay in Taiwan. Aged patients, female sex, patients with increased CCI score from teaching hospitals, and medium to high or very high patient numbers were

  18. Clinical outcome study and radiological findings of Zweymuller metal on metal total hip arthroplasty. a follow-up of 6 to 15 years.

    PubMed

    Paleochorlidis, Ilias S; Badras, Leonidas S; Skretas, Efstathios F; Georgaklis, Vasilios A; Karachalios, Theofilos S; Malizos, Konstantinos N

    2009-01-01

    We report the clinical and radiological outcome of 99 Zweymuller metal on metal total hip arthroplasties in 84 patients followed up prospectively for a mean period of 9.5 (range, 6-15) years. There were 29 (34.5%) male and 55 (65.5%) female patients with a mean age of 62.85 years (range, 50-70 years) at the time of surgery. All patients had osteoarthritis. One acetabular component and one stem were revised due to aseptic loosening. One femoral stem was revised due to a periprosthetic fracture. HHS score improved from a preoperative mean of 62.56 points (SD 8.87) to a final postoperative follow-up mean of 93.48 (SD 7.7). Cumulative success rate for both implants at 13 years, with aseptic loosening as the end point, was 97.05%, while for both implants at 13 years, with revision for any reason as the end point, it was 91.17%. Satisfactory results were observed with the use of this prosthesis. PMID:20041375

  19. Lifestyle counseling for type 2 diabetes risk reduction in Dutch primary care: results of the APHRODITE study after 0.5 and 1.5 years.

    PubMed

    Vermunt, Paulina W A; Milder, Ivon E J; Wielaard, Frits; de Vries, Jeanne H M; van Oers, Hans A M; Westert, Gert P

    2011-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the overall effect of the Active Prevention in High-Risk Individuals of Diabetes Type 2 in and Around Eindhoven (APHRODITE) lifestyle intervention on type 2 diabetes risk reduction in Dutch primary care after 0.5 and 1.5 years and to evaluate the variability between general practices. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes (Finnish Diabetes Risk Score ≥13) were randomly assigned into an intervention group (n = 479) or a usual-care group (n = 446). Comparisons were made between study groups and between general practices regarding changes in clinical and lifestyle measures over 1.5 years. Participant, general practitioner, and nurse practitioner characteristics were compared between individuals who lost weight or maintained a stable weight and individuals who gained weight. RESULTS Both groups showed modest changes in glucose values, weight measures, physical activity, energy intake, and fiber intake. Differences between groups were significant only for total physical activity, saturated fat intake, and fiber intake. Differences between general practices were significant for BMI and 2-h glucose but not for energy intake and physical activity. In the intervention group, the nurse practitioners' mean years of work experience was significantly longer in individuals who were successful at losing weight or maintaining a stable weight compared with unsuccessful individuals. Furthermore, successful individuals more often had a partner. CONCLUSIONS Risk factors for type 2 diabetes could be significantly reduced by lifestyle counseling in Dutch primary care. The small differences in changes over time between the two study groups suggest that additional intervention effects are modest. In particular, the level of experience of the nurse practitioner and the availability of partner support seem to facilitate intervention success. PMID:21775759

  20. Antibiotic prescribing of village doctors for children under 15 years with upper respiratory tract infections in rural China: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhixia; Zhan, Xingxin; Zhou, Hongjun; Sun, Fang; Zhang, Heng; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Liu, Qian; Li, Yingxue; Yan, Weirong

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of village doctors regarding the prescribing of antibiotics for children under 15 years with upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in rural China. Twelve focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in Xianning, a prefecture-level city in rural China, during December 2014. We conducted 6 FGDs with 35 village doctors, 3 with 13 primary caregivers (11 parents), and 3 with 17 directors of township hospitals, county-level health bureaus, county-level Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or county-level Chinese Food and Drug Administration offices. Audio records of the interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using the thematic analysis approach. Participants believed that unnecessary antibiotic prescribing for children under 15 years with The occurrence of URTIs was a problem in village clinics in rural China. The discussions revealed that most of the village doctors had inadequate knowledge and misconceptions about antibiotic use, which was an important factor in the unnecessary prescribing. Village doctors and directors reported that the doctors' fear of complications, the primary caregivers' pressure for antibiotic treatment, and the financial considerations of patient retention were the main factors influencing the decision to prescribe antibiotics. Most of the primary caregivers insisted on antibiotics, even when the village doctors were reluctant to prescribe them, and they preferred to go to see those village doctors who prescribed antibiotics. The interviewees also gave their opinions on what would be the most effective measures for optimizing antibiotic prescriptions; these included educational/training campaigns, strict regulations on antibiotic prescription, and improved supervision. Findings emphasized the need to improve the dissemination of information and training/education, and implement legislation on the rational use of antibiotics. And it also provided

  1. Rheumatic Heart Disease in Kerala: A Vanishing Entity? An Echo Doppler Study in 5–15-Years-Old School Children

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Bigesh; Viswanathan, Sunitha; Koshy, A. George; Gupta, Prabha Nini; Nair, Namita; Thakkar, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Background. Early detection of subclinical rheumatic heart disease by use of echocardiography warrants timely implementation of secondary antibiotic prophylaxis and thereby prevents or retards its related complications. Objectives. The objective of this epidemiological study was to determine prevalence of RHD by echocardiography using World Heart Federation criteria in randomly selected school children of Trivandrum. Methods. This was a population-based cross-sectional screening study carried out in Trivandrum. A total of 2060 school children, 5–15 years, were randomly selected from five government and two private (aided) schools. All enrolled children were screened for RHD according to standard clinical and WHF criteria of echocardiography. Results. Echocardiographic examinations confirmed RHD in 5 children out of 146 clinically suspected cases. Thus, clinical prevalence was found to be 2.4 per 1000. According to WHF criteria of echocardiography, 12 children (12/2060) were diagnosed with RHD corresponding to echocardiographic prevalence of 5.83 cases per 1000. As per criteria, 6 children were diagnosed with definite RHD and 6 with borderline RHD. Conclusions. The results of the current study demonstrate that echocardiography is more sensitive and feasible in detecting clinically silent RHD. Our study, the largest school survey of south India till date, points towards declining prevalence of RHD (5.83/1000 cases) using WHF criteria in Kerala. PMID:26451146

  2. Social judgments made by children (10–15 year old) in relation to visible incisors trauma: School-based cross-sectional study in Khartoum state, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Awooda, Elhadi Mohieldin; Ali, Yasmeen Abdul-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dento-alveolar trauma is a very common occurrence in childhood; however, there is a paucity of data about children's judgments in relation to dental status. There is a significant correlation between the children's incisor teeth status and the social judgments made by their peers. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the social attributes of a school child would be influenced by his or her incisor teeth status. Also, it is aimed to determine the judgment between male and female children and different age groups within the same class. Setting and Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among 178 male and female children from year 5 (age 10–11 years) of primary school and year 2 of secondary school (age 14–15 years) within Khartoum state. Materials and Methods: Students were invited to look at colored photographs of four different children's faces and to make a social judgment about these children's photographs. Using a previously validated child-centered questionnaire, participants rated subjects using a four-point Likert scale for three negative and six positive attributes. Statistical Analysis: Total attribute scores were tested for significant differences, according to whether the subject had visible incisor trauma or not, using t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) test with the level of significance set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: Children with visible incisor trauma were given more negative attributes than children without incisor trauma (P = 0.05). Results were similar in both genders and both school years. Younger students within the same class gave more negative attributes toward children with visible incisor trauma than their older peers, with P = 0.04 and P = 0.9 for children aged 10 years and 11 years, respectively. Conclusion: The data confirmed results of previous studies that children with visible incisor trauma are seen more negatively than those without visible incisor trauma. PMID:26539397

  3. The Relation between Occupational Sitting and Mental, Cardiometabolic, and Musculoskeletal Health over a Period of 15 Years – The Doetinchem Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Picavet, H. Susan J.; Pas, L. Willemijn; van Oostrom, Sandra H.; van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Proper, Karin I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Sedentary behaviors are reported to impose health risks. Since occupational exposure is a major proportion of total sedentary time, we studied the association between occupational sitting and a number of health problems. Methods From the longitudinal Doetinchem Cohort Study, we selected those working at baseline with complete data (n = 1,509). Participants were examined four times at 5 year-intervals between 1993 and 2012. We characterized occupational sitting as follows: 1) stable sitters and stable non sitters over a 15-year period, based on job characteristics and (2) having a job with a low, moderate or high amount of sitting, based on tertiles of self-reported number of hours per week of occupational sitting, measured at wave 5. Linear and logistic regression models were used. Outcomes were self-reported mental health, low-back or upper extremity pain, and objectively measured cardiometabolic health (overweight, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia). Results Compared to stable non sitters, a lower risk of chronic upper extremity pain was observed for stable sitters (OR 0.75, 95% CI: 0.57; 1.00) as well as for those in the two upper tertiles for hours of occupational sitting (>4 hr/wk) (OR 0.65; 95%CI 0.50–0.86). For the other health outcomes studied, no significant associations were found with occupational sitting. Conclusion Our findings do not support the hypothesis that occupational sitting is associated with health problems. The finding that occupational sitting is associated with less upper extremity pain might be due to the association of occupational sitting with less physical load. PMID:26752695

  4. Quality of fixed prosthodontics after 15 years.

    PubMed

    Glantz, P O; Nilner, K; Jendresen, M D; Sundberg, H

    1993-08-01

    Interviews and/or clinical examinations by means of the California Dental Association quality evaluation system were carried out in a group of persons who had received extensive restorative treatments with fixed partial dentures 15 years before this study. The studied group consisted of 77 persons who agreed to participate from an original group of 150 persons selected at random from the Swedish Dental Insurance System records. Of the original group 20 had died, 17 were not traceable or not able to participate for medical reasons, and 36 declined to participate. Thirty-two per cent of the recorded reconstructions had been lost, and 8% partially lost during the 15-year period. Thirty-five per cent of the reconstructions were rated as Satisfactory, whereas the remaining ones had mixed clinical quality ratings. Failures and Not Acceptable quality ratings were found to be caused mainly by fractures, loss of retention, and/or dental caries. PMID:8237309

  5. Reduction of the ages at diagnosis and operation of biliary atresia in Taiwan: A 15-year population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jen-Shyang; Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng; Lu, Chin-Li; Lee, Hung-Chang; Yeung, Chun-Yan; Chan, Wai-Tao

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To describe the ages at diagnosis and operation of biliary atresia (BA) and its incidence over a 15-year period in Taiwan. METHODS: This was a population-based cohort study. BA cases were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database based on the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) code of BA 751.61 plus Kasai operation (ICD-9 procedure code 51.37) or liver transplantation (LT, ICD-9 procedure code 50.5). The patients’ characteristics including sex, age at diagnosis, age at receiving Kasai operation and age at receiving LT were compared among three birth cohorts: (1) 1997 to 2001; (2) 2002 to 2006; and (3) 2007 to 2011. RESULTS: There were a total of 540 BA cases (275 females) with an incidence of 1.62 per 10000 live births. No seasonality of BA was noted. The mean ages at diagnosis of three cohorts were 57.9, 55.6 and 52.6 d. A linear regression model demonstrated a decreasing trend of the mean age at diagnosis (1.27 d per year). The proportion of BA cases that received the Kasai operation within 60 d of age increased from 76% to 81%. A total of 189 (35%) BA patients underwent LT. The mean age at LT was reduced from 3-year-old to 1-year-old. The rates of LT were 25.6% and 32.3% in patients who received the Kasai operation within 60 d or after 60 d of age, respectively. All patients who did not undergo a Kasai operation eventually required LT. CONCLUSION: The ages at diagnosis and operation in BA cases have decreased over time. Kasai operation performed at younger age reduces the need for LT. The incidence of BA in Taiwan fluctuates, but without certain trend. PMID:26673041

  6. The Prospects Study and Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that greater caution is required when drawing conclusions from statistical results than the Armor study has done, and describes the "Prospects" study (begun in 1989), the largest longitudinal study of educational outcomes conducted in the United States. "Prospects" provides much data useful in evaluating the school desegregation situation…

  7. Childhood trajectories of inattention, hyperactivity and oppositional behaviors and prediction of substance abuse/dependence: a 15-year longitudinal population-based study.

    PubMed

    Pingault, J-B; Côté, S M; Galéra, C; Genolini, C; Falissard, B; Vitaro, F; Tremblay, R E

    2013-07-01

    Numerous prospective studies have shown that children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk of long-term substance abuse/dependence. However, there are three important limits to these studies: (a) most did not differentiate the role of hyperactivity and inattention; (b) most did not control for associated behavioral problems; and (c) most did not consider females. Our aim was to clarify the unique and interactive contributions of childhood inattention and hyperactivity symptoms to early adulthood substance abuse/dependence. Behavioral problems of 1803 participants (814 males) in a population-based longitudinal study were assessed yearly between 6 and 12 years by mothers and teachers. The prevalence of substance abuse/dependence at age 21 years was 30.7% for nicotine, 13.4% for alcohol, 9.1% for cannabis and 2.0% for cocaine. The significant predictors of nicotine dependence were inattention (odds ratio (OR): 2.25; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.63-3.11) and opposition (OR: 1.65; 95%: 1.20-2.28). Only opposition contributed to the prediction of cannabis dependence (OR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.40-3.87) and cocaine dependence (OR: 2.97; 95% CI: 1.06-8.57). The best behavioral predictor of alcohol abuse/dependence (opposition) was only marginally significant (OR: 1.38; 95% CI: 0.98-1.95). Frequent oppositional behaviors during elementary school were clearly the most pervasive predictors of substance abuse/dependence in early adulthood. The association of childhood ADHD with substance abuse/dependence is largely attributable to its association with opposition problems during childhood. However, inattention remained an important predictor of nicotine dependence, in line with genetic and molecular commonalities between the two phenotypes suggested in the literature. PMID:22733124

  8. Temperamental predictors of externalizing problems among boys and girls: a longitudinal study in a high-risk sample from ages 3 months to 15 years.

    PubMed

    Pitzer, Martina; Esser, Guenter; Schmidt, Martin H; Laucht, Manfred

    2009-12-01

    In a high-risk community sample, we examined the role of regulative temperament and emotionality as well as the extent of gender specificity in the development of externalizing problems. 151 boys and 157 girls born at differing degrees of obstetric and psychosocial risk were followed from birth into adolescence. In infancy and childhood, NYLS-derived temperamental characteristics were assessed by a highly structured parent interview and standardized behavioral observations. At age 15 years, externalizing problems were measured by the Child Behavior Checklist. As revealed by multiple linear regression and logistic regression, low regulative abilities predicted adolescent behavioral and attentional problems over and above obstetric and psychosocial risks. Gender specificity was found in the strength of the association rather than in the kind with a stronger long-term prediction from infant and toddler temperament in girls. Compared to regulative abilities, temperament factors describing aspects of mood and fear/withdrawal versus approach tendencies played a minor role in the development of externalizing problems. Findings are discussed in terms of gender-specific risk factors and possible differential developmental trajectories to subtypes of disruptive behavior. PMID:19387718

  9. Development and evaluation of a community immersion program during preclinical medical studies: a 15-year experience at the University of Geneva Medical School

    PubMed Central

    Chastonay, P; Zesiger, V; Klohn, A; Soguel, L; Mpinga, E K; Vu, NV; Bernheim, L

    2013-01-01

    Background Significant changes in medical education have occurred in recent decades because of new challenges in the health sector and new learning theories and practices. This might have contributed to the decision of medical schools throughout the world to adopt community-based learning activities. The community-based learning approach has been promoted and supported by the World Health Organization and has emerged as an efficient learning strategy. The aim of the present paper is to describe the characteristics of a community immersion clerkship for third-year undergraduate medical students, its evolution over 15 years, and an evaluation of its outcomes. Methods A review of the literature and consensus meetings with a multidisciplinary group of health professionals were used to define learning objectives and an educational approach when developing the program. Evaluation of the program addressed students’ perception, achievement of learning objectives, interactions between students and the community, and educational innovations over the years. Results The program and the main learning objectives were defined by consensus meetings among teaching staff and community health workers, which strengthened the community immersion clerkship. Satisfaction, as monitored by a self-administered questionnaire in successive cohorts of students, showed a mean of 4.4 on a five-point scale. Students also mentioned community immersion clerkship as a unique community experience. The learning objectives were reached by a vast majority of students. Behavior evaluation was not assessed per se, but specific testimonies show that students have been marked by their community experience. The evaluation also assessed outcomes such as educational innovations (eg, students teaching other students), new developments in the curriculum (eg, partnership with the University of Applied Health Sciences), and interaction between students and the community (eg, student development of a website for

  10. Spatial and temporal variations of trace element distribution in soils and street dust of an industrial town in NW Spain: 15years of study.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, A; Álvarez, R; De Miguel, E; Charlesworth, S

    2015-08-15

    Extensive spatial and temporal surveys, over 15 years, have been conducted in soil in urban parks and street dusts in one of the most polluted cities in western Europe, Avilés (NW Spain). The first survey was carried out in 1996, and since then monitoring has been undertaken every five years. Whilst the sampling site is a relatively small town, industrial activities (mainly the steel industry and Zn and Al metallurgy) and other less significant urban sources, such as traffic, strongly affect the load of heavy metals in the urban aerosol. Elemental tracers have been used to characterise the influence of these sources on the composition of soil and dust. Although PM10 has decreased over these years as a result of environmental measures undertaken in the city, some of the "industrial" elements still remain in concentrations of concern for example, up to 4.6% and 0.5% of Zn in dust and soil, respectively. Spatial trends in metals such as Zn and Cd clearly reflect sources from the processing industries. The concentrations of these elements across Europe have reduced over time, however the most recent results from Avilés revealed an upward trend in concentration for Zn, Cd, Hg and As. A risk assessment of the soil highlighted As as an element of concern since its cancer risk in adults was more than double the value above which regulatory agencies deem it to be unacceptable. If children were considered to be the receptors, then the risk nearly doubles from this element. PMID:25889548

  11. Changes in the treatment of acetabular fractures over 15 years: Analysis of 1266 cases treated by the German Pelvic Multicentre Study Group (DAO/DGU).

    PubMed

    Ochs, Björn Gunnar; Marintschev, Ivan; Hoyer, Heike; Rolauffs, Bernd; Culemann, Ulf; Pohlemann, Tim; Stuby, Fabian Maria

    2010-08-01

    series illustrates a nationwide performance in acetabular fracture management. Despite changes in the chosen approaches and an increased surgical frequency, the operative treatment of acetabular fractures of the last 15 years did not lead to an increased reduction quality. Therefore, the rarity and complexity of acetabular fractures demands further specific teaching by experienced acetabular surgeons, scientific research and clinical outcome evaluation. PMID:20451195

  12. A Survey of Psychological, Motivational, Family and Perceptions of Physics Education Factors that Explain 15-Year-Old Students' Aspirations to Study Physics in Post-Compulsory English Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mujtaba, Tamjid; Reiss, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors that influence 15-year-old students' intentions to study physics post-16, when it is no longer compulsory. The analysis is based on the year 10 (age, 15 years) responses of 5,034 students from 137 England schools as learners of physics during the academic year 2008-2009. Factor analyses uncovered a range of…

  13. Psychological and Behavioral Risk Factors for Obesity Onset in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather; Rohde, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Because little is known about risk factors for obesity, the authors tested whether certain psychological and behavioral variables predicted future onset of obesity. The authors used data from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed a baseline assessment at age 11-15 years and 4 annual follow-ups. Self-reported dietary restraint,…

  14. PHENIX: Beyond 15 years of discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, David; Nagle, James L.

    2015-01-12

    The PHENIX experiment at BNL’s Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) was designed to uncover properties of the quark–gluon plasma (QGP) via rare penetrating probes. Over the past 15 years, the collaboration has delivered on its promised measurements, often with exciting results beyond those originally foreseen. That the QGP behaves as a nearly perfect fluid and that non-photonic electrons are substantially suppressed has led to the use of heavy quarks as probes of the medium. The PHENIX silicon vertex detectors are opening a new arena for QGP studies, and the MPC-EX, a novel forward calorimeter with silicon readout, accesses low-x physics via direct photons with unprecedented precision. PHENIX has proposed sPHENIX, a major upgrade using the recently acquired BaBar solenoid and full calorimetric coverage and high rate capabilities. sPHENIX will reconstruct jets and extend observables to higher transverse momentum, where comparisons to results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) heavy-ion program will provide the most insightful. Following the RHIC program, the nuclear physics community has identified an electron ion collider (EIC) as crucial to the next generation of QCD investigations. The BaBar magnet and sPHENIX calorimetry will be an excellent foundation for a new collaborative pursuit of discovery.

  15. PHENIX: Beyond 15 years of discovery

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Morrison, David; Nagle, James L.

    2015-01-12

    The PHENIX experiment at BNL’s Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) was designed to uncover properties of the quark–gluon plasma (QGP) via rare penetrating probes. Over the past 15 years, the collaboration has delivered on its promised measurements, often with exciting results beyond those originally foreseen. That the QGP behaves as a nearly perfect fluid and that non-photonic electrons are substantially suppressed has led to the use of heavy quarks as probes of the medium. The PHENIX silicon vertex detectors are opening a new arena for QGP studies, and the MPC-EX, a novel forward calorimeter with silicon readout, accesses low-x physicsmore » via direct photons with unprecedented precision. PHENIX has proposed sPHENIX, a major upgrade using the recently acquired BaBar solenoid and full calorimetric coverage and high rate capabilities. sPHENIX will reconstruct jets and extend observables to higher transverse momentum, where comparisons to results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) heavy-ion program will provide the most insightful. Following the RHIC program, the nuclear physics community has identified an electron ion collider (EIC) as crucial to the next generation of QCD investigations. The BaBar magnet and sPHENIX calorimetry will be an excellent foundation for a new collaborative pursuit of discovery.« less

  16. PHENIX: Beyond 15 years of discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, David; Nagle, James L.

    2015-03-01

    The PHENIX experiment at BNL's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) was designed to uncover properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) via rare penetrating probes. Over the past 15 years, the collaboration has delivered on its promised measurements, often with exciting results beyond those originally foreseen. That the QGP behaves as a nearly perfect fluid and that non-photonic electrons are substantially suppressed has led to the use of heavy quarks as probes of the medium. The PHENIX silicon vertex detectors are opening a new arena for QGP studies, and the MPC-EX, a novel forward calorimeter with silicon readout, accesses low-x physics via direct photons with unprecedented precision. PHENIX has proposed sPHENIX, a major upgrade using the recently acquired BaBar solenoid and full calorimetric coverage and high rate capabilities. sPHENIX will reconstruct jets and extend observables to higher transverse momentum, where comparisons to results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) heavy-ion program will provide the most insightful. Following the RHIC program, the nuclear physics community has identified an electron ion collider (EIC) as crucial to the next generation of QCD investigations. The BaBar magnet and sPHENIX calorimetry will be an excellent foundation for a new collaborative pursuit of discovery.

  17. A descriptive and follow-up study of 40 parricidal patients hospitalized in a French secure unit over a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Raymond, S; Léger, A S; Lachaux, B

    2015-01-01

    Parricide is rare and represents 3% of all homicides in France, and 4% of resolved homicides in North America. Consequently, related international literature is sparse, especially concerning the evolution of offenders, and most studies concern small samples or anecdotal cases. We wished to identify the main characteristics of parricidal subjects and their victims, and to assess the socioclinical evolution of the offenders after the assault. To this end, we first studied the sociodemographic, clinical and forensic characteristics of all parricidal patients admitted to France's Henri Colin secure unit between 1996 and 2010 (40 patients). We also assessed the evolution of the 36 patients who had left the secure unit, using questionnaires sent to the psychiatric hospitals where the patients were transferred. We found most offenders to be men (97.5%), with a mean age of 28 years, who were mostly single, unemployed, living with the victim prior to the assault (77.5%), and with a history of psychiatric disorder (72.5%). The population of offenders also displayed an overrepresentation of schizophrenia (87.5%), significant toxic exposure and criminal or violent history. Some patients had attempted suicide before or right after the offense. The assault was mostly committed in the parent's house with an edged weapon, and was characterized by brutality and lack of premeditation. Precipitating factors included substance use and cessation of psychotropic medication. Matricide was more frequent than patricide. At the time of this study, half of the parricidal patients were working or attending therapeutic activities, and most were actively keeping in contact with their family, living as compliant outpatients with no signs of violent behavior. The results of our study on 40 parricidal patients are consistent with data in the literature. With regard to sample evolution, family and community reintegration was relatively effective considering the seriousness of the offense. Several

  18. The Development of Extraversion and Ability: Analysis of Data from a Large-Scale Longitudinal Study of Children Tested at 10-11 and 14-15 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, W. S.

    1983-01-01

    Results of analysis of correlations collected by Cookson, following Eysenck and Cookson's study of personality and ability in young people, confirm the finding from previous Cattellian test data that the more intelligent children decline in relative extraversion scores and cast doubt on Eysenck's suggestion that introverts gradually show higher…

  19. Professional School Counseling (PSC) Publication Pattern Review: A Meta-Study of Author and Article Characteristics from the First 15 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Giguere, Monica; Glenn, Kacie; Ciarlone, Hallie

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of articles published in "Professional School Counseling" (PSC) from the first 15 volumes were reviewed in this meta-study. Author characteristics (e.g., sex, employment setting, nation of domicile) and article characteristics (e.g., topic, type, design, sample, sample size, participant type, statistical procedures and…

  20. Changes in dietary pattern in 15 year old adolescents following a 4 month dietary intervention with school breakfast – a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Ask, Anne S; Hernes, Sigrunn; Aarek, Ingebjørg; Johannessen, Gaute; Haugen, Margaretha

    2006-01-01

    Background Few studies on impact of meals served in school have been published. However, implications of school meals are an actual issue of both public and political concern in several countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate if breakfast served in a lower secondary school could improve dietary habits and school performance among the students. Methods All students in 10th grade in a lower secondary school, consisting of two school classes, were invited to participate in a controlled study. The students in one class were offered a free breakfast at the beginning of each school day for 4 months, while the students in the second class were controls. Both classes were educated in the importance of healthy eating, and a data program enabling them to evaluate dietary intake was introduced. The students answered two questionnaires, one on school performance and one short food frequency questionnaire, four weeks before study start and one week after. Body weight and height were measured by the school nurse at the beginning and end of the study. Because of few students in each group, non-parametrical statistic analyses were used. Results All students in the intervention group had breakfast at school during the intervention. One week after the intervention the students in the class who received breakfast had returned to their normal breakfast pattern. In the control group the frequency of a lunch intake had increase, as compared to before study start (p < 0.01). An improved food pattern was seen among the male students in the intervention group, as measured by a healthy eating index after the intervention (p < 0.01). Body Mass Index increased statistically significant in both males and females in the control group (p < 0,01 for males and p < 0.05 for females), but not in the intervention group. Improvement in school performance following school breakfast was not found, but the males in the intervention group reported a significant increase in school

  1. Assessment of visual perception in adolescents with a history of central coordination disorder in early life – 15-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Ireneusz M.; Domagalska, Małgorzata; Szopa, Andrzej; Dwornik, Michał; Kujawa, Jolanta; Stępień, Agnieszka; Śliwiński, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Central nervous system damage in early life results in both quantitative and qualitative abnormalities of psychomotor development. Late sequelae of these disturbances may include visual perception disorders which not only affect the ability to read and write but also generally influence the child's intellectual development. This study sought to determine whether a central coordination disorder (CCD) in early life treated according to Vojta's method with elements of the sensory integration (S-I) and neuro-developmental treatment (NDT)/Bobath approaches affects development of visual perception later in life. Material and methods The study involved 44 participants aged 15-16 years, including 19 diagnosed with moderate or severe CCD in the neonatal period, i.e. during the first 2-3 months of life, with diagnosed mild degree neonatal encephalopathy due to perinatal anoxia, and 25 healthy people without a history of developmental psychomotor disturbances in the neonatal period. The study tool was a visual perception IQ test comprising 96 graphic tasks. Results The study revealed equal proportions of participants (p < 0.05) defined as very skilled (94-96), skilled (91-94), aerage (71-91), poor (67-71), and very poor (0-67) in both groups. These results mean that adolescents with a history of CCD in the neonatal period did not differ with regard to the level of visual perception from their peers who had not demonstrated psychomotor development disorders in the neonatal period. Conclusions Early treatment of children with CCD affords a possibility of normalising their psychomotor development early enough to prevent consequences in the form of cognitive impairments in later life. PMID:23185199

  2. Dietary diversity, animal source food consumption and linear growth among children aged 1-5 years in Bandung, Indonesia: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Muslimatun, Siti; Wiradnyani, Luh Ade Ari

    2016-07-01

    Dietary diversity involves adequate intake of macronutrient and micronutrient. The inclusion of animal source foods (ASF) in the diet helps prevent multiple nutrient deficiencies and any resultant, linear growth retardation. The objective of the current study was to assess the relationship between dietary diversity, ASF consumption and height-for-age z-score (HAZ) among children aged 12-59 months old across a 1-year observation. This longitudinal observational study without controls was conducted among four age groups: 12-23 months (n 57), 24-35 months (n 56), 36-47 months (n 58) and 48-59 months (n 56). Anthropometry and dietary intake were measured during each of four visits at 16-20-week intervals. The general characteristics and other observations were only collected at baseline and endline. During the year-long study period, approximately 27 % of the children ate a diverse diet (consumed ≥6 out of 9 food groups) according to ≥3 visits. ASF consumption was high, particularly for eggs, poultry, processed meats and liquid milk. Yet, micronutrient intake inadequacy, especially of Zn, Ca, Fe and vitamin A, was highly prevalent. A multivariate regression analysis showed that the consumption of a diverse diet and ASF was not significantly associated with the HAZ at endline, after controlling for demographic characteristics and the baseline HAZ. The consumption of a diverse diet was significantly associated with Ca intake adequacy. Moreover, ASF consumption was significantly associated with adequate intake of protein and micronutrients, particularly vitamin A, Ca and Zn. Thus, the recommendation is to continue and strengthen the promotion of consuming a diverse diet that includes ASF in supporting the linear growth of young children. PMID:26817493

  3. Family structure and breakfast consumption of 11-15 year old boys and girls in Scotland, 1994-2010: a repeated cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The benefits of breakfast during childhood and adolescence have been reported previously though few studies have considered family structure inequalities in breakfast consumption. The proportion of young people living in non-traditional family types has increased in recent years, strengthening the need to describe and monitor the impact of the changing family unit on adolescent breakfast consumption. This study aimed to describe changes in daily breakfast consumption among adolescents in Scotland between 1994 and 2010, while also considering family structure inequalities, and the degree to which these have changed over time. Methods Data from the 1994, 1998, 2002, 2006 and 2010 Scottish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys were analysed using logistic multilevel regression models for binary outcome variable daily breakfast consumption. Results Daily breakfast consumption among adolescents increased between 1994 and 2010, although there were differences by age and sex. In fact those aged over 14.5 years saw decreases in breakfast consumption, and girls saw significantly larger increases than boys. Daily breakfast consumption was more prevalent among adolescents from 'both parent' families, with lowest prevalence among those from single parent families. Trends in daily breakfast consumption between 1994 and 2010 also varied by family structure. While prevalence of daily breakfast consumption increased among those living with 'both parents', the largest proportion of the population, prevalence decreased over time among adolescents of single parent families, and particularly among those living with their father. Conclusions Family structure inequalities in daily breakfast consumption increased between 1994 and 2010, while breakfast consumption across the population as a whole increased. As the proportion of young people living in an alternative family structure continues to grow it is important to understand why these inequalities have

  4. Consumption of dairy products and the 15-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Wang, Jie Jin; Burlutsky, George; Rochtchina, Elena; Mitchell, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Habitual consumption of dairy products has been shown to play an important role in the prevention of several chronic diseases. We aimed to prospectively assess the relationship between the change in dairy product consumption (both regular fat and low/reduced fat) and the 15-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the Blue Mountains Eye Study, 2037 participants aged 49 years or above at baseline were re-examined at follow-up in 1997-9, 2002-4 and/or 2007-9. AMD was assessed from retinal photographs. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ, and servings of dairy product consumption calculated. Over the 15-year follow-up, there were 352, 268 and eighty-four incident cases of any, early and late AMD, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, current smoking, white cell count and fish consumption, a significant linear trend (P for trend = 0·003) was observed with decreasing consumption of total dairy foods and the 15-year incidence of late AMD, comparing the lowest v. highest quintile of intake (OR 2·80, 95 % CI 1·21, 3·04). Over the 15 years, decreased consumption of reduced-fat dairy foods was associated with an increased risk of incident late AMD, comparing the lowest to highest quintile of intake (OR 3·10, 95 % CI 1·18, 8·14, P for trend = 0·04). Decreasing total dietary Ca intake over the 15 years was also associated with an increased risk of developing incident late AMD (multivariable-adjusted P for trend = 0·03). A lower consumption of dairy products (regular and low fat) and Ca was independently associated with a higher risk of developing incident late AMD in the long term. Additional cohort studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24502821

  5. Neonatal Duodenal Obstruction: A 15-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Rattan, Kamal Nain; Singh, Jasbir; Dalal, Poonam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Congenital duodenal obstruction is one of the commonest causes of neonatal intestinal obstruction. We are presenting our 15-year experience by analyzing clinical spectrum and outcome in neonates with duodenal obstruction admitted at our center. Material and Methods: The hospital records of all neonates admitted with duodenal obstruction from June 2000 to June 2015 were reviewed. The patient records were analyzed for antenatal diagnosis, age, sex, clinical presentation, diagnosis, associated anomalies, surgical procedures performed; postoperative morbidity and mortality. We excluded from our study malrotation of gut associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia and abdominal wall defects. Results: A total of 81 patients were admitted, out of which 56 were males and 25 were females. Polyhydramnios was detected in 24 (30%) pregnancies. Average birth weight was 2.1±1.0Kg and average gestational age was 38 (SD±1) weeks with 17 (21%) preterm neonates. Presenting features were vomiting in 81(100%) which was bilious in 81% and non-bilious in 19%, epigastric fullness in 56 (69%) and dehydration in 18 (22%) and failure to thrive in 16 (19%). Most common cause of obstruction was duodenal atresia in 38 (46.9%), followed by malrotation of gut in 33 (40.7%), and annular pancreas in 4 cases. Depending upon site of location, infra-ampullary obstruction was the most common in 64 (79%), supra-ampullary in 9 (7.4%) and ampullary 8 neonates. Both duodenal atresia and malrotation of gut was present in 4 cases. X-ray abdomen was most commonly used investigation to confirm the diagnosis. All cases were managed surgically by open laparotomy. Eleven (13.5%) patients died due to sepsis and associated congenital anomalies. Conclusion: Congenital duodenal obstruction most commonly presents in early neonatal period with features of upper GIT obstruction like vomiting and epigastrium fullness as in our series. Early antenatal diagnosis and surgical interventions hold the key in

  6. Abuse-Specific Self-Schemas and Self-Functioning: A Prospective Study of Sexually Abused Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; Cleland, Charles M.; Simon, Valerie A.

    2010-01-01

    Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to negative self-schemas to subsequent dissociative symptoms and low global self-esteem were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8 to 15 years of…

  7. Prospective Teachers' Perspectives on Microteaching Lesson Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Maria L.; Robinson, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Microteaching Lesson Study [MLS] is a cooperative learning experience that we felt could challenge our prospective teachers thinking about teaching and support their connection of theory and practice during an initial course on learning to teach mathematics. We studied seventy-four prospective teachers' perspectives on MLS over four sections of…

  8. Do Deterrence and Social-Control Theories Predict Driving after Drinking 15 years after a DWI Conviction?

    PubMed Central

    Lapham, Sandra C.; Todd, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study investigates the utility of deterrence and social-control theories for prospective prediction of driving-while-impaired (DWI) outcomes of first-time DWI offenders. Method The sample consisted of a subset of 544 convicted first-time DWI offenders (n = 337 females) who were interviewed 5 and 15 years after referral to a screening program in Bernalillo County, New Mexico. Variables collected at the 5-year (initial) interview were used in structural equation models to predict past 3-months, self-reported DWI at the 15-year follow-up (follow-up) interview. These variables represented domains defined by deterrence and social-control theories of DWI behavior, with one model corresponding to deterrence theory and one to social-control theory. Results Both models fit the data. DWI jail time was positively related to perceived enforcement, which was negatively but not significantly related to self-reported DWI. Neither jail time for DWI nor perceived likelihood of arrest was linearly related to self-reported DWI at follow-up. Interactions between jail time and prior DWI behavior indicated relatively weaker associations between initial and 15-year DWI for those reporting more jail time. Conclusion Our prospective study demonstrated that for this convicted DWI offender cohort, classic formulations of deterrence and social-control theories did not account for DWI. However, results suggest that punishment may decrease the likelihood of DWI recidivism. PMID:22269495

  9. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period*

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined. PMID:26982781

  10. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-02-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined. PMID:26982781

  11. Reproducibility of a web-based FFQ for 13- to 15-year-old Danish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bjerregaard, Anne A; Tetens, Inge; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I

    2016-01-01

    FFQ are widely used in large-scale studies to assess dietary intake. To aid interpretation of diet-disease associations assessment of validity must be performed. Reproducibility is one aspect of validity focusing on the stability of repeated assessment with the same method which may also reveal problems in instrument design or participant instructions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reproducibility of a web-based FFQ targeting Danish adolescents within the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). Data for the present study were obtained from a prospective design nested within the DNBC. Adolescents aged 13 to 15 years old (n 48, 60 % girls) completed the FFQ twice 4 weeks apart. The proportion of adolescents consistently classified into the same tertile according to amount of food intake ranged from 45 % (fish) to 77 % (vegetables), whereas classification into opposite tertiles ranged from 0 % (fruit, oils and dressing) to 15 % (beverages). Overall, no significant differences were observed in intake of food groups or nutrients between the two completions of the FFQ. Mean crude Spearman correlation for all food groups was 0·56 and mean intra-class correlation for all food groups was 0·61. In conclusion, the reproducibility of the FFQ for Danish adolescents was acceptable. The study revealed that adolescents aged 13-15 years seemed capable of recalling consistently overall dietary habits and had some difficulties estimating the frequency of consumption of regularly consumed food items. PMID:26855775

  12. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  13. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto de; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-04-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  14. Towards understanding software: 15 years in the SEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, Frank; Pajerski, Rose

    1990-01-01

    For 15 years, the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) at GSFC has been carrying out studies and experiments for the purpose of understanding, assessing, and improving software, and software processes within a production software environment. The SEL comprises three major organizations: (1) the GSFC Flight Dynamics Division; (2) the University of Maryland Computer Science Department; and (3) the Computer Sciences Corporation Flight Dynamics Technology Group. These organizations have jointly carried out several hundred software studies, producing hundreds of reports, papers, and documents: all describing some aspect of the software engineering technology that has undergone analysis in the flight dynamics environment. The studies range from small controlled experiments (such as analyzing the effectiveness of code reading versus functional testing) to large, multiple-project studies (such as assessing the impacts of Ada on a production environment). The key findings that NASA feels have laid the foundation for ongoing and future software development and research activities are summarized.

  15. Radiotherapy Compared to Other Strategies in the Treatment of Stage I/II Follicular Lymphoma: A Study of 404 Patients with a Median Follow-Up of 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Barzenje, Dlawer Abdulla; Kolstad, Arne; Holte, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate outcome for patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) stage I-II treated at a population-based referral institution with a median follow-up of 15 years. Overall and cause-specific survival was compared to that of a sex, age and residency matched individuals from normal population. Material and Methods 404 patients with early stage FL treated between 1980 and 2005 were retrospectively analyzed. Two of three patients had stage I disease. Based on clinical characteristics, first line treatments were radiotherapy (RT) (48% of patients), chemotherapy (CT) (16%), combined chemo-and radiotherapy (CRT) (16%) or observation (OBS) (15%). Survival was modeled with Kaplan-Meier methodology. Multivariate analyses were performed with the Cox model. Results Fifteen years overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS) and time to next treatment (TNT) were 50% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 45–55), 42% (95% CI: 36–47) and 48% (95% CI, 42–54), respectively. For patients treated with RT 97% achieved a complete remission, and 15 year OS, PFS and TNT were 57% (95% CI, 50–64), 46% (95% CI, 39–54) and 49% (95% CI, 42–57), respectively. Relapse rate after RT and CRT was 49% and 36%, respectively. Only 2% of patients who received RT or CRT relapsed inside the radiation field and 5% had isolated near-field relapse. No statistical differences were found between treatment groups regarding death from cardiovascular disease or incidence of second cancer. Compared to a matched normal population, non-lymphoma cancer mortality was higher among patients given RT, hazard ratio 1.66 (95% CI: 1.14–2.42; P<0.01). Compared to other treatment modalities, patients selected for observation without treatment did not have inferior outcome. Conclusions A differentiated treatment strategy in early stage FL results in long term survival for the majority of patients. OBS is a valid initial choice for selected patients without lymphoma-related symptoms. PMID:26147646

  16. Teachers as Science Champions: The Legacy of 15 Years of NSF Investment in Science Education Improvement. A Retrospective Study of Bay Area Schools for Excellence in Education (BASEE), Partnership for Student Success in Science (PS[superscript 3]), and Noyce Master Teacher Program (NMTP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heenan, Barbara; Helms, Jenifer V.

    2013-01-01

    Inverness Research has conducted a "legacy study" focusing on a series of philanthropic investments aimed at improving science education in the San Francisco South Bay Area that extended for over 15 years. Roughly nine school districts enjoyed a steady stream of support for science education improvement that began with funding from the…

  17. Endoscopic vertical ramus osteotomy: a long-term prospective study.

    PubMed

    Papadaki, M E; Kaban, L B; Troulis, M J

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the outcomes of endoscopic vertical ramus osteotomy (EVRO) with rigid fixation for the treatment of mandibular prognathism or asymmetry. Inclusion criteria were age >15 years, adequate clinical and radiographic documentation, and minimum postoperative follow-up of 3 years. Exclusion criteria were refusal to consent, rheumatoid arthritis, steroid use, and smoking. Demographic data, pre-operative (T0), immediate postoperative (T1), and latest follow-up (T2) clinical examinations and cephalometric analysis, procedure data, complications, and length of hospital stay (LOS) were documented. Ten fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Diagnoses included mandibular hyperplasia (n = 5), stable condylar hyperplasia (n = 4), and mandibular asymmetry secondary to condylar resorption (n = 1). In total, 17 EVROs were performed. The mean operative time was 33 min per side. Mean mandibular setback was 4.7 mm. Mean LOS was 1.9 days. Latest follow-up ranged from 3 to 5 years. Skeletal stability was confirmed in nine patients. One patient exhibited recurrence of mandibular prognathism at 5 years due to late growth. No VII nerve deficits were encountered. Inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) paresthesia was noted in four patients, which resolved postoperatively. EVRO was fast and resulted in minimal blood loss, quick recovery, and skeletal stability. PMID:24246948

  18. Altered knee joint neuromuscular control during landing from a jump in 10-15 year old children with Generalised Joint Hypermobility. A substudy of the CHAMPS-study Denmark.

    PubMed

    Junge, Tina; Wedderkopp, Niels; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Søgaard, Karen; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2015-06-01

    Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) is considered an intrinsic risk factor for knee injuries. Knee neuromuscular control during landing may be altered in GJH due to reduced passive stability. The aim was to identify differences in knee neuromuscular control during landing of the Single-Leg-Hop-for-Distance test (SLHD) in 25 children with GJH compared to 29 children without GJH (controls), all 10-15years. Inclusion criteria for GJH: Beighton score⩾5/9 and minimum one hypermobile knee. EMG was recorded from the quadriceps, the hamstring and the calf muscles, presented relative to Maximum Voluntary Electrical activity (MVE). There was no difference in jump length between groups. Before landing, GJH had 33% lower Semitendinosus, but 32% higher Gastrocnemius Medialis activity and 39% higher co contraction of the lateral knee muscles, than controls. After landing, GJH had 36% lower Semitendinosus activity than controls, all significant findings. Although the groups performed equally in SLHD, GJH had a Gastrocnemius Medialis dominated neuromuscular strategy before landing, plausibly caused by reduced Semitendinosus activity. Reduced Semitendinosus activity was seen in GJH after landing, but with no compensatory Gastrocnemius Medialis activity. Reduced pre and post-activation of the Semitendinosus may present a risk factor for traumatic knee injuries as ACL ruptures in GJH with knee hypermobility. PMID:25801907

  19. A 15-year exercise program for rheumatoid vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Marley, W P; Santilli, T F

    1998-01-01

    A rare case of rheumatoid vasculitis and responses to a 15-year supervised exercise program. This patient presented with significant impairment in mobility and physical work capacity. His exercise tolerance improved considerably and he benefited emotionally. PMID:9572643

  20. Overweight among students aged 11–15 years and its relationship with breakfast, area of residence and parents’ education: results from the Italian HBSC 2010 cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The international increase in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents over the past three decades confirms that childhood obesity is a global ‘epidemic’. The World Health Organization considers childhood obesity to be a major public health concern. Childhood obesity is associated with cardiovascular, endocrine, musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal complications, and may have psycho-social consequences. The aim of this paper is to examine overweight (including obesity) prevalence and its association with geographic area of residence, parental education and daily breakfast consumption in Italian students aged 11–15 yrs. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11–15 year old students from 20 Italian Regions (Italian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 2010-HBSC) was randomly selected (2,504 schools and 77,113 students). Self-reported anonymous questionnaires, prepared by the international HBSC network, were used to collect the data. BMI was calculated using self-reported weight and height and the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to assess the relationship between the risk of overweight and parental education, area of residence and breakfast consumption in each age group and gender. Results Boys were more likely to be overweight or obese than girls (28.1% vs. 18.9% at 11 yrs-old, 24.8% vs. 16.5% at 13 yrs and 25.4 vs. 11.8% at 15 yrs). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was lower among the older girls. Overweight and obesity rates increased from the North of Italy to the South in both boys and girls and in all age groups. Boys 11-15 yrs living in southern Italy had an OR=2.05 (1.77-2.38) and girls 2.04 (95% CI 1.70-2.44) for overweight (including obesity) compared with those living in the North. Parent’s low educational level and no daily breakfast consumption were also associated with overweight including obesity (p<0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of

  1. Prospective Acid Reflux Study of Iran (PARSI): Methodology and study design

    PubMed Central

    Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Razjouyan, Hadi; Alimohamadi, Seyed Maysam; Mamarabadi, Mansoureh; Ghotbi, Mohamad-Hamed; Mostajabi, Pardis; Sohrabpour, Amir-Ali; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Abedi, Behnoush; Mofid, Azadeh; Nouraie, Mehdi; Tofangchiha, Shahnaz; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2007-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a common and chronic disorder but long term, prospective studies of the fate of patients seeking medical advice are scarce. This is especially prominent when looking at non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) patients. Methods We designed a prospective cohort to assess the long term outcome of GERD patients referring to gastroenterologists. Consecutive consenting patients, 15 years of age and older, presenting with symptoms suggestive of GERD referring to our outpatient clinics undergo a 30 minute interview. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is performed for them with protocol biopsies and blood samples are drawn. Patients are then treated according to a set protocol and followed regularly either in person or by telephone for at least 10 years. Discussion Our data show that such a study is feasible and follow-ups, which are the main concern, can be done in a fairly reliable way to collect data. The results of this study will help to clarify the course of various subgroups of GERD patients after coming to medical attention and their response to treatment considering different variables. In addition, the basic symptoms and biological database will fuel further molecular epidemiologic studies. PMID:18028533

  2. Prospective Demographic Study of Cosmetic Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schlessinger, Daniel; Schlessinger, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The authors sought to examine and assess cosmetic surgery patient demographics as well as age in relation to partner, in a prospective manner, analyzing data for any significant correlations. Design: The authors conducted a prospective study utilizing a survey. Setting: The study was conducted in a private, nonacademic dermatological practice. Participants: Three hundred thirty-six patients participated in this study. Results: Demographics of onabotulinumtoxinA/abobotulinumtoxinA (neurotoxins), fillers, and laser hair removal users were studied. The data show that the average private practice cosmetic surgery patient in this study is a married (67.5%), college-educated or greater (66.9%), employed (74.3%), mother (74.5%). In the fillers category, 50 percent of women were older than their partners, as opposed to 14.8 percent in 2008 Census data. Additionally, women were more educated and employed to a higher percentage than similar women in 2008 Census data. Data on motivations were statistically not significant. Conclusion: Data from this study show potential correlations with Census data norms in marital status and motherhood status categories, but not in the age in relation to partner, education, and employment level categories. Motivations of individuals undergoing cosmetic surgery will need further analysis in future studies. PMID:21103314

  3. Externalizing Behavior and Substance Use Related Problems at 15 Years in Prenatally Cocaine Exposed Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Min, Meeyoung O.; Minnes, Sonia; Lang, Adelaide; Weishampel, Paul; Short, Elizabeth J.; Yoon, Susan; Singer, Lynn T.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on externalizing behavior and substance use related problems at 15 years of age was examined. Participants consisted of 358 adolescents (183 PCE, 175 non-cocaine exposed (NCE)), primarily African-American and of low socioeconomic status, prospectively enrolled in a longitudinal study from birth. Regression analyses indicated that the amount of PCE was associated with higher externalizing behavioral problems (β=.15, p=.02). Adolescents with PCE were also 2.8 times (95% CI=1.38–5.56) more likely to have substance use related problems than their NCE counterparts. No differences between PCE adolescents in non-kinship adoptive or foster care (n=44) and PCE adolescents in maternal/relative care (n=139) were found in externalizing behavior or in the likelihood of substance use related problems. Findings demonstrate teratologic effects of PCE persisting into adolescence. PCE is a reliable marker for the potential development of problem behaviors in adolescence, including substance use related problems. PMID:24636687

  4. Prospective study of definite caterpillar exposures.

    PubMed

    Balit, Corrine R; Geary, Merilyn J; Russell, Richard C; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2003-11-01

    Exposure to caterpillars results in a variety of clinical effects depending on the species involved. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical effects from caterpillar exposures within Australia. Cases were recruited prospectively from calls to a poison information centre. Subjects were included if they had a definite exposure and they had collected the caterpillar or cocoon. The caterpillars were identified to genus and species level where possible. There were 36 included cases: two were contact exposures to caterpillar contents, one was an ingestion of a caterpillar and the remaining 33 patients had definite reactions from caterpillar or cocoon exposure. There were five families of caterpillars identified in the study: Arctiidae, Limacodidae, Anthelidae, Lymantriidae and Sphingidae, many of which occur worldwide. Clinical effects ranged from severe pain to an urticarial response depending on the species involved. There were no adverse effects following ingestion in this study. Treatment consisted primarily of removal of the caterpillar or cocoon. Other treatment measures consisted of symptomatic treatment such as ice packs and antihistamines. This is the first prospective study of caterpillar exposures within Australia and demonstrates that exposures can result in a variety of reactions depending on the family and species involved. PMID:14602121

  5. [Pincoffs-Bard's syndrome in a 15-year old girl].

    PubMed

    Pakulski, C; Pankowski, J; Swiniarski, A; Król-Pakulska, E

    1996-01-01

    A case of primary stomach carcinoma (or Pincoff's-Bard syndrome) with extensive radiologic shadows on chest X-ray and clinical signs of respiratory failure has been presented. The case concerned a 15-year-old girl being diagnosed in several hospital because of pulmonary lesions. The diagnosis was made on a basis of the autopsy. PMID:9162328

  6. Early Adolescence: Understanding the 10 to 15 Year Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caissy, Gail A.

    Early adolescence, the period from 10 to 15 years, is a significant transitional period in human development, marking the crossroads between childhood and young adulthood. This book is designed as a guide for parents, teachers, or anyone else who has contact with and who would like to better understand early adolescent children. The chapters in…

  7. Surgery for Aortic Root Abscess: A 15-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Sarikaya, Sabit; Ozen, Yucel; Sacli, Hakan; Basaran, Eylul; Yerlikhan, Ozge Altas; Aydin, Ebuzer; Rabus, Murat Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Aortic root abscess is the most severe sequela of infective endocarditis, and its surgical management is a complicated procedure because of the high risk of morbidity and death. Twenty-seven patients were included in this 15-year retrospective study: 21 (77.8%) with native- and 6 (22.2%) with prosthetic-valve endocarditis. The surgical reconstruction of the aortic root consisted of aortic valve replacement in 19 patients (70.4%) with (11) or without (8) a pericardial patch, or total aortic root replacement in 7 patients (25.9%); 5 of the 27 (18.5%) underwent the modified Bentall procedure with the flanged conduit. Only one patient (3.7%) underwent subaortic pericardial patch reconstruction without valve replacement. A total of 7 patients (25.9%) underwent reoperation: 6 with prior valve surgery, and 1 with prior isolated sinus of Valsalva repair. The mean follow-up period was 6.8 ± 3.7 years. There were 6 (22.2%) in-hospital deaths, 3 (11.1%) of which were perioperative, among patients who underwent emergent surgery. Five patients (23.8%) died during follow-up, and the overall survival rates at 1, 5, and 10 years were 70.3% ± 5.8%, 62.9% ± 6.4%, and 59.2% ± 7.2%, respectively. Two of 21 patients (9.5%) underwent reoperation because of paravalvular leakage and early recurrence of infection during follow-up. After complete resection of the perianular abscess, replacement of the aortic root can be implemented for reconstruction of the aortic root, with or without left ventricular outflow tract injuries. Replacing the aortic root with a flanged composite graft might provide the best anatomic fit. PMID:27047281

  8. 15 Years of Terra MODIS Instrument on-Orbit Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, X.; Salomonson, V.

    2014-12-01

    The first MODIS instrument, launched on-board the NASA EOS Terra spacecraft in December 1999, has successfully operated for nearly 15 years. MODIS observations have significantly contributed to the studies of many geophysical parameters of the earth's system and its changes over time. Dedicated effort made by the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) to constantly monitor instrument operation, to calibrate changes in sensor response, to derive and update sensor calibration parameters, and to maintain and improve calibration algorithms has played an extremely important role to assure the quality of MODIS data products. MODIS was developed with overall improvements over its heritage sensors. Its observations are made in 36 spectral bands, covering wavelengths from visible to long-wave infrared. The reflective solar bands (1-19 and 26) are calibrated on-orbit by a solar diffuser (SD) panel and regularly scheduled lunar observations. The thermal emissive bands (20-25 and 27-36) calibration is referenced to an on-board blackbody (BB) source. On-orbit changes in the sensor spectral and spatial characteristics are tracked by a spectroradiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). This paper provides an overview of Terra MODIS on-orbit operation and calibration activities implemented from launch to present and the status of instrument health and functions. It demonstrates sensor on-orbit performance derived from its telemetry, on-board calibrators (OBC), and lunar observations. Also discussed in this paper are changes in sensor characteristics, corrections applied to maintain level 1B data quality, various challenging issues, and future improvements.

  9. 15 years experience with helium ion radiotherapy for uvealmelanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Joseph R.; D.H. Char, P.L. Petti; Daftarii, K.; Quivey,J.M.; Singh, R.P.; Blakeley, E.A.; Phillips, T.L.

    1997-06-01

    Purpose: To review the long-term experience of helium iontherapy as a therapeutic alternative to enucleation for uveal melanoma,particularly with respect to survival, local control, and morbidity.Methods and Materials: 347 patients with uveal melanoma were treated withheluim ion RT from 1978-1992. A nonrandomized dose-searching study wasundertaken, with doses progressively reduced from 80 GyE in fivefractionsto 48 GyE in four fractions, given in 3-15 days, mean of 7days. Results: Local control was achieved in 96 percent of patients, withno difference in the rate of local control being seen at 80, 70, 60, or50 GyE in five fractions. At the lowest dose level of 48 GyE in fourfractions, the local control rate fell to 87 percent. Fifteen of 347patients (4 percent) had local regrowth in the eye requiring enucleation(12 patients), laser (1 patient) or reirradiation (2 patients). The timeof appearance of local regrowth ranged from 4 months to 5 yearsposttreatment, with 85 percent occurring within 3 years. Of the 347patients, 208 are alive as of May 1, 1997. The median follow up of allpatients is 8.5 years, range 1-17 years. Kaplan-Maier (K-M) survival is80 percent at 5 years, 76 percent at 10 years, and 72 percent at 15 yearsposttreatment. Patients with tumors not involving the ciliary body have a15-year K-M survival of 80 percent. The results for patients whose tumorsinvolved the ciliary body are poor, with a 15-year K-M survival of 43percent. Seventy-five percent of patients with tumors at least 3.0 mmfrom the fovea and optic nerve, and initial ultrasound height less than6.0 mm, retained vision of 20/200 or better posttreatment. Patients withtumors larger than 6 mm in thickness, or with tumors lying close to theoptic nerve or fovea, have a reduced chance of retaining useful vision.The enucleation rate is 19 percent, 3 percent for local failure and 16percent because of complications of the helium RT, particularlyneovascular glaucoma, which occurred in 35 percent of

  10. Abdominal Lipectomy: A Prospective Outcomes Study

    PubMed Central

    Semer, Nadine B; Ho, Wan C; Mills, Sharrie; Rajashekara, BM; Taylor, Jason R; Trung, Nguyen B; Young, Henry; Kivuls, Juris

    2008-01-01

    Context/objective: Abdominal lipectomy is performed by plastic surgeons to provide symptomatic, functional, and cosmetic relief for patients with excess abdominal tissue. However, there are few clinical outcome studies looking at the utility of this procedure: this is the first prospective oucomes study. Design: Patients who underwent abdominal lipectomy at the Bellflower Medical Center during a 12-month period (September 2004 through September 2005) were prospectively studied. Data were collected at the preoperative visit, during surgery, and at the one-week, one-month, and six-month postoperative visits. Outcome measures: Complications, both major (requiring rehospitalization or reoperation) and minor (requiring local outpatient care) were identified. To evaluate the impact on our patients' perceived health and well-being as well as body image, we administered the Short Form–36 Health Survey (SF-36) and the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ) to participants at their preoperative and six-month postoperative visits. Results: For the 72 patients enrolled in the study, the postoperative major complication rate was 5.6% (four patients) and the minor complication rate was 27.8% (20 patients); 98.3% were happy to have had the surgery. Two components of the MBSRQ, feelings of attractiveness and body area satisfaction, showed significant improvement (p < 0.0001 for each) at six-month postoperative testing. No component of the SF-36 reached statistical significance between pre- and postoperative testing. Conclusion: Because the complication rate for cosmetic abdominoplasty in our study did not significantly differ from rates reported for other studies, and given our data on perceived patient satisfaction and improvement in outcomes, our study validates the utility of abdominal lipectomy for patients with symptomatic lower abdominal pannus. PMID:21364808

  11. Prospective study on nutrition transition in China.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Fengying; Wang, Huijun; Du, Shufa; He, Yuna; Wang, Zhihong; Ge, Keyou; Popkin, Barry M

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the prospective study reported here was to examine the effects of social and economic transformation on dietary patterns and nutritional status in China. The study began in 1989 and continued with follow-ups in 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, and 2004. A total of 5000 subjects aged 18-45 years from 4280 households in nine provinces were included. Weighed records and three consecutive 24-h recalls were used. Over the study period, average consumption of all animal foods except milk increased, while cereal intake decreased. The proportion of animal protein and fat as a percentage of energy also increased. However, vitamin A and calcium intake did not increase and remained low. Child height and weight increased while undernutrition decreased and overweight increased. The results indicate that rapid changes in dietary pattern are associated with economic reforms in China. PMID:19453679

  12. The clinical outcome of minimally invasive Phase 3 Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: a 15-year follow-up of 1000 UKAs.

    PubMed

    Pandit, H; Hamilton, T W; Jenkins, C; Mellon, S J; Dodd, C A F; Murray, D W

    2015-11-01

    There have been concerns about the long-term survival of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). This prospective study reports the 15-year survival and ten-year functional outcome of a consecutive series of 1000 minimally invasive Phase 3 Oxford medial UKAs (818 patients, 393 men, 48%, 425 women, 52%, mean age 66 years; 32 to 88). These were implanted by two surgeons involved with the design of the prosthesis to treat anteromedial osteoarthritis and spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee, which are recommended indications. Patients were prospectively identified and followed up independently for a mean of 10.3 years (5.3 to 16.6). At ten years, the mean Oxford Knee Score was 40 (standard deviation (sd) 9; 2 to 48): 79% of knees (349) had an excellent or good outcome. There were 52 implant-related re-operations at a mean of 5.5 years (0.2 to 14.7). The most common reasons for re-operation were arthritis in the lateral compartment (2.5%, 25 knees), bearing dislocation (0.7%, seven knees) and unexplained pain (0.7%, seven knees). When all implant-related re-operations were considered as failures, the ten-year rate of survival was 94% (95% confidence interval (CI) 92 to 96) and the 15-year survival rate 91% (CI 83 to 98). When failure of the implant was the endpoint the 15-year survival was 99% (CI 96 to 100). This is the only large series of minimally invasive UKAs with 15-year survival data. The results support the continued use of minimally invasive UKA for the recommended indications. PMID:26530651

  13. ASTER system operating achievement for 15 years on orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Hitomi; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Sakuma, Fumihiro; Tatsumi, Kenji; Akagi, Shigeki; Ono, Hidehiko

    2015-10-01

    ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) System is operating more than 15 years since launched on board of NASA's Terra spacecraft in December 1999. ASTER System is composed of 3 radiometers (VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer), SWIR (Short-Wave Infrared Radiometer), and TIR (Thermal Infrared Radiometer)), CSP (Common Signal Processor) and MSP (Master Power Supply). This paper describes the ASTER System operating history and the achievement of ASTER System long term operation since the initial checkout operation, the normal operation, and the continuous operation. Through the 15 years operation, ASTER system had totally checked the all subsystems (MPS, VNIR, TIR, SWIR, and CSP) health and safety check using telemetry data trend evaluation, and executed the necessary action. The watch items are monitored as the life control items. The pointing mechanics for VNIR, SWIR and TIR, and the cooler for SWIR and TIR are all operating with any problem for over 15 years. In 2003, ASTER was successfully operated for the lunar calibration. As the future plan, ASTER team is proposing the 2nd lunar calibration before the end of mission.

  14. Effect of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination without a booster dose on invasive H influenzae type b disease, nasopharyngeal carriage, and population immunity in Kilifi, Kenya: a 15-year regional surveillance study

    PubMed Central

    Hammitt, Laura L; Crane, Rosie J; Karani, Angela; Mutuku, Alex; Morpeth, Susan C; Burbidge, Polly; Goldblatt, David; Kamau, Tatu; Sharif, Shahnaaz; Mturi, Neema; Scott, J Anthony G

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, delivered as a three-dose series without a booster, was introduced into the childhood vaccination programme in Kenya in 2001. The duration of protection and need for a booster dose are unknown. We aimed to assess vaccine effectiveness, the impact of the vaccine on nasopharyngeal carriage, and population immunity after introduction of conjugate Hib vaccine in infancy without a booster dose in Kenya. Methods This study took place in the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS), an area of Kenya that has been monitored for vital events and migration every 4 months since 2000. We analysed sterile site cultures for H influenzae type b from children (aged ≤12 years) admitted to the Kilifi County Hospital (KCH) from Jan 1, 2000, through to Dec 31, 2014. We determined the prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage by undertaking cross-sectional surveys in random samples of KHDSS residents (of all ages) once every year from 2009 to 2012, and measured Hib antibody concentrations in five cross-sectional samples of children (aged ≤12 years) within the KHDSS (in 1998, 2000, 2004–05, 2007, and 2009). We calculated incidence rate ratios between the prevaccine era (2000–01) and the routine-use era (2004–14) and defined vaccine effectiveness as 1 minus the incidence rate ratio, expressed as a percentage. Findings 40 482 children younger than 13 years resident in KHDSS were admitted to KCH between 2000 and 2014, 38 206 (94%) of whom had their blood cultured. The incidence of invasive H influenzae type b disease in children younger than 5 years declined from 62·6 (95% CI 46·0–83·3) per 100 000 in 2000–01 to 4·5 (2·5–7·5) per 100 000 in 2004–14, giving a vaccine effectiveness of 93% (95% CI 87–96). In the final 5 years of observation (2010–14), only one case of invasive H influenzae type b disease was detected in a child younger than 5 years. Nasopharyngeal H

  15. Phase II TPDCV protocol for pediatric low-grade hypothalamic/chiasmatic gliomas: 15-year update

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Kavita K.; Squire, Sarah; Lamborn, Kathleen; Banerjee, Anuradha; Gupta, Nalin; Wara, William M.; Prados, Michael D.; Berger, Mitchel S.

    2010-01-01

    To report long-term results for children with low-grade hypothalamic/chiasmatic gliomas treated on a phase II chemotherapy protocol. Between 1984 and 1992, 33 children with hypothalamic/chiasmatic LGGs received TPDCV chemotherapy on a phase II prospective trial. Median age was 3.0 years (range 0.3–16.2). Twelve patients (36%) underwent STRs, 14 (42%) biopsy only, and seven (21%) no surgery. Twenty patients (61%) had pathologic JPAs, nine (27%) grade II gliomas, and four (12%) no surgical sampling. Median f/u for surviving patients was 15.2 years (range 5.3–20.7); 20 of the 23 surviving patients had 14 or more years of follow-up. Fifteen-year PFS and OS were 23.4 and 71.2%, respectively. Twenty-five patients progressed, of whom 13 are NED, two are AWD, and 10 have died. All children who died were diagnosed and first treated at age three or younger. Age at diagnosis was significantly associated with relapse and survival (P = 0.004 for PFS and P = 0.037 for OS). No PFS or OS benefit was seen with STR versus biopsy/no sampling (P = 0.58 for PFS, P = 0.59 for OS). For patients with JPAs and WHO grade II tumors, the 15-year PFS was 18.8 and 22.2% (P = 0.95) and 15-year OS was 73.7 and 55.6% (P = 0.17), respectively. Upfront TPDCV for children with hypothalamic/chiasmatic LGGs resulted in 15-year OS of 71.2% and 15-year PFS of 23.4%. No survival benefit is demonstrated for greater extent of resection. Age is a significant prognostic factor for progression and survival. PMID:20221671

  16. Phase II TPDCV protocol for pediatric low-grade hypothalamic/chiasmatic gliomas: 15-year update.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Kavita K; Squire, Sarah; Lamborn, Kathleen; Banerjee, Anuradha; Gupta, Nalin; Wara, William M; Prados, Michael D; Berger, Mitchel S; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A

    2010-10-01

    To report long-term results for children with low-grade hypothalamic/chiasmatic gliomas treated on a phase II chemotherapy protocol. Between 1984 and 1992, 33 children with hypothalamic/chiasmatic LGGs received TPDCV chemotherapy on a phase II prospective trial. Median age was 3.0 years (range 0.3-16.2). Twelve patients (36%) underwent STRs, 14 (42%) biopsy only, and seven (21%) no surgery. Twenty patients (61%) had pathologic JPAs, nine (27%) grade II gliomas, and four (12%) no surgical sampling. Median f/u for surviving patients was 15.2 years (range 5.3-20.7); 20 of the 23 surviving patients had 14 or more years of follow-up. Fifteen-year PFS and OS were 23.4 and 71.2%, respectively. Twenty-five patients progressed, of whom 13 are NED, two are AWD, and 10 have died. All children who died were diagnosed and first treated at age three or younger. Age at diagnosis was significantly associated with relapse and survival (P = 0.004 for PFS and P = 0.037 for OS). No PFS or OS benefit was seen with STR versus biopsy/no sampling (P = 0.58 for PFS, P = 0.59 for OS). For patients with JPAs and WHO grade II tumors, the 15-year PFS was 18.8 and 22.2% (P = 0.95) and 15-year OS was 73.7 and 55.6% (P = 0.17), respectively. Upfront TPDCV for children with hypothalamic/chiasmatic LGGs resulted in 15-year OS of 71.2% and 15-year PFS of 23.4%. No survival benefit is demonstrated for greater extent of resection. Age is a significant prognostic factor for progression and survival. PMID:20221671

  17. College Daughters' Relationships with Their Fathers: A 15 Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Data collected from 1990 until 2004 from 423 college women show that, although the majority felt they had a loving relationship with their fathers, the vast majority felt that the mother-daughter relationship was more communicative, more emotionally intimate, and more comfortable. Daughters and mothers knew one another better and were more…

  18. A Study of Prospective Teachers' Consumption Patterns on Special Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saglam, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify prospective teachers' consumption patterns on special days. The sample was comprised of 29 prospective teachers (22 females and 7 males) who studied Primary School Teaching in the Faculty of Education at Sakarya University during the 2014-2015 Academic Year. The study was designed as a phenomenological…

  19. Study of Prospective Teachers' Conceptualization of Value Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koruklu, Nermin; Aktamis, Hilal

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were any changes in the conceptualization of prospective teachers' values preferences during their university studies. The research group was composed of 208 prospective teachers who were studying at Science Education, Social Science Education and Fine Arts Education at Adnan Menderes…

  20. Lessons Learned After 15 Years of Circumferential Bodylift Surgery.

    PubMed

    Small, Kevin H; Constantine, Ryan; Eaves, Felmont F; Kenkel, Jeffrey M

    2016-06-01

    Circumferential bodylift is a powerful procedure for achieving dramatic and natural body contouring changes in the massive weight loss patient. The care of these patients has raised our awareness of several important issues including safety, nutritional status, skin quality, recurrent laxity, surgical steps, and postoperative scars. Integration of this knowledge with various technical modifications over the last 15 years has improved our care for this cohort. We have not only seen a rise in the number of surgeries performed, but also the development of principles, techniques, and details that the authors feel necessary to share to achieve improved contour and more predictable outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 4: Therapeutic. PMID:26821642

  1. [Pancreatic cystic fibrosis in Mexicans over 15 years of age].

    PubMed

    Quezada, R; Hernandez, N; Sada, E

    1990-01-01

    A better knowledge of cystic fibrosis of the pancreas has contributed to raise the detection of cystic fibrosis in adults. We describe nine Mexican patients older than 15 years with cystic fibrosis. Respiratory symptoms were predominant and they were secondary to bronchiectasis. All patients were infected by mucoid Pseudomona aeruginosa and in some cases, the finding of this microorganism in sputum suggested the diagnosis. In Mexican population the cystyc fibrosis of the pancreas can be found in adult patients, and it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic respiratory diseases in adults. PMID:2125356

  2. Ion cyclotron emission studies: Retrospects and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkov, N. N.

    2016-05-01

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) studies emerged in part from the papers by A.B. Mikhailovskii published in the 1970s. Among the discussed subjects were electromagnetic compressional Alfvénic cyclotron instabilities with the linear growth rate √ {n_α /n_e } driven by fusion products, -particles which draw a lot of attention to energetic particle physics. The theory of ICE excited by energetic particles was significantly advanced at the end of the 20th century motivated by first DT experiments on TFTR and subsequent JET experimental studies which we highlight. More recently ICE theory was advanced by detailed theoretical and experimental studies on spherical torus (ST) fusion devices where the instability signals previously indistinguishable in high aspect ratio tokamaks due to high toroidal magnetic field became the subjects of experiments. We discuss further prospects of ICE theory applications for future burning plasma (BP) experiments such as those to be conducted in ITER device in France, where neutron and gamma rays escaping the plasma create extremely challenging conditions fusion alpha particle diagnostics.

  3. Ossiculoplasty: A Prospective Study of 80 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Shrinivas Shripatrao; Jain, Prateek V; Vedi, Jeevan N; Rai, Dharmendra kumar; Kadri, Himayat

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The use of ossicular graft material in ossicular chain reconstruction has significantly improved hearing results hearing after tympanoplasty and tympanomastoid surgery for chronic otitis media. Today, otologists have a wide array of tools from which to choose, but may find it difficult to know which middle ear implant works best. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of 80 patients who underwent ossiculoplasty was performed in the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) department at a tertiary health care facility from 2011 to 2013. Patients with chronic suppurative otitis media with an air-bone gap (ABG) of >25 dB with ossicular involvement were included in the study. Total ossicular replacement prosthesis (TORP), partial ossicular replacement prosthesis (PORP), and refashioned incus were used. Success was defined as ABG <25 dB on postoperative Day 90. Results: The majority patients were of middle age with moderate conductive hearing loss. Incus was the most susceptible ossicle. Overall success rate in this study was 80.0% with an average change of 15.76 dB in ABG. Conclusion: With continuing advances in our understanding of middle ear mechanics, the results of ossiculoplasty are improving and results can be very rewarding in experienced hands. Severity of preoperative ear discharge, preoperative mastoid cellularity, presence of disease, and surgical procedure proved to be significant prognostic factors. Autograft incus and PORP fared better when the malleus handle was present while TORP gave better results when the malleus handle was eroded. PMID:25009804

  4. Ion cyclotron emission studies: Retrospects and prospects

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gorelenkov, N. N.

    2016-06-05

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) studies emerged in part from the papers by A.B. Mikhailovskii published in the 1970s. Among the discussed subjects were electromagnetic compressional Alfv,nic cyclotron instabilities with the linear growth rate similar ~ √(nα/ne) driven by fusion products, -particles which draw a lot of attention to energetic particle physics. The theory of ICE excited by energetic particles was significantly advanced at the end of the 20th century motivated by first DT experiments on TFTR and subsequent JET experimental studies which we highlight. Recently ICE theory was advanced by detailed theoretical and experimental studies on spherical torus (ST) fusionmore » devices where the instability signals previously indistinguishable in high aspect ratio tokamaks due to high toroidal magnetic field became the subjects of experiments. Finally, we discuss prospects of ICE theory applications for future burning plasma (BP) experiments such as those to be conducted in ITER device in France, where neutron and gamma rays escaping the plasma create extremely challenging conditions fusion alpha particle diagnostics.« less

  5. A prospective study of rock climbing injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, J P; McNaughton, G W; Grant, P T

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the rate, causes, and nature of rock climbing injuries presenting to an accident and emergency (A&E) department. METHODS: Patients presenting with rock climbing injuries to an urban A&E department were studied prospectively for one year. RESULTS: 19 rock climbers presented during the year, at a rate of one per 2774 A&E attendances. Fourteen climbers were injured on outdoor cliffs and five on the local indoor climbing wall, where the safety mats were noted to be in poor condition. Eighteen climbers had been injured during falls, 17 hitting the ground. Twelve of these climbers sustained fractures, four of which were missed on initial attendance. The remaining climber sustained the characteristic A2 pulley finger injury, which was treated conservatively with a good result. CONCLUSIONS: The risks of rock climbing in Britain would be reduced if lead climbers arranged protection at earlier stages of climbs. Sports centres with climbing walls should regularly inspect and repair their safety equipment. It is important for staff in A&E departments to appreciate the large forces involved in any climbing fall, in order that significant injuries are not missed. Those treating injured climbers should also be aware of the specific injuries to which elite climbers are predisposed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8799601

  6. Injuries in competitive boxing. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Siewe, J; Rudat, J; Zarghooni, K; Sobottke, R; Eysel, P; Herren, C; Knöll, P; Illgner, U; Michael, J

    2015-03-01

    Boxing remains a subject of controversy and is often classified as dangerous. But the discussion is based mostly on retrospective studies. This survey was conducted as a prospective study. From October 2012 to September 2013, 44 competitive boxers were asked to report their injuries once a month. The questionnaire collected general information (training, competition) and recorded the number of bouts fought, injuries and resulting lost days. A total of 192 injuries were recorded, 133 of which resulted in interruption of training or competition. Each boxer sustained 3 injuries per year on average. The injury rate was 12.8 injuries per 1 000 h of training. Boxers fighting more than 3 bouts per year sustain more injuries (p=0.0075). The injury rate does is not a function of age (age≤19 vs. > 19a, p=0.53). Injuries to the head and the upper limbs occur most frequently. The most common injuries are soft tissue lacerations and contusions. Head injuries with neurological symptoms rarely occur (4.2%). Boxing has a high injury rate that is comparable with other contact sports, but most injuries are minor. Injury frequency is not a function of whether the boxer competes in the junior or adult category. Athletes fighting many bouts per year have a greater risk of injury. PMID:25376728

  7. ASTER 15 years challenging trail on-orbit operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Masakuni; Sakuma, Fumihiro; Tatsumi, Kenji; Inada, Hitomi; Itou, Yoshiyuki; Akagi, Shigeki; Ono, Hidehiko

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a high-resolution optical sensor system that can observe in a wide region from the visible and near-infrared, the short wavelength infrared to the thermal infrared with 14 spectral bands on board of NASA's Terra spacecraft for Earth Observing System (EOS) "A mission to planet earth." ASTER achieved 5 years mission success on orbit operation normally which is the specified target after launched on December, 1999. And after through 10 years continuous orbit operation, ASTER has still operating the long life observation of extra success to be 15 years in total on December, 2014. As for ASTER instrument that is composed of 3 radiometers; the Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer (VNIR) with 3 bands, the Short Wavelength Infrared Radiometer (SWIR) with 6 bands, the Thermal Infrared Radiometer (TIR) with 5 bands, overall ASTER long life data taken by 15 years onboard operation has been reviewed from the point of view of the health and safety check by Telemetry (TLM) data trend, the function and performance evaluation by observation data trend, the onboard calibration and verification by periodic Calibration(CAL) data trend. As a result, the radiometric degradation of VNIR and TIR and the temperature rise of SWIR detector were identified as significant challenges. The countermeasure plan towards the end of mission was clarified and also the novel lessons learned was verified.

  8. Development of Face Recognition in 5- to 15-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnunen, Suna; Korkman, Marit; Laasonen, Marja; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of face recognition in typically developing preschool- and school-aged children (aged 5 to 15 years old, "n" = 611, 336 girls). Social predictors include sex differences and own-sex bias. At younger ages, the development of face recognition was rapid and became more gradual as the age increased up…

  9. Behavior Disorders and Learning Disabilities over 15 Years in Rural Vermont.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huessy, Hans R.

    Early identification of Minimal Brain Dysfunction (MBD) is now easier, partly as a result of a series of 3 studies made in rural Vermont over a period of 15 years. MBD victims exhibit different behaviors at different ages. "Fidgetiness", a "nuisance" factor, and poor learning are all strong predictors of MBD for children at the 9th grade level.…

  10. Children Treated for Nocturnal Enuresis: Characteristics and Trends over a 15-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Kushnir, Baruch; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nocturnal Enuresis (NE) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders and has significant negative psychosocial impact on the child and family. Objective: To assess the characteristics of children with NE and trends over a 15-year period. Methods: The study included 18,677 children [11,205 (60%) boys and 7,472 (40%) girls] referred…

  11. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Blair, A.; Hines, C.J.; Thomas, K.W.; Alavanja, M.C.R.; Beane Freeman, L.E.; Hoppin, J.A.; Kamel, F.; Lynch, C.F.; Lubin, J.H.; Silverman, D.T.; Whelan, E.; Zahm, S. H.; Sandler, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the contribution of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes to the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used for occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. We draw upon our experience using this design to study agricultural workers to identify conditions that might foster use of prospective cohorts to study other occupational settings. Prospective cohort studies are perceived by many as the strongest epidemiologic design. It allows updating of information on exposure and other factors, collection of biologic samples before disease diagnosis for biomarker studies, assessment of effect modification by genes, lifestyle, and other occupational exposures, and evaluation of a wide range of health outcomes. Increased use of prospective cohorts would be beneficial in identifying hazardous exposures in the workplace. Occupational epidemiologists should seek opportunities to initiate prospective cohorts to investigate high priority, occupational exposures. PMID:25603935

  12. Superwarfarin poisoning in children: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Smolinske, S C; Scherger, D L; Kearns, P S; Wruk, K M; Kulig, K W; Rumack, B H

    1989-09-01

    This prospective study was undertaken to determine the incidence, severity, time of onset, and duration of coagulopathy in children following accidental ingestion of long-acting anticoagulant rodenticides, often called "superwarfarins." Of 110 children, who ingested superwarfarins and in whom one or more prothrombin time values were obtained, 8 had a prothrombin time ratio (patient to control) of greater than or equal to 1.2, indicative of anticoagulation. Prothrombin time values obtained 48 hours after ingestion were more likely to be prolonged (6/34, 17.6%) than values obtained 24 hours after ingestion (2/104, 1.9%) (P less than .005). The occurrence of an abnormal prothrombin time could not be predicted based on the history of amount ingested or on the presence of the characteristic green-blue product dye in or around the child's mouth. Acute toxicity was evidenced by transient abdominal pain, vomiting, and heme positive stools in 2 patients. The duration of prothrombin time prolongation could not be determined because of the few values obtained after 48 hours. To detect all possible abnormal prothrombin time values, 24- and 48-hour determinations are recommended after a child has ingested a superwarfarin. PMID:2771552

  13. Depression after CABG: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Joana Kátya Veras Rodrigues Sampaio; de Figueiredo Neto, José Albuquerque; de Sousa, Rosângela Maria Lopes; Costa, Vera Lívia Xavier de Castro; Silva, Flor de Maria Araújo Mendonça; da Hora, Ana Flávia Lima Teles; da Silva, Edna Lúcia Coutinho; Reis, Lívia Mariane Castelo Branco

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Depression during or shortly after hospitalization elevated two to three times the risk of mortality or nonfatal cardiac events, significantly increasing the morbidity and mortality of these patients. Objective To assess the impact of revascularization on symptoms of depression in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods A prospective cohort study of 57 patients of both sexes undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting between June 2010 and June 2011. We used the SF-36 to assess quality of life, and the Beck Depression Inventory to detect depressive symptoms, applied preoperatively and six months. Results The prevalence of patients aged 60-69 years was 22 patients (38.60%), 39 men (68.42%), 26 described themselves as mixed race (45.61%), 16 literate (28.07 %) and 30 married (52.63%). The beck depression inventory score demonstrated increased after revascularization: 15 patients mild (26.32%) at time zero to 17 (29.82%) after. And with moderate, seven patients (12.28%) before and 10 (17.54%) after. In the categories of individuals with decreased minimum degree of 32 (56.14%) to 28 (49.12%), and severe of three (5.26%) for two (3.51%) patients. Association was observed between beck depression inventory, gender, age, lifestyle, comorbidities and quality of life. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of elevated beck depression inventory scores, lowest scores of depressive symptoms among men and association between the improvement of quality of life scores and beck depression inventory. PMID:24598954

  14. Child cyclist injuries: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Armson, C J; Pollard, C W

    1986-02-01

    A prospective study of pedalcycle accident morbidity and mortality was carried out from February to mid-November 1983 because of the high frequency of child cyclist injuries that were occurring on the relatively flat Redcliffe Peninsula. These injuries were apparently associated with the large number of young children who use a bicycle as their main mode of transport to and from school. The schools were surveyed for the extent of bicycle use and cyclists were surveyed for the amount of protective clothing that was worn while involved in cycling. It was found that a disturbingly large number of young children made regular bicycle trips on public roads with the minimal use of safety helmets or any other form of protective clothing. Nearly 40% of on-road accidents involved children of less than 12 years of age, and over 10% of these involved children of six years of age or less. No child in our series of on-road accidents was, at the time of injury, wearing a safety helmet or any other form of protective clothing. No bicycle accidents occurred on the exclusive cycle track of approximately 1 km in length on the Peninsula. PMID:3945202

  15. Supracostal percutaneous nephrolithotomy: A prospective comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Maneesh; Krishnappa, Pramod; Subudhi, Santosh Kumar; Krishnamoorthy, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A widely prevalent fear of thoracic complications with the supracostal approach has led to its underutilization in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). We frequently use the supracostal approach and compared the efficacy and thoracic complications of infracostal, supra 12th, and supra 11th punctures. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study of patients who underwent PCNL between January 2005 and December 2012. The patients were divided into three groups based on the access: infracostal, supra 12th (between the 11th and 12th ribs) and supra 11th (between the 10th and 11th ribs). Clearance rates, fall in hemoglobin levels, transfusion rates, perioperative analgesic requirements, hospital stay and thoracic complications were compared. Results: Seven hundred patients were included for analysis. There were 179 (25.5%) patients in the supra 11th group, 187 (26.7%) patients in the supra 12th group and 334 (47.8%) patients in the infracostal group. The overall clearance rate was 78% with no difference in the three groups. The postoperative analgesic requirements were significantly higher in the supracostal groups and showed a graded increase from infracostal to supra 12th to supra 11th. During the study period, only 2 patients required angioembolization (0.3%) and none required open exploration. The number of patients requiring intercostal chest drain insertion was extremely low, at 1.6% and 2.2% in the supra 12th and supra 11th groups, respectively. Conclusions: Our results confirm the feasibility of the supracostal approach including punctures above the 11th rib, albeit at the cost of an increase in thoracic complications. Staying in the line of the calyx has helped us to minimize the most dreaded complication of bleeding requiring angioembolization. PMID:26941494

  16. U.S. energy independence in 15 years

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Chris R

    2008-01-01

    Establish U.S. energy independence within 15 years -- This is a enormous systems engineering challenge to thoroughly analyze the present mix of power generation, energy consumption in all sectors such as transportation, industrial, commercial and residential, and devise new technologies to assist the process to independence. At this level, all citizens will be affected, requiring not only effective technologies, but superior cost/benefit ratios and effective free market interactions. With U.S. energy independence, world markets will be influenced. It will be necessary to develop or modify new energy sources, possibly including storage, and adjust or modify energy consumption profiles. Figure 1 shows the expected transition from present-day energy consumption based on both domestic and imported energy. During the 15 year period, the U.S. transitions to energy independence, eliminating imports, and perhaps reduces total energy consumption due to increased efficiency. In the future, U.S. energy consumption is able to grow in accordance with national policies and enhanced domestic capabilities. At the present time, the primary energy import is hydrocarbon products -- primarily oil. Of that imported oil, most of it is used for transportation. In order to reduce the need for imported oil, the U.S. will need to revamp its energy supply and energy consumption mixes. This change in business and usage in the U.S. will require enonnous effort on the part of many organizations and individuals. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) will take the technological lead on this grand challenge. Nearly all directorates, technical, planning and policy capabilities will be brought together and focused on this objective. A simplified chart of the interactions within LANL is shown in Figure 3. Given the enonnous undertaking of U.S. energy independence, the vast engineering, technological and science-based capabilities of LANL will work together performing systems engineering, applied

  17. Abuse-Specific Self-Schemas and Self-Functioning: A Prospective Study of Sexually Abused Youth

    PubMed Central

    Feiring, Candice; Cleland, Charles M.; Simon, Valerie A.

    2009-01-01

    Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to negative self-schemas to subsequent dissociative symptoms and low global self-esteem were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8-15 years of age, and again 1- and 6- years later. Abuse-specific indicators of stigmatization, in particular the combination of shame and self-blame, more than general self-blame attributions for everyday events, explained which youth with CSA histories experienced more dissociative symptoms and clinically significant levels of dissociation. Abuse-specific stigmatization was found to operate as a prospective mechanism for subsequent dissociative symptoms but not self-esteem. PMID:20390797

  18. Reanalysis of a 15-year Archive of IMPROVE Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyslop, N. P.; White, W. H.; Trzepla, K.

    2013-12-01

    The IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments) network monitors aerosol concentrations at 170 remote sites throughout the United States. Twenty-four-hour filter samples of particulate matter are collected every third day and analyzed for chemical composition. About 30 of the sites have operated continuously since 1988, and the sustained data record (http://views.cira.colostate.edu/web/) offers a unique window on regional aerosol trends. All elemental analyses have been performed by Crocker Nuclear Laboratory at the University of California in Davis, and sample filters collected since 1995 are archived on campus. The suite of reported elements has remained constant, but the analytical methods employed for their determination have evolved. For example, the elements Na - Mn were determined by PIXE until November 2001, then by XRF analysis in a He-flushed atmosphere through 2004, and by XRF analysis in vacuum since January 2005. In addition to these fundamental changes, incompletely-documented operational factors such as detector performance and calibration details have introduced variations in the measurements. Because the past analytical methods were non-destructive, the archived filters can be re-analyzed with the current analytical systems and protocols. The 15-year sample archives from Great Smoky Mountains, Mount Rainier, and Point Reyes National Parks were selected for reanalysis. The agreement between the new analyses and original determinations varies with element and analytical era (Figure 1). Temporal trends for some elements are affected by these changes in measurement technique while others are not (Figure 2). Figure 1. Repeatability of analyses for sulfur and vanadium at Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Each point shows the ratio of mass loadings determined by the original analysis and recent reanalysis. Major method distinctions are indicated at the top. Figure 2. Trends, based on Thiel-Sen regression, in lead concentrations

  19. Patterns of Weight Control Behavior among 15 year old Girls

    PubMed Central

    Balantekin, Katherine N.; Birch, Leann L.; Savage, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objectives were to identify and predict patterns of weight control behavior in 15 year old (yo) girls and to examine weight control group differences in energy intake. Method Subjects included 166 girls assessed every 2 years (ys) from age 5 to 15. Latent class analysis was used to identify patterns of weight control behaviors. Antecedent variables (e.g. inhibitory control at 7ys), and concurrent variables (e.g. BMI and dietary intake at 15ys) were included as predictors. Assessments were a combination of survey, interview, and laboratory measures. Results LCA identified four classes of weight control behaviors, Non-dieters (26%), and three dieting groups: Lifestyle (16%), Dieters (43%), and Extreme Dieters (17%). Levels of restraint, weight concerns, and dieting frequency increased across groups, from Non-dieters to Extreme Dieters. BMI at 5ys and inhibitory control at 7ys predicted weight control group at 15ys; e.g. with every one-point decrease in inhibitory control, girls were twice as likely to be Extreme Dieters than Non-dieters. Girls in the Extreme Dieters group were mostly classified as under-reporters, and had the lowest self-reported intake, but ate significantly more in the laboratory. Discussion Among 15yo girls, “dieting” includes a range of both healthy and unhealthy behaviors. Risk factors for membership in a weight control groups are present as early as 5ys. Patterns of intake in the laboratory support the view that lower reported energy intake by Extreme Dieters is likely due under-reporting as an intent to decrease intake, not actual decreased intake. PMID:26284953

  20. Dynamic Characteristic Analysis of Spinal Motor Control Between 11- and 15-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Chow, Daniel H; Lau, Newman M

    2016-07-01

    Spinal motor control can provide substantial insight for the causes of spinal musculoskeletal disorders. Its dynamic characteristics however, have not been fully investigated. The objective of this study is to explore the dynamic characteristics of spinal motor control via the fractional Brownian motion mathematical technique. Spinal curvatures and repositioning errors of different spinal regions in 64 children age 11- or 15-years old during upright stance were measured and compared for the effects of age and gender. With the application of the fractional Brownian motion analytical technique to the changes of spinal curvatures, distinct persistent movement behaviors could be determined, which could be interpreted physiologically as open-loop behaviors. Moreover, it was found that the spinal motor control of 15-year-old children was better than that of 11-year-old children with smaller repositioning error and less curvature variability as well as shorter response time and smaller curvature deformation. PMID:26314089

  1. Early Violent Death Among Delinquent Youth: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Teplin, Linda A.; McClelland, Gary M.; Abram, Karen M.; Mileusnic, Darinka

    2005-01-01

    Objective Youth processed in the juvenile justice system are at great risk for early violent death. Groups at greatest risk, ie, racial/ethnic minorities, male youth, and urban youth, are overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. We compared mortality rates for delinquent youth with those for the general population, controlling for differences in gender, race/ethnicity, and age. Methods This prospective longitudinal study examined mortality rates among 1829 youth (1172 male and 657 female) enrolled in the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a study of health needs and outcomes of delinquent youth. Participants, 10 to 18 years of age, were sampled randomly from intake at the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center in Chicago, Illinois, between 1995 and 1998. The sample was stratified according to gender, race/ethnicity (African American, non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, or other), age (10–13 or ≥14 years), and legal status (processed as a juvenile or as an adult), to obtain enough participants for examination of key subgroups. The sample included 1005 African American (54.9%), 296 non-Hispanic white (16.2%), 524 Hispanic (28.17%), and 4 other-race/ethnicity (0.2%) subjects. The mean age at enrollment was 14.9 years (median age: 15 years). The refusal rate was 4.2%. As of March 31, 2004, we had monitored participants for 0.5 to 8.4 years (mean: 7.1 years; median: 7.2 years; interquartile range: 6.5–7.8 years); the aggregate exposure for all participants was 12 944 person-years. Data on deaths and causes of death were obtained from family reports or records and were then verified by the local medical examiner or the National Death Index. For comparisons of mortality rates for delinquents and the general population, all data were weighted according to the racial/ethnic, gender, and age characteristics of the detention center; these weighted standardized populations were used to calculate reported percentages and mortality ratios. We calculated mortality

  2. ASTER VNIR 15 years growth to the standard imaging radiometer in remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramatsu, Masaru; Inada, Hitomi; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Sakuma, Fumihiro

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer (VNIR) is the remote sensing equipment which has 3 spectral bands and one along-track stereoscopic band radiometer. ASTER VNIR's planned long life design (more than 5 years) is successfully achieved. ASTER VNIR has been imaging the World-wide Earth surface multiband images and the Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM). VNIR data create detailed world-wide maps and change-detection of the earth surface as utilization transitions and topographical changes. ASTER VNIR's geometric resolution is 15 meters; it is the highest spatial resolution instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft. Then, ASTER VNIR was planned for the geometrical basis map makers in Terra instruments. After 15-years VNIR growth to the standard map-maker for space remote-sensing. This paper presents VNIR's feature items during 15-year operation as change-detection images , DEM and calibration result. VNIR observed the World-wide Earth images for biological, climatological, geological, and hydrological study, those successful work shows a way on space remote sensing instruments. Still more, VNIR 15 years observation data trend and onboard calibration trend data show several guide or support to follow-on instruments.

  3. Active Commuting Throughout Adolescence and Central Fatness before Adulthood: Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Gomez, David; Mielke, Gregore I.; Menezes, Ana M.; Gonçalves, Helen; Barros, Fernando C.; Hallal, Pedro C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Active commuting is a good opportunity to accumulate physical activity (PA) across the lifespan that potentially might influence central body fat. We aimed to examine the prospective associations of active commuting at 11, 15 and 18 years of age with central body fat at 18 years. Methods Participants were part of a large birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil (n = 3,649 participants). Active commuting, leisure-time PA and income were self-reported at 11, 15 and 18 years. Waist circumference and trunk fat mass were collected at 18 years with the use of a 3-dimensional photonic scanner and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, respectively. Results Active commuting at 11 years was not prospectively associated with central body fat. However, we found that active commuting at 15 and 18 years were prospectively and cross-sectionally associated with central body fat variables, respectively, in boys but not in girls. Also, boys in the highest tertile of accumulated active commuting (i.e., average of active commuting at 11, 13 and 18 years) were associated with −2.09 cm (95%CI: −3.24; −0.94) of waist circumference and −1.11 kg (95%CI: −1.74; −0.48) of trunk fat mass compared to boys in the lowest tertile. Analyses on changes in tertiles of active commuting from 11 and 15 years to 18 years with central body fat variables at 18 years showed that boys who remained consistently in the highest tertile or moved to a higher tertile had lower levels of central body fat compared to those consistently in the lowest tertile. Conclusions Active commuting throughout adolescence in boys, especially during middle and late adolescence, is associated with lower levels in central fatness before adulthood. PMID:24791780

  4. Children's Liking of Landscape Paintings as a Function of Their Perceptions of Prospect, Refuge, and Hazard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Mary Ann; Shrout, Patrick E.

    2006-01-01

    Prospect-refuge theory was used to study children's aesthetic responses to landscape paintings. Sixty-seven children between the ages of 8 and 15 years reported their liking for 28 landscape paintings and their perceptions of the degree of prospect, refuge, and hazard in those paintings. Consistent with expectations, children were able to express…

  5. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the role of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes in the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used in the study of occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. W...

  6. Social Capital and Health: A Review of Prospective Multilevel Studies

    PubMed Central

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background This article presents an overview of the concept of social capital, reviews prospective multilevel analytic studies of the association between social capital and health, and discusses intervention strategies that enhance social capital. Methods We conducted a systematic search of published peer-reviewed literature on the PubMed database and categorized studies according to health outcome. Results We identified 13 articles that satisfied the inclusion criteria for the review. In general, both individual social capital and area/workplace social capital had positive effects on health outcomes, regardless of study design, setting, follow-up period, or type of health outcome. Prospective studies that used a multilevel approach were mainly conducted in Western countries. Although we identified some cross-sectional multilevel studies that were conducted in Asian countries, including Japan, no prospective studies have been conducted in Asia. Conclusions Prospective evidence from multilevel analytic studies of the effect of social capital on health is very limited at present. If epidemiologic findings on the association between social capital and health are to be put to practical use, we must gather additional evidence and explore the feasibility of interventions that build social capital as a means of promoting health. PMID:22447212

  7. Surface reflectance and material studies for the PROSPECT Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowes, Alyssa; Prospect Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The PROSPECT Experiment aims to probe the existence of sterile neutrino oscillations by measuring the energy spectrum of antineutrinos emanating from nuclear reactors in a matrix of optically separated target scintillator cells at a variety of reactor-detector baselines. By measuring the absolute spectrum we also learn about reactors and what isotopes they produce. In order to properly model and optimise PROSPECT's energy resolution and background rejection capabilities, the reflective properties of the cell surfaces must be well understood. To address this, a study of various reflective surfaces under consideration to be used in the detector was conducted at non-normal incident angles through liquid using a custom-built laser-based reflectance measurement system. This presentation will describe the apparatus, reflectance measurements, and implications for the PROSPECT optical cell performance. Future plans to incorporate measurements into existing optical simulations will also be discussed. Funding provided by Illinois Institute of Technology College of Science.

  8. The Long Journey of TCL1 Transgenic Mice: Lessons Learned in the Last 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Pekarsky, Yuri; Drusco, Alessandra; Kumchala, Prasanthi; Croce, Carlo M.; Zanesi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The first transgenic mouse of the TCL1 oncogene was described more than 15 years ago, and since then, the overexpression of the gene in T- and B-cells in vivo has been extensively studied to reveal the molecular details in the pathogenesis of some lymphocytic leukemias. This review discusses the main features of the original TCL1 models and the different lines of research successively developed with particular attention to genetically compound mice and the therapeutic applications in drug development. PMID:25700368

  9. Effect of zolpidem in chronic disorders of consciousness: a prospective open-label study

    PubMed Central

    Thonnard, Marie; Gosseries, Olivia; Demertzi, Athena; Lugo, Zulay; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Chatelle, Camille; Thibaut, Aurore; Charland-Verville, Vanessa; Habbal, Dina; Schnakers, Caroline; Laureys, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Summary Zolpidem has been reported as an “awakening drug” in some patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). We here present the results of a prospective open-label study in chronic DOC patients. Sixty patients (35±15 years; 18 females; mean time since insult ± SD: 4±5.5 years; 31 with traumatic etiology) with a diagnosis of vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (n=28) or minimally conscious state (n=32) were behaviorally assessed using the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) before and one hour after administration of 10 mg of zolpidem. At the group level, the diagnosis did not change after intake of zolpidem (p=0.10) and CRS-R total scores decreased (p=0.01). Twelve patients (20%) showed improved behaviors and/or CRS-R total scores after zolpidem administration but in only one patient was the diagnosis after zolpidem intake found to show a significant improvement (functional object use), which suggested a change of diagnosis. However, in this patient, a double-blind placebo-controlled trial was performed in order to better specify the effects of zolpidem, but the patient, on this trial, failed to show any clinical improvements. The present open-label study therefore failed to show any clinically significant improvement (i.e., change of diagnosis) in any of the 60 studied chronic DOC patients. PMID:24598393

  10. A Qualitative Study on the Prospective Social Studies Teachers' Role-Model Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonga, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    In this study is intended to investigate prospective social studies teachers' role model preferences and the reflections of these preferences to their daily lives. This study was designed as a qualitative study in the form of descriptive model. The participants consisted of 306 prospective social studies teachers enrolled in nine different…

  11. Prospects of Elliptic Flow Studies at NICA/MPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraksiev, Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    As a key observable, anisotropic flow presents a unique insight into heavy ion collision physics. The presented poster reveals the prospects of studying elliptic flow at the NICA/MPD facility through the UrQMD model. Here, results for the elliptic flow of simulated and reconstructed hadrons at the planned NICA energy range are presented.

  12. PROSPECTIVE PREGNANCY STUDY DESIGNS FOR ASSESSING REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective Pregnancy Study Designs for Assessing Reproductive and Developmental Toxicants
    Germaine M. Buck,1 Courtney D. Johnson,1 Joseph Stanford,2 Anne Sweeney,3 Laura Schieve,4 John Rockett,5 Sherry G. Selevan,6 Steve Schrader 7

    Abstract
    The origin of successfu...

  13. Prospective Study of the Effectiveness of Coping in Pediatric Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehnder, Daniel; Prchal, Alice; Vollrath, Margarete; Landolt, Markus A.

    2006-01-01

    Findings about the influence of coping on psychological adjustment in children with different medical conditions are inconsistent and often based on cross-sectional data. This prospective study evaluated the effect of various coping strategies on children's post-traumatic stress symptoms and behavioral problems 1 month and 1 year after an…

  14. Development in Children with Achondroplasia: A Prospective Clinical Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireland, Penelope J.; Donaghey, Samantha; McGill, James; Zankl, Andreas; Ware, Robert S.; Pacey, Verity; Ault, Jenny; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Thompson, Elizabeth; Townshend, Sharron; Johnston, Leanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Achondroplasia is characterized by delays in the development of communication and motor skills. While previously reported developmental profiles exist across gross motor, fine motor, feeding, and communication skills, there has been no prospective study of development across multiple areas simultaneously. Method: This Australasian…

  15. Prospective Nationwide Study of Aeromonas Infections in France▿

    PubMed Central

    Lamy, Brigitte; Kodjo, Angeli; Laurent, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    We report a systematic prospective multicenter nationwide study of clinical Aeromonas infections in France. During 6 months (May to October 2006), 78 cases of aeromonosis were reviewed for risk factors and clinical, microbiological, and antimicrobial susceptibility data. They included wound infections (44%), bacteremia (26%), enteritis (19%), respiratory tract infections (6%), and miscellaneous (5%) infections. PMID:19244464

  16. Students' Perception on the Prospect of Economics Education Study Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiriza, Mica Siar

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the extent to which perceptions of students on the prospect of the Economics Education Program. The method used in this research is descriptive method in which the required data is obtained through questionnaire and technique of analyzing data used is percentages. Questionnaires were distributed through the Student…

  17. Studying Native America: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Russell, Ed.

    Based on a conference, this volume examines the past, present, and future of Native American studies. Native American studies seeks to understand Native Americans, America, and the world from a Native American indigenous perspective, and thereby broaden the education of both Native and non-Native Americans. Part 1 asks who Native Americans are…

  18. Advanced Stage, Increased Lactate Dehydrogenase, and Primary Site, but Not Adolescent Age (≥ 15 Years), Are Associated With an Increased Risk of Treatment Failure in Children and Adolescents With Mature B-Cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Results of the FAB LMB 96 Study

    PubMed Central

    Cairo, Mitchell S.; Sposto, Richard; Gerrard, Mary; Auperin, Anne; Goldman, Stanton C.; Harrison, Lauren; Pinkerton, Ross; Raphael, Martine; McCarthy, Keith; Perkins, Sherrie L.; Patte, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Adolescents (age 15 to 21 years) compared with younger children with mature B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) have been historically considered to have an inferior prognosis. We therefore analyzed the impact of age and other diagnostic factors on the risk of treatment failure in children and adolescents treated on the French-American-British Mature B-Cell Lymphoma 96 (FAB LMB 96) trial. Patients and Methods Patients were divided by risk: group A (limited), group B (intermediate), and group C (advanced), as previously described. Prognostic factors analyzed for event-free survival (EFS) included age (< 15 v ≥ 15 years), stage (I/II v III/IV), primary site, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), bone marrow/CNS (BM/CNS) involvement, and histology (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma v mediastinal B-cell lymphoma v Burkitt lymphoma or Burkitt-like lymphoma). Results The 3-year EFS for the whole cohort was 88% ± 1%. Age was not associated as a risk factor for increased treatment failure in either univariate analysis (P = .15) or multivariate analysis (P = .58). Increased LDH (≥ 2 × upper limit of normal [ULN] v < 2 × ULN), primary site, and BM-positive/CNS-positive disease were all independent risk factors associated with a significant increase in treatment failure rate (relative risk, 2.0; P < .001, P < .012, and P < .001, respectively). Conclusion LDH level at diagnosis, mediastinal disease, and combined BM-positive/CNS-positive involvement are independent risk factors in children with mature B-cell NHL. Future studies should be developed to identify specific therapeutic strategies (immunotherapy) to overcome these risk factors and to identify the biologic basis associated with these prognostic factors in children with mature B-cell NHL. PMID:22215753

  19. Prospects for alpha particle studies on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.

    1987-05-01

    TFTR is expected to produce approximately 5 MW of alpha heating during the D/T Q approx. = 1 phase of operation in 1990. At that point the collective confinement properties and the heating effects of alpha particles become accessible for study for the first time. This paper outlines the potential performance of TFTR with respect to alpha particle production, the diagnostics which will be available for alpha particle measurements, and the physics issues which can be studied both before and during D/T operation.

  20. Oral cavity rare lesions: 15 years case histories

    PubMed Central

    BARTULI, F.N.; LUCIANI, F.; CARDONI, G.; MUZZI, F.; CADDEO, F.; OTTRIA, L.; ARCURI, C.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives. Oral cavity rare diseases include a various group of uncommon morbid conditions. For this reason they are often called “orphan diseases”, as they are not interesting for research and the description of their natural history is not easy. The aim of our study is to analyze the prevalence and the distribution of oral cavity rare diseases in order to increase their knowledge and allow a fast therapeutic approach. Methods and material. 3144 patients took part to our study, they were choosen according to specific criteria and included in a experimental program; they all were prepared for oral biopsy surgery at Fatebenefratelli Hospital - Tor Vergata University of Rome. Following the results of the histological diagnosis, patients have been grouped. Results. From 1996 to 2010, we observed 1635 men and 1509 women, average age was 53 years, higher for women (55y.) and lower for men (52y.). Conclusions. Nevertheless the low level of accordance and the difficulty in description of natural history of diseases reported in literature, we can conclude that, according to our study the onset of rare diseases shows a percentage of appearing statistically significant. PMID:23277869

  1. Prostate, Lung, Colon, and Ovary Prospective Study

    Cancer.gov

    A large cohort study of etiologic determinants of cancer carried out within an NCI trial for the evaluation of screening procedures for the early detection of prostate, lung, colon, and ovarian cancer (the PLCO Trial) at 10 U.S. screening centers

  2. Communication Studies in Australia: Achievements and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Harry

    The introduction of communications studies in Australian higher education and problems and achievements of the past decade are discussed. Attention is directed to: the development of formal college coursework; staff training and retraining schemes to support development; academic and professional associations; journals in the field; and research,…

  3. Problems and Prospect of Chinese Communication Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Guo-Ming

    Chinese have systematically practiced communication for over two thousand years, but from the Western perspective communication education and research in Chinese societies only began to burgeon in recent decades. In addition to summarizing the Western and traditional Chinese communication study and practice, this paper identified four problems…

  4. Community-acquired intracranial suppurative infections: A 15-year report

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırmak, Taner; Gedik, Habip; Şimşek, Funda; Kantürk, Arzu

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of patients with intracranial suppurative infection (ISI) by review of clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings. Methods: The data collected from all patients who had been diagnosed with ISI and followed up at the Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology Department of the study site between 1998 and 2013 were reviewed. Results: Of the 23 ISI patients identified, the mean age was 38.21 ± 12.61 years (range: 19–67 years, median: 34) and mean symptom duration was 22.25 ± 20.22 days. Headache was the most common symptom, the frontal lobe the most common localization of ISI, and mastoiditis due to chronic suppurative otitis media the most common source of infection causing ISI. Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., Enterococcus avium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, and Toxoplasma gondii were isolated from the specimens collected from 6 (37.5%) of the 16 patients who underwent invasive procedures. Of these 16 patients, 2 underwent craniotomy, 12 burr hole aspiration, and 2 stereotactic biopsy. The rate of recurrence was 0% and the rates of sequelae and fatality were both 8%. Conclusions: ISI should be considered in male patients presenting with headache and neurological signs and symptoms, whether with or without fever, on admission for early diagnosis and provision of timely, adequate therapy and, if required, surgical intervention to reduce mortality and sequelae rates. PMID:25317357

  5. Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance of Helicobacter pylori in the last 15 years in West Poland.

    PubMed

    Karpiński, Tomasz M; Andrzejewska, Ewa; Eder, Piotr; Linke, Krzysztof; Szkaradkiewicz, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Increasing resistance to drugs represents a serious problem in treatment of infections with Helicobacter pylori, providing cause of frequent therapeutic failures. Present study aimed at analysis of changes in resistance of H. pylori to antibiotics in West Poland within the recent 15 years. 108 strains of H. pylori were analysed, isolated from gastric mucosa of adult patients. Group 1 involved 66 strains isolated in years of 1998/1999. Group 2 comprised 42 isolates obtained in years of 2013/2014. Susceptibility to amoxicillin (AMX), clarithromycin (CL), tetracycline (TC) and metronidazole (MTZ) was determined by E-test (AB Biodisc). All strains on both studied groups were susceptible to AMX. In group 1 all strains proved to be susceptible to TC, while 9% and 36% of tested strains were resistant to CL and MTZ, respectively. By contrast, in group 2, 31% and 83% of strains were resistant to CL and MTZ, respectively. In parallel, 14% strains were found to be resistant to TC (according to EUCAST interpretations). In West Poland, within recent 15 years a dramatic increase was noted in H. pylori strains resistant to metronidazole. In parallel, a significant increase was noted in proportion of strains resistant to clarithromycin. PMID:26551571

  6. Sociocultural risk factors for compulsive exercise: a prospective study of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Huw; Haycraft, Emma; Meyer, Caroline

    2014-09-01

    The risk factors for compulsive exercise are unknown. This study aims to explore longitudinal sociocultural risk factors for compulsive exercise, using a 12-month prospective design. A sample of 332 male and female adolescents (aged 13-15 years at baseline) completed self-report measures of sociocultural risk factors and compulsive exercise at baseline and eating disorder psychopathology and compulsive exercise at 12-month follow-up assessment. Hierarchical regressions found that family and peer messages to become more muscular predicted compulsive exercise in boys, whereas feeling pressure from the media to be thin was a significant predictor of compulsive exercise in girls. These relationships remained significant when controlling for eating disorder psychopathology but became nonsignificant when initial levels of compulsive exercise were entered into the model. The findings suggest that sociocultural risk factors may contribute to the development of compulsive exercise but future research should utilise a younger sample and employ a longer follow-up period to identify true longitudinal effects. PMID:25059109

  7. Teaching, Practice, Feedback: 15 years of COMPASS science communication training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeley, L.; Smith, B.; McLeod, K.; English, C. A.; Baron, N.

    2014-12-01

    COMPASS is focused on helping scientists build the skills and relationships they need to effectively participate in public discourse. Founded in 2001 with an emphasis on ocean science, and since expanding to a broader set of environmental sciences, we have advised, coached, and/or trained thousands of researchers of all career stages. Over the years, our primary work has notably shifted from needing to persuade scientists why communication matters to supporting them as they pursue the question of what their communication goals are and how best to achieve them. Since our earliest forays into media promotion, we have evolved with the state of the science communication field. In recent years, we have adapted our approach to one that facilitates dialogue and encourages engagement, helps scientists identify the most relevant people and times to engage, tests our own assumptions, and incorporates relevant social science as possible. In this case study, we will discuss more than a decade of experience in helping scientists find or initiate and engage in meaningful conversations with journalists and policymakers.

  8. STATISTICAL PRINCIPLES FOR PROSPECTIVE STUDY PROTOCOLS:

    PubMed Central

    Langberg, Henning

    2012-01-01

    In the design of scientific studies it is essential to decide on which scientific questions one aims to answer, just as it is important to decide on the correct statistical methods to use to answer these questions. The correct use of statistical methods is crucial in all aspects of research to quantify relationships in data. Despite an increased focus on statistical content and complexity of biomedical research these topics remain difficult for most researchers. Statistical methods enable researchers to condense large spreadsheets with data into means, proportions, and difference between means, risk differences, and other quantities that convey information. One of the goals in biomedical research is to develop parsimonious models ‐ meaning as simple as possible. This approach is valid if the subsequent research report (the article) is written independent of whether the results are “statistically significant” or not. In the present paper we outline the considerations and suggestions on how to build a trial protocol, with an emphasis on having a rigorous protocol stage, always leading to a full article manuscript, independent of statistical findings. We conclude that authors, who find (rigorous) protocol writing too troublesome, will realize that they have already written the first half of the final paper if they follow these recommendations; authors simply need to change the protocols future tense into past tense. Thus, the aim of this clinical commentary is to describe and explain the statistical principles for trial protocols in terms of design, analysis, and reporting of findings. PMID:23091782

  9. Adherence to immunosuppression: a prospective diary study.

    PubMed

    Gordon, E J; Prohaska, T R; Gallant, M P; Siminoff, L A

    2007-12-01

    Immunosuppression adherence among kidney transplant recipients is essential for graft survival. However, nonadherence is common, jeopardizing graft survival. Besides skipping dosages, little is known about other forms of medication nonadherence and their underlying reasons. This study sought to examine patients' extent of medication adherence over time and reasons for nonadherence. Thirty-nine new kidney transplant recipients were asked to complete a month-long medication-taking diary that included reporting medication nonadherence such as skipped medications, medications taken early or late, taking dosages greater or less than prescribed, and the reason for each occurrence of nonadherence. Of the 20 (51%) patients who completed the diary, 11 (55%) reported at least 1 form of nonadherence. Eleven patients reported taking their immunosuppression at least 1 hour later than the prescribed time, 1 patient reported skipping medication, but no patients reported changing the dosage on their own. Immunosuppression was taken on average 1.5 hours after the prescribed time. Of those patients who took their medications late, there were on average 3.1 occasions of taking it late. The most common reasons for this behavior included health care-related issues, followed by oversleeping, being away from home, work-related barriers, and forgetting. The majority of kidney transplant recipients took medications later than prescribed during 1 month. Future research should determine the clinical impact on graft function of late administration of immunosuppression. Interventions should be designed to better assist kidney recipients with taking medications on time, especially when they are away from home. PMID:18089327

  10. Pulse Pressure Magnifies the Effect of COMT Val158Met on 15 Years Episodic Memory Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Ninni; Lavebratt, Catharina; Sundström, Anna; Fischer, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether a physiological marker of cardiovascular health, pulse pressure (PP), and age magnified the effect of the functional COMT Val158Met (rs4680) polymorphism on 15-years cognitive trajectories [episodic memory (EM), visuospatial ability, and semantic memory] using data from 1585 non-demented adults from the Betula study. A multiple-group latent growth curve model was specified to gauge individual differences in change, and average trends therein. The allelic variants showed negligible differences across the cognitive markers in average trends. The older portion of the sample selectively age-magnified the effects of Val158Met on EM changes, resulting in greater decline in Val compared to homozygote Met carriers. This effect was attenuated by statistical control for PP. Further, PP moderated the effects of COMT on 15-years EM trajectories, resulting in greater decline in Val carriers, even after accounting for the confounding effects of sex, education, cardiovascular diseases (diabetes, stroke, and hypertension), and chronological age, controlled for practice gains. The effect was still present after excluding individuals with a history of cardiovascular diseases. The effects of cognitive change were not moderated by any other covariates. This report underscores the importance of addressing synergistic effects in normal cognitive aging, as the addition thereof may place healthy individuals at greater risk for memory decline. PMID:26973509

  11. Pulse Pressure Magnifies the Effect of COMT Val(158)Met on 15 Years Episodic Memory Trajectories.

    PubMed

    Persson, Ninni; Lavebratt, Catharina; Sundström, Anna; Fischer, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether a physiological marker of cardiovascular health, pulse pressure (PP), and age magnified the effect of the functional COMT Val(158)Met (rs4680) polymorphism on 15-years cognitive trajectories [episodic memory (EM), visuospatial ability, and semantic memory] using data from 1585 non-demented adults from the Betula study. A multiple-group latent growth curve model was specified to gauge individual differences in change, and average trends therein. The allelic variants showed negligible differences across the cognitive markers in average trends. The older portion of the sample selectively age-magnified the effects of Val(158)Met on EM changes, resulting in greater decline in Val compared to homozygote Met carriers. This effect was attenuated by statistical control for PP. Further, PP moderated the effects of COMT on 15-years EM trajectories, resulting in greater decline in Val carriers, even after accounting for the confounding effects of sex, education, cardiovascular diseases (diabetes, stroke, and hypertension), and chronological age, controlled for practice gains. The effect was still present after excluding individuals with a history of cardiovascular diseases. The effects of cognitive change were not moderated by any other covariates. This report underscores the importance of addressing synergistic effects in normal cognitive aging, as the addition thereof may place healthy individuals at greater risk for memory decline. PMID:26973509

  12. [Prenatal diagnosis. Review, personal and prospective studies].

    PubMed

    Engel, E; Empson, J; DeLozier, D; McGee, B; da Costa Woodson, E; Engel-de Montmollin, M; Carter, T; Lorber, C; Cassidy, S B; Millis, J; Heller, R M; Boehm, F; Vanhooydonk, J

    1979-07-01

    instruments is particularly useful in cases where a severe fetal morphologic malformation cannot currently be identified by indirect visualization (ultrasound) or by analysis of cytogenetic or molecular markers. 6. Pathological accumulations of alpha-fetoprotein which are associated with diverse feto-placental abnormalities (particularly open malformations of the neural tube) can be detected in the amniotic fluid and/or maternal blood. In extension of this approach, it is foreseeable that conditions existing prenatally will be diagnosed in a growing number of cases from the study of fetal cells and molecules which can be isolated from the venous blood of pregnant women. This will become feasible as a result of some well-developed techniques which allow separation of fetal from maternal cells and metabolites, and also to some extremely fine analytic techniques, notably examination of the DNA itself by means of restriction enzymes. PMID:88763

  13. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of 19 games…

  14. In-School Neighborhood Youth Corps. 14/15 Year-Old Black Teenage Girl Project, Memphis, Tennessee. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Andrew; And Others

    This study analyzes the effects on 14- and 15-year-old black teenage girls of entering and participating in a specially designed work program. The girls were provided with supports in their work settings, well-defined tasks, supervisors as well as regularly scheduled peer interaction groups led by a young black woman considered to be an…

  15. The Interest-Driven Pursuits of 15 Year Olds: "Sparks" and Their Association with Caring Relationships and Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Eliyahu, Adar; Rhodes, Jean E.; Scales, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the characteristics of adolescents' deep interests or "sparks," the role of relationships in supporting the development of sparks, and whether having a spark was associated with positive developmental outcomes. Participants included 1,860 15 years olds from across the United States who participated in the…

  16. X-ray emission from interacting wind massive binaries: A review of 15 years of progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauw, Gregor; Nazé, Yaël

    2016-09-01

    Previous generations of X-ray observatories revealed a group of massive binaries that were relatively bright X-ray emitters. This was attributed to emission of shock-heated plasma in the wind-wind interaction zone located between the stars. With the advent of the current generation of X-ray observatories, the phenomenon could be studied in much more detail. In this review, we highlight the progress that has been achieved in our understanding of the phenomenon over the last 15 years, both on theoretical and observational grounds. All these studies have paved the way for future investigations using the next generation of X-ray satellites that will provide crucial information on the X-ray emission formed in the innermost part of the wind-wind interaction.

  17. Once Annealed Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene Exhibits Low Wear at 9 to 15 Years.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, James; Capello, William N; Ramakrishnan, Rama

    2016-05-01

    A once annealed highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) was introduced in 1998. Concerns regarding its long-term performance and oxidative resistance exist because of the presence of retained free radicals. The authors studied 48 patients with 50 hip implants having an average age of 62 years. They were followed for 9 to 15 years. The purpose of this study was to determine linear wear rate and the incidence of osteolysis and/or mechanical failure. At an average follow-up of 12.2 years, the annual linear wear rate was 0.018 mm (SD, 0.024 mm). No mechanical failures or osteolysis have been found to date. The clinical performance of this HXLPE continues to meet expectations despite the presence of free radicals. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e565-e571.]. PMID:27088350

  18. Brief Report: Pregnant by Age 15 Years and Substance Use Initiation among US Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-01-01

    We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12,…

  19. Deliberate Self-Harm by under-15-Year-Olds: Characteristics, Trends and Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawton, Keith; Harriss, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Background: Relatively little information is available about the characteristics and long-term outcome of children and adolescents aged under 15 years who present to general hospitals because of deliberate self-harm (DSH). Method: Information was collected on 710 consecutive under-15-year-olds presenting to a general hospital in central England…

  20. Association of caesarean delivery with child adiposity from age 6 weeks to 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Blustein, Jan; Attina, Teresa; Liu, Mengling; Ryan, Andrew M.; Cox, Laura M.; Blaser, Martin J.; Trasande, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess associations of caesarean section with body mass from birth through adolescence. Design Longitudinal birth cohort study, following subjects up to 15 years of age. Setting and Participants Children born in 1991–1992 in Avon, UK who participated in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children [ALSPAC] (n = 10,219). Outcome measures Primary outcome: standardized measures of body mass (weight-for length z-scores at 6 weeks, 10, and 20 months; and Body Mass Index [BMI] z-scores at 38 months, 7, 9, 11, and 15 years). Secondary outcome: Categorical overweight or obese (BMI >= 85th percentile) for age and gender, at 38 months, 7, 9, 11, and 15 years. Results Of the 10,219 children, 926 (9.06%) were delivered by caesarean section. Those born by caesarean had lower birth weights than those born vaginally (−46.1g, 95% CI: 14.6 to 77.6 g; p = 0.004). In mixed multivariable models adjusting for birth weight, gender, parental body mass, family sociodemographics, gestational factors and infant feeding patterns, caesarean delivery was consistently associated with increased adiposity, starting at six weeks (+0.11 SD units, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.18; p=0.005), through age 15 (BMI z-score increment + 0.10 SD units, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.198; p=0.042). By age 11 caesarean–delivered children had 1.83 times the odds of overweight or obesity (95% CI: 1.24 to 2.70; p=0.002). When the sample was stratified by maternal pre-pregnancy weight, the association among children born of overweight/obese mothers was strong and long-lasting. In contrast, evidence of an association among children born of normal weight mothers was weak. Conclusion Caesarean delivery is associated with increased body mass in childhood and adolescence. Research is needed to further characterize the association in children of normal weight women. Additional work is also needed to understand the mechanism underlying the association, which may involve relatively enduring changes in the intestinal

  1. Use of the "Mental Health Inventory - 5" with Portuguese 10-15 years old.

    PubMed

    Marques, Susana C; Pais-Ribeiro, José Luis; Lopez, Shane J

    2011-05-01

    The present study describes the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Mental Health Inventory-5 for use with young adolescents. A sample of 367 Portuguese students (aged 10-15 years) completed the Portuguese-language versions of Mental Health Inventory-5 (MHI-5; Berwick et al., 1991), Children's Hope Scale (CHS; Snyder et al., 1997), Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS; Huebner, 1991a), and Global Self-Worth Sub-scale (Harter, 1985). Analysis of readability, reliability (internal consistency and 1-year stability), factor structure, and criterion-related validity suggested that the MHI-5 can be appropriately used in this age group. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21568203

  2. Prospective pregnancy study designs for assessing reproductive and developmental toxicants.

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Germaine M; Lynch, Courtney D; Stanford, Joseph B; Sweeney, Anne M; Schieve, Laura A; Rockett, John C; Selevan, Sherry G; Schrader, Steven M

    2004-01-01

    The determinants of successful human reproduction and development may act as early as periconceptionally, underscoring the need to capture exposures during these critical windows when assessing potential toxicants. To identify such toxicants, couples must be studied longitudinally prior to conception without regard to a couple's ability to ascertain a clinically recognized pregnancy. We examined the utility and feasibility of prospective pregnancy study designs by conducting a systematic review of the literature to summarize relevant information regarding the planning, implementation, and success of previously published prospective pregnancy studies. Information concerning design elements and participation was abstracted from 15 eligible studies (from a total of 20 identified studies) using a standardized form. The primary author of each study was contacted to review our summary of their work and obtain missing information. Our findings confirm the ability to recruit women/couples from diverse populations using a variety of recruitment strategies. Among the studies we reviewed, 4-97% of eligible individuals were successfully contacted, with enrollment rates ranging from 42 to 100%. Length of follow-up varied from 3 to 12 months. A high percentage of women provided urine (57-98%) and blood (86-91%) specimens and most male partners (94-100%) provided semen samples. These data support the feasibility of this design. PMID:14698935

  3. [The evolution and structure of morbidity from extrarespiratory tuberculosis in the last 15 years in Romania].

    PubMed

    Didilescu, C; Ibraim, E; Lugoji, D; Chiotan, D

    1992-01-01

    Though in comparison with the overall lethality of tuberculosis the extra-respiratory localizations of the disease showed a markedly less weight than the respiratory ones during the past 15 years (12.8% in 1975 and 6.7% in 1989), this pathology chapter is still essential due to the diversity of Tb forms and localizations. The annual average rate of the decrease in extra-respiratory tuberculosis incidence was of 4.8% between 1975-1989, so the incidence value reached 4.2%000 at the end of the last year of study. Just like 15 years ago, in 1989 the extra-respiratory tuberculosis incidence was dominated by the localizations on the peripheral lymph nodes (1.2%000), on bones and joints (1.0%000), urogenital apparatus (0.7%000), meninges and central nervous system (0.5%000). The prevalence of patients with extra-respiratory Tb localizations was gradually diminished so that only 3415 cases were registered in the IIIrd group of the active case-index in 1989 (13,524 in 1975). More than half of the number of deaths through extra-respiratory tuberculosis were still due to tuberculous meningitis, particularly in children aged 0-4 years (82% of deaths in 1989). A further diminution up to a total elimination of extra-respiratory Tb localizations (still about 1,000 new cases a year) can be reached only by a restriction and liquidation at the same time of both primary and secondary pulmonary tuberculoses. PMID:1299408

  4. The 15-Year Evolution of the Thoracoscopic Anterior Release: Does It Still Have a Role?

    PubMed Central

    Arunakul, Rattalerk; Peterson, Alex; Bartley, Carrie E.; Cidambi, Krishna R.; Varley, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective. Purpose To determine how the indications for anterior thoracoscopic release and fusion have evolved over time. Overview of Literature Anterior release was commonly performed to correct severe spinal deformities before the advent of pedicle screw fixation. The thoracoscopic approach significantly reduced the morbidity, as compared to open thoracotomy procedures. Methods We reviewed charts and radiographs of pediatric spinal deformity patients who underwent thoracoscopic release/fusion for their deformity from 1994 to 2008. Indications for the thoracoscopic procedure were assigned to one of the following categories: hyperkyphosis, large/stiff scoliosis, crankshaft prevention, and 'other'. We analysed indications grouped in 3-year intervals to determine how the indications for this procedure evolved over the past 15 years. Results One hundred and thirty-eight patients (mean age, 15 years; range, 2-28 years) underwent the procedure, with 160 identified indications. The frequency of thoracoscopic anterior release/fusion decreased after peaking in the years 2000-2002. Initially, hyperkyphosis was the most frequent indication (15/33, 45%; 1994-1996), but declined to an intermittent indication since 2006. The use of thoracoscopy to prevent crankshaft has also declined, but remains an indication for the most immature cases (2/17, 12%; 2006-2008). Severe or rigid scoliosis is currently the most common indication for thoracoscopic release/fusion at our center (11/17, 65%; 2006-2008). Conclusions The indications for a thoracoscopic anterior release/fusion has evolved with our increased understanding of this procedure and improved posterior fixation with pedicle screw instrumentation. Thoracoscopy in select spinal deformity patients still has an important role despite its less frequent use, as compared to the past decade. PMID:26240714

  5. Quality of Life and Associated Socio-Clinical Factors after Encephalitis in Children and Adults in England: A Population-Based, Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramanuj, Parashar Pravin; Granerød, Julia; Davies, Nicholas W. S.; Conti, Stefano; Brown, David W. G.; Crowcroft, Natasha S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We sought to measure HRQoL in all-cause encephalitis survivors and assess the impact of various socio-clinical factors on outcome. Methods We used a prospective cohort study design, using the short-form 36 (SF-36) to measure the HRQoL in patients 15 years and older, and the short-form 10 (SF-10) for patients less than 15 years old. We posted questionnaires to individuals six months after discharge from hospital. All scores were normalised to the age- and sex-matched general population. We used multivariate statistical analysis to assess the relative association of clinical and socio-demographic variables on HRQoL in adults. Results Of 109 individuals followed-up, we received 61 SF-36 and twenty SF-10 questionnaires (response rate 74%). Patients scored consistently worse than the general population in all domains of the SF-36 and SF-10, although there was variation in individual scores. Infectious encephalitis was associated with the worst HRQoL in those aged 15 years and over, scoring on average 5.64 points less than immune-mediated encephalitis (95% CI −8.77– −2.89). In those aged less than 15 years the worst quality of life followed encephalitis of unknown cause. Immuno compromise, unemployment, and the 35–44 age group all had an independent negative association with HRQoL. A poor Glasgow Outcome Score was most strongly associated with a poor HRQoL. Less than half of those who had made a ‘good’ recovery on the score reported a HRQoL equivalent to the general population. Conclusions Encephalitis has adverse effects on the majority of survivors’ wellbeing and quality of life. Many of these adverse consequences could be minimised by prompt identification and treatment, and with better rehabilitation and support for survivors. PMID:25072738

  6. Short-term prospective spirometric study of new coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Hankinson, J.L.; Hodous, T.K.

    1982-09-01

    This study examined prospectively a small cohort (N=116) of new coal miners with questionnaires and spirometry. Data collection began just prior to underground employment and extended over a two year period at 6 month intervals to address the question or short-term adverse occupational pulmonary effects and their relationship to outward migration from the industry. A comparison of the initial (unexposed) and six month (exposed) changes in lung function over the work shift was also conducted to detect an acute effect due to dust, which might be related to chronic decline in lung function.

  7. Equestrian injuries--a one year prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    McLatchie, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    A one year prospective study of equestrian injuries was carried out in an area where horse riding is a popular pursuit. 115 persons suffered injury--eighty females and thirty-five males of whom sixty were under fifteen years of age. No fatalities were recorded and there were 0.2 injuries per 100 rides. Most injuries were minor and to the musculo-skeletal system. Visceral and cerebral injuries were not common but the former were life threatening in all cases. It is concluded that young riders should be supervised. PMID:465903

  8. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and risk of obesity in offspring: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Li, D-K; Ferber, J R; Odouli, R

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: In-utero exposures through adverse fetal programming are emerging as an important contributing factor to the epidemic of childhood obesity. This study examines the impact of in-utero exposure to caffeine on the risk of childhood obesity in offspring. Subjects/Methods: A prospective study of pregnant women with 15 years follow-up of their offspring was conducted to examine the impact of in-utero exposure to caffeine on the risk of childhood obesity. Maternal caffeine intake was prospectively ascertained during pregnancy and outcome measures (body mass index (BMI)) were ascertained from medical charts, with 17 BMI measurements per child, on average, during the follow-up period. Potential confounders including known perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity were adjusted for using the generalized estimating equations model with repeated measurements. Results: After controlling for potential confounders, compared with those without caffeine exposure, in-utero exposure to caffeine overall is associated with 87% increased risk of childhood obesity: odds ratio (OR) =1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12–3.12. This association demonstrated a dose–response relationship: OR=1.77 (1.05–3.00) for maternal daily caffeine intake <150 mg per day, OR=2.37 (1.24–4.52) for caffeine intake ⩾150 mg per day during pregnancy, respectively. We also observed a linear relationship: every one unit increase (log10 scale) in the amount of maternal caffeine intake was associated with 23% increased risk of obesity in offspring. The dose–response relationship appears stronger for persistent obesity than for transitory obesity (occasional high BMI), and for girls than for boys. Conclusions: We observed an association of in-utero exposure to caffeine with increased risk of childhood obesity. If this observation is further replicated in other studies, the finding will contribute to the understanding of fetal programming of childhood diseases and

  9. Knowledge, attitude and behavioral determinants of tobacco use among 13-15 year old school children

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Romshi; Krishna, Madhusudan; Murali, R.; Shamala, A.; Yalamalli, Maanasi; Kumar, A. Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Background: The epidemic of tobacco use is one of the greatest threats to global health today. Tobacco attributable deaths in India currently range from 800,000 to 900,000 per year. Adolescents are among the most vulnerable group to start tobacco use. Information on tobacco use among the youth is necessary to establish control measures against it. Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitude, and behavioral determinants of tobacco use among high school students (age13–15 years) in Bangalore. Materials and Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of 3 weeks in the month of September 2012. A structured, pretested questionnaire was administered randomly to 500 high school students in Bangalore to assess the knowledge, attitude, and behavioral determinants of tobacco use. Results: Majority of the study population [94.4% (472/500)] believed that smoking is definitely harmful to our health. Also, 39.0% of the participants of age 13 years believed that smoking does not help in socializing and 92.2% of study subjects had negative attitude toward starting the habit. Most of them (83.9%) had a negative perception about smokers that they lack confidence. However, less than 1% of the study population had a habit of smoking at this young age. Conclusion: Awareness of the harmful effects of smoking was high among the study population. The study provides insight into the factors to consider while planning adolescent anti-smoking programs in this and similar settings. PMID:26310970

  10. Late-Life Risk Factors for All-Cause Dementia and Differential Dementia Diagnoses in Women: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Neergaard, Jesper Skov; Dragsbæk, Katrine; Hansen, Henrik Bo; Henriksen, Kim; Christiansen, Claus; Karsdal, Morten Asser

    2016-03-01

    Since the first evidence of a decline in dementia incidence was reported in 2011, the focus on modifiable risk factors has increased. The possibility of risk factor intervention as a prevention strategy has been widely discussed; however, further evidence in relation to risk factors is still needed. The Prospective Epidemiologic Risk Factor (PERF I) study was an observational prospective study of postmenopausal Danish women who were initially examined between 1999 and 2001 (n = 5855). Follow-up data on diagnosis and survival as of December 31, 2014 was retrieved from the National Danish Patient Registry and the National Danish Causes of Death Registry. Cox proportional hazards regression model was applied to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for selected risk factors for dementia. Of 5512 eligible subjects, 592 developed dementia within the follow-up period of maximum 15 years. The independent factors associated with increased risk of all-cause dementia were depression (HR = 1.75 [95% CI 1.32-2.34]) and impaired fasting glucose levels. A dose-response relationship was observed between fasting glucose level and risk of dementia with HRs of 1.25 [1.05-1.49] and 1.45 [1.03-2.06] for impaired (5.6-6.9 mmol/L) and hyperglycemic (≥7.0 mmol/L) glucose levels, respectively. The factors associated with a decreased risk of dementia were overweight in late-life (HR = 0.75 [0. 62-0.89]) and physical activity at least once weekly (HR = 0.77 [0.61-0.96]). The identified risk factors for dementia in women in late-life are all considered modifiable. This supports the notion that prevention strategies may improve the poor future prospects for dementias in the ageing population. PMID:26986157

  11. Bariatric support line: a prospective study of support line activity.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Kirsten; Segaran, Ella; Sufi, Pratik; Heath, Dugal I

    2010-03-01

    In this prospective study, we examine the workload of the North London Obesity Surgery Service Bariatric telephone support line (BTSL) and its effects on service provision. Over a 3-month period (June to August 2008), a prospective record was kept of all calls, who they were from, whether the patient was presurgery or postsurgery, the type of procedure planned or undertaken, the nature of the enquiry, and the time taken to answer the query. Seventy-five (72%) calls were related to patients who were postsurgery and 29 (28%) presurgery. Patients scheduled for or having undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass accounted for 46 (44%) calls; 24 (23%) were preprocedure and 22 (21%) postprocedure. Patients scheduled for or having undergone gastric banding accounted for 56 (54%) calls; five (0.5%) were preprocedure and 51 (49%) postprocedure. Patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy accounted for two (<1%) calls. Both calls were postprocedure. The reason for the support line enquiry was psychological support in 15 (14%) patients, questions postsurgery in 26 (25%), general enquiries in 27 (26%), and clinical enquiries in 36 (36%). This study of the BTSL has allowed us to identify areas of need within our bariatric population and improve the service we deliver. The changes we have made should lead to a better use of the team's time, greater patient compliance, and satisfaction as well as reduced complaints and litigation. PMID:19711140

  12. Endogenous hormones and breast cancer: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Toniolo, P G; Pasternack, B S; Shore, R E; Sonnenschein, E; Koenig, K L; Rosenberg, C; Strax, P; Strax, S

    1991-05-01

    A cohort study is under way in New York City to evaluate how levels of endogenous reproductive hormones influence the risk of breast cancer. The study, in which approximately 15,000 women are being recruited, utilizes a prospective design in which volunteers are asked to provide repeated specimens of serum during the period 1985-1992. A case-control study nested within the cohort is planned by which specimens from all cases arising in the population and from a randomly selected sample of time-matched controls will be analyzed and compared. As of December 31, 1989, 13,609 volunteers had donated blood specimens, about 50% of whom had already donated more than once. Of the 187 incident breast cancer cases who are expected to arise in the cohort before the end of 1992, 77 have been detected thus far. PMID:1873553

  13. ALH84001: The Key to Unlocking Secrets About Mars-15 Years and Counting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, D. S.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    From the December 27, 1984 discovery of ALH84001, and its subsequent identification as a sample of Mars in 1993, mystery and debate has surrounded the meteorite [1]. With the realization that the ALH84001 sample was a orthopyroxenite and one of the oldest SNC meteorites (approx.4.09 Ga) [2] available to study, important and critical information about the Martian hydrosphere and atmosphere along with the early history and evolution of the planet could be obtained by studying the unique carbonate globules (approx.3.9 Ga) in the sample [3]. The initial work showed the carbonate globules were deposited within fractures and cracks in the host-orthopyroxene by low-temperature aqueous fluids [4]. Ideas that the carbonates were formed at temperatures [5] approaching 800 C were ruled out by later experiments [6]. The 1996 announcement by McKay et al. [7] that ALH84001 contained features which could be interpreted as having a biogenic origin generated considerable excitement and criticism. The NASA Administrator Dan Golden said the 1996 ALH84001 announcement saved NASAs Mars planetary exploration program and injected $6 billion dollars over five years into the scientific research and analysis efforts [8]. All of the original four lines of evidence for possible biogenic features within ALH84001 offered by McKay et al. have withstood the test of time. Criticism has been directed at the interpretation of the 1996 analytical data. Research has expanded to other SNC meteorites. Despite the numerous attacks on the ideas, the debate continues after 15 years. The 2009 paper by Thomas-Keprta et al. [9] on the origins of a suite of magnetites within the ALH84001 has offered strong arguments that some of the magnetites can only be formed by biogenic processes and not from thermal decomposition or shock events which happened to the meteorite. NASA s Astrobiology Institute was formed from the foundation laid by the ALH84001 hypothesis of finding life beyond the Earth. The strong

  14. A prospective study of bilateral inguinal hernia repair.

    PubMed Central

    Serpell, J. W.; Johnson, C. D.; Jarrett, P. E.

    1990-01-01

    A prospective study of outcome after inguinal hernia repair in patients undergoing simultaneous repair of bilateral hernias (n = 31), sequential repair of bilateral hernias (n = 5), and unilateral hernia repair (n = 75) is reported. There were no differences in wound complications, post-operative respiratory complications, or other adverse effects in the three groups. Operating time was similar in the unilateral and bilateral simultaneous repairs (median 55 min), but was longer (100 min) for the combination of two sequential repairs. Hospital stay was shortest for patients undergoing unilateral repair (2 days) but was less with bilateral simultaneous repair (4 days) than after two sequential repairs (total of 6 days). There were 12 (11%) wound complications of which five (5%) were infections. There was no difference in complication rate between unilateral and bilateral hernia repair. Postoperative recovery was assessed prospectively and was recorded at 1 month. There was no difference between unilateral and bilateral simultaneous repairs in the number of days before the patient was able to climb stairs easily, drive a car or return to work. The duration of the requirement for analgesia was similar in each group. We conclude that bilateral simultaneous hernia repair can be carried out with no greater morbidity than a unilateral repair, and the return to normal activity is as rapid. Bilateral hernias should be repaired simultaneously rather than sequentially. PMID:2221764

  15. Micronutrient interventions on cognitive performance of children aged 5-15 years in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Khor, Geok Lin; Misra, Snigdha

    2012-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 200 million young children worldwide fail to reach their potential in cognitive development owing to undernutrition. Numerous studies have assessed the effects of micronutrient supplementation on growth and cognitive development in infants, toddlers and preschoolers. However, micronutrient interventions on the cognitive performance of older children are limited. This article seeks to provide an update on micronutrient interventions and cognitive outcomes among children aged 5-15 years in developing countries. A total of 13 randomized controlled trials published since 2000 were identified. Majority of these studies assessed the effects of micronutrient-fortified foods on various domains of cognitive function. Among key micronutrients assessed were iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A. This review found a lack of consistency in the impact of micronutrient supplementation on intelligence, long term mental functions and school examination grades of the children. A beneficial effect of micronutrient supplementation on short term memory was more consistently reported. Overall, the evidence from this review for the impact of micronutrients on cognitive performance in older children remains equivocal. In light of the growing interest on the influence of nutrition on cognition, it is important that culturally-appropriate and sufficiently sensitive assessment tools be used for measuring the desired cognitive outcomes that are most likely to be affected by the nutrients under study. PMID:23017305

  16. Morphology of palatal rugae patterns among 5-15 years old children

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Vilvanathan Prabu; John, John Baby; Stalin, Ariudinambi; Priya, Geetha; Abuthagir, Abdul Kareem Syed

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: “The fibers running anteroposteriorly within the core and in concentric curves across the base of each ruga” determine their orientation and forms. The varying shapes of palatal rugae can be attributed to the fact that rugae develop as localized regions of epithelial proliferation and thickening. Fibroblasts and collagen fibers then accumulate in the connective tissue beneath the thickened epithelium and assume distinct orientation. Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the morphology, gender difference of rugae pattern in 5-15 year old children. Materials and Methods: The various diagnostic dental stone cast available in Department of Pedodontics were analyzed by the method based on Thomas and Kotze classification in 1983. Results: There was a female prediction in the total count and primary rugae pattern. Comparing the shapes of rugae both in male and female study models showed a predominance in wave shape followed by cure. No circular pattern was observed in the study population. No statistical difference in the direction and unification of rugae among males and females. Conclusion: The fingerprint-like uniqueness of rugae to each individual has become accepted as a possible aid to person identification. This may help narrow the field for identification and give results in conjunction with the other methods such as visual, fingerprints, and dental characteristics in forensic sciences. PMID:23946575

  17. Tuberculous Lymphadenitis in South-Eastern Nigeria; A 15 Years Histopathologic Review (2000-2014)

    PubMed Central

    Ukekwe, FI; Olusina, DB; Banjo, AAF; Akinde, OR; Nzegwu, MA; Okafor, OC; Ocheni, S

    2016-01-01

    Background: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic has brought about a resurgence in tuberculosis (TB), especially in developing countries. Previous studies on TB lymphadenitis (TBLN) in South-Eastern Nigeria were done before the advent of the HIV pandemic making a review pertinent. Aim: To evaluate the role of TBLN as a cause of superficial lymphadenopathy in the post-HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) era of South-Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a 15 years (2000-2014) retrospective review of all superficial lymph node biopsies (SLNBs) received at the Department of Morbid Anatomy, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla Enugu, Nigeria. Results: One hundred and seventy-two cases of TBLN were identified in this study constituting 14.6% (172/1,180) of SLNBs received at our Hospital's Morbid Anatomy Department during the 15 years period under review. Twenty-eight cases of TBLN were clinically screened for HIV, 23 of which tested positive, representing 82.1% (23/28) of clinically screened cases. Acid fast bacilli demonstration was positive in 15.1% (26/172) of cases using Ziehl-Neelsen stain. 48.8% (84/172) of TBLN cases were males, and 51.2% (88/172) were females with most (22) cases received in 2012 and least (5) cases in 2000. Most TBLN occurred in the 21-25 years age group with a total of 21.5% (37/172) of cases and a male to female ratio of 1:1.5 The most common biopsy site for TBLN was the cervical group followed by the axillary and inguinal groups with 73.8% (127/172), 14% (24/172), and 4.7% (8/172) of cases, respectively. Conclusions: There is a remarkable decline in the prevalence of TB lymphadenitis in South-Eastern Nigeria indicating a change in trend from the pre- to the post-HIV/AIDS era with slightly more females now presenting with TBLN and most TB lymphadenitis patients now presenting with associated HIV/AIDS disease. There is an urgent need to provide modern diagnostic facilities in our medical

  18. A Logistic Regression Analysis of Turkey's 15-Year-Olds' Scoring above the OECD Average on the PISA'09 Reading Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasapoglu, Koray

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate which factors are associated with Turkey's 15-year-olds' scoring above the OECD average (493) on the PISA'09 reading assessment. Collected from a total of 4,996 15-year-old students from Turkey, data were analyzed by logistic regression analysis in order to model the data of students who were split…

  19. A 15-Year Longitudinal Analysis of Trends in Elective Urological Surgery – An Evidence Base for Modernising Medical Careers

    PubMed Central

    Nathaniel, C; Sangar, VK; Payne, SR

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The impact of Modernising Medical Careers on the differential need for consultant urologists and urological surgeons is as yet unknown. This study's aim was to determine what changes there had been in operative urological activity so as to predict the need for urological surgeons in the future. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study of all elective operative urological surgery over a 15-year period was performed. The absolute numbers of patients presenting for different grades of surgery were aggregated and analysed using the Spearman's rank correlation test. RESULTS Aggregated data from 27,839 procedures demonstrated no change in the number of operations (r 0.01; NS) or the number of diagnostic endoscopic procedures (r 0.21; NS) carried out over the study period. There was a decrease in endoscopic surgery related to a 70% reduction in trans-urethral resection of the prostate (TURP) (r −0.89; P = <0.0001) and an increase in ureteroscopic interventions (r 0.82; P = 0.0002) for stone disease. There was no change in the amount of major surgery carried out (r −0.43; NS) over the 15 years. CONCLUSIONS There have been changes to the pattern of surgery urologists have provided over the last 15 years but the need for complex surgical interventions has not altered. This suggests there will be as great a need for operating surgeons in the future, as currently exists. PMID:17346412

  20. Bullying increased suicide risk: prospective study of Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Shin; Leventhal, Bennett L; Koh, Yun-Joo; Boyce, W Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the independent impact of bullying on suicide risk. Bullying was assessed by peer nomination in a prospective study of 1,655 7th and 8th grade Korean students, and suicide by youth self-report. Odds Ratios (ORs) of bullying for suicidal risks were computed, controlling for other suicide risk factors. Victim-Perpetrators and female Victims at baseline showed increased risk for persistent suicidality (OR: 2.4-9.8). Male Incident Victims exhibited increased risk for suicidal behaviors and ideations (OR = 4.4, 3.6). Female Persistent Perpetrators exhibited increased risks for suicidal behaviors; male Incident Perpetrators had increased risk for suicidal ideations (OR = 2.7, 2.3). Baseline-only male Victim-Perpetrators showed increased risk for suicidal ideations. (OR = 6.4). Bullying independently increased suicide risks. PMID:19123106

  1. Predicting anthropogenic streambed shifts in Beckley, West Virginia, modeled over 15 years using LANDSAT TM and DEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Andrew D.

    Anthropogenic change of streambeds in the Beckley, West Virginia watershed region was modeled using Landsat 5 TM satellite data from 1988 and 2003, and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data for 1969 and 2005. Comparing the 15 year land cover changes and the 36 year elevation shifts, and using a modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), in ESRI ArcMap and ERDAS Imagine, a streambed shift model was created. The model predicted land cover and elevation changes for 2018, using inputs from geospatial differencing of 2003 and 1988 land cover as well as 2003 and 1969 DEM data. Further analysis using hydrodynamic differential equations provided in depth information on stream clogging over the 15 year study period.

  2. Early breastfeeding experiences of adolescent mothers: a qualitative prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have a positive early

  3. Leprosy in children and adolescents under 15 years old in an urban centre in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Selton Diniz; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Natividade, Marcio Santos; Teixeira, Maria Glória

    2016-05-24

    This original study describes the intra-urban distribution of cases of leprosy in residents under 15 years old in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; the study also identifies the environment in which Mycobacterium leprae is being transmitted. The cases were distributed by operational classification, clinical forms, type of contact and the addresses were geo-referenced by neighborhood. Between 2007 and 2011, were reported 145 cases of leprosy in target population living in Salvador, corresponding to detection rates of 6.21, 6.14, 5.58, 5.41 and 6.88/100,000 inhabitants, respectively. The spatial distribution of the disease was focal. Of the 157 neighborhoods of Salvador, 44 (28.6%) notified cases of leprosy and in 22 (50%) of these were detected more than 10 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The infectious forms were found in 40% of cases. Over 90% of cases had been living in Salvador for more than five years. Overall, 52.6% reported having had contact with another infected individual inside the household and 25% in their social circle. In Salvador, M. leprae transmission is established. The situation is a major concern, since transmission is intense at an early age, indicating that this endemic disease is expanding and contacts extend beyond individual households. PMID:27223655

  4. Leprosy in children and adolescents under 15 years old in an urban centre in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Selton Diniz; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Natividade, Marcio Santos; Teixeira, Maria Glória

    2016-01-01

    This original study describes the intra-urban distribution of cases of leprosy in residents under 15 years old in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; the study also identifies the environment in which Mycobacterium leprae is being transmitted. The cases were distributed by operational classification, clinical forms, type of contact and the addresses were geo-referenced by neighborhood. Between 2007 and 2011, were reported 145 cases of leprosy in target population living in Salvador, corresponding to detection rates of 6.21, 6.14, 5.58, 5.41 and 6.88/100,000 inhabitants, respectively. The spatial distribution of the disease was focal. Of the 157 neighborhoods of Salvador, 44 (28.6%) notified cases of leprosy and in 22 (50%) of these were detected more than 10 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The infectious forms were found in 40% of cases. Over 90% of cases had been living in Salvador for more than five years. Overall, 52.6% reported having had contact with another infected individual inside the household and 25% in their social circle. In Salvador, M. leprae transmission is established. The situation is a major concern, since transmission is intense at an early age, indicating that this endemic disease is expanding and contacts extend beyond individual households. PMID:27223655

  5. Surgical treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid tumor: A 15-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lu; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Shan-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to highlight our experience over a 15-year period in dealing with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) due to a parathyroid tumor. Parathyroidectomy is the standard therapy for patients with PHPT. Our study included all patients with PHPT treated by parathyroidectomy at the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, China. Between 1998 and 2013, a total of 107 patients were recruited. Their clinical data, presentation, laboratory examinations, imageological diagnoses and surgical approaches were analyzed retrospectively. Eighty-four cases (78.5%) were followed up. During a median follow-up period of 5.7 years, a total of 80 patients were without recurrence and metastasis. The main symptoms of PHPT patients were palpable neck mass, joint pains and pathological fracture. The high levels of preoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) and serum calcium in PHPT patients decreased to below the normal upper limit within 3 days of surgery. The sensitivity of neck ultrasonography, sestamibi scanning, CT, MRI and the combination of three or four types of test were 86.0%, 90.4%, 80.8%, 79.6% and 96.1%, respectively. A 50% or greater drop in PTH levels within 20 min compared with the highest PTH levels before surgery occurred in 95/107 cases (88.8%). Transient hypocalcemia was the most common surgical complication. The ultrasonography and sestamibi scan is the most effective examination for parathyroid tumor. The 20 min PTH measurement appears to be extremely useful, and avoids unnecessary bilateral exploration. PMID:27602126

  6. Perinatal statistics of a 15-year period in the Central Region of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Sobaih, Badr H; Al-Shebly, Mashael M.

    2013-01-01

    Perinatal statistics are one of the most essential outcome indicators used by many developed countries in order to evaluate perinatal services provided to newborns. In this retrospective study, we collected 15 years of perinatal data at King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in order to determine stillbirth and other mortality rates in our institute and compare them with international figures. A total of 58,073 babies were evaluated. Data were collected from maternal and neonatal registry books and from perinatal mortality and morbidity meeting reports between 1994 and 2008. Data were entered and analyzed using Microsoft Office Excel 2007. The stillbirth rate was 11.7/1000, early neonatal death rate was 3.4/1000, perinatal mortality rate (PMR) was 14.9/1000, and corrected PMR was 11.9/1000. Our rates were not significantly different from those of North American and European ones. We noticed a dramatic reduction in the corrected PMR in the last 3 years of the study because of greater advancement in perinatal and neonatal care. Our mortality rates were comparable to the North American and European rates which may reflect the quality of perinatal care provided in our institute. PMID:27493354

  7. Iron status of schoolchildren (6–15 years) and associated factors in rural Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ayogu, Rufina N. B.; Okafor, Adaobi M.; Ene-Obong, Henrietta N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Schoolchildren are vulnerable to anaemia because of their higher iron need to meet the demands of puberty and adolescence. Objective The survey determined the haemoglobin levels of schoolchildren aged 6–15 years and the factors affecting their haemoglobin status. Design Data were obtained through a cross sectional survey of 450 randomly selected schoolchildren in Ede-Oballa, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. Ninety were selected for clinical examination, biochemical tests, and nutrient intake study. Haemoglobin, malaria, and stool analysis were carried out by the cyanmethaemoglobin, thin blood film, and wet mount direct methods, respectively. Iron intake was determined by a three-day weighed food intake. Results Results showed that the schoolchildren had pallor (35.6%), brittle hair (31.1%), koilonychia (2.2%), oedema (4.4%) and sore/smooth tongue (7.8%). The children also had malaria (58.9%) and Entamoeba histolytica (42.2%), hookworm (36.7%), tapeworm (35.6%), whipworm (34.5%), and roundworm (27.9%) infestations. Iron intake was inadequate (<100% of recommended nutrient intake) for most of the children. The mean haemoglobin levels of the schoolchildren were low. The 6–9, 10–12, and 13–15 year olds had 9.0, 9.1, and 9.3 g/dl, respectively. Most (85.5%) of them had anaemia. Moderate anaemia was prevalent in 62.2%. Severe anaemia affected the 6–9 year olds more. Malaria (P<0.001), Entamoeba histolytica (P<0.01), hookworm (P<0.05), tapeworm (P<0.01), and whipworm (P<0.001) caused significant reduction in haemoglobin level. Age (b=1.284, P<0.05), birth order (b=−0.629, P<0.01), frequency of illness attack (b=−1.372, P<0.01), household size (b=−0.526, P<0.05), and frequency of skipping breakfast (b=−1.542, P<0.001) were factors that influenced the haemoglobin status of the children. Conclusion The schoolchildren had poor iron status as a result of consumption of plant sources of iron with low bioavailability, parasitic infections, birth order

  8. Monitoring the state of vegetation in Hungary using 15 years long MODIS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Anikó; Bognár, Péter; Pásztor, Szilárd; Barcza, Zoltán; Timár, Gábor; Lichtenberger, János; Ferencz, Csaba

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring the state and health of the vegetation is essential to understand causes and severity of environmental change and to prepare for the negative effects of climate change on plant growth and productivity. Satellite remote sensing is the fundamental tool to monitor and study the changes of vegetation activity in general and to understand its relationship with the climate fluctuations. Vegetation indices and other vegetation related measures calculated from remotely sensed data are widely used to monitor and characterize the state of the terrestrial vegetation. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) are among the most popular indices that can be calculated from measurements of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor onboard the NASA EOS-AM1/Terra and EOS-PM1/Aqua satellites (since 1999 and 2002 respectively). Based on the available, 15 years long MODIS data (2000-2014) the vegetation characteristics of Hungary was investigated in our research, primarily using vegetation indices. The MODIS NDVI and EVI (both part of the so-called MOD13 product of NASA) are freely available with a finest spatial resolution of 250 meters and a temporal resolution of 16 days since 2000/2002 (for Terra and Aqua respectively). The accuracy, the spatial resolution and temporal continuity of the MODIS products makes these datasets highly valuable despite of its relatively short temporal coverage. NDVI is also calculated routinely from the raw MODIS data collected by the receiving station of Eötvös Loránd University. In order to characterize vegetation activity and its variability within the Carpathian Basin the area-averaged annual cycles and their interannual variability were determined. The main aim was to find those years that can be considered as extreme according to specific indices. Using archive meteorological data the effects of extreme weather on vegetation activity and growth were investigated with

  9. Persistence of artificial sweeteners in a 15-year-old septic system plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, W. D.; Van Stempvoort, D. R.; Solomon, D. K.; Homewood, J.; Brown, S. J.; Spoelstra, J.; Schiff, S. L.

    2013-01-01

    SummaryGroundwater contamination from constituents such as NO3-, often occurs where multiple sources are present making source identification difficult. This study examines a suite of major ions and trace organic constituents within a well defined septic system plume in southern Ontario, Canada (Long Point site) for their potential use as wastewater tracers. The septic system has been operating for 20 years servicing a large, seasonal-use campground and tritium/helium age dating indicates that the 200 m long monitored section of the plume is about 15 years old. Four parameters are elevated along the entire length of the plume as follows; the mean electrical conductivity value (EC) in the distal plume zone is 926 μS/cm which is 74% of the mean value below the tile bed, Na+ (14.7 mg/L) is 43%, an artificial sweetener, acesulfame (12.1 μg/L) is 23% and Cl- (71.5 mg/L) is 137%. EC and Cl- appear to be affected by dispersive dilution with overlying background groundwater that has lower EC but has locally higher Cl- as result of the use of a dust suppressant (CaCl2) in the campground. Na+, in addition to advective dilution, could be depleted by weak adsorption. Acesulfame, in addition to the above processes could be influenced by increasing consumer use in recent years. Nonetheless, both Na+ and acesulfame remain elevated throughout the plume by factors of more than 100 and 1000 respectively compared to background levels, and are strong indicators of wastewater impact at this site. EC and Cl- are less useful because their contrast with background values is much less (EC) or because other sources are present (Cl-). Nutrients (NO3-, NH4+, PO43-, K+) and pathogens (Escherichia coli) do not persist in the distal plume zone and are less useful as wastewater indicators here. The artificial sweetener, acesulfame, has persisted at high concentrations in the Long Point plume for at least 15 years (and this timing agrees with tritium/helium-3 dating) and this compound likely

  10. Positive parenting mitigates the effects of poor self-regulation on BMI trajectories from age 4 to 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Lauren E.; Francis, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study sought to determine whether parenting style moderated the effects of delay of gratification on BMI trajectories from age 4 to 15 years. Methods Longitudinal data were analyzed on 778 children drawn from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, neglectful) was created from measures of mothers’ sensitivity and expectations for self-control when children were age 4 years. Self-regulation was also measured at 4 years using a well-known delay of gratification protocol. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight at each time point. Mixed modeling was used to test the interaction of parenting styles and ability to delay gratification on BMI trajectories from 4 to 15 years. Results There was a significant interaction effect of parenting and ability to delay on BMI growth from 4 to 15 years for boys. Boys who had authoritarian mothers and failed to delay gratification had a significantly steeper rate of growth in BMI from childhood through adolescence than children in any other parenting x delay group. Conclusions Authoritative and permissive parenting styles were protective against more rapid BMI gains for boys who could not delay gratification. Ability to delay gratification was protective against BMI gains for boys who had parents with authoritarian or neglectful parenting styles. PMID:23977874

  11. Prospective study of erythema toxicum neonatorum: epidemiology and predisposing factors.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, Benigno; Labandeira, Javier; Cabanillas, Miguel; Acevedo, Antonio; Toribio, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    We performed a prospective study of 1,000 neonates investigated in the first 72 hours of life in the health area of Ferrol (northwest of Spain) to assess the prevalence of erythema toxicum neonatorum, the anatomical sites most frequently involved, the influence of different maternal and neonatal parameters, day of life of medical examination, and type of delivery (vaginal or Cesarean). Overall prevalence of erythema toxicum neonatorum was 16.7%. Lesions most frequently involved the trunk, buttocks, and proximal areas of limbs. A higher prevalence of this dermatosis was found in Caucasian newborns (p = 0.01) and those with higher birthweight (p < 0.05), greater gestational age (p < 0.05), vaginal delivery (p < 0.05), maternal age of <30 years (p = 0.28), and fewer than two previous pregnancies (p = 0.12). PMID:22066938

  12. Predictors of early precocious talking: a prospective population study.

    PubMed

    Skeat, Jemma; Wake, Melissa; Reilly, Sheena; Eadie, Patricia; Bretherton, Lesley; Bavin, Edith L; Ukoumunne, Obioha C

    2010-11-01

    This study examines potential predictors of 'precocious talking' (expressive language ≥90th percentile) at one and two years of age, and of 'stability' in precocious talking across both time periods, drawing on data from a prospective community cohort comprising over 1,800 children. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between precocious talking and the following potential predictors: gender, birth order, birth weight, non-English speaking background, socioeconomic status, maternal age, maternal mental health scores, and vocabulary and educational attainment of parents. The strongest predictors of precocity (being female and having a younger mother) warrant further exploration. Overall, however, it appears that precocity in early vocabulary development is not strongly influenced by the variables examined, which together explained just 2.6% and 1% of the variation at 1;0 and 2;0 respectively. PMID:19874641

  13. Recent results and future prospects for asteroseismic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miglio, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    In the last decade the study and interpretation of global oscillations in stars has undergone a dramatic development thanks to the advent of space-based telescopes such as CoRoT and Kepler. In this contribution I will review our endeavours towards a detailed understanding of stellar structure and evolution and I will discuss the symbiosis between stellar seismology and both exoplanetary and Galactic science. I will then emphasise the wider significance of asteroseismology as a tool for testing stellar physics, with examples on how seismic predictions depend on our (often poor) knowledge of the relevant physics. Future prospects in the light of future ambitious space missions such as NASA-TESS and ESA-Plato will also be briefly presented.

  14. Palliative Care Caregivers' Grief Mediators: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Alexandra M; Delalibera, Mayra A; Barbosa, António

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study is to identify the mediators of complicated grief in a Portuguese sample of caregivers. Grief mediators were prospectively evaluated using a list of risk factors completed by the palliative care team members, during the predeath and bereavement period. More than 6 months after the death, we applied PG-13 to diagnose prolonged grief disorder (PGD). The sample was composed of 64 family caregivers. Factors associated with PGD were insecure and dependent relationship, unresolved family crisis, and the perceived deterioration and disfigurement of the patient. The results show relational factors are relevant, but we must consider the reciprocal influence among factors, as well as their impact on specific symptoms. PMID:25601321

  15. An archival prospective study of mental health and longevity.

    PubMed

    Martin, L R; Friedman, H S; Tucker, J S; Schwartz, J E; Criqui, M H; Wingard, D L; Tomlinson-Keasey, C

    1995-09-01

    The relationship between mental health status and longevity was examined in an archival prospective cohort study (N = 1,103) derived from work begun by Lewis Terman in the 1920s. Degree of psychological maladjustment, cumulatively rated by Terman and his colleagues as of 1950, was found to be related to higher risk of all-cause mortality over a 4-decade follow-up period. The differences among causes of death were nonsignificant, but there was some indication that mental health problems were more strongly related to deaths from injury and cardiovascular disease. The overall relationship was significant for men but weaker for women. The effect was not substantially mediated by alcohol consumption, obesity, or cigarette smoking. PMID:7498108

  16. Corneal Epithelium Thickness Profile in 614 Normal Chinese Children Aged 7–15 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingyan; He, Xiangui; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Lu, Lina; Zhu, Jianfeng; Zou, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to describe the values and distribution of corneal epithelium thickness (CET) in normal Chinese school-aged children, and to explore associated factors with CET. CET maps were measured by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) in normal Chinese children aged 7 to 15 years old from two randomly selected schools in Shanghai, China. Children with normal intraocular pressure were further examined for cycloplegic autorefraction, corneal curvature radius (CCR) and axial length. Central (2-mm diameter area), para-central (2- to 5-mm diameter area), and peripheral (5- to 6-mm diameter area) CET in the superior, superotemporal, temporal, inferotemporal, inferior, inferonasal, nasal, superonasal cornea; minimum, maximum, range, and standard deviation of CET within the 5-mm diameter area were recorded. The CET was thinner in the superior than in the inferior and was thinner in the temporal than in the nasal. The maximum CET was located in the inferior zone, and the minimum CET was in the superior zone. A thicker central CET was associated with male gender (p = 0.009) and older age (p = 0.037) but not with CCR (p = 0.061), axial length (p = 0.253), or refraction (p = 0.351) in the multiple regression analyses. CCR, age, and gender were correlated with para-central and peripheral CET. PMID:27004973

  17. Results of proximal gastric vagotomy over 1-5 years in a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    Makey, D A; Tovey, F I; Heald, R J

    1979-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-three underwent proximal gastric vagotomy for duodenal ulceration over a 6-year period. One hundred and fifteen of these have been followed up for 1-5 years. The operative mortality was nil and the result was satisfactory in 91 per cent. The incidence of side effects was small, notably that of dumping being 2.4 per cent and of diarrhoea, 3.6 per cent. Incidence of postoperative heartburn was reduced from 13 per cent to 4 per cent by the introduction of hepatic interposition. The incidence of recurrent ulceration was 5.1 per cent after an average interval of 2 years and that of new gastric ulceration 2.6 per cent after an average of 4 years. There were no recurrent ulcers in those who had peroperative Burge tests, although secretory studies showed no difference between those tested and those not tested. Most recurrences occurred in the earliest cases operated on before Burge testing was introduced and when only 2 cm of the lower oesophagus were exposed. PMID:420970

  18. Evaluation of two stormwater infiltration trenches in central Copenhagen after 15 years of operation.

    PubMed

    Bergman, M; Hedegaard, M R; Petersen, M F; Binning, P; Mark, O; Mikkelsen, P S

    2011-01-01

    Two stormwater infiltration trenches were installed in 1993 in an area in central Copenhagen. The system was monitored continuously for almost three years after establishment, and a small reduction in performance over that time, possibly due to clogging, was noted. A new study was conducted in 2009 to see whether the reduction in performance has continued and to determine how the system performs today. Water levels in the trenches were monitored for almost 4 months, and from this period seven events were selected to analyse the infiltration rate. A comparison with similar analyses on storm sequences from the first 3 years of operation shows that the infiltration has decreased since the establishment of the system 15 years ago. The decrease is statistically significant (p<0.01). A clogging model was fitted to the data and predictions were made for future performance. The results show that the system will discharge around 10 times more annual overflow to the sewers after 100 years of operation compared to the initial volumes, if clogging continues at current rates. This corresponds to 60% of the total runoff from the area. The results show that clogging and proper maintenance are important factors to consider when implementing stormwater infiltration trenches. PMID:21977650

  19. Vaginal breech delivery: results of a prospective registration study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most countries recommend planned cesarean section in breech deliveries, which is considered safer than vaginal delivery. As one of few countries in the western world Norway has continued to practice planned vaginal delivery in selected women. The aim of this study is to evaluate prospectively registered neonatal and maternal outcomes in term singleton breech deliveries in a Norwegian hospital during a ten years period. We aim to compare maternal and neonatal outcomes in term breech pregnancies subjected either to planned vaginal or elective cesarean section. Methods A prospective registration study including 568 women with term breech deliveries (>37 weeks) consecutively registered at Sorlandet Hospital Kristiansand between 2001 and 2011. Fetal and maternal outcomes were compared according to delivery method; planned vaginal delivery versus planned cesarean section. Results Of 568 women, elective cesarean section was planned in 279 (49%) cases and vaginal delivery was planned in 289 (51%) cases. Acute cesarean section was performed in 104 of the planned vaginal deliveries (36.3%). There were no neonatal deaths. Two cases of serious neonatal morbidity were reported in the planned vaginal group. One infant had seizures, brachial plexus injury, and cephalhematoma. The other infant had 5-minutes Apgar < 4. Twenty-nine in the planned vaginal group (10.0%) and eight in the planned cesarean section group (2.9%) (p < 0.001) were transferred to the neonatal intensive care unit. However, only one infant was admitted for ≥4 days. According to follow-up data (median six years) none of these infants had long-term sequelae. Regarding maternal morbidity, blood loss was the only variable that was significantly higher in the planned cesarean section group versus in the vaginal delivery group (p < 0.001). Conclusions Strict guidelines were followed in all cases. There were no neonatal deaths. Two infants had serious neonatal morbidity in the planned

  20. The pleiotropic effects of metformin: time for prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Bromage, Daniel I; Yellon, Derek M

    2015-01-01

    The global prevalence of diabetes has risen to epidemic proportions and the trend is predicted to continue. The consequent burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is a major public health concern and new treatments are required to mitigate the deleterious effects of cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients. Ischaemia-reperfusion injury is well known to exacerbate the harmful effects of acute myocardial infarction and subsequent therapeutic reperfusion, and several mechanical and pharmacological approaches to mitigating this injury have been investigated. Metformin, which is cheap, relatively safe and widely used in type 2 diabetes, is one such pharmacotherapy with considerable pre-clinical evidence for cardioprotective utility beyond its glucose-lowering effect. However, despite convincing basic evidence its translation to clinical application has largely been limited to studies of cardiovascular risk. There are several barriers to prospective randomized assessment in the context of acute myocardial infarction, not least the accessibility and already widespread use of metformin among patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk of cardiovascular events. In the place of class 1 evidence, well-designed prospective cohort studies of the potential pleiotropic utility of metformin in cardiovascular disease, and particularly its benefit in ischaemia-reperfusion injury, are needed. Given the availability of metformin worldwide, this is particularly true in low- and middle-income countries where the optimal therapy for acute myocardial infarction, primary percutaneous coronary intervention, may not be available, and instead patients are managed with thrombolysis. As this is less effective, metformin as an adjunct to thrombolysis (or PPCI) could represent an effective, cheap means of cardioprotection with global relevance. PMID:26271457

  1. Behavioural early-life exposures and body composition at age 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Leary, S D; Lawlor, D A; Davey Smith, G; Brion, M J; Ness, A R

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated associations between some early-life exposures and later obesity, but most have used body mass index in childhood or adulthood as the outcome. The objective of this study was to investigate whether early-life exposures were associated with directly measured fat and lean mass in adolescence. Subjects/Methods: This study used data on 4750 mother–offspring pairs, collected as a part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, Bristol, UK between 1991 and 1992; associations between behavioural exposures occurring from conception up to 5 years of age (maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy, breastfeeding, age at introduction to solids, dietary patterns and physical inactivity during early childhood) and offspring body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at ~15 years were assessed. Results: After full adjustment for potential confounders, maternal smoking during pregnancy, having a junk food diet and spending more time watching television in early childhood were all associated with higher fat mass at age 15, whereas maternal smoking, having a healthy diet and playing computer games more frequently in early childhood were all associated with a higher lean mass at age 15. Associations with paternal smoking were generally weaker for both fat and lean mass, but as there was no strong statistical evidence for maternal vs paternal differences, confounding by social factors rather than a direct effect of maternal smoking cannot be ruled out. Early feeding was not associated with fat or lean mass at age 15. Conclusions: This study does not provide compelling evidence for associations between most early-life factors and body composition in adolescence. However, possible associations with dietary patterns and physical inactivity in early childhood require further investigation in other cohorts that have direct measurements of adolescent body composition. PMID:25664839

  2. A Fit-Fat Index for Predicting Incident Diabetes in Apparently Healthy Men: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Susumu S; Lee, I-Min; Sui, Xuemei; Lee, Duck-chul; Ridouane, Yassine; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk; Blair, Steven N

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of combined cardiorespiratory fitness and waist-to-height ratio in the form of a fit-fat index on incident diabetes risk. Additionally, the independent predictive performance of cardiorespiratory fitness, waist-to-height ratio, and body mass index also were estimated and compared. Methods This was a prospective cohort study of 10,381 men who had a normal electrocardiogram and no history of major chronic disease at baseline from 1979 to 2005. Random survival forest models and traditional Cox proportional hazards models were used to predict diabetes at 5-, 10-, and 15-year incidence horizons. Results Overall, 4.8% of the participants developed diabetes. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses for incidence risk demonstrated good discrimination using random survival forest models across fitness and fatness measures; Cox models were poor to fair. The differences between fitness and fatness measures across horizons were clinically negligible. Smoothed random survival forest estimates demonstrated the impact of each fitness and fatness measure on incident diabetes was intuitive and graded. Conclusions Although fitness and fatness measures showed a similar discriminative ability in predicting incident diabetes, unique to the study was the ability of the fit-fat index to demonstrate a better indication of incident risk when compared to fitness or fatness alone. A single index combining cardiorespiratory fitness and waist-to-height ratio may be more useful because it can indicate improvements in either or both of the measures. PMID:27340824

  3. Early carotid endarterectomy after a nondisabling stroke: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ricco, J B; Illuminati, G; Bouin-Pineau, M H; Demarque, C; Camiade, C; Blecha, L; Neau, J P

    2000-01-01

    On the recommendation of several studies, carotid endarterectomy (CEA) should be delayed for at least 6 weeks in patients suffering an acute nondisabling stroke. Our objective was to determine if these patients could be safely operated on earlier, thus decreasing the risk of a recurrent stroke prior to surgery. This prospective study, carried out from January 1990 to December 1997, included 72 consecutive patients having a nondisabling hemispheric stroke with severe ipsilateral carotid stenosis (NASCET 70-99%). All patients underwent CEA within 15 days of stroke onset. Patients were considered to have a nondisabling hemispheric stroke if (1) symptoms of hemispheric ischemia persisted longer than 24 hr and (2) the resulting deficit caused no major impairment in their everyday activities. All patients were examined by a neurologist prior to carotid angiography and contrast CT scan. Hemorrhage seen on the initial CT scan eliminated the patient from the study. If the CT scan with contrast injection was negative, patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging. CEA was performed under general anesthesia with intraluminal shunting. All patients had a postoperative duplex scan and yearly follow-up by a neurologist and a surgeon, with a duplex scan of the carotid arteries. Mean follow-up was 53 months. Our study shows that CEA can be performed relatively safely within 15 days following an acute nondisabling stroke. The arbitrary 6-week delay for CEA may unnecessarily expose patients with high-grade stenosis to a recurrent stroke, which could be prevented by earlier surgery. PMID:10629271

  4. Radiation-Induced Sarcoma: A 15-Year Experience in a Single Large Tertiary Referral Center

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Su; Chang, Ji Hyun; Choi, Noorie; Kim, Han-Soo; Han, Ilkyu; Moon, Kyung Chul; Kim, Il Han; Kim, Hak Jae

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to report on the incidence and the experience in management of radiation-induced sarcoma (RIS) at a large single center in Korea for 15 years. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the sarcoma registry of a large institution from January 2000 to April 2014. Results Out of the 3,674 patients listed in the registry, 33 patients (0.9%) diagnosed with RIS were identified. The median latency of RIS was 12.1 years. The number of cases of RIS increased from four cases in the years 2000-2003 to 14 cases in the years 2012-2014. The most common histology was osteosarcoma (36.4%). The median follow-up period was 23.1 months, the median overall survival (OS) of all patients was 2.9 years, and their 5-year survival rate was 44.7%. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed association of the age at diagnosis (p=0.01) and the treatment aim (p=0.001) with the OS. The median OS and the 5-year survival rate of patients treated with curative surgery (n=19) were 9.6 years and 65%, respectively, and of the conservatively treated patients, 0.7 years and 0% (n=14). Re-irradiation was delivered to nine patients, and radiation toxicity was observed in five patients. Conclusion In this study, RIS accounted for 0.9% of the cases of sarcoma, with increasing incidence. Despite the association of curative resection with increased survival, it could be applied to only 58% of the patients. Considering the limited treatment options for RIS, conduct of a genetic study to identify the underlying mechanism of RIS is needed. PMID:27004955

  5. A study of geothermal prospects in the western United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The commercial development potential of 13 underdeveloped geothermal prospects in the Western United States was examined, and the prospects were ranked in order of relative potential for development on the basis of investment considerations. The following were considered in the ranking: geotechnical and engineering data, energy market accessibility, administrative constraints, and environmental and socio-economic factors. The primary ranking criterion is the unit cost of energy production expected from each prospect. Secondary criteria are administrative constraints, environmental factors and the quality of the geotechnical data.

  6. Dental Caries Scenario Among 5, 12 and 15-Year-old Children in India- A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Jankiram, Chandrashekar; Jain, Swati; Singh, Khushboo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Dental caries is the most prevalent dental disease and children are one of the most affected groups. Thus, the present study was conducted to assess the average dental caries prevalence across different WHO index age groups (5, 12 & 15 years) for the past fifteen years. Materials and Methods Literature search was performed electronically in various search engines like google scholar, PubMed, Copernicus, etc. using Dental caries and India as MeSH terms. Articles from the past 15 years reporting on dental caries prevalence and experience in India were searched and this online searching strategy collected and listed 781 articles. After evaluating their titles and abstracts, only 30 articles fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria & were finally selected for complete review and data collection. Five articles which were hand searched were also included. Pooled estimates were calculated for different index age groups and different regions (Northern and Southern) separately with a confidence interval of 95% both for prevalence and experience of dental caries. Results The pooled prevalence of dental caries was found to be highest in 15 year olds followed by 5 and 12 years (62.02%, 48.11% & 43.34% respectively). Weighted mean was also found to be highest for 15 years, followed by 5 and 12 years (2.56±6.508, 2.49±7.78, 1.48±3.292 respectively). Pooled prevalence and weighted mean for the Northernern India region was found to be more in all the index age groups as compared to the Southernern India region. Conclusion More than 40% of the children in India have shown dental caries in both primary and permanent teeth in the past 15 years. Also, Northernern region was found to be more affected by dental caries than Southern region. Since children are seen as the future of the nation, this data could be helpful in the planning of oral health care services by the concerned authorities in the community. PMID:26393229

  7. Stability and Change in Counseling Psychologists' Identities, Roles, Functions, and Career Satisfaction across 15 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodyear, Rodney K.; Murdock, Nancy; Lichtenberg, James W.; McPherson, Robert; Koetting, Kristin; Petren, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined changes in the profession of counseling psychology by comparing results of similar surveys of Society of Counseling Psychology (SCP) members administered 15 years apart (in 1985 and 2000). The authors found the roles and settings of SCP members were relatively stable across this period but observed that notably fewer…

  8. How "Green" Are Today's 15-Year-Olds? PISA in Focus. No. 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    How "green" are 15-year-olds? To what extent do they understand environmental issues? What are the sources of their information about the environment? Can they apply scientific principles and evidence to the world around them? This paper reports that across OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries, around one in five…

  9. The Relationship between Bible Reading and Attitude toward Substance Use among 13-15 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between Bible reading and attitude toward drug use is examined among a sample of 25,888 teenagers, 13-15 year olds, throughout England and Wales. Information about sex, age, personality, belief in God, and church attendance was also considered. The conclusion is that Bible reading makes a small but significant contribution to…

  10. PUBIS STRESS FRACTURE IN A 15-YEAR-OLD SOCCER PLAYER

    PubMed Central

    Bertolini, Fabrício Melo; Vieira, Rodrigo Barreiros; Oliveira, Lucas Henrique Araujo de; Lasmar, Rodrigo Pace; Junior, Otaviano de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    This case report presents a 15-year-old football player who was diagnosed with a pubis stress fracture and underwent conservative treatment with satisfactory results. After a review of the literature, the clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment are described. The importance of this paper comes from the rarity of finding reports about this kind of injury in the literature. PMID:27027039

  11. PUBIS STRESS FRACTURE IN A 15-YEAR-OLD SOCCER PLAYER.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Fabrício Melo; Vieira, Rodrigo Barreiros; Oliveira, Lucas Henrique Araujo de; Lasmar, Rodrigo Pace; Junior, Otaviano de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    This case report presents a 15-year-old football player who was diagnosed with a pubis stress fracture and underwent conservative treatment with satisfactory results. After a review of the literature, the clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment are described. The importance of this paper comes from the rarity of finding reports about this kind of injury in the literature. PMID:27027039

  12. 29 CFR 570.33 - Prohibited occupations for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited occupations for minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.33 Section 570.33 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age...

  13. Characteristics of 15-Year-Old Students Predicting Scientific Literacy Skills in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Ergül

    2016-01-01

    Since 2003, Turkey regularly participates in PISA. According to the PISA 2012 results, 15-year-old students in Turkey performed below both OECD countries and participating countries. Defining the relations between students' characteristics and their scientific literacy skills is thought to provide deeper understanding for the nature of this…

  14. 15-Year Enrollment and WSCH Forecast: California Community Colleges Chancellor's Office 1996 Forecast Using Statewide Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    In January 1996, the Chancellor's Office of the California Community Colleges prepared a 15-year forecast of enrollment and weekly student contact hours (WSCH) using an econometric model that analyzes real (i.e., price-adjusted) costs facing students, real operating budget expenditures of colleges, population and unemployment projections, and…

  15. Five Years of Tamoxifen Continues to Benefit Women 15 Years after Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    In a large randomized clinical trial, women with early-stage breast cancer who received 5 years of adjuvant treatment with tamoxifen had better outcomes up to 15 years after the start of treatment than those who received 2 years of tamoxifen therapy.

  16. Placement from a Community-Based Mental Retardation Program: A 15-Year Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalock, Robert L.; Genung, Tom L.

    1993-01-01

    Eighty-five persons with developmental disabilities who had been placed into independent housing and competitive employment 15 years previously were evaluated. Two primary groups emerged: 19% in and 59% not in mental retardation/developmental disability services. The two groups were compared on social and support networks, lifestyle, quality of…

  17. Pulmonary Complications following Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Palnizky, Gili; Halachmi, Sarel; Barak, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary complications may occur in the post-operative period and are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing anesthesia and surgery. Complication rates vary according to different procedures and different types of anesthesia and may be affected by the patient condition. The purpose of this study was to examine pulmonary complications following percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and to search for associations between the pre- and intra-operative factors and the risk of post-operative pulmonary complications (PPC). Patients and Methods This was a prospective observational study of 100 consecutive adult patients who underwent PCNL surgery. We collected data of the patient, surgery and anesthesia and analyzed it to find correlations with PPC. Results Eight (8%) patients had PPC following PCNL, 7 patients had pneumothorax and 1 had atelectasis and pleural effusion. The latter patient died at post-operative day 24 due to respiratory failure. It was found that patients who had PCNL on the right kidney were at lower risk for PPC. In addition it was found that younger patients had a higher incidence of PPC. Conclusions Based on this study the most common type of post-operative complication following PCNL is pulmonary, with pneumothorax being the main complication. PPC may result in patient mortality. The side of the operation and the patient's age might affect the risk of PPC. PMID:24917770

  18. [Psychic changes in systemic lupus erythematosus: a multidisciplinary prospective study].

    PubMed

    Miguel Filho, E C; Pereira, R M; Busatto Filho, G; Shavitt, R G; Hirsch, R; de Sá, L C; de Arruda, P C

    1990-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of psychic symptoms in lupus patients, there are few systematic studies in this area. Through a multidisciplinary approach, the authors developed a prospective study to characterize and correlate psychopathological aspects with clinical and laboratory data concerning neural manifestations of the disease. Out of 23 patients studied, 12 showed psychic alterations, which were interpreted as primary manifestations of the disease. All of them presented organic mental syndromes (DSM-III-R) in which cognitive symptoms were the most prominent, followed by affective, catatonic and hallucinatory features. The neurologic findings (seizure, migraine and muscular atrophy), as well as the ophthalmologic alterations (hemorrhage and soft exudates) were frequent and concomitant with the psychic features. The laboratory findings were: LE cells 50%; anti-Sm: 16%; anti-U1 RNP: 50%; anti-Ro/SS-A: 50%; anti-nDNA: 58%; decreased CH50 or fractions (C3, C4): 67%; anti-P: 18%; antigangliosides IgG: 67%; antigangliosides IgM: 78%. The cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed: increased cellularity: 18%; elevated protein: 36%; antigangliosides IgG: 67%; antigangliosides IgM: 33%; immunocomplexes: 36%. In spite of the absence of an adequate control group and of the small number of patients, the multidisciplinary approach leads to a better characterization of the nervous system involvement in this disease. PMID:1965671

  19. Sexual Function after Partial Penectomy: A Prospectively Study From China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Cui; Hequn, Chen; Longfei, Liu; Minfeng, Chen; Zhi, Chen; Feng, Zeng; Jinbo, Chen; Lin, Qi; Xiongbing, Zu

    2016-01-01

    The Purpose of this study was to evaluate the sexual function after partial penectomy for penile carcinoma patients. Between January 2010 and May 2013, patients treated with partial penectomy at our institution were prospectively enrolled in this study. Sexual function (IIEF-15), age, body mass index, penile length in the flaccid state after partial penectomy (PL), treatment, having a partner and psychological factors (SAS scores and SDS scores) were assessed. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed. 43 patients were included in our study. The median age was 56 years, and the median PL was 4 cm. The preoperative IIEF-15, SAS, SDS scores were significantly different from the postoperative scores. There was no statistically significant difference between the patients treated with partial penectomy and partial penectomy+ lymphadenectomy on IIEF-15 scores. Age was negatively associated with erectile function, sexual desire, and overall satisfaction; PL was positively associated with intercourse satisfaction; SAS score was negatively associated with erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, and intercourse satisfaction. Our preliminary findings suggest that the sexual function after partial penectomy was significantly reduced. The sexual function was negatively affected by age and anxiety but positively affected by PL. PMID:26902397

  20. Risk factors for seabather's eruption: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S; Hlady, W G; Malecki, J M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A prospective cohort study was performed to identify risk factors for seabather's eruption. METHODS: Study participants were recruited at four beaches in Palm Beach County, Florida, during three weekends of May and June 1993. Participants were interviewed by telephone after 48 hours regarding medical history, beach activities, development of rashes, and use of possible preventive measures. RESULTS: Seabather's eruption, defined by the occurrence of a rash within two days of exposure to seawater, was reported by 114 (16%) of 735 respondents. The strongest predictor of seabather's eruption was a past history of the condition. Children less than 16 years of age were also at increased risk, as were surfers. Showering with one's bathing suit off was a useful protective measure. CONCLUSION: The study's findings suggest that when the seasonal risk of seabather's eruption is present, children, people with a history of seabather's eruption, and surfers are at greatest risk. During the sea lice season, seabathers can minimize their risk by showering with their bathing suits off after seabathing. Length of the time spent in water was not significantly associated with seabather's eruption. PMID:9018290

  1. Sexual Function after Partial Penectomy: A Prospectively Study From China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Cui; Hequn, Chen; Longfei, Liu; Minfeng, Chen; Zhi, Chen; Feng, Zeng; Jinbo, Chen; Lin, Qi; Xiongbing, Zu

    2016-01-01

    The Purpose of this study was to evaluate the sexual function after partial penectomy for penile carcinoma patients. Between January 2010 and May 2013, patients treated with partial penectomy at our institution were prospectively enrolled in this study. Sexual function (IIEF-15), age, body mass index, penile length in the flaccid state after partial penectomy (PL), treatment, having a partner and psychological factors (SAS scores and SDS scores) were assessed. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed. 43 patients were included in our study. The median age was 56 years, and the median PL was 4 cm. The preoperative IIEF-15, SAS, SDS scores were significantly different from the postoperative scores. There was no statistically significant difference between the patients treated with partial penectomy and partial penectomy+ lymphadenectomy on IIEF-15 scores. Age was negatively associated with erectile function, sexual desire, and overall satisfaction; PL was positively associated with intercourse satisfaction; SAS score was negatively associated with erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, and intercourse satisfaction. Our preliminary findings suggest that the sexual function after partial penectomy was significantly reduced. The sexual function was negatively affected by age and anxiety but positively affected by PL. PMID:26902397

  2. Hearing and loud music exposure in 14-15 years old adolescents.

    PubMed

    Serra, Mario R; Biassoni, Ester C; Hinalaf, María; Abraham, Mónica; Pavlik, Marta; Villalobo, Jorge Pérez; Curet, Carlos; Joekes, Silvia; Yacci, María R; Righetti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent exposure to loud music has become a social and health problem whose study demands a holistic approach. The aims of the current study are: (1) To detect early noise-induced hearing loss among adolescents and establish its relationship with their participation in musical recreational activities and (2) to determine sound immission levels in nightclubs and personal music players (PMPs). The participants consisted in 172 14-15 years old adolescents from a technical high school. Conventional and extended high frequency audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and questionnaire on recreational habits were administered. Hearing threshold levels (HTLs) were classified as: normal (Group 1), slightly shifted (Group 2), and significantly shifted (Group 3). The musical general exposure (MGE), from participation in recreational musical activities, was categorized in low, moderate, and high exposure. The results revealed an increase of HTL in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.01), in Group 3 compared with Group 2 (P < 0.05) only in extended high frequency range, in Group 3 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.01). Besides, a decrease in mean global amplitude, reproducibility and in frequencies amplitude in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05) and in Group 3 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05). A significant difference (P < 0.05) was found in Group 1's HTL between low and high exposure, showing higher HTL in high exposure. The sound immission measured in nightclubs (107.8-112.2) dBA and PMPs (82.9-104.6) dBA revealed sound levels risky for hearing health according to exposure times. It demonstrates the need to implement preventive and hearing health promoting actions in adolescents. PMID:25209042

  3. ALH84001: The Key to Unlocking Secrets About Mars-15 Years and Counting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.

    2011-01-01

    From the December 27, 1984 discovery of ALH84001, and its subsequent identification as a sample of Mars in 1993, mystery and debate has surrounded the meteorite. With the realization that the ALH84001 sample was a orthopyroxenite and one of the oldest SNC meteorites (4.09 Ga) available to study, important and critical information about the Martian hydrosphere and atmosphere along with the early history and evolution of the planet could be obtained by studying the unique carbonate globules (3.9 Ga) in the sample. The initial work showed the carbonate globules were deposited within fractures and cracks in the host-orthopyroxene by low-temperature aqueous fluids. Ideas that the carbonates were formed at temperatures approaching 800oC were ruled out by later experiments. The 1996 announcement by McKay et al. that ALH84001 contained features which could be interpreted as having a biogenic origin generated considerable excitement and criticism. The NASA Administrator Dan Golden said the 1996 ALH84001 announcement saved NASA s Mars planetary exploration program and injected $6 billion dollars over five years into the scientific research and analysis efforts. All of the original four lines of evidence for possible biogenic features within ALH84001 offered by McKay et al. have withstood the test of time. Criticism has been directed at the interpretation of the 1996 analytical data. Research has expanded to other SNC meteorites. Despite the numerous attacks on the ideas, the debate continues after 15 years. The 2009 paper by Thomas-Keprta et al. on the origins of a suite of magnetites within the ALH84001 has offered strong arguments that some of the magnetites can only be formed by biogenic processes and not from thermal decomposition or shock events which happened to the meteorite. NASA s Astrobiology Institute was formed from the foundation laid by the ALH84001 hypothesis of finding life beyond the Earth. The strong astrobiology outreach programs have expanded because of

  4. Longitudinal study of cognitive abilities and adaptive behavior levels in fragile X males: a prospective multicenter analysis.

    PubMed

    Fisch, G S; Simensen, R; Tarleton, J; Chalifoux, M; Holden, J J; Carpenter, N; Howard-Peebles, P N; Maddalena, A

    1996-08-01

    Retrospective longitudinal studies have noted declines in IQ scores in many but not all fra(X) (fragile X) males and females. We report on a prospective investigation of longitudinal changes in cognitive ability (IQ) and adaptive behavior (DQ) in 24 fra(X) males from four test sites. Individuals who were tested ranged in age from 3-15 years. To determine cognitive ability, all males were administered the Stanford-Binet test (4th Edition). To assess adaptive behavior, all males were evaluated using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Mean interest interval was 2.3 years. Using identical DNA protocols, all subjects were identified as bearing the fra(X) mutation. Results showed declines in IQ scores in 18/24 (75%) males. Four males showed no change in scores. Declines in DQ scores were noted in 22/24 (92%) of those tested. DQ scores were higher than IQ scores in 20/24 (83%) subjects. From a descriptive cohort analysis, decreases in IQ scores appear to follow a well-defined, negatively decelerating function. Declines in DQ were steeper and more nearly linear. Declining scores are not indicative of regression of intellectual and/or social skills, but of a relative inability to keep pace with their age-normed cohort. We conclude that the fra(X) mutation affects cognitive abilities in a uniform, nonlinear manner comparable to outcomes observed in earlier retrospective studies. Adaptive behavior also declines, but in a more linear fashion. PMID:8844080

  5. 75 FR 9902 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; The Agricultural Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... Disease Among Men and Women in Agriculture (NCI) (OMB : 0925-0406). Type of Information Collection Request... Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study of Cancer and Other Disease Among Men and Women in Agriculture.... Affected Public: Private Sector, Farms. Type of Respondents: Licensed pesticide applicators and...

  6. Prospective study of coroner's autopsies in Benin City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aligbe, J U; Akhiwu, W O; Nwosu, S O

    2002-10-01

    A prospective study of 726 cases of coroner's autopsies carried out over a period of two years (1st January, 1996 - 31st December, 1997) was reviewed. The causes and circumstances of death are defined and classified into natural and unnatural deaths. Fifty cases (6.3%) were children while the remaining 676 cases (93.1%) were adults in a male to female ratio of 2.6 to 1. The most common indications for coroner's autopsies were sudden unnatural deaths (SUDs) accounting for 485 cases (66.8%) and also sudden unexpected natural deaths (SUNDs) (241 cases) accounting for 33.2%. In the first category, road traffic accidents accounted for 86.7% of cases with deaths involving motor vehicle drivers and their passengers (41.8%); pedestrians (37.1%); and motorcyclists and their passengers (18.6%). The commonest causes of death in all road traffic accidents were craniocerebral injuries and haemorrhagic shock. In the second category the most common causes of sudden unexpected natural death were cardiovascular diseases resulting from complications of hypertension (54.7%) occurring in apparently healthy individuals. Other causes of death were pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis, typhoid fever and neoplastic diseases. This study showed that in Nigeria, with an increasing acquisition of dietary and life style habits of the developed western world, there is becoming a concomitant risk of deaths from road traffic accidents and sudden unexpected natural deaths from hypertensive cardiovascular disease. PMID:12487517

  7. The Yugoslavia Prospective Study of environmental lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Factor-Litvak, P; Wasserman, G; Kline, J K; Graziano, J

    1999-01-01

    The Yugoslavia Prospective Study of environmental lead exposure has studied the associations between exposure to lead and pregnancy outcomes; childhood neuropsychological, behavioral, and physical development; and hematologic, renal, and cardiovascular function. The cohort comprises 577 children born to women recruited at midpregnancy in two towns in Kosovo, Yugoslavia; one town is the site of a lead smelter, refinery, and battery plant and the other is 25 miles away and relatively unexposed. A sample of these children has been followed at 6-month intervals through 7.5 years of age. Blood lead concentrations ranged from 1 to 70 microg/dl. Exposure to lead was not associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Exposure was associated with modest decrements in intelligence, small increases in blood pressure, higher risks of proteinuria, small increases in behavior problems, and perturbed hematopoiesis. Only at low level exposures (i.e., <16 microg/dl) were small associations with decreased height found. We discuss methodological problems that may hinder causal interpretation of these data, namely, use of blood lead concentration as an exposure measure, confounding, and town-specific associations. We conclude that while reported associations are small, collectively they lend support to the notion that lead is a toxicant with numerous adverse health effects. Images Figure 1 PMID:9872712

  8. Massage Therapy for Lyme Disease Symptoms: a Prospective Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Thomason, Meghan J.; Moyer, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction To study the effects of massage therapy (MT) on Lyme disease (LD) symptoms and affect. Methods A 21-year-old female college student previously diagnosed with LD was recruited for a prospective case study that incorporated alternating periods of treatment and nontreatment across 65 days. Her self-reported symptoms of pain, fatigue, and impairment of concentration were assessed by means of a daily diary with corresponding visual analog scales. Immediate effects of MT on affect were assessed by completion of the Positive and Negative Affect Scales before and after each treatment session. Results LD symptoms decreased during treatment periods and increased during nontreatment periods. Positive affect was increased at every MT session. Conclusions MT is a promising treatment for the symptoms pain, fatigue, and impaired concentration associated with LD. In addition, MT reliably increased positive affect. Massage therapists should consider using light-to-medium pressure MT for treatment of persons who present with a similar pattern of LD symptoms, and further research with this population is warranted. PMID:23429967

  9. A prospective study of radionuclide biliary scanning in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Neoptolemos, J. P.; Fossard, D. P.; Berry, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Early surgery for biliary pancreatitis has resulted in a need for an accurate method of gallstone detection in acute pancreatitis. Fifty patients with acute pancreatitis were studied prospectively to assess the diagnostic value of Radionuclide Biliary Scanning (RBS) performed within 72 hours of an attack. To assess the general accuracy of RBS a further 154 patients with suspected acute cholecystitis or biliary colic were similarly studied. There were 34 patients with biliary pancreatitis and 18 (53%) had a positive scan (no gallbladder seen). There were 16 patients with non-biliary pancreatitis and 5 (31%) had a positive scan. All 51 patients with acute cholecystitis had a positive scan, as did 82% of the 51 patients with biliary colic. There were 52 patients with no biliary or pancreatic disease and none of these had a positive scan. RBS is highly accurate in confirming a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis or biliary colic. However, it cannot be relied on to differentiate between biliary and non-biliary pancreatitis and should certainly not be used as the basis for biliary surgery in these patients. PMID:6859781

  10. A prospective study of collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Raja, Ramachandran; Nada, Ritambhra; Yadav, Ashok K; Kumar, Ashwani; Goyal, Ajay; Kumar, Vivek; Rathi, Manish; Kohli, H S; Gupta, K L; Sakhuja, Vinay; Jha, Vivekanand

    2016-07-01

    Collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (cFSGS) is characterized by rapid progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We evaluated the clinicopathological spectrum of cFSGS and compared its clinical behavior to steroid and tacrolimus (TAC)-resistant noncollapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). All patients (>14 years) diagnosed with cFSGS were enrolled in the study. Staining for differentiated podocyte markers such as WT 1, PAX and KI67 were performed in all patients. The outcome and histological features of cFSGS was compared with a prospectively followed cohort of steroid and TAC-resistant noncollapsing FSGS. The study included 22 cFSGS patients and 19 cases of steroid and TAC-resistant FSGS. Complete remission, partial remission, steroid resistance, progression to ESRD and death were observed in 13.6%, 4.5%, 27.3%, 36.4% and 18.2% patients, respectively. Patients with cFSGS had higher serum creatinine and more advanced tubulointerstitial changes compared to resistant FSGS. Twenty-six percent of therapy resistant noncollapsing FSGS progressed to ESRD after two years of stopping TAC. However, there was no difference in progression to ESRD between cFSGS and therapy-resistant noncollapsing FSGS at the end of two years. Glomerular collapse in the setting of FSGS is poorly responsive to treatment and has a high rate of progression to ESRD. The long-term prognosis of cFSGS and steroid and TAC-resistant FSGS are similar. PMID:27266801

  11. Risk factors for intraoperative floppy iris syndrome: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Chatziralli, I P; Peponis, V; Parikakis, E; Maniatea, A; Patsea, E; Mitropoulos, P

    2016-08-01

    PurposeTo evaluate risk factors for intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS) in patients undergoing phacoemulsification.MethodsParticipants in the study were 1274 consecutive patients, who underwent routine phacoemulsification cataract surgery. The following data were recorded and evaluated as possible risk factors: ophthalmological conditions, axial length of the eye, sociodemographic features, clinical data (hypertension and diabetes mellitus), medications being taken at the time of surgery, and duration of their intake. Cases were characterized intraoperatively as IFIS and non-IFIS. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed.ResultsIFIS was observed in 63/1274 eyes (4.9%, 95% CI: 3.9-6.7%). Current use of tamsulosin, alfuzosin, terazosin, benzodiazepines, quetiapine, and finasteride, as well as hypertension, were all independently associated with IFIS. Significant associations were noted for male sex, rivastigmine, and short axial length, which did not reach significance at the multivariate analysis. Duration of α-blockers intake was not found to be associated with IFIS.ConclusionApart from the well-established associations with α-blockers, this prospective study points to benzodiazepines, quetiapine, finasteride, and hypertension as potential risk factors for IFIS. Short axial length and rivastigmine were significantly associated with IFIS only at the univariate analysis. PMID:27367744

  12. Risk of Complications in Spine Surgery: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Rodolfo Casimiro; de Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes; Rotta, José Marcus; Botelho, Ricardo Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose : Complications are the chief concern of patients and physicians when considering spine surgery. The authors seek to assess the incidence of complications in patients undergoing spine surgery and identify risk factors for their occurrence. Methods : Prospective study of patients undergoing spine surgery from 1 February 2013 to 1 February 2014. Epidemiological characteristics and complications during the surgical hospitalization were recorded and analyzed. Results : The sample comprised 95 patients (mean age, 59 years). Overall, 23% of patients were obese (BMI =30). The mean BMI was 25.9. Approximately 53% of patients had comorbidities. Complications occurred in 23% of cases; surgical site infections were the most common (9%). There were no significant differences between patients who did and did not develop complications in terms of age (60.6 vs 59.9 years, p = 0.71), sex (56% female vs 54% female, p = 0.59), BMI (26.6 vs 27.2, p = 0.40), or presence of comorbidities (52% vs 52.8%, p = 0.87). The risk of complications was higher among patients submitted to spine instrumentation than those submitted to non-instrumented surgery (33% vs 22%), p=0.8. Conclusion : Just over one-quarter of patients in the sample developed complications. In this study, age, BMI, comorbidities were not associated with increased risk of complications after spine surgery. The use of instrumentation increased the absolute risk of complications. PMID:25674185

  13. A prospective study on postoperative pain after cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Porela-Tiihonen, Susanna; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kokki, Merja; Purhonen, Sinikka; Kokki, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate postoperative pain and early recovery in cataract patients. Patients and methods A total of 201 patients who underwent elective first eye cataract extraction surgery were enrolled, and 196 were included in the final analysis. The study design was a single-center, prospective, follow-up study in a tertiary hospital in eastern Finland. Postoperative pain was evaluated with the Brief Pain Inventory at four time points: at baseline, and at 24 hours, 1 week, and 6 weeks postsurgery. Results Postoperative pain was relatively common during the first hours after surgery, as it was reported by 67 (34%) patients. After hospital discharge, the prevalence decreased; at 24 hours, 1 week, and 6 weeks, 18 (10%), 15 (9%) and 12 (7%) patients reported having ocular pain, respectively. Most patients with eye pain reported significant pain, with a score of ≥4 on a pain scale of 0–10, but few had taken analgesics for eye pain. Those who had used analgesics rated the analgesic efficacy of paracetamol and ibuprofen as good or excellent. Other ocular irritation symptoms were common after surgery; as a new postoperative symptom, foreign-body sensation was reported by 40 patients (22%), light sensitivity by 29 (16%), burning by 15 (8%), and itching by 15 (8%). Conclusion Moderate or severe postoperative pain was relatively common after cataract surgery. Thus, all patients undergoing cataract surgery should be provided appropriate counseling on pain and pain management after surgery. PMID:23885165

  14. A 15-year Climatology of Deep Stratosphere-troposphere Exchange With A Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, P.; Stohl, A.; Forster, C.; Eckhardt, S.

    Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange (STE) is a key element of the global atmospheric circulation, impacting on mean atmospheric chemistry budgets in both stratosphere and troposphere. A comprehensive study of deep STE, based on ECMWF global at- mospheric re-analysis data, has been carried out for the EU-project STACCATO with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The model was initialised with half a million particles, distributed randomly throughout the atmosphere, and inte- grated continually for 15 years, providing the basis for a climatology of STE, showing its typical timescales, seasonality, and spatial and interannual variability. A major ad- vantage of FLEXPART is enabling one to distinguish between short-term STE, during which air parcels rapidly return to the stratosphere, and deep and/or long-term STE, in which air parcels have subsequently long residence times in the troposphere, thus having a greater impact on atmospheric chemistry. STE distributions relate closely to global circulation features. Stratospheric intrusions occur most frequently in the mid- latitude storm track regions. Much of this air returns to the stratosphere within synop- tic timescales. The more deeply intruded air which remains is subsequently imbedded into the large-scale meridional circulation, resulting in the greatest proportion of old stratospheric air in the tropics and the polar boundary layer, as revealed by age spec- tra. Circulation anomalies (eg. NAO) influence the tropospheric distribution of young stratospheric air in particular. Concentrations of stratospheric air in the troposphere show a distinct winter maximum for deep STE intrusions, especially for cases of rapid descent. The often quoted 'spring maximum' of STE, typically derived by just fo- cussing on cross-tropopause fluxes, applies only in the upper troposphere and thus to shallow STE events alone. Cross-tropopause mass flux is shown to be an inadequate measure for many aspects of STE.

  15. Nutritional status, biological maturation and cardiorespiratory fitness in Azorean youth aged 11–15 years

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sex and individual differences in biological maturity status can influence height, weight, and body fat. Thus, the rigorous control of these variables seems necessary for estimating overweight and obesity in adolescents. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity and over-fatness in Azorean adolescents and to examine the contributions of chronological age, sex, estimated maturity status, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) to the risk of overweight and obesity and over-fatness. Methods The sample comprised 1,206 youth aged 11–15 years (626 boys and 580 girls) from the Azores Islands, Portugal. Body mass, stature, and skinfolds (triceps and subscapular) were measured. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and percent fat was predicted from skinfolds. Age- and sex-specific IOTF cut-off values of the BMI defined nutritional status. Biological maturation was estimated as present height expressed as a percentage of predicted adult (mature) stature. The CRF was analyzed from the 20-m shuttle run test. Results The total prevalence rates of overweight/obesity and over-fatness were of 31% and 27%, respectively. Low CRF (unfit) and being average and advanced in maturity status were positively and significantly associated with overweight/obesity and with risk of being over-fatness in both sexes. Conclusions High prevalence rates of overweight/obesity and over-fatness were identified in Azorean youth, and low CRF and advanced biological maturation were positively associated with overweight/obesity and over-fatness in our sample of adolescents. PMID:23697718

  16. Natural course of schizophrenic disorders: a 15-year followup of a Dutch incidence cohort.

    PubMed

    Wiersma, D; Nienhuis, F J; Slooff, C J; Giel, R

    1998-01-01

    Data are presented on the 15-year natural course of schizophrenia and other nonaffective functional psychoses in a cohort of 82 first-contact cases from a circumscribed area in the Netherlands. The subjects were suffering from functional psychosis with International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnoses 295, 297, or 298.3-9 (broad definition of schizophrenia) on entry. Standardized assessments of psychopathology, psychological impairments, negative symptomatology, social disability, and use of mental healthcare were used. The study reveals a pattern of chronicity and relapses with a high risk of suicide: Two-thirds of the subjects had at least one relapse and after each relapse 1 of 6 subjects did not remit from the episode; 1 of 10 committed suicide; and 1 of 7 had at least one episode with affective psychotic symptoms that started on average 6 years after the onset of the schizophrenic disorder. Diagnoses were reclassified in five patients, according to DSM-III-R criteria for a bipolar disorder. The predictive power--in terms of time in psychosis and in partial or full remission--of demographic, illness, and treatment variables at onset of the illness was very limited. Insidious onset and delays in mental health treatment are risk factors that predict a longer duration of first or subsequent episodes. The importance of mental health treatment in regard to outcome is probably subject to change because an early warning and intervention strategy could prevent further damage and deterioration. Our data support the need for an adequate relapse prevention program as a priority for our mental health services. PMID:9502547

  17. REOPERATION FOR INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION IN TWIST1 CONFIRMED SAETHRE-CHOTZEN SYNDROME: A 15 YEAR REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Roger H; Ul-Haq, Ehtesham; Wilkie, Andrew OM; Jayamohan, Jayaratnam; Richards, Peter G; Johnson, David; Lester, Tracy; Wall, Steven A

    2009-01-01

    Background Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS) is a syndromic craniosynostosis defined by a genetic mutation affecting the TWIST1 gene on chromosome 7p21. SCS is typically associated with uni- or bi-coronal synostosis, eyelid ptosis, dysmorphic external ears and other variable facial and limb abnormalities. Surgical management of the craniosynostosis addresses the calvarial deformity and may relieve or reduce risk of intracranial hypertension. The aim of this study was to assess surgical intervention, with particular consideration of reoperation rate for intracranial hypertension, in SCS patients. Method A retrospective casenote analysis was performed on all patients with a confirmed TWIST1 gene abnormality, who attended the Oxford Craniofacial Unit over a 15-year period. Each patient’s mutation and clinical features were recorded. Surgical intervention and sequelae were examined in greater detail. Results Thirty-four patients with genetically confirmed SCS were identified. All had craniosynostosis (bicoronal 76%, unicoronal 18%, bicoronal and sagittal 6%), and the majority had eyelid ptosis, low frontal hairline and external ear anomalies. Thirty-one cases had received surgical intervention. Nine of 26 patients (35%) with minimum 12 month follow-up after primary intervention, and 8 of 19 patients (42%) with minimum 5 year follow-up, developed intracranial hypertension necessitating secondary calvarial surgery. Conclusions Despite standard surgical intervention, patients with SCS have a high rate (35 - 42%) of recurrent intracranial hypertension necessitating further surgical expansion. All patients with either bicoronal synostosis or unicoronal synostosis with syndromic features, should be screened for TWIST1 mutations as this confers a greater risk than non-syndromic synostosis of the same sutures. Regular follow-up of SCS patients throughout the childhood years is essential. PMID:19483581

  18. A Qualitative Case Study of Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Knowledge about Instructional Strategies: Introducing Particulate Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boz, Nihat; Boz, Yezdan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate prospective chemistry teachers' knowledge about instructional strategies, one component of pedagogical content knowledge about introducing particulate theory, as well as sources of this knowledge. Twenty-two prospective chemistry teachers participated in the study. Data were collected by the means of a…

  19. The Limitations of a Prospective Study of Memories for Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheit, Ross E.

    2003-01-01

    Prospective studies have been held out as a kind of Holy Grail in research about remembering or forgetting child sexual abuse. They seem to hold the perfect answer to the verification problems that plague retrospective self-reports in the clinical literature. Prospective studies begin with verified cases of abuse. Then they require detective work…

  20. A Comparative Study of Problematic Internet Use and Loneliness among Turkish and Korean Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutgun, Aylin; Deniz, Levent; Moon, Man-Ki

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to compare the problematic internet use and its relation to loneliness among two nations' prospective teachers, Turkey and South Korea. Five hundred and ninety five prospective teachers from three universities, two from Turkey and one from South Korea participated in the study. Generalized Problematic Internet Use…

  1. Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Spatz, Erica S; Jiang, Xianyan; Lu, Jiapeng; Masoudi, Frederick A; Spertus, John A; Wang, Yongfei; Li, Xi; Downing, Nicholas S; Nasir, Khurram; Du, Xue; Li, Jing; Krumholz, Harlan M; Liu, Xiancheng; Jiang, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In China, efforts are underway to respond to rapidly increasing rates of heart disease and stroke. Yet the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in China may be different from that of other populations. Thus, there is a critical need for population-based studies that provide insight into the risk factors, incidence and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China. The Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study is designed to investigate the burden of cardiovascular disease and the sociodemographic, biological, environmental and clinical risk factors associated with disease onset and outcomes. Participants For this study, from 2000 through 2013, 32 404 employees aged 18 years or older were recruited from the Qingdao Port Group in China, contributing 221 923 annual health assessments. The mean age at recruitment was 43.4 (SD=12.9); 79% were male. In this ongoing study, annual health assessments, governed by extensive quality control mechanisms, include a questionnaire (capturing demographic and employment information, medical history, medication use, health behaviours and health outcomes), physical examination, ECG, and blood and urine analysis. Additional non-annual assessments include an X-ray, echocardiogram and carotid ultrasound; bio-samples will be collected for future genetic and proteomic analyses. Cardiovascular outcomes are accessed via self-report and are actively being verified with medical insurance claims; efforts are underway to adjudicate outcomes with hospital medical records. Findings to date Early findings reveal a significant increase in cardiovascular risk factors from 2000 to 2010 (hypertension: 26.4–39.4%; diabetes: 3.3–8.9%; hyperlipidaemia: 5.0–33.6%; body mass index >28 m/kg2: 14.1–18.6%). Future Plans We aim to generate novel insights about the epidemiology and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China, with specific emphasis on the potentially unique risk factor profiles of this Chinese population. Knowledge

  2. A 15 year legacy of cloud and atmosphere observations in Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupe, M.

    2012-12-01

    For the past 15 years, the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has operated the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) atmospheric observatory in Barrow, Alaska. Barrow offers many valuable perspectives on the Arctic environment that complement observations at lower latitudes. Unique features of the Arctic region include cold and dry atmospheric conditions, strong annual variability in sun light, a seasonally high-reflective surface, and persistent clouds that involve mixed-phase processes. ARM's ultimate objective with its flagship observatory at the northernmost point in U.S. territory is to provide measurements that can be used to improve the understanding of these atmospheric physical and radiative properties and processes such that they can be better represented in climate models. The NSA is the most detailed and long-lasting cloud-radiation-atmosphere observatory in the Arctic, providing continuous, sophisticated measurements of climate-relevant parameters. Instrument suites include active radars and lidars at various frequencies, passive radiometers monitoring radiation in microwave, infrared, visible and ultraviolet wavelengths, meteorological towers, and sounding systems. Together these measurements are used to characterize many of the important properties of clouds, aerosols, atmospheric radiation, dynamics, thermodynamics, and the surface. The coordinated nature of these measurements offers important multi-dimensional insight into many fundamental processes linking these different elements of the climate system. Moreover, the continuous operations of the facility support these observations over the full diurnal cycle and in all seasons of the year. This presentation will highlight a number of important studies and key findings that have been facilitated by the NSA observations during the first 15 years in operation. Some of these include: a thorough documentation of clouds, their occurrence frequency, phase, microphysical

  3. Proactive Approach to Lymphedema Risk Reduction: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Mei R.; Axelrod, Deborah; Guth, Amber A.; Cartwright, Francis; Qiu, Zeyuan; Goldberg, Judith D.; Kim, June; Scagliola, Joan; Kleinman, Robin; Haber, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in cancer treatments continue to reduce the incidence of lymphedema. Yet, many breast cancer survivors still face long-term post-operative challenges as a result of developing lymphedema. The purpose of this study was to preliminarily evaluate The-Optimal-Lymph-Flow program, a patient-centered education and behavioral program focusing on self-care strategies to enhance lymphedema risk reduction by promoting lymph flow and optimize body mass index. Methods A prospective, longitudinal, quasi-experimental design with repeated-measures was used. The study outcomes included lymph volume changes by infra-red perometer and body mass index by a bioimpedance device at pre-surgery baseline, 2-4 weeks after surgery, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. A total of 140 patients were recruited and participated in The-Optimal-Lymph-Flow program; 134 patients completed the study with 4% attrition rate. Results Fifty-eight percent patients had axillary node dissection and 42% had sentinel lymph node biopsy. The majority (97%) of patients maintained and improved their preoperative limb volume and body mass index at the study endpoint of 12 months following cancer surgery. Cumulatively, 2 patients with sentinel lymph node biopsy and 2 patients with the axillary lymph node dissection had measurable lymphedema (>10% limb volume change). At 12-month follow-up, among the 4 patients with measurable lymphedema, 2 patients' limb volume returned to pre-operative level without compression therapy but by maintaining The-Optimal-Lymph-Flow exercises to promote daily lymph flow. Conclusions This educational and behavioral program is effective to enhance lymphedema risk reduction. The study provided initial evidence for emerging change in lymphedema care from treatment-focus to proactive risk reduction. PMID:24809302

  4. Burn injuries in Zaria: a one year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kalayi, G D

    1994-05-01

    Fifty three patients admitted for burn care during a 12 month period from September 1987 to August 1988 were prospectively studied. There were 36 males (60%) and 21 females (40%) with ages ranging from 3 months to 60 years. Children aged 0-4 constituted 40% but 32 (60%) were younger than 16 years. Flame burns affected 26 (49%) patients, scalds in 22 (12%), electrical burns affected four patients and chemical burn was in one. Scald was the commonest injury among children aged 0-4 (70%). Flame, affected 33% of those aged 16 and above. Clothing fire was the commonest flame injury and it was a cause of very extensive injury (mean % BSA 45). Kerosene burn, gas and clothing burns caused the most extensive injury with a mean % BSA 46, 41 and 45 respectively. The commonest complication was burn wound sepsis most frequently by a gram-negative bacilli (65.63%) of which Pseudomonas aeruginosa were that commonest organisms. Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus aureus were about same frequency. Duration of hospital stay ranged from 6 days to 300 days with a mean of 46.52 days. 8 patients absconded, two were transferred to a hospital near their home and 9 died, giving a mortality rate of 17%. Since burn injuries are largely preventable, it is important to define clearly the social, cultural and economic factors which contribute to burn causation in order to combat them effectively. PMID:7925065

  5. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis in Peru: a multicentre prospective study.

    PubMed

    Montano, S M; Mori, N; Nelson, C A; Ton, T G N; Celis, V; Ticona, E; Sihuincha, M; Tilley, D H; Kochel, T; Zunt, J R

    2016-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is one of the most commonly identified infectious aetiologies of encephalitis in North America and Europe. The epidemiology of encephalitis beyond these regions, however, is poorly defined. During 2009-2012 we enrolled 313 patients in a multicentre prospective study of encephalitis in Peru, 45 (14·4%) of whom had confirmed HSV infection. Of 38 patients with known HSV type, 84% had HSV-1 and 16% had HSV-2. Patients with HSV infection were significantly more likely to present in the summer months (44·4% vs. 20·0%, P = 0·003) and have nausea (60·0% vs. 39·8%, P = 0·01) and rash (15·6% vs. 5·3%, P = 0·01) compared to patients without HSV infection. These findings highlight differences in the epidemiology and clinical presentation of HSV encephalitis outside of the Northern Hemisphere that warrant further investigation. Furthermore, there is an urgent need for improved HSV diagnostic capacity and availability of intravenous acyclovir in Peru. PMID:26733400

  6. Socioeconomic Status, Race, and Mortality: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Sarah S.; Williams, David R.; Munro, Heather M.; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Blot, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the independent and joint effects of race, individual socioeconomic status (SES), and neighborhood SES on mortality risk. Methods. We conducted a prospective analysis involving 52 965 non-Hispanic Black and 23 592 non-Hispanic White adults taking part in the Southern Community Cohort Study. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to determine associations of race and SES with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Results. In our cohort, wherein Blacks and Whites had similar individual SES, Blacks were less likely than Whites to die during the follow-up period (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.73, 0.84). Low household income was a strong predictor of all-cause mortality among both Blacks and Whites (HR = 1.76; 95% CI = 1.45, 2.12). Being in the lowest (vs highest) category with respect to both individual and neighborhood SES was associated with a nearly 3-fold increase in all-cause mortality risk (HR = 2.76; 95% CI = 1.99, 3.84). There was no significant mortality-related interaction between individual SES and neighborhood SES among either Blacks or Whites. Conclusions. SES is a strong predictor of premature mortality, and the independent associations of individual SES and neighborhood SES with mortality risk are similar for Blacks and Whites. PMID:25322291

  7. Aetiopathology of maxillary swelling--a 3-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Deb; Crank, Stephen

    2007-11-01

    A wide variety of lesions and not necessarily a malignant tumour can cause maxillary swelling. Non-specificity of clinical and radiological features of these maxillary lesions makes their diagnosis difficult. Review of literature adds a little regarding the aetiopathological distribution of the various lesions causing maxillary swelling. We present our finding regarding the relative distribution of various conditions causing maxillary swelling. The awareness of the spectrum of pathology related to maxillary swelling is essential for correct diagnosis and treatment. Forty-eight patients who presented with a swelling of the maxilla to our hospital between May 1998 and April 2001 were prospectively studied regarding the clinical presentations, radiological features and histological findings. Maxillary swelling was found to be caused by malignant tumours in 54.2%, benign neoplasms in 22.9% and non-neoplastic lesions in 22.9%. Overall squamous cell carcinoma (22.9%) was the commonest lesion, tumour of vascular origin was the commonest benign neoplasm and odontogenic cyst was the commonest among the non-neoplastic lesions. PMID:17611767

  8. Postoperative Pain after Root Canal Treatment: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Gotler, M.; Bar-Gil, B.; Ashkenazi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the incidence and severity of postendodontic treatment pain (PEP) subsequent to root canal treatment (RCT) in vital and necrotic pulps and after retreatment. Methodology. A prospective study. Participants were all patients (n = 274) who underwent RCT in teeth with vital pulp, necrotic pulp, or vital pulp that had been treated for symptomatic irreversible pulpitis or who received root canal retreatment, by one clinician, during an eight-month period. Exclusion criteria were swelling, purulence, and antibiotic use during initial treatment. A structured questionnaire accessed age, gender, tooth location, and pulpal diagnosis. Within 24 h of treatment, patients were asked to grade their pain at 6 and 18 hours posttreatment, using a 1–5 point scale. Results. RCT of teeth with vital pulp induced a significantly higher incidence and severity of PEP (63.8%; 2.46 ± 1.4, resp.) than RCT of teeth with necrotic pulp (38.5%; 1.78 ± 1.2, resp.) or of retreated teeth (48.8%; 1.89 ± 1.1, resp.). No statistical relation was found between type of pain (spontaneous or stimulated) and pulp condition. Conclusion. RCT of teeth with vital pulp induced a significantly higher incidence and intensity of PEP compared to teeth with necrotic pulp or retreated teeth. PMID:22505897

  9. Metabolic Bone Disease in Viral Cirrhosis: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Goubraim, Rabia; Kabbaj, Nawal; Salihoun, Mouna; Chaoui, Zakia; Nya, M'Hamed; Amrani, Naima

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim. Metabolic Bone disorders are well-recognized extrahepatic complications of cirrhosis. The aim was to report their prevalence and the associated factors to their development in patients with viral cirrhosis. Patients and Methods. All consecutive patients with viral cirrhosis were prospectively enrolled. Parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, liver function, and phosphocalcic tests were measured in all patients. Bone mineral density was measured at the lumbar spine and total hip by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results. Forty-six cirrhotic patients were included with hepatitis C (87%) and hepatitis B (13%). The Child-Pugh score was grade A in 87% of cases and grade B in 13%. Thirty-seven patients had decreased bone mineral density with osteopenia in 24 patients and osteoporosis in 13 patients. Decreased 25-hydroxyvitamin D was found in 95.6% of cases. Bone disorders were significantly more frequent in old patients with low body mass index, long duration of liver disease, and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D level. None of these factors was an independent factor associated with bone disorders. Conclusion. Our study revealed a high prevalence of metabolic bone disorders among viral cirrhotic patients. Consequently, bone mineral density assessment should be performed systematically in all cirrhotic patients.

  10. Vocal Cord Paralysis and its Etiologies: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Seyed Toutounchi, Seyed Javad; Eydi, Mahmood; Golzari, Samad EJ; Ghaffari, Mohammad Reza; Parvizian, Nashmil

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Vocal cord paralysis is a common symptom of numerous diseases and it may be due to neurogenic or mechanical fixation of the cords. Paralysis of the vocal cords is just a symptom of underlying disease in some cases; so, clinical diagnosis of the underlying cause leading to paralysis of the vocal cords is important. This study evaluates the causes of vocal cord paralysis. Methods: In a prospective study, 45 patients with paralyzed vocal cord diagnosis were examined by tests such as examination of the pharynx, larynx, esophagus, thyroid, cervical, lung, and mediastinum, brain and heart by diagnostic imaging to investigate the cause vocal cord paralysis. The study was ended by diagnosing the reason of vocal cord paralysis at each stage of the examination and the clinical studies. Results: The mean duration of symptoms was 18.95±6.50 months. The reason for referral was phonation changes (97.8%) and aspiration (37.8%) in the subjects. There was bilateral paralysis in 6.82%, left paralysis in 56.82% and right in 63.36% of subjects. The type of vocal cord placement was midline in 52.8%, paramedian in 44.4% and lateral in 2.8% of the subjects. The causes of vocal cords paralysis were idiopathic paralysis (31.11%), tumors (31.11%), surgery (28.89%), trauma, brain problems, systemic disease and other causes (2.2%). Conclusion: An integrated diagnostic and treatment program is necessary for patients with vocal cord paralysis. Possibility of malignancy should be excluded before marking idiopathic reason to vocal cord paralysis. PMID:24753832

  11. Predictors of critical acute pancreatitis: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ke, Lu; Tong, Zhi-hui; Li, Wei-qin; Wu, Congye; Li, Ning; Windsor, John A; Li, Jie-shou; Petrov, Maxim S

    2014-11-01

    Critical acute pancreatitis (CAP) has recently emerged as the most ominous severity category of acute pancreatitis (AP). As such there have been no studies specifically designed to evaluate predictors of CAP. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the accuracy of 4 parameters (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II score, C-reactive protein [CRP], D-dimer, and intra-abdominal pressure [IAP]) for predicting CAP early after hospital admission. During the study period, data on patients with AP were prospectively collected and D-dimer, CRP, and IAP levels were measured using standard methods at admission whereas the APACHE II score was calculated within 24 hours of hospital admission. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was applied and the likelihood ratios were calculated to evaluate the predictive accuracy. A total of 173 consecutive patients were included in the analysis and 47 (27%) of them developed CAP. The overall hospital mortality was 11% (19 of 173). APACHE II score ≥11 and IAP ≥13 mm Hg showed significantly better overall predictive accuracy than D-dimer and CRP (area under the ROC curve-0.94 and 0.92 vs. 0.815 and 0.667, correspondingly). The positive likelihood ratio of APACHE II score is excellent (9.9) but of IAP is moderate (4.2). The latter can be improved by adding CRP (5.8). In conclusion, of the parameters studied, APACHE II score and IAP are the best available predictors of CAP within 24 hours of hospital admission. Given that APACHE II score is rather cumbersome, the combination of IAP and CRP appears to be the most practical way to predict critical course of AP early after hospital admission. PMID:25380082

  12. Atypical antipsychotic drugs and pregnancy outcome: a prospective, cohort study.

    PubMed

    Habermann, Frank; Fritzsche, Juliane; Fuhlbrück, Frederike; Wacker, Evelin; Allignol, Arthur; Weber-Schoendorfer, Corinna; Meister, Reinhard; Schaefer, Christof

    2013-08-01

    Women of childbearing age are often affected with psychotic disorders, requiring the use of antipsychotic medication during pregnancy. In the present study, we prospectively followed the pregnancies of 561 women exposed to second-generation antipsychotic agents (SGAs; study cohort) and compared these to 284 pregnant women exposed to first-generation antipsychotic agents (FGAs; comparison cohort I) and to 1122 pregnant women using drugs known as not harmful to the unborn (comparison cohort II). Subjects were enrolled through the Institute's consultation service. Major malformation rates of SGA exposed were higher compared to comparison cohort II (adjusted odds ratio, 2.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-3.91), possibly reflecting a detection bias concerning atrial and ventricular septal defects. Postnatal disorders occurred significantly more often in infants prenatally exposed to SGAs (15.6%) and FGAs (21.6%) compared to 4.2% of comparison cohort II. Cumulative incidences of elective terminations of pregnancy were significantly higher in both the study cohort (17%) and comparison cohort I (21%) compared to comparison cohort II (3%), whereas the rates of spontaneous abortions did not differ. The numbers of stillbirths and neonatal deaths were within the reference range. Preterm birth and low birth weight were more common in infants exposed to FGAs. To conclude, our findings did not reveal a major teratogenic risk for SGAs, making the better studied drugs of this group a treatment option during pregnancy. Because neonates exposed to SGAs or FGAs in the last gestational week are at higher risk of postnatal disorders, delivery should be planned in clinics with neonatal intensive care units. PMID:23764684

  13. Butorphanol in labour analgesia: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Ajay; Agarwal, Rachana

    2013-01-01

    Objective Parenteral opioids can be administered with ease at a very low cost with high efficacy as labour analgesia. However, there are insufficient data available to accept the benefits of parenteral opioids over other proven methods of labour analgesia. Butorphanol, a new synthetic opioid, has emerged as a promising agent in terms of efficacy and a better safety profile. This study investigates the effect of butorphanol as a labour analgesia to gather further evidence of its safety and efficacy to pave the way for its widespread use in low resource settings. Material and Methods One hundred low risk term consenting pregnant women were recruited to take part in a prospective cohort study. Intramuscular injections of butorphanol tartrate 1 mg (Butrum 1/2mg, Aristo, Mumbai, India) were given in the active phase of labour and repeated two hourly. Pain relief was noted on a 10-point visual pain analogue scale (VPAS). Obstetric and neonatal outcome measures were mode of delivery, duration of labour, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit admissions. Collected data were analysed for statistically significant pain relief between pre- and post-administration VPAS scores and also for the incidence of adverse outcomes. Results Pain started to decrease significantly within 15 minutes of administration and reached the nadir (3.08 SD0.51) at the end of two hours. The pain remained below four on the VPAS until the end of six hours and was still significantly low after eight hours. The incidence of adverse outcomes was low in the present study. Conclusion Butorphanol is an effective parenteral opioid analgesic which can be administered with reasonable safety for the mother and the neonate. The study has the drawback of lack of control and small sample size. PMID:24592110

  14. Impact of school-based oral health education program on oral health of 12 and 15 years old school children

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Vinay Kumar; Sharma, Kapil Rajiv; Luthra, Rajeshwar Prasad; Jhingta, Pravesh; Sharma, Deepak; Justa, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health education for the school age child is a specialized field within the broad discipline of education. Oral health education program are educational aspects of any curative, preventive and promotional health activity. Aim: The study has been undertaken to evaluate the impact of oral health education on the status of plaque, gingival health and dental caries among 12 and 15 years old children attending government school in Shimla city. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and seventy six school children participated in the study. The study was conducted over a period of 4 months from May 2010 to August 2010 in Government Senior Secondary School, Sanjauli. Plaque, gingival and caries status was assessed by using Silness and Loe plaque index, Loe and Silness gingival index and WHO modified DMFT index, respectively. Data was analyzed using the software SPSS version 15. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank sum test were used appropriately for statistical comparisons. P value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Overall mean plaque score and gingival score decreased significantly after oral health education irrespective of gender. However, decrease in plaque score among 15 years old female children and gingival scores among 12 and 15 years old female subjects was not significant. Difference in mean caries status was statistically insignificant among all the subjects. Conclusion: Short term oral health education program may be useful in improving oral hygiene and gingival health. Coordinating efforts should be enhanced between school personnel, parents and health professionals to ensure long-term benefits of such program. PMID:24083283

  15. Association studies including genotype by environment interactions: prospects and limits

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Association mapping studies offer great promise to identify polymorphisms associated with phenotypes and for understanding the genetic basis of quantitative trait variation. To date, almost all association mapping studies based on structured plant populations examined the main effects of genetic factors on the trait but did not deal with interactions between genetic factors and environment. In this paper, we propose a methodological prospect of mixed linear models to analyze genotype by environment interaction effects using association mapping designs. First, we simulated datasets to assess the power of linear mixed models to detect interaction effects. This simulation was based on two association panels composed of 90 inbreds (pearl millet) and 277 inbreds (maize). Results Based on the simulation approach, we reported the impact of effect size, environmental variation, allele frequency, trait heritability, and sample size on the power to detect the main effects of genetic loci and diverse effect of interactions implying these loci. Interaction effects specified in the model included SNP by environment interaction, ancestry by environment interaction, SNP by ancestry interaction and three way interactions. The method was finally used on real datasets from field experiments conducted on the two considered panels. We showed two types of interactions effects contributing to genotype by environment interactions in maize: SNP by environment interaction and ancestry by environment interaction. This last interaction suggests differential response at the population level in function of the environment. Conclusions Our results suggested the suitability of mixed models for the detection of diverse interaction effects. The need of samples larger than that commonly used in current plant association studies is strongly emphasized to ensure rigorous model selection and powerful interaction assessment. The use of ancestry interaction component brought valuable

  16. Control measures to trace ≤ 15-year-old contacts of index cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; de Melo, Angelita Cristine; de Oliveira, Lílian Ruth Silva; Froede, Emerson Lopes; Camargos, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This was descriptive study carried out in a medium-sized Brazilian city. In ≤ 15-year-old contacts of index cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis, we assessed compliance with the Brazilian national guidelines for tuberculosis control. We interviewed 43 contacts and their legal guardians. Approximately 80% of the contacts were not assessed by the municipal public health care system, and only 21% underwent tuberculin skin testing. The results obtained with the Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector method suggest that health care teams have a biased attitude toward assessing such contacts and underscore the need for training health professionals regarding tuberculosis control programs. PMID:26578137

  17. Trisomy 18 mosaicism in a 15-year-old boy with normal intelligence and short stature

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-08

    We report a 15-year-old boy with mosaicism for trisomy 18 and normal intelligence. Approximately 50% of his leukocytes are trisomic. This patient represents the sixth report of an individual with trisomy 18 mosaicism and normal intelligence. Those individuals with trisomy 18 mosaicism and normal intelligence need to be advised of increased risks for offspring with chromosome abnormalities and offered the option of prenatal diagnosis for cytogenetic anomalies. 6 refs.

  18. Type IV congenital laryngeal web: Case report and 15 year follow up.

    PubMed

    Sorichetti, Brendan; Moxham, John P; Kozak, Frederick K

    2016-01-01

    A five day old patient with mild VACTERL syndrome had repair of a type IV congenital laryngeal web with successful decannulation 76 days later. Voice and respiratory outcome is good with follow up 15 years later. This case presents a rare clinical finding of a type IV laryngeal web successfully repaired with a keel and subsequent long term follow up during an era when it was suggested that repair be delayed until 18 months of age at the earliest. PMID:26954872

  19. A 15-year-old boy with snoring and molar tooth sign.

    PubMed

    El-Kersh, Karim; Senthilvel, Egambaram

    2015-04-01

    A 15-year-old boy presented for evaluation of snoring and sleep-disordered breathing. The parents noted that the patient snored every night and that he had episodes when he stopped breathing, ending with gasping for air. He had no history of sleep walking, night terrors, tongue biting, or seizures. The patient had two healthy siblings, but he had a history of intellectual disability and developmental delay. The patient had a history of adenotonsillectomy. PMID:25846539

  20. Retroviruses and retroelements in diseases and in gene therapy: 15 years later.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The past 15 years opened new avenues for retrovirus and retroelement research. Not surprisingly, they stemmed from essential knowledge collected in the past, which remains the ground of the present and therefore should be remembered. However, a short supplement of new break-through discoveries and ideas should be recollected. Using selected examples of recent works, I tried to extend and supplement my original article published in Folia Biologica (1996). PMID:21943326

  1. Hamartoma of the urinary bladder in a 15-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Al Shahwani, Noora; Alnaimi, Abdulla Rashid; Ammar, Adham; Al-ahdal, Esra M.

    2016-01-01

    Hamartoma of the bladder is an unusual entity described in only eleven patients to date. It may present as painless hematuria, irritative urinary tract symptoms, or inability to void or it may be diagnosed incidentally. Hamartoma of the bladder may be isolated or occur as part of a syndrome. No isolated bladder hamartoma to date has shown malignant potential. We describe here a bladder hamartoma in a 15-year-old boy. PMID:27274896

  2. Prospects: The Congressionally Mandated Study of Educational Growth and Opportunity. The Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael J.; And Others

    This publication is the first interim report from the Congressionally Mandated Study of Educational Growth and Opportunity (Prospects), and describes students' characteristics and the schools they attend. Prospects is designed to evaluate the short- and long-term consequences of Chapter 1 program participation by following for 5 years large…

  3. An Exploratory Study on the Perspectives of Prospective Computer Teachers following Project-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaman, Selcuk; Celik, Suat

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates perceptions of 29 prospective teachers about a course based on Project-Based Learning (PBL) approach. The course, "Authoring Languages in PC Environment (B-320)" lasted in 14 weeks in fall semester of 2004-2005. In this course each prospective teacher carried out a project that requires designing and developing courseware…

  4. Prospective Elementary School Teachers' Views about Socioscientific Issues: A Concurrent Parallel Design Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özden, Muhammet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the prospective elementary school teachers' perceptions on socioscientific issues. The research was conducted on prospective elementary school teachers studying at a university located in western Turkey. The researcher first taught the subjects of global warming and nuclear power plants from a perspective…

  5. [Soccer injuries. A prospective epidemiological and socioeconomic study].

    PubMed

    Jensen, K H; Lindblad, B E; Terkelsen, C J; Helleland, H E; Terkelsen, C J

    1993-11-01

    In one year 715 soccer injuries were registered and treated in the casualty ward of Randers City Hospital. We conducted a prospective study of these patients, using a questionnaire in order to determine the most common locations, types, mechanisms and treatments of injury. Financial costs to society and the individual were also examined. Finally, we compared the most common types of injury definition in sports medicine. According to the Abbreviated Injury Scale, A.I.S., 44% of the injuries were classified as minor, 46% as moderate injury and 9% as severe. Fractures accounted for 17% of all injuries. Sprains and contusions were the most frequent injuries, accounting for 46% and 25% respectively. Most injuries (63%) were treated in the casualty ward, whilst 20% were treated as outpatients. 7% were admitted to the hospital immediately, and a further 2% were later admitted from the outpatient clinic. A total of 88% of those hospitalized were treated as inpatients for 1-7 days, and 12% for more than two weeks. 31% of all the soccer players seen in the casualty ward were absent from work, and 12% were absent from work for more than three weeks. 8% of the injured soccer players suffered loss of income. 40% had financial losses between $0-250, 40% between $250-750, seven per cent between $750-1,250, and 14% more than $1,250. From the data presented in this study, we conclude that the injury rate among soccer players increases with age, and the severity of the injuries is greatest in the oldest age groups. Soccer injuries constitute the major part of sports injuries seen in the casualty ward.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8256352

  6. Pain assessment of the intratympanic injections: a prospective comparative study.

    PubMed

    Belhassen, Sarah; Saliba, Issam

    2012-12-01

    The objective of the study is to compare the pain level of three methods of intratympanic (IT) injections using prospective, randomized clinical study in a tertiary care center. 39 patients with Ménière's disease and 30 patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss are included. Excluded were patients treated for a chronic pain or those who took any pain killer for the last 24 h. Each patient received one IT injection a week, for three consecutive weeks. Three methods of IT injections were compared, with the application of EMLA cream on the tympanic membrane filling the external auditory canal 60 min before the procedure, with subcutaneous injection of lidocaine 1% with 1:100,000 epinephrine in the external auditory canal, and finally with an IT injection without any previous anesthesia. The pain intensity was immediately measured at 5 min, and then 45 min after the procedure, each time using four pain rating scales (visual analogue scale, numerical rating scale, verbal rating scale and categorical rating scale). No difference in pain intensity between the three methods of IT injections was detected by the visual analogue scale and numerical rating scale (p > 0.05). 45.8% of patients preferred the IT injection without previous anesthesia. However, methylprednisolone has been associated with pain intensity greater than that of gentamicin 45 min after the injection (p < 0.05). The IT injection performed without any previous anesthesia is an interesting option since it has not been shown to be more painful than the other methods of injections, and spares the patient from disadvantages associated with the anesthesia. PMID:22203120

  7. Prospective studies of infectious mononucleosis in university students

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Jennifer M; Schmeling, David O; Dunmire, Samantha K; Knight, Jennifer A; Mullan, Beth D; Ed, Julie A; Brundage, Richard C; Hogquist, Kristin A; Balfour, Henry H

    2016-01-01

    We performed an intensive prospective study designed to obtain as much data as possible on the incubation and early illness periods of primary Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection. Undergraduate students who lacked EBV antibody and oral EBV DNA (EBV-naive) were seen every 2 weeks during their freshman year. Clinical and behavioral data, oral washes and venous blood were obtained. EBV antibodies were quantified by enzyme immunoassay and viral loads by PCR. During a median 8 months of observation, 14/85 subjects experienced primary EBV infections (24 cases/100 person-years). The only significant risk factor for acquisition of EBV infection was deep kissing (P=0.02). Eleven subjects had infectious mononucleosis with a median duration of 21 days. Two subjects were hospitalized. Infections were initially identified in 12 subjects by finding EBV DNA in oral cells before onset of symptoms and in 2 subjects by symptom reporting. EBV DNA and viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgM and gp350 IgG antibodies were present in the blood before onset of illness. To provide a more robust evaluation of primary EBV infection in undergraduate university students, we combined data on risk factors and antibody responses from this and an earlier study that used the exact same clinical and laboratory methods. The observation that the only significant risk factor for acquisition of EBV infection was deep kissing was confirmed. Most importantly, higher amounts of gp350 antibody correlated significantly with a lower severity of infectious mononucleosis (P<0.0001), which strengthens the rationale for a gp350-based prophylactic EBV vaccine. PMID:27588199

  8. Gender effect on clinical features of achalasia: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Mikaeli, Javad; Farrokhi, Farnoosh; Bishehsari, Faraz; Mahdavinia, Mahboobeh; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2006-01-01

    Background Achalasia is a well-characterized esophageal motor disorder but the rarity of the disease limits performing large studies on its demographic and clinical features. Methods Prospectively, 213 achalasia patients (110 men and 103 women) were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis established by clinical, radiographic, and endoscopic as well as manometry criteria. All patients underwent a pre-designed clinical evaluation before and within 6 months after the treatment. Results Solid dysphagia was the most common clinical symptom in men and women. Chest pain was the only symptom which was significantly different between two groups and was more complained by women than men (70.9% vs. 54.5% P value= 0.03). Although the occurrence of chest pain significantly reduced after treatment in both groups (P < 0.001), it was still higher among women (32% vs. 20.9% P value= 0.04). In both sexes, chest pain did not relate to the symptom duration, LES pressure and type of treatment patients received. Also no significant relation was found between chest pain and other symptoms expressed by men and women before and after treatment. Chest pain was less frequently reported by patients over 56 yrs of age in comparison to those less than 56 yrs (p < 0.05). Conclusion It seems that chest pain is the distinct symptom of achalasia which is affected by sex as well as age and does not relate to the duration of illness, LESP and the type of treatment achalasia patients receive. PMID:16579859

  9. Liquid versus gel handrub formulation: a prospective intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Traore, Ousmane; Hugonnet, Stéphane; Lübbe, Jann; Griffiths, William; Pittet, Didier

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Hand hygiene is one of the cornerstones of the prevention of health care-associated infection, but health care worker (HCW) compliance with good practices remains low. Alcohol-based handrub is the new standard for hand hygiene action worldwide and usually requires a system change for its successful introduction in routine care. Product acceptability by HCWs is a crucial step in this process. Methods We conducted a prospective intervention study to compare the impact on HCW compliance of a liquid (study phase I) versus a gel (phase II) handrub formulation of the same product during daily patient care. All staff (102 HCWs) of the medical intensive care unit participated. Compliance with hand hygiene was monitored by a single observer. Skin tolerance and product acceptability were assessed using subjective and objective scoring systems, self-report questionnaires, and biometric measurements. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between predictors and compliance with the handrub formulation as the main explanatory variable and to adjust for potential risk factors. Results Overall compliance (phases I and II) with hand hygiene practices among nurses, physicians, nursing assistants, and other HCWs was 39.1%, 27.1%, 31.1%, and 13.9%, respectively (p = 0.027). Easy access to handrub improved compliance (35.3% versus 50.6%, p = 0.035). Nurse status, working on morning shifts, use of the gel formulation, and availability of the alcohol-based handrub in the HCW's pocket were independently associated with higher compliance. Immediate accessibility was the strongest predictor. Based on self-assessment, observer assessment, and the measurement of epidermal water content, the gel performed significantly better than the liquid formulation. Conclusion Facilitated access to an alcohol-based gel formulation leads to improved compliance with hand hygiene and better skin condition in HCWs. PMID:17477858

  10. Prospective studies of infectious mononucleosis in university students.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Jennifer M; Schmeling, David O; Dunmire, Samantha K; Knight, Jennifer A; Mullan, Beth D; Ed, Julie A; Brundage, Richard C; Hogquist, Kristin A; Balfour, Henry H

    2016-08-01

    We performed an intensive prospective study designed to obtain as much data as possible on the incubation and early illness periods of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Undergraduate students who lacked EBV antibody and oral EBV DNA (EBV-naive) were seen every 2 weeks during their freshman year. Clinical and behavioral data, oral washes and venous blood were obtained. EBV antibodies were quantified by enzyme immunoassay and viral loads by PCR. During a median 8 months of observation, 14/85 subjects experienced primary EBV infections (24 cases/100 person-years). The only significant risk factor for acquisition of EBV infection was deep kissing (P=0.02). Eleven subjects had infectious mononucleosis with a median duration of 21 days. Two subjects were hospitalized. Infections were initially identified in 12 subjects by finding EBV DNA in oral cells before onset of symptoms and in 2 subjects by symptom reporting. EBV DNA and viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgM and gp350 IgG antibodies were present in the blood before onset of illness. To provide a more robust evaluation of primary EBV infection in undergraduate university students, we combined data on risk factors and antibody responses from this and an earlier study that used the exact same clinical and laboratory methods. The observation that the only significant risk factor for acquisition of EBV infection was deep kissing was confirmed. Most importantly, higher amounts of gp350 antibody correlated significantly with a lower severity of infectious mononucleosis (P<0.0001), which strengthens the rationale for a gp350-based prophylactic EBV vaccine. PMID:27588199

  11. A Prospective Cohort Study of Mineral Metabolism After Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Myles; Weir, Matthew R.; Kopyt, Nelson; Mannon, Roslyn B.; Von Visger, Jon; Deng, Hongjie; Yue, Susan; Vincenti, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Background Kidney transplantation corrects or improves many complications of chronic kidney disease, but its impact on disordered mineral metabolism is incompletely understood. Methods We performed a multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study of 246 kidney transplant recipients in the United States to investigate the evolution of mineral metabolism from pretransplant through the first year after transplantation. Participants were enrolled into 2 strata defined by their pretransplant levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH), low PTH (>65 to ≤300 pg/mL; n = 112), and high PTH (>300 pg/mL; n = 134) and underwent repeated, longitudinal testing for mineral metabolites. Results The prevalence of posttransplant, persistent hyperparathyroidism (PTH >65 pg/mL) was 89.5%, 86.8%, 83.1%, and 86.2%, at months 3, 6, 9, and 12, respectively, among participants who remained untreated with cinacalcet, vitamin D sterols, or parathyroidectomy. The results did not differ across the low and high PTH strata, and rates of persistent hyperparathyroidism remained higher than 40% when defined using a higher PTH threshold greater than 130 pg/mL. Rates of hypercalcemia peaked at 48% at week 8 in the high PTH stratum and then steadily decreased through month 12. Rates of hypophosphatemia (<2.5 mg/dL) peaked at week 2 and then progressively decreased through month 12. Levels of intact fibroblast growth factor 23 decreased rapidly during the first 3 months after transplantation in both PTH strata and remained less than 40 pg/mL thereafter. Conclusions Persistent hyperparathyroidism is common after kidney transplantation. Further studies should determine if persistent hyperparathyroidism or its treatment influences long-term posttransplantation clinical outcomes. PMID:26177089

  12. Evaluation and outcome of antenatal hydronephrosis: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Gökaslan, Filiz; Yalçınkaya, Fatoş; Fitöz, Suat; Özçakar, Z Birsin

    2012-01-01

    Antenatal hydronephrosis (AHN), defined as dilatation of renal pelvis and/or calyces, is the most frequently detected antenatal abnormality. However, postnatal management of AHN is controversial. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical outcomes of infants with AHN and to contribute to the definition of the postnatal evaluation of these patients. One hundred and thirty-six infants with AHN were prospectively followed up to 18 months. Patients were divided into two groups according to the degree of sonographic hydronephrosis (HN) on days 5-7: group I (n = 87, 64%) included patients who had grades 1 and 2 (64%) and group II (n = 49, 36%) included patients who had grade 3 and above HN. The grade of HN was found to be correlated with the increased risk of urologic pathologies. Frequency of vesicoureteral reflux was found to be significantly lower in patients with mild HN (6%) as compared to patients with severe AHN (29%) (p = 0.005). In addition, the risk of urinary tract infection increases with increasing grades of HN (10% vs. 29%, p = 0.006). The frequency of spontaneous resolution in patients with mild AHN (64%) was also significantly higher than in patients with severe HN (29%) (p < 0.001). The degree of AHN can be used for making decision about further diagnostic imaging and treatment. Our results strongly suggest that low-grade HN is a relatively self-limited condition and needs minimal investigation. In contrast, the outcome of more severe degrees of AHN needs clarification. PMID:22506510

  13. Critical Pertussis Illness in Children, A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Berger, John T.; Carcillo, Joseph A.; Shanley, Thomas P.; Wessel, David L.; Clark, Amy; Holubkov, Richard; Meert, Kathleen L.; Newth, Christopher J.L.; Berg, Robert A.; Heidemann, Sabrina; Harrison, Rick; Pollack, Murray; Dalton, Heidi; Harvill, Eric; Karanikas, Alexia; Liu, Teresa; Burr, Jeri S.; Doctor, Allan; Dean, J. Michael; Jenkins, Tammara L.; Nicholson, Carol E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Pertussis persists in the United States despite high immunization rates. The present report characterizes the presentation and acute course of critical pertussis by quantifying demographic data, laboratory findings, clinical complications, and critical care therapies required among children requiring admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Eight PICUs comprising the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network and 17 additional PICUs across the United States. Patients Eligible patients had laboratory confirmation of pertussis infection, were < 18 years of age, and died in the PICU or were admitted to the PICU for at least 24 hours between June 2008 and August 2011. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results 127 patients were identified. Median age was 49 days, and 105 (83%) patients were < 3 months of age. Fifty-five (43%) required mechanical ventilation. Twelve (9.4%) died during initial hospitalization. Pulmonary hypertension was found in 16 patients (12.5%), and was present in 75% of patients who died, compared with 6% of survivors (p< 0.001). Median white blood cell count (WBC) was significantly higher in those requiring mechanical ventilation (p<0.001), those with pulmonary hypertension (p<0.001) and non-survivors (p<0.001). Age, sex and immunization status did not differ between survivors and non-survivors. Fourteen patients received leukoreduction therapy (exchange transfusion (12), leukopheresis (1) or both (1)). Survival benefit was not apparent. Conclusions Pulmonary hypertension may be associated with mortality in pertussis critical illness. Elevated WBC is associated with the need for mechanical ventilation, pulmonary hypertension, and mortality risk. Research is indicated to elucidate how pulmonary hypertension, immune responsiveness, and elevated WBC contribute to morbidity and mortality

  14. Pros and cons of a wandering mind: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ottaviani, Cristina; Couyoumdjian, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Mind wandering (MW) has recently been associated with both adaptive (e.g., creativity enhancement) and maladaptive (e.g., mood worsening) consequences. This study aimed at investigating whether proneness to MW was prospectively associated with negative health outcomes. At time 0, 21 women, 19 men; mean age = 24.5 (4.9) underwent a 5-min baseline electrocardiogram (ECG), a 20-min laboratory tracking task with thought probes, and personality questionnaires. At time 1 (1 year follow-up), the same participants underwent a 24-h Ecological Momentary Assessment characterized by ambulatory ECG recording and electronic diaries. First, we examined if the likelihood of being a “mind wanderer” was associated with specific personality dispositions. Then, we tested if the occurrence of episodes of MW in the lab would be correlated with frequency of MW in daily life. Finally, multiple regression models were used to test if MW longitudinally acted as a risk factor for health, accounting for the effects of biobehavioral variables. Among dispositional traits, the frequency of MW episodes in daily life was inversely associated with the capacity of being mindful (i.e., aware of the present moment and non-judging). There was a positive correlation between frequency of MW in the lab and in daily life, suggesting that it is a stable disposition of the individual. When differentiated from perseverative cognition (i.e., rumination and worry), MW did not predict the presence of health risk factors 1 year later, however, a higher occurrence of episodes of MW was associated with short-term adverse consequences, such as increased 24-h heart rate (HR) on the same day and difficulty falling asleep the subsequent night. Present findings suggest that MW may be associated with short term “side effects” but argue against a long term dysfunctional view of this cognitive process. PMID:23966964

  15. [Treatment of prostate cancer using cryoablation: a prospective study].

    PubMed

    Govorov, A V; Vasil'ev, A O; Ivanov, V Iu; Kovylina, M V; Prilepskaia, E A; Pushkar', D Iu

    2014-01-01

    prostate cancer and achieve a high disease-free survival. Our prospective study was aimed to analyze our own results cryoablation of the prostate gland. PMID:25799731

  16. Allergy to complex platinum salts: A historical prospective cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Niezborala, M; Garnier, R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of allergy to complex platinum salts in a platinum refinery. METHODS: A historical prospective cohort study was carried out on 77 workers (67 men) who started work between 1 January 1979 and 31 December 1991 and who were not atopic on skin prick tests to three common allergens at the time of recruitment. Skin prick tests with complex platinum salts were carried out and diagnosis of allergy to complex platinum salts made by the company's doctor. Skin tests and medical examinations were carried out routinely every six months. Follow up was until 30 September 1992 or until leaving refinery work. RESULTS: 18 workers developed a positive result on skin tests and 23 developed symptoms, including all 18 subjects with positive skin tests; the probability of surviving (95% confidence interval (95% CI)) for 72 months after joining the company, with negative skin test results was 0.67 (0.51-0.79) or with no symptoms was 0.63 (0.49-0.75). The incidence of positive skin tests and symptoms was highest during the first two years of work. Symptoms occurred more frequently in September and October than during the other months of the year. The exclusion of atopic subjects did not seem to have resulted in a lower incidence of sensitisation. Smoking was a significant predictive factor for both positive skin tests (estimated relative risk 5.53) and symptoms (4.70). CONCLUSION: The findings confirm that smoking is and that atopy may not be a high risk factor for the development of allergy to complex platinum salts. The high incidence of sensitisation and the available data on the clinical course of sensitised workers show that sensitised workers must be promptly and completely removed from exposure. PMID:8664963

  17. A prospective study of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized children

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Mir, Inocencia; García-López, Mercedes; Palop, Vicente; Ferrer, José M; Rubio, Elena; Morales-Olivas, Francisco J

    1999-01-01

    Aims There are few publications of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among paediatric patients, though ADR incidence is usually stated to be higher during the first year of life and in male patients. We have carried out a prospective study to assess the extent, pattern and profile risk for ADRs in hospitalized patients between 1 and 24 months of age. Methods An intensive events monitoring scheme was used. A total of 512 successive admissions to two medical paediatric wards (47 beds) were analysed. The hospital records were screened daily during two periods (summer, 105 days and winter, 99 days), and adverse clinical events observed were recorded. Results A total of 282 events were detected; of these, 112 were considered to be manifestations of ADRs. The cumulative incidence was 16.6%, no differences being observed between periods. Although there were no differences between patients under and over 12 months of age, risk was found to be significantly higher among girls compared with boys (RR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.03–2.52). The gastro-intestinal system was most frequently affected. The therapeutic group most commonly implicated was anti-infective drugs and vaccines (41.5%). The ADRs were mild or moderate in over 90% of cases. A consistent relationship was noted between the number of drugs administered and the incidence of ADRs. Conclusions Hospitalized patients exhibited an ADR risk profile that included female sex and the number of drugs administered. No particular age predisposition was observed. The most commonly prescribed drugs are those most often implicated in ADRs in paediatric patients. PMID:10383547

  18. Trigeminocardiac reflex in neurosurgical practice: An observational prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Etezadi, Farhad; Orandi, Amir Ali; Orandi, Amir Hosein; Najafi, Atabak; Amirjamshidi, Abbas; Pourfakhr, Pejman; Khajavi, Mohammad Reza; Abbassioun, Kazem

    2013-01-01

    Background: Considering wide variations regarding the incidence of trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR) during cranial neurosurgical procedures, and paucity of reliable data, we intended to design a prospective study to determine the incidence of TCR in patients undergoing standard general anesthesia for surgery of supra/infra-tentorial cranial and skull base lesions. Methods: A total of 190 consecutive patients candidate for elective surgery of supra-tentorial, infra-tentorial, and skull base lesions were enrolled. All the patients were operated in the neurosurgical operating room of a university-affiliated teaching hospital. All surgeries were performed using sufficient depth of anesthesia achieved by titration of propofol–alfentanil mixture, adjusted according to target Cerebral State Index (CSI) values (40-60). All episodes of bradycardia and hypotension indicating the occurrence of TCR during the surgery (sudden decrease of more than 20% from the previous level) were recorded. Results: Four patients, two female and two male, developed episodes of TCR during surgery (4/190; 2.1%). Three patients showed one episode of TCR just at the end of operation when the skin sutures were applied while CSI values were 70-77 and in the last case, when small tumor samples were taken from just beneath the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus TCR episode was seen while the CSI value was 51. Conclusion: TCR is a rare phenomenon during brain surgeries when patient is anesthetized using standard techniques. Keeping the adequate depth of anesthesia using CSI monitoring method may be an advisable strategy during whole period of a neurosurgical procedure. PMID:24083052

  19. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Without Prophylactic Antibiotics: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Nilay; Nandy, Mintu Mohan; Majhi, Jaganmay; Kuiri, Shibshankar; Kumar Ghosh, Pranab; Ghosh, Gautam

    2015-12-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the new gold standard for management of symptomatic gallstones. Prophylactic antibiotics are used in elective surgery by the majority of surgeons, and their role in biliary tract surgery has been well established for a subpopulation of high-risk patients. This consensus has been derived from multiple studies involving biliary tract surgery before and in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. But the use of prophylactic antibiotics in laparoscopic cholecystectomy especially in the low-risk group is now controversial and varied among the surgeons all over the world. To study the role of prophylactic antibiotics in laparoscopic cholecystectomy in different risk groups of patients, a prospective study was conducted in the Department of Surgery of Bankura Sammilani Medical College and Hospital from January 2010 to July 2011. All patients with symptomatic gallstones who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy during this period are included in this study. One hundred and two patients with symptomatic gallstones were operated on by laparoscopic technique without receiving preoperative antibiotics and studied over a period of 1.5 years. Ages ranged from 11 to 70 years (mean age of 33 years). There were 14 males (13.72 % of the patients) and 88 females (86.27 % of the patients). There was no wound infection (class I) in 99 patients, and class II type of wound infection, i.e., surgical site infection, occurred in three patients (i.e., 2.94 %) out of a total of 102 patients. Swabs were taken for culture and sensitivity; Staphylococcus aureus was found in two patients and Streptococcus viridans in one patient. In all three patients, infection occurred at the umbilical port sites, detected on the 3rd and 4th postoperative days. Antibiotic prophylaxis is not necessary in low-risk patients with symptomatic gallstone disease undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy to prevent postoperative infection

  20. PROSPECTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF ENTERIC DISEASE TRANSMISSION ASSOCIATED WITH SPRINKLER IRRIGATION WITH WASTEWATER: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report deals with a prospective epidemiological morbidity and serology study, in which the quality of data could be optimally controlled on the possible association between enteric disease incidence and wastewater utilization in agricultural settlements in Israel. The study r...

  1. Injuries at a Canadian National Taekwondo Championships: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Pieter, Willy

    2004-01-01

    Background The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the injury rates in male and female adult Canadian Taekwondo athletes relative to total number of injuries, type and body part injured. Methods Subjects (219 males, 99 females) participated in the 1997 Canadian National Taekwondo Championships in Toronto, Canada. Injuries were recorded on an injury form to documents any injury seen and treatment provided by the health care team. These data were later used for this study. The injury form describes the athlete and nature, site, severity and mechanism of the injury. Results The overall rate of injuries was 62.9/1,000 athlete-exposures (A-E). The males (79.9/1,000 A-E) sustained significantly more injuries than the females (25.3/1,000 A-E). The lower extremities were the most commonly injured body region in the men (32.0 /1,000 A-E), followed by the head and neck (18.3/1,000 A-E). Injuries to the spine (neck, upper back, low back and coccyx) were the third most often injured body region in males (13.8/1,000 A-E). All injuries to the women were sustained to the lower extremities. The most common type of injury in women was the contusion (15.2/1,000 A-E). However, men's most common type of injury was the sprain (22.8/1,000 A-E) followed by joint dysfunction (13.7/1,000A-E). Concussions were only reported in males (6.9/1,000 A-E). Compared to international counterparts, the Canadian men and women recorded lower total injury rates. However, the males incurred more cerebral concussions than their American colleagues (4.7/1,000 A-E). Conclusions Similar to what was found in previous studies, the current investigation seems to suggest that areas of particular concern for preventive measures involve the head and neck as well as the lower extremities. This is the first paper to identify spinal joint dysfunction. PMID:15279679

  2. The SMILE study: a study of medical information and lifestyles in Eindhoven, the rationale and contents of a large prospective dynamic cohort study

    PubMed Central

    van den Akker, Marjan; Spigt, Mark G; De Raeve, Lore; van Steenkiste, Ben; Metsemakers, Job FM; van Voorst, Ernst J; de Vries, Hein

    2008-01-01

    Background Health problems, health behavior, and the consequences of bad health are often intertwined. There is a growing need among physicians, researchers and policy makers to obtain a comprehensive insight into the mutual influences of different health related, institutional and environmental concepts and their collective developmental processes over time. Methods/Design SMILE is a large prospective cohort study, focusing on a broad range of aspects of disease, health and lifestyles of people living in Eindhoven, the Netherlands. This study is unique in its kind, because two data collection strategies are combined: first data on morbidity, mortality, medication prescriptions, and use of care facilities are continuously registered using electronic medical records in nine primary health care centers. Data are extracted regularly on an anonymous basis. Secondly, information about lifestyles and the determinants of (ill) health, sociodemographic, psychological and sociological characteristics and consequences of chronic disease are gathered on a regular basis by means of extensive patient questionnaires. The target population consisted of over 30,000 patients aged 12 years and older enrolled in the participating primary health care centers. Discussion Despite our relatively low response rates, we trust that, because of the longitudinal character of the study and the high absolute number of participants, our database contains a valuable set of information. SMILE is a longitudinal cohort with a long follow-up period (15 years). The long follow-up and the unique combination of the two data collection strategies will enable us to disentangle causal relationships. Furthermore, patient-reported characteristics can be related to self-reported health, as well as to more validated physician registered morbidity. Finally, this population can be used as a sampling frame for intervention studies. Sampling can either be based on the presence of certain diseases, or on specific

  3. A prospective study of faecal bile acids and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Haines, A; Hill, M J; Thompson, M H; Owen, R W; Williams, R E; Meade, T W; Wilkes, H; Griffin, M

    2000-10-01

    A prospective study of 7079 people aged 45-74 recruited through general practices in South Wales, Herefordshire and Edinburgh, Scotland was undertaken to test the hypothesis that faecal bile acids are implicated in the causation of large bowel cancer. The population was recruited between 1974 and 1980 and the response rate for stool collection was 67%. Bile acid analyses were performed on those cases that presented by 1990. It was decided in advance to examine the hypothesis separately for left- and right-sided bowel cancer because of known epidemiological differences between the two sites and to exclude the cases presenting within 2 years of the stool sample from the analyses because the cancer could have been present at recruitment and might have possibly affected faecal bile acid concentrations. Each case (n = 51 left-sided and 8 right-sided) was matched with three controls by age (within 5 years), sex, place of residence and time of providing the stool sample (within 3 months). Statistical analyses using conditional logistic regression showed no significant differences between the left-sided cases and controls for any of the concentrations of individual bile acids, total bile acid concentrations, faecal neutral steroids, percentage bacterial conversion and the ratio of lithocholic acid to deoxycholic acid concentrations. There was a statistically significant (P = 0.021) association of the presence of chenodeoxycholic acid (5/8 samples) in the right-sided cases compared with the controls (3/23), odds ratio 6.26 (95% confidence interval 1.19, 32.84). A high proportion of primary bile acids has also been found in other studies of patients with a genetic predisposition to proximal bowel cancer, however this pattern may also occur in low risk groups, such as Indian vegetarians, suggesting that they may predispose to right-sided bowel cancer only in the presence of other, as yet unknown factors. If bile acids are involved in the causation of large bowel cancer, they

  4. Serum erythropoietin and outcome after ischaemic stroke: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Åberg, N David; Stanne, Tara M; Jood, Katarina; Schiöler, Linus; Blomstrand, Christian; Andreasson, Ulf; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Isgaard, Jörgen; Jern, Christina; Svensson, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Erythropoietin (EPO), which is inversely associated with blood haemoglobin (Hb), exerts neuroprotective effects in experimental ischaemic stroke (IS). However, clinical treatment trials have so far been negative. Here, in patients with IS, we analysed whether serum EPO is associated with (1) initial stroke severity, (2) recovery and (3) functional outcome. Design Prospective. Controls available at baseline. Setting A Swedish hospital-initiated study with outpatient follow-up after 3 months. Participants Patients (n=600; 64% males, mean age 56 years, controls n=600) were included from the Sahlgrenska Academy Study on IS (SAHLSIS). Primary and secondary outcome measures In addition to EPO and Hb, initial stroke severity was assessed by the Scandinavian Stroke Scale (SSS) and compared with SSS after 3 months (follow-up) as a measure of recovery. Functional outcome was evaluated using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at follow-up. Serum EPO and SSS were divided into quintiles in the multivariate regression analyses. Results Serum EPO was 21% and 31% higher than in controls at the acute phase of IS and follow-up, respectively. In patients, acute serum EPO was 19.5% higher in severe versus mild IS. The highest acute EPO quintile adjusted for sex, age and Hb was associated with worse stroke severity quintile (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.87), better stroke recovery quintile (OR 1.93, CI 1.09 to 3.41) and unfavourable mRS 3–6 (OR 2.59, CI 1.15 to 5.80). However, the fourth quintile of EPO increase (from acute to follow-up) was associated with favourable mRS 0–2 (OR 3.42, CI 1.46 to 8.03). Only the last association withstood full adjustment. Conclusions The crude associations between EPO and worse stroke severity and outcome lost significance after multivariate modelling. However, in patients in whom EPO increased, the association with favourable outcome remained after adjustment for multiple covariates. PMID:26916692

  5. MR Neurography and Diffusion Tensor Imaging: Origins, History & Clinical Impact of the first 50,000 cases with an Assessment of Efficacy and Utility in a Prospective 5,000 Patient Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Filler, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Objective Methods were invented that made it possible to image peripheral nerves in the body and to image neural tracts in the brain. Over a 15 year period, these techniques – MR Neurography and Diffusion Tensor Imaging – were then deployed in the clinical and research community and applied to about 50,000 patients. Within this group, about 5,000 patients having MR Neurography were carefully tracked on a prospective basis. Method In the study group a uniform imaging methodology was applied and all images were reviewed and registered by referral source, clinical indication, efficacy of imaging and quality. Various classes of image findings were identified and subjected to a variety of small targeted prospective outcome studies. Those findings demonstrated to be clinically significant were then tracked in the larger clinical volume data set. Results MR Neurography demonstrates mechanical distortion of nerves, hyperintensity consistent with nerve irritation, nerve swelling, discontinuity, relations of nerves to masses, and image features revealing distortion of nerve at entrapment points. These findings are often clinically relevant and warrant full consideration in the diagnostic process. They result in specific pathologic diagnoses that are comparable to electrodiagnostic testing in clinical efficacy. Conclusions MR Neurography and DTI neural tract imaging have been validated as indispensable clinical diagnostic methods that provide reliable anatomical pathological information. There is no alternative diagnostic method in many situations. With the elapse of 15 years, tens of thousands of imaging studies, and hundreds of publications, these methods should no longer be considered experimental. PMID:19927075

  6. Is Obesity a Risk Factor for Wheezing Among Adolescents? A Prospective Study in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Noal, Ricardo B.; Menezes, Ana M.B.; Macedo, Silvia E.C.; Dumith, Samuel C.; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Araújo, Cora L.P.; Hallal, Pedro C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of obesity at the start of adolescence on the prevalence, incidence and maintenance of chest wheezing among individuals aged 11–15 years in a birth cohort in a developing country. Methods The seventh follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas birth cohort occurred in 2004 (individuals aged 10–11 years). Between January and August 2008, the eighth follow-up of the cohort was conducted. All the individuals of the original cohort who were alive (who were then adolescents aged between 14 and 15 years) were targets for the study. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire was used to define wheezing. In addition to the body mass index (BMI), used to define obesity by the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, we assessed skinfold thickness. Results From the original cohort, 4,349 individuals were located (85.7% follow-up rate). The prevalence of chest wheezing at 11 and 15 years were 13.5% (95% CI: 12.5%–14.5%) and 12.1% (95% CI: 11.1%–13.1%), respectively. The prevalence of wheezing at both times was 4.5% (95% CI: 3.9%–5.1%) and the incidence of wheezing was 7.5% (95% CI: 6.7%–8.3%). Independent of the effect of various confounding variables, the prevalence of wheezing at 15 years was 50% greater among obese individuals than among eutrophic individuals at 11 years (RR 1.53; 95% CI: 1.14–2.05). The greater the skinfold tertile at 11 years, the higher the prevalence of wheezing at 15 years was (p = .011). Weight status and skinfolds did not present any association with incident wheezing. After controlling for confounding factors, the risk of persistent wheezing among obese individuals at 11 years was 1.82 (95% CI: 1.30–2.54). Conclusions Since obesity at the start of adolescence is associated with asthma symptom persistence, prevention and treatment of obesity may reduce avoidable healthcare costs and disease burden. PMID:23283159

  7. Pattern of malignancies in children <15 years of age reported in Hadhramout Cancer Registry, Yemen between 2002 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Jawass, Mazin A.; Al-Ezzi, Jalil I.; Gouth, Hanan S. Bin; Bahwal, Saleh A.; Bamatraf, Fawzia F.; Ba’amer, Abubakir A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the patterns of childhood cancers in Hadhramout Sector, Yemen between January 2002 and December 2014. Methods: This descriptive retrospective study was based on secondary data from Hadhramout Cancer Registry, Hadhramout, Yemen. All Yemeni children under age of 15 years, who were diagnosed with cancer were included. The International Childhood Cancer Classification system was used to categorize cancer types. Results: A total of 406 childhood cancers of both gender <15 years of age were reported. These represented 8.5% of all cases registered. The mean age was 7.34 ± 4.18 years. There were 240 males (59.1%) and 166 females (40.9%) with a male to female ratio of 1.4:1. Calculated incidence of cancer in children in this population is 1.9 per 100,000. The predominant age group was 5-9 years (35%) followed by 10-14 years (33.7%), and 0-4 years group (31%). The most common group of malignancies were hematological malignancies accounting for 47% of cases, followed by nervous system malignancies (15%). The most frequently reported cancer types were lymphoma (24%), leukemia (23%), carcinoma (13.1%), and central nervous system (CNS) tumors (11.6%). Conclusions: There is a lower frequency of childhood cancer in Hadhramout Sector when compared with developed countries. The most common cancers among children were lymphoma, leukemia, carcinoma, and CNS tumors. PMID:27146613

  8. Assessment of Intima-Media Thickness in Healthy Children Aged 1 to 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Baroncini, Liz Andréa Villela; Sylvestre, Lucimary de Castro; Filho, Roberto Pecoits

    2016-01-01

    Background Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been shown to be increased in children and adolescents with traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease, compared with those of healthy children. Objective To assess the influence of sex, age and body mass index (BMI) on the CIMT in healthy children and adolescents aged 1 to 15 years. Methods A total of 280 healthy children and adolescents (males, n=175; mean age, 7.49±3.57 years; mean BMI, 17.94±4.1 kg/m2) were screened for CIMT assessment. They were divided into 3 groups according to age: GI, 1 to 5 years [n=93 (33.2%); males, 57; mean BMI, 16±3 kg/m2]; GII, 6 to 10 years [n=127 (45.4%); males, 78; mean BMI, 17.9±3.7 kg/m2], and GIII, 11 to 15 years [n=60 (21.4%); males, 40; mean BMI, 20.9±4.5 kg/m2]. Results There was no significant difference in CIMT values between male and female children and adolescents (0.43±0.06 mm vs. 0.42±0.05 mm, respectively; p=0.243). CIMT correlated with BMI neither in the total population nor in the 3 age groups according to Pearson correlation coefficient. Subjects aged 11 to 15 years had the highest CIMT values (GI vs. GII, p=0.615; GI vs. GIII, p=0.02; GII vs. GIII, p=0.004). Conclusions CIMT is constant in healthy children younger than 10 years, regardless of sex or BMI. CIMT increases after the age of 10 years. PMID:26959401

  9. Morbidity of harvesting of retromolar bone grafts: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Nkenke, Emeka; Radespiel-Tröger, Martin; Wiltfang, Jörg; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan; Winkler, Gerhard; Neukam, Friedrich Wilhelm

    2002-10-01

    20 retromolar bone grafts were harvested in outpatients for augmentation of the implant site from January to June 2000 (10 female, 10 male, 40.9 +/- 12.8 years, minimum 17 years, maximum 66 years). The aim of the study was to assess typical complications of this procedure in a prospective manner. For the determination of the superficial sensory function of the inferior alveolar and the lingual nerve, an objective method was used. The bone grafts were harvested for single tooth reconstruction. In 14 cases a ridge augmentation and in 6 cases an endoscopically controlled crestal sinus floor elevation was performed. Preoperatively, the height of bone above the cranial aspect of the inferior alveolar nerve in the retromolar region was assessed radiologically with known markers. The maximum mouth opening was determined. The superficial sensory function of the inferior alveolar and the lingual nerve was assessed with the Pointed-Blunt Test, the Two-Point-Discrimination Test and the objective method of the 'Pain and Thermal Sensitivity' Test (PATH Test). Moreover, the pulp sensitivity of the teeth of the donor site was determined by cold vitality testing. All tests were repeated 1 week postoperatively. Intraoperatively, the width of the retromolar region was measured with a caliper. The patients rated the operative strain on a visual analogue scale. The height of bone above the inferior alveolar nerve in the retromolar region was 11.0 +/- 2.2 mm. The width of the retromolar area was 14.2 +/- 1.9 mm. Postoperatively, the maximal mouth opening changed significantly (40.8 +/- 3.5 mm preoperatively, 38.9 +/- 3.7 mm postoperatively, P = 0.006). However, the reduction was not relevant clinically. A direct injury of the inferior alveolar or lingual nerve did not occur. A sensitivity impairment could not be detected for either of the nerves by the different test methods 1 week postoperatively. The operative strain related to the donor site was significantly less than the strain

  10. Mortality of gasworkers—final report of a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Doll, R.; Vessey, M. P.; Beasley, R. W. R.; Buckley, A. R.; Fear, E. C.; Fisher, R. E. W.; Gammon, E. J.; Gunn, W.; Hughes, G. O.; Lee, K.; Norman-Smith, Beatrice

    1972-01-01

    Doll, R., Vessey, M. P., Beasley, R. W. R., Buckley, A. R., Fear, E. C., Fisher, R. E. W., Gammon, E. J., Gunn, W., Hughes, G. O., Lee, K., and Norman-Smith, Beatrice (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 394-406. Mortality of gasworkers—final report of a prospective study. The mortality experience of selected groups of gasworkers employed by four area Gas Boards and observed over a period of eight years was described by us in a report in 1965. The present paper adds a further four years' data to those previously collected for men having regular exposure in coal carbonizing plants and for men having exposure only to by-products of the gas-making process. To these we have added data relating to men employed by four additional area Gas Boards who have been observed over periods of seven to eight years. The new data provide confirmation that exposure to the products of coal carbonization can give rise to cancer of the lung and leave little doubt that the risk of bladder cancer is also increased. Two additional deaths from scrotal cancer have been observed; there is evidently still a need for vigilance if this disease is to be treated at a stage early enough to prevent death. With respect to all these cancers, work as a topman appears to be particularly hazardous. The additional data included in the present report fail to settle the question whether the risk of lung cancer is especially associated with the conditions of work in one particular type of retort house; if there are any differences, however, they are likely to be small. In our original report, a highly significant association between death from bronchitis and exposure to the coal carbonizing process was described. The more recent data for the four original Gas Boards offer only limited support to the view that bronchitis is a specific occupational hazard of gasworkers, and the data for the four additional Gas Boards provide no further support whatsoever. The explanation for these discrepancies is obscure, but

  11. Alcohol consumption and fecundability: prospective Danish cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Riis, Anders H; Wise, Lauren A; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Rothman, Kenneth J; Cueto, Heidi T; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate to what extent alcohol consumption affects female fecundability. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Denmark, 1 June 2007 to 5 January 2016. Participants 6120 female Danish residents, aged 21-45 years, in a stable relationship with a male partner, who were trying to conceive and not receiving fertility treatment. Main outcome measures Alcohol consumption was self reported as beer (330 mL bottles), red or white wine (120 mL glasses), dessert wine (50 mL glasses), and spirits (20 mL) and categorized in standard servings per week (none, 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and ≥14). Participants contributed menstrual cycles at risk until the report of pregnancy, start of fertility treatment, loss to follow-up, or end of observation (maximum 12 menstrual cycles). A proportional probability regression model was used to estimate fecundability ratios (cycle specific probability of conception among exposed women divided by that among unexposed women). Results 4210 (69%) participants achieved a pregnancy during follow-up. Median alcohol intake was 2.0 (interquartile range 0-3.5) servings per week. Compared with no alcohol consumption, the adjusted fecundability ratios for alcohol consumption of 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and 14 or more servings per week were 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.03), 1.01 (0.93 to 1.10), 1.01 (0.87 to 1.16) and 0.82 (0.60 to 1.12), respectively. Compared with no alcohol intake, the adjusted fecundability ratios for women who consumed only wine (≥3 servings), beer (≥3 servings), or spirits (≥2 servings) were 1.05 (0.91 to1.21), 0.92 (0.65 to 1.29), and 0.85 (0.61 to 1.17), respectively. The data did not distinguish between regular and binge drinking, which may be important if large amounts of alcohol are consumed during the fertile window. Conclusion Consumption of less than 14 servings of alcohol per week seemed to have no discernible effect on fertility. No appreciable difference in fecundability was observed by level of

  12. Anosognosia for hemiplegia: a clinical-anatomical prospective study.

    PubMed

    Vocat, Roland; Staub, Fabienne; Stroppini, Tiziano; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2010-12-01

    Anosognosia for hemiplegia is a common and striking disorder following stroke. Because it is typically transient and variable, it remains poorly understood and has rarely been investigated at different times in a systematic manner. Our study evaluated a prospective cohort of 58 patients with right-hemisphere stroke and significant motor deficit of the left hemibody, who were examined using a comprehensive neuropsychological battery at 3 days (hyperacute), 1 week (subacute) and 6 months (chronic) after stroke onset. Anosognosia for hemiplegia was frequent in the hyperacute phase (32%), but reduced by almost half 1 week later (18%) and only rarely seen at 6 months (5%). Anosognosia for hemiplegia was correlated with the severity of several other deficits, most notably losses in proprioception, extrapersonal spatial neglect and disorientation. While multiple regression analyses highlighted proprioceptive loss as the most determinant factor for the hyperacute period, and visuospatial neglect and disorientation as more determinant for the subacute phase, patients with both proprioceptive loss and neglect had significantly higher incidence of anosognosia for hemiplegia than those with only one deficit or no deficits (although a few double dissociations were observed). Personal neglect and frontal lobe tests showed no significant relation with anosognosia for hemiplegia, nor did psychological traits such as optimism and mood. Moreover, anosognosia for neglect and prediction of performance in non-motor tasks were unrelated to anosognosia for hemiplegia, suggesting distinct monitoring mechanisms for each of these domains. Finally, by using a voxel-based statistical mapping method to identify lesions associated with a greater severity of anosognosia, we found that damage to the insula (particularly its anterior part) and adjacent subcortical structures was determinant for anosognosia for hemiplegia in the hyperacute period, while additional lesions in the premotor cortex

  13. [Health surveillance in a steel making industry with electric arc furnace: 15 years of experience].

    PubMed

    Corti, P

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the results of health surveillance carried out in an electric steel mill for 15 years. We have analyzed the trend of audiometry, spirometry and main indicators of exposure to chemical risk: serum lead, urinary OH-pyrene, erythrocyte ZPP, and the results of risk assessment of stress work related. The analyses of the trend of audiometry, spirometry and biological monitoring shows an important improving in the working environment due to the progressive automation of production steps in the course of several years, consistent and correct use of DPI, information and training. PMID:23405576

  14. Hemoptysis workup before embolization: single-center experience with a 15-year period follow-up.

    PubMed

    de Gregorio, Miguel A; Medrano, Joaquin; Laborda, Alicia; Higuera, Teresa

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this work was to present our experience in arterial embolization in the endovascular treatment of massive hemoptysis and remark on the importance of the workup before embolization. We present some clinical aspects to keep in mind before carrying out a bronchial embolization in a patient with severe hemoptysis. The main causes of hemoptysis are presented, as well as diagnosis means and the most important therapeutic procedures aimed to stabilize the patient who will undergo a bronchial arterial embolization. Likewise, we present our own experience with 401 patients with over a 15-year period of follow-up. PMID:18572140

  15. Temporal Space Lymphatic Malformation in a 15-Year-Old Adolescent: An Extraordinary Case.

    PubMed

    Igoumenakis, Dimosthenis; Logothetis, Ioannis; Barmpagadaki, Alina; Ieromonachou, Panayotis; Mastorakis, George

    2016-07-01

    Lymphatic malformations-previously called lymphangiomas or cystic hygromas-are regarded as non-malignant primary disorders of the lymphatic system. They appear predominantly in infants and children, with 90 % of cases being diagnosed by the age of 2 years. Also, they constitute an infrequent entity, accounting for 5 % of all benign tumors in infants and children. In adults they are extremely rare. In the present article we present an extraordinary case of a lymphatic malformation that ensued in the temporal area of a 15-year old adolescent. PMID:27408452

  16. Valproic acid-induced pancreatitis in a 15-year-old boy with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Veri, Kadi; Uibo, Oivi; Talvik, Inga; Talvik, Tiina

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced acute pancreatitis is a rare condition in childhood, and information about the incidence of valproic acid-induced acute pancreatitis in the pediatric population is scarce. In this clinical case, we report a first documented pediatric case of valproic acid-induced pancreatitis in Estonia. A 15-year-old boy with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy developed acute pancreatitis after 2-month therapy with valproic acid. The symptoms of pancreatitis subsided within 1 week after the discontinuation of treatment with valproic acid. Acute pancreatitis should be suspected in any pediatric patient with gastrointestinal symptoms during valproate treatment. PMID:24823930

  17. A Summer School for High School students: a 15 years experience.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamorano, Nelson

    2004-03-01

    During the last 15 years we have been offering a summer course (usually lasting four weeks) to interested high school students. In this work we summarizes its evolution, mainly of the physics course, during these years. The summer school started with 45 students for a physics course, and now we have 4000 students applying to the different subjects offered. In the physics course, we have offered, from the very beginning, a numerical complement to the students, where we use maple, excel and Interactive Physics. Starting from this experience we have derived to winter school for younger students and collective experiments like measuring the Earth radious using the Eratosthenes method.

  18. Subacute posttraumatic ascending myelopathy in a 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Kovanda, Timothy J; Horn, Eric M

    2014-09-01

    Secondary injury following initial spinal cord trauma is uncommon and frequently attributed to mismanagement of an unprotected cord in the acute time period after injury. Subacute posttraumatic ascending myelopathy (SPAM) is a rare occurrence in the days to weeks following an initial spinal cord injury that is unrelated to manipulation of an unprotected cord and involves 4 or more vertebral levels above the original injury. The authors present a case of SPAM occurring in a 15-year-old boy who sustained a T3-4 fracture-dislocation resulting in a complete spinal cord injury, and they highlight the imaging findings and optimum treatment for this rare event. PMID:24905393

  19. [Coexistence of Crohn disease and Wegener granulomatosis in a 15-year-old patient].

    PubMed

    Sieczkowska, Agnieszka; Lewandowski, Piotr; Szumera, Małgorzata; Kamińska, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Crohn disease is being diagnosed more and more frequently in children and teenagers. Clinical symptoms are mainly related to the gastrointestinal tract, however there are many reports in the literature about the coexistence of Crohn disease with other autoimmunological disorders such as celiac disease, autoimmune hypothyroidism, systemic lupus erythematosus and Wegener granulomatosis. We report a 15-year-old patient with Crohn disease who also developed Wegener granulomatosis. The presented case illustrates the difficulties in establishing the diagnosis when symptoms of the original disease are superimposed on symptoms of a different disorder. PMID:22516704

  20. Endoscopic Removal of a Nitinol Mesh Stent from the Ureteropelvic Junction after 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Smrkolj, Tomaž; Šalinović, Domagoj

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of a patient with a large stone encrusted on a nitinol mesh stent in the ureteropelvic junction. The stent was inserted in the year 2000 after failure of two pyeloplasty procedures performed due to symptomatic ureteropelvic junction stenosis. By combining minimally invasive urinary stone therapies—extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, semirigid ureterorenoscopy with laser lithotripsy, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy—it was possible to completely remove the encrusted stone and nitinol mesh stent that was implanted for 15 years, rendering the patient symptom and obstruction free. PMID:26697258

  1. A Qualitative Case Study of Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Knowledge About Instructional Strategies: Introducing Particulate Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boz, Nihat; Boz, Yezdan

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate prospective chemistry teachers’ knowledge about instructional strategies, one component of pedagogical content knowledge about introducing particulate theory, as well as sources of this knowledge. Twenty-two prospective chemistry teachers participated in the study. Data were collected by the means of a vignette, semistructured interviews, and lesson plans. Analysis showed that concrete objects, computer animations, and expository teaching were the preferred teaching techniques by prospective teachers. Several issues, such as general pedagogical knowledge, subject matter knowledge, and knowledge about students’ difficulties, were found to be the main factors for choosing a teaching strategy to make an introduction to particles.

  2. TRANSMISSION OF ENTERIC DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH WASTEWATER IRRIGATION: A PROSPECTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a prospective epidemiological study of possible enteric disease transmission by aerosolized pathogens from sprinkler irrigation of partially treated wastewater in 20 kibbutzim (colllective agricultural settlements) in Isreal between March 1981 and February 1982. Medi...

  3. Study protocol title: a prospective cohort study of low back pain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few prospective cohort studies of workplace low back pain (LBP) with quantified job physical exposure have been performed. There are few prospective epidemiological studies for LBP occupational risk factors and reported data generally have few adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study has been incepted to quantify risk factors for LBP and potentially develop improved methods for designing and analyzing jobs. Due to the subjectivity of LBP, six measures of LBP are captured: 1) any LBP, 2) LBP ≥ 5/10 pain rating, 3) LBP with medication use, 4) LBP with healthcare provider visits, 5) LBP necessitating modified work duties and 6) LBP with lost work time. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 30 different employment settings in 4 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop-administered questionnaires, structured interviews, and two standardized physical examinations to ascertain demographics, medical history, psychosocial factors, hobbies and physical activities, and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of low back pain. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. The lifetime cumulative incidence of low back pain will also include those with a past history of low back pain. Incident cases will exclude prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion Data analysis of a prospective cohort study of low back pain is underway and has successfully enrolled over 800 workers to date. PMID:23497211

  4. Parenting Stress and Child Behavior Problems within Families of Children with Developmental Disabilities: Transactional Relations across 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Woodman, Ashley C.; Mawdsley, Helena P.; Hauser-Cram, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Parents of children with developmental disabilities (DD) are at increased risk of experiencing psychological stress compared to other parents. Children’s high levels of internalizing and externalizing problems have been found to contribute to this elevated level of stress. Few studies have considered the reverse direction of effects, however, in families where a child has a DD. The present study investigated transactional relations between child behavior problems and maternal stress within 176 families raising a child with early diagnosed DD. There was evidence of both child-driven and parent-driven effects over the 15-year study period, spanning from early childhood (age 3) to adolescence (age 18), consistent with transactional models of development. Parent-child transactions were found to vary across different life phases and with different domains of behavior problems. PMID:25462487

  5. Coronary artery occlusion after arterial switch operation in an asymptomatic 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Saini, Ashish P; Cyran, Stephen E; Ettinger, Steven M; Pauliks, Linda B

    2016-08-16

    A 15-year-old boy with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and neonatal arterial switch operation (ASO) presented with complete occlusion of the left main coronary artery (LMCA). Intra-operatively, an intramural left coronary artery was identified. Therefore, since age 7 years he had a series of screening exercise stress tests. At 13 years old, he had 3 to 4 mm ST segment depression in the infero-lateral leads without symptoms. This progressed to 4.2 mm inferior ST segment depression at 15 years old with normal stress echocardiogram. Sestamibi myocardial perfusion scan and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was inconclusive. Therefore, a coronary angiogram was obtained which showed complete occlusion of the LMCA with ample collateralization from the right coronary artery system. This was later confirmed on a computed tomogram (CT) angiogram, obtained in preparation of coronary artery bypass grafting. The case illustrates the difficulty of detecting coronary artery stenosis and occlusion in young patients with rich collateralization. Coronary CT angiogram and conventional angiography were the best imaging modalities to detect coronary anomalies in this adolescent with surgically corrected TGA. Screening CT angiography may be warranted for TGA patients, particularly for those with known coronary anomalies. PMID:27574609

  6. Coronary artery occlusion after arterial switch operation in an asymptomatic 15-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Ashish P; Cyran, Stephen E; Ettinger, Steven M; Pauliks, Linda B

    2016-01-01

    A 15-year-old boy with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and neonatal arterial switch operation (ASO) presented with complete occlusion of the left main coronary artery (LMCA). Intra-operatively, an intramural left coronary artery was identified. Therefore, since age 7 years he had a series of screening exercise stress tests. At 13 years old, he had 3 to 4 mm ST segment depression in the infero-lateral leads without symptoms. This progressed to 4.2 mm inferior ST segment depression at 15 years old with normal stress echocardiogram. Sestamibi myocardial perfusion scan and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was inconclusive. Therefore, a coronary angiogram was obtained which showed complete occlusion of the LMCA with ample collateralization from the right coronary artery system. This was later confirmed on a computed tomogram (CT) angiogram, obtained in preparation of coronary artery bypass grafting. The case illustrates the difficulty of detecting coronary artery stenosis and occlusion in young patients with rich collateralization. Coronary CT angiogram and conventional angiography were the best imaging modalities to detect coronary anomalies in this adolescent with surgically corrected TGA. Screening CT angiography may be warranted for TGA patients, particularly for those with known coronary anomalies. PMID:27574609

  7. Nonfatal bathroom injuries among persons aged ≥15 years--United States, 2008.

    PubMed

    2011-06-10

    In 2008, approximately 21.8 million persons aged ≥15 years sustained nonfatal, unintentional injuries, resulting in approximately $67.3 billion in lifetime medical costs. Information about where injuries occur is limited, but bathrooms commonly are believed to be a particularly hazardous location. To investigate this assumption, CDC analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of emergency departments (EDs) to describe the incidence and circumstances of nonfatal injuries in bathrooms (in any setting) among persons aged ≥15 years in the United States. This report describes the results of that investigation, which found that, based on 3,339 cases documented in the 2008 National Electronic Surveillance System All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) database, an estimated 234,094 nonfatal bathroom injuries were treated in U.S. EDs. Injury rates increased with age, and most injuries (81.1%) were caused by falls. All persons, but especially older adults, should be aware of bathroom activities that are associated with a high risk for injury and of environmental modifications that might reduce that risk. PMID:21659980

  8. Nonmodular flexible press-fit cup in primary total hip arthroplasty: 15-year followup.

    PubMed

    Berli, Bernhard J; Ping, Gu; Dick, Walter; Morscher, Erwin W

    2007-08-01

    The key rationale for a nonmodular flexible press-fit cup was to maximize long-term stability with a cementless, porous metal-coated cup that is low in stiffness (no metal shell) and to achieve fixation solely through biradial eccentricity between the cup and the acetabular cavity. We asked whether the promising results achieved at 5 and 10 years would be maintained at 15 years. We reviewed 261 patients who received the first 280 Morscher Press-Fit Cups. One hundred twenty patients (126 hips) died. One hundred one patients (112 hips) had a clinical and radiographic followup after a minimum of 13.5 years (mean, 14.7 years; range, 13.5-17.0 years). Twenty-four patients with 26 hips were clinically examined or interviewed by telephone. Three of the 101 patients were lost to followup. We judged the results excellent or good in 96% of the hips. The 15-year overall survivorship was 95.3% and with the end point of aseptic loosening, the survivorship was 97.5%. Wear was greater in cups with an inclination greater than 45 degrees and in metal-polyethylene pairings compared with ceramic-polyethylene pairings. This cup design performs well over the long term. PMID:17415011

  9. 200-BP-1 Prototype Hanford Barrier -- 15 Years of Performance Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Anderson L.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Link, Steven O.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2011-09-30

    Monitoring is an essential component of engineered barrier system design and operation. A composite capacitive cover, including a capillary break and an evapotranspiration (ET) barrier at the Hanford Site, is generating data that can be used to help resolve these issues. The prototype Hanford barrier was constructed over the 216-B-57 Crib in 1994 to evaluate surface-barrier constructability, construction costs, and physical and hydrologic performance at the field scale. The barrier has been routinely monitored between November 1994 and September 1998 as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) treatability test of barrier performance for the 200 BP 1 Operable Unit. Since FY 1998, monitoring has focused on a more limited set of key water balance, stability, and biotic parameters. In FY 2009, data collection was focused on: (1) water-balance monitoring, consisting of precipitation, runoff, soil moisture storage, and drainage measurements with evapotranspiration calculated by difference; (2) stability monitoring, consisting of asphalt-layer-settlement, basalt-side-slope-stability, and surface-elevation measurements; (3) vegetation dynamics; and (4) animal use. September 2009 marked 15 years since the start of monitoring and the collection of performance data. This report describes the results of monitoring activities during the period October 1, 2008, through September 30, 2009, and summarizes the 15 years of performance data collected from September 1994 through September 2009.

  10. High aerosol acidity despite declining atmospheric sulfate concentrations over the past 15 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Rodney J.; Guo, Hongyu; Russell, Armistead G.; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-04-01

    Particle acidity affects aerosol concentrations, chemical composition and toxicity. Sulfate is often the main acid component of aerosols, and largely determines the acidity of fine particles under 2.5 μm in diameter, PM2.5. Over the past 15 years, atmospheric sulfate concentrations in the southeastern United States have decreased by 70%, whereas ammonia concentrations have been steady. Similar trends are occurring in many regions globally. Aerosol ammonium nitrate concentrations were assumed to increase to compensate for decreasing sulfate, which would result from increasing neutrality. Here we use observed gas and aerosol composition, humidity, and temperature data collected at a rural southeastern US site in June and July 2013 (ref. ), and a thermodynamic model that predicts pH and the gas-particle equilibrium concentrations of inorganic species from the observations to show that PM2.5 at the site is acidic. pH buffering by partitioning of ammonia between the gas and particle phases produced a relatively constant particle pH of 0-2 throughout the 15 years of decreasing atmospheric sulfate concentrations, and little change in particle ammonium nitrate concentrations. We conclude that the reductions in aerosol acidity widely anticipated from sulfur reductions, and expected acidity-related health and climate benefits, are unlikely to occur until atmospheric sulfate concentrations reach near pre-anthropogenic levels.

  11. An Investigation of Factors Affecting Gender Differences in Standardized Math Performance: Results from U.S. and Hong Kong 15 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ou Lydia

    2009-01-01

    Learning strategies and affective factors could have a profound impact on student standardized mathematics performance. This study investigated gender differences in affective factors, learning strategies, and preferred learning situations, and how these variables affect math achievement of 15 year olds in the United States and Hong Kong on the…

  12. Assessing Outgroup Prejudice among 13-15-Year-Old Students Attending Catholic and Protestant Secondary Schools in Northern Ireland: An Empirical Enquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.; Village, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Northern Ireland has been and remains a religiously divided community. This study sets out to examine outgroup prejudice among a sample of 1799 13-15-year-old students attending Catholic or Protestant schools and employs both bivariate analyses and hierarchical modelling to chart the associations between outgroup prejudice and personal factors…

  13. Strategies for reducing exposure to indoor air pollution from household burning of solid fuels: effects on acute lower respiratory infections in children under the age of 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Havens, Deborah; Jary, Hannah R; Patel, Latifa B; Chiume, Msandeni E; Mortimer, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: This study aims to assess the effects of intervention strategies that reduce exposure to household air pollution from burning solid fuels on episodes of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in children under the age of 15 years.

  14. Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run and Body Mass Index among an Ethnically Diverse Sample of 10-15-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the cardiovascular fitness (CVF, Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run [PACER], number of laps completed) and the prevalence of at risk of overweight (AR) and overweight (OW) among 10-15-year-olds (48% girls) from the following ethnic backgrounds: African American (n = 2,604), Asian-Pacific Islander (n = 3,888),…

  15. A Comparative Analysis of Selected Variables of 12-to-15 Year Old Males in Special Education and the Juvenile Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair-Blake, Leslie C.

    2010-01-01

    This study identified and compared selected variables of 12-15-year-old African American young men in special education programs and the juvenile justice system. A majority of African American young men who are placed in special education programs are also involved with the juvenile justice system. Through personal observations, interviews with…

  16. Do Migrant Girls Perform Better than Migrant Boys? Deviant Gender Differences between the Reading Scores of 15-Year-Old Children of Migrants Compared to Native Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dronkers, Jaap; Kornder, Nils

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the gender differences between the educational performance of 15-year-old children of migrants from specific regions of origin countries living in different destination countries with the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009 wave. We study whether this gender difference of migrant pupils deviates…

  17. Lifetime socioeconomic position and mortality: prospective observational study.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G. D.; Hart, C.; Blane, D.; Gillis, C.; Hawthorne, V.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of socioeconomic position over a lifetime on risk factors for cardiovascular disease, on morbidity, and on mortality from various causes. DESIGN: Prospective observational study with 21 years of follow up. Social class was determined as manual or non-manual at three stages of participants' lives: from the social class of their father's job, the social class of their first job, and the social class of their job at the time of screening. A cumulative social class indicator was constructed, ranging from non-manual social class at all three stages of life to manual social class at all three stages. SETTING: 27 workplaces in the west of Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: 5766 men aged 35-64 at the time of examination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence and level of risk factors for cardiovascular disease; morbidity; and mortality from broad causes of death. RESULTS: From non-manual social class locations at all three life stages to manual at all stages there were strong positive trends for blood pressure, body mass index, current cigarette smoking, angina, and bronchitis. Inverse trends were seen for height, cholesterol concentration, lung function, and being an ex-smoker. 1580 men died during follow up. Age adjusted relative death rates in comparison with the men of non-manual social class locations at all three stages of life were 1.29 (95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.56) in men of two non-manual and one manual social class; 1.45 (1.21 to 1.73) in men of two manual and one non-manual social class; and 1.71 (1.46 to 2.01) in men of manual social class at all three stages. Mortality from cardiovascular disease showed a similar graded association with cumulative social class. Mortality from cancer was mainly raised among men of manual social class at all three stages. Adjustment for a wide range of risk factors caused little attenuation in the association of cumulative social class with mortality from all causes and from cardiovascular disease

  18. The impact of private use of PCV7 in 2009 and 2010 on serotypes and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae carried by young children in Portugal: Comparison with data obtained since 1996 generating a 15-year study prior to PCV13 introduction.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Sónia; Félix, Sofia; Valente, Carina; Simões, Alexandra S; Tavares, Débora A; Almeida, Sónia T; Paulo, Ana C; Brito-Avô, António; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Sá-Leão, Raquel

    2016-03-29

    In Portugal, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was not introduced in the national immunization plan but was commercially available between 2001 and 2010. We studied serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae carried by children in 2009 and 2010. Vaccination with PCV7 was extracted from children's immunization bulletins and information on recent antimicrobial consumption was obtained through a questionnaire. For comparison, we included data from previous studies conducted since 1996: 1996-1999, 2001-2003, 2006-2007. Pneumococci were isolated from nasopharyngeal samples of 1092 children up to six years old attending day-care in an urban area. Among these, 76% (819/1070) were vaccinated and 62% (677/1092) carried pneumococci. In 2009-2010, serotype replacement was extensive. Carriage of PCV7 serotypes was 4.9% and 5.8%, in 2009 and 2010, respectively, with the majority being of serotype 19F (carried by 4.3% and 4.6% of all participants, respectively). Colonization by serotype 19F was associated with vaccine status (7.7% (19/248) of non-vaccinees vs. 3.5% (29/818) of PCV7-vaccinees, p=0.010). Carriage of serotype 19A was high in 2009 and 2010 (8.6% of all participants) consistent with values already observed in 2007; carriage of serotype 6A was <1% (10/1092), indicating a major decline after 2007 (5.8% or 31/538, p<0.001). Non-vaccine serotypes increased and serotype 6C became the most frequently carried serotype in 2010 (11.2% (54/481)). High-level resistance to penicillin (MIC ≥2mg/L) showed a decreasing trend (p<0.001), whereas resistance to both penicillin and erythromycin increased (p<0.001) and was detected in 15-20% of all isolates in 2009-2010, most of which were non-vaccine serotypes. Antimicrobial use decreased over time (p<0.001). In conclusion, widespread private use of PCV7 has impacted on colonization leading to near elimination of all PCV7 serotypes except for serotype 19F. Antimicrobial consumption

  19. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels among U.S. Youth Aged 12-15 Years: United States, 1999-2004 and 2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... the National Technical Information Service NCHS Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels Among U.S. Youth Aged 12–15 Years: United ... of girls aged 12–15 years had adequate levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. Overall, 42.2% of youth ...

  20. The National Children's Study: a 21-year prospective study of 100,000 American children.

    PubMed

    Landrigan, Philip J; Trasande, Leonardo; Thorpe, Lorna E; Gwynn, Charon; Lioy, Paul J; D'Alton, Mary E; Lipkind, Heather S; Swanson, James; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Clark, Edward B; Rauh, Virginia A; Perera, Frederica P; Susser, Ezra

    2006-11-01

    Prospective, multiyear epidemiologic studies have proven to be highly effective in discovering preventable risk factors for chronic disease. Investigations such as the Framingham Heart Study have produced blueprints for disease prevention and saved millions of lives and billions of dollars. To discover preventable environmental risk factors for disease in children, the US Congress directed the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, through the Children's Health Act of 2000, to conduct the National Children's Study. The National Children's Study is hypothesis-driven and will seek information on environmental risks and individual susceptibility factors for asthma, birth defects, dyslexia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, schizophrenia, and obesity, as well as for adverse birth outcomes. It will be conducted in a nationally representative, prospective cohort of 100,000 US-born children. Children will be followed from conception to 21 years of age. Environmental exposures (chemical, physical, biological, and psychosocial) will be assessed repeatedly during pregnancy and throughout childhood in children's homes, schools, and communities. Chemical assays will be performed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and banks of biological and environmental samples will be established for future analyses. Genetic material will be collected on each mother and child and banked to permit study of gene-environment interactions. Recruitment is scheduled to begin in 2007 at 7 Vanguard Sites and will extend to 105 sites across the United States. The National Children's Study will generate multiple satellite studies that explore methodologic issues, etiologic questions, and potential interventions. It will provide training for the next generation of researchers and practitioners in environmental pediatrics and will link to planned and ongoing prospective birth cohort studies in other nations. Data from the National Children's Study will

  1. Optical Simulations and Studies with the PROSPECT-20 Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemen, Nathaniel; Prospect Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The PROSPECT (Precision Reactor Oscillation and SPECTrum) experiment at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will make a precise measurement of the reactor antineutrino spectrum from a highly-enriched uranium nuclear reactor while also probing for short-baseline oscillations as a signature of possible sterile-neutrinos. Two liquid scintillator detectors at distances of 7-10m and 16-20m from the reactor will identify inverse beta decay events initiated by reactor antineutrinos. The near detector will be divided into optically separated segments filled with lithium loaded liquid scintillator read out by photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) on either end. Light guides will be employed to direct photons from the scintillator cells to the active PMT photo-cathodes. An optical simulation was built to optimize the performance of the detectors with respect to both light collection and detector uniformity and guide the design of the scintillator cells. We present experimental data and simulation results from the PROSPECT-20 prototype detector.

  2. Isokinetic lifting strength and occupational injury. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Mostardi, R A; Noe, D A; Kovacik, M W; Porterfield, J A

    1992-02-01

    One hundred seventy-one nurses had their back strength evaluated on an isokinetic lifting device and filled out an epidemiologic questionnaire. They were then followed prospectively for 2 years to determine the incidence of job-related low-back injuries. The data were analyzed to determine if the injury incidence correlated with any of the strength or epidemiologic variables collected during the original evaluation. Average peak force measured during the isokinetic lift was 63.8 kg + 13.6 kg at a lift speed of 30.5 cm/sec and 59.1 kg + 14.9 kg at a lift speed of 45.7 cm/sec. Sixteen nurses reported an occurrence of job-related low-back pain or injury during the 2-year prospective period. Discriminate statistical techniques showed that none of the strength or epidemiologic variables correlated with the incidence of pain or injury or explained significant amounts of variance when the variables were regressed on strength or work calculated from the lift force/lift height data. It was concluded that in this high risk population, in which loads are heavy and lifting postures are variable, the use of low-back strength or prior history of pain or injury are poor predictors as to subsequent low-back pain or injury. PMID:1532461

  3. Low resting heart rate is associated with violence in late adolescence: a prospective birth cohort study in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Joseph; Hallal, Pedro C; Mielke, Gregore I; Raine, Adrian; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando C

    2016-01-01

    Background: Youth violence is a major global public health problem. Three UK and Swedish studies suggest that low resting heart rate predicts male youth violence, but this has not been tested in other social settings nor for females. Methods: A prospective, population-based birth cohort study was conducted in Pelotas, Brazil. Heart rate was measured using a wrist monitor at ages 11, 15 and 18 years. Violent crime and non-violent crime were measured at age 18 in self-reports and official records (N = 3618). Confounding variables were assessed in the perinatal period and at age 11, in interviews with mothers and children. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations between quartiles of heart rate at each age, and violent and non-violent crime at age 18, separately for males and females. Results: Lower resting heart rate was a robust correlate of violent and non-violent crime for males. Comparing males in the lowest and top quartiles of heart rate at age 15 years, adjusted odds ratios were 1.9 for violent crime [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4–2.7] and 1.7 for non-violent crime (95% CI 1.1–2.6). For females, crime outcomes were associated only with low resting heart rate at age 18. Associations were generally linear across the four heart rate quartiles. There was no evidence that associations differed according to socioeconomic status at age 15. Conclusions: Low resting heart rate predicted violent and non-violent crime for males, and was cross-sectionally associated with crime for females. Biological factors may contribute to individual propensity to commit crime, even in a middle-income setting with high rates of violence. PMID:26822937

  4. Visual Outcome of Traumatic Cataract at a Tertiary Eye Care Centre in North India: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Srivastava, Jai Prakash; Iqbal, Jawed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction One of the most common presentations of blunt and penetrating ocular trauma is traumatic cataract. It remains a significant cause of visual impairment and physical disability among adults and children. It is associated with various ocular injuries. Aim To evaluate the associated ocular injuries and final outcome of patients with traumatic cataract along with their demographic features and modes of trauma. Materials and Methods A prospective study done in Department of Ophthalmology in M.L.B. Medical college, Jhansi from February 2010 to July 2011. A total of 48 patients diagnosed as a case of traumatic cataract were subjected to a detailed history, systemic and local examination with relevant investigations. Medical or surgical managements were done accordingly. Patients were subsequently followed-up and visual acuity was recorded. Appropriate statistical tests were applied. Results A 54.2% patients sustained penetrating trauma while 45.8% got blunt injury. Out of total, 79% patients were males while 50% were less than 15 years of age. Causative agents were stone, wood items, stick, metal objects etc. Among blunt trauma cases, 64% of the patients had visual acuity <6/60 while among penetrating trauma cases nobody had acuity >6/18. Anterior segment was more involved as compared to posterior segment. A 38.5% patients had corneal opacity among penetrating injury patients. The interval between trauma and surgery was less than one month among 75% of patients. After three months of surgery, 43.7% patients had visual acuity of >6/18. Conclusion This study provides recent data of patients hospitalized after ocular trauma and diagnosed as a case of traumatic cataract. Traumatic cataract occurs mostly in younger males. Surgical intervention is necessary to improve visual outcome. Good visual outcome was obtained in nearly half of the patients. Traumatic cataract patients can have good visual outcome depending upon proper management. PMID:26894101

  5. Diversity of bacterial endophytes in 3 and 15 year-old grapevines of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina and their potential for plant growth promotion and phytopathogen control.

    PubMed

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Angelini, Elisa; Vallini, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    This study represents the first investigation on ecology of endophytic bacteria isolated from 3 and 15 year-old vine stems of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina. The analysis was performed by means of culture-dependent techniques. The obtained results showed that new grapevine endophytic genera are being discovered. Moreover, Bacilli and Actinobacteria are frequently isolated from 3 year-old plants, whereas Alpha- and Gamma- Proteobacteria classes are more prevalent in the 15 year-old plants. Shannon-Wiener (H) index and analysis of rarefaction curves revealed greater genus richness in young grapevine plants. Furthermore, results evidenced an increase of genotypic group number within specific genera (e.g., Rhizobium and Pantoea). Among isolated strains from 3 and 15 year-old stems, respectively, 34 and 39% produce siderophores; 22 and 15% secrete ammonia; 22 and 21% produce indole-3-acetic acid; 8.7 and 41% solubilize phosphate. Besides, two strains isolated from 15 year-old grapevines showed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. Antifungal activity analysis evidenced that two Bacillus strains possess growth antagonistic effect toward all the tested fungal strains. Therefore, the present study extends our knowledge of the diversity of the endophytic bacteria by providing new insights into the complexity of the grapevine microbiome. PMID:26805617

  6. The Examining of Prospective Teachers? Views about Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Sources: A Case Study of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasiloglu, Mehmet Akif

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine prospective teachers? views about renewable and non-renewable energy sources. To collect data, a questionnaire with 5 open-ended questions was conveyed to 463 prospective teachers selected from Agri Ibrahim Cecen University. The results showed that almost three fourths of the prospective teachers tend to…

  7. The WISTAH hand study: A prospective cohort study of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few prospective cohort studies of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders have been performed. Past studies have provided somewhat conflicting evidence for occupational risk factors and have largely reported data without adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study was incepted to quantify risk factors for distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and potentially develop improved methods for analyzing jobs. Disorders to analyze included carpal tunnel syndrome, lateral epicondylalgia, medial epicondylalgia, trigger digit, deQuervain’s stenosing tenosynovitis and other tendinoses. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 17 different employment settings in 3 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop administered questionnaires, structured interviews, two standardized physical examinations and nerve conduction studies to ascertain demographic, medical history, psychosocial factors and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of musculoskeletal disorders. Repeat nerve conduction studies are performed for those with symptoms of tingling and numbness in the prior six months. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. Case definitions have been established. Point prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome is a combination of paraesthesias in at least two median nerve-served digits plus an abnormal nerve conduction study at baseline. The lifetime cumulative incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome will also include those with a past history of carpal tunnel syndrome. Incident cases will exclude those with either a past history or prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion A prospective cohort study of

  8. The price of a 15-year delay in diagnosis of Sheehan's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Rohan; Buch, Varun; Makwana, Mitesh

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of a 48-year-old woman who presented with a 15-year history of recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia and hyponatremia leading to altered behavior and generalized seizures. She underwent full clinical assessment, endocrine tests, and a pituitary magnetic resonance scan that showed pananterior hypopituitarism secondary to postpartum pituitary necrosis (Sheehan's syndrome). She was commenced on appropriate hormone replacement therapy, which led to significant improvement in lethargy, anorexia, muscle weakness, and episodes of hypoglycemia. In addition to the alleviation of her physical symptoms, she experienced a significant improvement in her psychological well-being and reduction in hospital visits. This case illustrates the impact of delay in diagnosis of an easily treatable medical condition and its socioeconomic implications, especially for the population of a developing country like India. PMID:27034575

  9. Pelvic osteomyelitis in a 15-year-old girl: case report.

    PubMed

    Tural Kara, Tugce; Ozdemir, Halil; Fitoz, Suat; Ciftci, Ergin; Ince, Erdal

    2016-10-01

    Pelvic osteomyelitis is a rare infection. Ilium, ischium, pubis and acetabulum are commonly affected sites. Pelvic radiography, pelvic magnetic resonance and scintigraphy are useful imaging techniques for diagnosis. However, diagnoses should be confirmed with bone biopsy from the lesion. Sometimes diagnosis is delayed because of deep localization of infection site. Here in, we report a 15-year-old girl with left groin pain who was diagnosed as pelvic osteomyelitis one month after initial symptoms. Patient was successfully treated with antibiotics for 8 weeks. In conclusion, although pelvic osteomyelitis is an unusual infection in childhood, it should be considered as differential diagnoses of pain in groin, hips, thigh, abdomen and spine. If diagnosis is suspicious, empiric treatment should be started quickly, because it will be possible to achieve satisfactory clinical results with effective treatment. PMID:27606666

  10. 15-Year blast furnace campaign concept for the reline of blast furnace C at Iscor

    SciTech Connect

    Noska, T.G.L.

    1995-07-01

    Since the 1970`s, when blast furnace campaigns of 3 to 5 years were experienced at the Vanderbijlpark Works, consequent improvements of cooling and refractory concepts as well as the development of a hot guniting practice for belly and lower shaft resulted in campaigns of 10 years and more. Having mastered the problems in belly and lower shaft, the furnace hearth became the ultimate limit and two hearth breakouts were experienced in the last 5 years in South Africa. After analyzing the causes for these breakouts, the requirements for a hearth refractory design, aimed at a 15-year plus campaign life, were formulated. A refractory design concept, which satisfies these requirements were developed based on European, American and Japanese philosophies.

  11. [Treatment of patients with clinical stage III and IV nonseminomas-- 15 years' experience].

    PubMed

    Base, J

    1991-12-01

    At the Urological Clinic in Hradec Králové in 1975-1989 a total of 182 patients with germ cell tumours of the testis--nonseminomas were treated. Of these patients 37 were in stage III-IV (20%). In 27 (72.9%) initial chemotherapy was administered, since 1980 combined with cisplatinum, as outlined. In 20 patients also revision of retroperitoneal nodes (54%) was made, to 19 patients adjuvant chemotherapy was administered (5th and 6th cycle). In 12 patients irradiation was indicated (32.4%). Histological examination of the preparation removed from the retroperitoneum was implemented in 15 patients: in four a vital tumour was revealed, in two a mature teratoma and in nine fibrosis or necrosis of a metastatic tumour was found. In seven patient a relapse of the disease occurred, 14 patients survive for 1-15 years. Twenty-three patients died. PMID:1822636

  12. Fulminant limb and retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis in a 15-year-old girl with Fanconi anaemia.

    PubMed

    O'Regan, Kevin; O'Mahony, Edward; MacEneaney, Peter; Fitzgerald, Edward; Maher, Michael M

    2009-10-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an uncommon soft-tissue infection in children that carries a high mortality rate. We present a 15-year-old girl with chronic pancytopenia secondary to Fanconi anaemia who developed extensive NF of the lower limb, which unfortunately resulted in a fatal outcome. Immunodeficiency is a known risk factor for the development of this condition. The findings in this case demonstrate that patients with Fanconi anaemia may be susceptible to NF and that the clinical course may be more aggressive due to underlying immunosuppression. Prompt diagnosis of NF is vital in order to initiate appropriate treatment and to optimize patient outcome. Radiological investigation demonstrated extensive soft-tissue gas and destruction affecting the entire lower limb, abdominal wall and retroperitoneum, which led to timely definitive diagnosis and management. PMID:19547962

  13. Mosquito Surveillance for 15 Years Reveals High Genetic Diversity Among West Nile Viruses in Israel.

    PubMed

    Lustig, Yaniv; Hindiyeh, Musa; Orshan, Laor; Weiss, Leah; Koren, Ravit; Katz-Likvornik, Shiri; Zadka, Hila; Glatman-Freedman, Aharona; Mendelson, Ella; Shulman, Lester M

    2016-04-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is endemic in Israel and has been the cause of several outbreaks in recent years. In 2000, a countrywide mosquito survey was established to monitor WNV activity and characterize viral genotypes in Israel. We analyzed data from 7135 pools containing 277 186 mosquitoes collected over the past 15 years and, here, report partial sequences of WNV genomes obtained from 102 of the 336 positive mosquito pools. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that cluster 4 and the Mediterranean and Eastern European subtypes of cluster 2 within WNV lineage 1 circulated in Israel, as did WNV lineage 2, highlighting a high genetic diversity of WNV genotypes in our region. As a major crossroads for bird migration between Africa and Eurasia and with a long history of human infection, Israel serves as a resource hub for WNV in Africa and Eurasia and provides valuable information on WNV circulation in these regions. PMID:26597260

  14. A 15-year-old girl with fever and abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Molly; Patel DeZure, Chandani; Cordova, Jonathan; Lo, Andrea; Azzam, Ruba

    2015-03-01

    We present a case of a previously healthy 15-year-old girl with fever, right lower quadrant pain, and hip pain. Her history was notable for a recent laparoscopic appendectomy that was complicated by the development of intraabdominal abscesses. She reported normal bowel movements and good appetite on a regular diet, although she did endorse a recent 5-kg weight loss. Further investigation and examination revealed a diagnosis of Crohn's disease with recurrent psoas muscle abscess as the etiology of her pain and fevers. Psoas abscess is a rare complication of Crohn's disease, and vague presenting symptoms may complicate its diagnosis. This case demonstrates the importance of maintaining a broad differential diagnosis when treating a child presenting with abdominal pain and fever. PMID:25806729

  15. A 15-year-old Girl with an Asymmetric Hemitruncal Fat Distribution: Hemihyperthrophy or Hemiatrophy?

    PubMed Central

    van der Velpen, Inge; van Pinxteren-Nagler, Evelyn; Mouës-Vink, Chantal M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: A 15-year-old girl presented to the pediatrician with complaints of excessive fat distribution on the right side and breast asymmetry. At age 2, she had undergone a left-sided nephrectomy because of a stage III Wilms tumor using a transverse cut supraumbilical approach, followed by systemic chemotherapy and local radiotherapy. In the case of trunk asymmetry, it is questionable which side is deviant. The asymmetry may be an expression of isolated hemihyperthrophy, syndromal hemihypertrophy related to the Wilms tumor, or an expression of left-sided hemiatrophy as a late consequence of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or surgery. Late clinical manifestations of childhood cancer treatment are difficult to distinguish from other independent diseases but must be considered as explanations for new onset of symptoms in adolescents. PMID:27200246

  16. The integration of visual context information in facial emotion recognition in 5- to 15-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Theurel, Anne; Witt, Arnaud; Malsert, Jennifer; Lejeune, Fleur; Fiorentini, Chiara; Barisnikov, Koviljka; Gentaz, Edouard

    2016-10-01

    The current study investigated the role of congruent visual context information in the recognition of facial emotional expression in 190 participants from 5 to 15years of age. Children performed a matching task that presented pictures with different facial emotional expressions (anger, disgust, happiness, fear, and sadness) in two conditions: with and without a visual context. The results showed that emotions presented with visual context information were recognized more accurately than those presented in the absence of visual context. The context effect remained steady with age but varied according to the emotion presented and the gender of participants. The findings demonstrated for the first time that children from the age of 5years are able to integrate facial expression and visual context information, and this integration improves facial emotion recognition. PMID:27367301

  17. Assessment of Dental Maturity of Children Aged 7-15 Years Using Demirjian Method in a Selected Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Abesi, F; Haghanifar, S; Sajadi, P; Valizadeh, A; Khafri, S

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problems: Dental age can be estimated on the basis of the tooth mineralization level during the developmental process of the teeth. Among various radiological methods reported for the dental age determination in children, Demirjian method is widely used. Purpose: To evaluate the applicability of Demirjian method in age estimation of the children aged 7-15 years in Babol, a northern city of Iran. Materials and Method: A cross sectional study was performed on the panoramic radiographs of 168 individuals with 7-15 years old. Maturation of the seven permanent teeth on the left side of the mandible was determined according to the crown and root development stages; described by Demirjian method. The mean of the dental age (DA) according to the Demirjian was compared to the mean of chronological age (CA). Data were collected and analyzed using SPSS, V18. P-values<0.05 were considered significance. Results: The mean and the SD of CA was 11.06±2.29 (boys: 11.08±2.31, girls: 11.03±2.28). The mean and the SD of DA was 11.44±2.85 (boys: 11.81±2.93, girls: 11.08±2.73) and the mean and the SD of DA minus CA for all of the children were 0.38±1.24 (boys: 0.72±1.2, girls: 0.05±1.21). Also, t-Test analysis showed the differences of the mean value of the estimated - chronological age difference was statistically significant between the boys and the girls group (p< 0.001). Conclusion: Considering the determined differences between estimated dental age and chronological age in this study; Demirjian method can be applicable for estimation of dental age in girls and boys before their puberty in northern of Iran. PMID:24724140

  18. Histoid leprosy: a prospective diagnostic study in 38 patients.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, V N; Srivastava, G

    1988-01-01

    Histoid leprosy is a fascinating expression of multibacillary leprosy, the incidence of which was 3.6%. It was seen predominantly in males of the younger age group, who were on inadequate and irregular dosage of diaminodiphenyl sulfone. Papules, cutaneous and/or subcutaneous nodules and plaques appearing over apparently normal skin were its exquisite prospective clinical features. It was invariably supported by enormous, uniformly solid staining discrete bacilli from the lesions, in contrast to their virtual absence from the surrounding normal-appearing skin. Encapsulated tumorous mass, formed primarily by spindle-shaped histocytes, displayed either in intertwining, criss-cross or whorled fashion in haematoxylin-eosin-stained sections, were supplementary. The morphology of acid-fast bacilli was, however, similar to skin-slit smears. PMID:3224729

  19. PROSPECTIVE RANDOMIZED STUDY COMPARING TWO ANESTHETIC METHODS FOR SHOULDER SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    Ikemoto, Roberto Yukio; Murachovsky, Joel; Prata Nascimento, Luis Gustavo; Bueno, Rogerio Serpone; Oliveira Almeida, Luiz Henrique; Strose, Eric; de Mello, Sérgio Cabral; Saletti, Deise

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of suprascapular nerve block in combination with infusion of anesthetic into the subacromial space, compared with interscalene block. Methods: Forty-five patients with small or medium-sized isolated supraspinatus tendon lesions who underwent arthroscopic repair were prospectively and comparatively evaluated through random assignation to three groups of 15, each with a different combination of anesthetic methods. The efficacy of postoperative analgesia was measured using the visual analogue scale for pain and the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and opioid drug consumption. Inhalation anesthetic consumption during surgery was also compared between the groups. Results: The statistical analysis did not find any statistically significant differences among the groups regarding anesthetic consumption during surgery or postoperative analgesic efficacy during the first 48 hours. Conclusion: Suprascapular nerve block with infusion of anesthetic into the subacromial space is an excellent alternative to interscalene block, particularly in hospitals in which an electrical nerve stimulating device is unavailable. PMID:27022569

  20. Quality of diet and mortality among Japanese men and women: Japan Public Health Center based prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Akter, Shamima; Kashino, Ikuko; Goto, Atsushi; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between adherence to the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top and total and cause specific mortality. Design Large scale population based prospective cohort study in Japan with follow-up for a median of 15 years. Setting 11 public health centre areas across Japan. Participants 36 624 men and 42 970 women aged 45-75 who had no history of cancer, stroke, ischaemic heart disease, or chronic liver disease. Main outcome measures Deaths and causes of death identified with the residential registry and death certificates. Results Higher scores on the food guide (better adherence) were associated with lower total mortality; the multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of total mortality for the lowest through highest scores were 1.00, 0.92 (0.87 to 0.97), 0.88 (0.83 to 0.93), and 0.85 (0.79 to 0.91) (P<0.001 for trend) and the multivariable adjusted hazard ratio associated with a 10 point increase in food guide scores was 0.93 (0.91 to 0.95; P<0.001 for trend). This score was inversely associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio associated with a 10 point increase 0.93, 0.89 to 0.98; P=0.005 for trend) and particularly from cerebrovascular disease (0.89, 0.82 to 0.95; P=0.002 for trend). There was some evidence, though not significant, of an inverse association for cancer mortality (0.96, 0.93 to 1.00; P=0.053 for trend). Conclusion Closer adherence to Japanese dietary guidelines was associated with a lower risk of total mortality and mortality from cardiovascular disease, particularly from cerebrovascular disease, in Japanese adults. PMID:27005903

  1. Differential Diagnosis of Skin Ulcers in a Mycobacterium ulcerans Endemic Area: Data from a Prospective Study in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Toutous Trellu, Laurence; Nkemenang, Patrick; Comte, Eric; Ehounou, Geneviève; Atangana, Paul; Rusch, Barbara; Njih Tabah, Earnest; Etard, Jean-François; Mueller, Yolanda K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical diagnosis of Buruli ulcer (BU) due to Mycobacterium ulcerans can be challenging. We aimed to specify the differential diagnosis of skin lesions in a BU endemic area. Method We conducted a prospective diagnostic study in Akonolinga, Cameroon. Patients presenting with a skin ulcer suspect of BU were included. M. ulcerans was detected using swabs for Ziehl-Neelsen staining, PCR and culture. Skin punch biopsies were taken and reviewed by two histopathologists. Photographs of the lesions were taken and independently reviewed by two dermatologists. Final diagnosis was based on consensus, combining the results of laboratory tests and expert opinion. Results/ Discussion Between October 2011 and December 2013, 327 patients with ulcerative lesions were included. Median age was 37 years (0 to 87), 65% were males, and 19% HIV-positive. BU was considered the final diagnosis for 27% of the lesions, 85% of which had at least one positive laboratory test. Differential diagnoses were vascular lesions (22%), bacterial infections (21%), post-traumatic (8%), fistulated osteomyelitis (6%), neoplasia (5%), inflammatory lesions (3%), hemopathies and other systemic diseases (2%) and others (2%). The proportion of BU was similar between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients (27.0% vs. 26.5%; p = 0.940). Half of children below 15 years of age were diagnosed with BU, compared to 26.8% and 13.9% among individuals 15 to 44 years of age and above, respectively (chi2 p<0.001). Children had more superficial bacterial infections (24.3%) and osteomyelitis (11.4%). Conclusion We described differential diagnosis of skin lesions in a BU endemic area, stratifying results by age and HIV-status. PMID:27074157

  2. Main results of the work accomplished at ZAO Interavtomatika for 15 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysko, V. V.; Sviderskii, A. G.; Bilenko, V. A.; Anan'ev, A. A.

    2008-10-01

    Main results of the activities carried out by ZAO Interavtomatika in the Russian market of power engineering are presented. Main lines of activities are described, the results of putting in use control systems are analyzed, and prospects for their further development are presented.

  3. Cohort profile: golestan hepatitis B cohort study- a prospective long term study in northern iran ​.

    PubMed

    Poustchi, Hossein; Katoonizadeh, Aezam; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Moossavi, Shirin; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Esmaili, Saeed; Pourshams, Akram; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Besharat, Sima; Merat, Shahin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; George, Jacob; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-10-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most common cause of end stage liver disease in Iran and in Golestan province. Large-scale population-based prospective cohort studies with long term follow-up are the method of choice to accurately understand the natural course of HBV infection. To date, several studies of HBV epidemiology, natural history, progression to cirrhosis and association with HCC have been reported from other countries. However, few of these are prospective and fewer still are population-based. Moreover, the underlying molecular mechanisms and immunogenetic determinants of the outcome of HBV infection especially in low and middle income countries remains largely unknown. Therefore, the hepatitis B cohort study (HBCS), nested as part of the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS), Golestan, Iran was established in 2008 with the objective to prospectively investigate the natural course of chronic hepatitis B with reference to its epidemiology, viral/host genetic interactions, clinical features and outcome in the Middle East where genotype D HBV accounts for >90% of infections. In 2008, a baseline measurement of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) was performed on stored serum samples of all GCS participants. A sub-cohort of 3,505 individuals were found to be HBsAg positive and were enrolled in the Golestan HBCS. In 2011, all first degree relatives of HBsAg positive subjects including their children and spouses were invited for HBV serology screening and those who were positive for HBsAg were also included in the Golestan HBCS. PMID:25349681

  4. Antibiotic prescribing of village doctors for children under 15 years with upper respiratory tract infections in rural China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhixia; Zhan, Xingxin; Zhou, Hongjun; Sun, Fang; Zhang, Heng; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Liu, Qian; Li, Yingxue; Yan, Weirong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of village doctors regarding the prescribing of antibiotics for children under 15 years with upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in rural China. Twelve focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in Xianning, a prefecture-level city in rural China, during December 2014. We conducted 6 FGDs with 35 village doctors, 3 with 13 primary caregivers (11 parents), and 3 with 17 directors of township hospitals, county-level health bureaus, county-level Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or county-level Chinese Food and Drug Administration offices. Audio records of the interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using the thematic analysis approach. Participants believed that unnecessary antibiotic prescribing for children under 15 years with The occurrence of URTIs was a problem in village clinics in rural China. The discussions revealed that most of the village doctors had inadequate knowledge and misconceptions about antibiotic use, which was an important factor in the unnecessary prescribing. Village doctors and directors reported that the doctors’ fear of complications, the primary caregivers’ pressure for antibiotic treatment, and the financial considerations of patient retention were the main factors influencing the decision to prescribe antibiotics. Most of the primary caregivers insisted on antibiotics, even when the village doctors were reluctant to prescribe them, and they preferred to go to see those village doctors who prescribed antibiotics. The interviewees also gave their opinions on what would be the most effective measures for optimizing antibiotic prescriptions; these included educational/training campaigns, strict regulations on antibiotic prescription, and improved supervision. Findings emphasized the need to improve the dissemination of information and training/education, and implement legislation on the rational use of antibiotics. And it

  5. A Pilot Prospective Study of Fetomaternal Hemorrhage Identified by Anemia in Asymptomatic Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Stroustrup, Annemarie; Plafkin, Callie

    2016-01-01

    Background Fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) is a poorly understood condition in which fetal erythrocytes transfer to the maternal circulation via a faulty placental barrier. Little is known about the true incidence, epidemiology, or pathophysiology of FMH in the general pregnant population as existing studies are based on retrospective cohorts and manifest diagnosis and selection bias. Objective To evaluate the practicability of a prospective study of fetomaternal hemorrhage in the general population based on antepartum maternal blood testing and neonatal anemia. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Result Nineteen pregnant women were enrolled prior to the term delivery of twenty well infants. Five neonates were unexpectedly anemic on first postnatal testing. Antenatal maternal blood samples associated with 2 of 5 anemic newborns had positive Kleihauer-Betke testing while no newborn with a normal postnatal blood count had an associated abnormal Kleihauer-Betke test. Conclusion Clinically significant FMH may be more common than previously thought. Prospective epidemiological study of FMH is feasible. PMID:26765555

  6. Lifetime affect and midlife cognitive function: prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Richards, M.; Barnett, J. H.; Xu, M. K.; Croudace, T. J.; Gaysina, D.; Kuh, D.; Jones, P. B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recurrent affective problems are predictive of cognitive impairment, but the timing and directionality, and the nature of the cognitive impairment, are unclear. Aims To test prospective associations between life-course affective symptoms and cognitive function in late middle age. Method A total of 1668 men and women were drawn from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort). Longitudinal affective symptoms spanning age 13-53 years served as predictors; outcomes consisted of self-reported memory problems at 60-64 years and decline in memory and information processing from age 53 to 60-64 years. Results Regression analyses revealed no clear pattern of association between longitudinal affective symptoms and decline in cognitive test scores, after adjusting for gender, childhood cognitive ability, education and midlife socioeconomic status. In contrast, affective symptoms were strongly, diffusely and independently associated with self-reported memory problems. Conclusions Affective symptoms are more clearly associated with self-reported memory problems in late midlife than with objectively measured cognitive performance. PMID:24357571

  7. Teratogen risk counselling by internet: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Han, J-Y; Yang, J H; Chung, J H; Choi, J S; Ahn, H K; Ryu, H M; Kim, M Y; Cho, S I; Nava-Ocampo, A A

    2005-07-01

    Although the internet may play a role in providing proper teratogen-risk counselling for pregnant women, the experience with this type of service has not been reported. We aimed to compare the pregnancy outcome of women counselled by the internet to women that received typically in-clinic teratogen risk counselling in the clinic. In a prospective cohort design, 1,011 patients were counselled in the clinic and 235 patients were counselled via the internet. Teratogen risk counselling was provided according with the information obtained from medical literature and specialised software. Information about pregnancy outcome (delivery, spontaneous abortion, or termination of pregnancy and major malformations) was obtained from 903 (89.3%) patients from the clinic group and 141 (60%) from the internet group. The amount of alcohol, cigarettes smoked, and millirads of X-ray were greater ( p < 0.05) in patients counselled by internet than in clinic. The rate of deliveries, ongoing pregnancies, pregnancy terminations, and spontaneous abortions were similar between clinic and internet (chi2 = 1.32; p = 0.7). Of 498 babies born to mothers counselled in the clinic, major malformations were identified in 3.6%. Of 67 babies born to mothers counselled by internet, major malformations were present in 1.5% ( p = 0.6). Teratogen-risk counselling by internet and clinic seems to have a similar efficacy in pregnancy outcome. PMID:16183573

  8. 15 Years of Ocean Education and Outreach Activities by the College of Exploration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuddenham, P.; Bishop, K.

    2012-04-01

    Since 1997 the College of Exploration has created ocean related interactive and engaging online and onsite education and outreach programs that have reached over 15,000 particpants in over 30 countries. Partners and funders have included in the USA the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), National Geographic, and many others. In the UK the Natural Environment Research Council and the National Oceanography Center, and in Europe Portugal's Ciencia Viva. The first online and onsite program was in partnership with the now Bermuda Institute for Ocean Sciences. With funding from NSF the project took the online Bermuda Atlanic Time Series (BATS) dataset and made it more accessible to teachers and students in a custom spreadsheet with easier to use macros and graphs. Online training and workshops helped teachers learn more about using BATS in the classroom. The next project in 1998 in partnership with the University of Southern California Sea Grant was an online workshop on El Nino. This was one of the first teacher professional development projecs offered online. Scientists with expertise in El Nino were able to meet and discuss with teachers. Over the past 15 years there have numerous programs, workshops and activities on topics such as Autosub Under Ice, Ocean Exploration then,now and the future, Ocean Observing Systems, Harmful Algal Blooms, Coral Reefs, and much more. These will be summarized. Every activity has been evaluated and assessed. The cumulative results of these evaluations will be presented along with the results of a recent survey of all participants over the past 15 years. Since 2002 the College of Exploration has played a key role in the development and promotion of the Ocean Literacy campaign, an effort to bring innovative approaches to promoting the ocean in K-12 education as well integrating the ocean into national standards and curriculum and promoting the ocean to the general public. A

  9. A Case of Learning to Teach Social Studies at the Prospect School Teacher Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Carol R.

    2011-01-01

    In this case study, part of a larger study of the Prospect School Teacher Education Program, the author investigates the processes of descriptive inquiry by exploring a moment in their evolution and their effect on the learning of one teacher educator and his students ("interns") as they investigated the teaching of social studies. She also…

  10. Comparing Science Process Skills of Prospective Science Teachers: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farsakoglu, Omer Faruk; Sahin, Cigdem; Karsli, Fethiye

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted with the purpose of examining how Prospective Science Teachers' (PST) Science Process Skills (SPS) develop according to different grades. In this study, a cross-sectional research approach in the form of a case study was used. The sample group consisted of a total number of 102 undergraduate students who were selected from…

  11. Inpatient Treatment in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry--A Prospective Study of Health Gain and Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jonathan; Jacobs, Brian; Beecham, Jennifer; Dunn, Graham; Kroll, Leo; Tobias, Catherine; Briskman, Jackie

    2007-01-01

    Background: Inpatient treatment is a complex intervention for the most serious mental health disorders in child and adolescent psychiatry. This is the first large-scale study into its effectiveness and costs. Previous studies have been criticised for methodological weaknesses. Methods: A prospective cohort study, including economic evaluation,…

  12. Investigating How and What Prospective Teachers Learn through Microteaching Lesson Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Maria Lorelei

    2010-01-01

    Microteaching Lesson Study [MLS] combines elements of Japanese lesson study and microteaching. A case study of MLS was conducted with 18 prospective teachers in an initial course on learning to teach. Various data sources (i.e., pre- and post-lesson plans, MLS lesson plans, videotaped lessons, transcripts of group discussions, observation field…

  13. Nonossifying fibroma (metaphyseal fibrous defect) of the mandible in a 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Mannan, Abul Ala; Singh, N Gopendro; Al-Waheeb, Salah; Taher, Taher N; Mohammed, Emad El Din El Din

    2015-06-01

    We describe a rare case of nonossifying fibroma of the mandible in a 15-year-old boy who presented with a left mandibular swelling. Conventional imaging showed an expansile radiolucent lesion involving the angle and the body of the left mandible. The lesion was curetted, and a miniplate was implanted at the excision site. Microscopic examination of the removed specimen revealed a cellular lesion characterized by a proliferation of uniform spindle-shaped cells in a vague but prominent storiform pattern, which represented the classic appearance of nonossifying fibroma. Three months later, radiography detected a fracture of the implantation plate. The area was re-explored with curettage of the soft tissue, which on microscopy demonstrated findings similar to the initial curettage findings. Follow-up radiology revealed satisfactory healing of the jaw, and no further recurrence was seen 2 years after the initial surgery. We present this case to highlight the importance of recognizing nonossifying fibroma in the mandible, which can be easily confused with more common mandibular lesions. PMID:26053991

  14. Analysis of Seismic Activity of the last 15 Years Nearby Puerto Rico and Caribbean Region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta-Lopez, C. I.; Torres-Ortíz, D. M.; Fernández-Heredia, A. I.; Martínez-Cruzado, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    An earthquake catalog of the seismicity occurred during the last 15 years in the Caribbean region, nearby the vicinity of Puerto Rico Island (PRI) was compiled in order to capture the big picture of the regional seismic activity ratio and in particular at the epicentral regions of several historical and instrumentally recorded (during 2008-20015) large to moderate magnitude earthquakes occurred nearby PRI in onshore and offshore, which include the M6.4 earthquake of 01/13/2014, the largest earthquake recorded instrumentally nearby PRI. From the point of view of joint temporal-spatial distribution of epicenters, episodic temporal-spatial seismic activity is clearly seen as temporal-spatial concentrations during certain time intervals in different regions. These localized concentrations of epicenters that occur during certain time intervals in well localized/concentrated regions may suggest "seismic gaps" that shows no regular time interval, neither spatial pattern. In the epicentral region of the M6.4 01/13/2014 earthquake and the historical Mona Passage M7.5 earthquake of 10/11/1918, episodic concentrations in time and space of small magnitude earthquakes epicenters is evident, however do not show temporal pattern. Preliminary results of statistical analysis of an ongoing research in terms of the parameter b (Gutenberg-Richter relationship), and the Omori's law with the aim to relate the tectonic framework of the region (or sub-regions) such as structural heterogeneity stress are here presented/discussed.

  15. Corneal Thickness Profile and Associations in Chinese Children Aged 7 to 15 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingyan; Zhu, Xiaofeng; He, Xiangui; Lu, Lina; Zhu, Jianfeng; Zou, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    Corneal thickness (CT) maps of the central (2-mm diameter), para-central (2 to 5-mm diameter), peripheral (5 to 6-mm diameter), and minimum (5-mm diameter) cornea were measured in normal Chinese school children aged 7 to 15 years old using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Multiple regression analyses were performed to explore the effect of associated factors [age, gender, refraction, axial length and corneal curvature radius (CCR)] on CT and the relationship between central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP). A total of 1228 eyes from 614 children were analyzed. The average CCT was 532.96 ± 28.33 μm for right eyes and 532.70 ±28.45 μm for left eyes. With a 10 μm increase in CCT, the IOP was elevated by 0.37 mm Hg, as measured by noncontact tonometry. The CT increased gradually from the center to the periphery. The superior and superior nasal regions had the thickest CTs, while the thinnest points were primarily located in the inferior temporal cornea. The CCT was associated with CCR (p = 0.008) but not with gender (p = 0.075), age (p = 0.286), axial length (p = 0.405), or refraction (p = 0.985). In the para-central region and the peripheral cornea, increased CT was associated with younger age, male gender, and a flatter cornea. PMID:26751798

  16. Decompressive craniectomy and early cranioplasty in a 15-year-old boy with N. meningitidis meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Hoehne, Julius; Friedrich, Monika; Brawanski, Alexander; Melter, Michael; Schebesch, Karl-Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intracranial hypertension is a well-known life-threatening complication of bacterial meningitis. Investigations on decompressive craniectomy after failure of conservative management are scarce, but this surgical treatment should be considered and performed expeditiously, as it lowers the intracranial pressure and improves brain tissue oxygenation. Early cranioplasty can further aid the rehabilitation. Case Description: A 15-year-old boy was admitted to our emergency department because of sudden onset of neurologic decline and consecutive loss of consciousness. Clinical examination and imaging showed elevated intracranial pressure, leading to the suspected diagnosis of meningitis. Intracranial pressure monitoring was installed, but the initiated conservative management failed. Finally, the patient underwent bilateral decompressive craniectomy. The microbiological test showed growth of Neisseria meningitidis. After full neurologic recovery, cranioplasty with two CAD/CAM titanium implants was conducted successfully. Conclusions: This unique report shows that decompressive craniotomy with duroplasty may be a crucial therapeutic approach in bacterial meningitis with refractory increased intracranial pressure and brainstem compression. Early cranioplasty with a patient-specific implant allowed the early and full reintegration of the patient. PMID:25883850

  17. The ABJS Nicolas Andry Award: Tissue engineering of bone and ligament: a 15-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Laurencin, Cato T; Khan, Yusuf; Kofron, Michele; El-Amin, Saadiq; Botchwey, Edward; Yu, Xiaojun; Cooper, James A

    2006-06-01

    Musculoskeletal repair is a major challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. The burden of repair is compounded by supply constraints and morbidity associated with autograft and allograft tissue. We report 15 years of research regarding tissue engineering and biological substitutes for bone and ligaments. Our approach has focused on biomaterial selection, scaffold development, cell selection, cell/material interaction, and growth factor delivery. We have extensively tested poly(ester), poly(anhydride), poly(phosphazene) derivatives, and composite materials using biocompatibility, degradation, and mechanical analyses for bone and ligament tissue engineering. We have developed novel three-dimensional matrices with a pore structure and mechanical properties similar to native tissue. We also have reported on the attachment, growth, proliferation, and differentiation of cells cultured on several scaffolds. Through extensive molecular analysis, in vitro culture condition analysis, and in vivo evaluation, our findings provide new methods of bone tissue regeneration using three-dimensional tissue engineered scaffolds, bioactive bone cement composite materials, and three-dimensional tissue engineered scaffolds for ligament regeneration. PMID:16741478

  18. Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994): in memoriam, 15 years later.

    PubMed

    Notturno, Mark Amadeus

    2009-12-01

    September 17th, 2009 marks the 15th anniversary of Sir Karl Popper's death. Popper was an outspoken champion of critical rationalism, and a constant critic of authoritarian tendencies in science and society. He was also one of the spiritual founders of this journal and served on its first editorial advisory board. Popper was recognized around the world as one of the 20th century's greatest philosophers of science and one of its most articulate and influential critics of Marxism and closed society. When he died, the contemporary wisdom among professional philosophers was that his philosophy was generally right-but somehow obsolete. Some commentators said that it was now obvious that scientific theories cannot be shown to be true. Others said that we had witnessed the end of history and that his critique of closed societies, while no doubt important in its day, had been fully assimilated into Western thinking and still had meaning, if at all, only for the democracies in transition that were trying to emerge from the former Soviet Union. But 15 years after his death, a look at science and society around the world gives us good reason to remember his philosophy. PMID:19819080

  19. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia in a 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Kakugawa, Tomoyuki; Mukae, Hiroshi; Nagata, Towako; Ishii, Hiroshi; Kaida, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Suematsu, Takashi; Kadota, Jun-ichi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2002-11-01

    Giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) is a very uncommon respiratory disease. We report a juvenile patient with GIP aged 15 years. Although he has a negative past history of direct exposure to hard metals, we could not exclude possible exposure in very small amounts through his parents. Microscopic examination of lung biopsy specimen obtained by video-assisted thoracoscopy revealed marked cellular interstitial infiltrates and prominent intraalveolar macrophages as well as giant cells showing cellular cannibalism. Analysis of the biopsied lung tissue for cobalt and tungsten was negative. Clinical symptoms, laboratory, and radiological findings improved markedly after treatment with corticosteroids. To our knowledge, only eleven cases of GIP have been reported in Japan. Although possible exposure to hard metals was identified in 9 of the 11 reported cases, there is no clear dose-dependent relationship with onset and prognosis. The average age at onset was 46.2+/-15.0 years. Our patient is the youngest case of GIP reported in the world. PMID:12487179

  20. Caustic Agent Ingestion by a 1.5-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Gharib, Behdad; Mohammadpour, Masoud; Yaghmaie, Bahareh; Sharifzadeh, Meisam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrzad; Zamani, Fatemeh; Edalatkhah, Rouhollah; Mohsenipour, Reihaneh

    2016-07-01

    We present a case of caustic ingestion by a 1.5-year-old boy. The caustic agent was drain opener which is a strong alkaline substance. Children in Iran and many other countries are still exposed to not "child proof" (child resistant packaging) toxic substance containers. Ingestion of caustic agents may lead to necrosis, perforation, and strictures. Substances that are ingested more frequently are liquid alkali material which causes severe, deep liquefaction necrosis. Common signs and symptoms of caustic agents are vomiting, drooling, refusal to drink, oral burns, stridor, hematemesis, dyspnea, dysphagia and abdominal pain. Even if no oropharyngeal lesion is seen, a significant esophageal injury which can lead to perforation and stricture cannot be ruled out. If abdominal pain or rigidity, substernal, chest or back pain exists, visceral perforation should be considered. The first thing to be checked is airway assessment. A lot of patients should be admitted to intensive care unit, and endoscopic evaluation, surgical intervention, long-term hospitalization, and worsening quality of life or among the complications. Preventive measures especially at the country level and approving proper legislation for obligating the related industries to produce child proof containers for house hold toxic products are the urgent measures to be followed by all of us. PMID:27424019

  1. Survey of Neurological Disorders in Children Aged 9-15 Years in Northern India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rashmi; Bhave, Anupama; Bhargava, Roli; Agarwal, G G

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of neurological disorders in resource-poor settings, although likely to be high, is largely unexplored. The prevalence and risk factors for neurological disorders, including epilepsy and intellectual, motor, vision, and hearing deficits, in children aged 9 to 15 years in the community were investigated. A new instrument was developed, validated, and used in a 2-stage community survey for neurological disorders in Lucknow, India. Screen-positives and random proportion of screen-negatives were validated using predefined criteria. Prevalence of different neurological disorders was calculated by weighted proportions. Of 6431 children screened, 221 were positive. A total of 214 screen-positives and 251 screen-negatives were validated. Prevalence of neurological disorders was 31.3 per 1000 children of this age group (weighted 95% confidence interval = 16.5, 46.4). The final model for risk factors included age, mud house, delayed cry at birth, and previous head injury. The prevalence of neurological disorders is high in this region. Predictors of neurological disorders are largely modifiable. PMID:26428662

  2. Dental Caries Prevalence among 12–15 Year Old Palestinian Children

    PubMed Central

    Mahfouz, Maen; Abu Esaid, Albina

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To measure the distribution of dental caries in a group of Palestinian adolescents. Material and Methods. A sample of 677 individuals of both sexes (411 were females and 266 were males) their ages ranged from 12 to 15 year old randomly selected from schools in northern west bank in Palestine. Clinical examination was performed on all the subjects focusing on the index DMFT, representing the number of teeth that were either decayed, missing or with extraction indicated, or restored. Results. The prevalence of dental caries in the permanent dentition was 54.35% and was the highest in 15 age 75.75% in comparison to the other ages (12, 13, and 14) (40.57%, 41.76%, and 60.47%), respectively. The mean DMFT for the sample was 5.39 ± 2.85525 while the mean DMFT for different age groups (12–15) was 5.52 ± 2.766, 5.58 ± 2.745, 5.23 ± 3.304, and 5.23 ± 2.606, respectively. The prevalence of dental caries was higher in females with DMFT 5.39 ± 2.854 than males with DMFT 5.26 ± 2.891. Conclusion. High prevalent dental caries was found among Palestinian adolescents and higher in females than males. Strict preventive programs should be implemented. Further research with large samples required to include all adolescents from Palestine.

  3. Exposure to secondhand smoke among students aged 13-15 years--worldwide, 2000-2007.

    PubMed

    2007-05-25

    Breathing secondhand smoke (SHS) causes heart disease and lung cancer in adults and increased risks for sudden infant death syndrome, acute respiratory infections, middle-ear disease, worsened asthma, respiratory symptoms, and slowed lung growth in children. No risk-free level of exposure to SHS exists. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), initiated in 1999 by the World Health Organization (WHO), the Canadian Public Health Association, and CDC includes questions related to tobacco use, including exposure to SHS. This report examines data collected from 137 jurisdictions (i.e., countries and territories) during 2000-2007, presents estimates of exposure to SHS at home and in places other than the home among students aged 13-15 years who had never smoked, and examines the association between exposure to SHS and susceptibility to initiating smoking. GYTS data indicated that nearly half of never smokers were exposed to SHS at home (46.8%), and a similar percentage were exposed in places other than the home (47.8%). Never smokers exposed to SHS at home were 1.4-2.1 times more likely to be susceptible to initiating smoking than those not exposed. Students exposed to SHS in places other than the home were 1.3-1.8 times more likely to be susceptible to initiating smoking than those not exposed. As part of their comprehensive tobacco-control programs, countries should take measures to create smoke-free environments in all indoor public places and workplaces. PMID:17522587

  4. Reanalysis of archived IMPROVE PM2.5 samples previously analyzed over a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Hyslop, Nicole P; Trzepla, Krystyna; White, Warren H

    2012-09-18

    The IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments) network has collected airborne particulate matter (PM) samples at locations throughout the United States since 1988. These samples have been analyzed for elemental content using analytical methods that evolved over the years. Changes in analytical methods sometimes introduced shifts in reported concentrations that are evident in the historical record. We sought to illuminate the effects of methodological changes by reanalyzing archived samples with current methods. To test the feasibility of this approach, the 15-year archive of PM samples from Great Smoky Mountains National Park was selected for reanalysis as a single analytical batch using a common protocol and calibration. Comparisons of the reanalyses and original analyses indicate that concentrations of all but one measured element, Br, remained stable on the filters over years of storage. The agreement between the two analyses varied with element and original measurement method. For elements measured well above their contemporary detection limits - S, K, Ca, Fe, and Zn - the reanalysis established that method changes had limited impacts on reported concentrations, generally <10%. For elements originally measured near their detection limits, reanalysis confirmed the presence of discontinuities in the data record, many of which were previously recognized and documented as method-related. PMID:22913377

  5. 15 Years of Oceanography in the Azores: From Oceanographic Cruises to an Integrated Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juliano, M. F.; Alves, M.; Simões, A.; Rodeia, J.

    2006-07-01

    Oceanographic research in the Azores has only started 15 years ago. Nevertheless, it has been possible to evolve from the typical "research cruise approach" to a more versatile and integrated approach, that has proofed to be further rewarding and adequate for the size and resources of the group. The Azorean Oceanographers have participated and conducted several research cruises since 1990, and anticipating the importance of correlating in situ data with satellite data has lead us to plan the last of these, so that there was a coincidence of transects, moorings and satellite ground tracks. On the other hand, the group has invested in data processing and merging hydrological historical data with the results from the above mentioned oceanographic cruises, creating a hydrological database for the whole Atlantic Ocean. Also, through the application of a novel methodology and approach, the group has contributed to a new vision of the currents systems in the South Atlantic Ocean, namely with the newly found St. Helena Current, the congener of the Azores Current. As a result of this continued shift in methodology, the group is now using an integrated approach where field data, model output and processed altimeter data are merged to produce operational oceanography products, such as sea state charts and daily oceanic current charts.

  6. Pulmonary hypertension and pregnancy: The experience of a tertiary institution over 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Monagle, John; Manikappa, Shashikanth; Ingram, Brendan; Malkoutzis, Vangy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) in pregnancy is associated with a high maternal mortality and morbidity and has been found to be as high as 30-56%. Aim: To review the management of such patients in a tertiary center over a 15 year period, as the current literature consists of a few case reports, a few small case series and 2 meta-analyses. Materials and Methods: A review of all patients admitted to our institution for management of PH in pregnancy between 1994 and February 2009 was undertaken. Cases were identified from the high-risk pregnancy database within the department of anesthesia and from the hospital medical records. Severity of PH, type of PH, NYHA functional status at presentation and delivery, mode of delivery, peripartum monitoring and APGAR scores were noted. Patients were reviewed by a multidisciplinary team and management planned accordingly. Results: 19 eligible patients were identified. Patients who were significantly sick due to their PH were aggressively managed during pregnancy. Overall there was an improvement in NYHA functional status at the time of delivery. Epidural analgesia and anesthesia for labor and operatively delivery seem to be the ideal choice. Conclusion: Multidisciplinary approach is a key to the successful management of these patients. Secondary PH results in higher morbidity and mortality, in particular, older the age higher the maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:25849682

  7. [Coexistence of Jarcho-Levin syndrome, syringomyelia and osteoporosis in 15 years old boy].

    PubMed

    Torbus, Onufry; Jachimowicz, Magdalena; Pieta, Marcin; Głowacki, Jan; Karczewska, Krystyna; Skrzelewski, Stanisław

    2002-01-01

    Autosomally inherited Jarcho-Levin syndrome is an illness leading to death usually in the foetal, neonatal or infantile period or in early childhood. The children rarely survive to the age of adolescence. Hardly 130 cases of the syndrome were described up to now. There are two types of the syndrome: milder spondylocostal dysplasia (SCD) and more severe spondylothoracic dysplasia (STD)--the proper Jarcho-Levin syndrome. The authors present a case of coexistence of Jarcho-Levin syndrome with syringomyelia and osteoporosis in a 15 years old boy. His disease manifested itself in developmental anomaly of structure and segmentation of vertebrae, occult cervicothoracic spina bifida and characteristic crablike deformation of thorax. These anomalies led to kyphoscoliosis and considerable shortening of trunk as well as to the growth which increased the proportions of limbs length to the trunk and body height. The syndrome was accompanied by the syringomyelia in C5-Th1 segment and osteoporotic skeleton with significantly decreased bone density (in the L2-4 segment Z = -5.17). According to the best of our knowledge the presented case is the first description of the coexistence of Jarcho-Levin syndrome, syringomyelia and osteoporosis in world literature. The anomaly diagnosed as STD has also the features of SCD. The verification of the classification principles of Jarcho-Levin syndrome may take place in future basing on bigger number of observation and on genetics development. PMID:12715362

  8. Ozone crisis: The 15 year evolution of a sudden global emergency

    SciTech Connect

    Roan, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    Sharon L. Roan, a science journalist, has written an informative and insightful account of how stratospheric ozone depletion has come to be recognized as a global environmental issue of critical importance. Starting with the analytical work of Rowland and Molina in the early 1970s - their findings first identified chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) release as a threat to the ozone layer - Roan traces in a lively and highly readable fashion the ensuing 15 years of scientific research and debate, political controversy, industrial skepticism and tactics, and, finally, a reasonable degree of international consensus. The author recounts some of the milestones in the ozone story, with settings as varied as university laboratories, industrial meetings, congressional hearings, scientific expeditions to the Antarctic and Arctic, and the series of international negotiating sessions culminating in the Montreal Protocol in 1987. But, as Roan states, the ozone issue remains very much unfinished; even the 50-percent CFC reduction mandated by the Montreal agreement is believed to be wholly inadequate now. Evidence of a more rapid ozone depletion than was earlier estimated suggests that a total CFC ban is the only defensible response. Dealing with the economic burden such a ban may impose on poor countries is a policy challenge that will also confront the United States if we restrict carbon dioxide emissions to mitigate greenhouse warming.

  9. DNA analysis of neonatal human remains wrapped and kept in a vinyl bag for 15 years.

    PubMed

    Minaguchi, Kiyoshi; Hanaoka, Yoichi; Maruyama, Sayaka; Nonaka, Iku; Kajiwara, Masahiro; Takagi, Tetsuya; Sato, Yoshinobu

    2003-03-01

    DNA analysis of a newborn baby wrapped and kept in a vinyl bag for 15 years was performed. DNA isolated from the femur and humerus was used to determine the sex and kinship between the infant and the putative parents. Amplification of mtDNA, ABO, HLA, CST3, CST5, VWA, D12S66, D21S11, CSF1PO, TPOX, THO1 and 10Y polymorphisms and the amelogenin gene was carried out. Several mtDNA types were obtained, suggesting that the sample was contaminated by exogenous DNAs. One of the DNA samples obtained from the femur showed an identical mtDNA sequence to that of the mother except for one site, and this pattern was also found in another DNA sample. None of our laboratory personnel had that type, so we thought it was possible that this sample contained the target DNA. However, maternity was denied by the CST3 polymorphism. Finally, we concluded that the sample had been contaminated with exogenous DNA before we started to examine the body. Although it is difficult to determine the sources of this contamination, PCR amplification from highly degraded DNA is very sensitive to such contamination, and we must be even more careful in DNA analysis of such samples than in that of not so severely degraded specimens. PMID:12935584

  10. University of the seas, 15 years of oceanographic schools on board of the Marion Dufresne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaize, Bruno; Deverchere, Jacques; Leau, Hélène; Graindorge, David

    2015-04-01

    Since the first University at Sea, proposed by two French Universities (Brest and Bordeaux) in 1999, the R/V Marion Dufresne, in collaboration with the French Polar institute (IPEV), has welcome 12 oceanographic schools. The main objective of this educational and scientific program is to stimulate the potential interest of highly graduated students in scientific fields dealing with oceanography, and to broaden exchanges with foreign universities, strengthening a pool of excellence at a high international scientific level. It is a unique opportunity for the students to discover and to be involved in the work in progress of collecting scientific data on board of a ship, and to attend international research courses given by scientists involved in the cruise program. They also experience the final task of the scientific work by presenting their own training results, making posters on board, and writing a cruise report. For some University at Sea, students had also updated a daily journal, available on internet, hosted by the main institutions involved (as IPEV or EPOC, Bordeaux University). All this work is done in English, a common language to all the participants. An overview of these 15 years background experience will be presented, underlying the financial supports used, the logistic on board, as well as all the benefits acquiered by all former students, now in permanent positions in different international institutions.

  11. Comparison of anxiety levels associated with noise in the dental clinic among children of age group 6-15 years.

    PubMed

    Muppa, Radhika; Bhupatiraju, Prameela; Duddu, Mahesh; Penumatsa, Narendra Varma; Dandempally, Arthi; Panthula, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Fear or anxiety due to noise produced in the dental clinic is rated third among the reasons to avoid dental visits. The aim of the present study was to determine anxiety levels associated with noise in a dental clinic. The study was done using a survey questionnaire containing 10 questions and was divided into two parts. The first part included demographic information such as name, age, gender, and school; the second half included questions regarding patient's feelings toward noise in the dental clinic and its possible link to dental anxiety. Two-hundred and fifty children and adolescents of age group 6-15 years participated in the study. Results of the study showed that 50% of females, 29% males avoided a visit to the dentist because of anxiety and fear, 38% subjects of age group 6-11 years reported that sound of the drill makes them uncomfortable, followed by having to wait in the reception area. Gender gap was also observed with more females feeling annoyed than males on the 1-10 annoyance level scale. More than 60% felt "annoyed" to "extremely annoyed" by noise in the dental clinic. 45% of subjects preferred watching television to cope with such noise. This study concludes that the noise produced in dental clinic is anxiety provoking and significantly contributes to avoidance of dental treatment and the best way opted by the majority of subjects to overcome this anxiety was audiovisual distraction method. PMID:23689302

  12. Semen Analysis in Cancer Patients Referred for Sperm Cryopreservation before Chemotherapy over a 15-Year Period in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Ja Yoon; Park, Nam Cheol; Jeon, Tae Gyeong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the demographics and semen parameters of males with cancer who banked their sperm prior to chemotherapy. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective study of 66 cases referred for sperm banking prior to initiation of chemotherapy over a 15-year period (1999~2014). Patients who had previously received cancer treatment including chemotherapy or radiotherapy were not included in this study. Results We studied a total of 66 cancer patients referred for cryopreservation of sperm prior to chemotherapy. The mean age of the patients at the time of banking was 32.0±7.9 years (range, 19~58 years). The types of cancer were testicular cancer (31 cases, 47.0%), non-Hodgkin's disease (10 cases, 15.1%), Hodgkin's disease (5 cases, 7.6%), leukemia (8 cases, 12.1%), gastrointestinal malignancy (5 cases, 7.6%), and musculoskeletal malignancy (5 cases, 7.6%). There were significant differences in sperm concentration and viability among the various types of cancer, but no significant difference in semen volume or sperm motility and morphology. Conclusions In this study we found that sperm quality could decrease even before chemotherapy. Because chemotherapy can also negatively affect spermatogenesis, sperm cryopreservation prior to treatment should be strongly recommended for cancer patients of reproductive age. PMID:25927057

  13. Testosterone deficiency and quality of life in Australasian testicular cancer survivors: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    O'Carrigan, B; Fournier, M; Olver, I N; Stockler, M R; Whitford, H; Toner, G C; Thomson, D B; Davis, I D; Hanning, F; Singhal, N; Underhill, C; Clingan, P; McDonald, A; Boland, A; Grimison, P

    2014-08-01

    This is the first prospective study in a contemporary Australian/New Zealand population to determine the prevalence of testosterone deficiency in testicular cancer survivors at 12 months from treatment, and any association with poorer quality of life. Hormone assays from 54 evaluable patients in a prospective cohort study revealed biochemical hypogonadism in 18 patients (33%) and low-normal testosterone in 13 patients (24%). We found no association between testosterone levels and quality of life (all P > 0.05). Hypogonadal patients should be considered for testosterone replacement to prevent long-term morbidity. PMID:25081047

  14. Toward Fully Automated Multicriterial Plan Generation: A Prospective Clinical Study

    SciTech Connect

    Voet, Peter W.J.; Dirkx, Maarten L.P.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Fransen, Dennie; Levendag, Peter C.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To prospectively compare plans generated with iCycle, an in-house-developed algorithm for fully automated multicriterial intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) beam profile and beam orientation optimization, with plans manually generated by dosimetrists using the clinical treatment planning system. Methods and Materials: For 20 randomly selected head-and-neck cancer patients with various tumor locations (of whom 13 received sequential boost treatments), we offered the treating physician the choice between an automatically generated iCycle plan and a manually optimized plan using standard clinical procedures. Although iCycle used a fixed “wish list” with hard constraints and prioritized objectives, the dosimetrists manually selected the beam configuration and fine tuned the constraints and objectives for each IMRT plan. Dosimetrists were not informed in advance whether a competing iCycle plan was made. The 2 plans were simultaneously presented to the physician, who then selected the plan to be used for treatment. For the patient group, differences in planning target volume coverage and sparing of critical tissues were quantified. Results: In 32 of 33 plan comparisons, the physician selected the iCycle plan for treatment. This highly consistent preference for the automatically generated plans was mainly caused by the improved sparing for the large majority of critical structures. With iCycle, the normal tissue complication probabilities for the parotid and submandibular glands were reduced by 2.4% ± 4.9% (maximum, 18.5%, P=.001) and 6.5% ± 8.3% (maximum, 27%, P=.005), respectively. The reduction in the mean oral cavity dose was 2.8 ± 2.8 Gy (maximum, 8.1 Gy, P=.005). For the swallowing muscles, the esophagus and larynx, the mean dose reduction was 3.3 ± 1.1 Gy (maximum, 9.2 Gy, P<.001). For 15 of the 20 patients, target coverage was also improved. Conclusions: In 97% of cases, automatically generated plans were selected for treatment because of

  15. Development of Visual Motion Perception for Prospective Control: Brain and Behavioral Studies in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Agyei, Seth B.; van der Weel, F. R. (Ruud); van der Meer, Audrey L. H.

    2016-01-01

    During infancy, smart perceptual mechanisms develop allowing infants to judge time-space motion dynamics more efficiently with age and locomotor experience. This emerging capacity may be vital to enable preparedness for upcoming events and to be able to navigate in a changing environment. Little is known about brain changes that support the development of prospective control and about processes, such as preterm birth, that may compromise it. As a function of perception of visual motion, this paper will describe behavioral and brain studies with young infants investigating the development of visual perception for prospective control. By means of the three visual motion paradigms of occlusion, looming, and optic flow, our research shows the importance of including behavioral data when studying the neural correlates of prospective control. PMID:26903908

  16. Predictors of Cerebral Palsy in Very Preterm Infants: The EPIPAGE Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaino, Ghada; Khoshnood, Babak; Kaminski, Monique; Pierrat, Veronique; Marret, Stephane; Matis, Jacqueline; Ledesert, Bernard; Thiriez, Gerard; Fresson, Jeanne; Roze, Jean-Christophe; Zupan-Simunek, Veronique; Arnaud, Catherine; Burguet, Antoine; Larroque, Beatrice; Breart, Gerard; Ancel, Pierre-Yves

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the independent role of cerebral lesions on ultrasound scan, and several other neonatal and obstetric factors, as potential predictors of cerebral palsy (CP) in a large population-based cohort of very preterm infants. Method: As part of EPIPAGE, a population-based prospective cohort study, perinatal data…

  17. A Study on Teaching Gases to Prospective Primary Science Teachers through Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senocak, Erdal; Taskesenligil, Yavuz; Sozbilir, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the achievement of prospective primary science teachers in a problem-based curriculum with those in a conventional primary science teacher preparation program with regard to success in learning about gases and developing positive attitudes towards chemistry. The subjects of the study were 101 first year…

  18. Peer Victimization in Childhood and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwierzynska, Karolina; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Tanya S.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic childhood experiences have been found to predict later internalizing problems. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether repeated and intentional harm doing by peers (peer victimization) in childhood predicts internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. 3,692 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  19. Asthma and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using a nationwide population-based prospective case-control cohort study (1:4, age-/gender-matched), we hypothesized that asthma in infanthood or early…

  20. Prenatal, Perinatal, and Neonatal Risk Factors for Specific Language Impairment: A Prospective Pregnancy Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Shelton, W. M. R.; Ing, Caleb; Newnham, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although genetic factors are known to play a causal role in specific language impairment (SLI), environmental factors may also be important. This study examined whether there are prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal factors that are associated with childhood SLI. Method: Participants were members of the Raine Study, a prospective cohort…

  1. A 10-Year Prospective Study of Prodromal Patterns for Bipolar Disorder among Amish Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jon A.; Egeland, Janice A.; Endicott, Jean; Allen, Cleona R.; Hostetter, Abram M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Prospective study of well children at risk of bipolarity to identify the frequency and pattern of potentially prodromal symptoms/behaviors for bipolar disorder type I (BPI) disorder. Method: A total of 110 at-risk children with a BPI parent and 112 children with well parents were studied. Ten-year data collection used structured and…

  2. 77 FR 72871 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request (60-Day FRN): The Agricultural Health Study: A Prospective...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... Agricultural Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study of Cancer and Other Disease Among Men and Women in... Other Disease Among Men and Women in Agriculture, 0925-0406, Expiration Date 5/31/2013--REVISION...--Estimates Annualized Burden Hours Number of Average time Type of respondent Form Number of responses per...

  3. The Intergenerational Continuity of Observed Early Parenting: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovan, Nikki M.; Chung, Alissa L.; Sroufe, L. Alan

    2009-01-01

    The authors report the results from a prospective, longitudinal study of cross-generational parenting quality in a lower socioeconomic status sample of moderate ethnic diversity (N = 61). The study extends previous research on intergenerational continuity of parenting in several significant ways: (a) Assessments in both generations were based on…

  4. Involvement in Bullying and Suicide-Related Behavior at 11 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…

  5. Sustained Effects of Ecstasy on the Human Brain: A Prospective Neuroimaging Study in Novel Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Win, Maartje M. L.; Jager, Gerry; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth; Schilt, Thelma; Lavini, Christina; Olabarriaga, Silvia D.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; van den Brink, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested toxic effects of recreational ecstasy use on the serotonin system of the brain. However, it cannot be excluded that observed differences between users and non-users are the cause rather than the consequence of ecstasy use. As part of the Netherlands XTC Toxicity (NeXT) study, we prospectively assessed sustained…

  6. Trait Anger, Anger Expression, and Suicide Attempts among Adolescents and Young Adults: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Stephanie S.; Goldston, David B.; Erkanli, Alaattin; Franklin, Joseph C.; Mayfield, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of the relationship between anger, anger expression, and suicidal behavior have been largely cross-sectional and have yielded mixed findings. In a prospective, naturalistic study, we examined how trait anger and anger expression influenced the likelihood of suicide attempts among 180 adolescents followed for up to 13.3 years after…

  7. Prediction of Participation and Sensory Modulation of Late Preterm Infants at 12 Months: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, O.; Shayevits, S.; Gabis, L. V.; Morag, I.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to prospectively assess the differences in participation and sensory modulation between late preterm infants (LPI) and term babies, and to predict it by LPI characteristics. The study population includes 124 late preterm infants at gestational age between 34 and 35 6/7 weeks who were born at the same medical center. The…

  8. Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence, Peer Relations, and Risk for Internalizing Behaviors: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Kathleen; Ehrensaft, Miriam K.; Cohen, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the quality of peer relations as a mediator between exposure to IPV (intimate partner violence) and internalizing behaviors in a sample of 129 preadolescents and adolescents (ages 10-18), who were interviewed via telephone as part of a multigenerational, prospective, longitudinal study. Relational victimization is also…

  9. The Taiwan Birth Panel Study: a prospective cohort study for environmentally- related child health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Taiwan Birth Panel Study (TBPS) is a prospective follow-up study to investigate the development of child health and disease in relation to in-utero and/or early childhood environmental exposures. The rationale behind the establishment of such a cohort includes the magnitude of potential environmental exposures, the timing of exposure window, fatal and children's susceptibility to toxicants, early exposure delayed effects, and low-level or unknown neurodevelopmental toxicants. Methods A total of 486 mother-infant paired was enrolled from April 2004 to January 2005 in this study. Maternal blood before delivery, placenta and umbilical cord blood at birth, and mothers' urine after delivery were collected. The follow-up was scheduled at birth, 4, 6 months, and 1, 2, 3 and 5 years. The children's blood, urine, hair, and saliva were collected at 2 years of age and children's urine was collected at 5 years of age as well. The study has been approved by the ethical committee of National Taiwan University Hospital. All the subjects signed the inform consent on entering the study and each of the follow up. Results Through this prospective birth cohort, the main health outcomes were focused on child growth, neurodevelopment, behaviour problem and atopic diseases. We investigated the main prenatal and postnatal factors including smoking, heavy metals, perfluorinated chemicals, and non-persistent pesticides under the consideration of interaction of the environment and genes. Conclusions This cohort study bridges knowledge gaps and answers unsolved issues in the low-level, prenatal or postnatal, and multiple exposures, genetic effect modification, and the initiation and progression of "environmentally-related childhood diseases." PMID:21838884

  10. Evaluation Efficacy of Ferrous Sulfate Therapy on Headaches of 5-15 Years Old Iron Deficient Children with Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, R; Zare Bidoki, S; Ordooei, M

    2016-01-01

    Background Some researches have shown the association between iron deficiency and migraine headache in adults. The aim of present study was to evaluate efficacy of ferrous sulfate treatment on migraine headaches of 5-15 years old migraineur children with iron deficiency. Materials and Methods In a quasi- experimental study, monthly frequency, severity, duration and disability of headaches of 5-15 years old migraineur children that prophylactic therapy was indicated in them and had iron deficiency who were referred to Pediatric Neurology Clinic of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran between 2013 and 2015 and were treated with 2mg/kg/day topiramate plus 4mg/kg/day of ferrous sulfate for three consecutive months, were evaluated and headache characteristics before and after treatment were compared. Results In this study, 98 children with mean age of 9.72±3.19 were evaluated that 31children (31.6%) had iron deficiency. Monthly frequency (22.89±7.18 vs.14.5±4.56, P= 0.02), severity score (8.12± 1.76 vs. 5.03±1.15, P= 0.02) and disability score of headache (38.23±10.7vs. 30.12±7.46, P= 0.03) were more in children with iron deficiency. Iron therapy was effective in decreasing of monthlyfrequency 22.89± 7.18 vs. 10.13±4.51, P = 0.001), severity score (8.12±1.76 vs. 5.11±1.62, P =0.001), duration (2.14±1.23 vs.1.14±1.01, P= 0.001) and disability score of headache (38.23±10.7 vs. 22.87±8.65, P= 0.01). Conclusion In children, iron deficiency increased monthly frequency, severity and disability of migraine headache and ferrous sulfate can be used as a safe and effective drug in migraine prophylaxis. PMID:27222700

  11. Malaysia family-planning centers strive to maintain gains won in 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Roemer, R

    1968-09-12

    Family planning in Malaysia is discussed. Family planning began in Malaysia about 15 years ago through the efforts of voluntary family Planning Associations in the various Malay states. In 1966 the Malaysian Parliament passed the National Family Planning Act setting up the National FAmily Planning Board to formulate policies and methods for the promotion and spread of family planning knowledge and practice on the grounds of health of mothers and children and welfare of the family. In 1967, the board set a target of 40,000 new acceptors of family planning and 90% of the target was reached. This represents 3% of the child-bearing married women aged 15-49. The target for 1968 of 65,000 new acceptors is being achieved. A survey of acceptors is to be carried out from December 1968 to April 1969 to ascertain how many women who accepted family planning continue to practice it. Malaysia's crude birth rate declined from 46.2 in 1957 to 37.3 in 1966 before the government program was instituted. Abortion attempts have been frequent. The main method of contraception used is oral contraceptives. According to a 1957 survey, 31% of the married women in the metropolitan areas and 2% of rural women were using contraception. Presently, in Malaysia there is a need to: 1) train personnel to provide services, 2) inform and motivate families to accept family planning, 3) continue a broad educational program, 4) reform Malaysia's antiquated abortion law, and 5) integrate family planning services more fully into the general health services of the country. PMID:12229348

  12. A 15-Year-Old Male Baseball Player With a Mass in the Brachialis Muscle.

    PubMed

    Golub, Ivan J; Garcia, Roberto A; Wittig, James C

    2016-05-01

    A 15-year-old boy presented with a mass in his right arm after suffering a minor injury playing baseball. He had been diagnosed with a hematoma. There was no other outstanding medical/surgical history. Magnetic resonance images showed a heterogeneous mass arising from the brachialis muscle that mainly enhanced peripherally with extremely scant internal nodular enhancement. Core needle biopsy cells were positive for CD31 and CD34, markers for atypical endothelial cells, as well as MIB-1 and p53. The final diagnosis was an angiosarcoma of the brachialis muscle. Pediatric angiosarcoma, particularly within deep tissue, is exceedingly rare. Histological and immunohistochemical modalities led to the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance images suggested a mass with a large cystic/hemorrhagic space that could have been misconstrued as a hematoma had there been absolutely no nodular or septal enhancement. The patient underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation before undergoing limb-sparing surgery that included resection of the mass with the brachialis muscle and short head of the biceps muscle. Neoadjuvant treatment was deemed successful due to a drastic reduction in the size of the tumor and 95% tumor necrosis. The patient was disease free 2 years postoperatively. There had been no local/systemic recurrences. He was pain free, had normal elbow function, and had returned to playing baseball. It is important to be extremely suspicious when a patient presents with a hemorrhagic, painless, enlarging mass after sustaining minor trauma. A careful and meticulous biopsy must be completed to achieve the correct diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium is recommended for evaluation because these masses can be often misinterpreted as hematomas. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e545-e548.]. PMID:27045482

  13. Survey of rehabilitation support for children 0–15 years in a rural part of Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Gona, Joseph K.; Odera-Mung’ala, Victor; Newton, Charles R.; Geere, Jo-Anne; Hong, Chia Swee; Hartley, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Information regarding the nature, availability and distribution of rehabilitation services for children with disabilities across developing countries is scarce, and data that do exist are of variable quality. If planning and development are to progress, information about service provision is vital. The aim was to establish the scope and nature of rehabilitation support available to children with disabilities (0–15 years) and their families in rural Kenya. Method A comprehensive sample comprising service provision in the health and special education sectors was established. Non-governmental and community-based organisations were also included. A survey of rehabilitation services was conducted through examination of service-related documentation and key informant interviews with the heads of services. Results Rehabilitation comprised hospital-based occupational therapy, physiotherapy and orthopaedic technology; and seven special education establishments plus an education assessment resource centre. There was one non-government organisation and one community-based organisation relevant to children with disabilities. Activities focused on assessment, diagnosis and raising community awareness. Provision was challenged by inadequate staffing, resources and transport. Government funding was supplemented variously by donations and self-sufficiency initiatives. Rehabilitation approaches appeared to be informed by professional background of practitioner, rather than the needs of child. Service documentation revealed use of inconsistent recording methods. Conclusions The data highlight the challenges of rehabilitation, demanding greater investment in personnel and their training, more material resources, improved access to the community and better recording mechanisms. Implications for Rehabilitation There needs to be greater investment in rehabilitation provision in developing countries. Consideration of community-based initiatives is required to support better

  14. Clustered Tuberculosis in a Low-Burden Country: Nationwide Genotyping through 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, A. B.; Kok-Jensen, A.; Bygbjerg, I. C.; Andersen, P. H.; Thomsen, V. O.; Kamper-Jørgensen, M.; Lillebaek, T.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has proved to be a powerful tool in tuberculosis surveillance, epidemiology, and control. Based on results obtained through 15 years of nationwide IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) genotyping of M. tuberculosis cases in Denmark, a country on the way toward tuberculosis elimination, we discuss M. tuberculosis transmission dynamics and point to areas for control interventions. Cases with 100% identical genotypes (RFLP patterns) were defined as clustered, and a cluster was defined as cases with an identical genotype. Of 4,601 included cases, corresponding to 76% of reported and 97% of culture-verified tuberculosis cases in the country, 56% were clustered, of which 69% were Danes. Generally, Danes were more often in large clusters (≥50 persons), older (mean age, 45 years), and male (male/female ratio, 2.5). Also, Danes had a higher cluster frequency within a 2-year observation window (60.8%), and higher clustering rate of new patterns over time, compared to immigrants. A dominant genotype, cluster 2, constituted 44% of all clustered and 35% of all genotyped cases. This cluster was primarily found among Danish males, 30 to 59 years of age, often socially marginalized, and with records of alcohol abuse. In Danes, cluster 2 alone was responsible for the high cluster frequency level. Immigrants had a higher incidence of clustered tuberculosis at a younger age (0 to 39 years). To achieve tuberculosis elimination in Denmark, high-risk transmission environments, like the cluster 2 enviornment in Danes, and specific transmission chains in immigrants in the capital area, e.g., homeless/socially marginalized Somalis/Greenlanders, often with alcohol abuse, must be targeted, including groups with a high risk of reactivation. PMID:22675129

  15. Citation Analysis of the Croatian Medical Journal: the First 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Kovačić, Nataša; Huić, Mirjana; Ivaniš, Ana

    2008-01-01

    The Croatian Medical Journal (CMJ) is a bimonthly scientific journal, publishing mostly original articles. It is indexed in the Index Medicus/MEDLINE, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, and the Science Citation Index – expanded. Since the CMJ’s 15th anniversary in 2007, our aim has been to assess the importance of the journal through its impact factor (IF) and immediacy index, with a particular focus placed on the proportion of self-citations. According the Web of Knowledge database, the current official IF for CMJ is 0.825, ranking it at the 62nd place out of 103 journals within the Thomson Scientific category “Medicine – General and Internal.” The exclusion of self-citations resulted in a small decrease in the journal’s rank – to 66th place. According to the Web of Science database, the predicted CMJ IF in 2007 is between 1.024 and 1.125, showing a clear increase. The immediacy index of the CMJ is continuously low, with a high contribution of self-citations, implying that articles published in the CMJ require more time to be cited, and that their topics are of particular interest to the journal's readers and contributors. Self-citations contributed significantly to the IF in the first few years after the journal was established. The proportion of independent citations progressively increased, and of all the citations included in the IF in 2007, almost 70% were fully independent. Some of these citations were from articles published in journals with IF higher than 5. Taken together, our data suggest that CMJ has significantly improved its citation data during the last 15 years, confirming that a quality-oriented editorial policy in a small peripheral journal may result in a truly increased international visibility. PMID:18293451

  16. Plant reestablishment 15 years after the debris avalanche at Mount St Helens, Washington.

    PubMed

    Dale, Virginia H; Adams, Wendy M

    2003-09-01

    Vegetation has slowly reestablished on the debris avalanche deposit in the 15 years after the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens that created a 60-km(2) debris avalanche, the largest landslide in recorded history. There has been a gradual increase in species richness and cover, but only 61% of the species present on the mountain before the eruption have established on the debris avalanche deposit. Plant cover averages 38% and is extremely patchy. Life form composition changed over successional time, because part of the avalanche deposit was invaded by introduced plant species aerially seeded to reduce erosion, the site offers the opportunity to compare successional processes occurring with and without introduced species. Long-term recovery trends and effects of nonnative species on succession are important to understand since plant reestablishment practices often rely on nonnative species for enhancing vegetation recovery of denuded sites along road sides, strip mines, or other human-generated clearing. Fifteen years after the eruption and 10 years since the invasion by introduced species, plots invaded by nonnative species had greater vegetation cover and more native plant richness than plots that were not inundated. Significantly greater mortality of conifers occurred in the plots dominated by introduced species shortly after the invasion of those species, but no difference in conifer mortality occurred in the last 5 years. Even so, the plots dominated by introduced species still have fewer conifer trees. Thus, the short-term pulse of conifer mortality after the invasion of introduced species may have long-term effects on the recovery of the dominant vegetation. It will likely be decades before there is 100% plant cover on the debris avalanche deposit and a century or more before full recovery of the vegetation system. PMID:12922064

  17. Population Based National Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey among Adults (>15 Years) in Pakistan, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Qadeer, Ejaz; Fatima, Razia; Yaqoob, Aashifa; Tahseen, Sabira; Ul Haq, Mahboob; Ghafoor, Abdul; Asif, Muhammad; Straetemans, Masja; Tiemersma, Edine W.

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) amongst the adult population in 2010–2011 in Pakistan. Method A nationwide cross-sectional survey with multistage cluster sampling was conducted among adults (≥15 years) in 95 clusters in 2010–2011. All consenting participants were screened for cough and by chest X-ray. Participants with presumptive TB submitted two sputum samples for smear microscopy, culture, and molecular testing if needed. The TB prevalence estimates were adjusted for missing data and the cluster design. Result Of 131,329 eligible individuals, 105,913 (81%) participated in the survey, of whom 10,471 (9.9%) were eligible for sputum examination. We found 341 bacteriologically positive TB cases of whom 233 had sputum smear-positive TB. The adjusted prevalence estimates for smear and bacteriologically positive TB were 270/100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI) 217–323), and 398/100,000 (95% CI 333–463), respectively. Only 61% of the diagnosed TB cases screened positive on symptoms (cough >2wks), whereas the other TB cases were detected based on X-ray abnormalities. The TB prevalence increased with age and was 1.8 times higher among men than women. The prevalence-to-notification ratio of smear-positive TB was 3.1 (95% CI 2.5–3.7), was higher among men than women, and increased with age. Conclusion Our data suggest that there is under-detection and/or -notification of TB, especially among men and elderly. TB control should be strengthened specifically in these risk groups. X-ray examination should be combined with symptom screening to enhance case detection. PMID:26863617

  18. Needle Exchange and the HIV Epidemic in Vancouver: Lessons Learned from 15 years of research

    PubMed Central

    Hyshka, Elaine; Strathdee, Steffanie; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    During the mid-1990s, Vancouver experienced a well characterized HIV outbreak among injection drug users (IDU) and many questioned how this could occur in the presence of a high volume needle exchange program (NEP). Specific concerns were fuelled by early research demonstrating that frequent needle exchange program attendees were more likely to be HIV positive than those who attended the NEP less frequently. Since then, some have misinterpreted this finding as evidence that NEPs are ineffective or potentially harmful. In light of continuing questions about the Vancouver HIV epidemic, we review 15 years of peer-reviewed research on Vancouver’s NEP to describe what has been learned through this work. Our review demonstrates that: 1) NEP attendance is not causally associated with HIV infection, 2) frequent attendees of Vancouver’s NEP have higher risk profiles which explain their increased risk of HIV seroconversion, and 3) a number of policy concerns, as well as the high prevalence of cocaine injecting contributed to the failure of the NEP to prevent the outbreak. Additionally, we highlight several improvements to Vancouver’s NEP that contributed to declines in syringe sharing and HIV incidence. Vancouver’s experience provides a number of important lessons regarding NEP. Keys to success include refocusing the NEP away from an emphasis on public order objectives by separating distribution and collection functions, removing syringe distribution limits and decentralizing and diversifying NEP services. Additionally, our review highlights the importance of context when implementing NEPs, as well as ongoing evaluation to identify factors that constrain or improve access to sterile syringes. PMID:22579215

  19. Defining safe criteria to diagnose miscarriage: prospective observational multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Preisler, Jessica; Kopeika, Julia; Ismail, Laure; Vathanan, Veluppillai; Farren, Jessica; Abdallah, Yazan; Battacharjee, Parijat; Van Holsbeke, Caroline; Bottomley, Cecilia; Gould, Deborah; Johnson, Susanne; Stalder, Catriona; Van Calster, Ben; Hamilton, Judith; Timmerman, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To validate recent guidance changes by establishing the performance of cut-off values for embryo crown-rump length and mean gestational sac diameter to diagnose miscarriage with high levels of certainty. Secondary aims were to examine the influence of gestational age on interpretation of mean gestational sac diameter and crown-rump length values, determine the optimal intervals between scans and findings on repeat scans that definitively diagnose pregnancy failure.) Design Prospective multicentre observational trial. Setting Seven hospital based early pregnancy assessment units in the United Kingdom. Participants 2845 women with intrauterine pregnancies of unknown viability included if transvaginal ultrasonography showed an intrauterine pregnancy of uncertain viability. In three hospitals this was initially defined as an empty gestational sac <20 mm mean diameter with or without a visible yolk sac but no embryo, or an embryo with crown-rump length <6 mm with no heartbeat. Following amended guidance in December 2011 this definition changed to a gestational sac size <25 mm or embryo crown-rump length <7 mm. At one unit the definition was extended throughout to include a mean gestational sac diameter <30 mm or embryo crown-rump length <8 mm. Main outcome measures Mean gestational sac diameter, crown-rump length, and presence or absence of embryo heart activity at initial and repeat transvaginal ultrasonography around 7-14 days later. The final outcome was pregnancy viability at 11-14 weeks’ gestation. Results The following indicated a miscarriage at initial scan: mean gestational sac diameter ≥25 mm with an empty sac (364/364 specificity: 100%, 95% confidence interval 99.0% to 100%), embryo with crown-rump length ≥7 mm without visible embryo heart activity (110/110 specificity: 100%, 96.7% to 100%), mean gestational sac diameter ≥18 mm for gestational sacs without an embryo presenting after 70 days’ gestation (907/907 specificity: 100%, 99.6% to

  20. Prospective studies on children with sex chromosome aneuploidy

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliffe, S.G.; Paul, N.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Growth and Development from Early to Midadolescence of Children with X and Y Chromosome Aneuploidy: The Toronto Study; Sex Chromomal Aneuploidy: Perspective and Longitudinal Studies; Psychologic Study of XYY and XXY Men; and Cellular and Molecular Studies in Human Chromosomal Diseases.

  1. Seroprevalence of hepatitis a and associated factors among 1-15 year old children in Eastern Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Karaman, Serap; Karaman, Kamuran; Kızılyıldız, Baran Serdar; Ceylan, Nesrin; Kaba, Sultan; Parlak, Mehmet; Beger, Burhan; Ceylan, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis A is a common infectious disease during childhood worldwide. Recently, great deal of changes in the epidemiology has been reported. The seroepidemiologic studies of this infection are not sufficient in Eastern region of Turkey. Objective: To investigate the seroprevalence and association with socio-demographic variables of hepatitis A in 1-15 year old children in Van. Patients and Methods: This study was performed on 510 one to fifteen year old children from outpatient pediatric clinics in Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Medicine during last three months of 2009. Anti-HAV IgG was measured in sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The information about subjects was recorded on standardized forms and a chart review survey was performed. Results: The overall ratio for seropositivity was 54.9%. Statistical significance was found between hepatitis A seroprevalence and age, collective use of domestic items, fresh water resources, localization and type of toilet and the number of households. Conclusion: This study provided the most recent data of seropositivity and revealed the preliminary indication of epidemiological shift in seroprevalence of Hepatitis A virus in a region with high endemicity. PMID:26770581

  2. Prevalence of Tuberculosis among Veterans, Military Personnel and their Families in East Azerbaijan Province Violators of the last 15 Years.

    PubMed

    Azad Aminjan, Maboud; Moaddab, Seyyed Reza; Hosseini Ravandi, Mohammad; Kazemi Haki, Behzad

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays in the world, tuberculosis is the second largest killer of adults after HIV. Due to the location of presidios that is mostly located in hazardous zones soldiers and army personnel are considered high risk, therefore we decided to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis status in this group of people. This was a cross-sectional descriptive research that studied the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in soldiers and military personnel in the last 15 years in tuberculosis and lung disease research center at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The statistical population consisted of all the soldiers and military personnel. The detection method in this study was based on microscopic examination following Ziehl-Neelsen Stain and in Leuven Stein Johnson culturing. Descriptive statistics was used for statistical analysis and statistical values less than 0.05 were considered significant. By review information in this center since the 1988-2013 with 72 military personnel suffering from tuberculosis, it was revealed that among them 30 women, 42 men, 14 soldiers, 29 family members, and 29 military personnel are pointed. A significant correlation was found between TB rates among military personnel and their families. Although in recent years, the national statistics indicate a decline of tuberculosis, but the results of our study showed that TB is still a serious disease that must comply with the first symptoms of tuberculosis in military personnel and their families that should be diagnosed as soon as possible. PMID:26615379

  3. UK pneumonectomy outcome study (UKPOS): a prospective observational study of pneumonectomy outcome

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Ellie S; Pearce, Adrian C; Cook, David; Davies, Paul; Bishay, Ehab; Bowler, Geoffrey MR; Gao, Fang

    2009-01-01

    Background In order to assess the short term risks of pneumonectomy for lung cancer in contemporary practice a one year prospective observational study of pneumonectomy outcome was made. Current UK practice for pneumonectomy was observed to note patient and treatment factors associated with major complications. Methods A multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study was performed. All 35 UK thoracic surgical centres were invited to submit data to the study. All adult patients undergoing pneumonectomy for lung cancer between 1 January and 31 December 2005 were included. Patients undergoing pleuropneumonectomy, extended pneumonectomy, completion pneumonectomy following previous lobectomy and pneumonectomy for benign disease, were excluded from the study. The main outcome measure was suffering a major complication. Major complications were defined as: death within 30 days of surgery; treated cardiac arrhythmia or hypotension; unplanned intensive care admission; further surgery or inotrope usage. Results 312 pneumonectomies from 28 participating centres were entered. The major complication incidence was: 30-day mortality 5.4%; treated cardiac arrhythmia 19.9%; unplanned intensive care unit admission 9.3%; further surgery 4.8%; inotrope usage 3.5%. Age, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status ≥ P3, pre-operative diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and epidural analgesia were collectively the strongest risk factors for major complications. Major complications prolonged median hospital stay by 2 days. Conclusion The 30 day mortality rate was less than 8%, in agreement with the British Thoracic Society guidelines. Pneumonectomy was associated with a high rate of major complications. Age, ASA physical status, DLCO and epidural analgesia appeared collectively most associated with major complications. PMID:19643006

  4. Diagnostic Performance of Endoscopic and Microscopic Procedures for Identifying Different Middle Ear Structures and Remaining Disease in Patients with Chronic Otitis Media: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Farhad; Shariatpanahi, Elnaz; Jahanshahi, Javane; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2015-01-01

    Background The diagnostic performance of endoscopic and microscopic procedures for detecting diseases of the middle ear in patients with chronic otitis media (COM) has rarely been investigated. This study was conducted to compare the performance of these procedures for identifying middle ear structures and their associated diseases in COM patients. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 58 patients with chronic COM, who were candidates for tympanoplasty with or without a mastoidectomy, were enrolled. Before the surgical intervention, the middle ear was examined via an operating microscope and then through an endoscope to identify the middle ear structures as well as diseases associated with the middle ear. Results The patients were 15 years of age or older. The anatomical parts of the middle ear – the epitympanic, posterior mesotympanic, and hypotympanic structures – were more visible through an endoscope than through a microscope. In addition, the various segments of the mesotympanum, oval window, round window, and Eustachian tube were more visible via endoscopy. The post-operative endoscopic reevaluation of the middle ear revealed that a cholesteatoma had remained in four of 13 patients after surgery. Conclusion According to the results of this study, in cases in which there is poor visibility with the operating microscope or the surgeon suspects remaining disease within the middle ear, endoscopy could be utilized to improve the evaluation of more hidden middle ear pits and structures, particularly if there is a potentially recrudescent pathology. PMID:26167935

  5. Chronic Stress is Prospectively Associated with Sleep in Midlife Women: The SWAN Sleep Study

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Martica H.; Casement, Melynda D.; Troxel, Wendy M.; Matthews, Karen A.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Krafty, Robert T.; Buysse, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Evaluate whether levels of upsetting life events measured over a 9-y period prospectively predict subjective and objective sleep outcomes in midlife women. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Four sites across the United States. Participants: 330 women (46–57 y of age) enrolled in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Upsetting life events were assessed annually for up to 9 y. Trajectory analysis applied to life events data quantitatively identified three distinct chronic stress groups: low stress, moderate stress, and high stress. Sleep was assessed by self-report and in-home polysomnography (PSG) during the ninth year of the study. Multivariate analyses tested the prospective association between chronic stress group and sleep, adjusting for race, baseline sleep complaints, marital status, body mass index, symptoms of depression, and acute life events at the time of the Sleep Study. Women characterized by high chronic stress had lower subjective sleep quality, were more likely to report insomnia, and exhibited increased PSG-assessed wake after sleep onset (WASO) relative to women with low to moderate chronic stress profiles. The effect of chronic stress group on WASO persisted in the subsample of participants without baseline sleep complaints. Conclusions: Chronic stress is prospectively associated with sleep disturbance in midlife women, even after adjusting for acute stressors at the time of the sleep study and other factors known to disrupt sleep. These results are consistent with current models of stress that emphasize the cumulative effect of stressors on health over time. Citation: Hall MH, Casement MD, Troxel WM, Matthews KA, Bromberger JT, Kravitz HM, Krafty RT, Buysse DJ. Chronic stress is prospectively associated with sleep in midlife women: the SWAN Sleep Study. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1645–1654. PMID:26039965

  6. Cerebral venous thrombosis associated with homozygous factor V Leiden mutation in a 15-year-old girl of Tunisian origin.

    PubMed

    Salem-Berrabah, Olfa Ben; Fekih-Mrissa, Nejiba; Laayouni, Samy; Gritli, Nasreddine; Mrissa, Ridha

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare disease. It has numerous and complex etiologies. Inherited or acquired prothrombotic states play a key role in the development of this disease, such as factor V G1691A mutation (FV Leiden). A 15-year-old girl presented to the Department of Neurology with a complaint of severe headache with visual blurring. The diagnosis of CVT was not initially suspected because of the patient's condition on presentation. An MRI showed thrombosis in the superior sagittal sinus, confirming venous stroke. Anticardiolipin and antiphospholipid antibodies were assessed. In addition, inherited prothrombotic defects, such as protein C, protein S, and antithrombin deficiencies, and genetic mutations for FV Leiden, prothrombin gene G20210A (FII G20210A), and methyltetrahydrofolate reductase C677T (MTHFR C677T) were studied. All results were unremarkable except for the unique homozygous FV Leiden mutation, which likely contributed to this prothrombotic situation. This study highlights the fact that FV Leiden may play a significant role in the onset of CVT in young patients. PMID:22048515

  7. Scoliosis screening results of primary school students (11-15 years old group) in the west side of Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Çolak, Tuğba Kuru; Apti, Adnan; Dereli, E Elçin; Özdinçler, Arzu Razak; Çolak, İlker

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to find out the scoliosis prevalence 11-15 years old children and to create awareness about scoliosis. [Subjects and Methods] All of the children were assessed using the Adams Forward Bendings Test and a scoliometer. Sagittal plane changes such as kyphosis, lordosis, hypokyphosis, hypolordosis and anterior head tilt were screened. Children with trunk rotation angles (ATR) of 4 degrees or more were suspected of having scoliosis, and were evaluated for a second time for gibbosity height, arm-trunk distance, and ATR. [Results] A total of 2,207 children were screened and the evaluation revealed there were 11 girls (0.49%) with a Cobb angle of 10 degrees and more. The maximum Cobb angle was 43° (right thoracic-left lumbar) and the maximum ATR was 12°. Two children had kyphosis and lordosis, and one had hypokyphosis and was diagnosed as having idiopathic scoliosis. [Conclusion] Families should regularly check their children, even if they are not diagnosed as having scoliosis in school screenings. It is our opinion that our study increased the awareness of the families about scoliosis by screening, brochures and posters. In the future, if school screenings were performed as a routine procedure and scoliotic students were followed over the long term, the actual effectiveness of screening would be able to be detected. PMID:26504296

  8. Dental plaque, caries prevalence and gingival conditions of 14-15-year-old schoolchildren in Jerash District, Jordan.

    PubMed

    El-Qaderi, S S; Quteish Ta'ani, D

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate oral hygiene, gingival condition and dental caries prevalence in 14-15-year-old school children in Jerash District, Northern Jordan. Twenty schools (10 male and 10 female schools) with 1362 children of eighth and ninth grades were randomly selected and incorporated in this study. All participants had dental examinations for oral hygiene, gingival condition and dental caries experience using the Silness and Löe Plaque Index (PI), Löe and Silness Gingival Index (GI), and decayed (D), missing (M) and filled (F) teeth (DMFT) and surface (DMFS) codes respectively. The results showed that males had significant lower plaque but significantly higher gingival scores than females (P < 0.001). About 24% of children were caries-free. The proportions of children with one, two or three decayed teeth were between 10% and 18%. Slight non-significant variations between males and females were observed in regard to DMFT/S and their components (P < 0.05). It is concluded that significant gender variations were noted in PI and GI scores but not in DMFT/S or their components. However, the values of these clinical scores were lower than those results previously reported in northern Jordan. PMID:16958744

  9. Multi-Directional Sprinting and Acceleration Phase in Basketball and Handball Players Aged 14 and 15 Years.

    PubMed

    Popowczak, Marek; Rokita, Andrzej; Struzik, Artur; Cichy, Ireneusz; Dudkowski, Andrzej; Chmura, Paweł

    2016-10-01

    An important role in handball and basketball is played by ability to accelerate and ability to repeat multiple sprints. The aim of the study was to assess level of ability in multi-directional sprinting and running time over the first 5 m of the 30 m sprint in 93 basketball and handball players (46 boys and 47 girls) aged 14 to 15 years. The attempts were also made to find the relationships between the time of a 5-m run to evaluate initial acceleration phase and multi-directional sprinting evaluated using Five-Time Shuttle Run To Gates Test Statistical analysis revealed no important differences in times of 5-m runs and times of multi-directional sprinting between groups with different ages, genders, and sports specialties. Furthermore, no significant correlations were found based on Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between times of 5-m run and multi-directional sprinting in the most of subgroups studied. PMID:27565172

  10. Scoliosis screening results of primary school students (11–15 years old group) in the west side of Istanbul

    PubMed Central

    Çolak, Tuğba Kuru; Apti, Adnan; Dereli, E.Elçin; Özdinçler, Arzu Razak; Çolak, İlker

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to find out the scoliosis prevalence 11–15 years old children and to create awareness about scoliosis. [Subjects and Methods] All of the children were assessed using the Adams Forward Bendings Test and a scoliometer. Sagittal plane changes such as kyphosis, lordosis, hypokyphosis, hypolordosis and anterior head tilt were screened. Children with trunk rotation angles (ATR) of 4 degrees or more were suspected of having scoliosis, and were evaluated for a second time for gibbosity height, arm-trunk distance, and ATR. [Results] A total of 2,207 children were screened and the evaluation revealed there were 11 girls (0.49%) with a Cobb angle of 10 degrees and more. The maximum Cobb angle was 43° (right thoracic-left lumbar) and the maximum ATR was 12°. Two children had kyphosis and lordosis, and one had hypokyphosis and was diagnosed as having idiopathic scoliosis. [Conclusion] Families should regularly check their children, even if they are not diagnosed as having scoliosis in school screenings. It is our opinion that our study increased the awareness of the families about scoliosis by screening, brochures and posters. In the future, if school screenings were performed as a routine procedure and scoliotic students were followed over the long term, the actual effectiveness of screening would be able to be detected. PMID:26504296

  11. Lessons learnt from the 15 years experience of the French case in the field of HLLL waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ouzounian, G.

    2007-07-01

    Year 2006 has been marked in France by the vote in the Parliament of the Planning Act of 28 June, 2006, concerning the sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste. This vote was the achievement of a 15 years research programme performed as required by the previous Research Law of 1991, also known as the Bataille Law, from the name of Christian Bataille, MP, who drafted it and monitored its enforcement as a member of the Parliamentary Office for Scientific and Technological Assessment (Office Parlementaire d'Evaluation des Choix Scientifiques et Techniques - OPECST). At that time a stepwise approach to siting was introduced in the process. It included the study of several alternatives to the geological disposal of long lived high level radioactive waste. Those alternatives have been thoroughly studied and assessed before the Government decided to submit the bill to the Parliament. Experience has been gained not only on the scientific and technical aspects, but also in the field of decision making process, also called now governance. However, not only the results of the research programme were decisive in preparing the bill, but also of major importance were the industrial experience of ANDRA and the rigorous programme management along all those years. Main lessons learnt from the experience are given in this paper. (authors)

  12. Does Attention Constrain Developmental Trajectories in Fragile X Syndrome? A 3-Year Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornish, Kim; Cole, Victoria; Longhi, Elena; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Scerif, Gaia

    2012-01-01

    Basic attentional processes and their impact on developmental trajectories in fragile X syndrome were assessed in a 3-year prospective study. Although fragile X syndrome is a monogenic X-linked disorder, there is striking variability in outcomes even in young boys with the condition. Attention is a key factor constraining interactions with the…

  13. Predicting Changes in Eating Disorder Symptoms among Adolescents in China: An 18-Month Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2008-01-01

    This 18-month prospective study investigated factors that contributed to changes in eating disorder symptoms among adolescents living in the People's Republic of China. Five hundred forty-one Chinese middle school and high school students (182 boys, 359 girls) completed measures of eating disorder symptoms; body dissatisfaction; appearance ideal…

  14. How Can Perceived Autonomy Support Influence Enrollment in Elective Physical Education? A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    This prospective study was designed to investigate the influence of high students' perceived teacher autonomy support in mandatory physical education on their intention and actual enrollment in elective physical education. Participants included 545 ninth-grade students enrolled in three suburban high schools in a major midwestern metropolitan…

  15. Clinical Observed Performance Evaluation: A Prospective Study in Final Year Students of Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markey, G. C.; Browne, K.; Hunter, K.; Hill, A. D.

    2011-01-01

    We report a prospective study of clinical observed performance evaluation (COPE) for 197 medical students in the pre-qualification year of clinical education. Psychometric quality was the main endpoint. Students were assessed in groups of 5 in 40-min patient encounters, with each student the focus of evaluation for 8 min. Each student had a series…

  16. PROSPECTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH WASTEWATER UTILIZATION IN AGRICULTURE (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prospective epidemiological morbidity and serology study was carried out in Israel in 1980/82 on the association between enteric disease incidence and wastewater utilization in 29 kibbutzim. Analysis of morbidity data indicate that no significant excess of enteric disease episo...

  17. The "Prospects" Study of Educational Growth and Opportunity: Implications for Policy and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael J.

    This paper examines results from the Prospects study--a research agenda that explored the federal Title I program's impact on the academic and socio-emotional development of disadvantaged children. The document focuses on the program's strengths and limitations, offering a brief review of educational research and highlighting what may or may not…

  18. Mediating Mechanisms for the Intergenerational Transmission of Constructive Parenting: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zeng-yin; Liu, Ruth X.; Kaplan, Howard B.

    2008-01-01

    Based on a prospective longitudinal panel data set that was collected at three developmental stages--early adolescence, young adulthood, and middle adulthood--this study investigates marital satisfaction and educational attainment as mediating mechanisms as well as gender's moderating effect for the intergenerational transmission of constructive…

  19. Father Locus of Control and Child Emotional and Behavioral Outcomes: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tone, Erin B.; Goodfellow, Stephanie; Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In a prospective longitudinal study the authors examined the associations between parent locus of control of reinforcement (LOCR), measured before the birth of a child, and behavioral-emotional outcomes in that child at age 7 years. A total of 307 couples completed questionnaires regarding their emotional status and LOCR at their first prenatal…

  20. Keeping Friends Safe: A Prospective Study Examining Early Adolescent's Confidence and Support Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, L.; Chapman, R. L.; Sheehan, M.; Cunningham, L.

    2012-01-01

    There is a continued need to consider ways to prevent early adolescent engagement in a variety of harmful risk-taking behaviours for example, violence, road-related risks and alcohol use. The current prospective study examined adolescents' reports of intervening to try and stop friends' engagement in such behaviours among 207 early adolescents…

  1. Beliefs of Applied Studio Faculty on Desirable Traits of Prospective Music Education Majors: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royston, Natalie Steele; Springer, D. Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the beliefs of applied music faculty on desirable traits of prospective music education majors. Researcher-designed surveys were sent electronically to applied music faculty at 12 National Association of Schools of Music-accredited institutions randomly selected from each of the four major divisions…

  2. A Prospective Longitudinal Study of High School Dropouts: Examining Multiple Predictors across Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimerson, Shane; Egeland, Byron; Sroufe, L. Alan; Carlson, Betty

    2000-01-01

    Utilizes data from a prospective longitudinal study of at-risk children to explore multiple predictors of high school dropouts across development. Results reveal association of early home environment, quality of early caregiving, socioeconomic status, IQ, behavior problems, academic achievement, peer relations, and parent involvement with dropping…

  3. A One Year Prospective Study of Neurogenic Stuttering Following Stroke: Incidence and Co-Occurring Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theys, C.; van Wieringen, A.; Sunaert, S.; Thijs, V.; De Nil, L. F.

    2011-01-01

    In this prospective study, data on incidence, stuttering characteristics, co-occurring speech disorders, and recovery of neurogenic stuttering in a large sample of stroke participants were assessed. Following stroke onset, 17 of 319 participants (5.3%; 95% CI, 3.2-8.3) met the criteria for neurogenic stuttering. Stuttering persisted in at least…

  4. Prospective Predictors of Body Dissatisfaction in Adolescent Girls and Boys: A Five-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Susan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated prospective risk factors for increases in body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls and boys in the Eating Among Teens Project. At the time of first assessment (Time 1), participants were a cohort of early adolescent girls (N = 440) and boys (N = 366) and a cohort of middle adolescent girls (N = 946) and boys (N = 764).…

  5. A prospective study of marine phytoplankton and reported illness among recreational beachgoers in Puerto Rico, 2009

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Blooms of marine phytoplankton may adversely affect human health. The potential public health impact of low-level exposures is not well established, and few prospective cohort studies of recreational exposures to marine phytoplankton have been conducted.OBJECTIVE: We ...

  6. A Study of Prospective Turkish Science Teachers' Knowledge at the Popular Biotechnological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darcin, Emine Selcen; Turkmen, Lutfullah

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge level of popular biotechnological issues of prospective Turkish science teachers. A questionnaire was administered during 2005-2006 academic year to 194 students in the Department of Science Education of a university in Turkey. The questionnaire covered six biotechnological issues such as…

  7. How Can We Get the Information about Democracy? The Example of Social Studies Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonga, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    In this research, the information about democracy, which social studies prospective teachers have, and interpretation of the information sources are aimed. The research was planned as a survey research methodology and the participants were determined with criterion sampling method. The data were collected through developed open-ended questions…

  8. A Prospective Study of Mexican American Adolescents' Academic Success: Considering Family and Individual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roosa, Mark W.; O'Donnell, Megan; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Zeiders, Katherine H.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Mexican American youth are at greater risk of school failure than their peers. To identify factors that may contribute to academic success in this population, this study examined the prospective relationships from 5th grade to 7th grade of family (i.e., human capital [a parent with at least a high school education], residential stability,…

  9. Rumination and Depression in Adolescence: Investigating Symptom Specificity in a Multiwave Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2008-01-01

    A ruminative response style has been shown to predict depressive symptoms among youth and adults, but it is unclear whether rumination is associated specifically with depression compared with co-occurring symptoms of anxiety and externalizing behaviors. This prospective, multiwave study investigated whether baseline rumination predicted…

  10. The Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes of Prospective Teachers: A Quantitative and Heuristic Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Rotha M.

    2012-01-01

    Moule (2005) suggest diverse students suffer isolation, invisibility and inappropriate labeling in many educational institutions. This mixed method study explores the multicultural awareness, knowledge, skills, and attitudes of prospective teachers. The research questions are: (1) what are the multicultural awareness, knowledge, skills and…

  11. A Prospective Study of Risk Factors for the Development of Depression and Disordered Eating in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that females display higher levels of depressive symptoms and disordered eating than males from adolescence onward. This study examined whether different risk factors and their interaction with sex (moderator effect) prospectively predicted depressive symptoms and disordered eating in adolescents. A total of 415 female…

  12. The Interpersonal Antecedents of Supportive Parenting: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study from Infancy to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, K. Lee; Lawler, Jamie M.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Hesemeyer, Paloma S.; Collins, W. Andrew; Sroufe, L. Alan

    2015-01-01

    This study drew on prospective, longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that the intergenerational transmission of positive parenting is mediated by competence in subsequent relationships with peers and romantic partners. Interview-based ratings of supportive parenting were completed with a sample of 113 individuals (46% male) followed from birth…

  13. The Effects of Divorce and Parental Conflict on Children's Adjustment: A Prospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Daniel

    Replicating the methodology used by Block, Block, and Gjerde (1986), a prospective, longitudinal examination was made of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Data from the New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS), originally collected by Thomas, Chess, and Birch (1963, 1968, 1977, 1983, 1984) was analyzed. The NYLS assessed children's…

  14. The Short-Term Impact of Involuntary Migration in China's Three Gorges: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Sean-Shong; Cao, Yue; Xi, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the short-term impact of involuntary migration resulting from China's Three Gorges Dam project on the 1.3 million persons being displaced. We focus on the social, economic, and mental and physical health impact using three sets of indicators. Using a prospective research design, we gathered information about…

  15. Sociocultural and Individual Psychological Predictors of Body Image in Young Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Levina; Tiggemann, Marika

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective predictors of body image in 9- to 12-year-old girls. Participants were 150 girls in Grades 4-6 with a mean age of 10.3 years. Girls completed questionnaire measures of media and peer influences (television/magazine exposure, peer appearance conversations), individual psychological variables (appearance…

  16. Predictors and Health-Related Outcomes of Positive Body Image in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential…

  17. Predicting Dyslexia in a Transparent Orthography from Grade 1 Literacy Skills: A Prospective Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Pinto, Giuliana; Accorti Gamannossi, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this prospective cohort study to explore the predictability of dyslexia from 1st-grade literacy skills in Italian students. We followed 407 Italian students in primary school from the 1st through the 3rd grades. Students were diagnosed with dyslexia in the 3rd grade. We retrospectively tested participants' 1st-grade performance in…

  18. Risk and Protective Factors Predictive of Adolescent Pregnancy: A Longitudinal, Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Patricia L.; Khoo, Siek Toon; Reyes, Barbara T.

    2006-01-01

    One hundred twenty-eight Latina and African American girls from high-risk environments (e.g., poverty, family history of teen parenting, etc.) were studied from age 13 through age 19 to prospectively identify the protective factors that might guard against teenage pregnancy. Results indicated that involved and strict parenting during early…

  19. Cognitive Coping Strategies and Stress in Parents of Children with Down Syndrome: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Veek, Shelley M. C.; Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the cross-sectional and prospective relationships between cognitive coping strategies and parental stress in parents of children with Down syndrome. A total of 621 participants filled out questionnaires, including the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire to measure cognitive coping and the Nijmeegse…

  20. Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Depression, Psychological Well-Being and Feeling of Guilt in 7 - 15 Years Old Diabetic Children

    PubMed Central

    Ataie Moghanloo, Vahid; Ataie Moghanloo, Roghayyeh; Moazezi, Mousa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes imposes restrictions on physical, emotional, and social functioning of children and adolescents. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for depression, psychological well-being and feeling of guilt in 7 - 15 years old diabetic children. Patients and Methods: This was a clinical trial with pre-test and post-test design with control group. The study population consisted of 34 participants selected using convenient sampling out of all 7 - 15 years old patients that referred to the Diabetes Association of Tabriz. They were randomly allocated into two equal groups (experimental and control). The experimental group participated in therapy sessions and the control group did not receive any intervention. The research instruments were reynolds child depression scale (RCDS), eysenck feelings of guilt scale and satisfaction with life scale (SWLS). Results: Multivariate covariance analysis (MANCOVA) showed that the treatment was effective on variables of depression, psychological well-being and feeling guilty in 7 - 15 years old diabetic children (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The aforementioned treatment is effective and suggested to be used in other psychosomatic diseases of children. PMID:26396702

  1. Tobacco use among students aged 13–15 years in Greece: the GYTS project

    PubMed Central

    Kyrlesi, Athina; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Warren, Charles W; Kremastinou, Jeni; Papastergiou, Panagiotis; Jones, Nathan R; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2007-01-01

    Background Data on the prevalence of tobacco use among teenagers in Greece are limited. We examined the prevalence of smoking among middle-school students in Greece using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Methods The Global Youth Tobacco Survey was implemented in Greece during the academic year 2004 – 2005 by the University of Thessaly and the National School of Public Health. Data were collected using the GYTS self-administered anonymous questionnaire, which was distributed by specifically trained field workers to a nationally representative sample of middle-school students aged 13–15 years (through randomly selected schools and classes), randomly selected through a two-stage cluster sample design. Data processing and statistical analyses were performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Results About one third of the students 32.1% (29.4 – 35.0) reported that they had tried tobacco in the past, while 16.2% (14.3 – 18.4) reported being current users of tobacco products. In addition, 1 in 4 of ever smokers reported that they began smoking before the age of 10 years old. Almost 1 in 5 never smokers reported being susceptible to initiate smoking in the next year and about 89.8% (88.3 – 91.1) of the respondents were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke in their homes and 94.1% (93.2 – 94.9) in public places. Finally, a strikingly high number of students 95% (89.5 – 97.7) reported that they were able to buy their own cigarettes without restrictions. Conclusion The results of the GYTS show that the prevalence of smoking in middle-school children is alarmingly high in Greece. Smoking among young people constitutes a significant problem that is destined to worsen in the absence of any comprehensive efforts focused on strict anti-smoking legislation, policies and tobacco control interventions targeting children at a young age. PMID:17207291

  2. Sea Ice Monitoring Using Quikscat & Ascat Scatterometers during the Last 15-Year Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard-Ardhuin, F.

    2014-12-01

    Microwave sensors onboard polar orbit satellites are commonly used for sea ice monitoring at high latitude : radiometers are routinely used for this application and scatterometers have also shown they can contribute significantly to it. Since 1991, numerous scatterometers data at C and Ku-bands are available since ERS-1 with NSCAT, QuikSCAT, OSCAT, HY, and ASCAT sensors. In this presentation, we will show how the recent QuikSCAT and ASCAT sensors could be used to build 15-year observation data time series for sea ice monitoring for both Arctic and Antarctic areas. Backscatter data enable to discriminate sea ice from open ocean areas, in particular scatterometers are useful to detect new ice, even at the early stage of growth which is not possible using radiometers. Backscatter data from scatterometer can also be used for sea ice type detection (first year from multi-year sea ice in the Arctic), results and differences between C-band and Ku-band sensors results will be presented. Moreover, sea ice displacement maps can be built in central Arctic from backscatter data, examples will be shown using the merging of scatterometer and radiometer data. We will see in this presentation that Antarctic sea ice displacement maps can also be inferred. From these displacement maps, mean sea surface currents can be estimated. In this presentation we will also focus on the benefit of the use of the two ASCAT sensors that are presently available (onboard MetOp-A -since 2007 and -B, since 2012), in particular for the Antarctic area. This presentation will enhance i) the need of scatterometer data for sea ice application with many examples of the inferred parameters in particular from the U.S. QuikSCAT/SeaWinds and the E.U. MetOp/ASCATs scatterometers ii) the need of the continuity of scatterometers missions and iii) the benefit of the combination of sensors and datasets (scatterometers, scatterometers with radiometers) for a long-term observation of the polar areas. These data are

  3. Sudden, unexpected death of a 15-year-old boy due to pancarditis

    PubMed Central

    Osculati, Antonio; Visonà, Silvia Damiana; Ventura, Francesco; Castelli, Francesca; Andrello, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Generally, rheumatic heart disease is, today, sporadic in developed countries, even though it continues to be a major health hazard in the developing ones. It is also a very rare cause of sudden unexpected death. We report a case of a 15-year-old boy who suddenly died at home. Since 3 days he had presented fever and chest pain. The family physician had diagnosed bronchitis and treated the boy with amoxicillin. Methods: Seven hours after death, a forensic autopsy were performed . Before the autopsy, anamnesis and some circumstantial data were collected from the boy's parents. During the autopsy, samples for histological, toxicological and molecular examinations were collected. The samples for the histology (brain, hypophysis, heart and pericardium, lungs, spleen, liver, kidney, adrenal glands) were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded. Each section was stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin. Immunostaining was also performed, with anti-CD 68, anti-CD3, anti-CD 20, anti-myeloperoxidase. Microbiological cultures were performed on cardiac blood, myocardium, pericardial effusion and cerebrospinal fluid samples collected during autopsy. Blood specimens were also processed through PCR, in order to reveal the presence of Enteroviruses, Chickenpox virus, Epstein Barr virus. Also chemical-toxicological examinations for the detection of the main medications and drugs were performed on blood samples. Results: The anamnesis, collected before the autopsy, revealed an acute pharyngitis few weeks before. The autopsy, and the following histological and immunochemical examinations suggested an immunological etiology. The immunohistochemistry, showing a strong positivity of antiCD68 antibodies, integrated with clinical-anamnestic information, leads to hypothesize a rheumatic carditis. Conclusion: In light of this case, at least 3 main messages of great importance for the clinician can be deduced. First, an accurate anamnesis collected by the family physician could have

  4. Psychopathology and attrition in the Baltimore ECA 15-year follow-up 1981-1996.

    PubMed

    Badawi, M A; Eaton, W W; Myllyluoma, J; Weimer, L G; Gallo, J

    1999-02-01

    Predictors of non-response were investigated in a 15-year follow-up (1981-1996) of 3,481 individuals in a probability sample from the household population of East Baltimore. Demographics (age, sex, race, education, marital status, and unemployment), household factors (living arrangements, household income, household size, and number of children), cultural variables (ancestral ethnicity and foreign language), social variables (social support and networks, committing felony, carrying a weapon, using an alias, and wandering), health factors (physical illness, health insurance, medical assistance, Medicare, receiving disability benefits, social security, and welfare), interviewer's observation, and psychopathologic variables (mental disorders, suicide behavior, comorbidity, and drug use) were collected at baseline in 1981 and in 1982, then linked to follow-up data between 1993 and 1996. A tracing process involving mail, phone, criss-cross directories, motor vehicle administration records, a commercial credit bureau, the state criminal justice system, hospital records, the US National Death Index, and field tracing were used to locate the original sample. A total of 3,066 respondents of the original sample (88.1%) were traced. Non-response was categorized into Sample Mortality (that part of the original sample that died during follow-up), Sample Loss (that part of the original sample that survived but could not be found) and Refusal (that part of the original sample that survived and was found but refused to participate). Stratified analysis and adjusted multiple logistic regression modeling found sample mortality and sample loss were strongly influenced by individual and household variables and by psychopathology. Sample mortality was influenced by specific mental disorders or conditions as mania, drug abuse/dependency, antisocial personality, cognitive impairment, alcohol abuse/dependency, phobia, drug use (except PCP), and comorbidity. Household factors protective

  5. Procedures for assessing psychological predictors of injuries in circus artists: a pilot prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Research on psychological risk factors for injury has focused on stable traits. Our objective was to test the feasibility of a prospective longitudinal study designed to examine labile psychological states as risk factors of injury. Methods We measured psychological traits at baseline (mood, ways of coping and anxiety), and psychological states every day (1-item questions on anxiety, sleep, fatigue, soreness, self-confidence) before performances in Cirque du Soleil artists of the show “O”. Additional questions were added once per week to better assess anxiety (20-item) and mood. Questionnaires were provided in English, French, Russian and Japanese. Injury and exposure data were extracted from electronic records that are kept as part of routine business practices. Results The 43.9% (36/82) recruitment rate was more than expected. Most artists completed the baseline questionnaires in 15 min, a weekly questionnaire in <2 min and a daily questionnaire in <1 min. We improved the formatting of some questions during the study, and adapted the wording of other questions to improve clarity. There were no dropouts during the entire study, suggesting the questionnaires were appropriate in content and length. Results for sample size calculations depend on the number of artists followed and the minimal important difference in injury rates, but in general, preclude a purely prospective study with daily data collection because of the long follow-up required. However, a prospective nested case-crossover design with data collection bi-weekly and at the time of injury appears feasible. Conclusion A prospective study collecting psychological state data from subjects who train and work regularly together is feasible, but sample size calculations suggest that the optimal study design would use prospective nested case-crossover methodology. PMID:24920527

  6. Retrospect and Prospect of Studies of Teacher Efficacy in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Ning; Miao, Danmin

    2006-01-01

    Teacher efficacy is a powerful variable in educational and psychological studies. And it aroused much attention and interest from Chinese scholars in the past decade, which led to an accumulation of documents in this field. Following an introduction of efficacy studies in the west, the article reviews the brief history of those in China,…

  7. CHLORINE DIOXIDE WATER DISINFECTION: A PROSPECTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An epidemiologic study of 198 persons exposed for 3 months to drinking water disinfected with chlorine dioxide was conducted in a rural village. A control population of 118 nonexposed persons was also studied. Pre-exposure hematologic and serum chemical parameters were compared w...

  8. Antecedents of Aggression and Peer Victimization: A Prospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, David

    As part of a longitudinal study of children's social development, this study explored preschool home environments of elementary school children who were persistently bullied and victimized by their peers. Subjects included approximately 200 children randomly sampled from predominantly lower and middle socioeconomic populations. One-fourth of the…

  9. A Case Study: Employment Prospects for Female Technology Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Dewayne L.

    1978-01-01

    Findings from a three-year study to determine the ratio of male and female graduates employed in industrial-related jobs after completing industrial technology programs at Black Hawk College, Moline, Illinois, show no significant difference in the employability rate. Several factors may limit the study validity. (MF)

  10. Prospects and pitfalls in whole genome association studies

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Robert W; Evans, David M; Cardon, Lon R

    2005-01-01

    Recent large-scale studies of common genetic variation throughout the human genome are making it feasible to conduct whole genome studies of genotype–phenotype associations. Such studies have the potential to uncover novel contributors to common complex traits and thus lead to insights into the aetiology of multifactorial phenotypes. Despite this promise, it is important to recognize that the availability of genetic markers and the ability to assay them at realistic cost does not guarantee success of this approach. There are a number of practical issues that require close attention, some forms of allelic architecture are not readily amenable to the association approach with even the most rigorous design, and doubtless new hurdles will emerge as the studies begin. Here we discuss the promise and current challenges of the whole genome approach, and raise some issues to consider in interpreting the results of the first whole genome studies. PMID:16096108

  11. Clinical features and predictors for disease natural progression in adults with Pompe disease: a nationwide prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Due partly to physicians’ unawareness, many adults with Pompe disease are diagnosed with great delay. Besides, it is not well known which factors influence the rate of disease progression, and thus disease outcome. We delineated the specific clinical features of Pompe disease in adults, and mapped out the distribution and severity of muscle weakness, and the sequence of involvement of the individual muscle groups. Furthermore, we defined the natural disease course and identified prognostic factors for disease progression. Methods We conducted a single-center, prospective, observational study. Muscle strength (manual muscle testing, and hand-held dynamometry), muscle function (quick motor function test), and pulmonary function (forced vital capacity in sitting and supine positions) were assessed every 3–6 months and analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. Results Between October 2004 and August 2009, 94 patients aged between 25 and 75 years were included in the study. Although skeletal muscle weakness was typically distributed in a limb-girdle pattern, many patients had unfamiliar features such as ptosis (23%), bulbar weakness (28%), and scapular winging (33%). During follow-up (average 1.6 years, range 0.5-4.2 years), skeletal muscle strength deteriorated significantly (mean declines of −1.3% point/year for manual muscle testing and of −2.6% points/year for hand-held dynamometry; both p<0.001). Longer disease duration (>15 years) and pulmonary involvement (forced vital capacity in sitting position <80%) at study entry predicted faster decline. On average, forced vital capacity in supine position deteriorated by 1.3% points per year (p=0.02). Decline in pulmonary function was consistent across subgroups. Ten percent of patients declined unexpectedly fast. Conclusions Recognizing patterns of common and less familiar characteristics in adults with Pompe disease facilitates timely diagnosis. Longer disease duration and reduced pulmonary function

  12. Effects of Aversive Stimuli on Prospective Memory. An Event-Related fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Massimiliano; Kullmann, Stephanie; Veit, Ralf; Casile, Antonino; Braun, Christoph; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Birbaumer, Niels; Caria, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) describes the ability to execute a previously planned action at the appropriate point in time. Although behavioral studies clearly showed that prospective memory performance is affected by the emotional significance attributed to the intended action, no study so far investigated the brain mechanisms subserving the modulatory effect of emotional salience on PM performance. The general aim of the present study was to explore brain regions involved in prospective memory processes when PM cues are associated with emotional stimuli. In particular, based on the hypothesised critical role of the prefrontal cortex in prospective memory in the presence of emotionally salient stimuli, we expected a stronger involvement of aPFC when the retrieval and execution of the intended action is cued by an aversive stimulus. To this aim BOLD responses of PM trials cued by aversive facial expressions were compared to PM trials cued by neutral facial expressions. Whole brain analysis showed that PM task cued by aversive stimuli is differentially associated with activity in the right lateral prefrontal area (BA 10) and in the left caudate nucleus. Moreover a temporal shift between the response of the caudate nucleus that preceded that of aPFC was observed. These findings suggest that the caudate nucleus might provide an early analysis of the affective properties of the stimuli, whereas the anterior lateral prefrontal cortex (BA10) would be involved in a slower and more deliberative analysis to guide goal-directed behaviour. PMID:22022589

  13. Farm machinery injuries: the 15-year experience at an urban joint trauma center system in a rural state.

    PubMed

    Jawa, Randeep S; Young, David H; Stothert, Joseph C; Yetter, Diane; Dumond, Robbie; Shostrom, Valerie K; Cemaj, Samuel; Rautiainen, Risto H; Mercer, David W

    2013-01-01

    Farm machinery is a major source of injury. The objective of this study is to characterize the incidence, injury characteristics, and outcomes of patients admitted with farm machinery injuries (FMIs) to an urban joint trauma system in a rural state. A retrospective 15-year review of the trauma registries of the two trauma centers that function as a single state-designated Level I joint trauma center system was conducted. There were 65 admissions for FMIs at hospital A and 41 at hospital B; this represents under 0.4% of total trauma admissions. The patients ranged in age from 2 to 87 years. At hospital A, 89% of admitted patients sustained extremity injuries, 16% sustained torso trauma, 92% required surgical intervention, and the mortality rate was 0%. At hospital B, 60% of admitted patients sustained extremity injuries, 36.6% of patients sustained torso trauma, 63% required surgical intervention, and the mortality rate was 14.6%. Tractor-related injuries were responsible for 17% of admissions at hospital A and 69% at hospital B. Of the six fatalities, five were tractor related. The data demonstrate that FMIs affect people in nearly all decades of life. FMIs at the two hospitals had differing injury characteristics and outcomes, in large part secondary to the differing frequency of tractor-related injuries. FMIs frequently required surgical intervention. PMID:23540300

  14. Maturation and Diversity of the VRC01-Antibody Lineage over 15 Years of Chronic HIV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xueling; Zhang, Zhenhai; Schramm, Chaim A; Joyce, M Gordon; Kwon, Young Do; Zhou, Tongqing; Sheng, Zizhang; Zhang, Baoshan; O'Dell, Sijy; McKee, Krisha; Georgiev, Ivelin S; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Longo, Nancy S; Lynch, Rebecca M; Saunders, Kevin O; Soto, Cinque; Srivatsan, Sanjay; Yang, Yongping; Bailer, Robert T; Louder, Mark K; Mullikin, James C; Connors, Mark; Kwong, Peter D; Mascola, John R; Shapiro, Lawrence

    2015-04-23

    HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies develop in most HIV-1-infected individuals, although highly effective antibodies are generally observed only after years of chronic infection. Here, we characterize the rate of maturation and extent of diversity for the lineage that produced the broadly neutralizing antibody VRC01 through longitudinal sampling of peripheral B cell transcripts over 15 years and co-crystal structures of lineage members. Next-generation sequencing identified VRC01-lineage transcripts, which encompassed diverse antibodies organized into distinct phylogenetic clades. Prevalent clades maintained characteristic features of antigen recognition, though each evolved binding loops and disulfides that formed distinct recognition surfaces. Over the course of the study period, VRC01-lineage clades showed continuous evolution, with rates of ∼2 substitutions per 100 nucleotides per year, comparable to that of HIV-1 evolution. This high rate of antibody evolution provides a mechanism by which antibody lineages can achieve extraordinary diversity and, over years of chronic infection, develop effective HIV-1 neutralization. PMID:25865483

  15. The heritability of psychopathic personality in 14- to 15-year-old twins: a multirater, multimeasure approach.

    PubMed

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Bezdjian, Serena; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A

    2014-09-01

    Until now, no study has examined the genetic and environmental influences on psychopathic personality across different raters and method of assessment. Participants were part of a community sample of male and female twins born between 1990 and 1995. The Child Psychopathy Scale and the Antisocial Process Screening Device were administered to the twins and their parents when the twins were 14-15 years old. The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) was administered and scored by trained testers. Results showed that a 1-factor common pathway model was the best fit for the data. Genetic influences explained 69% of the variance in the latent psychopathic personality factor, while nonshared environmental influences explained 31%. Measurement-specific genetic effects accounted for between 9% and 35% of the total variance in each of the measures, except for PCL:YV, where all genetic influences were in common with the other measures. Measure-specific nonshared environmental influences were found for all measures, explaining between 17% and 56% of the variance. These findings provide further evidence of the heritability in psychopathic personality among adolescents, although these effects vary across the ways in which these traits are measured, in terms of both informant and instrument used. PMID:24796343

  16. Reaching for Objects or Asking for Them: Distance Estimation in 7- to 15-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Scorolli, Claudia; Daprati, Elena; Nico, Daniele; Borghi, Anna M

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine if, in children, subjective perception of space is modulated by the experience of reaching distal objects by means of tools and verbal labels. We presented 7-15-year-old participants with objects located in the near and far space, and in the threshold area between these spaces (border space). Before and after a training session, separate groups of participants estimated objects' location by providing a verbal estimation of their distance (n = 12) or by rolling a toy car to match their location (motor-based estimation; n = 16). The training session required interaction with the targets (i.e., actively experiencing the perceived distance) and included use of a rake or a linguistic label when far objects were involved. A control condition in which training implied use of a short, ineffective tool was also tested (n = 6). Results showed that verbal estimations were not affected by the training phase (p > .05). In contrast, training modulated motor-based estimations relative to border space. Specifically, maximal distance of toy car displacements was reduced following all kinds of training (p < .01). These results indicate that, similarly to adults, the boundary between near and far space is not fixed in children and that both active tool use and verbal labels can modulate this uncertain boundary. PMID:26313161

  17. The American Burn Association/Shriners Hospitals for Children Burn Outcomes Program: a progress report at 15 years.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Ronald G; Liang, Matthew H; Lee, Austin F; Kazis, Lewis E

    2012-09-01

    The American Burn Association and the Shriners Hospitals for Children Outcomes Program has been in development for more than 15 years. Many of the tools and important findings are described in this special issue of The Journal of Trauma. This unique program in outcomes research introduces a model for outcome assessments from the patient-centered perspective with a cohort of 1,140 children with burn injury after hospitalization for up to 4 years. The findings represent a fundamental contribution to the field of burn care for monitoring outcomes from the perspective of the parent or child/adolescent. The Multi-Center Benchmarking Study of four burn centers serve as a model for collecting empiric scientific data on the variation and the expected trajectories of recovery in the most important domains of patient outcomes and can inform clinical decisions and the conduct of health service research. The dramatic progress in survival of children with severe burn injury and other advances in burn management can now move into a new phase of understanding the most cost-effective components of this care. PMID:22929544

  18. The Heritability of Psychopathic Personality in 14 to 15 year Old Twins: A Multi-Rater, Multi-Measure Approach

    PubMed Central

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Bezdjian, Serena; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    No study has yet examined the genetic and environmental influences on psychopathic personality across different raters and method of assessment. Participants were part of a community sample of male and female twins born between 1990 and 1995. The Child Psychopathy Scale (CPS) and the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) were administered to the twins and their parents when the twins were 14 to 15 years old. The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) was administered and scored by trained testers. Results showed that a one-factor common pathway model was the best fit for the data. Genetic influences explained 69% of the variance in the latent psychopathic personality factor, while non-shared environmental influences explained 31%. Measurement-specific genetic effects accounted for between 9% and 35% of the total variance in each of the measures, except for PCL:YV where all genetic influences were in common with the other measures. Measure-specific non-shared environmental influences were found for all measures, explaining between 17% and 56% of the variance. These findings provide further evidence of the heritability in psychopathic personality among adolescents, although these effects vary across the way in which these traits are measured, in terms of both informant and instrument used. PMID:24796343

  19. Increased Incidence of Early Onset Colorectal Cancer in Arizona: A Comprehensive 15-year Analysis of the Arizona Cancer Registry

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Hassan; Pandit, Viraj; DiGiovanni, Ryan M.; Ohlson, Eric; Gruessner, Angelika C.; Jandova, Jana; Nfonsam, Valentine N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate and analyze the incidence of early-onset colorectal cancer in Arizona, using the Arizona Cancer Registry. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with colorectal cancer reported in the Arizona Cancer Registry from 1995-2010. Outcome measure: incidence of CRC in patients younger than 50 years. Results 39,623 cases of colorectal cancer were reported to the Arizona Cancer Registry during a period of 15 years. Overall, there was a 17% decrease in the incidence of CRC. However, there was a 23% increase in incidence among patients in the age group 10-50. During the same time period, 15% and 41% increase in the incidence of colon and rectal cancer was observed, respectively. The most significant increase (102%) in overall CRC incidence was seen in the age group 10-29. The highest increase (110%) in incidence of colon cancer was observed in the same age group, while the most significant increase in incidence rates (225%) of rectal cancer was seen in the age group 30-34. Conclusion Although there is an overall decrease in incidence of colorectal cancer in Arizona, alarming increase in incidence of early-onset CRC was observed; mirroring the national trends.

  20. Prostate cancer incidence in men with self-reported prostatitis after 15 years of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Vaarala, Markku H.; Mehik, Aare; Ohtonen, Pasi; Hellström, Pekka A.

    2016-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding a possible association between prostatitis and prostate cancer. To further evaluate the incidence of prostate cancer following prostatitis, a study of prostate cancer incidence in a cohort of Finnish men was performed. The original survey evaluating self-reported prostatitis was conducted in 1996–1997. A database review was conducted focusing on prostate cancer diagnoses in the cohort. In 2012, there were 13 (5.2%) and 27 (1.8%) prostate cancer cases among men with (n=251) and without (n=1,521) prostatitis symptoms, respectively. There were no significant differences in age, primary therapy distribution, prostate-specific antigen levels, Gleason score, clinical T-class at the time of prostate cancer diagnosis, or time lag between the original survey and prostate cancer diagnosis. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of prostate cancer was 1.16 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.62–1.99] and 0.44 (95% CI, 0.29–0.64) among men with and without prostatitis symptoms, respectively. After 15 years of follow-up subsequent to self-reported prostatitis, no evident increase in incidence of prostate cancer was detected among Finnish men with prostatitis symptoms. The higher percentage of prostate cancer among men with prostatitis symptoms appears to be due to coincidentally low SIR of prostate cancer among men without prostatitis symptoms, and may additionally be due to increased diagnostic examinations. Further research is required to confirm this speculation.

  1. Alumina on alumina versus metal on conventional polyethylene: a randomized clinical trial with 9 to 15 years follow-up.

    PubMed

    Vendittoli, Pascal-André; Rivière, Charles; Lavigne, Martin; Lavoie, Pauline; Alghamdi, Ahmed; Duval, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    We report the long-term results of a randomized clinical trial that compares, in total hip arthroplasty in a young population, metal-on-conventional polyethylene and alumina-on-alumina ceramic bearings. One hundred and forty hips in 116 patients were randomized. Re-operation, revision rate, clinical scores, and radiological signs of osteolysis and loosening were compared at average follow-up of 123 (9-15) years. At final FU, 107 hips were available for clinical evaluation. Eight (11.6%) revisions were performed in the polyethylene group versus 1 (1.4%) in the ceramic group (p = 0.017). All revisions in the polyethylene group were related to bearing wear: 4 for aseptic loosening with severe osteolysis, 1 for polyethylene induced compressive granulomatous tumor, and 3 for severe liner wear. The only revised case from the ceramic group was secondary to mechanical stem loosening. Mean annual polyethylene wear was 0.19mm/year; wear was not measurable in the ceramic group. Our study confirms, in the long-term, the superiority of ceramic-on-ceramic pairing in comparison to metal-on-conventional polyethylene and supports their use in young, active patients. PMID:23821970

  2. Mortality in Autism: A Prospective Longitudinal Community-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva; Sundh, Valter; Gillberg, I. Carina

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to establish the mortality rate in a representative group of individuals (n = 120) born in the years 1962-1984, diagnosed with autism/atypical autism in childhood and followed up at young adult age (greater than or equal to 18 years of age), and examine the risk factors and causes of death. The study group,…

  3. [Setting-up an epidemiological monitoring system of mortality by trauma in children under 15 years of age in metropolitan France].

    PubMed

    Lasbeur, L; Thélot, B

    2014-11-01

    In metropolitan France in 2009, trauma was the leading cause of death among children under 15 years of age: 459 deaths (source CépiDc), with 236 deaths by home and leisure injuries (HLI). These rough mortality data do not describe the circumstances of the trauma responsible for the death. The "Fatal home and leisure injury among children under 15 years old-MAC-15" feasibility study was set up in 2009 in France in the following regions: Île-de-France, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. The main objective of the survey was to understand exactly how these accidents occurred and determine their risk factors. Its secondary objectives were to test the feasibility and analyze the possibility of extending and/or scaling up the monitoring of these deaths. Case reporting was made through death certificates, contacts with regional health agencies, and media surveillance. A detailed record was completed by the medical certifier. In 2009, 76 HLI-related deaths in under 15-year-old children were identified by the survey in the three regions. The victims were mostly boys. The most common cause of death was drowning, followed by suffocation, falls, and fires. The survey contributed to precisely determining the risk factors of HLIs in children and, most often, to identifying the cause responsible for the fatal accident. The feasibility conclusions of this survey are positive, data collection is effective and practicable, and its quality and exhaustiveness were demonstrated. Implementation of the "detailed analyses of the deaths by trauma among children under 15 years old" survey is proposed. This survey will be extended to all deaths by trauma among children in Metropolitan France. PMID:25267189

  4. Prospects for the Study of Evolution in the Deep Biosphere

    PubMed Central

    Biddle, Jennifer F.; Sylvan, Jason B.; Brazelton, William J.; Tully, Benjamin J.; Edwards, Katrina J.; Moyer, Craig L.; Heidelberg, John F.; Nelson, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Since the days of Darwin, scientists have used the framework of the theory of evolution to explore the interconnectedness of life on Earth and adaptation of organisms to the ever-changing environment. The advent of molecular biology has advanced and accelerated the study of evolution by allowing direct examination of the genetic material that ultimately determines the phenotypes upon which selection acts. The study of evolution has been furthered through examination of microbial evolution, with large population numbers, short generation times, and easily extractable DNA. Such work has spawned the study of microbial biogeography, with the realization that concepts developed in population genetics may be applicable to microbial genomes (Martiny et al., 2006; Manhes and Velicer, 2011). Microbial biogeography and adaptation has been examined in many different environments. Here we argue that the deep biosphere is a unique environment for the study of evolution and list specific factors that can be considered and where the studies may be performed. This publication is the result of the NSF-funded Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) theme team on Evolution (www.darkenergybiosphere.org). PMID:22319515

  5. Prospects for HERMES-spin structure studies at HERA

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, H.E.

    1994-12-31

    HERMES (HERA Measurement of Spin), is a second generation experiment to study the spin structure of the nucleon by using polarized internal gas targets in the HERA 35-GeV electron storage ring. Scattered electrons and coincident hadrons will be detected in an open geometry spectrometer which will include particle identification. Measurements are planned for each of the inclusive structure functions, g{sub 1},(x), g{sub 2}(x), b{sub 1}(x) and A(x), as well as the study of semi-inclusive pion and kaon asymmetries. Targets of hydrogen, deuterium and {sup 3}He will be studied. The accuracy of data for the inclusive structure functions will equal or exceed that of current experiments. The semi-inclusive asymmetries will provide a unique and sensitive probe of the flavor dependence of quark helicity distributions and properties of the quark sea. Monte Carlo simulations of HERMES data for experiment asymmetries and polarized structure functions are discussed.

  6. Genomewide association studies: History, rationale and prospects for psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective We review the history and empirical basis of genomewide association studies (GWAS), the rationale for GWAS of psychiatric disorders, results to date, limitations, and plans for GWAS meta-analyses. Method Literature review, power analysis, discussion of issues and description of planned studies. Results Most of the genomic DNA sequence differences between any two people are common (frequency > 5%) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Because of localized patterns of correlation (linkage disequilibrium), 500,000-1,000,000 of these SNPs can test the hypothesis that one or more common variants explain part of the genetic risk for a disease. GWAS technologies can also detect some of the copy number variants (CNVs; deletions and duplications) in the genome. Systematic study of rare variants will require large-scale resequencing studies. GWAS methods have detected a remarkable number of robust genetic associations for dozens of common diseases and traits, leading to new pathophysiological hypotheses, although only small proportions of genetic variance have been explained so far, and therapeutic applications will require substantial further effort. Study design issues, power and limitations are discussed. For psychiatric disorders, there are initial significant findings for common SNPs and rare CNVs. Many other studies are in progress. Conclusion GWAS of large samples have detected associations of common SNPs and of rare CNVs to psychiatric disorders. More findings are likely -- larger GWAS samples detect larger numbers of common susceptibility variants (with smaller effects). The Psychiatric GWAS Consortium (of 110 researchers from 54 institutions) is carrying out GWAS meta-analyses for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Based on results for other diseases, larger samples will be required. The contribution of GWAS will depend on the true genetic architecture of each disorder. PMID

  7. A Study on Prospective Science Teachers' Knowledge and Achievement Levels in Mathematical Logic in Electricity-Related Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to reveal prospective science teachers' knowledge and achievement levels in electricity-related subjects. The data for the study were collected from 44 prospective teachers using three measurement tools. The data were then analyzed using software developed for the Probability and Possibility Calculation Statistics…

  8. 75 FR 72816 - Public Input for the Study Regarding the Oversight of Existing and Prospective Carbon Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... COMMISSION Public Input for the Study Regarding the Oversight of Existing and Prospective Carbon Markets... Commission (the ``CFTC''), to conduct a study on the oversight of existing and prospective carbon markets to ensure an efficient, secure, and transparent carbon market, including oversight of spot markets...

  9. A Study on Prospective Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs Regarding the Implementation of Constructivist Approach (A Case of Konya)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ektem, Isil Sönmez

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal prospective teachers' perceptions and views about the implementation of the constructivist approach. The study was conducted on 528 prospective teachers in their 4th year at Necmettin Erbakan University Ahmet Kelesoglu Education Faculty and Selcuk University Faculty of Science and Faculty of Letters in the…

  10. Parametric study of prospective early commercial OCMHD power plants /PSPEC/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, C. H.; Bender, D. J.; Hnat, J. G.; Dellinger, T. C.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents a parametric study conducted to obtain the performance, economics, natural resource requirements, and environmental impact of moderate technology MHD/steam power plants that do not require development of direct-fired high-temperature air heaters. The study was divided into three base cases, each with a reference case and parametric variations. The case using recuperative air preheat in the range of 1000 F to 1300 F, combined with O2 enrichment to 42% by volume has been selected for conceptual design.

  11. Shyness Predicts Depressive Symptoms among Adolescents : A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murberg, Terje A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relation between shyness, social support and depressive symptoms in a sample of 259 students (aged 14-16 years) in two secondary schools. Results at both time-points showed positive associations of depressive symptoms with shyness and with being female and negative associations of depressive symptoms with social support and…

  12. A Comprehensive Prospective Clinical Study of Hydatid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kayal, Ankit; Hussain, Akhlak

    2014-01-01

    The actual prevalence of hydatid disease in northern part of India is found more than usually interpreted. The present study has been done on 25 patients suffering from hydatid disease of various sites and treated during June 2009 to November 2011 at JLN Medical College and Hospital, Ajmer, with the aim of studying the clinical manifestations of hydatid disease of different sites and/or organ system and of analysing the morbidity and mortality of hydatid disease. The age, sex, h/o dog contact, duration of hospital stay, clinical presentation, treatment advised, findings and difficulties encountered during operation, and postoperative management of patients as well as morbidity and mortality were recorded and analysed. We observed that the mean age was 40 years. The sex incidence revealed female preponderance in the study (M : F: 1 : 2). Duration of illness in the present study varied from 1 month to 6 years in case of liver hydatid disease. Majority of patients were from rural areas (21) and the remaining (4) from urban areas. Swelling was the most common presenting feature. Incidence of hydatid disease at unusual sites in India is higher than in other parts of the world. PMID:24734188

  13. The "New Social Studies"--Retrospect and Prospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massialas, Byron G.

    2009-01-01

    When he looks back to the 1960s, the author feels sentimental about the New Social Studies movement that began very strong and then suddenly disintegrated. At the time of the genesis of the movement, there was a group of professionals, representing both the social sciences and education, who felt they had a vision of what was needed to revitalize…

  14. Preschool Predictors of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Prospective Community Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichstrøm, Lars; Belsky, Jay; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are often present at preschool age. Research on older children and studies contrasting preschoolers with high versus low behavioral inhibition (BI) highlight several risk factors, but these have not been investigated in community samples of young children. Child, parent, and peer factors at age 4 were therefore…

  15. Child and Adolescent Abuse and Subsequent Victimization: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Cindy L.; Gidycz, Christine A.; Warkentin, Jennifer B.; Loh, Catherine; Weiland, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the possible reciprocal relationship between victimization experiences and psychological functioning by assessing abuse experiences in childhood, adolescence, and during a 2-month follow-up period. Method: At the beginning of the study (Time 1), abuse histories, trauma and depressive symptoms, and interpersonal…

  16. Mineral resources of the Prospect Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Carbon County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    du Bray, E.A.; Bankey, V.; Hill, R.H.; Ryan, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    The Prospect Mountain Wilderness Study Area is about 20 mi east-southeast of Encampment in Carbon County, Wyoming. This study area is underlain by middle Proterozoic gabbro, granite, and hornblende gneiss, which is locally cut by pegmatite dikes. There are no identified resources and no potential for undiscovered energy resources in this study area. Resource potential for all undiscovered metallic commodities and for industrial mineral is low.

  17. Emerging Tobacco-Related Cancer Risks in China: A Nationwide, Prospective Study of 0.5 Million Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zheng-Ming; Peto, Richard; Iona, Andri; Guo, Yu; Chen, Yi-Ping; Bian, Zheng; Yang, Ling; Zhang, Wei-Yuan; Lu, Feng; Chen, Jun-Shi; Collins, Rory; Li, Li-Ming

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND In China, cigarette consumption has increased substantially since the 1980s, almost exclusively in men. This study was aimed at assessing the emerging cancer risks. METHODS A nationwide, prospective study recruited 210,259 men and 302,632 women aged 30 to 79 years from 10 areas of China from 2004 to 2008; approximately 18,000 incident cancers were recorded during 7 years of follow-up. Cox regression yielded adjusted risk ratios (RRs) comparing smokers (including those who had stopped because of illness but not those who had stopped by choice) with never-smokers. RESULTS Among men, 68% were smokers; their overall cancer risk was significantly increased (RR, 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37-1.53), and it was greater in urban (RR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.41-1.70) than in rural areas (RR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.30-1.49). This excess accounted for 23% of all cancers between the ages of 40 and 79 years, with significantly elevated risks of lung cancer (RR, 2.51; 95% CI, 2.18-2.90), liver cancer (RR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.12-1.54), stomach cancer (RR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.16-1.55), esophageal cancer (RR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.24-1.73), and an aggregate of 5 other minor sites (RR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.25-1.86). For lung cancer, the RRs were much greater for nonadenocarcinoma (RR, 5.83; 95% CI, 5.02-6.77) than for adenocarcinoma (RR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.36-2.34). Among exsmokers (6.7%) who had stopped by choice, there was little excess cancer risk approximately 15 years after quitting. Among the few female smokers (3%), the overall cancer risk was also significantly increased (RR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.28-1.57). Smoking was estimated to cause approximately 435,000 new cancers per year in China (approximately 360,000 in men and approximately 75,000 in women). CONCLUSIONS In China, smoking now causes a quarter of all adult male cancers. High male uptake rates before the age of 20 years and nearly universal use of cigarettes foreshadow substantial tobacco-attributed risks in China unless there is

  18. The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire: a population-based random sampling study.

    PubMed

    Piauilino, D C; Bueno, O F A; Tufik, S; Bittencourt, L R; Santos-Silva, R; Hachul, H; Gorenstein, C; Pompéia, S

    2010-05-01

    The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) has been shown to have acceptable reliability and factorial, predictive, and concurrent validity. However, the PRMQ has never been administered to a probability sample survey representative of all ages in adulthood, nor have previous studies controlled for factors that are known to influence metamemory, such as affective status. Here, the PRMQ was applied in a survey adopting a probabilistic three-stage cluster sample representative of the population of Sao Paulo, Brazil, according to gender, age (20-80 years), and economic status (n=1042). After excluding participants who had conditions that impair memory (depression, anxiety, used psychotropics, and/or had neurological/psychiatric disorders), in the remaining 664 individuals we (a) used confirmatory factor analyses to test competing models of the latent structure of the PRMQ, and (b) studied effects of gender, age, schooling, and economic status on prospective and retrospective memory complaints. The model with the best fit confirmed the same tripartite structure (general memory factor and two orthogonal prospective and retrospective memory factors) previously reported. Women complained more of general memory slips, especially those in the first 5 years after menopause, and there were more complaints of prospective than retrospective memory, except in participants with lower family income. PMID:20408038

  19. Personality disorders in previously detained adolescent females: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Krabbendam, Anne A; Colins, Olivier F; Doreleijers, Theo A H; van der Molen, Elsa; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the predictive value of trauma and mental health problems for the development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in previously detained women. The participants were 229 detained adolescent females who were assessed for traumatic experiences and mental health problems (mean age = 15.5 years). Three to 6 years later (M = 4.5; SD = 0.6), ASPD and BPD were diagnosed with a semistructured interview. Forty percent of the women had a personality disorder (i.e., ASPD 15.8%, BPD 9.2%, or both ASPD and BPD 15.2%). Posttraumatic stress, depressive symptoms, and dissociation during detention increased the risk for BPD in adulthood. Surprisingly, neither conduct problems nor substance dependence predicted ASPD; these findings require further study because they add to the controversy surrounding ASPD in females. The high prevalence rates of personality disorders indicate the need for intervention programs that target these unwanted outcomes. PMID:25420142

  20. Neuronal involvement in cisplatin neuropathy: prospective clinical and neurophysiological studies.

    PubMed

    Krarup-Hansen, A; Helweg-Larsen, S; Schmalbruch, H; Rørth, M; Krarup, C

    2007-04-01

    Although it is well known that cisplatin causes a sensory neuropathy, the primary site of involvement is not established. The clinical symptoms localized in a stocking-glove distribution may be explained by a length dependent neuronopathy or by a distal axonopathy. To study whether the whole neuron or the distal axon was primarily affected, we have carried out serial clinical and electrophysiological studies in 16 males with testicular cancer before or early and late during and after treatment with cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin at limited (<400 mg/m2 cisplatin), conventional (approximately 400 mg/m2 cisplatin) or high (>400 mg/m2 cisplatin) doses. At cumulative doses of cisplatin higher than 300 mg/m2 the patients lost distal tendon and H-reflexes and displayed reduced vibration sense in the feet and the fingers. The amplitudes of sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) from the fingers innervated by the median nerve and the dorsolateral side of the foot innervated by the sural nerve were 50-60% reduced, whereas no definite changes occurred at lower doses. The SNAP conduction velocities were reduced by 10-15% at cumulative doses of 400-700 mg/m2 consistent with loss of large myelinated fibres. SNAPs from primarily Pacinian corpuscles in digit 3 and the dorsolateral side of the foot evoked by a tactile probe showed similar changes to those observed in SNAPs evoked by electrical stimulation. At these doses, somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) from the tibial nerve had increased latencies of peripheral, spinal and central responses suggesting loss of central processes of large dorsal root ganglion cells. Motor conduction studies, autonomic function and warm and cold temperature sensation remained unchanged at all doses of cisplatin treatment. The results of these studies are consistent with degeneration of large sensory neurons whereas there was no evidence of distal axonal degeneration even at the lowest toxic doses of cisplatin. PMID:17301082

  1. Studies of compact objects with Einstein - Review and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindlay, Jonathan E.

    1990-01-01

    X-ray images and spectra of a wide range of systems containing compact objects were obtained with the Einstein X-ray Observatory. Accreting white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes were observed in binary systems in the Galaxy, and new constraints were derived for their formation, nature and evolution. Massive black holes were studied in active galactic nuclei, and X-ray spectra (and evolution) of AGN have led to a new model for the diffuse X-ray background.

  2. A Prospective Study of Fitness, Fatness, and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Becofsky, Katie M.; Sui, Xuemei; Lee, Duck-chul; Wilcox, Sara; Zhang, Jiajia; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Being overweight or obese might be a risk factor for developing depression. It is also possible that low cardiorespiratory fitness, rather than overweight or obesity, is the better predictor of depressive symptom onset. Adults in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (Dallas, Texas) underwent fitness and fatness assessments between 1979 and 1998 and later completed a questionnaire about depressive symptoms in 1990, 1995, or 1999. Separate logistic regression models were used to test the associations between 3 fatness measures (body mass index, waist circumference, and percentage of body fat) and the onset of depressive symptoms. Analyses were repeated using fitness as the predictor variable. Additional analyses were performed to study the joint association of fatness and fitness with the onset of depressive symptoms. After controlling for fitness, no measure of fatness was associated with the onset of depressive symptoms. In joint analyses, low fitness was more strongly associated with the onset of elevated depressive symptoms than was fatness, regardless of the measure of fatness used. Overall, results from the present study suggest that low fitness is more strongly associated with the onset of elevated depressive symptoms than is fatness. To reduce the risk of developing depression, individuals should be encouraged to improve their fitness regardless of body fatness. PMID:25693775

  3. Prospects for Chronological Studies of Martian Rocks and Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C-Y.; Reese, Y. D.

    2008-01-01

    Chronological information about Martian processes comes from two sources: Crater-frequency studies and laboratory studies of Martian meteorites. Each has limitations that could be overcome by studies of returned Martian rocks and soils. Chronology of Martian volcanism: The currently accepted chronology of Martian volcanic surfaces relies on crater counts for different Martian stratigraphic units [1]. However, there is a large inherent uncertainty for intermediate ages near 2 Ga ago. The effect of differing preferences for Martian cratering chronologies [1] is shown in Fig. 1. Stoeffler and Ryder [2] summarized lunar chronology, upon which Martian cratering chronology is based. Fig. 2 shows a curve fit to their data, and compares to it a corresponding lunar curve from [3]. The radiometric ages of some lunar and Martian meteorites as well as the crater-count delimiters for Martian epochs [4] also are shown for comparison to the craterfrequency curves. Scaling the Stoeffler-Ryder curve by a Mars/Moon factor of 1.55 [5] places Martian shergottite ages into the Early Amazonian to late Hesperian epochs, whereas using the lunar curve of [3] and a Mars/Moon factor 1 consigns the shergottites to the Middle-to-Late Amazonian, a less probable result. The problem is worsened if a continually decreasing cratering rate since 3 Ga ago is accepted [6]. We prefer the adjusted St ffler-Ryder curve because it gives better agreement with the meteorite ages (Fig.

  4. A Look into the National Drought Mitigation Center: Providing 15 Years of Drought Services (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, M. D.; Hayes, M. J.; Knutson, C. L.; Wardlow, B. D.

    2009-12-01

    The National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) was formed in 1995 at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Over the past 15 years, the NDMC has made it a priority to work with various local, state, tribal and federal entities to provide a suite of drought/climate services, with a goal of bringing research to fruition through applications and operations. Through our research and outreach projects, the NDMC has worked to reduce risk to drought by developing several mitigation strategies, monitoring and decision making tools and other services aimed at enhancing our nation’s capacity to cope with drought. Two of the earliest NDMC activities were the creation of a website and assessing drought conditions around the United States. An electronic drought clearinghouse was built in 1995 at drought.unl.edu. The site was designed, and still concentrates, on the concepts of drought monitoring, planning, and mitigation and also serves as a repository of information from around the world. The NDMC’s electronic quarterly newsletter, DroughtScape, disseminates information about all things drought to people across the country. In addition, the NDMC has developed and is home to websites for the U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM), Drought Impact Reporter (DIR), and the Vegetation Drought Response Index (VegDRI). In an effort to inform decision makers, the NDMC continually pursues ways to raise the awareness and visibility of drought as one of the most costly hazards we face. This began in the mid-1990s with the creation of a state-based drought impact assessment map that would help lead to the formation of the USDM in 1999 and the DIR in 2005. The NDMC plays a key role in producing the weekly USDM and the monthly North American Drought Monitor (NADM). The USDM was created out of collaborations between the NDMC, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and has quickly become one of the most widely used products in assessing

  5. Prospects for studying penguin decays in LHCb experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Barsuk, S. Ya. Pakhlova, G. V. Belyaev, I. M.

    2006-04-15

    Investigation of loop penguin decays of beauty hadrons seems promising in testing the predictions of the Standard Model of electroweak and strong interactions and in seeking new phenomena beyond the Standard Model. The possibility of studying the radiative penguin decays B{sup 0} {sup {yields}} K*{sup 0}{gamma}, B{sup 0}{sub s} {sup {yields}} {phi}{gamma}, and B{sup 0} {sup {yields}} {omega}{gamma} and the gluonic penguin decays B{sup 0} {sup {yields}} {phi}K{sup 0}{sub S} and B{sup 0}{sub s} {sup {yields}} {phi}{phi} in LHCb experiments is discussed.

  6. Religious Confession and Symptom Severity: A Prospective Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Rana, Madiha; Rana, Majeed; Herzberg, Philipp Y; Krause, Christin

    2015-12-01

    Little research has been done on comparing confessions regarding mental health. In the present study, 320 people (78 Buddhists, 77 Catholics, 89 Protestants and 79 Muslims) were compared in terms of their symptom severity. Buddhists and Protestants had lower scores than Catholics and Muslims for obsessive-compulsive behavior and hostility. Muslim group had the highest comparative scores for psychoticism. Buddhists and Protestants had comparatively low scores for paranoid ideation and overall symptom severity, with Catholics and Muslims having high ones. Results reveal that confession should be taken in account in psychological research and diagnosis, since it is explicitly associated with psychological well-being. PMID:25204789

  7. Guideline adaptation and implementation planning: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adaptation of high-quality practice guidelines for local use has been advanced as an efficient means to improve acceptability and applicability of evidence-informed care. In a pan-Canadian study, we examined how cancer care groups adapted pre-existing guidelines to their unique context and began implementation planning. Methods Using a mixed-methods, case-study design, five cases were purposefully sampled from self-identified groups and followed as they used a structured method and resources for guideline adaptation. Cases received the ADAPTE Collaboration toolkit, facilitation, methodological and logistical support, resources and assistance as required. Documentary and primary data collection methods captured individual case experience, including monthly summaries of meeting and field notes, email/telephone correspondence, and project records. Site visits, process audits, interviews, and a final evaluation forum with all cases contributed to a comprehensive account of participant experience. Results Study cases took 12 to >24 months to complete guideline adaptation. Although participants appreciated the structure, most found the ADAPTE method complex and lacking practical aspects. They needed assistance establishing individual guideline mandate and infrastructure, articulating health questions, executing search strategies, appraising evidence, and achieving consensus. Facilitation was described as a multi-faceted process, a team effort, and an essential ingredient for guideline adaptation. While front-line care providers implicitly identified implementation issues during adaptation, they identified a need to add an explicit implementation planning component. Conclusions Guideline adaptation is a positive initial step toward evidence-informed care, but adaptation (vs. ‘de novo’ development) did not meet expectations for reducing time or resource commitments. Undertaking adaptation is as much about the process (engagement and capacity building) as it

  8. Optical magnification devices in tonsillectomy: a prospective randomised clinical study.

    PubMed

    Schrötzlmair, F; Geerke, L; Kisser, U; Reichel, C; Vögele, S; Stelter, K

    2015-10-01

    Tonsillectomy is one of the most common surgical procedure in otorhinolaryngology. A plethora of approaches has been undertaken so far to limit postoperative pain, one of the major problems patients are concerned with. Thermal damages of the surrounding tissue caused by coagulation during surgery are discussed to correlate with postoperative pain. Therefore, we studied whether the use of magnification devices reduced coagulation procedures and consequently limited post-operative pain. Following an intraindividual design, we performed tonsillectomy on one side using a microscope or magnifying glasses whereas the opposite side was operated with unsupported vision. As verified by a visual analogue scale, our study shows that neither the use of a microscope, nor the use of magnifying glasses leads to less post-operative pain. Other parameters like post-operative bleeding, duration of surgery, and total applied energy by bipolar coagulation were also comparable in the different treatment groups. Taken together, magnification-supported tonsillectomy does not seem to be appropriate for limiting complications of tonsillectomy, especially not for reducing post-operative pain. PMID:25245863

  9. Airway reactivity in welders: a controlled prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Beckett, W S; Pace, P E; Sferlazza, S J; Perlman, G D; Chen, A H; Xu, X P

    1996-12-01

    In a 3-year survey, respiratory symptoms, spirometry, and methacholine reactivity were measured annually in welders (n = 51) and non-welder controls subjects (n = 54) to determine whether welding-related symptoms are associated with accelerated decline in lung function or changes in airway reactivity. In the cross-workshift study, maximal midexpiratory flow rate declined reversibly during a welding day, whereas 1-second forced expiratory volume and forced-vital capacity were unchanged. In the longitudinal study, the welders had significantly more reversible work-related symptoms of cough, phlegm, wheeze, and chest tightness than the non-welder shipyard control subjects. In this group of actively working welders, across-workshift changes in midflow and reversible symptoms were related to the welding occupation, but evidence for chronic irreversible effects on spirometry or airway reactivity was not seen over the 3 years of observation. The short period of observation was not optimal for detecting a chronic effect on lung function. Work practices and engineering controls may be successfully preventing irreversible respiratory effects, but not mild reversible effects, in this group of welders. PMID:8978514

  10. Impact of childhood trauma on postpartum depression: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    De Venter, Maud; Smets, Jorien; Raes, Filip; Wouters, Kristien; Franck, Erik; Hanssens, Myriam; Jacquemyn, Yves; Sabbe, Bernard G C; Van Den Eede, Filip

    2016-04-01

    Studies on the impact of childhood trauma on postpartum depression show inconsistencies and methodological limitations. The present study examines the effect of childhood trauma on depression 12 and 24 weeks after childbirth, while controlling for history of depression, depression symptoms during pregnancy and type D personality. During the third trimester of pregnancy, 210 women completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression (current and/or past episodes), childhood trauma and type D personality, of whom 187 participated in the postpartum follow-up, with depression symptoms being reassessed at 12 and 24 weeks after delivery with three depression outcome measures. Eventually, 183 participants were retained for analysis. Results indicated no predictive value of childhood trauma on postpartum depression in the univariate analyses, nor after controlling for previous depression, depression symptoms during pregnancy and type D personality. However, past depression and depression symptoms during pregnancy did independently and convincingly predict postpartum depression, especially at 12 weeks and to a lesser extent at 24 weeks following childbirth. Overall, we found no significant association between childhood trauma and postpartum depression. Past depression and depression symptoms during pregnancy are more relevant factors to assess before childbirth. PMID:26189446

  11. Prospects for Pulsar Studies with the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2007-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), due to launch in November 2007, will have unprecedented sensitivity and energy resolution for gamma-rays in the range of 30 MeV to 200 GeV. GLAST is therefore expected to provide major advances in the understanding of high-energy emission from rotation-powered pulsars. As the only presently known galactic GeV source class; pulsars will be one of the most important sources for study with GLAST. The main science goals of the LAT for pulsar studies include an increase in the number of detected radio-loud and radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars, including millisecond pulsars, giving much better statistics for elucidating population characteristics, measurement of the high-energy spectrum and the shape of spectral cutoffs and determining pulse profiles for a variety of pulsars of different age. Further, measurement of phase-resolved spectra and energy dependent pulse profiles of the brighter pulsars should allow detailed tests of magnetospheric particle acceleration and radiation mechanisms, by comparing data with theoretical models that have been developed. Additionally, the LAT will have the sensitivity to allow blind pulsation searches of nearly all unidentified EGRET sources, to possibly uncover more radio-quiet Geminga-like pulsars.

  12. Prospects for Pulsar Studies with the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2007-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), due to launch in November 2007, will have unprecedented sensitivity and energy resolution for gamma-rays in the range of 30 MeV to 200 GeV. GLAST is therefore expected to provide major advances in the understanding of high-energy emission from rotation-powered p ulsars. As the only presently known galactic GeV source class, pulsar s will be one of the most important sources for study with GLAST. The main science goals of the LAT for pulsar studies include an increase in the number of detected radio-loud and radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsar s, including millisecond pulsars, giving much better statistics for e lucidating population characteristics, measurement of the high-energy spectrum and the shape of spectral cutoffs and determining pulse profiles for a variety of pulsars of different age. Further, measurement of phase-resolved spectra and energy dependent pulse profiles of the brighter pulsars should allow detailed tests of magnetospheric partic le acceleration and radiation mechanisms, by comparing data with theo retical models that have been developed. Additionally, the LAT will have the sensitivity to allow blind pulsation searches of nearly all un identified EGRET sources, to possibly uncover more radio-quiet Geming a-like pulsars.

  13. Prospects for Pulsar Studies with the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2006-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) will have unprecedented sensitivity and energy resolution for gamma-rays in the range of 30 MeV to 200 GeV. GLAST is therefore expected to provide major advances in the understanding of high-energy emission from rotation-powered pulsars. As the only presently known galactic GeV source class, pulsars will be one of the most important sources for study with GLAST. The main science goals of the LAT for pulsar studies include an increase in the number of detected radio-loud and radio-quiet gamma ray pulsars, including millisecond pulsars, giving much better statistics for elucidating population characteristics, measurement of the high-energy spectrum and the shape of spectral cutoffs and determining pulse profiles for a variety of pulsars of different age. Further, measurement of phase-resolved spectra and energy dependent pulse profiles of the brighter pulsars should allow detailed tests of magnetospheric particle acceleration and radiation mechanisms, by comparing data with theoretical models that have been developed. Additionally, the LAT will have the sensitivity to allow blind pulsation searches of nearly all unidentified EGRET sources, to possibly uncover more radio-quiet Geminga-like pulsars.

  14. Effect of hormonal contraceptives on serum lipids: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Dilshad, Huma; Ismail, Rabia; Naveed, Safila; Usmanghani, Khan; Alam, M Tanweer; Sarwar, Ghulam

    2016-07-01

    To estimate the effects of using hormonal contraceptives on serum lipoprotein levels. Lipid profile was measured at baseline and afterward at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. 1391 Pakistani females taking COCs, DMPA, or non hormonal (NH) contraceptives. The results were calculated by repeated measure ANOVA subsequent to tukey's post hoc test for the multiple comparisons. Statistical examination revealed that differences in lipid profile were significant (p <0.001) among all treated group in comparison with control. DMPA also caused significant rise in Castelli index-I and Castelli index-II as compared to COCs group and control group. This study demonstrated raise in total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) as well as very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Whereas, an obvious decrease was observed in high density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the DMPA-treated group. We concluded that, this inductive study specifies atherogenic cardiovascular risk in women using DMPA on long term basis. PMID:27592475

  15. Implant-supported overdentures: a longitudinal prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bergendal, T; Engquist, B

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical function and long-term prognosis of overdentures retained by a small number of implants in the maxilla and mandible using one of two different attachment systems. Included in the study were all patients referred to specialty clinics in Jönköping and Linköping, Sweden, during the treatment period who needed an overdenture and could be provided with a minimum number of two bilaterally-placed implants. Excluded were patients with bone-grafted jaws, irradiated cancer patients, heavy bruxers, and patients who had lost a fixed prosthesis because of implant losses. The patients were randomly assigned to receive one retentive system, either a round 2-mm-diameter bar with clips or ball attachments (Nobel Biocare). Eighteen overdentures were placed in maxillae and 32 in mandibles, supported by a total of 115 Brånemark implants. Of the implants placed, 86.1% were continuously osseointegrated. The cumulative implant survival rates after 7 years of loading were 75.4% in the maxillae and 100% in the mandibles. There was no difference in implant survival rate between the attachment systems. Patients with implant losses were characterized by severely resorbed maxillary ridges and inferior bone quality, together with unfavorable loading circumstances such as short implants combined with long leverages. Complications and prosthetic adjustments were mostly resolved early and easily. PMID:9581412

  16. Independent Prognostic Value of Single and Multiple Non-Specific 12-Lead Electrocardiographic Findings for Long-Term Cardiovascular Outcomes: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sawano, Mitsuaki; Kohsaka, Shun; Okamura, Tomonori; Inohara, Taku; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Makoto; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Higashiyama, Aya; Kadota, Aya; Okuda, Nagako; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Okayama, Akira; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2016-01-01

    Aims The long-term prognostic effect of non-specific 12-lead electrocardiogram findings is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the cumulative prognostic impact of axial, structural, and repolarization categorical abnormalities on cardiovascular death, independent from traditional risk scoring systems such as the Framingham risk score and the NIPPON DATA80 risk chart. Methods and Results A total of 16,816 healthy men and women from two prospective, longitudinal cohort studies were evaluated. 3,794 (22.6%) individuals died during a median follow-up of 15 years (range, 2.0–24 years). Hazard ratios for cardiovascular death, all-cause death, coronary death and stroke death were calculated for the cumulative and independent axial, structural, and repolarization categorical abnormalities adjusted for the Framingham risk score and the NIPPON DATA80 risk chart. Individuals with two or more abnormal categories had a higher risk of cardiovascular death after adjustment for Framingham risk score (men: HR 4.27, 95%CI 3.35–5.45; women: HR 4.83, 95%CI 3.76–6.22) and NIPPON DATA80 risk chart (men: HR 2.39, 95%CI 1.87–3.07; women: HR 2.04, 95%CI 1.58–2.64). Conclusion Cumulative findings of axial, structural, and repolarization abnormalities are significant predictors of long-term cardiovascular death in asymptomatic, healthy individuals independent of traditional risk stratification systems. PMID:27362562

  17. Diet and kwashiorkor: a prospective study from rural DR Congo.

    PubMed

    Kismul, Hallgeir; Van den Broeck, Jan; Lunde, Torleif Markussen

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of kwashiorkor remains enigmatic and longitudinal studies examining potential causes of kwashiorkor are scarce. Using historical, longitudinal study data from the rural area of Bwamanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, we investigated the potential causal association between diet and the development of kwashiorkor in 5 657 preschool children followed 3-monthly during 15 months. We compared dietary risk factors for kwashiorkor with those of marasmus. Kwashiorkor was diagnosed as pitting oedema of the ankles; marasmus as abnormal visibility of skeletal structures and palpable wasting of the gluteus muscle. A 24-h recall was administered 3-monthly to record the consumption of the 41 locally most frequent food items. We specified Hanley-Miettinen smooth-in-time risk models containing potential causal factors, including food items, special meals prepared for the child, breastfeeding, disease status, nutritional status, birth rank, age, season and number of meals. Bayesian Information Criteria identified the most plausible causal model of why some children developed kwashiorkor. In a descriptive analysis of the diet at the last dietary assessment prior to development of kwashiorkor, the diet of children who developed kwashiorkor was characterized by low consumption of sweet potatoes, papaya and "other vegetables" [0.0% , 2.3% (95% CI [0.4, 12.1]) and 2.3% (95% CI [0.4, 12.1])] in comparison with children who did not develop kwashiorkor [6.8% (95% CI [6.4, 7.2]), 15.5% (95% CI [15, 16.1]) and 15.1% (95% CI [14.6, 15.7])] or children who developed marasmus [4.5% (95% CI [2.6, 7.5]) 11.8% (95% CI [8.5, 16.0]) and 17.6% (95% CI [13.7, 22.5])]. Sweet potatoes and papayas have high β-carotene content and so may some of "the other vegetables". We found that a risk model containing an age function, length/height-for age Z-score, consumption of sweet potatoes, papaya or other vegetables, duration of this consumption and its interaction term, was the most plausible

  18. Bulbar dysfunction in normal pressure hydrocephalus: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Chankaew, Ekawut; Srirabheebhat, Prajak; Manochiopinig, Sriwimon; Witthiwej, Theerapol; Benjamin, Itsara

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is clinically characterized by gait disturbance, cognitive impairment, and urinary incontinence, as well as enlargement of the ventricles. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there have been no previous publications regarding the correlation between bulbar dysfunction and NPH. The primary objective of this study was to compare preoperative and postoperative prevalence of bulbar dysfunction in patients with NPH. Secondary objectives included assessing the results of surgery for swallowing, speech, gait, cognition, and urination, and evaluating the correlation between bulbar dysfunction and triad symptoms. METHODS Fifty-three patients with NPH who underwent shunt placement surgery at Siriraj Hospital were included in the study. Patients were evaluated for gait, cognition, urination, swallowing, and speech before and 6 months after shunt placement. Triad symptoms were assessed using standard methods. Bulbar dysfunctions were assessed using the Swallowing Problem Questionnaire, Thai Articulation Test, Resonation Screening Test (RST), and Thai Nasality Test. The Thai Speech Assessment Program and nasometer were used for objective speech measurement. RESULTS Preoperatively, 86% (43/50) of patients had swallowing problems and 75% (37/49) had speech problems, as measured by the RST. Postoperatively, there was significant improvement in swallowing (p < 0.001), speech problems by RST (p = 0.008), and voice volume (p = 0.009), but no significant change in the nasometer test. All triad symptoms were improved. There were significant correlations between swallowing impairment and gait disturbance (r = 0.358, p = 0.009), and RST and cognitive impairment (r = -0.502, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS This is the first study of bulbar dysfunction in patients with NPH. The results showed that the prevalence of bulbar dysfunction is very high. The correlation between bulbar dysfunction and the classic NPH triad has been documented and published

  19. A prospective study of asthma in a rural community.

    PubMed

    Schachter, E N; Doyle, C A; Beck, G J

    1984-05-01

    Changes in symptoms and pulmonary function among asthmatic subjects in the general population remain poorly characterized. We studied 1,303 white residents aged seven years and older in Lebanon, Conn, a rural community largely unaffected by air pollution or major occupational exposures. These residents were examined in 1972 and again in 1978. There were 73 asthmatic subjects seen in 1972 who were followed. In addition, we identified 278 persons in 1972 who complained of wheezing who were also seen in 1978. Of the original asthmatic subjects, 50 (68 percent) were in remission; and from the original nonasthmatic population, 19 (1.4 percent) new asthmatic subjects were identified. Similarly, the condition of 215 (77 percent) of those who initially complained of wheeze had improved, whereas 56 (4.6 percent) of those initially studied either developed new wheeze or saw their wheezing worsen. When the groups of persons complaining of wheeze and the asthmatic subjects were analyzed for the presence of chronic bronchitis, we found a significant correlation between wheeze and chronic bronchitis in individuals aged 18 years and older (p less than 0.001) for both men and women, and a significant correlation (p less than 0.001) between asthma and chronic bronchitis in women aged 18 years and older. Loss of pulmonary function over time measured in terms of the forced expiratory volume in one second and the forced expiratory flow at 50 percent of total lung capacity was consistently greater for asthmatic adults than for nonasthmatic adults. Furthermore, when individuals were studied by the severity and duration of their asthmatic symptoms, a trend of worse pulmonary function was seen in those individuals with chronic asthma. We conclude that remission rates among asthmatic subjects and persons with wheeze are high in individuals aged seven years and older, that chronic bronchitis is frequently associated with wheezing and a history of asthma in adults, and that significant

  20. Contribution of Quadriceps Weakness to Fragility Fracture: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hanh M; Nguyen, Nguyen D; Center, Jacqueline R; Eisman, John A; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2016-01-01

    The association between muscle weakness and fracture is not well understood. This study sought to examine the contribution of muscle strength at baseline and change in muscle strength to the observed risk of fragility fracture in older people. The study involved 595 men and 1066 women aged 60+ years (median 69 years) who had been followed for a median of 11 years (range, 4 to 22 years). Quadriceps isometric muscle strength (MS) measured at baseline and biennially was adjusted for height. Femoral neck bone mineral density (FNBMD) was measured by DXA. Low-trauma fracture was ascertained from X-ray reports and interview. The relationship between baseline MS and serial MS and fracture assessed by time-invariant and time-variant Cox's regression models was expressed as hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). During the follow-up period, 282 (26%) women and 89 (15%) men sustained a fragility fracture. From age 60 years, women lost 0.28 kg/m (1.6%) of MS per year, whereas men lost 0.39 kg/m (1.5%) of MS per year. In the time-variant model, using serial MS, each 1 SD (4.7 kg/m) lower MS was associated with a 27% increase in the risk of fracture in women (HR 1.27; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.43); and 46% increase in men (HR 1.46; 95% CI, 1.22 to 1.75). After adjusting for FNBMD, age and prior fracture, history of fall and smoking, HR per SD of lower MS was 1.13 (95% CI, 0.99 to 1.28) for women and 1.35 (95% CI, 1.18 to 1.64) for men. These data indicate that muscle weakness is an independent determinant of fracture risk in men, but not in women. This sex difference suggests that apart from mechanical load effect of muscle on bone, there are other muscle-bone interactions that need to be investigated in future studies. The accuracy of fracture risk prediction for men may be improved by incorporating muscle strength. PMID:26174768