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Sample records for 157-nm excimer laser

  1. Behavior of 157 nm excimer-laser-induced refractive index changes in silica

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Charlene M.; Borrelli, Nicholas F.

    2006-09-15

    This study describes the observation of large induced refractive index changes produced by 157 nm excimer laser exposure in high-purity synthetic silica glasses. With 157 nm exposure, large induced changes are observed within a few hundred thousand pulses of exposure. Similar to 193 nm exposures, exposure with polarized 157 nm light yields polarization-induced birefringence (PIB). However, the 157 nm exposure also exhibits a behavior not observed with 193 nm exposures; namely, the initial response of the glass is a decrease in refractive index, followed by an increase with continued exposure. An explanation of the behaviors for both wavelength results is proposed where the induced refractive index is considered to arise from two different concurrent phenomena. One produces a decreased refractive index and also accounts for the PIB. The other, which accounts for the increased refractive index, is associated with an isotropic laser-induced volume change.

  2. Precision drilling of fused silica with 157-nm excimer laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temme, Thorsten; Ostendorf, Andreas; Kulik, Christian; Meyer, Klaus

    2003-07-01

    μFor drilling fused silica, mechanical techniques like with diamond drills, ultrasonic machining, sand blasting or water jet machining are used. Also chemical techniques like laser assisted wet etching or thermal drilling with CO2-lasers are established. As an extension of these technologies, the drilling of micro-holes in fused silica with VUV laser radiation is presented here. The high absorption of the 157 nm radiation emitted by the F2 excimer laser and the short pulse duration lead to a material ablation with minimised impact on the surrounding material. Contrary to CO2-laser drilling, a molten and solidified phase around the bore can thus be avoided. The high photon energy of 7.9 eV requires either high purity nitrogen flushing or operation in vacuum, which also effects the processing results. Depending on the required precision, the laser can be used for percussion drilling as well as for excimer laser trepanning, by applying rotating masks. Rotating masks are especially used for high aspect ratio drilling with well defined edges and minimised debris. The technology is suitable particularly for holes with a diameter below 200 μm down to some microns in substrates with less than 200 μm thickness, that can not be achieved with mechanical methods. Drilling times in 200 μm fused silica substrates are in the range of ten seconds, which is sufficient to compete with conventional methods while providing similar or even better accuracy.

  3. F 2 excimer laser (157 nm) radiation modification and surface ablation of PHEMA hydrogels and the effects on bioactivity: Surface attachment and proliferation of human corneal epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainuddin; Chirila, Traian V.; Barnard, Zeke; Watson, Gregory S.; Toh, Chiong; Blakey, Idriss; Whittaker, Andrew K.; Hill, David J. T.

    2011-02-01

    Physical and chemical changes at the surface of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) hydrogels modified by ablation with an F 2 excimer laser were investigated experimentally. An important observation was that only the outer exposed surface layers of the hydrogel were affected by the exposure to 157 nm radiation. The effect of the surface changes on the tendency of cells to adhere to the PHEMA was also investigated. A 0.5 cm 2 area of the hydrogel surfaces was exposed to laser irradiation at 157 nm to fluences of 0.8 and 4 J cm -2. The changes in surface topography were analysed by light microscopy and atomic force microscopy, while the surface chemistry was characterized by attenuated total reflection infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Cell-interfacial interactions were examined based on the proliferation of human corneal limbal epithelial (HLE) cells cultured on the laser-modified hydrogels, and on the unexposed hydrogels and tissue culture plastic for comparison. It was observed that the surface topography of laser-exposed hydrogels showed rippled patterns with a surface roughness increasing at the higher exposure dose. The changes in surface chemistry were affected not only by an indirect effect of hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals, formed by water photolysis, on the PHEMA, but also by the direct action of laser radiation on PHEMA if the surface layers of the gel become depleted of water. The laser treatment led to a change in the surface characteristics, with a lower concentration of ester side-chains and the formation of new oxygenated species at the surface. The surface also became more hydrophobic. Most importantly, the surface chemistry and the newly created surface topographical features were able to improve the attachment, spreading and growth of HLE cells.

  4. Absolute measurement of F2-laser power at 157 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, Stefan; Brandt, Friedhelm; Kremling, Hans-Albert; Gottwald, Alexander; Hoehl, Arne; Richter, Mathias

    2006-05-10

    We report a comparison of laser power measurements at the F2-laser wavelength oaf nm made at two facilities of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the German national metrology institute. At the PTB laboratory at the electron storage ring BESSY II in Berlin, the scale for laser power was directly traced to a cryogenic radiometer operating at 157 nm, whereas at the PTB laser radiometry facility in Braunschweig the calibration of transfer detectors was performed with a newly developed standard for laser power at 157 nm, which is traceable in several steps to a cryogenic radiometer operating at 633 nm. The comparison was performed under vacuum conditions with laser pulse energies of?10 {mu}J, however with different average powers because different primary standard radiometers were used. The relative deviation for the responsivity of the transfer detector was 4.8% and thus within the combined standard uncertainty.

  5. Excimer lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, A. J.; Hess, L. D.; Stephens, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation into the possibility of achieving CW discharge pumped excimer laser oscillation is reported. Detailed theoretical modeling of capillary discharge pumping of the XeF and KXe and K2 excimer systems was carried out which predicted the required discharge parameters for reaching laser threshold on these systems. Capillary discharge pumping of the XeF excimer system was investigated experimentally. The experiments revealed a lower excimer level population density than predicted theoretically by about an order of magnitude. The experiments also revealed a fluorine consumption problem in the discharge in agreement with theory.

  6. Formation of Micro and Nano Structures Using VUV 157 nm Laser Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, C. D.; Cockcroft, S.

    2010-10-08

    We report on laser ablation experiments on micro and nano size composite structures. The surface of CR-39 and polycarbonate has been intentionally seeded with silicon carbide and silver nanowires and subsequently laser irradiated at a wavelength of 157 nm. We show scanning electron micrograph images of prismatic and conical structures produced by laser ablation and discuss a shape transformation from a prismatic to a conical structure.

  7. Excimer lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, A. J.; Hess, L. D.; Stephens, R. R.; Pepper, D. M.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a two-year investigation into the possibility of developing continuous wave excimer lasers are reported. The program included the evaluation and selection of candidate molecular systems and discharge pumping techniques. The K Ar/K2 excimer dimer molecules and the xenon fluoride excimer molecule were selected for study; each used a transverse and capillary discharges pumping technique. Experimental and theoretical studies of each of the two discharge techniques applied to each of the two molecular systems are reported. Discharge stability and fluorine consumption were found to be the principle impediments to extending the XeF excimer laser into the continuous wave regime. Potassium vapor handling problems were the principal difficulty in achieving laser action on the K Ar/K2 system. Of the four molecular systems and pumping techniques explored, the capillary discharge pumped K Ar/K2 system appears to be the most likely candidate for demonstrating continuous wave excimer laser action primarily because of its predicted lower pumping threshold and a demonstrated discharge stability advantage.

  8. Surface modification of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane block copolymer films by 157 nm laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarantopoulou, Evangelia; Kollia, Zoe; Cefalas, Alkiviadis Constantinos; Siokou, Ageliki Elina; Argitis, Panagiotis; Bellas, Vassilios; Kobe, Spomenka

    2009-06-01

    Thin films of ethyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (ethyl-POSS) containing polymers at different compositions were chemically modified using laser irradiation at 157 nm. The irradiation caused photodissociation of C-O and C-H bonds followed by the formation of new chemical bonds. The content of Si-O and C-O bonds increased, as did the surface hardness. Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) absorption, mass spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy imaging and indentation were used to evaluate the effects of the 157 nm irradiation. The chemical modification was restricted to a thin surface layer. The layer depth was determined by the penetration depth of the 157 nm VUV photons inside the thin copolymer layer. With prolonged VUV irradiation, the absorbance of the polymers increased, eventually becoming saturated. The chemical changes were accompanied by surface hardening, as evidenced by the increase in the Young's modulus from 4 to 24 GPa due to glassification of the irradiated parts. The chemically modified layer acts as a shield against photodissociation and degradation of the deeper portion of the POSS polymer by VUV radiation. Applications include the protection of solar cells on low orbit satellites from solar VUV photons.

  9. 157 nm F2-laser writing of silica optical waveguides in silicone rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoshi, Masayuki; Li, Jianzhao; Herman, Peter R.

    2005-10-01

    Silica (SiO2) optical waveguides have been fabricated on the surface of silicone [(SiO(CH3)2)n] rubber by photochemical modification of silicone rubber into silica with 157 nmF2-laser radiation. The 2 mm thick silicone was exposed through a thin (˜0.2 mm) air layer to generate oxygen radicals that chemically assisted in the silica transformation. Silica waveguides were defined in 8-16 µm wide exposure strips by a proximity Cr-on-CaF2 photomask. Optimum laser processing conditions are presented for generating crack-free waveguides with good optical transparency at red (635 nm) and infrared (1550 nm) wavelengths. A propagation loss of ˜6 dB/cm is reported at the 1550 nm wavelength.

  10. 157 nm F2-laser writing of silica optical waveguides in silicone rubber.

    PubMed

    Okoshi, Masayuki; Li, Jianzhao; Herman, Peter R

    2005-10-15

    Silica (SiO2) optical waveguides have been fabricated on the surface of silicone [(SiO(CH3)2)n] rubber by photochemical modification of silicone rubber into silica with 157 nm F2-laser radiation. The 2 mm thick silicone was exposed through a thin (approximately 0.2 mm) air layer to generate oxygen radicals that chemically assisted in the silica transformation. Silica waveguides were defined in 8-16 microm wide exposure strips by a proximity Cr-on-CaF2 photomask. Optimum laser processing conditions are presented for generating crack-free waveguides with good optical transparency at red (635 nm) and infrared (1550 nm) wavelengths. A propagation loss of approximately 6 dB/cm is reported at the 1550 nm wavelength. PMID:16252756

  11. VUV 157nm laser ablation of spherical particles and modelling of whispering gallery mode optical antenna structures

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, C. D.; Cockcroft, S.; Metheringham, W. J.

    2012-07-30

    We report on VUV 157nm F{sub 2} laser irradiation of CR-39 polymer substrates that have been intentionally seeded with spherical glass particles. We discuss the importance of adhesive forces for realizing spherical cavity structures by laser ablation. Strong optical absorption at 157nm in CR-39 enables precise control of pedestal height by controlling the laser fluence and the number of laser pulses. Resonant modes for free-standing spherical cavities have been calculated and we discuss briefly the potential applications for use as optical sources on-board lab-on-chip devices.

  12. Miniature in-line photonic crystal fiber etalon fabricated by 157 nm laser micromachining.

    PubMed

    Ran, Z L; Rao, Y J; Deng, H Y; Liao, X

    2007-11-01

    A miniature in-line fiber-optic Fabry-Perot etalon is fabricated on a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) by using 157 nm laser micromachining for the first time to our knowledge. Experimental results show that such a PCF-based etalon has an excellent fringe visibility of up to approximately 26 dB due to the mirror-finish quality of the two cavity surfaces inside the PCF. This etalon can be used as an ideal sensor for precise strain measurement under high temperature of up to 800 degrees C. It can also offer some other outstanding advantages, such as fast and easy fabrication, high reproducibility, capacity of mass production, low cost, low temperature-strain cross-sensitivity, and high signal-to-noise ratio. PMID:17975600

  13. Excimer Laser Etching

    SciTech Connect

    Boatner, Lynn A; Longmire, Hu Foster; Rouleau, Christopher M; Gray, Allison S

    2008-04-01

    Excimer laser radiation at a wavelength of = 248 nm represents a new etching method for the preparation of metallographic specimens. The method is shown to be particularly effective for enhancing the contrast between different phases in a multiphase metallographic specimen.

  14. Excimer Lasers In Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tittel, Frank K.; Saidi, Iyad S.; Pettit, George H.; Wisoff, P. J.; Sauerbrey, Roland A.

    1989-06-01

    Excimer lasers emit light energy, short optical pulses at ultraviolet wavelengths, that results in a unique laser tissue interaction. This has led to an increasing number of studies into medical applications of these lasers in fields such as ophthalmology, urology, cardiology and neurology.

  15. Excimer laser system Profile-500

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atejev, V. V.; Bukreyev, V. S.; Vartapetov, Serge K.; Semenov, A. D.; Sugrobov, V. A.; Turin, V. S.; Fedorov, Sergei N.

    1999-07-01

    The description of ophthalmological excimer laser system 'PROFILE-500' for photorefractive and physiotherapeutic keratectomy is presented. Excimer Laser Systems 'PROFILE- 500' are optical system that use ArF excimer lasers to perform photorefractive keratectomy or LASIK; surgical procedures used to correct myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism.

  16. Production of microstructures in wide-band-gap and organic materials using pulsed laser ablation at 157 nm wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haehnel, Falk; Bertram, Rene; Reisse, Guenter; Boettcher, Rene; Weissmantel, Steffen

    2010-11-01

    New results on three-dimensional microstructuring of fused silica, sapphire, calcium fluoride, magnesium fluoride, and PTFE using pulsed laser ablation at 157 nm wavelength are presented. A largely automated high-precision fluorine laser micromachining station was used for the investigations. In some fundamental investigations, threshold fluences of 0.9 J/cm2 for fused silica, 0.6 J/cm2 for sapphire, 1.7 J/cm2 for calcium fluoride, and of 0.05 J/cm2 for PTFE have been determined. The ablation rates at 3 J/cm2 fluence were 60 to 100 nm/pulse for the inorganic insulators and 450 nm/pulse for PTFE. In the second part of the paper, it is shown that on the basis of the knowledge of the ablation rates and the laser beam parameters, bores of a few µm size and complex 3D microstructures with a variety of geometries can be produced in the surface of these materials. Thereby, no cracking occurs if proper parameters are used.

  17. Photodissociation of the hydroxyl radical (OH) at 157 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cody, R. J.; Moralejo, C.; Allen, J. E., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The photodissociation of the OH radical was studied at 157 nm via the detection of the product H atoms with the resonance fluorescence technique. OH radicals were produced in a fast-flow cell from the reaction between H and NO2 and subsequently photodissociated by an excimer laser operating on the F2 emission. The quantum yield for photodissociation of OH was measured to be 1.10 + or - 0.28. The photodissociation cross section was calculated to be 6.6 x 10 to the -18th sq cm (+ or - 25 percent).

  18. Excimer laser photoresist stripping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genut, Menachem; Tehar-Zahav, Ofer; Iskevitch, Eli; Livshits, Boris

    1996-06-01

    A new method for stripping the most challenging photoresists on deep sub-micron technology semiconductor wafers has been developed. The method uses a combination of UV excimer laser ablation and reactive chemistry to strip the photoresist in a single dry process, eliminating the wet acids or solvents often used following ashing of high dose implantation (HDI) and reactive ion etching (RIE). The stripping process combines new removal mechanisms: chemical assisted UV excimer laser ablation/etching, laser induced chemical etching of side walls and residues, and enhanced combustion. During the laser pulses photolysis of the process gas occurs, UV laser radiation breaks the photoresist polymer chain bonds, and the photoresist (including foreign materials imbedded in it) is ablated. The combustion is ignited by the ablative impact of laser radiation and enhanced by the radicals formed during photo-thermal decomposition of the process gases. Following this process, the volatilized products and gases are evacuated. The optimum laser stripping conditions were developed to provide a wide process window for the most challenging stripping conditions, such as after HDI and RIE (metal, polysilicon), without causing damage to the wafer devices. A photoresist stripping system based on the described technology was designed and built. The system has been designated as the L-StripperTM and provides stripping time of 0.15 s/(micrometer cm2).

  19. Viability of Cladosporium herbarum spores under 157 nm laser and vacuum ultraviolet irradiation, low temperature (10 K) and vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarantopoulou, E.; Stefi, A.; Kollia, Z.; Palles, D.; Petrou, P. S.; Bourkoula, A.; Koukouvinos, G.; Velentzas, A. D.; Kakabakos, S.; Cefalas, A. C.

    2014-09-01

    Ultraviolet photons can damage microorganisms, which rarely survive prolonged irradiation. In addition to the need for intact DNA, cell viability is directly linked to the functionality of the cell wall and membrane. In this work, Cladosporium herbarum spore monolayers exhibit high viability (7%) when exposed to 157 nm laser irradiation (412 kJm-2) or vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation (110-180 nm) under standard pressure and temperature in a nitrogen atmosphere. Spore viability can be determined by atomic-force microscopy, nano-indentation, mass, μ-Raman and attenuated reflectance Fourier-transform far-infrared spectroscopies and DNA electrophoresis. Vacuum ultraviolet photons cause molecular damage to the cell wall, but radiation resistance in spores arises from the activation of a photon-triggered signaling reaction, expressed via the exudation of intracellular substances, which, in combination with the low penetration depth of vacuum-ultraviolet photons, shields DNA from radiation. Resistance to phototoxicity under standard conditions was assessed, as was resistance to additional environmental stresses, including exposure in a vacuum, under different rates of change of pressure during pumping time and low (10 K) temperatures. Vacuum conditions were far more destructive to spores than vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation, and UV-B photons were two orders of magnitude more damaging than vacuum-ultraviolet photons. The viability of irradiated spores was also enhanced at 10 K. This work, in addition to contributing to the photonic control of the viability of microorganisms exposed under extreme conditions, including decontamination of biological warfare agents, outlines the basis for identifying bio-signaling in vivo using physical methodologies.

  20. Viability of Cladosporium herbarum spores under 157 nm laser and vacuum ultraviolet irradiation, low temperature (10 K) and vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Sarantopoulou, E. Stefi, A.; Kollia, Z.; Palles, D.; Cefalas, A. C.; Petrou, P. S.; Bourkoula, A.; Koukouvinos, G.; Kakabakos, S.; Velentzas, A. D.

    2014-09-14

    Ultraviolet photons can damage microorganisms, which rarely survive prolonged irradiation. In addition to the need for intact DNA, cell viability is directly linked to the functionality of the cell wall and membrane. In this work, Cladosporium herbarum spore monolayers exhibit high viability (7%) when exposed to 157 nm laser irradiation (412 kJm⁻²) or vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation (110–180 nm) under standard pressure and temperature in a nitrogen atmosphere. Spore viability can be determined by atomic-force microscopy, nano-indentation, mass, μ-Raman and attenuated reflectance Fourier-transform far-infrared spectroscopies and DNA electrophoresis. Vacuum ultraviolet photons cause molecular damage to the cell wall, but radiation resistance in spores arises from the activation of a photon-triggered signaling reaction, expressed via the exudation of intracellular substances, which, in combination with the low penetration depth of vacuum-ultraviolet photons, shields DNA from radiation. Resistance to phototoxicity under standard conditions was assessed, as was resistance to additional environmental stresses, including exposure in a vacuum, under different rates of change of pressure during pumping time and low (10 K) temperatures. Vacuum conditions were far more destructive to spores than vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation, and UV-B photons were two orders of magnitude more damaging than vacuum-ultraviolet photons. The viability of irradiated spores was also enhanced at 10 K. This work, in addition to contributing to the photonic control of the viability of microorganisms exposed under extreme conditions, including decontamination of biological warfare agents, outlines the basis for identifying bio-signaling in vivo using physical methodologies.

  1. Production excimer laser equipment overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sercel, Jeffrey P.

    1993-04-01

    Excimer lasers were commercialized in the late 1970's. The laser community thought that by the early 1980's these UV lasers would enjoy a fruitful industrial market position. CO2 and solid state lasers required almost two decades to be fully accepted as industrial machine while the excimer laser was expected to be a fast learner benefiting from the learning curve of its big brothers. In retrospect, early excimer lasers had a bad reputation for being complicated, expensive and frequently out of commission. By the late 1980's a few excimer laser manufacturers had engineered the problems to acceptable levels for successful pilot lines and small scale manufacturing to begin. At this time, the real industrial learning curves began as engineers worked to refine many subsystems and support technologies. Today, excimer lasers are being used as true industrial lasers. They have a bright future with numerous and diverse market opportunities. This paper is an overview of the technologies proven to be successful in adapting modern excimer lasers to successful full production situations.

  2. High power excimer laser micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Ludolf; Paetzel, Rainer

    2006-02-01

    Today's excimer lasers are well-established UV laser sources for a wide variety of micromachining applications. The excimer's high pulse energy and average power at short UV wavelengths make them ideal for ablation of various materials, e. g., polyimide, PMMA, copper, and diamond. Excimer micromachining technology, driven by the ever-shrinking feature sizes of micro-mechanical and micro-electronic devices, is used for making semiconductor packaging microvias, ink jet nozzle arrays, and medical devices. High-power excimer laser systems are capable of processing large areas with resolution down to several microns without using wet chemical processes. For instance, drilling precise tapered holes and reel-to-reel manufacturing of disposable sensors have proven to be very cost-effective manufacturing techniques for volume production. Specifically, the new industrial excimer laser-the LAMBDA SX 315C-easily meets the high demands of cost-effective production. The stabilized output power of 315 watts at 300 Hz (308 nm) and its outstanding long-term stability make this laser ideal for high-duty-cycle, high-throughput micromachining. In this paper, high-power excimer laser technology, products, applications, and beam delivery systems will be discussed.

  3. Wavelength conversion with excimer lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, J.; Eichner, L.; Storz, R.H.; Bucksbaum, P.H.; Freeman, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Harmonic generation was studied using a high powered, ultrashort pulse KrF excimer laser. Third, fifth, and seventh harmonic outputs were observed at 82.8 nm, 49.7 nm, and 35.5 nm. The nonlinear interaction took place at the intersection of the laser focus with a pulsed, supersonic gas jet expansion.

  4. Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers

    DOEpatents

    Shurter, Roger P.

    1992-01-01

    A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput.

  5. Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers

    DOEpatents

    Shurter, R.P.

    1992-09-15

    A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput. 3 figs.

  6. Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) of Hg2 and Hg3 via dissociation of HgBr2 at 157 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skordoulis, C.; Sarantopoulou, E.; Spyrou, S. M.; Kosmidis, C.; Cefalas, A. C.

    1991-06-01

    Laser induced fluorescence of the mercury clusters Hg2 and Hg3 in the spectral range between 300 nm to 510 nm has been obtained from the dissociation of HgBr2 at 7.88 eV (157.5 nm) with an F2 molecular laser, together with fluorescence from mercury atomic transitions from highly excited states. The excitation process involves two photon absorption which dissociates the molecule at 15.76 eV total photon energy with the subsequent formation of the metallic clusters.

  7. Semiconductor processing with excimer lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Young, R.T.; Narayan, J.; Christie, W.H.; van der Leeden, G.A.; Rothe, D.E.; Cheng, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    The advantages of pulsed excimer lasers for semiconductor processing are reviewed. Extensive comparisons of the quality of annealing of ion-implanted Si obtained with XeCl and ruby lasers have been made. The results indicate that irrespective of the large differences in the optical properties of Si at uv and visible wavelengths, the efficiency of usage of the incident energy for annealing is comparable for the two lasers. However, because of the excellent optical beam quality, the XeCl laser can provide superior control of the surface melting and the resulting junction depth. Furthermore, the concentrations of electrically active point defects in the XeCl laser annealed region are 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than that obtained from ruby or Nd:YAG lasers. All these results seem to suggest that XeCl lasers should be suitable for fabricating not only solar cells but also the more advanced device structures required for VLSI or VHSIC applications.

  8. Excimer laser in arthroscopic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koort, Hans J.

    1991-05-01

    The development of efficient high-power lasersystems for use in surgery, especially in arthroscopic fields, leads to a new push for all endoscopic techniques. Both techniques, laser and endoscope, complete each other in an ideal way and allow applications which could not be reached with conventional techniques. One of the newer laser types is the excimer laser, which will be a good choice for surface treatment because of its very considerate interaction with tissue. One example is the ablation or smoothing of articular cartilage and meniscal shaving in orthopaedics. On the other hand, the power of this laser system is high enough to cut tissue, for instance in the lateral release, and offers therefore an alternative to the mechanical and electrical instruments. All lasers can only work fine with effective delivery systems. Sometimes there is only a single fiber, which becomes very stiff at diameters of more than 800 micrometers . This fiber often allows only the tangential treatment of tissue, most of the laser power is lost in the background. New fiber systems with many, sometimes hundreds of very thin single fibers, could offer a solution. Special handpieces and fibersystems offer distinct advantages in small joint arthroscopy, especially those for use with excimer lasers will be discussed.

  9. Excimer laser chemical problems

    SciTech Connect

    Tennant, R.; Peterson, N.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques need to be developed to maintain XeF and XeCl laser performance over long periods of time without degradation resulting from chemical processes occurring within the laser. The dominant chemical issues include optical damage, corrosions of laser materials, gas contamination, and control of halogen concentration. Each of these issues are discussed and summarized. The methods of minimizing or controlling the chemical processes involved are presented.

  10. Excimer laser ablation of ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, A. C.; Leung, W. P.; Krajnovich, D.

    1991-02-01

    Laser etching of ferrites was previously done by scanning a focused continuous-wave laser beam on a ferrite sample in a chemical environment. We study the phenomenon of photo-ablation of Ni-Zn or Mn-Zn ferrites by pulsed 248-nm KrF excimer laser irradiation. A transfer lens system is used to project a grating pattern of a mask irradiated by the pulsed KrF laser onto the ferrite sample. The threshold fluence for ablation at the ferrite surface is about 0.3 J/cm2. A typical fluence of 1 J/cm2 is used. The etched grooves produced are typically 20-50 μm wide, with depths achieved as deep as 70 μm . Groove straightness is good as long as a sharp image is projected onto the sample surface. The wall angle is steeper than 60 degrees. Scanning electron microscopy of the etched area shows a ``glassy'' skin with extensive microcracks and solidified droplets being ejected that is frozen in action. We found that this skin can be entirely removed by ultrasonic cleaning. A fairly efficient etching rate of about 10 nm/pulse for a patterned area of about 2 mm×2 mm is obtained at a fluence of 1 J/cm2. This study shows that projection excimer laser ablation is useful for micromachining of ferrite ceramics, and indicates that a hydrodynamic sputtering mechanism involving droplet emission is a cause of material removal.

  11. Excimer lasers drive large-area microprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmdahl, Ralph; Tapié, Jean-Luc

    2012-09-01

    Excimer lasers emitting in the UV to far UV region are by nature the laser sources enabling the highest optical resolution and strongest material-photon interaction. At the same time, excimer lasers deliver unmatched UV pulse energies and output powers up to the kilowatt range. Thus, they are the key to fast and effective large area processing of smallest structures with micron precision. As a consequence, excimer lasers are the UV technology of choice when it comes to high-performance microstructuring with unsurpassed quality and process repeatability in applications such as drilling advanced ink jet nozzles or patterning biomedical sensor structures.

  12. 308nm excimer laser in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Mehraban, Shadi; Feily, Amir

    2014-01-01

    308nm xenon-chloride excimer laser, a novel mode of phototherapy, is an ultraviolet B radiation system consisting of a noble gas and halide. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the literature and summarize all the experiments, clinical trials and case reports on 308-nm excimer laser in dermatological disorders. 308-nm excimer laser has currently a verified efficacy in treating skin conditions such as vitiligo, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, alopecia areata, allergic rhinitis, folliculitis, granuloma annulare, lichen planus, mycosis fungoides, palmoplantar pustulosis, pityriasis alba, CD30+ lympho proliferative disorder, leukoderma, prurigo nodularis, localized scleroderma and genital lichen sclerosus. Although the 308-nm excimer laser appears to act as a promising treatment modality in dermatology, further large-scale studies should be undertaken in order to fully affirm its safety profile considering the potential risk, however minimal, of malignancy, it may impose. PMID:25606333

  13. Granuloma Annulare Treated with Excimer Laser

    PubMed Central

    Ragi, Jennifer; Milgraum, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To review the current therapy for granuloma annulare and report a case of refractory generalized granuloma annulare successfully treated with excimer laser. A discussion about the characteristics of excimer laser and the mechanism of its effectiveness is presented. Design: Patient case report and literature review. Setting: Outpatient dermatology practice. Participants: A 73-year-old woman suffering from generalized granuloma annulare for more than 40 years. Measurements: Change in clinical appearance of lesions. Results: Use of excimer laser therapy resulted in prompt and complete resolution in treated areas with no residual skin changes or side effects. Conclusion: Excimer laser therapy is a powerful treatment modality with minimal side effects for patients with granuloma annulare. Further study is necessary to elucidate optimal dosing, long-term efficacy, and safety profile. PMID:23198013

  14. Effect of excimer laser on microbiological organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Keates, R.H.; Drago, P.C.; Rothchild, E.J.

    1988-10-01

    The effect of radiation emitted from an excimer laser filled with argon fluoride gas at 193 nm on Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus faecalis, Hemophilus influenzae, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger (collectively labeled the microorganisms) was examined. Colonies were subjected to a variable number of radiation pulses from the excimer laser applied after a 36-hour period of incubation at 37 degrees C, at which time the colonies were fully grown and showed no viability. The lack of viability was confirmed with a subculture from each area that received radiation; all subcultures were negative. The characteristics of the radiation paralleled those used by Serdavic, Darrell, Krueger, et al in 1985. This radiation treatment is believed to be within a therapeutic range, which suggests that the excimer laser, pending further investigation, may be useful in the treatment of corneal infections.

  15. 308-nm excimer laser in endodontics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liesenhoff, Tim

    1992-06-01

    Root canal preparation was performed on 20 extracted human teeth. After opening the coronal pulp, the root canals were prepared by 308 nm excimer laser only. All root canals were investigated under SEM after separation in the axial direction. By sagittal separation of the mandibles of freshly slaughtered cows, it was possible to get access to the tissues and irradiate under optical control. Under irradiation of excimer laser light, tissue starts to fluoresce. It was possible to demonstrate that each tissue (dentin, enamel, bone, pulpal, and connective tissue) has a characteristic spectral pattern. The SEM analyses showed that it is well possible to prepare root canals safely. All organic soft tissue has been removed by excimer laser irradiation. There was no case of via falsa. The simultaneous spectroscopic identification of the irradiated tissue provides a safe protection from overinstrumentation. First clinical trials on 20 patients suffering of chronical apical parodontitis have been carried out successfully.

  16. Excimer laser photorefractive surgery of the cornea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaster, Ronald N.

    1998-09-01

    The 193 nm argon fluoride (ArF) excimer laser can effectively be used to change the radius of curvature of the cornea and thus alter the refractive state of the eye. This change allows myopic (nearsighted) patients to see well with less dependence on glasses or contact lenses. The two major techniques of laser refractive surgery currently in effect in the United States are photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). This paper will discuss these refractive cornea surgical techniques.

  17. Corneal topography of excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy.

    PubMed

    Klyce, S D; Smolek, M K

    1993-01-01

    The application of the 193 nm excimer laser for keratorefractive surgery promises to deliver a higher degree of precision and predictability than traditional procedures such as radial keratotomy. The development and evaluation of keratorefractive surgery have benefited from the parallel advances made in the field of corneal topography analysis. We used the Computed Anatomy Topography Modeling System (TMS-1) to analyze a Louisiana State University (LSU) Eye Center series of patients who had photorefractive keratectomy for the treatment of myopia with the VISX Twenty/Twenty excimer laser system. The excimer ablations were characterized by a relatively uniform distribution of surface powers within the treated zone. In the few cases that exhibited marked refractive regression, corneal topography analysis showed correlative changes. With topographical analysis, centration of the ablations relative to the center of the pupil could be evaluated. Marked improvement in centration occurred in the patients of LSU Series IIB in which the procedure to locate the point on the cornea directly over the pupil's center during surgery was refined. Corneal topographical analysis provides objective measures of keratorefractive surgical results and is able to measure the precise tissue removal effect of excimer laser ablation without the uncertainties caused by measuring visual acuity alone. Our observations forecast the need for improved aids to center the laser ablations and for the development of a course of treatment to prevent post-ablation stromal remodeling. PMID:8450433

  18. Percutaneous angioscopy after excimer laser angioplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Fumitaka; Kvasnicka, Jan; Geschwind, Herbert J.; Uchida, Yasumi

    1992-08-01

    Angioscopy has proved to provide more detailed information on lesion morphology before and after interventional procedures than angiography. Therefore, to evaluate the effects of laser angioplasty, angioscopy was performed in five patients with peripheral or coronary vascular disease who underwent excimer laser angioplasty. The excimer laser was operated at 308 nm, 135 nsec, 25 Hz, and 40 - 60 mJ/mm2 and was coupled into multifiber wire-guided catheters of 1.4 to 2.0 mm diameter for coronary lesions and 2.2 mm for peripheral lesions. There were three coronary (one left anterior descending, one circumflex, one right coronary artery) and two peripheral (one common iliac artery, one superficial femoral artery) lesions. Angioscopy was successfully performed before and after laser ablation without any complications in all five lesions. The characteristics of angioscopic findings after excimer laser angioplasty consisted of flaps, fractures of plaques, and abundant tissue remnants. There was no apparent thermal injury. Recanalized channels were small and irregular. These results indicate that (1) angioscopy is effective and safe for evaluation of lesion morphology after laser angioplasty, (2) laser ablation does not result in thermal injury, and (3) irregular channels after recanalization and abundant tissue remnants may explain the suboptimal results after laser angioplasty.

  19. Excimer Laser Application For Cataract Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bath, Patricia E.; Mueller, Gerhard; Apple, David J.; Stolzenburg, Norbert M.

    1988-06-01

    The ablation threshold of bovine lenses was determined for excimer laser radiatiF at 308 nanreters. The ablation th5eshold for bovine lenses was approximately 0.6J/cm +/-0.1J/cm , for cortex and 1J/cm for nucleus. The threshold for bovine nucleus was higher than the threshold for cortex and difference was statistically significant at the 0.05 level. The relatively low ablation threshold for bovine lenses demonstrates the potential effectiveness of excimer laser radiation at 308 nm for cataract surgery. An experimental prototype has been developed and results of its application demonstrated. Further experiments to demonstrate safety for the retina and adjacent ocular structures are necessary because of the well known hazards of ultraviolet radiation. The potential of theleymir laser for keratorefractive surgery is currently under intensive investigation. In preliminary studies the ablation behavior of bovine lenses was investigated. The objective of this study was to quantify ablation rates as the first step in determining the specification for a laser system which would be practical in the clinical setting. Although excimer laser systems are available at 193 nm (ArF), 248 (KrF) and 351 (xeF) we selected 308 nm because of the availability of fiberoptics for the transmission of 308 nm as well as the known absorbance of human lenses in the 280 nm region.

  20. Human excimer laser corneal surgery: preliminary report.

    PubMed Central

    L'Esperance, F A; Taylor, D M; Del Pero, R A; Roberts, A; Gigstad, J; Stokes, M T; Warner, J W; Telfair, W B; Martin, C A; Yoder, P R

    1988-01-01

    The first human trial utilizing the argon fluoride excimer laser at 193 nm to produce a superficial keratectomy in ten human eyes has been described with the histopathological evaluation of four eyes and the longer gross appearance of six eyes at intervals extending to 10 months post-excimer laser treatment. The process of laser superficial keratectomy has proved to be one of the promising areas of surgical intervention for reconstructive or refractive keratoplasty in the future. Intensive investigations need to be undertaken on the corneal wound healing process following laser ablation as well as the nature, and long-term stability of the corneal excisions or induced refractive corrections. It is essential that the optimal laser parameters be established for the various refractive corrections and other corneal surgical techniques, and that pathophysiologic and histopathologic changes that have been induced by the excimer laser-corneal tissue interaction in animals and humans be critically and extensively analyzed. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 19 A FIGURE 19 B FIGURE 20 A FIGURE 20 B FIGURE 21 A FIGURE 21 B FIGURE 22 A FIGURE 22 B FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 A FIGURE 29 B FIGURE 29 C FIGURE 29 D FIGURE 30 A FIGURE 30 B FIGURE 31 A FIGURE 31 B FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 37 A FIGURE 37 B FIGURE 37 C FIGURE 38 A FIGURE 38 B FIGURE 39 A FIGURE 39 B FIGURE 39 C FIGURE 40 A FIGURE 40 B PMID:2979049

  1. Progress in discharge-pumped excimer lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pike, Charles T.

    1993-04-01

    This paper describes recent results achieved in the development of discharge pumped excimer lasers at the Textron Defense Systems organization (formerly the Avco Research Laboratory). Included is a description of a KrF laser with more than one Joule output at 2.4% efficiency, a 200 mJ XeCl laser operating with a 500 nsec wide pulse, and a several Joule, discharge pumped, KrCl laser operating at 222 nm. All of these devices are switched using thyratrons and are therefore capable of repetitive performance. The KrF and XeCl experiments were conducted with the same laser device operating with a conventional capacitor transfer excitation circuit for the KrF experiments but modified to operate with a pulser-sustainer discharge circuit using magnetic switching for the XeCl tests. The KrCl device is a 40 liter volume system built by Northrop and also operates with a magnetically switched discharge.

  2. Excimer laser machining of optical fiber taps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyle, Richard J.; Serafino, Anthony J.; Grimes, Gary J.; Bortolini, James R.

    1991-05-01

    Precision openings for construction of an optical backplane have been machined in an optical fiber using an excimer laser operating at a wavelength of 193 nm. The openings were made by imaging the laser beam onto the polymer fiber cladding with a telescope, then ablating the cladding with a sufficient number of pulses to expose the core. Circular openings measuring 250 and 625 microns and elliptical openings measuring 650 X 350 microns have been made in the cladding of a 1 mm polymer-clad silica fiber. Examination by scanning electron microscopy reveals that the best quality openings are obtained with either the smaller circular geometry or the elliptical geometry. For various reasons, elliptical openings, with the major axis oriented along the longitudinal axis of the fiber, appear more suitable for tap construction. Individual optical fiber taps have been constructed by attaching a tap fiber to a laser machined opening in a central fiber using an ultraviolet-curable acralate. Individual tap measurements were made on the elliptical and the 250 micron circular openings. In addition, a triple tap assembly was made using elliptical tap openings. These results indicate that the excimer laser machining technique may be applicable to the construction of a linear tapped bus for optical backplanes.

  3. Research of the quenched dye lasers pumped by excimer lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Xue Shaolin; Lou Qihong

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, the quenched dye lasers pumped by XeCl and KrF excimer lasers were investigated theoretically and experimentally. Dye laser pulses with duration of 0.8 ns for XeCl laser pumping and 2 ns for KrF laser pumping were obtained. The dye Rhodamine 6G dissolved in methyl was used as the active medium in the quenched dye laser. When the pump laser was KrF and the active medium was Coumarin 498 the quenched dye laser emitted pulse with duration of about 2 ns. The characteristics of the quenched dye laser was also investigated in detail.

  4. Excimer laser irradiation of metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsman, Grant

    In this work a new method of enhancing CO2 laser processing by modifying the radiative properties of a metal surface is studied. In this procedure, an excimer laser (XeCl) or KrF) exposes the metal surface to overlapping pulses of high intensity, 10(exp 8) - 10(exp 9) W cm(exp -2), and short pulse duration, 30 nsec FWHM (Full Width Half Maximum), to promote structural and chemical change. The major processing effect at these intensities is the production of a surface plasma which can lead to the formation of a laser supported detonation wave (LSD wave). This shock wave can interact with the thin molten layer on the metal surface influencing to a varying degree surface oxidation and roughness features. The possibility of the expulsion, oxidation and redeposition of molten droplets, leading to the formation of micron thick oxide layers, is related to bulk metal properties and the incident laser intensity. A correlation is found between the expulsion of molten droplets and a Reynolds number, showing the interaction is turbulent. The permanent effects of these interactions on metal surfaces are observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transient calorimetric measurements and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Observed surface textures are related to the scanning procedures used to irradiate the metal surface. Fundamental radiative properties of a metal surface, the total hemispherical emissivity, the near-normal spectral absorptivity, and others are examined in this study as they are affected by excimer laser radiation. It is determined that for heavily exposed Al surface, alpha' (10.6 microns) can be increased to values close to unity. Data relating to material removal rates and chemical surface modification for excimer laser radiation is also discussed. The resultant reduction in the near-normal reflectivity solves the fundamental problem of coupling laser radiation into highly reflective and conductive metals such as copper and aluminum. The

  5. Optical Pattern Generator Using Excimer Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafner, Bernhard F.

    1988-01-01

    Reticles (masks on enlarged scale) are needed for optical pattern transfer in the production of integrated semiconductor circuits. In order to meet present requirements for 5X reticles only a direct writing technique is feasible. This means direct exposing of photoresist either with light or an electron beam. Many of todays highly dense reticles require some 10 5 to 10 6 discrete exposures when generated with an optical pattern generator. Optical pattern generators normally use mercury arc lamps to expose positive photoresist, which in turn need 200 milliseconds for each of these discrete exposures, thus requiring to stop the table at every exposure position ("stop and go" mode). This results in running times of several days per reticle. Therefore most reticles are nowadays being manufactured with very expensive e-beam machines. In the early 80's we started the first experiments to expose photoresist with an excimer laser. In order to obtain the maximum gain in speed, the goal was to operate with only one excimer laser pulse per exposure, so that a fast "flash on the fly" operation with an optical pattern generator became true. Equipping a conventional optical pattern generator with an excimer laser as the light source, it has become possible to expose substrates coated with standard photoresist in the "flash on the fly" mode with only 13 nanoseconds per flash. So the thruput could be increased up to 25 times in comparison to a pattern generator equipped with a mercury lamp. A comparison of both operation modes will show that an immense increase of speed is possible, even when a ten years old M3600 pattern generator is used. This system is in function now with very high reliability since more than three years in our IC development line.

  6. Fluorinated dissolution inhibitors for 157-nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamad, Alyssandrea H.; Bae, Young C.; Liu, Xiang-Qian; Ober, Christopher K.; Houlihan, Francis M.; Dabbagh, Gary; Novembre, Anthony E.

    2002-07-01

    Fluorinated dissolution inhibitors (DIs) for 157 nm lithography were designed and synthesized as part of an ongoing study on the structure/property relationships of photoresist additives. The problem of volatilization of small DI candidates was observed from matrices such as poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(hexafluorohydroxy-isopropyl styrene) (PHFHIPS) during post-apply bake cycles using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). To avoid this problem, low volatility fluorinated inhibitors were designed and synthesized. Three fluorinated DIs, perfluorosuberic acid bis-(2,2,2,-trifluoro-1-phenyl-1-trifluoromethyl-ethyl) ester (PFSE1), perfluorosuberic acid bis-[1-(4-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl] ester (PFSE2) and a fluorinated phenylmethanediol diester (FPMD1), largely remained in a PHFHIPS film during the post-apply bake. The dissolution behavior of the two fluorinated diesters was studied and found to slow down the dissolution rate of PHFHIPS with inhibition factors of 1.9 and 1.6, respectively. The absorbance of PHFHIPS films containing 10 wt% of the diester inhibitors is 3.6 AU/micron compared with an absorbance of 3.3 AU/micron for the polymer itself. The absorbance of 10% FPMD1 in PHFHIPS was measured as 3.5 AU/micron compared with an absorbance of 3.4 AU/micron for the polymer itself. Thus, the non-volatility and transparency of the fluorinated inhibitors at 157 nm as well as their ability to reduce the development rate of fluorinated polymers make them suitable for use in a 157 nm resist system.

  7. Excimer laser annealing for low-voltage power MOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Okada, Tatsuya; Noguchi, Takashi; Mazzamuto, Fulvio; Huet, Karim

    2016-08-01

    Excimer laser annealing of lumped beam was performed to form the P-base junction for high-performance low-voltage-power MOSFET. An equivalent shallow-junction structure for the P-base junction with a uniform impurity distribution is realized by adopting excimer laser annealing (ELA). The impurity distribution in the P-base junction can be controlled precisely by the irradiated pulse energy density and the number of shots of excimer laser. High impurity activation for the shallow junction has been confirmed in the melted phase. The application of the laser annealing technology in the fabrication process of a practical low-voltage trench gate MOSFET was also examined.

  8. Excimer laser induced nanostructuring of silicon surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prashant; Krishna, Mamidipudi Ghanashyam; Bhattacharya, Ashok

    2009-05-01

    The effect of KrF excimer laser energy density (below and above the ablation threshold), number of shots and angle of laser incidence on the morphological reconstruction, structure and specular reflectance of Si[311] surfaces is reported. At low energy densities (0.1 to 0.3 J/cm2) laser irradiation results in a variety of nanostructures, depending on laser energy density and number of shots, such as nanopores (40-60 nm dia) and nanoparticles (40-80 nm dia). At energies greater than the laser ablation threshold (2 to 5 J/cm2) the formation of nanowires (200 nm dia, 6-8 microm length), and closely spaced silicon nanograins (100-150 nm dia) is observed. Experiments to study the effect of laser irradiation in the proximity of a fixed shape such as a linear step edge in the form of a stainless steel blade and a cylindrical cross-section Cu wire were also carried out. In both cases, linearly organized nanoparticles (150-200 nm diameter) and nanowires (60-80 nm diameter) formed close to the edge. There is a systematic degradation of long-range order with the number of shots and laser energy density as evidenced from X-ray diffraction studies. At an energy density of 2 J/cm2, and 100 shots the [311] oriented silicon surface made a transition to a randomly oriented nanocrystalline state. PMID:19452995

  9. Ignition by excimer laser photolysis of ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, D.; Dunn-Rankin, D.; Hom, K.; Brown, N.J.

    1987-08-01

    The authors have ignited mixtures of hydrogen, oxygen, and ozone in closed cells with 248 nm radiation from a KrF excimer laser. Ozone, the only significant absorber in this system, absorbs a single photon and produces oxygen atoms which initiate combustion. A discretized, time-dependent Beer's law model is used to demonstrate that the radical concentration immediately after photolysis is a function of laser power, ozone concentration, focal length, and separation between the lens and reactions cell. Spark schlieren photographs are used to visualize the ignition events and identify the ignition sites. The effects of equivalence ratio, pressure, and the initial gas temperature on the minimum ozone concentration needed to produce ignition are presented, and only the initial temperature has a significant effect.

  10. Excimer laser ablation of ferrite ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, A. C.; Leung, W. P.; Krajnovich, D.

    We study the ablation of Ni-Zn or Mn-7n ferrites by 248-nm KrF excimer laser irradiation for high-resolution patterning. A transfer lens system is used to project the image of a mask irradiated by the pulsed KrF laser onto the ferrite sample. The threshold fluente for ablation of the ferrite surface is about 0.3 J/cm2. A typical fluente of 1 J/cm2 is used to produce good-quality patterning. Scanning electron microscopy of the ablated area shows a "glassy" skin with extensive microcracks and solidified droplets being ejected that is frozen in action. This skin can be removed by ultrasonic cleaning.

  11. XeCl excimer laser excited by longitudinal discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Z.; Zeng, Y.; Qiu, M.

    1983-08-15

    XeCl excimer laser excited by longitudinal gas discharge is reported. The main characteristics of the laser output and the laser energy in dependence of the operating parameters were measured. The laser pulse duration was 35 ns and the maximum laser energy 317 ..mu..J with improvement by preionization.

  12. The excimer laser: science fiction fantasy or practical tool?

    PubMed

    Biamino, Giancarlo

    2004-12-01

    Nearly 20 years ago, in vitro experiments left no doubt about the fact that laser light can ablate atherosclerotic plaque. The initial enthusiastic results with the technology, particularly in coronary arteries, were followed by reports showing unacceptably high restenosis and complication rates. These poor results were due to the premature application of an underdeveloped technology, a lack of understanding of laser/tissue interaction, and the use of incorrect lasing techniques. Consequently, and without discrimination, all lasers were banned from the catheterization laboratories for nearly a decade. Technological enhancements of the excimer laser, combined with refined catheter lasing techniques, resulted in greater debulking of atherosclerotic material in long superficial femoral artery occlusions. These results triggered the application of the excimer laser technique as an atherectomy tool in more complex lesions below the knee. The multicenter Laser Atherectomy for Critical Ischemia study clearly demonstrated that the excimer laser technology resulted in limb salvage rates >90% in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). Furthermore, new clinical results indicate that the excimer laser is very effective in dissolving thrombotic obstructions, redirecting this technology to the coronary field. The results of the excimer laser in CLI validate the role of the cool laser in treating complex peripheral vascular disease. The results suggest a larger indication for this technology and support a more aggressive use of these interventional techniques in the treatment of this large patient cohort. However, all lasers are not equally effective in debulking atherosclerotic material. Only the athermic process associated with the excimer laser produces a safe and effective endovascular ablation of obstructive atherosclerotic and/or thrombotic material. The appropriate and safe utilization of the equipment and lasing techniques, combined with correct indications and

  13. Excimer laser ceramic and metal surface alloying applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hontzopoulos, E.; Zervaki, A.; Zergioti, Y.; Hourdakis, G.; Raptakis, E.; Giannacopoulos, A.; Fotakis, C.

    1991-02-01

    Recent excimer laser based deposition and surface modification techniques for ceramic and metallurgical engineering applications are reported. These include the improvement of the anti-corrosion and erosion properties and wear resistance of metal alloys and the formation of surface conducting patterns on ceramic materials. Excimer laser chemical vapour deposition (LCVD) applications B, AI and Hf or multielement combinations are discussed together with studies which aim at a better understanding of the fundamental processes governing the deposition process.

  14. Calcified lesion modeling for excimer laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Holly A.; Archuleta, Andrew; Splinter, Robert

    2009-06-01

    Objective: Develop a representative calcium target model to evaluate penetration of calcified plaque lesions during atherectomy procedures using 308 nm Excimer laser ablation. Materials and Methods: An in-vitro model representing human calcified plaque was analyzed using Plaster-of-Paris and cement based composite materials as well as a fibrinogen model. The materials were tested for mechanical consistency. The most likely candidate(s) resulting from initial mechanical and chemical screening was submitted for ablation testing. The penetration rate of specific multi-fiber catheter designs and a single fiber probe was obtained and compared to that in human cadaver calcified plaque. The effects of lasing parameters and catheter tip design on penetration speed in a representative calcified model were verified against the results in human cadaver specimens. Results: In Plaster of Paris, the best penetration was obtained using the single fiber tip configuration operating at 100 Fluence, 120 Hz. Calcified human lesions are twice as hard, twice as elastic as and much more complex than Plaster of Paris. Penetration of human calcified specimens was highly inconsistent and varied significantly from specimen to specimen and within individual specimens. Conclusions: Although Plaster of Paris demonstrated predictable increases in penetration with higher energy density and repetition rate, it can not be considered a totally representative laser ablation model for calcified lesions. This is in part due to the more heterogeneous nature and higher density composition of cadaver intravascular human calcified occlusions. Further testing will require a more representative model of human calcified lesions.

  15. Excimer laser ablation of the lens.

    PubMed

    Nanevicz, T M; Prince, M R; Gawande, A A; Puliafito, C A

    1986-12-01

    Ablation of the bovine crystalline lens was studied using radiation from an excimer laser at four ultraviolet wave lengths as follows: 193 nm (argon fluoride), 248 nm (krypton fluoride), 308 nm (xenon chloride), and 351 nm (xenon fluoride). The ablation process was quantitated by measuring mass ablated with an electronic balance, and characterized by examining ablation craters with scanning electron microscopy. The highest ablation rate was observed at 248 nm with lower rates at 193 and 308 nm. No ablation was observed at 351 nm. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the smoothest craters at 193 nm while at 248 nm there was vacuolization in the crater walls and greater disruption of surrounding tissue. The craters made at 308 nm did not have as smooth a contour as the 193-nm lesions. The spectral absorbance of the bovine lens was calculated at the wavelengths used for ablation and correlated with ablation rates and thresholds. High peak-power, pulsed ultraviolet laser radiation may have a role in surgical removal of the lens. PMID:3789982

  16. Ignition by excimer laser photolysis of ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, D.; Dunn-Rankin, D.; Hom, K.; Brown, N.J.

    1986-10-01

    We have ignited mixtures of hydrogen, oxygen, and ozone in closed cells with 248 nm radiation from a KrF excimer laser. Ozone, the only significant absorber in this system, absorbs a single photon and produces oxygen atoms which initiate combustion. A discretized, time-dependent Beer's law model is used to demonstrate that the radical concentration immediately after photolysis is a function of laser power, ozone concentration, focal length, and separation between the lens and reaction cell. Spark schileren photographs are used to visualize the ignition events and identify the ignition sites. The effects of equivalence ratio, pressure, and the initial gas temperature on the minimum ozone concentration needed to produce ignition are presented, and only the initial temperature has a significant effect. Modelling studies of the ignition process aid in the interpretation of the experimental results, and show that the ignition we observe is not due solely to thermal effects, but is strongly dependent on the number and type of radicals present initially after photolysis. Ignition using other hydocarbons as fuels was also demonstrated. 30 refs., 9 figs. 2 tabs.

  17. Ignition by excimer laser photolysis of ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, D.; Dunn-Rankin, D.; Hom, K.; Brown, N.J.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have ignited mixtures of hydrogen, oxygen, and ozone in closed cells with 248 nm radiation from a KrF excimer laser. Ozone, the only significant absorber in this system, absorbs a single photon and produces oxygen atoms which initiate combustion. A discretized, time-dependent Beer's law model is used to demonstrate that the radical concentration immediately after photolysis is a function of laser power, ozone concentration, focal length, and separation between the lens and reaction cell. Spark schlieren photographs are used to visualize the ignition events and identify the ignition sites. The effects of equivalence ratio, pressure, and the initial gas temperature on the minimum ozone concentration needed to produce ignition are presented, and only the initial temperature has a significant effect. Modelling studies of the igniton process aid in the interpretation of the experimental results, and show that the ignition is not due solely to thermal effects, but is strongly dependent on the number and type of radicals present initially after photolysis. Ignition using other hydrocarbons as fuels was also demonstrated.

  18. Matrix metalloproteinase expression in excimer laser wounded rabbit corneas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Taewon; Chamon, Wallace; Akova, Yonja; Stark, Walter J.; Stetler-Stevenson, William G.; Azar, Dimitri T.

    1994-06-01

    This study was performed to obtain information about matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression in excimer-wounded corneas and to determine whether MMPs expression correlates with the depth of the ablation. 6-mm excimer keratectomy (60 or 180 micrometers ) was performed using the 193-mm ArF excimer laser on 12 NZW rabbits. Corneas treated with mechanical epithelial debridement and untreated corneas served as controls. Rabbits were killed at 20 and 30 hr after laser ablation. Zymography after SDS extraction was performed on regenerated central epithelium and the central stroma to determine MMPs expression. We observed enzymatic activity of a 92 KDa band in the epithelium of excimer-ablated corneas but not in that following debridement wounds and untreated controls. The expression of the 92 KDa MMP was most pronounced with the deeper excimer ablation. A 72 KDa band of enzymatic activity present in the stroma of all treated and control eyes was also seen in the epithelium of excimer-ablated corneas. These proteolytic enzymes may play an important role in wound healing and remodelling after excimer keratectomy.

  19. The Excimer Laser: Its Impact on Science and Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basting, Dirk

    2010-03-01

    After the laser was demonstrated in 1960, 15 years were required to develop a practical method for extending laser emission into the UV: the Excimer laser. This historical review will describe the challenges with the new medium and provide an insight into the technological achievements. In the transition from Science to Industry it will be shown how start-ups successfully commercialized laboratory prototypes. The pioneers in this rapidly expanding field will be identified and the influence of government-funded research as well as the role of venture capital will be discussed. In scientific applications, the fields of photochemistry and material research were particularly stimulated by the advent of a reliable UV light source. Numerous industrial applications and worldwide research in novel applications were fueled In the early and mid 80's by progress in excimer laser performance and technology. The discovery of ablative photocomposition of polymer materials by Srinivasan at IBM opened the door to a multitude of important excimer applications. Micromachining with extreme precision with an excimer laser enabled the success of the inkjet printer business. Biological materials such as the human cornea can also be ``machined'' at 193nm, as proposed in 1983 by Trokel and Srinivasan. This provided the foundation of a new medical technology and an industry relying on the excimer laser to perform refractive surgery to correct vision Today, by far the largest use of the excimer laser is in photolithography to manufacture semiconductor chips, an application discovered by Jain at IBM in the early 80's. Moore's law of shrinking the size of the structure to multiply the number of transistors on a chip could not have held true for so long without the deep UV excimer laser as a light source. The presentation will conclude with comments on the most recent applications and latest market trends.

  20. Excimer Laser Surface Treatment Of Non-Ferrous Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiopoulos, Michael; Hontzopoulos, Elias I.; Fotakis, Costas; Tsipas, D. N.; Floros, T.

    1989-04-01

    Excimer laser (KrF, ArF) radiation has been used for the surface modification of Al - Si and Ni alloys with the aim to improve their corrosion-errosion and hardness properties. A variety of experimental techniques including direct laser surface treatment and laser assisted chemical vapour deposition (CVD) have been employed and the parameters for process optimization have been determined.

  1. Surface treatment of metals with excimer and CO2 lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haidemenopoulos, G. N.; Zervaki, A.; Papadimitriou, K.; Tsipas, D. N.; McIntosh, J.; Zergioti, G.; Manousaki, G.; Hontzopoulos, Elias I.

    1993-05-01

    The availability of a variety of lasers including the high-power cw CO2 lasers, the pulsed- mode infrared Nd-YAG, and the pulsed-mode ultraviolet excimer laser has led to the development of many interesting applications of laser technology to materials processing. Among them the surface modification of metallic alloys appears to be one of the most important and very close to implementation in various industries. Specifically the applications of excimer lasers have been discussed in a recent workshop in the framework of the Eureka EU 205 program. The major topics concerned with surface modifications that were discussed in this workshop were surface smoothing and roughening, surface cleaning of Ti and Cu, mixing and interdiffusion of predeposited layers, surface irradiation of Cu-alloys to improve the corrosion resistance, surface remelting of Al-alloys for grain refinement through rapid solidification, and surface remelting of Ni-P electroless coatings on Al alloys for the improvement of corrosion resistance. Laser alloying of Ni-base superalloys has also been discussed. Applications discussed here include the surface treatment of Ni-base superalloys with high-power CO2 laser, the surface treatment of aluminum alloys with excimer lasers, the laser assisted chemical vapor deposition (LCVD) of wear and corrosion resistant layers of Ti, TiC, and TiN on tool steels, and the fracture surface sulphur printing with excimer lasers.

  2. Development status of a 157-nm full-field scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Hitoshi; Hata, Hideo; Nogawa, Hideki; Deguchi, Nobuyoshi; Kohno, Michio; Chiba, Yuji

    2003-06-01

    157 nm lithography has made further progress over the past year, steadily advancing towards the realization of the 65 nm era. In particular, exposure tools have moved on to the assembly phase, with new functions and performance now under evaluation. This paper presents our technical progress in our 157nm full field exposure tool, focusing on two key technologies: projection optics and environmental control with highly purified gasses. The high NA projection optics were designed to meet accelerating demands for smaller geometries. A catadioptric system with a line-selected laser was chosen to solve the problem of chromatic aberrations. The birefringence effect caused by CaF2 has been reduced to acceptable levels by clocking and combining <111> and <100> oriented crystals. Polishing and optical coatings consisting of glass materials were completed at targeted accuracy. At the present time, assembly and tuning of the projection optics is being performed. A simulation based on the inspection data from each production step predicts that the desired image performance will be attained. The total efficiency of the exposure system is expected to be higher than previously announced, due to the improvement of both CaF2 transmittance and AR/HR coatings. One of two keys issues in environmental control is to purge the projection optics which are permanently sealed. Purging performance was tested using a mockup of the projection optics. The second issue is to purge the areas around reticles and wafers which are continually carried into and out of the exposure system. Using the actual platform, the wafer and reticle purging performance was evaluated. It has been demonstrated that both of our purging systems are effective in keeping the environment at minimum contamination levels. This contributes to the increase of throughput.

  3. Overview on the high power excimer laser technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingru

    2013-05-01

    High power excimer laser has essential applications in the fields of high energy density physics, inertial fusion energy and industry owing to its advantages such as short wavelength, high gain, wide bandwidth, energy scalable and repetition operating ability. This overview is aimed at an introduction and evaluation of enormous endeavor of the international high power excimer laser community in the last 30 years. The main technologies of high power excimer laser are reviewed, which include the pumping source technology, angular multiplexing and pulse compressing, beam-smoothing and homogenous irradiation, high efficiency and repetitive operation et al. A high power XeCl laser system developed in NINT of China is described in detail.

  4. Numbers Of Merit In Excimer Laser Reliability Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Lindsay; Basting, Dirk; Kahlert, Hans-Jurgen; Rebhan, Ulrich; Muckenheim, Wolfgang

    1989-04-01

    Recent results confirm new advances in XeC1 excimer laser discharge design have achieved major milestones in reliability - 1010 pulses without replacing the thyratron, electrodes, capacitors or power supply. Other data on standard KrF excimer lasers allow statistical analysis of numbers of merit, including MTBF and maintenance intervals. Projections are made of operating costs and maintenance for both continuous operation and low duty cycle of two different size lasers with all major gases: XeCl, KrF and ArF.

  5. Excimer laser interaction with dentin of the human tooth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.; Gilliam, Ruth L.; Baker, George R.

    1989-01-01

    The use an excimer laser produced many unusual conical structures within the dentin of the inner part of the human tooth. By varying the frequency of the laser one can disperse the energy and cause more bleeding in laser surgery, but not destroy the cells associated with the incision. Therefore, the healing process will virtually be without scarring. Whereas, using the infrared laser the blood loss would be less, but the healing process would tend to be longer because cells are being destroyed due to the cauterization effect of the laser. The question is, are these structures produced as an interaction with the laser or are they an intrinsic part of the structure. The effects of the laser interaction upon dentin was studied, and in using electron microscopy the interaction of the excimer laser upon the tooth dentin and other various biological tissue is more clearly understood.

  6. Excimer laser processing of backside-illuminated CCDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, S. D.

    1993-01-01

    An excimer laser is used to activate previously implanted dopants on the backside of a backside-illuminated CCD. The controlled ion implantation of the backside and subsequent thin layer heating and recrystallization by the short wavelength pulsed excimer laser simultaneously activates the dopant and anneals out implant damage. This improves the dark current response, repairs defective pixels and improves spectral response. This process heats a very thin layer of the material to high temperatures on a nanosecond time scale while the bulk of the delicate CCD substrate remains at low temperature. Excimer laser processing backside-illuminated CCD's enables salvage and utilization of otherwise nonfunctional components by bringing their dark current response to within an acceptable range. This process is particularly useful for solid state imaging detectors used in commercial, scientific and government applications requiring a wide spectral response and low light level detection.

  7. Cleaning of large area by excimer laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentis, Marc L.; Delaporte, Philippe C.; Marine, Wladimir I.; Uteza, Olivier P.

    2000-01-01

    Surface removal technologies are being challenged from environmental and economic perspectives. This paper is concerned with laser ablation applied to large surface cleaning with an automatized excimer laser unit. The study focused on metallic surfaces that are oxidized and are representative of contaminated surfaces with radionuclides in a context of nuclear power plant maintenance. The whole system is described: laser, beam deliver, particle collection cell, real time control of cleaning processes. Results concerning surface laser interaction and substrate modifications are presented.

  8. Pulsed excimer laser processing for cost-effective solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, David C.

    1985-01-01

    The application of excimer laser in the fabrication of photovoltaic devices was investigated extensively. Processes included junction formation, laser assisted chemical vapor deposition metallization, and laser assisted chemical vapor deposition surface passivation. Results demonstrated that implementation of junction formation by laser annealing in production is feasible because of excellent control in junction depth and quality. Both metallization and surface passivation, however, were found impractical to be considered for manufacturing at this stage.

  9. Advances in 193 nm excimer lasers for mass spectrometry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmdahl, Ralph; Esser, Hans-Gerd; Bonati, Guido

    2016-03-01

    Ongoing progress in mass analysis applications such as laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry of solid samples and ultraviolet photoionization mediated sequencing of peptides and proteins is to a large extent driven by ultrashort wavelength excimer lasers at 193 nm. This paper will introduce the latest improvements achieved in the development of compact high repetition rate excimer lasers and elaborate on the impact on mass spectrometry instrumentation. Various performance and lifetime measurements obtained in a long-term endurance test over the course of 18 months will be shown and discussed in view of the laser source requirements of different mass spectrometry tasks. These sampling type applications are served by excimer lasers delivering pulsed 193 nm output of several mJ as well as fast repetition rates which are already approaching one Kilohertz. In order to open up the pathway from the laboratory to broader market industrial use, sufficient component lifetimes and long-term stable performance behavior have to be ensured. The obtained long-term results which will be presented are based on diverse 193 nm excimer laser tube improvements aiming at e.g. optimizing the gas flow dynamics and have extended the operational life the laser tube for the first time over several billion pulses even under high duty-cycle conditions.

  10. Analytical Characterization of CFRP Laser Treated by Excimer Laser Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreling, S.; Fischer, F.; Delmdahl, R.; Gäbler, F.; Dilger, K.

    Due to the increasing interest in lightweight structures, carbon-fiber reinforced plastics are increasingly applied, especially in the transportation industry. An interesting technology for joining these materials is adhesive bonding due to numerous advantages compared to conventional techniques like riveting. However, to achieve a strong and durable bond, surface pre-treatment is necessary to remove residues of release agents that are transferred to the surface during manufacturing. This paper describes analytical experiments, namely SEM and XPS, performed on CFRP surfaces pre-treated with 308 nm excimer laser radiation.

  11. Improved corrosion resistance of excimer laser treated stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmel, A.; Schubert, Emil; Barnikel, J.; Stiele, H. J.; Bergmann, Hans W.

    1994-09-01

    Excimer laser surface processing is well-known for material ablation, cleaning, deoxidation, smoothing or roughening. A typical industrial application is the polymer ablation for electronic components, however, the treatment of metals is only on the threshold of industrial use. A novel application reported here, may be an excimer treatment in air leading to oxide and nitrogen dissolution, resulting in an improved corrosion resistance. It is known from literature that corrosion resistance can be enhanced by laser surface alloying e.g. gas nitriding of Ti using CO2-lasers. However, all these techniques have the disadvantage of producing inhomogeneous layers. The aim of this study was to use the reactions during excimer laser irradiation of steel in air to produce layers in the thickness range of 0,1 to 2 micrometers with novel properties. Using the Siemens XP2020 excimer laser it was possible to scan technologically reasonable surface areas with energy densities in the range of 20 to 80 mJ/mm2 and several pulses per area. Steel sheets of 1.4541 (DIN) were irradiated in air and subsequently analyzed by XRD, SEM, TEM, AES and Mossbauer spectroscopy. The corrosion behavior was tested potentio-dynamically in 0,5 N H2SO4 and by gravimetric measurements of the weight loss. The XRD results showed, that the remaining delta-ferrite was eliminated. Both Mossbauer and Auger spectroscopy indicated a strong N- dissolution, hereby stabilizing the austenite. The TEM-investigations revealed fine dispersed oxides (chromites) and an increased dislocation density, resulting in pre-cellular arrangements after relaxation. Corrosion tests suggested the reduction of the material removal rates by a factor of 10 compared to untreated samples. The U(i) curves showed that after the excimer treatment less Cr is presented due to oxide formation in the surface layer. These Cr-oxides are the main reason for the improved corrosion resistance of excimer laser treated stainless steel.

  12. Generation of strongly coupled plasmas by high power excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yongxiang; Liu, Jingru; Zhang, Yongsheng; Hu, Yun; Zhang, Jiyan; Zheng, Zhijian; Ye, Xisheng

    2013-05-01

    (ultraviolet). To generate strongly coupled plasmas (SCP) by high power excimer laser, an Au-CH-Al-CH target is used to make the Al sample reach the state of SCP, in which the Au layer transforms laser energy to X-ray that heating the sample by volume and the CH layers provides necessary constraints. With aid of the MULTI-1D code, we calculate the state of the Al sample and its relationship with peak intensity, width and wavelength of laser pulses. The calculated results suggest that an excimer laser with peak intensity of the magnitude of 1013W/cm2 and pulse width being 5ns - 10ns is suitable to generate SCP with the temperature being tens of eV and the density of electron being of the order of 1022/cm-3. Lasers with shorter wavelength, such as KrF laser, are preferable.

  13. Laser plume dynamics during excimer laser nitriding of iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, M.; Carpene, E.; Lieb, K. P.; Schaaf, Peter

    2003-11-01

    Laser nitriding of iron is an interesting phenomenon both in physics and industry. On the time scale of hundreds nanoseconds, high intensity (~108 W/cm2) pulsed excimer laser irradiation on iron in nitrogen atmosphere produced a thin iron nitride layer (thickness > 400 nm) with a mean nitrogen concentration exceeding 10 at which greatly improves the iron surface mechanical properties and the corrosion or erosion resistance. Laser plasma/plume plays a crucial role in the complicated interplay of the laser-plasma-metal system. Since the nitrogen pressure is one of the most important parameters determining the laser plume dynamics, a nitrogen pressure series ranging from 0.05 bar to 10 bar is conducted. The characteristic parameters of the nitrogen depth profile are extracted and their pressure dependence is qualitatively discussed. By isotopic experiments in 15N and natural nitrogen environment, the evolution of the nitrogen depth profile during laser nitriding process is successfully traced. Both of the experimental results suggested that a 1D laser supported combustion wave model is reasonable to describe the lasers plume dynamics.

  14. Novel technique for high-quality microstructuring with excimer lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Stephan; Geiger, Manfred

    2000-06-01

    Laser micromachining has become increasingly established in many microsystem applications during the past years. These new fields occasion higher demands on the quality of micromachiend devices combined with high resolution and working velocity. Due to the disadvantages of conventional excimer laser processing, a novel technique is required to meet these demands. The main problems of conventional excimer laser machining are the redeposition of ablated material on the irradiated work piece and the formation of a strong melting phase especially for metals. These difficulties greatly reduce the applicability of excimer laser material processing for manufacturing microsystems technology components. By applying a thin water film to the substrate surface, the redeposition of ablated material can be completely avoided, which results in a better quality of the microstructures. Usage of a water film, however, has proved to lead to a marked reduction of the ablation rate for the examined materials - ceramics and stainless steel. Therefore, one of the objectives of future research will be to raise the ablation rate in order to render excimer laser processing more interesting economically. Adding alcoholic additives, among others, has improved the wetting of the liquid films on the surface. The effect of the modified chemical composition of the liquid on ablation rate and structure quality for various materials is presented here.

  15. Excimer laser ablation of polymer-clay nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, I.-Ta

    The ablation behavior of Polystyrene-Organically Modified Montmorillonite (OMMT) nanocomposites was evaluated by measuring the weight loss induced by KrF excimer laser irradiation of the nanocomposite specimens under air atmosphere. The characteristic values of ablation, ablation threshold fluence and effective absorption coefficient for polystyrene and its naonocomposites were calculated based on the weight loss data. The effects of morphology due to spatial variation in injection molded samples are also discussed in this work. Results demonstrate that both the dispersion state and the concentration of clay play important roles in excimer laser ablation. The sensitivity of threshold fluence and absorption coefficient to dispersion state of OMMT depends on the clay concentration. The excimer laser induced surface micro/nano structure formation and modification of PS-Clay Nanocomposites at various OMMT concentrations were also investigated. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance accessory were utilized to analyze the ablated surface. Results show that, in general, better dispersion of OMMT leads to less continuous surface structures and more pronounced carbonyl regions on FTIR spectra. Clay nanoparticles are exposed on ablated surfaces and affect surface structure formation after irradiation by laser. A mechanism for the formation of excimer laser induced surface structures on injection molded parts is thus proposed.

  16. Boron trichloride purification with a KrF excimer laser

    SciTech Connect

    Hyer, R.C.; Hartford, A. Jr.; Atencio, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Selective ultraviolet photolysis using a KrF excimer laser has been used to substantially reduce the phosgene impurity in a binary mixture of boron trichloride and phosgene. Infrared spectroscopic analysis of the sample before and after irradiation shows that it is possible to highly purify commercially available boron trichloride with this technique.

  17. Analysis of glycosaminoglycans in rabbit cornea after excimer laser keratectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kato, T.; Nakayasu, K.; Ikegami, K.; Obara, T.; Kanayama, T.; Kanai, A.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—The biochemical basis for the development of subepithelial opacity of the cornea after excimer laser keratectomy has yet to be fully defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the alterations of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) after excimer laser keratectomy.
METHODS—Rabbit corneas were harvested on days 5, 10, 20, and 30 after excimer laser photoablation. The amount of main disaccharide units was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition, immunohistochemical studies were performed on corneal sections 20 days after the ablation.
RESULTS—The concentrations of ΔDi-0S at 5 and 10 days were significantly lower than before the ablation. ΔDi-6S showed a significant increase 5 days after the ablation but ΔDi-4S did not show any significant change. There was a significant increase in ΔDi-HA at 20 and 30 days after ablation. In immunohistochemistry, the positive staining for ΔDi-6S and hyaluronic acid was observed in the subepithelial region. These immunohistochemical results were well correlated with the HPLC findings.
CONCLUSIONS—The increase in chondroitin-6 sulphate and hyaluronic acid may be related to corneal subepithelial opacity after excimer laser keratectomy.

 PMID:10216064

  18. Excimer laser lead extraction catheter with increased laser parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, M. Sean; Taylor, Kevin D.; Lippincott, Rebecca A.; Sorokoumov, Oleg; Papaioannou, Thanassis

    2001-05-01

    A fiber optic catheter connected to a pulsed excimer laser (308 nm) is currently used to extract chronically implanted pacemaker and defibrillator leads at Fluence of 60 mJ/mm2 and repetition rate of 40 Hz. The object of this study was to determine the effect of higher repetition rates (80 Hz) in the catheter's cutting performance. The penetration rate (micrometers /sec), and the associated mechanical and thermal effects were measured in soft (porcine myocardium) and hard tissue (bovine tendon) at 60 mJ/mm2-80 Hz, and were compared to the corresponding values at commercially available laser parameters (60 mJ/mm2-40 Hz). Ablation rates were measured with perforation experiments and the extent of thermal and mechanical damage was measured under polarized light microscopy. For hard (soft) tissue, the laser catheter demonstrated penetration speed of 106 +/- 32 (302 +/- 101) micrometers /sec at 40 Hz and 343 +/- 120 (830 +/- 364) micrometers /sec at 80 Hz. Maximum extent of thermal effects at 40 Hz and 80 Hz was 114 +/- 35 micrometers (72 +/- 18) and 233 +/- 63 micrometers (71 +/- 16) respectively. Maximum extent of mechanical effects at 40 Hz and 80 Hz was 188 +/- 63 micrometers (590 +/- 237) and 386 +/- 100 micrometers (767 +/- 160) respectively. In vitro testing of the laser catheter with 80 Hz laser parameters has demonstrated increased penetration speed in both soft and hard fibrous tissue, while maintaining associated thermal and mechanical effects within limited ranges.

  19. Excimer laser ophthalmic surgery: evaluation of a new technology.

    PubMed Central

    Infeld, D. A.; O'Shea, J. G.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide information and an overview of the potential risks and benefits of excimer laser surgery, a new and promising technique in ophthalmic surgery. Although this review concentrates on the use of the laser for refractive purposes, novel therapeutic techniques are also discussed. It is hoped that this will enable general practitioners, optometrists and physicians to provide appropriate advice and counselling for patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10211324

  20. Excimer Laser Ablation of Egg Tempera Paints and Varnishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morais, P. J.; Bordalo, R.; Santos, L. dos; Marques, S. F.; Salgueiredo, E.; Gouveia, H.

    In this work a series of egg tempera paint and varnish systems have been prepared, artificially aged and irradiated with KrF excimer laser at a wavelength of 248 nm. The samples were prepared with pure pigments and selected mixtures. It was found that, for some pigments, the colour changed upon laser irradiation even at low energy densities, below the ablation threshold while for other inorganic pigmented egg temperas the degree of discoloration is very small at moderate fluence of ˜0.30 J cm?2. The varnish systems did not present signs of discoloration. The thickness, superficial roughness and magnitude of the colour changes of the samples were measured. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and UV/visible spectroscopy were used in order to investigate the changes induced by the KrF excimer laser radiation.

  1. Excimer laser coronary angioplasty: relative risk analysis of clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittl, John A.

    1992-08-01

    Reports of successful use of excimer laser coronary angioplasty for complex coronary artery disease abound, yet firm indications for its use have not been defined. We attempted to treat 858 coronary stenoses in 764 consecutive patients (mean age 61 years; range 32 - 91 years; 75% men; 76% with Class III or IV angina) with excimer laser angioplasty at 308 nm. Successful treatment was achieved in 86% of patients, as indicated by excimer laser angioplasty, we used relative risk analysis. This showed that certain angiographic features, such as lesions at a vessel bifurcation (odds ratio, OR equals 0.46; 95% confidence interval 0.23, 0.88; P equals 0.017;) or in a tortuous segment (OR equals 0.54; 95% CI equals 0.34, 0.88; P equals 0.041), have decreased likelihood of clinical success. On the other hand, ostial stenoses (OR equals 1.06; 95% CI equals 0.44, 2.56, P equals 0.903) and saphenous vein graft lesions (OR equals 2.17; 95% CI equals 0.98, 4.82; P equals 0.051) have acceptable success rates. Diffuse disease (> 20 mm), total occlusions and calcified lesions were treated as successfully as all other lesion types. Successful treatment with excimer laser coronary angioplasty was also achieved in almost all patients (15/16) who had a prior unsuccessful attempt at balloon angioplasty in the lesion was crossed with a guidewire yet resists either balloon catheter passage or full dilatation. Follow-up angiography was obtained in 70% of eligible patients. Angiographic restenosis, defined by > 50% stenosis, was seen in 60% of patients. Relative risk analysis showed an increased risk of restenosis when adjunctive balloon angioplasty was not used (OR equals 1.68; 95% CI equals 1.02, 2.28; P equals 0.039). Other variables known to affect the outcome of balloon angioplasty, such as lesion length or stenosis in degenerated saphenous vein bypass graft, did not influence the

  2. Triggering Excimer Lasers by Photoionization from Corona Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Zhongmin; Duffey, Thomas; Brown, Daniel; Kushner, Mark

    2009-10-01

    High repetition rate ArF (192 nm) excimer lasers are used for photolithography sources in microelectronics fabrication. In highly attaching gas mixtures, preionization is critical to obtaining stable, reproducible glow discharges. Photoionization from a separate corona discharge is one technique for preionization which triggers the subsequent electron avalanche between the main electrodes. Photoionization triggering of an ArF excimer laser sustained in multi-atmosphere Ne/Ar/F2/Xe gas mixtures has been investigated using a 2-dimensional plasma hydrodynamics model including radiation transport. Continuity equations for charged and neutral species, and Poisson's equation are solved coincident with the electron temperature with transport coefficients obtained from solutions of Boltzmann's equation. Photoionizing radiation is produced by a surface discharge which propagates along a corona-bar located adjacent to the discharge electrodes. The consequences of pulse power waveform, corona bar location, capacitance and gas mixture on uniformity, symmetry and gain of the avalanche discharge will be discussed.

  3. 308-nm Excimer laser treatment of palmoplantar psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, David J; Chwalek, Jennifer; Hussain, Mussarrat

    2011-04-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting 1-3% of the population. The incidence of palmoplantar involvement has been estimated to be between 2.8% and 40.9%. Significant psychosocial distress and difficulty performing activities of daily living can result. Treatment is often challenging. Traditional treatments include topical steroids, anthralin, calcipotriene, PUVA, methotrexate, cyclosporine, retinoids and biologics. In this case series, we report our success with the 308-nm excimer laser in the treatment of palmoplantar psoriasis. PMID:21401376

  4. Nebulae at keratoconus--the result after excimer laser removal.

    PubMed

    Fagerholm, P; Fitzsimmons, T; Ohman, L; Orndahl, M

    1993-12-01

    Ten patients underwent excimer laser ablation due to nebula formation at keratoconus. The nebulae interfered significantly with contact lens fit or wearing time. The mean follow-up time in these patients was 16.5 months. Following surgery all patients could be successfully fitted with a contact lens and thereby obtain good visual acuity. Furthermore, contact lens wearing time was 8 hours or more in all cases. In 2 patients the nebulae recurred but were successfully retreated. PMID:8154261

  5. Assessment of the Suitability of Excimer Lasers in Treating Onychomycosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kymplová, Jaroslava; Jelínek, Miroslav; Urzová, Jana; Mikšovský, Jan; Dušek, Karel; Bauerová, Lenka

    2014-04-01

    Since it is known that UV-C radiation kills fungus, we wanted to verify the hypothesis that the use of excimer laser could be an alternative method for treating onychomycosis - nail fungus. The aim of the first stage of this work was to determine the transmission, reflection and absorption of nails. In the following stage we focused on irradiation of fungi. Our final task is to assess whether it is possible to determine the parameters of radiation (a total dose,a dose per pulse frequency, a repetition rate, a number of pulses) for which the elimination of fungi would be the most effective but without damaging the nail and soft tissue underneath it. The results so far have showed that UV-C radiation does not pass through a fingernail to such an extent that it could damage the soft tissue beneath it. Fungi are destroyed by the application of only small doses of radiation using the excimer laser. Additional measurements will be required to determine the modulation parameters of the excimer laser radiation for the treatment of onychomycosis.

  6. Automatic alignment of double optical paths in excimer laser amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dahui; Zhao, Xueqing; Hua, Hengqi; Zhang, Yongsheng; Hu, Yun; Yi, Aiping; Zhao, Jun

    2013-05-01

    A kind of beam automatic alignment method used for double paths amplification in the electron pumped excimer laser system is demonstrated. In this way, the beams from the amplifiers can be transferred along the designated direction and accordingly irradiate on the target with high stabilization and accuracy. However, owing to nonexistence of natural alignment references in excimer laser amplifiers, two cross-hairs structure is used to align the beams. Here, one crosshair put into the input beam is regarded as the near-field reference while the other put into output beam is regarded as the far-field reference. The two cross-hairs are transmitted onto Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) by image-relaying structures separately. The errors between intersection points of two cross-talk images and centroid coordinates of actual beam are recorded automatically and sent to closed loop feedback control mechanism. Negative feedback keeps running until preset accuracy is reached. On the basis of above-mentioned design, the alignment optical path is built and the software is compiled, whereafter the experiment of double paths automatic alignment in electron pumped excimer laser amplifier is carried through. Meanwhile, the related influencing factors and the alignment precision are analyzed. Experimental results indicate that the alignment system can achieve the aiming direction of automatic aligning beams in short time. The analysis shows that the accuracy of alignment system is 0.63μrad and the beam maximum restoration error is 13.75μm. Furthermore, the bigger distance between the two cross-hairs, the higher precision of the system is. Therefore, the automatic alignment system has been used in angular multiplexing excimer Main Oscillation Power Amplification (MOPA) system and can satisfy the requirement of beam alignment precision on the whole.

  7. Surface Structuring of CFRP by using Modern Excimer Laser Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, F.; Kreling, S.; Dilger, K.

    High demands for lightweight construction can be attained by the use of carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP) including one major challenge: the joining technology. Adhesive bonding may allow an increased utilization of the lightweight potential of CFRP. But this technology requires a surface pre-treatment because of residues of release agents. This paper describes surface pre-treatment of CFRP specimens by using modern excimer laser and the mechanical tests that compare the achieved strength to manually abraded ones. The laser process is suitable for achieving cohesive failure within the adhesive and bond strengths in the magnitude of the abraded specimen.

  8. Chemical surface modification of fluorocarbon polymers by excimer laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niino, Hiroyuki; Yabe, Akira

    1996-04-01

    Surface of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) [PTFE] film was modified chemically by an ArF excimer laser-induced reaction in a hydrazine gas atmosphere. The polymer surface modified upon the irradiation of 1000 pulses at 27 mJ cm -2, which was a fairly lower fluence than the ablation threshold for usual polymer films, showed hydrophilicity (contact angle for water: 30°) enough to be metallized by chemical plating. The mechanism for chemical surface modification was investigated by FTIR, XPS, and SIMS analyses. The laser-treated PTFE film was metallized by a chemical plating process. These processes will be used to fabricate printed wiring boards for high frequency electronics.

  9. Pixel diamond detectors for excimer laser beam diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girolami, M.; Allegrini, P.; Conte, G.; Salvatori, S.

    2011-05-01

    Laser beam profiling technology in the UV spectrum of light is evolving with the increase of excimer lasers and lamps applications, that span from lithography for VLSI circuits to eye surgery. The development of a beam-profiler, able to capture the excimer laser single pulse and process the acquired pixel current signals in the time period between each pulse, is mandatory for such applications. 1D and 2D array detectors have been realized on polycrystalline CVD diamond specimens. The fast diamond photoresponse, in the ns time regime, suggests the suitability of such devices for fine tuning feedback of high-power pulsed-laser cavities, whereas solar-blindness guarantees high performance in UV beam diagnostics, also under high intensity background illumination. Offering unique properties in terms of thermal conductivity and visible-light transparency, diamond represents one of the most suitable candidate for the detection of high-power UV laser emission. The relatively high resistivity of diamond in the dark has allowed the fabrication of photoconductive vertical pixel-detectors. A semitransparent light-receiving back-side contact has been used for detector biasing. Each pixel signal has been conditioned by a multi-channel read-out electronics made up of a high-sensitive integrator and a Σ-Δ A/D converter. The 500 μs conversion time has allowed a data acquisition rate up to 2 kSPS (Sample Per Second).

  10. Histological study of excimer laser on carotid artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavantes, Maria C.; Pasqualucci, C. A.; Zamorano, Lucia J.

    1992-06-01

    The employment of photoablative effect on coronary artery angioplasty has been a new exciting field as a treatment option. Guided by good results in the literature, our group decided to study the laser/tissue interaction on carotid arteries with the intent of a less invasive treatment of intracranial and extracranial obstructed disease in vascular neurosurgery. We studied human cartoid arteries from ten male autopsy specimens with an average age of 53 years (34 - 37 years old) which a total of 22 laser applications were performed. Using the same repetition rate and energy, 20 Hz and 30 mJ, we compared the effect of the laser energy on 'normal' and 'pathologic' areas of the carotid arteries. The pathologic specimens, presenting calcified and non-calcified plaques, the same as the macroscopical 'normal' specimens, were submitted to the energy of the Excimer Laser with 308 nm wavelength. The laser beam was delivered perpendicularly through continuous flushing of saline on the targeted artery wall varying from 200 to 400 pulses. Histological studies were done and statistical analysis was performed. The results showed that the depth of penetration varied from 113 micrometers to 1200 micrometers , with a width of the lesion ranging from 150 micrometers - 1500 micrometers . In our study we found that the range between non-effective and destructive effect caused by the laser was around 400 pulses. We encountered minimal degree of carbonization while lasering on calcified plaques. We concluded that Excimer laser is a feasible and secure tool to prevent thermical complications of laser treatment, which will allow neurosurgeons in the future athermic laser angioplasty. Progress in this field must rely on further in vitro and in vivo research, before it can be clinically applied as well as improvements in delivery systems.

  11. Three years of clinical experiences on excimer laser angioplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viligiardi, Riccardo; Galiberti, Sandra; Pini, Roberto; Salimbeni, Renzo

    1992-03-01

    We report here the experience of our multidisciplinary group that has been working since 1986 on excimer laser angioplasty. After having selected the excimer laser between the available sources because of the negligible lesions left on the residual tissue, we had the purpose to develop a suitable laser and catheter system. Neglecting here all the preliminary studies, we outline only a typical phenomenon related to the energy delivery and useful for the comprehension of the recanalization process. The energy emitted by every single fiber determines, under a certain threshold, independent recanalized channels in the plaque with residual flaps. At a higher energy level the overposition of the lobes, due to the intrinsic divergence, up to the recanalization in a single large channel. In our opinion this condition is crucial in the design of the catheters to obtain an optical instead of a mechanical recanalization. The biological experimentation conducted during the preliminary tests on human hearts obtained from transplants or cadavers, convinced us that the correct goal to pursue was unique laser angioplasty without the need for further balloon dilation.

  12. Applications of the 308-nm excimer laser in dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, A.; Kemeny, L.

    2006-05-01

    Excimer lasers contain a mixture of a noble inert gas and a halogen, which form excited dimers only in the activated state. High-energy current is used to produce these dimers, which have a very short lifetime, and after their fast dissociation they release the excitation energy through ultraviolet photons. The application of these lasers proved to be successful in medicine, including the field of ophthalmology, cardiology, angiology, dentistry, orthopaedics, and, in recent years, dermatology. For medical purposes, the 193-nm argon fluoride, the 248-nm krypton fluoride, the 351-nm xenon fluoride, and the 308-nm xenon chloride lasers are used. Recently, the 308-nm xenon chloride laser has gained much attention as a very effective treatment modality in dermatological disorders. It was successfully utilized in psoriasis; later, it proved to be useful in handling other lightsensitive skin disorders and even in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. This review summarizes the possible applications of this promising tool in dermatology.

  13. Excimer laser superficial keratectomy for proud nebulae in keratoconus.

    PubMed Central

    Moodaley, L; Liu, C; Woodward, E G; O'Brart, D; Muir, M K; Buckley, R

    1994-01-01

    Contact lens intolerance in keratoconus may be due to the formation of a proud nebula at or near the apex of the cone. Excimer laser superficial keratectomy was performed as an outpatients with proud nebulae as treatment patients with proud nebulae as treatment for their contact lens intolerance. The mean period of contact lens wear before the development of intolerance was 13.4 years (range 2 to 27 years). Following the development of intolerance, three patients abandoned contact lens wear in the affected eye while the remainder experienced a reduction in comfortable wearing time (mean = 3.75 hours; range: 0-14 hours). All patients had good potential Snellen visual acuity with a contact lens of 6/9 (nine eyes) and 6/12 (one eye). The proud nebulae were directly ablated with a 193 nm ArF excimer laser using a 1 mm diameter beam. Between 100-150 pulses were sufficient to ablate the raised area. Patients experienced no pain during the procedure and reported minimal discomfort postoperatively. In all cases flattening of the proud nebulae was achieved. Seven patients were able to resume regular contact lens wear (mean wearing time = 10.17 hours; range 8 to 16 hours). In three patients, resumption of contact lens wear was unsuccessful because of cone steepness. All patients achieved postoperative Snellen visual acuity of 6/12 or better with a contact lens. Four patients experienced a loss of one line in Snellen acuity. The mean follow up period was 8.3 months (range 2 to 17 months). Excimer laser superficial keratectomy is a useful technique for the treatment of contact lens intolerance caused by proud nebulae in patients with keratoconus. Penetrating keratoplasty is thus avoided. Images PMID:8060928

  14. Excimer laser superficial keratectomy for proud nebulae in keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Moodaley, L; Liu, C; Woodward, E G; O'Brart, D; Muir, M K; Buckley, R

    1994-06-01

    Contact lens intolerance in keratoconus may be due to the formation of a proud nebula at or near the apex of the cone. Excimer laser superficial keratectomy was performed as an outpatients with proud nebulae as treatment patients with proud nebulae as treatment for their contact lens intolerance. The mean period of contact lens wear before the development of intolerance was 13.4 years (range 2 to 27 years). Following the development of intolerance, three patients abandoned contact lens wear in the affected eye while the remainder experienced a reduction in comfortable wearing time (mean = 3.75 hours; range: 0-14 hours). All patients had good potential Snellen visual acuity with a contact lens of 6/9 (nine eyes) and 6/12 (one eye). The proud nebulae were directly ablated with a 193 nm ArF excimer laser using a 1 mm diameter beam. Between 100-150 pulses were sufficient to ablate the raised area. Patients experienced no pain during the procedure and reported minimal discomfort postoperatively. In all cases flattening of the proud nebulae was achieved. Seven patients were able to resume regular contact lens wear (mean wearing time = 10.17 hours; range 8 to 16 hours). In three patients, resumption of contact lens wear was unsuccessful because of cone steepness. All patients achieved postoperative Snellen visual acuity of 6/12 or better with a contact lens. Four patients experienced a loss of one line in Snellen acuity. The mean follow up period was 8.3 months (range 2 to 17 months). Excimer laser superficial keratectomy is a useful technique for the treatment of contact lens intolerance caused by proud nebulae in patients with keratoconus. Penetrating keratoplasty is thus avoided. PMID:8060928

  15. Excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy with different ablation zones.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Z; Lampé, Z; Békési, L; Berta, A

    1997-01-01

    In this study we would like to introduce the excimer laser, and to demonstrate our results and complications by using different ablation zones during photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in the correction of myopia and astigmatismus. In 1996 we performed photorefractive keratectomy on 100 myopic eyes of 52 patients (28 females, 24 males). Mean age was 26.21 years (ranged from 19 to 54 years). The preoperative refraction ranged from -1.0 D to -18.0 Diopters. The diameter of the ablation zones were between 5 and 6.5 mm. We evaluated the results and the complications of the surgeries of 100 eyes which were performed with Schwind keratom F excimer laser. After 2 days, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months postoperatively we tested the best uncorrected and corrected visual acuities, and performed intraocular pressure measurement, slit lamp examination as well as corneal topography. The postoperative refractions were between +/- 0.5 to +/- 1.0 Diopters. After six months postoperatively the slit lamp examination showed that 80% of the patients had no corneal haze while 20% had stage I (Hanna) corneal haze. The smaller the diameter of the ablation zone was, the more pronounced the corneal haze and the night-glare were. The photorefractive excimer laser keratectomy is judged to be a safe method, although it might have some side-effects. The different ablation zones of this treatment means an important modification, that not only allows the method to meet the individual requirements, but reduces the chance of the complications as well. Based on the authors' experiences PRK for moderate myopia with large diameter ablation zones appears more predictable than than with smaller ablation zone diameters. PMID:9408312

  16. Blunt atrial transseptal puncture using excimer laser in swine

    PubMed Central

    Elagha, Abdalla A.; Kim, Ann H.; Kocaturk, Ozgur; Lederman, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We describe a new approach that may enhance safety of atrial transseptal puncture, using a commercially available laser catheter that is capable of perforation only when energized. We test this approach in swine. Background Despite wide application, conventional needle transseptal puncture continues to risk inadvertent non-target perforation and its consequences. Methods We used a commercial excimer laser catheter (0.9mm Clirpath, Spectranetics). Perforation force was compared in vitro with a conventional Brockenbrough needle. Eight swine underwent laser transseptal puncture under X-ray fluoroscopy steered using a variety of delivery catheters. Results The 0.9mm laser catheter traversed in vitro targets with reduced force compared with a Brockenbrough needle. In vitro, the laser catheter created holes that were 25–30% larger than the Brockenbrough needle. Laser puncture of the atrial septum was successful and accurate in all animals, evidenced by oximetry, pressure, angiography, and necropsy. The laser catheter was steered effectively using a modified Mullins introducer sheath and using two different deflectable guiding catheters. The mean procedure time was 15 ± 6 minutes, with an average 3.0 ± 0.8 seconds of laser activation. There were no adverse sequelae after prolonged observation. Necropsy revealed discrete 0.9mm holes in all septae. Conclusion Laser puncture of the interatrial septum is feasible and safe in swine, using a blunt laser catheter that perforates tissues in a controlled fashion. PMID:17896413

  17. Multifiber excimer laser catheter design strategies for various medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdaasdonck, Rudolf M.; van Swol, Christiaan F. P.; van Leeuwen, Ton G. J. M.; Tulleken, Cees A. F.; Boon, Tom A.

    1994-07-01

    For the XeCl Excimer laser (308 nm, 115 ns), special design multifiber laser catheters were developed and theoretically as well as experimentally evaluated. Monte Carlo simulations showed that the penetration depth of 308 nm XeCl excimer light varied from 50 to 200 micrometers for fiber diameters from 50 to 550 micrometers and larger. Tissue ablation is expected to be restricted to this irradiated area. In order to ablate larger tissue areas, a flexible bundle of fibers is used introducing gaps in the irradiance distribution due to dead space in between the individual fibers. Multifiber catheters were developed for a unique neurosurgery bypass procedure and for urethra stricture surgery. Real-time, close-up, high speed video imaging showed that tissue ablation mechanism of these catheters is predominately governed by explosive short-life vapor bubbles fragmenting the tissue to small particles. In order to temper the ablation process, laser energy was delivered in 8 pulses divided over 8 sectors of a multifiber catheter (multiplexing), keeping the same fluence instead of one pulse addressing all the fibers at once.

  18. Laser dentistry: A new application of excimer laser in root canal therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pini, R.; Salimbeni, R.; Vannini, M.; Barone, R.; Clauser, C.

    1989-01-01

    We report the first study of the application of excimer lasers in dentistry for the treatment of dental root canals. High-energy ultraviolet (UV) radiation emitted by an XeCl excimer laser (308 nm) and delivered through suitable optical fibers can be used to remove residual organic tissue from the canals. To this aim, UV ablation thresholds of dental tissues have been measured, showing a preferential etching of infiltrated dentin in respect to healthy dentin, at laser fluences of 0.5-1.5 J/cm{sup 2}. This technique has been tested on extracted tooth samples, simulating a clinical procedure. Fibers of decreasing core diameters have been used to treat different sections of the root canal down to its apical portion, resulting in an effective, easy, and fast cleaning action. Possible advantages of excimer laser clinical applications in respect to usual procedures are also discussed.

  19. Excimer laser annealing to fabricate low cost solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The objective is to show whether or not pulsed excimer laser annealing (PELA) of ion-implanted junctions is a cost effective replacement for diffused junctions in fabricating crystalline silicon solar cells. The preliminary economic analysis completed shows that the use of PELA to fabricate both the front junction and back surface field (BSF) would cost approximately 35 cents per peak watt (Wp), compared to a cost of 15 cents/Wp for diffusion, aluminum BSF and an extra cleaning step in the baseline process. The cost advantage of the PELA process depends on improving the average cell efficiency from 14% to 16%, which would lower the overall cost of the module by about 15 cents/Wp. An optimized PELA process compatible with commercial production is to be developed, and increased cell efficiency with sufficient product for adequate statistical analysis demonstrated. An excimer laser annealing station was set-up and made operational. The first experiment used 248 nm radiation to anneal phosphorus implants in polished and texture-etched silicon.

  20. Excimer Laser Beam Analyzer Based on CVD Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girolami, Marco; Salvatori, Stefano; Conte, Gennaro

    2010-11-01

    1-D and 2-D detector arrays have been realized on CVD-diamond. The relatively high resistivity of diamond in the dark allowed the fabrication of photoconductive "sandwich" strip (1D) or pixel (2D) detectors: a semitransparent light-receiving back-side contact was used for detector biasing. Cross-talk between pixels was limited by using intermediate guard contacts connected at the same ground potential of the pixels. Each pixel photocurrent was conditioned by a read-out electronics composed by a high sensitive integrator and a Σ-Δ ADC converter. The overall 500 μs conversion time allowed a data acquisition rate up to 2 kSPS. The measured fast photoresponse of the samples in the ns time regime suggests to use the proposed devices for fine tuning feedback of high-power pulsed-laser cavities, whereas solar-blindness guarantees high performance in UV beam diagnostics also under high intensity background illumination. Offering unique properties in terms of thermal conductivity and visible-light transparency, diamond represents one of the most suitable candidate for the detection of high-power UV laser emission. The technology of laser beam profiling is evolving with the increase of excimer lasers applications that span from laser-cutting to VLSI and MEMS technologies. Indeed, to improve emission performances, fine tuning of the laser cavity is required. In such a view, the development of a beam-profiler, able to work in real-time between each laser pulse, is mandatory.

  1. Boron distribution in silicon after multiple pulse excimer laser annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Monakhov, E.V.; Svensson, B.G.; Linnarsson, M.K.; La Magna, A.; Italia, M.; Privitera, V.; Fortunato, G.; Cuscuna, M.; Mariucci, L.

    2005-08-22

    We have studied B redistribution in Si after excimer laser annealing (ELA) with multiple laser pulses. B was implanted with energies of 1 and 10 keV and doses of 1x10{sup 14} and 1x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. ELA with the number of pulses from 1 to 100 was performed at room temperature and 450 deg. C in vacuum. Irrespective of the implantation parameters and the ELA conditions used, a pile-up in the B concentration is observed near the maximum melting depth after ten pulses of ELA. Moreover, a detailed study has revealed that B accumulates at the maximum melt depth gradually with the number of ELA pulses. Besides, an increase in the carrier concentration is observed at the maximum melt depth, suggesting electrical activity of the accumulated B. Formation of Si-B complexes and vacancy accumulation during multiple ELA are discussed as possible mechanisms for the B build-up.

  2. Laser excited fluorescence in the cesium-xenon excimer and the cesium dimer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Exton, R. J.; Snow, W. L.; Hillard, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    Argon ion laser lines are used to excite fluorescence in a mixture of cesium and xenon. Excimer band fluorescence is observed at higher pressures (about 1 atm) while at lower pressures (several torr) a diffuse fluorescence due to the cesium dimer is observed whose character changes with exciting wavelength. The excimer fluorescence is shown to be directly related to the location of the exciting wavelength within previously measured Cs/Xe line shapes. This fact suggests that the excimer systems may be efficiently pumped through these line shapes. Qualitative energy-level schemes are proposed to explain the observations in both the excimer and dimer systems.

  3. Nd:YAG laser cleaning of ablation debris from excimer-laser-ablated polyimide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jianhui; Low, Jason; Lim, Puay K.; Lim, Pean

    2001-10-01

    In the processing of excimer laser ablation of nozzles on polyimide in air, both gases like CO2, CO and HCN and solid debris including C2 approximately C12 are produced in laser ablation area. In this paper, we reported for the first time a Nd:YAG laser cleaning of ablation debris generated in excimer laser ablation of polyimide. It demonstrated effective cleaning with the advantages of shortening cleaning cycle time and simplifying cleaning process. The laser used for the cleaning was a Q-switched and frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser with wavelength of 532 nm and repetition rate of 10 Hz. The laser cleaning effect was compared with conventional plasma ashing. AFM measurement showed that the Nd:YAG laser cleaning had no damage to the substrate. XPS results indicated that the polyimide surface cleaned with laser beam had a lower oxygen/carbon ratio than that of plasma ashing. The study shows that frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser cleaning is effective in ablation debris removal from excimer laser ablated polyimide.

  4. Encapsulated inorganic resist technology applied to 157-nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedynyshyn, Theodore H.; Sinta, Roger F.; Sworin, Michael; Goodman, Russell B.; Doran, Scott P.; Sondi, I.; Matijevic, Egon

    2001-08-01

    In order to increase plasma etch selectivity in traditional single layer organic resists SiO2 nanoparticles have been added to typical 248nm resist formulations. Formulation modifications are necessary due to the dissolution acceleration effect of the particles. Surface functionalization of the nanoparticle surfaces with organic groups lessens this effect and allows the inclusion of acid labile groups. This allows for a wider formulation window and limits unexposed film thickness losses (UFTL). Both t- butyl ester groups and poly(t-butyl acrylate) have been used to achieve this effect. Encapsulated inorganic resist technology (EIRT) can be used as a single layer hard mask compatible with existing resist processing steps and replace complex and costly multilevel resist approaches. Lithogrpahic evaluations have been performed with electron beam, and with 248nm and 157nm projection systems. Greater transparency at 157nm is achieved by the addition of these materials, thus enabling the use of thicker films. High resolution imaging is demonstrated at these wavelengths.

  5. Evaluation of fluorinated dissolution inhibitors for 157-nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamad, Alyssandrea H.; Houlihan, Francis M.; Seger, Larry; Chang, Chun; Ober, Christopher K.

    2003-06-01

    Fluorinated diesters were synthesized and evaluated as dissolution inhibitors (DIs) for 157 nm lithography. The results of dissolution rate measurements, exposure studies, and etching experiments on blends of fluorinated polymers containing these dissolution inhibitors are reported. It was shown that the DIs effectively slow the dissolution rate of the matrix polymer, poly(hexafluorohydroxyisopropyl styrene) (PHFHIPS). Etching studies show that they enhance the plasma etch resistance of poly(methyl methacrylate) using tetrafluoromethane plasma. Addition of the best performing dissolution inhibitor, cyclohexane-1,4-dicarboxylic acid bis-(1-cyclohexyl-2,2,2-trifluoro-1-methyl-ethyl) ester) (FCDE1) to candidate 157 nm photoresist polymers, Duvcor and poly(hexafluorohydroxyisopropyl styrene)-co-poly(t-butyl methacrylate) [pPHFHIPS-co-pt-BMA], improves the imaging behavior of these polymers. Our attempts to elucidate the mechanism of dissolution inhibition for this series of compounds will be discussed. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) studies in conjunction with dissolution rate measurements performed on a series of DI analogues suggest a mechanism based on hydrogen bonding.

  6. Fabrication of Fresnel microlens with excimer laser contour ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójcik, Michał R.; Antończak, Arkadiusz J.; Kozioł, Paweł E.; Łazarek, Łukasz K.; Stepak, Bogusz D.; Abramski, Krzysztof M.

    2014-08-01

    Laser micromachining systems based on excimer lasers are usually oriented to work with mask projection regime because of the low pulse repetition rate as well as large beam aperture of the laser source. In case of fabricating of the complex 3D structures, this approach introduces a number of limitations. Alternative solution might be usage of direct writing laser mode. Some examples of the so called contour ablation approach for fabricating microlenses with an absolutely monotonically changing cross-sectional profile are presented in the literature. Based on this idea and introducing new variables like automatic mask selection as well as optimizing process algorithms led us to obtain more versatile method for shape approximation. Hence, there were fabricated structures with cross-sectional profiles described as functions that are monotonic on specified intervals such as Fresnel microlenses. In this paper we describe approximation of process parameters for obtaining desired cross-sectional profiles and finally fabrication of few exemplary microlenses. All structures were characterized by a digital optical microscopy and compared to the given profiles. The accuracy of reproduction of the desired structures at the level of single microns was achieved.

  7. Studies in fiber guided excimer laser surgery for cutting and drilling bone and meniscus.

    PubMed

    Dressel, M; Jahn, R; Neu, W; Jungbluth, K H

    1991-01-01

    Our experiments on transmitting high-power excimer laser pulses through optical fibers and our investigations on excimer laser ablation of hard tissue show the feasibility of using the excimer laser as an additional instrument in general and accident surgery involving minimal invasive surgery. By combining XeCl-excimer lasers and tapered fused silica fibers we obtained output fluences up to 32 J/cm2 and ablation rates of 3 microns/pulse of hard tissue. This enables us to cut bone and cartilage in a period of time which is suitable for clinical operations. Various experiments were carried out on cadavers in order to optimize the parameters of the excimer laser and fibers: e.g., wavelength, pulse duration, energy, repetition rate, fiber core diameter. The surfaces of the cut tissue are comparable to cuts with conventional instruments. No carbonisation was observed. The temperature increase is below 40 degrees C in the tissue surrounding the laser spot. The healing rate of an excimer laser cut is not slower than mechanical treatments; the quality is comparable. PMID:1661360

  8. Excimer-laser-assisted deposition of diamondlike carbon hard coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Mao-Kuo; Popp, Angelika; Lang, Adolf; Schutte, Karsten; Bergmann, Hans W.

    1997-08-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited using the excimer laser assisted physical vapor deposition at room temperature. The films deposited at high vacuum (10-5 mbar) revealed more diamond-like character than under other atmospheres of argon and hydrogen. DLC- films can be deposited with a thickness more than 1 micrometers with the help of either an additional Ti-buffer layer or an in-situ laser treatment during the deposition. The adhesion of the films was qualitatively determined by using the indentation and bending tests. Additionally, the adhesion was found to be dependent on the power densities for the target ablation (IT) and for the in-situ laser treatment (IS), as well as, on the applied buffer layer. The roughness was found to be proportional to the film thickness at various surface morphologies of the substrate. The friction coefficient of DLC-films against steel (100Cr6) was found to be approximately 0.1 and the wear loss of the films was dependent on the properties of substrate material.

  9. Ion and neutral particle emission from polytetrafluoroethyene under 157-nm irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, Stephen; John, Sharon; Dickinson, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PFTE) is an important electronic material. Interactions with 157-nm laser radiation are of interest in the deposition and patterning of thin films of PTFE and similar materials. We have characterized the desorption of neutral and charged species from PTFE surfaces during 157-nm irradiation by time-resolved quadrupole mass spectroscopy. The principal neutral species are (CF2)x units. The neutral time-of-flight signals have a fast component with kinetic energies on the order of an eV, consistent with direct photochemical emission. These energetic neutrals are presumably created by scission of the C-C backbone by UV excitation. Slower neutral emissions are consistent with thermal emission from the surface at temperatures of several hundred kelvin above ambient. Much of the slower emission is attributed to thermally activated unzipping of the polymer backbone after photoelectronic scission. The principal positive and negative ions are C^+ and F^-. A large number of positive and negative charges are electrostatically coupled and travel together until separated by the electric fields of the mass filter.

  10. Advanced excimer laser technologies enable green semiconductor manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Hitomi; Yoo, Youngsun; Minegishi, Yuji; Hisanaga, Naoto; Enami, Tatsuo

    2014-03-01

    "Green" has fast become an important and pervasive topic throughout many industries worldwide. Many companies, especially in the manufacturing industries, have taken steps to integrate green initiatives into their high-level corporate strategies. Governments have also been active in implementing various initiatives designed to increase corporate responsibility and accountability towards environmental issues. In the semiconductor manufacturing industry, there are growing concerns over future environmental impact as enormous fabs expand and new generation of equipments become larger and more powerful. To address these concerns, Gigaphoton has implemented various green initiatives for many years under the EcoPhoton™ program. The objective of this program is to drive innovations in technology and services that enable manufacturers to significantly reduce both the financial and environmental "green cost" of laser operations in high-volume manufacturing environment (HVM) - primarily focusing on electricity, gas and heat management costs. One example of such innovation is Gigaphoton's Injection-Lock system, which reduces electricity and gas utilization costs of the laser by up to 50%. Furthermore, to support the industry's transition from 300mm to the next generation 450mm wafers, technologies are being developed to create lasers that offer double the output power from 60W to 120W, but reducing electricity and gas consumption by another 50%. This means that the efficiency of lasers can be improve by up to 4 times in 450mm wafer production environments. Other future innovations include the introduction of totally Heliumfree Excimer lasers that utilize Nitrogen gas as its replacement for optical module purging. This paper discusses these and other innovations by Gigaphoton to enable green manufacturing.

  11. Microencapsulation of silicon cavities using a pulsed excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedky, S.; Tawfik, H.; Ashour, M.; Graham, A. B.; Provine, J.; Wang, Q.; Zhang, X. X.; Howe, R. T.

    2012-07-01

    This work presents a novel low thermal-budget technique for sealing micromachined cavities in silicon. Cavities are sealed without deposition, similar to the silicon surface-migration sealing process. In contrast to the 1100 °C furnace anneal required for the migration process, the proposed technique uses short excimer laser pulses (24 ns), focused onto an area of 23 mm2, to locally heat the top few microns of the substrate, while the bulk substrate remains near ambient temperature. The treatment can be applied to selected regions of the substrate, without the need for special surface treatments or a controlled environment. This work investigates the effect of varying the laser pulse energy from 400 mJ cm-2 to 800 mJ cm-2, the pulse rate from 1 Hz to 50 Hz and the pulse count from 200 to 3000 pulses on sealing microfabricated cavities in silicon. An analytical model for the effect of holes on the surface temperature distribution is derived, which shows that much higher temperatures can be achieved by increasing the hole density. A mechanism for sealing the cavities is proposed, which indicates how complete sealing is feasible.

  12. A survey of advanced excimer optical imaging and lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koichi; Suwa, Kyoichi

    1998-11-01

    The first item discussed in this paper is to estimate the future trend regarding minimum geometry and the optical parameters, such as NA and wavelength. Simulations based on aerial images are performed for the estimation. The resolution limit is defined as a minimum feature size which retains practical depth of focus (DOF). Pattern geometry is classified into two categories, which are dense lines and isolated lines. Available wavelengths are assumed to be KrF excimer laser (λ=248 nm), ArF excimer laser (λ=193 nm) and F2 excimer laser (λ=157 nm). Based upon the simulation results, the resolution limit is estimated for each geometry and each wavelength. The second item is to survey ArF optics. At present, the ArF excimer laser is regarded as one of the most promising candidates as a next-generation light source. Discussions are ranging over some critical issues. The lifetime of ArF optics supposedly limited by the radiation compaction of silica glass is estimated in comparison with KrF optics. Availability of calcium fluoride (CaF2) is also discussed. As a designing issue, a comparative study is made about the optical configuration, dioptric or catadioptric. In the end, our resist-based performance is shown.

  13. Average power scaling of UV excimer lasers drives flat panel display and lidar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Ludolf; Delmdahl, Ralph F.; Paetzel, Rainer

    2012-03-01

    Average power scaling of 308nm excimer lasers has followed an evolutionary path over the last two decades driven by diverse industrial UV laser microprocessing markets. Recently, a new dual-oscillator and beam management concept for high-average power upscaling of excimer lasers has been realized, for the first time enabling as much as 1.2kW of stabilized UV-laser average output power at a UV wavelength of 308nm. The new dual-oscillator concept enables low temperature polysilicon (LTPS) fabrication to be extended to generation six glass substrates. This is essential in terms of a more economic high-volume manufacturing of flat panel displays for the soaring smartphone and tablet PC markets. Similarly, the cost-effective production of flexible displays is driven by 308nm excimer laser power scaling. Flexible displays have enormous commercial potential and can largely use the same production equipment as is used for rigid display manufacturing. Moreover, higher average output power of 308nm excimer lasers aids reducing measurement time and improving the signal-to-noise ratio in the worldwide network of high altitude Raman lidar stations. The availability of kW-class 308nm excimer lasers has the potential to take LIDAR backscattering signal strength and achievable altitude to new levels.

  14. Theoretical Modeling of the Discharge-Pumped Xenon - Excimer Laser.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Sheng-Bai

    The present dissertation is dedicated to a theoretical study of the discharge pumped XeCl excimer laser. For a better description of our system, Two modelings which supplement each other from different angles have been successfully developed. The first one, a comprehensive kinetics model which can be applied to the detailed simulations of the temporal behavior of the discharge characteristics and laser performance, is constructed by a set of coupled first -order differential equations, such as the rate equations, the Boltzmann equation, the external electric circuit equations, the energy balance equation, and the equations of optical resonator. The starting and termination of the discharge are taken into deliberation for the first time, especially for the Blumlein case. Some 70 kinetic processes and 23 chemical species are included. Such a problem can only be numerically solved by means of an elaborate computer code. Another model, on the other hand, pays attention to the quasi-steady-state to facilitate parametric study. A group of rate coefficients for the kinetic processes involving free electrons are approximated by analytic expressions using numerical results compiled from computer code calculations. Explicit expressions of the number densities for all relevant chemical species are obtained. Among them, HCI(O), H, and Cl can never reach steady-state population. Time history of the concentrations for these species are computed instead. With the discussions about the effect of vibrational relaxation and state-to-state transfer in the upper energy level, and the discussions about the rotational structure, collisional broadening, and dissociation of the diatomic ground state, we have extensively investigated the spontaneous emission spectra, the small-signal gain, the non-saturable absorption, the steady-state laser output power, and various efficiencies. Saturation effects in laser oscillators and laser amplifiers are discussed as well. These topics relate to the

  15. Ablation algorithms and corneal asphericity in myopic correction with excimer lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iroshnikov, Nikita G.; Larichev, Andrey V.; Yablokov, Michail G.

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this work is studying a corneal asphericity change after a myopic refractive correction by mean of excimer lasers. As the ablation profile shape plays a key role in the post-op corneal asphericity, ablation profiles of recent lasers should be studied. The other task of this research was to analyze operation (LASIK) outcomes of one of the lasers with generic spherical ablation profile and to compare an asphericity change with theoretical predictions. The several correction methods, like custom generated aspherical profiles, may be utilized for mitigation of unwanted effects of asphericity change. Here we also present preliminary results of such correction for one of the excimer lasers.

  16. Excimer lasers. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the design and development of excimer laser devices, apparatus, and systems for use in industrial and medical applications. Citations discuss ablation and lithography technology, compact excimer lasers, laser gas purification and recycling, microwave and discharge excited lasers, and rare gas halides. Applications are considered, including metallization and patterning, manufacturing of ophthalmic lenses, profiling of optical surfaces, treatment of engine parts, prosthetic surgery, and corneal ablation. (Contains a minimum of 106 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Excimer lasers. (Latest citations from the US Patent Bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the design and development of excimer laser devices, apparatus, and systems for use in industrial and medical applications. Citations discuss ablation and lithography technology, compact excimer lasers, laser gas purification and recycling, microwave and discharge excited lasers, and rare gas halides. Applications are considered, including metallization and patterning, manufacturing of ophthalmic lenses, profiling of optical surfaces, treatment of engine parts, prosthetic surgery, and corneal ablation. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. First results from AIMS beta tool for 157-nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuber, Silvio; Higashikawa, Iwao; Urbach, Jan-Peter; Schilz, Christof M.; Koehle, Roderick; Zibold, Axel M.

    2004-05-01

    In modern mask manufacturing, a successful defect mitigation strategy has been become crucial to achieve defect free masks for high-end lithography. The basic steps of such a strategy include inspection, repair, and subsequent post-repair qualification of repair sites. For the latter task, actinic aerial image measurements have been proven to be the technique of choice to assess the printability of a repaired site. In the last three years, International SEMATECH in cooperation with Infineon/AMTC-Dresden and SELETE, funded a joint development project at Carl Zeiss to develop an AIMS tool operating at the 157nm wavelength. The three beta tools were shipped in 2003 to the three beta customer sites. In this paper are presented the first results obtained with these beta tools, including measurements on binary as well as alternating phase shift masks. The technical properties of the tool were discussed with regards to the capability of the tool for defect qualification on photomasks. Additionally, preliminary results of the evaluation of alternating phase shift masks will be discussed, including measurements performed on dense lines-and-spaces structures with various pitch sizes.

  19. Effectiveness of a 308-nm excimer laser in treatment of vitiligo: a review.

    PubMed

    Alhowaish, Alauldin Khalef; Dietrich, Nathalie; Onder, Meltem; Fritz, Klaus

    2013-05-01

    Vitiligo is a relatively common acquired disorder, characterized by progressive loss of melanocytes from the epidermis and the epidermal appendages. The disease is associated with considerable morbidity because of a major impact on the quality of life. The treatment for vitiligo is generally unsatisfactory and challenging. There are a variety of therapeutic possibilities including topical corticosteroids, topical calcineurin inhibitors, as well as phototherapy with Psoralen plus UVA (PUVA), narrow-band UVB, and a 308-nm excimer laser and/or lamps. Furthermore, surgical methods encompass grafting and transplantation while depigmentation treatments and psychological support may also be considered. The objective is to assess the effect of the 380-nm excimer laser in the treatment of vitiligo based on the available studies and case series. We searched the relevant literature about vitiligo and excimer laser published between 1990 and 2012 using the MEDLINE database. We reviewed all relevant articles about 308-nm excimer laser and light sources assessing their efficacy in the management of vitiligo as well as their side effects. The value of combination treatment methods was also analyzed. The available studies provide strong evidence that the excimer laser represents the most effective approach to treat vitiligo compared to ordinary phototherapy. Excimer laser is relatively safe and effective for localized disease. UV-sensitive areas respond best as well as a short duration of the disease. More frequent treatments achieve better results. Compared to other treatment modalities, the excimer laser most likely constitutes the treatment of choice for localized vitiligo. Its efficacy can be further improved in combination with other therapies such as corticosteroids, pimecrolimus, or tacrolimus. PMID:22892613

  20. A Decade Of Excimer Laser Research And Development At Avco Research Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boness, M. J. W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of excimer laser research and development performed at the Avco Research Laboratory during the past decade from 1975 to the present day. Progress and highlights are depicted against a backdrop of parallel developmental paths connecting the original search and discovery activities of the mid-seventies to the development of high power repetitively-pulsed Raman shifted excimer devices in progress today.

  1. New high repetition rate, high energy 308 nm excimer laser for material processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Ludolf; Klaft, Ingo; Schmidt, Kai; Bragin, Igor; Albrecht, Hans-Stephan

    2007-02-01

    High power excimer lasers are well established as work horses for various kinds of micro material processing. The applications are ranging from drilling holes, trench formation, thin film ablation to the crystallization of amorphous-Si into polycrystalline-Si. All applications use the high photon energy and large pulse power of the excimer technology. The increasing demand for micro scale products has let to the demand for UV lasers which support high throughput production. We report the performance parameters of a newly developed XeCl excimer laser with doubled repetition rate compared to available lasers. The developed laser system delivers up to 900 mJ stabilized pulse energy at 600 Hz repetition rate. The low jitter UV light source operates with excellent energy stability. The outstanding energy stability was reached by using a proprietary solid-state pulser discharge design.

  2. Breakdown voltages for discharges initiated from plasma pulses produced by high-frequency excimer lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaura, Michiteru

    2006-06-19

    The triggering ability under the different electric field was investigated using a KrF excimer laser with a high repetition rate of kilohertz order. Measurements were made of the magnitude of impulse voltages that were required to initiate a discharge from plasmas produced by a high-frequency excimer laser. Breakdown voltages were found to be reduced by 50% through the production of plasmas in the discharge gap by a high-frequency excimer laser. However, under direct-current electric field, triggering ability decreased drastically due to low plasma density. It is considered that such laser operation applied for laser-triggered lightning due to the produced location of plasma channel is formed under the impulse electric field since an electric field of the location drastically reduces temporary when the downward leader from thunderclouds propagates to the plasma channel.

  3. KrF excimer laser precision machining of hard and brittle ceramic biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao-Xiong; Lu, Jian-Yi; Huang, Jin-Xia

    2014-06-01

    KrF excimer laser precision machining of porous hard-brittle ceramic biomaterials was studied to find a suitable way of machining the materials into various desired shapes and sizes without distorting their intrinsic structure and porosity. Calcium phosphate glass ceramics (CPGs) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were chosen for the study. It was found that KrF excimer laser can cut both CPGs and HA with high efficiency and precision. The ablation rates of CPGs and HA are respectively 0.081 µm/(pulse J cm(-2)) and 0.048 µm/(pulse  J cm(-2)), while their threshold fluences are individually 0.72 and 1.5 J cm(-2). The cutting quality (smoothness of the cut surface) is a function of laser repetition rate and cutting speed. The higher the repetition rate and lower the cutting speed, the better the cutting quality. A comparison between the cross sections of CPGs and HA cut using the excimer laser and using a conventional diamond cutting blade indicates that those cut by the excimer laser could retain their intrinsic porosity and geometry without distortion. In contrast, those cut by conventional machining had distorted geometry and most of their surface porosities were lost. Therefore, when cutting hard-brittle ceramic biomaterials to prepare scaffold and implant or when sectioning them for porosity evaluation, it is better to choose KrF excimer laser machining. PMID:24784833

  4. Excimer laser debridement of necrotic erosions of skin without collateral damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynne, James J.; Felsenstein, Jerome M.; Trzcinski, Robert; Zupanski-Nielsen, Donna; Connors, Daniel P.

    2011-07-01

    Pulsed ArF excimer laser radiation at 6.4 eV, at fluence exceeding the ablation threshold, will debride burn eschar and other dry necrotic erosions of the skin. Debridement will cease when sufficiently moist viable tissue is exposed, due to absorption by aqueous chloride ions (Cl-) through the non-thermal process of electron photodetachment, thereby inhibiting collateral damage to the viable tissue. ArF excimer laser radiation debrides/ablates ~1 micron of tissue with each pulse. While this provides great precision in controlling the depth of debridement, the process is relatively time-consuming. In contrast, XeCl excimer laser radiation debrides ~8 microns of tissue with each pulse. However the 4.0 eV photon energy of the XeCl excimer laser is insufficient to photodetach an electron from a Cl- ion, so blood or saline will not inhibit debridement. Consequently, a practical laser debridement system should incorporate both lasers, used in sequence. First, the XeCl excimer laser would be used for accelerated debridement. When the necrotic tissue is thinned to a predetermined thickness, the ArF excimer laser would be used for very precise and well-controlled debridement, removing ultra-thin layers of material with each pulse. Clearly, the use of the ArF laser is very desirable when debriding very close to the interface between necrotic tissue and viable tissue, where the overall speed of debridement need not be so rapid and collateral damage to viable tissue is undesirable. Such tissue will be sterile and ready for further treatment, such as a wound dressing and/or a skin graft.

  5. Initial experience in the extraction of chronically implanted pacemaker leads using the Excimer laser sheath

    PubMed Central

    Levy, T; Walker, S; Paul, V

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the safety and efficiency of the Excimer laser sheath in extracting chronically implanted pacemaker leads.
PATIENTS—Eight patients were studied (one female, mean age 62 years, range 34 to 77) with 17 pacemaker leads (five atrial, 10 ventricular, two implantable defibrillator). The mean implantation time was 65 months (range 23 to 188). The indications for lead extraction were chronic infection (7), superior vena cava obstruction (4), lead malfunction (4), and pain (2).
METHODS—A prospective analysis of the use of the Excimer laser sheath in extracting chronically implanted pacemaker leads. Laser sheath extraction was undertaken if conventional extraction techniques with simple traction or traction with a locking stylet had failed. If laser sheath extraction was unsuccessful, basket retrieval of the lead from the groin was performed.
RESULTS—Complete lead removal was achieved in 16 leads (94%). In one case the electrode tip was left behind without complication. Extraction was achieved with the laser sheath alone in 16 leads. Basket retrieval was required in one case after laser failure. There were no complications.
CONCLUSIONS—The Excimer laser sheath appears to be an effective and safe technique for extracting chronically implanted pacemaker leads. It can be used in combination with the currently available techniques for successful lead extraction.


Keywords: Excimer laser sheath; lead extraction; pacing PMID:10377320

  6. Laser-induced fluorescence of fused silica irradiated by ArF excimer laser

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Haibo; Yuan Zhijun; Zhou Jun; Dong Jingxing; Wei Yunrong; Lou Qihong

    2011-07-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of high-purity fused silica irradiated by ArF excimer laser is studied experimentally. LIF bands of the fused silica centered at 281 nm, 478 nm, and 650 nm are observed simultaneously. Furthermore, the angular distribution of the three fluorescence peaks is examined. Microscopic image of the laser modified fused silica indicates that scattering of the generated fluorescence by laser-induced damage sites is the main reason for the angular distribution of LIF signals. Finally, the dependence of LIF signals intensities of the fused silica on laser power densities is presented. LIF signals show a squared power density dependence, which indicates that laser-induced defects are formed mainly via two-photon absorption processes.

  7. Mesoscale Laser Processing using Excimer and Short-Pulse Ti: Sapphire Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Shirk, M D; Rubenchik, A M; Gilmer, G H; Stuart, B C; Armstrong, J P; Oberhelman, S K; Baker, S L; Nikitin, A J; Mariella, R P

    2003-07-28

    Targets to study high-energy density physics and inertial confinement fusion processes have very specific and precise tolerances that are pushing the state-of-the-art in mesoscale microsculpting technology. A significant effort is required in order to advance the capabilities to make these targets with very challenging geometries. Ultrashort pulsed (USP) Ti:Sapphire lasers and excimer lasers are proving to be very effective tools in the fabrication of the very small pieces that make up these targets. A brief description of the dimensional and structural requirements of these pieces will be presented, along with theoretical and experimental results that demonstrate to what extent these lasers are achieving the desired results, which include sub-{mu}m precision and RMS surface values well below 100 nm. This work indicates that excimer lasers are best at sculpting the polymer pieces and that the USP lasers work quite well on metal and aerogel surfaces, especially for those geometries that cannot be produced using diamond machining and where material removal amounts are too great to do with focused ion beam milling in a cost effective manner. In addition, the USP laser may be used as part of the procedure to fill target capsules with fusion fuel, a mixture of deuterium and tritium, without causing large perturbations on the surface of the target by keeping holes drilled through 125 {micro}m of beryllium below 5 {micro}m in diameter.

  8. Excimer laser annealing: A gold process for CZ silicon junction formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, David C.; Bottenberg, William R.; Byron, Stanley; Alexander, Paul

    1987-01-01

    A cold process using an excimer laser for junction formation in silicon has been evaluated as a way to avoid problems associated with thermal diffusion. Conventional thermal diffusion can cause bulk precipitation of SiOx and SiC or fail to completely activate the dopant, leaving a degenerate layer at the surface. Experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of fabricating high quality p-n junctions using a pulsed excimer laser for junction formation at remelt temperature with ion-implanted surfaces. Solar-cell efficiency exceeding 16 percent was obtained using Czochralski single-crystal silicon without benefit of back surface field or surface passivation. Characterization shows that the formation of uniform, shallow junctions (approximately 0.25 micron) by excimer laser scanning preserves the minority carrier lifetime that leads to high current collection. However, the process is sensitive to initial surface conditions and handling parameters that drive the cost up.

  9. A comparison of excimer laser, thermal probe, and mechanical devices for recanalizing occluded human arteries.

    PubMed

    Moriuchi, M; Tobis, J M; Mcrae, M; Mallery, J A; Macleay, L; Moussabeck, O; Berns, M; Henry, W L

    1991-06-01

    To evaluate the mechanism of excimer laser recanalization and compare the results with those of laser-assisted thermal probe recanalization and mechanical recanalization, a total of 42 human atherosclerotic totally occluded arterial segments (2-15 cm long) were recanalized by excimer laser with a 400-800 micron quartz fiber pulsed at 20 Hz with 50 mJ/mm2 of energy (n = 21), an Argon heated thermal probe at 10-12 watts (n = 11), a guidewire directed through a 6 Fr multipurpose catheter, or an angioplasty balloon catheter (n = 10). On histologic examination, the excimer laster created a single round lumen or multiple lumens ("Swiss-cheese" like appearance) with no evidence of thermal injury at the perimeter of the lumen. The incidence of perforation in vitro was less with an excimer laser catherter (8/21 or 38%) than with the thermal prove (10/11 or 91%) (p less than 0.01). However, serial histologic cross-sectional examination showed that the pathway of the devices were essentially the same in all recanalization procedures. The pathway of the device was located outside the atheroma but proximal to the internal elastic membrane in 13 arteries with the excimer laser (62%), in 10 arteries with the thermal probe (91%), and 8 arteries with mechanical devices (80%). These results indicate that although the eximer laser could recanalize human atherosclerotic arteries without thermal injury, the fiber frequently deflected around firm atherosclerotic plaque and advanced in a dissection plane between the plaque and media. A similar course was noted for the thermal probe or during mechanical recanalization with a guidewire and catheter. To insure the safety of an excimer fiber or a thermal probe to reopen complete occlusions, better guidance systems must be developed. PMID:1875527

  10. Early and late healing responses of normal canine artery to excimer laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Prevosti, L G; Leon, M B; Smith, P D; Dodd, J T; Bonner, R F; Robinowitz, M; Clark, R E; Virmani, R

    1988-07-01

    Acute in vitro histologic studies have shown that the pulsed xenon chloride excimer laser causes precise microablation without the surrounding thermal tissue injury associated with frequently used continuous-wave lasers such as the argon, carbon dioxide, and neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet lasers. However, the in vivo healing response of artery wall to excimer laser injury is not known. Accordingly, a xenon chloride excimer laser (308 nm, 40 nsec pulse width, 39 mJ/mm2/pulse) was transmitted via a 600 micron fused silica fiber to create 420 craters of varying depths (30 to 270 micron) in 21 normal canine femoral and carotid arteries. At 2 hours, 2 days, 10 days, and 42 days after excimer laser ablation, the artery segments were perfusion fixed in situ and analyzed by light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. At 2 hours, craters were covered by a carpet of platelets and entrapped red blood cells. Fibrin and exposed collagen fibers were seen at the crater base. There was a sharp demarcation of the crater-artery wall interface without lateral laser tissue injury. At 2 days, adherent platelets persisted with thrombus covering the base of the craters. Early healing responses were present, consisting of polymorphonucleated leukocytes and new endothelial cells, which extended over the crater rims. At 10 days, no thrombi were seen, and healing continued with almost complete reendothelialization. Macrophages, fibroblasts, fibrin, and entrapped red blood cells were present below the reendothelialized surface. At 42 days, healing was complete with obliteration of the craters by fibrointimal ingrowth. The surface was completely covered by a smooth monolayer of axially aligned endothelial cells. There were no aneurysms or surface hyperplastic responses. These favorable healing responses in normal canine arteries suggest that pulsed lasers with high tissue absorption coefficients, such as the xenon chloride excimer laser, may be suitable energy sources for

  11. CO2 laser cleaning of black deposits formed during the excimer laser etching of polyimide in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koren, G.; Donelon, J. J.

    1988-01-01

    Pulsed CO2 laser cleaning of black debris formed during the excimer laser ablation of polyimide in air is demonstrated. The 10.6 μm CO2 laser radiation is strongly absorbed in the debris but only weakly absorbed in polyimide thus enabling the clean removal of the debris without damaging the polyimide.

  12. [PKP for Keratoconus - From Hand/Motor Trephine to Excimer Laser and Back to Femtosecond Laser].

    PubMed

    Seitz, B; Szentmáry, N; Langenbucher, A; Hager, T; Viestenz, A; Janunts, E; El-Husseiny, M

    2016-06-01

    For patients with keratoconus, rigid gas-permeable contact lenses are the first line correction method and allow good visual acuity for quite some time. In severe stages of the disease with major cone-shaped protrusion of the cornea, even specially designed keratoconus contact lenses are no longer tolerated. If there are contraindications for intrastromal ring segments, corneal transplantation typically has a very good prognosis. In patients with advanced keratoconus - especially after corneal hydrops due to rupture of Descemet's membrane - penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) is still the first line surgical method. Non-contact excimer laser trephination seems to be especially beneficial for eyes with iatrogenic keratectasia after LASIK and for patients with repeat grafts due to "keratoconus recurrences" due to small grafts with thin host cornea. For donor trephination from the epithelial side, an artificial chamber is used. Wound closure is achieved with a double running cross-stitch suture according to Hoffmann. Graft size is adapted individually, depending on corneal size ("as large as possible - as small as necessary"). Limbal centration is preferred intraoperatively, due to optical displacement of the pupil. During the last 10 years, femtosecond laser trephination has been introduced from the USA as a potentially advantageous approach. Prospective clinical studies have shown that the technique of non-contact excimer laser PKP improves donor and recipient centration, reduces "vertical tilt" and "horizontal torsion" of the graft in the recipient bed, and thus results in significantly less "all-sutures-out" keratometric astigmatism (2.8 vs. 5.7 D), more regular topography (surface regularity index [SRI] 0.80 vs. 1.0) and better visual acuity (0.80 vs. 0.60), in comparison to the motor trephine. The stage of the disease does not influence functional outcome after excimer laser PKP. However, the refractive outcome of femtosecond laser keratoplasty resembles that with

  13. A comparison of the characteristics of excimer and femtosecond laser ablation of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, Tian Long; Liu, Zhu; Li, Lin; Zhong, Xiang Li

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the ablation characteristics of excimer laser (λ = 248 nm, τ = 15 ns) and femtosecond laser (λ = 800 nm, τ = 100 fs) on ABS polymer sheets. The laser-material interaction parameters (ablation threshold, optical penetration depth and incubation factor) and the changes in material chemical properties were evaluated and compared between the two lasers. The work shows that the ablation threshold and effective optical penetration depth values are dependent on the wavelength of laser beam (photon energy) and the pulse width. The ablation threshold value is lower for the excimer laser ablation of ABS (Fth = 0.087 J/cm2) than that for the femtosecond laser ablation of ABS (Fth = 1.576 J/cm2), demonstrating a more dominating role of laser wavelength than the pulse width in influencing the ablation threshold. The ablation depth versus the logarithmic scale of laser fluence shows two linear regions for the fs laser ablation, not previously known for polymers. The effective optical penetration depth value is lower for excimer laser ablation (α-1 = 223 nm) than that for femtosecond laser ablation (α-1 = 2917 nm). The ablation threshold decreases with increasing number of pulses (NOP) due to the chain scission process that shortens the polymeric chains, resulting in a weaker polymeric configuration and the dependency is governed by the incubation factor. Excimer laser treatment of ABS eliminates the Cdbnd C bond completely through the chain scission process whereas Cdbnd C bond is partially eliminated through the femtosecond laser treatment due to the difference in photon energy of the two laser beams. A reduction in the Cdbnd C bond through the chain scission process creates free radical carbons which then form crosslinks with each other or react with oxygen, nitrogen and water in air producing oxygen-rich (Csbnd O and Cdbnd O bond) and nitrogen-rich (Csbnd N) functional groups.

  14. The mechanism of the surface morphology transformation for the carbon nanotube thin film irradiated via excimer laser

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, Yun-Shan; Lee, I-Che; Yang, Po-Yu; Wang, Chao-Lung; Tsai, Wan-Lin; Wang, Kuang-Yu; Chou, Chia-Hsin; Cheng, Huang-Chung

    2013-05-06

    In this paper, the surface morphology transformation of the sprayed carbon nanotube (CNT) thin film irradiated with the excimer laser has been systematically investigated. Under the excimer-laser irradiation, two phenomena, including the annealing and ablation effects, were found to be dependent on the incident laser energy and overlapping ratios. Moreover, the extremely high protrusions would be produced in the interface between the annealing and ablation regions. The mechanism of the CNT thin film under the excimer laser irradiation was, therefore, proposed to derive the surface morphology modifications and the further reinforced crystallinity with proper laser energy densities and overlapping ratios.

  15. Particle Generation by Pulsed Excimer Laser Ablation in Liquid: Hollow Structures and Laser-Induced Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zijie

    2011-12-01

    Pulsed laser ablation of solid targets in liquid media is a powerful method to fabricate micro-/nanoparticles, which has attracted much interest in the past decade. It represents a combinatorial library of constituents and interactions, and one can explore disparate regions of parameter space with outcomes that are impossible to envision a priori. In this work, a pulsed excimer laser (wavelength 248 nm, pulse width 30 ns) has been used to ablate targets in liquid media with varying laser fluences, frequencies, ablation times and surfactants. It is observed that hollow particles could be fabricated by excimer laser ablation of Al, Pt, Zn, Mg, Ag, Si, TiO2, and Nb2O5 in water or aqueous solutions. The hollow particles, with sizes from tens of nanometers to micrometers, may have smooth and continuous shells or have morphologies demonstrating that they were assembled from nanoparticles. A new mechanism has been proposed to explain the formation of these novel particle geometries. They were formed on laser-produced bubbles through bubble interface pinning by laser-produced solid species. Considering the bubble dynamics, thermodynamic and kinetic requirements have been discussed in the mechanism that can explain some phenomena associated with the formation of hollow particles, especially (1) larger particles are more likely to be hollow particles; (2) Mg and Al targets have stronger tendency to generate hollow particles; and (3) the 248 nm excimer laser is more beneficial to fabricate hollow particles in water than other lasers with longer wavelengths. The work has also demonstrated the possiblities to fabricate novel nanostructures through laser-induced reactions. Zn(OH)2/dodecyl sulfate flower-like nanostructures, AgCl cubes, and Ag2O cubes, pyramids, triangular plates, pentagonal rods and bars have been obtained via reactions between laser-produced species with water, electrolyes, or surfactant molecules. The underlying mechanisms of forming these structures have been

  16. Primary success and one-year followup of percutaneous peripheral excimer laser angioplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visona, Adriana; Liessi, Guido; Miserocchi, Luigi; Bonanome, Andrea; Lusiani, Luigi; Breggion, Giovanni; Pagnan, Antonio

    1992-08-01

    Excimer laser angioplasty was performed in 59 patients (44 males and 17 females, mean age 63 +/- 9 years, range 39 - 77) affected by peripheral vascular disease. Fifty patients had a total occlusion of the superficial femoral artery, three of the iliac artery, and one of the popliteal artery; seven patients showed a subocclusive stenosis of the superficial femoral artery. A commercial excimer laser (Technolas Max-10) was used at the Xenon-Chloride wavelength of 308 nm. The laser operated at 120 ns pulse length and at 20 Hz repetition rate. Applied energy fluence was 20 mJ/pulse. The energy was delivered through a multifiber catheter, which combines 12 (7F) or 18 (9F) fibers (260 micron diameter each), concentrically arranged. Balloon dilatation was associated in 51 patients. Successful recanalization was obtained in 59 out of 61 patients (97%). Failure to recanalize the occluded arteries occurred in two cases, and was due to dissection. Early thrombosis and reocclusion (within 48 hours) was observed in five patients. The cumulative patency rate was 56% at one year. On the basis of these results, excimer laser assisted angioplasty seems a feasible and safe procedure. However, this technique did not solve the restenosis problem. A wide application of excimer laser as a stand alone approach can be foreseen for treatment of peripheral vascular disease.

  17. A comparative study of corneal incisions induced by diamond and steel knives and two ultraviolet radiations from an excimer laser.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, J; Trokel, S; Rothery, S; Krueger, R R

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the potential role of excimer lasers in corneal surgery. The morphology of incisions induced by two wavelengths of excimer laser radiation, 193 nm and 248 nm, are compared with the morphology of incisions produced by diamond and steel knives. Analysis suggests that ablation induced by excimer laser results from highly localised photochemical reactions and that 193 nm is the optimal wavelength for surgery. The only significant complication of laser surgery is loss of endothelial cells when incisions are within 40 micron of Descemet's membrane. Images PMID:3013283

  18. Formation of short high-power laser radiation pulses in excimer mediums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losev, V. F., Sr.; Ivanov, N. G.; Panchenko, Yu. N.

    2007-06-01

    Presently an excimer mediums continue are examined as one of variants for formation of powerful and over powerful pulses of laser radiation with duration from units of nanosecond up to tens femtosecond. The researches on such powerful installations as "NIKE" (USA) and << SUPER ASHURA >>, Japan) proceed in this direction. The main advantage of excimer mediums is the opportunity to work in a frequency mode, absence of restriction on the size of active area, high uniformity of a gas working medium, high efficiency (up to 10 %) and wide spectral range of laser radiation (KrF, XeCl ~ 2nm, XeF (C-A), Xe IICl ~ 50-100 nanometers). Research in area of high quality laser beams formation in excimer mediums and its amplification in high power amplifiers are carried out the long time in Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, Tomsk, Russia. The wide aperture XeCl laser system of MELS-4k is used for these investigations. Last time we take part in program on development of high power excimer laser system with a petawatt level of power. This system supposes the formation and amplification high quality laser beams with different pulse duration from units of nanosecond up to tens femtosecond. We research the possibility of laser beams formation in excimer mediums with ps-ns pulse duration having the low noise and divergence near to diffraction limit. In other hand, we are developing the wide aperture XeF(C-A) amplifier with optical pump on base electron accelerator. According to our estimations of the XeF(C-A) amplifier based on the converter of e-beam energy to the Xe II* fluorescence at 172 nm will allow to obtain up to 100 TW peak power in a 30 fs pulse.

  19. Temperature sensitivity of an atmospheric Raman lidar system based on a XeF excimer laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Murphy, William F.; Walsh, Nita W.; Evans, Keith D.

    1993-01-01

    The temperature sensitivity of Raman backscattering from atmospheric nitrogen, oxygen, and water vapor is considered over the range of temperatures expected in the troposphere. These results are applied to the Raman spectrum induced by a XeF excimer laser, which produces three line groups centered at approximately 349, 351, and 353 nm. Bandpass filter characteristics are determined for this case.

  20. Successful use of the excimer laser for generalized psoriasis in an ustekinumab non-responder.

    PubMed

    Malakouti, Mona; Brown, Gabrielle Elena; Sorenson, Eric; Leon, Argentina; Koo, John; Levin, Ethan Charles

    2015-03-01

    Effective treatments for moderate to severe psoriasis are phototherapy and biologics. These treatments are similar in that they both decrease cutaneous immune system hyperactivity yet do so via different mechanisms. Our patient, a 63 year old Asian male had a rapid response to treatment with the high dose excimer laser, having previously failed treatment with 28 weeks of ustekinumab therapy. A pre-treatment biopsy of a psoriatic plaque was found to contain relatively low levels of IFN-γ (Th1) and IL-17 (Th17) secreting T cells. Following treatment with the excimer laser, the patient had a quick improvement in PASI that was reflected by a 3-fold reduction in the number of live T cells found in the post-treatment biopsy. Although ustekinumab and the excimer laser both result in decreased levels of these cytokines, the excimer laser directly causes apoptosis of T cells and induces DNA damage in antigen presenting cells. Thus, the broader effects of phototherapy on immune cells compared to the targeted inhibition of IL-12 and IL-23 by ustekinumab likely account for the superior response observed. PMID:25780961

  1. Excimer v. Nd:YAG: comparative analysis of initial ultrastructural alterations produced by two distinct lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevorotin, Alexey J.

    1990-09-01

    Fine structural alteratious produced iediate1y after irradiation with either XeC1 excimer or Nd:Y.AG laser have been studied in rat liver samples processed histochemically for glucose-6-phosphatase (GP) activity, a marker enzyme for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of hepatocytes. General vesiculation of ER along with moderate inactivation of GP was apparent following excimer lazing which contrasted with better structural but poorer enzymatic preservation of ER in the hepatocytes irradiated with Nd:YAG laser. c'i the basis of this and our recent study. (A. Nevorotin, M. Kul 1 . 1989. Arch. Pathol . v. 51, N 7, pp. 63'TO ) a conclus ion is drawn on a potential surgical advantage of excimer laser over its Nd:YAG counterpart due presumably to lesser extent of cellular and macromolecular damage implicative in the process of healing of laser-inflicted lesions. A mechanism of ER vesiculation is considered in the iignt of probable dynamic impact transferred to the ER membranes by excimer irradiation by analogy with other nign energy mechanical forces (e.g. nign gravitation or ultrasonication) known to interfere with membrane structural organization.

  2. [Percutaneous coronary Excimer laser angioplasty in patients with coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    Karsch, K R; Haase, K K; Mauser, M; Ickrath, O; Voelker, W; Baumbach, A; Seipel, L

    1990-07-01

    To verify the efficacy and safety of percutaneous coronary excimer laser angioplasty in patients with coronary artery disease a prospective study was conducted in 60 patients. The application of laser light was possible in 55 of the 60 patients. A novel 1.4-mm diameter catheter with 20 quartz fibers of 100-microns diameter, each arranged concentrically around a central lumen suitable for an 0.014-inch flexible guide wire was used. The light source was a commercial excimer laser emitting energy at a wavelength of 308 nm, with a pulse duration of 60 ns. The laser was operated at 20 Hz; mean energy transmission was 30 +/- 5 mJ/mm2. In 23 of the 55 patients treated with excimer laser energy the qualitative angiographic results were sufficient. In 32 patients additional balloon angioplasty was necessary, either because of an insufficient result or due to vessel closure after laser ablation. In 47 of the 55 patients control angiography was performed within the 6-month follow-up period. Rate of restenosis was higher in patients treated with laser ablation and subsequent balloon angioplasty (16 of 28) than in patients treated with laser ablation alone (6 of 19). Results of the 6-month observation period suggest that 1) coronary excimer laser angioplasty in combination with subsequent balloon angioplasty results in a considerable increase of the restenosis rate; 2) the exclusive use of laser ablation also results in a restenosis rate comparable to balloon angioplasty alone; and 3) the impact of this new method using improved application systems and higher energy transmission has to be determined in further studies. PMID:2399764

  3. Excimer-pumped alkali vapor lasers: a new class of photoassociation lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Readle, J. D.; Wagner, C. J.; Verdeyen, J. T.; Spinka, T. M.; Carroll, D. L.; Eden, J. G.

    2010-02-01

    Excimer-pumped alkali vapor lasers (XPALs) are a new class of photoassociation lasers which take advantage of the spectrally broad absorption profiles of alkali-rare gas collision pairs. In these systems, transient alkali-rare gas molecules are photopumped from the thermal continuum to a dissociative X2Σ+ 1/2 interaction potential, subsequently populating the n2P3/2 state of the alkali. The absorption profiles >=5 nm and quantum efficiencies >98% have been observed in oscillator experiments, indicating XPAL compatibility with conventional high power laser diode arrays. An alternative technique for populating the n2P3/2 state is direct photoexcitation on the n2P3/2<--n2S1/2 atomic transition. However, because the XPAL scheme employs an off-resonant optical pump, the strengths of resonantly-enhanced nonlinear processes are minimized. Additionally, the absorption coefficient may be adjusted by altering the number densities of the lasing species and/or perturbers, a valuable asset in the design of large volume, high power lasers. We present an overview of XPAL lasers and their operation, including the characteristics of recently demonstrated systems photopumped with a pulsed dye laser. Lasing has been observed in Cs at both 894 nm and 852 nm by pumping CsAr or CsKr pairs as well as in Rb at 795 nm by pumping RbKr. These results highlight the important role of the perturbing species in determining the strength and position of the excimer absorption profile. It is expected that similar results may be obtained in other gas mixtures as similar collision pair characteristics have historically been observed in a wide variety of transient diatomic species.

  4. Preparation and disinfection of root canals by 308-nm excimer laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liesenhoff, Tim; Folwaczny, Matthias; Lehn, Norbert

    1994-09-01

    Conventional root canal treatments often fail due to insufficient removal of root canal contents and due to ineffective reduction of bacterial growth. In vitro investigations on the 308 nm excimer laser root canal preparation showed excellent results concerning the preparation quality. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of 308 nm excimer laserlight on the growth of bacteria. Bacterial suspensions of Staph. aureus, E. coli, and Enterococcus faec. were irradiated with various energy densities and different time duration. In order to exclude thermal side effects the temperature rise inside the suspensions was registered during irradiation. It was able to demonstrate that 308 nm excimer laserlight effects a log reduction of germ concentration at energy densities of 0.5 - 2.4 J/cm2. Laserlight effects germ reduction even without tissue removal. The effectiveness is dependent on the type of bacteria, the energy density, and the time of irradiation. The antimicrobial effect is independent from temperature.

  5. Mechanism of injurious effect of excimer (308 nm) laser on the cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevorotin, Alexey J.; Kallikorm, A. P.; Zeltzer, Gregory L.; Kull, Mart M.; Mihkelsoo, Virgo T.

    1991-06-01

    A Lameta 22710 excimer laser operating at 70 mJ/mm2 per pulse, with pulse duration of 70 nsec, and pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz, equipped with a quartz filament as energy conductor was used to make incisions on rat liver. 2 to 5 sec after irradiation the specimens were fixed and further processed for electron microscopy and histochemical visualization of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker enzyme glucose-6- phosphatase at the ultrastructural level. The additional series were: fixation before irradiation-(A); lasing with Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, continuous wave mode, 40 J/mm2)-(B); incision with a white-hot steel needle-(C); and incision with an Esto-Rex ultrasound scalpel (66 kHz, 6 Wt, vibration amplitude of 15 micrometers )-(D). The results showed that unlike Series C and B, in which high temperature caused severe damage to all cellular organellae, the excimer action was much more specific. It caused vesiculation of ER without significant injuries to other cellular structures. The analogous effect was noted after US scalpel cutting, thereby allowing a conclusion that a kind of dynamic rather than thermal factor is responsible for the observed phenomenon of vesiculation. The time schedule of vesicle formation and molecular background of membrane transformation is considered in the light of the data of Series A and D, and also on the basis of available information of membrane behavior. Photoablative effect of pulsed excimer laser is thought to be based on chemical decomposition of organic molecules and their ejection from the tissue to the action of high energy photons. Pressure waves (either acoustic or shock) are presumably generated powerful enough to cause tissue and cell damage beyond the site of ablation. Some thermal and fluorescence events are also implicative in biological targets irradiated with excimer lasers. In our previous studies electron histochemistry was employed for the analysis of cellular alterations caused with a continuous wave mode

  6. Comparison of KrF and ArF excimer laser treatment of biopolymer surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaljaničová, I.; Slepička, P.; Heitz, J.; Barb, R. A.; Sajdl, P.; Švorčík, V.

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this work was the investigation of the impact of two different excimer lasers on two biocompatible and biodegradable polymers (poly-L-lactide and poly hydroxybutyrate). Both polymers find usage in medical and pharmaceutical fields. The polymers were modified by KrF and ArF excimer lasers. Subsequently the impact on surface morphology, surface chemistry changes, and thermal properties was studied by means of confocal and AFM microscopy, FTIR and XPS spectroscopy and DSC calorimetry. Under the same conditions of laser treatment it was observed that ArF laser causes more significant changes on surface chemistry, surface morphology and pattern formation on the polymers under investigation. The data obtained in this work can be used for a wide range of possible applications, in tissue engineering or in combination with metallization in electronics, e.g. for biosensors.

  7. Spectrally narrowed lasing of a self-injection KrF excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Yasuhiro; Wani, Koichi; Miki, Tadaaki; Kawahara, Hidehito; Mimasu, Mutsumi; Ogata, Yoshiro

    1990-08-01

    Spectrally nantwed lasing of a KrF excimer laser has teen ahieved by a self-injection technique using abeam splitter for power extraction aixi intravity etalons for spectral-narrowing. The laser cavity is divithi into an amplifying branch aix! a spectralnarrowing branch. The spectral bandwidth was narrowed to <3pm FWHM with air-sed etalons placed in the spectral-narrowing branch. A laser propagation model was intrOdUced for describing the laser intensity traveling in the laser cavity. The calculated intensityincident onthe intracavityetalons wassmaller thanthat in theconventional Fabry-Perotcavity withplane-parallel mirrors.

  8. Excimer laser photochemistry of silane-ammonia mixtures at 193 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, D.B.; Jasinski, J.M. )

    1990-04-05

    The ArF excimer laser induced photochemistry of silane-ammonia mixtures has been studied with molecular beam sampling mass spectrometry. The observed products include disilane, trisilane, and all possible aminosilanes, SiH{sub x}(NH{sub 2}){sub 4-x}, x = 0-3. These products are formed under steady-state photolysis conditions and under single-laser-pulse conditions. A mechanism for the formation of these species is proposed and quantitatively evaluated.

  9. Excimer laser absorption on PMMA plate and on cornea: a practical approach using volume luminance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digulescu, Petre P.; Carstocea, Benone D.; Sterian, Livia

    2001-04-01

    Excimer laser refractive surgery used in Ophthalmology in order to treat the human eye refraction problems has been performed over 10 years around the world. However a systematic approach of the physical phenomena and especially of the absorption on the cornea during the laser treatment is missing in the literature and the doctors are usually using empiric nomograms in order to achieve good results. The theoretical approach is difficult because of the complexity of the phenomena interconnected each to the others. The UV excimer laser beam used to controllably ablate the cornea is highly absorbed in the air and also is supplementary absorbed in the plume generated almost instantaneous as consequence of the ablation on the cornea. Because of this non-linear proces the energy of the laser beam delivered to the eye must be calibrated before each intervention on a patient. The purpose of the present work is to develop a mathematical model of the excimer laser absorption on PMMA and on human cornea based on a new physical notion, the Volume Luminance. The Volume Luminance is defined as volume density of the intensity of laser radiation. A brief theory of the Volume Luminance is also presented.

  10. Bioactive glass surface for fiber reinforced composite implants via surface etching by Excimer laser.

    PubMed

    Kulkova, Julia; Moritz, Niko; Huhtinen, Hannu; Mattila, Riina; Donati, Ivan; Marsich, Eleonora; Paoletti, Sergio; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2016-07-01

    Biostable fiber-reinforced composites (FRC) prepared from bisphenol-A-glycidyldimethacrylate (BisGMA)-based thermosets reinforced with E-glass fibers are promising alternatives to metallic implants due to the excellent fatigue resistance and the mechanical properties matching those of bone. Bioactive glass (BG) granules can be incorporated within the polymer matrix to improve the osteointegration of the FRC implants. However, the creation of a viable surface layer using BG granules is technically challenging. In this study, we investigated the potential of Excimer laser ablation to achieve the selective removal of the matrix to expose the surface of BG granules. A UV-vis spectroscopic study was carried out to investigate the differences in the penetration of light in the thermoset matrix and BG. Thereafter, optimal Excimer laser ablation parameters were established. The formation of a calcium phosphate (CaP) layer on the surface of the laser-ablated specimens was verified in simulated body fluid (SBF). In addition, the proliferation of MG63 cells on the surfaces of the laser-ablated specimens was investigated. For the laser-ablated specimens, the pattern of proliferation of MG63 cells was comparable to that in the positive control group (Ti6Al4V). We concluded that Excimer laser ablation has potential for the creation of a bioactive surface on FRC-implants. PMID:27134152

  11. 300 W XeCl excimer laser annealing and sequential lateral solidification in low temperature poly silicon technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Ludolf; Kahlert, Hans-Juergen; Fechner, Burkhard; Rebhan, Ulrich; Osmanow, Rustem

    2003-05-01

    Industrial production of low temperature p-Si back plates for LCDs by high power excimer laser annealing was introduced several years ago. Regarding the economy of the process, one of the major advantages of excimer laser annealing is the opportunity to make use of low cost glass substrates due to the low temperature of the annealing process. The Lambda Physik high power excimer laser series are operated with the MicroLas 370 mm line beam optics, integrated by Japan Steel Works into industrial systems. The MicroLas line beam optics for conventional excimer laser annealing (ELA) process converts the raw laser beam profile into a stable and homogeneous rectangular illumination field with high aspect ratio. The excimer laser light source, the LAMBDA STEEL 1000, delivers stabilized pulse energies up to 1 Joule at repetition rates up to 300Hz. The crystallization using excimer lasers allows to produce films with electron mobility of 100-150 cm2/Vsec with the Line beam technique. The new SLS-method, which is currently under industrial investigation, even allows to obtain electron mobility between 200-400 cm2/Vsec.

  12. Microsurgery of the retina with a needle-guided 193-nm excimer laser.

    PubMed

    Lewis, A; Palanker, D; Hemo, I; Pe'er, J; Zauberman, H

    1992-07-01

    This article presents a method used to guide the beam from an argon fluoride excimer laser to make it suitable for microsurgical purposes and confine it to areas that can be varied in dimension from 1 micron to tens or hundreds of microns. This approach guides the excimer laser beam with an articulated mechanical arm and confines it with variable-diameter tapered tubes, possibly allowing the use of this laser in in vitro retinal surgery with endolaser techniques. Currently, because of the lack of a delivery and focusing system for the 193-nm argon fluoride beam and its absorption by biologic liquids, this laser is used exclusively in ophthalmology for topical applications, such as corneal sculpting. This new method resolves these problems in a unique way with impressive results. Specifically, it was shown that, with this needle-guided excimer laser, it is possible to remove retinal tissue accurately without detectable damage to surrounding cells. Applications of this new technique in retinal surgery are discussed. PMID:1634334

  13. 193 nm excimer laser sclerostomy in pseudophakic patients with advanced open angle glaucoma.

    PubMed Central

    Allan, B D; van Saarloos, P P; Cooper, R L; Constable, I J

    1994-01-01

    A modified open mask system incorporating an en face air jet to dry the target area during ablation and a conjunctival plication mechanism, which allows ab externo delivery of the 193 nm excimer laser without prior conjunctival dissection, has been developed to form small bore sclerostomies accurately and atraumatically. Full thickness sclerostomies, and sclerostomies guarded by a smaller internal ostium can be created. A pilot therapeutic trial was conducted in pseudophakic patients with advanced open angle glaucoma. Six full thickness sclerostomies (200 microns and 400 microns diameter) and three guarded sclerostomies were created in nine patients by 193 nm excimer laser ablation (fluence per pulse 400 mJ/cm2, pulse rate 16 Hz, air jet pressure intraocular pressure +25 mm Hg). After 6 months' follow up, intraocular pressure was controlled (< or = 16 mm Hg) in eight of the nine patients (6/9 without medication). Early postoperative complications included hyphaema (trace--2.5 mm) (6/9), temporary fibrinous sclerostomy occlusion (4/9), profound early hypotony (all patients without fibrinous occlusion), and suprachoroidal haemorrhage in one case. Conjunctival laser wounds were self sealing. Small bore laser sclerostomy procedures are functionally equivalent to conventional full thickness procedures, producing early postoperative hypotony, with an increased risk of suprachoroidal haemorrhage in association with this. Further research is required to improve control over internal guarding in excimer laser sclerostomy before clinical trials of this technique can safely proceed. Images PMID:8148335

  14. New polymer for 157-nm single-layer resist based on fluorine-containing acryl copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, Toshiyuki; Endo, Koutaro; Komano, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Toshimasa

    2001-08-01

    We are reporting on the development of acryl polymer based on novel methacrylate and acrylate monomers with various trifluoromethyl groups for the application to 157nm chemically amplified positive-tone resists. The (alpha) - trifluoromethylation of the alkyl ester in methacrylate or acrylate could employ the reduction of acrylpolymer absorbance at 157nm by spectra analysis with the VUV-200 spectrophotometer by JASCO. Although the trifluoromethyl groups could employ the reduction of base polymer absorbance at 157nm, the homopolymers have issued weak etch resistance as a photoresist base polymer. To take account of this issue, we have developed a novel monomer, trifluoromethyl- iso-adamantylmethacrylate (TFIAdMA) and a new co-polymer system with the combination of fluorinated methacrylate derivatives and substituted p-hydroxystyrene. The absorption coefficient of poly(p-tert-butoxystyren-co- hexafluoro-tert-butyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) incicated to be less than 3 micrometers -1 at 157nm. Patterning results were obtained with a 157nm contact exposure system of VUVES-4500 by LTJ. One of the experimental resists, based on a particular polymer ratio and photo acid generator, has clearly achieved 180nm line and space pattern resolution. At 140nm resist film thickness, the sensitivity was 31 mJ/cm2 when using 0,26N tetrametylammonium hydroxide surfactant type developer.

  15. Simulation of excimer laser micromachined 3D surface using a CAD solid modeling package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hume, Richard G.; Iovenitti, Pio G.; Hayes, Jason P.; Harvey, Erol C.

    2002-11-01

    This paper describes the research on the development of a visualisation tool to generate 3D solid models of structures produced by micromachining using an excimer laser system. Currently, the development of part programs to achieve a desired microstructure is by a trial and error approach. This simulation tool assists designers and excimer machine programmers to produce microstructures using the excimer laser. Users can develop their microstructures and part programs with the assistance of digital prototypes rather than designing products using expensive laser micromachining equipment. The methods to simulate micromachining using the solid modelling package, SolidWorks, are described, and simulation and actual machined examples are reported. A basic knowledge of the solid modelling package is required to develop the simulations, and complex models take time to prepare, however, the development time can be minimised by working from previous simulations. The models developed can be parameterised so that families of designs can be investigated for little additional effort to optimise the design before committing to laser micromachining.

  16. Application of optical tweezers and excimer laser to study protoplast fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantawang, Titirat; Samipak, Sompid; Limtrakul, Jumras; Chattham, Nattaporn

    2015-07-01

    Protoplast fusion is a physical phenomenon that two protoplasts come in contact and fuse together. Doing so, it is possible to combine specific genes from one protoplast to another during fusion such as drought resistance and disease resistance. There are a few possible methods to induce protoplast fusion, for example, electrofusion and chemical fusion. In this study, chemical fusion was performed with laser applied as an external force to enhance rate of fusion and observed under a microscope. Optical tweezers (1064 nm with 100X objective N.A. 1.3) and excimer laser (308 nm LMU-40X-UVB objective) were set with a Nikon Ti-U inverted microscope. Samples were prepared by soaking in hypertonic solution in order to induce cell plasmolysis. Elodea Canadensis and Allium cepa plasmolysed leaves were cut and observed under microscope. Concentration of solution was varied to induce difference turgor pressures on protoplasts pushing at cell wall. Free protoplasts in solution were trapped by optical tweezers to study the effect of Polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution. PEG was diluted by Ca+ solution during the process to induced protoplast cell contact and fusion. Possibility of protoplast fusion by excimer laser was investigated and found possible. Here we report a novel tool for plant cell fusion using excimer laser. Plant growth after cell fusion is currently conducted.

  17. Valacyclovir for the prevention of recurrent herpes simplex virus eye disease after excimer laser photokeratectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Asbell, P A

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: A variety of factors have been reported as inducing the reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus (HSV), among them stress, trauma, and UV radiation. Excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) is a surgical procedure utilizing a 193 nm ultraviolet light to alter the curvature of the cornea and hence correct vision. Reactivation of ocular herpes simplex keratitis following such excimer laser PRK has been reported. All published cases of HSV reactivation following excimer laser treatment in humans are reviewed. The present study evaluates whether stress, trauma of the corneal de-epithelialization prior to the laser, or the excimer laser treatment itself to the stromal bed induces this ocular reactivation of the latent HSV, and whether a systemic antiviral agent, valacyclovir, would prevent such laser PRK-induced reactivation of the HSV. METHODS: Forty-three normal 1.5- to 2.5-kg New Zealand white rabbits were infected on the surface of the cornea with HSV-1, strain RE. The animals were monitored until resolution, and then all animals were divided into 5 treatment groups: (1) de-epithelialization only, intraperitoneal (i.p.) saline for 14 days; (2) de-epithelialization plus laser, i.p. saline for 14 days; (3) de-epithelialization plus laser, valacyclovir 50 mg/kg per day i.p. for 14 days; (4) de-epithelialization plus laser, valacyclovir 100 mg/kg per day i.p. for 14 days; (5) de-epithelialization plus laser, valacyclovir 150 mg/kg per day i.p. for 14 days. Animals were evaluated in a masked fashion by clinical examination biweekly and viral cultures biweekly through day 28. RESULTS: The reactivation rates were as follows: group 1, 0%; group 2, 67%; group 3, 50%; group 4, 17%; and group 5, 0%. Viral titers were negative in animals that had no reactivation but persistently positive in those that had reactivation (day 6 through day 28). CONCLUSIONS: Excimer laser (193 nm) treatment can trigger reactivation of ocular herpes disease (67%) and viral

  18. Detection of lead in soil with excimer laser fragmentation fluorescence spectroscopy (ELFFS)

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J.H.; Damm, C.J.; O'Donovan, N.J.; Sawyer, R.F.; Koshland, C.P.; Lucas, D.

    2004-03-01

    Excimer laser fragmentation fluorescence spectroscopy (ELFFS) is used to monitor lead in soil sample and investigate laser-solid interactions. Pure lead nitrate salt and soil doped with lead nitrate are photolyzed with 193 nm light from an ArF excimer at fluences from 0.4 to 4 J/cm{sup 2}. Lead emission is observed at 357.2, 364.0, 368.3, 373.9 and 405.8 nm. Time-resolved data show the decay time of the lead emission at 405.8 nm grows with increasing fluence, and a plasma is formed above fluences of 2 J/cm{sup 2}, where a strong continuum emission interferes with the analyte signal. Fluences below this threshold allow us to achieve a detection limit of approximately 200 ppm in soil.

  19. Measurement and evaluation methods for beam characterization of commercial excimer lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Hans Stephen; Rebhan, Ulrich; Mann, Klaus R.; Ohlenbusch, J.

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes the specific requirements for measurement of excimer laser beam profiles for standardized characterization 'of commercial excimer lasers. A corresponding measurement system is presented which allows a simultaneous characterization of energy density distribution in the near field as well as in the focal plane of a lens (far field). Specially adapted UV-cameras make possible sings pulse diagnostic. Beam widths are calculated from the digitized camera data by different methods corresponding to the proposals of ISO 11146 (second moment, moving knife edge, and moving slit) and the results are compared. In particular, the influence of background signals as well as the typical shape of energy density distribution in the near field to the determined beam widths are analyzed.

  20. Excimer laser sclerostomy: the in vitro development of a modified open mask delivery system.

    PubMed

    Allan, B D; van Saarloos, P P; Russo, A V; Cooper, R L; Constable, I J

    1993-01-01

    The argon fluoride (ArF) excimer laser at 193 nm ablates the ocular tissues with a new order of precision and virtually no adjacent damage. A glaucoma filtration operation has been designed in which small-bore sclerostomies are created using the ArF excimer laser delivered through an open mask. The mask plicates the conjunctiva at the limbus prior to ablation. Removing the mask at the end of the procedure allows the conjunctiva to relax back to its original position, separating the conjunctival and scleral wounds. Formal conjunctival dissection is thus avoided. Feasibility studies in cadaver pig eyes, using a fluence per pulse of 400 mJ/cm2 and a pulse repetition rate of 20 Hz, indicate that sclerostomies of 300 microns diameter can be reliably formed if an en-face air jet is built into the mask to raise the pressure in the target area, preventing aqueous flooding. PMID:8325423

  1. Improved model for the angular dependence of excimer laser ablation rates in polymer materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pedder, J. E. A.; Holmes, A. S.; Dyer, P. E.

    2009-10-26

    Measurements of the angle-dependent ablation rates of polymers that have applications in microdevice fabrication are reported. A simple model based on Beer's law, including plume absorption, is shown to give good agreement with the experimental findings for polycarbonate and SU8, ablated using the 193 and 248 nm excimer lasers, respectively. The modeling forms a useful tool for designing masks needed to fabricate complex surface relief by ablation.

  2. Phosphorus doping of 4H SiC by liquid immersion excimer laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Akihiro; Nishi, Koji; Ikenoue, Hiroshi; Asano, Tanemasa

    2013-02-04

    Phosphorus doping of 4H SiC is performed by KrF excimer laser irradiation of 4H SiC immersed in phosphoric acid. Phosphorus is incorporated to a depth of a few tens of nanometers at a concentration of over 10{sup 20}/cm{sup 3} without generating significant crystal defects. Formation of a pn junction diode with an ideality factor of 1.06 is demonstrated.

  3. Narrow bandwidth tuning of rhodamine 6G dye pumped by a XeCl excimer laser

    SciTech Connect

    Shangguan Cheng; Ling Ying-yi; Wang Yi-man; Dou Ai-rong; Huang Dan-hong

    1986-03-01

    In this paper the experimental study for narrow bandwidth tuning of ethylene glycol solution of rhodamine 6G pumped by a XeCl excimer laser is reported. The tunable range from 572.7 nm to 612.9 nm with linewidth of 0.004 nm has been obtained. The conversion efficiency is 16.0%. The experimental results of seven other dyes are also presented.

  4. Holographic Generation Of Gratings With Periodicities Below 150 nm With An Excimer Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlhorn, T.; Pohlmann, Hauke; Kotthaus, Jorg P.

    1989-04-01

    Holographic generation of gratings with periodicities down to 140nm in thin polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) layers on Si-substrates using a narrow band KrF-excimer laser (λ=248 nm) is reported. At low single pulse energy densities (<3OmJ/cm2) the gratings are prepared by conventional photolithography. At higher single pulse energy densities (>70mJ/cm2) we directly write gratings in the PMMA by photoetching (ablation).

  5. Pulsed laser deposition of polyhydroxybutyrate biodegradable polymer thin films using ArF excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kecskemeti, G.; Smausz, T.; Kresz, N.; Tóth, Zs.; Hopp, B.; Chrisey, D.; Berkesi, O.

    2006-11-01

    We demonstrated the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of high quality films of a biodegradable polymer, the polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). Thin films of PHB were deposited on KBr substrates and fused silica plates using an ArF ( λ = 193 nm, FWHM = 30 ns) excimer laser with fluences between 0.05 and 1.5 J cm -2. FTIR spectroscopic measurements proved that at the appropriate fluence (0.05, 0.09 and 0.12 J cm -2), the films exhibited similar functional groups with no significant laser-produced modifications present. Optical microscopic images showed that the layers were contiguous with embedded micrometer-sized grains. Ellipsometric results determined the wavelength dependence ( λ ˜ 245-1000 nm) of the refractive index and absorption coefficient which were new information about the material and were not published in the scientific literature. We believe that our deposited PHB thin films would have more possible applications. For example to our supposal the thin layers would be applicable in laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) of biological materials using them as absorbing thin films.

  6. Vessel wall perforation mechanism of the excimer laser-assisted non-occlusive anastomosis technique.

    PubMed

    Bremmer, Jochem; van Doormaal, Tristan P C; Verweij, Bon H; van der Zwan, Albert; Tulleken, Cornelius A F; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf

    2016-08-01

    The excimer laser assisted non-occlusive anastomosis (ELANA) technique is used to make anastomoses on intracerebral arteries. This end-to-side anastomosis is created without temporary occlusion of the recipient artery using a 308-nm excimer laser with a ring-shaped multi-fiber catheter to punch an opening in the arterial wall. Over 500 patients have received an ELANA bypass. However, the vessel wall perforation mechanism of the laser catheter is not known exactly and not 100 % successful. In this study, we aimed to understand the mechanism of ELANA vessel perforation using specialized imaging techniques to ultimately improve its effectiveness. High-speed imaging, high-contrast imaging, and high-sensitivity thermal imaging were used to study the laser wall perforation mechanism and reveal the mechanical and thermal effects involved. In vitro, rabbit arteries were exposed with the special designed laser catheter in a setup representative for the clinical setting, in which blood was replaced with a transparent UV absorbing liquid for visualization. We observed that laser vessel wall perforation was caused by explosive vapor bubbles tearing through the vessel wall, mostly within the first 20 of the total 200 pulses. Thermal effects were minimal. Unsymmetrical tension in the vessel wall inducing migration of the flap during laser exposure was observed in case of unsuccessful wall perforations. The laser wall perforation mechanism in the ELANA technique is primarily mechanical. Symmetric tension in the recipient vessel wall is essential and should be trained by neurosurgeons. PMID:27220531

  7. Expression of Epidermal c-Kit+ of Vitiligo Lesions Is Related to Responses to Excimer Laser

    PubMed Central

    Park, Oun Jae; Han, Ji Su; Lee, Sang Hyung; Park, Chan-Sik; Won, Chong Hyun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background The survival and growth of melanocytes are controlled by the binding of stem cell factor to its cell surface receptor c-kit+ (CD117). We have observed that c-kit+ melanocytes existed in some lesions of vitiligo, while Melan A+ cells were absent. Objective To verify possible relation between c-kit+ expression and treatment response in non-segmental vitiligo lesions Methods Skin biopsies were done from the center of the 47 lesions from the 47 patients with non-segmental vitiligo. Expression of c-kit+ and Melan A, and amounts of melanin in the epidermis were assessed in each lesion, and treatment responses to excimer laser were evaluated. Results Thirty-five of the 47 lesions (74.5%) had c-kit+ phenotypes. There was significant difference of c-kit staining value between good responders in 3 months of excimer laser treatment (average of 24 sessions) and the others. Conclusion c-Kit expression in vitiliginous epidermis may be related to better treatment responses to excimer laser. PMID:27489428

  8. Elaboration of excimer lasers dosimetry for bone and meniscus cutting and drilling using optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, Renate; Dressel, Martin; Neu, Walter; Jungbluth, Karl-Heinz

    1991-05-01

    In order to optimize bone and cartilage ablation, various excimer laser systems at 308 nm wavelength (pulse width 28 ns, 60 ns, 300 ns) and tapered fibers (core diameter 400 micrometers , 600 micrometers , 1000 micrometers ) were combined. By varying the major parameters such as fluence, pulselength, repetition rate, fiber diameter, medium, manner of application (drilling, cutting); analysis was made of the interaction of the excimer laser beam with different organic material (meniscus, bone tissue). More than 300 cuts and drillings have been realized with different parameters. The ablation rate mainly depends on fluence, repetition rate and pulse duration. The achieved ablation rate was 3 micrometers /pulse in bone. The drilling speed of the meniscus was 6 mm/s. The samples showed no carbonization at all, when being cut or drilled in liquid medium. This might be a breakthrough in fiber guided excimer laser surgery. From these and further experiments the authors obtained the dosimetry, which will be the basis for the elaboration of necessary operation guidelines for accident surgery.

  9. Practical resolution enhancement effect by new complete antireflective layer in KrF excimer laser lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Tohru; Kimura, Mitsumori; Gocho, Tetsuo; Tomo, Yoichi; Tsumori, Toshiro

    1993-08-01

    A new complete anti-reflective layer (ARL) for KrF excimer laser lithography, which becomes an excimer laser lithography to a practical mass production tool beyond 0.35 micrometers rule devices, is developed. This new ARL, whose material is a type of hydro silicon oxynitride film (SiOxNy:H), can be applied to tungsten silicide (W-Si) and even to aluminum silicon (Al- Si) substrates by controlling deposition conditions in plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition systems. Using this SiOxNy:H film with 30 nm and 25 nm thicknesses on W-Si and Al-Si substrates respectively, critical dimension variations for both substrates are drastically reduced to within 0.02 micrometers for 0.30 micrometers imaging. On actual device structures, with these SiOxNy:H film as an ARL, notching effects by halation are completely reduced. Moreover, these SiOxNy:H film can not only be deposited with topographical uniformity but also etched with conventional SiO2 etching conditions. Another advantage with ARL is a depth of focus enhancement effect. With a SiOxNy:H film depth of focus for the critical dimension is enlarged more than 23% for 0.35 micrometers line and space patterns. Accordingly, practical resolution is enhanced. From the above effect, the limitations of KrF excimer laser lithography for ideal substrate conditions are considered from the point of view of optimal projection lens NA for various feature sizes.

  10. Photoacoustic injury and bone healing following 193nm excimer laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Lustmann, J; Ulmansky, M; Fuxbrunner, A; Lewis, A

    1992-01-01

    The argon-fluoride excimer laser was investigated as a cutting-ablating tool for bone surgery. A total of 52 rats were divided into two experimental groups and two control groups. In one experimental group cortical bone defects were made; in another experimental group defects penetrating into the medullary space were performed. In the two control groups similar defects were achieved using water-cooled carbide burs. The rats were sacrificed on each of the 3, 7, 10, 20, 30, and 40 postoperative day. The cortical bone, the medullary space, and the extrabony tissue were examined by means of light microscopy. In both experimental groups, bone damage, represented by osteocyte destruction, extended to 1,050-1,450 microns ahead from the irradiated site, and bone healing was very much impaired. In the control groups no histological changes could be identified and bone healing appeared to be within normal limits. We believe this extensive bone damage, following 193 nm irradiation, to be a result of photoacoustic waves propagating in the bone following each pulse. In view of our results we feel that excimer lasers presently in use are not suitable for bone surgery. This problem of photoacoustic damage can be overcome in one of two ways: by designing a CW excimer laser or by reducing the pulse width to the picosecond regime. PMID:1495367

  11. A study of structure formation on PET, PBT, and PS surfaces by excimer laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongdae

    Usually polymer surface treatment is performed to modify surface layers by inserting some functional group and/or by inducing roughness on surfaces to improve their wettability, printability, and adhesion to other polymers or metals. In this work, different polymer surfaces were treated using an excimer laser (LPX 240i, Lambda Physik). Polystyrene, polyethylene terephtalate, and polybutylene terephtalate were chosen as model materials for this study. Films were made by cast film processing and stretched with biaxial stretching machine. With excimer laser treatment on polymer surfaces, it was found that we could produce 1--2 micron size structures depending on material properties and film processing conditions. Materials with lower UV absorption coefficient produced double digit micron size structures, while those with higher UV absorption coefficients produced single digit micron size structures. In all these cases the structures formed only on stretched films. In addition to those microstructure developments, the determination of ablation threshold fluence was of interest mainly for understanding fundamentals of ablation behavior and technical applications. In this study, ablation thresholds were measured by various methods including ablation depth, ablation weight, and ablation sound level measurements. Among these methods, we confirmed that the measurement by ablation sound level gives the most reliable results, because this method is based on single pulse ablation. To understand the ablation phenomenon, and how microstructures can be developed during ablation, different material processing and excimer laser conditions were chosen for experimentation. During our experiments, we observed incubation phenomenon during laser ablation and showed that this incubation was significant for materials with low UV absorption coefficients. Based on UV absorption value change after excimer laser irradiation, we proposed a mechanism to explain the ablation of PS films. From

  12. Composition of the excimer laser-induced plume produced during LASIK refractive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glickman, Randolph D.; Liu, Yun; Mayo, George L.; Baribeau, Alan D.; Starck, Tomy; Bankhead, Tom

    2003-07-01

    Because of concerns about potential hazards to surgical personnel of the plume associated with laser refractive surgery, this study was performed to characterize the composition of such plumes. Filter elements were removed from the smoke evacuator of a VISX S3 excimer laser (filter pore size ~0.3 microns) and from a Mastel Clean Room ( filter pore size ~0.2 microns) used with a LADARVISION excimer laser. The filters from both laser systems captured the laser-induced plumes from multiple, routine, LASIK patient procedures. Some filters were processed for scanning electron microscopy, while others were extracted with methanol and chloroform for biochemical analysis. Both the VISX "Final Air" filter and the Mastel "Clean Room" filter captured material that was not observed in filters that had clean operating room air only passed through them. In the VISX system, air flows through the filter unit parallel to the filter matrix. SEM analysis showed these filters captured discrete particles of 0.3 to 3.0 microns in size. In the Mastel Clean Room unit, air flows orthogonally through the filter, and the filter matrix was heavily layered with captured debris so that individual particles were not readily distinguished. Amino acid analysis and gel electrophoresis of extracted material revealed proteinaceous molecules as large as 5000 molecular weight. Such large molecules in the laser plume are not predicted by the existing theory of photochemical ablation. The presence of relatively large biomolecules may constitute a risk of allergenic reactions in personnel exposed to the plume, and also calls into question the precise mechanism of excimer laser photochemical ablation. Supported by the RMG Research Endowment, and Research to Prevent Blindness

  13. Custom specific fabrication of integrated optical devices by excimer laser ablation of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotzbuecher, Thomas; Popp, Martin; Braune, Torsten; Haase, Jens; Gaudron, Anne; Smaglinski, Ingo; Paatzsch, Thomas; Bauer, Hans-Dieter; Ehrfeld, Wolfgang

    2000-06-01

    Excimer laser ablation was used for direct writing of multimode waveguide structures with passive fiber alignment grooves in polymers. First, integrated optical multimode components were simulated by the method of beam propagation to optimize the optical performance of the design. Then the CNC codes for laser machining were created directly from the corresponding CAD data. ArF Excimer laser radiation of wavelength (lambda) equals 193 nm was used for ablation of adjacent grooves with a cross sectional area of 50 X 50 micrometers 2 and lengths in the order of several mm. The laser-written grooves were filled with a liquid pre-polymer which after UV-curing served as the waveguiding structures. The smoothest surfaces during laser ablation were achieved by applying several ablation scans with reduced material removal rates but higher feedrates. Debris formation, also influencing the surface roughness, was suppressed or minimized by making use of capable polymers. With the method of laser ablation linear waveguides of length 1 equals 10 mm with insertion losses Li in the rang of 1.3 to 1.9 dB have been realized for (lambda) equals 1310 nm, depending on the polymer used. By means of 1 X 2-splitters, 4 X 4 as well as 4 X 16 starcouplers it was shown that laser ablation is a well suited tool for rapid prototyping of integrated optical multimode elements.

  14. The development and progress of XeCl Excimer laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongsheng; Ma, Lianying; Wang, Dahui; Zhao, Xueqing; Zhu, Yongxiang; Hu, Yun; Qian, Hang; Shao, Bibo; Yi, Aiping; Liu, Jingru

    2015-05-01

    A large angularly multiplexed XeCl Excimer laser system is under development at the Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology (NINT). It is designed to explore the technical issues of uniform and controllable target illumination. Short wavelength, uniform and controllable target illumination is the fundamental requirement of high energy density physics research using large laser facility. With broadband, extended light source and multi-beam overlapping techniques, rare gas halide Excimer laser facility will provide uniform target illumination theoretically. Angular multiplexing and image relay techniques are briefly reviewed and some of the limitations are examined to put it more practical. The system consists of a commercial oscillator front end, three gas discharge amplifiers, two electron beam pumped amplifiers and the optics required to relay, encode and decode the laser beam. An 18 lens array targeting optics direct and focus the laser in the vacuum target chamber. The system is operational and currently undergoing tests. The total 18 beams output energy is more than 100J and the pulse width is 7ns (FWHM), the intensities on the target will exceed 1013W/cm2. The aberration of off-axis imaging optics at main amplifier should be minimized to improve the final image quality at the target. Automatic computer controlled alignment of the whole system is vital to efficiency and stability of the laser system, an array of automatic alignment model is under test and will be incorporated in the system soon.

  15. Photochemical and thermal changes in tissue autofluorescence during excimer laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAuliffe, Daniel J., Sr.; Jacques, Steven L.; Hayes, Amy S.

    1990-06-01

    A striking consequence of 248-nm excimer laser irradiation of skin is a stable vivid blue fluorescence easily visualized under UVA illumination. Its spectral properties (excitation maximum at "335 nm; emission maximum at ''43O nm) are somewhat similar to those of the fluorescent pigments associated with aging of tissue and peroxidation of lipids, and the fluorescent pigments formed during exposure to high temperatures. This study explores the spectral properties, magnitude, dose response, and laser pulse intensity dependence of this phenomenon in both isolated stratum corneum and epidermal cell suspensions from human skin.

  16. Excimer laser phototherapy for the dissolution of vascular obstruction

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1984-01-09

    Removal of abnormal human tissue with reduced thermal damage is achieved by selecting a laser having a wavelength in the order of 290 to 400 nm, orienting a laser-transmitting glass member toward the abnormal tissue and directing the laser through the glass member at power densities, pulse rates, and times sufficient to cause multiphoton absorption and bond breaking by Coulomb repulsion rather than thermal destruction. 2 figures.

  17. Excimer laser phototherapy for the dissolution of abnormal growth

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    Removal of abnormal human tissue with reduced thermal damage is achieved by selecting a laser having a wavelength in the order of 290-400 nm, orienting a laser-transmitting glass member toward the abnormal tissue and directing the laser through the glass member at power densities, pulse rates, and times sufficient to cause multiphoton absorption and bond breaking by Coulomb repulsion rather than thermal destruction. The glass member may include a laser beam concentrator provided by a lens or cone at the tissue-treatment end to increase the beam energy per unit area and reduce the treatment area.

  18. Excimer laser phototherapy for the dissolution of abnormal growth

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1985-02-19

    Removal of abnormal human tissue with reduced thermal damage is achieved by selecting a laser having a wavelength in the order of 290 to 400 nm, orienting a laser-transmitting glass member toward the abnormal tissue and directing the laser through the glass member at power densities, pulse rates, and times sufficient to cause multiphoton absorption and bond breaking by Coulomb repulsion rather than thermal destruction. The glass member may include a laser beam concentrator provided by a lens or cone at the tissue-treatment end to increase the beam energy per unit area and reduce the treatment area. 6 figs.

  19. Beam pen lithography based on focused laser diode beam with single microlens fabricated by excimer laser.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Md Nazmul; Lee, Yung-Chun

    2015-02-23

    A method is proposed to minimize the focused spot size of an elliptically-diverging laser diode beam by means of a circular aperture and a single plano-convex aspherical microlens. The proposed microlens is fabricated using an excimer laser dragging method and has two different profiles in the x- and y-axis directions. The focused spot size of the beam is examined both numerically and experimentally. The feasibility of the proposed approach for beam pen lithography applications is demonstrated by patterning dotted, straight-line and spiral features on a photo resist layer followed by thin gold layer deposition and metal lift-off. The minimum feature size for dotted pattern is around 2.57 μm, while the minimum line-widths for straight-line and spiral pattern are 3.05 μm and 4.35 μm, respectively. Thus, the technique can be applied to write any arbitrary pattern for high-resolution lithography. PMID:25836486

  20. Formation of a narrow beam from an excimer laser pumped by gamma rays

    SciTech Connect

    Lazhintsev, B V; Nor-Arevyan, V A

    2002-06-30

    A laser pumped by a travelling gamma-radiation wave and consisting of a cylindrical part forming spontaneous superradiation and a conical amplifier is considered. The energy parameters of an excimer conical KrF amplifier are investigated. The factors influencing the divergence of induced radiation at the output of the conical amplifier are analysed for various durations of a pump pulse. It is shown that the divergence of radiation emitted by the laser with an active medium length of 10 m may be as high as 10{sup -4} rad. The scheme of laser-beam focusing on the target for the purposes of laser-induced fusion is considered. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  1. Surface modification of polytetrafluoroethylene by excimer-laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nishii, M.; Sugimoto, S.; Shimizu, Y.; Suzuki, N.; Kewanishi, S.; Nagese, T.; Endo, M.; Eguchi, Y.

    1993-12-31

    The adhesive strength of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) films was enhanced remarkably by KrF-laser irradiation in air when a small amount of aromatic polymers such as aromatic polyester, polyetheretherketone and polyimide were blended with PTFE. From the surface analysis of the laser-irradiated PTFE by an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and a scanning electron microscopy, it was found that the enhancement in the adhesive properties was attributable to both the chemical effect owing to the formation of the polar groups such as carbonyl group and ethylene linkage and the physical one owing to the formation of the uneveness by the KrF-laser irradiation.

  2. Finite element simulation for ultraviolet excimer laser processing of patterned Si/SiGe/Si(100) heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Conde, J. C.; Chiussi, S.; Gontad, F.; Gonzalez, P.; Martin, E.; Serra, C.

    2010-07-05

    Ultraviolet (UV) Excimer laser assisted processing is an alternative strategy for producing patterned silicon germanium heterostructures. We numerically analyzed the effects caused by pulsed 193 Excimer laser radiation impinging on patterned amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H) and germanium (a-Ge:H) bilayers deposited on a crystalline silicon substrate [Si(100)]. The proposed two dimensional axisymmetric numerical model allowed us to estimate the temperature and concentration gradients caused by the laser induced rapid melting and solidification processes. Energy density dependence of maximum melting depth and melting time evolution as well as three dimensional temperature and element distribution have been simulated and compared with experimentally obtained results.

  3. XeCl excimer laser with new prism resonator configurations and its performance characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Benerji, N. S. E-mail: bsingh@rrcat.gov.in; Singh, A.; Varshnay, N.; Singh, Bijendra E-mail: bsingh@rrcat.gov.in

    2015-07-15

    New resonator cavity configurations, namely, the prism resonator and unstable prism resonator, are demonstrated for the first time in an excimer (XeCl) laser with interesting and novel results. High misalignment tolerance ∼50 mrad is achieved with considerably reduced beam divergence of less than ∼1 mrad without reduction in output power capabilities of the laser. The misalignment tolerance of ∼50 mrad is a dramatic improvement of ∼25 times compared to ∼2 mrad normally observed in standard excimer laser with plane-plane cavity. Increase in depth of focus from 3 mm to 5.5 mm was also achieved in case of prism resonator configuration with an improvement of about 60%. Unstable prism resonator configuration is demonstrated here in this paper with further reduction in beam divergence to about 0.5 mrad using plano-convex lens as output coupler. The misalignment tolerance in case of unstable prism resonator was retained at about 30 mrad which is a high value compared to standard unstable resonators. The output beam spot was completely filled with flat-top profile with prism resonator configurations, which is desired for various material processing applications. Focusing properties and beam divergence in case of prism resonator have been investigated using SEM (scanning electron microscope) images. SEM images of the focused spot size (∼20 μm holes) on metal sheet indicate beam divergence of about 0.05 mrad which is about 1.5 times diffraction limit. Energy contained in this angle is thus sufficient for micro-machining applications. Clean and sharp edges of the micro-holes show high pointing stability with multiple shot exposures. Such characteristics of the excimer laser system will be extremely useful in micro-machining and other field applications.

  4. XeCl excimer laser with new prism resonator configurations and its performance characteristics.

    PubMed

    Benerji, N S; Singh, A; Varshnay, N; Singh, Bijendra

    2015-07-01

    New resonator cavity configurations, namely, the prism resonator and unstable prism resonator, are demonstrated for the first time in an excimer (XeCl) laser with interesting and novel results. High misalignment tolerance ∼50 mrad is achieved with considerably reduced beam divergence of less than ∼1 mrad without reduction in output power capabilities of the laser. The misalignment tolerance of ∼50 mrad is a dramatic improvement of ∼25 times compared to ∼2 mrad normally observed in standard excimer laser with plane-plane cavity. Increase in depth of focus from 3 mm to 5.5 mm was also achieved in case of prism resonator configuration with an improvement of about 60%. Unstable prism resonator configuration is demonstrated here in this paper with further reduction in beam divergence to about 0.5 mrad using plano-convex lens as output coupler. The misalignment tolerance in case of unstable prism resonator was retained at about 30 mrad which is a high value compared to standard unstable resonators. The output beam spot was completely filled with flat-top profile with prism resonator configurations, which is desired for various material processing applications. Focusing properties and beam divergence in case of prism resonator have been investigated using SEM (scanning electron microscope) images. SEM images of the focused spot size (∼20 μm holes) on metal sheet indicate beam divergence of about 0.05 mrad which is about 1.5 times diffraction limit. Energy contained in this angle is thus sufficient for micro-machining applications. Clean and sharp edges of the micro-holes show high pointing stability with multiple shot exposures. Such characteristics of the excimer laser system will be extremely useful in micro-machining and other field applications. PMID:26233361

  5. Excimer laser coronary angioplasty: experience with a prototype multifibre catheter in patients with stable angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Kochs, M; Haerer, W; Eggeling, T; Hoeher, M; Schmidt, A; Hombach, V

    1992-03-01

    Percutaneous excimer laser coronary angioplasty (ELCA) was performed in a first group of 20 patients with stable angina pectoris caused by significant coronary stenosis, and long-term follow-up was evaluated. Prototype 4 to 5.5 French multifibre catheters with 18-20 quartz fibres of 100 microns diameter, concentrically arranged around a central lumen for taking up a guide wire, were coupled to a commercial XeCl excimer laser. Energy was delivered at a wavelength of 308 nm with a pulse duration of 60 or 120 ns. Operating at a repetition rate of 20 Hz, mean energy transmission was 13.4 +/- 6.8 mJ per pulse. In all but one patient the lesion could be passed by the catheter. Percent diameter stenosis decreased from 77.1 +/- 10.8% to 53.1 +/- 11.8% after ELCA. Complications were frequently observed, intracoronary thrombus formation in eight instances, dissection in six patients and spasm in five cases, causing total vessel occlusion in five procedures. All complications could be managed efficaciously by thrombolytic and vasodilating drugs and/or balloon angioplasty. Subsequent PTCA was performed in case of complication or insufficient stenosis reduction after ELCA in 18 patients with adequate results (residual stenosis, 28.5 +/- 10.2%). Long-term follow-up angiography, which could be performed in 16 of 19 laser treatments, demonstrated significant restenosis in only three patients. Our preliminary results suggest that, using ELCA, ablation of atherosclerotic lesions is feasible in most cases. However, compared with PTCA, stenosis reduction is significantly less, and the acute complication rate is much higher. Thus, further improvements of the catheter system are necessary in order to realize the advantages of excimer laser ablation, which can be demonstrated by experimental studies. PMID:1597220

  6. Random noise can help to improve synchronization of excimer laser pulses

    PubMed Central

    Mingesz, Róbert; Barna, Angéla; Mellár, János

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we have reported on a compact microcontroller-based unit developed to accurately synchronize excimer laser pulses (Mingesz et al. 2012 Fluct. Noise Lett. 11, 1240007 (doi:10.1142/S021947751240007X)). We have shown that dithering based on random jitter noise plus pseudorandom numbers can be used in the digital control system to radically reduce the long-term drift of the laser pulse from the trigger and to improve the accuracy of the synchronization. In this update paper, we present our new experimental results obtained by the use of the delay-controller unit to tune the timing of a KrF excimer laser as an addition to our previous numerical simulation results. The hardware was interfaced to the laser using optical signal paths in order to reduce sensitivity to electromagnetic interference and the control algorithm tested by simulations was applied in the experiments. We have found that the system is able to reduce the delay uncertainty very close to the theoretical limit and performs well in real applications. The simple, compact and flexible system is universal enough to also be used in various multidisciplinary applications. PMID:26998325

  7. Random noise can help to improve synchronization of excimer laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Mingesz, Róbert; Barna, Angéla; Gingl, Zoltán; Mellár, János

    2016-02-01

    Recently, we have reported on a compact microcontroller-based unit developed to accurately synchronize excimer laser pulses (Mingesz et al. 2012 Fluct. Noise Lett. 11, 1240007 (doi:10.1142/S021947751240007X)). We have shown that dithering based on random jitter noise plus pseudorandom numbers can be used in the digital control system to radically reduce the long-term drift of the laser pulse from the trigger and to improve the accuracy of the synchronization. In this update paper, we present our new experimental results obtained by the use of the delay-controller unit to tune the timing of a KrF excimer laser as an addition to our previous numerical simulation results. The hardware was interfaced to the laser using optical signal paths in order to reduce sensitivity to electromagnetic interference and the control algorithm tested by simulations was applied in the experiments. We have found that the system is able to reduce the delay uncertainty very close to the theoretical limit and performs well in real applications. The simple, compact and flexible system is universal enough to also be used in various multidisciplinary applications. PMID:26998325

  8. Effects of xenon gas on generation and propagation of shock waves in the cavity of excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosugi, Shinichiroh; Maeno, Kazuo; Honma, Hiroki

    1993-05-01

    High repetition rate excimer lasers are expected for wide industrial application. The power of excimer laser, however, decreases rapidly in a higher repetition rate operation. Shock or acoustic waves, which are caused by the periodic pulse discharge, may limit the repetition rate of an excimer laser up to 2.5 kHz. Such waves cause inhomogeneity of gas density in the discharge region of the excimer laser. In high repetition rate operation this inhomogeneity remains at the next discharge. Arcing may be generated by this inhomogeneity and the homogeneous excitation of the laser gas is obstructed. Although these phenomena have been reported, the research for the effects of shock waves has remained insufficient. And the relation between these shock waves and discharge phenomena has not been clarified. To resolve this problem, we developed a scaling model chamber of a UV preionized excimer laser cavity with windows for flow visualization. We report the first result by using this model and Schlieren technique in a pure helium gas case. In our experiment three types of shock waves are found in the discharge cavity. Those shock waves are generated from the boundary of the main discharge area, from sparking pin gaps, and from the main electrode surfaces. In this study we focus on the effect of xenon gas on the generation and the propagation of shock waves. Components of the Xe-Cl excimer laser gas are helium, xenon, and hydrogen chloride. In those gases xenon has the largest molecular weight of 131.29. So we conclude xenon plays an important role in the shock wave propagation and in discharge phenomenon.

  9. Coloring linens with excimer lasers to simulate the body image of the Turin Shroud.

    PubMed

    Baldacchini, Giuseppe; Di Lazzaro, Paolo; Murra, Daniele; Fanti, Giulio

    2008-03-20

    The body image of the Turin Shroud has not yet been explained by traditional science; so a great interest in a possible mechanism of image formation still exists. We present preliminary results of excimer laser irradiation (wavelength of 308 nm) of a raw linen fabric and of a linen cloth. The permanent coloration of both linens is a threshold effect of the laser beam intensity, and it can be achieved only in a narrow range of irradiation parameters, which are strongly dependent on the pulse width and time sequence of laser shots. We also obtained the first direct evidence of latent images impressed on linen that appear in a relatively long period (one year) after laser irradiation that at first did not generate a clear image. The results are compared with the characteristics of the Turin Shroud, reflecting the possibility that a burst of directional ultraviolet radiation may have played a role in the formation of the Shroud image. PMID:18709075

  10. Multi-level diffractive optical elements produced by excimer laser ablation of sol-gel.

    PubMed

    Neiss, Estelle; Flury, Manuel; Mager, Loïc; Rehspringer, Jean-Luc; Fort, Alain; Montgomery, Paul; Gérard, Philippe; Fontaine, Joël; Robert, Stéphane

    2008-09-01

    Material ablation by excimer laser micromachining is a promising approach for structuring sol-gel materials as we demonstrate in the present study. Using the well-known direct etching technique, the behaviour of different hybrid organic/inorganic self-made sol-gel materials is examined with a KrF* laser. Ablated depths ranging from 0.1 to 1.5 microm are obtained with a few laser pulses at low fluence (< 1 J/cm(2)). The aim is to rapidly transfer surface relief multi-level diffractive patterns in such a substrate, without intermediate steps. The combination with the 3D profilometry technique of coherence probe microscopy permits to analyse the etching process with the aim of producing multi-level Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE). Examples of four-level DOEs with 10 microm square elementary cells are presented, as well as their laser reconstructions in the infrared. PMID:18773015

  11. AlGaAs growth by OMCVD using an excimer laser

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, J.D.; Wilt, D.M.; Pouch, J.J.; Aron, P.R.

    1986-12-01

    AlGaAs has been grown on GaAs by laser assisted OMCVD using an excimer laser, wavelength 193 nm, and a Cambridge OMCVD reactor. Films were grown at temperatures of 450 and 500 C with the laser beam parallel to the surface and impinging onto the surface at 15 deg from parallel. The samples were heated by RF coils while the laser beam was perpendicular to the gas flow. Typical gas flow parameters are 12 slm of H/sub 2/, 15 sccm of Ga(CH3)3, 13 sccm of Al(CH3)3, and a pressure of 250 mbar. The initial energy density of the beam at the surface was 40 mJ/sq cm, the pulse rate was 20 pps, and the growth time was 7 min. The films were analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy for the aluminum concentration and by TEM for the surface morphology.

  12. AlGaAs growth by OMCVD using an excimer laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Joseph D.; Wilt, David M.; Pouch, John J.; Aron, Paul R.

    1986-01-01

    AlGaAs has been grown on GaAs by laser assisted OMCVD using an excimer laser, wavelength 193 nm, and a Cambridge OMCVD reactor. Films were grown at temperatures of 450 and 500 C with the laser beam parallel to the surface and impinging onto the surface at 15 deg from parallel. The samples were heated by RF coils while the laser beam was perpendicular to the gas flow. Typical gas flow parameters are 12 slm of H2, 15 sccm of Ga(CH3)3, 13 sccm of Al(CH3)3, and a pressure of 250 mbar. The initial energy density of the beam at the surface was 40 mJ/sq cm, the pulse rate was 20 pps, and the growth time was 7 min. The films were analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy for the aluminum concentration and by TEM for the surface morphology.

  13. Coloring linens with excimer lasers to simulate the body image of the Turin Shroud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldacchini, Giuseppe; di Lazzaro, Paolo; Murra, Daniele; Fanti, Giulio

    2008-03-01

    The body image of the Turin Shroud has not yet been explained by traditional science; so a great interest in a possible mechanism of image formation still exists. We present preliminary results of excimer laser irradiation (wavelength of 308 nm) of a raw linen fabric and of a linen cloth. The permanent coloration of both linens is a threshold effect of the laser beam intensity, and it can be achieved only in a narrow range of irradiation parameters, which are strongly dependent on the pulse width and time sequence of laser shots. We also obtained the first direct evidence of latent images impressed on linen that appear in a relatively long period (one year) after laser irradiation that at first did not generate a clear image. The results are compared with the characteristics of the Turin Shroud, reflecting the possibility that a burst of directional ultraviolet radiation may have played a role in the formation of the Shroud image.

  14. Combination Of Narrow Bandwidth Excimer Laser And Monochromatic Reduction Projection Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiyama, K.; Saito, K.; Moro, N.; Maeda, Y.; Natsuaki, H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper will discuss the problems associated with excimer laser photo-lithography -the combination of a KrF narrow band width excimer laser (non-injection locked type) with a large field fused silica monochromatic reduction lens. An excimer laser with a KrF narrow bandwidth, in combination with a large field monochromatic lens which is appropriate for use with such laser, have been developed and tested. The system's resolution capability has been confirmed at 0.4 um L/S with MP2400 resist. The laser has been designed so as to be installed and maintained in a clean room environment as well as to have a very narrow spectrum line. A very narrow band-width beam, down to 0.003nm, has been attained through a stable resonator with more than 20mJ pulse energy. The ultra-compact laser head (300mm x 545mm x 1100mm) contains a small laser discharge unit (182mm x 156mm x 584mm), and no amplifier because the oscillator is highly efficient in spite of the narrow line emission. Maintenance is much easier in the clean room environment. Users can replace the discharge unit as easily as they would change Hg-lamp, only taking twenty minutes, and while they clean the window and check the electrodes of the removed unit, the laser can be operated with the easily installed replacement -already passivated discharge unit. The laser head unit is separated from a gas circulating unit and trigger pulse circuit - vibration, heat, EMI noise and particle generation. Therefore, it can be installed even in the thermal clean chamber of a stepper. The N.A. (numerical aperture) of the monochromatic lens is 0.36 and the field size is 15mm x 15mm. In fact, three kinds of lenses with N.A.s of 0.4, 0.35 and 0.3 respectively, were designed and individually evaluated for their OTF's and defocus's dependence on the light source's spectral width, and also their co-relationship. In parallel, simulations on the relationship between each lens' chromatic aberration and laser spectral width were completed and

  15. Sample temperature profile during the excimer laser annealing of silicon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caninenberg, M.; Verheyen, E.; Kiesler, D.; Stoib, B.; Brandt, M. S.; Benson, N.; Schmechel, R.

    2015-11-01

    Based on the heat diffusion equation we describe the temperature profile of a silicon nanoparticle thin film on silicon during excimer laser annealing using COMSOL Multiphysics. For this purpose system specific material parameters are determined such as the silicon nanoparticle melting point at 1683 K, the surface reflectivity at 248 nm of 20% and the nanoparticle thermal conductivity between 0.3 and 1.2 W/m K. To validate our model, the simulation results are compared to experimental data obtained by Raman spectroscopy, SEM microscopy and electrochemical capacitance-voltage measurements (ECV). The experimental data are in good agreement with our theoretical findings and support the validity of the model.

  16. Surface modification and metallization of fluorocarbon polymers by excimer laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niino, Hiroyuki; Yabe, Akira

    1993-12-01

    The surface chemical modification of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) and poly(tetrafluoroethylene- co-hexafluoropropylene) films was carried out in hydrazine gas photolyzed with ArF excimer laser irradiation. The contact angle of the modified surfaces with water changed from 130° to 30° due to the reaction with hydrazine. Nitrogen on the surface was detected with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, suggesting that amino groups were introduced onto the surface. In addition, on the basis of hydrophilic behavior, we succeeded in selective-area electroless plating of nickel metal on the chemically modified surface.

  17. Sub-500-nm patterning of glass by nanosecond KrF excimer laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekesi, J.; Meinertz, J.; Simon, P.; Ihlemann, J.

    2013-01-01

    The surface of flint glass of type F2 is patterned by nanosecond KrF excimer laser ablation. Strong UV absorption provides a comparatively low ablation threshold and precise ablation contours. By using a two-grating interferometer, periodic surface patterns with 330 nm period and 100 nm modulation depth are obtained. This method enables the fabrication of 7 mm×13 mm wide grating areas with perfectly aligned grooves without the need of high-precision sample positioning. By double exposure, crossed gratings with adjustable depths in the two orthogonal directions can be generated.

  18. Pulsed Excimer Laser Processing for Cost-Effective Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, D.

    1985-01-01

    Residual lattice damage by 5 keV ion implantation and surface flaws induced by wafer cleaning are proven to affect the V sub oc more adversely for laser annealed cells than conventional thermal diffusion. However, an alternative, molecular implantation of molecular species holds potential. The first experimental results are encouraging. The lack of a commercially available mass analyzed implantation with low energy, high fluence ions is constraining.

  19. Ablation of bone and polymethylmethacrylate by an XeCl (308 nm) excimer laser

    SciTech Connect

    Yow, L.; Nelson, J.S.; Berns, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    One of the main problems in orthopaedics is the surgical removal of hard substances, such as bone and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Such materials are often very difficult to remove without mechanical trauma to the remaining tissue. This study investigated the feasibility of the ultraviolet 308 nm excimer laser in the ablation of these materials. The beam was delivered through a 1 mm-diameter fiber optic at 40 Hz with energy densities at the target surface of 20-80 J/cm2 per pulse. The goal of the study was to establish the ideal dosimetry for removing bone and PMMA with minimum trauma to the adjacent tissue. Histology revealed that the 308 nm laser effectively removed bone leaving a thermal damage zone of only 2-3 microns in the remaining tissue. Increasing the energy per pulse gave correspondingly larger and deeper cuts with increasing zones of thermal damage. The excimer laser was also effective in the ablation of PMMA, creating craters in the substrate with a thermal damage zone of 10-40 microns. The debris from both substrates was evaluated.

  20. New excimer laser technique for the correction of strabismus and diplopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azar, Dimitri T.

    1994-06-01

    We used the ArF excimer laser to determine the feasibility of performing prismatic photoablations in model eyes (plastic spheres simulating the eye), and in rabbit corneas. This would correct diplopia and small angles of deviation, and result in minimal refractive alterations. We modified excimer laser delivery system that achieved the desired corneal contour of prismatic ablations. 193-nm argon fluoride laser was used at fluence of 160 mJ/cm2 and ablation rate 5 Hz. 5.0-mm diameter, 40 um corneal epithelial ablation were followed by 5.0- mm diameter, prismatic photokeratectomy (PPK). We were able to achieve prismatic photoablation of PMMA blocks and lenses. No other refractive changes accompanied the prismatic photoablation of PMMA blocks and lenses. No other refractive changes accompanied the prismatic effect. In rabbits re-epithelialization of the 5-mm ablations was complete by day 3, and corneal haze was not observed by gross examination. Epithelial hyperplasia and subepithelial scarring were noted at the deep edges. PPK holds important therapeutic potential for fine-tuning results of conventional strabismus surgery, and for patients with stable diplopia following nerve palsy and ocular surgery.

  1. Towards excimer-laser-based stereolithography: a rapid process to fabricate rigid biodegradable photopolymer scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Beke, S; Anjum, F; Tsushima, H; Ceseracciu, L; Chieregatti, E; Diaspro, A; Athanassiou, A; Brandi, F

    2012-11-01

    We demonstrate high-resolution photocross-linking of biodegradable poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) and diethyl fumarate (DEF) using UV excimer laser photocuring at 308 nm. The curing depth can be tuned in a micrometre range by adjusting the total energy dose (total fluence). Young's moduli of the scaffolds are found to be a few gigapascal, high enough to support bone formation. The results presented here demonstrate that the proposed technique is an excellent tool for the fabrication of stiff and biocompatible structures on a micrometre scale with defined patterns of high resolution in all three spatial dimensions. Using UV laser photocuring at 308 nm will significantly improve the speed of rapid prototyping of biocompatible and biodegradable polymer scaffolds and enables its production in a few seconds, providing high lateral and horizontal resolution. This short timescale is indeed a tremendous asset that will enable a more efficient translation of technology to clinical applications. Preliminary cell tests proved that PPF : DEF scaffolds produced by excimer laser photocuring are biocompatible and, therefore, are promising candidates to be applied in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:22696484

  2. Photo-triggering and secondary electron produced ionization in electric discharge ArF* excimer lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Zhongmin; Kushner, Mark J.

    2011-10-01

    Electric discharge excimer lasers are sustained in multi-atmosphere attaching gas mixtures that are typically preionized to enable a reproducible, uniform glow, which maximizes optical quality and gain. This preionization is often accomplished using UV light produced by a corona discharge within the plasma cavity. To quantify the relationship between corona discharge properties and those of the laser discharge, the triggering of electron avalanche by preionizing UV light in an electric discharge-pumped ArF* excimer laser was numerically investigated using a two-dimensional model. The preionizing UV fluxes were generated by a corona-bar discharge driven by the same voltage pulse as the main discharge sustained in a multi-atmospheric Ne/Ar/Xe/F2 gas mixture. The resulting peak photo-electron density in the inter-electrode spacing is around 108 cm-3, and its distribution is biased toward the UV source. The preionization density increases with increasing dielectric constant and capacitance of the corona bar. The symmetry and uniformity of the discharge are, however, improved significantly once the main avalanche develops. In addition to bulk electron impact ionization, the ionization generated by sheath accelerated secondary electrons was found to be important in sustaining the discharge current at experimentally observed values. At peak current, the magnitude of the ionization by sheath accelerated electrons is comparable to that from bulk electron impact in the vicinity of the cathode.

  3. Formation of nickel silicides by excimer laser CVD of Ni(CO)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsella, E.; Kompa, Karl L.; Reiner, H.; Schroeder, Hartmut

    1990-08-01

    Nickel silicides have been grown on single crystal silicon sub- strates. A XeCl excimer laser was used for all process steps: substrate cleaning, nickel deposition , silicide formation and annealing. The nickel films were grown by photodecoxnposition of Ni(CO)4 adsorbate layers with an excess of CO to prevent homogeneous nucleation and hence the formation of dust. The samples were analysed by X-ray fluorescence, SIMS and RBS. The results indicate that epitaxial silicide layers with a thickness of 50 ma can be obtained after careful choice of laser fluence and Ni film thickness. In an alternative approach we used a molecular beam of Ni(CO)4, part of which is laser excited prior to impinging on the substrate. This allows the combination of CVD and conventional MBE techniques. In this experiment we also investigate the interaction of photofragments with substrate surfaces and other processes responsible for material deposition.

  4. 193 nm Excimer laser processing of Si/Ge/Si(100) micropatterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontad, F.; Conde, J. C.; Chiussi, S.; Serra, C.; González, P.

    2016-01-01

    193 nm Excimer laser assisted growth and crystallization of amorphous Si/Ge bilayer patterns with circular structures of 3 μm diameter and around 25 nm total thickness, is presented. Amorphous patterns were grown by Laser induced Chemical Vapor Deposition, using nanostencils as shadow masks and then irradiated with the same laser to induce structural and compositional modifications for producing crystalline SiGe alloys through fast melting/solidification cycles. Compositional and structural analyses demonstrated that pulses of 240 mJ/cm2 lead to graded SiGe alloys with Si rich discs of 2 μm diameter on top, a buried Ge layer, and Ge rich SiGe rings surrounding each feature, as predicted by previous numerical simulation.

  5. Colouring fabrics with excimer lasers to simulate encoded images: the case of the Shroud of Turin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lazzaro, P.; Baldacchini, G.; Fanti, G.; Murra, D.; Santoni, A.

    2008-10-01

    The faint body image embedded into the Turin Shroud has not yet explained by traditional science. We present experimental results of excimer laser irradiation (wavelengths 308 nm and 193 nm) of a raw linen fabric and of a linen cloth, seeking for a possible mechanism of image formation. The permanent coloration of both linens is a threshold effect on the laser beam intensity and it can be achieved only in a surprisingly narrow range of irradiation parameters: the shorter the wavelength, the narrower the range. We also obtained the first direct evidence of latent images impressed on linen that appear in a relatively long period (one year) after a laser irradiation that at first did not generate a clear image. The results are compared to the characteristics of the Turin Shroud, commenting the possibility that a burst of directional ultraviolet radiation may have played a role in the formation of the Shroud image.

  6. Tribology and hardness of excimer-laser-processed titanium layers on cubic zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Zaleski, M.A.; Jervis, T.R. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering Los Alamos National Lab., NM ); Mayer, J.W. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1993-02-01

    The authors have examined the wear and friction and surface hardness of excimer-laser-processed Ti layers on cubic zirconia substrates. The film exhibits a complex array of cracking following processing that is related to the crystallographic orientation of the substrate. The friction between the laser-processed layers and both steel and ruby pins is reduced by approximately one-third relative to that of untreated zirconia. In the untreated case, wear is characterized by pin wear and debris, whereas the laser-processed layer wears by film transfer to the pin. The surface hardness of the processed layer is lower than that of both the untreated zirconia and the deposited Ti film. Indentation tests indicate that the surface is brittle following processing.

  7. Laser mass spectrometric detection of AlH molecules as collision-free excimer laser photoproducts from aluminum alkyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Stuke, M.

    1988-08-01

    Aluminum hydride molecules AlH are detected and identified by tunable dye-laser mass spectroscopy as collision-free UV excimer laser photoproducts of the Al alkyls TEA (triethylaluminum (C 2H 5) 3Al) and TIBA (triisobutylaluminum ( i-C 4H 9) 3Al) at 248 and 193 nm. An internal energy distribution analysis of the photoproducts shows only minor vibrational excitation of ν″ = 1 and a Boltzmann-type rotational energy distribution with a temperature of about 0.03 eV, compared to the incoming photon energy of 5.0 or 6.42 eV.

  8. Excimer laser channel creation in polyethersulfone hollow fibers for compartmentalized in vitro neuronal cell culture scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Brayfield, Candace A; Marra, Kacey G; Leonard, John P; Tracy Cui, X; Gerlach, Jörg C

    2008-03-01

    Hollow fiber scaffolds that compartmentalize axonal processes from their cell bodies can enable neuronal cultures with directed neurite outgrowth within a three-dimensional (3-D) space for controlling neuronal cell networking in vitro. Controllable 3-D neuronal networks in vitro could provide tools for studying neurobiological events. In order to create such a scaffold, polyethersulfone (PES) microporous hollow fibers were ablated with a KrF excimer laser to generate specifically designed channels for directing neurite outgrowth into the luminal compartments of the fibers. Excimer laser modification is demonstrated as a reproducible method to generate 5microm diameter channels within PES hollow fiber walls that allow compartmentalization of neuronal cell bodies from their axons. Laser modification of counterpart flat sheet PES membranes with peak surface fluences of 1.2Jcm(-2) results in increased hydrophobicity and laminin adsorption on the surface compared with the unmodified PES surface. This is correlated to enhanced PC12 cell adhesion with increasing fluence onto laser-modified PES membrane surfaces coated with laminin when compared with unmodified surfaces. Adult rat neural progenitor cells differentiated on PES fibers with laser-created channels resulted in spontaneous cell process growth into the channels of the scaffold wall while preventing entrance of cell bodies. Therefore, laser-modified PES fibers serve as scaffolds with channels conducive to directing neuronal cell process growth. These hollow fiber scaffolds can potentially be used in combination with perfusion and oxygenation hollow fiber membrane sets to construct a hollow fiber-based 3-D bioreactor for controlling and studying in vitro neuronal networking in three dimensions between compartmentalized cultures. PMID:18060849

  9. Characterization of excimer laser ablation generated pepsin particles using multi-wavelength photoacoustic instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, B.; Kecskeméti, G.; Smausz, T.; Ajtai, T.; Filep, A.; Utry, N.; Kohut, A.; Bozóki, Z.; Szabó, G.

    2012-05-01

    Preparation of organic thin layers on various special substrates using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique is an important task from the point of view of bioengineering and biosensor technologies. Earlier studies demonstrated that particle ejection starts during the ablating laser pulse resulting in significant shielding effects which can influence the real fluence on the target surface and consequently the efficiency of layer preparation. In this study, we introduce a photoacoustic absorption measurement technique for in-situ characterization of ablated particles during PLD experiments. A KrF excimer laser beam ( λ=248 nm, FWHM=18 ns) was focused onto pepsin targets in a PLD chamber; the applied laser fluences were 440 and 660 mJ/cm2. We determined the wavelength dependence of optical absorption and mass specific absorption coefficient of laser ablation generated pepsin aerosols in the UV-VIS-NIR range. On the basis of our measurements, we calculated the absorbance at the ablating laser wavelength, too. We demonstrated that when the laser ablation generated pepsin aerosols spread through the whole PLD chamber the effect of absorptivity is negligible for the subsequent pulses. However, the interaction of the laser pulse and the just formed particle cloud generated by the same pulse is more significant.

  10. Raman scattering measurements in flames using a tunable KrF excimer laser.

    PubMed

    Wehrmeyer, J A; Cheng, T S; Pitz, R W

    1992-04-01

    Using a narrow-band tunable KrF excimer laser as a spontaneous vibrational Raman scattering source, we demonstrate that single-pulse concentration and temperature measurements, with only minimal fluorescence interference, are possible for all major species (O(2), N(2), H(2)O, and H(2)) at all stoichiometries (fuel-lean to fuel-rich) of H(2)-air flames. Photon-statistics-limited precisions in these instantaneous and spatially resolved single-pulse measurements are typically 5%, which are based on the relative standard deviations of single-pulse probability distributions. Optimal tuning of the narrow-band KrF excimer laser (248.623 nm) for the minimization of OH A(2)Sigma-X(2)II and O(2)B(3)Sigma(u)(-)-X(3)Sigma(g)(-) fluorescence interference is determined from fluorescence excitation spectra. In addition to the single-pulse N(2) Stokes/anti-Stokes ratio temperature measurement technique, a time-averaged temperature measurement technique ispresented that matches the N(2) Stokes Raman spectrum to theoretical spectra by using a single intermediate sta frequency to account for near-resonance enhancement. Raman flame spectra in CH(4)-air flames are presented that have good signal-to-noise characteristics and show promise for single-pulse UV Raman measurements in hydrocarbon flames. PMID:20720783

  11. Percutaneous peripheral excimer laser angioplasty: immediate success rate and short-term outcome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visona, Adriana; Liessi, Guido; Bonanome, Andrea; Lusiani, Luigi; Miserocchi, Luigi; Pagnan, Antonio

    1991-05-01

    Excimer Laser Angioplasty was attempted in 47 patients (36 males, 11 females, mean age 62+/- 7 years, range 39-77 years), affected by peripheral vascular disease. Thirty-seven patients had a total occlusion of the superficial femoral artery, 3 of the iliac artery and 1 of the popliteal artery; 6 patients showed a subocclusive stenosis of the superficial femoral artery. Occlusions and subocclusive stenoses were classified by length: < 10 cm (28 cases), > 10 cm (19 cases). A commercial excimer laser (Technolas Max-10) was used at the Xenon- Chloride wavelength of 308 nm. The laser operated at 60 ns pulse length and at 20-40 Hz repetition rate. Applied energy fluence was 20 mJ/pulse. The energy was delivered through a multifiber catheter, which combines 12 (7F) or 18 (9F) fibers (260 micron diameter each), concentrically arranged. Balloon dilatation was associated to complete the procedure in 38 cases. The treated arteries were successfully recanalized in 41 out of 47 patients (87%). Hemodynamic improvement was confirmed by a significant increase of ankle/brachial systolic pressure index (from 0.60+/- 0.17 to 0.79+/- 0.20, p < 0.005). Failure to recanalize arterial occlusion occurred in 6 cases, and was due to dissection in 3 patients and inability to cross the final segment of a long occlusion in 3 patients. The success rate was higher for lesions < 10 cm in length. Early reocclusion was observed in 7 patients and was associated with poor run-off. The cumulative patency rate at 1 month was 90.7%. Preliminary results are encouraging. More suitable catheters and better selection of patients should improve the efficacy of laser angioplasty and should allow to perform laser procedures without combining balloon angioplasty.

  12. The investigation of selective pre-pattern free self-assembled Ge nano-dot formed by excimer laser annealing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Localized Ge nano-dot formation by laser treatment was investigated and discussed in terms of strain distribution. The advantage of this technique is patterning localization of nano-dots without selective epitaxial growth, reducing costs and improving throughput. Self-assembled Ge nano-dots produced by excimer laser annealing statistically distributed dot density and size dependent on laser energy. Improvement in the crystallization quality of the dots was also studied, and a strain analysis was undertaken. PMID:22709630

  13. Modulation of corneal wound healing after excimer laser keratomileusis using topical mitomycin C and steroids

    SciTech Connect

    Talamo, J.H.; Gollamudi, S.; Green, W.R.; De La Cruz, Z.; Filatov, V.; Stark, W.J. )

    1991-08-01

    A 193-nm excimer laser system was used to create deep stromal ablations in seven New Zealand white rabbits and shallow ablations in three. Eyes were randomized for treatment with topical mitomycin C, steroids, and erythromycin; topical steroids and erythromycin; or topical erythromycin only. All treatment regimens were instituted twice daily for 14 days. All eyes reepithelialized normally within 3 to 5 days. During 10 weeks of follow-up, all eyes developed moderate reticular subepithelial haze without significant differences among treatment groups. Results of light, fluorescence, and electron microscopic examination showed anterior stromal scarring and markedly reduced new subepithelial collagen formation in the group treated with mitomycin C, corticosteroids, and erythromycin. Focal abnormalities of Descemet's membrane and endothelial abnormalities were present in all treatment groups. Combination therapy with topical steroids, mitomycin C, and erythromycin to control the corneal wound healing response after refractive laser surgery appears promising and warrants further study.

  14. Photo-fragmentation of selenium powder by Excimer laser ablation in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Overschelde, O.; Guisbiers, G.

    2015-10-01

    Laser ablation in liquids is especially adapted to produce nanoparticles free of any contamination as suited for biological and medical applications. A KrF Excimer laser delivering an UV light at 248 nm and operating at low fluence (F~0.5 J/cm2) was used to irradiate a micro-sized powder of selenium dispersed into a de-ionized water solution. To avoid any agglomeration of the selenium nanoparticles during the irradiation, surfactants (SDS and CTAB) were added to the solution and their efficiency was compared. The concentration of surfactants had to be chosen around the critical micellar concentration to produce small selenium nanoparticles (<60 nm). Moreover, SDS shows better mono-disperse size distribution compared to CTAB. Finally, photo-fragmentation is found to be more efficient than bulk thermal ablation to produce very small selenium nanoparticles (less than 10 nm).

  15. Blue satellites of absorption spectrum study of sodium based excimer-pumped alkali vapor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shu; Gai, Baodong; Guo, Jingwei; Tan, Yannan; Liu, Jinbo; Li, Hui; Cai, Xianglong; Shi, Zhe; Liu, Wanfa; Jin, Yuqi; Sang, Fengting

    2015-02-01

    Sodium based excimer-pump alkali laser (Na-XPAL) is expected to be an efficient method to generate sodium beacon light, but the information about the spectroscopic characters of Na-XPAL remains sparse so far. In this work, we utilized the relative fluorescence intensity to study the absorption spectrum of blue satellites of complexes of sodium with different collision partners. The yellow fluorescence of Na D1 and D2 line was clearly visible. After processing the fluorescence intensity and the input pumping laser relative intensity, we obtained the Na-CH4 system's blue satellites was from 553nm to 556nm. Meanwhile, we experimentally demonstrated the Na-Ar and Na-Xe system's wavelength range of blue satellites. Also, it was observed that the Na-Xe system's absorption was stronger than the other two systems.

  16. Automated generation of NC part programs for excimer laser ablation micromachining from known 3D surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutapcic, Emir; Iovenitti, Pio G.; Hayes, Jason P.

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this research project is to improve the capability of the laser micromachinning process, so that any desired 3D surface can be produced by taking the 3D information from a CAD system and automatically generating the NC part programs. In addition, surface quality should be able to be controlled by specifying optimised parameters. This paper presents the algorithms and a software system, which processes 3D geometry in an STL file format from a CAD system and produces the NC part program to mill the surface using the Excimer laser ablation process. Simple structures are used to demonstrate the prototype system's part programming capabilities, and an actual surface is machined.

  17. White-Light Emission from Silicone Rubber Modified by 193 nm ArF Excimer Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoshi, Masayuki; Sekine, Daisuke; Inoue, Narumi; Yamashita, Tsugito

    2007-04-01

    The photochemical surface modification of silicone ([SiO(CH3)2]n) rubber has been successfully demonstrated using a 193 nm ArF excimer laser, and white light of strong intensity was emitted upon exposure to a 325 nm He-Cd laser. The photoluminescence spectra of the modified silicone showed broad peaks centered at 410, 550, and 750 nm wavelengths. The modified surface was carbon-free silicon oxide, and the chemical composition ratio of O/Si was approximately 2. However, the surface was not silica glass (SiO2), as clarified by IR spectroscopy. Instead, nanometer-size particles of silicon oxide were formed on the surface of the modified silicone rubber.

  18. Excimer laser texturing of natural composite polymer surfaces for studying cell-to-substrate specific response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinca, V.; Alloncle, P.; Delaporte, P.; Ion, V.; Rusen, L.; Filipescu, M.; Mustaciosu, C.; Luculescu, C.; Dinescu, M.

    2015-10-01

    Surface modifications of biocompatible materials are among the main factors used for enhancing and promoting specific cellular activities (e.g. spreading, adhesion, migration, and differentiation) for various types of medical applications such as implants, microfluidic devices, or tissue engineering scaffolds. In this work an excimer laser at 193 nm was used to fabricate chitosan-collagen roughness gradients. The roughness gradients were obtained in one step by applying single laser pulses and sample tilting. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and spectro-ellipsometry (SE) were used for sample characterization. The goal is to determine the optimal morpho-chemical characteristics of these structures for in vitro tailoring of protein adsorption and cell behavior. The response induced by the roughness gradient onto various cell lines (i.e. L 929 fibroblasts, HEP G2 hepatocytes, OLN 93 oligodendrocytes, M63 osteoblasts) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein absorption was investigated.

  19. Application Of The Excimer Laser To Area Recontouring Of The Cornea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, Paul R.; Telfair, William B.; Warner, John W.; Martin, Clifford A.; L'Esperance, Francis A.

    1989-04-01

    Excimer lasers operating at 193 nm are being used experimentally in a special type of materials processing wherein the central portion of the anterior surface of the human cornea is selectively ablated so as to change its refractive power and, hopefully, improve impaired vision. Research to date has demonstrated recontouring as a potential means for reducing myopia and hyperopia of cadaver eyes while studies of ablations on the corneas of living monkeys and of blind human volunteers show promise of prompt and successful healing. The procedure has also shown merit in removing superficial scars from the corneal surface. In this paper, we describe the electro-optical system used to deliver the UV laser beam in these experiments and report some preliminary results of the ablation studies.

  20. Time-resolved spectroscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer in the study of excimer laser damage of chromatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu, L.; Mihailescu, I.; Radu, S.; Gazdaru, D.

    2007-09-01

    The analysis of chromatin damage produced by a 248 nm excimer laser radiation, for doses of 0.3-3 MJ/m 2 was carried out by time-resolved spectroscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The chromatin was extracted from a normal and a tumoral tissue of Wistar rats. The decrease with laser dose of the relative contribution of the excited state lifetimes of ethidium bromide (EtBr) bounded to chromatin constitutes an evidence of the reduction of chromatin deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) double-strand structure. FRET was performed from dansyl chloride to acridine orange, both coupled to chromatin. The increase of the average distance between these ligands, under the action of laser radiation, reflects a loosening of the chromatin structure. The radiosensitivity of tumor tissue chromatin is higher than that of a normal tissue. The determination of the chromatin structure modification in an excimer laser field can be of interest in laser therapy.

  1. [Is there a future for the Excimer laser in refractive surgery?].

    PubMed

    Pouliquen, Y; Hanna, K; Waring, G; Savoldelli, M

    1990-02-01

    The refractive surgery concerns all the surgical procedures implicated in the refractive power change of the cornea. Its clinical results are just known, and a new physical procedure is becoming capable to replace surgery: the Excimer laser. Without any instrumental contact with the corneal surface, the laser beam is able to remodel the corneal tissue, and to treat astigmatism, myopia, hypermetropia. Millions of people could be treated by such a laser, and could leave their glasses. Biological effects on rabbit and monkeys are presented. An argon fluoride excimer laser (193 nm) with a moving slit delivery system was used to perform anterior myopic keratomileusis in both eyes of 37 rabbits and 15 monkeys. Histological analysis of the corneas was made after ablation and at intervals up to 20 months. By slit examination at the longer follow up time, 60% of treated rabbits and 40% of treated monkeys keep a clear cornea, but the others had central spotty subepithelial haze. Light and electron microscopy documented corneal healing. In the clear corneas a good reconstitution of the epithelium, its basal lamina was observed, and anterior stromal corneas contained few active fibrocytes with a good preservation of the connective lamellar structure. On the contrary, in the cornea with opacification focal areas of 20 microns thick subepithelial scarring were present and the interface between epithelial cells and anterior stroma remained disturbed by incomplete, disrupted or duplicated basal lamina. Differences between the responses of monkeys, rabbits corneas to the same photoablation procedure remain unclear.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2115392

  2. Update on laser vision correction using wavefront analysis with the CustomCornea system and LADARVision 193-nm excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguen, Ezra I.; Salz, James J.; McDonald, Marguerite B.; Pettit, George H.; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Grundfest, Warren S.

    2002-06-01

    A study was undertaken to assess whether results of laser vision correction with the LADARVISION 193-nm excimer laser (Alcon-Autonomous technologies) can be improved with the use of wavefront analysis generated by a proprietary system including a Hartman-Schack sensor and expressed using Zernicke polynomials. A total of 82 eyes underwent LASIK in several centers with an improved algorithm, using the CustomCornea system. A subgroup of 48 eyes of 24 patients was randomized so that one eye undergoes conventional treatment and one eye undergoes treatment based on wavefront analysis. Treatment parameters were equal for each type of refractive error. 83% of all eyes had uncorrected vision of 20/20 or better and 95% were 20/25 or better. In all groups, uncorrected visual acuities did not improve significantly in eyes treated with wavefront analysis compared to conventional treatments. Higher order aberrations were consistently better corrected in eyes undergoing treatment based on wavefront analysis for LASIK at 6 months postop. In addition, the number of eyes with reduced RMS was significantly higher in the subset of eyes treated with a wavefront algorithm (38% vs. 5%). Wavefront technology may improve the outcomes of laser vision correction with the LADARVISION excimer laser. Further refinements of the technology and clinical trials will contribute to this goal.

  3. Pure, single crystal Ge nanodots formed using a sandwich structure via pulsed UV excimer laser annealing.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ting-Wei; Chen, Hung-Ming; Shen, Kuan-Yuan; Kuan, Chieh-Hsiung

    2015-04-24

    In this paper, a sandwich structure comprising a SiO2 capping layer, amorphous Germanium (a-Ge) nanodots (NDs), and a pit-patterned Silicon (Si) substrate is developed, which is then annealed by utilizing a pulsed ultraviolet excimer laser in order to fabricate an array of pure, single crystal Ge NDs at room temperature. A wide bandgap SiO2 capping layer is used as a transparent thermally isolated layer to prevent thermal loss and Si-Ge intermixing. The two-dimensional pit-patterned Si substrate is designed to confine the absorbed laser energy, reduce the melting point, and block the surface migration of the Ge. After optimizing the laser radiation parameters such that the laser energy density is 200 mJ cm(-2), the laser annealing period is 10 s, and the number of laser shots is 10, pure, single crystal Ge NDs that have both a regular arrangement and a uniform size distribution are obtained in the pits of the Si substrates. The Raman spectrum shows a highly symmetric Ge transversal optical peak with a full width at half maximum of 4.2 cm(-1) at 300.7 cm(-1), which is close to that of the original Ge wafer. In addition, the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy image for the Ge NDs and the corresponding selected area electron diffraction pattern shows a clear single crystalline structure without any impurities. PMID:25815515

  4. Pure, single crystal Ge nanodots formed using a sandwich structure via pulsed UV excimer laser annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Ting-Wei; Chen, Hung-Ming; Shen, Kuan-Yuan; Kuan, Chieh-Hsiung

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a sandwich structure comprising a SiO2 capping layer, amorphous Germanium (a-Ge) nanodots (NDs), and a pit-patterned Silicon (Si) substrate is developed, which is then annealed by utilizing a pulsed ultraviolet excimer laser in order to fabricate an array of pure, single crystal Ge NDs at room temperature. A wide bandgap SiO2 capping layer is used as a transparent thermally isolated layer to prevent thermal loss and Si-Ge intermixing. The two-dimensional pit-patterned Si substrate is designed to confine the absorbed laser energy, reduce the melting point, and block the surface migration of the Ge. After optimizing the laser radiation parameters such that the laser energy density is 200 mJ cm-2, the laser annealing period is 10 s, and the number of laser shots is 10, pure, single crystal Ge NDs that have both a regular arrangement and a uniform size distribution are obtained in the pits of the Si substrates. The Raman spectrum shows a highly symmetric Ge transversal optical peak with a full width at half maximum of 4.2 cm-1 at 300.7 cm-1, which is close to that of the original Ge wafer. In addition, the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy image for the Ge NDs and the corresponding selected area electron diffraction pattern shows a clear single crystalline structure without any impurities.

  5. Glare sensitivity and visual acuity after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy for myopia

    PubMed Central

    Niesen, U.; Businger, U.; Hartmann, P.; Senn, P.; Schipper, I.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Following excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), an increase in glare sensitivity and a reduction in contrast sensitivity can occur owing to changes in the cornea (structure and topography). In this study, an attempt was made to quantify and document objectively a change in those subjective perceptual factors.
METHODS—Snellen visual acuity and disability glare were measured with the Berkeley glare test preoperatively as well as 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postoperatively, after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) on 32 myopic patients (46 eyes). During the postoperative progress checks, haze was graded and contrast sensitivity was measured with the Vistech chart. All the data were statistically analysed by multiple regression.
RESULTS—One year after PRK, a reduction in visual acuity (VA) measured with the low acuity contrast chart (10%) with and without glare could still be found, despite the fact that acuity measurements with a high contrast Snellen chart showed the same VA 6 months postoperatively as well as before the treatment. The lowest VA could be measured 1 month postoperatively; thereafter, the acuity increased despite the increase in haze that occurred during the first 3 months.
CONCLUSION—Disability glare and a reduction in contrast sensitivity could be observed in most patients after PRK treatment with the Meditec laser system with its scanning slit. The future will show if new technology and a broader flattening area of 6 to 7 mm can minimise these postoperative complications.

 PMID:9059248

  6. Self-control study of combination treatment of 308 nm excimer laser and calcipotriene ointment on stable psoriasis vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ya-Juan; Xu, Wan-Wen; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Ru-Zhi; Xu, Chun-Xing; Xu, Bin; Cheng, Sai; Liu, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to compare the differences of clinical efficacy and safety of treatment of stable psoriasis vulgaris with calcipotriene ointment in combination with 308 nm excimer laser to 308 nm excimer laser alone. Methods: Randomized, open and self-control trial was conducted in 36 selected patients. The skin lesions from these patients with stable psoriasis vulgaris were divided into two sides along the midline of torso, one side was treated with 308 nm excimer laser, 2 times/week, at meantime Calcipotriene was applied externally, 2 times/day (treatment group); the other side was given 308 nm excimer laser alone, 2 times/week, the treatment period was 6 weeks (control group). Skin lesion area, PASI scores and cumulative doses of 308 nm excimer laser in patients with psoriasis were assessed before treatment and on weeks 2, 4 and 6 after treatment. Results: 32 of 36 patients with stable psoriasis vulgaris completed study, effective rates in two groups were better on week 6 (84.37%, 56.25%) than on week 4 (53.12%, 37.5%) and on week 2 (31.25%, 18.75%) (P < 0.05). Effective rate on week 6 in control group (56.25%) was lower than treatment group (84.37%) (P < 0.05). The two groups showed that PASI scores on weeks 2 and 4 after treatment were significantly lower than before treatments (P < 0.05), and PASI scores on week 6 in treatment group was significantly lower than control group (P < 0.05). The average cumulative laser doses in treatment group at the end of trial was 4.69 (2.03) J/cm2, which was significantly lower than in control group 8.41 (2.42) J/cm (P < 0.05). Treatment efficacies in the head, folds, back, abdomen and limbs were similar and no serious adverse effects, however the number of treatment and irradiation doses in the head and folds were significantly less than in back, abdomen and limbs (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Treatment of psoriasis vulgaris with 308 nm excimer laser in combination with external application of Calcipotriene ointment

  7. Excimer laser crystallization of amorphous silicon carbide produced by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedler, A.; Urban, S.; Falk, F.; Hobert, H.; Wesch, W.

    2003-01-01

    4H-SiC was implanted with 100-250 keV Ge + and Xe + ions and doses of 1×10 14 to 1×10 16 cm -2 at room temperature in order to produce 40-200 nm thick amorphous surface layers. The samples were irradiated with 1-50,000 pulses of a KrF excimer laser (248 nm wavelength, 30 ns pulse duration) using fluences of 150-900 mJ/cm 2 to investigate the crystallization process as a function of the laser parameters. Crystallization as well as redistribution of the impurity atoms were analyzed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and infrared reflection measurements. Phase transitions occurring during the irradiation were studied by means of time-resolved reflectivity measurements. In order to explain the observed phase transitions numerical analysis was performed by solving the inhomogeneous heat flow equation using the parameters of the corresponding phases. In this work, we give a consistent description of the experimental results by the numerical simulations for the given laser setup. Depending on the amorphous layer thickness, melting, solidification, and crystallization of the amorphous phase can be effectively controlled by both the laser fluence and the number of laser pulses.

  8. High-performance thin-film transistors fabricated using excimer laser processing and grain engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Giust, G.K.; Sigmon, T.W.

    1998-04-01

    High-performance polysilicon thin-film transistors (TFT`s) are fabricated using an excimer laser to recrystallize the undoped channel and dope the source-drain regions. Using a technique the authors call grain engineering they are able to control grain microstructure using laser parameters. Resulting polysilicon films are obtained with average grain sizes of {approximately}4--9 {micro}m in sub-100 nm thick polysilicon films without substrate heating during the laser recrystallization process. Using a simple four-mask self-aligned aluminum top-gate structure, they fabricate TFT`s in these films. By combining the grain-engineered channel polysilicon regions with laser-doped source-drain regions, TFT`s are fabricated with electron mobilities up to 260 cm{sup 2}/Vs and on/off current ratios greater than 10{sup 7} To their knowledge, these devices represent the highest performance laser-processed TFT`s reported to date fabricated without substrate heating or hydrogenation.

  9. Effect of ambient environment on excimer laser induced micro and nano-structuring of stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umm-i-Kalsoom; Bashir, Shazia; Ali, Nisar; Akram, Mahreen; Mahmood, Khaliq; Ahmad, Riaz

    2012-11-01

    The effect of laser fluence and an ambient environment on the formation and development of the micro and nano-structures on the laser irradiated stainless steel (AISI-304) targets have been investigated. For this purpose KrF excimer laser (λ = 248 nm, t = 20 ns, repetition rate 20 Hz) has been used. The targets are exposed for various laser fluences ranging from 0.72 J cm-2 to 1.27 J cm-2 under the vacuum condition and in the oxygen environment at a pressure of 133 mbar. Various features of treated targets, such as surface morphology, chemical composition and crystalline structure are analyzed by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques, respectively. Scanning electron microscope analysis reveals the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS), cavities, hillocks in both ambient environments (vacuum, oxygen). Cone-formation on the top of wave like ridges is observed under vacuum condition. In case of oxygen only redeposition is observed. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis exhibits that there is variation in chemical composition in both environments. When the target is treated in oxygen environment enhancement of the surface oxygen content is observed. X-ray diffraction exhibits that no new phases are formed under vacuum condition but a phase change in oxygen ambient is observed. For various fluences the variation in the peak intensity, crystallinity and d-spacing is observed under both ambient conditions.

  10. Irradiation planning for automated treatment of psoriasis with a high-power excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klämpfl, Florian; Schmidt, Michael; Hagenah, Hinnerk; Görtler, Andreas; Wolfsgruber, Frank; Lampalzer, Ralf; Kaudewitz, Peter

    2006-02-01

    American and European statistics have shown that 1-2 per cent of the human population is affected by the skin disease psoriasis. Recent research reports promising treatment results when irradiating skin areas affected by psoriasis with high powered excimer lasers with a wavelength of 308 nm. In order to apply the necessary high energy dose without hurting healthy parts of the skin new approaches regarding the system technology must be considered. The aim of the current research project is the development of a sensor-based, automated laser treatment system for psoriasis. In this paper we present the algorithms used to cope with the diffculties of irradiating irregularly shaped areas on curved surfaces with a predefined energy level using a pulsed laser. Patients prefer the treatment to take as little time as possible. This also helps to reduce costs. Thus the distribution of laser pulses on the surface to achieve the given energy level on every point of the surface has to be calculated within a limited time frame. The remainder of the paper will describe in detail an efficient method to plan and optimize the laser pulse distribution. Towards the end, some first results will be presented.

  11. Photon-controlled fabrication of amorphous superlattice structures using ArF (193 nm) excimer laser photolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lowndes, D.H.; Geohegan, D.B.; Eres, D.; Pennycook, S.J.; Mashburn, D.N.; Jellison G.E. Jr.

    1988-05-30

    Pulsed ArF (193 nm) excimer laser photolysis of disilane, germane, and disilane-ammonia mixtures has been used to deposit amorphous superlattices containing silicon, germanium, and silicon nitride layers. Transmission electron microscope cross-section views demonstrate that structures having thin (5--25 nm) layers and sharp interlayer boundaries can be deposited at substrate temperatures below the pyrolytic threshold, entirely under laser photolytic control.

  12. Microlens Array Fabricated by Excimer Laser Micromachining with Gray-tone Photolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tien, Chung-Hao; Chien, Yeh-En; Chiu, Yi; Shieh, Han-Ping D.

    2003-03-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a refractive microlens array by using 248 nm excimer laser micromachining with coded gray-tone mask photolithography. With pre-corrections to the nonlinear exposure process, the maximum deviation from the designed shape was below 5%. The fabricated hemispherical lens of 30 μm radius was used as a solid immersion lens (SIL) and combined with a 0.54 numerical aperture (NA) objective to achieve a 0.87 effective NA through the knife-edge scanning test. The experimental results agreed with those of the simulation. Unlike the methods such as the thermal melting process, this one-step optical exposure method with a coded mask provides a relatively fast and cost-effective way to realize a microlens array in optical data storage, information processing, and optical interconnection applications.

  13. An electrically triggered 200 kV rail-gap switch for wide aperture excimer lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endoh, A.; Watanabe, S.; Watanabe, M.

    1984-03-01

    A wide aperture (7 x 7 sq cm), high output energy (5 J in KrF and 13.8 J in XeCl), UV preionized excimer laser is described. A self-breakdown rail gap was employed as an output switch with the maximum voltage and current up to 230 kV and 300 kA, respectively. To solve the switching jitter problem associated with the self-breakdown, an electrical triggering was investigated. The measured minimum switching time delay and gap closing time were 40 and 10 ns, respectively. The number of channels up to 50 was observed with a uniform distribution over the 80-cm electrode length. The triggering jitter was measured to be less than a nanosecond. The maximum operation voltage of the triggered rail gap was 200 kV. The successful trigger operation was obtained in the range 30-98 percent of the self-breakdown voltage.

  14. The effect of excimer laser pretreatment on diffusion and activation of boron implanted in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Monakhov, E.V.; Svensson, B.G.; Linnarsson, M.K.; La Magna, A.; Italia, M.; Privitera, V.; Fortunato, G.; Cuscuna, M.; Mariucci, L.

    2005-11-07

    We have investigated the effect of excimer laser annealing (ELA) on transient enhanced diffusion (TED) and activation of boron implanted in Si during subsequent rapid thermal annealing (RTA). It is observed that ELA with partial melting of the implanted region causes reduction of TED in the region that remains solid during ELA, where the diffusion length of boron is reduced by a factor of {approx}4 as compared to the as-implanted sample. This is attributed to several mechanisms such as liquid-state annealing of a fraction of the implantation induced defects, introduction of excess vacancies during ELA, and solid-state annealing of the defects beyond the maximum melting depth by the heat wave propagating into the Si wafer. The ELA pretreatment provides a substantially improved electrical activation of boron during subsequent RTA.

  15. Studies of Preionization Processes of High Pressure Gases for Excimer Laser Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, N.; Uchino, K.; Muraoka, K.; Okada, T.; Maeda, M.; Sunaka, E.; Enami, T.; Mizoguchi, H.

    1998-10-01

    The aim of this research is to understand and control the preionization process in high pressure discharges used for excimer lasers. For this purpose, a test chamber with a spark light source was designed and fabricated, to achieve ultra high vacuum and to control the base pressure. Photocharge signals produced by the spark light source were collected by pairs of plate electrodes placed inside the test chamber. In order to study the effect of gaseous impurities on the preionization process, measurements were performed for different base pressure conditions. The results showed that the photocharge signal was linearly correlated with the base pressure. Also, the possibility of actively controlling the preionization by adding small amount of Xe gas to the gas mixture was examined. The maximum signal at the Xe partial pressure of 0.1 Torr was 10 times higher than the signal for the Ne and Kr mixture without Xe, suggesting that active control may be possible.

  16. Interaction of 308-nm excimer laser light with temporomandibular joint related structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liesenhoff, Tim; Funk, Armin

    1994-02-01

    Arthroscopy of TMJ has become a clinically important and more and more accepted method for diagnosis and treatment of TMJ alteration. This minimal invasive method is clearly limited by the anatomical dimensions of the TMJ. A 308 nm excimer laserlight has already found clinical applications in angioplasty, ophthalmology, and dentistry. The aim of the presented study was to find out if it is possible to ablate TMJ related structures under arthroscopic conditions. It also aims to evaluate the energy-threshold for ablation and the maximal possible rate of ablation. Contrary to other laser systems it offers a unique combination of minimal tissue alteration, precise tissue ablation guidability through optical fibers, and a good transmission through water.

  17. Analysis of the change in peak corneal temperature during excimer laser ablation in porcine eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosquera, Samuel Arba; Verma, Shwetabh

    2015-07-01

    The objective is to characterize the impact of different ablation parameters on the thermal load during corneal refractive surgery by means of excimer laser ablation on porcine eyes. One hundred eleven ablations were performed in 105 porcine eyes. Each ablation was recorded using infrared thermography and analyzed mainly based on the two tested local frequencies (40 Hz, clinical local frequency; 1000 Hz, no local frequency). The change in peak corneal temperature was analyzed with respect to varying ablation parameters [local frequency, system repetition rate, pulse energy, optical zone (OZ) size, and refractive correction]. Transepithelial ablations were also compared to intrastromal ablations. The average of the baseline temperature across all eyes was 20.5°C±1.1 (17.7°C to 22.2°C). Average of the change in peak corneal temperature for all clinical local frequency ablations was 5.8°C±0.8 (p=3.3E-53 to baseline), whereas the average was 9.0°C±1.5 for all no local frequency ablations (p=1.8E-35 to baseline, 1.6E-16 to clinical local frequency ablations). A logarithmic relationship was observed between the changes in peak corneal temperature with increasing local frequency. For clinical local frequency, change in peak corneal temperature was comparatively flat (r2=0.68 with a range of 1.5°C) with increasing system repetition rate and increased linearly with increasing OZ size (r2=0.95 with a range of 2.4°C). Local frequency controls help maintain safe corneal temperature increase during excimer laser ablations. Transepithelial ablations induce higher thermal load compared to intrastromal ablations, indicating a need for stronger thermal controls in transepithelial refractive procedures.

  18. Excimer versus Femtosecond Laser Assisted Penetrating Keratoplasty in Keratoconus and Fuchs Dystrophy: Intraoperative Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    El-Husseiny, Moatasem; Seitz, Berthold; Langenbucher, Achim; Akhmedova, Elena; Szentmary, Nora; Hager, Tobias; Tsintarakis, Themistoklis; Janunts, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the intraoperative results comparing two non-mechanical laser assisted penetrating keratoplasty approaches in keratoconus and Fuchs dystrophy. Patients and Methods. 68 patients (age 18 to 87 years) with keratoconus or Fuchs dystrophy were randomly distributed to 4 groups. 35 eyes with keratoconus and 33 eyes with Fuchs dystrophy were treated with either excimer laser ([Exc] groups I and II) or femtosecond laser-assisted ([FLAK] groups III and IV) penetrating keratoplasty. Main intraoperative outcome measures included intraoperative decentration, need for additional interrupted sutures, alignment of orientation markers, and intraocular positive pressure (vis a tergo). Results. Intraoperative recipient decentration occurred in 4 eyes of groups III/IV but in none of groups I/II. Additional interrupted sutures were not necessary in groups I/II but in 5 eyes of groups III/IV. Orientation markers were all aligned in groups I/II but were partly misaligned in 8 eyes of groups III/IV. Intraocular positive pressure grade was recognized in 12 eyes of groups I/II and in 19 eyes of groups III/IV. In particular, in group III, severe vis a tergo occurred in 8 eyes. Conclusions. Intraoperative decentration, misalignment of the donor in the recipient bed, and need for additional interrupted sutures as well as high percentage of severe intraocular positive pressure were predominantly present in the femtosecond laser in keratoconus eyes. PMID:26483974

  19. Experimental investigation of fabrication process-, transportation-, storage, and handling-induced contamination of 157-nm reticles and vacuum UV cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoroanyanwu, Uzodinma; Stepanenko, Nickolay; Vereecke, Guy; Eliat, Astrid; Kocsis, Michael K.; Kang, Young-Seog; Jonckheere, Rik M.; Conard, Thierry; Ronse, Kurt G.

    2004-05-01

    Mask fabrication process, transportation, storage, and handling contribute to contamination of 157nm reticles and modified fused silica substrates, resulting in transmission loss. A stable VUV cleaning procedure for contaminated binary, alternating, and attenuated phase shift reticles has been developed. This cleaning procedure was verified by lithographic imaging on the 157nm ASML MS-VII exposure scanner. A point-to-point steady state dose transmission uniformity range across a batch of 25 wafers (the exposure conditions of which were equivalent to that of a 300 mm wafer, 26mm×33mm fields, 50mJ/cm2) that were exposed with a modified fused silica substrate, was found to be <0.24% for a reticle that was cleaned prior to exposure using this VUV cleaning process. In-situ laser cleaning of contaminated mask substrates during exposure in the MS-VII resulted in 1% change in transmission at doses of up to 20 J/cm2, above which transmission remains stable (<0.24% variation). The cleaning procedure involves exposing the contaminated reticle in the UVO Reticle Cleaning Station for 30 minutes, using a cleaning gas mixture of N2/O2=99%/1%. Transmission loss due to contamination within the clean room is limited to 1 - 2 % and is reversible upon VUV cleaning. Flare levels of 3% were measured on contaminated reticle relative to a clean state of the same reticle. VUV cleaning is not only good for improving and maintaining stable mask transmission, but it is also good for preventing reticle contamination-induced flare. Contamination rate and contaminant type appear to be dependent on the storage environment of mask substrates and reticles. Typical contaminants included molecular acids (halogens, sulfur, sulfates), molecular bases (ammonia, amines), molecular condensables (hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones, fatty acids, siloxanes, phthalate), molecular dopant (boron) and molecular metals (Ca, Mg, Al, Cu). Contamination of mask substrates appears to be through a competitive adsorption

  20. [Analysis of images in the prophylaxis and treatment of complications after kerato-refractive excimer laser surgeries].

    PubMed

    Makarov, I A

    2003-01-01

    A total of 236 eyes of patients with myopia and hypermetropia of different severity degrees after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) were observed. The densitometry and planimetry analysis of corneal images, obtained through storing them in the computer memory, was used to evaluate postoperatively the corneal condition. Planimetry was used to forecast the time of epithelization and to assess the efficiency of drug therapy. The optic density was found to increase, after excimer-laser surgeries, in all patients and it depended on a type of refraction and its degree. The optic-density dynamics of corneal images also depended on a degree and type of refraction as well as on a type of drug therapy. Hence, densitometry and planimetry, as objective methods used to follow up the patients after keratorefractive excimer-laser surgeries, make it possible to diagnose early enough the presence of complications related with disorders in transparency and healing of the cornea. PMID:12698885

  1. Enhanced efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells by excimer laser irradiated carbon nanotube network counter electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, Yun-San Fu, Wei-En; Yang, Po-Yu; Lee, I-Che; Chu, Chih-Chieh; Chou, Chia-Hsin; Cheng, Huang-Chung

    2014-02-03

    The carbon nanotube network decorated with Pt nanoparticles (PtCNT) irradiated by excimer laser as counter electrode (CE) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been systematically demonstrated. The conversion efficiency would be improved from 7.12% to 9.28% with respect to conventional Pt-film one. It was attributed to the enhanced catalytic surface from Pt nanoparticles and the improved conductivity due to the adjoining phenomenon of PtCNTs irradiated by laser. Moreover, the laser annealing could also promote the interface contact between CE and conductive glass. Therefore, such a simple laser-irradiated PtCNT network is promising for the future flexible DSSCs applications.

  2. The Role of Crystalline Water in the Interaction of Excimer Laser Light with Brushite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawes, M. L.; Langford, S. C.; Dickinson, J. T.

    1998-03-01

    A number of minerals of environmental interest contain waters of hydration, sometimes called crystalline water. Hydrated crystals often show dramatic changes in optical properties as well as mechanical properties, both influencing the response of the material to radiation. From an analytic point of view, very little is known about the influence of hydration regarding laser desorption and ablation phenomena. We explore the interaction of excimer laser light (KrF 248 nm) with single crystal brushite (CaHPO_4.2H_2O), a model biomineral phosphate containing H_2O. We first show that defects dominate the interactions as revealed by high sensitivity detection of Ca^+ at low fluences and that this ion emission predicts ablation thresholds. The most probable ion energy, which occurs at 11 eV, is much higher than the incident photon energy of 5 eV. The ion intensities also display a highly nonlinear fluence dependence, typically 6-8th order, entirely consistent with ion emission models we have recently presented. We show that laser coupling can be enhanced several orders of magnitude by generation of defects, i.e., by mechanical treatment, heating, or exposure to electron beams and that the consequences of crystalline H_2O and HPO_4^2- decomposition play major and related roles in this defect production.

  3. Glass etching initiated by excimer laser photolysis of CF/sub 2/Br/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, J.H.

    1986-04-24

    KrF and ArF excimer laser irradiation of glass surfaces immersed in gaseous CF/sub 2/Br/sub 2/ is found to induce etching. The etch mechanism is considered to be nonthermal on the basis of the small value of the glass absorption coefficent and wavelength variable etching experiments. The etch rate dependence on surface fluence is presented for three pressures. SEM photos reveal a rough surface morphology in the etched region that apparently is not a chemical effect but results solely from the laser irradiation. Photochemical and spectroscopic analysis of the irradiated gas provides evidence for CF/sub 2/ and CF/sub 2/Br as being major photolysis products. C/sub 2/F/sub 4/ was also found to cause etching at 248 and 193 nm. This is evidence that CF/sub 2/, resulting from C/sub 2/F/sub 4/ photolysis, is alone capable of initiating glass etching in the presence of laser light. The paper concludes by discussing the observed inability of the CF/sub 3/ releasing parent gases CF/sub 3/Br and CF/sub 3/I to significantly etch glass when irradiated in their appropriate absorption bands. 31 references, 9 figures, 1 table.

  4. Focused excimer laser initiated and radio frequency sustained plasma formation in high pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giar, Ryan

    A doctoral thesis project was performed to experimentally investigate the feasibility of focused excimer laser initiation of air plasmas for radio frequency sustainment. A 193 nm, 15 MW, 300 mJ laser was focused with a 18 cm focal length lens to form a small, high density (ne ~ 10 14 cm--3) seed plasma. These laser plasmas were produced inside a borosilicate glass tube around which was wrapped a 5 turn helical antenna. This antenna was powered with 5 kW of 13.56 MHz of radiation for 1.5 s. This was accomplished at a pressure of 22 Torr, resulting in a large volume (300 cm3) air plasma. Diagnostic measurements of this air plasma determined an electron density of 5E10 cm-3 and an electron temperature 1.3 eV with a neutral temperature of 3500 K. The collision frequency was measured to be 9E10 Hz which resulted in a plasma-loaded antenna resistance of 6 O with a voltage reflection coefficient of 0.7.

  5. High Spatial Resolution Analysis of Carbonates by In Situ Excimer Laser Ablation MC-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuttleworth, S.; Lloyd, N.; Douthitt, C.

    2012-12-01

    Speleothems are important climate archives. The time resolution of the paleochlimate proxies depends on the growth rates and the precision limitation of the analytical instrumentation [1]. As a consequence, for speleothems, better analytical precision combined with better spatial resolution will always be the goal, driven by a need to probe the timing and duration of climate events [1]. The Thermo Scientific NEPTUNE Plus with Jet Interface option offers unparalleled MC-ICP-MS sensitivity for heavy elements. An ion yield of >3 % has previously been reported for uranium solutions introduced by desolvating nebulizer[2]. For laser ablation Hf, the Jet Interface with N2 addition significantly improved sensitivity, which allowed precise and accurate 176Hf/177Hf ratios to be calculated using a spot size of just 25 μm diameter [3]. A Thermo Scientific NEPTUNE Plus with Jet Interface option was coupled with a Photon Machines excimer laser ablation system. This system features a short pulse width (4ns) 193 nm excimer laser and the HELEX 2 volume sample cell. The 193nm wavelength has been shown to reduce the particle size distribution of the aerosol produced by the laser ablation process [4] and this in turn has been shown to help minimize the effects of fractionation by ensuring that particles are in a size range so as to avoid incomplete vaporization and ionization in the plasma [5]. In this work we investigate U-Th dating of carbonates. Accurate LA U-Th isotope measurements on carbonates with U concentrations smaller than 1 μg/g are difficult due to small ion beams [1]. Hoffman et. al. [1] noted individual LA U-Th ratio precisions of about 2% (2 sigma) on a 134 ka sample with 134 μg/g U concentration. In this work we apply a combination of the high sampling efficiency two volume cell plus mixed gas plasmas to further enhance the capability. [1] Hoffman, D.L., et al. (2009). Chemical Geology. 259 253-261 [2] Bouman, C., et al. (2009). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 73

  6. Factors Affecting the Production of Aromatic Immonium Ions in MALDI 157 nm Photodissociation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGraan-Weber, Nick; Ashley, Daniel C.; Keijzer, Karlijn; Baik, Mu-Hyun; Reilly, James P.

    2016-05-01

    Immonium ions are commonly observed in the high energy fragmentation of peptide ions. In a MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometer, singly charged peptides photofragmented with 157 nm VUV light yield a copious abundance of immonium ions, especially those from aromatic residues. However, their intensities may vary from one peptide to another. In this work, the effect of varying amino acid position, peptide length, and peptide composition on immonium ion yield is investigated. Internal immonium ions are found to have the strongest intensity, whereas immonium ions arising from C-terminal residues are the weakest. Peptide length and competition among residues also strongly influence the immonium ion production. Quantum calculations provide insights about immonium ion structures and the fragment ion conformations that promote or inhibit immonium ion formation.

  7. UV excimer laser and low temperature plasma treatments of polyamide materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yip, Yiu Wan Joanne

    Polyamides have found widespread application in various industrial sectors, for example, they are used in apparel, home furnishings and similar uses. However, the requirements for high quality performance products are continually increasing and these promote a variety of surface treatments for polymer modification. UV excimer laser and low temperature plasma treatments are ideally suited for polyamide modification because they can change the physical and chemical properties of the material without affecting its bulk features. This project aimed to study the modification of polyamides by UV excimer laser irradiation and low temperature plasma treatment. The morphological changes in the resulting samples were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM). The chemical modifications were studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and chemical force microscopy (CFM). Change in degree of crystallinity was examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). After high-fluence laser irradiation, topographical results showed that ripples of micrometer size form on the fibre surface. By contrast, sub-micrometer size structures form on the polyamide surface when the applied laser energy is well below its ablation threshold. After high-fluence laser irradiation, chemical studies showed that the surface oxygen content of polyamide is reduced. A reverse result is obtained with low-fluence treatment. The DSC result showed no significant change in degree of crystallinity in either high-fluence or low-fluence treated samples. The same modifications in polyamide surfaces were studied after low temperature plasma treatment with oxygen, argon or tetrafluoromethane gas. The most significant result was that the surface oxygen content of polyamide increased after oxygen and argon plasma treatments. Both treatments induced many hydroxyl (-OH) and carboxylic acid (-COOH

  8. The effect on the ultrastructure of dental enamel of excimer-dye, argon-ion and CO2 lasers.

    PubMed

    Palamara, J; Phakey, P P; Orams, H J; Rachinger, W A

    1992-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the ultrastructural changes that occur in dental enamel irradiated with pulsed excimer-dye, continuous-wave (CW) argon-ion and CW CO2 lasers. The pulsed excimer-dye laser produced deep craters, rough damaged surfaces with underlying porosity and amorphous vitrified material. The vitrification of the enamel indicated that the temperature in these areas must have been at least in the range 1280 to 1600 degrees C. The CW argon-ion laser irradiation produced a changed non-cratered surface with inter-crystalline porosity and a mixture of small and some large irregularly packed recrystallized enamel crystals. The CW CO2 laser produced shallow craters, surface crazing and lifting off the removal of the surface layer to expose the underlying roughened enamel. The ultrastructure revealed inter- and intra-crystalline porosity, a mixture of small but variable size irregularly packed recrystallized enamel crystals and also well packed large crystals which indicated further grain growth. The porosity in lased enamel was overall very similar to that seen in enamel heated in an electric furnace to a temperature of 600 degrees C. The presence of recrystallized enamel crystals indicated a temperature rise of approximately 1000 degrees C and the grain growth indicated that a temperature > or = 1000 degrees C existed for some time after the laser irradiation. In general the excimer-dye laser produced most surface destruction because of its higher power density and shorter interaction time and the argon-ion laser produced least damage. These results indicated that the lasers used in this study require much more refinement before they can find therapeutic application to dental enamel, and this may well be the case for other lasers being investigated for clinical dental practise. PMID:1295076

  9. CAD/CAM interface design of excimer laser micro-processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Liang; Chen, Tao; Zuo, Tiechuan

    2005-12-01

    Recently CAD/CAM technology has been gradually used in the field of laser processing. The excimer laser micro-processing system just identified G instruction before CAD/CAM interface was designed. However the course of designing a part with G instruction for users is too hard. The efficiency is low and probability of making errors is high. By secondary development technology of AutoCAD with Visual Basic, an application was developed to pick-up each entity's information in graph and convert them to each entity's processing parameters. Also an additional function was added into former controlling software to identify these processing parameters of each entity and realize continue processing of graphic. Based on the above CAD/CAM interface, Users can design a part in AutoCAD instead of using G instruction. The period of designing a part is sharply shortened. This new way of design greatly guarantees the processing parameters of the part is right and exclusive. The processing of complex novel bio-chip has been realized by this new function.

  10. N-type doping of Ge by As implantation and excimer laser annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Milazzo, R.; Napolitani, E. De Salvador, D.; Mastromatteo, M.; Carnera, A.; Impellizzeri, G.; Boninelli, S.; Priolo, F.; Privitera, V.; Fisicaro, G.; Italia, M.; La Magna, A.; Cuscunà, M.; Fortunato, G.

    2014-02-07

    The diffusion and activation of arsenic implanted into germanium at 40 keV with maximum concentrations below and above the solid solubility (8 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}) have been studied, both experimentally and theoretically, after excimer laser annealing (λ = 308 nm) in the melting regime with different laser energy densities and single or multiple pulses. Arsenic is observed to diffuse similarly for different fluences with no out-diffusion and no formation of pile-up at the maximum melt depth. The diffusion profiles have been satisfactorily simulated by assuming two diffusivity states of As in the molten Ge and a non-equilibrium segregation at the maximum melt depth. The electrical activation is partial and decreases with increasing the chemical concentration with a saturation of the active concentration at 1 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}, which represents a new record for the As-doped Ge system.

  11. Adhesion strength measurements of excimer-laser-treated PTFE surfaces using liquid photoreagents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, Bela; Smausz, Tomi; Kresz, Norbert; Ignacz, Ferenc

    2003-04-01

    The most known feature of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is its adhesion behavior: it is hydrophobic and oleophobic at the same time. This can cause serious problems and obstacles during the surface treatment and fixing of PTFE objects. During our experiments Teflon films were irradiated by an ArF excimer laser beam in presence of liquid photoreagents containing amine groups (aminoethanol, 1,2-diaminoethane, triethylene-tetramine). In consequence of the treatment the adhesion of the modified surfaces significantly increased, the samples could be glued and moistened. The adhesion strength of the glued surfaces was measured in the function of the applied laser fluence. The adhesion strength increased drastically between 0 - 1 mJ/cm2 and showed saturation above 1 mJ/cm2 at approximately 5 - 9 MPa values depending on the applied photoreagents. On the basis of our experiments it was found that the treatment with triethylene-tetramine was the most effective. The surface chemical modifications of the treated Teflon samples can be due to the incorporation of amine groups into the surface layer.

  12. Surface properties modifications obtained on ceramics and metals resulting from excimer laser processing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, Gines; Autric, Michel L.; Ocana, Jose L.

    1998-09-01

    The unique properties of a UV laser beam (high energy, short pulse duration) allow to transform the surface of ultrahard materials such as ceramics. In this way, a KrF excimer laser was used in this study in order to modify in selected zones, the surface of metals (aluminum alloy, titanium alloy and stainless steel) and oxides (Al2O3, ZrO2), carbide (SiC) and nitride (AlN). These ceramics possess good mechanical and thermal properties but exhibit a brittle behavior due to the granular structure. In a suitable range where the irradiated zone is melted and defects are removed, initial properties are modified (roughness, porosity, hardness, chemical composition). A cleaned and smoothed surface can be obtained without pores and cracks. These sites where corrosion attack starts are minimized and can lead to improve functions in potential industrial applications. The results presented in this work have been obtained by different analysis techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine morphology, Auger spectroscopy (AES) to give chemical composition and depths profiles, mechanical tests to show roughness and hardness, grazing X-ray diffraction (XRD) to find structure.

  13. Morphological and structural effects of excimer laser treatment of amorphous silicon

    PubMed

    Loreti; della Sala D; Garozzo

    2000-06-01

    The excimer laser irradiation of thin film amorphous silicon (a-Si) precursors on glass is a suitable method for obtaining high-performance polycrystalline silicon (p-Si) active layers for devices and circuits. By changing the experimental conditions, the recrystallization method generates a variety of microstructures that have direct impact on the material performance. An additional reason for microstructural characterization is introduced by the methods for spatially locating the recrystallization nuclei, used in more ergonomic concepts of device fabrication. Metal and SiO2 strip overlayers have been applied here, on a-Si to fix the position of the solidification seeds after laser melting. The control of many aspects of the thin film microstructure can be achieved with a collection of a few inspection techniques like AFM, SEM, EC contrast, TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD), some of which require preliminary grain decoration treatment, and some do not. The results of different irradiation experiments, are herein illustrated, enlightened by the above characterization techniques, for providing information on surface morphology, grain arrangement, preferred orientation. PMID:10702980

  14. The Effect of Excimer Laser Treatment on the Surface Roughness and Fracture Strength of Alumina Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, J.E.

    1998-05-13

    The microelectronics industry requires alumina substrates with exceptionally smooth surfaces and few surface defects to allow successful deposition of metallic films for reliable electronic performance. Irradiation by a 248-nm wavelength excimer laser beam (KrF) at a fluence of 125 mJ/mm{sup 2} and at various angles of incidence is shown to significantly reduce the surface roughness of alumina substrates. However, irradiation also creates a fine particulate deposit of alumina that only partially adheres to the substrate and impedes deposition of metal films. Annealing in air between 1350 C and 1450 C was found to remove the particles by sintering. As-received material showed surface roughness average (R{sub a}) mean values of 457 nm, which was reduced to 60 nm (mean) following irradiation and 71 nm (mean) following irradiation and annealing at 1350 C. Irradiation also produced a decrease in the number and severity of surface defects. The flexural strength and Weibull modulus were both increased by laser irradiation and thermal treatment. Flexural strength went from an as-received value of 450 MPa to 560 MPa following irradiation/sintering, measured at 10% probability of failure. The Weibull modulus was increased from the as-received value of about 9, to about 13 following irradiation/sintering. It was concluded that irradiation at an angle of incidence of 60{degree} from perpendicular was most effective in producing a low surface roughness.

  15. Design strategies for 157-nm single-layer photoresists: lithographic evaluation of a poly(α -trifluoromethyl vinyl alcohol) copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmaljohann, Dirk; Bae, Young C.; Weibel, Gina L.; Hamad, Alyssandrea H.; Ober, Christopher K.

    2000-06-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol-co-(alpha) -trifluoromethyl vinyl alcohol) (PVA-co-CF3PVA) protected with an acid cleavable group was prepared as a single-layer photoresist for use in 157 nm VUV lithography. It was found that the (alpha) -trifluoromethyl substituent renders PVA-co-CF3PVA readily soluble in 0.262 N TMAH. The protected polymer can be spin-coated from PGMEA and preliminary studies using 248 nm exposure showed a THP protected PVA-co-CF3PVA undergoes chemically amplified deprotection with a clearing dose of approximately 15 mJ/cm2. Using a VUV spectrometer, absorption coefficients of approximately 3 micrometer-1 were observed at 157 nm with PVA-co-CF3PVA and THP protected PVA-co-CF3PVA. Detailed lithographic evaluation of the polymer is underway and design strategies for 157 nm single-layer photoresists will be discussed.

  16. 193-nm excimer laser sclerostomy using a modified open mask delivery system in rhesus monkeys with experimental glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Allan, B D; van Saarloos, P P; Cooper, R L; Keogh, E J; Constable, I J

    1993-11-01

    Excimer laser sclerostomy is a new glaucoma filtration procedure in which the argon fluoride excimer laser at 193 nm is delivered ab externo through a modified open mask system incorporating an en-face air jet to dry the target area and preserve hemostasis during ablation and a conjunctival plication mechanism, which allows the conjunctival and scleral wounds created by through-and-through ablation to separate once the mask is removed. No preparatory dissection of the conjunctiva is required. Five 200-microns and five 500-microns sclerostomies were formed by ablation at a pulse repetition rate of 20 Hz and a fluence per pulse of 400 mJ/cm2 in fellow eyes of five rhesus monkeys with experimental glaucoma. Overall, seven of the ten eyes attained a functional result, with intraocular pressures remaining below 21 mmHg for 6 +/- 1 days and rising to the pre-operative level after 10 +/- 3 days without adjunctive antifibroblast medication. The duration of filtration for 200-microns and 500-microns sclerostomies was similar, and parallels that previously observed for posterior lip sclerectomy in the same animal model. The three eyes with no functional result all had incorrectly positioned sclerostomies. Choroidal detachment and significant shallowing of the anterior chamber did not occur. Excimer laser sclerostomy appears to be a viable technique for filtration, provided that mask placement is accurate. PMID:8258402

  17. Automated superficial lamellar keratectomy augmented by excimer laser masked PTK in the management of severe superficial corneal opacities

    PubMed Central

    Alio, J L; Javaloy, J; Merayo, J; Galal, A

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To assess superficial lamellar keratectomy augmented by excimer laser smoothening with sodium hyaluronate 0.25%, for the management of superficial corneal opacities. Methods: Consecutive procedure performed in 14 eyes (13 patients) with an automated microkeratome and excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) smoothening using sodium hyaluronate 0.25%. Main outcome measures: UCVA, BCVA, pachymetry, degree of haze, ray tracing analysis, and complications. Mean follow up was 12 (SD 1.6) months. Results: Mean preoperative haze from previous corneal refractive surgeries was 3.5 (SD 0.5) (11/14 cases). In one case, opacity was caused by ocular trauma and in two by infectious keratitis. The mean preoperative UCVA was 0.7 logMAR (0.2 (SD 0.13) decimal value). BCVA was 0.4 logMAR (0.4 (SD 0.17) decimal value). Mean preoperative corneal pachymetry was 508 (SD 62.5) µm and mean opacity depth measured by corneal confocal microscopy was 115.2 (SD 49.4) µm. At 6 months, 71.4% of the eyes with previous corneal refractive surgery showed grade I haze or less. Mean postoperative corneal pachymetry at 6 months was 352.36 (SD 49.05) µm. Conclusions: Automated superficial lamellar keratectomy combined with excimer laser PTK smoothening assisted by sodium hyaluronate 0.25% induces a significant improvement of corneal transparency and visual acuity in cases of corneal opacity caused by previous refractive surgery, ocular trauma, and keratitis. PMID:15377553

  18. KrF excimer laser lithography with a phase-shifting mask for gigabit-scale ultra large scale integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Akira; Terasawa, Tsuneo; Hasegawa, Norio; Asai, Naoko; Tanaka, Toshihiko P.; Okazaki, Shinji

    1996-10-01

    Resolution-enhancement technologies such as alternating-type phase-shifting masks (PSMs), half-tone PSMs, and the off- axis illumination method in optical lithography are necessary for manufacturing gigabit-scale ultra large scale integration (ULSI) devices. Because an alternating-type PSM is the most effective way to enhance resolution, we examine the resolution capabilities of KrF excimer laser lithography combined with the use of an alternating-type PSM through simulations. Our goal is to apply this technique to attain pattern delineation smaller than 200 nm. We simulate light intensity profiles for various types of PSMs in terms of the 3-D mask structure, and find that a PSM structure with a spin-on glass (SOG) phase shifter on a Cr layer that is thinner than in a conventional mask is one of the best choices for KrF excimer laser lithography. We examine potential problems such as the durability of the SOG phase shifters to KrF excimer laser irradiation exposure, and phase angle error due to the surface topography of the Cr aperture patterns. From our experimental results, we confirm that the optical characteristics of the PSM are not degraded, and the phase angle can be controlled with an accuracy sufficient for gigabit-scale ULSI device fabrication. Improved PSMs with a thin Cr layer and SOG phase shifters were successfully used to fabricate several layers of experimental 1-Gbit dynamic random access memory (DRAM) devices with sufficient resolution capability.

  19. Surface structural transformation of sintered alumina induced by excimer laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupas-Bruzek, C.; Laude, L. D.; Langenhorst, F.; Kolev, K.

    2003-04-01

    Laser surface processing of ceramics is important for several structural, tribological, optical and electronic applications. However, little is known on the transformation mechanism of alumina under excimer laser irradiation. In this work, a sintered alumina type was typically irradiated at 0.8 J cm-2 and cooled at two drastically different rates. Optical investigations on the irradiated specimens allow to conclude that the amount of transformation products is very much dependant on the cooling rates. Transmission electron microscopy observations show that the transformation product is constituted of an amorphous matrix in which are embedded either (i) copper grains (size up to 1 μm) in slowly cooled samples or (ii) smaller copper or CuAl2O4 spinel grains (size up to 100 nm) in rapidly cooled samples. The cement that is present in the starting material at grain boundaries is found to play an important role on the formation of the new amorphous or crystalline materials. All the copper grains exhibit a <120> common zone axis perpendicular to the irradiated surface and parallel to the bulk-to-surface thermal gradient, which drives that preferred orientation. These results reveal the details of the phenomenology of the laser-induced material transformation. This latter decomposes into (i) the incipient formation of tiny γ-Al2O3 nuclei, (ii) integration of Cu ions present in the melt into these tiny γ-Al2O3 nuclei that transform into CuAl2O4 spinel, and (iii) further sedimentation of Cu ions onto the resulting spinel grains acting as nucleation centers and finally formation of larger copper-rich grains. The minimum nucleation rate of crystalline grains is estimated to be equal to 1024 cm-3 s-1, while the growth rate is of the order of 0.1 m s-1 in both samples. Both bulk thermal diffusive and convective transports control the transformation of matter.

  20. Etching of fused silica and glass with excimer laser at 351 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, K.; Braun, A.; Böhme, R.

    2003-03-01

    The etching of solid surfaces at the interface to liquids is a new promising method for micro-machining of transparent materials. To extend the method to additional materials the pulsed radiation of a XeF-excimer laser (351 nm) was used for etching different types of glass (Corning Inc.: Pyrex, 7059 and Schott Group: D263, AF45) and fused silica for comparison. The etch rates of the investigated materials increase almost linear at low laser fluences. Threshold fluences for glass as low as 0.5 J/cm 2 and etch rates from 6 to 10 nm per pulse at 1 J/cm 2 have been determined. The etch rate and the threshold fluence depend also on the used liquid, consisting of a solvent (acetone, toluene) and a certain concentration of dissolved pyrene, but only little on the glass type. Due to the low etch rate typically very smooth surfaces are achieved. The surface roughness measured by AFM on Corning 7059-glass at an etch depth of 3.7 μm is as low as 4 nm. Contrary to the other glasses the surface roughness of Pyrex is much higher and dominated by typical arbitrary etch pits with micron dimensions. Comparing the etching of fused silica at a wavelength of 248 and 351 nm the used solution influences both the etch threshold and the etch rate. In accordance to earlier investigations at 248 nm also XeF-laser etching at the interface to an absorbing liquid results in a good surface quality, well defined patterns and almost no debris deposition. Thus, this technique is a good candidate for precise micro-machining applications.

  1. Optical spectroscopy study of pulsed excimer laser generated plasma from CuO

    SciTech Connect

    Adhi, K.P.; Kale, S.; Padhye, Y.; Limaye, A.V.; Ogale, S.B.

    1995-12-15

    Optical emissions from pulsed excimer laser induced plasma emanating from CuO target are studied by an Optical Multichannel Analyzer system in the context of its implications for thin film growth by Pulsed Laser Deposition. The plasma is generated in four different ambients viz. hydrogen, helium, oxygen (pressure of 100 mTorr in each case) and vacuum (2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} Torr) at different energy densities from 1 to 3.5 J/cm{sup 2}. The plasma constituents and their evolution in the growth space (i.e. at a distance of 1.5 cm from the target) has been studied. Various transitions corresponding to Cu(I), H(I), Cu(II) and O(II) are observed. The observation of strong transitions due to O(II) in the plasma formed in vacuum, hydrogen and helium suggests significant degree of ionization of atoms via molecular splitting and inverse Bremsstrahlung process during early plasma formation. The persistence of ionicity in the plasma can be attributed to long recombination lifetimes for the specific conditions used. In the case of ablation in oxygen ambient a very significant and remarkably selective enhancement of the copper vapor lasing transition at 510.5 nm is observed which brings out the role of oxygen molecules in sustaining the radiation trapping condition. The changes in the concentrations of neutrals and ions are a function of the laser energy density are also examined. It is argued that impingement of ions/atoms in an excited state on the growing surface can potentially lead to localized energy deposition via non-radiative deexcitation resulting into enhancement of film quality and density.

  2. Investigation of the utility of laser-secondary neutral mass spectrometry for the detection of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in individual atmospheric aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Bonnie J; Dambach, Steffen; Galla, Sebastian; Peterson, Richard E; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient aerosol particles is of importance to both human health and climate forcing. Although time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) has proven useful for studying the distribution of organic compounds in individual aerosol particles, it is difficult to detect PAHs at relevant concentrations in individual aerosol particles because of their low ion yield. In this study, we explore the potential of using laser secondary neutral mass spectrometry (Laser-SNMS) to study three PAHs: pyrene, anthracene, and naphthalene. Because of the high volatility of PAHs, a cryostage was required for the analysis to prevent sublimation of the molecules into the vacuum chamber. We studied two laser systems, a 157 nm excimer laser, which is capable of single-photon ionization of the PAHs, and a 193 nm laser, which requires multiphoton ionization. Under optimized conditions for laser power density and primary ion pulse length, 193 nm postionization resulted in a 2-50-fold increase in ion yield over ToF-SIMS. Using the 157 nm laser, the yield was increased by more than 3 orders of magnitude for all 3 PAHs studied. The single-photon postionization process proved superior in terms of both yield enhancement and reduced fragmentation. By using the optimized 157 nm laser system and a cryostage, we were able to detect PAHs on the surface of 2 μm diameter ambient aerosol particles. PMID:21823569

  3. Scanning electron microscopy and thermal characteristics of dentin ablated by a short-pulse XeCl excimer laser.

    PubMed

    Neev, J; Stabholtz, A; Liaw, L H; Torabinejad, M; Fujishige, J T; Ho, P D; Berns, M W

    1993-01-01

    The interaction of a short pulse XeCl excimer laser radiation with human dentin was investigated. The dependence of surface temperatures and temperature gradients into the treated teeth on laser parameters such as fluence (0.5J/cm2-7J/cm2), pulse repetition rate (1Hz-35Hz), and spot size (0.004cm2-0.12cm2) was studied. Additionally, the effect of fluence and pulse repetition rate on dentin microstructure was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is demonstrated that this "cold ablation" excimer laser can result in significant thermal modification in the dentin surfaces. Changes include the formation of melted dentin grains, which uniformly cover the surface and the exposed dentin tubules. Maximum temperatures of the ablated surfaces, however, remained relatively low at most laser parameters used. Also, the immediate neighborhood of the root canal was essentially undisturbed at most laser parameters. These observations suggest that with the appropriate choice of parameters XeCl lasers can be effective in producing surface structures that may prove useful in enhancing bond strength or other applications in dentistry, without exposing tooth pulp to significant temperature elevation. PMID:8515674

  4. Identical Excimer Laser PTK Treatments in Rabbits Result in Two Distinct Haze Responses

    PubMed Central

    McCally, Russell L.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Stark, Walter J.; Jain, Sandeep; Azar, Dimitri T.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. To obtain objective light-scattering measurements to test a hypothesis that identical PTK treatments cause distinct low- and high-level light-scattering responses in rabbit corneas. Methods. An excimer laser was used to produce identical 6-mm diameter phototherapeutic keratectomy treatments (PTK) in 32 pigmented rabbits. Eyes were treated by performing a 40-μm epithelial ablation, followed by a 100-μm stromal PTK. Objective scattering measurements were made before treatment, weekly up to 5 weeks, and then biweekly to 9 weeks. Confocal microscopy was performed on several corneas at 4 and 7 weeks. Results. Mean scattering levels split into distinct low- and high-scattering groups 2 weeks after treatment and remained distinct until week 7 (P < 0.003). Scattering in the low group reached a broad peak that lasted from weeks 2 to 4 at approximately 3 times the pretreatment level. Scattering in the high group peaked at 3 weeks at approximately 12 times the pretreatment level. Scattering levels diminished after reaching their peaks. Confocal images showed a band of highly reflective material in the anterior stroma that extended much deeper in corneas from the high group. The reflective band in the highly scattering corneas obscured the posterior stroma from view for up to 5 weeks. Conclusions. Quantitative scattering data obtained with the scatterometer suggest that identical PTK treatments indeed result in distinct low- and high-level light-scattering responses in rabbits. PMID:17003417

  5. Electrical activation phenomena induced by excimer laser annealing in B-implanted silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Fortunato, G.; Mariucci, L.; La Magna, A.; Alippi, P.; Italia, M.; Privitera, V.; Svensson, B.; Monakhov, E.

    2004-09-20

    The activation process induced by excimer laser annealing (ELA) has been investigated in 10 keV B-implanted samples. It is found that for energy densities inducing melt depths of the order or larger of the implanted region the junction depth is controlled by the melt depth, with activation approaching 100% and box-shaped carrier density distributions with abrupt junction profile. For energy densities inducing a melting shallower than the implanted region, two different activation mechanisms have been identified: the first occurring in the molten region and leading to complete B activation; the second occurring in the region immediately below the molten zone and leading to thermal activation of B, induced by the heat wave propagating into the Si wafer. This last process is characterized by an activation energy of 5 eV and is not accompanied by B diffusion. As a consequence, a deep tail of active B is produced, preventing the possibility to form abrupt and ultrashallow junctions. These results suggest that for the formation of ultrashallow junctions it is essential to combine ELA with ultralow energy ion implantation.

  6. Raman scattering measurements in flames using a tunable KrF excimer laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehrmeyer, Joseph A.; Cheng, Tsarng-Sheng; Pitz, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    A narrow-band tunable KrF excimer laser is used as a spontaneous vibrational Raman scattering source to demonstrate that single-pulse concentration and temperature measurements, with only minimal fluorescence interference, are possible for all major species (O2, N2, H2O, and H2) at all stoichiometries (fuel-lean to fuel rich) of H2-air flames. Photon-statistics-limited precisions in these instantaneous and spatially resolved single-pulse measurements are typically 5 percent, which are based on the relative standard deviations of single-pulse probability distributions. In addition to the single-pulse N2 Stokes/anti-Stokes ratio temperature measurement technique, a time-averaged temperature measurement technique is presented that matches the N2 Stokes Raman spectrum to theoretical spectra by using a single intermediate state frequency to account for near-resonance enhancement. Raman flame spectra in CH4-air flames are presented that have good signal-to-noise characteristics and show promise for single-pulse UV Raman measurements in hydrocarbon flames.

  7. Multilevel diffractive optical element manufacture by excimer laser ablation and halftone masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quentel, Francois; Fieret, Jim; Holmes, Andrew S.; Paineau, Sylvain

    2001-06-01

    A novel method is presented to manufacture multilevel diffractive optical elements (DOEs) in polymer by single- step KrF excimer laser ablation using a halftone mask. The DOEs have a typical pixel dimension of 5 micrometers and are up to 512 by 512 pixels in size. The DOEs presented are Fresnel lenses and Fourier computer generated holograms, calculated by means of a conventional iterative Fourier transform algorithm. The halftone mask is built up as an array of 5 micrometers -square pixels, each containing a rectangular or L- shaped window on an opaque background. The mask is imaged onto the polymer with a 5x, 0.13 NA reduction lens. The pixels are not resolved by the lens, so they behave simply as attenuators, allowing spatial variation of the ablation rate via the window size. The advantages of halftone mask technology over other methods, such as pixel-by-pixel ablation and multi-mask overlay, are that it is very fast regardless of DOE size, and that no high-precision motion stages and alignment are required. The challenges are that the halftone mask is specific to the etch curve of the polymer used, that precise calibration of each grey-level is required, and that the halftone mask must be calculated specifically for the imaging lens used. This paper describes the design procedures for multilevel DOEs and halftone masks, the calibration of the various levels, and some preliminary DOE test results.

  8. Post-growth annealing of germanium-tin alloys using pulsed excimer laser

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lanxiang; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Qian; Yeo, Yee-Chia; Pan, Jisheng; Zhang, Zheng; Tok, Eng Soon

    2015-07-14

    We investigate the impact of pulsed excimer laser anneal on fully strained germanium-tin alloys (Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x}) epitaxially grown on Ge substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. Using atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the morphological and compositional evolution of Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} with Sn content up to 17% after annealing using various conditions is studied. Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} samples annealed at 80 mJ/cm{sup 2} or 150 mJ/cm{sup 2} have no observable changes with respect to the as-grown sample. However, Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} samples annealed at 250 mJ/cm{sup 2} or 300 mJ/cm{sup 2} have Sn-rich islands on the surface, which is due to Sn segregation in the compressively strained epitaxial film. For Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11}, significant Sn redistribution occurs only when annealed at 300 mJ/cm{sup 2}, indicating that it has better thermal stability than Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17}. A mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of Sn-rich islands and Sn-depleted regions.

  9. Characteristics of excitation discharge of an excimer laser in gas density depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imada, Go; Masuda, Wataru; Yatsui, Kiyoshi

    1998-12-01

    The influences of gas density depletion on the highly- repetitive, high-pressure, pulsed glow discharge for excitation of excimer laser have been investigated eliminating the other instabilities, such as shock waves, residual ions, discharge products and electrode heating. The gas density depletion is simulated by utilizing a subsonic flow between the curved electrodes. The comparison has been made on the discharge occurred in the presence of the gas density depletion with the second discharge on the double-pulse experiment. We have found that the big gas density non uniformity, (Delta) (rho) /(rho) 0 approximately 3.6% corresponding to a pulse repetition rate (PRR) of approximately 20 Hz, tends to cause the arc discharge without the shocks, ions, discharge products and electrode heating. On the other hand, the second discharge on the double-pulse experiment becomes arc discharge in much smaller non uniformity ((Delta) (rho) /(rho) 0 approximately 1.2% corresponding to PRR approximately 3 Hz). The arc discharge in the double-pulse experiment might be driven by the residual ions and/or discharge products other than gas density depletion except for PRR greater than 20 Hz.

  10. Tribology and mechanical properties of excimer laser-processed Ti--Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Jervis, T.R.; Hirvonen, J.; Nastasi, M.; Kung, H.

    1995-08-01

    Titanium films were mixed, using excimer laser radiation, into the surface of bulk Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} materials. The tribological and mechanical properties of these surfaces were then evaluated using pin-on-disk and nanoindenter techniques, respectively. Reduced friction and a change in the wear mechanism that resulted in a more benign failure mode were observed. These results are interpreted as resulting from the establishment of a transfer film, changes in the compliance of the surface which reduces instantaneous stresses in the surface, and toughening of the surface, all results of the laser process.

  11. Fabrication of self-organized conical microstructures by excimer laser irradiation of cyanoacrylate-carbon nanotube composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuming; Liu, Liang; Fan, Shoushan

    2005-02-01

    Self-organized conical microstructures are fabricated by 308 nm XeCl excimer laser irradiation of cyanoacrylate-carbon nanotube composites in air. The morphology of the surface on the composite films is studied, varying the total number and fluence of the applied laser pulses. A simple mechanism of the fabrication based on the evaporation of cyanoacrylate and the burning of carbon nanotubes is proposed. The conical peak structures of cyanoacrylate-carbon nanotube composite films show good field-emission properties. Similar structures are also observed on carbon nanotube arrays.

  12. Results of excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy for the correction of myopia at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center: 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguen, Ezra I.; Salz, James J.; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Warren, Cathy; Macy, Jonathan I.; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Hofbauer, John; Berlin, Michael S.

    1994-06-01

    This report summarizes the authors' 3-year experience with excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) on 240 eyes of 161 patients. With constant laser emission parameters, nitrogen (N2) flow across the cornea was used on 79 eyes while 161 eyes had no N2 flow. 74 eyes were operated on without fixation with a suction ring. Postoperative pain management included patching and oral analgesics in 77 eyes and the use of topical Diclofenac or Ketorolac, and a therapeutic soft contact lens in 163 eyes. Follow up ranged from 1 month (206 eyes) to 36 months (10 eyes).

  13. Terraced copper growth deposited onto Teflon AF1600 by the excimer laser irradiation of Cu(hfac)TMVS

    SciTech Connect

    Popovici, D.; Piyakis, K.; Sacher, E.; Meunier, M.

    1996-12-31

    The authors are studying the feasibility of constructing Cu/fluoropolymer multilayer devices, in an effort to reduce both metal R and insulator C, a necessary condition in VLSI and GSI microelectronic applications. The laser chemical vapor deposition (LCVD) of the organometallic precursor Cu(hfac)TMVS (hexafluoroacetylacetonate)(trimethylvinylsilane) is used to grow copper films on a Teflon AF1600 substrate. Exposure to excimer laser radiation at 248 nm results in a terraced copper growth. A simple model, based on interference effects in the Teflon and copper layers, is presented to account for this structure.

  14. Research on the characteristics of H sub 2 Raman conversion pumping by a 1-J XeCl excimer laser

    SciTech Connect

    Lou, Q. , P. O. Box 8730, Beijing, China and Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Academia Sinica, P. O. Box 8211, Shanghai, China )

    1989-09-15

    Detailed results are presented of a high-efficiency Raman conversion of a 1-J XeCl excimer laser with an unstable resonator. We had 90% photon conversion of 18-MW-power XeCl laser radiation with 39% photon efficiency to the third Stokes order at 499 nm. The effects of rare-gas concentration in a H{sub 2}--rare-gas mixture on the Raman conversion characteristics were investigated. Finally, stimulated Raman scattering between the excited states of H{sub 2} at high gas pressure was observed, and conditions for generating these lines are discussed.

  15. Evaluation of 157-nm resist structure: outgassing relationship using in situ QCM technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Masamitsu; Shinozuka, Toyofumi; Takashiba, Shinichi; Horiguchi, Yusuke; Irie, Shigeo; Itani, Toshiro

    2004-05-01

    An in-situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) method was applied to quantitatively measure the outgassing from 157-nm resists, i.e., fluorinated cyclopolymer (FCP) and its derivatives blocked with alkoxymethyl ether units, in real time. The frequency change of quartz crystal coated with resist films was monitored during exposure and the mass desorbed from the resist films was calculated as amounts of outgassing. The sensitivity of the present QCM system was about 1 ng. The outgassing rate from FCP was much lower than FCP blocked with alkoxymethyl ether moiety, suggesting that the outgassing was mainly caused from the blocking units. Acidic components in outgassing were quantitatively measured by in-situ QCM technique using the quartz crystal coated with poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) or a copolymer (DMEST) of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate and styrene. The acidic materials adsorbed on quart crystal were monitored during exposure and the mass adsorbed was calculated. The amount of acidic compounds in outgassing was dependent on fluorine content of the resist polymers.

  16. Soft-tissue removal by the 193-nm excimer laser in a strongly absorbing liquid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanker, Daniel; Hemo, Itzhak; Turovets, Igor; Lewis, Aaron

    1994-08-01

    The 193 nm excimer laser delivered through special tips into biological liquid environments was applied to two different fields of microsurgery and two mechanism of tissue ablation were found to be operative. In vitreoretinal surgical applications, where the tip exit diameter was about 250 micrometers , the effective cutting regime of retina and vitreoretinal membranes occurred at energy fluences of about 250 - 350 mJ/cm2/pulse with a corresponding cutting depth of 50 - 150 micrometers /pulse. Gas bubbles, formed at the tip exit when it touched the tissue during irradiation, seem to be the driving force underlying the cutting process. This enabled us to achieve a much deeper cut in tissue than a micron-sized laser penetration depth. The system was applied to bovine and rabbit retina and rabbit vitreoretinal membranes and it was found that such tissue removal is fast enough for real vitreoretinal applications and the cut depth control is still good enough for this microsurgery. In the application of this system to drilling of 4 - 8 micrometers diameter holes in the zona pellucida of oocytes the optimal energy fluence is about 40 mJ/cm2/pulse with an ablation depth of about 2 micrometers /pulse. In this case no bubbles are formed and the process seems to be a non-explosive photodissociation of the tissue with subsequent slow dissolution of the products. This mechanism, in contrast to the vitreoretinal tissue removal, was found to be very selective to the type of material being ablated. This process was studied on a model of 20% gelatin gel, which is very close to the ablation properties of the zona pellucida.

  17. Outcomes of excimer laser enhancements in pseudophakic patients with multifocal intraocular lens

    PubMed Central

    Schallhorn, Steven C; Venter, Jan A; Teenan, David; Schallhorn, Julie M; Hettinger, Keith A; Hannan, Stephen J; Pelouskova, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess visual and refractive outcomes of laser vision correction (LVC) to correct residual refraction after multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Patients and methods In this retrospective study, 782 eyes that underwent LVC to correct unintended ametropia after multifocal IOL implantation were evaluated. Of all multifocal lenses implanted during primary procedure, 98.7% were refractive and 1.3% had a diffractive design. All eyes were treated with VISX STAR S4 IR excimer laser using a convectional ablation profile. Refractive outcomes, visual acuities, patient satisfaction, and quality of life were evaluated at the last available visit. Results The mean time between enhancement and last visit was 6.3±4.4 months. Manifest spherical equivalent changed from −0.02±0.83 D (−3.38 D to +2.25 D) pre-enhancement to 0.00±0.34 D (−1.38 D to +1.25 D) post-enhancement. At the last follow-up, the percentage of eyes within 0.50 D and 1.00 D of emmetropia was 90.4% and 99.5%, respectively. Of all eyes, 74.9% achieved monocular uncorrected distance visual acuity 20/20 or better. The mean corrected distance visual acuity remained the same before (−0.04±0.06 logMAR [logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution]) and after LVC procedure (−0.04±0.07 logMAR; P=0.70). There was a slight improvement in visual phenomena (starburst, halo, glare, ghosting/double vision) following the enhancement. No sight-threatening complications related to LVC occurred in this study. Conclusion LVC in pseudophakic patients with multifocal IOL was safe, effective, and predictable in a large cohort of patients. PMID:27175059

  18. Interstitial trapping in Fe-implanted Al after excimer laser annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, M. L.; Howe, L. M.; Quenneville, A. F.; Nilson, J. A.

    1983-12-01

    Laser annealing was used to create a supersaturated solution of Fe atoms in Al, in order that channeling measurements of self-interstitial trapping could be made. A single crystal of Al was implanted with 40 keV 56Fe to a fluence of 1.6×10 15 ions cm -2. A 4 mm diameter region of the crystal was annealed in air with a XeCl excimer laser at an energy density of ˜ 6 J cm -2. This treatment produced a relatively perfect crystal; the normalized yield of 1 MeV He + ions from near-surface Al atoms for <110> alignment at 35 K was 0.04. The Fe atoms were ˜ 90% substitutional, corresponding to a solubility of ˜ 0.3 at%, as compared with only ˜ 0.02 at% obtained by a water quench from 873 K. The crystal was then irradiated with 1 MeV He + at 70 K to a fluence of ˜ 5 × 10 15 ions cm -2, in order to create mobile Al self-interstitial atoms which could be trapped by the Fe atoms. A channeling analysis of the resulting displacement of Fe atoms indicated that they trapped self-interstitials strongly, as observed for other small solute atoms in Al. As no flux peaking in the backscattering yield from Fe atoms was observed for a <110> angular scan, the results indicate that the trapping configuration may differ from that observed for Cr, Mn or Cu solute atoms in Al. The trapped interstitials were annihilated by vacancy migration near 200 K.

  19. Investigation into the interaction of a XeCl excimer laser with hard tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Andrea K.; Dickinson, Mark R.

    2000-06-01

    An investigation into the interaction of a fiber deliverable, long pulse, xenon chloride (308 nm) excimer laser with hard biotissue has been carried out. The laser produces pulses of 200+ ns as opposed to around 10 - 20 ns for most of the previously reported data. The threshold of ablation and the maximum ablation depth (AD) in human molar dentine were found to be 0.30 +/- 0.05 J/cm2 and 1.57 +/- 0.04 micrometer/pulse respectively. The threshold for enamel was found to be above the achievable fluence with the available optics. The ablation process was investigated as a function of fluence (approximately 0.1 - 6 J/cm2), pulse repetition rate (PRR) (5 - 25 Hz) and number of pulses (500 - 4000). Each variable was altered independently of the other two. At a constant number of pulses, ablation depth per pulse was found to increase linearly as a function of fluence, up to a saturation fluence of approximately 4 J/cm2. Variation of the PRR alone was found to affect both the ablation threshold and the AD. For constant fluence and PRR, AD decreases non- linearly with an increasing number of pulses. This could be because at high pulse numbers the craters are deep, the walls of the crater absorb more energy and as it is increasingly difficult for the debris to escape, shielding of the tissue occurs. Shielding may also be due to absorption in a luminescent plume. At high fluence and PRR, sharp holes were formed in the dentine although charring was sometimes found around the edges. High PRR also induced considerable mechanical damage.

  20. The effect of microarc oxidation and excimer laser processing on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of Zr-1Nb alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiaoxi; Wang, Xin; Wen, Qiang; Wang, Xibing; Wang, Rongshan; Zhang, Yanwei; Xue, Wenbin

    2015-12-01

    The main purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of microarc oxidation (MAO) and excimer laser processing on the corrosion resistance of Zr-1Nb alloy in service environment. The pre-oxide film was fabricated on the surface of Zr-1Nb cladding tubes by MAO processing, and then subjected to KrF excimer laser irradiation. The surface morphology of the pre-oxide film was observed using a scanning electron microscope; phase compositions and quantities were determined using an X-ray diffraction; surface roughness was determined using a profilometer; and thermal expansion coefficient was measured using a dilatometer. Autoclave experiments were conducted for 94 days in an aqueous condition of 360 °C under 18.6 MPa in 0.01 mol/L LiOH solutions. The results showed that MAO + laser treatment resulted in a significant increase in the corrosion resistance of Zr-1Nb cladding tubes at high temperatures, because laser melting and etching could lead to a reduction in surface roughness and an increase in compactness of the pre-oxide film, and laser processing could promote the transformation of m-ZrO2 phase to t-ZrO2 phase. The best corrosion resistance was obtained when the pulse energy was 500 mJ, scanning speed was 0.13 mm/s, and pulse number was 2400.

  1. Effect of triggered discharge using an excimer laser with high-repetition-rate of the order of kilohertz

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaura, Michiteru; Watanabe, Takashi; Hayashi, Nobuya; Ihara, Satoshi

    2005-03-28

    The triggering ability of the laser-triggered lightning method is improved by using a KrF excimer laser with a high-repetition-rate of the order of kHz order. It is clarified that the effect of a triggered discharge is considerably enhanced when the plasma density is greater than 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}. Thus far, the laser-triggered lightning method has not been expected to display a triggering ability since one pulse of an excimer laser possesses energy of less than 1 J, and the produced plasma has a low density of 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}, its plasma density is one order lower than that required for its application in the triggering and guiding of lightning discharge. The enhancement of plasma density achieved by utilizing the accumulation effect of charged particles generated by the high-repetition-rate laser was 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}. This led to an effective a 50% reduction in the self-breakdown voltage.

  2. Analysis of damage threshold of K9 glass irradiated by 248-nm KrF excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xi; Shao, Jingzhen; Li, Hua; Nie, Jinsong; Fang, Xiaodong

    2016-02-01

    The theoretical model of K9 glass irradiated by a 248-nm KrF excimer laser was established, and a numerical simulation was performed to calculate temperature and thermal stress fields in the K9 glass sample using the finite element method. The laser-induced damage thresholds were defined and calculated, and the effect of repetition frequency and the number of pulses on the damage threshold were also studied. Furthermore, the experiment research was carried out to confirm the numerical simulation. The damage threshold and damage morphology were analyzed by means of a metallurgical microscope and scanning electron microscopy. The simulation and experimental results indicated that the damage mechanism of K9 glass irradiated by a KrF excimer laser was melting damage and stress damage, and the stress damage first appeared inside the K9 glass sample. The tensile stress damage threshold, the compressive stress damage threshold, and the melting damage threshold were 0.64, 0.76, and 1.05 J/cm2, respectively. The damage threshold decreased with increasing repetition frequency and number of laser pulses. The experimental results indicated that the damage threshold of K9 glass was 2.8 J/cm2.

  3. Surface morphology and subsurface damaged layer of various glasses machined by 193-nm ArF excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yunn-shiuan; Chen, Ying-Tung; Chao, Choung-Lii; Liu, Yih-Ming

    2005-01-01

    Owing to the high bonding energy, most of the glasses are removed by photo-thermal rather than photo-chemical effect when they are ablated by the 193 or 248nm excimer lasers. Typically, the machined surface is covered by re-deposited debris and the sub-surface, sometimes surface as well, is scattered with micro-cracks introduced by thermal stress generated during the process. This study aimed to investigate the nature and extent of the surface morphology and sub-surface damaged (SSD) layer induced by the laser ablation. The effects of laser parameters such as fluence, shot number and repetition rate on the morphology and SSD were discussed. An ArF excimer laser (193 nm) was used in the present study to machine glasses such as soda-lime, Zerodur and BK-7. It is found that the melt ejection and debris deposition tend to pile up higher and become denser in structure under a higher energy density, repetition rate and shot number. There are thermal stress induced lateral cracks when the debris covered top layer is etched away. Higher fluence and repetition rate tend to generate more lateral and median cracks which propagate into the substrate. The changes of mechanical properties of the SSD layer were also investigated.

  4. Preparation of Ultrafine Fe–Pt Alloy and Au Nanoparticle Colloids by KrF Excimer Laser Solution Photolysis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    We prepared ultrafine Fe–Pt alloy nanoparticle colloids by UV laser solution photolysis (KrF excimer laser of 248 nm wavelength) using precursors of methanol solutions into which iron and platinum complexes were dissolved together with PVP dispersant to prevent aggregations. From TEM observations, the Fe–Pt nanoparticles were found to be composed of disordered FCC A1 phase with average diameters of 0.5–3 nm regardless of the preparation conditions. Higher iron compositions of nanoparticles require irradiations of higher laser pulse energies typically more than 350 mJ, which is considered to be due to the difficulty in dissociation of Fe(III) acetylacetonate compared with Pt(II) acetylacetonate. Au colloid preparation by the same method was also attempted, resulting in Au nanoparticle colloids with over 10 times larger diameters than the Fe–Pt nanoparticles and UV–visible absorption peaks around 530 nm that originate from the surface plasmon resonance. Differences between the Fe–Pt and Au nanoparticles prepared by the KrF excimer laser solution photolysis are also discussed. PMID:20596425

  5. Excimer laser assisted re-oxidation of BaTiO3 thin films on Ni metal foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharadwaja, S. S. N.; Rajashekhar, A.; Ko, S. W.; Qu, W.; Motyka, M.; Podraza, N.; Clark, T.; Randall, C. A.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.

    2016-01-01

    Excimer laser assisted re-oxidation for reduced, crystallized BaTiO3 thin films on Ni-foils was investigated. It was found that the BaTiO3 can be re-oxidized at an oxygen partial pressure of ˜50 mTorr and substrate temperature of 350 °C without forming a NiOx interface layer between the film and base metal foil. The dielectric permittivity of re-oxidized films was >1000 with loss tangent values <2% at 100 Hz, 30 mVrms excitation signal. Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy indicated that BaTiO3 thin films can be re-oxidized to an oxygen stoichiometry close to ˜3 (e.g., stoichiometric). High resolution cross sectional transmission electron microscopy showed no evidence of NiOx formation between the BaTiO3 and the Ni foil upon excimer laser re-oxidation. Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies on laser re-oxidized [001]C and [111]C BaTiO3 single crystals indicate that the re-oxidation of BaTiO3 single crystals is augmented by photo-excitation of the ozone, as well as laser pulse induced temperature and local stress gradients.

  6. Characterization of calcium phosphate coatings doped with Mg, deposited by pulsed laser deposition technique using ArF excimer laser.

    PubMed

    Mróz, W; Jedyński, M; Prokopiuk, A; Slósarczyk, A; Paszkiewicz, Z

    2009-01-01

    Calcium phosphate layers were deposited on Ti6Al4V substrates with TiN buffer layers by use of pulsed laser deposition method. With this technique three pressed pellets consisted of tricalcium phosphate (TCP, Ca(3)(PO(4))(2)), hydroxyapatite (HA, Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2)) and hydroxyapatite-doped with magnesium (HA with 4% of Mg and trace amount of (Ca,Mg)(3)(PO(4))(2)) were ablated using ArF excimer laser (lambda=193 nm). The using of different targets enabled to determine the influence of target composition on the nature of deposited layers. The obtained deposits were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction method (XRD). The obtained Fourier spectras revealed differences in terms of intensity of spectral bands of different layers. The analysis from XRD showed that Mg-doped HA layer has crystalline structure and TCP and HA layers composition is characterized by amorphous nature. PMID:18407507

  7. Perspectives of using the 223-nm wavelength of the KrCl excimer laser for refractive surgery and for the treatment of some eye diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagayev, Sergei N.; Chernikh, Valery V.; Razhev, Alexander M.; Zhupikov, Andrey A.

    2000-06-01

    The new surgical UV ophthalmic laser system Medilex based on the KrCl (223 nm) excimer laser for refractive surgery was created. The comparative analysis of using the UV ophthalmic laser systems Medilex based on the ArF (193 nm) and the KrCl (223 nm) excimer lasers for the correction of refractive errors was performed. The system with the radiation wavelength of 223 nanometer of the KrCl excimer laser for refractive surgery was shown to have several medical and technical advantages over the system with the traditionally used radiation wavelength of 193 nanometer of the ArF excimer laser. In addition the use of the wavelength of 223 nanometer extends functional features of the system, allowing to make not only standard for this type systems surgical and therapeutic procedures but also to treat such ocular diseases as the glaucoma and herpetic keratities. For the UV ophthalmic laser systems Medilex three variations of the beam delivery system including special rotating masks and different beam homogenize systems were developed. All created beam delivery systems are able to make the correction of myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism and myopic or hyperopic astigmatism and may be used for therapeutic procedures. The results of the initial treatments of refractive error corrections using the UV ophthalmic laser systems Medilex for both photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and LASIK procedures are presented.

  8. Excimer laser ablation of thick SiOx-films: Etch rate measurements and simulation of the ablation threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihlemann, J.; Meinertz, J.; Danev, G.

    2012-08-01

    Excimer laser ablation of 4.5 μm thick SiOx-films with x ≈ 1 is investigated at 193 nm, 248 nm, and 308 nm. Strong absorption enables precisely tunable removal depths. The ablation rates correlate with laser penetration depths calculated from low level absorption coefficients. The experimental ablation thresholds are in agreement with numerical simulations on the basis of linear absorption and one-dimensional heat flow. This behaviour is similar to that of strongly UV-absorbing polymers, leading to well controllable micro machining prospects. After laser processing, SiOx can be converted to SiO2, opening a route to laser based fabrication of micro optical components.

  9. Characterization of individual atmospheric aerosol particles with SIMS and laser-SNMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, R. E.; Nair, A.; Dambach, S.; Arlinghaus, H. F.; Tyler, B. J.

    2006-07-01

    The surface chemistry of atmospheric aerosol particles is important in determining how these particles will effect human health, visibility, climate and precipitation chemistry. In previous work, it has been shown that ToF-SIMS can provide significant valuable information on both organic and inorganic constituents of the aerosol. It has been found, however, that ToF-SIMS with a Ga + primary ion beam offers very low sensitivity to poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals, two important classes of pollutants. In this work the utility of laser-SNMS for detection of these pollutants has been explored. Two laser systems, a 193 nm excimer laser and a 157 nm excimer laser have been utilized. Each approach has advantages. ToF-SIMS has the highest sensitivity to alkali metals and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The 193 nm laser provides very high sensitivity to lead and other metals. The 157 nm laser greatly enhances sensitivity to PAHs which has enabled detection of PAHs on the surface of individual particles.

  10. Effect of excimer laser surface melting on the corrosion performance of a SiCp/Al metal matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, D. S.; Zhong, X. L.; Hashimoto, T.; Yan, Y. Z.; Liu, Z.

    2015-03-01

    Excimer laser surface melting (LSM) was performed to improve the corrosion resistance of the SiCp/AA2124 metal matrix composite (MMC). Corrosion evaluation of the MMCs showed evident improvement of the corrosion resistance after LSM, which was mainly attributed to the formation of a highly homogeneous surface layer with the dissolution of intermetallic particles and the redistribution of the alloying elements, as well as Si and C resulted from the decomposition of SiC particles. The elimination of micro-pores and micro-crevices introduced by the SiC particles after LSM also contributed to the improved corrosion resistance of the MMC.

  11. Stimulated Raman scattering in lead vapor pumped by a long-pulse 1-J XeCl excimer laser

    SciTech Connect

    Lou, Q.; Huo, Y.

    1988-08-15

    The parametric dependence of the output energies and efficiencies for the Raman conversion of the radiation from a long-pulse 1-J XeCl excimer laser in Pb vapor was investigated. The effects of atom depletion and buffer gas on the stimulated Raman scattering output were discussed in detail. Multipeak structures of the waves of the Raman-shifted pulses were observed which could be attributed to the coherent effects in Raman scattering. A computer model was introduced to explain the multipeak structures of the stimulated Raman scattering waveforms.

  12. High-NA high-throughput scanner compatible 2-kHz KrF excimer laser for DUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakarai, Hiroaki; Hisanaga, Naoto; Suzuki, Natsushi; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Asayama, Takeshi; Akita, Jun; Igarashi, Toru; Ariga, Tatsuya; Bushida, Satoru; Enami, Tatsuo; Nodomi, Ryoichi; Takabayashi, Yuichi; Sakanishi, Syouich; Suzuki, Takashi; Tomaru, Hitoshi; Nakao, Kiyoharu

    2000-07-01

    We have succeeded in the development of an excimer laser with ultra narrow bandwidth applicable to high N.A. scanners targeting on the 0.13micrometers -design rule. Key word of our solution for 0.13micrometers -design rule was 'extended technologies of currently available KrF excimer laser unit. As the result we could shorten development time remarkably. The narrower the laser spectrum, the less the influence of chromatic aberration on exposure projection lens; this is a well-known fact. We have developed the technologies to achieve spectral bandwidths less than 0.5pm, 20 percent narrower than our current model G20K. In order to attain this number, the major design change was made on line narrowing module, which was redesigned to minimize the dispersion of wavelength element. In addition gas condition was fine-tuned for the new line narrowing module. Integrated energy stability has been improved within +/- 0.35 percent with 35 pulses window by the introduction of a high efficiency pules power module and a faster gas circulation system. The rest of oscillation performances and durability equate with the base model G20K. The intelligent gas control system extended gas exchange interval up to 200 million pulses or 7 days. The G20K already passed through 10 billion-pulse test. Total energy loss was within 4mJ which is small enough to be compensated by gas injection and voltage change; it is a unique compensation system of Komatsu.

  13. Extremely long life and low-cost 193nm excimer laser chamber technology for 450mm wafer multipatterning lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsushima, Hiroaki; Katsuumi, Hisakazu; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Asayama, Takeshi; Kumazaki, Takahito; Kurosu, Akihiko; Ohta, Takeshi; Kakizaki, Kouji; Matsunaga, Takashi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru

    2014-04-01

    193nm ArF excimer lasers are widely used as light sources for the lithography process of semiconductor production. 193nm ArF exicmer lasers are expected to continue to be the main solution in photolithography, since advanced lithography technologies such as multiple patterning and Self-Aligned Double Patterning (SADP) are being developed. In order to apply these technologies to high-volume semiconductor manufacturing, the key is to reduce the total operating cost. To reduce the total operating cost, life extension of consumable part and reduction of power consumption are an important factor. The chamber life time and power consumption are a main factor to decide the total operating cost. Therefore, we have developed the new technology for extension of the chamber life time and low electricity consumption. In this paper, we will report the new technology to extend the life time of the laser chamber and to reduce the electricity consumption.

  14. Doppler spectroscopy of hydrogen atoms from the photodissociation of saturated hydrocarbons and methyl halides at 157 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Tonokura, K.; Matsumi, Y.; Kawasaki, M. ); Kasatani, K. )

    1991-10-01

    Hydrocarbons (C{sub {ital n}}H{sub 2{ital n}+2}, {ital n}=3, 4, and 6) and methyl halides (CH{sub 3}{ital X}, {ital X}=Cl, Br, I) are photodissociated at 157 nm. The hydrogen atom photofragments are detected by a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization technique. The Doppler profiles of the hydrogen atoms from hydrocarbons are well represented by a Gaussian profile, while those from methyl halides by a mixture of a Gaussian and a non-Gaussian profiles. These Doppler profiles are interpreted assuming that (a) hot ethyl photofragments from hydrocarbons result in the formation of hydrogen atoms and (b) methyl halides undergo both direct and indirect photolytic scissions of the C---H bonds at 157 nm.

  15. Time-resolved diagnostics of excimer laser-generated ablation plasmas used for pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Geohegan, D.B.

    1994-09-01

    Characteristics of laser plasmas used for pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of thin films are examined with four in situ diagnostic techniques: Optical emission spectroscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy, ion probe studies, and gated ICCD (intensified charge-coupled-device array) fast photography. These four techniques are complementary and permit simultaneous views of the transport of ions, excited states, ground state neutrals and ions, and hot particulates following KrF laser ablation of YBCO, BN, graphite and Si in vacuum and background gases. The implementation and advantages of the four techniques are first described in order to introduce the key features of laser plasmas for pulsed laser deposition. Aspects of the interaction of the ablation plume with background gases (i.e., thermalization, attenuation, shock formation) and the collision of the plasma plume with the substrate heater are then summarized. The techniques of fast ICCD photography and gated photon counting are then applied to investigate the temperature, velocity, and spatial distribution of hot particles generated during KrF ablation of YBCO, BN, Si and graphite. Finally, key features of fast imaging of the laser ablation of graphite into high pressure rare gases are presented in order to elucidate internal reflected shocks within the plume, redeposition of material on a surface, and formation of hot nanoparticles within the plume.

  16. Excimer laser annealing to fabricate low cost solar cells. Quarterly technical report No. 1, 26 March-30 June 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    The objective of this research is to show whether or not pulsed excimer laser annealing (PELA) of ion-implanted junctions is a cost effective replacement for diffused junctions in fabricating crystalline silicon solar cells. The preliminary economic analysis completed during the first quarter of this program shows that the use of PELA to fabricate both the front junction and back surface field (BSF) would cost approximately 35 cents per peak watt (Wp), compared to a cost of 15 cents/Wp for diffusion, aluminum BSF and an extra cleaning step in the baseline process described by JPL. The cost advantage of the PELA process depends on improving the average cell efficiency from 14% to 16%, which would lower the overall cost of the module by about 15 cents/Wp. The technical goal of this research is to develop an optimized PELA process compatible with commercial production, and to demonstrate increased cell efficiency with sufficient product for adequate statistical analysis. During the first quarter of this program an excimer laser annealing station was set-up and made operational. The first experiment used 248 nm radiation to anneal phosphorus implants in polished and texture-etched silicon. Preliminary results showed that the PELA processed cells had overall efficiencies comparable to furnace annealed ion implanted controls, and that texture-etched material requires lower fluence for annealing than polished silicon. Process optimization will be carried out in the second quarter.

  17. Determination of flue gas alkali concentrations in fluidized-bed coal combustion by excimer-laser-induced fragmentation fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Hartinger, K.T.; Monkhouse, P.B.; Wolfrum, J.; Baumann, H.; Bonn, B.

    1994-12-31

    Gas-phase sodium concentrations were measured for the first time in situ in the flue gas of a fluidized-bed reactor by the excimer-laser-induced fragmentation fluorescence (ELIF) technique. This method involves using ArF-excimer laser light at 193 nm to simultaneously photodissociate the alkali compounds of interest and excite electronically the alkali atoms formed. The resulting fluorescence from Na (3{sup 2}P) atoms can he readily detected at 589 nm. Measured signals were converted to absolute concentrations using a calibration system that monitors alkali compounds under known conditions of temperature, pressure, and composition and rising the same optical setup as at the reactor. Several different coals were investigated under a specific set of reactor conditions at total pressures close to 1 bar. Sodium concentrations ranging from the sub-ppb region to 20 ppb were obtained, and a detection limit for sodium of 0.1 ppb under the present conditions was estimated. Over the course of the reactor program, contrasting concentration histories were observed for the two lignites and the hard coal investigated. In particular, significantly higher sodium concentrations were found for the hard coal, consistent with both the higher chlorine and sodium contents determined in the corresponding coal analysis.

  18. How predictable are the results of excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy? A review.

    PubMed

    Grosvenor, T

    1995-10-01

    At the close of 1994, the AOA News reported that at least 14 companies were preparing to market equipment for excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). More than a dozen PRK centers had been formed for the purpose of recruiting optometrists to co-manage PRK patients. Because the surgery is a "no-touch" computer-driven procedure whose duration is measured in seconds, the preoperative and postoperative care of PRK patients will assume major importance. Optometrists who will be asked to take part in the management of PRK patients must be able to counsel patients on matters such as the predictability of the procedure in terms of postoperative refractive error and visual acuity, as well as the possibility of unintended consequences such as difficulty in night driving. Information currently available, mainly as a result of studies conducted in other countries, shows that the results of PRK are highly predictable for preoperative myopia up to about -3.00 D and somewhat less predictable for myopia between -3.00 and -6.00 D, whereas for myopia greater than -6.00 D the probability of achieving a full correction decreases rapidly with increasing amounts of myopia. As compared to radial keratotomy (RK) in which the postoperative refractive error drifts relentlessly in the hyperopic direction, PRK brings about an initial hyperopic shift followed by regression leading to increasing myopia. Researchers disagree on the cause of the postoperative hyperopic shift and regression, and on the value of various methods of controlling regression including the use of wider and deeper ablation profiles and the postoperative use of corticosteroids and nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs. It is too early to determine whether the myopic creep in PRK will be as persistent as the hyperopic creep in RK, but it is likely that whereas presbyopic post-RK patients may have adequate distance vision but require corrective lenses for reading, presbyopic post-PRK patients may be sufficiently myopic

  19. Excimer lamp stereolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Saburoh; Tanaka, Takao; Ihara, Satoshi; Yamabe, Chobei

    2000-06-01

    For the laser stereo-lithography, a XeCl excimer lamp with cylindrical tube has been adopted to achieve a lower cost type UV light source. Because of excellent high output efficiency, it is possible to be down sizing of a power supplier and a lamp head and to be air-cooling. And moreover to extract the maximum output power and efficiency, we applied an optical fiber system for its lithography optics. With this excimer lamp the maximum UV emission per pulse 25 (mu) J at 100 Hz and the maximum average power 10 mW at 1000 Hz were obtained.

  20. Study on the surface chemical properties of UV excimer laser irradiated polyamide by XPS, ToF-SIMS and CFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yip, Joanne; Chan, Kwong; Sin, Kwan Moon; Lau, Kai Shui

    2003-01-01

    Polyamide (nylon 6) was irradiated by a pulsed ultraviolet (UV) excimer laser with a fluence below its ablation threshold. Chemical modifications on laser treated nylon were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (Tof-SIMS) and chemical force microscopy (CFM). XPS study provides information about changes in chemical composition and the chemical-state of atom types on the fiber surface. The high sensitivity of ToF-SIMS to the topmost layers was used to detect crosslinking after the laser treatment. Gold-coated AFM tips modified with COOH terminated self-assembled alkanethiol monolayers (SAMs) were used to measure adhesion forces on the untreated and laser treated samples. XPS results revealed that the irradiated samples have higher oxygen content than prior to laser irradiation. Tof-SIMS analysis illustrated that carbonyl groups in nylon 6 decrease significantly but hydroxyl groups increase after low-fluence laser irradiation. The adhesion force measurements by CFM showed spatial distribution of hydroxyl groups on nylon 6 after the laser treatment.

  1. AFM study of excimer laser patterning of block-copolymer: Creation of ordered hierarchical, hybrid, or recessed structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švanda, Jan; Siegel, Jakub; Švorčík, Vaclav; Lyutakov, Oleksiy

    2016-05-01

    We report fabrication of the varied range of hierarchical structures by combining bottom-up self-assembly of block copolymer poly(styrene-block-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) with top-down excimer laser patterning method. Different procedures were tested, where laser treatment was applied before phase separation and after phase separation or phase separation and surface reconstruction. Laser treatment was performed using either polarized laser light with the aim to create periodical pattern on polymer surface or non-polarized light for preferential removing of polystyrene (PS) part from PS-b-P4VP. Additionally, dye was introduced into one part of block copolymer (P4VP) with the aim to modify its response to laser light. Resulting structures were analyzed by XPS, UV-vis and AFM techniques. Application of polarized laser light leads to creation of structures with hierarchical, recessed or hybrid geometries. Non-polarized laser beam allows pronouncing the block copolymer phase separated structure. Tuning the order of steps or individual step conditions enables the efficient reorientation of block-copolymer domain at large scale, fabrication of hierarchical, hybrid or recessed structures. The obtained structures can find potential applications in nanotechnology, photonics, plasmonics, information storage, optical devices, sensors and smart surfaces.

  2. The influence of ArF excimer laser micromachining on physicochemical properties of bioresorbable poly(L-lactide)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepak, Bogusz D.; Antończak, Arkadiusz J.; Szustakiewicz, Konrad; Pezowicz, Celina; Abramski, Krzysztof M.

    2016-03-01

    The main advantage of laser processing is a non-contact character of material removal and high precision attainable thanks to low laser beam dimensions. This technique enables forming a complex, submillimeter geometrical shapes such as vascular stents which cannot be manufactured using traditional techniques e.g. injection moulding or mechanical treatment. In the domain of nanosecond laser sources, an ArF excimer laser appears as a good candidate for laser micromachining of bioresorbable polymers such as poly(L-lactide). Due to long pulse duration, however, there is a risk of heat diffusion and accumulation in the material. In addition, due to short wavelength (193 nm) photochemical process can modify the chemical composition of ablated surfaces. The motivation for this research was to evaluate the influence of laser micromachining on physicochemical properties of poly(L-lactide). We performed calorimetric analysis of laser machined samples by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It allowed us to find the optimal process parameters for heat affected zone (HAZ) reduction. The chemical composition of the ablated surface was investigated by FTIR in attenuated total reflectance (ATR) mode.

  3. Single pulse vibrational Raman scattering by a broadband KrF excimer laser in a hydrogen-air flame.

    PubMed

    Pitz, R W; Wehrmeyer, J A; Bowling, J M; Cheng, T S

    1990-05-20

    Spontaneous vibrational Raman scattering (VRS) is produced by a broadband excimer laser at 248 nm (KrF) in a H(2)-air flame and VRS spectra are recorded for lean, stoichiometric, and rich flames. Except at very lean flame conditions, laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) processes interfere with VRS Stokes lines from H(2), H(2)O, and O(2). No interference is found for the N(2) Stokes and N(2) anti-Stokes lines. In a stoichiometric H(2)/air flame, single-pulse measurements of N(2) concentration and temperature (by the VRS Stokes to anti-Stokes ratio) have relative standard deviation of 7.7 and 10%, respectively. These single pulse measurement errors compare well with photon statistics calculations using measured Raman cross sections. PMID:20563170

  4. An open label pilot study of supraerythemogenic excimer laser in combination with clobetasol spray and calcitriol ointment for the treatment of generalized plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Levin, Ethan; Nguyen, Catherine M; Danesh, Melissa J; Beroukhim, Kourosh; Leon, Argentina; Koo, John

    2016-06-01

    A common therapeutic modality for psoriasis includes the combination of phototherapy with topical treatments. The recent development of targeted phototherapy with the excimer laser and spray formulations for topical treatments has increased the efficacy and convenience of these combinational therapies. Herein, we aim to assess the efficacy of a novel combination of therapies using the 308 nm excimer laser, clobetasol propionate spray and calcitriol ointment for the treatment of moderate to severe generalized psoriasis. In this 12-week study, patients with moderate to severe psoriasis received twice weekly treatments with a 308-nm excimer laser combined with clobetasol proprionate twice daily for a month followed by calcitriol ointment twice daily for the next month. Of the 30 patients enrolled, 83% of patients (25/30) achieved PASI-75 [65-94%, 95% confidence interval (CI)] at week 12. For PGA, there was an estimated decrease of 3.6 points (3.1-4.1, 95% CI, p < 0.0005) by week 12. In conclusion, the combination of excimer laser with alternating clobetasol and calcitriol application has shown to be a promising combination of therapies for the treatment of moderate to severe generalized psoriasis. Further evaluation may be conducted with a larger study inclusive of control groups and head-to-head comparisons against topical steroid and UVB therapy as monotherapies. PMID:26329774

  5. Percutaneous coronary excimer laser angioplasty in patients with stable and unstable angina pectoris. Acute results and incidence of restenosis during 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Karsch, K R; Haase, K K; Voelker, W; Baumbach, A; Mauser, M; Seipel, L

    1990-06-01

    A clinical study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous coronary excimer laser angioplasty in 60 patients with coronary artery disease. Forty-nine patients had stable exertional angina, and 11 patients had unstable angina despite medical therapy. A novel 1.4-mm diameter catheter with 20 quartz fibers of 100-microns diameter each arranged concentrically around a central lumen suitable for a 0.014-in. flexible guide wire was coupled to an excimer laser. A commercial excimer laser emitting energy at a wavelength of 308 nm with a pulse duration of 60 nsec was used. The laser was operated at 20 Hz. Mean energy transmission was 30 +/- 5 mJ/mm2. In five of the 60 patients, laser angioplasty was not attempted. In 23 patients with laser ablation alone, percent stenosis decreased from 76 +/- 14% before to 27 +/- 17% after ablation and was 34 +/- 15% at the early follow-up angiogram. In 32 patients, additional balloon angioplasty was performed because of vessel closure after laser ablation in 11 and an insufficient qualitative result in 21 patients. Of the 11 patients with unstable angina, one patient died due to vessel closure 3 hours after intervention, and two patients developed a myocardial infarction. In 22 of 47 patients with late follow-up angiography, restenosis within the 6-month follow-up period occurred. Rate of restenosis was higher in patients treated with laser ablation and balloon angioplasty (16 of 28) than in patients treated with laser ablation alone (six of 19). These results suggest that coronary excimer laser angioplasty for ablation of obstructive lesions is feasible and safe in patients with stable angina. However, development of new catheter systems is necessary for an improved success rate. PMID:2344680

  6. Ablation of hard dental tissues with an ArF-pulsed excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neev, Joseph; Raney, Daniel; Whalen, William E.; Fujishige, Jack T.; Ho, Peter D.; McGrann, John V.; Berns, Michael W.

    1991-06-01

    The interaction of 15 ns pulses from an ArF excimer laser with hard dental tissue was investigated for the purpose of obtaining practical information on the ablation process. Dark field fast photography utilizing an auxiliary, 15 ns Nd:Yag laser 'probe', was used to study the ablation plume dynamics as a function of time, luminescence were studied at different fluence levels and prr. Dentin ablation was found to be about four times as efficient as ablation of enamel in the higher fluence levels tested (> 10 J/cm2) and about twice as efficient as the ablation in the lower fluence regime (approximately equals 1 J/cm2). The dentin etch depth per pulse was found to increase exponentially with fluence (at least up to the tested level of 11 J/cm2), while in enamel the etch depth per pulse appears to increase logarithmically with fluence. Dentin ablation yields a larger, more dense plume which can be ejected (depending on the fluence level) to a height of several millimeters above the surface with observed ejection velocity in access of 1200 m/s. The dentin plume consisted of a relatively uniform particle size distribution (0.1 micrometers to 10 micrometers in diameter). Enamel ablation, on the other hand, yields a smaller observed ejection velocities (about 800 m/s), and a much smaller plume of fine particles (about 0.1 micrometers in diameter) and gases, confined to within 0.5 mm of the surface. In addition, an even smaller amount of highly non-uniform debris, (from ten to several hundred micrometers in size) is observed to be ejected to higher levels, and reach roughly half the height of the corresponding dentin plume for similar fluence levels. Although both dentin and enamel yield lower ablation efficiencies at 1 Hz, no significant difference is detected between the ablation efficiency at 5 Hz and ablation 10 Hz prr. Both materials remained within 20 degree(s)C of room temperature even at fluences as high as 20 J/cm2 and prr as high as 10 Hz for enamel and 20 Hz for

  7. Species-resolved laser-probing investigations of the hydrodynamics of KrF excimer and copper vapor laser ablation processing of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventzek, Peter L. G.; Gilgenbach, Ronald M.; Ching, Chi H.; Lindley, R. A.

    1993-06-01

    Hydrodynamic phenomena from KrF excimer laser ablation (10-3-20 J/cm2) of polyimide, polyethyleneterephthalate, and aluminum are diagnosed by laser beam deflection, schlieren photography, shadowgraphy, laser-induced-fluorescence and dye-laser- resonance absorption photography (DLRAP). Experiments were performed in vacuum and gaseous environments (10-5 to 760 Torr). In vacuum, the DLRAP diagnostic shows species-resolved plume expansion which is consistent with that of a reflected rarefaction wave. Increasing the background gas pressure reveals the formation of sound/shock compared to CN in the laser-ablated polyimide (Vespel) plume/shock in inert (e.g. argon) and reactive (e.g. air) gases. At low pressures (less than 10 Torr) Al and CN species are in close contact with the shock front. As the pressure increases, the species front tends to recede, until at high pressures (over 200 Torr) the species are restrained to only a few mm above the target surface. After sufficient expansion, Al and CN are no longer detectable; only the shadowgraph of the hot gas plume remains. Since CN is observable in both inert and reactive environments, it can be concluded that CN is not a reaction product between the background gas and the ablated species. By way of comparison to excimer laser ablation processing of materials, copper vapor laser machined polyimide and polymethylmethacrylate (transparent to green and yellow copper vapor laser light) are also investigated. The two polymers are observed to have markedly different machined surfaces. Hydrodynamic effects for the copper vapor laser machined materials are investigated using HeNe laser beam deflection.

  8. Molecular design and synthesis of 3-oxocyclohexyl methacrylate for ArF and KrF excimer laser resist

    SciTech Connect

    Kozaki, Koji; Kaimoto, Yuko; Takahashi, Makoto

    1994-09-01

    The authors originally designed 3-oxocyclohexyl methacrylate (OCMA) for an acid-labile component in chemical amplification. The key concept of the molecular design of the 3-oxocyclohexyl substituent was the introduction of acidic protons at the {alpha}-position of the elimination site by using a ketone functional group. OCMA was synthesized by esterification of 1,3-cyclohexanediol and methacryloyl chloride followed by pyridinium dichromate oxidation. Using AIBN as an initiator, the authors also prepared poly(OCMA-co-AdMA) (AdMA: adamantyl methacrylate) by a thermally induced radical copolymerization of OCMA and AdMA. The resist comprises the copolymer and 10 wt % of triphenylsulfonium hexafluoroantimonate as a photoacid generator (PAG). This resist has high sensitivity, good thermal stability, good dry etch resistance, and good postexposure delay durability. Using a KrF excimer laser stepper (NA = 0.45) and 2-propanol mixed aqueous alkali developer, the authors obtained 0.3-{mu}m line and space patterns with this resist. A resist with 1 wt % of the PAG has an acceptable transmittance at 193 nm, proving that this resist is suitable for ArF excimer lithography. 29 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Excimer laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) under a corneal flap for myopia of 2 to 20 D.

    PubMed Central

    Salah, T; Waring, G O; el-Maghraby, A; Moadel, K; Grimm, S B

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We report the results of a recent technique of keratomileusis for myopia: excimer laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK). METHODS: We studied retrospectively 88 eyes of 63 patients that received LASIK with the Chiron Automated Corneal Shaper and the Summit OmniMed excimer laser under a hinged corneal flap without sutures. RESULTS: Mean follow-up was 5.2 months. Mean spherical equivalent of the manifest refraction before surgery was -8.24 diopters (D)(range -2.00 to -20.00 D). Mean spherical equivalent refraction after surgery was +0.22 D (SD, 1.42 D). Of 40 eyes with a baseline refraction from -2.00 to -6.00 D, 25 (63%) had a refraction within +/- 0.50 D and 37 eyes (93%) within +/-1.00 D. In 29 eyes with baseline refraction of -6.12 to -12.00 D, postoperative refraction was within +/-1.00 D in 19 (65%). In 19 eyes with baseline refraction of -12.10 to -20.00 D postoperative refraction was +/-1.00 D in 8 (43%). Overall, 64 of 88 eyes (72.8%) had a refraction within +/-1.00 D after surgery. Between three weeks and five months after surgery the change in the mean spherical equivalent refraction was -0.61 D in the myopic direction. Uncorrected visual acuity after surgery was 20/20 or better in 31 eyes (36%) and 20/40 or better in 61 eyes (71%). Three eyes (3.6%) lost two lines or more of spectacle corrected visual acuity, two from progressive myopic maculopathy and one from irregular astigmatism. No eyes had vision threatening complications. CONCLUSION: Excimer laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) under a corneal flap can be an effective method of reducing myopia between -2.00 to -20.00 D, with minimal complications. Current surgical algorithms need modification to improve predictability. Stability of refraction after surgery requires further study. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:8719677

  10. KrF- and ArF-excimer-laser-induced absorption in silica glasses produced by melting synthetic silica powder

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzuu, Nobu; Sasaki, Toshiya; Kojima, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Jun-ichiro; Nakamura, Takayuki; Horikoshi, Hideharu

    2013-07-07

    KrF- and ArF-excimer-laser-induced absorption of silica glasses produced by electric melting and flame fusion of synthetic silica powder were investigated. The growth of KrF-laser-induced absorption was more gradual than that of ArF-laser-induced absorption. Induced absorption spectra exhibited a peak at about 5.8 eV, of which the position and width differed slightly among samples and laser species. Widths of ArF-laser-induced absorption spectra were wider than those of KrF-laser-induced spectra. KrF-laser-induced absorption is reproducible by two Gaussian absorption bands peaking at 5.80 eV with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 0.62 eV and at 6.50 eV with FWHM of 0.74 eV. For reproduction of ArF-laser-induced absorption, Gaussian bands at 5.41 eV with FWHM of 0.62 eV was necessary in addition to components used for reproducing KrF-laser-induced absorption. Based on the discussion of the change of defect structures evaluated from change of absorption components, we proposed that the precursor of the 5.8-eV band ascribed to E Prime center ({identical_to}Si{center_dot}) is {identical_to}Si-H HO-Si{identical_to} structures formed by the reaction between strained Si-O-Si bonds and interstitial H{sub 2} molecules during the irradiation.

  11. Structural properties and impedance spectroscopy of excimer laser ablated Zr substituted BaTiO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, A. R.; Prakash, Chandra; Prasad, G.

    2006-04-01

    BaZr0.15Ti0.85O3 thin films were deposited on Pt-coated Si substrates using the pulsed excimer laser ablation technique. X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscope techniques were used to study the structural characteristics of the films. Films with good crystalline quality, with an average grain size of 0.5 µm were obtained, under various oxygen background pressures. Ferroelectric hysteresis loops recorded on the films deposited at 26.66 Pa oxygen pressure showed the best properties. To gain a further understanding of the electrical properties of these films, impedance spectroscopy was used and data acquired at several different temperatures. AC conductivity plots showed the presence of space charge conduction at low frequencies; however, at high frequencies, all the curves merged and expectedly showed an almost dc conduction behaviour. The activation energy obtained from ac conductivity data may be attributed to oxygen vacancy motion.

  12. High-performance p-channel polycrystalline-germanium thin-film transistors via excimer laser crystallization and counter doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Chan-Yu; Huang, Ching-Yu; Huang, Ming-Hui; Chou, Chia-Hsin; Cheng, Huang-Chung

    2016-04-01

    High-quality polycrystalline-germanium (poly-Ge) thin films have been successfully fabricated by excimer laser crystallization (ELC). Grains as large as 1 µm were achieved by ELC at 300 mJ/cm2. Meanwhile, the defect-generated hole concentrations in Ge thin films were significantly reduced. Furthermore, the majority carriers could then be converted to n-type by counter doping (CD) with a suitable dose. Then, high-performance p-channel Ge thin-film transistors (TFTs) with a high on/off current ratio of up to 1.7 × 103 and a high field-effect mobility of up to 208 cm2 V-1 s-1 were demonstrated for a channel width and length both of 0.5 µm. It was revealed that ELC combined with CD is effective for attaining high-performance p-channel poly-Ge TFTs.

  13. Short-wavelength stimulated raman scattering in a silica fiber pumped by an XeBr excimer laser

    SciTech Connect

    Mizunami, T.; Takagi, K.

    1989-08-01

    A UV-grade silica optical fiber was pumped by a 281.8 nm XeBr excimer laser. The first Stokes spectrum was observed at 285 nm. The spectral width was one half of that of the spontaneous Raman spectrum. A numerical analysis of stimulated Raman scattering which includes two-photon absorption loss is presented. The Raman-gain coefficient was determined by the analysis of observed nonlinearity in Stokes output and was found to be 1.8 x 10/sup -5/ cm/MW. It was also shown that two-photon absorption is a more important loss factor than linear attenuation. The shortest limit of wavelength for amplification by stimulated Raman scattering is also discussed.

  14. A novel approach to pseudopodia proteomics: excimer laser etching, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis, and confocal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mimae, Takahiro; Ito, Akihiko; Hagiyama, Man; Nakanishi, Jun; Hosokawa, Yoichiroh; Okada, Morihito; Murakami, Yoshinori; Kondo, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    Pseudopodia are actin-rich ventral cellular protrusions shown to facilitate the migration and metastasis of tumor cells. Here, we present a novel approach to perform pseudopodia proteomics. Tumor cells growing on porous membranes extend pseudopodia into the membrane pores. In our method, cell bodies are removed by horizontal ablation at the basal cell surface with the excimer laser while pseudopodia are left in the membrane pores. For protein expression profiling, whole cell and pseudopodia proteins are extracted with a lysis buffer, labeled with highly sensitive fluorescent dyes, and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Proteins with unique expression patterns in pseudopodia are identified by mass spectrometry. The effects of the identified proteins on pseudopodia formation are evaluated by measuring the pseudopodia length in cancer cells with genetically modified expression of target proteins using confocal imaging. This protocol allows global identification of pseudopodia proteins and evaluation of their functional significance in pseudopodia formation within one month. PMID:25309719

  15. Electronic and crystalline structure of Si/SiO 2 interface modified by ArF excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cháb, V.; Lukeš, I.; Ondřejček, M.; Jiříček, P.

    The native oxide layers on Si(100) surface were irradiated under UHV conditions by an ArF excimer laser pulses with energy density varied between melting and evaporating thresholds. The resulting changes were studied by LEED, AES and UPS. The increase of the energy density up to evaporation threshold results in the recrystallisation of native oxide layer. The pulses with energy densities just above the evaporation threshold ablate the top layer leaving an ordered and atomicaly clean surface. The observed (1x1) surface reconstruction is probably stabilised by strains introduced during rapid melting and quenching of the topmost layers. The surface electronic structure is dominated by random satisfaction of dangling bonds swearing a well defined surface states observed on (2x1)Si(100) surface.

  16. Magnetic and crystallographic properties of Co-Cr-(Ta,Pt)/Cr films deposited by excimer laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, A.; Tanahashi, K.; Yahisa, Y.; Hosoe, Y.; Shiroishi, Y.

    1994-05-01

    The crystal structure and magnetic properties of Co-alloy films deposited by KrF excimer laser ablation were investigated. A pulsed laser beam with wavelength of 248 nm was focused onto the deposition targets which were fixed in the vacuum chamber. Cr underlayer and Co-alloy films were successively deposited at a rate of 0.012 nm/pulse. The film surface was microscopically smooth compared to the sputtered films. This may be due to the low shadowing effect during the laser deposition. The composition of the film was reproducibly controlled, though there was a slight difference between the composition of film and target material. The coercivities of Co-Cr-Pt/Cr films formed on the Si and Ni-P substrates at 250 °C were 130 and 220 Oe, which were about one-fifth of the coercivity of sputtered films. Crystallographic analyses showed that Cr underlayer had no crystal orientation, and Co-alloy film consisted of fine fcc-type crystal grains. Low coercivity of the laser-deposited film is probably due to the lack of hcp Co phase.

  17. Surface studies on benzophenone doped PDMS microstructures fabricated using KrF excimer laser direct write lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kant, Madhushree Bute; Shinde, Shashikant D.; Bodas, Dhananjay; Patil, K. R.; Sathe, V. G.; Adhi, K. P.; Gosavi, S. W.

    2014-09-01

    This paper discusses microfabrication process for benzophenone doped polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using laser lithography. KrF excimer laser of 248 nm with 20 ns pulse width at repetition rate of 1 Hz was used for microfabrication of undoped and benzophenone doped PDMS. The doped-PDMS shows sensitivity below 365 nm, permitting processing under ambient light. The analysis of etch depth revealed that doped PDMS shows self developable sensitivity at lower fluence of ∼250 mJ/cm2. The unexposed and exposed surface was studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Spectrocopic analysis indicated increase in Csbnd O, Cdbnd O, Sisbnd O3 and Sisbnd O4 bonding at the expense of Sisbnd C and Sisbnd O2 bonds of PDMS. In case of laser exposed doped-PDMS, removal of benzophenone from probe depth of spectroscopy was observed. Whereas the surface morphology of exposed and unexposed doped-PDMS was observed to be same, indicating clean development of PDMS micropatterns. The present study indicates that addition of 3.0 wt.% benzophenone in PDMS enhance self development sensitivity of PDMS. The self developable results on doped-PDMS are quite encouraging for its potential use in point of care Lab-On-Chip applications, for fabricating micropatterns using direct write laser lithography technology.

  18. Electron collisions with cesium atoms - benchmark calculations and application to modeling an excimer-pumped alkali laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatsarinny, Oleg; Bartschat, Klaus; Babaeva, Natalia; Kushner, Mark

    2014-10-01

    The B-spline R-matrix (BSR) with pseudostates method was employed to describe electron collisions with cesium atoms. Over 300 states were kept in the close-coupling expansion, including a large number of pseudostates to model the effect of the Rydberg spectrum and the ionization continuum on the results for transitions between the discrete physical states of interest. Predictions for elastic scattering, excitation, and ionization for incident energies up to 200 eV are presented and compared to previous results [2,3] and experimental data. Our data were used to model plasma formation in the excimer-pumped alkali laser, XPAL, operating on the Cs (62P3 / 2 , 1 / 2 --> (62S1 / 2) (852nm and 894nm) transitions. At sufficiently high operating temperature, pump power, and repetition rate, plasma formation in excess of 1014--1015cm-3 occurs. This may reduce laser output power by electron collisional mixing of the upper and lower laser levels. Work supported by the NSF under PHY-1068140, PHY-1212450, and the XSEDE allocation PHY-090031 (OZ, KB), and by the DoD High Energy Laser Multidisciplinary Research Initiative (NYB, MJK).

  19. 157 nm Pellicles (Thin Films) for Photolithography: Mechanistic Investigation of the VUV and UV-C Photolysis of Fluorocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kwangjoo; Jockusch, Steffen; Turro, Nicholas J.; French, Roger H.; Wheland, Robert C.; Lemon, M F.; Braun, Andre M.; Widerschpan, Tatjana; Dixon, David A.; Li, Jun; Ivan, Marius; Zimmerman, Paul

    2005-06-15

    The use of 157 nm as the next lower wavelength for photolithography for the production of semiconductors has created a need for transparent and radiation-durable polymers for use in soft pellicles, the polymer films which protect the chip from particle deposition. The most promising materials for pellicles are fluorinated polymers, but currently available fluorinated polymers undergo photodegradation and/or photodarkening upon long term exposure to 157 nm irradiation. To understand the mechanism of the photodegradation and photodarkening of fluorinated polymers, mechanistic studies on the photolysis of liquid model fluorocarbons, including perfluorobutylethyl ether and perfluoro-2 H-3-oxa-heptane, were performed employing UV, NMR, FTIR, GC, and GC/MS analyses. All hydrogen-containing compounds showed decreased photostability compared to the fully perfluorinated compounds. Irradiation in the presence of atmospheric oxygen showed reduced photostability compared to deoxygenated samples. Photolysis of the samples was performed at 157, 172, 185, and 254 nm and showed only minor wavelength dependence. Mechanisms for photodegradation of the fluorocarbons are proposed, which involve Rydberg excited states. Time-dependent density functional theory has been used to predict the excitation spectra of model compounds.

  20. Rapid fabrication of rigid biodegradable scaffolds by excimer laser mask projection technique: a comparison between 248 and 308 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beke, S.; Anjum, F.; Ceseracciu, L.; Romano, I.; Athanassiou, A.; Diaspro, A.; Brandi, F.

    2013-03-01

    High-resolution photocrosslinking of the biodegradable poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) and diethyl fumarate (DEF), using pulsed laser light at 248 and 308 nm is presented. The curing depth can be modulated between a few hundreds of nm and a few μm when using 248 nm and ten to a hundred μm when using 308 nm. By adjusting the total fluence (pulse numbers×laser fluence) dose and the weight ratios of PPF, DEF, and the photoinitiator in the photocrosslinkable mixtures, the height of polymerized structures can be precisely tuned. The lateral resolution is evaluated by projecting a pattern of a grid with a specified line width and line spacing. Young’s modulus of the cured parts is measured and found to be several GPa for both wavelengths, high enough to support bone formation. Several 2D and 2.5D microstructures, as well as porous 3D scaffolds fabricated by a layer-by-layer method, are presented. The results demonstrate that excimer laser-based photocuring is suitable for the fabrication of stiff and biocompatible structures with defined patterns of micrometer resolution in all three spatial dimensions.

  1. Electron collisions with cesium atoms—benchmark calculations and application to modeling an excimer-pumped alkali laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatsarinny, Oleg; Bartschat, Klaus; Babaeva, Natalia Yu; Kushner, Mark J.

    2014-06-01

    The B-spline R-matrix (BSR) with pseudostates method is employed to describe electron collisions with cesium atoms. Over 300 states are kept in the close-coupling expansion, including a large number of pseudostates to model the effect of the Rydberg spectrum and, most importantly, the ionization continuum on the results for transitions between the discrete physical states of interest. Predictions for elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitation and ionization are presented for incident energies up to 200 eV and compared with results from previous calculations and available experimental data. In a second step, the results are used to model plasma formation in an excimer-pumped alkali laser operating on the Cs (62P3/2,1/2 → 62S1/2) (852 nm and 894 nm) transitions. At sufficiently high operating temperature of a Cs-Ar containing quartz cell, pump power, and repetition rate, plasma formation in excess of 1014-1015 cm-3 occurs. This may reduce laser output power by electron collisional mixing of the upper and lower laser levels.

  2. Stimulated Raman scattering in lead vapor heat pipe for tunable and narrow-linewidth XeCl excimer laser

    SciTech Connect

    Rieger, H.

    1989-05-01

    Narrow-linewidth and high-efficiency conversion of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in a lead vapor heat pipe was observed using a narrow-linewidth and injection-locked XeCl excimer laser system as the pump source. The XeCl laser was continuously tuned over its entire B-X gain curve, from the (0-0) transition to the (0-3) transition, giving it a range of 0.8 nm (307.65-308.45 nm). The laser linewidth was narrowed down to 0.002 A (0.02 cm/sup -1/). The output energy was 310 mJ/pulse, with a repetition rate up to 50 pps and good beam quality. A lead vapor heat pipe operating at 1225/sup 0/C was used as a single-pass stimulated Raman converter, shifting the radiation from 308 to 459 nm. Photon conversion efficiency as high as 80 percent was achieved, using a pump linewidth of 0.01 A.

  3. Topography and raytracing analysis of patients with excellent visual acuity 3 months after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy for myopia.

    PubMed

    Maguire, L J; Zabel, R W; Parker, P; Lindstrom, R L

    1991-01-01

    We performed topography and raytracing analysis 3 months after surgery on five consecutive eyes of five patients, which had excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy for myopia. Three of the five eyes had uncorrected postoperative visual acuity of 20/20 or better. Two eyes had an uncorrected vision of 20/40. In three of five eyes, the area of excimer ablation was centered within 1.0 mm of the optical axis. Three other eyes showed decentration that ranged from 1.1 to 1.5 mm. The range of surface power seen within 2 mm of the central keratoscope ring was as follows: patient CK = 37.50 to 39.50 diopters; patient CA = 40.50 D to 44.80 D; patient CW = 37.90 D to 42.20 D; patient AC = 35.50 D to 39.00 D; patient DT = 34.50 D to 41.40 D. Topography patterns differed from eye to eye. A raytracing program modeled refraction of 20/80 and 20/20 "E" of 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5% and 6.25% contrast through all measured points on the central 10 keratoscope rings of the five postoperative corneas. The five computer-derived images were ranked subjectively according to the observed degree of image degradation by three observers. Two eyes showed discernible 20/20 E's even at the 12.5% contrast level. Little to no ghost image was seen. Two eyes showed degraded but discernible 20/20 letters at higher levels of contrast only. These eyes showed moderate ghost images that were most apparent in the high-contrast 20/80 letters. One eye showed poor resolution of the 100% contrast 20/20 letter and moderately severe ghost images.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2043557

  4. Development of a Silicon Based Electron Beam Transmission Window for Use in a KrF Excimer Laser System

    SciTech Connect

    C.A. Gentile; H.M. Fan; J.W. Hartfield; R.J. Hawryluk; F. Hegeler; P.J. Heitzenroeder; C.H. Jun; L.P. Ku; P.H. LaMarche; M.C. Myers; J.J. Parker; R.F. Parsells; M. Payen; S. Raftopoulos; J.D. Sethian

    2002-11-21

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), in collaboration with the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), is currently investigating various novel materials (single crystal silicon, <100>, <110> and <111>) for use as electron-beam transmission windows in a KrF excimer laser system. The primary function of the window is to isolate the active medium (excimer gas) from the excitation mechanism (field-emission diodes). Chosen window geometry must accommodate electron energy transfer greater than 80% (750 keV), while maintaining structural integrity during mechanical load (1.3 to 2.0 atm base pressure differential, approximate 0.5 atm cyclic pressure amplitude, 5 Hz repetition rate) and thermal load across the entire hibachi area (approximate 0.9 W {center_dot} cm superscript ''-2''). In addition, the window must be chemically resistant to attack by fluorine free-radicals (hydrofluoric acid, secondary). In accordance with these structural, functional, and operational parameters, a 22.4 mm square silicon prototype window, coated with 500 nm thin-film silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), has been fabricated. The window consists of 81 square panes with a thickness of 0.019 mm {+-} 0.001 mm. Stiffened (orthogonal) sections are 0.065 mm in width and 0.500 mm thick (approximate). Appended drawing (Figure 1) depicts the window configuration. Assessment of silicon (and silicon nitride) material properties and CAD modeling and analysis of the window design suggest that silicon may be a viable solution to inherent parameters and constraints.

  5. A New Approach of Polycrystalline Silicon Film on Plastic Substrate Prepared by Ion Beam Deposition Followed by Excimer Laser Crystallization at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jang Yeon; Lim, Hyuck; Park, Kyung Bae; Jung, Ji Sim; Kim, Do Young; Cho, Hans S.; Kim, Seok Pil; Park, Young Soo; Kim, Jong Man; Noguchi, Takashi

    2006-05-01

    In this work, we propose a new polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) film of large grain for thin film transistor on flexible substrate. Thin films of amorphous silicon were deposited on plastic substrate by using ion beam deposition (IBD) and crystallized by excimer laser annealing. The entire process was carried out at room temperature. Si film formed by IBD has much lower impurity such as Ar, O, and H than that deposited by conventional sputtering method. This high purity of Si film makes large grain size (0.5 μm) and shows high endurance of excimer laser energy both on quartz and plastic substrate for flexible active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED).

  6. The acute phase of inflammatory response involved in the wound-healing process after excimer laser treatment

    PubMed Central

    Resan, Mirko; Vukosavljevic, Miroslav; Vojvodic, Danilo; Pajic-Eggspuehler, Brigitte; Pajic, Bojan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the participation of proinflammatory cytokines in the acute phase of corneal wound-healing response after excimer laser treatment. Methods The study included 68 myopic eyes up to −3.0 diopters divided into two groups: 1) eyes treated with laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) (n=31) and 2) eyes treated with photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) (n=37). Each group was then divided into three subgroups based on tear sampling times: before (0 hours), 1 hour after, and 24 hours after treatment. The tear fluid was sampled from lower lateral tear meniscus using a cellulose microsurgical sponge. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 in tear fluid were determined by flow cytometry method. Results Statistical significance was observed in the concentrations of TNF-α (P=0.0421) and IL-1β (P=0.0225) between samples collected 1 and 24 hours after PRK treatment in favor of samples collected 1 hour after treatment. IL-6 concentration changes showed a significant increase in the PRK group in both time intervals following treatment compared to pretreatment (0 hour/1 hour, P=0.0031; 0 hour/24 hours, P=0.0059). For IL-8 concentrations, significant differences were observed between control and experimental groups in samples collected 1 hour after LASIK and 1 hour after PRK treatment (P<0.001 for both groups), and IL-8 concentrations between control and experimental groups in samples collected 24 hours after LASIK and 24 hours after PRK treatment were greater after PRK treatment (P=0.0005). Comparison of average concentration values of proinflammatory cytokines in all the tested samples between LASIK and PRK groups showed significantly higher levels of IL-1β in the LASIK group 24 hours after treatment (P=0.0134), and of IL-6 in the PRK group 24 hours after treatment (P=0.0031). Conclusion The acute phase of corneal wound healing after excimer laser treatment is defined by an intensive inflammatory response. After PRK

  7. Applying low-energy multipulse excimer laser annealing to improve charge retention of Au nanocrystals embedded MOS capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Kuan-Yuan; Chen, Hung-Ming; Liao, Ting-Wei; Kuan, Chieh-Hsiung

    2015-02-01

    The low-energy multipulse excimer laser annealing (LEM-ELA) is proposed to anneal the nanostructure of nanocrystal (NC) embedded in a SiO2 thin film without causing atomic diffusion and damaging the NCs, since the LEM-ELA combining the advantages of laser annealing and UV curing features rapid heating and increasing oxide network connectivity. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) characterization of SiO2 thin films annealed using LEM-ELA indicated that the quality was improved through the removal of water-related impurities and the reconstruction of the network Si-O-Si bonds. Then, LEM-ELA was applied to a SiO2 thin film embedded with Au NCs, which were fabricated as MOS capacitors. The charge retention was greatly improved and the percentage of retained charges was about 10% after 3  ×  108 s. To investigate and differentiate the effects of LEM-ELA on charges stored in both oxide traps and in the Au NCs, a double-mechanism charge relaxation analysis was performed. The results indicated that the oxide traps were removed and the confinement ability of Au NCs was enhanced. The separated memory windows contributed from the charges in Au NCs and those in oxide traps were obtained and further confirmed that the LEM-ELA removed oxide traps without damaging the Au NCs.

  8. Plasma characterization and room temperature growth of carbon nanotubes and nano-onions by excimer laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, G.; Adams, P. M.; Bernstein, L. S.

    2007-07-01

    The deposition of carbon nanotubes and carbon nano-onions at room temperature using excimer laser radiation to ablate mixed graphite-metal targets is described. Our deposition conditions are in contrast to other investigations on the pulsed laser deposition of carbon nanotubes that have employed high temperatures and high pressures. We find that the formation of these carbon nanostructures is dependent on the ambient gas employed during ablation. In the presence of O 2 gas, carbon nanotubes and nano-onions are produced, while inert atmospheres such as Ar yield amorphous carbon. High-resolution, in situ, time-resolved emission spectroscopy has been used to track the evolution of species (C 2, C 3, Ni/Co) in the ablation plume. Spectral fits on low and high-resolution spectra reveal that the vibrational-rotational temperatures for C 2 produced in O 2 remain at ˜5000 K for nearly 20 μs but drop rapidly in Ar. Details of the formation of carbon nanotubes and nano-onions, and in situ time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy are described.

  9. Cost-effective SU-8 micro-structures by DUV excimer laser lithography for label-free biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanza, F. J.; Laguna, M. F.; Casquel, R.; Holgado, M.; Barrios, C. A.; Ortega, F. J.; López-Romero, D.; García-Ballesteros, J. J.; Bañuls, M. J.; Maquieira, A.; Puchades, R.

    2011-04-01

    Cost-effective SU-8 micro-structures on a silicon substrate were developed using 248 nm excimer laser KrF projection, studying the influence of the different variables on the final pattern geometry, finding out that the most critical are exposure dose and post-bake condition. Also a novel and cost effective type of photomask based on commercial polyimide Kapton produced by 355 nm DPSS laser microprocessing was developed, studying the influence of the cutting conditions on the photomask. Finally, as a likely application the biosensing capability with a standard BSA/antiBSA immunoassay over a 10 × 10 micro-plates square lattice of around 10 μm in diameter, 15 μm of spacing and 400 nm in height was demonstrated, finding a limit of detection (LOD) of 33.4 ng/ml which is in the order of magnitude of bioapplications such as detection of cortisol hormone or insulin-like growth factor. Low cost fabrication and vertical interrogation characterization techniques lead to a promising future in the biosensing technology field.

  10. Enhanced electrical and optical properties of room temperature deposited Aluminium doped Zinc Oxide (AZO) thin films by excimer laser annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El hamali, S. O.; Cranton, W. M.; Kalfagiannis, N.; Hou, X.; Ranson, R.; Koutsogeorgis, D. C.

    2016-05-01

    High quality transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) often require a high thermal budget fabrication process. In this study, Excimer Laser Annealing (ELA) at a wavelength of 248 nm has been explored as a processing mechanism to facilitate low thermal budget fabrication of high quality aluminium doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films. 180 nm thick AZO films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature on fused silica substrates. The effects of the applied RF power and the sputtering pressure on the outcome of ELA at different laser energy densities and number of pulses have been investigated. AZO films deposited with no intentional heating at 180 W, and at 2 mTorr of 0.2% oxygen in argon were selected as the optimum as-deposited films in this work, with a resistivity of 1×10-3 Ω.cm, and an average visible transmission of 85%. ELA was found to result in noticeably reduced resistivity of 5×10-4 Ω.cm, and enhancing the average visible transmission to 90% when AZO is processed with 5 pulses at 125 mJ/cm2. Therefore, the combination of RF magnetron sputtering and ELA, both low thermal budget and scalable techniques, can provide a viable fabrication route of high quality AZO films for use as transparent electrodes.

  11. A novel microsurgery method for intact plant tissue at the single cell level using ArF excimer laser microprojection.

    PubMed

    Kajiyama, Shin'ichiro; Shoji, Takeshi; Okuda, Shinya; Izumi, Yoshihiro; Fukusaki, Ei-ichiro; Kobayashi, Akio

    2006-02-01

    A novel microsurgery technique for the partial removal of rigid cell-walls in intact plant tissue is established. Using a size-variable slit, an ArF excimer laser was microprojected on the surface of the targeted cell, and this method enabled the area- and depth-controllable processing of the cortical structure of plant cells including the cuticle and cell wall layer. In epidermal cells of all tested plants, viabilities of more than 90% were retained 24 h after irradiation. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation revealed that the cuticle layer of the irradiated region was completely ablated, and the cellulose microfibrils of the secondary cell wall were partially removed; furthermore, 4 days after laser treatment, the regeneration of cell wall fibrils was observed. As a model experiment, the transient expression of synthetic green fluorescent protein (sGFP) was performed by the microinjection of cauliflower mosaic virus (CMV) 35S promoter-derived sGFP gene through an "aperture" in the treated cell surface. Moreover, micron-sized fluorescent beads were successfully introduced by the same method into the onion cells indicating that this method can be used to introduce foreign materials as large as organelles. PMID:16193516

  12. Thermodynamic measurements in a high pressure hydrogen-oxygen flame using Raman scattering from a broadband excimer laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartfield, Roy, Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Raman scattering is an inelastic molecular scattering process in which incident radiation is reemitted at a fixed change in frequency. Raman spectroscopy can be used to measure the number density and temperature of the irradiated species. The strength of the Raman signal is inversely proportional to the wavelength raised to the fourth power. Consequently, high signal to noise ratios are obtained by using ultraviolet (UV) excitation sources. Using UV sources for Raman Spectroscopy in flames is complicated by the fact that some of the primary constituents in hydrogen-oxygen combustion absorb and reemit light in the UV and these fluorescence processes interfere with the Raman signals. This problem has been handled in atmospheric pressure flames in some instances by using a narrowband tunable excimer laser as a source. This allows for detuning from absorption transitions and the elimination of interfering fluorescence signals at the Raman wavelengths. This approach works well in the atmospheric pressure flame; however, it has two important disadvantages. First, injection-locked narrowband tunable excimer lasers are very expensive. More importantly, however, is the fact that at the high pressures characteristic of rocket engine combustion chambers, the absorption transitions are broadened making it difficult to tune to a spectral location at which substantial absorption would not occur. The approach taken in this work is to separate the Raman signal from the fluorescence background by taking advantage of the fact that Raman signal has nonisotropic polarization characteristics while the fluorescence signals are unpolarized. Specifically, for scattering at right angles to the excitation beam path, the Raman signal is completely polarized. The Raman signal is separated from the fluorescence background by collecting both horizontally and vertically polarized signals separately. One of the polarizations has both the Raman signal and the fluorescence background while the

  13. Absorption of 308-nm excimer laser radiation by balanced salt solution, sodium hyaluronate, and human cadaver eyes

    SciTech Connect

    Keates, R.H.; Bloom, R.T.; Schneider, R.T.; Ren, Q.; Sohl, J.; Viscardi, J.J. )

    1990-11-01

    Absorption of the excimer laser radiations of 193-nm argon fluorine and 308-nm xenon chloride in balanced salt solution, sodium hyaluronate, and human cadaver eyes was measured. The absorption of these materials as considerably different for the two wavelengths; we found that 308-nm light experienced much less absorption than the 193-nm light. The extinction coefficient (k) for 308 nm was k = 0.19/cm for balanced salt solution and k = 0.22/cm for sodium hyaluronate. In contrast to this, the extinction coefficient for 193 nm was k = 140/cm for balanced salt solution and k = 540/cm for sodium hyaluronate. Two 1-day-old human phakic cadaver eyes showed complete absorption with both wavelengths. Using aphakic eyes, incomplete absorption was noted at the posterior pole with 308 nm and complete absorption was noted with 193 nm. The extinction in the anterior part of aphakic eyes (the first 6 mm) was 4.2/cm for 308 nm, meaning that the intensity of the light is reduced by a factor of 10 after traveling the first 5.5 mm. However, we observed that the material in the eye fluoresces, meaning the 308 nm is transformed into other (longer) wavelengths that travel through the total eye with minimal absorption. Conclusions drawn from this experiment are that the use of the 308-nm wavelength may have undesirable side effects, while the use of the 193-nm wavelength should be consistent with ophthalmic use on both the cornea and the lens.

  14. Excimer laser annealing to fabricate low cost solar cells. Quarterly technical report No. 2, 1 July-30 September 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    The objective of this research is to determine whether or not pulsed excimer laser annealing (PELA) of ion-implanted junctions is a cost effective replacement for diffused junctions of crystalline silicon solar cells. The preliminary economic analysis completed during the first quarter of this program showed that the use of ion implantation and PELA to fabricate both the front junction and back surface field (BSF) would cost approximately 35 cents per peak watt (Wp), compared to a cost of 15 cents/Wp for a hypothetical baseline diffusion process that it is assumed to yield cells with an average efficiency of 14%. A cost advantage may be attained, however, if the implant-PELA process yields an improvement in the average cell efficiency from 14 to 16%; this improvement would lower the overall cost of the module by about 15 cents/Wp. The technical goal of this research is to develop an optimized PELA process compatible with commercial production, and to demonstrate increased cell efficiency with sufficient product for adequate statistical analysis. During the second quarter of this program, it was shown that the laser chosen for this work, operating with an output power of 50 watts, demonstrated sufficient processing speed for commercial production. Also during this time period, the PELA process was optimized for annealing phosphorus implants in polished p-type silicon wafers. The best solar cell obtained in this way had an efficiency of 10.5% at AM1 illumination withour AR coating. This efficiency is equal to that of co-processed furnace annealed ion-implanted controls. Work planned during the next quarter includes optimization of the PELA process parameters for use with screen printed contacts, optimization of the PELA process for use with texture-etched material, and development of a set of parameters to anneal boron or boron-trifluoride implants.

  15. [In vitro studies of shock wave effects during ablation of normal and atherosclerotic vascular wall by excimer laser].

    PubMed

    Haase, K K; Hanke, H; Baumbach, A; Wehrmann, M; Rose, C; Karsch, K R

    1993-02-01

    Ablation of atherosclerotic plaque and normal arterial wall was performed using a xenon-chloride-excimer laser with a wavelength of 308 nm and a pulse duration of 115 ns. The light was transmitted via a 600 micron fiber and adjusted to an energy density of 3.5 J/cm2. The acoustic signals generated by the laser pulse were measured with hydrophones consisting of polyvinylidenefluoride with active diameters of 0.3 mm and recorded on a dual-channel digital storage oscilloscope using either a 0.5 m coaxial cable or a broadband transmission system. From 19 cadavers human aortic tissue segments were excised and macroscopically classified as either normal or calcified atherosclerotic plaque. Approximately 500 measurements were performed in saline and blood each. Histological analysis was carried out after the experiments to verify the macroscopic diagnosis and to correlate the acoustic responses with the tissue characteristics. For "normal" arterial segments, maximum peak pressure was 1.25 MPa +/- 0.85 MPa, rise time 163 ns +/- 43 ns, and pressure increase 8.2 kPa +/- 5.4 kPa/ns in saline. For calcified, atheromatous segments a significantly higher maximum pressure (2.20 MPa +/- 1.16 MPa), a significantly shorter rise time (69.9 ns +/- 25.8 ns), and a significantly higher pressure increase (32.3 kPa +/- 21.3 kPa/ns) was found in saline (p < or = 0.0001). In blood, maximum peak pressure was 1.29 MPa +/- 0.43 MPa, rise time 93.3 ns +/- 27.7 ns, and pressure increase 14.6 kPa +/- 5.2 kPa/ns for "normal" arterial segments. Maximum peak pressure (2.28 MPa +/- 0.63 MPa) and pressure increase (32.8 kPa +/- Pa/ns) were significantly higher for calcified tissue segments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8465570

  16. Selective area in situ conversion of Si (0 0 1) hydrophobic to hydrophilic surface by excimer laser irradiation in hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Neng; Huang, Xiaohuan; Dubowski, Jan J.

    2014-09-01

    We report on a method of rapid conversion of a hydrophobic to hydrophilic state of an Si (0 0 1) surface irradiated with a relatively low number of pulses of an excimer laser. Hydrophilic Si (0 0 1), characterized by the surface contact angle (CA) of near 15°, is fabricated following irradiation with either KrF or ArF excimer lasers of hydrophobic samples (CA ˜ 75°) immersed in a 0.01% H2O2/H2O solution. The chemical and structural analysis carried with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy measurements confirmed the formation of OH-terminated Si (0 0 1) surface with no detectable change in the surface morphology of the laser-irradiated material. To investigate the efficiency of this laser-induced hydrophilization process, we demonstrate a selective area immobilization of biotin-conjugated fluorescein-stained nanospheres outside of the laser-irradiated area. The results demonstrate the potential of the method for the fabrication of biosensing architectures and advancements of the Si-based microfluidic device technology.

  17. O({sup 3}P{sub J}) formation and desorption by 157-nm photoirradiation of amorphous solid water

    SciTech Connect

    DeSimone, Alice J.; Orlando, Thomas M.

    2014-03-07

    Photodissociation of amorphous solid water (ASW) deposited on a thinly oxidized copper substrate at 82 K was studied by measuring O({sup 3}P{sub J=2,1,0}) photoproducts detected with resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization. For each spin-orbit state, the oxygen atom time-of-flight spectrum was measured as a function of H{sub 2}O exposure, which is related to ice thickness, and 157-nm irradiation time. Four Maxwell-Boltzmann distributions with translational temperatures of 10 000 K, 1800 K, 400 K, and 82 K were found to fit the data. The most likely formation mechanisms are molecular elimination following ionization of water and ion-electron recombination, secondary recombination of hydroxyl radicals, and photodissociation of adsorbed hydroxyl radicals. Evidence for O-atom diffusion through bulk ASW was found for H{sub 2}O exposures of at least 5 Langmuir (1 L = 10{sup −6} Torr s). The cross sections for O({sup 3}P{sub 2}) depletion were 1.3 × 10{sup −19} and 6.5 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2} for 1 and 5 L, respectively.

  18. Pulsed excimer laser processing for cost-effective solar cells. Quarterly report No. 1, May-July 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this contract is to develop a solar cell process sequence that incorporates three process steps which use pulsed excimer lasers, to verify that this sequence yields high efficiency cells at a low cost, and to document the feasibility of carrying this technology from the laboratory bench scale to factory size. The three process steps are: junction formation, surface passivation, and front metallization. The effort is to take place during a one-year period. During this reporting period, a series of annealing experiments were conducted. Parameter variations included beam energy density, percentage of beam overlap, sources of diffusant, and different surface conditions such as chemical-mechanical polished, caustic etched, and textured. Diffusant deposition included spin-on liquid dopant and ion implant. Due to the lower surface reflectivity and the wetting effect by the spin-on source, textured wafers experienced more surface damage and stress than polished wafers. Maximum cell efficiency obtained for Cz polished wafers was 9% and for Cz textured wafers was 11.5% (no A/R). Surface damage limited the cell efficiency. Laser annealing on ion-implanted wafers was conducted with phosphorus implant with acceleration energy of 10 keV at fluences of 1-5 x 10/sup 15/ atom/cm/sup 2/. Maximum cell efficiency was less than 8% (no A/R coating). Low J/sub sc/, V/sub oc/, and fill factor suggested incomplete implant damage removal. Decreasing the implant voltage from 10 keV to 5 keV and increasing laser energy to above 0.9 J/cm/sup 2/, some cell efficiencies over 9.4% before A/R. The goal of producing cells of 16.5% has not materialized due to problems in ion implant uniformity, unavailable low keV ion implant, and laser beam inhomogeneity. During the next period, work will focus on developing a 1 keV glow discharge capability and on fabrication of Boron implanted junctions on n type wafers.

  19. Focused excimer laser initiated, radio frequency sustained high pressure air plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Giar, Ryan; Scharer, John

    2011-11-15

    Measurements and analysis of air breakdown processes and plasma production by focusing 193 nm, 300 mJ, 15 MW high power laser radiation inside a 6 cm diameter helical radio frequency (RF) coil are presented. Quantum resonant multi-photon ionization (REMPI) and collisional cascade laser ionization processes are exploited that have been shown to produce high-density (n{sub e} {approx} 7 x 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 3}) cylindrical seed plasmas at 760 Torr. Air breakdown in lower pressures (from 7-22 Torr), where REMPI is the dominant laser ionization process, is investigated using an UV 18 cm focal length lens, resulting in a laser flux of 5.5 GW/cm{sup 2} at the focal spot. The focused laser power absorption and associated shock wave produce seed plasmas for sustainment by the RF (5 kW incident power, 1.5 s) pulse. Measurements of the helical RF antenna load impedance in the inductive and capacitive coupling regimes are obtained by measuring the loaded antenna reflection coefficient. A 105 GHz interferometer is used to measure the plasma electron density and collision frequency. Spectroscopic measurements of the plasma and comparison with the SPECAIR code are made to determine translational, rotational, and vibrational neutral temperatures and the associated neutral gas temperature. From this and the associated measurement of the gas pressure the electron temperature is obtained. Experiments show that the laser-formed seed plasma allows RF sustainment at higher initial air pressures (up to 22 Torr) than that obtained via RF-only initiation (<18 Torr) by means of a 0.3 J UV laser pulse.

  20. Removal of dust particles from metal-mirror surfaces by excimer-laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Klaus R.; Wolff-Rottke, B.; Mueller, F.

    1995-07-01

    The effect of particle desorption from Al mirror surfaces by the influence of pulsed UV laser radiation has been studied. The investigations are closely related to the demands of astronomers, who are looking for a more effective way of cleaning the Al coatings of future very large telescope mirrors. A systematic parameter study has been performed in order to determine the irradiation conditions which yield the highest dust removal efficiency (i.e. reflectivity increase) on contaminated samples, taking particularly into account laser-induced damage and degradation effects of coating and substrate. The particle removal rate increases with increasing laser fluence, being limited however by the damage threshold of the coating. Therefore, parameters influencing the damage threshold of metal coatings like wavelength, pulse width, and number of pulses have been studied in detail. Data indicate that on Al coated BK7 and Zerodur samples KrF laser radiation yields the optimum result, with cleaning efficiencies comparable to polymer film stripping. The initial reflectivity of the clean coating can nearly be reinstalled, in particular when an additional solvent film on the sample surface is applied. Hence, laser desorption seems to be a viable method of cleaning large Al mirrors for telescopes.

  1. High-power gas-discharge excimer ArF, KrCl, KrF and XeCl lasers utilising two-component gas mixtures without a buffer gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razhev, A. M.; Kargapol'tsev, E. S.; Churkin, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    Results of an experimental study of the influence of a gas mixture (laser active medium) composition on an output energy and total efficiency of gas-discharge excimer lasers on ArF* (193 nm), KrCl* (222 nm), KrF* (248 nm) and XeCl* (308 nm) molecules operating without a buffer gas are presented. The optimal ratios of gas components (from the viewpoint of a maximum output energy) of an active medium are found, which provide an efficient operation of laser sources. It is experimentally confirmed that for gas-discharge excimer lasers on halogenides of inert gases the presence of a buffer gas in an active medium is not a necessary condition for efficient operation. For the first time, in two-component gas mixtures of repetitively pulsed gas-discharge excimer lasers on electron transitions of excimer molecules ArF*, KrCl*, KrF* and XeCl*, the pulsed energy of laser radiation obtained under pumping by a transverse volume electric discharge in a low-pressure gas mixture without a buffer gas reached up to 170 mJ and a high pulsed output power (of up to 24 MW) was obtained at a FWHM duration of the KrF-laser pulse of 7 ns. The maximal total efficiency obtained in the experiment with two-component gas mixtures of KrF and XeCl lasers was 0.8%.

  2. Characteristics of 308 nm excimer laser activated arterial tissue photoemission under ablative and non-ablative conditions.

    PubMed

    Laufer, G; Wollenek, G; Rüeckle, B; Buchelt, M; Kuckla, C; Ruatti, H; Buxbaum, P; Fasol, R; Zilla, P

    1989-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the characteristics of tissue photoemission obtained from normal and atherosclerotic segments of human postmortem femoral arteries by 308 nm excimer laser irradiation of 60 ns pulsewidth. Three ablative (20, 30, and 40 mJ/pulse) and three non-ablative (2.5, 5, and 10 mJ/pulse) energy fluences were employed. Both the activating laser pulses and the induced photoemission were guided simultaneously over one and the same 1,000 micron core optical fiber that was positioned in direct tissue contact perpendicular to the vascular surface. The spectral lineshape of normal arterial and noncalcified atherosclerotic structures was characterized by a broad-continuum, double-peak emission of relevant intensity between wavelengths of 360 and 500 nm, with the most prominent emission in the range of 400-415 (407 nm peak) and 430-445 nm (437 nm peak). Fibrous and lipid atherosclerotic lesions, however, exhibited a significantly reduced intensity at 437 nm compared to normal artery layers (P less than 0.001), expressed as a 407/437 nm ratio of 1.321 +/- 0.075 for fibrous and 1.392 +/- 0.104 for lipid lesions. Normal artery components presented with approximately equal intensity at both emission peaks (407/437 nm ratio: intima, 1.054 +/- 0.033; media, 1.024 +/- 0.019; adventitia, 0.976 +/- 0.021). Comparison of spectral lineshape obtained under various energy fluences within a group of noncalcified tissues disclosed no substantial difference using the 407/437 nm ratio (P greater than 0.05). In contrast, calcified lesions revealed high-intensity multiple-line (397, 442, 461, and 528 nm) emission spectra under ablative energy fluences, whereas a low-intensity broad-continuum, single-peak spectrum resulted from irradiation beyond the ablation threshold. Thus, these findings suggest fluorescence phenomena for broad-continuum spectra, and plasma emission for multiple-line spectra as an underlying photodynamic process. Regardless of the activating

  3. Melting evaporation and recrystallization of a-SiC:H films by excimer laser

    SciTech Connect

    Wickramanayaka, S.; Kitamura, K.; Nakanishi, Y.; Hatanaka, Y.

    1996-12-31

    A study of laser annealing of a-SiC:H films was carried out in order to obtain poly-SiC films. First, a-SiC:H films were fabricated at temperatures ranging from 30 to 400 C. All these films show amorphous structure before the annealing process. After annealing by a single pulse of 248 nm laser, films show poly-SiC structure. The pulse energies used for these anneals varied from 30 to 300 mJ/pulse. After exposing to a laser pulse, the a-SiC:H films melt and recrystallize forming poly-SiC structure. In addition to this process, a fraction of the film is observed to be vaporized. This vaporized fraction depends on the original film composition, hardness and the laser pulse-energy. Electrical resistivity of the films before the annealing process lies in the region of 10{sup 15} {Omega}cm. This resistivity drops drastically after the annealing process.

  4. Some optical and electron microscope comparative studies of excimer laser-assisted and nonassisted molecular-beam epitaxically grown thin GaAs films on Si

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lao, Pudong; Tang, Wade C.; Rajkumar, K. C.; Guha, S.; Madhukar, A.; Liu, J. K.; Grunthaner, F. J.

    1990-01-01

    The quality of GaAs thin films grown via MBE under pulsed excimer laser irradiation on Si substrates is examined in both laser-irradiated and nonirradiated areas using Raman scattering, Rayleigh scattering, and by photoluminescence (PL), as a function of temperature, and by TEM. The temperature dependence of the PL and Raman peak positions indicates the presence of compressive stress in the thin GaAs films in both laser-irradiated and nonirradiated areas. This indicates incomplete homogeneous strain relaxation by dislocations at the growth temperature. The residual compressive strain at the growth temperature is large enough such that even with the introduction of tensile strain arising from the difference in thermal expansion coefficients of GaAs and Si, a compressive strain is still present at room temperature for these thin GaAs/Si films.

  5. Fabrication of functional fibronectin patterns by nanosecond excimer laser direct write for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Grigorescu, S; Hindié, M; Axente, E; Carreiras, F; Anselme, K; Werckmann, J; Mihailescu, I N; Gallet, O

    2013-07-01

    Laser direct write techniques represent a prospective alternative for engineering a new generation of hybrid biomaterials via the creation of patterns consisting of biological proteins onto practically any type of substrate. In this paper we report on the characterization of fibronectin features obtained onto titanium substrates by UV nanosecond laser transfer. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy measurements evidenced no modification in the secondary structure of the post-transferred protein. The molecular weight of the transferred protein was identical to the initial fibronectin, no fragment bands being found in the transferred protein's Western blot migration profile. The presence of the cell-binding domain sequence and the mannose groups within the transferred molecules was revealed by anti-fibronectin monoclonal antibody immunolabelling and FITC-Concanavalin-A staining, respectively. The in vitro tests performed with MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells and Swiss-3T3 fibroblasts showed that the cells' morphology and spreading were strongly influenced by the presence of the fibronectin spots. PMID:23615786

  6. Excimer laser deinsulation of Parylene-C on iridium for use in an activated iridium oxide film-coated Utah electrode array

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Je-Min; Negi, Sandeep; Tathireddy, Prashant; Solzbacher, Florian; Song, Jong-In; Rieth, Loren W.

    2013-01-01

    Implantable microelectrodes provide a measure to electrically stimulate neurons in the brain and spinal cord and record their electrophysiological activity. A material with a high charge capacity such as activated or sputter-deposited iridium oxide film (AIROF or SIROF) is used as an interface. The Utah electrode array (UEA) uses SIROF for its interface material with neural tissue and oxygen plasma etching (OPE) with an aluminium foil mask to expose the active area, where the interface between the electrode and neural tissue is formed. However, deinsulation of Parylene-C using OPE has limitations, including the lack of uniformity in the exposed area and reproducibility. While the deinsulation of Parylene-C using an excimer laser is proven to be an alternative for overcoming the limitations, the iridium oxide (IrOx) suffers from fracture when high laser fluence (>1000 mJ/cm2) is used. Iridium (Ir), which has a much higher fracture resistance than IrOx, can be deposited before excimer laser deinsulation and then the exposed Ir film area can be activated by electrochemical treatment to acquire the AIROF. Characterisation of the laser-ablated Ir film and AIROF by surface analysis (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, and atomic force microscope) and electrochemical analysis (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry) shows that the damage on the Ir film induced by laser irradiation is significantly less than that on SIROF, and the AIROF has a high charge storage capacity. The results show the potential of the laser deinsulation technique for use in high performance AIROF-coated UEA fabrication. PMID:23458659

  7. XeCl excimer laser-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy for human cerebral tumor diagnosis: preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avrillier, Sigrid; Hor, Frederic; Desgeorges, Michel; Ettori, Dominique; Sitbon, Jean R.

    1993-09-01

    Three-hundred-eight nm laser-induced autofluorescence spectra of the normal human brain, astrocytoma grade IV and glioblastoma grade IV specimens, have been recorded in vitro two hours after surgical resection. Typical fluorescence spectra for normal (N) and malignant (M) tissue show 4 maxima at about 352, 362, 383, and 460 nm. These spectra are analyzed in detail. Subtle differences in normalized spectra of N and M tissues appear to be large enough for diagnosis. Several criteria such as maxima and minima absolute intensity and intensity ratios at typical wavelengths are computed and used to classify the tissue. This preliminary study shows that fluorescence spectroscopy with 308 nm UV excitation could be a valid technique for discriminating tumor types. However, it should be noted that these measurements are made in vitro. Living tissues may have different spectral characteristics, therefore future in vivo investigations must be performed.

  8. Evaluation of corneal ablation by an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) at 2.94 μm and an Er:YAG laser and comparison to ablation by a 193-nm excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telfair, William B.; Hoffman, Hanna J.; Nordquist, Robert E.; Eiferman, Richard A.

    1998-06-01

    Purpose: This study first evaluated the corneal ablation characteristics of (1) an Nd:YAG pumped OPO (Optical Parametric Oscillator) at 2.94 microns and (2) a short pulse Er:YAG laser. Secondly, it compared the histopathology and surface quality of these ablations with (3) a 193 nm excimer laser. Finally, the healing characteristics over 4 months of cat eyes treated with the OPO were evaluated. Methods: Custom designed Nd:YAG/OPO and Er:YAG lasers were integrated with a new scanning delivery system to perform PRK myopic correction procedures. After initial ablation studies to determine ablation thresholds and rates, human cadaver eyes and in-vivo cat eyes were treated with (1) a 6.0 mm Dia, 30 micron deep PTK ablation and (2) a 6.0 mm Dia, -5.0 Diopter PRK ablation. Cadaver eyes were also treated with a 5.0 mm Dia, -5.0 Diopter LASIK ablation. Finally, cats were treated with the OPO in a 4 month healing study. Results: Ablation thresholds below 100 mJ/cm2 and ablation rates comparable to the excimer were demonstrated for both infrared systems. Light Microscopy (LM) showed no thermal damage for low fluence treatments, but noticeable thermal damage at higher fluences. SEM and TEM revealed morphologically similar surfaces for low fluence OPO and excimer samples with a smooth base and no evidence of collagen shrinkage. The Er:YAG and higher fluence OPO treated samples revealed more damage along with visible collagen coagulation and shrinkage in some cases. Healing was remarkably unremarkable. All eyes had a mild healing response with no stromal haze and showed topographic flattening. LM demonstrated nothing except a moderate increase in keratocyte activity in the upper third of the stroma. TEM confirmed this along with irregular basement membranes. Conclusions: A non- thermal ablation process called photospallation is demonstrated for the first time using short pulse infrared lasers yielding damage zones comparable to the excimer and healing which is also comparable to

  9. Excimer laser produced plasmas in copper wire targets and water droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Kyo-Dong; Alexander, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    Elastically scattered incident radiation (ESIR) from a copper wire target illuminated by a KrF laser pulse at lambda = 248 nm shows a dinstinct two-peak structure which is dependent on the incident energy. The time required to reach the critical electron density (n(sub c) approximately = 1.8 x 10(exp 22) electrons/cu cm) is estimated at 11 ns based on experimental results. Detailed ESIR characteristics for water have been reported previously by the authors. Initiation of the broadband emission for copper plasma begins at 6.5 +/- 1.45 ns after the arrival of the laser pulse. However, the broadband emission occurs at 11 +/- 0.36 ns for water. For a diatomic substance such as water, the electron energy rapidly dissipates due to dissociation of water molecules, which is absent in a monatomic species such as copper. When the energy falls below the excitation energy of the lowest electron state for water, it becomes a subexcitation electron. Lifetimes of the subexcited electrons to the vibrational states are estimated to be of the order of 10(exp -9) s. In addition, the ionization potential of copper (440-530 nm) is approximately 6 eV, which is about two times smaller than the 13 eV ionization potential reported for water. The higher ionization potential contributes to the longer observed delay time for plasma formation in water. After initiation, a longer time is required for copper plasma to reach its peak value. This time delay in reaching the maximum intensity is attributed to the energy loss during the interband transition in copper.

  10. The Onset of H + Ketene Products from Vinoxy Radicals Prepared by Photodissociation of Chloroacetaldehyde at 157 nm.

    PubMed

    Lam, Chow-Shing; Adams, Jonathan D; Butler, Laurie J

    2016-04-28

    We investigate the unimolecular dissociation of the vinoxy radical (CH2CHO) prepared with high internal energy imparted from the photodissociation of chloroacetaldehyde (CH2ClCHO) at 157 nm. Using a velocity map imaging apparatus, we measured the speed distribution of the recoiling chlorine atoms, Cl((2)P3/2) and Cl((2)P1/2), and derived from this the resulting distribution of kinetic energy, P(ET), imparted to the Cl + vinoxy fragments upon dissociation. Using conservation of energy, the distribution of kinetic energy was used to determine the total internal energy distribution in the radical. The P(ET) derived for the C-Cl bond fission presented in this work suggests the vinoxy radicals are mostly formed in the à state. We also took ion images at m/z = 42 and m/z = 15 to characterize the branching between the unimolecular dissociation channels of the vinoxy radical to H + ketene and methyl + CO products. Our results show a marked change in the branching ratio between the two channels from the previous study on the photodissociation of chloroacetaldehyde at 193 nm by Miller et al. (J. Chem. Phys., 2004, 121, 1830) in that the production of ketene is now favored over the production of methyl. To help analyze the data, we developed a model for the branching between the two channels that takes into account how the change in rotational energy en route to the products affects the vibrational energy available to surmount the barriers to the channels. The model predicts the portion of the C-Cl bond fission P(ET) that produces dissociative vinoxy radicals, then predicts the branching ratio between the H + ketene and CH3 + CO product channels at each ET. The model uses Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus rate constants at the correct sums and densities of vibrational states while accounting for angular momentum conservation. We find that the predicted portion of the P(ET) that produces H + ketene products best fits the experimental portion (that we derive by taking advantage of

  11. Agreement between Clinical History Method, Orbscan IIz, and Pentacam in Estimating Corneal Power after Myopic Excimer Laser Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lekhanont, Kaevalin; Nonpassopon, Manachai; Wannarosapark, Khemruetai; Chuckpaiwong, Varintorn

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the agreement between the clinical history method (CHM), Orbscan IIz, and Pentacam in estimating corneal power after myopic excimer laser surgery. Fifty five patients who had myopic LASIK/PRK were recruited into this study. One eye of each patient was randomly selected by a computer-generated process. At 6 months after surgery, postoperative corneal power was calculated from the CHM, Orbscan IIz total optical power at the 3.0 and 4.0 mm zones, and Pentacam equivalent keratometric readings (EKRs) at 3.0, 4.0, and 4.5 mm. Statistical analyses included multilevel models, Pearson’s correlation test, and Bland-Altman plots. The Orbscan IIz 3.0-mm and 4.0 mm total optical power, and Pentacam 3.0-mm, 4.0-mm, and 4.5-mm EKR values had strong linear positive correlations with the CHM values (r = 0.90–0.94, P = <0.001, for all comparisons, Pearson’s correlation). However, only Pentacam 3.0-mm EKR was not statistically different from CHM (P = 0.17, multilevel models). The mean 3.0- and 4.0-mm total optical powers of the Orbscan IIz were significantly flatter than the values derived from CHM, while the average EKRs of the Pentacam at 4.0 and 4.5 mm were significantly steeper. The mean Orbscan IIz 3.0-mm total optical power was the lowest keratometric reading compared to the other 5 values. Large 95% LoA was observed between each of these values, particularly EKRs, and those obtained with the CHM. The width of the 95% LoA was narrowest for Orbscan IIz 3.0-mm total optical power. In conclusion, the keratometric values extracted from these 3 methods were disparate, either because of a statistically significant difference in the mean values or moderate agreement between them. Therefore, they are not considered equivalent and cannot be used interchangeably. PMID:25853655

  12. Effects of closed immersion filtered water flow velocity on the ablation threshold of bisphenol A polycarbonate during excimer laser machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowding, Colin; Lawrence, Jonathan

    2010-04-01

    A closed flowing thick film filtered water immersion technique ensures a controlled geometry for both the optical interfaces of the flowing liquid film and allows repeatable control of flow-rate during machining. This has the action of preventing splashing, ensures repeatable machining conditions and allows control of liquid flow velocity. To investigate the impact of this technique on ablation threshold, bisphenol A polycarbonate samples have been machined using KrF excimer laser radiation passing through a medium of filtered water flowing at a number of flow velocities, that are controllable by modifying the liquid flow-rates. An average decrease in ablation threshold of 7.5% when using turbulent flow velocity regime closed thick film filtered water immersed ablation, compared to ablation using a similar beam in ambient air; however, the use of laminar flow velocities resulted in negligible differences between closed flowing thick film filtered water immersion and ambient air. Plotting the recorded threshold fluence achieved with varying flow velocity showed that an optimum flow velocity of 3.00 m/s existed which yielded a minimum ablation threshold of 112 mJ/cm 2. This is attributed to the distortion of the ablation plume effected by the flowing immersion fluid changing the ablation mechanism: at laminar flow velocities Bremsstrahlung attenuation decreases etch rate, at excessive flow velocities the plume is completely destroyed, removing the effect of plume etching. Laminar flow velocity regime ablation is limited by slow removal of debris causing a non-linear etch rate over ' n' pulses which is a result of debris produced by one pulse remaining suspended over the feature for the next pulse. The impact of closed thick film filtered water immersed ablation is dependant upon beam fluence: high fluence beams achieved greater etch efficiency at high flow velocities as the effect of Bremsstrahlung attenuation is removed by the action of the fluid on the plume; low

  13. 10 x 10 cm-sq aperture 1 Hz repetition rate X-ray preionized-discharge pumped KrF excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizoguchi, H.; Endoh, A.; Jethwa, J.; Schaefer, F. P.

    A 10 x 10 sq cm aperture X-ray preionized discharge-pumped KrF excimer amplifier for subpicosecond pulse amplification is demonstrated experimentally in the oscillator mode operation. A fast pulse-forming line (36 nF, 340 kV) together with a peaking capacitor (6 nF) switched with a rail-gap switch, and collimated X-ray preionization is employed to obtain a wide and uniform discharge. The active cross section of the laser beam is about 10 x 8 sq cm and the intense plateau region is about 10 x 5.5 sq cm. The laser pulse energy exceeds 4.7 J in a 28 ns pulse (FWHM).

  14. Formation of densely populated SiOx microtree-like structures on the Si (100) surface using excimer laser irradiation in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, De-Quan; Sacher, Edward; Meunier, Michel

    2004-10-01

    SiOx microforest-like structures have been produced on Si (100) surfaces by pulsed excimer laser irradiation in air. Scanning electron microscopic observations have indicated these structures, which are composed of aggregated nanoparticles, to be 1-5 μm in diameter and 10-20 μm high, and to have the appearance of trees. XPS analysis has shown them to be composed of a-SiOx (1laser irradiation, our microforest-like trees have many sharp nanoscale branches, which may require lower emission voltages in application such as field-emission sources in plasma displays.

  15. Fabrication of an integrated optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on refractive index modification of polymethylmethacrylate by krypton fluoride excimer laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koerdt, Michael; Vollertsen, Frank

    2011-04-01

    It is known that deep ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces a refractive index increase in the surface layer of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) samples. This effect can be used for the fabrication of integrated optical waveguides. PMMA is of considerable interest for bio and chemical sensing applications because it is biocompatible and can be micromachined by several methods, e.g. structuring by photolithography, ablation and hot embossing. In the presented work direct UV irradiation of a common PMMA substrate by a krypton fluoride excimer laser beam through a contact mask has been used to write integrated optical Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZI). MZI are used as sensitive bio and chemical sensors. The aim was to determine contact mask design and laser irradiation parameters for fabricating single-mode MZI for the infrared region from 1.30 μm to 1.62 μm. Straight and curved waveguides have been generated and characterized to determine the optical losses. The generation of channel waveguide structures has been optimized by a two step irradiation process to minimize the lithographic writing time and optical loss. By flood exposure to UV laser radiation in the first step the optical absorption of PMMA can be increased in the irradiated region. The required refractive index profile is then achieved with a second lithographic irradiation. The spectral behaviour of an unbalanced, integrated optical MZI fabricated by this excimer laser based contact mask method is shown for the first time. Further the optical intensity at the output port of a MZI has been measured while the optical path length difference was tuned by creating a temperature difference between the two arms of the MZI.

  16. Synthesis of diamond on WC-Co substrates using a KrF excimer laser in combination with a combustion flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Y. X.; Ling, H.; Lu, Y. F.

    2007-02-01

    A KrF excimer laser was used in combination with a combustion flame to deposit diamond films on cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) substrates. The laser has a wavelength of 248 nm, a pulse width of 23 ns, a pulse energy range of 84~450 mJ, and a repetition rate up to 50 Hz. Using the combustion flame method, diamond films were deposited on the laser-processed WC-Co substrates for 10 min. The morphologies of the deposited diamond films were examined using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The composition and bonding structures in the deposited films were studied by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The film adhesion was characterized by scratching a razor across the films. It was found that C composition on WC-Co substrate surfaces was eliminated by the laser irradiation. As a consequence, diamond nucleation density decreased and diamond grains grew larger in the laser-processed areas. Based on the experimental results, a film growth mechanism at different deposition temperature ranges corresponding to pre-deposition laser-surface-treatment effects was proposed.

  17. Electrical properties of Sb-doped epitaxial SnO2 thin films prepared using excimer-laser-assisted metal-organic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Tetsuo; Nakajima, Tomohiko; Shinoda, Kentaro

    2013-12-01

    Excimer-laser-assisted metal-organic deposition (ELAMOD) was used to prepare Sb-doped epitaxial (001) SnO2 thin films on (001) TiO2 substrates at room temperature. The effects of laser fluence, the number of shots with the laser, and Sb content on the electrical properties such as resistivity, carrier concentration, and carrier mobility of the films were investigated. The resistivity of the Sb-doped epitaxial (001) SnO2 thin film prepared using an ArF laser was lower than that of the film prepared using a KrF laser. The van der Pauw method was used to measure the resistivity, carrier concentration, and carrier mobility of the Sb-doped epitaxial (001) SnO2 thin films in order to determine the effect of Sb content on the electrical resistivity of the films. The lowest resistivity obtained for the Sb-doped epitaxial (001) SnO2 thin films prepared using ELAMOD with the ArF laser and 2 % Sb content was 2.5 × 10-3 Ω cm. The difference between the optimal Sb concentrations and resistivities of the films produced using either ELAMOD or conventional thermal MOD was discussed.

  18. Utilization of the excimer laser and a moving piezoelectric mirror to accomplish the customized contact lens ablation to correct high-order aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Matos, Luciana; Yasuoka, Fátima M. M.; Schor, Paulo; de Oliveira, Enos; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Carvalho, Luis A. V.

    2014-02-01

    The use of the Hartman-Shack sensor in ophthalmology allowed the identification of higher-order aberrations, which make possible the search for methods to correct them. Customized refractive surgery is one of the most successful methods, although there are patients which cannot be submitted to this surgery due to a variety of abnormal limiting factors such as cornea thickness and quantity of higher-order aberrations. Being this an irreversible process, the alternative is to develop a non-surgical method. This work proposes a method to obtain personalized contact lenses to correct high-order aberrations via the development of a customized ablation system using an excimer laser and a moving piezoelectric mirror. The process to produce such lenses consists of four steps. 1) The map of total aberrations of the patient's eye is measured by using an aberrometer with a Hartman-Shack sensor. 2) The measured aberration map is used to determine the maps for correction and related distribution of laser pulses for the ablation process with the excimer laser. 3) The lens production is performed following the same principle as customized refractive surgery. 4) The quality control of the lens is evaluated by two tests. 4.1) The lens is measured by a non-commercial lensometer, which is assembled specially for this measurement, as the ones commercially available are not capable of measuring asymmetric and irregular surfaces. 4.2) The evaluation of the lens-eye system is made using the aberrometer of the first step in order to verify the residual aberrations. Here, the lenses are ablated with a customized refractive surgery system.

  19. Periodic structure with a periodicity of 2-3.5 μm on crystalline TiO2 induced by unpolarized KrF excimer lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Rong; Ma, Hongliang; Zheng, Jiahui; Han, Yongmei; Lu, Yuming; Cai, Chuanbing

    2016-08-01

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) were processed on the TiO2 bulk surface under the irradiation of 248 nm unpolarized KrF excimer laser pulses in air. Spatial LIPSS periods ranging from 2 to 3.5 μm are ascribed to the capillary wave. These microstructures were analyzed at different laser pulse numbers with the laser energy from 192 to 164 mJ. The scanning electron microscopy results indicated eventually stripes that have been disrupted as the increase in the laser pulse numbers, which is reasonably explained by the energy accumulating effect. In addition, investigations were concentrated on the surface modifications at pre-focal plane, focal plane and post-focal plane in the same defocusing amount. Compared with condition at pre-focal plane, in addition to the plasma produced at target, the air was also breakdown for the situation of post-focal plane. So it was reasonable that stripes appeared at pre-focal plane but not at post-focal plane.

  20. Excimer-laser-induced oxidation of diborane: Formation and isolation of HBO, HB 18O AND H 3B 3O 3 in argon matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ault, Bruce S.

    1989-05-01

    An excimer laser operating at 193 nm has been employed in conjunction with the matrix isolation technique to study the reaction of B 2H 6 with oxygen atoms. N 2O and O 2 were used as photolytic oxygen atom sources, and a number of oxidation products were detected. Absorptions near 750 and 1813 cm -1 were assigned to H 11BO; experiments with 18O led to production of HB 18O for the first time, and the identification of two of the fundamentals of this species. Also, H 3B 3O 3 was detected near 910, 1380 and 2610 cm -1. In addition, the most intense fundamental of BH 3 was tentatively identified at 1138 cm -1. These observations support the most recently postulated mechanism for the oxidation of diborane, and the suggested intermediacy of HBO in the process.

  1. Line Raman, Rayleigh, and laser-induced predissociation fluorescence technique for combustion with a tunable KrF excimer laser.

    PubMed

    Mansour, M S; Chen, Y C

    1996-07-20

    We have applied a line UV Raman, Rayleigh, and laser-induced predissociation fluorescence technique for measurement of turbulent hydrocarbon flames. The species concentration of CO(2), O(2), CO, N(2), CH(4), H(2)O, OH, and H(2) and the temperature are measured instantaneously and simultaneously along a line of 11.4 mm, from which the gradients with respect to mixture fraction and spatial direction are obtained. The technique has been successfully tested in a laminar premixed stoichiometric methane flame and a laminar hydrogen diffusion flame. In addition the technique has been tested in a highly turbulent rich premixed methane flame. The data show that the technique can be used to provide instantaneous measurements of local profiles that describe the local flame structure in highly turbulent flames. PMID:21102834

  2. Transformation of medical grade silicone rubber under Nd:YAG and excimer laser irradiation: First step towards a new miniaturized nerve electrode fabrication process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupas-Bruzek, C.; Robbe, O.; Addad, A.; Turrell, S.; Derozier, D.

    2009-08-01

    Medical grade silicone rubber, poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a widely used biomaterial. Like for many polymers, its surface can be modified in order to change one or several of its properties which further allow this surface to be functionalized. Laser-induced surface modification of PDMS under ambient conditions is an easy and powerful method for the surface modification of PDMS without altering its bulk properties. In particular, we profit from both UV laser inducing surface modification and of UV laser micromachining to develop a first part of a new process aiming at increasing the number of contacts and tracks within the same electrode surface to improve the nerve selectivity of implantable self sizing spiral cuff electrodes. The second and last part of the process is to further immerse the engraved electrode in an autocatalytic Pt bath leading in a selective Pt metallization of the laser irradiated tracks and contacts and thus to a functionalized PDMS surface. In the present work, we describe the different physical and chemical transformations of a medical grade PDMS as a function of the UV laser and of the irradiation conditions used. We show that the ablation depths, chemical composition, structure and morphology vary with (i) the laser wavelength (using an excimer laser at 248 nm and a frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm), (ii) the conditions of irradiation and (iii) the pulse duration. These different modified properties are expected to have a strong influence on the nucleation and growth rates of platinum which govern the adhesion and the thickness of the Pt layer on the electrodes and thus the DC resistance of tracks.

  3. Interaction of wide-band-gap single crystals with 248-nm excimer laser irradiation. IX. Photoinduced atomic desorption from cleaved NaCl(100) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Nwe, K.H.; Langford, S.C.; Dickinson, J.T.

    2005-07-01

    Neutral atomic sodium and chlorine emissions from cleaved, single-crystal NaCl(100) surfaces due to pulsed, 248-nm excimer laser irradiation have been characterized by time-resolved, quadrupole mass spectroscopy. At laser fluences below the threshold for optical breakdown, the resulting time-of-flight signals are consistent with particles emitted in thermal equilibrium with a laser-heated surface. Activation energy measurements made by varying the substrate temperature are consistent with F-H pair formation under UV excitation. By varying the laser fluence and estimating the effective surface temperature from the time-of-flight signals, additional activation energy measurements were made. The corresponding rate-limiting step is attributed to a thermally assisted, photoelectronic process involving atomic steps. Atomic force microscope images of surfaces irradiated at low fluences show monolayer islands that are created by the aggregation of material desorbed from steps. At somewhat higher fluences, monolayer pits due to F-center aggregation are also observed.

  4. Raman-shifting an ArF excimer laser to generate new lines for obtaining optical diagnostic based information in flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koker, Edmond B.

    1994-01-01

    The application of tunable excimer lasers in combustion and flow diagnostics is almost routine nowadays. The properties of this laser system that enable density and temperature measurements in supersonic and hypersonic flow fields to be conducted are its high power, high repetition rate, and high spectral brightness. The limitation imposed by this system on these measurements is the paucity of lines in the wavelength region, the vacuum-ultraviolet, where species of interest, such as OH, N2, O2, H2, H2O, CO, NO, etc., are susceptible to electronic excitation to high-lying states. To circumvent this problem one normally resorts to nonlinear optical techniques such as frequency conversion via stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), more commonly known as Raman shifting or Raman mixing, to extend these nonintrusive and nonperturbing techniques to the shorter wavelengths in the VUV region and, for that matter, to longer wavelengths in the infrared region, if the need arises. The theoretical basis of SRS and its application are well documented in the literature. In essence, the Raman shift is a consequence of the inelastic scattering of the incident radiation by the sample. Most of the scattered radiation from the molecules of the sample is unchanged in frequency. However, a small fraction of the incident radiation is changed in frequency. This shift is a result of the fact that some of the incident photons on colliding with the molecules of the sample give up some of their energy and emerge with a lower energy resulting in the lower-frequency Stokes radiation. Other incident photons may increase their energy by colliding with the vibrationally excited molecules of the medium and emerge as higher-frequency antistokes radiation. The generation of the latter is the main objective of this project. The process, however, depends on several factors, including the beam quality of the pump laser, the cross-section of the gaseous medium, the gas pressure, and the ambient temperature

  5. Raman Shifting a Tunable ArF Excimer Laser to Wavelengths of 190 to 240 nm With a Forced Convection Raman Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balla, R. Jeffrey; Herring, G. C.

    2000-01-01

    Tunable radiation, at ultraviolet wavelengths, is produced by Raman shifting a modified 285-mJ ArF excimer laser. Multiple Stokes outputs are observed in H2, CH4, D2, N2, SF6, and CF4 (20, 22, 53, 21, 2.1, and 0.35 percent, respectively). Numbers in parentheses are the first Stokes energy conversion efficiencies. We can access 70 percent of the frequency range 42000-52000 cm (exp -1) (190-240 nm) with Stokes energies that vary from 0.2 microJoule to 58 mJ inside the Raman cell. By using 110 mJ of pump energy and D 2 , the tunable first Stokes energy varies over the 29-58 mJ range as the wavelength is tuned over the 204-206 nm range. Dependence on input energy, gas pressure, He mixture fraction, and circulation of the gas in the forced convection Raman cell is discussed; Stokes conversion is also discussed for laser repetition rates from 1 to 100 Hz. An empirical equation is given to determine whether forced convection can improve outputs for a given repetition rate.

  6. Effect of hydrogen bonding on far-ultraviolet water absorption and potential implications for 193-nm ArF excimer laser-tissue interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.; Staveteig, Paul T.

    1995-05-01

    The mechanisms causing transient 193-nm optical absorption of collagen during ablative-fluence ArF excimer pulses are poorly understood. The preponderance of hypotheses proposed to explain this phenomenon, such as ultrafast secondary-structure denaturation of proteins and transient free radical formation, focus on the protein matrix and ignore potential contributions from other tissue components such as water. A substantial body of spectroscopic literature places 193 nm adjacent to a steep absorption edge of water that rises to 60,000 cm-1 at 163 nm; other evidence shows that this absorption edge shifts toward 193 nm upon hydrogen-bond breakage. In this paper we show that heating of water from 20-100°C increases the liquid's absorption coefficient. Further investigations using an infrared pump laser show a significant increase in absorption by water of a 193-nm probe beam. Based on this evidence, we speculate that 193-nm laser ablation of tissue may contain a photothermal component related to dynamic absorption of incident radiation by water.

  7. Effect of excimer laser annealing on a-InGaZnO thin-film transistors passivated by solution-processed hybrid passivation layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermundo, Juan Paolo; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Fujii, Mami N.; Nonaka, Toshiaki; Ishihara, Ryoichi; Ikenoue, Hiroshi; Uraoka, Yukiharu

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of excimer laser annealing (ELA) as a low temperature annealing alternative to anneal amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) passivated by a solution-processed hybrid passivation layer. Usually, a-IGZO is annealed using thermal annealing at high temperatures of up to 400 °C. As an alternative to high temperature thermal annealing, two types of ELA, XeCl (308 nm) and KrF (248 nm) ELA, are introduced. Both ELA types enhanced the electrical characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs leading to a mobility improvement of ~13 cm2 V-1 s-1 and small threshold voltage which varied from ~0-3 V. Furthermore, two-dimensional heat simulation using COMSOL Multiphysics was used to identify possible degradation sites, analyse laser heat localization, and confirm that the substrate temperature is below 50 °C. The two-dimensional heat simulation showed that the substrate temperature remained at very low temperatures, less than 30 °C, during ELA. This implies that any flexible material can be used as the substrate. These results demonstrate the large potential of ELA as a low temperature annealing alternative for already-passivated a-IGZO TFTs.

  8. Formation mechanisms of oxygen atoms in the O({sup 1}D{sub 2}) state from the 157 nm photoirradiation of amorphous water ice at 90 K

    SciTech Connect

    Hama, Tetsuya; Yabushita, Akihiro; Yokoyama, Masaaki; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Watanabe, Naoki

    2009-09-21

    Vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of water ice in the first absorption band was studied at 157 nm. Translational and internal energy distributions of the desorbed species, O({sup 1}D) and OH(v=0,1), were directly measured with resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization method. Two different mechanisms are discussed for desorption of electronically excited O({sup 1}D) atoms from the ice surface. One is unimolecular dissociation of H{sub 2}O to H{sub 2}+O({sup 1}D) as a primary photoprocess. The other is the surface recombination reaction of hot OH radicals that are produced from photodissociation of hydrogen peroxide as a secondary photoprocess. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is one of the major photoproducts in the vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of water ice.

  9. Surface 3D Micro Free Forms: Multifunctional Microstructured Mesoporous α-Alumina by in Situ Slip Casting Using Excimer Laser Ablated Polycarbonate Molds.

    PubMed

    Rowthu, Sriharitha; Böhlen, Karl; Bowen, Paul; Hoffmann, Patrik

    2015-11-11

    Ceramic surface microstructuring is a rapidly growing field with a variety of applications in tribology, wetting, biology, and so on. However, there are limitations to large-area microstructuring and fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) micro free forms. Here, we present a route to obtain intricate surface structures through in situ slip casting using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) negative molds which are replicated from excimer laser ablated polycarbonate (PC) master molds. PC sheets are ablated with a nanosecond KrF (λ = 248 nm) excimer laser mask projection system to obtain micron-scale 3D surface features over a large area of up to 3 m(2). Complex surface structures that include 3D free forms such as 3D topography of Switzerland, shallow structures such as diffractive optical elements (60 nm step) and conical micropillars have been obtained. The samples are defect-free produced with thicknesses of up to 10 mm and 120 mm diameter. The drying process of the slip cast alumina slurry takes place as a one-dimensional process, through surface evaporation and water permeation through the PDMS membrane. This allows homogeneous one-dimensional shrinkage during the drying process, independent of the sample's lateral dimensions. A linear mass diffusion model has been proposed to predict and explain the drying process of these ceramic colloidal suspensions. The calculated drying time is linearly proportional to the height of the slurry and the thickness of the negatively structured PDMS and is validated by the experimental results. An experimentally observed optimum Sylgard PDMS thickness range of ∼400 μm to 1 mm has achieved the best quality microstructured green compacts. Further, the model predicts that the drying time is independent of the microstructured areas and was validated using experimental observations carried out with microstructured areas of 300 mm(2), 1200 mm(2), and 120 cm(2). Therefore, in principle, the structures can be further replicated in areas up

  10. Effects of beam quality of XeCl excimer laser on Raman conversion efficiency in H/sub 2/ *

    SciTech Connect

    Lou Qihong; Huo Yunshen; Dong Jinxing; Ding Zean; Wei Yunrong; Ding Aizhen; Gao Hongyi

    1988-10-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) characteristics in high pressure H/sub 2/ are evaluated for pumping lasers with stable, plane-parallel and unstable laser resonators. By using a ring aperture to select the part of the laser beam with the best beam quality, Raman photon conversion efficiency of more than 90% was obtained with a pumping energy of 40 mJ.

  11. Nano-crystallization in ZnO-doped In2O3 thin films via excimer laser annealing for thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Mami N.; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Ishihara, Ryoichi; van der Cingel, Johan; Mofrad, Mohammad R. T.; Bermundo, Juan Paolo Soria; Kawashima, Emi; Tomai, Shigekazu; Yano, Koki; Uraoka, Yukiharu

    2016-06-01

    In a previous work, we reported the high field effect mobility of ZnO-doped In2O3 (IZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) irradiated by excimer laser annealing (ELA) [M. Fujii et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 122107 (2013)]. However, a deeper understanding of the effect of ELA on the IZO film characteristics based on crystallinity, carrier concentrations, and optical properties is needed to control localized carrier concentrations for fabricating self-aligned structures in the same oxide film and to adequately explain the physical characteristics. In the case of as-deposited IZO film used as the channel, a high carrier concentration due to a high density of oxygen vacancies was observed; such a film does not show the required TFT characteristics but can act as a conductive film. We achieved a decrease in the carrier concentration of IZO films by crystallization using ELA. This means that ELA can form localized conductive or semi-conductive areas on the IZO film. We confirmed that the reason for the carrier concentration decrease was the decrease of oxygen-deficient regions and film crystallization. The annealed IZO films showed nano-crystalline phase, and the temperature at the substrate was substantially less than the temperature limit for flexible films such as plastic, which is 50°C. This paves the way for the formation of self-aligned structures and separately formed conductive and semi-conductive regions in the same oxide film.

  12. Comparison of Immediate and 2-Year Outcomes between Excimer Laser-Assisted Angioplasty with Spot Stent and Primary Stenting in Intermediate to Long Femoropopliteal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Hsin-Hua; Chang, Shang-Hung; Tsai, Yueh-Ju; Hsieh, Chien-An; Cheng, Shih-Tsung; Yeh, Kuan-Hung; Chang, Hern-Jia; Ko, Yu-Lin; Huang, Hsuan-Li

    2013-01-01

    Background. To compare the clinical outcomes between excimer laser-assisted angioplasty (ELA) with spot stent (group A) and primary stenting (group B) in intermediate to long femoropopliteal disease. Methods. Outcomes of 105 patients totaling 119 legs treated with two different strategies were analyzed retrospectively in a prospectively maintained database. Results. Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. Better angiographic results and lesser increase of serum C-reactive protein levels (0.60 ± 0.72 versus 2.98 ± 0.97 mg/dL, P < 0.001) after the intervention were obtained in Group B. Group A had inferior 1-year outcomes due to higher rate of binary restenosis (67% versus 32%, P = 0.001) and lower rate of primary patency (40% versus 58%, P = 0.039). Rates of amputation-free survival, target vessel revascularization, assisted primary patency, and stent fracture at 24 months were similar in both groups (80% versus 82%, P = 0.979, 65% versus 45%, P = 0.11, 78% versus 80%, P = 0.75 and 6.3% versus 6.8%, P = 0.71, resp.). Conclusion. Greater vascular inflammation after ELA with spot stent resulted in earlier restenosis and inferior 1-year clinical outcomes than primary stenting. This benefit was lost in the primary stenting group at 2 years due to late catch-up restenosis. Active surveillance with prompt intervention was required to maintain the vessel patency. PMID:24381515

  13. Preliminary results of tracked photorefractive keratectomy (T-PRK) for mild to moderate myopia with the autonomous technologies excimer laser at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguen, Ezra I.; Salz, James J.; Nesburn, Anthony B.

    1997-05-01

    Preliminary results of the correction of myopia up to -7.00 D by tracked photorefractive keratectomy (T-PRK) with a scanning and tracking excimer laser by Autonomous Technologies are discussed. 41 eyes participated (20 males). 28 eyes were evaluated one month postop. At epithelization day mean uncorrected vision was 20/45.3. At one month postop, 92.8 of eyes were 20/40 and 46.4% were 20/20. No eye was worse than 20/50. 75% of eyes were within +/- 0.5 D of emmetropia and 82% were within +/- 1.00 D of emmetropia. Eyes corrected for monovision were included. One eye lost 3 lines of best corrected vision, and had more than 1.00 D induced astigmatism due to a central corneal ulcer. Additional complications included symptomatic recurrent corneal erosions which were controlled with topical hypertonic saline. T-PRK appears to allow effective correction of low to moderate myopia. Further study will establish safety and efficacy of the procedure.

  14. The interaction of 193-nm excimer laser irradiation with single-crystal zinc oxide: Neutral atomic zinc and oxygen emission

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, E. H.; Langford, S. C.; Dickinson, J. T.; Boatner, Lynn A

    2013-01-01

    We report mass-resolved time-of-flight measurements of neutral particles from the surface of single-crystal ZnO during pulsed 193-nm irradiation at laser fluences below the threshold for avalanche breakdown. The major species emitted are atomic Zn and O. We examine the emissions of atomic Zn as a function of laser fluence and laser exposure. Defects at the ZnO surface appear necessary for the detection of these emissions. Our results suggest that the production of defects is necessary to explain intense sustained emissions at higher fluence. Rapid, clean surface etching and high atomic zinc kinetic energies seen at higher laser fluences are also discussed.

  15. a Theoretical Study of the Kinetic Processes in a High-Power Xenon Chloride Excimer Laser Oscillator Driven by a Long Transmission Line Pulse Forming Network.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuh-Shuh

    1982-03-01

    The avalanche/self-sustained discharge rare gas halide (RGH) excimer lasers driven by a transmission line type pulse forming network (PFN) belong to a novel class of discharge pumped gas lasers operating in the visible and ultraviolet wavelengths efficiently. The kinetics in this class of lasers, however, has not yet been fully understood. Therefore, it seems essential at this point to study the characteristics of the discharge plasma in such a device and determine the major energy flow paths in the active media before one attempts to optimize the operating conditions or deduce the scaling rules. The work presented here is the theoretical modeling of the discharge pumped XeCl laser driven by a long transmission line (two way transit time, 200 nsec). The mathematical formulation consisting of the rate equations, the temperature equation, the circuit equation, and the Boltzmann equation governing the velocity and energy distributions of the free electrons is developed under the assumptions that the applied electric field strength is spatially uniform and the number densities of all important chemical species are spatially homogeneous in the discharge volume. These coupled non-linear differential equations are solved numerically by using the GBS extrapolation method simultaneously with the time evolution of the electron mole fraction during the transient discharge. The time-dependent electron velocity and energy distribution functions are obtained from the numerical solutions of the Boltzmann equation, with all elastic (including electron-electron), inelastic, attachment, recombination, and ionization collisions included, by a self-consistent iteration technique. The kinetic reactions involved in the XeCl laser using Ne/Xe/HCl and He/Xe/HCl mixtures are comprehensively examined. The results of this study reveal that the new processes. e + XeCl('*) (--->) Xe('*) + Cl('-),. e + XeCl (--->) Xe + Cl('-) or Xe + Cl + e,. are important and have to be included in the model

  16. Interaction of Wide-Band-Gap Single Crystals with 248-nm Excimer Laser Irradiation: X. Laser-Induced Near-Surface Absorption in Single-Crystal NaCl

    SciTech Connect

    Nwe, K H.; Langford, Stephen C.; Dickinson, J T.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2005-02-15

    Ultraviolet laser-induced desorption of neutral atoms and molecules from nominally transparent, ionic materials can yield particle velocities consistent with surface temperatures of a few thousand Kelvin, even in the absence of visible surface damage. The origin of the laser required for this surface heating has been often overlooked. In this work, we report simultaneous neutral emission and laser transmission measurements on single crystal NaCl exposed to 248-nm excimer laser radiation. As much as 20% of the incident radiation at 248 nm must be absorbed in the near surface region to account for the observed particle velocities. We show that the laser absorption grows from low values over several pulses and saturates at values sufficient to account for the surface temperatures required to explain the observed particle velocity distributions. The growth of absorption in these early pulses is accompanied by a corresponding increase in the emission intensities. Diffuse reflectance spectra acquired after exposure suggest that near surface V-type centers are responsible for most of the absorption at 248 nm in single crystal NaCl.

  17. Interaction of wide-band-gap single crystals with 248-nm excimer laser irradiation. X. Laser-induced near-surface absorption in single-crystal NaCl

    SciTech Connect

    Nwe, K.H.; Langford, S.C.; Dickinson, J.T.; Hess, W.P.

    2005-02-15

    Ultraviolet laser-induced desorption of neutral atoms and molecules from nominally transparent, ionic materials can yield particle velocities consistent with surface temperatures of a few thousand kelvin even in the absence of visible surface damage. The origin of the laser absorption required for this surface heating has been often overlooked. In this work, we report simultaneous neutral emission and laser transmission measurements on single-crystal NaCl exposed to 248-nm excimer laser radiation. As much as 20% of the incident radiation at 248 nm must be absorbed in the near-surface region to account for the observed particle velocities. We show that the laser absorption grows from low values over several pulses and saturates at values sufficient to account for the surface temperatures required to explain the observed particle velocity distributions. The growth of absorption in these early pulses is accompanied by a corresponding increase in the emission intensities. The diffuse reflectance spectra acquired after exposure suggest that near-surface V-type centers are responsible for most of the absorption at 248 nm in single-crystal NaCl.

  18. Simultaneous fluorescence and breakdown spectroscopy of fresh and aging transformer oil immersed in paper using ArF excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvin, P.; Shoursheini, S. Z.; Khalilinejad, F.; Bavali, A.; Moshgel Gosha, M.; Mansouri, B.

    2012-11-01

    HV transformers are taken into account as the heart of the power distribution system. The on-line monitoring based on the oil analysis offers a rapid diagnostic technique to detect the probable faults. In fact, the transformer malfunctions can be detected using UV laser spectroscopic methods. Here, a novel technique is presented based on simultaneous laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and laser induced breakdown (LIB) spectroscopy for hyper sensitive identification of the oil degradation. Oil is mainly degraded due to the internal transformer faults such as overheating and partial discharge. The spectroscopic characteristics of oil in paper substrate were obtained due to ArF laser irradiation. It was shown that the amplitude of fluorescence signal increases when the oil suffers aging and degradation. A couple of additional characteristic carbon and Hα emissions appear in the corresponding breakdown spectra too.

  19. Removal of Metal-Oxide Layers Formed on Stainless and Carbon Steel Surfaces by Excimer Laser Irradiation in Various Atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Kameo, Yutaka; Nakashima, Mikio; Hirabayashi, Takakuni

    2002-02-15

    To apply the laser ablation technique for decontamination of metal wastes contaminated with radioactive nuclides, the effect of irradiation atmospheres on removal of oxide layers on steel surfaces by laser ablation was studied. Based on the assumption that the absorption of laser light follows the Lambert-Beer law, ablation parameters, such as absorption length and threshold fluence for ablation, of sintered Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and stainless and carbon steels were measured in He, O{sub 2}, Kr, or SF{sub 6} atmospheres. The results indicated that SF{sub 6} was the most effective gas of all irradiation atmospheres studied for the exclusive removal of oxide layers formed on stainless and carbon steel samples in high-temperature pressurized water. Secondary ion mass spectroscopic measurement and scanning electron microscopic observation confirmed that no oxide layer existed on the steel samples after the exclusive removal with laser irradiation.

  20. Surface modifications of Kapton and cured polyimide films by ArF excimer laser: applications to imagewise wetting and metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraoka, Hiroyuki; Lazare, Sylvain

    1990-12-01

    Polymer surfaces of certain kinds, particularly polyimide, become highly hydrophilic upon irradiation by deep UV or UV laser in air. Unlike UV lamp light, laser exposure in air is extremely efficient in making polymer surfaces hydrophilic and wettable with aqueous solutions or similar liquids. The change in chemical nature of the polymer surfaces upon laser and deep UV irradiation is studied by contact-angle measurements in both advancing and receding modes. The results are compared with those of PPQ, PPES, polystyrene and PMMA. Under UV irradiation in air, polymer surfaces become highly hydrophilic, resulting in a decrease of the contact angles in both modes. Laser exposure in air makes the surfaces highly hydrophilic and wettable by both photo-induced reactions and debris/roughness formation. Water spray reduces the hysteresis by removing the debris, but the polymers still keep certain roughness and hydrophilicity on the remaining surfaces. Laser irradiation makes imagewise wetting possible with polyimide films at a low fluence. Direct imagewise metallization is also observed with polyimides and PPQ films. The laser-exposed areas cannot have electrically conducting metal films deposited on them while on unexposed surfaces uniform metal film deposition took place. Although the mechanism is still not clear, oxygen RIE is found to be possible in the exposed, non-conducting part, while galvanic plating was carried out on unexposed, conducting surfaces with a Au-Pd metallization.

  1. Excimer laser activation of ultra-shallow junctions in doped Si: Modeling, experiments and real time process monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semmar, Nadjib; Darif, Mohamed; Millon, Eric; Petit, Agnès; Etienne, Hasnaa; Delaporte, Philippe

    2012-07-01

    This work concerns the ALDIP (Laser Activation of Doping agents Implanted by Plasma immersion) project that was a successful collaboration with Ion Beam Services (IBS) corporation, the "Lasers, Plasmas and Photonic Processes" (LP3) laboratory and the GREMI laboratory. The aim of this work is to control the melted thickness (i.e. junction thickness in the range 10-100 nm) by the Real Time Reflectivity (TRR) monitoring during the Laser Thermal Processing (LTP). The LTP is achieved by using a KrF laser beam (248 nm, 27 ns) with a homogeneous 'Top-Hat' space distribution to induce a selective melting and the resolidification of the doped Si:B samples on few nanometers. This recrystallization is conducted here after the pre-amorphisation process resulting from the ionic implantation of Si (PIII IBS implanter). Thus, all the studied samples are partially amorphized and boron doped. TRR method allows the accurate evaluation of the melting threshold, the duration of the melting phase, and the maximum melted thickness. Obtained results versus laser fluence are shown in the new case of under vacuum treatment. In order to calibrate the TRR method (to determine the intensity and the profile of the TRR signal versus the melting depth), we have used the secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) analysis. This technique gives the doping agents profile versus the depth before and after LTP and confirms also the melting kinetics from TRR results.

  2. Surface analysis of the selective excimer laser patterning of a thin PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaubroeck, David; De Smet, Jelle; Willems, Wouter; Cools, Pieter; De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino; De Smet, Herbert; Van Steenbeerge, Geert

    2016-07-01

    Fast patterning of highly conductive polymers like PEDOT:PSS (poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene): polystyrene sulfonate) with lasers can contribute to the development of industrial production of liquid crystal displays on polymer foils. In this article, the selective UV laser patterning of a PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films is investigated. Based on their optical properties, three polymer films are investigated: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and cellulose triacetate (TAC). Ablation parameters for a 110 nm PEDOT:PSS film on these polymer films are optimized. A detailed study of the crater depth, topography and surface composition are provided using optical profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The electrical insulation of the lines is measured and correlated to the crater analyses for different laser settings. Finally, potential ablation parameters for each of the polymer films are derived.

  3. Translational and rotational energy measurements of desorbed water molecules in their vibrational ground state following 157 nm irradiation of amorphous solid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hama, Tetsuya; Yokoyama, Masaaki; Yabushita, Akihiro; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Watanabe, Naoki

    2011-05-01

    Water ice is the major solid component in a variety of astrophysical environments, e.g., cold and dense molecular clouds. Photodesorption plays a dominant role in consuming ice in such cold regions. In this study, photodesorption of vibrationally ground-state H 2O( v = 0) from amorphous solid water has been investigated at 157 nm. Using a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization technique, the translational and rotational energy distributions of photodesorbed H 2O( v = 0) were measured, i.e., Boltzmann distributions at 1800 and 300 K, respectively. These energies are in good accordance with those predicted by classical molecular calculations for water photodesorption due to a kick-out mechanism following absorption of a single photon; hot H atom released by photodissociation of H 2O in ice transfers enough momentum to another H 2O molecule to kick it off the surface. Desorption of D 2O( v = 0) following 193 nm photoirradiation of a D 2O/H 2S mixed ice was investigated to provide further direct evidence for the operation of a kick-out mechanism. The other desorption mechanisms were also discussed in the context of possible photodesorption of vibrationally excited H 2O.

  4. Excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy in eyes with anterior corneal dystrophies: preoperative and postoperative ultrasound biomicroscopic examination and short-term clinical outcomes with and without an antihyperopia treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Rapuano, Christopher J

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of high-frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) in determining the depth of corneal pathology in eyes undergoing excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) for primary or recurrent anterior stromal corneal dystrophies. Corneal clarity, visual acuity and refractive changes in eyes with and without an antihyperopia treatment were also analyzed. METHODS: Twenty eyes of 14 patients with anterior stromal corneal dystrophies were treated with PTK. Eyes were evaluated preoperatively and 6 to 8 weeks postoperatively with slit-lamp biomicroscopy, manifest refraction, keratometry, computerized corneal topography, ultrasound pachymetry, and UBM. RESULTS: Nineteen of 20 corneas (95%) had greatly improved corneal clarity after PTK. Mean uncorrected Snellen vision improved from 20/102 to 20/69 and best corrected vision improved from 20/62 to 20/38. Nine eyes (45%) improved 2 or more lines of uncorrected vision, and 13 eyes (65%) improved 2 or more lines of best corrected vision. Mean change in spherical equivalent was just -0.92 diopters (D); however, the range was large (-13 to +3.88 D). UBM measurement of central corneal pathology did not correlate with the actual PTK ablation depth (P = .07). The amount of antihyperopia treatment did not correlate with changes in manifest refraction spherical equivalent, keratometry, or computerized corneal topography readings, but did correlate with length of time until corneal reepithelialization after PTK (P = .003). CONCLUSIONS: PTK resulted in improvements in corneal clarity and visual acuity in most patients with superficial corneal stromal dystrophies. UBM was not an effective tool to accurately measure the depth of corneal pathology preoperatively. The combined approach of minimizing ablation depth and selective use of an antihyperopia treatment resulted in minimal mean change in spherical equivalent; however, the range was large. PTK is a very good minimally invasive technique to improve vision in

  5. Mechanisms of H{sub 2}O desorption from amorphous solid water by 157-nm irradiation: An experimental and theoretical study

    SciTech Connect

    DeSimone, Alice J.; Crowell, Vernon D.; Sherrill, C. David; Orlando, Thomas M.

    2013-10-28

    The photodesorption of water molecules from amorphous solid water (ASW) by 157-nm irradiation has been examined using resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization. The rotational temperature has been determined, by comparison with simulations, to be 425 ± 75 K. The time-of-flight spectrum of H{sub 2}O (v= 0) has been fit with a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution with a translational temperature of 700 ± 200 K (0.12 ± 0.03 eV). H{sup +} and OH{sup +} fragment ions have been detected with non-resonant multiphoton ionization, indicating vibrationally excited parent water molecules with translational energies of 0.24 ± 0.08 eV. The cross section for water removal from ASW by 7.9-eV photons near 100 K is (6.9 ± 1.8) × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2} for >10 L H{sub 2}O exposure. Electronic structure computations have also probed the excited states of water and the mechanisms of desorption. Calculated electron attachment and detachment densities show that exciton delocalization leads to a dipole reversal state in the first singlet excited state of a model system of hexagonal water ice. Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics simulations show possible desorption of a photo-excited water molecule from this cluster, though the non-hydrogen bonded OH bond is stretched significantly before desorption. Potential energy curves of this OH stretch in the electronic excited state show a barrier to dissociation, lending credence to the dipole reversal mechanism.

  6. Interstellar dust laser explorer (IDLE): A new instrument for submicron analyses of stardust-quantification of laser SNMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkel, T.; Tizard, J.; Blagburn, D.; Lyon, I.

    2006-07-01

    We have constructed a TOFSIMS instrument based upon the BIOTOF design. SIMS mapping of mass resolved secondary ions and molecules with an intrinsic mass resolving power of 3700 has been achieved with an estimated spatial resolution of 250 nm. We have conducted studies of non-resonant laser post-ionization of sputtered neutrals in order to improve the ionization efficiency over SIMS and avoid matrix effects for more precise quantification of element abundances. The laser used is a GAM F 2 excimer laser producing up to 4.5 mJ per pulse at 750 Hz at a wavelength of 157 nm. With a photon energy of 7.9 eV, around 60% of the elements of the periodic table may be non-resonantly photo ionized by single photon ionization. SNMS laser post ionization improves detection sensitivity especially for elements with mid-range first ionization potentials up to the single photon energy of 7.9 eV. We are currently quantifying the highest sensitivities obtainable using this technique for a range of elements.

  7. Super-high-frequency shielding properties of excimer-laser-synthesized-single-wall-carbon-nanotubes/polyurethane nanocomposite films

    SciTech Connect

    Aiessa, B.; Habib, M. A.; Denidni, T. A.; El Khakani, M. A.; Laberge, L. L.; Therriault, D.

    2011-04-15

    Electromagnetic shielding attenuation (ESA) properties of carbon nanotubes/polymer nanocomposite films, in the super high frequency (SHF) X-band (7-12 GHz) domain are studied. The nanocomposite films consisted of thermoset polyurethane (PU) resin blended with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) mats, and deposited on fused quartz substrates. Two different approaches were used to achieve the nanocomposite films, namely (i) through the on-substrate ''all-laser'' growth approach of SWCNTs directly onto substrate, followed by their infiltration by the PU resin, and (ii) by appropriately dispersing the chemically-purified SWCNTs (in the soot form) into the PU matrix and their subsequent deposition onto quartz substrates by means of a solvent casting process. Characterizations of the ESA properties of the developed nanocomposite films show that they exhibit systematically a deep shielding band, centered at around 9.5 GHz, with an attenuation as high as |- 30| dB, recorded for SWCNT loads of 2.5 wt. % and above. A direct correlation is established between the electrical conductivity of the nanocomposite films and their electromagnetic shielding capacity. The SWCNTs/PU nanocomposites developed here are highly promising shielding materials as SHF notch filters, as their ESA capacity largely exceeds the target value of |- 20| dB generally requested for commercial applications.

  8. Pulse- and time-dependent observation of UV-laser-induced structures on polymer surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesting, Wolfgang; Knittel, Dierk; Bahners, Thomas; Schollmeyer, Eckhard

    1992-01-01

    Irradiation of highly absorbing polymers with a pulsed excimer laser can change the surface topography under certain conditions. Fibres made of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and polyamide show a characteristic roll-like morphology after treatment with 193 or 248 nm laser irradiation, which promises interesting applications in industrial processing of textile fibres. For a systematic study of the influences of the various parameters monofilaments made of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and poly(propylene) were irradiated in place in a microscope. This allowed the observation of the evolution of the structure shot by shot. Quantitative data were taken by use of an image analysing system. The study was done with various laser fluences, wavelengths and in dependence on mechanical stress (draw) on the sample. With increasing number of shots the morphology gets more coarse due to a sort of "combining" of the rolls showing a logarithmic dependence of the mean roll-distance on the number of pulses applied. Characteristically, the fibre decomposes into ellipsoidal pieces after a sufficient number of shots. The polyolefinic material cannot be modified directly with 193 or 248 nm laser radiation due to the low absorption coefficient for these wavelenghts. By using a 157 nm F 2 laser certain surface modifications were observed on fibres and films. The structures were similar to the effects previously found on poly(ethylene terephthalate).

  9. The interaction of 193 nm excimer laser radiation with single-crystal zinc oxide: Generation of long lived highly excited particles with evidence of Zn Rydberg formation

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Enamul H.; Langford, S. C.; Dickinson, J. T.; Boatner, L. A.

    2014-08-28

    In past studies, we have observed copious emissions of ionic and atomic Zn from single-crystal ZnO accompanying irradiation of single-crystal ZnO with 193-nm excimer laser irradiation at fluences below the onset of optical breakdown. The Zn{sup +} and ground state Zn° are studied using time-of-flight techniques and are mass selected using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Simultaneously, we have observed emitted particles that are detectable with a Channeltron electron multiplier but cannot be mass selected. It is a reasonable hypothesis that these particles correspond to a neutral atom or molecule in highly excited long lived states. We provide strong evidence that they correspond to high lying Rydberg states of atomic Zn. We propose a production mechanism involving laser excitation via a two photon resonance excitation of Zn°.

  10. Relative elemental sensitivity factors in non-resonant laser-SNMS.

    PubMed

    Wahl, M; Koch, D; Berthold, W; Wucher, A

    1995-10-01

    Using a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer, the ionization process in non-resonant Laser postionization Secondary Neutral Mass Spectrometry (SNMS) has been investigated. In particular, the postionization efficiencies (PIE) achieved by multi photon and single photon absorption have been compared by ionizing ten elements sputtered from a NIST standard reference material by excimer laser radiation of 248 nm, 193 nm and 157 nm. Only in the case of single photon ionization (SPI) the measured laser intensity dependence of the PIE can be understood quantitatively in terms of corresponding theory. From the results, absolute values of the SPI cross sections have been evaluated for atoms of nine elements, which show a total variation over about two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, even in the regime of high laser intensity, where the ionization of all atoms is completely saturated, different elements have been detected with relative sensitivity factors which scatter over about one order of magnitude. This has been attributed to element dependent variations of the effective ionization volume which are caused by the different kinetic energy and angular distributions of different sputtered atoms. PMID:15048498

  11. Excimer laser with fluoropolymer lining

    DOEpatents

    Sze, Robert C.

    1982-01-01

    A cavity formed of Teflon to provide extended static fill lifetimes for gases containing halogens. A double cavity configuration provides structural integrity to the inner Teflon cavity by maintaining an identical multi-atmospheric pressure within the outer structural cavity to minimize tension on the Teflon inner cavity. Use of a quantity of the lasing gas in the outer cavity or a constituent of that gas minimizes contamination of the lasing gas.

  12. Excimer laser with fluoropolymer lining

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, R.C.

    1982-03-02

    A cavity formed of teflon to provide extended static fill lifetimes for gases containing halogens. A double cavity configuration provides structural integrity to the inner teflon cavity by maintaining an identical multi-atmospheric pressure within the outer structural cavity to minimize tension on the teflon inner cavity. Use of a quantity of the lasing gas in the outer cavity or a constituent of that gas minimizes contamination of the lasing gas.

  13. Preliminary results of tracked laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis (T-LASIK) for myopia and hyperopia using the autonomous technologies excimer laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguen, Ezra I.; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Salz, James J.

    2000-06-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the safety and efficacy of LASIK with the LADARVision laser by Autonomous Technologies, (Orlando, FL). The study included four subsets: Spherical myopia -- up to -11.00D, spherical hyperopia -- up to +6.00D. Both myopic and hyperopic astigmatism could be corrected, up to 6.00D of astigmatism. A total of 105 patients participated. Sixty-six patients were myopic and 39 were hyperopic. The mean (+/- SD) age was 42.8 +/- 9.3 years for myopia and 53.2 +/- 9.9 years for hyperopia. At 3 months postop. Sixty-one myopic eyes were available for evaluation. Uncorrected visual acuity was 20/20 in 70% of eyes and 20/40 in 92.9% of all eyes. The refractive outcome was within +/- 0.50D in 73.8% of eyes and within +/- 1.00D in 96.7 of eyes. Thirty-eight hyperopic eyes were available. Uncorrected visual acuity was 20/20 in 42.1% of eyes and 20/40 in 88% of all eyes. The refractive outcome was within +/- 0.50D in 57.9% of eyes and within +/- 1.00D in 86.8% of eyes. Complications were not sight threatening and were discussed in detail. Lasik with the LADARVision laser appears to be safe and effective.

  14. Characteristics of a pulsed chemical laser utilizing an H2-F2 mixture and initiated by radiation from an XeCl excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, E. B.; Matiushenko, V. I.; Sizov, V. D.

    1982-11-01

    Using He, Kr, Xe, N2 and SF6 as diluents, a study was undertaken of the influence of active mixture composition on the energy and temporal characteristics of an HF laser. A 1500 percent efficiency was obtained by an F2:O2:H2:SF6 = 7.5:0.75:2.5:3.5 mixture at a pressure of 110 Torr. Specific output energy was found to increase in proportion to both the initiation energy and the fuel mixture concentration for a given initiation energy. In the case of an F2:O2:H2:SF6 = 25:2.5:2.5:20 mixture at a pressure of 0.5 atm, an output energy of 38 J/liter was reached, with a concentration of atoms created by the UV radiation of F(zero) of approximately 2 x 10 to the 16th/cu cm.

  15. Controlled reshaping of the front surface of the cornea through its full-area ablation outside of the optical zone with a Gaussian ArF excimer laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semchishen, A. V.; Semchishen, V. A.

    2014-01-01

    We studied in vitro the response of the topography of the cornea to its full-area laser ablation (the laser beam spot diameter is commensurable with the size of the interface) outside of the central zone with an excimer laser having a Gaussian fluence distribution across the beam. Subject to investigation were the topographically controlled surface changes of the anterior cornea in 60 porcine eyes with a 5 ± 1.25-diopter artificially induced astigmatism, the changes being caused by laser ablation of the stromal collagen in two 3.5-mm-dia. circular areas along the weaker astigmatism axis. Experimental relationships are presented between the actual astigmatism correction and the expected correction for the intact optical zones 1, 2, 3, and 4 mm in diameter. The data for each zone were approximated by the least-squares method with the function d = a + bx. The coefficient b is given with the root-mean-square error. The statistical processing of the data yielded the following results: d = (0.14 ± 0.037)x for the 1-mm-dia. optical zone, (1.10 ± 0.036)x for the 2-mm-dia. optical zone, (1.04 ± 0.020)x for the 3-mm-dia. optical zone, and (0.55 ± 0.04)x for the 4-mm-dia. optical zone. Full astigmatism correction was achieved with ablation effected outside of the 3-mm-dia. optical zone. The surface changes of the cornea are shown to be due not only to the removal of the corneal tissue, but also to the biomechanical topographic response of the cornea to its strain caused by the formation of a dense pseudomembrane in the ablation area.

  16. Laser-Induced Damage of Calcium Fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Espana, Aubrey L.; Joly, Alan G.; Hess, Wayne P.; Dickinson, J T.

    2004-12-01

    Radiation damage of materials has long been of fundamental interest, especially since the growth of laser technology. One such source of damage comes from UV laser light. Laser systems continue to move into shorter wavelength ranges, but unfortunately are limited by the damage threshold of their optical components. For example, semiconductor lithography is making its way into the 157nm range and requires a material that can not only transmit this light (air cannot), but also withstand the highly energetic photons present at this shorter wavelength. CaF2, an alkaline earth halide, is the chosen material for vacuum UV 157 nm excimer radiation. It can transmit light down to 120 nm and is relatively inexpensive. Although it is readily available through natural and synthetic sources, it is often times difficult to find in high purity. Impurities in the crystal can result in occupied states in the band gap that induce photon absorption [2] and ultimately lead to the degradation of the material. In order to predict how well CaF2 will perform under irradiation of short wavelength laser light, one must understand the mechanisms for laser-induced damage. Laser damage is often a two-step process: initial photons create new defects in the lattice and subsequent photons excite these defects. When laser light is incident on a solid surface there is an initial production of electron-hole (e-h) pairs, a heating of free electrons and a generation of local heating around optically absorbing centers [3]. Once this initial excitation converts to the driving energy for nuclear motion, the result is an ejection of atoms, ions and molecules from the surface, known as desorption or ablation [3]. Secondary processes further driving desorption are photoabsorption, successive excitations of self-trapped excitons (STE's) and defects, and ionization of neutrals by incident laser light [3]. The combination of laser-induced desorption and the alterations to the electronic and geometrical

  17. Immediate and midterm follow-up results of excimer laser application in complex percutaneous coronary interventions: Report from a single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Tarsia, Giandomenico; Viceconte, Nicola; Takagi, Kensuke; Biscione, Carmine; Del Prete, Giuseppe; Polosa, Domenico; Osanna, Roccoaldo; Lisanti, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of laser-assisted percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in an unselected population. Methods One hundred consecutive patients, who underwent a laser assisted PCI between January 2008 and March 2012, were included in the present study. Fifty-one patients underwent laser ablation for thrombus vaporization (Group 1), 36 patients for neointima/plaque debulking (Group 2) and 13 patients for lesion compliance modification in calcified lesions (Group 3). Results The rate of in-hospital serious events was 2%. The cumulative laser success was 82%, and it was significantly higher for Group 1 and Group 2 in comparison with Group 3 (p = 0.001). Furthermore, the need for repeat revascularization was significantly higher in the Group 3 compared with the others two groups (46% vs. 8% for Group 1 and 11% for Group 2, p = 0.03). The MACE rate was 14%. There was a trend toward a higher MACE rate in the Group 3 compared with others two groups (p = 0.05). Conclusions Laser ablation is an effective and safe tool for complex PCI. Patients underwent laser for thrombus vaporization or for neointima/plaque debulking had better immediate success and better outcome at follow-up than patients underwent laser for lesion compliance modification. PMID:24265882

  18. Excimer ablation of human intervertebral disc at 308 nanometers.

    PubMed

    Wolgin, M; Finkenberg, J; Papaioannou, T; Segil, C; Soma, C; Grundfest, W

    1989-01-01

    Excimer laser energy, which has been shown to photoablate tissue at a precisely controllable rate with minimal thermal damage, was applied to human intervertebral disc in an effort to develop a technique for percutaneous discectomy. Cadaveric samples of human disc were used. Excimer laser energy was produced by a XeCl, magnetically switched, long-pulse laser working at 308 nm, 20 Hz. Annulus tissue of approximately 1 mm thickness was placed in contact with the output tip of a 400 microns core diameter quartz fiber, and measurements of ablation rate were made at different radiant exposures. Ablation rates were found to vary linearly with radiant exposure, from 0.7 micron/pulse at 10 mJ/mm2 to 11.0 microns/pulse at 55 mJ/mm2, with a correlation coefficient of 0.984. Threshold radiant exposure, calculated by extrapolation, was found to be about 7 mJ/mm2. Histologic analysis showed a minimum of thermal damage in these specimens, and when ablated with modification to maintain constant fiber-tissue contact, thermal injury was nearly absent, as compared to samples ablated with Nd:YAG through a contact probe. Thermographic analysis, performed using the AGA 782 Digital Thermography system, showed increasing temperature with increasing radiant exposure, with a maximum temperature of 47.2 degrees C at 55 mJ/mm2. In that precise tissue ablation was demonstrated with minimal generated heat, and excimer energy at 308 nm is transmissible through fiber optics, excimer holds great promise for the development of a percutaneous discectomy technique. PMID:2716456

  19. Cross-shaped photoluminescence of excimers in perylene crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Daichi; Numata, Yudai; Nakagawa, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Tokunaga, Eiji

    2016-04-01

    Cross-shaped excimer (self-trapped exciton) luminescence from α- and β-perylene single crystals of 50-100 μm was found when they were excited at the center of the crystals with a continuous-wave (cw) laser resonant with the exciton absorption. The cross shape is formed by the two lines which intersect at the excited position and are perpendicular to the sides of the crystals of parallelogram shape. Luminescence is emitted from the excited spot and 4 side edges in the cross shape. The most striking feature is that the luminescence intensity at the edges was as high as or higher than at the excited spot. The possibility of the exciton propagation or the waveguide effect is rejected both experimentally and theoretically. This phenomenon can be reasonably explained only when the radiative transition probability of excimers is significantly enhanced at the crystals side edges than at the center due to the lower symmetry.

  20. Cross-shaped photoluminescence of excimers in perylene crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Daichi; Numata, Yudai; Nakagawa, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Tokunaga, Eiji

    2016-06-01

    Cross-shaped excimer (self-trapped exciton) luminescence from α- and β-perylene single crystals of 50-100 μm was found when they were excited at the center of the crystals with a continuous-wave (cw) laser resonant with the exciton absorption. The cross shape is formed by the two lines which intersect at the excited position and are perpendicular to the sides of the crystals of parallelogram shape. Luminescence is emitted from the excited spot and 4 side edges in the cross shape. The most striking feature is that the luminescence intensity at the edges was as high as or higher than at the excited spot. The possibility of the exciton propagation or the waveguide effect is rejected both experimentally and theoretically. This phenomenon can be reasonably explained only when the radiative transition probability of excimers is significantly enhanced at the crystals side edges than at the center due to the lower symmetry.

  1. X-ray contact microscopy using a plasma source generated by long and short (120ns and 10ns) excimer laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Cotton, R.; Bollanti, S.; Di Lazzaro, P.

    1995-12-31

    Soft X-ray contact microscopy (SXCM), using a pulsed X-ray source, offers the possibility of imaging the ultrastructure of living biological systems at sub-50nm resolution. The authors have developed a pulsed plasma X-ray source for this application, generated by the large volume XeCl laser Hercules. Various unstable optical resonator configurations were employed to achieve a high laser intensity to increase the conversion efficiency to water window X-rays (280--530 eV). Optimum plasma conditions for SXCM are discussed, including the effect of pulse duration on image resolution. Soft X-ray contact images of Chlamydomonas dysosmos (unicellular alga) and the cyanobacteria Leptolyngbya are shown. In addition, the potential of producing a movie film of the development of X-ray images within the photoresist (acting as the recording medium) is discussed, following the resist development while viewing by atomic force microscopy.

  2. Effect of the Sn dopant on the crystallization of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 films induced by an excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, N.; Liu, F. R.; Han, X. X.; Zhu, Z.; Liu, F.; Lin, X.; Sun, N. X.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, the influence of Sn doping (0%, 8%, and 14%) on the crystallization of Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) was studied with the aid of an ultraviolet laser. It was found that the addition of Sn element not only expanded the lattice parameter but also decreased the crystallization temperature and activation energy as compared to the GST. As compared to the Ge2Sb2Te5, a more complete crystallization of the Sn doping Ge2Sb2Te5 is mainly due to the lower binding energy of Sn-Te (359.8 kJ/mol), which could be more easily taken part in the bond breakage and formation than Ge-Te (456 kJ/mol) in such a short time as 30 ns. The equiaxial grains were obtained for the Sn8Ge15Sb23Te54 films when crystallization was induced by the laser fluence of 20 mJ/cm2 but the grains elongated when the laser fluence was increased to 60 mJ/cm2. The reason may be the incorporation of Sn elements changed the crystal nucleation mode.

  3. Interaction of wide band gap single crystals with 248 nm excimer laser radiation. XII. The emission of negative atomic ions from alkali halides

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Kenichi; Langford, S. C.; Dickinson, J. T.

    2007-12-01

    Many wide band gap materials yield charged and neutral emissions when exposed to sub-band-gap laser radiation at power densities below the threshold for optical breakdown and plume formation. In this work, we report the observation of negative alkali ions from several alkali halides under comparable conditions. We observe no evidence for negative halogen ions, in spite of the high electron affinities of the halogens. Significantly, the positive and negative alkali ions show a high degree of spatial and temporal overlap. A detailed study of all the relevant particle emissions from potassium chloride (KCl) suggests that K{sup -} is formed by the sequential attachment of two electrons to K{sup +}.

  4. Polarized IR studies of silica glasses exposed to polarized excimer radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Charlene M.; Borrelli, Nicholas F.; Tingley, James E.

    2006-12-15

    Silica glass exhibits a permanent anisotropic response, polarization-induced birefringence (PIB), when exposed to short-wavelength polarized light. This behavior has been correlated with the OH content of the glass. In this paper we describe polarized infrared studies of silica glasses of different OH content exposed with polarized 157 nm laser light. Changes in the fundamental OH band as a consequence of exposure are shown. We find differential bleaching of a particular OH band where OH species that are oriented parallel to the incident exposing polarization undergo greater bleaching than those oriented perpendicular. The preferential bleaching as a function of exposure time correlates strongly with the evolution of PIB, leading to a bleaching model of OH that is causally linked to PIB.

  5. An excimer-based FAIMS detector for detection of ultra-low concentration of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chistyakov, Alexander A.; Kotkovskii, Gennadii E.; Sychev, Alexey V.; Perederiy, Anatoly N.; Budovich, V. L.; Budovich, D. V.

    2014-05-01

    A new method of explosives detection based on the field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) and ionization by an excimer emitter has been developed jointly with a portable detector. The excimer emitter differs from usual UVionizing lamps by mechanism of emitting, energy and spectral characteristics. The developed and applied Ar2-excimer emitter has the working volume of 1 cm3, consuming power 0.6 W, the energy of photons of about 10 eV (λ=126 nm), the FWHM radiation spectrum of 10 nm and emits more than 1016 photon per second that is two orders of magnitude higher than UV-lamp of the same working volume emits. This also exceeds by an order of magnitude the quantity of photons per second for 10-Hz solid state YAG:Nd3+ - laser of 1mJ pulse energy at λ=266 nm that is also used to ionize the analyte. The Ar2-excimer ionizes explosives by direct ionization mechanism and through ionization of organic impurities. The developed Ar2-excimer-based ion source does not require cooling due to low level discharge current of emitter and is able to work with no repair more than 10000 hrs. The developed excimer-based explosives detector can analyze both vapors and traces of explosives. The FAIMS spectra of the basic types of explosives like trinitrotoluene (TNT), cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), dinitrotoluene (DNT), cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX), nitroglycerine (NG), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) under Ar2-excimer ionization are presented. The detection limit determined for TNT vapors equals 1x10-14 g/cm3, for TNT traces- 100 pg.

  6. Underwater excimer laser ablation of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elaboudi, I.; Lazare, S.; Belin, C.; Talaga, D.; Labrugère, C.

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, we study the photoablation kinetic of poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET), polycarbonate (PC), polyimide (PI) and polystyrene (PS) in both air and water. Compared to the results obtained in air, we highlight the decrease of the ablation threshold (AT) of polyesters in contact with water as a function of polymer chemical structure. In order to check the expected hydrolytic reaction of polyesters near the ablation threshold, the chemical modification of the polymer surfaces, as well the composition of the ablation products, were investigated after irradiation near the fluence of ablation threshold in air (air- F t ) by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and confocal Raman microspectroscopy. The morphology of polymers obtained by underwater irradiation and near the air- F t was also examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To understand the process and its dynamics in contact with water, we consider the model of temperature at the polymer-water interface based on the semi-analytical solution of the transit heat-diffusion equation.

  7. Laser Safety Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A major focus of work done at Air Products and Chemicals' Laser Application Laboratory is on use of ultraviolet radiation using high energy excimer lasers. Because light within the wavelength of excimer lasers is invisible, it can cause serious damage to eyes and tissue. To contain the laser beam, Air Products Incorporated a Jet Propulsion Laboratory invention described in a technical support package into its beam stops. The technology interrupts the laser pathway and allows workers to remain in the target area without shutting off the laser.

  8. Nuclear pumped electronic transition laser studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, W. M.; Helmick, H. H.

    1979-01-01

    An experiment is proposed that should yield unambiguous absolute results on the production efficiency of rare gas excimers from fission fragments. Laser threshold efficiency is parameterized and calculations indicate that some lasers can be operated using relatively simple experimental apparatus adjacent to GODIVA. Operation of a KrF excimer laser adjacent to GODIVA appears to be possible, although the neutron pulse width is not well matched to the laser pulse duration. However, calculation indicates that KrF excimer laser output on the order of a joule may be possible.

  9. Recent advances in high-power tunable lasers (UV, visible, and near IR)

    SciTech Connect

    Smiley, V.N.

    1981-05-01

    A review of the current technology of high-power tunable lasers is presented with the emphasis on dye lasers. Among the topics covered are color center lasers, excimer lasers, picosecond techniques, and nonlinear coherent sources. (AIP)

  10. Laser assisted deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, S.

    1983-01-01

    Applications of laser-based processing techniques to solar cell metallization are discussed. Laser-assisted thermal or photolytic maskless deposition from organometallic vapors or solutions may provide a viable alternative to photovoltaic metallization systems currently in use. High power, defocused excimer lasers may be used in conjunction with masks as an alternative to direct laser writing to provide higher throughput. Repeated pulsing with excimer lasers may eliminate the need for secondary plating techniques for metal film buildup. A comparison between the thermal and photochemical deposition processes is made.

  11. Lasers '92; Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers and Applications, 15th, Houston, TX, Dec. 7-10, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Charles P. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Papers from the conference are presented, and the topics covered include the following: x-ray lasers, excimer lasers, chemical lasers, high power lasers, blue-green lasers, dye lasers, solid state lasers, semiconductor lasers, gas and discharge lasers, carbon dioxide lasers, ultrafast phenomena, nonlinear optics, quantum optics, dynamic gratings and wave mixing, laser radar, lasers in medicine, optical filters and laser communication, optical techniques and instruments, laser material interaction, and industrial and manufacturing applications.

  12. Advances in solid state laser technology for space and medical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments in laser technology and their potential for medical applications are discussed. Gas discharge lasers, dye lasers, excimer lasers, Nd:YAG lasers, HF and DF lasers, and other commonly used lasers are briefly addressed. Emerging laser technology is examined, including diode-pumped lasers and other solid state lasers.

  13. QUANTUM-STATE RESOLVED PRODUCTS VIA VACUUM ULTRAVIOLET PHOTOSTIMULATED DESORPTION FROM GEOLOIC CALCITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report the results of a photostimulated desorption (PSD) study of neutral CO products from room temperature geologic calcite utilizing fluences <300 microJ/cm2 of 157-nm excimer laser radiation. At this wavelength, we are coincident with an intense absorption peak such that m...

  14. Concentration, temperature, and density in a hydrogen-air flame by excimer-induced Raman scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehrmeyer, Joseph A.; Bowling, John M.; Pitz, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    Single-pulse, vibrational Raman scattering (VRS) is an attractive laser diagnostic for the study of supersonic hydrogen-air combustion. The VRS technique gives a complete thermodynamic description of the gas mixture at a point in the reacting flow. Single-pulse, vibrational Raman scattering can simultaneously provide independent measurements of density, temperature, and concentration of each major species (H2, H2O, O2 and N2) in a hydrogen/air turbulent combustor. Also the pressure can be calculated using the ideal gas law. However, single-pulse VRS systems in current use for measurement of turbulent combustion have a number of shortcomings when applied to supersonic flows: (1) slow repetition rate (1 to 5 Hz), (2) poor spatial resolution (0.5x0.3x0.3 cu mm), and (3) marginal time resolution. Most of these shortcomings are due to the use of visible wavelength flash-lamp pumped dye lasers. The advent of UV excimer laser allows the possibility of dramatic improvements in the single-pulse, vibrational Raman scattering. The excimer based VRS probe will greatly improve repetition rate (100 to 500 Hz), spatial resolution (0.1x0.1x0.1 cu mm) and time resolution (30ns). These improvements result from the lower divergence of the UV excimer, higher repetition rate, and the increased Raman cross-sections (15 to 20 times higher) at ultra-violet (UV) wavelengths. With this increased capability, single-pulse vibrational Raman scattering promises to be an ideal non-intrusive probe for the study of hypersonic propulsion flows.

  15. Ion-molecule processes in lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laudenslager, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    Three classes of molecular electronic transition lasers produced by hybrid pumping of high pressure rate gas mixtures are discussed. These are (1) rare gas dimer lasers (such as excited Ar2, Kr2, and Xe2) lasing in the VUV, (2) rare gas halide lasers or excimer lasers (such as KrF, ArF, and XeCl excimers) lasing in the UV, and (3) the charge transfer molecular ion laser (such as N2/+/) lasing in the visible range. Laser excitation methods and kinetic sequences are examined for these lasers.

  16. Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grundfest, W. S.; Litvack, F.; Forrester, J. S.; Goldenberg, T.; Swan, H. J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Seventy samples of human cadaver atherosclerotic aorta were irradiated in vitro using a 308 nm xenon chloride excimer laser. Energy per pulse, pulse duration and frequency were varied. For comparison, 60 segments were also irradiated with an argon ion and an Nd:YAG laser operated in the continuous mode. Tissue was fixed in formalin, sectioned and examined microscopically. The Nd:YAG and argon ion-irradiated tissue exhibited a central crater with irregular edges and concentric zones of thermal and blast injury. In contrast, the excimer laser-irradiated tissue had narrow deep incisions with minimal or no thermal injury. These preliminary experiments indicate that the excimer laser vaporizes tissue in a manner different from that of the continuous wave Nd:YAG or argon ion laser. The sharp incision margins and minimal damage to adjacent normal tissue suggest that the excimer laser is more desirable for general surgical and intravascular uses than are the conventionally used medical lasers.

  17. Permanent excimer superstructures by supramolecular networking of metal quantum clusters.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Gonzalez, Beatriz; Monguzzi, Angelo; Azpiroz, Jon Mikel; Prato, Mirko; Erratico, Silvia; Campione, Marcello; Lorenzi, Roberto; Pedrini, Jacopo; Santambrogio, Carlo; Torrente, Yvan; De Angelis, Filippo; Meinardi, Francesco; Brovelli, Sergio

    2016-08-01

    Excimers are evanescent quasi-particles that typically form during collisional intermolecular interactions and exist exclusively for their excited-state lifetime. We exploited the distinctive structure of metal quantum clusters to fabricate permanent excimer-like colloidal superstructures made of ground-state noninteracting gold cores, held together by a network of hydrogen bonds between their capping ligands. This previously unknown aggregation state of matter, studied through spectroscopic experiments and ab initio calculations, conveys the photophysics of excimers into stable nanoparticles, which overcome the intrinsic limitation of excimers in single-particle applications-that is, their nearly zero formation probability in ultra-diluted solutions. In vitro experiments demonstrate the suitability of the superstructures as nonresonant intracellular probes and further reveal their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species, which enhances their potential as anticytotoxic agents for biomedical applications. PMID:27493181

  18. Permanent excimer superstructures by supramolecular networking of metal quantum clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago-Gonzalez, Beatriz; Monguzzi, Angelo; Azpiroz, Jon Mikel; Prato, Mirko; Erratico, Silvia; Campione, Marcello; Lorenzi, Roberto; Pedrini, Jacopo; Santambrogio, Carlo; Torrente, Yvan; De Angelis, Filippo; Meinardi, Francesco; Brovelli, Sergio

    2016-08-01

    Excimers are evanescent quasi-particles that typically form during collisional intermolecular interactions and exist exclusively for their excited-state lifetime. We exploited the distinctive structure of metal quantum clusters to fabricate permanent excimer-like colloidal superstructures made of ground-state noninteracting gold cores, held together by a network of hydrogen bonds between their capping ligands. This previously unknown aggregation state of matter, studied through spectroscopic experiments and ab initio calculations, conveys the photophysics of excimers into stable nanoparticles, which overcome the intrinsic limitation of excimers in single-particle applications—that is, their nearly zero formation probability in ultra-diluted solutions. In vitro experiments demonstrate the suitability of the superstructures as nonresonant intracellular probes and further reveal their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species, which enhances their potential as anticytotoxic agents for biomedical applications.

  19. [Laser treatment of urethral strictures].

    PubMed

    Klammert, R; Schneede, P; Kriegmair, M

    1994-07-01

    Since the late 1970s different laser systems have been applied for the treatment of urethral strictures. Thermal effects adjacent on tissue have made the long term results of Nd:-YAG and Ar+ laser application discouraging. New laser systems (KTP, Excimer, Ho: YAG) still have to prove their efficacy in randomized clinical trials against cold knife urethrotomy. PMID:7941175

  20. Impact of open de-ionized water thin film laminar immersion on the liquid-immersed ablation threshold and ablation rate of features machined by KrF excimer laser ablation of bisphenol A polycarbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowding, C. F.; Lawrence, J.

    2009-11-01

    Debris control and surface quality are potential major benefits of sample liquid immersion when laser micromachining; however, the use of an immersion technique potentially modifies the ablation mechanism when compared to an ambient air interaction. To investigate the machining characteristics, bisphenol A polycarbonate has been laser machined in air and under a controllable open liquid film. To provide quantitative analysis, ablation threshold, ablation rate and the attenuation coefficient of the immersing de-ionized (DI) water fluid were measured. In ambient air the threshold fluence was measured to be 37 mJ cm -2. Thin film immersion displayed two trends: threshold fluences of 58.6 and 83.9 mJ cm -2. The attenuation of DI water was found to be negligible; thus, the change in ablation rate resulted from increased confinement of the vapour plume by the liquid medium, generating higher Bremsstrahlung attenuation of the beam, lowering the laser etch rate. Simultaneously, splashing motivated by the confined ablation plume allowed release of plume pressure before plume etching commenced. This contributed to the loss of total etching efficiency. Two interaction scenarios were obsereved as a result of splashing: (i) intermediate threshold fluence, where splashing occured after every pulse in a mode that interrupted the flow entirely, leaving an ambient air interaction for the following pulse; (ii) high threshold fluence, where splashing occured for every pulse in a mode that allowed the flow to recommence over the image before the next pulse causing every pulse to experience Bremsstrahlung attenuation. Since attenuation of the immersion liquid was negligible, it is the action of the constrained ablation plume within a thin flowing immersion liquid, the resultant Bremsstrahlung attenuation and splashing events that are the critical mechanisms that modify the primary ablation characteristics.

  1. Excimer states in microhydrated adenine clusters.

    PubMed

    Smith, V R; Samoylova, E; Ritze, H-H; Radloff, W; Schultz, T

    2010-09-01

    We present femtosecond pump-probe mass and photoelectron spectra for adenine (A) and microhydrated A(m)(H(2)O)(n) clusters. Three distinct relaxation processes of photoexcited electronic states were distinguished: in unhydrated A, relaxation of the optically bright pipi* state occurred via the dark npi* state with respective lifetimes of <0.1 and 1.3 ps. In microhydrated clusters A(H(2)O)(n), relaxation via the npi* state is quenched by a faster relaxation process, probably involving pisigma* states. For the predominantly hydrogen-bonded adenine dimer (A(2)), excited state relaxation is dominated by monomer-like processes. When the adenine dimer is clustered with several water molecules, we observe a nanosecond lifetime from excimer states in pi-stacked clusters. From the electron spectra we estimate adiabatic ionization potentials of 8.32 eV (A), 8.27 eV (A(H(2)O)(1)), 8.19 eV (A(H(2)O)(2)), 8.10 eV (A(H(2)O)(3)), 8.18 eV (A(2)), and 8.0 eV (A(2)(H(2)O)(3-5)). PMID:20556283

  2. Neutron detection by scintillation of noble-gas excimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComb, Jacob Collin

    Neutron detection is a technique essential to homeland security, nuclear reactor instrumentation, neutron diffraction science, oil-well logging, particle physics and radiation safety. The current shortage of helium-3, the neutron absorber used in most gas-filled proportional counters, has created a strong incentive to develop alternate methods of neutron detection. Excimer-based neutron detection (END) provides an alternative with many attractive properties. Like proportional counters, END relies on the conversion of a neutron into energetic charged particles, through an exothermic capture reaction with a neutron absorbing nucleus (10B, 6Li, 3He). As charged particles from these reactions lose energy in a surrounding gas, they cause electron excitation and ionization. Whereas most gas-filled detectors collect ionized charge to form a signal, END depends on the formation of diatomic noble-gas excimers (Ar*2, Kr*2,Xe* 2) . Upon decaying, excimers emit far-ultraviolet (FUV) photons, which may be collected by a photomultiplier tube or other photon detector. This phenomenon provides a means of neutron detection with a number of advantages over traditional methods. This thesis investigates excimer scintillation yield from the heavy noble gases following the boron-neutron capture reaction in 10B thin-film targets. Additionally, the thesis examines noble-gas excimer lifetimes with relationship to gas type and gas pressure. Experimental data were collected both at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Center for Neutron Research, and on a newly developed neutron beamline at the Maryland University Training Reactor. The components of the experiment were calibrated at NIST and the University of Maryland, using FUV synchrotron radiation, neutron imaging, and foil activation techniques, among others. Computer modeling was employed to simulate charged-particle transport and excimer photon emission within the experimental apparatus. The observed excimer

  3. Lasers '90; Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Lasers and Applications, San Diego, CA, Dec. 10-14, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Dennis G.; Herbelin, John

    Various papers on lasers are presented. The general topics considered are: X-ray lasers; FELs, solid state lasers; techniques and phenomena of ultrafast lasers; optical filters and free space laser communications, discharge lasers; tunable lasers; application of lasers in medicine and surgery; lasers in materials processing; high power lasers; dynamic gratings, wave mixing, and holography; up-conversion lasers; lidar and laser radar; laser resonators; excimer lasers; laser propagation; nonlinear and quantum optics; blue-green technology; imaging; laser spectroscopy; chemical lasers; dye lasers; lasers in chemistry.

  4. Spectroscopic study of rare-gas excimer formation in a direct-current discharge with supersonic expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiik, M. J.; Dubé, P.; Stoicheff, B. P.

    1995-02-01

    Emission spectra of the rare-gas excimers Ar2*, Kr2*, and Xe2* were excited in a dc jet discharge with supersonic expansion. Absorption and fluorescence emission measurements provided atomic population densities for levels of the 1s manifold. Changes in intensities of the atomic resonance lines and the VUV bands were examined as the plasma was irradiated with laser radiation tuned to specific atomic transitions between levels of the 1s and 2p manifolds. This technique of optical pumping has established that excimers in the A 3Σ+u state are the main contributors to the observed bands from this source. Rate equations were developed to explain the observed intensity changes. Comparisons of the calculated and observed changes indicated that population mixing amongst levels of the 1s manifold caused by electron collisions is an important process in regulating the population in the 1s5 atomic level that leads to the formation of rare-gas excimers by collisions with ground level atoms.

  5. Laser amplifier developments at Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, E.A.; Brucker, J.P.; Honig, E.M.; McCown, A.W.; Romero, V.O.; York, G.W.

    1993-09-01

    Electron-beam pumped laser amplifiers have been modified to address the mission of krypton-fluoride excimer laser technology development. Methods are described for improving the performance and reliability of two pre-existing amplifiers at minimal cost and time. Preliminary performance data are presented to support the credibility of the approach.

  6. Mass-Selective Laser Photoionization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalley, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the nature and applications of mass-selective laser photoionization. The ionization can be done with a single intense laser pulse lasting a few billionths of a second with no molecular fragmentation. Applications focus on: (1) benzene clusters, excimers, and exciplexes; (2) metal clusters; and (3) triplet formation and decay. (Author/JN)

  7. Enabling laser applications in microelectronics manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmdahl, Ralph; Brune, Jan; Fechner, Burkhard; Senczuk, Rolf

    2016-02-01

    In this experimental study, we report on high-pulse-energy excimer laser drilling into high-performance build-up films which are pivotal in microelectronics manufacturing. Build-up materials ABF-GX13 from Ajinomoto as well as ZS-100 from Zeon Corporation are evaluated with respect to their viability for economic excimer laser-based micro-via formation. Excimer laser mask imaging projection at laser wavelengths of 193, 248 and 308 nm is employed to generate matrices of smaller micro-vias with different diameters and via pitches. High drilling quality is achievable for all excimer laser wavelengths with the fastest ablation rates measured in the case of 248 and 308 nm wavelengths. The presence of glass fillers in build-up films as in the ABF-GX13 material poses some limitations to the minimum achievable via diameter. However, surprisingly good drilling results are obtainable as long as the filler dimensions are well below the diameter of the micro-vias. Sidewall angles of vias are controllable by adjusting the laser energy density and pulse number. In this work, the structuring capabilities of excimer lasers in build-up films as to taper angle variations, attainable via diameters, edge-stop behavior and ablation rates will be elucidated.

  8. GAS LASERS FOR STRONG-FIELD APPLICATIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    POGORELSKY,I.V.

    2004-09-15

    Atomic-, molecular- and excimer-gas lasers employ variety of pumping schemes including electric discharge, optical, or chemical reactions and cover a broad spectral range from UV to far-IR. Several types of gas lasers can produce multi-kilojoule pulses and kilowatts of average power. Among them, excimer- and high-pressure molecular lasers have sufficient bandwidth for generating pico- and femtosecond pulses. Projects are underway and prospects are opening up to bring ultrafast gas laser technology to the front lines of advanced accelerator applications.

  9. Synthesis of materials with infrared and ultraviolet lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses three divergent examples of synthesis of materials with lasers. The three techniques are: (1) infrared (CO/sub 2/) laser synthesis of silane (SiH/sub 4/) from disilane (Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/); (2) excimer (ArF) laser production of fine silicon powders from methyl- and chloro-substituted silanes; and, (3) excimer (KrF) laser production of fine metallic powders by laser ablation. The mechanism for each process is discussed along with some conclusions about the features of the laser radiation that enable each application. 19 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Autokeratomileusis Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Seymour P.

    1987-03-01

    Refractive defects such as myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism may be corrected by laser milling of the cornea. An apparatus combining automatic refraction/keratometry and an excimer type laser for precision reshaping of corneal surfaces has been developed for testing. When electronically linked to a refractometer or keratometer or holographic imaging device, the laser is capable of rapidly milling or ablating corneal surfaces to preselected dioptric power shapes without the surgical errors characteristic of radial keratotomy, cryokeratomileusis or epikeratophakia. The excimer laser simultaneously generates a synthetic Bowman's like layer or corneal condensate which appears to support re-epithelialization of the corneal surface. An electronic feedback arrangement between the measuring instrument and the laser enables real time control of the ablative milling process for precise refractive changes in the low to very high dioptric ranges. One of numerous options is the use of a rotating aperture wheel with reflective portions providing rapid alternate ablation/measurement interfaced to both laser and measurement instrumentation. The need for the eye to be fixated is eliminated or minimized. In addition to reshaping corneal surfaces, the laser milling apparatus may also be used in the process of milling both synthetic and natural corneal inlays for lamellar transplants.

  11. Aperture combined Raman laser

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, C.; Tang, K.; Howton, C.; Muller, D.; Hunter, R.O. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Excimer lasers, while able to produce large powers and energies, are limited to a few discrete wavelengths. Efficient Raman shifting promises the availability of a much broader wavelength range. A method was developed which both Raman shifts and allows for multiple pump beams.

  12. UV-VUV excimer emitter pumped by a subnormal glow discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Shuaibov, Aleksandr K; Dashchenko, Arkadii I; Shevera, Igor' V

    2001-04-30

    Characteristics of a small-size excimer emitter operating on an Ar - Cl{sub 2} mixture excited by a subnormal glow discharge are studied. It is shown that this discharge is a source of multiwavelength emission in a range of 175 - 258 nm. The optimum pressures lie in ranges of 0.3 - 0.5 kPa for chlorine and 2 - 4 kPa for argon. The average power of UV- VUV emission reaches 0.7 W, with the emission efficiency equal to 3 %. The emitter can be used in microelectronics, high-energy chemistry, short-wavelength photometry, biophysics, and medicine. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  13. Laser Angioplasty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The principal method of dealing with coronary artery blockage is bypass surgery. A non-surgical alternative available to some patients is balloon angioplasty. For several years, medical researchers have been exploring another alternative that would help a wider circle of patients than the balloon treatment and entail less risk than bypass surgery. A research group is on the verge of an exciting development: laser angioplasty with a 'cool' type of laser, called an excimer laser, that does not damage blood vessel walls and offers non-surgical cleansing of clogged arteries with extraordinary precision. The system is the Dymer 200+ Excimer Laser Angioplasty System, developed by Advanced Intraventional Systems. Used in human clinical tests since 1987, the system is the first fully integrated 'cool' laser capable of generating the requisite laser energy and delivering the energy to target arteries. Thirteen research hospitals in the U.S. have purchased Dymer 200+ systems and used them in clinical trials in 121 peripheral and 555 coronary artery cases. The success rate in opening blocked coronary arteries is 85 percent, with fewer complications than in balloon angioplasty. Food and Drug Administration approval for the system is hoped for in the latter part of 1990. * Advanced Intraventional Systems became Spectranetics in 1994 and discontinued the product.

  14. Neutron-pumped excimer flashlamp sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, George H.; Prelas, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    A Nuclear Pumped Flashlamp (NPF) is closely related to a Nuclear-Pumped Laser NPL in that both use nuclear radiation to excite the medium. The NPF does not require as high peak power as is needed for NPL inversion. Still, with a reactor source, a large volume NPF can be designed to deliver extremely large fluorescence in the UV up to the infrared range, depending on the media employed. The NPF can then be used for industrial applications or for pumping a laser requiring a high intensity light pump. The first experimental example of this approach was a 3He-XeBr2 NPF employed in 1993 to pump a small iodine laser. The present paper discusses issues involved in scaling such a NPF up to an ultra high energy output.

  15. Production excimer drilling process for producing micron exit holes in polyimide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd; Ohar, Orest

    2006-02-01

    Producing micron level exit holes or vias interconnects for applications involving critical drug delivery and microelectronic packaging is no easy task. The design of excimer beam delivery optics, the physical system configuration, construction materials used and laser material interaction play significant roles in the ultimate process results. As a result of higher density microelectronic package designs and the critical nature of drug delivery, these processes need to be robust and repeatable to a 3σ level. Many companies who look to source new laser systems to meet these new demands come face to face with the reality of this dilemma. Matching laser process to material selection sets the stage for a successful integration, of most concern is the materials ability to resolve the features desired and the ease of cleaning the debris once the features are formed. This paper will present application specific laser beam delivery methods, focus/image stability techniques, beam shaping and inline inspection technology to stabilize such processes and present statistical and quality data on a process that was developed to form (1) one micron exit holes through 25 micron thick polyimide for a critical drug delivery application. The data will cover a 31 day period of processing.

  16. Lasers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schewe, Phillip F.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the nature of laser light. Topics include: (1) production and characteristics of laser light; (2) nine types of lasers; (3) five laser techniques including holography; (4) laser spectroscopy; and (5) laser fusion and other applications. (SK)

  17. Lasers '83. Proceedings of the international conference

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    Among the topics discussed are the development history of the semiconductor diode laser, laser material processing, nonlinear spectroscopy, recent advancements in diode lasers, laser-driven particle accelerators, laser applications in the atmospheric sciences, laser-assisted collisions, novel (garnet and alexandrite) solid state laser materials, IR molecular lasers, devices and components for fiber-optic communications, free-electron lasers and masers, and picosecond optical phenomena. Also covered are laser-stimulated materials surface processes, color center laser developments, blue-green and metal vapor lasers, laser chemistry, nonlinear effects, high energy lasers, excimer lasers, laser trapping of ions, optical cavities and propagation, laser isotope separation, laser trapping of atoms, laser applications in biochemistry, tunable coherent short wavelength radiation, laser spectroscopy, picosecond studies of condensed phase molecular systems, and combustion and plasma diagnostics.

  18. Cataractogenesis after Repeat Laser in situ Keratomileusis

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Ahmad M.; Ghabra, Marwan

    2012-01-01

    There has been the unsubstantiated clinical impression that laser refractive surgery accelerates cataract development along with solid experimental data about the cataractogenic effects of excimer laser treatment. We present the first documented case of significant cataract formation in a young myope after repeat excimer laser ablation necessitating phacoemulsification with a posterior chamber implant. Proposed explanations include focusing of the ablation wave on the posterior capsule (acoustic wave lens epithelial damage), photooxidative stress of the lens (ultraviolet and inflammatory oxidative stress), and corticosteroid-induced cataract (lens toxicity). PMID:22949915

  19. Variable laser attenuator

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, Stephen R.

    1988-01-01

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprng one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength.

  20. Variable laser attenuator

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, S.R.

    1987-05-29

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprising one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength. 9 figs.

  1. Laser nitriding and laser carburizing of surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaf, Peter

    2003-11-01

    Laser irradiation of surfaces with short pulses in reactive atmospheres (nitrogen, methane) can lead to very effective nitrification and carburization via complicated laser-surface-gas-plasma-interactions. This laser nitriding and laser carburizing and their basic underlying phenomena will be presented and partly explained by results of example materials (iron, titanium, aluminum, silicon) where nitride and carbide coatings can be formed by fast and easily by Excimer Laser, Nd:YAG laser, Free Electron Laser and also by femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser. This implies laser pulse durations from the nanosecond to the femtosecond regime and wavelengths from ultra-violet to infrared. The resulting surfaces, thin films, coatings and their properties are investigated by combining Mossbauer Spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, Nanoindentation, Resonant Nuclear Reaction Analysis, and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy.

  2. Excimer emission from pulsed microhollow cathode discharges in xenon

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.-J.; Nam, S. H.; Rahaman, H.; Iberler, M.; Jacoby, J.; Frank, K.

    2013-12-15

    Direct current (dc) microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) is an intense source for excimer radiation in vacuum ultraviolet at a wavelength of 172 nm in a high pressure xenon (Xe) gas. The concentration of precursors for the excimer formation, i.e., excited and ionized gas atoms, increases significantly by applying high voltage pulse onto the dc MHCD over the pulse duration range from 20 to 100 ns. The intensity of the excimer emission for the voltage pulse of 20 ns duration exceeds that of the emission intensity obtained from the same MHCD operated only in the dc mode, by one order of magnitude. In addition, the emission intensity increases by one order of magnitude over the pulse duration range from 20 to 100 ns. It can be assumed that the emission intensity of the MHCD source increases as long as the duration of the high voltage pulse is shorter than the electron relaxation time. For the high voltage pulse of 100 ns duration, the emission intensity has been found to be further enhanced by a factor of three when the gas pressure is increased from 200 to 800 mbar.

  3. SITE - EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES: LASER INDUCED PHOTO- CHEMICAL OXIDATIVE DESTRUCTION OF TOXIC ORGANICS IN LEACHATES AND GROUNDWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The technology described in this report has been developed under the Emerging Technology Program of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program to photochemically oxidize organic compounds in wastewater by applying ultraviolet radiation using an excimer laser. T...

  4. Expansion dynamics of laser produced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Doggett, B.; Lunney, J. G.

    2011-05-01

    We consider the applicability of the isentropic, adiabatic gas dynamical model of plume expansion for laser ablation in vacuum. We show that the model can be applied to ionized plumes and estimate the upper electron temperature limit on the applicability of the isentropic approximation. The model predictions are compared with Langmuir ion probe measurements and deposition profiles obtained for excimer laser ablation of silver.

  5. Tunable, rare earth-doped solid state lasers

    DOEpatents

    Emmett, John L.; Jacobs, Ralph R.; Krupke, William F.; Weber, Marvin J.

    1980-01-01

    Laser apparatus comprising combinations of an excimer pump laser and a rare earth-doped solid matrix, utilizing the 5d-4f radiative transition in a rare earth ion to produce visible and ultra-violet laser radiation with high overall efficiency in selected cases and relatively long radiative lifetimes.

  6. Lasers '86; Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Lasers and Applications, Orlando, FL, Nov. 3-7, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Mcmillan, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    Laser physics, technology, and applications are examined in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include VUV and X-ray lasers, vibrational energy transfer and kinetics, medical applications, ultrashort lasers and spectroscopy, surface and material interactions, lasers in atmospheric physics, and fiber-optic systems. Consideration is given to alexandrite lasers, four-wave mixing and nonlinear optics, chemical lasers, semiconductor lasers, photothermal and photoacoustic spectroscopy, dye lasers, optical phase conjugation and SBS, excimer lasers, SDI laser applications, remote-sensing with lasers, FELs, and applications in chemistry. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs are provided.

  7. Theoretical evaluation of electron-beam-excited vacuum-ultraviolet F2 lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.-P.; Obara, M.; Suzuki, T.

    1986-03-01

    A theoretical kinetic model for an electron-beam-excited F2 laser (157 nm) was successfully developed to evaluate the performance characteristics in terms of electron-beam excitation rate, pumping pulse width, and total operating pressure. As a result, it is made clear that a high excitation rate (above 0.2 MW/cu cm atm) is essential to obtain efficient laser operation. An intrinsic laser efficiency of 4.3 percent is obtainable when a 6.5-atm mixture of He-F2 = 1000/1 is pumped at an excitation rate of 0.5 MW/cu cm atm, giving a laser output of over 4 J/l. It is also found that a higher laser output is obtainable with increasing total operating pressure, while the intrinsic laser efficiency slowly decreases.

  8. Wavelength stabilizer based on dual fiber Bragg gratings for 980nm Mini-uncooled pump laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shuangshuang; Li, Yi; Jiang, Qunjie; Wu, Bin; Yu, Xiaojing; Wang, Haifang

    2008-12-01

    High power 980nm pump lasers are the key components in optical fiber amplifier. Wavelength stability for 980nm Miniuncooled pump laser is required to maintain the amplifier's efficiency throughout its lifetime. In this paper, a new type of wavelength stabilizer for uncooled pump laser which utilizes two fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) matched in wavelength, bandwidth, and reflectivity is presented. The characteristics of transmissivity and reflectivity for the dual FBGs stabilized 980nm pump laser are theoretically modeled and experimentally studied. The results show that the output spectral characteristics of the uncooled pump laser with the dual FBGs have been greatly improved. The laser module can work steadily over a wide temperature range from 0°C to 70°C, with 0.2nm wavelength shift, along with more than 45dB side mode suppression ratio, and less than 1.57nm spectral bandwidth.

  9. Atomic force microscopy analysis of human cornea surface after UV (λ=266 nm) laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spyratou, E.; Makropoulou, M.; Moutsouris, K.; Bacharis, C.; Serafetinides, A. A.

    2009-07-01

    Efficient cornea reshaping by laser irradiation for correcting refractive errors is still a major issue of interest and study. Although the excimer laser wavelength of 193 nm is generally recognized as successful in ablating corneal tissue for myopia correction, complications in excimer refractive surgery leads to alternative laser sources and methods for efficient cornea treatment. In this work, ablation experiments of human donor cornea flaps were conducted with the 4th harmonic of an Nd:YAG laser, with different laser pulses. AFM analysis was performed for examination of the ablated cornea flap morphology and surface roughness.

  10. International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers, 8th, Madrid, Spain, Sept. 10-14, 1990, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Orza, J.M.; Domingo, C.

    1991-01-01

    Papers are presented on current research developments and applications related to high-powered lasers. Recent advances in excimer laser technology, electron-beam-pumped excimer lasers, discharge technology for excimer lasers, and pulsed XeF lasers are examined. Consideration is given to short-wavelength lasers, chemical oxygen iodine lasers, and vibrational chemical lasers. Papers are presented on CO2, CO, N2O lasers, coupled CO2 lasers, laser induced perturbation in pulsed CO2 lasers, construction of sealed-off CO2 lasers, and computer modeling of discharge-excited CO gas flow. Topics discussed include gas-dynamic lasers, discharge and flow effects, matrix and laser optics and laser beam parameters. Laser-matter interactions, laser-induced surface plasma, plasma motion velocity along laser beams and thermocapillary effects are also discussed. Applications of laser technology are examined and high-speed laser welding, welding results, laser ablation, laser steel processing, and numerical modeling of laser-matter interaction in high-intensity laser applications are considered.

  11. Development of convenient nitrogen laser by using control of discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, Seiichi; Yamaguchi, Eiichiro; Ishii, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    Among the most important UV lasers are the excimer and the nitrogen. A nitrogen gas laser is widely used in various fields. We considered some ideas for a nitrogen laser built in more easily by using of triboluminescence. In this study, we discussed development and discussion of convenient nitrogen laser. We considered utilization of triboluminescence for control of discharge and the system of electric generator using triboluminescence in the longitudinally excited nitrogen laser.

  12. Laser assisted processing; Proceedings of the Meeting, Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany, Sept. 19, 20, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Laude, L.D.; Rauscher, G.

    1989-01-01

    The use of lasers in industrial material processing is discussed in reviews and reports. Sections are devoted to high-precision laser machining, deposition methods, ablation and polymers, and synthesis and oxidation. Particular attention is given to laser cutting of steel sheets, laser micromachining of material surfaces, process control in laser soldering, laser-induced CVD of doped Si stripes on SOS and their characterization by piezoresistivity measurements, laser CVD of Pt spots on glass, laser deposition of GaAs, UV-laser photoablation of polymers, ArF excimer-laser ablation of HgCdTe semiconductor, pulsed laser synthesis of Ti silicides and nitrides, the kinetics of laser-assisted oxidation of metallic films, and excimer-laser-assisted etching of solids for microelectronics.

  13. Laser research and development in the Northeast; Proceedings of the Meeting, Cambridge, MA, Sept. 16, 17, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Trainor, D.W.; Chicklis, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    The development and scaling of excimer lasers with emphasis on both electron-beam and discharge pumpings; a chemical means of generating laser action in the visible region; the use of stimulated Raman techniques to improve the beam quality output of systems employing excimer lasers; the research and development of CO/sub 2/ lasers; a CO/sub 2/ laser amplifier for radar applications; medical laser usage; and laser monitors for trace species in environmental and industrial processes are examined. Consideration is given to high power laser research and development for laser energetics; linear and nonlinear frequency converters; 450 nm laser operation in Tm(3+):YLF; alexandrite lasers and their applications; and the performance limitations of vibronic lasers. Topics discussed include the laser ignition of oil spills; the application of laser rangers to submunitions; the design and application of laser intensity stabilizers; and a 535 nm active atomic line filter that uses the Tl metastable state as an absorbing medium.

  14. Laser technologies in ophthalmic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atezhev, V. V.; Barchunov, B. V.; Vartapetov, S. K.; Zav’yalov, A. S.; Lapshin, K. E.; Movshev, V. G.; Shcherbakov, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    Excimer and femtosecond lasers are widely used in ophthalmology to correct refraction. Laser systems for vision correction are based on versatile technical solutions and include multiple hard- and software components. Laser characteristics, properties of laser beam delivery system, algorithms for cornea treatment, and methods of pre-surgical diagnostics determine the surgical outcome. Here we describe the scientific and technological basis for laser systems for refractive surgery developed at the Physics Instrumentation Center (PIC) at the Prokhorov General Physics Institute (GPI), Russian Academy of Sciences.

  15. Smartphone-enabled filterless fluorescence assay utilizing the pyrene excimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goertz, John P.; White, Ian M.

    2015-03-01

    Fluorescence microscopy offers a number of advantages for cell- and biomarker-based diagnostics with regards to ease of use and interpretation, sensitivity, and specificity. However, its use in low-resource settings is often hindered by the need for bulky microscopes with expensive excitation and filter setups. While many advances have been made towards utilizing smartphones as microscopes, there remains a reliance on complex attachments to facilitate fluorescence microscopy. Here, we report progress towards a filter-less fluorescent assay utilizing ultraviolet light, an unmodified smartphone, and pyrene-labeled aptamers. The pyrene monomer is excited at a wavelength of 350 nm and emits at approximately 390 nm; when two pyrene molecules are brought into close proximity, however, they form an excimer which emits at approximately 490 nm. We have engineered pyrene-conjugated DNA sequences such that the fluorophores, normally in monomeric configuration, are brought into proximity upon binding of the DNA to its target. The large Stokes shift between excitation and emission of the excimer allows us to detect such biorecognition events with an unfiltered smartphone camera, enabling the use of this assay in low-resource settings where portability and easeof- use are paramount.

  16. APPLICATIONS OF LASERS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Laser system based on a commercial microwave oscillator with time compression of a microwave pump pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arteev, M. S.; Vaulin, V. A.; Slinko, V. N.; Chumerin, P. Yu; Yushkov, Yu G.

    1992-06-01

    An analysis is made of the possibility of using a commercial microsecond microwave oscillator, supplemented by a device for time compression of microwave pulses, in pumping of industrial lasers with a high efficiency of conversion of the pump source energy into laser radiation. The results are reported of preliminary experiments on the commissioning of an excimer XeCl laser.

  17. In vitro analysis of laser meniscectomy.

    PubMed

    Vangsness, C T; Akl, Y; Nelson, S J; Liaw, L H; Smith, C F; Marshall, G J

    1995-01-01

    Partial meniscectomies were performed on 32 fresh human meniscal autopsy specimens. The following laser systems were tested: carbon dioxide (CO2), neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG), potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP), holmium:YAG (Ho:YAG), and excimer. Meniscectomies with these lasers were compared with scalpel, mechanical, and electrocautery meniscectomies. Lasers were applied to specimens in and out of normal saline. Routine hematoxylin and eosin and sirius red sections were prepared for each specimen, and the depths of thermal changes were analyzed. Scanning electron microscopy was used to visualize the meniscectomy interface. Among these specimens, the scalpel and mechanical meniscectomies showed the least extension of cellular changes (range, 10-15 nm). The excimer laser caused the least tissue changes of the lasers tested. Tissue changes were less extensive with the pulsed CO2 laser than with the holmium:YAG, neodymium:YAG, and KTP lasers. Scanning electron microscopy showed that use of the scalpel meniscectomy resulted in the smoothest meniscectomy edge, followed by use of the excimer, CO2, holmium:YAG, neodymium:YAG, and KTP lasers. The most surface disruption occurred with electrocautery. Meniscectomies under saline required more energy and took longer in each case, with the holmium:YAG, neodymium:YAG, and CO2 laser cutting the best. Saline meniscectomies showed less thermal change. The CO2 and KTP lasers cut best in air. PMID:7641441

  18. Synthesis, structure, and excimer formation of vesicular assemblies carrying 1- or 2-naphthyl chromophores

    SciTech Connect

    Sisido, Masahiki; Sato, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Hiroki; Imanishi, Yukio )

    1990-01-01

    New chromophoric amphiphiles consisting of optically active 1- or 2-naphthylalanines, each carrying two long alkyl chains and an ammonium ion, were synthesized. These amphiphiles were found to form vesicular structures in aqueous dispersion, and those having two octadecyl chains showed a gel-liquid crystalline transition around room temperature. UV and CD spectra showed exciton-type interactions for the 2-naphthyl amphiphiles in a high-energy excited state but no dimers or higher aggregates of the naphthyl groups in the ground state. Fluorescence spectra showed monomer and excimer emissions. The circularly polarized fluorescence spectra showed a positive signal at the excimer emission, indicating a chiral excimer configuration.

  19. Polyfluorophore Excimers and Exciplexes as FRET Donors in DNA

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Yin Nah; Kool, Eric T.

    2009-01-01

    We describe studies aimed at testing whether oligomeric exciplex- and excimer fluorophores conjugated to DNA have the potential to act as donors for energy transfer by the Förster mechanism. Oligodeoxyfluorosides (ODFs) are composed of stacked, electronically interacting fluorophores replacing the bases on a DNA scaffold. The monomer chromophores in the twenty tetramer-length ODFs studied here include pyrene (Y), benzopyrene (B), perylene (E), dimethylaminostilbene (D), and a nonfluorescent spacer (S); these are conjugated in varied combinations at the 3’ end of a 14mer DNA probe sequence. In the absence of an acceptor chromophore, many of the ODF-DNAs show broad, unstructured long-wavelength emission peaks characteristic of excimer and exciplex excited states, similar to what has been observed for unconjugated ODFs. Although such delocalized excited states have been widely studied, we know of no prior report of their use in FRET. We tested the ability of the twenty ODFs to donate energy to Cy5 and TAMRA dyes conjugated to a complementary strand of DNA, with these acceptors oriented either at the near or far end of the ODF-conjugated probes. Results showed that a number of the ODF fluorophores exhibited relatively efficient energy transfer characteristic of the Förster mechanism, as judged by drops in donor emission quantum yield and fluorescence lifetime, accompanied by increases in intensity of acceptor emission bands. Excimer/exciplex bands in the donors were selectively quenched while shorter-wavelength monomer emission stayed relatively constant, consistent with the notion that the delocalized excited states, rather than individual fluorophores, are the donors. Interestingly, only specific sequences of ODFs were able to act as donors, while others did not, even though their emission wavelengths were similar. The new FRET donors possess large Stokes shifts, which can be beneficial for multiple applications. In addition, all ODFs can be excited at a single

  20. KrF laser-induced ablation and patterning of Y--Ba--Cu--O films

    SciTech Connect

    Heitz, J.; Wang, X.Z.; Schwab, P.; Baeuerle, D. ); Schultz, L. )

    1990-09-01

    The ablation and patterning of Y--Ba--Cu--O films on (100) SrTiO{sub 3} and (100) MgO substrates by KrF excimer-laser light projection was investigated. Three different regimes of laser-material interactions were observed. Transition temperatures and critical current densities in laser-fabricated strip lines were investigated.

  1. Investigations of Buffer-Gases Role in Xenon and Halogen Excimer Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciobotaru, L. C.; Porosnicu, C.

    2010-10-01

    Excimer- is an acronym in use for the excited dimmer, molecule which does not exist in the ground state but only in an excited state. This paper presents the role of the buffer-gas atoms (Ar, Ne, He), in the (Cl2/I2 Xe) excimer radiation emission mechanisms. The same buffer-gas produced a different effect on the excimer emission intensity: the neon and argon addition to xenon/chlorine/iodine had a negative effect while the helium and neon addition had a positive effect. The Penning reactions play an important role in the excimer radiation generation in connection with the gas-buffer addition and the halogen ionization potential value. The measurements are performed using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at moderate pressure in a panel, respectively classic coaxial geometry.

  2. The Characteristics of Dielectric Barrier Discharge and its Influence on the Excimer XeCl* Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing-zhou; Liu, Wei; Liang, Rong-qing; Ren, Zhao-xing

    2001-12-01

    In this work, the influence of discharge modes on the excimer XeCl* emission (308 nm) has been studied by adding helium gas into the xenon and chlorine mixture. It is found that the transition from filament discharge to glow/filament-combined discharge leads to the decrease in excimer emission. We are the first one to use a flowing water film as an outer transparent electrode, and achieve a higher UV intensity, compared with the case by using a metal mesh as the outer electrode. The influence of the gas temperature both in the reactor Tg and in a discharge channel Tc on the excimer emission has been analyzed preliminarily. Finally, it has been expected that the replacement of chlorine gas Cl2 by another chlorine gas may reduce the heat generated in the discharge processes and give rise to the excimer XeCl* radiation.

  3. Lasers '85; Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference, Las Vegas, NV, Dec. 2-6, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    The present conference on laser technology development encompasses issues in such areas as VUV and X-ray lasers; optical phase conjugation and nonlinear optics; laser applications in medicine; methods for optical processing; laser and nonlinear spectroscopy; ultrashort-pulse lasers and their applications; frequency selection in pulsed lasers; and interactions between laser beams, material surfaces, and material volumes. Also treated are laser applications in the Strategic Defense Initiative program, chemical laser design and performance, the lasing of biophysical materials, laser diagnostics in fluids and plasma, semiconductor laser diodes and arrays, solid state lasers, radiation- and solar-pumped lasers, laser cavities and propagation, remote sensing with lasers and fiber-optics, coupled resonators and diode lasers, industrial applications of lasers, excimer lasers, optoelectronics, CO/sub 2/ lasers, fiber-optic sensors, alexandrite lasers, free electron lasers, and IR and visible wavelength lasers.

  4. F2-laser writing of silica optical waveguides in silicone rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoshi, Masayuki; Li, Jianzhao; Herman, Peter R.

    2005-04-01

    F2-laser writing of silica (SiO2) optical waveguides has been successfully demonstrated on the surface of silicone [(SiO(CH3)2)n] rubber by the photochemical modification of silicone into silica. The 2-mm-thick silicone rubber was exposed to the 157-nm F2-laser beam through a thin (~0.2 mm) air layer. A proximity Cr-on-CaF2 photomask with 8- to 16-micron-wide slits controlled the exposure size to define the width of the silica waveguide. Optimum laser conditions to generate crack-free waveguides with good transparency were found by varying the laser fluence, pulse repetition rate and total exposure. The optimized waveguides were found to guide both red (~635-nm) and infrared (~1550-nm) wavelengths with light end-fired from standard single-mode fiber.

  5. Development of high coherence high power 193nm laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Arakawa, Masaki; Fuchimukai, Atsushi; Sasaki, Yoichi; Onose, Takashi; Kamba, Yasuhiro; Igarashi, Hironori; Qu, Chen; Tamiya, Mitsuru; Oizumi, Hiroaki; Ito, Shinji; Kakizaki, Koji; Xuan, Hongwen; Zhao, Zhigang; Kobayashi, Yohei; Mizoguchi, Hakaru

    2016-03-01

    We have been developing a hybrid 193 nm ArF laser system that consists of a solid state seeding laser and an ArF excimer laser amplifier for power-boosting. The solid state laser consists of an Yb-fiber-solid hybrid laser system and an Er-fiber laser system as fundamentals, and one LBO and three CLBO crystals for frequency conversion. In an ArF power amplifier, the seed laser passes through the ArF gain media three times, and an average power of 110 W is obtained. As a demonstration of the potential applications of the laser, an interference exposure test is performed.

  6. Preliminary design and estimate of capital and operating costs for a production scale application of laser decontamination technology

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, Ho-ming; Edelson, M.C.

    1994-08-06

    The application of laser ablation technology to the decontamination of radioactive metals, particularly the surfaces of equipment, is discussed. Included is information related to the design, capital and operating costs, and effectiveness of laser ablation technology, based on commercial excimer and Nd:YAG lasers, for the decontamination of production scale equipment.

  7. Electron Density Measurements in UV-Preionized XeCl and CO2 Laser Gas Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Shigeyuki; Sato, Saburo; Goto, Tatsumi

    1989-11-01

    A Langmuir probe technique has been used to measure electron densities and temperatures in UV-preionized XeCl excimer and CO2 laser gas mixtures in a laser tube. For this experiment, only pin electrodes (preionization sparks) were operated with no discharge between the main electrodes. The measured electron densities were about 108 cm-3 in both the excimer and CO2 laser gases, compared with 1010 cm-3 in pure He gas. The electron density was found to increase due to the proximity of the main electrodes. The coefficients of absorption for excimer and CO2 laser gas were obtained from the characteristics of the electron densities vs the distance from the UV source. Based on the absorption coefficient for XeCl, 0.9 cm-1 atm-1, we propose pin-electrode arrangements for spatially uniform preionization.

  8. Near-infrared laser ablation of poly tetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) sensitized by nanoenergetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Yanqiang; Wang Shufeng; Sun Zhaoyong; Dlott, Dana D.

    2004-08-30

    Laser ablation of Teflon doped with size-selected (30-250 nm) Al nanoparticles is studied. Unlike pure Teflon, which requires a vacuum-ultraviolet or femtosecond excimer laser for ablation, this sensitized Teflon can be ablated with a near-infrared laser. Using 100 ps duration pulses, near-infrared ablation thresholds are lower by about a factor of 10 from excimer ablation of pure Teflon. A mechanism is discussed that involves Teflon decomposition by spherical shock fronts originating at each irradiated nanoparticle. Studies of the distance dependence of this process as a function of particle diameter and oxide layer thickness suggest ways of optimizing the ablation process.

  9. Micro-lens machining on optical fibers by direct laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke-Begemann, Thomas; Li, Jianzhao; Ihlemann, Jürgen; Herman, Peter R.; Marowsky, Gerd

    2004-10-01

    Beam shaping at the output of optical fibers is required in a variety of applications including optical sensors, telecommunication devices and medical applications. We present a laser micro-machining technique for the fabrication of micro-lenses directly upon the end face of silica fibers using a F2-laser processing station. Ablation is performed in a mask projection arrangement with 25x demagnification. A mask with an occluded circular beam shape is imaged perpendicular to the fiber axis. The fiber is rotated axially while the laser cuts through the fiber, yielding a spherically shaped tip with radius defined by the mask dimensions. Strong 157 nm absorption by the silica glass facilitates precise structuring without micro-crack formation. The quality of the fiber-lenses is characterized by AFM, SEM and by analysing the beam profile at the fiber output.

  10. Pulsed UV and ultrafast laser micromachining of surface structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apte, Paul; Sykes, Neil

    2015-07-01

    We describe and compare the cutting and patterning of various "difficult" materials using pulsed UV Excimer, picosecond and femtosecond laser sources. Beam delivery using both fast galvanometer scanners and scanning mask imaging are described. Each laser source has its own particular strengths and weaknesses, and the optimum choice for an application is also decided by financial constraints. With some materials notable improvements in process quality have been observed using femtosecond lasers compared to picosecond lasers, which makes for an interesting choice now that cost effective reliable femtosecond systems are increasingly available. By contrast Pulsed UV Excimer lasers offer different imaging characteristics similar to mask based Lithographic systems and are particularly suited to the processing of polymers. We discuss optimized beam delivery techniques for these lasers.

  11. Laser Machining For Fabrication Of Hohlraums And Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Shirk, M D; Kelly, B T; Haynes, S M; Stuart, B C; Sanchez, J J; Moody, J D; Cook, R C

    2005-06-24

    Laser machining technology has been used to demonstrate the ability to rapidly perform jobs on all aspects of ICF targets. Lasers are able to rapidly perform modifications and repairs to the gold metal parts on hohlraums, make cuts in the delicate polymer parts of the hohlraum, and drill holes in the capsules to enable them to be filled with fuel. Lasers investigated in this work include 193 nm ArF and 248 nm KrF excimers and 810 nm chirped-pulse amplification Ti:Sapphire lasers. The excimer lasers showed a definite advantage in drilling and machining of polymeric materials and the ultrashort infrared pulses of the Ti:Sapphire laser were far better for the gold structures.

  12. Phasor Representation of Monomer-Excimer Kinetics: General Results and Application to Pyrene.

    PubMed

    Martelo, Liliana; Fedorov, Alexander; Berberan-Santos, Mário N

    2015-12-01

    Phasor plots of the fluorescence intensity decay (plots of the Fourier sine transform versus the Fourier cosine transform, for one or several angular frequencies) are being increasingly used in studies of homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. In this work, the phasor approach is applied to monomer-excimer kinetics. The results obtained allow a clear visualization of the information contained in the decays. The monomer phasor falls inside the universal circle, whereas the excimer phasor lies outside it, but within the double-exponential outer boundary curve. The monomer and excimer phasors, along with those corresponding to the two exponential components of the decays, fall on a common straight line and obey the generalized lever rule. The clockwise trajectories described by both phasors upon monomer concentration increase are identified. The phasor approach allows discussing in a single graphic not only the effect of concentration but also that of rate constants, including the evolution from irreversible kinetics to fast excited-state equilibrium upon a temperature increase. The obtained results are applied to the fluorescence decays of pyrene monomer and excimer in methylcyclohexane at room temperature. A straightforward method of monomer-excimer lifetime data analysis based on linear plots is also introduced. PMID:26549817

  13. Polycation-induced benzoperylene probe excimer formation and the ratiometric detection of heparin and heparinase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meiding; Chen, Jian; Zhou, Huipeng; Li, Wenying; Wang, Yan; Li, Juanmin; Zhang, Cuiyun; Zhou, Chuibei; Yu, Cong

    2016-01-15

    A benzoperylene probe excimer emission in an aqueous buffer solution is observed for the first time, and a novel ratiometric fluorescence method based on the probe excimer emission for the sensitive detection of heparin and heparinase is demonstrated. A negatively charged benzoperylene derivative, 6-(benzo[ghi]perylene-1,2-dicarboxylic imide-yl)hexanoic acid (BPDI), was employed. A polycation, poly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride (poly-DDA), could induce aggregation of BPDI through noncovalent interactions. A decrease of BPDI monomer emission and a simultaneous increase of BPDI excimer emission were observed. Upon the addition of heparin, the strong binding between heparin and poly-DDA caused release of BPDI monomer molecules, and an excimer-monomer emission signal transition was detected. However, after the enzymatic hydrolysis of heparin by heparinase, heparin was hydrolyzed into small fragments, which weakened the competitive binding of heparin to poly-DDA. Poly-DDA induced aggregation of BPDI, and a monomer-excimer emission signal transition was detected. Our assay is simple, rapid, inexpensive, sensitive and selective, which could facilitate the heparin and heparinase related biochemical and biomedical research. PMID:26344903

  14. Laser surface melting of aluminium alloy 6013 for improving stress corrosion and corrosion fatigue resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wen-Long

    Laser surface treatment of aluminium alloy 6013, a relatively new high strength aluminium alloy, was conducted with the aim of improving the alloy's resistance to stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue. In the first phase of this research, laser surface melting (LSM) of the alloy was conducted using an excimer laser. The microstructural changes induced by the laser treatment were studied in detail and characterised. The results showed that excimer LSM produced a relatively thin, non-dentritic planar re-melted layer which is largely free of coarse constituent particles and precipitates. The planar growth phenomenon was explained using the high velocity and high temperature gradient absolute stability criteria. The structure of the oxide and/or the nitride bearing film at the outmost surface of the re-melted layer was also characterised. The results of the electrochemical tests showed that the pitting corrosion resistance of the alloy could be greatly increased by excimer laser melting, especially when the alloy was treated in nitrogen gas: the corrosion current density of the N2-treated specimen was some two orders of magnitude lower than that of the air-treated specimen which was one order of magnitude lower than that of the untreated specimen. The effect of the outer surface oxide and/or nitride bearing film per se on pitting corrosion resistance was determined. The results of a Mott - Schottky analysis strongly suggest that the outer surface film, which exhibited the nature of an n-type semiconductor was responsible for the significant improvement of the corrosion resistance of the laser-treated material. Furthermore, the corrosion response of the surface film was modelled using equivalent circuits. Based on the results of the slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) and corrosion fatigue tests, the stress corrosion cracking and pitting corrosion fatigue behaviour of the excimer laser treated material was evaluated. The results of the SSRT test showed that, in

  15. UV laser ablation of parylene films from gold substrates

    SciTech Connect

    O. R. Musaev, P. Scott, J. M. Wrobel, and M. B. Kruger

    2009-11-19

    Parylene films, coating gold substrates, were removed by laser ablation using 248 nm light from an excimer laser. Each sample was processed by a different number of pulses in one of three different environments: air at atmospheric pressure, nitrogen at atmospheric pressure, and vacuum. The laser-induced craters were analyzed by optical microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Multi-pulse ablation thresholds of gold and parylene were estimated.

  16. High Power Pulsed Gas Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witteman, W. J.

    1987-09-01

    Gas lasers have shown to be capable of delivering tens of terrawatt aspeak power or tens of kilowatt as average power. The efficiencies of most high power gas lasers are relatively high compared with other types of lasers. For instance molecular lasers, oscillating on low lying vibrational levels, and excimer lasers may have intrinsic efficiencies above 10%.The wavelengths of these gas lasers cover the range from the far infrared to the ultra-violet region, say from 12000 to 193 nm. The most important properties are the scalability, optical homogeneity of the excited medium, and the relatively low price per watt of output power. The disadvantages may be the large size of the systems and the relatively narrow line width with limited tunability compared with solid state systems producing the same peak power. High power gas lasers group into three main categories depending on the waste-heat handling capacity.

  17. Sn(II) induced concentration dependent dynamic to static excimer conversion of a conjugated naphthalene derivative.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Susanta; Mandal, Sandip; Ghosh, Avijit; Guria, Subhajit; Das, Debasis

    2015-08-28

    The X-ray structurally characterized naphthalene appended diformyl-p-cresol derivative () selectively detects Sn(2+) by both colorimetric and fluorescence methods. In the presence of Sn(2+), exhibits a monomer emission at 420 nm along with a strong red excimer emission at 582 nm in acetonitrile. The excimer formation highly depends on Sn(2+) concentration. The dynamic excimer, observed with up to 2.5 equivalents of Sn(2+), gradually converts to a static form above 2.5 equivalents of Sn(2+). Moreover, in a different solvent media, viz. in aqueous methanol, can also detect Al(3+) through the generation of intense green fluorescence. The photophysical interactions are rationalized by (1)H NMR, mass spectra, steady state and lifetime fluorescence measurements. DFT studies support the experimental findings. PMID:26201049

  18. Laser zona dissection using short-pulse ultraviolet lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neev, Joseph; Tadir, Yona; Ho, Peter D.; Whalen, William E.; Asch, Richardo H.; Ord, Teri; Berns, Michael W.

    1992-06-01

    The interaction of pulsed ultraviolet radiation with the zona pellucida of human oocytes which had failed to fertilize in standard IVF cycles, was investigated. Two lasers were studied: a 100 ps pulsed Nd:YAG with a nonlinear crystal emitting light at 266 nm, and a 15 ns XeCl excimer laser with 308 nm radiation. Incisions in the zona were made by aiming the beam tangentially to the oocyte. The results indicate superior, high precision performance by the excimer laser creating trenches as narrow as 1 micrometers and as shallow as 1 micrometers . The incision size was found to be sensitive to the laser's energy and to the position of the microscope's objective focal plane, but relatively insensitive to the laser pulse repetition rate. Once the minimum spot size was defined by the system parameters, the laser beam was used to curve out any desired zona shape. This laser microsurgery technique as applied to partial zone dissection or zona drilling could prove very useful as a high-precision, non-contact method for treatments of low fertilization rate and for enhancing embryo implantation rates in patients undergoing IVF treatments.

  19. Favorable response of reticular erythematous mucinosis to ultraviolet B irradiation using a 308-nm excimer lamp.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Ken; Miyajima, Osamu; Yokogawa, Maki; Sano, Shigetoshi

    2010-02-01

    Abstract Reticular erythematous mucinosis (REM) is a rare chronic mucinosis. Histologically, the presence of mucin in the upper dermis is the most specific feature. A 73-year-old woman presented to our outpatient clinic with a 4-year history of netlike macular erythema with slight edema on her left arm. She was diagnosed as having REM on the basis of the clinical picture and histological findings. She was treated with ultraviolet B irradiation using the VTRAC Excimer Lamp system with favorable response. This is the first reported case that was treated with a 308-nm excimer lamp. PMID:20175851

  20. Biocompatible layers fabricated using KrF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Kocourek, Tomás; Vrbová, Miroslava; Konarík, David; Remsa, Jan

    2008-11-01

    Thin films of hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite doped with silver and thin diamond like carbon layers were prepared using KrF excimer laser deposition. Tooth prostheses, textile blood vessels and artificial heart valves were covered and tested. Examples of physical tests, and in vitro and in vivo analysis using minipigs and sheep are presented.

  1. Laser-assisted solar cell metallization processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, S.

    1984-01-01

    Laser-assisted processing techniques utilized to produce the fine line, thin metal grid structures that are required to fabricate high efficiency solar cells are examined. Two basic techniques for metal deposition are investigated; (1) photochemical decomposition of liquid or gas phase organometallic compounds utilizing either a focused, CW ultraviolet laser (System 1) or a mask and ultraviolet flood illumination, such as that provided by a repetitively pulsed, defocused excimer laser (System 2), for pattern definition, and (2) thermal deposition of metals from organometallic solutions or vapors utilizing a focused, CW laser beam as a local heat source to draw the metallization pattern.

  2. Scaling of root surfaces with lasers: an in vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sievers, Martin; Frentzen, Matthias; Kosina, A.; Koort, Hans J.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of root preparation with different laser types in order to replace hand-held instruments in periodontal surgery. The advantage should be a more selective and atraumatic technique promoting periodontal regeneration. The root surfaces of extracted human teeth were irradiated with pulsed laser radiation of IR lasers (CO2, Ho:YAG and Tm:YAG laser) and excimer lasers (ArF* and XeCl* laser). For the light microscopic investigation the specimen were cut into undecalcified sections of 10 micrometers thickness and stained with Toluidine-blue.

  3. Protein immobilization and detection on laser processed polystyrene surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sarantopoulou, Evangelia; Kollia, Zoe; Palles, Dimitrios; Spyropoulos-Antonakakis, Nikolaos; Cefalas, Alkiviadis-Constantinos; Petrou, Panagiota S.; Kakabakos, Sotirios

    2011-09-15

    The bovine serum albumin (BSA)-polystyrene (PS) interface layer is laser photo activated at 157 nm for site selective multiple target-protein immobilization. The 5-15 nm photon induced interface layer has different chemical, wetting, and stiffness properties than the PS photon processed surface. The irradiated areas exhibit target-protein binding, followed by localized probe-target protein detection. The photon induced chemical modification of the BSA-PS interface layer is identified by: (1) Morphological, imaging, and analysis of surface parameters with atomic force microscopy, (2) spectroscopic shift (4 cm{sup -1}), of the amide I group and formation of new C=N, NH{sub 2}, C-O, C=O, and O-C=O groups following irradiation, identified with attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, and (3) the different hydrophilic/hydrophobic and force-distance response of the bare PS and BSA-PS surfaces. Near field edge diffraction (Fresnel) fluorescence imaging specifies the threshold photon energy and the fluence required to optically detect the protein binding on the photon induced BSA-PS interface layer. By approximating the Fresnel integrals with analytical functions, the threshold photon energy and the fluence are expressed as the sum of zero, first, and second order harmonic terms of two characteristic diffracted modes and they are specified to be 8.73x10{sup -9} Jand623 J m{sup -2}, respectively. Furthermore, a bioarray of three probe-target proteins is fabricated with 1.5 {mu}m spatial resolution using a 157 nm laser microstepper. The methodology eliminates the use of intermediate polymer layers between the blocking BSA protein and the PS substrate in bioarray fabrication.

  4. Investigation of laser dynamics, modulation and control by means of intra-cavity time varying perturbation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, S. E.; Siegman, A. E.; Kuizenga, D. J.; Kung, A. H.; Young, J. F.; Bekkers, G. W.; Bloom, D. M.; Newton, J. H.; Phillion, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    The generation of tunable visible, infrared, and ultraviolet light is examined, along with the control of this light by means of novel mode-locking and modulation techniques. Transient mode-locking of the Nd:YAG laser and generation of short tunable pulses in the visible and the alkali metal inert gas excimer laser systems were investigated. Techniques for frequency conversion of high power and high energy laser radiation are discussed, along with high average power blue and UV laser light sources.

  5. SMI: a new method to allow low cost, high resolution micro-machining using UV solid state lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, David; Myles, David; Rumsby, Phil

    2015-07-01

    A new solid state laser based mask projection technique for micro-structuring materials is introduced and results obtained with a pilot system are shown. Details of the proposed architecture of production tools using the new technology are given. Advantages of the new method over conventional excimer laser based mask projection systems are summarized.

  6. Cycloolefin/cyanoacrylate (COCA) copolymers for 193-nm and 157-nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dammel, Ralph R.; Sakamuri, Raj; Lee, Sang-Ho; Rahman, Dalil; Kudo, Takanori; Romano, Andrew R.; Rhodes, Larry F.; Lipian, John-Henry; Hacker, Cheryl; Barnes, Dennis A.

    2002-07-01

    The copolymerization reaction between methyl cyanoacrylate (MCA) and a variety of cycloolefins (CO) was investigated. Cycololefin/cyanoacrylate (COCA) copolymers were obtained in good yields and with lithographically interesting molecular weights for all cycoolefins studied. Anionic MCA homopolymerization could be largely suppressed using acetic acid. Based on NMR data, the copolymerization may tend to a 1:1 CO:MCA incorporation ratio but further work with better suppression of the anionic component is needed to confirm this. Lithographic tests on copolymers of appropriately substituted norbornenes and MCA showed semi-dense and isolated line performance down to 90 nm.

  7. Lasers in endodontics: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frentzen, Matthias; Braun, Andreas; Koort, Hans J.

    2002-06-01

    The interest in endodontic use of dental laser systems is increasing. Developing laser technology and a better understanding of laser effects widened the spectrum of possible endodontic indications. Various laser systems including excimer-, argon+-, diode-, Nd:YAG-, Er:YAG- and CO2-lasers are used in pulp diagnosis, treatment of hypersensitivity, pulp capping, sterilization of root canals, root canal shaping and obturation or apicoectomy. With the development of new delivery systems - thin and flexible fibers - for many different wavelengths laser applications in endodontics may increase. Since laser devices are still relatively costly, access to them is limited. Most of the clinical applications are laser assisted procedures such as the removing of pulp remnants and debris or disinfection of infected root canals. The essential question is whether a laser can provide improved treatment over conventional care. To perform laser therapy in endodontics today different laser types with adopted wavelengths and pulse widths are needed, each specific to a particular application. Looking into the future we will need endodontic laser equipment providing optimal laser parameters for different treatment modalities. Nevertheless, the quantity of research reports from the last decade promises a genuine future for lasers in endodontics.

  8. Radioactive oxide removal by XeCl laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaporte, Ph; Gastaud, M.; Marine, W.; Sentis, M.; Uteza, O.; Thouvenot, P.; Alcaraz, J. L.; Le Samedy, J. M.; Blin, D.

    2002-09-01

    We present the results on cleaning, achieved in nuclear facilities, of metallic surfaces polluted by radioactive oxides. Experimental results of excimer laser decontamination have been obtained for different radionuclides (Cs, Co, Eu, etc.) deposited under various conditions (fixed or unfixed contamination). Our laser decontamination prototype is composed of a XeCl laser, a bundle of fibers for beam transmission, optical systems, collection cell with filter for ablated particle recovery, computer control of cleaning efficiency and beam displacement. We show that the use of the excimer laser ablation technique for decontamination of nuclear facilities has many advantages such as the possibility of remote control, dry process, and, especially, the absence of secondary wastes (clean process). Decontamination factors (DF: initial activity/residual activity) higher than 15 for fixed contamination and up to 100 for unfixed contamination are obtained.

  9. Photoablation of polyimide with IR and UV laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, R.; Nowak, R.; Hess, P.; Oetzmann, H.; Schmidt, C.

    1989-12-01

    IR and UV ablation experiments were performed for freestanding polyimide foils (75 μm) and spincoated films of polyimide (6-7 μm). Compared to results reported in the literature a considerably improved etch quality was obtained with a pulsed TEA CO2 laser. Distinct interference effects were found for KrF laser radiation and CO2 laser radiation. The fluence dependence of the etch rates was studied for excimer laser light at 248 nm and IR laser light at 1082.3, 1057.3 and 970.5 cm-1. The optical absorption coefficient was determined by reflectivity and transmittance measurements.

  10. Experimental Investigation and Modeling of Kinetic Processes in a KrF Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychkov, Yu. I.; Yastremskii, A. G.; Yampolskaya, S. A.; Losev, V. F.; Dudarev, V. V.; Panchenko, Yu. N.; Puchikin, A. V.

    2014-11-01

    The KrF laser with radiation pulse duration at half maximum of 20 ns is experimentally investigated. A self-consistent model is developed considering the electric circuit, the kinetic processes in the active medium, and the formation of laser radiation in a resonator. Time dependences of the discharge current and voltage on the capacitor and discharge electrodes, plasma particle concentration, and rate constants of the processes determining the characteristics of the discharge and laser radiation are presented. Processes are revealed that determines the characteristics of the space charge and laser radiation. The kinetics of the processes of production and annihilation of KrF excimer molecules is studied in detail. It is demonstrated that high rates of destruction of excimer molecules increases the time of delay of generation thereby decreasing the efficiency of laser generation and limiting the possibility of decreasing laser radiation pulse duration.

  11. Prototype of a high-power, high-energy industrial XeCl laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, V. M.; Demin, A. I.; Khristoforov, O. B.

    2015-03-01

    We discuss the results of fabrication and experimental study of a high-power excimer XeCl laser for industrial applications. Compactness of the laser is achieved by the employment of a laser chamber based on a ceramic tube made of Al2O3. High laser output energy (1.5 - 2.5 J pulse-1) is obtained using a wide-aperture (up to 55 × 30 mm) volume discharge with pre-ionisation by a creeping discharge. The pre-ionisation is realised through a semitransparent electrode by the UV radiation of a creeping discharge in the form of uniform plasma sheet on a surface of a plane sapphire plate. The operating lifetime of the gas mixture amounts to ~57 × 106 pulses at a stabilised average laser power of 450 W. The results obtained demonstrate real prospects for developing a new class of excimer XeCl lasers with an average power of ~1 kW.

  12. Impact of Xe partial pressure on the production of excimer vacuum ultraviolet emission for plasma display panels

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Di; Zhang Xiong; Kajiyama, Hiroshi

    2012-08-01

    In this work, the effect of the Xe partial pressure on the excimer vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission intensity of the plasma display panels is investigated, both by measuring the spectral emission directly and by two-dimensional simulations. Experimentally, we find that at the high Xe partial pressure levels, there is an supra-linear increase of excimer VUV radiation and that determines the strong increase of luminance at the high pressures and high voltage. Due to the increase of the luminance and the almost unchanged discharge current, the luminous efficacy strongly increases with the Xe partial pressure. In addition, we also investigated the dynamics of the VUV generation, by measuring the decay time of the excimer VUV light as a function of the gas pressure. It is found that the decay time decreases with the increase of gas pressure. The spatial characteristics of the excimer VUV emission are also discussed. Different from the Ne and near-infrared emission, the excimer VUV emission is generated near the surface of the electrodes and increases uniformly on both sides of the anode and cathode (i.e., the bulk plasma region). Most importantly, it is found that the VUV production occurs during the afterglow period, while it is almost zero at the moment of the discharge itself. From the simulations, it can be seen that the Xe{sub 2}*({sup 3}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +}) excimer species, which are generated from Xe*(1s{sub 5}), play a dominant role in the excimer VUV emission output at the high Xe partial pressure. The two-dimensional simulations also show that the strong increase of Xe excimer excitation states in the case of high pressure is mainly the result of the high conversion efficiency of the Xe excimer states, especially in the afterglow period. Due to the high conversion efficiency of Xe excitation species to Xe excimer species by the high collision rate in the case of high pressure, there is a strong increase of excimer VUV production, especially from the cathode.

  13. A ratiometric fluorescent probe for hyaluronidase detection via hyaluronan-induced formation of red-light emitting excimers.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qinghua; Zeng, Fang; Wu, Shuizhu

    2016-05-15

    Hyaluronidase (HAase), which is involved in various physiological and pathological processes, can selectively degrade hyaluronan (HA) into small fragments, and it has been reported as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for bladder cancer. Herein, a facile ratiometric fluorescent sensing system for HAase has been developed, which is based on hyaluronan-induced formation of red-light emitting excimers and can realize sensitive detection of HAase with a detection limit of 0.007 U/mL. A positively-charged pyrene analog (N-Py) has been synthesized and then mixed with the negatively-charged HA, due to electrostatic interaction between the two components, aggregation along with the N-Py excimers readily form which emits red light. While in the presence of HAase, the enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of HA into small fragments, which in turn triggers disassembly of excimers; consequently the N-Py excimer emission turns into monomer emission. The emission ratio resulted from the excimer-monomer transition can be used as the sensing signal for detecting HAase. The probe features visible-light excitation and red light emission (excimer), which is conducive to reducing possible interference from autofluorescence of biological samples. Furthermore, the assay system can be successfully used to determine HAase in human urine samples with satisfactory accuracy. This strategy may provide a suitable sensitive and accurate assay for HAase as well as an effective approach for developing fluorescent ratiometric assays for other enzymes. PMID:26774093

  14. Surface treatments by laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomann, A. L.; Benzerga, R.; Basillais, Armelle; Georges, Cecile; Fariaut, Francois; Semmar, Nadjib; Boulmer-Leborgne, Chantal

    2003-07-01

    Laser treatments of various metals are studying depending on the laser wavelength, pulse time duration and shape, and fluence (laser/metal interaction regime). Low fluence excimer UV laser melting process of gold layer is shown to improve the corrosion resistance of multilayer (Au/Ni/Cu alloy) electrical contacts. For this application the homogenity of the laser beam as well as the initial Cu substrate roughness are found to be limiting parameters of the process. Carburization of Al alloy, performed in C3H6 atmosphere with a KrF laser induces the incorporation of carbon atoms over about 4 μm depth. The crystalline Al4C3 synthesized at the surface leads to a strengthening of the light Al alloy, which is of great interest for application in car industry. The study shows that diffusion of C atom in the target is possible because of a plasma presence on the surface which supports the molten bath life time and induces dissociation of the ambient gas. In the last example of laser metal surface treatment presented in that paper, a commonly used steel is treated in air with different lasers at a fluence above the plasma formation threshold. It is seen that the machining oils covering the surface before the treatment can be efficiently removed and that new compounds (nitride, carbide and oxides) are formed at the surface.

  15. Biomodulation of light on cells in laser surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Timon C.; Li, Yan; Duan, Rui; Cai, Xiongwei

    2002-04-01

    In laser surgery, it has been observed pulsed 532-nm laser can avoid postoperative purpura, but pulsed 585-nm, 595-nm or 600-nm lasers nonetheless cause purpura when they were used to treat port-wine stains; the XeCl excimer laser (308 nm) can safely and effectively clear psoriasis; both XeCl excimer laser and Ho:YAG laser were used in coronary interventions, but only former was approved by the FDA; open channels after ultraviolet (UV) laser treatment and closed channels with infrared (IR) lasers for transmyocardial laser revascularization; and so on. In this paper, the biological information model of low intensity laser (BIML) is extended to include UVA biomodulation and is used to understand these phenomena. Although the central intensity of the laser beam is so intense that it destroys the tissue, the edge intensity is so low that it can induce biomodulation. Our investigation showed that biomodulation of light on cells might play an important role in the long-term effects of laser surgery.

  16. High efficiency fluorescent excimer lamps: an alternative to mercury based UVC lamps.

    PubMed

    Masoud, N M; Murnick, D E

    2013-12-01

    A high efficiency xenon excimer lamp radiating at 172 nm, with an internal phosphor coating shifting to UVC has been demonstrated, showing the feasibility of a cost effective alternative to UVC mercury lamps. Fluorescent lamps so designed can be fabricated in various geometries with high efficiency. Unlike other xenon excimer lamps based on dielectric barrier discharges this new system is highly compatible with existing and proposed phosphors as it operates in an inert gas environment at modest temperature and is subject only to 172 nm primary radiation. Using a lamp coated with a UVC phosphor we have demonstrated the feasibility of germicidal and curing lamps with 40% energy conversion efficiency and high power density. These lamps are rapidly switchable, have long projected lifetimes and are compatible with dimmers. PMID:24387421

  17. High efficiency fluorescent excimer lamps: An alternative to mercury based UVC lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Masoud, N. M.; Murnick, D. E.

    2013-12-15

    A high efficiency xenon excimer lamp radiating at 172 nm, with an internal phosphor coating shifting to UVC has been demonstrated, showing the feasibility of a cost effective alternative to UVC mercury lamps. Fluorescent lamps so designed can be fabricated in various geometries with high efficiency. Unlike other xenon excimer lamps based on dielectric barrier discharges this new system is highly compatible with existing and proposed phosphors as it operates in an inert gas environment at modest temperature and is subject only to 172 nm primary radiation. Using a lamp coated with a UVC phosphor we have demonstrated the feasibility of germicidal and curing lamps with 40% energy conversion efficiency and high power density. These lamps are rapidly switchable, have long projected lifetimes and are compatible with dimmers.

  18. Bound-bound transitions in the emission spectra of Ba+-He excimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroshkin, P.; Kono, K.

    2016-05-01

    We present an experimental and theoretical study of the emission and absorption spectra of the Ba+ ions and Ba+*He excimer quasimolecules in the cryogenic Ba-He plasma. We observe several spectral features in the emission spectrum, which we assign to the electronic transitions between bound states of the excimer correlating to the 6 2P3 /2 and 5 2D3 /2 ,5 /2 states of Ba+. The resulting Ba+(5 2DJ) He is a metastable electronically excited complex with orbital angular momentum L =2 , thus expanding the family of known metal-helium quasimolecules. It might be suitable for high-resolution spectroscopic studies and for the search for new polyatomic exciplex structures.

  19. Analyte-directed formation of emissive excimers for the selective detection of polyamines.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Il; Kim, Youngmi

    2016-08-23

    A convenient and selective method for the sensing of polyamines, which are important biomarkers for cancers, has been developed. The fluorescence light-up mechanism utilizes the analyte-induced formation of emissive excimers of a sulfonated probe. Detection is achieved in aqueous media and artificial urine samples, as indicated by an excellent fluorescence turn-on signal with a large spectral shift. PMID:27501825

  20. Laser Fabrication of Silica Gratings by Ablation and Modification of Silicone Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, A.; Fricke-Begemann, T.; Ihlemann, J.

    Silicone (polydimethylsiloxane) films are irradiated with a nanosecond F2-laser at a wavelength of 157 nm. Low fluence irradiation < 100 mJ/cm2 causes elimination of the organic groups leading to the formation of silica like material. Irradiation at fluences> 200 mJ/cm2 causes precise ablation of the silicone material. By combining ablative patterning and low fluence modification, the fabrication of silica devices with precise shape control is possible. Using spin coating of a diluted silicone solution (type ACCUGLASS), the preparation of thin silicone films (100 nm to 1 μm thickness) is possible. High resolution patterns like surface relief gratings with 1 μm period are obtained in these films by patterned ablation using a mask projection system and subsequent large area irradiation for the modification to silica. The chemical modification to carbon free silica is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy.