Sample records for 15n natural abundance

  1. 15N NATURAL ABUNDANCE AND 15N LABELLING STUDIES IN FOREST ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relative amounts of the two stable isotopes of Nitrogen (N), 15N, and N, vary predictably in soils and plant tissues of forests and other non-cultivated ecosystems. light fractionations, or discriminations against the heavier N isotope, that can occur as N cycles through vege...

  2. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in an arid ecosystem measured by sup 15 N natural abundance

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.V. (Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Plants dependent on nitrogen fixation have an {sup 15}N abundance similar to the atmosphere, while non-nitrogen fixing plants usually are enriched in {sup 15}N and are similar to soil nitrogen values. The natural abundance of {sup 15}N in leaf tissues and soils was determined to evaluate symbiotic nitrogen fixation by several legumes and actinorhizal species in the Sevilleta Long-term Ecological Research area in central New Mexico. Comparison of {delta}{sup 15}N values for the legume Prosopis glandulosa (mesquite) to adjacent Atriplex canascens (fourwing saltbush) indicated that P. glandulosa obtained 66% of its nitrogen by fixation. The legume Hoffmanseggia jamesii was found to be utilizing soil nitrogen. The {delta}{sup 15}N values for the actinorhizal plants, Elaeagnus angustifolia and Cercocarpus montanus, while below values for soil nitrogen, did not differ from associated non-fixing plants.

  3. 15 N natural abundance in forest and pasture soils of the Brazilian Amazon Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marisa C. Piccolo; Christopher Neill; Jerry M. Melillo; Carlos C. Cerri; Paul A. Steudler

    1996-01-01

    The natural abundance of 15N was examined in soil profiles from forests and pastures of the Brazilian Amazon Basin to compare tropical forests on a variety of soil types and to investigate changes in the sources of nitrogen to soils following deforestation for cattle ranching. Six sites in the state of Rondônia, two sites in Pará and one in Amazonas

  4. Natural abundance of 15 N in particulate organic matter in the North Pacific Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eitaro Wada; Akihiko Hattori

    1976-01-01

    The abundance of 15 N in particulate organic matter in the euphotic layer of the North Pacific Ocean was investigated. 15 N values ranged from -1.7 to +9.7% relative to atmospheric nitrogen. 15 N contents in plankton samples collected in the central and northwestern North Pacific were inversely correlated with concentrations of NO - 3 . The 15 N contents

  5. Regional patterns of 15N natural abundance in forest ecosystems along a large transect in eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Wenping; Yu, Guirui; Fang, Huajun; Liu, Yingchun; Wang, Qiufeng; Chen, Zhi; Zhang, Li

    2014-01-01

    The regional determining factors underlying inter- and intra-site variation of 15N natural abundance in foliage, O horizon and mineral soil were investigated in eastern China.15N natural abundance values for these forest ecosystems were in the middle of the range of values previously found for global forest ecosystems. In contrast to commonly reported global patterns, temperate forest ecosystems were significantly more15N-enriched than tropical forest ecosystems, and foliage ?15N was negatively correlated with increasing mean annual temperature and net soil N mineralisation in eastern China. Tight N cycling in forest ecosystems and the use of atmospheric N deposition by trees might underlie the ?15N distribution patterns in eastern China. The existence of mycorrhizal fungi and root distribution profiles in the soil may also influence the15N natural abundance patterns in forest ecosystems of eastern China. PMID:24576905

  6. Regional patterns of 15N natural abundance in forest ecosystems along a large transect in eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Wenping; Yu, Guirui; Fang, Huajun; Liu, Yingchun; Wang, Qiufeng; Chen, Zhi; Zhang, Li

    2014-02-01

    The regional determining factors underlying inter- and intra-site variation of 15N natural abundance in foliage, O horizon and mineral soil were investigated in eastern China.15N natural abundance values for these forest ecosystems were in the middle of the range of values previously found for global forest ecosystems. In contrast to commonly reported global patterns, temperate forest ecosystems were significantly more15N-enriched than tropical forest ecosystems, and foliage ?15N was negatively correlated with increasing mean annual temperature and net soil N mineralisation in eastern China. Tight N cycling in forest ecosystems and the use of atmospheric N deposition by trees might underlie the ?15N distribution patterns in eastern China. The existence of mycorrhizal fungi and root distribution profiles in the soil may also influence the15N natural abundance patterns in forest ecosystems of eastern China.

  7. Natural abundance of 15 N in soils along forest-to-pasture chronosequences in the western Brazilian Amazon Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marisa C. Piccolo; Christopher Neill; Carlos C. Cerri

    1994-01-01

    We examined the natural abundance of 15N in soil profiles along two chronosequences in the western Brazilian Amazon Basin state of Rondônia, to investigate possible mechanisms for changes to soil nitrogen sources and transformations that occur as a result of land use. One chronosequence consisted of forest and 3-, 5- and 20-year-old pasture, the other of forest and 8- and

  8. Natural abundance of 15 N in two cacao plantations with legume and non-legume shade trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pekka Nygren; Humberto A. Leblanc

    2009-01-01

    Natural abundance of 15N was sampled in young and mature leaves, branches, stem, and coarse roots of trees in a cacao (Theobroma cacao) plantation shaded by legume tree Inga edulis and scattered non-legumes, in a cacao plantation with mixed-species shade (legume Gliricidia sepium and several non-legumes), and in a tree hedgerow bordering the plantations in Guácimo, in the humid Caribbean

  9. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in an arid ecosystem measured by sup 15 N natural abundance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johnson

    1990-01-01

    Plants dependent on nitrogen fixation have an ¹⁵N abundance similar to the atmosphere, while non-nitrogen fixing plants usually are enriched in ¹⁵N and are similar to soil nitrogen values. The natural abundance of ¹⁵N in leaf tissues and soils was determined to evaluate symbiotic nitrogen fixation by several legumes and actinorhizal species in the Sevilleta Long-term Ecological Research area in

  10. Foliar 15 N natural abundance in Hawaiian rainforest: patterns and possible mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter M. Vitousek; Georgia Shearer; Daniel H. Kohl

    1989-01-01

    Foliar samples were obtained from symbiotic nitrogen-fixers and control plants (non-fixers) along elevational and primary successional gradients in volcanic sites in Hawai'i. Most control plants had negative d15N values (range-10.1 to +0.7‰), while most nitrogen-fixers were near 0‰. Foliar 15N in the native tree Metrosideros polymorpha did not vary with elevation (from sea level to tree-line), but it did increase

  11. Estimation of N 2 fixation based on differences in the natural abundance of 15 N among freshwater N 2 -fixing and non-N 2 -fixing algae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Gu; V. Alexander

    1993-01-01

    The dynamics of nitrogen supply was investigated for blue-green and green algae from Smith Lake and other freshwaters of subarctic and arctic Alska. The natural abundance of 15N (defined as d15N) of six N2-fixing blue-green algae was 1.0±%o(X±SE), indicating supply of metabolic nitrogen from atmospheric N2 (d15N=0.0). The d15N of six green algae showed an average of 6.6±4.5%o, which is

  12. Plant nitrate use in deciduous woodland: the relationship between leaf N, 15N natural abundance of forbs and soil N mineralisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Falkengren-Grerup; A. Michelsen; M. O. Olsson; C. Quarmby; D. Sleep

    2004-01-01

    Our aim was to study whether the in situ natural abundance 15N (?15N)-values and N concentration of understory plants were correlated with the form and amount of mineral N available in the soil. Also to determine whether such differences were related to earlier demonstrations of differences in biomass increase in the same species exposed to nutrient solutions with both NO3?

  13. Natural 15 N abundance of paddy rice ( Oryza sativa L.) grown with synthetic fertilizer, livestock manure compost, and hairy vetch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soek-In Yun; Sang-Sun Lim; Gwang-Sung Lee; Sang-Mo Lee; Han-Yong Kim; Hee-Myong Ro; Woo-Jung Choi

    Nitrogen isotope abundance (?\\u000a 15N) of paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown for 110 days after transplanting (DAT) under field conditions with ammonium sulfate (AS with ?0.4‰ as a synthetic\\u000a fertilizer), pig manure compost (PMC with 15.3‰ as a livestock manure compost), and hairy vetch (HV with ?0.5‰ as a green\\u000a manure) was investigated to test the possible use of ?

  14. Vascular plant 15 N natural abundance in heath and forest tundra ecosystems is closely correlated with presence and type of mycorrhizal fungi in roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Michelsen; Chris Quarmby; Darren Sleep; Sven Jonasson

    1998-01-01

    In this study we show that the natural abundance of the nitrogen isotope 15, ?15N, of plants in heath tundra and at the tundra-forest ecocline is closely correlated with the presence and type of mycorrhizal\\u000a association in the plant roots. A total of 56 vascular plant species, 7 moss species, 2 lichens and 6 species of fungi from\\u000a four heath

  15. Natural 15N abundances of inorganic nitrogen in soil treated with fertilizer and compost under changing soil moisture regimes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Woo-Jung Choi; Hee-Myong Ro; Sang-Mo Lee

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine whether the applications of N-inputs (compost and fertilizer) having different N isotopic compositions (?15N) produce isotopically different inorganic-N and to investigate the effect of soil moisture regimes on the temporal variations in the ?15N of inorganic-N in soils. To do so, the temporal variations in the concentrations and the ?15N of NH4+ and NO3?

  16. Nitrogen content, 15N natural abundance and biomass of the two pleurocarpous mosses Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. and Scleropodium purum (Hedw.) Limpr. in relation to atmospheric nitrogen deposition.

    PubMed

    Solga, A; Burkhardt, J; Zechmeister, H G; Frahm, J-P

    2005-04-01

    The suitability of the two pleurocarpous mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Scleropodium purum for assessing spatial variation in nitrogen deposition was investigated. Sampling was carried out at eight sites in the western part of Germany with bulk deposition rates ranging between 6.5 and 18.5 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1). In addition to the effect of deposition on the nitrogen content of the two species, its influence on 15N natural abundance (delta15N values) and on productivity was examined. Annual increases of the mosses were used for all analyses. Significant relationships between bulk N deposition and nitrogen content were obtained for both species; delta15N-values reflected the ratio of NH4-N to NO3-N in deposition. A negative effect of nitrogen input on productivity, i.e. decreasing biomass per area with increasing N deposition due to a reduction of stem density, was particularly evident with P. schreberi. Monitoring of N deposition by means of mosses is considered an important supplement to existing monitoring programs. It makes possible an improved spatial resolution, and thus those areas that receive high loads of nitrogen are more easily discernible. PMID:15620592

  17. 15N natural abundance during early and late succession in a middle-European dry acidic grassland.

    PubMed

    Beyschlag, W; Hanisch, S; Friedrich, S; Jentsch, A; Werner, C

    2009-09-01

    delta(15)N and total nitrogen content of above- and belowground tissues of 13 plant species from two successional stages (open pioneer community and ruderal grass stage) of a dry acidic grassland in Southern Germany were analysed, in order to evaluate whether resource use partitioning by niche separation and N input by N(2)-fixing legumes are potential determinants for species coexistence and successional changes. Within each stage, plants from plots with different legume cover were compared. Soil inorganic N content, total plant biomass and delta(15)N values of bulk plant material were significantly lower in the pioneer stage than in the ruderal grass community. The observed delta(15)N differences were rather species- than site-specific. Within both stages, there were also species-specific differences in isotopic composition between above- and belowground plant dry matter. Species-specific delta(15)N signatures may theoretically be explained by (i) isotopic fractionation during microbial-mediated soil N transformations; (ii) isotopic fractionation during plant N uptake or fractionation during plant-mycorrhiza transfer processes; (iii) differences in metabolic pathways and isotopic fractionation within the plant; or (iv) partitioning of available N resources (or pools) among plant groups or differential use of the same resources by different species, which seems to be the most probable route in the present case. A significant influence of N(2)-fixing legumes on the N balance of the surrounding plant community was not detectable. This was confirmed by the results of an independent in situ removal experiment, showing that after 3 years there were no measurable differences in the frequency distribution between plots with and without N(2)-fixing legumes. PMID:19689779

  18. Field assessment of symbiotic N2 fixation in wild and cultivated Cyclopia species in the South African fynbos by 15N natural abundance.

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Amy C; Dakora, Felix D

    2009-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) derived from symbiotic fixation of atmospheric N(2) in wild and cultivated populations of Cyclopia, a woody endemic genus used to make honeybush tea in the Western Cape of South Africa, was quantified by the (15)N natural abundance method. Because Cyclopia species are naturally mycorrhizal, non-N(2)-fixing arbuscular mycorrhizal shrubs of similar phenology to Cyclopia were chosen as reference plants to provide the delta(15)N value of soil-derived N. Isotopic analysis showed that wild populations of Cyclopia were highly dependent on N(2) fixation for their N nutrition, ranging from 70 +/- 4% to 100 +/- 7% (mean +/- SE) at all sites, except for one. Further evidence of the high dependency of wild Cyclopia populations on symbiotic N was provided by their significantly higher foliar N concentrations compared with the non-legume reference plants. However, cultivated Cyclopia exhibited variable amounts of N(2) fixation, with Cyclopia genistoides (L.) R. Br., for example, showing low amounts of N(2) fixation at Sites P2 and P3 (0 +/- 51% and 8 +/- 46%, respectively) as a result of low D values (D is defined as the difference between the mean delta(15)N value of the reference plants and the B value of the test Cyclopia species, where B is the delta(15)N of an inoculated test legume grown in an N-free growth medium), whereas at Sites P1, P2, P5 and P6, up to 89 +/- 2%, 94 +/- 13%, 85 +/- 13% and 100 +/- 18%, respectively, plant N was derived from atmospheric fixation. The high symbiotic N nutrition observed for wild populations of Cyclopia suggests that these populations are major contributors to the N economy of the nutrient-poor soils of the South African fynbos. These data indicate that by breeding for high N(2) fixation rates in Cyclopia cultivars and selecting more efficient rhizobial strains, this legume has the potential to achieve higher N(2) fixation rates under cultivation. The low variability in Cyclopia delta(15)N values within sites, however, suggests that genetic variability is not a major factor influencing N(2) fixation rates in cultivated Cyclopia, and that more benefit may be gained from soil amelioration and the selection of improved rhizobial strains. PMID:19203949

  19. Nitrous Oxide Concentration Profiles and the Natural Abundance of 15N-N2O in a Paddy Soil During the Wheat Growing Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Z.; Khalil, A. M.; Shearer, M.; Butenhoff, C.; Xing, G.

    2006-12-01

    Soil is an important source of nitrous oxide. Significant temporal and spatial trends exist in the production and emission in paddy fields where upland winter wheat is grown. A multilevel sampling probe (0-5cm, 5-10cm, 10- 15cm, and 15-20 cm) was designed to sample the air in the soil. Changes in N2O gas concentrations in 24 profiles were studied at 10-day intervals during the wheat growing period, for 16 total sampling dates. Surface fluxes were studied simultaneously from 24 field plots (4m x 5m). The natural abundance of 15N2O in eight profiles was measured three times during the wheat season by using a MAT 253 isotope mass chromatograph. Dynamic soil ammonium and nitrate concentrations in the plough layer and profile soil redox potential were also monitored throughout the wheat season. We present the first in situ data of such gradients over time for a paddy field seeded with wheat. Results indicate that N2O was produced at the lower levels of 10cm-15cm and 15-20cm, and that denitrification was the dominant process for N2O production even under the aerobic wheat cropping condition. N2O at 10-15cm depth has the most negative natural abundance of 15N. Profiles with higher concentrations of soil nitrate give more negative values of natural abundance of 15N2O. The lower levels of 10cm-15cm and 15cm-20cm give the highest concentrations during the whole wheat growing season. The maximum concentration of 14.8 mL m-3 and the maximum flux of 126 micro g N m-2 h-1 were found in January and April, respectively. N2O concentrations are significantly correlated between all layers over time. Spatial variations exist in N2O emissions and concentration profiles, but temporal variations are greater. The N2O emission peaks did not always coincide with soil concentration peaks. These results suggest that to understand the underlying processes, we need to measure both surface fluxes and soil concentrations simultaneously. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), US Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02- 04ER63913, and the Institute of Soil Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. Natural abundance 15N CP/MAS of nylons and aramids: A sensitive technique for examining crystalline composition and conformation in solid polyamides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Douglas G.; Sikes, Allison M.; Mathias, Lon J.

    1988-09-01

    We have examined a variety of polyamides and aramids using natural abundance 15N CP/MAS NMR. These have included commercially available A-B and AA-BB nylons, Kevlar and poly(p-benzamide) as well as a number of block and graft copolymers synthesized in our laboratory. Excellent correlation was observed between the type of crystalline form adopted by polyamides (alpha and gamma modifications) and the chemical shift of the rigid amide nitrogens. Values for the two forms center around 84 ppm (relative to glycine at 0 ppm) and 88 ppm, respectively. For some samples, unexplained peaks between the two main crystalline peaks are tentatively assigned to rigid amide conformations that are not X-ray active but are seen by NMR. Aramids show similar complexity. Block and graft copolymers display characteristic peaks for composition (aryl vs alkyl nitrogen substituents) and for conformation and crystallinity.

  1. Natural abundance 15N NMR assignments delineate structural differences between intact and reactive-site hydrolyzed Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor III.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthi, R; Nemmers, S; Tobias, B

    1992-06-15

    15N NMR assignments were made to the backbone amide nitrogen atoms at natural isotopic abundance of intact and reactive-site (Arg5-Ile6) hydrolyzed Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor III (CMTI-III and CMTI-III*, respectively) by means of 2D proton-detected heteronuclear single bond chemical shift correlation (HSBC) spectroscopy, utilizing the previously made sequence-specific 1H NMR assignments (Krishnamoorthi et al. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 898-904). Comparison of the 15N chemical shifts of the two forms of the inhibitor molecule revealed significant changes not only for residues located near the reactive-site region, but also for those distantly located. Residues Cys3, Arg5, Leu7, Met8, Cys10, Cys16, Glu19, His25, Tyr27, Cys28 and Gly29 showed significant chemical shift changes ranging from 0.3 to 6.1 ppm, thus indicating structural perturbations that were transmitted throughout the molecule. These findings confirm the earlier conclusions based on 1H NMR investigations. PMID:1618315

  2. Leaf allocation patterns and 13C and 15N natural abundances of tropical lianas (Passiflora sp.) as dependent on external climbing support.

    PubMed

    Werth, Martin; Spiegel, Ann-Kathrin; Kazda, Marian

    2013-01-01

    The transformation from self-supporting lianas to host-supported climbing lianas is related to re-allocation of biomass and nutrients among plant organs. Therefore, first, variations in leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf carbon and nitrogen allocation and (13)C and (15)N natural abundances were analysed among three tropical Passiflora species (P. edulis, P. ligularis, and P. tripartita) in a greenhouse study. Second, the influence of a climbing support was considered for each species and parameter. P. ligularis leaves were most enriched in (13)C in both treatments when compared with the other two species. This enrichment was caused by a high LMA, which is related to a high internal resistance to CO(2) diffusion. For P. edulis and P. tripartita, ?(13)C was additionally increasing with nitrogen content per area. Generally, there were no differences when considering carbon and nitrogen allocation to leaves of host-supported and self-supporting lianas. The only hints towards increased investment into leaves after the transition from self-supporting to host-supported stages could be seen by a trend to increased leaf areas and masses. ?(13)C values of supported P. edulis or P. tripartita plants were significantly increasing faster than those of non-supported plants once the interactions of leaf mass or nitrogen content per area were accounted for. Hence, the offer of a climbing support had only a minor impact on ?(13)C or ?(15)N values in vitro, but this could be different with increasing age of lianas in vivo. PMID:23134439

  3. Historical alteration in the nitrogen concentration and 15N natural abundance of mosses in Germany: Indication for regionally varying changes in atmospheric nitrogen deposition within the last 140 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solga, A.; Eichert, T.; Frahm, J.-P.

    Historical alterations of nitrogen deposition in the western part of Germany were investigated by comparing nitrogen concentrations and 15N natural abundance of historical and recent samples of the two pleurocarpous mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Scleropodium purum. Pooling of the data revealed only slight tissue N increases over the past 140 years which were significant nevertheless. At closer examination on the single site level historical increases of N concentrations were found particularly for some sites in regions where agricultural activities were considerably intensified during the second half of the 20th century. The comparison of ?15N values showed a strong depletion of 15N natural abundance in areas currently heavily influenced by livestock management. This indicates an increased impact of NH y compounds. However, the almost unchanged ?15N values in some low mountain range areas with only moderate intensification of agriculture point to a more or less constant ratio of NH y/NO x input over time. Significant correlations of both tissue N concentrations and 15N natural abundance between the two species justify the assumption that they use the same nitrogen source, probably atmospheric deposition.

  4. NMR profiling of biomolecules at natural abundance using 2D 1H-15N and 1H-13C multiplicity-separated (MS) HSQC spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kang; Freedberg, Darón I.; Keire, David A.

    2015-02-01

    2D NMR 1H-X (X = 15N or 13C) HSQC spectra contain cross-peaks for all XHn moieties. Multiplicity-edited1H-13C HSQC pulse sequences generate opposite signs between peaks of CH2 and CH/CH3 at a cost of lower signal-to-noise due to the 13C T2 relaxation during an additional 1/1JCH period. Such CHn-editing experiments are useful in assignment of chemical shifts and have been successfully applied to small molecules and small proteins (e.g. ubiquitin) dissolved in deuterated solvents where, generally, peak overlap is minimal. By contrast, for larger biomolecules, peak overlap in 2D HSQC spectra is unavoidable and peaks with opposite phases cancel each other out in the edited spectra. However, there is an increasing need for using NMR to profile biomolecules at natural abundance dissolved in water (e.g., protein therapeutics) where NMR experiments beyond 2D are impractical. Therefore, the existing 2D multiplicity-edited HSQC methods must be improved to acquire data on nuclei other than 13C (i.e.15N), to resolve more peaks, to reduce T2 losses and to accommodate water suppression approaches. To meet these needs, a multiplicity-separated1H-X HSQC (MS-HSQC) experiment was developed and tested on 500 and 700 MHz NMR spectrometers equipped with room temperature probes using RNase A (14 kDa) and retroviral capsid (26 kDa) proteins dissolved in 95% H2O/5% D2O. In this pulse sequence, the 1/1JXH editing-period is incorporated into the semi-constant time (semi-CT) X resonance chemical shift evolution period, which increases sensitivity, and importantly, the sum and the difference of the interleaved 1JXH-active and the 1JXH-inactive HSQC experiments yield two separate spectra for XH2 and XH/XH3. Furthermore we demonstrate improved water suppression using triple xyz-gradients instead of the more widely used z-gradient only water-suppression approach.

  5. NMR profiling of biomolecules at natural abundance using 2D 1H-15N and 1H-13C multiplicity-separated (MS) HSQC spectra.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kang; Freedberg, Darón I; Keire, David A

    2015-02-01

    2D NMR (1)H-X (X=(15)N or (13)C) HSQC spectra contain cross-peaks for all XHn moieties. Multiplicity-edited(1)H-(13)C HSQC pulse sequences generate opposite signs between peaks of CH(2) and CH/CH(3) at a cost of lower signal-to-noise due to the (13)C T(2) relaxation during an additional 1/(1)JCH period. Such CHn-editing experiments are useful in assignment of chemical shifts and have been successfully applied to small molecules and small proteins (e.g. ubiquitin) dissolved in deuterated solvents where, generally, peak overlap is minimal. By contrast, for larger biomolecules, peak overlap in 2D HSQC spectra is unavoidable and peaks with opposite phases cancel each other out in the edited spectra. However, there is an increasing need for using NMR to profile biomolecules at natural abundance dissolved in water (e.g., protein therapeutics) where NMR experiments beyond 2D are impractical. Therefore, the existing 2D multiplicity-edited HSQC methods must be improved to acquire data on nuclei other than (13)C (i.e.(15)N), to resolve more peaks, to reduce T(2) losses and to accommodate water suppression approaches. To meet these needs, a multiplicity-separated(1)H-X HSQC (MS-HSQC) experiment was developed and tested on 500 and 700 MHz NMR spectrometers equipped with room temperature probes using RNase A (14 kDa) and retroviral capsid (26 kDa) proteins dissolved in 95% H(2)O/5% D(2)O. In this pulse sequence, the 1/(1)JXH editing-period is incorporated in to the semi-constant time (semi-CT) X resonance chemical shift evolution period, which increases sensitivity, and importantly, the sum and the difference of the interleaved (1)J(XH)-active and the (1)J(XH)-inactive HSQC experiments yield two separate spectra for XH(2) and XH/XH(3). Furthermore we demonstrate improved water suppression using triple xyz-gradients instead of the more widely used z-gradient only water-suppression approach. PMID:25562571

  6. Comparing the Influence of Wildfire and Prescribed Burns on Watershed Nitrogen Biogeochemistry Using 15N Natural Abundance in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystem Components

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Kirsten; Kavanagh, Kathleen L.; Koyama, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated differences in the effects of three low-severity spring prescribed burns and four wildfires on nitrogen (N) biogeochemistry in Rocky Mountain headwater watersheds. We compared paired (burned/unburned) watersheds of four wildfires and three spring prescribed burns for three growing seasons post-fire. To better understand fire effects on the entire watershed ecosystem, we measured N concentrations and ?15N in both the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems components, i.e., soil, understory plants in upland and riparian areas, streamwater, and in-stream moss. In addition, we measured nitrate reductase activity in foliage of Spiraea betulifolia, a dominant understory species. We found increases of ?15N and N concentrations in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem N pools after wildfire, but responses were limited to terrestrial N pools after prescribed burns indicating that N transfer from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystem components did not occur in low-severity prescribed burns. Foliar ?15N differed between wildfire and prescribed burn sites; the ?15N of foliage of upland plants was enriched by 2.9 ‰ (difference between burned and unburned watersheds) in the first two years after wildfire, but only 1.3 ‰ after prescribed burns. In-stream moss ?15N in wildfire-burned watersheds was enriched by 1.3 ‰, but there was no response by moss in prescription-burned watersheds, mirroring patterns of streamwater nitrate concentrations. S. betulifolia showed significantly higher nitrate reductase activity two years after wildfires relative to corresponding unburned watersheds, but no such difference was found after prescribed burns. These responses are consistent with less altered N biogeochemistry after prescribed burns relative to wildfire. We concluded that ?15N values in terrestrial and aquatic plants and streamwater nitrate concentrations after fire can be useful indicators of the magnitude and duration of fire effects and the fate of post-fire available N. PMID:25885257

  7. Comparing the influence of wildfire and prescribed burns on watershed nitrogen biogeochemistry using 15N natural abundance in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem components.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Kirsten; Kavanagh, Kathleen L; Koyama, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated differences in the effects of three low-severity spring prescribed burns and four wildfires on nitrogen (N) biogeochemistry in Rocky Mountain headwater watersheds. We compared paired (burned/unburned) watersheds of four wildfires and three spring prescribed burns for three growing seasons post-fire. To better understand fire effects on the entire watershed ecosystem, we measured N concentrations and ?15N in both the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems components, i.e., soil, understory plants in upland and riparian areas, streamwater, and in-stream moss. In addition, we measured nitrate reductase activity in foliage of Spiraea betulifolia, a dominant understory species. We found increases of ?15N and N concentrations in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem N pools after wildfire, but responses were limited to terrestrial N pools after prescribed burns indicating that N transfer from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystem components did not occur in low-severity prescribed burns. Foliar ?15N differed between wildfire and prescribed burn sites; the ?15N of foliage of upland plants was enriched by 2.9 ‰ (difference between burned and unburned watersheds) in the first two years after wildfire, but only 1.3 ‰ after prescribed burns. In-stream moss ?15N in wildfire-burned watersheds was enriched by 1.3 ‰, but there was no response by moss in prescription-burned watersheds, mirroring patterns of streamwater nitrate concentrations. S. betulifolia showed significantly higher nitrate reductase activity two years after wildfires relative to corresponding unburned watersheds, but no such difference was found after prescribed burns. These responses are consistent with less altered N biogeochemistry after prescribed burns relative to wildfire. We concluded that ?15N values in terrestrial and aquatic plants and streamwater nitrate concentrations after fire can be useful indicators of the magnitude and duration of fire effects and the fate of post-fire available N. PMID:25885257

  8. Long-range (1)H-(15)N heteronuclear shift correlation at natural abundance: a tool to study benzothiazole biodegradation by two rhodococcus strains.

    PubMed

    Besse, P; Combourieu, B; Boyse, G; Sancelme, M; De Wever, H; Delort, A M

    2001-04-01

    The biodegradation of benzothiazole and 2-hydroxybenzothiazole by two strains of Rhodococcus was monitored by reversed phase high-pressure liquid chromatography and by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Both xenobiotics were biotransformed into a hydroxylated derivative of 2-hydroxybenzothiazole by these two strains. The chemical structure of this metabolite was determined by a new NMR methodology: long-range (1)H-(15)N heteronuclear shift correlation without any previous (15)N enrichment of the compound. This powerful NMR tool allowed us to assign the metabolite structure to 2,6-dihydroxybenzothiazole. PMID:11282584

  9. ? 15N as an integrator of the nitrogen cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Robinson

    2001-01-01

    Natural abundances of the rare stable isotope of nitrogen, 15N, are now being used widely in research on N cycling in organisms and ecosystems. 15N natural abundances are used in fundamentally different ways from traditional 15N tracers by integrating N cycle processes via N isotope fractionations and the mixing of various N-containing pools. This approach of using 15N natural abundances

  10. 15N and 13C abundances in the Antartic Ocean with emphasis on the biogeochemical structure of the food web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Eitaro; Terazaki, Makoto; Kabaya, Yuko; Nemoto, Takahisa

    1987-06-01

    Distributions of ? 15N and ? 13C for biogenic substances in the Antarctic Ocean were investigated to construct a biogeochemical framework for assessing the Antarctic ecosystem. Phytoplankton exhibited particularly low ? 15N (0.5%) and 13C (-26.9%) values in pelagic plankton samples. High nitrate concentrations, and high PCO 2 in the surface waters on the southern side of the polar front and the resulting slow growth rate of phytoplankton under low light intensity are suggested as possible factors in causing the low isotopic compositions. Mean fractionation factors of 1.029 and 1.006 were estimated for photosynthetic carbon fixation and for the assimilation of inorganic nitrogeneous compounds (ammonium plus nitrate) during algal growth, respectively. Enrichment of 15N with increasing trophic level was confirmed for Antarctic ecosystems: ?15N animal% = 3.3 (trophic level -1) + ?5N algae, whereas 13C content did not increase in the same manner. Differences in lipid content among animals may be the main factor in causing this ? 13C anomaly. 15N and 13C abundance of sedimentary organic nitrogen differed from phytoplankton and settling particles. An exact mechanism for explaining the high ? 15N (around 5%) is not known. The very high ? 13C value of -20.5% at Sta. 3B may originate in ice algae that had grown under CO 2-limited conditions. Particles collected by sediment traps gave characteristically low ? 15N values (-3.0 to 0.9%), strongly suggesting a phytoplankton origin. The ? 15N and ? 13C values of settling material showed similar vertical profiles with depth which might arise from temporal variation of algal growth.

  11. 15 N isotope biogeochemistry and natural denitrification process in groundwater: Application to the chalk aquifer of northern France

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André Mariotti; Alain Landreau; Béatrice Simon

    1988-01-01

    The use of 15 N natural isotope tracing in an aquifer contained within chalk rocks in northern France indicates that, under certain hydrogeological conditions, major denitrification occurs. At the boundary where the aquifer becomes confined, the nitrate concentrations decrease in the direction of groundwater flow accompanied by an exponential increase in 15 N (expressed in 15 N ) of the

  12. 15N chemical shift tensors and conformation of solid polypeptides containing 15N-labeled glycine residue by 15N NMR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Shoji; Takuo Ozaki; Teruaki Fujito; Kenzo Deguchi; Isao Ando; Jun Magoshi

    1998-01-01

    The correlation between the isotropic 15N chemical shift (?iso) and 15N chemical shift tensor components (?11, ?22 and ?33) and the main-chain conformation such as the polyglycine I (PGI: ?-sheet), II (PGII: 31-helix), ?-helix and ?-sheet forms of solid polypeptides [Gly?,X]n consisting of 15N-labeled glycine (Gly?) and other amino acids (X: natural abundance of 15N) has been studied by solid-state

  13. Automated and rapid online determination of 15N abundance and concentration of ammonium, nitrite, or nitrate in aqueous samples by the SPINMAS technique.

    PubMed

    Stange, C Florian; Spott, Oliver; Apelt, Bernd; Russow, Rolf W B

    2007-09-01

    On the basis of the principle of reaction continuous-flow quadrupole mass spectrometry, an automated sample preparation unit for inorganic nitrogen (SPIN) species was developed and coupled to a quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (MAS). The SPINMAS technique was designed for an automated, sensitive, and rapid determination of 15N abundance and concentration of a wide variety of N-species involved in nitrogen cycling (e.g. NH4+, NO3-, NH2OH etc.). In this paper, the SPINMAS technique is evaluated with regard to the determination of 15N abundance and concentration of the most fundamental inorganic nitrogen compounds in ecosystems such as NH4+, NO2-, and NO3-. The presented paper describes the newly developed system in detail and demonstrates the general applicability of the system. For a precise determination of 15N abundance and concentration, a minimum total N-amount of 10 microg NH4+ - N, 0.03 microg NO2- - N, or 0.3 microg NO3- - N has to be supplied. Currently, the SPINMAS technique represents the most rapid and only fully automated all-round method for a simultaneous determination of 15N abundance and total N-amount of NH4+, NO2-, or NO3- in aqueous samples. PMID:17786668

  14. 15N Abundance of Nodules as an Indicator of N Metabolism in N2-Fixing Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, Georgia; Feldman, Lori; Bryan, Barbara A.; Skeeters, Jerri L.; Kohl, Daniel H.; Amarger, Nöelle; Mariotti, Françoise; Mariotti, André

    1982-01-01

    This paper expands upon previous reports of 15N elevation in nodules (compared to other tissues) of N2-fixing plants. N2-Fixing nodules of Glycine max (soybeans), Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Phaseolus coccineus (scarlet runner bean), Prosopis glandulosa (mesquite), and Olneya tesota (desert ironwood) were enriched in 15N. Nodules of Vicia faba (fava beans), Arachis hypogaea (peanut), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pisum sativum (pea), Lathyrus sativus (grass pea), Medicago sativa (alfalfa), and Lupinus mutabilis (South American lupine) were not; nor were the nodules of nine species of N2-fixing nonlegumes. The nitrogen of ineffective nodules of soybeans and cowpeas was not enriched in 15N. Thus, 15N elevation in nodules of these plants depends on active N2-fixation. Results obtained so far on the generality of 15N enrichment in N2-fixing nodules suggest that only the nodules of plants which actively fix N2 and which transport allantoin or allantoic acid exhibit 15N enrichment. PMID:16662517

  15. Biological nitrogen fixation by two tropical forage legumes assessed from the relative ureide abundance of stem solutes: 15N calibration of the technique in sand culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno J. R. Alves; Alexander S. Resende; Segundo Urquiaga; Robert M. Boddey

    2000-01-01

    The use of the relative ureide abundance (RUA) in the sap of mainly tropical ureide-producing legumes as a means to estimate the contribution of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is potentially an useful technique as it does not require the use of reference plants or additions of 15N-labelled fertilizer, and the analyses necessitate only relatively simple equipment. However, one problem in

  16. Natural abundances of stable isotopes trace anthropogenic N and C in an urban stream

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amber J. Ulseth; Anne E. Hershey

    2005-01-01

    Important ecological services of low-order streams are greatly affected by urbaniza- tion. North Buffalo Creek, in the headwaters of the Cape Fear River basin in Greensboro, North Carolina, receives point- and nonpoint-source pollutants. Natural abundances of the stable isotopes of C( 13C) and N (15N) were used to determine the influence of anthropogenic nutrients on seston d15N, nutrient concentrations, C\\/N

  17. [Effects of intensive agricultural production on farmland soil carbon and nitrogen contents and their delta13C and delta15N isotope abundances].

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang-Rong; Hao, Xiying; Li, Chun-Li; Wang, Zi-Lin; Li, Yong-Mei

    2012-03-01

    Farmland soil carbon and nitrogen contents under intensive agricultural production are the important indices for the assessment of the soil fertility sustainability. This paper measured the soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), and delta13C and delta15N isotope abundances of four types of farmland, i.e., conventional rice-broad bean rotation field, open vegetable field, 3-year plastic covered greenhouse field, and > 10-year plastic covered greenhouse field, aimed to understand the effects of intensive agricultural production degree on soil properties. In the open vegetable field, 3-year plastic covered greenhouse field, and > 10-year plastic covered greenhouse field, the soil (0-20 cm) pH decreased by 1.1, 0.8, and 0.7, and the soil EC was 4.2, 4.9, and 5.2 folds of that in conventional rice-broad bean rotation field, respectively. With the increasing year of plastic covered greenhouse production, the soil SOC and TN contents decreased after an initial increase. Comparing with those under rice-broad bean rotation, the SOC content in 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80 and 80-100 cm soil layers in >10-year plastic covered greenhouse decreased by 54%, 46%, 60%, 63%, and 59%, and the TN content decreased by 53%, 53%, 71%, 82%, and 85%, respectively. Intensive agricultural production degree had significant effects on the soil SOC and TN contents and delta13C and delta15N abundances. The delta13C abundance was significantly negatively correlated with the soil SOC, suggesting that the soil delta13C abundance could be regarded as an index for the assessment of carbon cycle in farmland soils under effects of human activities. PMID:22720621

  18. Nitrate reductase 15N discrimination in Arabidopsis thaliana, Zea mays, Aspergillus niger, Pichea angusta, and Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Carlisle, Eli; Yarnes, Chris; Toney, Michael D.; Bloom, Arnold J.

    2014-01-01

    Stable 15N isotopes have been used to examine movement of nitrogen (N) through various pools of the global N cycle. A central reaction in the cycle involves the reduction of nitrate (NO?3) to nitrite (NO?2) catalyzed by nitrate reductase (NR). Discrimination against 15N by NR is a major determinant of isotopic differences among N pools. Here, we measured in vitro 15N discrimination by several NRs purified from plants, fungi, and a bacterium to determine the intrinsic 15N discrimination by the enzyme and to evaluate the validity of measurements made using 15N-enriched NO?3. Observed NR isotope discrimination ranged from 22 to 32‰ (kinetic isotope effects of 1.022–1.032) among the different isozymes at natural abundance 15N (0.37%). As the fractional 15N content of substrate NO?3 increased from natural abundance, the product 15N fraction deviated significantly from that expected based on substrate enrichment and 15N discrimination measured at natural abundance. Additionally, isotopic discrimination by denitrifying bacteria used to reduce NO?3 and NO?2 in some protocols became a greater source of error as 15N enrichment increased. We briefly discuss potential causes of the experimental artifacts with enriched 15N and recommend against the use of highly enriched 15N tracers to study N discrimination in plants or soils. PMID:25071800

  19. Search for basic relationships between "molecular size" and "chemical structure" of aquatic natural organic matter--answers from 13C and 15N CPMAS NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lankes, Ulrich; Lüdemann, Hans-Dietrich; Frimmel, Fritz H

    2008-02-01

    To investigate the structural composition of natural organic matter (NOM), a 3-step micro- and ultrafiltration procedure was applied to 3 surface waters from southern Germany, and fractions from all filtration steps were collected. The NOM was characterized using solid-state 13C and 15N nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. Routine integration of the 13C NMR spectra and extended data analysis procedures were carried out for a quantitative comparison of the structural components as well as for the elucidation of structural fractionation patterns. A common feature of the large molecular size fractions was the predominance of polysaccharide material, with the dissolved high molecular weight organics being mostly enriched in N-acetylated polysaccharides derived from microbial leftovers. Aromatic structures like lignin and tannin derivatives were most abundant in the intermediate size fraction. All membranes were found to be highly permeable for branched aliphatics, i.e. isoprenoids. Fouling layers of the ultrafiltration membrane were significantly enriched in long-chain aliphatics (lipids). Biofouling was not observed on any of the membranes. Overall, a strong interdependence between the chemical structural characteristics of NOM components and their size, shape, or interaction characteristics could be shown. The results provide the basis for a better understanding of water process technologies as treatment effectiveness is strongly dependent on the chemical composition and the "size" distribution of NOM. PMID:17959215

  20. Coastal lagoons as a natural sewage treatment plant and their impact on the natural stable isotope signature in nitrate (d 15N, d 18O)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, M.; Pastuszak, M.; Sitek, S.; Schulte, U.

    2003-04-01

    Eutrophication is one of the major threats to the Baltic Sea ecosystems and, therefore, various possibilities for nutrient removal scenarios are currently discussed. One approach considers a 50% decrease in nutrient inputs by all riparian countries, however, this would cost 380 Mio Euro/yr. Some countries already discharge highly treated sewage waters and any further reduction would be very costly, while other countries use only basic (mechanical) treatment procedures and further treatment could be done cost efficiently. One natural way that reduces nutrient loads and minimize inputs of nitrate, ammonium and phosphate is their transfer through coastal lagoons that act as a natural treatment plant. The residence time of river water is prolonged and that enables settlement of particles and bacterial removal of nitrate and ammonium. This study made it possible to investigate the effect the Szczecin Lagoon has on nutrient concentrations by comparing two stations - one located ca. 100 km upstream, and the other in the Swina Canal, the major outlet of the lagoon. Biweekly samples were taken at both stations. A drop in nitrate concentrations occasionally reached 90%, while the annual removal of nitrate amounted to 55%. The delta 15N and delta 18O data of nitrate were used to investigate the processes responsible for the drop in concentration. Surprisingly, the theoretical delta 15N values (calculated after Rayleigh equation) were negatively correlated with the measured ones, and delta 18O values were unusually high for the river nitrate. We therefore conclude that part of the nitrate was denitrified without fractionation as suggested by Brandes and Devol (1997). However, an additional nitrate source with low delta 15N and high delta 18O values might be also considered. For phosphate the removal was lower, reaching only 15% annually. It seems that the lagoon was more efficiently retaining nitrogen thus changing the N/P ratio of the outflowing water towards N-limitation.

  1. Soil nutrient cycling in reclamation and natural boreal forest soils using 15N labeled aspen leaf litter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Charlotte; Quideau, Sylvie; Landhäusser, Simon

    2013-04-01

    A region of the boreal forest, located north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, is currently being disturbed by oil sands mining. Conditional to the allowance of mining is the requirement that the land be returned to an equivalent land capability. One method to determine if the equivalent capability has been met is to know if the reconstructed sites are self sustaining in terms of central ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling. This study set out to compare nutrient cycling among the litter and live vegetation on reconstructed, harvested and undisturbed forest sites. All sites were dominated by an aspen tree canopy (Populus tremuloides Michx.). Nutrient cycling was monitored through the addition of 15N labeled aspen leaf litter to the forest floor over four sampling periods (0, 4, 12 and 16 months) and testing key soil response variables such as nutrient supply, microbial community, and organic matter composition. Over the entire collection period the soil microbial biomass for harvested and reconstructed soils was similar in quantity while the undisturbed forest soil was always three times greater in biomass. With the addition of 15N labeled leaves, the ?15N of microbial biomass increased across the incubation for all sites and the harvested site showed the greatest response. Furthermore the increased concentration of 15N in the live vegetation indicates that nutrient cycling was occurring on all sites.

  2. Food Resources of Stream Macronivertebrates Determined by Natural-Abundance stable C and N Isotopes and a 15N Tracer Addition

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, P. J.

    2000-01-01

    Trophic relationships were examined using natural-abundance {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N analyses and a {sup 15}N-tracer addition experiment in Walker Branch, a 1st-order forested stream in eastern Tennessee. In the {sup 15}N-tracer addition experiment, we added {sup 15}NH{sub 4} to stream water over a 6-wk period in early spring, and measured {sup 15}N:{sup 14}N ratios in different taxa and biomass compartments over distance and time. Samples collected from a station upstream from the {sup 15}N addition provided data on natural-abundance {sup 13}C:{sup 12}C and {sup 15}N:{sup 14}N ratios. The natural-abundance {sup 15}N analysis proved to be of limited value in identifying food resources of macroinvertebrates because {sup 15}N values were not greatly different among food resources. In general, the natural-abundance stable isotope approach was most useful for determining whether epilithon or detritus were important food resources for organisms that may use both (e.g., the snail Elimia clavaeformis), and to provide corroborative evidence of food resources of taxa for which the {sup 15}N tracer results were not definitive. The {sup 15}N tracer results showed that the mayflies Stenonema spp. and Baetis spp. assimilated primarily epilithon, although Baetis appeared to assimilate a portion of the epilithon (e.g., algal cells) with more rapid N turnover than the bulk pool sampled. Although Elimia did not reach isotopic equilibrium during the tracer experiment, application of a N-turnover model to the field data suggested that it assimilated a combination of epilithon and detritus. The amphipod Gammarus minus appeared to depend mostly on fine benthic organic matter (FBOM), and the coleopteran Anchytarsus bicolor on epixylon. The caddisfly Diplectrona modesta appeared to assimilate primarily a fast N-turnover portion of the FBOM pool, and Simuliidae a fast N-turnover component of the suspended particulate organic matter pool rather than the bulk pool sampled. Together, the natural-abundance stable C and N isotope analyses and the experimental {sup 15}N tracer approach proved to be very useful tools for identifying food resources in this stream ecosystem.

  3. Nicotine, acetanilide and urea multi-level2H-,13C- and15N-abundance reference materials for continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schimmelmann, A.; Albertino, A.; Sauer, P.E.; Qi, H.; Molinie, R.; Mesnard, F.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate determinations of stable isotope ratios require a calibration using at least two reference materials with different isotopic compositions to anchor the isotopic scale and compensate for differences in machine slope. Ideally, the S values of these reference materials should bracket the isotopic range of samples with unknown S values. While the practice of analyzing two isotopically distinct reference materials is common for water (VSMOW-SLAP) and carbonates (NBS 19 and L-SVEC), the lack of widely available organic reference materials with distinct isotopic composition has hindered the practice when analyzing organic materials by elemental analysis/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS). At present only L-glutamic acids USGS40 and USGS41 satisfy these requirements for ??13C and ??13N, with the limitation that L-glutamic acid is not suitable for analysis by gas chromatography (GC). We describe the development and quality testing of (i) four nicotine laboratory reference materials for on-line (i.e. continuous flow) hydrogen reductive gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass-spectrometry (GC-IRMS), (ii) five nicotines for oxidative C, N gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass-spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS, or GC-IRMS), and (iii) also three acetanilide and three urea reference materials for on-line oxidative EA-IRMS for C and N. Isotopic off-line calibration against international stable isotope measurement standards at Indiana University adhered to the 'principle of identical treatment'. The new reference materials cover the following isotopic ranges: ??2Hnicotine -162 to -45%o, ??13Cnicotine -30.05 to +7.72%, ?? 15Nnicotine -6.03 to +33.62%; ??15N acetanilide +1-18 to +40.57%; ??13Curea -34.13 to +11.71%, ??15Nurea +0.26 to +40.61% (recommended ?? values refer to calibration with NBS 19, L-SVEC, IAEA-N-1, and IAEA-N-2). Nicotines fill a gap as the first organic nitrogen stable isotope reference materials for GC-IRMS that are available with different ??13N values. Comparative ??13C and ??15N on-line EA-IRMS data from 14 volunteering laboratories document the usefulness and reliability of acetanilides and ureas as EA-IRMS reference materials.

  4. Sinks for nitrogen inputs in terrestrial ecosystems: a meta-analysis of 15N tracer field studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Templer, P.H.; Mack, M.C.; Chapin, F. S., III; Christenson, L.M.; Compton, J.E.; Crook, H.D.; Currie, W.S.; Curtis, C.J.; Dail, D.B.; D'Antonio, C. M.; Emmett, B.A.; Epstein, H.E.; Goodale, C.L.; Gundersen, P.; Hobbie, S.E.; Holland, K.; Hooper, D.U.; Hungate, B.A.; Lamontagne, S.; Nadelhoffer, K.J.; Osenberg, C.W.; Perakis, S.S.; Schleppi, P.; Schimel, J.; Schmidt, I.K.; Sommerkorn, M.; Spoelstra, J.; Tietema, A.; Wessel, W.W.; Zak, D.R.

    2012-01-01

    Effects of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition and the ability of terrestrial ecosystems to store carbon (C) depend in part on the amount of N retained in the system and its partitioning among plant and soil pools. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies at 48 sites across four continents that used enriched 15N isotope tracers in order to synthesize information about total ecosystem N retention (i.e., total ecosystem 15N recovery in plant and soil pools) across natural systems and N partitioning among ecosystem pools. The greatest recoveries of ecosystem 15N tracer occurred in shrublands (mean, 89.5%) and wetlands (84.8%) followed by forests (74.9%) and grasslands (51.8%). In the short term (15N tracer application), total ecosystem 15N recovery was negatively correlated with fine-root and soil 15N natural abundance, and organic soil C and N concentration but was positively correlated with mean annual temperature and mineral soil C:N. In the longer term (3–18 months after 15N tracer application), total ecosystem 15N retention was negatively correlated with foliar natural-abundance 15N but was positively correlated with mineral soil C and N concentration and C: N, showing that plant and soil natural-abundance 15N and soil C:N are good indicators of total ecosystem N retention. Foliar N concentration was not significantly related to ecosystem 15N tracer recovery, suggesting that plant N status is not a good predictor of total ecosystem N retention. Because the largest ecosystem sinks for 15N tracer were below ground in forests, shrublands, and grasslands, we conclude that growth enhancement and potential for increased C storage in aboveground biomass from atmospheric N deposition is likely to be modest in these ecosystems. Total ecosystem 15N recovery decreased with N fertilization, with an apparent threshold fertilization rate of 46 kg N·ha-1·yr-1 above which most ecosystems showed net losses of applied 15N tracer in response to N fertilizer addition.

  5. Vertical ?13C and ?15N changes during pedogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunn, Melanie; Spielvogel, Sandra; Wells, Andrew; Condron, Leo; Oelmann, Yvonne

    2015-04-01

    The natural abundance of soil organic matter (SOM) stable C and N isotope ratios are subjected to vertical changes throughout the soil profile. This vertical distribution is a widely reported phenomenon across varieties of ecosystems and constitutes important insights of soil carbon cycling. In most ecosystems, SOM becomes enriched in heavy isotopes by several per mill in the first few centimeters of the topsoil. The enrichment of 13C in SOM with soil depth is attributed to biological and physical-chemical processes in soil e.g., plant physiological impacts, microbial decomposition, sorption and transport processes. Such vertical trends in 13C and 15N abundance have rarely been related to SOM composition during pedogenesis. The aims of our study were to investigate short and long-term ?13C and ?15N depth changes and their interrelations under progressing pedogenesis and ecosystem development. We sampled soils across the well studied fordune progradation Haast-chronosequence, a dune ridge system under super-humid climate at the West Coast of New Zealand's South Island (43° 53' S, 169° 3' E). Soils from 11 sites with five replicates each covered a time span of around 2870 yr of soil development (from Arenosol to Podzol). Vertical changes of ?13C and ?15N values of SOM were investigated in the organic layers and in 1-cm depth intervals of the upper 10 cm of the mineral soil. With increasing soil depth SOM became enriched in ?13C by 1.9 ± SE 0.1 o and in ?15N by 6.0 ± 0.4 ‰?Litter ?13C values slightly decreased with increasing soil age (r = -0.61; p = 0.00) likely due to less efficient assimilation linked to nutrient limitations. Fractionation processes during mycorrhizal transfer appeared to affect ?15N values in the litter. We found a strong decrease of ?15N in the early succession stages ? 300 yr B.P. (r = -0.95; p = 0.00). Positive relations of vertical 13C and 15N enrichment with soil age might be related to decomposition and appeared to be affected by a change of hydrology, nutrient limitations, secondary minerals and root impacts. The investigation of vertical changes of soil organic matter (SOM) stable isotope ratios provides the opportunity to detect combined processes that enhance our understanding of terrestrial ecosystem functioning and pedogenetic processes leading to stabilization/destabilization in soil and therefore addressing the soil's sink/source function.

  6. Grass species influence on plant N uptake - Determination of atmospheric N deposition to a semi-natural peat bog site using a 15N labelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurkuck, Miriam; Brümmer, Christian; Spott, Oliver; Flessa, Heinz; Kutsch, Werner L.

    2014-05-01

    Large areas of natural peat bogs in Northwestern Germany have been converted to arable land and were subjected to draining and peat cutting in the past. The few protected peatland areas remaining are affected by high nitrogen (N) deposition. Our study site - a moderately drained raised bog - is surrounded by highly fertilized agricultural land and livestock production. In this study, we used a 15N pool dilution technique called 'Integrated Total Nitrogen Input' (ITNI) to quantify annual deposition of atmospheric N into biomonitoring pots over a two-year period. Since it considers direct N uptake by plants, it was expected to result in higher N input than conventional methods for determination of N deposition (e.g. micrometeorological approaches, bulk N samplers). Using Lolium multiflorum and Eriophorum vaginatum as monitor plants and low, medium and high levels of fertilization, we aimed to simulate increasing N deposition to planted pots and to allocate airborne N after its uptake by the soil-plant system in aboveground biomass, roots and soil. Increasing N fertilization was positively correlated with biomass production of Eriophorum vaginatum, whereas atmospheric plant N uptake decreased and highest airborne N input of 899.8 ± 67.4 µg N d-1 pot-1 was found for low N fertilization. In contrast, Lolium multiflorum showed a clear dependency of N supply on plant N uptake and was highest (688.7 ± 41.4 µg N d-1 pot-1) for highly fertilized vegetation pots. Our results suggest that grass species respond differently to increasing N input. While crop grasses such as Lolium multiflorum take up N according to N availability, species adopted to nutrient-limited conditions like Eriophorum vaginatum show N saturation effects with increasing N supply. Total airborne N input ranged from about 24 to 66 kg N ha-1 yr-1 dependent on the used indicator plant and the amount of added fertilizer. Parallel determination of atmospheric N deposition using a micrometeorological approach complemented with bulk samplers was about 24 kg N ha-1 yr-1 during both years of experiments and was thus at the lower range of results obtained by the ITNI method. The low 15N recovery rate of about 50 % during some experiments indicated an underestimation of the applied ITNI approach, resulting in a maximum possible N uptake of twice as high as the determined N input. Most likely, the intensive agricultural land management of the surrounding areas leads to this high N deposition into the protected peatland area. As a result, increasing sensitivity of ombrotrophic vegetation with a subsequent change in plant species composition and a decline in bog-specific vegetation cannot be excluded.

  7. Stem injection of 15N-NH4NO3 into mature Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis).

    PubMed

    Nair, Richard; Weatherall, Andrew; Perks, Mike; Mencuccini, Maurizio

    2014-10-01

    Stem injection techniques can be used to introduce (15)N into trees to overcome a low variation in natural abundance and label biomass with a distinct (15)N signature, but have tended to target small and young trees, of a variety of species, with little replication. We injected 98 atom% (15)N ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) solution into 13 mature, 9- to 13-m tall edge-profile Sitka spruce trees in order to produce a large quantity of labelled litter, examining the distribution of the isotope throughout the canopy after felling in terms of both total abundance of (15)N and relative distribution of the isotope throughout individual trees. Using a simple mass balance of the canopy alone, based on observed total needle biomass and modelled branch biomass, all of the isotope injected was accounted for, evenly split between needles and branches, but with a high degree of variability both within individual trees, and among trees. Both (15)N abundance and relative within-canopy distribution were biased towards the upper and middle crown in foliage. Recovery of the label in branches was much more variable than in needles, possibly due to differences in nitrogen allocation for both growth and storage, which differ seasonally between foliage and woody biomass. PMID:25335951

  8. Differential incorporation of natural spawners vs. artificially planted salmon carcasses in a stream food web: Evidence from delta 15N of juvenile coho salmon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Placement of salmon carcasses is a common restoration technique in Oregon and Washington streams, with the goal of improving food resources and productivity of juvenile salmon. To explore the effectiveness of this restoration technique, we measured the d15N of juvenile coho salmo...

  9. Regional patterns in foliar (15)N across a gradient of nitrogen deposition in the northeastern US.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Linda H; McNulty, Steven G; Boggs, Johnny L; Duke, Sara

    2007-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that natural abundance (15)N can be a useful tool for assessing nitrogen saturation, because as nitrification and nitrate loss increase, delta(15)N of foliage and soil also increases. We measured foliar delta(15)N at 11 high-elevation spruce-fir stands along an N deposition gradient in 1987-1988 and at seven paired northern hardwood and spruce-fir stands in 1999. In 1999, foliar delta(15)N increased from -5.2 to -0.7 per thousand with increasing N deposition from Maine to NY. Foliar delta(15)N decreased between 1987-1988 and 1999, while foliar %N increased and foliar C:N decreased at most sites. Foliar delta(15)N was strongly correlated with N deposition, and was also positively correlated with net nitrification potential and negatively correlated with soil C:N ratio. Although the increase in foliar %N is consistent with a progression towards N saturation, other results of this study suggest that, in 1999, these stands were further from N saturation than in 1987-1988. PMID:17643595

  10. Cereal grain, rachis and pulse seed amino acid ?15N values as indicators of plant nitrogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Styring, Amy K; Fraser, Rebecca A; Bogaard, Amy; Evershed, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    Natural abundance ?(15)N values of plant tissue amino acids (AAs) reflect the cycling of N into and within plants, providing an opportunity to better understand environmental and anthropogenic effects on plant metabolism. In this study, the AA ?(15)N values of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) grains and rachis and broad bean (Vicia faba) and pea (Pisum sativum) seeds, grown at the experimental farm stations of Rothamsted, UK and Bad Lauchstädt, Germany, were determined by GC-C-IRMS. It was found that the ?(15)N values of cereal grain and rachis AAs could be largely attributed to metabolic pathways involved in their biosynthesis and catabolism. The relative (15)N-enrichment of phenylalanine can be attributed to its involvement in the phenylpropanoid pathway and glutamate has a ?(15)N value which is an average of the other AAs due to its central role in AA-N cycling. The relative AA ?(15)N values of broad bean and pea seeds were very different from one another, providing evidence for differences in the metabolic routing of AAs to the developing seeds in these leguminous plants. This study has shown that AA ?(15)N values relate to known AA biosynthetic pathways in plants and thus have the potential to aid understanding of how various external factors, such as source of assimilated N, influence metabolic cycling of N within plants. PMID:23790569

  11. Stable isotopes (?13C and ?15N) of organic matrix from coral skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Muscatine, Leonard; Goiran, Claire; Land, Lynton; Jaubert, Jean; Cuif, Jean-Pierre; Allemand, Denis

    2005-01-01

    The evolutionary success of reef-building corals in nutrient-poor tropical waters is attributed to endosymbiotic dinoflagellates. The algae release photosynthetic products to the coral animal cells, augment nutrient flux, and enhance the rate of coral calcification. Natural abundance of stable isotopes (?13C and ?18O) provides answers to modern and paleobiological questions about the effect of photosymbiosis on sources of carbon and oxygen in coral skeletal calcium carbonate. Here we compare 17 species of symbiotic and nonsymbiotic corals to determine whether evidence for photosymbiosis appears in stable isotopes (?13C and ?15N) of an organic skeletal compartment, the coral skeletal organic matrix (OM). Mean OM ?13C in symbiotic and nonsymbiotic corals was similar (-26.08‰ vs. -24.31‰), but mean OM ?15N was significantly depleted in 15N in the former (4.09‰) relative to the latter (12.28‰), indicating an effect of the algae on OM synthesis and revealing OM ?15N as a proxy for photosymbiosis. To answer an important paleobiological question about the origin of photosymbiosis in reef-building corals, we applied this proxy test to a fossil coral (Pachythecalis major) from the Triassic (240 million years ago) in which OM is preserved. Mean OM ?15N was 4.66‰, suggesting that P. major was photosymbiotic. The results show that symbiotic algae augment coral calcification by contributing to the synthesis of skeletal OM and that they may have done so as early as the Triassic. PMID:15671164

  12. 13C/12C and 15N/14N Isotope Analysis to Characterize Natural Degradation of Atrazine: Evidence from Parent and Daughter Compound Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, Martin; Meyer, Armin

    2013-04-01

    The mobile and still herbicidal metabolites desethylatrazine (DEA) and desisopropylatrazine (DIA) are frequently detected together with its parent compound atrazine (Atz) in the aquatic environment. Interpretation of their transformation state is often difficult with current methods, which are mainly measuring concentrations. Alternatively, compound specific isotope analyses (CSIA) has become a novel tool to detect degradation processes of contaminants in groundwater. The aim of our study was to investigate on the lab scale 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotope trends in parent and daughter compounds associated with different degradation scenarios of atrazine likely to occur in the environment. Thus atrazine was dealkylated with (i) permanganate and (ii) the bacterium Rhodococcus sp. NI86/21. In both transformations, 13C/12C ratios of atrazine increased strongly (epsilon carbon/permanganate = -4.6 ± 0.6 ‰ and epsilon carbon/Rhodoccoccus = -3.8 ± 0.2 ‰) whereas nitrogen isotope fractionation was small. 13C/12C ratios of DEA showed the following trends. (i) When DEA was formed as only product (Atz + permanganate) 13C/12C remained constant, close to the initial value of Atz. (ii) When DEA was formed together with deisopropylatrazine (biodegradation of Atz) 13C/12C increased, but only within 2‰. (iii) When DEA and DIA was further biodegraded, 13C/12C increased for both metabolites up to 9‰. Thus strong enrichment of 13C/12C in the metabolites in comparison to Atz can give strong testimony for further breakdown of the metabolite.

  13. Experimental evidence for diel ?15N-patterns in different tissues, xylem and phloem saps of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Peuke, A D; Gessler, A; Tcherkez, G

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen isotope signatures in plants might give insights in the metabolism and allocation of nitrogen. To obtain a deeper understanding of the modifications of the nitrogen isotope signatures, we determined ?(15)N in transport saps and in different fractions of leaves, axes and roots during a diel course along the plant axis. The most significant diel variations were observed in xylem and phloem saps where ?(15)N was significantly higher during the day compared with during the night. However in xylem saps, this was observed only in the canopy, but not at the hypocotyl positions. In the canopy, ?(15)N was correlated fairly well between phloem and xylem saps. These variations in ?(15)N in transport saps can be attributed to nitrate reduction in leaves during the photoperiod as well as to (15)N-enriched glutamine acting as transport form of N. ?(15)N of the water soluble fraction of roots and leaves partially affected ?(15)N of phloem and xylems saps. ?(15)N patterns are likely the result of a complex set of interactions and N-fluxes between plant organs. Furthermore, the natural nitrogen isotope abundance in plant tissue is not constant during the diel course - a fact that needs to be taken into account when sampling for isotopic studies. PMID:23663089

  14. Box-modeling of 15N/14N in mammals.

    PubMed

    Balter, Vincent; Simon, Laurent; Fouillet, Hélène; Lécuyer, Christophe

    2006-03-01

    The 15N/14N signature of animal proteins is now commonly used to understand their physiology and quantify the flows of nutrient in trophic webs. These studies assume that animals are predictably 15N-enriched relative to their food, but the isotopic mechanism which accounts for this enrichment remains unknown. We developed a box model of the nitrogen isotope cycle in mammals in order to predict the 15N/14N ratios of body reservoirs as a function of time, N intake and body mass. Results of modeling show that a combination of kinetic isotope fractionation during the N transfer between amines and equilibrium fractionation related to the reversible conversion of N-amine into ammonia is required to account for the well-established approximately 4 per thousand 15N-enrichment of body proteins relative to the diet. This isotopic enrichment observed in proteins is due to the partial recycling of 15N-enriched urea and the urinary excretion of a fraction of the strongly 15N-depleted ammonia reservoir. For a given body mass and diet delta15N, the isotopic compositions are mainly controlled by the N intake. Increase of the urea turnover combined with a decrease of the N intake lead to calculate a delta15N increase of the proteins, in agreement with the observed increase of collagen delta15N of herbivorous animals with aridity. We further show that the low delta15N collagen values of cave bears cannot be attributed to the dormancy periods as it is commonly thought, but inversely to the hyperphagia behavior. This model highlights the need for experimental investigations performed with large mammals in order to improve our understanding of natural variations of delta15N collagen. PMID:16328553

  15. Fast NMR Data Acquisition From Bicelles Containing a Membrane-Associated Peptide at Natural-Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Vivekanandan, Subramanian; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2011-01-01

    In spite of recent technological advances in NMR spectroscopy, its low sensitivity continues to be a major limitation particularly for the structural studies of membrane proteins. The need for a large quantity of a membrane protein and acquisition of NMR data for a long duration are not desirable. Therefore, there is considerable interest in the development of methods to speed up the NMR data acquisition from model membrane samples. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of acquiring two-dimensional spectra of an antimicrobial peptide (MSI-78; also known as pexiganan) embedded in isotropic bicelles using natural-abundance 15N nuclei. A copper-chelated lipid embedded in bicelles is used to speed-up the spin-lattice relaxation of protons without affecting the spectral resolution and thus enabling fast data acquisition. Our results suggest that even a 2D SOFAST-HMQC spectrum can be obtained four times faster using a very small amount (~3 mM) of a copper-chelated lipid. These results demonstrate that this approach will be useful in the structural studies of membrane-associated peptides and proteins without the need for isotopic enrichment for solution NMR studies. PMID:21939237

  16. Rapid heteronuclear single quantum correlation NMR spectra at natural abundance.

    PubMed

    Schulze-Sünninghausen, David; Becker, Johanna; Luy, Burkhard

    2014-01-29

    A novel NMR experiment, the so-called ASAP-HSQC, is introduced that allows the detection of heteronuclear one-bond correlations in less than 30 s on small molecules at natural abundance without compromises in sweep width, resolution or spectral quality. Equally, the experiment allows a significant increase in digital resolution or a moderate senstitivity enhancement in the same overall experiment time compared to a conventional HSQC. The gain is a consequence of keeping all unused proton magnetization along z during acquisition, so that the previously reported ASAP and ALSOFAST approaches can be transferred from HMQC to HSQC-type experiments. Next to basic and broadband pulse sequences, a characterization of the sequence with respect to minimum measurement time, sensitivity gain, and advantages in resolution compared to state-of-the-art experiments is given. PMID:24417402

  17. Diversity and abundance of phosphonate biosynthetic genes in nature

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaomin; Doroghazi, James R.; Janga, Sarath C.; Zhang, Jun Kai; Circello, Benjamin; Griffin, Benjamin M.; Labeda, David P.; Metcalf, William W.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphonates, molecules containing direct carbon–phosphorus bonds, compose a structurally diverse class of natural products with interesting and useful biological properties. Although their synthesis in protozoa was discovered more than 50 y ago, the extent and diversity of phosphonate production in nature remains poorly characterized. The rearrangement of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to phosphonopyruvate, catalyzed by the enzyme PEP mutase (PepM), is shared by the vast majority of known phosphonate biosynthetic pathways. Thus, the pepM gene can be used as a molecular marker to examine the occurrence and abundance of phosphonate-producing organisms. Based on the presence of this gene, phosphonate biosynthesis is common in microbes, with ?5% of sequenced bacterial genomes and 7% of genome equivalents in metagenomic datasets carrying pepM homologs. Similarly, we detected the pepM gene in ?5% of random actinomycete isolates. The pepM-containing gene neighborhoods from 25 of these isolates were cloned, sequenced, and compared with those found in sequenced genomes. PEP mutase sequence conservation is strongly correlated with conservation of other nearby genes, suggesting that the diversity of phosphonate biosynthetic pathways can be predicted by examining PEP mutase diversity. We used this approach to estimate the range of phosphonate biosynthetic pathways in nature, revealing dozens of discrete groups in pepM amplicons from local soils, whereas hundreds were observed in metagenomic datasets. Collectively, our analyses show that phosphonate biosynthesis is both diverse and relatively common in nature, suggesting that the role of phosphonate molecules in the biosphere may be more important than is often recognized. PMID:24297932

  18. CHANGE IN NATURAL ABUNDANCE OF 15N AND ESTIMATION OF N LOSSES FROM DAIRY MANURE DURING STORAGE BY MASS BALANCE AND NITROGEN-TO-PHOSPHORUS RATIO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The main objective was to evaluate methodologies to estimate N losses from stored dairy manure. Manure with high N (HN) and low N (LN) content was obtained from two groups of cows assigned diets of 17 and 15% CP (DM), respectively. Manure collected from the barn floor was diluted with water to 10% ...

  19. Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis at Balnaguard, Scotland: Foliar carbon discrimination (?C) and 15-N natural abundance (?N) suggest gender-linked differences in water and N use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul W. Hill; L. L. Handley; J. A. Raven

    1996-01-01

    The ecophysiology of stands of Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis at Balnaguard was examined by the relatively non-invasive methods of analysis of foliar · C and ·N and the N and chlorophyll contents of foliar samples of genets of known sex and location in three sub-sites. The ratio of male to female plants was close to 1.0 on the two

  20. Natural abundance of 15N in sweet potato, pumpkin, sorghum and castor bean: possible input of N2-derived nitrogen in sweet potato

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Yoneyama; J. Terakado; T. Masuda

    1997-01-01

    Two combinations of plant species, sweet potato (three cultivars) and pumpkin, and sweet sorghum (three cultivars) and castor\\u000a bean were grown separately in three plots of alluvial soil from June to September 1996. The shoots (leaves plus stems) of\\u000a sweet potato and pumpkin, and the whole tops (leaves plus stems and grains) of sweet sorghum and castor bean were harvested

  1. Nitrogen content, 15N natural abundance and biomass of the two pleurocarpous mosses Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. and Scleropodium purum (Hedw.) Limpr. in relation to atmospheric nitrogen deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Solga; J. Burkhardt; H. G. Zechmeister; J.-P. Frahm

    2005-01-01

    The suitability of the two pleurocarpous mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Scleropodium purum for assessing spatial variation in nitrogen deposition was investigated. Sampling was carried out at eight sites in the western part of Germany with bulk deposition rates ranging between 6.5 and 18.5kgNha?1yr?1. In addition to the effect of deposition on the nitrogen content of the two species, its influence

  2. Maize Residue Decomposition Measurement Using Soil Surface Carbon Dioxide Fluxes and Natural Abundance of Carbon13

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Rochette; Denis A. Angers; Lawrence B. Flanagan

    1999-01-01

    organic matter content and nutrient cycling. We hypothesized that mation obtained is mostly relevant to aboveground crop natural abundance 13 C analyses could be used with soil CO2 flux measurements to quantify the short-term decomposition rates of residues. The natural abundance of 13 C has also been maize (Zea mays L.) residues under undisturbed field conditions. For used to study

  3. Generalist Natural Enemies of a Willow Leaf Beetle (Phratora vulgatissima): Abundance and Feeding Habits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christer Bj; Peter Dalin; Karin Eklund

    2004-01-01

    The natural enemies attacking eggs (and young larvae) of the willow leaf beetle Phratora vulgatissima were identified in the field. Three heteropterans were common natural enemies. The mirid Orthotylus marginalis was the most abundant and had an intermediate consumption rate in the lab, whereas the mirid Closterotomus fulvomaculatus was the least abundant but had the high- est consumption rate. The

  4. Generalist Natural Enemies of a Willow Leaf Beetle ( Phratora vulgatissima ): Abundance and Feeding Habits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christer Björkman; Peter Dalin; Karin Eklund

    2003-01-01

    The natural enemies attacking eggs (and young larvae) of the willow leaf beetle Phratora vulgatissima were identified in the field. Three heteropterans were common natural enemies. The mirid Orthotylus marginalis was the most abundant and had an intermediate consumption rate in the lab, whereas the mirid Closterotomus fulvomaculatus was the least abundant but had the highest consumption rate. The anthocorid

  5. Difference in delta15N signatures between nodulated roots and shoots of soybean is indicative of the contribution of symbiotic N2 fixation to plant N

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Wanek; Stefan K. Arndt

    2002-01-01

    Symbiotic N2 fixation has a variable effect on the 15 N abundance of different parts of legumes. Increases in fixation result in 15N enrichment of nodules, while decreases, in combination with an increased uptake of mineral N, result in 15N depletion of the root system. The difference between soybean shoot and below-ground d15N(Dd15N\\\\d15NshootYd 15 Nbelowground) was assessed in hydroponic culture

  6. Carbon and nitrogen biogeochemistry in the ocean: A study using stable isotope natural abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rau, G. H.; Desmarais, David J.

    1985-01-01

    Determining the biogeochemical pathways traveled by carbon and nitrogen in the ocean is fundamental to the understanding of how the ocean participates in the cycling of these elements within the biosphere. Because biological production, metabolism, and respiration can significantly alter the natural abundance of C-13 and N-15, these abundances can provide important information about the nature of these biological processes and their variability in the marine environment. The research initially seeks to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of stable isotope abundances in organic matter, and to relate these abundances to C and N biogeochemical processes within selected areas of the northeastern Pacific Ocean.

  7. Quantitative analysis of bacterial and mammalian proteomes using a combination of cysteine affinity tags and 15N-metabolic labeling.

    PubMed

    Conrads, T P; Alving, K; Veenstra, T D; Belov, M E; Anderson, G A; Anderson, D J; Lipton, M S; Pasa-Toli?, L; Udseth, H R; Chrisler, W B; Thrall, B D; Smith, R D

    2001-05-01

    We describe the combined use of 15N-metabolic labeling and a cysteine-reactive biotin affinity tag to isolate and quantitate cysteine-containing polypeptides (Cys-polypeptides) from Deinococcus radiodurans as well as from mouse B16 melanoma cells. D. radiodurans were cultured in both natural isotopic abundance and 15N-enriched media. Equal numbers of cells from both cultures were combined and the soluble proteins extracted. This mixture of isotopically distinct proteins was derivatized using a commercially available cysteine-reactive reagent that contains a biotin group. Following trypsin digestion, the resulting modified peptides were isolated using immobilized avidin. The mixture was analyzed by capillary reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) online with ion trap mass spectrometry (MS) as well as Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS. The resulting spectra contain numerous pairs of Cyspolypeptides whose mass difference corresponds to the number of nitrogen atoms present in each of the peptides. Designation of Cys-polypeptide pairs is also facilitated by the distinctive isotopic distribution of the 15N-labeled peptides versus their 14N-labeled counterparts. Studies with mouse B16 cells maintained in culture allowed the observation of hundreds of isotopically distinct pairs of peptides by LC-FTICR analysis. The ratios of the areas of the pairs of isotopically distinct peptides showed the expected 1:1 labeling of the 14N and 15N versions of each peptide. An additional benefit from the present strategy is that the 15N-labeled peptides do not display significant isotope-dependent chromatographic shifts from their 14N-labeled counterparts, therefore improving the precision for quantitating peptide abundances. The methodology presented offers an alternate, cost-effective strategy for conducting global, quantitative proteomic measurements. PMID:11354501

  8. ?15N as a Potential Paleoenvironmental Proxy for Nitrogen Loading in Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, H. D.; Andrus, C. F.; Rick, T.; Hines, A.

    2013-12-01

    Stable isotope analysis of Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) and other mollusk shells from archaeological sites is a useful means of acquiring paleoenvironmental data. Recently, nitrogen isotopes have been identified as a potential new proxy in these shells. ?15N content in mollusk shells is affected by numerous anthropogenic and natural influences and may be used as an environmental proxy for nitrogen loading conditions. Chesapeake Bay is well known for both historic and modern pollution problems from numerous anthropogenic sources, such as fertilizer runoff, sewage discharge, and densely populated land use and serves as an ideal study location for long-term nitrogen loading processes. Longer records of these processes may be recorded in abundant archaeological remains around the bay, however, little is known about the stability of ?15N and %N in shell material over recent geologic time. In this study, 90 archaeological C. virginica shells were collected by the Smithsonian Institution from the Rhode River Estuary within Chesapeake Bay and range in age from ~150 to 3200 years old. Twenty-two modern C. virginica shells were also collected from nearby beds in the bay. All shell samples were subsampled from the resilifer region of the calcitic shell using a hand-held micro drill and were analyzed using EA-IRMS analysis to determine the potential temporal variability of ?15N and %N as well as creating a baseline for ancient nitrogen conditions in the bay area. Modern POM water samples and C. virginica soft tissues were also analyzed in this study to determine the degree of seasonal variation of ?15N and %N in Chesapeake Bay.

  9. [superscript 15]N-[superscript 15]N Proton Assisted Recoupling in Magic Angle Spinning NMR

    E-print Network

    Lewandowski, Jozef R.

    We describe a new magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR experiment for obtaining [superscript 15]N?[superscript 15]N correlation spectra. The approach yields direct information about the secondary and tertiary structure of proteins, ...

  10. Natural Abundance Carbon13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectra of the Canine Sciatic Nerve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Williams; J. A. Hamilton; M. K. Jain; A. Allerhand; E. H. Cordes; S. Ochs

    1973-01-01

    The proton-decoupled natural abundance carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of the canine sciatic nerve is virtually identical to that of canine adipose tissue and markedly similar to that of liquid triolein. No resonances assignable to cholesterol, glycolipids, or sphingolipids are detectable in the sciatic nerve spectrum despite their abundance in the myelin sheath of this nerve. However, many such resonances

  11. Theoretical and experimental study of (15) N NMR protonation shifts.

    PubMed

    Semenov, Valentin A; Samultsev, Dmitry O; Krivdin, Leonid B

    2015-06-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental study revealed that the nature of the upfield (shielding) protonation effect in (15) N NMR originates in the change of the contribution of the sp(2) -hybridized nitrogen lone pair on protonation resulting in a marked shielding of nitrogen of about 100?ppm. On the contrary, for amine-type nitrogen, protonation of the nitrogen lone pair results in the deshielding protonation effect of about 25?ppm, so that the total deshielding protonation effect of about 10?ppm is due to the interplay of the contributions of adjacent natural bond orbitals. A versatile computational scheme for the calculation of (15) N NMR chemical shifts of protonated nitrogen species and their neutral precursors is proposed at the density functional theory level taking into account solvent effects within the supermolecule solvation model. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25891386

  12. Relationships among leaf damage, natural enemy release, and abundance in exotic and native prairie plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric C. Vasquez; Gretchen A. Meyer

    2011-01-01

    The Enemy Release hypothesis holds that exotic plants may have an advantage over native plants because their specialized natural\\u000a enemies are absent. We tested this hypothesis by measuring leaf damage and plant abundance for naturally-occurring plants\\u000a in prairies, and by removing natural enemies in an enemy exclusion experiment. We classified plants as invasive exotic, noninvasive\\u000a exotic, or native, to determine

  13. Evaluating the source of streamwater nitrate using ?15N and ?18O in nitrate in two watersheds in New Hampshire, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pardo, Linda H.; Kendall, Carol; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Chang, Cecily C.Y.

    2004-01-01

    The natural abundance of nitrogen and oxygen isotopes in nitrate can be a powerful tool for identifying the source of nitrate in streamwater in forested watersheds, because the two main sources of nitrate, atmospheric deposition and microbial nitrification, have distinct ?18O values. Using a simple mixing model, we estimated the relative fractions in streamwater derived from these sources for two forested watersheds with markedly different streamwater nitrate outputs. In this study, we monitored ?15N and ?18O of nitrate biweekly in atmospheric deposition and in streamwater for 20 months at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA (moderate nitrogen export), and monthly in streamwater at the Bowl Research Natural Area, New Hampshire, USA (high nitrogen export). For rain, ?18O values ranged from +47 to +77‰ (mean: +58‰) and ?15N from ?5 to +1‰ (mean: ?3‰); for snow, ?18O values ranged from +52 to +75‰ (mean: +67‰) and ?15N from ?3 to +2‰ (mean: ?1‰). Streamwater nitrate, in contrast to deposition, had ?18O values between +12 and +33‰ (mean: +18‰) and ?15N between ?3 and +6‰ (mean: 0‰). Since nitrate produced by nitrification typically has ?18O values ranging from ?5 to +15‰, our field data suggest that most of the nitrate lost from the watersheds in streamflow was nitrified within the catchment. Our results confirm the importance of microbial nitrogen transformations in regulating nitrogen losses from forested ecosystems and suggest that hydrologic storage may be a factor in controlling catchment nitrate losses.

  14. Measuring denitrification after grassland renewal and grassland conversion to cropland by using the 15N gas-flux method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchen, Caroline; Eschenbach, Wolfram; Flessa, Heinz; Giesemann, Anette; Lewicka-Szczebak, Dominika; Well, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    Denitrification, the reduction of oxidized forms of inorganic N to N2O and N2 is an important pathway of gaseous nitrogen losses. Measuring denitrification, especially the reduction of N2O to N2, expressed in the product ratio (N2O/(N2O + N2)), is rather difficult and hence rarely performed under field conditions. But using the 15N gas-flux method allows determining N transformation processes in their natural environment. In order to develop effective climate mitigation strategies understanding the N2O source is essential. We used the 15N gas-flux method to determine N2O and N2 emissions following grassland renewal and conversion techniques. Therefore we selected three different treatments: control (C), mechanical grassland renovation (GR) (autumn 2013) and grassland conversion to maize (GM) (spring 2014) from field plot trials on two different sites (Histic Gleysoil and Plaggic Anthrosol) near Oldenburg, Lower Saxony, Germany. We applied 15N labeled KNO3- (60 atom. % 15N) at a rate equivalent to common farming practices (150 kg N*ha-1) using needle injection of fertilizer solution in three different depths (10 cm, 15 cm, 20 cm) for homogeneous soil labeling up to 30 cm in microplots. During the first 10 days after application (May 2014) gas flux measurements from closed chambers were performed every second day and then weekly following a period of 8 weeks. Gas samples were analyzed for ?15N of N2 and N2O by IRMS according to Lewicka-Szczebak et al. (2013). Concentration and 15N enrichment of NO3- in soil water was determined on weekly samples using the SPIN-MAS technique (Stange et al. 2007). Fluxes of N2 and N2O evolved from the 15N labeled soil nitrogen pool were calculated using the equations of Spott et al. (2006). Peak events of N2 and N2O emissions occurred during the first 10 days of measurement, showing differences in soil types, as well as treatment variations. N2 fluxes up to 178 g*ha-1*day-1 and N2O fluxes up to 280 g*ha-1*day-1 were measured on the Plaggic Anthrosol in the GR treatment, while on the Histic Gleysoil, the GM treatment showed highest fluxes with N2 fluxes up to 1260 g*ha-1*day-1 and N2O fluxes up to 747 g*ha-1*day-1. Alike the product ratio of initial fluxes was higher on the Plaggic Anthrosol and lower on the Histic Gleysoil. Data analysis is still in progress and further results will be provided. References: Lewicka-Szczebak, D., R. Well, A. Giesemann, L. Rohe and U. Wolf (2013). "An enhanced technique for automated determination of 15N signatures of N2, (N2+N2O) and N2O in gas samples." Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 27(13): 1548-1558. Spott, O., R. Russow, B. Apelt and C. F. Stange (2006). "A 15N-aided artificial atmosphere gas flow technique for online determination of soil N2 release using the zeolite Köstrolith SX6®." Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 20(22): 3267-3274. Stange, F., O. Spott, B. Apelt and R. W. Russow (2007). "Automated and rapid online determination of 15N abundance and concentration of ammonium, nitrite, or nitrate in aqueous samples by the SPINMAS technique." Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies 43(3): 227-236.

  15. The magnitude of spatial and temporal variation in ?15N and ?13C differs between taxonomic groups: Implications for food web studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyndes, Glenn A.; Hanson, Christine E.; Vanderklift, Mathew A.

    2013-03-01

    Understanding variability in stable isotope abundance is essential for effective hypothesis testing and evaluating food sources, trophic levels and food web structure. The magnitude and sources of variability are likely to differ among taxonomic and functional groups. We aimed to quantify variability of ?13C and ?15N for 16 species representing seven distinct taxonomic groups of benthic invertebrates and autotrophs in a marine ecosystem. We quantified the magnitude of variability among individuals or shoots separated by metres, among eight sites separated by kilometres, and between two survey occasions separated by months. ?13C varied by as much as 7‰ for primary producers, 4‰ for consumers, while ?15N varied by as much as 9‰ and 2‰ respectively. Variation in ?15N of seagrass was largely accounted for by differences among sites, while variation in ?13C was mainly attributable to shoots collected a few metres apart. Compared to seagrasses, variation in macroalgae was mainly explained by differences between the two survey occasions for ?15N and among individuals collected a few metres apart for ?13C. Variation was generally lower for consumers and typically explained by differences among individuals for ?15N but displayed inconsistent patterns for ?13C. Dual isotope Bayesian mixing models showed that the potential contributions of food sources for herbivorous consumers varied among sites and between survey occasions, and also that there was high variability or uncertainty in the contributions of sources within sites. The relative consistency in the main sources of variation among broad taxonomic groups in autotrophs suggests that aspects of physiology that are phylogenetically conserved might be important influences on variation in natural abundances of stable isotopes. In comparison, the sources of variability were less consistent within and among broad consumer groups, suggesting complex interactions between consumers and their food sources.

  16. Amino acids as a nitrogen source in temperate upland grasslands: the use of dual labelled ((13)C, (15)N) glycine to test for direct uptake by dominant grasses.

    PubMed

    Streeter, T C; Bol, R; Bardgett, R D

    2000-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that soil amino acids are a principal source of nitrogen (N) for certain plants, and especially those of N-limited environments. This study of temperate upland grasslands used glycine-2-(13)C-(15)N and ((15)NH4)(2)SO(4) labelling techniques to test the hypothesis that plant species which dominate 'unimproved' semi-natural grasslands (Festuca-Agrostis-Galium) are able to utilise amino acid N for growth, whereas those plants which dominate 'improved' grasslands (Lolium-Cynosurus), that receive regular applications of inorganic fertiliser, use inorganic N forms as their main N source. Data from field experiments confirmed that 'free' amino acids were more abundant in 'unimproved' than 'improved' grassland and that glycine was the dominant amino acid type (up to 42% of total). Secondly, the injection of representative amounts of glycine-2-(13)C-(15)N (4.76 and 42.86 mM) into intact soil cores from the two grassland types provided evidence of direct uptake of glycine by plants, with both (15)N and (13)C being detected in plant material of both grasslands. Finally, a microcosm experiment demonstrated no preferential uptake of amino acid N by the grasses which dominate the grassland types, namely Holcus lanatus, Festuca rubra, Agrostis capillaris from the 'unimproved' grassland, and Lolium perenne from the 'improved' grassland. Again, both (13)C and (15)N were detected in all grass species suggesting uptake of intact glycine by these plants. PMID:10920354

  17. A novel method for determination of the (15) N isotopic composition of Rubisco in wheat plants exposed to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Molero, Gemma; Avice, Jean Christophe; Bourguignon, Jacques

    2015-02-01

    Although ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is mostly known as a key enzyme involved in CO2 assimilation during the Calvin cycle, comparatively little is known about its role as a pool of nitrogen storage in leaves. For this purpose, we developed a protocol to purify Rubisco that enables later analysis of its (15) N isotope composition (?(15) N) at the natural abundance and (15) N-labeled plants. In order to test the utility of this protocol, durum wheat (Triticum durum var. Sula) exposed to an elevated CO2 concentration (700 vs 400 µmol mol(-1) ) was labeled with K(15) NO3 (enriched at 2 atom %) during the ear development period. The developed protocol proves to be selective, simple, cost effective and reproducible. The study reveals that (15) N labeling was different in total organic matter, total soluble protein and the Rubisco fraction. The obtained data suggest that photosynthetic acclimation in wheat is caused by Rubisco depletion. This depletion may be linked to preferential nitrogen remobilization from Rubisco toward grain filling. PMID:25272325

  18. Increased natural mortality at low abundance can generate an Allee effect in a marine fish

    PubMed Central

    Kuparinen, Anna; Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Negative density-dependent regulation of population dynamics promotes population growth at low abundance and is therefore vital for recovery following depletion. Inversely, any process that reduces the compensatory density-dependence of population growth can negatively affect recovery. Here, we show that increased adult mortality at low abundance can reverse compensatory population dynamics into its opposite—a demographic Allee effect. Northwest Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks collapsed dramatically in the early 1990s and have since shown little sign of recovery. Many experienced dramatic increases in natural mortality, ostensibly attributable in some populations to increased predation by seals. Our findings show that increased natural mortality of a magnitude observed for overfished cod stocks has been more than sufficient to fundamentally alter the dynamics of density-dependent population regulation. The demographic Allee effect generated by these changes can slow down or even impede the recovery of depleted populations even in the absence of fishing.

  19. Seasonal abundance and nature of damage of insects attacking cultivated sunflowers 

    E-print Network

    Phillips, Ronnie Lee

    1972-01-01

    . Therefore, a review of sampling procedures used in collecting insects infesting other crop species was made. Crops considered included cotton, alfalfa, rice, and various tree species. Cotton plants: Sundman and Hanna (1963) determined the relative...SEASONAL ABUNDANCE AND NATURE OF DAMAGE OF INSECTS ATTACKING CULTIVATED SUNFLOWERS A Thesis by Ronnie Lee Phillips Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER...

  20. Determination of lithium isotopes at natural abundance levels by atomic absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meier, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    The relationships of the absorption of 6Li and 7Li hollow cathode lamp emissions are used to determine lithium isotopic composition in the natural abundance range of geologic materials. Absorption was found to have a nonlinear dependence upon total lithium concentration and isotopic composition. A method using nonlinear equations to describe the relationship of the absorption of 6Li and 7Li lamp radiation is proposed as a means of calculating isotopic composition that is independent of total lithium concentration.

  1. Two new organic reference materials for ?13C and ?15N measurements and a new value for the ?13C of NBS 22 oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.; Geilmann, Heike; Brand, Willi A.; Bohlke, John Karl

    2003-01-01

    Analytical grade L-glutamic acid is chemically stable and has a C/N mole ratio of 5, which is close to that of many of natural biological materials, such as blood and animal tissue. Two L-glutamic acid reference materials with substantially different 13C and 15N abundances have been prepared for use as organic reference materials for C and N isotopic measurements. USGS40 is analytical grade L-glutamic acid and has a ?13C value of ?26.24‰ relative to VPDB and a ?15N value of ?4.52‰ relative to N2 in air. USGS41 was prepared by dissolving analytical grade L-glutamic acid with L-glutamic acid enriched in 13C and 15N. USGS41 has a ?13C value of +37.76‰ and a ?15N value of +47.57‰. The ?13C and ?15N values of both materials were measured against the international reference materials NBS 19 calcium carbonate (?13C?=?+1.95‰), L-SVEC lithium carbonate (?13C?=??46.48‰), IAEA-N-1 ammonium sulfate (?15N?=?0.43‰), and USGS32 potassium nitrate (?15N?=?180‰) by on-line combustion continuous-flow and off-line dual-inlet isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Both USGS40 and USGS41 are isotopically homogeneous; reproducibility of ?13C is better than 0.13‰, and that of ?15N is better than 0.13‰ in 100-?g amounts. These two isotopic reference materials can be used for (i) calibrating local laboratory reference materials, and (ii) quantifying drift with time, mass-dependent fractionations, and isotope-ratio-scale contraction in the isotopic analysis of various biological materials. Isotopic results presented in this paper yield a ?13C value for NBS 22 oil of ?29.91‰, in contrast to the commonly accepted value of ?29.78‰ for which off-line blank corrections probably have not been quantified satisfactorily.

  2. 15N-labeled glycine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Claudinéia R O; Bendassolli, José A; Coelho, Fernando; Sant'ana Filho, Carlos R; Prestes, Clelber V

    2006-09-01

    This work describes a method for 15N-isotope-labeled glycine synthesis, as well as details about a recovery line for nitrogen residues. To that effect, amination of alpha-haloacids was performed, using carboxylic chloroacetic acid and labeled aqueous ammonia (15NH3). Special care was taken to avoid possible 15NH3 losses, since its production cost is high. In that respect, although the purchase cost of the 13N-labeled compound (radioactive) is lower, the stable tracer produced constitutes an important tool for N cycling studies in living organisms, also minimizing labor and environmental hazards, as well as time limitation problems in field studies. The tests were carried out with three replications, and variable 15NH3aq volumes in the reaction were used (50, 100, and 150 mL), in order to calibrate the best operational condition; glycine masses obtained were 1.7, 2, and 3.2 g, respectively. With the development of a system for 15NH3 recovery, it was possible to recover 71, 83, and 87% of the ammonia initially used in the synthesis. With the required adaptations, the same system was used to recover methanol, and 75% of the methanol initially used in the amino acid purification process were recovered. PMID:16936934

  3. Quantification of class 1 integron abundance in natural environments using real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Hardwick, Simon A; Stokes, H W; Findlay, Sophia; Taylor, Mark; Gillings, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    Integrons are bacterial genetic elements capable of capturing and expressing potentially adaptive genetic material. Class 1 integrons constitute the most intensely studied group of these elements to date, mainly due to their well-established role in the acquisition and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in clinical environments. However, virtually nothing is known about the distribution or abundance of class 1 integrons outside of the clinical context. Here we develop a SYBR Green-based real-time quantitative PCR assay capable of quantifying the abundance of class 1 integrons in environmental samples. It was shown that the abundance of the intI1 gene in creek sediment correlates with ecological condition, implying that class 1 integrons provide selective advantages relevant to environmental pressures other than the use of antibiotics. By comparing the quantities of intI1 and 16S rRNA gene in each sample, it was demonstrated that approximately 2.7% of cells potentially harbour a class 1 integron. These findings suggest that class 1 integrons are widespread in natural environments removed from clinical settings and occur in a broader range of host organisms than had previously been assumed on the basis of culture-dependent estimates. PMID:18042230

  4. Natural abundances of carbon isotopes in acetate from a coastal marine sediment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, N. E.; Martens, C. S.; Des Marais, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the natural abundances of carbon isotopes were made in acetate samples isolated from the anoxic marine sediment of Cape Lookout Bight, North Carolina. The typical value of the total acetate carbon isotope ratio (delta 13C) was -16.1 +/- 0.2 per mil. The methyl and carboxyl groups were determined to be -26.4 +/- 0.3 and -6.0 +/- 0.3 per mil, respectively, for one sample. The isotopic composition of the acetate is thought to have resulted from isotopic discriminations that occurred during the cycling of that molecule. Measurements of this type, which have not been made previously in the natural environment, may provide information about the dominant microbial pathways in anoxic sediments as well as the processes that influence the carbon isotopic composition of biogenic methane from many sources.

  5. Compound-specific ?15N and chlorin preservation in surface sediments of the Peru Margin with implications for ancient bulk ?15N records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junium, Christopher K.; Arthur, Michael A.; Freeman, Katherine H.

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the processes that control the preservation of paleoceanographic proxies is of clear importance. Surface sediments from the Peru Margin oxygen-minimum zone are subject to lateral and downslope transport by bottom currents that decrease organic matter (OM) quality. Indicators of bulk OM quality (pyrolysis hydrogen index, pyrolysis S1 + S2 and C/N) demonstrate significant degradation between 150 and 400 m water depth, within the oxygen-minimum zone. Concentrations of the three most abundant chlorins (chlorophyllone, pheophytin and pyropheophytin) decrease from 750 to 150 nmol g TOC-1 from 150 to 400 m water depth though the relative abundances of the chlorins in an individual sample do not change. This suggests that the three chlorins have similar reactivity over the ambient conditions. Values for ?15N of bulk sediments (?15Nbulk) decrease by 3‰ from the inner shelf to the upper slope (1000 m) but co-occurring compound-specific ?15N values (?15Nchlorin) do not decrease downslope. The low variability of ?15Nchlorin values supports a single source for the chlorins, and demonstrates the recalcitrance of ?15Nchlorin values despite degradation. This set of observation raises questions about which type of OM fraction best records 'primary' signatures. We assess two possible models to guide our interpretation of these disparate datasets (1) that decreasing ?15Nbulk values are the result of degradation of a 15N-enriched fraction during downslope transport, and that ?15Nchlorin values reflect primary values; (2) that ?15Nbulk values are primary and that chlorins are derived from material transported from upslope. These data reaffirm that in active sedimentary environments such as the Eastern Tropical Pacific, transport of OM can significantly alter bulk geochemical parameters of OM integrity, but the impacts on the ?15N record of bulk sediments and chlorins are less clear, and require more study to be thoroughly understood.

  6. ? 15 N of forest soil and understorey vegetation reflect the former agricultural land use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Koerner; E. Dambrine; J. L. Dupouey; M. Benoît

    1999-01-01

    Since the middle of the 19th century, the area covered by forests in France has doubled. These new forests grow on previous\\u000a agricultural lands. We have studied the influence of this agricultural history on the 15N abundance of present-day forests planted on farmlands in the Vosges mountains (north-eastern France) between 1898 and 1930.\\u000a Different types of land use were identified

  7. The Continuing Search for the Location of 15N-Enriched Nitrogen in ACFER 182

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, M. M.; Pillinger, C. T.; Arden, J. W.

    1992-07-01

    Acfer 182 is an unusual chondrite, with abundant small chondrules and CAIs (mean diameter ca. 100 micrometers), and rich in metal (ca. 15 vol%). It is closely related to ALH 85085, and, like that meteorite, is highly enriched in ^15N (bulk delta^15N ca. +600o/oo; delta^15N(sub)max = +1584o/oo at 900 degrees C; ref. 1). Stepped combustion of Acfer 182 (see figure) releases ^15N over a wide temperature range, indicating that its carriers must be dispersed throughout the meteorite, possibly occurring in carbonaceous material, fine-grained matrix, clasts, and metal. The highest relative abundance of ^15N is found in phase "N(sub)C", so far unidentified mineralogically, with a C/N ca. 10, which releases its nitrogen on combustion of the whole rock at 850-950 degrees C. N(sub)C is more apparent in Acfer 182 than ALH 85085, accounting for ca. 8 ppm of the total nitrogen inventory of 85.4 ppm. An attempt to isolate NC by physical means proved unsuccessful [1], therefore chemical treatments were tried: an HF/HCl-resistant residue was prepared from 9 g of fragments. Examination of the remaining material confirmed that it was dominantly composed of Mg-Al spinels, chromite, hibonite, and Cr-rich sulphides. Approximately two thirds of the original amount of nitrogen in the sample has been lost on dissolution (see figure), including any associated with Fe-Ni metal. There has been a reduction of over 50% of the nitrogen that was released up to 500 degrees C and presumed present in a carbonaceous component, without significant change in delta^15N value or C/N ratio. The most visible difference between results from the whole-rock and HF/HCl-resistant residue is that the combustion temperature of NC has decreased to 550-700 degrees C, with a concomitant drop in delta^15N from +1584o/oo to +1274o/oo It is unlikely that a minor (even heavier) sub-fraction of the ^15N-rich material has been removed; now that N(sub)C combusts at a temperature closer to the more abundant "organic" nitrogen, it is probable that mixing lowers the observed delta^15N. N(sub)C itself does not seem to be totally immune from the acid attack: only 3 ppm remain from the original concentration of 8 ppm in the whole-rock meteorite. N(sub)C has still not been identified, but is further operationally defined. The combustion temperature of N(sub)C in the acid-resistant residue constrains its identification: nitrogen present as Si3N4 or substituted in SiC does not seem likely, unless the minerals are extremely fine-grained or exceptionally radiation-damaged. It is possible that N(sub)C is hosted by a mineral not previously suggested as a presolar grain, assuming that the ^15N-enrichments described are indicative of such an origin. The more complex problem of how isotopically heavy nitrogen is so completely distributed throughout the meteorite may become more easy to address once the most likely source of the ^15N-enrichment is positively identified. One possibility is that parent-body processing, including shock, degassed a component of interstellar origin, which subsequently exchanged with or nitrified other phases. Reference: [1] Grady, M. M. and Pillinger, C. T. (1992) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. (submitted)

  8. Abundance and phenology patterns of two pond-breeding salamanders determine species interactions in natural populations.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Thomas L; Hocking, Daniel J; Conner, Christopher A; Earl, Julia E; Harper, Elizabeth B; Osbourn, Michael S; Peterman, William E; Rittenhouse, Tracy A G; Semlitsch, Raymond D

    2015-03-01

    Phenology often determines the outcome of interspecific interactions, where early-arriving species often dominate interactions over those arriving later. The effects of phenology on species interactions are especially pronounced in aquatic systems, but the evidence is largely derived from experimental studies. We examined whether differences in breeding phenology between two pond-breeding salamanders (Ambystoma annulatum and A. maculatum) affected metamorph recruitment and demographic traits within natural populations, with the expectation that the fall-breeding A. annulatum would negatively affect the spring-breeding A. maculatum. We monitored populations of each species at five ponds over 4 years using drift fences. Metamorph abundance and survival of A. annulatum were affected by intra- and interspecific processes, whereas metamorph size and date of emigration were primarily influenced by intraspecific effects. Metamorph abundance, snout-vent length, date of emigration and survival for A. maculatum were all predicted by combinations of intra- and interspecific effects, but often showed negative relationships with A. annulatum metamorph traits and abundance. Size and date of metamorphosis were strongly correlated within each species, but in opposite patterns (negative for A. annulatum and positive for A. maculatum), suggesting that the two species use alternative strategies to enhance terrestrial survival and that these factors may influence their interactions. Our results match predictions from experimental studies that suggest recruitment is influenced by intra- and interspecific processes which are determined by phenological differences between species. Incorporating spatiotemporal variability when modeling population dynamics is necessary to understand the importance of phenology in species interactions, especially as shifts in phenology occur under climate change. PMID:25413866

  9. THE DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF LEADBEATER'S POSSUM GYMNOBELIDEUS LEADBEATERI IN LOWLAND SWAMP FOREST AT YELLINGBO NATURE CONSERVATION RESERVE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAN K. P. HARLEY; MARIANNE A. WORLEY; TERENCE K. HARLEY

    Harley DKP, Worley MA and Harley TK, 2005. The distribution and abundance of Leadbeater's possum Gymnobelideus leadbeateri in lowland swamp forest at Yellingbo Nature Conservation Reserve. Australian Mammalogy 27: 7-15. In 1986, a small, outlying population of Leadbeater's possum (Gymnobelideus leadbeateri) was discovered inhabiting lowland swamp forest at Yellingbo Nature Conservation Reserve. It is the only known extant lowland population,

  10. FOLIAR NITROGEN CONCENTRATIONS AND NATURAL ABUNDANCE OF 15N SUGGEST NITROGEN ALLOCATION PATTERNS OF DOUGLAS-FIR AND MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI DURING DEVELOPMENT IN ELEVATED CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATION AND TEMPERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In an experiment using Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco (Douglas-fir) seedlings and a 2x2 factorial design in enclosed mesocosms, temperatures were maintained at ambient or +3.5 degrees C above ambient, and CO2 levels were maintained at ambient or 179 ppm above ambient. Two ...

  11. Organic vs. conventional grassland management: do (15)N and (13)C isotopic signatures of hay and soil samples differ?

    PubMed

    Klaus, Valentin H; Hölzel, Norbert; Prati, Daniel; Schmitt, Barbara; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Fischer, Markus; Kleinebecker, Till

    2013-01-01

    Distinguishing organic and conventional products is a major issue of food security and authenticity. Previous studies successfully used stable isotopes to separate organic and conventional products, but up to now, this approach was not tested for organic grassland hay and soil. Moreover, isotopic abundances could be a powerful tool to elucidate differences in ecosystem functioning and driving mechanisms of element cycling in organic and conventional management systems. Here, we studied the ?(15)N and ?(13)C isotopic composition of soil and hay samples of 21 organic and 34 conventional grasslands in two German regions. We also used ??(15)N (?(15)N plant - ?(15)N soil) to characterize nitrogen dynamics. In order to detect temporal trends, isotopic abundances in organic grasslands were related to the time since certification. Furthermore, discriminant analysis was used to test whether the respective management type can be deduced from observed isotopic abundances. Isotopic analyses revealed no significant differences in ?(13)C in hay and ?(15)N in both soil and hay between management types, but showed that ?(13)C abundances were significantly lower in soil of organic compared to conventional grasslands. ??(15)N values implied that management types did not substantially differ in nitrogen cycling. Only ?(13)C in soil and hay showed significant negative relationships with the time since certification. Thus, our result suggest that organic grasslands suffered less from drought stress compared to conventional grasslands most likely due to a benefit of higher plant species richness, as previously shown by manipulative biodiversity experiments. Finally, it was possible to correctly classify about two third of the samples according to their management using isotopic abundances in soil and hay. However, as more than half of the organic samples were incorrectly classified, we infer that more research is needed to improve this approach before it can be efficiently used in practice. PMID:24205126

  12. Investigating microbial carbon cycling using natural abundance isotope analysis of PLFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, G. G.; Brady, A.; Cowie, B.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding microbial carbon sources and cycling is fundamental to our conceptualization of microbial ecosystems and their role in biogeochemical cycling in natural systems. Achieving this understanding requires application of a wide range of approaches. Natural abundance isotope analysis of individual compounds, particularly cellular components such as Phospholipids Fatty Acids (PLFA) can provide insights into the carbon sources and metabolic activities of the in situ microbial community from environmental samples. This is primarily because specific PLFA can be well resolved by gas chromatography even from complex matrices where confounding biological/organic compound abound. These PLFA can then be attributed to the viable microbial community, in some cases to specific components of this community and due to characteristic biosynthetic fractionations of stable isotope ratios, ?13C analysis of PLFA can: differentiate isotopically distinct primary carbon sources of heterotrophic communities; identify isotopic patterns characteristic of autotrophic versus heterotrophic processes; and elucidate microbial biosynthetic pathways. In cases where there ?13C cannot provide resolution of carbon sources, new approaches in ?14C of PLFA can be applied. The vast range in ?14C of ancient and modern carbon provides an easily traceable signal that can differentiate uptake and utilization of these carbon sources. This is particularly useful in cases such as contaminated sites where petroleum based contamination has occurred, or in natural systems where microbial communities may be utilizing geologic versus recently photosynthetically fixed carbon. This talk will present several examples demonstrating the utility of this approach.

  13. Anti-Gal: an abundant human natural antibody of multiple pathogeneses and clinical benefits

    PubMed Central

    Galili, Uri

    2013-01-01

    Summary Anti-Gal is the most abundant natural antibody in humans, constituting ? 1% of immunoglobulins. Anti-Gal is naturally produced also in apes and Old World monkeys. The ligand of anti-Gal is a carbohydrate antigen called the ‘?-gal epitope’ with the structure Gal?1-3Gal?1-4GlcNAc-R. The ?-gal epitope is present as a major carbohydrate antigen in non-primate mammals, prosimians and New World monkeys. Anti-Gal can contributes to several immunological pathogeneses. Anti-Gal IgE produced in some individuals causes allergies to meat and to the therapeutic monoclonal antibody cetuximab, all presenting ?-gal epitopes. Aberrant expression of the ?-gal epitope or of antigens mimicking it in humans may result in autoimmune processes, as in Graves' disease. ?-Gal epitopes produced by Trypanosoma cruzi interact with anti-Gal and induce ‘autoimmune like’ inflammatory reactions in Chagas' disease. Anti-Gal IgM and IgG further mediate rejection of xenografts expressing ?-gal epitopes. Because of its abundance, anti-Gal may be exploited for various clinical uses. It increases immunogenicity of microbial vaccines (e.g. influenza vaccine) presenting ?-gal epitopes by targeting them for effective uptake by antigen-presenting cells. Tumour lesions are converted into vaccines against autologous tumour-associated antigens by intra-tumoral injection of ?-gal glycolipids, which insert into tumour cell membranes. Anti-Gal binding to ?-gal epitopes on tumour cells targets them for uptake by antigen-presenting cells. Accelerated wound healing is achieved by application of ?-gal nanoparticles, which bind anti-Gal, activate complement, and recruit and activate macrophages that induce tissue regeneration. This therapy may be of further significance in regeneration of internally injured tissues such as ischaemic myocardium and injured nerves. PMID:23578170

  14. The distribution of nitrate 15 N in marine sediments

    E-print Network

    Sigman, Daniel M.

    The distribution of nitrate 15 N/14 N in marine sediments and the impact of benthic nitrogen loss on the isotopic composition of oceanic nitrate Moritz F. Lehmann a,*, Daniel M. Sigman b , Daniel C. McCorkle c 15 N/14 N ratios of porewater nitrate in sediments from the Bering Sea basin, where microbial nitrate

  15. DNA BUOYANT DENSITY SHIFTS DURING 15N DNA STABLE ISOTOPE PROBING.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful use of 13C stable isotope probing (SIP) to investigate microbial function in natural environments has stimulated interest in SIP technology using other isotopes. 15N-SIP is effective in buoyant density (BD) gradient separation of isotopically-enriched DNA, however, the resulting change in...

  16. Archaeal community diversity and abundance changes along a natural salinity gradient in estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Webster, Gordon; O'Sullivan, Louise A; Meng, Yiyu; Williams, Angharad S; Sass, Andrea M; Watkins, Andrew J; Parkes, R John; Weightman, Andrew J

    2015-02-01

    Archaea are widespread in marine sediments, but their occurrence and relationship with natural salinity gradients in estuarine sediments is not well understood. This study investigated the abundance and diversity of Archaea in sediments at three sites [Brightlingsea (BR), Alresford (AR) and Hythe (HY)] along the Colne Estuary, using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) of 16S rRNA genes, DNA hybridization, Archaea 16S rRNA and mcrA gene phylogenetic analyses. Total archaeal 16S rRNA abundance in sediments were higher in the low-salinity brackish sediments from HY (2-8 × 10(7) 16S rRNA gene copies cm(-3)) than the high-salinity marine sites from BR and AR (2 × 10(4)-2 × 10(7) and 4 × 10(6)-2 × 10(7) 16S rRNA gene copies cm(-3), respectively), although as a proportion of the total prokaryotes Archaea were higher at BR than at AR or HY. Phylogenetic analysis showed that members of the 'Bathyarchaeota' (MCG), Thaumarchaeota and methanogenic Euryarchaeota were the dominant groups of Archaea. The composition of Thaumarchaeota varied with salinity, as only 'marine' group I.1a was present in marine sediments (BR). Methanogen 16S rRNA genes from low-salinity sediments at HY were dominated by acetotrophic Methanosaeta and putatively hydrogentrophic Methanomicrobiales, whereas the marine site (BR) was dominated by mcrA genes belonging to methylotrophic Methanococcoides, versatile Methanosarcina and methanotrophic ANME-2a. Overall, the results indicate that salinity and associated factors play a role in controlling diversity and distribution of Archaea in estuarine sediments. PMID:25764553

  17. Archaeal community diversity and abundance changes along a natural salinity gradient in estuarine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Gordon; O'Sullivan, Louise A.; Meng, Yiyu; Williams, Angharad S.; Sass, Andrea M.; Watkins, Andrew J.; Parkes, R. John; Weightman, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Archaea are widespread in marine sediments, but their occurrence and relationship with natural salinity gradients in estuarine sediments is not well understood. This study investigated the abundance and diversity of Archaea in sediments at three sites [Brightlingsea (BR), Alresford (AR) and Hythe (HY)] along the Colne Estuary, using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) of 16S rRNA genes, DNA hybridization, Archaea 16S rRNA and mcrA gene phylogenetic analyses. Total archaeal 16S rRNA abundance in sediments were higher in the low-salinity brackish sediments from HY (2–8 × 107 16S rRNA gene copies cm?3) than the high-salinity marine sites from BR and AR (2 × 104–2 × 107 and 4 × 106–2 × 107 16S rRNA gene copies cm?3, respectively), although as a proportion of the total prokaryotes Archaea were higher at BR than at AR or HY. Phylogenetic analysis showed that members of the ‘Bathyarchaeota’ (MCG), Thaumarchaeota and methanogenic Euryarchaeota were the dominant groups of Archaea. The composition of Thaumarchaeota varied with salinity, as only ‘marine’ group I.1a was present in marine sediments (BR). Methanogen 16S rRNA genes from low-salinity sediments at HY were dominated by acetotrophic Methanosaeta and putatively hydrogentrophic Methanomicrobiales, whereas the marine site (BR) was dominated by mcrA genes belonging to methylotrophic Methanococcoides, versatile Methanosarcina and methanotrophic ANME-2a. Overall, the results indicate that salinity and associated factors play a role in controlling diversity and distribution of Archaea in estuarine sediments. PMID:25764553

  18. 15N/14N variations in Cretaceous Atlantic sedimentary sequences: implication for past changes in marine nitrogen biogeochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rau, G.H.; Arthur, M.A.; Dean, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    At two locations in the Atlantic Ocean (DSDP Sites 367 and 530) early to middle Cretaceous organic-carbon-rich beds ("black shales") were found to have significantly lower ??15N values (lower 15N/14N ratios) than adjacent organic-carbon-poor beds (white limestones or green claystones). While these lithologies are of marine origin, the black strata in particular have ??15N values that are significantly lower than those previously found in the marine sediment record and most contemporary marine nitrogen pools. In contrast, black, organic-carbon-rich beds at a third site (DSDP Site 603) contain predominantly terrestrial organic matter and have C- and N-isotopic compositions similar to organic matter of modern terrestrial origin. The recurring 15N depletion in the marine-derived Cretaceous sequences prove that the nitrogen they contain is the end result of an episodic and atypical biogeochemistry. Existing isotopic and other data indicate that the low 15N relative abundance is the consequence of pelagic rather than post-depositional processes. Reduced ocean circulation, increased denitrification, and, hence, reduced euphotic zone nitrate availability may have led to Cretaceous phytoplankton assemblages that were periodically dominated by N2-fixing blue-green algae, a possible source of this sediment 15N-depletion. Lack of parallel isotopic shifts in Cretaceous terrestrially-derived nitrogen (Site 603) argues that the above change in nitrogen cycling during this period did not extend beyond the marine environment. ?? 1987.

  19. Seasonal variation in natural abundance of 2H and 18O in urine samples from rural Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Harbison, Justin E; Dugas, Lara R; Brieger, William; Tayo, Bamidele O; Alabi, Tunrayo; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2015-07-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is used to measure free-living energy expenditure in humans. Inherent to this technique is the assumption that natural abundances of stable isotopes (2)H and (18)O in body water remain constant over the course of the measurement period and after elimination of the loading dose of DLW will return to the same predose level. To determine variability in the natural abundances of (2)H and (18)O in humans living in a region with seasonal shifts in rain patterns and sources of drinking water, over the course of 12 mo we collected weekly urine samples from four individuals living in southwest Nigeria as well as samples of their drinking water. From ongoing regional studies of hypertension, obesity, and energy expenditure, we estimated average water turnover rate, urine volumes, and sodium and potassium excretion. Results suggest that (2)H and (18)O in urine, mean concentrations of urinary sodium and potassium, urine volume, and total body turnover differed significantly from dry to rainy season. Additionally, seasonal weather variables (mean monthly maximum temperatures, total monthly rainfall, and minimum relative humidity) were all significantly associated with natural abundances in urine. No seasonal difference was observed in drinking water samples. Findings suggest that natural abundances in urine may not remain constant as assumed, and studies incorporating DLW measurements across the transition of seasons should interpret results with caution unless appropriate doses of the tracers are used. PMID:25977450

  20. Time-dependent extinction rate and species abundance in a tangled-nature model of biological evolution

    E-print Network

    Christensen, Kim

    to consider models, defined at a microscopic level, which are able to reproduce the large scale temporal by their genome. The model was introduced in Ref. 6 where we presented a discussion of the qualita- tive featuresTime-dependent extinction rate and species abundance in a tangled-nature model of biological

  1. 15N NMR of 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Goba, Inguna; Liepinsh, Edvards

    2013-07-01

    In this article, we describe the characteristic (15)N and (1)HN NMR chemical shifts and (1)J((15)N-(1)H) coupling constants of various symmetrically and unsymmetrically substituted 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives. The NMR chemical shifts and coupling constants are discussed in terms of their relationship to structural features such as character and position of the substituent in heterocycle, N-alkyl substitution, nitrogen lone pair delocalization within the conjugated system, and steric effects. PMID:23696534

  2. Natural abundance deuterium and 18-oxygen effects on the precision of the doubly labeled water method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvitz, M. A.; Schoeller, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    The doubly labeled water method for measuring total energy expenditure is subject to error from natural variations in the background 2H and 18O in body water. There is disagreement as to whether the variations in background abundances of the two stable isotopes covary and what relative doses of 2H and 18O minimize the impact of variation on the precision of the method. We have performed two studies to investigate the amount and covariance of the background variations. These were a study of urine collected weekly from eight subjects who remained in the Madison, WI locale for 6 wk and frequent urine samples from 14 subjects during round-trip travel to a locale > or = 500 miles from Madison, WI. Background variation in excess of analytical error was detected in six of the eight nontravelers, and covariance was demonstrated in four subjects. Background variation was detected in all 14 travelers, and covariance was demonstrated in 11 subjects. The median slopes of the regression lines of delta2H vs. delta18O were 6 and 7, respectively. Modeling indicated that 2H and 18O doses yielding a 6:1 ratio of final enrichments should minimize this error introduced to the doubly labeled water method.

  3. Characterization of stratum corneum molecular dynamics by natural-abundance ¹³C solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Sebastian; Nowacka, Agnieszka; Bouwstra, Joke A; Sparr, Emma; Topgaard, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Despite the enormous potential for pharmaceutical applications, there is still a lack of understanding of the molecular details that can contribute to increased permeability of the stratum corneum (SC). To investigate the influence of hydration and heating on the SC, we record the natural-abundance (13)C signal of SC using polarization transfer solid-state NMR methods. Resonance lines from all major SC components are assigned. Comparison of the signal intensities obtained with the INEPT and CP pulse sequences gives information on the molecular dynamics of SC components. The majority of the lipids are rigid at 32°C, and those lipids co-exist with a small pool of mobile lipids. The ratio between mobile and rigid lipids increases with hydration. An abrupt change of keratin filament dynamics occurs at RH?=?80-85%, from completely rigid to a structure with rigid backbone and mobile protruding terminals. Heating has a strong effect on the lipid mobility, but only a weak influence on the keratin filaments. The results provide novel molecular insight into how the SC constituents are affected by hydration and heating, and improve the understanding of enhanced SC permeability, which is associated with elevated temperatures and SC hydration. PMID:23626744

  4. Natural abundance 17O nuclear magnetic resonance and computational modeling studies of lithium based liquid electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xuchu; Hu, Mary Y.; Wei, Xiaoliang; Wang, Wei; Chen, Zhong; Liu, Jun; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2015-07-01

    Natural abundance 17O NMR measurements were conducted on electrolyte solutions consisting of Li[CF3SO2NSO2CF3] (LiTFSI) dissolved in the solvents of ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), and their mixtures at various concentrations. It was observed that 17O chemical shifts of solvent molecules change with the concentration of LiTFSI. The chemical shift displacements of carbonyl oxygen are evidently greater than those of ethereal oxygen, strongly indicating that Li+ ion is coordinated with carbonyl oxygen rather than ethereal oxygen. To understand the detailed molecular interaction, computational modeling of 17O chemical shifts was carried out on proposed solvation structures. By comparing the predicted chemical shifts with the experimental values, it is found that a Li+ ion is coordinated with four double bond oxygen atoms from EC, PC, EMC and TFSI- anion. In the case of excessive amount of solvents of EC, PC and EMC the Li+ coordinated solvent molecules are undergoing quick exchange with bulk solvent molecules, resulting in average 17O chemical shifts. Several kinds of solvation structures are identified, where the proportion of each structure in the liquid electrolytes investigated depends on the concentration of LiTFSI.

  5. Phenylalanine ?15N in Paleo Archives as a New Proxy for ?15N of Exported Primary Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, M.; Batista, F. C.; Vokhshoori, N. L.; Brown, J. T.; Guilderson, T. P.; Ravelo, A. C.; Sherwood, O.

    2012-12-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis of individual amino acids (CSI-AA) is emerging as a powerful new tool for studying the paleo nitrogen cycle. Because most detrital organic nitrogen is composed of amino acids, CSI-AA can reveal the mechanistic basis for organic nitrogen diagenesis, preserve a record of past food web structure, and potentially reconstruct the ?15N values of past nitrate and primary production. Within the commonly measured amino acids, the ?15N value of phenylalanine (Phe) appears uniquely promising as a new proxy that reflects the nitrogen isotopic value of the original source. Phe ?15N values remain almost unchanged with trophic transfer through food webs, and also during at least the initial stages of organic matter degradation. Here we synthesize results from both bio-archives and recent sediments, which together suggest that at least in Holocene archives the Phe ?15N value does in fact record the average inorganic nitrogen ?15N value at the base of planktonic food webs. However, several important unknowns also remain. These include the extent of variation in amino acid isotopic fractionation patterns in phylogenetically distinct algal groups. The stability of Phe ?15N values in older sediments where organic matter has undergone extensive diagenesis is also an important research area, which may ultimately establish the temporal limit for application of this approach to study past geological epochs. Together, however, results to date suggest that of Phe ?15N values in paleo archives represent a novel molecular-level proxy which is not tied to any specific organism or group, but rather can provide an integrated estimate of ?15N value of exported primary production.

  6. Interactions between natural-occurring landscape conditions and land use influencing the abundance of riverine smallmouth bass, micropterus dolomieu

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brewer, S.K.; Rabeni, C.F.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how interactions between natural landscape features and land use influenced the abundance of smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu, in Missouri, USA, streams. Stream segments were placed into one of four groups based on natural-occurring watershed characteristics (soil texture and soil permeability) predicted to relate to smallmouth bass abundance. Within each group, stream segments were assigned forest (n = 3), pasture (n = 3), or urban (n = 3) designations based on the percentages of land use within each watershed. Analyses of variance indicated smallmouth bass densities differed between land use and natural conditions. Decision tree models indicated abundance was highest in forested stream segments and lowest in urban stream segments, regardless of group designation. Land use explained the most variation in decision tree models, but in-channel features of temperature, flow, and sediment also contributed significantly. These results are unique and indicate the importance of natural-occurring watershed conditions in defining the potential of populations and how finer-scale filters interact with land use to further alter population potential. Smallmouth bass has differing vulnerabilities to land-use attributes, and the better the natural watershed conditions are for population success, the more resilient these populations will be when land conversion occurs.

  7. Mapping monoclonal antibody structure by 2D 13C NMR at natural abundance.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Luke W; Brinson, Robert G; Marino, John P

    2015-04-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) represent an important and rapidly growing class of biotherapeutics. Correct folding of a mAb is critical for drug efficacy, while misfolding can impact safety by eliciting unwanted immune or other off-target responses. Robust methods are therefore needed for the precise measurement of mAb structure for drug quality assessment and comparability. To date, the perception in the field has been that NMR could not be applied practically to mAbs due to the size (?150 kDa) and complexity of these molecules, as well as the insensitivity of the method. The feasibility of applying NMR methods to stable isotope-labeled, protease-cleaved, mAb domains (Fab and Fc) has been demonstrated from both E. coli and Chinese hamster ovaries (CHO) cell expression platforms; however, isotopic labeling is not typically available when analyzing drug products. Here, we address the issue of feasibility of NMR-based mapping of mAb structure by demonstrating for the first time the application of a 2D (13)C NMR methyl fingerprint method for structural mapping of an intact mAb at natural isotopic abundance. Further, we show that 2D (13)C NMR spectra of protease-cleaved Fc and Fab fragments can provide accurate reporters on the domain structures that can be mapped directly to the intact mAb. Through combined use of rapid acquisition and nonuniform sampling techniques, we show that these Fab and Fc fingerprint spectra can be rapidly acquired in as short as approximately 30 min. PMID:25728213

  8. Critical evaluation of 13C natural abundance techniques to partition soil-surface CO2 efflux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snell, H.; Midwood, A. J.; Robinson, D.

    2013-12-01

    Soil is the largest terrestrial store of carbon and the flux of CO2 from soils to the atmosphere is estimated at around 98 Pg (98 billion tonnes) of carbon per year. The CO2 efflux from the soil surface is derived from plant root and rhizosphere respiration (autotrophically fuelled) and microbial degradation of soil organic matter (heterotrophic respiration). Heterotrophic respiration is a key determinant of an ecosystem's long-term C balance, but one that is difficult to measure in the field. One approach involves partitioning the total soil-surface CO2 efflux between heterotrophic and autotrophic components; this can be done using differences in the natural abundance stable isotope ratios (?13C) of autotrophic and heterotrophic CO2 as the end-members of a simple mixing model. In most natural, temperate ecosystems, current and historical vegetation cover (and therefore also plant-derived soil organic matter) is produced from C3 photosynthesis so the difference in ?13C between the autotrophic and heterotrophic CO2 sources is small. Successful partitioning therefore requires accurate and precise measurements of the ?13CO2 of the autotrophic and heterotrophic end-members (obtained by measuring the ?13CO2 of soil-free roots and root-free soil) and of total soil CO2 efflux. There is currently little consensus on the optimum measurement protocols. Here we systematically tested some of the most commonly used techniques to identify and minimise methodological errors. Using soil-surface chambers to sample total CO2 efflux and a cavity ring-down spectrometer to measure ?13CO2 in a partitioning study on a Scottish moorland, we found that: using soil-penetrating collars leads to a more depleted chamber measurement of total soil ?13CO2 as a result of severing roots and fungal hyphae or equilibrating with ?13CO2 at depth or both; root incubations provide an accurate estimate of in-situ root respired ?13CO2 provided they are sampled within one hour; the ?13CO2 from root-free soil changes rapidly during incubation and even CO2 sampled very soon after excavation is unlikely to give an accurate estimate of the heterotrophic isotope end-member, to solve this we applied non-linear regressions to the change in ?13CO2 with time to derive the heterotrophic end-member in undisturbed soil.

  9. Rivermouth Alteration of Agricultural Impacts on Consumer Tissue ?15N

    PubMed Central

    Larson, James H.; Richardson, William B.; Vallazza, Jon M.; Nelson, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial agricultural activities strongly influence riverine nitrogen (N) dynamics, which is reflected in the ?15N of riverine consumer tissues. However, processes within aquatic ecosystems also influence consumer tissue ?15N. As aquatic processes become more important terrestrial inputs may become a weaker predictor of consumer tissue ?15N. In a previous study, this terrestrial-consumer tissue ?15N connection was very strong at river sites, but was disrupted by processes occurring in rivermouths (the ‘rivermouth effect’). This suggested that watershed indicators of N loading might be accurate in riverine settings, but could be inaccurate when considering N loading to the nearshore of large lakes and oceans. In this study, the rivermouth effect was examined on twenty-five sites spread across the Laurentian Great Lakes. Relationships between agriculture and consumer tissue ?15N occurred in both upstream rivers and at the outlets where rivermouths connect to the nearshore zone, but agriculture explained less variation and had a weaker effect at the outlet. These results suggest that rivermouths may sometimes be significant sources or sinks of N, which would cause N loading estimates to the nearshore zone that are typically made at discharge gages further upstream to be inaccurate. Identifying definitively the controls over the rivermouth effect on N loading (and other nutrients) will require integration of biogeochemical and hydrologic models. PMID:23935980

  10. The natural 13C abundance of plasma glucose is a useful biomarker of recent dietary caloric sweetener intake.

    PubMed

    Cook, Chad M; Alvig, Amy L; Liu, Yu Qiu David; Schoeller, Dale A

    2010-02-01

    There is a need for objective biomarkers of dietary intake, because self-reporting is often subject to bias. We tested the validity of a biomarker for the fraction of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) from cane sugar and high fructose corn syrup (C(4) sugars) using natural (13)C abundance of plasma glucose. In a randomized, single-blinded, crossover design, 5 participants consumed 3 weight-maintaining diets for 7 d, with a 2-wk washout between diet periods. Diets differed in the fraction of total CHO energy from C(4) sugars (5, 16, or 32%). During each diet period, blood samples were drawn at hours 0800 and 1600 on d 1, 3, and 5 and at 0800, 1000, 1200, 1400, and 1600 on d 7. The delta(13)C abundance of plasma glucose was analyzed via GC- isotope ratio MS. Within each diet period, delta(13)C abundance of the 0800 fasting glucose did not change from baseline with increasing time during a diet period; however, there was a strong positive correlation (R(2) = 0.89) between delta(13)C abundance of the glucose concentration at 1000 on d 7 and the percent of breakfast CHO from C(4) sugars. Also, delta(13)C abundance of the combined plasma glucose samples on d 7 demonstrated a strong positive correlation (R(2) = 0.90) with the percent of total daily CHO from C(4) sugars. The natural delta(13)C abundance of postprandial plasma glucose relative to dietary C(4) CHO content was a valid biomarker for contributions of C(4) caloric sweeteners from the previous meal. PMID:20018804

  11. Increased seawater temperature increases the abundance and alters the structure of natural Vibrio populations associated with the coral Pocillopora damicornis.

    PubMed

    Tout, Jessica; Siboni, Nachshon; Messer, Lauren F; Garren, Melissa; Stocker, Roman; Webster, Nicole S; Ralph, Peter J; Seymour, Justin R

    2015-01-01

    Rising seawater temperature associated with global climate change is a significant threat to coral health and is linked to increasing coral disease and pathogen-related bleaching events. We performed heat stress experiments with the coral Pocillopora damicornis, where temperature was increased to 31°C, consistent with the 2-3°C predicted increase in summer sea surface maxima. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing revealed a large shift in the composition of the bacterial community at 31°C, with a notable increase in Vibrio, including known coral pathogens. To investigate the dynamics of the naturally occurring Vibrio community, we performed quantitative PCR targeting (i) the whole Vibrio community and (ii) the coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus. At 31°C, Vibrio abundance increased by 2-3 orders of magnitude and V. coralliilyticus abundance increased by four orders of magnitude. Using a Vibrio-specific amplicon sequencing assay, we further demonstrated that the community composition shifted dramatically as a consequence of heat stress, with significant increases in the relative abundance of known coral pathogens. Our findings provide quantitative evidence that the abundance of potential coral pathogens increases within natural communities of coral-associated microbes as a consequence of rising seawater temperature and highlight the potential negative impacts of anthropogenic climate change on coral reef ecosystems. PMID:26042096

  12. Increased seawater temperature increases the abundance and alters the structure of natural Vibrio populations associated with the coral Pocillopora damicornis

    PubMed Central

    Tout, Jessica; Siboni, Nachshon; Messer, Lauren F.; Garren, Melissa; Stocker, Roman; Webster, Nicole S.; Ralph, Peter J.; Seymour, Justin R.

    2015-01-01

    Rising seawater temperature associated with global climate change is a significant threat to coral health and is linked to increasing coral disease and pathogen-related bleaching events. We performed heat stress experiments with the coral Pocillopora damicornis, where temperature was increased to 31°C, consistent with the 2–3°C predicted increase in summer sea surface maxima. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing revealed a large shift in the composition of the bacterial community at 31°C, with a notable increase in Vibrio, including known coral pathogens. To investigate the dynamics of the naturally occurring Vibrio community, we performed quantitative PCR targeting (i) the whole Vibrio community and (ii) the coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus. At 31°C, Vibrio abundance increased by 2–3 orders of magnitude and V. coralliilyticus abundance increased by four orders of magnitude. Using a Vibrio-specific amplicon sequencing assay, we further demonstrated that the community composition shifted dramatically as a consequence of heat stress, with significant increases in the relative abundance of known coral pathogens. Our findings provide quantitative evidence that the abundance of potential coral pathogens increases within natural communities of coral-associated microbes as a consequence of rising seawater temperature and highlight the potential negative impacts of anthropogenic climate change on coral reef ecosystems. PMID:26042096

  13. Optimization of (15)n detection with an atomic emission detector.

    PubMed

    Stevens, N A; Borgerding, M F

    1999-03-01

    Gas chromatography with atomic emission detection is a useful tool for the detection of stable isotope labels in complex samples. While papers involving the analysis of D and (13)C are numerous, little work has been done in the area of (15)N detection. For (15)N isotope detection, three reagent gases are used:? H(2), O(2), and CH(4). In this work, the reagent gas flows were varied to optimize the sensitivity of (15)N detection without sacrificing isotope selectivity. The optimal gas flows determined in this work produce the following ratios of the spectral peak areas:? O 725 area/He 728 area = 0.039 with only O(2) flowing; H 486 area/He 492 area = 12 with only H(2) flowing; C 496 area/He 502 area = 0.41 with O(2), H(2), and CH(4) flowing for C and no gases flowing for He. When using these gas settings, the (15)N sensitivity is increased by nearly 2 orders of magnitude relative to the manufacturer-recommended settings. It was also demonstrated that the presence of a compound in both the labeled and unlabeled forms in the same sample does not affect the response. The ratios of (15)N to (14)N in standards, calculated from calibration plots (which are linear for both isotopes), agree well with the actual values. A tobacco smoke sample containing various (15)N-labeled compounds was used to show the utility of the GC-AED for indicating which compounds in a complex sample contain the label. This sample also demonstrates the necessity for optimal sensitivity when dealing with samples containing small amounts of compounds with low incorporation levels. PMID:21662777

  14. The Contamination of Commercial 15N2 Gas Stocks with 15N–Labeled Nitrate and Ammonium and Consequences for Nitrogen Fixation Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Dabundo, Richard; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Treibergs, Lija; Tobias, Craig R.; Altabet, Mark A.; Moisander, Pia H.; Granger, Julie

    2014-01-01

    We report on the contamination of commercial 15-nitrogen (15N) N2 gas stocks with 15N-enriched ammonium, nitrate and/or nitrite, and nitrous oxide. 15N2 gas is used to estimate N2 fixation rates from incubations of environmental samples by monitoring the incorporation of isotopically labeled 15N2 into organic matter. However, the microbial assimilation of bioavailable 15N-labeled N2 gas contaminants, nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium, is liable to lead to the inflation or false detection of N2 fixation rates. 15N2 gas procured from three major suppliers was analyzed for the presence of these 15N-contaminants. Substantial concentrations of 15N-contaminants were detected in four Sigma-Aldrich 15N2 lecture bottles from two discrete batch syntheses. Per mole of 15N2 gas, 34 to 1900 µmoles of 15N-ammonium, 1.8 to 420 µmoles of 15N-nitrate/nitrite, and ?21 µmoles of 15N-nitrous oxide were detected. One 15N2 lecture bottle from Campro Scientific contained ?11 µmoles of 15N-nitrous oxide per mole of 15N2 gas, and no detected 15N-nitrate/nitrite at the given experimental 15N2 tracer dilutions. Two Cambridge Isotopes lecture bottles from discrete batch syntheses contained ?0.81 µmoles 15N-nitrous oxide per mole 15N2, and trace concentrations of 15N-ammonium and 15N-nitrate/nitrite. 15N2 gas equilibrated cultures of the green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta confirmed that the 15N-contaminants are assimilable. A finite-differencing model parameterized using oceanic field conditions typical of N2 fixation assays suggests that the degree of detected 15N-ammonium contamination could yield inferred N2 fixation rates ranging from undetectable, <0.01 nmoles N L?1 d?1, to 530 nmoles N L?1 d?1, contingent on experimental conditions. These rates are comparable to, or greater than, N2 fixation rates commonly detected in field assays. These results indicate that past reports of N2 fixation should be interpreted with caution, and demonstrate that the purity of commercial 15N2 gas must be ensured prior to use in future N2 fixation rate determinations. PMID:25329300

  15. Species richness, composition, and abundance of fish larvae and juveniles inhabiting natural and developed shorelines of a glacial Iowa lake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Bryan; Dennis L. Scarnecchia

    1992-01-01

    Synopsis Young-of-the-year fish communities in naturally vegetated sites were compared with those inhabiting nearby sites where lakeshore development (i.e., construction of homes, boat docks, and beaches) reduced nearshore macrophyte species richness and abundance. The study was conducted in a 2266 hectare, glacially formed, eutrophic lake in northwestern Iowa during the summers of 1987 and 1988. Study sites were divided into

  16. Natural-abundance radiocarbon as a tracer of assimilation of petroleum carbon by bacteria in salt marsh sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart G. Wakeham; Ann P. McNichol; Joel E. Kostka; Tamara K. Pease

    2006-01-01

    The natural abundance of radiocarbon (14C) provides unique insight into the source and cycling of sedimentary organic matter. Radiocarbon analysis of bacterial phospholipid lipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in salt-marsh sediments of southeast Georgia (USA)—one heavily contaminated by petroleum residues—was used to assess the fate of petroleum-derived carbon in sediments and incorporation of fossil carbon into microbial biomass. PLFAs that are

  17. The fellowship of natural abundance 2H-isotopomers of monoterpenes.

    PubMed

    Martin, Gérard J; Lavoine-Hanneguelle, Sophie; Mabon, Françoise; Martin, Maryvonne L

    2004-10-01

    Site-specific natural abundance hydrogen isotope ratios have been measured by deuterium-NMR in a wide variety of monoterpenes from numerous kinds of plants grown in different environments. Once the NMR signals have been assigned to the whole sets of isotopomers in the different molecules and schemes of connections to the parent isotopomers in the geranyl diphosphate (GPP) precursor have been defined, a very consistent set of isotopic profiles is evidenced. The results, which are incompatible with the mevalonate pathway, can be satisfactorily interpreted by considering the deoxyxylulose pathway (DOXP), which is now recognized as the usual route for monoterpene biosynthesis in plants. Strong deuterium depletion at ex-site 2 of GPP, accompanied by high isotope ratio values at site ex-6, are consistent with synthesis of GPP from isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) molecules independently produced by the DOXP pathway. However, for a given molecular species, significant differences are observed as a function of the plant source, in particular at site ex-6 of GPP. Thus, monoterpenes from plants with a C3 metabolism are mostly characterized by relatively high values of (D/H)6, whereas C4 plants tend to show much lower values. This behavior may be attributed to more or less significant contributions of GPP resulting from the condensation of IPP with DMAPP produced by isomerization. The isotopic profile therefore enables the role of physiological and environmental factors on the relative importance of the "independent" and "isomerized" model to be estimated. More generally, isotope ratios at individual sites in geraniol can be traced back to the corresponding sites in GPP, then to sites of the IPP and DMAPP building blocks, then to the pyruvate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate DOXP active molecules, and finally to the carbohydrate photosynthetic precursor. Furthermore, the methylenic hydrogen atoms, which are enantiotopic in geraniol, become diastereotopic in chiral, and more specially in cyclic, monoterpenes. This provides an isotopic verification for the complete stereochemical chain of affiliation, and a way of estimating enantiomeric purity and whether intermolecular exchanges have taken place. PMID:15474569

  18. Nitrate turnover in a peat soil under drained and rewetted conditions: results from a [(15)N]nitrate-bromide double-tracer study.

    PubMed

    Russow, Rolf; Tauchnitz, Nadine; Spott, Oliver; Mothes, Sibylle; Bernsdorf, Sabine; Meissner, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Under natural conditions, peatlands are generally nitrate-limited. However, recent concerns about an additional N input into peatlands by atmospheric N deposition have highlighted the risk of an increased denitrification activity and hence the likelihood of a rise of emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the turnover of added nitrate in a drained and a rewetted peatland using a [(15)N]nitrate-bromide double-tracer method. The double-tracer method allows a separation between physical effects (dilution, dispersion and dislocation) and microbial and chemical nitrate transformation by comparing with the conservative Br(-) tracer. In the drained peat site, low NO3(-) consumption rates have been observed. In contrast, NO3(-) consumption at the rewetted peat site rises rapidly to about 100% within 4 days after tracer application. Concomitantly, the (15)N abundances of nitrite and ammonium in soil water increased and lead to the conclusion that, besides commonly known NO3(-) reduction to nitrite (i.e. denitrification), a dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium has simultaneously taken place. The present study reveals that increasing NO3(-) inputs into rewetted peatlands via atmospheric deposition results in a rapid NO3(-) consumption, which could lead to an increase in N2O emissions into the atmosphere. PMID:24313368

  19. 15N enrichments of casein and plasma protein amino acids in cows ingesting 15N-labelled ammonium sulphate.

    PubMed

    Casseron, F; Rychen, G; Rubert-Aleman, X; Martin, G J; Laurent, F

    1997-08-01

    The aim of this work was to determine by ion-exchange liquid chromatography and isotope ratio mass spectrometry the specific 15N enrichment of amino acids in casein and plasma proteins in cows receiving three successive daily oral doses (300, 150 and 150 g) of (15NH4)2SO4 (10 atom per cent isotopic enrichment) and to examine the 15N enrichments obtained with regard to nitrogen transport and metabolism in the lactating cow. To investigate the 15N distribution in amino acids in casein and in plasma proteins, samples of 15N-labelled casein and plasma proteins were extracted either from a pool of several milkings (36-96 h after starting to administer the tracer) or from pooled venous blood (removed on the fourth day after the start of administration) from the four lactating cows. 15N enrichments of the proteins studied, expressed as atoms percent excess, were 0.2509 for casein and 0.0577 for plasma protein. Chromatographic fractionation of the amino acid mixture (protein hydrolysates) resulted in nine groups containing between one and four amino acids: Asp, Ser and Thr; Glu; Pro; Gly; Ala; Val and Met; Ileu and Leu; Tyr; Phe; His and Lys; and Arg. High 15N incorporation was demonstrated in all individual or groups of amino acids studied. In both proteins, Glu appeared to be the most enriched amino acid, Phe and Arg the least enriched. Most aliphatic molecules with a single amino group were highly enriched. The much lower (3.5-7.7-fold) enrichments in plasma protein compared with casein suggest considerable intracellular dilution at the site of liver protein synthesis. Finally, the amino acid separation methods are discussed and suggestions for improving them considered. PMID:9275255

  20. Is the multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis, the most abundant natural enemy to aphids in agroecosystems?

    PubMed

    Vandereycken, Axel; Durieux, Delphine; Joie, Emilie; Sloggett, John J; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François J

    2013-01-01

    The multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), was introduced into Western Europe in the late 1990s. Since the late 2000s, this species has been commonly considered one of the most abundant aphid predators in most Western European countries. In spite of the large amount of research on H. axyridis, information concerning its relative abundance in agroecosystems is lacking. This study aims to evaluate the abundance of H. axyridis within the aphidophage community in four crops situated in southern Belgium: wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae), corn, Zea mays, potato, Solanum tuberosum (Solanales: Solanaceae), and broad bean Vicia faba (Fabales: Fabaceae). In order to assess the species diversity, the collected data were analyzed by considering (1) the species richness and (2) the evenness according to the Shannon diversity index. Eleven aphidophages were observed in every inventoried agroecosystem, including five abundant species: three coccinellids, the seven-spotted ladybug, Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), the 14-spotted Ladybird, Propylea quatuordecimpunctata, and H. axyridis; one hoverfly, the marmalade hoverfly, Episyrphus balteatus De Geer (Diptera: Syrphidae); and one lacewing, the common green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens sensu lato (= s.l.) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Harmonia axyridis has been observed to thrive, breed, and reproduce on the four studied crops. Harmonia axyridis is the most abundant predator of aphids in corn followed by C. septempunctata, which is the main aphid predator observed in the three other inventoried crops. In wheat and potato fields, H. axyridis occurs in low numbers compared to other aphidophage. These observations suggest that H. axyridis could be considered an invasive species of agrosystems, and that potato and wheat may intermittently act as refuges for other aphidophages vulnerable to intraguild predation by this invader. Harmonia axyridis is not the most abundant aphid predator in the main Belgian crops. PMID:24785375

  1. Effects of Dynamics and Environment on 15 N Chemical Shielding

    E-print Network

    Skrynnikov, Nikolai

    Effects of Dynamics and Environment on 15 N Chemical Shielding Anisotropy in Proteins of nuclear spin relaxation data of biomolecules often requires the accurate knowledge of chemical shielding of chemical shielding anisotropy (CSA) tensors is important in the context of biomolecular applications

  2. Assessment of the natural variation of low abundant metabolic proteins in soybean seeds using proteomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we investigated the distribution of the low abundant proteins that are involved in soybean seed development in four wild and twelve cultivated soybean genotypes. We found proteomic variation of these proteins within and...

  3. Water Temperature and River Stage Influence Mortality and Abundance of Naturally Occurring Mississippi River Scaphirhynchus Sturgeon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quinton E. Phelps; Sara J. Tripp; William D. Hintz; James E. Garvey; David P. Herzog; David E. Ostendorf; Joseph W. Ridings; Jason W. Crites; Robert A. Hrabik

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the demographics of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus and pallid sturgeon S. albus in the Mississippi River through assessment of adult populations; however, comparatively few studies have examined the early life history of these species. Here, we describe a comprehensive 4-year study that examined the effects of water temperature and river stage on the mortality, abundance, hatch

  4. Flow and habitat effects on juvenile fish abundance in natural and altered flow regimes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeman, Mary C.; Bowen, Z.H.; Bovee, K.D.; Irwin, E.R.

    2001-01-01

    Conserving biological resources native to large river systems increasingly depends on how flow-regulated segments of these rivers are managed. Improving management will require a better understanding of linkages between river biota and temporal variability of flow and instream habitat. However, few studies have quantified responses of native fish populations to multiyear (>2 yr) patterns of hydrologic or habitat variability in flow-regulated systems. To provide these data, we quantified young-of-year (YOY) fish abundance during four years in relation to hydrologic and habitat variability in two segments of the Tallapoosa River in the southeastern United States. One segment had an unregulated flow regime, whereas the other was flow-regulated by a peak-load generating hydropower dam. We sampled fishes annually and explored how continuously recorded flow data and physical habitat simulation models (PHABSIM) for spring (April-June) and summer (July-August) preceding each sample explained fish abundances. Patterns of YOY abundance in relation to habitat availability (median area) and habitat persistence (longest period with habitat area continuously above the long-term median area) differed between unregulated and flow-regulated sites. At the unregulated site, YOY abundances were most frequently correlated with availability of shallow-slow habitat in summer (10 species) and persistence of shallow-slow and shallow-fast habitat in spring (nine species). Additionally, abundances were negatively correlated with 1-h maximum flow in summer (five species). At the flow-regulated site, YOY abundances were more frequently correlated with persistence of shallow-water habitats (four species in spring; six species in summer) than with habitat availability or magnitude of flow extremes. The associations of YOY with habitat persistence at the flow-regulated site corresponded to the effects of flow regulation on habitat patterns. Flow regulation reduced median flows during spring and summer, which resulted in median availability of shallow-water habitats comparable to the unregulated site. However, habitat persistence was severely reduced by flow fluctuations resulting from pulsed water releases for peak-load power generation. Habitat persistence, comparable to levels in the unregulated site, only occurred during summer when low rainfall or other factors occasionally curtailed power generation. As a consequence, summer-spawning species numerically dominated the fish assemblage at the flow-regulated site; five of six spring-spawning species occurring at both study sites were significantly less abundant at the flow-regulated site. Persistence of native fishes in flow-regulated systems depends, in part, on the seasonal occurrence of stable habitat conditions that facilitate reproduction and YOY survival.

  5. Deuterium isotope shifts for backbone 1H, 15N and 13C nuclei in intrinsically disordered protein -synuclein

    PubMed Central

    Maltsev, Alexander S.; Ying, Jinfa; Bax, Ad

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are abundant in nature and characterization of their potential structural propensities remains a widely pursued but challenging task. Analysis of NMR secondary chemical shifts plays an important role in such studies, but the output of such analyses depends on the accuracy of reference random coil chemical shifts. Although uniform perdeuteration of IDPs can dramatically increase spectral resolution, a feature particularly important for the poorly dispersed IDP spectra, the impact of deuterium isotope shifts on random coil values has not yet been fully characterized. Very precise 2H isotope shift measurements for 13C?, 13C?, 13C’, 15N, and 1HN have been obtained by using a mixed sample of protonated and uniformly perdeuterated -synuclein, a protein with chemical shifts exceptionally close to random coil values. Decomposition of these isotope shifts into one-bond, two-bond and three-bond effects as well as intra- and sequential residue contributions shows that such an analysis, which ignores conformational dependence, is meaningful but does not fully describe the total isotope shift to within the precision of the measurements. Random coil 2H isotope shifts provide an important starting point for analysis of such shifts in structural terms in folded proteins, where they are known to depend strongly on local geometry. PMID:22960996

  6. Precursors of glutamic acid nitrogen in primary neuronal cultures: Studies with 15 N

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Yudkoff; Itzhak Nissim; Leif Hertz

    1990-01-01

    We utilized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to study the transfer of15N from [2-15N]glutamine, [15N]leucine, [15N]alanine, or15NH4Cl to [15N]glutamate and [15N]aspartate in cultured cerebrocortical GABA-ergic neurons from the mouse. Initial rates of15N appearance (atom % excess) were somewhat higher with 2mM [2-15N]glutamine as a precursor than with 1mM [15N]leucine or 1mM [15N]alanine, but initial net formation (nmol [15N]glutamate\\/mg protein.min-1) was roughly comparable

  7. Anthropogenic and Natural Influences on Stratospheric Halogen Abundance as Inferred From Tropospheric Measurements of Long- and Short-Lived Gases.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutton, G.; Montzka, S.; Hall, B.; Elkins, J. W.; Miller, B.

    2008-12-01

    The chemical composition of the stratosphere is changing as a result of international limits on the industrial use of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). Natural processes also influence the abundance of halogen- and sulfur-containing gases and affect stratospheric composition through changes in emissions or loss rates. Through a global network of flask sampling and in situ sampling, both at Earth's surface and from aircraft, we regularly measure a wide range of anthropogenic and natural ODSs, substitutes for ODSs, and other chemicals. The results suggest large changes in emission rates of chlorine and bromine from anthropogenic activities as a result of Montreal Protocol restrictions and smaller changes in the natural system. They imply a significant decline in ozone-depleting halogen abundance in the stratosphere, though the magnitude of this decline is location dependent. Here we will discuss recent changes observed for anthropogenic chemicals, explore their implications, and touch upon the magnitudes of changes in the natural system influencing the chemical composition of the stratosphere.

  8. Fate of nitrogen in riparian forest soils and trees: an 15N tracer study simulating salmon decay.

    PubMed

    Drake, Deanne C; Naiman, I Robert J; Bechtold, J Scott

    2006-05-01

    We introduced an 15N-NH4+ tracer to the riparian forest of a salmon-bearing stream (Kennedy Creek, Washington, USA) to quantify the cycling and fate of a late-season pulse of salmon N and, ultimately, mechanisms regulating potential links between salmon abundance and tree growth. The 15N tracer simulated deposition of 7.25 kg of salmon (fresh) to four 50-m2 plots. We added NH4+ (the initial product of salmon carcass decay) and other important nutrients provided by carcasses (P, S, K, Mg, Ca) to soils in late October 2003, coincident with local salmon spawning. We followed the 15N tracer through soil and tree pools for one year. Biological uptake of the 15N tracer occurred quickly: 64% of the 15N tracer was bound in soil microbiota within 14 days, and roots of the dominant riparian tree, western red cedar (Thuja plicata), began to take up 15N tracer within seven days. Root uptake continued through the winter. The 15N tracer content of soil organic matter reached a maximum of approximately 52%, five weeks after the application, and a relative equilibrium of approximately 40% within five months. Six months after the addition, in spring 2004, at least 37% of the 15N tracer was found in tree tissues: approximately 23% in foliage, approximately 11% in roots, and approximately 3% in stems. Within the stems, xylem and phloem sap contained approximately 96% of the tracer N, and approximately 4% was in structural xylem N. After one year, at least 28% of the 15N tracer was still found in trees, and loss from the plots was only approximately 20%. The large portion of tracer N taken up in the fall and reallocated to leaves and stems the following spring provides mechanistic evidence for a one-year-lagged tree-growth response to salmon nutrients. Salmon nutrients have been deposited in the Kennedy Creek system each fall for centuries, but the system shows no evidence of nutrient saturation. Rates of N uptake and retention are a function of site history and disturbance and also may be the result of a legacy effect, in which annual salmon nutrient addition may lead to increased efficiency of nutrient uptake and use. PMID:16761604

  9. COVALENT BINDING OF REDUCED METABOLITES OF [15N3] TNT TO SOIL ORGANIC MATTER DURING A BIOREMEDIATION PROCESS ANALYZED BY 15N NMR SPECTROSCOPY. (R826646)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evidence is presented for the covalent binding of biologically reduced metabolites of 2,4,6-15N3-trinitrotoluene (TNT) to different soil fractions (humic acids, fulvic acids, and humin) using liquid 15N NMR spectroscopy. A silylation p...

  10. Does human activity impact the natural antibiotic resistance background? Abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in 21 Swiss lakes.

    PubMed

    Czekalski, Nadine; Sigdel, Radhika; Birtel, Julia; Matthews, Blake; Bürgmann, Helmut

    2015-08-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are emerging environmental contaminants, known to be continuously discharged into the aquatic environment via human and animal waste. Freshwater aquatic environments represent potential reservoirs for ARG and potentially allow sewage-derived ARG to persist and spread in the environment. This may create increased opportunities for an eventual contact with, and gene transfer to, human and animal pathogens via the food chain or drinking water. However, assessment of this risk requires a better understanding of the level and variability of the natural resistance background and the extent of the human impact. We have analyzed water samples from 21 Swiss lakes, taken at sampling points that were not under the direct influence of local contamination sources and analyzed the relative abundance of ARG using quantitative real-time PCR. Copy numbers of genes mediating resistance to three different broad-spectrum antibiotic classes (sulfonamides: sul1, sul2, tetracyclines: tet(B), tet(M), tet(W) and fluoroquinolones: qnrA) were normalized to copy numbers of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. We used multiple linear regression to assess if ARG abundance is related to human activities in the catchment, microbial community composition and the eutrophication status of the lakes. Sul genes were detected in all sampled lakes, whereas only four lakes contained quantifiable numbers of tet genes, and qnrA remained below detection in all lakes. Our data indicate higher abundance of sul1 in lakes with increasing number and capacity of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the catchment. sul2 abundance was rather related to long water residence times and eutrophication status. Our study demonstrates the potential of freshwater lakes to preserve antibiotic resistance genes, and provides a reference for ARG abundance from lake systems with low human impact as a baseline for assessing ARG contamination in lake water. PMID:25913323

  11. Unveiling the Nature of the "Green Pea" Galaxies: Oxygen and Nitrogen Chemical Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorín, R. O.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Vílchez, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    We present recent results on the oxygen and nitrogen chemical abundances in the extremely compact, low-mass starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.1-0.3 usually referred to as "green pea" galaxies. We show that they are metal-poor galaxies (~1/5 solar) with lower oxygen abundances than star-forming galaxies of similar mass and N/O ratios unusually high for galaxies of the same metallicity. Recent, rapid, and massive inflows of cold gas, possibly coupled with enriched outflows from supernova winds, are used to explain the results. This is consistent with the known "pea" galaxy properties and suggest that these rare objects are experiencing a short and extreme phase in their evolution.

  12. Nature's starships. I. Observed abundances and relative frequencies of amino acids in meteorites

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, Alyssa K.; Pudritz, Ralph E., E-mail: cobbak@mcmaster.ca, E-mail: pudritz@physics.mcmaster.ca [Origins Institute, McMaster University, ABB 241, 1280 Main Street, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2014-03-10

    The class of meteorites called carbonaceous chondrites are examples of material from the solar system which have been relatively unchanged from the time of their initial formation. These meteorites have been classified according to the temperatures and physical conditions of their parent planetesimals. We collate available data on amino acid abundance in these meteorites and plot the concentrations of different amino acids for each meteorite within various meteorite subclasses. We plot average concentrations for various amino acids across meteorites separated by subclass and petrologic type. We see a predominance in the abundance and variety of amino acids in CM2 and CR2 meteorites. The range in temperature corresponding to these subclasses indicates high degrees of aqueous alteration, suggesting aqueous synthesis of amino acids. Within the CM2 and CR2 subclasses, we identify trends in relative frequencies of amino acids to investigate how common amino acids are as a function of their chemical complexity. These two trends (total abundance and relative frequencies) can be used to constrain formation parameters of amino acids within planetesimals. Our organization of the data supports an onion shell model for the temperature structure of planetesimals. The least altered meteorites (type 3) and their amino acids originated near cooler surface regions. The most active amino acid synthesis likely took place at intermediate depths (type 2). The most altered materials (type 1) originated furthest toward parent body cores. This region is likely too hot to either favor amino acid synthesis or for amino acids to be retained after synthesis.

  13. Nature's Starships. I. Observed Abundances and Relative Frequencies of Amino Acids in Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobb, Alyssa K.; Pudritz, Ralph E.

    2014-03-01

    The class of meteorites called carbonaceous chondrites are examples of material from the solar system which have been relatively unchanged from the time of their initial formation. These meteorites have been classified according to the temperatures and physical conditions of their parent planetesimals. We collate available data on amino acid abundance in these meteorites and plot the concentrations of different amino acids for each meteorite within various meteorite subclasses. We plot average concentrations for various amino acids across meteorites separated by subclass and petrologic type. We see a predominance in the abundance and variety of amino acids in CM2 and CR2 meteorites. The range in temperature corresponding to these subclasses indicates high degrees of aqueous alteration, suggesting aqueous synthesis of amino acids. Within the CM2 and CR2 subclasses, we identify trends in relative frequencies of amino acids to investigate how common amino acids are as a function of their chemical complexity. These two trends (total abundance and relative frequencies) can be used to constrain formation parameters of amino acids within planetesimals. Our organization of the data supports an onion shell model for the temperature structure of planetesimals. The least altered meteorites (type 3) and their amino acids originated near cooler surface regions. The most active amino acid synthesis likely took place at intermediate depths (type 2). The most altered materials (type 1) originated furthest toward parent body cores. This region is likely too hot to either favor amino acid synthesis or for amino acids to be retained after synthesis.

  14. (15)N- and (2)H proteomic stable isotope probing links nitrogen flow to archaeal heterotrophic activity.

    PubMed

    Justice, Nicholas B; Li, Zhou; Wang, Yingfeng; Spaudling, Susan E; Mosier, Annika C; Hettich, Robert L; Pan, Chongle; Banfield, Jillian F

    2014-10-01

    Understanding how individual species contribute to nutrient transformations in a microbial community is critical to prediction of overall ecosystem function. We conducted microcosm experiments in which floating acid mine drainage (AMD) microbial biofilms were submerged - recapitulating the final stage in a natural biofilm life cycle. Biofilms were amended with either (15)NH4(+) or deuterium oxide ((2)H2O) and proteomic stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to track the extent to which different members of the community used these molecules in protein synthesis across anaerobic iron-reducing, aerobic iron-reducing and aerobic iron-oxidizing environments. Sulfobacillus spp. synthesized (15)N-enriched protein almost exclusively under iron-reducing conditions whereas the Leptospirillum spp. synthesized (15)N-enriched protein in all conditions. There were relatively few (15)N-enriched archaeal proteins, and all showed low atom% enrichment, consistent with Archaea synthesizing protein using the predominantly (14)N biomass derived from recycled biomolecules. In parallel experiments using (2)H2O, extensive archaeal protein synthesis was detected in all conditions. In contrast, the bacterial species showed little protein synthesis using (2)H2O. The nearly exclusive ability of Archaea to synthesize proteins using (2)H2O may be due to archaeal heterotrophy, whereby Archaea offset deleterious effects of (2)H by accessing (1)H generated by respiration of organic compounds. PMID:24750948

  15. NMR Detection of Protein 15 N Spins near Paramagnetic Lanthanide

    E-print Network

    Otting, Gottfried

    .; Ollis, D. L.; Dixon, N. E. Structure, 2002, 10, 535-546] for Ce3+ versus Dy3+ complexes. Experimental 15//Dy3+ were measured from the 3D out-and-back NZ-exchange spectrum. Data are shown only for residues for which the 15 N-HSQC cross-peaks were too broad to be observable in the 186//Dy3+ complex. The tensors

  16. Measuring protein reduction potentials using 15N HSQC NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Samantha L; Crawley-Snowdon, Harriet; Wagstaff, Jane L; Rowe, Michelle L; Shepherd, Mark; Williamson, Richard A; Howard, Mark J

    2013-03-01

    NMR spectroscopy was used to measure reduction potentials of four redox proteins by following multiple (15)N HSQC protein resonances across a titration series using mixtures of oxidised and reduced glutathione. Results for PDI a, PDI ab and DsbA agree with the literature and our result for ERp18 confirms this protein as an oxidoreductase of comparable or greater reducing strength than PDI a. PMID:23360928

  17. Measuring protein reduction potentials using 15N HSQC NMR spectroscopy†

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Samantha L.; Crawley-Snowdon, Harriet; Wagstaff, Jane L.; Rowe, Michelle L.; Shepherd, Mark; Williamson, Richard A.; Howard, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy was used to measure reduction potentials of four redox proteins by following multiple 15N HSQC protein resonances across a titration series using mixtures of oxidised and reduced glutathione. Results for PDI a, PDI ab and DsbA agree with the literature and our result for ERp18 confirms this protein as an oxidoreductase of comparable or greater reducing strength than PDI a. PMID:23360928

  18. ?15N in the turtle grass from the Mexican Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talavera-Saenz, A.; Sanchez, A.; Ortiz-Hernandez, M.

    2013-05-01

    Nutrient inputs associated with population growth threaten the integrity of coastal ecosystems. To assess the rapid increase in tourism, we compared the ?15N from Thalassia testudinum collected at sites with different levels of tourism development and population to detect the N inputs of wastewater discharge (WD) along the coast of Quintana Roo. The contributions of nitrogen enriched in 15N are directly related to the increase of WD inputs in areas of high tourism development (Nichupte Lagoon in Cancun, >3 million tourists per year from 2007 to 2011 and 0.7 million of resident population) and decreased towards Bahia Akumal and Tulum (>3 million tourists per year from 2007 to 2011 and 0.15 million of resident population). The ?15N from T. testudinum was significantly lower at Mahahual and Puerto Morelos (about 0.4 million tourists per year in 2007 to 2011 and 0.25 million of resident population) than other the sites. In areas of the lowest development and with tourist activity restricted and small population, such as the Yum Balam Reserve and Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve, the ?15N values were in much higher enrichment that Mahahual and Puerto Morelos. Therefore is suggested that Mahahual and Puerto Morelos may be used for baseline isotopic monitoring, over environmental pressure on the reef lagoon ecosystem, where tourist activities and population are growing very slow rate. The anthropogenic N input has the potential to impact, both environmentally and economically, the seagrass meadows and the coral reefs along the coast of Quintana Roo and the Caribbean.

  19. The measurement of 15 N in soil and plant material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Pruden; DS Powlson; DS Jenkinson

    1985-01-01

    A complete procedure for analysing soil and plant samples for total N and atom % excess15N is described. The salicylic acid version of the Kjeldahl method for measuring total N was modified for use in a digestion block, giving quantitative reduction of nitrate in both soil and plant material. Procedures for minimising cross-contamination between samples are specified, including a double-distillation

  20. NATURE MATERIALS | VOL 13 | MARCH 2014 | www.nature.com/naturematerials 233 hotovoltaic devices --which convert abundant, free solar

    E-print Network

    seek to fulfil this goal. Efficient harvesting of the wide dispersion of photon energies that make up by engineering the composition and structure of the electrode materials that contact the colloidal quantum dotNATURE MATERIALS | VOL 13 | MARCH 2014 | www.nature.com/naturematerials 233 P hotovoltaic devices

  1. Resolving Isotopic Fine Structure to Detect and Quantify Natural Abundance- and Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange-Derived Isotopomers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qian; Easterling, Michael L.; Agar, Jeffrey N.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry (MS) is used for analyzing protein dynamics, protein folding/unfolding, and molecular interactions. Until this study, HDX MS experiments employed mass spectral resolving powers that afforded only one peak per nominal mass in a given peptide’s isotope distribution, and HDX MS data analysis methods were developed accordingly. A level of complexity that is inherent to HDX MS remained unaddressed, namely, various combinations of natural abundance heavy isotopes and exchanged deuterium shared the same nominal mass and overlapped at previous resolving powers. For example, an A + 2 peak is comprised of (among other isotopomers) a two-2H-exchanged/zero-13C isotopomer, a one-2H-exchanged/one-13C isotopomer, and a zero-2H-exchanged/two-13C isotopomer. Notably, such isotopomers differ slightly in mass as a result of the ~3 mDa mass defect between 2H and 13C atoms. Previous HDX MS methods did not resolve these isotopomers, requiring a natural-abundance-only (before HDX or “time zero”) spectrum and data processing to remove its contribution. It is demonstrated here that high-resolution mass spectrometry can be used to detect isotopic fine structure, such as in the A + 2 profile example above, deconvolving the isotopomer species resulting from deuterium incorporation. Resolving isotopic fine structure during HDX MS therefore permits direct monitoring of HDX, which can be calculated as the sum of the fractional peak magnitudes of the deuterium-exchanged isotopomers. This obviates both the need for a time zero spectrum as well as data processing to account for natural abundance heavy isotopes, saving instrument and analysis time. PMID:24328359

  2. New Method for Estimating Bacterial Cell Abundances in Natural Samples by Use of Sublimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel P. Glavin; H. James Cleaves; Michael Schubert; Andrew Aubrey; Jeffrey L. Bada

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a new method based on the sublimation of adenine from Escherichia coli to estimate bacterial cell counts in natural samples. To demonstrate this technique, several types of natural samples, including beach sand, seawater, deep-sea sediment, and two soil samples from the Atacama Desert, were heated to a temperature of 500°C for several seconds under reduced pressure. The

  3. 15N in tree rings as a bio-indicator of changing nitrogen cycling in tropical forests: an evaluation at three sites using two sampling methods

    PubMed Central

    van der Sleen, Peter; Vlam, Mart; Groenendijk, Peter; Anten, Niels P. R.; Bongers, Frans; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Hietz, Peter; Pons, Thijs L.; Zuidema, Pieter A.

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen deposition is currently causing a more than twofold increase of reactive nitrogen input over large areas in the tropics. Elevated 15N abundance (?15N) in the growth rings of some tropical trees has been hypothesized to reflect an increased leaching of 15N-depleted nitrate from the soil, following anthropogenic nitrogen deposition over the last decades. To find further evidence for altered nitrogen cycling in tropical forests, we measured long-term ?15N values in trees from Bolivia, Cameroon, and Thailand. We used two different sampling methods. In the first, wood samples were taken in a conventional way: from the pith to the bark across the stem of 28 large trees (the “radial” method). In the second, ?15N values were compared across a fixed diameter (the “fixed-diameter” method). We sampled 400 trees that differed widely in size, but measured ?15N in the stem around the same diameter (20 cm dbh) in all trees. As a result, the growth rings formed around this diameter differed in age and allowed a comparison of ?15N values over time with an explicit control for potential size-effects on ?15N values. We found a significant increase of tree-ring ?15N across the stem radius of large trees from Bolivia and Cameroon, but no change in tree-ring ?15N values over time was found in any of the study sites when controlling for tree size. This suggests that radial trends of ?15N values within trees reflect tree ontogeny (size development). However, for the trees from Cameroon and Thailand, a low statistical power in the fixed-diameter method prevents to conclude this with high certainty. For the trees from Bolivia, statistical power in the fixed-diameter method was high, showing that the temporal trend in tree-ring ?15N values in the radial method is primarily caused by tree ontogeny and unlikely by a change in nitrogen cycling. We therefore stress to account for tree size before tree-ring ?15N values can be properly interpreted. PMID:25914707

  4. Stepwise enrichment of 15 N along food chains: Further evidence and the relation between 15 N and animal age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masao Minagawa; Eitaro Wada

    1984-01-01

    The isotopic composition of nitrogen was measured in marine and fresh-water animals from the East China Sea, The Bering Sea, Lake Ashinoko and Usujiri intertidal zone. Primary producers, showed average 15 N versus atmospheric nitrogen of +5.0%. (+3.4 to +7.5) in the Bering Sea and Lake Ashinoko, and +6.8%. (+6.0 to +7.6) in Usujiri intertidal zone. Blue green algae from

  5. An sup 15 N NMR method for the characterization of organic sulfur in coal and coal products via iminosulfurane formation

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, J.A.; Lamb, C.N.; Linehan, J.C.

    1991-09-01

    The indirect of organic sulfur by {sup 15}N NMR spectroscopy in the solid state is feasible by facile reactions providing the iminosulfurane structures. Unfortunately, nitrogen chemical shifts appear to be insufficiently sensitive to the nature of the sulfur substituent to be useful for structural studies. Further work is underway to determine the {sup 15}N chemical shifts of iminosulfuranes formed from dibenzothiophene, 4-4{prime}-dimethoxydiphenyl sulfide, and a sulfur-containing, methylated asphaltene to determine the sensitivity of {sup 15}N shifts to a broader variation of aromatic structure. Although double cross-polarization experiments or rotational echo experiments could make use of iminosulfurane formation for detection of carbon in proximity to sulfur, the difficulties in quantitation using these methods are not encouraging for coal product mixtures. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Apelin, the natural ligand of the orphan receptor APJ, is abundantly secreted in the colostrum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yugo Habata; Ryo Fujii; Masaki Hosoya; Shoji Fukusumi; Yuji Kawamata; Shuji Hinuma; Chieko Kitada; Naoki Nishizawa; Shinji Murosaki; Tsutomu Kurokawa; Haruo Onda; Kazuhiko Tatemoto; Masahiko Fujino

    1999-01-01

    By using a strategy that we have developed to search for the ligands of orphan seven-transmembrane-domain receptors [S. Hinuma et al., Nature 393 (1998) 272–276], we have recently identified a natural ligand, apelin, for the orphan 7TMR, APJ [K. Tatemoto et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 251 (1998) 471–476]. In this paper, we isolated rat and mouse apelin cDNAs, and

  7. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization NMR Enables the Analysis of Sn-Beta Zeolite Prepared with Natural Abundance 119Sn Precursors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic activity of tin-containing zeolites, such as Sn-Beta, is critically dependent on the successful incorporation of the tin metal center into the zeolite framework. However, synchrotron-based techniques or solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) of samples enriched with 119Sn isotopes are the only reliable methods to verify framework incorporation. This work demonstrates, for the first time, the use of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR for characterizing zeolites containing ?2 wt % of natural abundance Sn without the need for 119Sn isotopic enrichment. The biradicals TOTAPOL, bTbK, bCTbK, and SPIROPOL functioned effectively as polarizing sources, and the solvent enabled proper transfer of spin polarization from the radical’s unpaired electrons to the target nuclei. Using bCTbK led to an enhancement (?) of 75, allowing the characterization of natural-abundance 119Sn-Beta with excellent signal-to-noise ratios in <24 h. Without DNP, no 119Sn resonances were detected after 10 days of continuous analysis. PMID:24697321

  8. Natural expansion and experimental manipulation of seagrass ( Zostera spp.) abundance and the response of infaunal invertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Paul G.

    1987-06-01

    A study of an expanding seagrass bed on the south-west coast of British Columbia, Canada involved documentation and explanation of the pattern of expansion of the vegetation as well as documentation and experimental investigation of the accompanying changes in the distribution of infaunal invertebrates. Expansion followed a major environmental change, improved water clarity initiated in 1969 when a causeway blocked access to the site for silty Fraser River water. The original eelgrass ( Zostera marina) bed expanded landward over 30 m year -1, probably causing more and more water to be retained in the bed at low tide and thus improving its own habitat. More rapid expansion occurred from 1979-1983 after Z.japonica colonized at the landward edge of the eelgrass bed and in a separate intertidal area. Expansion ceased around 1983 coincident with, but probably independent of, further construction. Burrowing shrimp ( Callianassa californiensis) decreased in abundance between 1977 and 1984 in areas where the two seagrasses colonized. Short-term experiment over one summer and fall showed that removal of all shoots allowed adult shrimp and tube worms to colonize the sediment while addition of shoots of Z. japonica by transplanting caused temporary decreases in shrimp abundance. After a few weeks an established shrimp population destroyed the transplants. Among reasonable alternate hypotheses for the decline in Callianassa, the effect of sediment texture can be eliminated, but either direct negative effects of seagrass, i.e. inhibition of the burrowing of adult shrimp or of settlement of juveniles, or indirect effects, i.e. the harboring of more predators of shrimp in seagrass beds, deserve further study.

  9. Linking nitrogen dynamics to climate variability off central California: a 51 year record based on 15N/ 14N in CalCOFI zooplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Greg H.; Ohman, Mark D.; Pierrot-Bults, Annelies

    2003-08-01

    Long-term variability in zooplankton 15N/ 14N was investigated in two species of calanoid copepods ( Calanus pacificus and Eucalanus californicus) and two chaetognaths ( Sagitta bierii and Sagitta euneritica) sampled in the spring of selected years from 1951 to 2001 off the central California coast. No statistically significant trend in 15N/ 14N was detected for any of the four species, with isotopic ratios in 2001 resembling those in copepods and chaetognaths sampled five decades earlier. Zooplankton body lengths also showed no long-term trends. With respect to proposed regime shifts in this region, heterogeneity in 15N/ 14N was detected only for S. bierii when comparing the periods 1951-1975, 1978-1998, and 1999-2001. In this species the 15N/ 14N in the most recent, brief period (1999-2001) averaged slightly lower than in the previous period. Three of the four species ( C. pacificus, S. bierii, and S. euneritica) showed significant increases in 15N/ 14N during major El Niños. El Niño-related enrichment in 15N could arise as a consequence of increased nitrate demand:supply at the base of the food web or advection of 15N-enriched nitrate from more southerly waters. While a range of physical and climate indices were evaluated, anomalies of 15N/ 14N from the long-term mean were found to be significantly related only to: (i) the Southern Oscillation Index in the case of both chaetognath species, (ii) a regional surface water temperature record ( S. bierii only), (iii) an index of wind-driven coastal upwelling for the surface-dwelling C. pacificus, and (iv) variability in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation for the somewhat deeper-dwelling E. californicus. The relationships among each species' 15N/ 14N averaged over the total sampling period was: E. californicus?C. pacificus?S. euneritica < S. bierii, consistent with trophic 15N biomagnification and the predatory nature of Sagitta.

  10. [Utilization of 15N-labeled urea in laying hens. 7. 15N-incorporation into the amino acids of different muscle types].

    PubMed

    Gruhn, K

    1987-01-01

    3 colostomized laying hybrids received 1% 15N labelled urea with 96.06 atom-% 15N excess (15N') with a commercial ration over a period of 6 days. After the application of the same ration with unlabelled urea on the following 2 days the animals were butchered. In the muscles of the breast, the leg and the heart, the labelling of total nitrogen and the incorporation of urea 15N' into 15 amino acids of the 3 different kinds of muscles were ascertained. On average, significant differences could be ascertained between the atom-% 15N of the muscles of the skeleton and those of the heart. The 15N' of the breast and leg muscles was 0.25 and 0.34 atom-% resp.; that of the cardial proteins 0.71 atom-% 15N'. The incorporation of urea 15N into the basic amino acids is low and varies both between the kinds of muscles and between the amino acids. On average the highest level of labelling was found among the essential amino acids valine, isoleucine and leucine; the average atom-% 15N' for the muscles of the breast is 0.13, of the leg 0.17, and of the heart 0.27; the 15N' quota of branched chain amino acids in the total 15N' of the respective muscle is accordingly 6.0%, 5.0% and 4.5%. The non-essential amino acids, particularly glutamic acid, are more highly labelled in the muscles than the essential ones. A 15N' for glutamic acid of 0.24 atom-% in the breast muscles, of 0.27 atom-% in those of the legs and of 0.64 atom-% in the heart muscle could be detected. The average quota of the 15N' of these acid amino acids in the 15N' for breast, leg and heart muscles is 7.4, 6.2 and 6.7 resp. The quota of the 15N' in the 6 non-essential amino acids in the total 15N' in all 3 kinds of muscles is approximately two thirds and in the 9 essential ones one third of the total 15N'. Although the results show that there is a certain incorporation of 15N' from urea into the amino acids of the muscle proteins, their contribution to meeting the demands is to be considered irrelevant. PMID:3689127

  11. Estimation of Carbon and Nitrogen Allocation during Stalk Elongation by 13C and 15N Tracing in Zea mays L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Cliquet, Jean-Bernard; Deléens, Eliane; Bousser, Agnès; Martin, Michel; Lescure, Jean-Charles; Prioul, Jean-Louis; Mariotti, André; Morot-Gaudry, Jean-François

    1990-01-01

    Zea mays L. (cv Dea) plants grown to the stage of stalk elongation, were allowed to assimilate 13CO2 and 15N-nitrates from 45 to 53 days after sowing. Isotopic abundances in labeled nutrients were slightly enriched compared to natural abundances. The new C in plant was acropetally distributed and the new N was preferentially accumulated in the sheath and stalk in the medium region. C input was 25-fold higher than N input. The new C in total plant C was 20%, whereas it was 10% for N. The stalk acted as a major sink because it accumulated, respectively, 27.5 and 47.5% of the C and N inputs. The new C in soluble carbohydrates was 76% in growing organs (upper stalk) and only 39% in source leaves, whereas it was 43% and 13% in starch, respectively. New N in nitrates+amino-acids spanned in the range from 20% (leaf) to 50% (stalk). New C and N in soluble proteins were, respectively, 13.4 and 3.8% in leaves, 8.8 and 9.6% in stalk, and 8.7 and 14.3% in roots. In the middle stalk and leaves, the proteins and carbohydrates represent an equivalent C and N source for remobilization. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:16667269

  12. New method for estimating bacterial cell abundances in natural samples by use of sublimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Cleaves, H. James; Schubert, Michael; Aubrey, Andrew; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a new method based on the sublimation of adenine from Escherichia coli to estimate bacterial cell counts in natural samples. To demonstrate this technique, several types of natural samples, including beach sand, seawater, deep-sea sediment, and two soil samples from the Atacama Desert, were heated to a temperature of 500 degrees C for several seconds under reduced pressure. The sublimate was collected on a cold finger, and the amount of adenine released from the samples was then determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV absorbance detection. Based on the total amount of adenine recovered from DNA and RNA in these samples, we estimated bacterial cell counts ranging from approximately 10(5) to 10(9) E. coli cell equivalents per gram. For most of these samples, the sublimation-based cell counts were in agreement with total bacterial counts obtained by traditional DAPI (4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining.

  13. Effects of weed cover composition on insect pest and natural enemy abundance in a field of Dracaena marginata (Asparagales: Asparagaceae) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sadof, Clifford S; Linkimer, Mildred; Hidalgo, Eduardo; Casanoves, Fernando; Gibson, Kevin; Benjamin, Tamara J

    2014-04-01

    Weeds and their influence on pest and natural enemy populations were studied on a commercial ornamental farm during 2009 in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. A baseline survey of the entire production plot was conducted in February, along a 5 by 5 m grid to characterize and map initial weed communities of plants, cicadellids, katydids, and armored scales. In total, 50 plant species from 21 families were found. Seven weed treatments were established to determine how weed manipulations would affect communities of our targeted pests and natural enemies. These treatments were selected based on reported effects of specific weed cover on herbivorous insects and natural enemies, or by their use by growers as a cover crop. Treatments ranged from weed-free to being completely covered with endemic species of weeds. Although some weed treatments changed pest abundances, responses differed among arthropod pests, with the strongest effects observed for Caldwelliola and Empoasca leafhoppers. Removal of all weeds increased the abundance of Empoasca, whereas leaving mostly cyperacaeous weeds increased the abundance of Caldwelliola. Weed manipulations had no effect on the abundance of katydid and scale populations. No weed treatment reduced the abundance of all three of the target pests. Differential responses of the two leafhopper species to the same weed treatments support hypotheses, suggesting that noncrop plants can alter the abundance of pests through their effects on arthropod host finding and acceptance, as well as their impacts on natural enemies. PMID:24517852

  14. [15N-labeling of fishes using 15N isotopes in aquarium water and the effect of a different protein nutrient on the 15N elimination after the labeling period].

    PubMed

    Bergner, H; Götz, K P; Simon, M; Rennert, B

    1993-01-01

    In a preexperiment of 12 days fishes (Cyprinus carpio L.) were labelled with 15N by means of 15NH4Cl and 15N-urea resp. in the aquarium water and by feeding a protein free diet. 15NH4Cl yielded a higher atom-% 15N excess (15N') in the tissues of fishes. In the main experiment 75 fishes (Cyprinus carpio L.) were 15N-labelled with 100 mg 15N'/l water from 15NH4Cl (95 atom-% 15N') in a protein free preperiod of 12 days. In the following main period the fishes received different protein sources in their diets in maintenance. A group of 20 fishes received an animal protein (fish meal) and two groups of 20 fishes each received plant proteins (soybean meal and wheat gluten resp.). The atom-% 15N' reached after the 15N-labelling period following values: digestive tract with content--7.15, liver--5.65, gills--5.89, muscle--0.81 and chorda dorsalis--1.09 respectively. During the main period (with protein feeding) the atom-% 15N' decreased in the tissues with high protein turnover (liver and gills) on the 2nd and 4th day to 4.31 +/- 0.11 (animal protein) and 4.64 +/- 0.14 (plant proteins) in average. The corresponding values in the tissues with low protein turnover (muscle and chorda dorsalis) were 0.73 +/- 0.04 and 0.80 +/- 0.04 atom-% 15N' in average. From the measurements on the 6th, 8th and 10th day of protein feeding resulted an atom-% 15N' in average of liver and gills of 4.08 +/- 0.13 (animal protein) and 4.11 +/- 0.15 (plant proteins). In muscle and chorda dorsalis the atom-% 15N' ascended in this time upon 0.80 +/- 0.04 (animal protein) and 0.90 +/- 0.03 (plant proteins). It seems that the protein metabolism of fishes is favoured from the amino acid of plant protein in comparison to animal protein to reduce the 15N-loss of the 15N-labelled body in maintenance, like the results from experiments with rats (Hernandez et al., 1981). PMID:7487475

  15. Natural landscape and stream segment attributes influencing the distribution and relative abundance of riverine smallmouth bass in Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brewer, S.K.; Rabeni, C.F.; Sowa, S.P.; Annis, G.

    2007-01-01

    Protecting and restoring fish populations on a regional basis are most effective if the multiscale factors responsible for the relative quality of a fishery are known. We spatially linked Missouri's statewide historical fish collections to environmental features in a geographic information system, which was used as a basis for modeling the importance of landscape and stream segment features in supporting a population of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu. Decision tree analyses were used to develop probability-based models to predict statewide occurrence and within-range relative abundances. We were able to identify the range of smallmouth bass throughout Missouri and the probability of occurrence within that range by using a few broad landscape variables: the percentage of coarse-textured soils in the watershed, watershed relief, and the percentage of soils with low permeability in the watershed. The within-range relative abundance model included both landscape and stream segment variables. As with the statewide probability of occurrence model, soil permeability was particularly significant. The predicted relative abundance of smallmouth bass in stream segments containing low percentages of permeable soils was further influenced by channel gradient, stream size, spring-flow volume, and local slope. Assessment of model accuracy with an independent data set showed good concordance. A conceptual framework involving naturally occurring factors that affect smallmouth bass potential is presented as a comparative model for assessing transferability to other geographic areas and for studying potential land use and biotic effects. We also identify the benefits, caveats, and data requirements necessary to improve predictions and promote ecological understanding. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  16. Preservation of proteinaceous material during the degradation of the green alga Botryococcus braunii: A solid-state 2D 15N 13C NMR spectroscopy study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xu Zang; Reno T. Nguyen; H. Rodger Harvey; Heike Knicker; Patrick G. Hatcher

    2001-01-01

    Using solid-state cross-polarization-magic-angle-spinning (CPMAS) 13C and 15N nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 2-D double cross polarization (DCP) MAS 15N 13C NMR techniques, microbially degraded Botryococcus braunii was analyzed to study the chemical nature of organic nitrogen in the algal residue. The amide linkage, as found in protein, was observed as the major nitrogen component in 201-day-old degraded algae. No significant

  17. Using ?15N of Chironomidae as an index of nitrogen sources and processing within watersheds as part of EPA's National Aquatic Resource Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, J. R.; Compton, J.; Herlihy, A.; Sobota, D. J.; Stoddard, J.; Weber, M.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) removal in watersheds is an important regulating ecosystem service that can help reduce N pollution in the nation's waterways. However, processes that remove N such as denitrification are generally determined at point locations. Measures that integrate N processing within watersheds and over time would be particularly useful for assessing the degree of this vital service. Because most N removal processes isotopically enrich the N remaining, ?15N from basal food-chain organisms in aquatic ecosystems can provide information on watershed N processing. As part of EPA's National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS), we measured ?15N of Chironomidae in lakes, rivers and streams because these larval aquatic insects were found in abundance in almost every lake and stream in the U.S. Using information on nitrogen loading to the watershed, and total N concentrations within the water, we assessed when elevated chironomid ?15N would indicate N removal rather than possible enriched sources of N. Chironomid ?15N values ranged from -4 to +20 ‰, and were higher in rivers and streams than in lakes (median = 7.6 ‰ vs. 4.8 ‰, respectively), indicating that N was processed to a greater degree in lotic chironomids than in lentic ones. For both, ?15N increased with watershed-level agricultural land cover and N loading, and decreased as precipitation increased. In rivers and streams with high synthetic N loading, we found lower N concentrations in streams with higher chironomid ?15N values, suggesting greater N removal. At low levels of synthetic N loading, the pattern reversed, and streams with enriched chironomid ?15N had higher N concentrations, suggesting enriched sources such as manure or sewage. Our results indicate that chironomid ?15N values can provide valuable information about watershed-level N inputs and processing for national water quality monitoring efforts.

  18. A New Method for Estimating Bacterial Abundances in Natural Samples using Sublimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Cleaves, H. James; Schubert, Michael; Aubrey, Andrew; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a new method based on the sublimation of adenine from Escherichia coli to estimate bacterial cell counts in natural samples. To demonstrate this technique, several types of natural samples including beach sand, seawater, deep-sea sediment, and two soil samples from the Atacama Desert were heated to a temperature of 500 C for several seconds under reduced pressure. The sublimate was collected on a cold finger and the amount of adenine released from the samples then determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV absorbance detection. Based on the total amount of adenine recovered from DNA and RNA in these samples, we estimated bacterial cell counts ranging from approx. l0(exp 5) to l0(exp 9) E. coli cell equivalents per gram. For most of these samples, the sublimation based cell counts were in agreement with total bacterial counts obtained by traditional DAPI staining. The simplicity and robustness of the sublimation technique compared to the DAPI staining method makes this approach particularly attractive for use by spacecraft instrumentation. NASA is currently planning to send a lander to Mars in 2009 in order to assess whether or not organic compounds, especially those that might be associated with life, are present in Martian surface samples. Based on our analyses of the Atacama Desert soil samples, several million bacterial cells per gam of Martian soil should be detectable using this sublimation technique.

  19. Biosynthesis of [1-15N] L-tryptophan from 15N labeled anthranilic acid by fermentation of Candida utilis mutant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhanfeng; Yuan, Qipeng; Wang, Wenchuan

    2009-01-01

    A new method for synthesizing the labeled L-tryptophan is described in this work. L-tryptophan, labeled with 98% (15)N at position 1 was synthesized from the labeled anthranilic acid using Candida utilis mutants. The conversion ratio of (15)N of 50% was achieved. The labeled anthranilic acid was synthesized by [(15)N] phthalimide that was prepared by 99.34% [(15)N] urea and phthalic anhydride in ortho-xylene medium at 140 degrees C and under atmospheric pressure. PMID:18235989

  20. Compound specific amino acid ?15N in marine sediments: A new approach for studies of the marine nitrogen cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batista, Fabian C.; Ravelo, A. Christina; Crusius, John; Casso, Michael A.; McCarthy, Matthew D.

    2014-10-01

    The nitrogen (N) isotopic composition (?15N) of bulk sedimentary N (?15Nbulk) is a common tool for studying past biogeochemical cycling in the paleoceanographic record. Empirical evidence suggests that natural fluctuations in the ?15N of surface nutrient N are reflected in the ?15N of exported planktonic biomass and in sedimentary ?15Nbulk. However, ?15Nbulk is an analysis of total combustible sedimentary N, and therefore also includes mixtures of N sources and/or selective removal or preservation of N-containing compounds. Compound-specific nitrogen isotope analyses of individual amino acids (?15NAA) are novel measurements with the potential to decouple ?15N changes in nutrient N from trophic effects, two main processes that can influence ?15Nbulk records. As a proof of concept study to examine how ?15NAA can be applied in marine sedimentary systems, we compare the ?15NAA signatures of surface and sinking POM sources with shallow surface sediments from the Santa Barbara Basin, a sub-oxic depositional environmental that exhibits excellent preservation of sedimentary organic matter. Our results demonstrate that ?15NAA signatures of both planktonic biomass and sinking POM are well preserved in such surface sediments. However, we also observed an unexpected inverse correlation between ?15N value of phenylalanine (?15NPhe; the best AA proxy for N isotopic value at the base of the food web) and calculated trophic position. We used a simple N isotope mass balance model to confirm that over long time scales, ?15NPhe values should in fact be directly dependent on shifts in ecosystem trophic position. While this result may appear incongruent with current applications of ?15NAA in food webs, it is consistent with expectations that paleoarchives will integrate N dynamics over much longer timescales. We therefore propose that for paleoceanographic applications, key ?15NAA parameters are ecosystem trophic position, which determines relative partitioning of 15N into source AA versus trophic AA pools, and the integrated ?15NAA of all common protein AA (?15NTHAA), which serves as a proxy for the ?15N of nutrient N. Together, we suggest that these can provide a coupled picture of regime shifts in planktonic ecosystem structure, ?15N at the base of food webs, and possibly additional information about nutrient dynamics.

  1. Characterization of fecal nitrogen forms produced by a sheep fed with 15 N labeled ryegrass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Bosshard; A. Oberson; P. Leinweber; G. Jandl; H. Knicker; H.-R. Wettstein; M. Kreuzer; E. Frossard

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about nitrogen (N) forms in ruminant feces, although this information is important to understand N dynamics\\u000a in agro-ecosystems. We fed 15N labeled ryegrass hay to a sheep and collected 15N labeled feces. Nitrogen forms in the feces were characterized by chemical extractions, solid-state cross polarization 15N nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (SS CP\\/MAS 15N NMR) and Curie-point pyrolysis–gas

  2. [ 15 N]Methacetin urine test: A method to study the development of hepatic detoxification capacity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Krumbiegel; B. Teichmann; G. Boehm

    1990-01-01

    The [15N]methacetin urine test was used to study human O-demethylase activities to characterize the maturation of hepatic detoxification capacity. The study involved 43 healthy subjects aged 1 day?47 years. The urinary15N elimination rates were measured following oral administrations of an aqueous [15N]methacetin solution. Age-dependent normal values of hepatic drug elimination capacity were established. Parameters were the15N elimination half-life and cumulative

  3. Spatio-temporal isotopic signatures (?13 C and ?15 N) reveal that two sympatric West African mullet species do not feed on the same basal production sources.

    PubMed

    Le Loc'h, F; Durand, J-D; Diop, K; Panfili, J

    2015-04-01

    Potential trophic competition between two sympatric mullet species, Mugil cephalus and Mugil curema, was explored in the hypersaline estuary of the Saloum Delta (Senegal) using ?(13) C and ?(15) N composition of muscle tissues. Between species, ?(15) N compositions were similar, suggesting a similar trophic level, while the difference in ?(13) C compositions indicated that these species did not feed from exactly the same basal production sources or at least not in the same proportions. This result provides the first evidence of isotopic niche segregation between two limno-benthophageous species belonging to the geographically widespread, and often locally abundant, Mugilidae family. PMID:25846862

  4. Nutrient regime shift in the western North Atlantic indicated by compound-specific ?15N of deep-sea gorgonian corals.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Owen A; Lehmann, Moritz F; Schubert, Carsten J; Scott, David B; McCarthy, Matthew D

    2011-01-18

    Despite the importance of the nitrogen (N) cycle on marine productivity, little is known about variability in N sources and cycling in the ocean in relation to natural and anthropogenic climate change. Beyond the last few decades of scientific observation, knowledge depends largely on proxy records derived from nitrogen stable isotopes (?(15)N) preserved in sediments and other bioarchives. Traditional bulk ?(15)N measurements, however, represent the combined influence of N source and subsequent trophic transfers, often confounding environmental interpretation. Recently, compound-specific analysis of individual amino acids (?(15)N-AA) has been shown as a means to deconvolve trophic level versus N source effects on the ?(15)N variability of bulk organic matter. Here, we demonstrate the first use of ?(15)N-AA in a paleoceanographic study, through analysis of annually secreted growth rings preserved in the organic endoskeletons of deep-sea gorgonian corals. In the Northwest Atlantic off Nova Scotia, coral ?(15)N is correlated with increasing presence of subtropical versus subpolar slope waters over the twentieth century. By using the new ?(15)N-AA approach to control for variable trophic processing, we are able to interpret coral bulk ?(15)N values as a proxy for nitrate source and, hence, slope water source partitioning. We conclude that the persistence of the warm, nutrient-rich regime since the early 1970s is largely unique in the context of the last approximately 1,800 yr. This evidence suggests that nutrient variability in this region is coordinated with recent changes in global climate and underscores the broad potential of ?(15)N-AA for paleoceanographic studies of the marine N cycle. PMID:21199952

  5. Female offspring desertion and male-only care increase with natural and experimental increase in food abundance

    PubMed Central

    Eldegard, Katrine; Sonerud, Geir A.

    2009-01-01

    In species with biparental care, one parent may escape the costs of parental care by deserting and leaving the partner to care for the offspring alone. A number of theoretical papers have suggested a link between uniparental offspring desertion and ecological factors, but empirical evidence is scarce. We investigated the relationship between uniparental desertion and food abundance in a natural population of Tengmalm's owl Aegolius funereus, both by means of a 5-year observational study and a 1-year experimental study. Parents and offspring were fitted with radio-transmitters in order to reveal the parental care strategy (i.e. care or desert) of individual parents, and to keep track of the broods post-fledging. We found that 70 per cent of the females from non-experimental nests deserted, while their partner continued to care for their joint offspring alone. Desertion rate was positively related to natural prey population densities and body reserves of the male partner. In response to food supplementation, a larger proportion of the females deserted, and females deserted the offspring at an earlier age. Offspring survival during the post-fledging period tended to be lower in deserted than in non-deserted broods. We argue that the most important benefit of deserting may be remating (sequential polyandry). PMID:19324835

  6. Abiotic stress protection by ecologically abundant dimethylsulfoniopropionate and its natural and synthetic derivatives: insights from Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Broy, Sebastian; Chen, Chiliang; Hoffmann, Tamara; Brock, Nelson L; Nau-Wagner, Gabriele; Jebbar, Mohamed; Smits, Sander H J; Dickschat, Jeroen S; Bremer, Erhard

    2015-07-01

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is an abundant osmolyte and anti-stress compound produced primarily in marine ecosystems. After its release into the environment, microorganisms can exploit DMSP as a source of sulfur and carbon, or accumulate it as an osmoprotectant. However, import systems for this ecophysiologically important compatible solute, and its stress-protective properties for microorganisms that do not produce it are insufficiently understood. Here we address these questions using a well-characterized set of Bacillus subtilis mutants to chemically profile the influence of DMSP import on stress resistance, the osmostress-adaptive proline pool and on osmotically controlled gene expression. We included in this study the naturally occurring selenium analogue of DMSP, dimethylseleniopropionate (DMSeP), as well as a set of synthetic DMSP derivatives. We found that DMSP is not a nutrient for B.?subtilis, but it serves as an excellent stress protectant against challenges conferred by sustained high salinity or lasting extremes in both low and high growth temperatures. DMSeP and synthetic DMSP derivatives retain part of these stress protective attributes, but DMSP is clearly the more effective stress protectant. We identified the promiscuous and widely distributed ABC transporter OpuC as a high-affinity uptake system not only for DMSP, but also for its natural and synthetic derivatives. PMID:25384455

  7. Are vascular epiphytes nitrogen or phosphorus limited? A study of plant (15) N fractionation and foliar N : P stoichiometry with the tank bromeliad Vriesea sanguinolenta.

    PubMed

    Wanek, Wolfgang; Zotz, Gerhard

    2011-10-01

    Although there is unambiguous evidence for vascular epiphytic plants to be limited by insufficient water and nutrient supply under natural conditions, it is an open debate whether they are primarily phosphorus (P) or nitrogen (N) limited. Plant (15) N fractionation and foliar N : P stoichiometry of a tank epiphyte (Vriesea sanguinolenta), and its response to combined N-P fertilization, were studied under semi-natural conditions over 334 d to clarify the type of nutrient limitation. Plants collected in the field and experimental plants with limited nutrient supply showed significant plant (15) N fractionation (mean 5‰) and plant N : P ratios of c. 13.5. Higher relative growth rates and declines in plant (15) N fractionation (0.5‰) and in foliar N : P ratios to 8.5 in the high N-P treatment indicated that these epiphytes were P limited in situ. The critical foliar N : P ratio was 10.4, as derived from the breakpoint in the relationship between plant (15) N fractionation and foliar N : P. We interpret the widespread (15) N depletion of vascular epiphytes relative to their host trees as deriving from (15) N fractionation of epiphytes as a result of P limitation. High foliar N : P ratios (> 12) corroborate widespread P limitation (or co-limitation by N and P) of epiphytic bromeliads and, possibly, other epiphyte species. PMID:21729088

  8. 15N2 formation and fast oxygen isotope exchange during pulsed 15N18O exposure of MnOx/CeO2

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Szanyi, Janos

    2014-12-23

    Pulsing 15N18O onto an annealed 1% Mn16Ox/Ce16O2 catalyst resulted in very fast oxygen isotope exchange and 15N2 formation at 295 K. In the 1st 15N18O pulse, due to the presence of large number of surface oxygen defects, extensive 15N218O and 15N2 formations were observed. In subsequent pulses oxygen isotope exchange dominated as a result of highly labile oxygen in the oxide. We gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy/Vehicle Technologies Program for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle.

  9. Conformation of alamethicin in oriented phospholipid bilayers determined by (15)N solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed Central

    Bak, M; Bywater, R P; Hohwy, M; Thomsen, J K; Adelhorst, K; Jakobsen, H J; Sørensen, O W; Nielsen, N C

    2001-01-01

    The conformation of the 20-residue antibiotic ionophore alamethicin in macroscopically oriented phospholipid bilayers has been studied using (15)N solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in combination with molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. Differently (15)N-labeled variants of alamethicin and an analog with three of the alpha-amino-isobutyric acid residues replaced by alanines have been investigated to establish experimental structural constraints and determine the orientation of alamethicin in hydrated phospholipid (dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine) bilayers and to investigate the potential for a major kink in the region of the central Pro(14) residue. From the anisotropic (15)N chemical shifts and (1)H-(15)N dipolar couplings determined for alamethicin with (15)N-labeling on the Ala(6), Val(9), and Val(15) residues and incorporated into phospholipid bilayer with a peptide:lipid molar ratio of 1:8, we deduce that alamethicin has a largely linear alpha-helical structure spanning the membrane with the molecular axis tilted by 10-20 degrees relative to the bilayer normal. In particular, we find compatibility with a straight alpha-helix tilted by 17 degrees and a slightly kinked molecular dynamics structure tilted by 11 degrees relative to the bilayer normal. In contrast, the structural constraints derived by solid-state NMR appear not to be compatible with any of several model structures crossing the membrane with vanishing tilt angle or the earlier reported x-ray diffraction structure (Fox and Richards, Nature. 300:325-330, 1982). The solid-state NMR-compatible structures may support the formation of a left-handed and parallel multimeric ion channel. PMID:11509381

  10. New flaxseed orbitides: Detection, sequencing, and (15) N incorporation.

    PubMed

    Okinyo-Owiti, Denis P; Young, Lester; Burnett, Peta-Gaye G; Reaney, Martin J T

    2014-03-01

    Three new orbitides (cyclolinopeptides 17, 18, and 19) were identified in flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) extracts without any form of purification. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of (15) N-labeling experiments and extensive tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI). Putative linear peptide sequences of the new orbitides were used as the query in the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) searches of flax genome database. These searches returned linear sequences for the putative precursors of cyclolinopeptides 17 and 19 among others. Cyclolinopeptide 18 contains MetO (O) and is not directly encoded, but is a product of post-translation modification of the Met present in 17. The identification of precursor proteins in flax mRNA transcripts and DNA sequences confirmed the occurrence and amino acid sequences of these orbitides as [1-9-N?C]-MLKPFFFWI, [1-9-N?C]-OLKPFFFWI, and [1-9-N?C]-GIPPFWLTL for cyclolinopeptides 17, 18, and 19, respectively. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 102: 168-175, 2014. PMID:24408479

  11. Linking dynamics of soil microbial phospholipid fatty acids to carbon mineralization in a 13C natural abundance experiment: Impact of heavy metals and acid rain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Stemmer; Andrea Watzinger; Karl Blochberger; Georg Haberhauer; Martin H. Gerzabek

    2007-01-01

    A 13C natural abundance experiment including GC-c-IRMS analysis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) was conducted to assess the temporal dynamics of the soil microbial community and carbon incorporation during the mineralization of plant residues under the impact of heavy metals and acid rain. Maize straw was incorporated into (i) control soil, (ii) soil irrigated with acid rain, (iii) soil amended

  12. Seasonal abundance of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and its natural enemies Oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; Tonghai Zhao; Ruitong Gao; Liwen Song; Qingshu Luan; Ruozhong Jin; Changqi Gao

    2007-01-01

    The seasonal abundance and population dynamics of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and its natural enemies Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) were studied on ash (Fraxinus spp.) in northeastern China in 2004 and 2005. A. planipennis population density varied greatly between sites, trees, and heights in Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica) forests. At

  13. Studies of minute quantities of natural abundance molecules using 2D heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy under 100 kHz MAS.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Y; Kobayashi, T; Malon, M; Singappuli-Arachchige, D; Slowing, I I; Pruski, M

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional (1)H{(13)C} heteronuclear correlation solid-state NMR spectra of naturally abundant solid materials are presented, acquired using the 0.75-mm magic angle spinning (MAS) probe at spinning rates up to 100 kHz. In spite of the miniscule sample volume (290 nL), high-quality HSQC-type spectra of bulk samples as well as surface-bound molecules can be obtained within hours of experimental time. The experiments are compared with those carried out at 40 kHz MAS using a 1.6-mm probe, which offered higher overall sensitivity due to a larger rotor volume. The benefits of ultrafast MAS in such experiments include superior resolution in (1)H dimension without resorting to (1)H-(1)H homonuclear RF decoupling, easy optimization, and applicability to mass-limited samples. The HMQC spectra of surface-bound species can be also acquired under 100 kHz MAS, although the dephasing of transverse magnetization has significant effect on the efficiency transfer under MAS alone. PMID:25773137

  14. Using natural abundance radiocarbon to trace the flux of petrocarbon to the seafloor following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Chanton, Jeffrey; Zhao, Tingting; Rosenheim, Brad E; Joye, Samantha; Bosman, Samantha; Brunner, Charlotte; Yeager, Kevin M; Diercks, Arne R; Hollander, David

    2015-01-20

    In 2010, the Deepwater Horizon accident released 4.6–6.0 × 10(11) grams or 4.1 to 4.6 million barrels of fossil petroleum derived carbon (petrocarbon) as oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Natural abundance radiocarbon measurements on surface sediment organic matter in a 2.4 × 10(10) m(2) deep-water region surrounding the spill site indicate the deposition of a fossil-carbon containing layer that included 1.6 to 2.6 × 10(10) grams of oil-derived carbon. This quantity represents between 0.5 to 9.1% of the released petrocarbon, with a best estimate of 3.0–4.9%. These values may be lower limit estimates of the fraction of the oil that was deposited on the seafloor because they focus on a limited mostly deep-water area of the Gulf, include a conservative estimate of thickness of the depositional layer, and use an average background or prespill radiocarbon value for sedimentary organic carbon that produces a conservative value. A similar approach using hopane tracer estimated that 4–31% of 2 million barrels of oil that stayed in the deep sea settled on the bottom. Converting that to a percentage of the total oil that entered into the environment (to which we normalized our estimate) converts this range to 1.8 to 14.4%. Although extrapolated over a larger area, our independent estimate produced similar values. PMID:25494527

  15. Mapping the dynamics of ligand reorganization via 13CH3 and 13CH2 relaxation dispersion at natural abundance

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Brian D.; Namanja, Andrew T.

    2010-01-01

    Flexible ligands pose challenges to standard structure-activity studies since they frequently reorganize their conformations upon protein binding and catalysis. Here, we demonstrate the utility of side chain 13C relaxation dispersion measurements to identify and quantify the conformational dynamics that drive this reorganization. The dispersion measurements probe methylene 13CH2 and methyl 13CH3 groups; the latter are highly prevalent side chain moieties in known drugs. Combining these side chain studies with existing backbone dispersion studies enables a comprehensive investigation of µs–ms conformational dynamics related to binding and catalysis. We perform these measurements at natural 13C abundance, in congruence with common pharmaceutical research settings. We illustrate these methods through a study of the interaction of a phosphopeptide ligand with the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase, Pin1. The results illuminate the side-chain moieties that undergo conformational readjustments upon complex formation. In particular, we find evidence that multiple exchange processes influence the side chain dispersion profiles. Collectively, our studies illustrate how side-chain relaxation dispersion can shed light on ligand conformational transitions required for activity, and thereby suggest strategies for its optimization. PMID:19639385

  16. sup 14,15 N, sup 13 C, sup 57 Fe, and sup 1,2 H Q-band ENDOR study of Fe-S proteins with clusters that have endogenous sulfur ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Houseman, A.L.P.; Chaoliang Fan; Werst, M.M.; Hoffman, B.M. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)); Byungha Oh; Markley, J.L. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)); Kennedy, M.C.; Beinert, H. (Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (United States))

    1992-02-25

    The benefits of performing ENDOR experiments at higher microwave frequency are demonstrated in a Q-band (35 GHz) ENDOR investigation of a number of proteins with (nFe-mS) clusters, n = 2,3,4. Each protein displays several resonances in the frequency range of 0-20 MHz. In all instances, features are seen near {nu} {approx} 13 and 8 MHz that can be assigned, respectively, to distant ENDOR from {sup 13}C in natural-abundance (1.1%) and from {sup 14}N. In addition, a number of proteins show local {sup 13}C ENDOR signals with resolved hyperfine interactions; these are assigned to the {beta} carbons of cysteines bound to the cluster. Quadrupole coupling constants are derived for both local and distant {sup 14}N signals. The interpretation of the data is supported by studies on {sup 15}N- and {sup 13}C-enriched ferredoxin (Fd) from Anabaena 7120, where the {sup 15}N signals can be clearly correlated with the corresponding {sup 14}N signals and where the {sup 13}C signals are strongly enhanced. Thus, the observation of {sup 14}N {Delta}m{sub I} = {plus minus} 2 signals at Q-band provides a new technique for examining weak interactions with a cluster. Six proteins show an additional pattern near {nu} {approx} 18 MHz that arises from {sup 57}Fe in natural abundance (2.2%) with A({sup 57}Fe) {approx} 36 MHz, which opens the possibility of studying proteins for which enrichment is impractical. Q-band ENDOR studies also have been carried out on four {sup 2}H-exchanged Fe-S proteins, and ENDOR detects exchangeable protons in each. The importance of these findings for the interpretation of X- and Q-band ENDOR at low radiofrequencies is discussed.

  17. Labeling of tyrosines in proteins with [15N]tetranitromethane, a new NMR reporter for nitrotyrosines.

    PubMed

    Skawinski, W J; Adebodun, F; Cheng, J T; Jordan, F; Mendelsohn, R

    1993-03-26

    Lysozyme and ribonuclease were used as model proteins to explore the feasibility of detecting protein-bound nitrotyrosines by 15N-NMR spectroscopy. The reporter group was introduced via synthesized [15N]tetranitromethane. Several experiments for detection of the 15N resonance in the model [3-15N]nitrotyrosine demonstrated a substantial pH-dependence of the chemical shift. When lysozyme was nitrated, either two or three 15N resonances were detected, depending on the extent of nitration. The pH-dependence of the detected resonances clearly described an apparent microscopic pK in accord with reported values, while addition of Gd(III) gave selective line broadening, indicating that the 15N reporter group could also monitor relative distances from paramagnetic sources. Nitration of ribonuclease showed five 15N resonances, of which three persisted in the purified monomer. The pH-dependence of these resonances also described apparent microscopic pK values. The [3-15N]nitrotyrosine model was reduced to the [3-15N]aminotyrosine and its 15N resonance was easily monitored by several methods, including selective population inversion. When the protein-bound nitrotyrosines were similarly reduced, much sample decomposition resulted, a possible result of photooxidation, and/or reduction of disulfide bond(s), thereby making interpretation difficult. PMID:8457594

  18. [15N]aspartate metabolism in cultured astrocytes. Studies with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed Central

    Yudkoff, M; Nissim, I; Pleasure, D

    1987-01-01

    The metabolism of 2.5 mM-[15N]aspartate in cultured astrocytes was studied with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three primary metabolic pathways of aspartate nitrogen disposition were identified: transamination with 2-oxoglutarate to form [15N]glutamate, the nitrogen of which subsequently was transferred to glutamine, alanine, serine and ornithine; condensation with IMP in the first step of the purine nucleotide cycle, the aspartate nitrogen appearing as [6-amino-15N]adenine nucleotides; condensation with citrulline to form argininosuccinate, which is cleaved to yield [15N]arginine. Of these three pathways, the formation of arginine was quantitatively the most important, and net nitrogen flux to arginine was greater than flux to other amino acids, including glutamine. Notwithstanding the large amount of [15N]arginine produced, essentially no [15N]urea was measured. Addition of NaH13CO3 to the astrocyte culture medium was associated with the formation of [13C]citrulline, thus confirming that these cells are capable of citrulline synthesis de novo. When astrocytes were incubated with a lower (0.05 mM) concentration of [15N]aspartate, most 15N was recovered in alanine, glutamine and arginine. Formation of [6-amino-15N]adenine nucleotides was diminished markedly compared with results obtained in the presence of 2.5 mM-[15N]aspartate. PMID:3032154

  19. Measurement of 15N relaxation in deuterated amide groups in proteins using direct nitrogen detection.

    PubMed

    Vasos, Paul R; Hall, Jennifer B; Kümmerle, Rainer; Fushman, David

    2006-09-01

    15N chemical shielding tensors contain useful structural information, and their knowledge is essential for accurate analysis of protein backbone dynamics. The anisotropic component (CSA) of 15N chemical shielding can be obtained from 15N relaxation measurements in solution. However, the predominant contribution to nitrogen relaxation from 15N-(1)H dipolar coupling in amide groups limits the sensitivity of these measurements to the actual CSA values. Here we present nitrogen-detected NMR experiments for measuring 15N relaxation in deuterated amide groups in proteins, where the dipolar contribution to 15N relaxation is significantly reduced by the deuteration. Under these conditions nitrogen spin relaxation becomes a sensitive probe for variations in 15N chemical shielding tensors. Using the nitrogen direct-detection experiments we measured the rates of longitudinal and transverse 15N relaxation for backbone amides in protein G in D(2)O at 11.7 T. The measured relaxation rates are validated by comparing the overall rotational diffusion tensor obtained from these data with that from the conventional 15N relaxation measurements in H(2)O. This analysis revealed a 17-24 degree angle between the NH-bond and the unique axis of the 15N chemical shielding tensor. PMID:16967194

  20. Mimicking floodplain reconnection and disconnection using 15N mesocosm incubations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welti, N.; Bondar-Kunze, E.; Mair, M.; Bonin, P.; Wanek, W.; Pinay, G.; Hein, T.

    2012-11-01

    Floodplain restoration changes the nitrate delivery pattern and dissolved organic matter pool in backwaters, though the effects these changes have are not yet well known. We performed two mesocosm experiments on floodplain sediments to quantify the nitrate metabolism in two types of floodplains. Rates of denitrification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) and anammox were measured using 15N-NO3 tracer additions in mesocosms of undisturbed floodplain sediments originating from (1) restored and (2) disconnected sites in the Alluvial Zone National Park on the Danube River downstream of Vienna, Austria. DNRA rates were an order of magnitude lower than denitrification and neither rate was affected by changes in nitrate delivery pattern or organic matter quality. Anammox was not detected at any of the sites. Denitrification was out-competed by assimilation, which was estimated to use up to 70% of the available nitrate. Overall, denitrification was higher in the restored sites, with mean rates of 5.7 ± 2.8 mmol N m-2 h-1 compared to the disconnected site (0.6 ± 0.5 mmol N m-2 h-1). In addition, ratios of N2O : N2 were lower in the restored site indicating a more complete denitrification. Nitrate addition had neither an effect on denitrification, nor on the N2O : N2 ratio. However, DOM (dissolved organic matter) quality significantly changed the N2O : N2 ratio in both sites. Addition of riverine-derived organic matter lowered the N2O : N2 ratio in the disconnected site, whereas addition of floodplain-derived organic matter increased the N2O : N2 ratio in the restored site. These results demonstrate that increasing floodplains hydrological connection to the main river channel increases nitrogen retention and decreases nitrous oxide emissions.

  1. Mimicking floodplain reconnection and disconnection using 15N mesocosm incubations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welti, N.; Bondar-Kunze, E.; Mair, M.; Bonin, P.; Wanek, W.; Pinay, G.; Hein, T.

    2012-04-01

    Floodplain restoration changes the nitrate delivery pattern and dissolved organic matter pool in backwaters but other effects are not yet well known. We performed two mesocosm experiments to quantify the nitrate metabolism in two types of floodplains. Rates of denitrification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) and anammox were measured using 15N tracer additions in mesocosms containing undisturbed floodplain sediments originating from (1) restored and (2) disconnected sites in the Alluvial Zone National Park on the Danube River downstream of Vienna, Austria. DNRA rates were an order of magnitude lower than denitrification and neither rate was affected by changes in nitrate delivery pattern or organic matter quality. Anammox was not detected at any of the sites. Denitrification was out-competed by assimilation which was estimated to use up to 70% of the available nitrate. Overall, denitrification was higher in the restored sites, with mean rates of 5.7±2.8 mmol N m-2 h-1 compared to the disconnected site (0.6±0.5 mmol N m-1 h-1). In addition, ratios of N2O : N2 were lower in the restored site indicating a more complete denitrification. Nitrate addition did not have any effect on denitrification, nor on the N2O : N2 ratio. However, DOM quality significantly changed the N2O : N2 ratio in both sites. Addition of riverine derived organic matter lowered the N2O : N2 ratio in the disconnected site, whereas addition of floodplain derived organic matter increased the N2O : N2 ratio in the restored site. These results demonstrate that increasing floodplains hydrological connection to the main river channel increases nitrogen retention and decreases nitrous oxide emissions.

  2. A novel experiment for the quantitative measurement of CSA(1H(N))/CSA(15N) cross-correlated relaxation in 15N-labeled proteins.

    PubMed

    Tessari, M; Vuister, G W

    2000-02-01

    An experiment is presented which allows for the quantitative measurement of the relaxation interference between the 1H(N) CSA and 15N CSA interactions in 15N labeled proteins. A constant-time buildup scheme is used to measure the differential relaxation rate, eta, between double-quantum (DQ) and zero-quantum (ZQ) 1H(N)-15N coherences. The CSA/CSA experiment was recorded at three different Bo field strengths. The CSA(1H(N))/CSA(15N) cross-correlation rate was obtained from the linear fit of the measured rate, eta, versus Bo2 for 77 residues of the EH2 domain from mouse Eps15. PMID:10723996

  3. Sources of ?15N variability in sinking particulate nitrogen in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, Enrique; Thunell, Robert; Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Lorenzoni, Laura; Tappa, Eric; Troccoli, Luis; Astor, Yrene; Varela, Ramón

    2013-09-01

    Ten years of monthly observations of the ?15N of sinking particulate nitrogen (?15N-PN (in ‰ versus atmospheric N2)=[(15N/14N)sample/(15N/14N)standard)-1]1000) in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela, confirm that the basin's bottom sediments store information about nitrogen dynamics related to seasonal and interannual variability in regional surface ocean processes. During the upwelling period of the southern Caribbean Sea (February-April), the ?15N-PN is similar to that of the thermocline nitrate (˜3.5‰). This nitrate is imported into the Cariaco Basin with Subtropical Underwater (SUW), which wells up near the coast. Thus, particles generated by phytoplankton photosynthesis during this productive period bear a sub-tropical North Atlantic isotopic imprint of N2 fixation (low compared to the global average of nitrate ?15N?5‰). During the non-upwelling period when surface waters are stratified (September-November), the ?15N-PN is also 3.5-4.0‰, and reflects a mixture of local N2 fixation within the mixed layer, inputs of terrigenous organic matter and SUW nitrate consumption by phytoplankton below the mixed layer, which most likely exerts the strongest control on the ?15N-PN signal during this time. In the transition periods of May-July and December-January, the ?15N-PN increases to 4.5-6.5‰. This coincides with maxima of continental material fluxes (terrestrial PON ?15N is >6‰) into the Cariaco Basin. The ?15N signal in the sediments of the Cariaco Basin thus provides information about the relative strength of the local coastal upwelling, the relative input of continental material via river runoff, and local N2 fixation. The findings contribute to interpretations of the basin's paleoclimatic nitrogen cycle variations based on observations of the sedimentary ?15N record at this location.

  4. Nitrogen Cycling in a Forest Stream Determined a 15N Tracer Addition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick J. Mulholland; Jennifer L. Tank; Diane M. Sanzone; Wilfred M. Wollheim; Bruce J. Peterson; Jackson R. Webster; Judy L. Meyer

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen uptake and cycling was examined using a six-week tracer addition of 15N-labeled ammonium in early spring in Walker Branch, a first-order deciduous forest stream in eastern Tennessee. Prior to the 15N addition, standing stocks of N were determined for the major biomass compartments. During and after the addition, 15N was measured in water and in dominant biomass compartments upstream

  5. Transformation of 15 N-labelled leguminous plant material in three contrasting soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Azam; R. L. Mulvaney; F. J. Stevenson

    1989-01-01

    Two soils from Pakistan (Hafizabad silt loam and Khurrarianwala silt loam) and one from Illinois, USA (Drummer silty clay loam) were incubated with 15N-labelled soybean tops for up to 20 weeks at 30°C. Mineralization of soybean 15N was slightly more rapid in the Pakistani soils, and after 20 weeks of incubation, 50%, 53%, and 56% of the applied 15N was

  6. Carbonyl carbon label selective (CCLS) 1H–15N HSQC experiment for improved detection of backbone 13C–15N cross peaks in larger proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tonelli, Marco; Masterson, Larry R.; Hallenga, Klaas; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    We present a highly sensitive pulse sequence, carbonyl carbon label selective 1H–15N HSQC (CCLS-HSQC) for the detection of signals from 1H–15N units involved in 13C?–15N linkages. The CCLS-HSQC pulse sequence utilizes a modified 15N CT evolution period equal to 1/(21JNC?) (~33 ms) to select for 13C?–15N pairs. By collecting CCLS-HSQC and HNCO data for two proteins (8 kDa ubiquitin and 20 kDa HscB) at various temperatures (5–40°C) in order to vary correlation times, we demonstrate the superiority of the CCLS-HSQC pulse sequence for proteins with long correlation times (i.e. higher molecular weight). We then show that the CCLS-HSQC experiment yields assignments in the case of a 41 kDa protein incorporating pairs of 15N- and 13C?-labeled amino acids, where a TROSY 2D-HN(CO) had failed. Although the approach requires that the 1H–15N HSQC cross peaks be observable, it does not require deuteration of the protein. The method is suitable for larger proteins and is less affected by conformational exchange than HNCO experiments, which require a longer period of transverse 15N magnetization. The method also is tolerant to the partial loss of signal from isotopic dilution (scrambling). This approach will be applicable to families of proteins that have been resistant to NMR structural and dynamic analysis, such as large enzymes, and partially folded or unfolded proteins. PMID:17828465

  7. Measurement of 15 N relaxation in the detergent-solubilized tetrameric KcsA potassium channel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jordan H. Chill; John M. Louis; James L. Baber; Ad Bax

    2006-01-01

    A set of TROSY-HNCO (tHNCO)-based 3D experiments is presented for measuring 15N relaxation parameters in large, membrane-associated proteins, characterized by slow tumbling times and significant spectral\\u000a overlap. Measurement of backbone 15N R\\u000a 1, R\\u000a 1?, 15N–{1H} NOE, and 15N CSA\\/dipolar cross correlation is demonstrated and applied to study the dynamic behavior of the homotetrameric KcsA potassium\\u000a channel in SDS micelles

  8. Sensitivity-Enhanced Static 15N NMR of Solids by 1H Indirect Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Mei; Yamaguchi, Satoru

    2001-05-01

    A method for enhancing the sensitivity of 15N spectra of nonspinning solids through 1H indirect detection is introduced. By sampling the 1H signals in the windows of a pulsed spin-lock sequence, high-sensitivity 1H spectra can be obtained in two-dimensional (2D) spectra whose indirect dimension yields the 15N chemical shift pattern. By sacrificing the 1H chemical shift information, sensitivity gains of 1.8 to 2.5 for the 15N spectra were achieved experimentally. A similar sensitivity enhancement was also obtained for 2D 15N- 1H dipolar and 15N chemical shift correlation spectroscopy, by means of a 3D 1H/ 15N- 1H/ 15N correlation experiment. We demonstrate this technique, termed PRINS for proton indirectly detected nitrogen static NMR, on a crystalline model compound with long 1H T1? and on a 25-kDa protein with short 1H T1?. This 1H indirect detection approach should be useful for enhancing the sensitivity of 15N NMR of oriented membrane peptides. It can also be used to facilitate the empirical optimization of 15N-detected experiments where the inherent sensitivity of the sample is low.

  9. ?15N constraints on long-term nitrogen balances in temperate forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, S.S.; Sinkhorn, E.R.; Compton, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Biogeochemical theory emphasizes nitrogen (N) limitation and the many factors that can restrict N accumulation in temperate forests, yet lacks a working model of conditions that can promote naturally high N accumulation. We used a dynamic simulation model of ecosystem N and ?15N to evaluate which combination of N input and loss pathways could produce a range of high ecosystem N contents characteristic of forests in the Oregon Coast Range. Total ecosystem N at nine study sites ranged from 8,788 to 22,667 kg ha?1 and carbon (C) ranged from 188 to 460 Mg ha?1, with highest values near the coast. Ecosystem ?15N displayed a curvilinear relationship with ecosystem N content, and largely reflected mineral soil, which accounted for 96–98% of total ecosystem N. Model simulations of ecosystem N balances parameterized with field rates of N leaching required long-term average N inputs that exceed atmospheric deposition and asymbiotic and epiphytic N2-fixation, and that were consistent with cycles of post-fire N2-fixation by early-successional red alder. Soil water ?15NO3 ? patterns suggested a shift in relative N losses from denitrification to nitrate leaching as N accumulated, and simulations identified nitrate leaching as the primary N loss pathway that constrains maximum N accumulation. Whereas current theory emphasizes constraints on biological N2-fixation and disturbance-mediated N losses as factors that limit N accumulation in temperate forests, our results suggest that wildfire can foster substantial long-term N accumulation in ecosystems that are colonized by symbiotic N2-fixing vegetation.

  10. EFFECT OF HIGH-ENERGY RESONANCES ON THE {sup 18}O(p, {alpha}){sup 15}N REACTION RATE AT AGB AND POST-AGB RELEVANT TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect

    La Cognata, M.; Spitaleri, C. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud and University of Catania, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Mukhamedzhanov, A. M., E-mail: lacognata@lns.infn.i [Cyclotron Institute-Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-11-10

    The {sup 18}O(p, {alpha}){sup 15}N reaction is of great importance in several astrophysical scenarios, as it influences the production of key isotopes such as {sup 19}F, {sup 18}O, and {sup 15}N. Fluorine is synthesized in the intershell region of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, together with s-elements, by {alpha} radiative capture on {sup 15}N, which in turn is produced in the {sup 18}O proton-induced destruction. Peculiar {sup 18}O abundances are observed in R-Coronae Borealis stars, having {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O {approx}< 1, hundreds of times smaller than the galactic value. Finally, there is no definite explanation of the {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N ratio in pre-solar grains formed in the outer layers of AGB stars. Again, such an isotopic ratio is influenced by the {sup 18}O(p, {alpha}){sup 15}N reaction. In this work, a high accuracy {sup 18}O(p, {alpha}){sup 15}N reaction rate is proposed, based on the simultaneous fit of direct measurements and of the results of a new Trojan Horse experiment. Indeed, current determinations are uncertain because of the poor knowledge of the resonance parameters of key levels of {sup 19}F. In particular, we have focused on the study of the broad 660 keV 1/2{sup +} resonance corresponding to the 8.65 MeV level of {sup 19}F. Since {Gamma} {approx} 100-300 keV, it determines the low-energy tail of the resonant contribution to the cross section and dominates the cross section at higher energies. Here, we provide a reaction rate that is a factor of two larger above T {approx} 0.5 10{sup 9} K based on our new improved determination of its resonance parameters, which could strongly influence present-day astrophysical model predictions.

  11. OPRs Of Ammonia versus. 14N/15N Ratios In CN In 15 Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Kawakita, H.; Kobayashi, H.; Jehin, E.; Manfroid, J.; Hutsemékers, D.; Arpigny, C.

    2010-10-01

    The solar system was formed from interstellar matter 4.6 Gyrs ago and comets are considered as remnants of icy planetesimals formed in the early solar system. One of interesting primordial characters of cometary ice is an ortho-to-para abundance ratio (OPR) of molecules such as H2O, NH3, etc. The OPR probably indicates the molecular formation temperatures in the solar nebula or in the pre-solar molecular cloud. We determined the OPRs of ammonia by using the high dispersion optical spectra of NH2 in 15 comets: C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp), C/1999 S4 (LINEAR), C/2001 A2 (LINEAR), C/2000 WM1 (LINEAR), 153P/Ikeya-Zhang, C/2002 V1 (NEAT), C/2002 X5 (Kudo-Fujikawa), C/2002 Y1 (Juels-Holvorcem), C/2001 Q4 (NEAT), C/2002 T7 (LINEAR), C/2003 K4 (LINEAR), 8P/Tuttle, 88P/Howell, 9P/Tempel 1, and 73P-B and -C/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3. The observations were mainly carried out by the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) mounted on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. Other telescopes/instruments were also used in some cases. The OPRs of ammonia are determined from OPRs of NH2 (0,9,0) ro-vibronic band around 600 nm. Although absorption lines (by the telluric atmosphere) and cometary C2 emission lines blended affected to NH2 emission lines in this region, we removed them in our analysis. The determined OPRs of ammonia clustered around 30K but not in the cases of 73P-B and -C. This situation is very similar to that of 14N/15N ratios in CN (i.e., 73P-B and -C are quite peculiar relative to other comets). We discuss about the relationship between the OPRs of ammonia and 14N/15N ratios in CN in these 15 comets. Our results indicate the formation of materials at relatively higher temperatures for 73P-B and -C than other comets.

  12. Accessible NMR Experiments Studying the Hydrodynamics of [superscript 15]N-Enriched Ubiquitin at Low Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Laura E.; Rovnyak, David

    2007-01-01

    We have recently developed and implemented two experiments in biomolecular NMR for an undergraduate-level biophysical chemistry laboratory with commercially available [superscript 15]N-enriched human ubiquitin. These experiments take advantage of [superscript 15]N direct detection of the NMR signal. The first experiment develops skills in…

  13. Accessible NMR Experiments Studying the Hydrodynamics of [subscript 15]N-Enriched Ubiquitin at Low Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Laura E.; Rovnyak, David

    2007-01-01

    We have recently developed and implemented two experiments in biomolecular NMR for an undergraduate-level biophysical chemistry laboratory with commercially available [subscript 15]N-enriched human ubiquitin. These experiments take advantage of [subscript 15]N direct detection of the NMR signal. The first experiment develops skills in acquiring…

  14. Recovery of added 15N-labelled ammonium-N from Louisiana Gulf Coast estuarine sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C. J.; DeLaune, R. D.

    1985-08-01

    The loss of added 15N-labelled NH 4+ from bottom sediment was studied in situ in a shallow saline Louisiana Gulf Coast lake. 15N-labelled NH 4+ was uniformly mixed with sediment at the level of 35 ?g N g -1 dry sediment for 24 h before being weighed into polyethylene containers. The 15N-enriched sediment was incubated on the lake bottom for periods up to 337 days. At intervals, triplicate samples were taken and analyzed for inorganic NH 4+, organic N, and denitrification rates. Concentrations of NH 4+ in the 15NH 4+ enriched sediment samples were at levels similar to those measured in vertical intact cores removed from the lake at each sampling date. The initial and final isotopic compositions of NH 4+ in the incubated sediments were 44.26 and 0.521 atom % 15N excess, respectively. 15N enrichment in the organic N fraction increased rapidly during the first 15 days of incubation and then increased slowly from 15 to 123 days. Denitrification, estimated by the acetylene blockage technique, ranged from 0.994 to 0.079 ng N g -1 dry sediment per hour. The mean denitrification rate for the 337-day period was 0.28 ng N g -1 h -1. There was no statistical difference in the recovery of 15N between 15 and 337 days of incubation. When the added 15N became incorporated into the organic N pool, little or no further 15N was lost.

  15. An optimized method for (15)N R 1 relaxation rate measurements in non-deuterated proteins.

    PubMed

    Gairí, Margarida; Dyachenko, Andrey; González, M Teresa; Feliz, Miguel; Pons, Miquel; Giralt, Ernest

    2015-06-01

    (15)N longitudinal relaxation rates are extensively used for the characterization of protein dynamics; however, their accurate measurement is hindered by systematic errors. (15)N CSA/(1)H-(15)N dipolar cross-correlated relaxation (CC) and amide proton exchange saturation transfer from water protons are the two main sources of systematic errors in the determination of (15)N R1 rates through (1)H-(15)N HSQC-based experiments. CC is usually suppressed through a train of 180° proton pulses applied during the variable (15)N relaxation period (T), which can perturb water magnetization. Thus CC cancellation is required in such a way as to minimize water saturation effects. Here we examined the level of water saturation during the T period caused by various types of inversion proton pulses to suppress CC: (I) amide-selective IBURP-2; (II) cosine-modulated IBURP-2; (III) Watergate-like blocks; and (IV) non-selective hard. We additionally demonstrate the effect of uncontrolled saturation of aliphatic protons on (15)N R1 rates. In this paper we present an optimized pulse sequence that takes into account the crucial effect of controlling also the saturation of the aliphatic protons during (15)N R1 measurements in non-deuterated proteins. We show that using cosine-modulated IBURP-2 pulses spaced 40 ms to cancel CC in this optimized pulse program is the method of choice to minimize systematic errors coming from water and aliphatic protons saturation effects. PMID:25947359

  16. The use of 15N to measure nitrogen uptake in eutrophic oceans; experimental considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. DUGDALE; F. P. WILKERSON

    1986-01-01

    The use of 15N to measure the flux of nitrogen compounds has become increasingly popular as the techniques and instrumentation for stable isotope analysis have become more widely available. Questions concerning equations for calculating uptake, effect of isotope dilution (in the case of ammonium), duration of incubation, and relationship between disappearance of a nitrogen com- pound and the 15N uptake

  17. Factors improving the accuracy of determination of 15N relaxation parameters in proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhukov, I; Ejchart, A

    1999-01-01

    A number of factors at all stages of data processing which affect the accuracy of determination of 15N relaxation parameters in 15N-labeled proteins is discussed. Methods which allow to improve accuracy of the determined parameters are presented using data obtained for Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor. PMID:10698274

  18. Revisiting the use of 15 N in meso-scale studies of marine food webs by

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Revisiting the use of 15 N in meso-scale studies of marine food webs by considering spatio using 13 C and especially 15 N values in open ecosystems with complex food webs, using the Bay of Biscay of a consumer directly reflects that of its food. Nevertheless, few studies have attempted to define the limits

  19. 3D NMR Experiments for Measuring 15 N Relaxation Data of Large

    E-print Network

    Clore, G. Marius

    systems. Application of the pulse sequences is demonstrated on a perdeuterated 13 C/15 N-labeled sample-to-noise arising from increased 1 HN transverse relaxation rates, and the increased spectral overlap arising from to determine HN exchange rates (8). Thus, our strategy for designing 3D 15 N relaxation experiments is based

  20. Effects of genetically modified potatoes with increased zeaxanthin content on the abundance and diversity of rhizobacteria with in vitro antagonistic activity do not exceed natural variability among cultivars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole Weinert; Remo Meincke; Christine Gottwald; Viviane Radl; Xia Dong; Michael Schloter; Gabriele Berg; Kornelia Smalla

    2010-01-01

    To assess potential effects of genetically modified (GM) potatoes on the abundance and diversity of rhizobacteria with in\\u000a vitro antagonistic activity in relation to natural variability among cultivars, two GM potato lines accumulating the carotenoid\\u000a zeaxanthin in their tubers, the parental cultivar and four additional commercial cultivars were planted at two field sites\\u000a in Germany. Rhizosphere samples were taken at

  1. Using PLFA Biomarkers and Natural Abundance Stable and Radiocarbon Isotopes to Characterize the Microbial Ecology and Metabolism of Methane Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, C. T.; Mandernack, K. W.; Slater, G. F.; Dias, R. F.

    2008-12-01

    Methane generated in the subsurface is a major source of atmospheric CH4, but its release is mitigated by CH4-oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs). Therefore, it is important to understand the ecology of methanotroph communities in various environments. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses are a particularly useful method for characterizing these communities for two reasons: (1) Many type I and II methanotrophs produce specific PLFA biomarkers that can be used to estimate their populations, and (2) because CH4 is often very depleted in 13C and sometimes 14C, natural abundance ?13CPLFA and ?14CPLFA values can be used to trace the flow of CH4- derived carbon through microbial ecosystems. We used these tools to evaluate the role of methanotrophs in carbon flow in three different environments: (1) a soil column overlying a coal bed methane (CBM) seep in southwest CO, and pristine, oligotrophic groundwaters within (2) sedimentary and (3) granitic host rocks in Japan. In the soil column impacted by CBM seepage, concentrations of the biomarker PLFAs for type I (16:1?8cis) and type II (18:1?8cis) methanotrophs were as high as 13 and 18 nmoles (g dry soil)-1, respectively. Depth profiles of methanotroph PLFA concentrations varied over different sampling dates indicating dynamic populations. ?13CPLFA values of the CBM soils (-25.1 to - 66.9‰) were substantially more negative than those for the control soil (-14.5 to -32.5‰) indicating that CBM is an important carbon source for the CBM-impacted soil microbial community. ?14CPLFA values (-351 to -936‰) indicate the importance of 14C-dead CBM as a carbon source to the microbial communities, contributing 32 to 66% of total carbon in PLFA structures isolated from shallow soils and 67 to 97% for those isolated from deeper soils. The biomarker for type II methanotrophs, comprised 3 and 18% of total PLFAs in sedimentary and granitic groundwaters, respectively. The ?14C values determined for type II methanotroph PLFAs in the sedimentary (- 861‰) and granite (-867‰) waters were very similar to the ?14C values of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in each water (ca -850‰) suggesting that type II methanotrophs ultimately derive all of their carbon from DIC. In contrast, ?13C values of type II PLFAs in the sedimentary (- 93‰) and granite (-60‰) waters indicate that these organisms use different carbon assimilation schemes in each environment. These studies show the utility of PLFA biomarkers and ?13CPLFA and ?14CPLFA values to characterize the in situ metabolisms of methanotrophic bacteria and overall CH4 recycling in diverse environments.

  2. Preservation of proteinaceous material during the degradation of the green alga Botryococcus braunii: A solid-state 2D 15N 13C NMR spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Xu; Nguyen, Reno T.; Harvey, H. Rodger; Knicker, Heike; Hatcher, Patrick G.

    2001-10-01

    Using solid-state cross-polarization-magic-angle-spinning (CPMAS) 13C and 15N nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 2-D double cross polarization (DCP) MAS 15N 13C NMR techniques, microbially degraded Botryococcus braunii was analyzed to study the chemical nature of organic nitrogen in the algal residue. The amide linkage, as found in protein, was observed as the major nitrogen component in 201-day-old degraded algae. No significant amount of heterocyclic nitrogen, or evidence for melanoidin products, was found. The results strongly suggest that proteinaceous material can survive early diagenesis and be preserved via its encapsulation by refractory, macromolecular, organic matter.

  3. 15N and13C NMR investigation of hydroxylamine-derivatized humic substances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Arterburn, J.B.; Mikita, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Five fulvic and humic acid samples of diverse origins were derivatized with 15N-labeled hydroxylamine and analyzed by liquid-phase 15N NMR spectrometry. The 15N NMR spectra indicated that hydroxylamine reacted similarly with all samples and could discriminate among carbonyl functional groups. Oximes were the major derivatives; resonances attributable to hydroxamic acids, the reaction products of hydroxylamine with esters, and resonances attributable to the tautomeric equilibrium position between the nitrosophenol and monoxime derivatives of quinones, the first direct spectroscopic evidence for quinones, also were evident. The 15N NMR spectra also suggested the presence of nitriles, oxazoles, oxazolines, isocyanides, amides, and lactams, which may all be explained in terms of Beckmann reactions of the initial oxime derivatives. INEPT and ACOUSTIC 15N NMR spectra provided complementary information on the derivatized samples. 13C NMR spectra of derivatized samples indicated that the ketone/quinone functionality is incompletely derivatized with hydroxylamine. ?? 1991 American Chemical Society.

  4. 15N elastic and inelastic scattering by 11B at 84 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudchik, A. T.; Herashchenko, O. V.; Kemper, K. W.; Rusek, K.; Kliczewski, S.; Chercas, K. A.; Rudchik, A. A.; Koshchy, E. I.; Pirnak, Val. M.; Piasecki, E.; Trczi?ska, A.; Sakuta, S. B.; Siudak, R.; Strojek, I.; Stolarz, A.; Barabash, A. O.; Ilyin, A. P.; Ponkratenko, O. A.; Stepanenko, Yu. M.; Shyrma, Yu. O.; Uleshchenko, V. V.; Choi?ski, J.; Szczurek, A.

    2015-07-01

    Angular distributions of the 11B + 15N elastic and inelastic scattering were measured at Elab(15N) = 84 MeV (E c . m . = 35.5 MeV). The data were analyzed within the optical model and coupled-reaction-channels method. The elastic and inelastic scattering, reorientations of 11B in ground and excited states and 15N in excited states as well as the more important one- and two-step transfer reactions were included in the channels-coupling scheme. The 11B + 15N optical potential parameters as well as deformation parameters of these nuclei were deduced. The contributions of one- and two-step transfers in the 11B + 15N elastic and inelastic scattering channels were estimated. The large angle cross section is found to be structureless and of the same order of magnitude ?0.1-0.2 mb/sr as that for 11B + 16O and 11B + 14C.

  5. The effect of manuring on cereal and pulse amino acid ?(15)N values.

    PubMed

    Styring, Amy K; Fraser, Rebecca A; Bogaard, Amy; Evershed, Richard P

    2014-06-01

    Amino acid ?(15)N values of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) grains and rachis and broad bean (Vicia faba) and pea (Pisum sativum) seeds, grown in manured and unmanured soil at the experimental farm stations of Rothamsted, UK and Bad Lauchstädt, Germany, were determined by GC-C-IRMS. Manuring was found to result in a consistent (15)N-enrichment of cereal grain amino acid ?(15)N values, indicating that manuring did not affect the metabolic routing of nitrogen (N) into cereal grain amino acids. The increase in cereal grain ?(15)N values with manuring is therefore due to a (15)N-enrichment in the ?(15)N value of assimilated inorganic-N. Greater variation was observed in the (15)N-enrichment of rachis amino acids with manuring, possibly due to enhanced sensitivity to changes in growing conditions and higher turnover of N in rachis cells compared to cereal grains. Total amino acid ?(15)N values of manured and unmanured broad beans and peas were very similar, indicating that the legumes assimilated N2 from the atmosphere rather than N from the soil, since there was no evidence for routing of (15)N-enriched manure N into any of the pulse amino acids. Crop amino acid ?(15)N values thus provide insights into the sources of N assimilated by non N2-fixing and N2-fixing crops grown on manured and unmanured soils, and reveal an effect of manure on N metabolism in different crop species and plant parts. PMID:24631496

  6. Importance of bacterivory and preferential selection toward diatoms in larvae of Crepidula fornicata (L.) assessed by a dual stable isotope (13C, 15N) labeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Fanny; Riera, Pascal; Jeanthon, Christian; Edmond, Frédérique; Leroux, Cédric; Comtet, Thierry

    2012-05-01

    In Europe, the gastropod Crepidula fornicata is an invasive species characterized by a long reproductive period (from February to November). Thus, its larvae are exposed to variations in available food sources (in terms of quantity and quality). We aimed to investigate if bacteria could contribute to larval food both in presence or absence of phytoplankton, and to compare these results to seasonal variations of bacteria and phytoplankton abundances at a coastal site in the English Channel. First, ingestion of fluorescent beads of 0.5 to 2 ?m diameter, showed that larvae were able to ingest particles of typical bacterial size. Then we used a dual stable isotope labeling approach which consisted in labeling a bacterial pelagic community with 15N and a diatom (Chaetoceros gracilis) culture with 13C, and supplying larvae with 15N-labeled bacteria, 13C-labeled diatoms, and both labeled sources. This technique has, to our knowledge, never been applied to invertebrate larvae. After 24 h of experiment, larvae were significantly enriched in all treatments: + 21.5‰ (??13C) when supplied with diatoms, + 1364‰ (??15N) when supplied with bacteria, and + 24‰ (??13C) and + 135‰ (??15N) when supplied with the two mixed sources. These results indicated that bacteria can contribute to the larval nutrition in C. fornicata, even in the presence of phytoplankton. Our results however suggested that larvae of C. fornicata preferentially used diatoms and showed that the supply of free bacteria did not alter the uptake of diatoms. Considering the seasonal variations of bacteria and phytoplankton abundances at the study site, these results suggested that bacteria may constitute a complementary resource for the larvae of C. fornicata when phytoplankton is abundant and may become a substitute resource when phytoplankton is less available. This approach offers promising perspectives to trace food sources and assess nitrogen and carbon fluxes between planktotrophic larvae and their preys.

  7. Study of early leaf senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana by quantitative proteomics using reciprocal 14N/15N labeling and difference gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hebeler, Romano; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Reidegeld, Kai A; Eisenacher, Martin; Stephan, Christian; Sitek, Barbara; Stühler, Kai; Meyer, Helmut E; Sturre, Marcel J G; Dijkwel, Paul P; Warscheid, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    Leaf senescence represents the final stage of leaf development and is associated with fundamental changes on the level of the proteome. For the quantitative analysis of changes in protein abundance related to early leaf senescence, we designed an elaborate double and reverse labeling strategy simultaneously employing fluorescent two-dimensional DIGE as well as metabolic (15)N labeling followed by MS. Reciprocal (14)N/(15)N labeling of entire Arabidopsis thaliana plants showed that full incorporation of (15)N into the proteins of the plant did not cause any adverse effects on development and protein expression. A direct comparison of DIGE and (15)N labeling combined with MS showed that results obtained by both quantification methods correlated well for proteins showing low to moderate regulation factors. Nano HPLC/ESI-MS/MS analysis of 21 protein spots that consistently exhibited abundance differences in nine biological replicates based on both DIGE and MS resulted in the identification of 13 distinct proteins and protein subunits that showed significant regulation in Arabidopsis mutant plants displaying advanced leaf senescence. Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large and three of its four small subunits were found to be down-regulated, which reflects the degradation of the photosynthetic machinery during leaf senescence. Among the proteins showing higher abundance in mutant plants were several members of the glutathione S-transferase family class phi and quinone reductase. Up-regulation of these proteins fits well into the context of leaf senescence since they are generally involved in the protection of plant cells against reactive oxygen species which are increasingly generated by lipid degradation during leaf senescence. With the exception of one glutathione S-transferase isoform, none of these proteins has been linked to leaf senescence before. PMID:17878269

  8. Estimating modal abundances from the spectra of natural and laboratory pyroxene mixtures using the modified Gaussian model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunshine, Jessica M.; Pieters, Carle M.

    1993-01-01

    The modified Gaussian model (MGM) is used to explore spectra of samples containing multiple pyroxene components as a function of modal abundance. The MGM allows spectra to be analyzed directly, without the use of actual or assumed end-member spectra and therefore holds great promise for remote applications. A series of mass fraction mixtures created from several different particle size fractions are analyzed with the MGM to quantify the properties of pyroxene mixtures as a function of both modal abundance and grain size. Band centers, band widths, and relative band strengths of absorptions from individual pyroxenes in mixture spectra are found to be largely independent of particle size. Spectral properties of both zoned and exsolved pyroxene components are resolved in exsolved samples using the MGM, and modal abundances are accurately estimated to within 5-10 percent without predetermined knowledge of the end-member spectra.

  9. Compound-specific 15N analysis of amino acids in 15N tracer experiments provide an estimate of newly synthesised soil protein from inorganic and organic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charteris, Alice; Michaelides, Katerina; Evershed, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Organic N concentrations far exceed those of inorganic N in most soils and despite much investigation, the composition and cycling of this complex pool of SOM remains poorly understood. A particular problem has been separating more recalcitrant soil organic N from that actively cycling through the soil system; an important consideration in N cycling studies and for the soil's nutrient supplying capacity. The use of 15N-labelled substrates as stable isotope tracers has contributed much to our understanding of the soil system, but the complexity and heterogeneity of soil organic N prevents thorough compound-specific 15N analyses of organic N compounds and makes it difficult to examine any 15N-labelled organic products in any detail. As a result, a significant proportion of previous work has either simply assumed that since the majority of soil N is organic, all of the 15N retained in the soil is organic N (e.g. Sebilo et al., 2013) or subtracted 15N-labelled inorganic compounds from bulk values (e.g. Pilbeam et al., 1997). While the latter approach is more accurate, these methods only provide an estimate of the bulk 15N value of an extremely complex and non-uniformly labelled organic pool. A more detailed approach has been to use microbial biomass extraction (Brookes et al., 1985) and subsequent N isotopic analysis to determine the 15N value of biomass-N, representing the fraction of 15N assimilated by microbes or the 15N cycling through the 'living' or 'active' portion of soil organic N. However, this extraction method can only generate estimates and some lack of confidence in its validity and reliability remains. Here, we present an alternative technique to obtain a measure of the assimilation of an applied 15N substrate by the soil microbial biomass and an estimate of the newly synthesized soil protein, which is representative of the magnitude of the active soil microbial biomass. The technique uses a stable isotope tracer and compound-specific 15N analysis, but unlike previous works analyses for amino acids (representing organic products) rather than ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-). Amino acids are commonly referred to as 'the building blocks of life' as they form the proteins which regulate life's essential biochemical reactions. Proteinaceous matter generally comprises 20-40% of total soil N and is ubiquitous in living organisms, so is a likely 'organic product' of microbial activity/assimilation. Hence, we consider it likely that amino acids represent the major organic nitrogenous products and a reasonable 'proxy' for/measure of the assimilation of an applied 15N substrate by the soil microbial biomass and an estimate of the newly synthesized soil protein. Brookes, P. C. et al. Soil Biol Biochem. 1985, 17, 837-842. Jenkinson, D. S. et al. Soil Biol Biochem. 2004, 36, 5-7. Nannipieri, P. et al. Plant Soil. 1999, 208, 43-56. Pilbeam, C. J. et al. J Agr Sci. 1997, 128, 415-424. Sebilo, M. et al. PNAS. 2013, 110, 18185-18189.

  10. Comparison of pollinators and natural enemies: a meta-analysis of landscape and local effects on abundance and richness in crops.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, Gorm; Steward, Peter R; Benton, Tim G; Kunin, William E; Potts, Simon G; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C; Sait, Steven M

    2013-11-01

    To manage agroecosystems for multiple ecosystem services, we need to know whether the management of one service has positive, negative, or no effects on other services. We do not yet have data on the interactions between pollination and pest-control services. However, we do have data on the distributions of pollinators and natural enemies in agroecosystems. Therefore, we compared these two groups of ecosystem service providers, to see if the management of farms and agricultural landscapes might have similar effects on the abundance and richness of both. In a meta-analysis, we compared 46 studies that sampled bees, predatory beetles, parasitic wasps, and spiders in fields, orchards, or vineyards of food crops. These studies used the proximity or proportion of non-crop or natural habitats in the landscapes surrounding these crops (a measure of landscape complexity), or the proximity or diversity of non-crop plants in the margins of these crops (a measure of local complexity), to explain the abundance or richness of these beneficial arthropods. Compositional complexity at both landscape and local scales had positive effects on both pollinators and natural enemies, but different effects on different taxa. Effects on bees and spiders were significantly positive, but effects on parasitoids and predatory beetles (mostly Carabidae and Staphylinidae) were inconclusive. Landscape complexity had significantly stronger effects on bees than it did on predatory beetles and significantly stronger effects in non-woody rather than in woody crops. Effects on richness were significantly stronger than effects on abundance, but possibly only for spiders. This abundance-richness difference might be caused by differences between generalists and specialists, or between arthropods that depend on non-crop habitats (ecotone species and dispersers) and those that do not (cultural species). We call this the 'specialist-generalist' or 'cultural difference' mechanism. If complexity has stronger effects on richness than abundance, it might have stronger effects on the stability than the magnitude of these arthropod-mediated ecosystem services. We conclude that some pollinators and natural enemies seem to have compatible responses to complexity, and it might be possible to manage agroecosystems for the benefit of both. However, too few studies have compared the two, and so we cannot yet conclude that there are no negative interactions between pollinators and natural enemies, and no trade-offs between pollination and pest-control services. Therefore, we suggest a framework for future research to bridge these gaps in our knowledge. PMID:23578337

  11. 15N Content Reflects Development of Mycorrhizae and Nitrogen Dynamics During Primary Succession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbie, E. A.; Jumpponen, A.

    2004-05-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi are ubiquitous symbionts on terrestrial plants that are particularly important for plant nitrogen nutrition. 15N content appears to be a useful marker of the mycorrhizal role in plant nitrogen supply because of an apparent fractionation against 15N during transfer of nitrogen from mycorrhizal fungi to host plants. Because plants developing during primary succession are gradually colonized by mycorrhizal fungi, such situations provide good opportunities to study interactions between mycorrhizal colonization and plant 15N content. Here, we present results of a study of nitrogen isotope patterns in ecosystem components during the first 100 years of ecosystem development after glacial retreat, and compare those patterns with those on adjacent mature terrain. Soils in primary succession were depleted in 15N relative to nitrogen-fixing plants. Nonmycorrhizal plants and plants generally colonized by ectomycorrhizal, ericoid, or arbuscular fungi showed similar 15N content very early in succession (-4 to -6‰ ), corresponding to low colonization levels of all plant species. Subsequent colonization of evergreen plants by ectomycorrhizal and ericoid fungi led to a 5-6‰ decline in 15N content, indicating transfer of 15N-depleted N from fungi to plants. The values recorded (-10 to -14‰ ) are among the lowest yet observed in vascular plants. Nonmycorrhizal plants and plants colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi did not decline in 15N content. Most ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi were similar in 15N content in early succession (-1 to -3‰ ), with the notable exception of ectomycorrhizal fungi suspected of proteolytic capabilities, which were 15N enriched relative to all other fungi. 15N contents in both plants and soil from the mature site were 5‰ greater than in recently exposed sites. We conclude that 1) the primary nitrogen source to this ecosystem must be atmospheric deposition, 2) low plant 15N content generally corresponds with greater influence of mycorrhizal fungi on plant N supply, and 3) 15N content of mycorrhizal fungi may be a marker of proteolytic capabilities, and may therefore indicate the importance of organic nitrogen cycling to plant nitrogen supply.

  12. Bacterial abundance and aerobic microbial activity across natural and oyster aquaculture habitats during summer conditions in a northeastern Pacific estuary.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We measured sediment properties and the abundance and functional diversity of microbes in Willapa Bay, Washington, USA, to test the response of sediment microbes to oyster aquaculture. Sites spanned the estuary gradient (salinity 24-30) and six different habitat types: eelgrass (Zostera marina), uns...

  13. Production of 15N-depleted biomass during cyanobacterial N2-fixation at high Fe concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerkle, Aubrey L.; Junium, Christopher K.; Canfield, Donald E.; House, Christopher H.

    2008-09-01

    In this study we examine the effects of varying Fe, Mo, and P concentrations on ?15N fractionation during N2 fixation in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis. We show that when grown in Fe-enriched media ([Fe] ? 50 nM), this organism produces biomass up to 3‰ lower in ?15N than when grown in Fe-limited media ([Fe] < 50 nM). A compilation of our data with previous measurements of ?15N in N2-fixing cyanobacteria reveals a general trend toward the production of more 15N-depleted biomass at higher Fe concentrations. We discuss our results in the context of negative ?15N values preserved in Archean and some Phanerozoic sediments, generally attributed to the production of marine organic matter with low ?15N by N2 fixation (and potentially NH4+ regeneration) during periods of fluctuating nutrient dynamics. We suggest that enhanced Fe availability during periods of widespread ocean anoxia can further stimulate the production of 15N-depleted biomass by N2-fixing organisms, contributing to the isotopic record.

  14. Steroselective synthesis and application of L-( sup 15 N) amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Unkefer, C.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Lodwig, S.N. (Centralia Coll., WA (United States). Div. of Science)

    1991-01-01

    We have developed two general approaches to the stereoselective synthesis of {sup 15}N- and {sup 13}C-labeled amino acids. First, labeled serine, biosynthesized using the methylotrophic bacterium M. extorquens AM1, serves as a chiral precursor for the synthesis of other amino acids. For example, pyridoxal phosphate enzymes can be used for the conversion of L-({alpha}-{sup 15}N)serine to L-({alpha}-{sup 15}N)tyrosine, L-({alpha}-{sup 15}N)tryptophan, and L-({alpha}-{sup 15}N)cysteine. In the second approach, developed by Oppolzer and Tamura, an electrophilic amination'' reagent, 1-chloro-1-nitrosocyclohexane, was used to convert chiral enolates into L-{alpha}-amino acids. We prepared 1-chloro-1-({sup 15}N) nitrosocyclohexane and used it to aminate chiral enolates to produce L-({alpha}-{sup 15}N)amino acids. The stereoselectivity of this scheme using the Oppolzer sultam chiral auxiliary is remarkable, producing enantiomer ratios of 200 to 1. 22 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Variable ?15N Diet-Tissue Discrimination Factors among Sharks: Implications for Trophic Position, Diet and Food Web Models

    PubMed Central

    Olin, Jill A.; Hussey, Nigel E.; Grgicak-Mannion, Alice; Fritts, Mark W.; Wintner, Sabine P.; Fisk, Aaron T.

    2013-01-01

    The application of stable isotopes to characterize the complexities of a species foraging behavior and trophic relationships is dependent on assumptions of ?15N diet-tissue discrimination factors (?15N). As ?15N values have been experimentally shown to vary amongst consumers, tissues and diet composition, resolving appropriate species-specific ?15N values can be complex. Given the logistical and ethical challenges of controlled feeding experiments for determining ?15N values for large and/or endangered species, our objective was to conduct an assessment of a range of reported ?15N values that can hypothetically serve as surrogates for describing the predator-prey relationships of four shark species that feed on prey from different trophic levels (i.e., different mean ?15N dietary values). Overall, the most suitable species-specific ?15N values decreased with increasing dietary-?15N values based on stable isotope Bayesian ellipse overlap estimates of shark and the principal prey functional groups contributing to the diet determined from stomach content analyses. Thus, a single ?15N value was not supported for this speciose group of marine predatory fishes. For example, the ?15N value of 3.7‰ provided the highest percent overlap between prey and predator isotope ellipses for the bonnethead shark (mean diet ?15N = 9‰) whereas a ?15N value < 2.3‰ provided the highest percent overlap between prey and predator isotope ellipses for the white shark (mean diet ?15N = 15‰). These data corroborate the previously reported inverse ?15N-dietary ?15N relationship when both isotope ellipses of principal prey functional groups and the broader identified diet of each species were considered supporting the adoption of different ?15N values that reflect the predators’ ?15N-dietary value. These findings are critical for refining the application of stable isotope modeling approaches as inferences regarding a species’ ecological role in their community will be influenced with consequences for conservation and management actions. PMID:24147026

  16. Variable ?(15)N diet-tissue discrimination factors among sharks: implications for trophic position, diet and food web models.

    PubMed

    Olin, Jill A; Hussey, Nigel E; Grgicak-Mannion, Alice; Fritts, Mark W; Wintner, Sabine P; Fisk, Aaron T

    2013-01-01

    The application of stable isotopes to characterize the complexities of a species foraging behavior and trophic relationships is dependent on assumptions of ?(15)N diet-tissue discrimination factors (?(15)N). As ?(15)N values have been experimentally shown to vary amongst consumers, tissues and diet composition, resolving appropriate species-specific ?(15)N values can be complex. Given the logistical and ethical challenges of controlled feeding experiments for determining ?(15)N values for large and/or endangered species, our objective was to conduct an assessment of a range of reported ?(15)N values that can hypothetically serve as surrogates for describing the predator-prey relationships of four shark species that feed on prey from different trophic levels (i.e., different mean ?(15)N dietary values). Overall, the most suitable species-specific ?(15)N values decreased with increasing dietary-?(15)N values based on stable isotope Bayesian ellipse overlap estimates of shark and the principal prey functional groups contributing to the diet determined from stomach content analyses. Thus, a single ?(15)N value was not supported for this speciose group of marine predatory fishes. For example, the ?(15)N value of 3.7‰ provided the highest percent overlap between prey and predator isotope ellipses for the bonnethead shark (mean diet ?(15)N = 9‰) whereas a ?(15)N value < 2.3‰ provided the highest percent overlap between prey and predator isotope ellipses for the white shark (mean diet ?(15)N = 15‰). These data corroborate the previously reported inverse ?(15)N-dietary ?(15)N relationship when both isotope ellipses of principal prey functional groups and the broader identified diet of each species were considered supporting the adoption of different ?(15)N values that reflect the predators' ?(15)N-dietary value. These findings are critical for refining the application of stable isotope modeling approaches as inferences regarding a species' ecological role in their community will be influenced with consequences for conservation and management actions. PMID:24147026

  17. Seasonal Abundance of the Greenbug and its Natural Enemies in Grain Sorghum in the Texas High Plains. 

    E-print Network

    Teetes, George L.; Lopez, Ector G.; Schaefer, Curtis A.

    1975-01-01

    :nueased to a peak in early August as the total greenbug popu- lstion was declining rapidly. Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) was the most abundant primary parasite of the greenbug. Other primary parasites reared from mummies were Diaeretiella rapae.... 1970). Primary parasites besides L. testaceipes are Aphelinus nigritus (Howard), A. varipes (Foerster), (Archer et al. 1974, Jackson et al. 1970), and Diaeretiella rapae (M' Intosh), (Walker et al. 1973). METHODS AND MATERIALS During the 1971...

  18. On the measurement of 15N-{1H} nuclear Overhauser effects.

    PubMed

    Ferrage, Fabien; Piserchio, Andrea; Cowburn, David; Ghose, Ranajeet

    2008-06-01

    Accurate quantification of the 15N-{1H} steady-state NOE is central to current methods for the elucidation of protein backbone dynamics on the fast, sub-nanosecond time scale. This experiment is highly susceptible to systematic errors arising from multiple sources. The nature of these errors and their effects on the determined NOE ratio is evaluated by a detailed analysis of the spin dynamics during the pair of experiments used to measure this ratio and possible improvements suggested. The experiment that includes 1H irradiation, is analyzed in the framework of Average Liouvillian Theory and a modified saturation scheme that generates a stable steady-state and eliminates the need to completely saturate 1H nuclei is presented. The largest source of error, however, in 1H-dilute systems at ultra-high fields is found to be an overestimation of the steady-state NOE value as a consequence of the incomplete equilibration of the magnetization in the so-called "reference experiment". The use of very long relaxation delays is usually an effective, but time consuming, solution. Here, we introduce an alternative reference experiment, designed for larger, deuterated systems, that uses the fastest relaxing component of the longitudinal magnetization as a closer approximation to the equilibrium state for shorter relaxation delays. The utility of the modified approach is illustrated through simulations on realistic spin systems over a wide range of time scales and experimentally verified using a perdeuterated sample of human ubiquitin. PMID:18417394

  19. On the Measurement of 15N-{1H} Nuclear Overhauser Effects

    PubMed Central

    Ferrage, Fabien; Piserchio, Andrea; Cowburn, David; Ghose, Ranajeet

    2009-01-01

    Accurate quantification of the 15N-{1H} steady-state NOE is central to current methods for the elucidation of protein backbone dynamics on the fast, sub-nanosecond timescale. This experiment is highly susceptible to systematic errors arising from multiple sources. The nature of these errors and their effects on the determined NOE ratio is evaluated by a detailed analysis of the spin dynamics during the pair of experiments used to measure this ratio and possible improvements suggested. The experiment that includes 1H irradiation, is analyzed in the framework of Average Liouvillian Theory and a modified saturation scheme that generates a stable steady state and eliminates the need to completely saturate 1H nuclei, is presented. The largest source of error, however, in 1H-dilute systems at ultra-high fields is found to be an overestimation of the steady-state NOE value as a consequence of the incomplete equilibration of the magnetization in the so-called “reference experiment”. The use of very long relaxation delays is usually an effective, but time consuming, solution. Here, we introduce an alternative reference experiment, designed for larger, deuterated systems, that uses the fastest relaxing component of the longitudinal magnetization a closer approximation to the equilibrium state for shorter relaxation delays. The utility of the modified approach is illustrated through simulations on realistic spin-systems over a wide range of timescales and experimentally verified using a perdeuterated sample of human ubiquitin. PMID:18417394

  20. Covalent binding of reduced metabolites of [{sup 15}N{sub 3}]TNT to soil organic matter during a bioremediation process analyzed by {sup 15}N NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Achtnich, C.; Fernandes, E.; Bollag, J.M.; Knackmuss, H.J.; Lenke, H.

    1999-12-15

    Evidence is presented for the covalent binding of biologically reduced metabolites of 2,4,6-{sup 15}N{sub 3}-trinitrotoluene (TNT) to different soil fractions, using liquid {sup 15}N NMR spectroscopy. A silylation procedure was used to release soil organic matter from humin and whole soil for spectroscopic measurements. TNT-contaminated soil was spiked with 2,4,6-{sup 15}N{sub 3}-trinitrotoluene and {sup 14}C-ring labeled TNT, before treatment in a soil slurry reactor. During the anaerobic/aerobic incubation the amount of radioactivity detected in the fulvic and humic acid fractions did not change significantly whereas the radioactivity bound to humin increased to 71%. The {sup 15}N NMR spectra of the fulvic acid samples were dominated by a large peak that corresponded to aliphatic amines or ammonia. In the early stages of incubation, {sup 15}N NMR analysis of the humic acids indicated bound azoxy compounds. The signals arising from nitro and azoxy groups disappeared with further anaerobic treatment. At the end of incubation, the NMR shifts showed that nitrogen was covalently bound to humic acid as substituted amines and amides. The NMR spectra of the silylated humin suggest formation of azoxy compounds and imine linkages. Bound metabolites possessing nitro groups were also detected. Primary amines formed during the anaerobic incubation disappeared during the aerobic treatment. Simultaneously, the amount of amides and tertiary amines increased. Nitro and azoxy groups of bound molecules were still present in humin at the end of the incubation period. Formation of azoxy compounds from partially reduced TNT followed by binding and further reduction appears to be an important mechanism for the immobilization of metabolites of TNT to soil.

  1. Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) ?15N as a bioindicator of nitrogen sources: Observations and modeling

    PubMed Central

    Fertig, B.; Carruthers, T.J.B.; Dennison, W.C.; Fertig, E.J.; Altabet, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Stable nitrogen isotopes (?15N) in bioindicators are increasingly employed to identify nitrogen sources in many ecosystems and biological characteristics of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) make it an appropriate species for this purpose. To assess nitrogen isotopic fractionation associated with assimilation and baseline variations in oyster mantle, gill, and muscle tissue ?15N, manipulative fieldwork in Chesapeake Bay and corresponding modeling exercises were conducted. This study (1) determined that five individuals represented an optimal sample size; (2) verified that ?15N in oysters from two locations converged after shared deployment to a new location reflecting a change in nitrogen sources; (3) identified required exposure time and temporal integration (four months for muscle, two to three months for gill and mantle); and (4) demonstrated seasonal ?15N increases in seston (summer) and oysters (winter). As bioindicators, oysters can be deployed for spatial interpolation of nitrogen sources, even in areas lacking extant populations. PMID:20381097

  2. Changing gull diet in a changing world: a 150-year stable isotope (?13C, ?15N) record from feathers collected in the Pacific Northwest of North America.

    PubMed

    Blight, Louise K; Hobson, Keith A; Kyser, T Kurt; Arcese, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The world's oceans have undergone significant ecological changes following European colonial expansion and associated industrialization. Seabirds are useful indicators of marine food web structure and can be used to track multidecadal environmental change, potentially reflecting long-term human impacts. We used stable isotope (?(13)C, ?(15)N) analysis of feathers from glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) in a heavily disturbed region of the northeast Pacific to ask whether diets of this generalist forager changed in response to shifts in food availability over 150 years, and whether any detected change might explain long-term trends in gull abundance. Sampled feathers came from birds collected between 1860 and 2009 at nesting colonies in the Salish Sea, a transboundary marine system adjacent to Washington, USA and British Columbia, Canada. To determine whether temporal trends in stable isotope ratios might simply reflect changes to baseline environmental values, we also analysed muscle tissue from forage fishes collected in the same region over a multidecadal timeframe. Values of ?(13)C and ?(15)N declined since 1860 in both subadult and adult gulls (?(13)C, ~ 2-6‰; ?(15)N, ~4-5‰), indicating that their diet has become less marine over time, and that birds now feed at a lower trophic level than previously. Conversely, forage fish ?(13)C and ?(15)N values showed no trends, supporting our conclusion that gull feather values were indicative of declines in marine food availability rather than of baseline environmental change. Gradual declines in feather isotope values are consistent with trends predicted had gulls consumed less fish over time, but were equivocal with respect to whether gulls had switched to a more garbage-based diet, or one comprising marine invertebrates. Nevertheless, our results suggest a long-term decrease in diet quality linked to declining fish abundance or other anthropogenic influences, and may help to explain regional population declines in this species and other piscivores. PMID:25369474

  3. Water proton spin saturation affects measured protein backbone 15 N spin relaxation rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kang; Tjandra, Nico

    2011-12-01

    Protein backbone 15N NMR spin relaxation rates are useful in characterizing the protein dynamics and structures. To observe the protein nuclear-spin resonances a pulse sequence has to include a water suppression scheme. There are two commonly employed methods, saturating or dephasing the water spins with pulse field gradients and keeping them unperturbed with flip-back pulses. Here different water suppression methods were incorporated into pulse sequences to measure 15N longitudinal T1 and transversal rotating-frame T1? spin relaxation. Unexpectedly the 15N T1 relaxation time constants varied significantly with the choice of water suppression method. For a 25-kDa Escherichiacoli. glutamine binding protein (GlnBP) the T1 values acquired with the pulse sequence containing a water dephasing gradient are on average 20% longer than the ones obtained using a pulse sequence containing the water flip-back pulse. In contrast the two T1? data sets are correlated without an apparent offset. The average T1 difference was reduced to 12% when the experimental recycle delay was doubled, while the average T1 values from the flip-back measurements were nearly unchanged. Analysis of spectral signal to noise ratios ( s/ n) showed the apparent slower 15N relaxation obtained with the water dephasing experiment originated from the differences in 1H N recovery for each relaxation time point. This in turn offset signal reduction from 15N relaxation decay. The artifact becomes noticeable when the measured 15N relaxation time constant is comparable to recycle delay, e.g., the 15N T1 of medium to large proteins. The 15N relaxation rates measured with either water suppression schemes yield reasonable fits to the structure. However, data from the saturated scheme results in significantly lower Model-Free order parameters (< S2> = 0.81) than the non-saturated ones (< S2> = 0.88), indicating such order parameters may be previously underestimated.

  4. Water proton spin saturation affects measured protein backbone 15N spin relaxation rates

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kang; Tjandra, Nico

    2011-01-01

    Protein backbone 15N NMR spin relaxation rates are useful in characterizing the protein dynamics and structures. To observe the protein nuclear-spin resonances a pulse sequence has to include a water suppression scheme. There are two commonly employed methods, saturating or dephasing the water spins with pulse field gradients and keeping them unperturbed with flip-back pulses. Here different water suppression methods were incorporated into pulse sequences to measure 15N longitudinal T1 and transversal rotating-frame T1? spin relaxation. Unexpectedly the 15N T1 relaxation time constants varied significantly with the choice of water suppression method. For a 25-kDa Escherichia coli. glutamine binding protein (GlnBP) the T1 values acquired with the pulse sequence containing a water dephasing gradient are on average 20% longer than the ones obtained using a pulse sequence containing the water flip-back pulse. In contrast the two T1? data sets are correlated without an apparent offset. The average T1 difference was reduced to 12% when the experimental recycle delay was doubled, while the average T1 values from the flip-back measurements were nearly unchanged. Analysis of spectral signal to noise ratios (s/n) showed the apparent slower 15N relaxation obtained with the water dephasing experiment originated from the differences in 1HN recovery for each relaxation time point. This in turn offset signal reduction from 15N relaxation decay. The artifact becomes noticeable when the measured 15N relaxation time constant is comparable to recycle delay, e.g., the 15N T1 of medium to large proteins. The 15N relaxation rates measured with either water suppression schemes yield reasonable fits to the structure. However, data from the saturated scheme results in significantly lower Model-Free order parameters (?S2? = 0.81) than the non-saturated ones (?S2? = 0.88), indicating such order parameters may be previously underestimated. PMID:22015249

  5. Syntheses of all singly labeled [15N]adenines: Mass spectral fragmentation of adenine

    PubMed Central

    Barrio, Maria Del Carmen G.; Scopes, David I. C.; Holtwick, Joseph B.; Leonard, Nelson J.

    1981-01-01

    Syntheses of all five of the singly labeled [15N]adenines are now provided. The presence or absence of two-bond 15N-1H spin couplings in their 1H NMR spectra confirm the location of the isotope in each case. The fragmentation patterns in their mass spectra are indicative of the sequential losses of HCN units and of CH2N2 from adenine upon electron impact. PMID:16593042

  6. Metabolism of 15 N-labelled ammonium by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorim (Pers.) Coker & Couch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna L. Kershaw; George R. Stewart

    1992-01-01

    Glutamine was the major product accumulated following transfer of nitrogen-limited cultures of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius to an ammonium medium. Experiments in which mycelium was transferred to [15N]H4+showed glutamine amide was the most heavily labelled product. Assimilation of ammonium into glutamate was markedly inhibited by azaserine. The kinetics of 15N-labelling and the effects of azaserine and methionine sulphoximine on

  7. Species specific and environment induced variation of ?13C and ?15N in alpine plants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.; Körner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signals in plant tissues integrate plant-environment interactions over long periods. In this study, we hypothesized that humid alpine life conditions are narrowing the scope for significant deviations from common carbon, water and nitrogen relations as captured by stable isotope signals. We explored the variation in ?13C and ?15N in 32 plant species from tissue type to ecosystem scale across a suite of locations at c. Two thousand five hundred meter elevation in the Swiss Alps. Foliar ?13C and ?15N varied among species by about 3–4‰ and 7–8‰ respectively. However, there was no overall difference in means of ?13C and ?15N for species sampled in different plant communities or when bulk plant dry matter harvests of different plant communities were compared. ?13C was found to be highly species specific, so that the ranking among species was mostly maintained across 11 habitats. However, ?15N varied significantly from place to place in all species (a range of 2.7‰) except in Fabaceae (Trifolium alpinum) and Juncaceae (Luzula lutea). There was also a substantial variation among individuals of the same species collected next to each other. No difference was found in foliar ?15N of non-legumes, which were either collected next to or away from the most common legume, T. alpinum. ?15N data place Cyperaceae and Juncaceae, just like Fabaceae, in a low discrimination category, well separated from other families. Soil ?15N was higher than in plants and increased with soil depth. The results indicate a high functional diversity in alpine plants that is similar to that reported for low elevation plants. We conclude that the surprisingly high variation in ?13C and ?15N signals in the studied high elevation plants is largely species specific (genetic) and insensitive to obvious environmental cues. PMID:26097487

  8. Ecosystem N distribution and ?15N during a century of forest regrowth after agricultural abandonment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Compton, J.E.; Hooker, T.D.; Perakis, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios of terrestrial ecosystem nitrogen (N) pools reflect internal processes and input–output balances. Disturbance generally increases N cycling and loss, yet few studies have examined ecosystem ?15N over a disturbance-recovery sequence. We used a chronosequence approach to examine N distribution and ?15N during forest regrowth after agricultural abandonment. Site ages ranged from 10 to 115 years, with similar soils, climate, land-use history, and overstory vegetation (white pine Pinus strobus). Foliar N and ?15N decreased as stands aged, consistent with a progressive tightening of the N cycle during forest regrowth on agricultural lands. Over time, foliar ?15N became more negative, indicating increased fractionation along the mineralization–mycorrhizal–plant uptake pathway. Total ecosystem N was constant across the chronosequence, but substantial internal N redistribution occurred from the mineral soil to plants and litter over 115 years (>25% of ecosystem N or 1,610 kg ha?1). Temporal trends in soil ?15N generally reflected a redistribution of depleted N from the mineral soil to the developing O horizon. Although plants and soil ?15N are coupled over millennial time scales of ecosystem development, our observed divergence between plants and soil suggests that they can be uncoupled during the disturbance-regrowth sequence. The approximate 2‰ decrease in ecosystem ?15N over the century scale suggests significant incorporation of atmospheric N, which was not detected by traditional ecosystem N accounting. Consideration of temporal trends and disturbance legacies can improve our understanding of the influence of broader factors such as climate or N deposition on ecosystem N balances and ?15N.

  9. Metabolic labeling with stable isotope nitrogen (15N) to follow amino acid and protein turnover of three plastid proteins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The length of time that a protein remains available to perform its function is significantly influenced by its turnover rate. Knowing the turnover rate of proteins involved in different processes is important to determining how long a function might progress even when the stimulus has been removed and no further synthesis of the particular proteins occurs. In this article, we describe the use of 15N-metabolic labeling coupled to GC-MS to follow the turnover of free amino acids and LC-MS/MS to identify and LC-MS to follow the turnover of specific proteins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Results To achieve the metabolic labeling, the growth medium was formulated with standard Tris acetate phosphate medium (TAP) in which14NH4Cl was replaced with 15NH415NO3 and (14NH4)6Mo7O24.4H2O was replaced with Na2MoO4.2H2O. This medium designated 15N-TAP allowed CC-125 algal cells to grow normally. Mass isotopic distribution revealed successful 15N incorporation into 13 amino acids with approximately 98% labeling efficiency. Tryptic digestion of the 55 kDa SDS-PAGE bands from 14N- and 15N-labeled crude algal protein extracts followed by LC-MS/MS resulted in the identification of 27 proteins. Of these, five displayed peptide sequence confidence levels greater than 95% and protein sequence coverage greater than 25%. These proteins were the RuBisCo large subunit, ATP synthase CF1 alpha and beta subunits, the mitochondrial protein (F1F0 ATP synthase) and the cytosolic protein (S-adenosyl homocysteine hydroxylase). These proteins were present in both labeled and unlabeled samples. Once the newly synthesized 15N-labeled free amino acids and proteins obtained maximum incorporation of the 15N-label, turnover rates were determined after transfer of cells into 14N-TAP medium. The t½ values were determined for the three plastid proteins (RuBisCo, ATP synthase CF1 alpha and beta) by following the reduction of the 15N-fractional abundance over time. Conclusion We describe a more rapid and non-radioactive method to measure free amino acid and protein turnover. Our approach is applicable for determination of protein turnover for various proteins, which will lead to a better understanding of the relationship between protein lifetime and functionality. PMID:24580857

  10. Determination of gamma-ray widths in $^{15}$N using nuclear resonance fluorescence

    E-print Network

    Szücs, T; Caciolli, A; Fülöp, Zs; Massarczyk, R; Michelagnoli, C; Reinhardt, T P; Schwengner, R; Takács, M P; Ur, C A; Wagner, A; Wagner, L

    2015-01-01

    The stable nucleus $^{15}$N is the mirror of $^{15}$O, the bottleneck in the hydrogen burning CNO cycle. Most of the $^{15}$N level widths below the proton emission threshold are known from just one nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) measurement, with limited precision in some cases. A recent experiment with the AGATA demonstrator array determined level lifetimes using the Doppler Shift Attenuation Method (DSAM) in $^{15}$O. As a reference and for testing the method, level lifetimes in $^{15}$N have also been determined in the same experiment. The latest compilation of $^{15}$N level properties dates back to 1991. The limited precision in some cases in the compilation calls for a new measurement in order to enable a comparison to the AGATA demonstrator data. The widths of several $^{15}$N levels have been studied with the NRF method. The solid nitrogen compounds enriched in $^{15}$N have been irradiated with bremsstrahlung. The $\\gamma$-rays following the deexcitation of the excited nuclear levels were dete...

  11. Determination of gamma-ray widths in $^{15}$N using nuclear resonance fluorescence

    E-print Network

    T. Szücs; D. Bemmerer; A. Caciolli; Zs. Fülöp; R. Massarczyk; C. Michelagnoli; T. P. Reinhardt; R. Schwengner; M. P. Takács; C. A. Ur; A. Wagner; L. Wagner

    2015-06-19

    The stable nucleus $^{15}$N is the mirror of $^{15}$O, the bottleneck in the hydrogen burning CNO cycle. Most of the $^{15}$N level widths below the proton emission threshold are known from just one nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) measurement, with limited precision in some cases. A recent experiment with the AGATA demonstrator array determined level lifetimes using the Doppler Shift Attenuation Method (DSAM) in $^{15}$O. As a reference and for testing the method, level lifetimes in $^{15}$N have also been determined in the same experiment. The latest compilation of $^{15}$N level properties dates back to 1991. The limited precision in some cases in the compilation calls for a new measurement in order to enable a comparison to the AGATA demonstrator data. The widths of several $^{15}$N levels have been studied with the NRF method. The solid nitrogen compounds enriched in $^{15}$N have been irradiated with bremsstrahlung. The $\\gamma$-rays following the deexcitation of the excited nuclear levels were detected with four HPGe detectors. Integrated photon-scattering cross sections of ten levels below the proton emission threshold have been measured. Partial gamma-ray widths of ground-state transitions were deduced and compared to the literature. The photon scattering cross sections of two levels above the proton emission threshold, but still below other particle emission energies have also been measured, and proton resonance strengths and proton widths were deduced. Gamma and proton widths consistent with the literature values were obtained, but with greatly improved precision.

  12. NATURE CHEMISTRY | VOL 3 | OCTOBER 2011 | www.nature.com/naturechemistry 763 unlight is the most abundant source of energy we have at our

    E-print Network

    Fleming, Graham R.

    NATURE CHEMISTRY | VOL 3 | OCTOBER 2011 | www.nature.com/naturechemistry 763 S unlight is the most harvested from sun- light efficiently to promote photochemical reactions or to produce solar fuels, we must that working out how nature has mastered the efficient capture of the Sun's energy has been the subject

  13. Abundances of a bean bug and its natural enemy in seminatural and cultivated habitats in agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Ken; Taki, Hisatomo; Iwai, Hideki; Mizutani, Nobuo; Nagasaka, Koukichi; Moriya, Seiichi; Sasaki, Rikiya

    2014-04-01

    To determine differences in distribution patterns between the soybean pest Riptortus pedestris F. (Hemiptera: Alydidae) and its egg parasitoid Ooencyrtus nezarae Ishii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in source and cultivated habitats, we compared their abundances in soybean fields and forest edges, which were assumed to be the overwintering sites of R. pedestris. We set synthetic attractant-baited traps for both species over 2 yr in mid-August, just before R. pedestris normally colonizes soybeans. During one of the 2 yr, we also examined the rate of parasitism using an egg trap. The numbers of both R. pedestris and O. nezarae trapped at forest edges were higher than the numbers caught in soybean fields, suggesting that forest edges are important source habitats. Compared with R. pedestris, the abundance of O. nezarae in soybean fields was considerably lower than in forest edges, presumably because of differences in their dispersal abilities and their responses to landscape structure and resource distribution. Better pest control service by O. nezarae was provided at forest edges than in soybean fields. Therefore, when using pest control by O. nezarae in soybean fields, spatial arrangement and distance from the forest edge should be considered. PMID:24534078

  14. 3D 15N/15N/1H chemical shift correlation experiment utilizing an RFDR-based 1H/1H mixing period at 100 kHz MAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Yusuke; Malon, Michal; Ishii, Yuji; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2014-07-01

    Homonuclear correlation NMR experiments are commonly used in the high-resolution structural studies of proteins. While 13C/13C chemical shift correlation experiments utilizing dipolar recoupling techniques are fully utilized under MAS, correlation of the chemical shifts of 15N nuclei in proteins has been a challenge. Previous studies have shown that the negligible 15N-15N dipolar coupling in peptides or proteins necessitates the use of a very long mixing time (typically several seconds) for effective spin diffusion to occur and considerably slows down a 15N/15N correlation experiment. In this study, we show that the use of mixing proton magnetization, instead of 15N, via the recoupled 1H-1H dipolar couplings enable faster 15N/15N correlation. In addition, the use of proton-detection under ultrafast MAS overcomes the sensitivity loss due to multiple magnetization transfer (between 1H and 15N nuclei) steps. In fact, less than 300 nL (?1.1 micromole quantity) sample is sufficient to acquire the 3D spectrum within 5 h. Our results also demonstrate that a 3D 15N/15N/1H experiment can render higher resolution spectra that will be useful in the structural studies of proteins at ultrafast MAS frequencies. 3D 15N/15N/1H and 2D radio frequency-driven dipolar recoupling (RFDR)-based 1H/1H experimental results obtained from a powder sample of N-acetyla-L-15N-valyl-L-15N-leucine at 70 and 100 kHz MAS frequencies are presented.

  15. Nitrogen source tracking with delta(15)N content of coastal wetland plants in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Bruland, Gregory L; MacKenzie, Richard A

    2010-01-01

    Inter- and intra-site comparisons of the nitrogen (N) stable isotope composition of wetland plant species have been used to identify sources of N in coastal areas. In this study, we compared delta(15)N values from different herbaceous wetland plants across 34 different coastal wetlands from the five main Hawaiian Islands and investigated relationships of delta(15)N with land use, human population density, and surface water quality parameters (i.e., nitrate, ammonium, and total dissolved N). The highest delta(15)N values were observed in plants from wetlands on the islands of Oahu (8.7-14.6 per thousand) and Maui (8.9-9.2 per thousand), whereas plants from wetlands on the islands of Kauai, Hawaii, and Molokai had delta(15)N values usually <4 per thousand. The enrichment in delta(15)N values in plant tissues from wetlands on Oahu and Maui was most likely a result of the more developed and densely populated watersheds on these two islands. Urban development within a 1000-m radius and population density were positively correlated to average delta(15)N vegetation values from each wetland site (r = 0.56 and 0.51, respectively; p < 0.001). This suggested that site mean delta(15)N values from mixed stands of wetland plants have potential as indices of N sources in coastal lowland wetlands in Hawaii and that certain sites on Oahu and Maui have experienced significant anthropogenic N loading. This information can be used to monitor future changes in N inputs to coastal wetlands throughout Hawaii and the Pacific. PMID:20048329

  16. The C14N/C15N Ratio in Diffuse Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchey, A. M.; Federman, S. R.; Lambert, D. L.

    2015-05-01

    We report the first detection of C15N in diffuse molecular gas from a detailed examination of CN absorption lines in archival spectra, obtained with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph of the Very Large Telescope of stars probing local diffuse clouds. Absorption from the C15N isotopologue is confidently detected (at ? 4? ) in three out of the four directions studied and appears as a very weak feature between the main 12CN and 13CN absorption components. Column densities for each CN isotopologue are determined through profile fitting, after accounting for weak additional line-of-sight components of 12CN, which are seen in the absorption profiles of CH and CH+ as well. The weighted mean value of C14N/C15N for the three sight lines with detections of C15N is 274 ± 18. Since the diffuse molecular clouds toward our target stars have relatively high gas kinetic temperatures and relatively low visual extinctions, their C14N/C15N ratios should not be affected by chemical fractionation. The mean C14N/C15N ratio that we obtain should therefore be representative of the ambient 14N/15N ratio in the local interstellar medium. Indeed, our mean value agrees well with that derived from millimeter-wave observations of CN, HCN, and HNC in local molecular clouds. Based on observations made with the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, under programs 065.I-0526, 071.C-0367, 071.C-0513, 076.C-0431, and 092.C-0019.

  17. Sensitivity enhancement in natural-abundance solid-state 33S MAS NMR spectroscopy employing adiabatic inversion pulses to the satellite transitions.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Michael Ryan; Brorson, Michael; Bildsøe, Henrik; Skibsted, Jørgen; Jakobsen, Hans J

    2008-02-01

    The WURST (wideband uniform rate smooth truncation) and hyperbolic secant (HS) pulse elements have each been employed as pairs of inversion pulses to induce population transfer (PT) between the four energy levels in natural abundance solid-state (33)S (spin I=3/2) MAS NMR, thereby leading to a significant gain in intensity for the central transition (CT). The pair of inversion pulses are applied to the satellite transitions for a series of inorganic sulfates, the sulfate ions in the two cementitious materials ettringite and thaumasite, and the two tetrathiometallates (NH(4))(2)WS(4) and (NH(4))(2)MoS(4). These materials all exhibit (33)S quadrupole coupling constants (C(Q)) in the range 0.1-1.0 MHz, with precise C(Q) values being determined from analysis of the PT enhanced (33)S MAS NMR spectra. The enhancement factors for the WURST and HS elements are quite similar and are all in the range 1.74-2.25 for the studied samples, in excellent agreement with earlier reports on HS enhancement factors (1.6-2.4) observed for other spin I=3/2 nuclei with similar C(Q) values (0.3-1.2 MHz). Thus, a time saving in instrument time by a factor up to five has been achieved in natural abundance (33)S MAS NMR, a time saving which is extremely welcome for this important low-gamma nucleus. PMID:18082436

  18. Sensitivity enhancement in natural-abundance solid-state 33S MAS NMR spectroscopy employing adiabatic inversion pulses to the satellite transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Michael Ryan; Brorson, Michael; Bildsøe, Henrik; Skibsted, Jørgen; Jakobsen, Hans J.

    2008-02-01

    The WURST (wideband uniform rate smooth truncation) and hyperbolic secant (HS) pulse elements have each been employed as pairs of inversion pulses to induce population transfer (PT) between the four energy levels in natural abundance solid-state 33S (spin I = 3/2) MAS NMR, thereby leading to a significant gain in intensity for the central transition (CT). The pair of inversion pulses are applied to the satellite transitions for a series of inorganic sulfates, the sulfate ions in the two cementitious materials ettringite and thaumasite, and the two tetrathiometallates (NH 4) 2WS 4 and (NH 4) 2MoS 4. These materials all exhibit 33S quadrupole coupling constants ( CQ) in the range 0.1-1.0 MHz, with precise CQ values being determined from analysis of the PT enhanced 33S MAS NMR spectra. The enhancement factors for the WURST and HS elements are quite similar and are all in the range 1.74-2.25 for the studied samples, in excellent agreement with earlier reports on HS enhancement factors (1.6-2.4) observed for other spin I = 3/2 nuclei with similar CQ values (0.3-1.2 MHz). Thus, a time saving in instrument time by a factor up to five has been achieved in natural abundance 33S MAS NMR, a time saving which is extremely welcome for this important low-? nucleus.

  19. Corrosion and electrochemical characteristics of oxidized steels Kh15N5D2T and Kh15N4AM3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. I. Shubadeeva; L. Ya. Gurvich; R. I. Nazarova; V. L. Erofeeva

    1972-01-01

    1.We investigated the corrosion resistance in a humid atmosphere and in NaCl solution, the breakdown potential, and the electrode potential of oxidized steel Kh15N5D2T in relation to the oxidation temperature.The steel oxidized at temperatures up to 350°C has a higher breakdown potential, the oxide films do not contain chromium, and formation of the film does not induce improverishment of the

  20. Constraints on abundance, composition, and nature of X-ray amorphous components of soils and rocks at Gale crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehouck, Erwin; McLennan, Scott M.; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Cousin, Agnès.

    2014-12-01

    X-ray diffraction patterns of the three samples analyzed by Curiosity's Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instrument during the first year of the Mars Science Laboratory mission—the Rocknest sand, and the John Klein and Cumberland drill fines, both extracted from the Sheepbed mudstone—show evidence for a significant amorphous component of unclear origin. We developed a mass balance calculation program that determines the range of possible chemical compositions of the crystalline and amorphous components of these samples within the uncertainties of mineral abundances derived from CheMin data. In turn, the chemistry constrains the minimum abundance of amorphous component required to have realistic compositions (all oxides ? 0 wt %): 21-22 wt % for Rocknest and 15-20 wt % for Cumberland, in good agreement with estimates derived from the diffraction patterns (~27 and ~31 wt %, respectively). Despite obvious differences between the Rocknest sand and the Sheepbed mudstone, the amorphous components of the two sites are chemically very similar, having comparable concentrations of SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Cr2O3, FeOT, CaO, Na2O, K2O, and P2O5. MgO tends to be lower in Rocknest, although it may also be comparable between the two samples depending on the exact composition of the smectite in Sheepbed. The only unambiguous difference is the SO3 content, which is always higher in Rocknest. The observed similarity suggests that the two amorphous components share a common origin or formation process. The individual phases possibly present within the amorphous components include: volcanic (or impact) glass, hisingerite (or silica + ferrihydrite), amorphous sulfates (or adsorbed SO42-), and nanophase ferric oxides.

  1. Separation of Anisotropy and Exchange Broadening Using 15N CSA- 15N- 1H Dipole-Dipole Relaxation Cross-Correlation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, Christian; Holak, Tad A.

    2000-08-01

    Based on the measurement of cross-correlation rates between 15N CSA and 15N-1H dipole-dipole relaxation we propose a procedure for separating exchange contributions to transverse relaxation rates (R2 = 1/T2) from effects caused by anisotropic rotational diffusion of the protein molecule. This approach determines the influence of anisotropy and chemical exchange processes independently and therefore circumvents difficulties associated with the currently standard use of T1/T2 ratios to determine the rotational diffusion tensor. We find from computer simulations that, in the presence of even small amounts of internal flexibility, fitting T1/T2 ratios tends to underestimate the anisotropy of overall tumbling. An additional problem exists when the N-H bond vector directions are not distributed homogeneously over the surface of a unit sphere, such as in helix bundles or ?-sheets. Such a case was found in segment 4 of the gelation factor (ABP 120), an F-actin cross-linking protein, in which the diffusion tensor cannot be calculated from T1/T2 ratios. The 15N CSA tensor of the residues for this ?-sheet protein was found to vary even within secondary structure elements. The use of a common value for the whole protein molecule therefore might be an oversimplification. Using our approach it is immediately apparent that no exchange broadening exists for segment 4 although strongly reduced T2 relaxation times for several residues could be mistaken as indications for exchange processes.

  2. Multiple regression models of ?13C and ?15N for fish populations in the eastern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radabaugh, Kara R.; Peebles, Ernst B.

    2014-08-01

    Multiple regression models were created to explain spatial and temporal variation in the ?13C and ?15N values of fish populations on the West Florida Shelf (eastern Gulf of Mexico, USA). Extensive trawl surveys from three time periods were used to acquire muscle samples from seven groundfish species. Isotopic variation (?13Cvar and ?15Nvar) was calculated as the deviation from the isotopic mean of each fish species. Static spatial data and dynamic water quality parameters were used to create models predicting ?13Cvar and ?15Nvar in three fish species that were caught in the summers of 2009 and 2010. Additional data sets were then used to determine the accuracy of the models for predicting isotopic variation (1) in a different time period (fall 2010) and (2) among four entirely different fish species that were collected during summer 2009. The ?15Nvar model was relatively stable and could be applied to different time periods and species with similar accuracy (mean absolute errors 0.31-0.33‰). The ?13Cvar model had a lower predictive capability and mean absolute errors ranged from 0.42 to 0.48‰. ?15N trends are likely linked to gradients in nitrogen fixation and Mississippi River influence on the West Florida Shelf, while ?13C trends may be linked to changes in algal species, photosynthetic fractionation, and abundance of benthic vs. planktonic basal resources. These models of isotopic variability may be useful for future stable isotope investigations of trophic level, basal resource use, and animal migration on the West Florida Shelf.

  3. Deuterium abundances

    E-print Network

    M. Lemoine; J. Audouze; L. Ben Jaffel; P. Feldman; R. Ferlet; G. Hebrard; E. B. Jenkins; C. Mallouris; W. Moos; K. Sembach; G. Sonneborn; A. Vidal-Madjar; D. G. York

    1999-03-02

    We discuss the measurements of deuterium abundances in high redshift quasar absorbers, in the solar system and in the interstellar medium. We present new results that indicate spatial variations of the deuterium abundance in the interstellar medium at the level of 50% over scales possibly as small as 10 pc, and discuss plausible causes for the origin of these variations.

  4. A new mathematical approach for calculating the contribution of anammox, denitrification and atmosphere to an N2 mixture based on a 15N tracer technique.

    PubMed

    Spott, Oliver; Stange, C Florian

    2007-01-01

    Denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) have been identified as biotic key processes of N2 formation during global nitrogen cycling. Based on the principle of a 15N tracer technique, new analytical expressions have been derived for a calculation of the fractions of N2 simultaneously released by anammox and denitrification. An omnipresent contamination with atmospheric N2 is also taken into account and is furthermore calculable in terms of a fraction. Two different mathematical approaches are presented which permit a precise calculation of the contribution of anammox, denitrification, and atmosphere to a combined N2 mixture. The calculation is based on a single isotopic analysis of a sampled N2 mixture and the determination of the 15N abundance of nitrite and nitrate (simplified approach) or of ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate (comprehensive approach). Calculations are even processable under conditions where all basal educts of anammox and denitrification (ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate) are differently enriched in 15N. An additional determination of concentrations of dissolved N compounds is unnecessary. Finally, the presented approach is transferable to studies focused on terrestrial environments where N2 is formed by denitrification and simultaneously by codenitrification or chemodenitrification. PMID:17582623

  5. Diatom ?13C, ?15N, and C/N since the Last Glacial Maximum in the Southern Ocean: Potential impact of Species Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacot Des Combes, H.; Esper, O.; de La Rocha, C. L.; Abelmann, A.; Gersonde, R.; Yam, R.; Shemesh, A.

    2008-12-01

    Measurements of ?13C, ?15N, and C/N on diatom-bound organic matter were made over the Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) from three sediment cores in the Southern Ocean, one each from the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific sectors. The site in the Scotia Sea (Atlantic sector) differed considerably from the other two sites by having markedly lower ?13C, more variable ?15N and C/N ratios, and a sedimentary diatom assemblage that was never dominated by Fragilariopsis kerguelensis. Although environmental parameters certainly have a strong impact on the isotope ratios, ?13C is also correlated to the proportion of F. kerguelensis in the three cores investigated here (r2 = 0.8). Extreme values of ?13C, ?15N, and C/N at the Last Glacial Maximum were also related to the abundance of winter stages of Eucampia antarctica. These results suggest that diatom specific isotope records should be interpreted in conjunction with information on the species composition of the samples.

  6. Dynamics in the Isotropic Phase of Nematogens Using 2D IR Vibrational Echo Measurements on Natural Abundance 13

    E-print Network

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Dynamics in the Isotropic Phase of Nematogens Using 2D IR Vibrational Echo Measurements on Natural at 2161 cm-1 , indicative of a thiocyanate as opposed to isothiocyanate (generally broader).2-6 1 H NMR ionization (solvent: acetonitrile) showed the molecular ion peak at 281 m/z in agreement with calculated mass

  7. The degree of urbanization across the globe is not reflected in the ?(15)N of seagrass leaves.

    PubMed

    Christiaen, Bart; Bernard, Rebecca J; Mortazavi, Behzad; Cebrian, Just; Ortmann, Alice C

    2014-06-30

    Many studies show that seagrass ?(15)N ratios increase with the amount of urbanization in coastal watersheds. However, there is little information on the relationship between urbanization and seagrass ?(15)N ratios on a global scale. We performed a meta-analysis on seagrass samples from 79 independent locations to test if seagrass ?(15)N ratios correlate with patterns of population density and fertilizer use within a radius of 10-200 km around the sample locations. Our results show that seagrass ?(15)N ratios are more influenced by intergeneric and latitudinal differences than the degree of urbanization or the amount of fertilizer used in nearby watersheds. The positive correlation between seagrass ?(15)N ratios and latitude hints at an underlying pattern in discrimination or a latitudinal gradient in the (15)N isotopic signature of nitrogen assimilated by the plants. The actual mechanisms responsible for the correlation between ?(15)N and latitude remain unknown. PMID:23866922

  8. Natural abundance of Sb and Sc in pristine groundwaters, Springwater Township, Ontario, Canada, and implications for tracing contamination from landfill leachates.

    PubMed

    Shotyk, William; Krachler, Michael; Chen, Bin; Zheng, James

    2005-12-01

    Using ICP-SMS and the clean lab methods and procedures developed for determining trace element concentrations in polar snow and ice, a lower limit of detection (LOD) of 30 pg l(-1) for Sb and 5 pg l(-1) for Sc was achieved, allowing the natural abundances of Sb and Sc to be measured in pristine groundwaters. Water samples were collected from natural flows and wells between Elmvale and Wyevale in Springwater Township, Ontario, Canada. The water in this region is derived from chemical reactions between meteoric fluids and the Quaternary sediments which cover the bedrock (dolomitic limestone) to depths of more than 100 m. The chemical composition of these waters (pH 8) is primarily a reflection of reactions between the percolating fluids with calcite and dolomite. The maximum concentration of Sb was 5.0 ng l(-1), and the average of all samples collected was 2.2 +/- 1.2 ng l(-1) (n = 34). The average concentration of Sc was 8.6 +/- 4.7 ng l(-1) (n = 28). The paucity of published Sb concentration data available for comparison is probably because most of the analytical methods commonly used to date, including GFAAS, HG-AAS, HG-AFS, INAA, and ICP-QMS, have lower limits of detection which are inadequate for reliably determining the natural abundance of Sb in many uncontaminated groundwaters. Also, the measurement of extremely low concentrations of Sb requires extra care to avoid possible contamination. Given the extensive use of Sb in plastics, we show that some of the containers used to collect and store samples, and for handling and preparing samples for chemical analyses, may be important sources of contamination in the laboratory. The Sb and Sc concentrations reported here should serve as reference values for this region, against which contamination by various human impacts in future could be compared. PMID:16307077

  9. Towards interpreting nitrate-?15N records in ice cores in terms of nitrogen oxide sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, M. G.; Buffen, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    The isotopic composition of nitrate preserved in ice cores offers unique potential for reconstructing past contributions of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO and NO2) to the atmosphere. Sources of NOx imprint a nitrogen stable isotopic (?15N) signature, which can be conserved during subsequent oxidation to form nitrate. Major sources of NOx include fossil fuels combustion, biomass burning, microbial processes in soils, and lightning, and thus a quantitative tracer of emissions would help detail connections between the atmosphere, the biosphere, and climate. Unfortunately, the ?15N signatures of most NOx sources are not yet well enough constrained to allow for quantitative partitioning, though new methodology for directly collecting NOx for isotopic analysis is promising (Fibiger and Hastings, A43D-0265, AGU 2010). Still, a growing network of ice core ?15N records may offer insight into source signatures, as different sources are important to different regions of the world. For example, a 300-year ice core record of nitrate-?15N from Summit, Greenland shows a clear and significant 12% (vs. N2) decrease since the Preindustrial that reflects emissions from fossil fuel combustion and/or soils related to changing agricultural practices in North America and Europe. Over the same time period, Antarctic ice cores show no such trend in ?15N. This would be consistent with previous work suggesting that biomass burning and/or stratospheric intrusion of NOx produced from N2O oxidation are dominant sources for nitrate formation at high southern latitudes. In comparison to the polar records, nitrate in tropical ice cores should represent more significant inputs from lightning, microbial processes in soils, and biomass burning. This may be reflected in new results from a high-elevation site in the Peruvian Andes that shows strong seasonal ?15N cycles of up to 15% (vs. N2). We compare and contrast these records in an effort to evaluate the contribution of NOx sources to nitrate over time.

  10. Biogenic N2 and ?15 N-N2 As Proxies for N-Loss in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific: A Lagrangian Float Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourbonnais, A.; Altabet, M. A.; McNeil, C. L.; Larkum, J.; Reed, A. C.; D'Asaro, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    A large portion of the ocean's bioavailable N, a macronutrient limiting primary productivity, is lost in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). Mesoscale processes (e.g. eddies, meandering currents), can transport highly productive waters from the coasts, increasing the downward flux of organic material, a substrate for N-loss, and thus can act as N-loss hotspots in OMZs. However, due to their transient nature, these mesoscale events are difficult to monitor using traditional shipboard observations. We deployed biogeochemical Lagrangian floats in the eastern tropical North Pacific during a research cruise in May/June 2014, where transport of high chlorophyll waters from the coast were inferred from satellite imagery. These Lagrangian floats are automonous platforms with the ability to follow isopycnals and were equipped with a suite of gas tension devices and other sensors to measure N2(g), O2, NO3- and NO2- concentrations. We concurrently collected discrete samples to calibrate and complement float measurements. We present here biogenic N2, i.e. N2 produced by local N-loss processes and derived from measured N2/Ar and ?15N-N2 anomaly, i.e. the difference between ?15N-N2 observed and at equilibrium for in-situ temperature and salinity, during a ~4 weeks Lagrangian experiment. During N-loss, the product (N2) is depleted in 15N because of kinetic isotope fractionation. While biogenic N2 only reached up to ~10 µmol/kg, the ?15N-N2 anomalies were relatively low (down to ~-0.4‰). The ?15N-N2 anomalies are low compared to values always >-0.1‰) for equivalent biogenic N2 in the OMZ of the eastern tropical South Pacific. We will discuss the implication of these results for the global oceanic N budget.

  11. Variation in environmental conditions, understorey species number, abundance and composition among natural and managed Picea abies forest stands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tonje Økland; Knut Rydgren; Rune Halvorsen Økland; Ken Olaf Storaunet; Jørund Rolstad

    2003-01-01

    We studied four south-facing and three north-facing boreal spruce forest stands (ca. 0.1ha each) in SE Norway with the aim of testing the hypothesis that former logging has long-term effects on boreal forest-floor vegetation. The stand series comprised unlogged natural forests and forests that were selectively or clear cut 60–70 years prior to our study. Each stand was described with

  12. Species diversity, abundance, and phenology of aphid natural enemies on spring wheats resistant and susceptible to Russian wheat aphid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nilsa A. Bosque-pérez; James B. Johnson; Dennis J. Schotzko; Lana Unger

    2002-01-01

    The species composition, relativeabundance, and seasonal dynamics of selectednatural enemies of cereal aphids were monitoredin spring wheat fields in Moscow, Idaho in 1997and 1998. Trials also examined the potentialimpact of resistance to Russian wheat aphid(RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko)(Homoptera: Aphididae) in wheat, on aphidbiological control agents. Natural enemypopulations were monitored on two springwheats: D. noxia susceptible variety`Centennial' and resistant genotype `IDO488'.

  13. Supportive breeding boosts natural population abundance with minimal negative impacts on fitness of a wild population of Chinook salmon

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Maureen A; Rabe, Craig D; Vogel, Jason L; Stephenson, Jeff J; Nelson, Doug D; Narum, Shawn R

    2012-01-01

    While supportive breeding programmes strive to minimize negative genetic impacts to populations, case studies have found evidence for reduced fitness of artificially produced individuals when they reproduce in the wild. Pedigrees of two complete generations were tracked with molecular markers to investigate differences in reproductive success (RS) of wild and hatchery-reared Chinook salmon spawning in the natural environment to address questions regarding the demographic and genetic impacts of supplementation to a natural population. Results show a demographic boost to the population from supplementation. On average, fish taken into the hatchery produced 4.7 times more adult offspring, and 1.3 times more adult grand-offspring than naturally reproducing fish. Of the wild and hatchery fish that successfully reproduced, we found no significant differences in RS between any comparisons, but hatchery-reared males typically had lower RS values than wild males. Mean relative reproductive success (RRS) for hatchery F1 females and males was 1.11 (P = 0.84) and 0.89 (P = 0.56), respectively. RRS of hatchery-reared fish (H) that mated in the wild with either hatchery or wild-origin (W) fish was generally equivalent to W × W matings. Mean RRS of H × W and H × H matings was 1.07 (P = 0.92) and 0.94 (P = 0.95), respectively. We conclude that fish chosen for hatchery rearing did not have a detectable negative impact on the fitness of wild fish by mating with them for a single generation. Results suggest that supplementation following similar management practices (e.g. 100% local, wild-origin brood stock) can successfully boost population size with minimal impacts on the fitness of salmon in the wild. PMID:23025818

  14. Retrieving nitrogen isotopic signatures from fresh leaf reflectance spectra: disentangling ?(15)N from biochemical and structural leaf properties.

    PubMed

    Hellmann, Christine; Große-Stoltenberg, André; Lauströ, Verena; Oldeland, Jens; Werner, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Linking remote sensing methodology to stable isotope ecology provides a promising approach to study ecological processes from small to large spatial scales. Here, we show that ?(15)N can be detected in fresh leaf reflectance spectra of field samples along a spatial gradient of increasing nitrogen input from an N2-fixing invasive species. However, in field data it is unclear whether ?(15)N directly influences leaf reflectance spectra or if the relationship is based on covariation between ?(15)N and foliar nitrogen content or other leaf properties. Using a (15)N-labeling approach, we experimentally varied ?(15)N independently of any other leaf properties in three plant species across different leaf developmental and physiological states. ?(15)N could successfully be modeled by means of partial least squares (PLSs) regressions, using leaf reflectance spectra as predictor variables. PLS models explained 53-73% of the variation in ?(15)N within species. Several wavelength regions important for predicting ?(15)N were consistent across species and could furthermore be related to known absorption features of N-containing molecular bonds. By eliminating covariation with other leaf properties as an explanation for the relationship between reflectance and ?(15)N, our results demonstrate that (15)N itself has an inherent effect on leaf reflectance spectra. Thus, our study substantiates the use of spectroscopic measurements to retrieve isotopic signatures for ecological studies and encourages future development. Furthermore, our results highlight the great potential of optical measurements for up-scaling isotope ecology to larger spatial scales. PMID:25983740

  15. Thousand Year Archives of the Bulk and Compound-Specific ?15N of Export Production From the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre Indicate Increasing Nitrogen Fixation Over the Past 150 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, O.; Batista, F. C.; Brown, J. T.; Guilderson, T. P.; McCarthy, M.

    2012-12-01

    Stable nitrogen isotopic analysis of amino acids (?15N-AA) preserved in proteins has emerged as a powerful new tool to explore trophic levels and nutrient cycling in nature. To date, little has been done to explore ?15N-AA in paleo-studies of the marine nitrogen cycle. We analysed the bulk and AA-specific ?15N in the long-lived, deep-sea, proteinaceous coral Gerardia. By feeding on sinking particulate organic matter, proteinaceous corals integrate the biogeochemical signature of recently exported production within discrete skeletal growth layers. Sub-decadal resolution time-series records spanning the time period 1000 AD to present were generated from specimens of Gerardia collected from the main Hawaiian Islands, Cross Seamount, and French Frigate Shoals in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG). Records of bulk ?15N from the three different locations, geographically separated by up to 1000 km, showed remarkably similar long term trends. Bulk ?15N remained relatively stable from ~1000-1850 years AD, and then decreased by a total of 2 ‰ from ~1850 AD to the present. The ?15N-AA of the "trophic" group of amino acids indicated no significant changes in trophic level or microbial re-synthesis of export production over this time period. The ?15N of "source" amino acids was significantly correlated with corresponding values of bulk ?15N, with the ?15N of phenylalanine decreasing from 4.2 to 2.1‰. The latter value is similar to recent measurements of subsurface nitrate ?15N near Hawaii, suggesting that the ?15N of phenylalanine may be used to quantitatively track changes in the isotopic signature of nitrate at the base of the food web. Using a simple isotopic mass balance between upwelled nitrate and nitrogen fixation we calculate a 30% increase in nitrogen fixation in the NPSG since ~1850. These results provide invaluable long-term context for recent observations, and highlight profound changes in the marine biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen over the past 150 years in this climatically-sensitive area of the world ocean.

  16. Profiling Pancreatic Cancer–Secreted Proteome Using 15N Amino Acids and Serum-Free Media

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jing; Lee, Wai-Nang Paul; Zhao, Yingchun; Cao, Rui; Go, Vay Liang W.; Recker, Robert R.; Wang, Qi; Xiao, Gary Guishan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives A new method of determining protein turnover by labeling protein with 15N amino acids was used in conjunction with serum-free cell culture to profile secreted proteins that are released by MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells in culture. Methods MIA PaCa-2 cells were first cultured in Dulbecco modified Eagle medium (Gibco by Invitrogen, Carlsbad, Calif) with 10% fetal bovine serum, then in serum-free modified Eagle medium with or without 50% 15N algal amino acid mixture. The effect of oxythiamine chloride on secreteome was studied. Secreteome from cell culture media was analyzed by 2-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. Differentially expressed proteins were detected and identified. Protein turnover rates were calculated according to the newly established method. Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to validate identified proteins. Results Among the 14 differentially expressed proteins after oxythiamine treatment, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases-1 and cytokeratin-10 were identified as 2 newly synthesized secreted proteins caused by substantial 15N incorporation. The inhibition of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases-1 expression in MIA PaCa-2 cells by oxythiamine treatment was first demonstrated by 2D gel electrophoresis and further validated by Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analyses. Conclusions Our method of labeling protein with 15N amino acids in conjunction with serum-free cell culture allows the identification of actively secreted proteins from pancreatic cancer cells and is a useful method for serum biomarker discovery. PMID:19904223

  17. 13C and 15N NMR spectroscopic investigation on the formation of fossil algal residues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heike Knicker; Alan W. Scaroni; Patrick G. Hatcher

    1996-01-01

    13C and 15N NMR spectroscopy was applied to modern (a mixed algal culture, its algaenan and its compost), ancient (algal derived sediments from Mangrove Lake, Bermuda) and fossilized algal residues (Torbanite, Green River Shale) for the purpose of establishing the forms of nitrogen algal remains and evaluating their long-term stabilities. The results indicate that proteinaceous material can resist microbial degradation

  18. The use of delta(15)N in assessing sewage stress on coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Risk, Michael J; Lapointe, Brian E; Sherwood, Owen A; Bedford, Bradley J

    2009-06-01

    While coral reefs decline, scientists argue, and effective strategies to manage land-based pollution lag behind the extent of the problem. There is need for objective, cost-effective, assessment methods. The measurement of stable nitrogen isotope ratios, delta(15)N, in tissues of reef organisms shows promise as an indicator of sewage stress. The choice of target organism will depend upon study purpose, availability, and other considerations such as conservation. Algae are usually plentiful and have been shown faithfully to track sewage input. The organic matrix of bivalve shells can provide time series spanning, perhaps, decades. Gorgonians have been shown to track sewage, and can provide records potentially centuries-long. In areas where baseline data are lacking, which is almost everywhere, delta(15)N in gorgonians can provide information on status and trends. In coral tissue, delta(15)N combined with insoluble residue determination can provide information on both sewage and sediment stress in areas lacking baseline data. In the developed world, delta(15)N provides objective assessment in a field complicated by conflicting opinions. Sample handling and processing are simple and analysis costs are low. This is a method deserving widespread application. PMID:19286230

  19. Reliability of N flux rates estimated from 15N enrichment and dilution experiments in aquatic systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Elskens; Willy Baeyens; Natacha Brion; Sandra De Galan; Leo Goeyens; Anouk de Brauwere

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the estimation behavior of six increasingly complex 15N models, for estimating flux rates between phytoplankton and dissolved N pools in aquatic ecosystems. The development of these models over the last 40 years reflects increasing realism in the pools and fluxes that constitute the N cycle. The purpose of this paper is to assess how the model results

  20. Environmental balance of 15n?labelled fertilizer nitrogen applied to winter wheat in spring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hana Mouchova; Hans Lippold

    1994-01-01

    Model field experiments were carried out on orthic Luvisols soil in the years 1987, 1988 and 1989, in which winter wheat was fertilized with 15N?ammonium nitrate in spring. Nitrogen was applied three times at rates of 40 kg N per ha at the beginning of vegetative growth, shooting and heading. The distribution of labelled fertilizer to plants and soil was

  1. First Experimental Measurement of the 18O(p,?)15N Reaction at Astrophysical Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Cognata, M.; Sergi, M. L.; Spitaleri, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Coc, A.; Cherubini, S.; Goldberg, V.; Gulino, M.; Hammache, F.; Irgaziev, B.; Kiss, G.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; de Sereville, N.; Tribble, R.; Tumino, A.

    2010-11-01

    The 18O(p,?)15N and 17O(p,?)14N reactions are of primary importance in several as-trophysical scenarios, including nucleosynthesis inside Asymptotic Giant Branch stars and oxygen and nitrogen isotopic ratios in meteorite grains. They are also key reactions to understand exotic systems such as R-Coronae Borealis stars and novae. Thus, the measurement of their cross sections in the low energy region can be crucial to reduce the nuclear uncertainty on theoretical predictions, because the resonance parameters are poorly determined. The Trojan Horse Method, in its newly developed form particularly suited to investigate low-energy resonances, has been applied to the 2H(18O,?15N)n and 2H(17O,?14N)n reactions to deduce the 18O(p,?)15N and 17O(p,?)14N cross sections at low energies. Resonances in the 18O(p,?)15N and 17O(p,?)14N excitation functions have been studied and the resonance parameters deduced.

  2. Structural insights from 15N relaxation data for an anisotropic collagen peptide

    E-print Network

    Lawson, Catherine L.

    Structural insights from 15N relaxation data for an anisotropic collagen peptide Jianxi Xiao-bonding is thought to play an important role in defining collagen recognition sites or regions that contain disease causing collagen mutations. For collagen model peptides, structure determination by standard NMR

  3. The use of ?15N to examine past mangrove stand structures

    E-print Network

    Gudeman, Stephanie M.

    2009-06-02

    leaves in a laboratory and field experiment over three months. The 15N label was examined to determine distribution of nitrogen in various biochemical fractions of the leaf and to verify if nitrogen is fractionated in a predictable manner over time...

  4. Plant delta 15N correlates with the transpiration efficiency of nitrogen acquisition in tropical trees.

    PubMed

    Cernusak, Lucas A; Winter, Klaus; Turner, Benjamin L

    2009-11-01

    Based upon considerations of a theoretical model of (15)N/(14)N fractionation during steady-state nitrate uptake from soil, we hypothesized that, for plants grown in a common soil environment, whole-plant delta(15)N (deltaP) should vary as a function of the transpiration efficiency of nitrogen acquisition (F(N)/v) and the difference between deltaP and root delta(15)N (deltaP - deltaR). We tested these hypotheses with measurements of several tropical tree and liana species. Consistent with theoretical expectations, both F(N)/v and deltaP - deltaR were significant sources of variation in deltaP, and the relationship between deltaP and F(N)/v differed between non-N(2)-fixing and N(2)-fixing species. We interpret the correlation between deltaP and F(N)/v as resulting from variation in mineral nitrogen efflux-to-influx ratios across plasma membranes of root cells. These results provide a simple explanation of variation in delta(15)N of terrestrial plants and have implications for understanding nitrogen cycling in ecosystems. PMID:19726571

  5. Detection of Wastewater Plumes from the 15 N Isotopic Composition of

    E-print Network

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Detection of Wastewater Plumes from the 15 N Isotopic Composition of Groundwater, Algae that a main source of nutrient loading is due to wastewater contamination of groundwater within the watershed via septic systems and wastewater treatment facilities. 5 Mya arenaria were collected at each

  6. Determining Degradation and Synthesis Rates of Arabidopsis Proteins Using the Kinetics of Progressive 15N Labeling of Two-dimensional Gel-separated Protein Spots*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Nelson, Clark J.; Solheim, Cory; Whelan, James; Millar, A. Harvey

    2012-01-01

    The growth and development of plant tissues is associated with an ordered succession of cellular processes that are reflected in the appearance and disappearance of proteins. The control of the kinetics of protein turnover is central to how plants can rapidly and specifically alter protein abundance and thus molecular function in response to environmental or developmental cues. However, the processes of turnover are largely hidden during periods of apparent steady-state protein abundance, and even when proteins accumulate it is unclear whether enhanced synthesis or decreased degradation is responsible. We have used a 15N labeling strategy with inorganic nitrogen sources coupled to a two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis of two-dimensional IEF/SDS-PAGE gel spots to define the rate of protein synthesis (KS) and degradation (KD) of Arabidopsis cell culture proteins. Through analysis of MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectra from 120 protein spots, we were able to quantify KS and KD for 84 proteins across six functional groups and observe over 65-fold variation in protein degradation rates. KS and KD correlate with functional roles of the proteins in the cell and the time in the cell culture cycle. This approach is based on progressive 15N labeling that is innocuous for the plant cells and, because it can be used to target analysis of proteins through the use of specific gel spots, it has broad applicability. PMID:22215636

  7. Carbon-rich presolar grains from massive stars. Subsolar 12C/13C and 14N/15N ratios and the mystery of 15N

    E-print Network

    Pignatari, M; Hoppe, P; Jordan, C J; Gibson, B K; Trappitsch, R; Herwig, F; Fryer, C; Hirschi, R; Timmes, F X

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-rich grains with isotopic anomalies compared to the Sun are found in primitive meteorites. They were made by stars, and carry the original stellar nucleosynthesis signature. Silicon carbide grains of Type X and C, and low-density graphites condensed in the ejecta of core-collapse supernovae. We present a new set of models for the explosive He shell and compare them with the grains showing 12C/13C and 14N/15N ratios lower than solar. In the stellar progenitor H was ingested into the He shell and not fully destroyed before the explosion. Different explosion energies and H concentrations are considered. If the SN shock hits the He-shell region with some H still present, the models can reproduce the C and N isotopic signatures in C-rich grains. Hot-CNO cycle isotopic signatures are obtained, including a large production of 13C and 15N. The short-lived radionuclides 22Na and 26Al are increased by orders of magnitude. The production of radiogenic 22Ne from the decay of 22Na in the He shell might solve the pu...

  8. Cadmium burden of men and women who report regular consumption of confectionery sunflower kernels containing a natural abundance of cadmium.

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, P G; Vanderpool, R A

    1997-01-01

    Because of inherent genetic and physiological characteristics, the natural concentration of cadmium in the kernels of sunflowers grown in uncontaminated soils of the northern Great Plains region of the United States is higher than in most other grains. We tested the hypothesis that a habitual consumption of sunflower kernels will increase the body burden and health effects of cadmium in humans. Sixty-six men and women who reported consuming various amounts of sunflower kernels were recruited and divided by sex and kernel consumption: those who consumed less than or equal to 1 ounce(oz)/week and those who consumed more than 1 oz/week. Cadmium intake was assessed by calculation from 7-day food diaries, cadmium burden by whole blood cadmium, red blood cell (RBC) cadmium and urine cadmium concentrations, and health effects by urinary excretion of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity and beta2-microglobulin (beta2MG). The results showed that high intakes of sunflower kernels (>1 oz/day) significantly increased the intake of cadmium (p<0.004). However, the amount of cadmium in whole blood or RBCs was not affected by cadmium intake. Urinary excretion of cadmium also was not affected by cadmium intake. Urine NAG activity and the amount of urinary beta2MG were significantly elevated in the urine of high sunflower kernel consumers when the values were expressed on a urine volume basis (p<0.03), but not when expressed on a creatinine basis (p>0.05). Because normal ranges for the excretion of these protein markers have not been established, it was not possible to determine if these elevated values were meaningful. However, given the knowledge that habitual consumption of sunflower kernels with natural cadmium concentrations higher than most other food products will increase the average intake of dietary cadmium, the potential exists for an increased body burden of cadmium. Controlled feeding studies in humans should be pursued in order to determine if the body burden does indeed increase and, if so, is it a cause for concern. PMID:9349833

  9. Heathland vegetation as a bio-monitor for nitrogen deposition and source attribution using ?15N values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, R. A.; Ineson, P.; Jones, H.; Sleep, D.; Leith, I. D.; Sheppard, L. J.

    The %N and ?15N signals in foliar nitrogen (N) from four heathland species have been monitored in a blanket bog plant community subjected to different experimental inputs of wet and dry N deposition. Interactions with combined additional treatments of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) were also investigated. Calluna vulgaris, Cladonia portentosa, Sphagnum capillifolium and Hypnum cupressiforme were harvested for 15N analysis prior to wet and dry treatment applications and again after 16 months field exposure. A significant increase was observed in both %N and ?15N values for all plant species in response to both wet and dry treatments whilst PK additions also produced significant decreases in foliar %N and associated ?15N values for several of the species sampled. These enrichments in the ?15N signals for post-treatment shoot tissue were attributable to the ?15N signal in the source application, a finding of potential value in using bio-monitors for assessment of N deposition.

  10. Effects of forest decline on uptake and leaching of deposited nitrate determined from 15N and 18O measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Durka; Ernst-Detlef Schulze; Gerhard Gebauer; Susanne Voerkeliust

    1994-01-01

    ATTEMPTS to understand how atmospheric nitrogen deposition affects forest ecosystems1'2 have been hampered by the lack of a direct method to trace the fate of the deposited nitrogen. Nitrate originating in the atmosphere has natural abundances of nitrogen and oxygen isotopes that differ measurably from those of soil nitrate3. Here we present an analysis of the isotope ratios of nitrate

  11. **1**5N-NMR INVESTIGATION OF HYDROXYLAMINE DERIVATIZED HUMIC SUBSTANCES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, Kevin A.; Arterburn, Jeffrey B.; Mikita, Michael A.

    1986-01-01

    Humic substances are the most abundant naturally occurring refactory organic compounds in soils and water. They have a broad range of physical, chemical and physiological properties. In soils, humic substances contribute to the cation exchange capacity, help maintain the physical structure, and play a role in plant growth and nutrition. In aquatic systems, humic substances serve to regulate the levels of inorganic constituents, yield trihalomethanes upon chlorination, and transport or concentrate organic and inorganic pollutants. The oxygen containing functional groups of humic and fulvic acids are believed to play a key role in the chemical properties of humic substances. This study was undertaken to gain additional information on the specific types of oxygen functionalities in humic substances. Since the analysis of hydroxyl moieties had been earlier established, we focused our attention on the analysis of ketone and aldehyde functional groups in humic substances.

  12. Position-Specific Isotope Analysis of Xanthines: A (13)C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Method to Determine the (13)C Intramolecular Composition at Natural Abundance.

    PubMed

    Diomande, Didier G; Martineau, Estelle; Gilbert, Alexis; Nun, Pierrick; Murata, Ariaki; Yamada, Keita; Watanabe, Naoharu; Tea, Illa; Robins, Richard J; Yoshida, Naohiro; Remaud, Gérald S

    2015-07-01

    The natural xanthines caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline are of major commercial importance as flavor constituents in coffee, cocoa, tea, and a number of other beverages. However, their exploitation for authenticity, a requirement in these commodities that have a large origin-based price-range, by the standard method of isotope ratio monitoring by mass spectrometry (irm-MS) is limited. We have now developed a methodology that overcomes this deficit that exploits the power of isotopic quantitative (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry combined with chemical modification of the xanthines to enable the determination of positional intramolecular (13)C/(12)C ratios (?(13)Ci) with high precision. However, only caffeine is amenable to analysis: theobromine and theophylline present substantial difficulties due to their poor solubility. However, their N-methylation to caffeine makes spectral acquisition feasible. The method is confirmed as robust, with good repeatability of the ?(13)Ci values in caffeine appropriate for isotope fractionation measurements at natural abundance. It is shown that there is negligible isotope fractionation during the chemical N-methylation procedure. Thus, the method preserves the original positional ?(13)Ci values. The method has been applied to measure the position-specific variation of the (13)C/(12)C distribution in caffeine. Not only is a clear difference between caffeine isolated from different sources observed, but theobromine from cocoa is found to show a (13)C pattern distinct from that of caffeine. PMID:26067163

  13. A new and efficient synthetic method for 15N3-labeled cytosine nucleosides: Dimroth rearrangement of cytidine N3-oxides.

    PubMed

    Sako, Magoichi; Kawada, Hiroyoshi

    2004-11-12

    The treatment of (15)N(4)-labeled cytidine N(3)-oxide and (15)N(4)-labeled 2'-deoxycytidine N(3)-oxide, prepared from the appropriate unprotected uridines in three reaction steps, with benzyl bromide in the presence of excess lithium methoxide allowed the smooth occurrence of their Dimroth rearrangement even under mild conditions leading to the corresponding (15)N(3)-labeled uridine 4-O-benzyloximes which can easily undergo the reductive N-O bond cleavage to give the desirable (15)N(3)-labeled cytosine nucleosides in high total yields. PMID:15527310

  14. 1 H, 13 C, and 15 N backbone, side-chain, and heme chemical shift assignments for oxidized and reduced forms of the monoheme c -type cytochrome ApcA isolated from the acidophilic metal-reducing bacterium Acidiphilium cryptum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. CortMichael; Michael W. Swenson; Timothy S. Magnuson

    2011-01-01

    We report the 1H, 13C, and 15N chemical shift assignments of both oxidized and reduced forms of an abundant periplasmic c-type cytochrome, designated ApcA, isolated from the acidophilic gram-negative facultatively anaerobic metal-reducing alphaproteobacterium\\u000a Acidiphilium cryptum. These resonance assignments prove that ApcA is a monoheme cytochrome c\\u000a 2 and the product of the Acry_2099 gene. An absence of resonance peaks in

  15. Protein dynamics studied by rotating frame 15N spin relaxation times.

    PubMed

    Szyperski, T; Luginbühl, P; Otting, G; Güntert, P; Wüthrich, K

    1993-03-01

    Conformational rate processes in aqueous solutions of uniformly 15N-labeled pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) at 36 degrees C were investigated by measuring the rotating frame relaxation times of the backbone 15N spins as a function of the spin-lock power. Two different intramolecular exchange processes were identified. A first local rate process involved the residues Cys38 and Arg39, had a correlation time of about 1.3 ms, and was related to isomerization of the chirality of the disulfide bond Cys14-Cys38. A second, faster motional mode was superimposed on the disulfide bond isomerization and was tentatively attributed to local segmental motions in the polypeptide sequence -Cys14-Ala15-Lys16-. The correlation time for the overall rotational tumbling of the protein was found to be 2 ns, using the assumption that relaxation is dominated by dipolar coupling and chemical shift anisotropy modulated by isotropic molecular reorientation. PMID:7682879

  16. (1)H, (13)C and (15)N NMR spectral assignments for new triazapentalene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Palmas, Pascal; Nyffenegger, Coralie; Pasquinet, Eric; Guillaumet, Gérald

    2009-09-01

    Mesomeric heteropentalene betaines are conjugated fused polyheterocyclic structures that represent interesting intermediates for organic synthesis. Five such structures, containing at least four nitrogen atoms and various substituents, have been characterized by (1)H, (13)C and (15)N NMR. We report, apparently for the first time, nitrogen NMR data and coupling information on such systems. Inter-ring long-range correlations across five bonds with (15)N ((5)J(HN)) and up to seven bonds with (13)C ((6)J(HC) and (7)J(HC)) were observed in HSQC experiments. The incorporation of an electron-withdrawing substituent such as NO(2) was observed to cause an increase in the magnitude of the remote couplings and deshielding of nearby protons, carbons and on all nitrogen atoms of the structure, including remote ones situated on other cycles. PMID:19475541

  17. Penguin tissue as a proxy for relative krill abundance in East Antarctica during the Holocene

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tao; Sun, Liguang; Long, Nanye; Wang, Yuhong; Huang, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a key component of the Southern Ocean food web. It supports a large number of upper trophic-level predators, and is also a major fishery resource. Understanding changes in krill abundance has long been a priority for research and conservation in the Southern Ocean. In this study, we performed stable isotope analyses on ancient Adélie penguin tissues and inferred relative krill abundance during the Holocene epoch from paleodiets of Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), using inverse of ?15N (ratio of 15N/14N) value as a proxy. We find that variations in krill abundance during the Holocene are in accord with episodes of regional climate changes, showing greater krill abundance in cold periods. Moreover, the low ?15N values found in modern Adélie penguins indicate relatively high krill availability, which supports the hypothesis of krill surplus in modern ages due to recent hunt for krill-eating seals and whales by humans. PMID:24076768

  18. 13C and 15N allocations of two alpine species from early and late snowmelt locations reflect their different growth strategies.

    PubMed

    Baptist, Florence; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Aubert, Serge; Pontailler, Jean-Yves; Choler, Philippe; Nogués, Salvador

    2009-01-01

    Intense efforts are currently devoted to disentangling the relationships between plant carbon (C) allocation patterns and soil nitrogen (N) availability because of their consequences for growth and more generally for C sequestration. In cold ecosystems, only a few studies have addressed whole-plant C and/or N allocation along natural elevational or topographical gradients. (12)C/(13)C and (14)N/(15)N isotope techniques have been used to elucidate C and N partitioning in two alpine graminoids characterized by contrasted nutrient economies: a slow-growing species, Kobresia myosuroides (KM), and a fast-growing species, Carex foetida (CF), located in early and late snowmelt habitats, respectively, within the alpine tundra (French Alps). CF allocated higher labelling-related (13)C content belowground and produced more root biomass. Furthermore, assimilates transferred to the roots were preferentially used for growth rather than respiration and tended to favour N reduction in this compartment. Accordingly, this species had higher (15)N uptake efficiency than KM and a higher translocation of reduced (15)N to aboveground organs. These results suggest that at the whole-plant level, there is a compromise between N acquisition/reduction and C allocation patterns for optimized growth. PMID:19401411

  19. High productivity analysis of 15 N and 13 C in soil\\/plant research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Barrie; S. T. Brookes; S. J. Prosser; S. Debney

    1995-01-01

    On-line sample preparation and analysis enables faster testing of hypotheses in biological research, particularly in field experiments where many samples must be processed to integrate spatial variability. Soil scientists were first to recognise the need for a fast, easy-to-use15N analyser to replace the isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) and Kjeldahl-Rittenberg sample preparation. Development has since led to a variety of

  20. Transformation of 15 N-labelled urea and its modified forms in tropical wetland rice culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. V. Rao; J. E. Shinde

    1985-01-01

    Summary The fate of 100 kg N ha?1 applied as15N-urea and its modified forms was followed in 4 successive field-grown wetland rice crops in a vertisol. The first wet season crop recovered about 27 to 36.6% of the applied N depending upon the N source. In subsequent seasons the average uptake was very small and it gradually decreased from 1.4

  1. The Fate of 15 N-Nitrate in Healthy and Declining Phragmites australis Stands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Nijburg; H. J. Laanbroek

    1997-01-01

    The dissimilatory nitrate-reducing processes, denitrification, and dissimilatory nitrate-reduction to ammonium were studied\\u000a in freshwater lake sediments within healthy and degrading Phragmites australis (reed) stands. The samples from the healthy vegetation site contained roots and rhizomes. Cores were supplied with 1.9–5.2\\u000a ?g 15N-NO3\\u000a ? g?1 dry sediment in the laboratory and subsequently incubated for 8 h at 20°C, in the dark.

  2. Body nitrosation potential measured by a novel 15N breath test.

    PubMed

    Junghans, P; Fischer, U; Kuklinski, B

    1999-12-01

    Oxygenated nitrogen species, for example, the protonated form of nitrous acid (H2ONO+), dinitrogentrioxide (N2O3), dinitrogentetroxide (N2O4), or peroxynitrite (ONOO-), can react with amines to form molecular nitrogen. These reactions can occur spontaneously with primary aliphatic amines or via cytochrome P450 catalysed reactions with secondary amines. In principle measurements of the excretion of the molecular nitrogen generated by these reactions could be used as an index of the levels of oxygenated nitrogen compounds acting as nitrosating agents. To test this idea, [15N2]urea (3 mmol) was administered orally to five patients infected with Helicobacter pylori (as diagnosed by the [13C]urea breath test) and to four healthy volunteers. All participants ingested 3-mmol sodium nitrate as a precursor for NA 5 min before the ingestion of the nitrogen tracer. During the test the participants breathed 100% oxygen to increase the sensitivity of detection of endogenous molecular nitrogen. After the administration of [15N2]urea, the patients with H. pylori showed significantly increased 15N enrichments of exhaled N2, expressed as delta value (per 1000), compared with healthy volunteers (patients: 3.5 +/- 0.9 vs. volunteers: 1.3 +/- 0.4; p < .05). We speculate that the endogenous production of molecular nitrogen is a protective process controlling the body NO and nitrite levels. The 15N breath technique allows the noninvasive estimation of the body nitrosation and could indicate the health risk, possibly the oxidative stress status, caused by highly reactive oxygenated nitrogen species and carbenium ion intermediates. PMID:10641724

  3. SEARCH FOR AN 80-ms SPONTANEOUS FISSION ACTIVITY IN BOMBARDMENTS OF 249Bk WITH 15N

    SciTech Connect

    Nitschke, J.M.; Fowler, M.; Ghiorso, A.; Leber, R.E.; Nurmia, M.J.; Somerville, L.P.; Williams, K.E.; Hulet, E.K.; Landrum, J.H.; Lougheed, R.W.; Wild, J.F.; Bemis, Jr., C.E.; Silva, R.J.; Eskola, P.

    1980-01-01

    A rotating drum system was used to search for an 80-ms spontaneous fission (sf) activity in the reaction of {sup 15}N with {sup 249}Bk. No such activity was found beyond a cross section limit of 0.3 {+-} 0.3 nb. A sf activity with a half-life of about 20 ms and a formation cross section of 12 nb at 82 MeV was observed. The identity of this activity has not been determined.

  4. Applications of High-Resolution 13C and 15N n.m.r. of Solids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Schaefer; E. O. Stejskal; M. D. Sefcik; R. A. McKay

    1981-01-01

    The combination of cross polarization, dipolar decoupling and magic angle spinning results in liquid-like high-resolution 13C and 15N n.m.r. spectra of a wide variety of solid materials. Structural determinations based on such 13C n.m.r. spectra include the measurement of the extent to which pyrolysed polyacrylonitrile fibres (Orlon) retain aliphatic character during the first step of the production of a carbon

  5. The CN/C15N isotopic ratio towards dark clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hily-Blant, P.; Pineau des Forêts, G.; Faure, A.; Le Gal, R.; Padovani, M.

    2013-09-01

    Understanding the origin of the composition of solar system cosmomaterials is a central question, not only in the cosmochemistry and astrochemistry fields, and requires various approaches to be combined. Measurements of isotopic ratios in cometary materials provide strong constraints on the content of the protosolar nebula. Their relation with the composition of the parental dark clouds is, however, still very elusive. In this paper, we bring new constraints based on the isotopic composition of nitrogen in dark clouds, with the aim of understanding the chemical processes that are responsible for the observed isotopic ratios. We have observed and detected the fundamental rotational transition of C15N towards two starless dark clouds, L1544 and L1498. We were able to derive the column density ratio of C15N over 13CN towards the same clouds and obtain the CN/C15N isotopic ratios, which were found to be 500 ± 75 for both L1544 and L1498. These values are therefore marginally consistent with the protosolar value of 441. Moreover, this ratio is larger than the isotopic ratio of nitrogen measured in HCN. In addition, we present model calculations of the chemical fractionation of nitrogen in dark clouds, which make it possible to understand how CN can be deprived of 15N and HCN can simultaneously be enriched in heavy nitrogen. The non-fractionation of N2H+, however, remains an open issue, and we propose some chemical way of alleviating the discrepancy between model predictions and the observed ratios. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe reduced spectra (in FITS format) are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/557/A65

  6. Determination of the ?15N of total nitrogen in solids; RSIL lab code 2893

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Revesz, Kinga; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory (RSIL) lab code 2893 is to determine the ?(15N/14N), abbreviated as ?15N , of total nitrogen in solid samples. A Carlo Erba NC 2500 elemental analyzer (EA) is used to convert total nitrogen in a solid sample into N2 gas. The EA is connected to a continuous flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS), which determines relative difference in the isotope-amount ratios of stable nitrogen isotopes (15N/14N)of the product N2 gas. The combustion is quantitative; no isotopic fractionation is involved. Samples are placed in a tin capsule and loaded into the Costech Zero Blank Autosampler of the EA. Under computer control, samples are dropped into a heated reaction tube that contains an oxidant, where the combustion takes place in a helium atmosphere containing an excess of oxygen gas. Combustion products are transported by a helium carrier through a reduction tube to remove excess oxygen and convert all nitrous oxides into N2 and through a drying tube to remove water. The gas-phase products, mainly CO2 and N2, are separated by a gas chromatograph. The gas is then introduced into the isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) through a Finnigan MAT (now Thermo Scientific) ConFlo II interface, which also is used to inject N2 reference gas and helium for sample dilution. The IRMS is a Thermo Scientific Delta V Plus CF-IRMS. It has a universal triple collector, two wide cups with a narrow cup in the middle, capable of measuring mass/charge (m/z) 28, 29, 30, simultaneously. The ion beams from N2 are as follows: m/z 28 = N2 = 14N14N; m/z 29 = N2 = 14N15N primarily; m/z 30 = NO = 14N16O primarily, which is a sign of contamination or incomplete reduction.

  7. Molecular order, dynamics, and ionization state of phosphatidylethanolamine bilayers as studied by /sup 15/N NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Akoka, S.; Tellier, C.; Piognant, S.

    1986-11-04

    Dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), /sup 15/N-labeled in the polar head group, were synthesized. The proton-decoupled /sup 15/N spectra of DPPC and DPPE in aqueous dispersion have exactly the form anticipated for powder line shapes governed by an axially symmetric shielding tensor. The chemical shift anisotropy (..delta..sigma) of DPPC is lower than 0.4 ppm at 30/sup 0/C and vanished when the temperature or the half-height line width is increased; DPPC always exhibits an asymmetric line shape, and /sup 15/N NMR spectra of DPPE are obtained at various temperatures and simulated to measure exactly the chemical shift anisotropy. Isotropic correlation times are derived from T/sub 1/, which are higher than values obtained for phosphatidylcholine by other nuclei. Arrhenius plots of T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ allowed us to calculate the activation energy for the motion of the DPPE and the DPPC C-N bond. The value of this activation energy for the DPPE (53 kJ/mol) is higher than the one found for the DPPC C-N bond (32 kJ/mol). These differences agree with the capacity of the ethanolamine head groups to bind noncovalently to their neighbors in the plane of the membrane surface. A direct titration curve of the amino group is achieved by the variation of the chemical shift with the bulk pH, and the interfacial pK/sub a/ is calculated to be 11.1. At pH 11, two distinct protonation states of DPPE are observed, which are in slow exchange compared to the NMR time scale. The present results clearly show the great discriminating power of /sup 15/N spectroscopy in terms of environmental changes around the nitrogen atom at the interfacial region of membranes.

  8. Can 15 N profiles in forest soils predict loss and net N mineralization rates?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Vervaet; P. Boeckx; V. Unamuno; O. Van Cleemput; G. Hofman

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies changes of 15N signatures (ཋN, ?) and total N (TN, %) in soil profiles among forest stands with different $$ {\\\\rm NO}_3^ - $$ losses within the same climatic zone. An additional aim was to investigate whether the change of ཋN ((ཋN) within the 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm depths of the mineral layer could be linked

  9. Deuterium Relaxation in a Uniformly 15N-Labeled Homeodomain and Its DNA Complex1

    E-print Network

    Wider, Gerhard

    Ny to DzNy is twice as fast for 2H as for spin 1/2 nuclei.8 At time point c the polarization transferred in a system consisting exclu- sively of spins 1/2.8 Including losses due to 2H relaxation, the magnetization transfer to 2H and back to 15N leads to signal attenuation by a factor of (2/3) exp(-42/T1), which is 0

  10. Nitrogen dynamics in co-composted drilling wastes: Effects of compost quality and 15N fertilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Woo-Jung Choi; Scott X. Chang

    2005-01-01

    A better understanding of N availability in co-composted drilling wastes is required to evaluate the potential use of the composts as growth media. We investigated N dynamics in co-composted drilling wastes by examining the changes in the concentrations and partition of applied 15N in various soil N pools (NH4+, NO3?, dissolved organic N, microbial biomass N, and non-extractable N) in

  11. Oyster and Macroalgae Bioindicators Detect Elevated ? 15 N in Maryland’s Coastal Bays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Fertig; T. J. B. Carruthers; W. C. Dennison; A. B. Jones; F. Pantus; B. Longstaff

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen loading from anthropogenic sources, including fertilizer, manure, and sewage effluents, has been linked with declining\\u000a water quality in coastal lagoons worldwide. Freshwater inputs to mid-Atlantic coastal lagoons of the USA are from terrestrially\\u000a influenced sources: groundwater and overland flow via streams and agricultural ditches, with occasional precipitation events.\\u000a Stable nitrogen isotopes ratios (?15N) in bioindicator species combined with conventional

  12. Affordable uniform isotope labeling with (2)H, (13)C and (15)N in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Sitarska, Agnieszka; Skora, Lukasz; Klopp, Julia; Roest, Susan; Fernández, César; Shrestha, Binesh; Gossert, Alvar D

    2015-06-01

    For a wide range of proteins of high interest, the major obstacle for NMR studies is the lack of an affordable eukaryotic expression system for isotope labeling. Here, a simple and affordable protocol is presented to produce uniform labeled proteins in the most prevalent eukaryotic expression system for structural biology, namely Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells. Incorporation levels of 80 % can be achieved for (15)N and (13)C with yields comparable to expression in full media. For (2)H,(15)N and (2)H,(13)C,(15)N labeling, incorporation is only slightly lower with 75 and 73 %, respectively, and yields are typically twofold reduced. The media were optimized for isotope incorporation, reproducibility, simplicity and cost. High isotope incorporation levels for all labeling patterns are achieved by using labeled algal amino acid extracts and exploiting well-known biochemical pathways. The final formulation consists of just five commercially available components, at costs 12-fold lower than labeling media from vendors. The approach was applied to several cytosolic and secreted target proteins. PMID:25929326

  13. Seasonal ?13C and ?15N isoscapes of fish populations along a continental shelf trophic gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radabaugh, Kara R.; Hollander, David J.; Peebles, Ernst B.

    2013-10-01

    The West Florida Shelf, located in the eastern Gulf of Mexico, transitions from a eutrophic ecosystem dominated by the Mississippi River plume to mesotrophic and oligotrophic ecosystems off the coast of peninsular Florida. Three extensive trawl surveys in this region were used to acquire samples of fish muscle, benthic algae from sea urchin stomach contents, and filtered particulate organic matter (POM) to create ?13C and ?15N isoscapes. Muscle ?15N from three widely distributed fish species, Synodus foetens (inshore lizardfish), Calamus proridens (littlehead porgy), and Syacium papillosum (dusky flounder), exhibited strong longitudinal correlations (Pearson?s r=-0.67 to -0.90, p<0.001) that coincided with the principal trophic gradient, whereas ?13C values of fish muscle and benthic algae were correlated with depth (Pearson?s r=-0.34 to -0.73, p<0.05). Correlations between isotopic values and surface concentrations of chlorophyll and particulate organic carbon (POC) imply linkages between the isotopic baseline and transitions from eutrophic to oligotrophic waters. The ?13C depth gradient and the ?15N longitudinal gradient were consistent between seasons and years, providing a foundation for future stable isotope studies of animal migration in the Gulf of Mexico.

  14. Enzymatic Synthesis and Structural Characterization of 13C, 15N - Poly(ADP-ribose)

    PubMed Central

    Schultheisz, Heather L.; Szymczyna, Blair R.; Williamson, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) is a significant nucleic acid polymer involved with diverse functions in eukaryotic cells, yet no structural information is available. A method for the synthesis of 13C, 15N- poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) has been developed to allow characterization of the polymer using multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Successful integration of pentose phosphate, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthesis, and cofactor recycling pathways with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 permitted labeling of PAR from 13C-glucose and 13C, 15N- ATP in a single pot reaction. The scheme is efficient, yielding ~ 400 nmoles of purified PAR from 5 ?moles ATP, and the behavior of the synthetic PAR is similar to data from PAR synthesized by cell extracts. The resonances for 13C, 15N-PAR were unambiguously assigned, but the polymer appears to be devoid of inherent regular structure. PAR may form an ordered macromolecular structure when interacting with proteins, and due to the extensive involvement of PAR in cell function and disease, further studies of PAR structure will be required. The labeled PAR synthesis reported here will provide an essential tool for the future study of PAR-protein complexes. PMID:19757771

  15. Determination of (13)C (?) relaxation times in uniformly (13)C/ (15)N-enriched proteins.

    PubMed

    Engelke, J; Rüterjans, H

    1995-02-01

    Relaxation times of (13)C(?) carbons of uniformly (13)C/(15)N-enriched probes have been investigated. The relaxation behaviour was analyzed in terms of a multispin system. Pulse sequences for the determination of T(1), T(2) and the heteronuclear NOE of (13)C(?) in uniformly (13)C/(15)N-enriched ribonuclease T1 are presented. The experiments performed in order to obtain T(1) and the heteronuclear NOE were similar to those of the corresponding (15)N experiments published previously. The determination of T(2) for the C(?)-carbon in a completely labeled protein is more complicated, since the magnetization transfer during the T(2) evolution period owing to the scalar coupling of C(?)-C(?) must be suppressed. Various different pulse sequences for the T(2) evolution period were simulated in order to optimize the bandwidth for which reliable T(2) relaxation times can be obtained. A proof for the quality of these pulse sequences is given by fitting the intensity decay of individual (1)H-(13)C(?) cross peaks, in a series of ((1)H, (13)C)-ct-HSQC spectra with a modified CPMG sequence as well as a T(1p) sequence for the transverse relaxation time, to a single exponential using a simplex algorithm. PMID:22911465

  16. Resonance strengths in the {sup 14}N(p,gamma){sup 15}O and {sup 15}N(p,alphagamma){sup 12}C reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Marta, Michele; Trompler, Erik; Bemmerer, Daniel; Beyer, Roland; Grosse, Eckart; Hannaske, Roland; Junghans, Arnd R.; Nair, Chithra; Schwengner, Ronald; Wagner, Andreas; Yakorev, Dmitry [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), Dresden (Germany); Broggini, Carlo; Caciolli, Antonio; Erhard, Martin; Menegazzo, Roberto [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Fueloep, Zsolt; Gyuerky, Gyoergy [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Szuecs, Tamas [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), Dresden (Germany); Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Vezzu, Simone [Coordinamento Interuniversitario Veneto per le Nanotechnologie (CIVEN), Venice (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    The {sup 14}N(p,gamma){sup 15}O reaction is the slowest reaction of the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cycle of hydrogen burning in stars. As a consequence, it determines the rate of the cycle. The {sup 15}N(p,alphagamma){sup 12}C reaction is frequently used in inverse kinematics for hydrogen depth profiling in materials. The {sup 14}N(p,gamma){sup 15}O and {sup 15}N(p,alphagamma){sup 12}C reactions have been studied simultaneously, using titanium nitride targets of natural isotopic composition and a proton beam. The strengths of the resonances at E{sub p} = 1058 keV in {sup 14}N(p,gamma){sup 15}O and at E{sub p} = 897 and 430 keV in {sup 15}N(p,alphagamma){sup 12}C have been determined with improved precision, relative to the well-known resonance at E{sub p} = 278 keV in {sup 14}N(p,gamma){sup 15}O. The new recommended values are omegagamma=0.353+-0.018, 362+-20, and 21.9+-1.0 eV for their respective strengths. In addition, the branching ratios for the decay of the E{sub p} = 1058 keV resonance in {sup 14}N(p,gamma){sup 15}O have been redetermined. The data reported here should facilitate future studies of off-resonant capture in the {sup 14}N(p,gamma){sup 15}O reaction that are needed for an improved R-matrix extrapolation of the cross section. In addition, the data on the 430 keV resonance in {sup 15}N(p,alphagamma){sup 12}C may be useful for hydrogen depth profiling.

  17. Heathland vegetation as a bio-monitor for nitrogen deposition and source attribution using ? 15N values

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Skinner; P. Ineson; H. Jones; D. Sleep; I. D. Leith; L. J. Sheppard

    2006-01-01

    The %N and ?15N signals in foliar nitrogen (N) from four heathland species have been monitored in a blanket bog plant community subjected to different experimental inputs of wet and dry N deposition. Interactions with combined additional treatments of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) were also investigated. Calluna vulgaris, Cladonia portentosa, Sphagnum capillifolium and Hypnum cupressiforme were harvested for 15N

  18. Growth and foliar d15N of a Mojave desert shrub in relation to soil hydrological dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foliar 15N ratios (del15N), % N, and canopy volumes were measured in the two Mojave Desert dominant shrubs, the evergreen Larrea tridentata and drought deciduous Ambrosia dumosa growing across a geomorphically determined soil mosaic. Across three soils with increasingly strong age-dependent surface...

  19. Atmospheric CO2 and O3 alter the flow of 15N in developing forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Zak, Donald R; Holmes, William E; Pregitzer, Kurt S

    2007-10-01

    Anthropogenic O3 and CO2-induced declines in soil N availability could counteract greater plant growth in a CO2-enriched atmosphere, thereby reducing net primary productivity (NPP) and the potential of terrestrial ecosystems to sequester anthropogenic CO2. Presently, it is uncertain how increasing atmospheric CO2 and O3 will alter plant N demand and the acquisition of soil N by plants as well as the microbial supply of N from soil organic matter. To address this uncertainty, we initiated an ecosystem-level 15N tracer experiment at the Rhinelander (Wisconsin, USA) free air CO2-O3 enrichment (FACE) facility to understand how projected increases in atmospheric CO2 and 03 alter the distribution and flow of N in developing northern temperate forests. Tracer amounts of 15NH4+ were applied to the forest floor of developing Populus tremuloides and P. tremuloides-Betula papyrifera communities that have been exposed to factorial CO2 and O3 treatments for seven years. One year after isotope addition, both forest communities exposed to elevated CO2 obtained greater amounts of 15N (29%) and N (40%) from soil, despite no change in soil N availability or plant N-use efficiency. As such, elevated CO2 increased the ability of plants to exploit soil for N, through the development of a larger root system. Conversely, elevated O3 decreased the amount of 15N (-15%) and N (-29%) in both communities, a response resulting from lower rates of photosynthesis, decreases in growth, and smaller root systems that acquired less soil N. Neither CO2 nor 03 altered the amount of N or 15N recovery in the forest floor, microbial biomass, or soil organic matter. Moreover, we observed no interaction between CO2 and 03 on the amount of N or 15N in any ecosystem pool, suggesting that 03 could exert a negative effect regardless of CO2 concentration. In a CO2-enriched atmosphere, greater belowground growth and a more thorough exploitation of soil for growth-limiting N is an important mechanism sustaining the enhancement of NPP in developing forests (0-8 years following establishment). However, as CO2 accumulates in the Earth's atmosphere, future O3 concentrations threaten to diminish the enhancement of plant growth, decrease plant N acquisition, and lessen the storage of anthropogenic C in temperate forests. PMID:18027765

  20. ?13C and ?15N in the ornithogenic sediments from the Antarctic maritime as palaeoecological proxies during the past 2000 yr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Dong; Li, Hong-Chun; Sun, Li-Guang; Yin, Xue-Bin; Zhao, San-Ping; Wang, Yu-Hong

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, we have examined carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions in two ornithogenic sediment profiles from the Ardley Island and Barton Peninsula of Antarctica for palaeoecological changes during the past 2000 yr. The ?13C values of the two sediment profiles range from - 22.26‰ to - 19.15‰ (PDB) in Core G and from - 24.01‰ to - 19.87‰ in profile A, showing that the predominant carbon source in the sediments plausibly comes from terrestrial and aquatic plants in Antarctic such as mosses, lichens, and algae in lakes. As these ?13C values are also close to those in the fresh lake sediments that are not influenced by penguin guano, one may not use the ?13C values as evidence for the influence of guano on the sediments. The ?15N values of the two profiles range from 4.75‰ to 18.34‰ (air) and from 5.17‰ to 10.38‰ for Core G and Core A, respectively. The ?15N variations have positive correlations with the trends of the bio-element contents in the sediments. As the levels of these bio-elements in ornithogenic sediments had been used to reconstruct the changes of historical penguin population and tundra vegetation abundance and diversity, we then suggest that the ?15N records can be utilized to study palaeoecological processes of penguin. Our results show that penguin population and activity has generally decreased over the past 2000 yr. From 1300 to 900 yr BP and from 1790 to 1860 AD, penguin population and activity experienced two strong decreases. It will be interesting to understand the cause of these decreases.

  1. Why so low? Making sense of 15N-depleted nitrogen isotope values in the Late Cretaceous.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junium, C. K.; Meyers, S. R.; Arthur, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Sedimentary organic matter from Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Events is characterized by universally low ?15N values. This observation has generated significant curiosity in the paleoceanographic community and has resulted in several conceptual models that aim to explain the 15N-depletion. The unifying element in these hypotheses is widespread anoxia and a series of nitrogen and/or metal cycling feedbacks. To address these hypotheses I will examine an interval in the middle Turonian (92.0 to 90.8 Ma) that demonstrates the impacts of redox and climate variability on nitrogen cycle dynamics. New N-isotope measurements from ODP Site 1259, Demerara Rise (DR) reveal ?15N values that range from +0.2‰ to -3.5‰ and oscillate by 1.5‰ to 3‰ over 1.6 Ma. A new astronomical time scale reveals a strong ~100 ka cyclicity in ?15N with little variance at ~400 ka through the mid-Turonian. The highest ?15N values and the largest amplitude ~100 ka cycles are found within the proposed glacial interval and cooler sea surface temperatures. The persistence of the ~100 ka ?15N cycle and ?15N maxima suggests a strong link between oceanic ventilation/circulation, climate, and the oscillations in ?15N are readily explained by variations in oxidation and expansion in the extent of denitrification within anoxic intermediate waters. These data confirm the strong link between water column redox variability and low ?15N values, but the exact mechanism of the 15N-depletion remains elusive.

  2. Evaluation of methods to measure differential 15N labeling of soil and root N pools for studies of root exudation.

    PubMed

    Hertenberger, Gerhard; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    To study patterns of root exudation, the effectiveness of different techniques for in situ 15N labeling of Brassica napus, Centaurea jacea and Lolium perenne with ammonium nitrate was tested. Stem infiltration was found to effectively label plants with thicker stems, whereas, for grass species, cutting and immersing the leaf tips into 15N solution proved to be most effective. A microdiffusion technique to isolate ammonium, combined with conventional cation-exchange chromatography to separate nitrate from amino-N compounds thereafter, was found suitable for separation of the N fractions of plant and soil extracts for 15N determination. All three species were then cultivated in nutrient solution and labeled with 15NH4 15NO3 by stem feeding for 42 hours. Kinetics of 15N labeling of bulk roots and shoots as well as hot water extractable material were assessed, and up to 1.1 at% 15N excess (APE) was found in nutrient solutions. The main amino acids exuded by L. perenne were glycine, serine, alanine and aspartic acid. To assess the suitability of this set of methods to study root exudation in field settings, L. perenne was grown without fertiliser addition in pots containing low-nutrient soil. Plants were 15N labeled via tip immersion and 15N and N concentrations were analysed in shoots, roots and soils during a 48-h interval. Shoots reached 1.25 APE, roots and soil 0.10 and 0.005 APE, respectively. Between 4% (48 h) and 6% (24 h) of total plant 15N was exuded by roots into the soil. In roots amino acids comprised the largest proportion of the soluble 15N pool, whereas soil 15N levels were similar for amino acids and ammonium, exceeding those of nitrate. Mechanisms for the shift within N fractions from roots to soils are briefly discussed. PMID:15386635

  3. Restraints on backbone conformations in solid state NMR studies of uniformly labeled proteins from quantitative amide 15N–15N and carbonyl 13C–13C dipolar recoupling data

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Kan-Nian; Qiang, Wei; Bermejo, Guillermo A.; Schwieters, Charles D.; Tycko, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Recent structural studies of uniformly 15N, 13C-labeled proteins by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) rely principally on two sources of structural restraints: (i) restraints on backbone conformation from isotropic 15N and 13C chemical shifts, based on empirical correlations between chemical shifts and backbone torsion angles; (ii) restraints on inter-residue proximities from qualitative measurements of internuclear dipole–dipole couplings, detected as the presence or absence of inter-residue crosspeaks in multidimensional spectra. We show that site-specific dipole–dipole couplings among 15N-labeled backbone amide sites and among 13C-labeled backbone carbonyl sites can be measured quantitatively in uniformly-labeled proteins, using dipolar recoupling techniques that we call 15N-BARE and 13C-BARE (BAckbone REcoupling), and that the resulting data represent a new source of restraints on backbone conformation. 15N-BARE and 13C-BARE data can be incorporated into structural modeling calculations as potential energy surfaces, which are derived from comparisons between experimental 15N and 13C signal decay curves, extracted from crosspeak intensities in series of two-dimensional spectra, with numerical simulations of the 15N-BARE and 13C-BARE measurements. We demonstrate this approach through experiments on microcrystalline, uniformly 15N, 13C-labeled protein GB1. Results for GB1 show that 15N-BARE and 13C-BARE restraints are complementary to restraints from chemical shifts and inter-residue crosspeaks, improving both the precision and the accuracy of calculated structures. PMID:22449573

  4. Localization of 15N uptake in a Tibetan alpine Kobresia pasture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleuß, Per-Marten; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    The Kobresia Pygmea ecotone covers approximately 450.000 km2 and is of large global and regional importance due several socio-ecological aspects. For instance Kobresia pastures store high amounts of carbon, nitrogen and other nutrients, represent large grazing areas for herbivores, provide a fast regrowth after grazing events and protect against mechanical degradation and soil erosion. However, Kobresia pastures are assumed to be a grazing induced and are accompanied with distinct root mats varying in thickness between 5-30 cm. Yet, less is known about the morphology and the functions of this root mats, especially in the background of a progressing degradation due to changes of climate and management. Thus we aimed to identify the importance of single soil layers for plant nutrition. Accordingly, nitrogen uptake from different soil depths and its remain in above-ground biomass (AGB), belowground biomass (BGB) and soil were determined by using a 15N pulse labeling approach during the vegetation period in summer 2012. 15N urea was injected into six different soil depths (0.5 cm, 2.5 cm, 7.5 cm, 12.5 cm, 17.5 cm, 22.5 cm / for each 4 replicates) and plots were sampled 45 days after the labeling. For soil and BGB samples were taken in strict sample intervals of 0-1 cm, 1-5 cm, 5-10 cm, 10-15 cm, 15-20 cm, 20-25 cm. Results indicate that total recovery (including AGB, BGB and soil) was highest, if tracer was injected into the top 5 cm and subsequently decreased with decreasing injection depth. This is especially the case for the 15N recovery of BGB, which is clearly attributed to the root density and strongly decreased with soil depth. In contrast, the root activity derived from the 15N content of roots increased with soil depth, which is primary associated to a proportionate increase of living roots related to dead roots. However, most 15N was captured in plant biomass (67.5-85.3 % of total recovery), indicating high 15N uptake efficiency possibly due to N limitation of Kobresia ecosystems. Considering only the nitrogen uptake of AGB hardly any differences appeared between the six injection depths. Nevertheless, it could be shown, that 50.4 % percent of total variance of AGB nitrogen uptake could be explained by combining root density and root activity. Concluding, from the upper root mat horizons highest amounts of nitrogen were taken up by plants, because root densities are correspondingly high. However, in deeper root mat layers the root activity increases and accordingly plays a key role for plant nitrogen supply in this depth. Underlying causes for increasing root activities may be better soil moisture conditions, lower variation of soil temperature and/or a higher access to plant available nitrogen in deeper soil layers.Please fill in your abstract text.

  5. Cerebral glutamine metabolism under hyperammonemia determined in vivo by localized 1H and 15N NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cudalbu, Cristina; Lanz, Bernard; Duarte, João MN; Morgenthaler, Florence D; Pilloud, Yves; Mlynárik, Vladimir; Gruetter, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Brain glutamine synthetase (GS) is an integral part of the glutamate–glutamine cycle and occurs in the glial compartment. In vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) allows noninvasive measurements of the concentrations and synthesis rates of metabolites. 15N MRS is an alternative approach to 13C MRS. Incorporation of labeled 15N from ammonia in cerebral glutamine allows to measure several metabolic reactions related to nitrogen metabolism, including the glutamate–glutamine cycle. To measure 15N incorporation into the position 5N of glutamine and position 2N of glutamate and glutamine, we developed a novel 15N pulse sequence to simultaneously detect, for the first time, [5-15N]Gln and [2-15N]Gln+Glu in vivo in the rat brain. In addition, we also measured for the first time in the same experiment localized 1H spectra for a direct measurement of the net glutamine accumulation. Mathematical modeling of 1H and 15N MRS data allowed to reduce the number of assumptions and provided reliable determination of GS (0.30±0.050??mol/g per minute), apparent neurotransmission (0.26±0.030??mol/g per minute), glutamate dehydrogenase (0.029±0.002??mol/g per minute), and net glutamine accumulation (0.033±0.001??mol/g per minute). These results showed an increase of GS and net glutamine accumulation under hyperammonemia, supporting the concept of their implication in cerebral ammonia detoxification. PMID:22167234

  6. Red blood cell ?15N: a novel biomarker of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intake1234

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Diane M; Kristal, Alan R; Jeannet, M Alyssa; Wilkinson, Michael J; Bersamin, Andrea; Luick, Bret

    2009-01-01

    Background: The long-chain omega-3 (n–3) fatty acids derived from fish, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Study of the associations between EPA and DHA intake and disease requires a valid biomarker of dietary intake; however, the direct measurement of tissue fatty acid concentrations is expensive and time consuming. Objective: Because the nitrogen stable isotope ratio (15N/14N, expressed as ?15N) is elevated in fish, we investigated whether ?15N is a valid alternative biomarker of EPA and DHA intake. Design: We examined the relation between red blood cell (RBC) ?15N and RBC EPA and DHA in a community-based sample of 496 Yup'ik Eskimos with widely varying intake of n–3 fatty acids. We also assessed the correlation between ?15N and dietary EPA and DHA intake based on 24-h dietary recalls and 3-d food records completed by a subset of 221 participants. Results: RBC ?15N was strongly correlated with RBC EPA and DHA (r = 0.83 and 0.75, respectively). These correlations differed only modestly by sex and age class. RBC ?15N also correlated with dietary EPA and DHA intake (r = 0.47 and 0.46, respectively) and did not differ by sex and age. Conclusions: The results strongly support the validity of RBC ?15N as a biomarker of EPA and DHA intake. Because the analysis of RBC ?15N is rapid and inexpensive, this method could facilitate wide-scale assessment of EPA and DHA intake in clinical and epidemiologic studies. PMID:19176727

  7. Pion scattering from polarized 15N at T?=164 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, R.; Boschitz, E. T.; Ritt, S.; Tacik, R.; Wessler, M.; Konter, J. A.; Mango, S.; Renker, D.; van den Brandt, B.; Meyer, W.; Thiel, W.; Mach, R.; Amaudruz, P.; Johnson, R. R.; Smith, G. R.; Weber, P.

    1990-11-01

    The analyzing power Ay was measured for ?+-15N--> elastic scattering at T?=164 MeV between 40° and 100° using a polarized 15NH3 target. Within the statistical accuracy of the data Ay(?) was found to be zero over the full angular range. These data together with differential cross sections from the literature are compared with theoretical predictions based on a momentum-space coupled-channel formalism. While the cross section is very well reproduced there are large discrepancies in the analyzing power for which large spin effects are predicted close to the cross-section minima. Possible deficiencies in the theoretical model are discussed.

  8. GIAO DFT 13C/15N chemical shifts in regioisomeric structure determination of fused pyrazoles.

    PubMed

    Chimichi, Stefano; Boccalini, Marco; Matteucci, Alessandra; Kharlamov, Sergey V; Latypov, Shamil K; Sinyashin, Oleg G

    2010-08-01

    The combined use of two-dimensional NMR correlation experiments and gauge including atomic orbital density functional theory in (13)C NMR chemical shift (CS) calculations allowed reliable and simple structural determination of regioisomeric heterocyclic systems that originate from the reactions of acylquinolinones with substituted hydrazines. Moreover, the results of differential analysis between the calculated (15)N NMR CSs for hypothetical structures and the experimental data of the title azaheterocyclic systems were even more advantageous with respect to (13)C because there was no need for correlational analysis: structures of the regioisomeric compounds could be determined just by direct comparison. PMID:20589725

  9. Determination of the ?15N and ?18O of nitrate in water; RSIL lab code 2900

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Qi, Haiping; Revesz, Kinga; Casciotti, Karen; Hannon, Janet E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory (RSIL) lab code 2900 is to determine the ?15N and ?18O of nitrate (NO3-) in water. The ?15N and ?18O of the dissolved NO3- are analyzed by converting the NO3- to nitrous oxide (N2O), which serves as the analyte for mass spectrometry. A culture of denitrifying bacteria is used in the enzymatic conversion of the NO3- to N2O, which follows the pathway shown in equation 1: NO3- ? NO2- ? NO ? 1/2 N2O (1) Because the bacteria Pseudomonas aureofaciens lack N2O reductive activity, the reaction stops at N2O, unlike the typical denitrification reaction that goes to N2. After several hours, the conversion is complete, and the N2O is extracted from the vial, separated from volatile organic vapor and water vapor by an automated -65 °C isopropanol-slush trap, a Nafion drier, a CO2 and water removal unit (Costech #021020 carbon dioxide absorbent with Mg(ClO4)2), and trapped in a small-volume trap immersed in liquid nitrogen with a modified Finnigan MAT (now Thermo Scientific) GasBench 2 introduction system. After the N2O is released, it is further purified by gas chromatography before introduction to the isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). The IRMS is a Thermo Scientific Delta V Plus continuous flow IRMS (CF-IRMS). It has a universal triple collector, consisting of two wide cups with a narrow cup in the middle; it is capable of simultaneously measuring mass/charge (m/z) of the N2O molecule 44, 45, and 46. The ion beams from these m/z values are as follows: m/z = 44 = N2O = 14N14N16O; m/z = 45 = N2O = 14N15N16O or 14N14N17O; m/z = 46 = N2O = 14N14N18O. The 17O contributions to the m/z 44 and m/z 45 ion beams are accounted for before ?15N values are reported.

  10. Determination of the ?15N and ?18O of nitrate in solids; RSIL lab code 2897

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Qi, Haiping; Revesz, Kinga; Casciotti, Karen; Hannon, Janet E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory (RSIL) lab code 2897 is to determine the ?15N and ?18O of nitrate (NO3-) in solids. The NO3- fraction of the nitrogen species is dissolved by water (called leaching) and can be analyzed by the bacterial method covered in RSIL lab code 2900. After leaching, the ?15N and ?18O of the dissolved NO3- is analyzed by conversion of the NO3- to nitrous oxide (N2O), which serves as the analyte for mass spectrometry. A culture of denitrifying bacteria is used in the enzymatic conversion of NO3- to N2O, which follows the pathway shown in equation 1: NO3- ? NO2- ? NO ? 1/2 N2O (1) Because the bacteria Pseudomonas aureofaciens lack N2O reductive activity, the reaction stops at N2O, unlike the typical denitrification reaction that goes to N2. After several hours, the conversion is complete, and the N2O is extracted from the vial, separated from volatile organic vapor and water vapor by an automated -65 °C isopropanol-slush trap, a Nafion drier, a CO2 and water removal unit (Costech #021020 carbon dioxide absorbent with Mg(ClO4)2), and trapped in a small-volume trap immersed in liquid nitrogen with a modified Finnigan MAT (now Thermo Scientific) GasBench 2 introduction system. After the N2O is released, it is further purified by gas chromatography before introduction to the isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). The IRMS is a Thermo Scientific Delta V Plus continuous flow IRMS (CF-IRMS). It has a universal triple collector, consisting of two wide cups with a narrow cup in the middle; it is capable of simultaneously measuring mass/charge (m/z) of the N2O molecule 44, 45, and 46. The ion beams from these m/z values are as follows: m/z = 44 = N2O = 14N14N16O; m/z = 45 = N2O = 14N15N16O or 14N14N17O; m/z = 46 = N2O = 14N14N18O. The 17O contributions to the m/z 44 and m/z 45 ion beams are accounted for before ?15N values are reported.

  11. Determination of the ?15N of nitrate in solids; RSIL lab code 2894

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Qi, Haiping; Revesz, Kinga; Casciotti, Karen; Hannon, Janet E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory (RSIL) lab code 2894 is to determine the ?15N of nitrate (NO3-) in solids. The nitrate fraction of the nitrogen species is dissolved by water (called leaching) and can be analyzed by the bacterial method covered in RSIL lab code 2899. After leaching, the ?15N of the dissolved NO3- is analyzed by conversion of the NO3- to nitrous oxide (N2O), which serves as the analyte for mass spectrometry. A culture of denitrifying bacteria is used in the enzymatic conversion of NO3- to N2O, which follows the pathway shown in equation 1: NO3- ? NO2- ? NO ? 1/2 N2O (1) Because the bacteria Pseudomonas aureofaciens lack N2O reductive activity, the reaction stops at N2O, unlike the typical denitrification reaction that goes to N2. After several hours, the conversion is complete, and the N2O is extracted from the vial, separated from volatile organic vapor and water vapor by an automated -65 °C isopropanol-slush trap, a Nafion drier, a CO2 and water removal unit (Costech #021020 carbon dioxide absorbent with Mg(ClO4)2), and trapped in a small-volume trap immersed in liquid nitrogen with a modified Finnigan MAT (now Thermo Scientific) GasBench 2 introduction system. After the N2O is released, it is further purified by gas chromatography before introduction to the isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). The IRMS is a Thermo Scientific Delta V Plus continuous flow IRMS (CF-IRMS). It has a universal triple collector, consisting of two wide cups with a narrow cup in the middle; it is capable of simultaneously measuring mass/charge (m/z) of the N2O molecule 44, 45, and 46. The ion beams from these m/z values are as follows: m/z = 44 = N2O = 14N14N16O; m/z = 45 = N2O = 14N15N16O or 14N14N17O; m/z = 46 = N2O = 14N14N18O. The 17O contributions to the m/z 44 and m/z 45 ion beams are accounted for before ?15N values are reported.

  12. Determination of the ?15N of nitrate in water; RSIL lab code 2899

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Qi, Haiping; Revesz, Kinga; Casciotti, Karen; Hannon, Janet E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory (RSIL) lab code 2899 is to determine the ?15N of nitrate (NO3-) in water. The ?15N of the dissolved NO3- is analyzed by conversion of the NO3- to nitrous oxide (N2O), which serves as the analyte for mass spectrometry. A culture of denitrifying bacteria is used in the enzymatic conversion of the NO3- to N2O, which follows the pathway shown in equation 1: NO3- ? NO2- ? NO ? 1/2 N2O (1) Because the bacteria Pseudomonas aureofaciens lack N2O reductive activity, the reaction stops at N2O, unlike the typical denitrification reaction that goes to N2. After several hours, the conversion is complete, and the N2O is extracted from the vial, separated from volatile organic vapor and water vapor by an automated -65 °C isopropanol-slush trap, a Nafion drier, a CO2 and water removal unit (Costech #021020 carbon dioxide absorbent with Mg(ClO4)2), and trapped in a small-volume trap immersed in liquid nitrogen with a modified Finnigan MAT (now Thermo Scientific) GasBench 2 introduction system. After the N2O is released, it is further purified by gas chromatography before introduction to the isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). The IRMS is a Thermo Scientific Delta V Plus continuous flow IRMS (CF-IRMS). It has a universal triple collector, consisting of two wide cups with a narrow cup in the middle; it is capable of simultaneously measuring mass/charge (m/z) of the N2O molecule 44, 45, and 46. The ion beams from these m/z values are as follows: m/z = 44 = N2O = 14N14N16O; m/z = 45 = N2O = 14N15N16O or 14N14N17O; m/z = 46 = N2O = 14N14N18O. The 17O contributions to the m/z 44 and m/z 45 ion beams are accounted for before ?15N values are reported.

  13. (13)C and (15)N solid-state NMR studies on albendazole and cyclodextrin albendazole complexes.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M João G; García, A; Leonardi, D; Salomon, Claudio J; Lamas, M Celina; Nunes, Teresa G

    2015-06-01

    (13)C and (15)N solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were recorded from albendazole (ABZ) and from ABZ:?-cyclodextrin, ABZ:methyl-?-cyclodextrin, ABZ:hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin and ABZ:citrate-?-cyclodextrin, which were prepared by the spray-drying technique. ABZ signals were typical of a crystalline solid for the pure drug and of an amorphous compound obtained from ABZ:cyclodextrin samples. Relevant spectral differences were correlated with chemical interaction between ABZ and cyclodextrins. The number and type of complexes revealed a strong dependence on the cyclodextrin group substituent. Solid-state NMR data were consistent with the presence of stable inclusion complexes. PMID:25843843

  14. Trophic structure on the West Antarctic Peninsula shelf: Detritivory and benthic inertia revealed by ? 13C and ? 15N analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mincks, Sarah L.; Smith, Craig R.; Jeffreys, Rachel M.; Sumida, Paulo Y. G.

    2008-11-01

    Summer bloom-derived phytodetritus settles rapidly to the seafloor on the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) continental shelf, where it appears to degrade relatively slowly, forming a sediment "food bank" for benthic detritivores. We used stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes to examine sources and sinks of particulate organic material (POM) reaching the WAP shelf benthos (550-625 m depths), and to explore trophic linkages among the most abundant benthic megafauna. We measured ? 13C and ? 15N values in major megafaunal taxa ( n=26) and potential food sources, including suspended and sinking POM, ice algae, sediment organic carbon, phytodetritus, and macrofaunal polychaetes. The range in ? 13C values (>14‰) of suspended POM was considerably broader than in sedimentary POC, where little temporal variability in stable isotope signatures was observed. While benthic megafauna also exhibited a broad range of ? 13C values, organic carbon entering the benthic food web appeared to be derived primarily from phytoplankton production, with little input from ice algae. One group of organisms, primarily deposit-feeders, appeared to rely on fresh phytodetritus recovered from the sediments, and sediment organic material that had been reworked by sediment microbes. A second group of animals, including many mobile invertebrate and fish predators, appeared to utilize epibenthic or pelagic food resources such as zooplankton. One surface-deposit-feeding holothurian ( Protelpidia murrayi) exhibited seasonal variability in stable isotope values of body tissue, while other surface- and subsurface-deposit-feeders showed no evidence of seasonal variability in food source or trophic position. Detritus from phytoplankton blooms appears to be the primary source of organic material for the detritivorous benthos; however, seasonal variability in the supply of this material is not mirrored in the sediments, and only to a minor degree in the benthic fauna. This pattern suggests substantial inertia in benthic-pelagic coupling, whereby the sediment ecosystem integrates long-term variability in production processes in the water column above.

  15. Suppression of Diagonal Peaks in TROSY-Type 1H NMR NOESY Spectra of 15N-Labeled Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meissner, Axel; Sørensen, Ole Winneche

    1999-10-01

    A novel method for suppression of diagonal peaks in the amide region of NOESY NMR spectra of 15N-labeled proteins is presented. The method is particularly useful for larger proteins at high magnetic fields where interference between dipolar and chemical shift anisotropy relaxation mechanisms results in large TROSY effects, i.e., large differences in 1HN linewidths depending on the spin state of attached 15N nuclei. In this limit the new TROSY NOESY method does not compromise sensitivity. It is demonstrated using a perdeuterated 15N-labeled protein sample, Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule 213-308 (NCAM) from rat, in H2O at 800 MHz.

  16. ? 15N and ? 13C dynamics of suspended organic matter in freshwater and brackish waters of the Scheldt estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Brabandere, L.; Dehairs, F.; Van Damme, S.; Brion, N.; Meire, P.; Daro, N.

    2002-08-01

    Suspended particulate organic matter was sampled monthly between June 1999 and April 2000 in the Scheldt river and estuary to investigate the seasonal and spatial patterns of ? 13C and ? 15N signatures. ? 15N of suspended matter showed large seasonal variation. Minimum values ranged from -0.5‰ in the freshwater zone (spring situation) to +2.3‰ in the mesohaline zone (winter situation). Maximum values (summer situation) ranged from +8.8‰ in the freshwater zone to +12.9‰ in the mesohaline zone. ? 13C showed less seasonal variation and ranged overall from -31.1‰ in the freshwater zone to -23.7‰ in the mesohaline zone. During the growth season, decrease of ? 13C and increase of ? 15N of suspended matter were due to local phytoplanktonic and bacterial biomass. There is strong evidence that the 15N enrichment of suspended matter during the growth season reflects the 15N enrichment of the ambient NH 4+ pool induced by nitrification and NH 4+ uptake. Zooplankton in the mesohaline section of the river was consistently enriched in 15N relative to suspended matter but followed its seasonal trend. During summer and autumn the isotopic offset between zooplankton and the suspended particulate organic matter was consistent with a pattern of selective feeding on phytoplankton. During summer, ? 15N of zooplankton reached a value as high as +25.5‰, the highest value observed during this study. During spring, present-day ? 15N of suspended matter in the oligohaline and mesohaline section increased compared to the 1970s, probably because today nitrification, which enriches the NH 4+ pool in 15N, starts earlier in the season. For summer, the discrepancy between present-day suspended matter ? 15N values and those observed in the 1970s was even larger, especially in the oligohaline and freshwater reaches, probably as a result of improved O 2 conditions now favouring nitrification. Likewise, the present decreased input of 15N-depleted sewage will enhance 15N enrichment of suspended matter during the growth season.

  17. Abundance of Ixodes ricinus and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in the nature reserve Siebengebirge, Germany, in comparison to three former studies from 1978 onwards

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the last decades, population densities of Ixodes ricinus and prevalences of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. have increased in different regions in Europe. In the present study, we determined tick abundance and the prevalence of different Borrelia genospecies in ticks from three sites in the Siebengebirge, Germany, which were already examined in the years 1987, 1989, 2001 and 2003. Data from all investigations were compared. Methods In 2007 and 2008, host-seeking I. ricinus were collected by monthly blanket dragging at three distinct vegetation sites in the Siebengebirge, a nature reserve and a well visited local recreation area near Bonn, Germany. In both years, 702 ticks were tested for B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA by nested PCR, and 249 tick samples positive for Borrelia were further genotyped by reverse line blotting. Results A total of 1046 and 1591 I. ricinus were collected in 2007 and 2008, respectively. In comparison to previous studies at these sites, the densities at all sites increased from 1987/89 and/or from 2003 until 2008. Tick densities and Borrelia prevalences in 2007 and 2008, respectively, were not correlated for all sites and both years. Overall, Borrelia prevalence of all ticks decreased significantly from 2007 (19.5%) to 2008 (16.5%), thus reaching the same level as in 2001 two times higher than in 1987/89 (7.6%). Since 2001, single infections with a Borrelia genospecies predominated in all collections, but the number of multiple infections increased, and in 2007, for the first time, triple Borrelia infections occurred. Prevalences of Borrelia genospecies differed considerably between the three sites, but B. garinii or B. afzelii were always the most dominant genospecies. B. lusitaniae was detected for the first time in the Siebengebirge, also in co-infections with B. garinii or B. valaisiana. Conclusions Over the last two centuries tick densities have changed in the Siebengebirge at sites that remained unchanged by human activity since they belong to a nature reserve. Abiotic and biotic conditions most likely favored the host-seeking activity of I. ricinus and the increase of multiple Borrelia infections in ticks. These changes have led to a potential higher risk of humans and animals to be infected with Lyme borreliosis. PMID:23171708

  18. Intraskeletal isotopic compositions (?(13) C, ?(15) N) of bone collagen: nonpathological and pathological variation.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Karyn C; White, Christine D; Longstaffe, Fred J; von Heyking, Kristin; McGlynn, George; Grupe, Gisela; Rühli, Frank J

    2014-04-01

    Paleodiet research traditionally interprets differences in collagen isotopic compositions (?(13) C, ?(15) N) as indicators of dietary distinction even though physiological processes likely play some role in creating variation. This research investigates the degree to which bone collagen ?(13) C and ?(15) N values normally vary within the skeleton and examines the influence of several diseases common to ancient populations on these isotopic compositions. The samples derive from two medieval German cemeteries and one Swiss reference collection and include examples of metabolic disease (rickets/osteomalacia), degenerative joint disease (osteoarthritis), trauma (fracture), infection (osteomyelitis), and inflammation (periostitis). A separate subset of visibly nonpathological skeletal elements from the German collections established normal intraindividual variation. For each disease type, tests compared bone lesion samples to those near and distant to the lesions sites. Results show that normal (nonpathological) skeletons exhibit limited intraskeletal variation in carbon- and nitrogen-isotope ratios, suggesting that sampling of distinct elements is appropriate for paleodiet studies. In contrast, individuals with osteomyelitis, healed fractures, and osteoarthritis exhibit significant intraskeletal differences in isotope values, depending on whether one is comparing lesions to near or to distant sites. Skeletons with periostitis result in significant intraskeletal differences in nitrogen isotope values only, while those with rickets/osteomalacia do not exhibit significant intraskeletal differences. Based on these results, we suggest that paleodiet researchers avoid sampling collagen at or close to lesion sites because the isotope values may be reflecting both altered metabolic processes and differences in diet relative to others in the population. PMID:24374993

  19. Abrupt recent shift in ?13C and ?15N values in Adélie penguin eggshell in Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Emslie, Steven D.; Patterson, William P.

    2007-01-01

    Stable isotope values of carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N) in blood, feathers, eggshell, and bone have been used in seabird studies since the 1980s, providing a valuable source of information on diet, foraging patterns, and migratory behavior in these birds. These techniques can also be applied to fossil material when preservation of bone and other tissues is sufficient. Excavations of abandoned Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) colonies in Antarctica often provide well preserved remains of bone, feathers, and eggshell dating from hundreds to thousands of years B.P. Herein we present an ?38,000-year time series of ?13C and ?15N values of Adélie penguin eggshell from abandoned colonies located in three major regions of Antarctica. Results indicate an abrupt shift to lower-trophic prey in penguin diets within the past ?200 years. We posit that penguins only recently began to rely on krill as a major portion of their diet, in conjunction with the removal of baleen whales and krill-eating seals during the historic whaling era. Our results support the “krill surplus” hypothesis that predicts excess krill availability in the Southern Ocean after this period of exploitation. PMID:17620620

  20. Measurement and interpretation of 15N- 1H residual dipolar couplings in larger proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Akash; Revington, Matthew; Zuiderweg, Erik R. P.

    2010-03-01

    A decade ago, Dr. L.E. Kay and co-workers described an ingenious HNCO-based triple-resonance experiment from which several protein backbone RDCs can be measured simultaneously (Yang et al. (1999) [1]). They implemented a J-scaling technique in the 15N dimension of the 3D experiment to obtain the NH RDCs. We have used this idea to carry out J-scaling in a 2D 15N- 1H-TROSY experiment and have found it to be an excellent method to obtain NH RDCs for larger proteins upto 70 kDa, far superior to commonly used HSQC in-phase/anti-phase and HSQC/TROSY comparisons. Here, this method, dubbed "RDC-TROSY" is discussed in detail and the limits of its utility are assessed by simulations. Prominent in the latter analysis is the evaluation of the effect of amide proton flips on the "RDC-TROSY" linewidths. The details of the technical and computational implementations of these methods for the determination of domain orientations in 45-60 kDa Hsp70 chaperone protein constructs are described.

  1. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy studies on 15N-labeled and their deuterated nitroxyl spin probes used in molecular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jebaraj, D. David; Benial, A. Milton Franklin; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Kenichi; Utsumi, Hideo

    2013-06-01

    Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) studies were carried out for 2 mM concentration of 15N labeled carbamoyl-PROXYL, carboxy-PROXYL, MC-PROXYL and their deuterated derivatives using X-band ESR spectrometer. The ESR parameters such as linewidth, hyperfine coupling constant, g-factor, spin-spin relaxation time were determined. The lineshape analysis was also carried out. The observed linewidth values are ˜50% higher for undeuterated nitroxyl radicals compared with their deuterated derivatives. The lineshape analysis reveals that the observed ESR lineshape is a voigt lineshape, which is the convolution of a lorentzian and guassian profile. ESR lineshape analysis results that the lorentzian contribution is ˜20% higher for deuterated nitroxyl radicals compared with undeuterated nitroxyl radicals. The observed spin-spin relaxartion time for deuterated nitroxyl radicals is ˜50% longer compared with undeuterated nitroxyl radicals. The g value indicates the isotropic nature of nitroxyl radicals in pure water. From these results, the deuterated nitroxyl radicals are suitable spin probes for ESR/Overhauser-enhanced magnetic resonance (OMR) studies.

  2. 15N depleted nitrogen isotope values in Cretaceous black shales: paleoceanographic event or diagenesis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junium, C. K.; Arthur, M. A.

    2004-12-01

    Nitrogen isotopic values of bulk sediment samples in black shales are almost exclusively near 0 ‰ and C/N ratios are high (20-35). Sequential extraction of exchangeable and non-exchangeable N fractions demonstrates that the inorganic N fraction is negligible and bulk sediment data reflect the organic N fraction. The trend in \\delta$15N and C/N has been observed in numerous localities and depositional environments in the mid-Cretaceous (Demarara Rise, DSDP Sites 367, 603B and 530, the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway, Wunstorf, Germany, and Bahloul, Tunisia) as well as the Toarcian of England and in Quaternary Mediterranean Sapropels. Three explanations are considered: 1) That primary production during black shale deposition was dominated by a unique community composed of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria; or 2) utilization of a 15N depleted ammonium source by another set of biota; or 3) that the values are the result of diagenetic loss of N prevailing in Corg-rich strata with a low capacity for N adsorption. The depleted nitrogen isotopic values suggest that nitrogen fixation or utilization of a depleted nitrogen source (e.g. ammonium) may have been important which is plausible in consideration of nitrogen deficiencies that might characterize widespread deep-water anoxia. Secular variations in nitrogen isotope values across the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary of ODP Site 1261, Demarara Rise, show a shift from -1 to -3‰ . One interpretation of the origin of the excursion could be that a fraction of the organic matter was produced utilizing a 15N depleted ammonium source, assuming that the nitrogen isotopic composition of fixed oceanic nitrogen does not change. However, it should be noted that large (greater than 1‰ ) variations in nitrogen isotope values are observed above and below the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary Event and have no known paleoceanographic forcing. The variations in nitrogen isotope values are matched by antithetic variations in C/N indicating diagenetic N-loss that could be interpreted as the primary control on the nitrogen isotope variations. The high C/N ratios probably result from selective removal of N-enriched compounds in the water column and during burial diagenesis. Clay-poor, Corg-rich sediments have a low sorptive capacity, allowing diffusion of dissolved N out of the Corg-rich sediments resulting in higher C/N ratios. Pore water ammonium concentrations are mM, indicating low sorption and high rates of diffusion into overlying strata. Coupled C/N and N-isotope variations occur by the removal of a 15N enriched fraction. Protein degradation has been suggested to result in negative isotopic shifts but would not result in large increases in C/N and the isotopic shifts are limited by the protein richness of the primary organic matter and the internal isotopic heterogeneity of the organic matter pools. Although we favor an explanation that involves a primary signature, diagenesis cannot be excluded in low ? 15N values.

  3. Abundance coefficients, a new method for measuring microorganism relative abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forester, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    A new method of measuring the relative abundance of microorganisms by using a set of interrelated coefficients, termed 'abundance coefficients' or 'AC', is proposed. These coefficients provide a means of recording abundance for geometric density categories, and each density measurement represents an approximation of the Poisson parameter ??t. The AC is the natural logarithm of a 'characteristic value,' which is a particular number for each geometric density category. The 'characteristic values' are based upon a probabilistic error statement derived from the Poisson formula, and they present evidence for separation of the geometric category boundaries by e = 2.71828. The proposed AC provide a means for recording species abundance in a manner suitable for arithmetic manipulation, for population structure studies, and for the determination of practical limits for defining the presence or absence of a species. Further, these coefficients provide for both intrasample and intersample abundance comparisons. ?? 1977 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  4. ? 15N and ? 13C dynamics of suspended organic matter in freshwater and brackish waters of the Scheldt estuary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. De Brabandere; F. Dehairs; S. Van Damme; N. Brion; P. Meire; N. Daro

    2002-01-01

    Suspended particulate organic matter was sampled monthly between June 1999 and April 2000 in the Scheldt river and estuary to investigate the seasonal and spatial patterns of ?13C and ?15N signatures. ?15N of suspended matter showed large seasonal variation. Minimum values ranged from ?0.5‰ in the freshwater zone (spring situation) to +2.3‰ in the mesohaline zone (winter situation). Maximum values

  5. The influence of tannin, pectin and polyethylene glycol on attachment of 15N-labelled rumen microorganisms to cellulose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. L. Bento; T. Acamovic; H. P. S. Makkar

    2005-01-01

    The microbial attachment to and gas production from ?-cellulose (Sigma; C-8002) without and with mimosa tannin (MT), pectin (P), polyethylene glycol (PEG), MT+P or MT+PEG, were investigated using the in vitro gas production system. Microbial attachment based on 15N-labelled rumen microorganisms in the residual pellet after 24h incubation was estimated, which varied from 113.7 to 161.3?g 15N per g residual

  6. Triple resonance experiments for aligned sample solid-state NMR of 13C and 15N labeled proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neeraj Sinha; Christopher V. Grant; Sang Ho Park; Jonathan Miles Brown

    2007-01-01

    Initial steps in the development of a suite of triple-resonance 1H\\/13C\\/15N solid-state NMR experiments applicable to aligned samples of 13C and 15N labeled proteins are described. The experiments take advantage of the opportunities for 13C detection without the need for homonuclear 13C\\/13C decoupling presented by samples with two different patterns of isotopic labeling. In one type of sample, the proteins

  7. Comparison of five soil organic matter decomposition models using data from a 14C and 15N labeling field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pansu, Marc; Bottner, Pierre; Sarmiento, Lina; Metselaar, Klaas

    2004-12-01

    Five alternatives of the previously published MOMOS model (MOMOS-2 to -6) are tested to predict the dynamics of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in soil during the decomposition of plant necromass. 14C and 15N labeled wheat straw was incubated over 2 years in fallow soils of the high Andean Paramo of Venezuela. The following data were collected: soil moisture, total 14C and 15N and microbial biomass (MB)-14C and -15N, daily rainfall, air temperature and total radiation. Daily soil moisture was predicted using the SAHEL model. MOMOS-2 to -4 (type 1 models) use kinetic constants and flow partitioning parameters. MOMOS-2 can be simplified to MOMOS-3 and further to MOMOS-4, with no significant changes in the prediction accuracy and robustness for total-14C and -15N as well as for MB-14C and -15N. MOMOS-5 (type 2 models) uses only kinetic constants: three MB-inputs (from labile and stable plant material and from humified compounds) and two MB-outputs (mortality and respiration constants). MOMOS-5 did not significantly change the total-14C and -15N predictions but markedly improved the predictive quality and robustness of MB-14C and -15N predictions (with a dynamic different from the predictions by other models). Thus MOMOS-5 is proposed as an accurate and ecologically consistent description of decomposition processes. MOMOS-6 extends MOMOS-5 by including a stable humus compartment for long-term simulations of soil native C and N. The improvement of the predictions is not significant for this 2-year experiment, but MOMOS-6 enables prediction of a sequestration in the stable humus compartment of 2% of the initially added 14C and 5.4% of the added 15N.

  8. Conformation of Alamethicin in Oriented Phospholipid Bilayers Determined by 15N Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mads Bak; Robert P. Bywater; Morten Hohwy; Jens K. Thomsen; Kim Adelhorst; Hans J. Jakobsen; Ole W. Sørensen; Niels C. Nielsen

    2001-01-01

    The conformation of the 20-residue antibiotic ionophore alamethicin in macroscopically oriented phospholipid bilayers has been studied using 15N solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in combination with molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. Differently 15N-labeled variants of alamethicin and an analog with three of the ?-amino-isobutyric acid residues replaced by alanines have been investigated to establish experimental structural constraints and

  9. Experimental flume study on Potamogeton natans and Ranunculus fluitans macrophytes: impact of hydrodynamics on 15N-ammonium uptake rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Woule Ebongue; N. Brion; N. Hove; C. Barrón; F. Dehairs; K. Bal; T. Bouma; J. Schoelynck; E. de Deckere; P. Meire

    2010-01-01

    By means of incubations in a flume tank using 15N enriched ammonium label we investigate the concomitant effects of (i) different morphologies and specific surfaces, (ii) bulk water flow successively set at 0.3 and 0.1 m s-1 and (iii) three patch configurations on the rates of 15N-ammonium uptake rates for two macrophytes species: Potamogeton natans and Ranunculus fluitans. Because recent

  10. Isotopic analysis of bulk, LMW, and HMW DON d15N indicates recycled nitrogen release from marine DON

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Knapp; D. M. Sigman; F. Lipschultz; A. Kustka; D. G. Capone

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) concentration and stable isotope ratio (d15N) measurements were made on bulk and size fractionated surface ocean dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) samples collected in the oligotrophic North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The bulk DON concentration in the upper 100 m is similar between the North Atlantic and North Pacific, between 4.5 and 5.0 uM, but the average d15N of

  11. Mycorrhizal fungi supply nitrogen to host plants in Arctic tundra and boreal forests: 15N is the key signal.

    PubMed

    Hobbie, John E; Hobbie, Erik A; Drossman, Howard; Conte, Maureen; Weber, J C; Shamhart, Julee; Weinrobe, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Symbiotic fungi's role in providing nitrogen to host plants is well-studied in tundra at Toolik Lake, Alaska, but little-studied in the adjoining boreal forest ecosystem. Along a 570 km north-south transect from the Yukon River to the North Slope of Alaska, the 15N content was strongly reduced in ectomycorrhizal and ericoid mycorrhizal plants including Betula, Salix, Picea mariana (P. Mill.) B.S.P., Picea glauca Moench (Voss), and ericaceous plants. Compared with the 15N content of soil, the foliage of nonmycorrhizal plants (Carex and Eriophorum) was unchanged, whereas content of the ectomycorrhizal fungi was very much higher (e.g., Boletaceae, Leccinum and Cortinarius). It is hypothesized that similar processes operate in tundra and boreal forest, both nitrogen-limited ecosystems: (i) mycorrhizal fungi break down soil polymers and take up amino acids or other nitrogen compounds; (ii) mycorrhizal fungi fractionate against 15N during production of transfer compounds; (iii) host plants are accordingly depleted in 15N; and (iv) mycorrhizal fungi are enriched in 15N. Increased N availability for plant roots or decreased light availability to understory plants may have decreased N allocation to mycorrhizal partners and increased delta15N by 3-4 parts per million for southern populations of Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Salix. Fungal biomass, measured as ergosterol, correlated strongly with soil organic matter and attained amounts similar to those in temperate forest soils. PMID:19190704

  12. Lineshape-based polarimetry of dynamically-polarized 15N2O in solid-state mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Kuzma, N.N.; Håkansson, P.; Pourfathi, M.; Ghosh, R.K.; Kara, H.; Kadlecek, S.J.; Pileio, G.; Levitt, M.H.; Rizi, R.R.

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of 15N2O, known for its long-lived singlet-state order at low magnetic field, is demonstrated in organic solvent/trityl mixtures at ~1.5 K and 5 T. Both 15N polarization and intermolecular dipolar broadening are strongly affected by the sample's thermal history, indicating spontaneous formation of N2O clusters. In situ 15N NMR reveals four distinct powder-pattern spectra, attributed to the chemical-shift anisotropy (CSA) tensors of the two 15N nuclei, further split by the intramolecular dipolar coupling between their magnetic moments. 15N polarization is estimated by fitting the free-induction decay (FID) signals to the analytical model of four single-quantum transitions. This analysis implies (10:2 ± 2:2)% polarization after 37 h of DNP, and provides a direct, instantaneous probe of the absolute 15N polarization, without a need for time-consuming referencing to a thermal-equilibrium NMR signal. PMID:23851025

  13. Using dual-bacterial denitrification to improve ?15N determinations of nitrates containing mass-independent 17O

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, T.B.; Böhlke, J.K.; Casciotti, K.L.

    2004-01-01

    The bacterial denitrification method for isotopic analysis of nitrate using N2O generated from Pseudomonas aureofaciens may overestimate ??15N values by as much as 1-2??? for samples containing atmospheric nitrate because of mass-independent 17O variations in such samples. By analyzing such samples for ??15N and ??18O using the denitrifier Pseudomonas chlororaphis, one obtains nearly correct ??15N values because oxygen in N 2O generated by P. chlororaphis is primarily derived from H 2O. The difference between the apparent ??15N value determined with P. aureofaciens and that determined with P. chlororaphis, assuming mass-dependent oxygen isotopic fractionation, reflects the amount of mass-independent 17O in a nitrate sample. By interspersing nitrate isotopic reference materials having substantially different ?? 18O values with samples, one can normalize oxygen isotope ratios and determine the fractions of oxygen in N2O derived from the nitrate and from water with each denitrifier. This information can be used to improve ??15N values of nitrates having excess 17O. The same analyses also yield estimates of the magnitude of 17O excess in the nitrate (expressed as ??17O) that may be useful in some environmental studies. The 1-?? uncertainties of ??15N, ??18O and ??17O measurements are ??0.2, ??0.3 and ??5???, respectively. Copyright ?? 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Human and climate impact on N natural abundance of plants and soils in high-mountain ecosystems: a short review and two examples from the Eastern Pamirs and Mt. Kilimanjaro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Zech; Carolin Bimüller; Andreas Hemp; Cyrus Samimi; Christina Broesike; Claudia Hörold; Wolfgang Zech

    2011-01-01

    Population pressure increasingly endangers high-mountain ecosystems such as the pastures in the Eastern Pamirs and the mountain forests on Mt. Kilimanjaro. At the same time, these ecosystems constitute the economic basis for millions of people living there. In our study, we, therefore, aimed at characterising the land-use effects on soil degradation and N-cycling by determining the natural abundance of N.

  15. Sample Artefacts in ?15N and ?18O of Nitrate in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seguin, A.; Norman, A. L.

    2009-12-01

    Nitrate is one of the major inorganic anions in aerosols. Recently nitrogen and oxygen isotopes in nitrates have been used to trace sources and chemical processes in the atmosphere. High volume samplers are used in order to gain enough material for isotope analysis, but artefacts can occur when measuring with this technique. Besides retaining NO3 from aerosol, gaseous HNO3 can be absorbed on the filter increasing the reported values of nitrate reported. Alternatively; when elevated temperatures are present in the atmosphere, nitrate is volatized in the form of NH3NO3 which would lead to an underestimation of nitrogen on the filter [Schaap et al., 2004]. The artefacts from high volume sampling may cause inaccuracies in the reported isotope values due to isotope fractionation or different initial isotope values between gaseous HNO3 and particulate nitrate. High volume samplers were deployed on board a ship in the summer of 2003 jointly with the Canadian Surface Ocean - Lower Atmosphere Study (SOLAS). A quartz filter was positioned on a high volume sampler. A cellulose acetate filter treated with potassium carbonate and glycerol was placed underneath the quartz filter. The cellulose acetate filter is designed to catch sticky gaseous (such as SO2) but was also found to catch a nitrogen gas species (most probable HNO3 and/or NH3NO3). Analysis of isotopic composition of nitrate for both nitrogen and oxygen was carried out on selected samples by the denitrifier method. Values ranged between -4 and +1‰ for ?15N and between +49 and +66‰ for ?18O for quartz filter. The nitrogen gas species had ranges between -11 and -0‰ for ?15N and between +44 and +62‰ for ?18O. Average differences between the aerosol (caught on the quartz filter) and the nitrogen gas species (on the cellulose acetate filter) were 3±4 ‰ for ?15N and 10±7 ‰ for ?18O. These values are examined to find insights in possible fractionation in the nitrate collection method currently used in other studies. Schaap, M., G. Spindler, M. Schulz, K. Acker, W. Maenhaut, A. Berner, W. Wieprecht, N. Streit, K. Müller, E. Brüggemann, X. Chi, J.-P. Putaud, R. Hitzenberger, H. Puxbaum, U. Baltensperger and H. ten Brink (2004), Artefacts in the sampling of nitrate studied in the “INTERCOMP” campaigns of EUROTRAC-AEROSOL, Atmospheric Environment, 38, 6487-6496.

  16. Spatial variations in ?13C and ?15N values of primary consumers in a coastal lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Como, S.; Magni, P.; Van Der Velde, G.; Blok, F. S.; Van De Steeg, M. F. M.

    2012-12-01

    The analysis of the contribution of a food source to a consumer's diet or the trophic position of a consumer is highly sensitive to the variability of the isotopic values used as input data. However, little is known in coastal lagoons about the spatial variations in the isotopic values of primary consumers considered 'end members' in the isotope mixing models for quantifying the diet of secondary consumers or as a baseline for estimating the trophic position of consumers higher up in the food web. We studied the spatial variations in the ?13C and ?15N values of primary consumers and sedimentary organic matter (SOM) within a selected area of the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy). Our aim was to assess how much of the spatial variation in isotopic values of primary consumers was due to the spatial variability between sites and how much was due to differences in short distances from the shore. Samples were collected at four stations (50-100 m apart) selected randomly at two sites (1.5-2 km apart) chosen randomly at two distances from the shore (i.e. in proximity of the shore -Nearshore - and about 200 m away from the shore -Offshore). The sampling was repeated in March, May and August 2006 using new sites at the two chosen distances from the shore on each date. The isotopic values of size-fractionated seston and macrophytes were also analyzed as a complementary characterization of the study area. While ?15N did not show any spatial variations, the ?13C values of deposit feeders, Alitta (=Neanthes) succinea, Lekanesphaera hookeri, Hydrobia acuta and Gammarus aequicauda, were more depleted Offshore than Nearshore. For these species, there were significant effects of distance or distance × dates in the mean ?13C values, irrespective of the intrinsic variation between sites. SOM showed similar spatial variations in ?13C values, with Nearshore-Offshore differences up to 6‰. This indicates that the spatial isotopic changes are transferred from the food sources to the deposit feeders studied. In contrast, ?13C and ?15N values of suspension feeders, Ficopomatus enigmaticus and Amphibalanus amphitrite, did not show major variations, either between sites, or between Nearshore and Offshore. These different patterns between deposit feeders and suspension feeders are probably due to a weaker trophic link of the latter with SOM. We suggest that the Nearshore-Offshore gradient might be an important source of isotopic variation that needs to be considered in future web studies in coastal lagoons.

  17. Dynamics in the isotropic phase of nematogens using 2D IR vibrational echo measurements on natural-abundance 13CN and extended lifetime probes.

    PubMed

    Sokolowsky, Kathleen P; Fayer, Michael D

    2013-12-01

    The long time scale orientational relaxation of nematogens in the isotropic phase is associated with the randomization of pseudonematic domains, which have a correlation length that grows as the isotropic-to-nematic phase transition temperature is approached from above. Here we begin to address the fast dynamics of the nematogen molecules within the domains using two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo experiments. The problems of performing ultrafast IR experiments in pure liquids are discussed, and solutions are presented. In addition, the issue of short vibrational lifetimes, which limit the ability of 2D IR experiments to examine dynamics over a wide range of times, is addressed. The experiments were performed on the nematogen 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB), with the CN stretch initially used as the vibrational probe. Although the CN stretch has a small transition dipole, because the sample is a pure liquid it is necessary to use an exceedingly thin sample to perform the experiments. The small sample volume leads to massive heating effects that distort the results. In addition, the high concentration in the pure liquid can result in vibrational excitation transfer that interferes with the measurements of structural dynamics, and the CN vibrational lifetime is very short (3.6 ps). These problems were overcome by performing the experiments on the natural-abundance (13)CN stretch (5(13)CB), which greatly reduced the absorbance, eliminating the heating problems; also, this stretch has a longer lifetime (7.9 ps). Experiments were also performed on benzonitrile, which showed that the heating problems associated with pure liquids are not unique to 5CB. Again, the problems were eliminated by conducting measurements on the (13)CN stretch, which has an even longer lifetime (20.2 ps) compared with the (12)CN stretch (5.6 ps). Finally, to extend the range of the dynamical measurements, 4-pentyl-4'-thiocyanobiphenyl (5SCB) was synthesized and studied as a dilute solute in 5CB. The CN stretch of 5SCB has a vibrational lifetime of 103 ps, which permits dynamical measurements to 200 ps, revealing the full range of fast structural dynamics in the isotropic phase of 5CB. It is shown that the 5SCB probe reports essentially the same dynamics as 5(13)CB on the short time scale that is observable with the 5(13)CB vibrational probe. PMID:24156524

  18. Reevaluation of siderophile element abundances and ratios across the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary: Implications for the nature of the projectile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goderis, S.; Tagle, R.; Belza, J.; Smit, J.; Montanari, A.; Vanhaecke, F.; Erzinger, J.; Claeys, Ph.

    2013-11-01

    The discovery over 30 years ago at Gubbio (Italy) and Caravaca (Spain) of an enrichment in the concentrations of iridium (Ir) and the other platinum group elements (PGE) by up to four orders of magnitude (Irmax = 0.10-87 ng/g) compared to average continental crustal background levels remains one of the most important discoveries in the Earth sciences. Since then, similar anomalies have been detected in more than 120 Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary sites worldwide. Highly elevated Ir and other siderophile element abundances in roughly chondritic ratios are considered strong indicators for the presence of a meteoritic contribution in impact-related lithologies (melt rocks, impact ejecta material, etc.), delivered when an extraterrestrial object strikes Earth. The presented work adds 113 unpublished PGE analyses of 38 K-Pg sections worldwide to the existing literature. The analytical protocol relied on for this purpose consisted of a combination of a nickel-sulfide fire assay pre-concentration technique and subsequent trace metal determination via inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Through repeated determination of key siderophile elements (i.e., Cr, Co, Ni, and PGE), the importance of sampling, nugget effects, and analytical methodologies applied becomes more apparent. Even more critically, these analytical effects are superimposed by the local syn- and post-depositional conditions that have affected the pristine meteoritic signature of the K-Pg impactor, including potential fractionation during vaporization and condensation, dissimilar PGE carrier phases, terrestrial PGE input, sedimentation rate, reworking, diagenesis, bioturbation, and chemical diffusion. While chondrite-normalized PGE patterns of individual sites appear relatively flat (i.e., chondritic), strong variations in siderophile element content and inter-element ratios exist between K-Pg locations, inter-laboratory measurements, and replicate analyses, hampering a precise projectile identification using (highly) siderophile elements. Only when considering improved databases of siderophile element concentrations in meteorites, in combination with linear regression analysis to calculate inter-element ratios from a large suite of ejecta deposit sites, the nature of the K-Pg projectile can be resolved. Application of this methodology to an extensive data set of continental and marine sites, very proximal to distal to the Chicxulub impact structure, supports a carbonaceous chondritic impactor (type CM or CO).

  19. MILLIMETER-WAVE OBSERVATIONS OF CN AND HNC AND THEIR {sup 15}N ISOTOPOLOGUES: A NEW EVALUATION OF THE {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N RATIO ACROSS THE GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Adande, G. R.; Ziurys, L. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    The N = 1 {yields} 0 transitions of CN and C{sup 15}N (X{sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}), as well as the J = 1 {yields} 0 lines of HN{sup 13}C and H{sup 15}NC, have been observed toward 11 molecular clouds using the new 3 mm ALMA-type receiver of the 12 m telescope of the Arizona Radio Observatory. These sources span a wide range of distances from the Galactic center and are all regions of star formation. From these observations, {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N ratios have been determined using two independent methods. First, the measurements of C{sup 14}N and C{sup 15}N were directly compared to establish this ratio, correcting for high opacities when needed, as indicated by the nitrogen hyperfine intensities. Second, the ratio was calculated from the quantity [HN{sup 13}C]/[H{sup 15}NC], determined from the HNC data, and then scaled by {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratios previously established, i.e., the so-called double isotope method. Values from both methods are in reasonable agreement, and fall in the range {approx}120-400, somewhat lower than previous {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N ratios derived from HCN. The ratios exhibit a distinct positive gradient with distance from the Galactic center, following the relationship{sup 14}N/{sup 15}N = 21.1 (5.2) kpc{sup -1} D{sub GC} + 123.8 (37.1). This gradient is consistent with predictions of Galactic chemical evolution models in which {sup 15}N has a secondary origin in novae, while primary and secondary sources exist for {sup 14}N. The local interstellar medium value was found to be {sup 4}N/{sup 15}N = 290 {+-} 40, in agreement with the ratio found in nearby diffuse clouds and close to the value of 272 found in Earth's atmosphere.

  20. Studying ancient crop provenance: implications from ?(13)C and ?(15)N values of charred barley in a Middle Bronze Age silo at Ebla(NW Syria).

    PubMed

    Fiorentino, Girolamo; Caracuta, Valentina; Casiello, Grazia; Longobardi, Francesco; Sacco, Antonio

    2012-02-15

    The discovery of a storeroom full of barley and other cereals (L.9512) in the proto-historic site of Ebla has provided a unique opportunity to study the centralized storage system of the early city-state from a different perspective. Epigraphic evidence available within the site reveals a complex system of taxation which included gathering grain tributes from satellite sites and redistributing semi-finished products such as flour. In this paper, we intend to explore the possibilities of a combined approach to studying the storage system, based on estimated barley grain volumes and ?(13)C-?(15)N analyses. This approach is used to distinguish between grain from different harvesting sites and to identify any grain cultivated using special agricultural practices (e.g. manuring or irrigation). The basic assumption for this kind of analysis is that the growth-site conditions, natural or anthropogenic, of harvested cereals are reflected in their grain size and ?(13)C-?(15)N values. Since the remains found in the storeroom were charred, the first task was to evaluate the effect of carbonization on the ?(13)C-?(15)N and the size of the grains. Thus, the effect of charring was tested on modern samples of Syrian barley landraces. Once it had been ascertained that fresh grains reduced to charred remains retain their original biometric and isotopic traits, the ancient material was examined. Thirteen groups were identified, each characterized by a specific average volume and specific carbon and nitrogen values. The analysis revealed that what had first appeared to be a homogeneous concentration of grain was in fact an assemblage of barley harvested from different sites. PMID:22223320

  1. Relative stability of soil carbon revealed by shifts in ?15N and C:N ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conen, F.; Zimmermann, M.; Leifeld, J.; Seth, B.; Alewell, C.

    2008-02-01

    Life on earth drives a continuous exchange of carbon between soils and the atmosphere. Some forms of soil carbon, or organic matter, are more stable and have a longer residence time in soil than others. Relative differences in stability have often been derived from shifts in ?13C (which is bound to a vegetation change from C3 to C4 type) or through 14C-dating (which is bound to small sample numbers because of high measurement costs). Here, we propose a new concept based on the increase in ?15N and the decrease in C:N ratio with increasing stability. We tested the concept on grasslands at different elevations in the Swiss Alps. Depending on elevation and soil depth, it predicted mineral-associated organic carbon to be 3 to 73 times more stable than particulate organic carbon. Analysis of 14C-ages generally endorsed these predictions.

  2. Relative stability of soil carbon revealed by shifts in ?15N and C:N ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conen, F.; Zimmermann, M.; Leifeld, J.; Seth, B.; Alewell, C.

    2007-08-01

    Life on earth drives a continuous exchange of carbon between soils and the atmosphere. Some forms of soil carbon, or organic matter, are more stable and have a longer residence time in soil than others. Relative differences in stability have often been derived from shifts in ?13C (which is bound to a vegetation change from C3 to C4 type) or through 14C-dating (which is bound to small sample numbers because of high measurement costs). Here, we propose a new concept based on the increase in ?15N and the decrease in C:N ratio with increasing stability. We tested the concept on grasslands at different elevations in the Swiss Alps. Depending on elevation and soil depth, it predicted mineral-associated organic carbon to be 3 to 73 times more stable than particulate organic carbon. Analysis of 14C-ages generally endorsed these predictions.

  3. Creating 13C- and 15N-enriched tree leaf litter for decomposition experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szlavecz, K. A.; Pitz, S.; Chang, C.; Bernard, M.

    2013-12-01

    Labeling plant material with heavy isotopes of carbon and nitrogen can produce a traceable nutrient signal that can be followed into the different trophic levels and decomposer food web. We treated 60 tree saplings with 13C-enriched CO2 gas and 15N-enriched ammonium nitrate over a three-month period to create dually-labeled plant material for future decomposition experiments. The trees included both early (Red maple, Sweetgum, Tulip poplar) and late (American beech, White oak) successional deciduous tree species, and a conifer, White pine. We constructed a 2.4 m × 2.4 m × 2.4 m environmental chamber that was climate-controlled using an air conditioning system. An Arduino microcontroller interfaced with a Vaisala GMP343 CO2 probe maintained a CO2 concentration between 500-520 ppm by controlling a solenoid valve on the CO2 tank regulator. The trees were placed into the chamber in August 2012 and remained until senescence unless they were lost to death or disease. Ammonium nitrate was added twice, in September and October. Leaf samples were collected prior to the start of the experiment and after senescence, whereas root samples were collected only in December. Samples were dried, ground and analyzed using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. American beech and White oak had 40% mortality, and 34% of tulip poplar trees were removed because of powdery mildew overgrowth or death. Most tulip poplar trees exhibited a second leaf out following senescence in late September. Nearly 1 kg of litter was produced with tulip poplar representing over half of the total mass. Levels of enrichment varied greatly by species. Beech (-14.2‰) and White oak (-4.8‰) had low levels of enrichment in comparison to early successional species such as Sweetgum (41.7‰) and Tulip poplar (30.7‰ [first leaf fall] and 238.0‰ [second leaf fall]). Leaf enrichment with 15N followed a similar pattern, though it was achieved at a higher level with ?15N values varying from 271.6‰ to 1354.2‰ at the end of the experiment. Enrichment of roots was significantly higher than leaves (?13C range: 111.5-219.2‰; ?15N range: 1516.9-3939.3‰) indicating that nutrients were translocated away from leaves prior to senescence, which is supported by the increase in C:N ratio between the initial (19.0) and final (60.1) leaf sampling. Despite the variable levels of enrichment, leaves from all species were sufficiently labeled for use in future studies aimed at tracking the transformation of carbon and nitrogen during decomposition. The greatest challenges were treating diseases and pests and creating ideal growing conditions for many species within the same chamber. Reducing the number of individuals and better pest management will lead to even higher level enrichment in the future.

  4. A 15N tracing method to quantify N2O pathways from terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Christoph; Laughlin, Ronnie; Spott, Oliver; Rütting, Tobias

    2014-05-01

    To quantify N2O production pathways from terrestrial ecosystems a 15N tracing model was developed. The model is based on previous tracing models to quantify gross nitrogen (N) transformations including soil nitrite (NO2-) dynamics. Four N2O pathways are considered in the model which are associated with NO2- subpools: i) reduction of NO2- associated with nitrification (NO2-nit- N2Onit), ii) reduction of NO2- associated with denitrification (NO2-den- N2Oden), iii) reduction of NO2- associated with organic N (Norg) oxidation (NO2-org - N2Oorg), and iv) codenitrification (N2Ocod), a hybrid reaction where one N atom in N2O originates from organic N and the other from NO2-den. The reaction kinetics and emission notations are based on first-order approaches. For all four N2O sub-pools specific reduction rates to N2 were implemented. Parameters are optimized with the Metropolis algorithm (a Monte Carlo technique). A data set from an old grassland was used to test the 15N tracing tool. Results show that on average over a 12 day period N2Onit, N2Oden, N2Oorg and N2Ocod contributed by 9%, 20%, 54% and 18% to the total N2O emission, respectively. Alternative techniques based on analytical approaches, which consider three N2O emission pathways, provide similar results. For the first time four N2O emission pathways, including a hybrid-reaction, can simultaneously be quantified. The analysis for the old grassland study showed that heterotrophic processes related to organic N turnover are the prevailing pathway for N2O production. The underlying NO2- and N2O reduction kinetics are in agreement with microbial measurements and the calculated N2/N2O ratios are in the expected range. The model provides a framework for the development of more realistic representations of soil N cycling in ecosystem models.

  5. ‘Bioinspired’ Total Synthesis of Agelastatin A and Derivatives for Cellular Target Identification; Syntheses of ^(15)N-labeled Oroidin and Keramadine Analog for ‘Metabiosynthetic’ Studies 

    E-print Network

    Reyes, Jeremy Chris Punzalan

    2013-11-08

    labeling and analysis by 1D ^(1)H-^(15)N HSQC NMR and FTMS experiments was validated as a direct method for measurement of ^(15)N incorporation into P2-AIs. Studies toward the synthesis of a ^(15)N-keramadine analog, which will be used to investigate...

  6. ‘Bioinspired’ Total Synthesis of Agelastatin A and Derivatives for Cellular Target Identification; Syntheses of ^(15)N-labeled Oroidin and Keramadine Analog for ‘Metabiosynthetic’ Studies

    E-print Network

    Reyes, Jeremy Chris Punzalan

    2013-11-08

    labeling and analysis by 1D ^(1)H-^(15)N HSQC NMR and FTMS experiments was validated as a direct method for measurement of ^(15)N incorporation into P2-AIs. Studies toward the synthesis of a ^(15)N-keramadine analog, which will be used to investigate...

  7. [Platanus orientalis foliar N% and delta15 N responses to nitrogen of atmospheric wet deposition in urban area].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Li; Xiao, Hua-Yun; Xiao, Hong-Wei

    2012-04-01

    Leaves of Platanus orientalis were collected since Mar. 2009 till Apr. 2010, in an urban area at Guiyang. After mass of experiments and analysis, we carried out constructing the temporal variation of foliar N% and delta15 N: both higher in Spring/Summer, lower in Autumn, no data of Winter because of leaf abscission. Results showed that foliar N% varied from 1.48% to 5.27%, with an annual average of 3.36%, while the average concentration of total N in rhizospheric soil was 0.29%. The foliar N% rose and fell relative to DIN in rainwater (range from 0.57 mg x L(-1) to 6.74 mg x L(-1)), indicating that the N% content in foliar tissue of plant was approximately proportional to atmospheric N inputs. The range of foliar delta15N were from 4.48 per thousand to 8.39 per thousand, with the average of 6.33 per thousand, much higher than the delta15N-NH4+ of rain water (-19.76 per thousand(-) -10.41 per thousand) and delta15TN of rhizospheric soil (3.19 per thousand +/- 1.04 per thousand). Besides, a good uniform correlation between foliar delta15N and delta15N-NH4+ of rain water were found. As synthesis of two main N sources, the more positive delta15N values of Platanus orientalis can be explained by isotopic fractionation during N uptake and basipetal translocation. These responses of both foliar N% and delta15N to atmospheric nitrogen deposition, revealed the potential value in using vascular leaves as bio-monitors for assessment of N deposition, furthermore, for prevention and control of air pollution in urban ecosystem. PMID:22720549

  8. A 15N-n.m.r. study of cerebral, hepatic and renal nitrogen metabolism in hyperammonaemic rats.

    PubMed Central

    Farrow, N A; Kanamori, K; Ross, B D; Parivar, F

    1990-01-01

    1. Rats were infused with 15NH4+ or L-[15N]alanine to induce hyperammonaemia, a potential cause of hepatic encephalopathy. HClO4 extracts of freeze-clamped brain, liver and kidney were analysed by 15N-n.m.r. spectroscopy in combination with biochemical assays to investigate the effects of hyperammonaemia on tissue concentrations of ammonia, glutamine, glutamate and urea. 2. 15NH4+ infusion resulted in a 36-fold increase in the concentration of blood ammonia. Cerebral glutamine concentration increased, with 15NH4+ incorporated predominantly into the gamma-nitrogen atom of glutamine. Incorporation into glutamate was very low. Cerebral ammonia concentration increased 5-10-fold. The results suggest that the capacity of glutamine synthetase for ammonia detoxification was saturated. 3. Pretreatment with the glutamine synthetase inhibitor L-methionine DL-sulphoximine resulted in 84% inhibition of [gamma-15N]glutamine synthesis, but incorporation of 15N into other metabolites was not observed. The result suggests that no major alternative pathway for ammonia detoxification, other than glutamine synthetase, exists in rat brain. 4. In the liver 15NH4+ was incorporated into urea, glutamine, glutamate and alanine. The specific activity of 15N was higher in the gamma-nitrogen atom of glutamine than in urea. A similar pattern was observed when [15N]alanine was infused. The results are discussed in terms of the near-equilibrium states of the reactions involved in glutamate and alanine formation, heterogeneous distribution in the liver lobules of the enzymes involved in ammonia removal and their different affinities for ammonia. 5. Synthesis of glutamine, glutamate and hippurate de novo was observed in kidney. Hippurate, as well as 15NH4+, was contributed by co-extracted urine. 6. The potential utility and limitations of 15N n.m.r. for studies of mammalian metabolism in vivo are discussed. PMID:1976007

  9. Late Holocene Plankton Domain Shifts in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre Revealed by Amino Acid Specific ?13C and ?15N Records from Proteinaceous Deep-Sea Corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, O.; McMahon, K.; Guilderson, T. P.; Mccarthy, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Recent observations from station ALOHA have framed a new paradigm about the dynamic nature of subtropical ocean gyres. These vast regions are now known to vary physically and biologically, over a range of timescales, with important implications for the export of carbon to the deep ocean. In the largest of these gyres, the North Pacific subtropical gyre (NPSG), primary production has increased in recent decades despite a reduction in nutrient supply to surface waters. This is thought to be the result of a shift in plankton community structure from mostly eukaryotes to mostly dinitrogen-fixing prokaryotes. It remains uncertain, however, whether the recent plankton community domain shift can be linked to cyclical climate variability or a long-term global warming trend. To establish historical trends, we analyzed nitrogen (?15N) and carbon (?13C) isotopic records preserved in the skeletons of extraordinarily long-lived, proteinaceous deep-sea corals, which feed on, and therefore serve as a proxy for, exported productivity. Specimens of Hawaiian gold coral (Kulamanamana haumeaae) were collected from the Hawaiian archipelago and sampled across the skeletal growth rings to generate high-resolution (5 yr), millennial-length records of "bulk" ?15N and ?13C. After a millennium of relatively minor fluctuation, ?15N decreased by up to 2 per mil between 1850 and the present. Analysis of amino-acid-specific ?15N on a subset of the samples, combined with isotopic mass balance between nitrate and nitrogen fixation, implied a 17 to 27 % increase in nitrogen fixation as the underlying cause for the observed trends. This interpretation is supported by analysis of the ?13C of essential amino acids, which serve as isotopic fingerprints of primary producer origin. Together, these independent lines of evidence describe a domain shift from a dominantly eukaryotic to dinitrogen-fixing prokaryotic plankton community. This shift has been ongoing since the end of the Little Ice Age, concurrent with increasing temperatures in the northern hemisphere, and most likely the result of increasing stratification and nutrient limitation in the NPSG. These results highlight the value of novel paleo-archives combined with amino-acid-specific isotope methods in addressing unresolved problems in marine biogeochemistry and climate change.

  10. delta15N and delta13C diet-tissue discrimination factors for large sharks under semi-controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Nigel E; Brush, Jaclyn; McCarthy, Ian D; Fisk, Aaron T

    2010-04-01

    Stable isotopes (delta(15)N and delta(13)C) are being widely applied in ecological research but there has been a call for ecologists to determine species- and tissue-specific diet discrimination factors ((13)C and (15)N) for their study animals. For large sharks stable isotopes may provide an important tool to elucidate aspects of their ecological roles in marine systems, but laboratory based controlled feeding experiments are impractical. By utilizing commercial aquaria, we estimated (15)N and (13)C of muscle, liver, vertebral cartilage and a number of organs of three large sand tiger (Carcharias taurus) and one large lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris) under a controlled feeding regime. For all sharks mean+/-SD for (15)N and (13)C in lipid extracted muscle using lipid extracted prey data were 2.29 per thousand+/-0.22 and 0.90 per thousand+/-0.33, respectively. The use of non-lipid extracted muscle and prey resulted in very similar (15)N and (13)C values but mixing of lipid and non-lipid extracted data produced variable estimates. Values of (15)N and (13)C in lipid extracted liver and prey were 1.50 per thousand+/-0.54 and 0.22 per thousand+/-1.18, respectively. Non-lipid extracted diet discrimination factors in liver were highly influenced by lipid content and studies that examine stable isotopes in shark liver, and likely any high lipid tissue, should strive to remove lipid effects through standardising C:N ratios, prior to isotope analysis. Mean vertebral cartilage (15)N and (13)C values were 1.45 per thousand+/-0.61 and 3.75 per thousand+/-0.44, respectively. Organ (15)N and (13)C values were more variable among individual sharks but heart tissue was consistently enriched by approximately 1-2.5 per thousand. Minimal variability in muscle and liver delta(15)N and delta(13)C sampled at different intervals along the length of individual sharks and between liver lobes suggests that stable isotope values are consistent within tissues of individual animals. To our knowledge, these are the first reported diet-tissue discrimination factors for large sharks under semi-controlled conditions, and are lower than those reported for teleost fish. PMID:19800980

  11. Impact of fertilization on tree-ring delta15N and delta13C in beech stands: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Elhani, Sliman; Guehl, Jean-Marc; Nys, Claude; Picard, Jean-François; Dupouey, Jean-Luc

    2005-11-01

    We studied the effects of two fertilization treatments (N and NPKCa) on wood nitrogen (N) isotope composition (delta(15)N), water-use efficiency (WUE) estimated by carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C) analyses, and ring width of trees in 80-year-old beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stands in the forest of Fougères, western France. Four replicates were fertilized in two successive years (1973 and 1974), 20 years before core sampling. Unfertilized control trees displayed a decreasing delta(15)N trend with time. The N and NPKCa treatments both increased delta(15)N compared with the control treatment. Wood extraction by organic solvents enhanced the delta(15)N signal. Thus, N addition to the beech ecosystem, even in moderate amounts, could be traced back in tree-ring delta(15)N, suggesting that wood N isotope analysis is a promising tool for studying the long-term effects of N deposition on forests. Although WUE decreased for about 6 years after N fertilization, WUE in NPKCa-treated trees did not differ significantly from that in control trees. Results were similar whether based on cellulose or total wood delta(13)C analysis, suggesting that extraction of cellulose is not necessary when studying fertilization impacts on WUE. The NPKCa treatment had a large impact on radial growth, causing a significant long-lasting increase of 29% compared with the control treatment. Nitrogen alone did not change radial growth significantly. PMID:16105811

  12. Range Expansion of the Jumbo Squid in the NE Pacific: ?15N Decrypts Multiple Origins, Migration and Habitat Use

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Cooley, Rocio I.; Ballance, Lisa T.; McCarthy, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    Coincident with climate shifts and anthropogenic perturbations, the highly voracious jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas reached unprecedented northern latitudes along the NE Pacific margin post 1997–98. The physical or biological drivers of this expansion, as well as its ecological consequences remain unknown. Here, novel analysis from both bulk tissues and individual amino acids (Phenylalanine; Phe and Glutamic acid; Glu) in both gladii and muscle of D. gigas captured in the Northern California Current System (NCCS) documents for the first time multiple geographic origins and migration. Phe ?15N values, a proxy for habitat baseline ?15N values, confirm at least three different geographic origins that were initially detected by highly variable bulk ?15N values in gladii for squid at small sizes (<30 cm gladii length). In contrast, bulk ?15N values from gladii of large squid (>60 cm) converged, indicating feeding in a common ecosystem. The strong latitudinal gradient in Phe ?15N values from composite muscle samples further confirmed residency at a point in time for large squid in the NCCS. These results contrast with previous ideas, and indicate that small squid are highly migratory, move into the NCCS from two or more distinct geographic origins, and use this ecosystem mainly for feeding. These results represent the first direct information on the origins, immigration and habitat use of this key “invasive” predator in the NCCS, with wide implications for understanding both the mechanisms of periodic D. gigas population range expansions, and effects on ecosystem trophic structure. PMID:23527242

  13. Sources of nitrate in the Arno River waters: Constraints from d15N and d18O

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nisi, Barbara; Vaselli, Orlando; Buccianti, Antonella; Silva, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    Running waters in anthropogenically affected areas are susceptible to nitrate contamination. Source identification is a fundamental step for the development of effective remediation. Previous studies pointed to pollution by nitrogen-bearing contaminants in the Arno Basin. In this paper, eleven surface water samples have been analysed for main and trace components and 15N/14N and 18O/16O ratios, with the aim of identifying for the first time the origin of nitrate in the Arno River Basin so that further investigations can appropriately be designed. d18O(NO3)and d15N(NO3) values have allowed to hypothesise the main sources of nitrate, as follows: i) mineralized fertilizer, ii) soil-organic nitrogen, iii) manure and septic waste. The anomalously high d15N and d18O values in the Chiana (d15N=24.9‰ and d18O=15.5‰) and Usciana tributaries (d15N=30.1‰ and d18O=7.2‰) show a low probability of belonging to the same population as that of the other samples and can be related to denitrification process of nitrate from animal waste/sewage and/or an industrial process (e.g. tanneries).

  14. Non-lethal approach identifies variability of ?15N values in the fin rays of Atlantic Goliath Grouper, Epinephelus itajara

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Ethan A.; Hollander, David J.; Koenig, Christopher C.; Stallings, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    The Atlantic Goliath Grouper, Epinephelus itajara, is critically endangered throughout its range but has begun to show initial signs of recovery in Florida state waters. As the population continues to rebound, researchers face a pressing need to fill the knowledge gaps about this iconic species. Here, we examined the ?15N isotopic records in fin rays collected from Atlantic Goliath Grouper, and related changes of isotopic ratios over time to life history characteristics. Fin-ray analysis was used as a non-lethal technique to sample individuals from two locations at similar latitudes from the west and east coasts of Florida, USA. ?15N data were acquired by mechanically separating the annuli of each fin ray and then analyzing the material in an Irradiance Elemental Analyzer Mass Spectrometer. The ?15N values were consistent among individuals within populations from each coast of Florida, and mirrored the expected changes over the lives of the fish. Overall, differences were found between ?15N values at juvenile life history phases versus adult phases, but the patterns associated with these differences were unique to each coastal group. We demonstrated, for the first time, that ?15N values from fin rays can be used to assess the life histories of Atlantic Goliath Grouper. The non-lethal strategies outlined here can be used to acquire information essential to the management of species of concern, such as those that are threatened or endangered.

  15. Importance of Nitrate Attenuation In A Small Wetland Following Forest Harvest: 18O\\/16O, 15N\\/14N in nitrate and 15N\\/14N) in vegetation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Spoelstra; S. L. Schiff; R. G. Semkin; D. S. Jeffries; R. J. Elgood

    2004-01-01

    Forest harvest can result in elevated nitrate concentrations in streams and groundwater affecting forest regeneration and downstream aquatic ecosystems. Turkey Lakes Watershed, located near Sault Ste Marie, Ontario (TLW), exhibits relatively high nitrate export due to naturally high rates of nitrification. During a forest harvest experiment at the TLW, stable isotope techniques were used to investigate nitrate attenuation in an

  16. Combined use of 15N and 18O of nitrate and 11B to evaluate nitrate contamination in groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    Isotopic composition of NO3 (??15NNO3 and ??18ONO3) and B (??11B) were used to evaluate NO3 contamination and identify geochemical processes occurring in a hydrologically complex Basin and Range valley in northern Nevada with multiple potential sources of NO3. Combined use of these isotopes may be a useful tool in identifying NO3 sources because NO3 and B co-migrate in many environmental settings, their isotopes are fractionated by different environmental processes, and because wastewater and fertilizers may have distinct isotopic signatures for N and B. The principal cause of elevated NO3 concentrations in residential parts of the study area is wastewater and not natural NO3 or fertilizers. This is indicated by some samples with elevated NO3 concentrations plotting along ??15NNO3 and NO3 mixing lines between natural NO3 from the study area and theoretical septic-system effluent. This conclusion is supported by the presence of caffeine in one sample and the absence of samples with elevated NO3 concentrations that fall along mixing lines between natural NO3 and theoretical percolate below fertilized lawns. Nitrogen isotopes alone could not be used to determine NO3 sources in several wells because denitrification blurred the original isotopic signatures. The range of ??11B values in native ground water in the study area (-8.2??? to +21.2???) is large. The samples with the low ??11B values have a geochemical signature characteristic of hydrothermal systems. Physical and chemical data suggest B is not being strongly fractionated by adsorption onto clays. ??11B values from local STP effluent (-2.7???) and wash water from a domestic washing machine (-5.7???) were used to plot mixing lines between wastewater and native ground water. In general, wells with elevated NO3 concentrations fell along mixing lines between wastewater and background water on plots of ??11B against 1/B and Cl/B. Combined use of ??15N and ??11B in the study area was generally successful in identifying contaminant sources and processes that are occurring, however, it is likely to be more successful in simpler settings with a well-characterized ??11B value for background wells.

  17. Detection of organic sulfur by {sup 15}N and {sup 19}F NMR via formation of iminosulfuranes

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, J.A.; Linehan, J.C.; Lamb, C.N.

    1992-08-01

    We have synthesized new iminosulfuranes from a variety of diaryl-and dialkyl sulfides and dibenzothiophene. The pattern of {sup 15}N chemical shifts indicates that functional groups attached to sulfur are not simply resolved into aryl and alkyl groups. Thus, resolution of sulfur functional groups using {sup 15}N NMR via iminosulfurane does not appear practicable. However, iminosulfurane formation, together with the N-haloamide reaction and the Pummerer rearrangement, provides pathways for chemical discrimination of different sulfur substituents using unique {sup 15}N- or, {sup 19}F-labelled fragments for different categories of sulfur functional groups. In efforts currently underway, we are applying these reactions to methylated extracts and conversion products of the high-organic-sulfur containing Yugoslavian Rasa and Spanish Mequinenza lignites. 1 tab, 14 refs.

  18. Detection of organic sulfur by [sup 15]N and [sup 19]F NMR via formation of iminosulfuranes

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, J.A.; Linehan, J.C.; Lamb, C.N.

    1992-08-01

    We have synthesized new iminosulfuranes from a variety of diaryl-and dialkyl sulfides and dibenzothiophene. The pattern of [sup 15]N chemical shifts indicates that functional groups attached to sulfur are not simply resolved into aryl and alkyl groups. Thus, resolution of sulfur functional groups using [sup 15]N NMR via iminosulfurane does not appear practicable. However, iminosulfurane formation, together with the N-haloamide reaction and the Pummerer rearrangement, provides pathways for chemical discrimination of different sulfur substituents using unique [sup 15]N- or, [sup 19]F-labelled fragments for different categories of sulfur functional groups. In efforts currently underway, we are applying these reactions to methylated extracts and conversion products of the high-organic-sulfur containing Yugoslavian Rasa and Spanish Mequinenza lignites. 1 tab, 14 refs.

  19. Mean lifetimes and equilibrium abundances in the fast CN cycle.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caughlan, G. R.; Fowler, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that the production of small nitrogen to carbon ratios is possible, in contrast to the equilibrium production in the ordinary CN cycle. Associated with such a production are high ratios of C-13/C-12 and of N-15/N-14. The final ratios depend on the conditions under which cessation of hydrogen burning occurs under astrophysical circumstances. A table showing proton capture mean lifetimes of CN nuclei is provided together with tables of the equilibrium abundances in a fast CN cycle. The ratios of final abundances of nitrogen to carbon as functions of temperature are also presented.

  20. Identification of reaction products and intermediates of aromatic-amine dehydrogenase by 15N and 13C NMR.

    PubMed

    Bishop, G R; Zhu, Z; Whitehead, T L; Hicks, R P; Davidson, V L

    1998-03-15

    13C- and 15N-NMR studies of the reaction of aromatic amine dehydrogenase (AADH) with methylamine demonstrated that the products of the reductive half-reaction are an equivalent of formaldehyde hydrate and a reduced aminoquinol form of the tryptophan tryptophylquinone (TTQ) cofactor which contains covalently bound substrate-derived N. These data are consistent with the Ping Pong kinetic mechanism and aminotransferase-type chemical reaction mechanism which have been previously proposed for AADH. Comparison of the 15N-NMR spectra of the aminoquinol TTQ intermediates of AADH and methylamine dehydrogenase (MADH) revealed that the substrate-derived aminoquinol N of AADH and MADH exhibited distinct 15N chemical shifts which are separated by approx. 7 p.p.m. In each case, the signal for the substrate-derived aminoquinol N appears optimally with short pulse delay and exhibits a relaxation time and chemical shift which are consistent with 15N covalently bound to an aromatic ring (i.e. aminoquinol) which is attached to a rigid protein matrix. The aminoquinol of AADH is less stable against reoxidation than that of MADH. These data suggest that differences in the active-site mediated electrostatic environments of the aminoquinol N in the respective enzymes may influence both the observed 15N chemical shift and the relative reactivities of the TTQ aminoquinols towards oxygen. These data also demonstrate the utility of 13C- and 15N-NMR spectroscopy as a tool for monitoring the intermediates and products of enzyme-catalysed transformations. PMID:9494080

  1. Variability in the bulk composition and abundance of dissolved organic matter in the lower Mississippi and Pearl rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Shuiwang; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Shiller, Alan M.; Dria, Karl; Hatcher, Patrick G.; Carman, Kevin R.

    2007-06-01

    In this study, we examined the temporal and spatial variability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) abundance and composition in the lower Mississippi and Pearl rivers and effects of human and natural influences. In particular, we looked at bulk C/N ratio, stable isotopes (?15N and ?13C) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry of high molecular weight (HMW; 0.2 ?m to 1 kDa) DOM. Monthly water samples were collected at one station in each river from August 2001 to 2003. Surveys of spatial variability of total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) were also conducted in June 2003, from 390 km downstream in the Mississippi River and from Jackson to Stennis Space Center in the Pearl River. Higher DOC (336-1170 ?M), C/N ratio,% aromaticity, and more depleted ?15N (0.76-2.1‰) were observed in the Pearl than in the lower Mississippi River (223-380 ?M, 4.7-11.5‰, respectively). DOC, C/N ratio, ?13C, ?15N, and % aromaticity of Pearl River HMW DOM were correlated with water discharge, which indicated a coupling between local soil inputs and regional precipitation events. Conversely, seasonal variability in the lower Mississippi River was more controlled by spatial variability of a larger integrative signal from the watershed as well as in situ DOM processing. Spatially, very little change occurred in total DOC in the downstream survey of the lower Mississippi River, compared to a decrease of 24% in the Pearl River. Differences in DOM between these two rivers were reflective of the Mississippi River having more extensive river processing of terrestrial DOM, more phytoplankton inputs, and greater anthropogenic perturbation than the Pearl River.

  2. Potential for assessing long-term dynamics in soil nitrogen availability from variations in delta15N of tree rings.

    PubMed

    Hart, S C; Classen, A T

    2003-03-01

    Numerous researchers have used the isotopic signatures of C, H, and O in tree rings to provide a long-term record of changes in the physiological status, climate, or water-source use of trees. The frequently limiting element N is also found in tree rings, and variation in its isotopic signature may provide insight into long-term changes in soil N availability of a site. However, research has suggested that N is readily translocated among tree ring of different years; such infidelity between the isotopic compositions of the N taken up from the soil and the N contained in the ring of that growth year would obscure the long-term N isotopic record. We used a 15-year 15N-tracer study to assess the degree of N translocation among tree rings in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees growing in a young, mixed-conifer plantation. We also measured delta13C and delta15N values in unlabeled trees to assess the degree of their covariance in wood tissue, and to explore the potential for a biological linkage between them. We found that the maximum delta15N values in rings from the labeled trees occurred in the ring formed one-year after the 15N was applied to the roots. The delta15N value of rings from labeled trees declined exponentially and bidirectionally from this maximum peak, toward younger and older rings. The unlabeled trees showed considerable interannual variation in the delta15N values of their rings (up to 3 and 5 per thousand), but these values correlated poorly between trees over time and differed by as much as 6 per thousand. Removal of extractives from the wood reduced their delta15N value, but the change was fairly small and consistent among unlabeled trees. The delta13C and delta15N values of tree rings were correlated over time in only one of the unlabeled trees. Across all trees, both delta13C values of tree rings and annual stem wood production were well correlated with annual precipitation, suggesting that soil water balance is an important environmental factor controlling both net C gain and transpirational water loss at this site. Our results suggest that interannual translocation of N among tree rings is substantial, but may be predictable enough to remove this source of variation from the tree-ring record, potentially allowing the assessment of long-term changes in soil N availability of a site. PMID:12812252

  3. Improved determination of the astrophysical S(0) factor of the (15)N(p,alpha)(12)C reaction 

    E-print Network

    La Cognata, M.; Goldberg, V. Z.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Spitaleri, C.; Tribble, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    ] and reference therein) it has been subject to both direct [2?4] and indirect [via the Trojan Horse method (THM)] [1] investigations to extend our knowledge down to the Gamow window. Recently Barker presented new R matrix fits [5] to the direct measurements... to the Gamow peak, is imperative in the case under consideration to determine the S(0) factor. The THM reaction 2H(15N, ?12C)n has been used in Ref. [1] to determine the S(E) factor for the 15N(p, ?)12C reaction down to 19 keV. The S(E) factor obtained...

  4. Acetylene reduction, H 2 evolution and 15 N 2 fixation in the Alnus incana-Frankia symbiosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Sellstedt

    1986-01-01

    Acetylene reduction, 15N2 reduction and H2 evolution were measured in root systems of intact plants of grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) in symbiosis with Frankia. The ratios of C2H2: 15N2 were compared with C2H2:N2 ratios calculated from C2H2 reduction and H2 evolution, and with C2H2:N2 ratios calculated from accumulated C2H4 production and nitrogen content. It was possible to calculate

  5. Influence of solar cycle and chemistry on tropical (10°N-15°N) mesopause variabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, K.; Sridharan, S.; Vijaya Bhaskara Rao, S.

    2015-05-01

    Monthly averaged zonal mean temperature and ozone volume mixing ratios obtained from "Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry" instrument on board "Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics" satellite for the years 2002-2012 are used to study the seasonal and solar cycle variabilities of tropical (10°N-15°N) mesopause structure. The mesopause temperature and ozone mixing ratios are positively correlated with solar cycle due to changes in CO2 and O, respectively. Although the seasonal variation in mesopause temperatures is quite small, the mesopause altitudes are comparatively higher (~99-100 km) in April and lower (~95 km) in September. The factors controlling the tropical mesopause structure are investigated by taking the mesopause variability for the year 2011 as a case study as it resembles the long-term mean seasonal variation. It is found that the radiative cooling due to 15 µm CO2 infrared emissions is the only cooling mechanism in the mesopause region. The net heating rates obtained from (i) solar heating by O2 and O3, (ii) chemical heating due to seven major exothermic reactions, (iii) O3 long-wave radiative heating, and (iv) CO2 cooling are smaller (~20 K/d) in April and larger (~85 K/d) in September at lower thermosphere (~99-101 km). The downward heat conduction from the lower thermosphere forces the mesopause to lower heights in September, although no downward heat conduction is observed in April.

  6. A novel method for expression and purification of authentic amyloid-? with and without (15)N labels.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yi-Hung; Chen, Yun-Ru

    2015-09-01

    Amyloid-? (A?) is a major constituent in the senile plaques of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). A? has been intensively studied in amyloid research; however, challenges posed by data reproducibility arise from purity of synthetic A? and high expense for its isotope-labeling. The difficulties motivate development and optimization of recombinant A? (rA?) production. Here, we report a new procedure to express and purify high quality rA?40 from Escherichia coli. The new A? construct expressed insoluble A? fused with an N-terminal histidine-tag connected by a linker harboring TEV protease cut site. After purification and partial refolding, the fusion tag was removed by TEV protease cleavage, immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), and reversed phase-HPLC purification with a yield of 3.5mg/L culture with and without (15)N label. The rA? adopts classic amyloid fibrillization and is capable of binding to its clinical relevant metal ions. PMID:25969353

  7. Ammonia 15N/14N Isotope Ratio in the Jovian Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, P.R.; Niemann, H. B.; Atreya, S. K.; Wong, M. H.; Owen, T. C; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Data from the Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer has been used to derive the N-15/N-14 isotope ratio in ammonia at Jupiter. Although the mass spectral interference from the water contribution to 18 amu makes an accurate derivation of the (N-15)H3/(N-14)H3 ratio difficult from measurements of the singly ionized signals at 18 and 17 amu, this interference is not present in the doubly charged 8.5 and 9.0 amu signals from (N-14)H3++ and (N-15)H3++ respectively. Although the count rate from the 9 amu signal is low during the direct sampling of the atmosphere, the ammonia signal was considerably enhanced during the first enrichment cell (EC1) experiment that measured gas sampled between 0.8 and 2.8 bar. Count rates at 9 amu in the EC1 experiment reach 60/second and measure ammonia sampled from 0.88 to 2.8 bar. In the EC1 measurements the 8.5 amu signal is not measured directly, but can be calculated from the ammonia contribution to 17 amu and the ratio of NH3 ions of a double to single charged observed during a high resolution mass scan taken near the end of the descent. The high resolution scan gives this ratio from ammonia sampled much deeper in the atmosphere. These results are described and compared with Infrared Space Observatory-Short Wavelength Spectrometer (ISO-SWS) observations that give this ratio at 400 mbar.

  8. A 15N stable isotope semen label to detect mating in the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle EH Helinski; Rebecca C Hood; Doris Gludovacz; Leo Mayr; Bart GJ Knols

    2008-01-01

    In previous studies it was determined that the stable isotope 13-carbon can be used as a semen label to detect mating events in the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis. In this paper we describe the use of an additional stable isotope, 15-nitrogen (15N), for that same purpose. Both stable isotopes can be analysed simultaneously in a mass spectrometer, offering the possibility

  9. Cell-free synthesis and combinatorial selective 15N-labeling of the cytotoxic protein amoebapore A from Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Xun, Yang; Tremouilhac, Pierre; Carraher, Colm; Gelhaus, Christoph; Ozawa, Kiyoshi; Otting, Gottfried; Dixon, Nicholas E; Leippe, Matthias; Grötzinger, Joachim; Dingley, Andrew J; Kralicek, Andrew V

    2009-11-01

    Amoebapore A is a pore-forming protein produced by the pathogenic parasite Entamoeba histolytica, which causes human amoebic dysentery. The pore-forming activity of amoebapore A is regulated by pH-dependent dimerization, a prerequisite for membrane insertion and pore formation. Understanding of these important processes has been hampered by the cytotoxicity of amoebapore A, which prevents the production of this protein in cell-based expression systems. In this study, a protocol for the cell-free production of active recombinant amoebapore A is presented. Protein yields of approximately 500 microg/ml of cell-free reaction were achieved. Recombinant amoebapore A was purified using a three-step procedure. To facilitate the structural characterization of the dimeric and pore forms, we adapted the cell-free system to isotope label amoebapore A for NMR studies. The preliminary assignment of a 2D 1H-15N HSQC spectrum of a uniformly 13C/15N-labeled sample was achieved using a combinatorial selective 15N-labeling approach coupled with available 1H(N) chemical shift data, resulting in the unambiguous assignment of resonances from 55 of the 77 residues. To confirm these results and obtain the full sequence-specific assignments of the 2D 1H-15N HSQC spectrum, a 3D HNCA spectrum was recorded. These assignment data will be used to aid the characterization of amoebapore A dimer formation and membrane insertion. PMID:19573603

  10. Variation in hair ?13C and ?15N values in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) from Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Castellini, J. Margaret; Stricker, Craig A.; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Lee, Benjamin P.Y.-H.; O'Hara, Todd M.

    2015-01-01

    Much of the primatology literature on stable isotope ratios of carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N) has focused on African and New World species, with comparatively little research published on Asian primates. Here we present hair ?13C and ?15N isotope values for a sample of 33 long-tailed macaques from Singapore. We evaluate the suggestion by a previous researcher that forest degradation and biodiversity loss in Singapore have led to a decline in macaque trophic level. The results of our analysis indicated significant spatial variability in ?13C but not ?15N. The range of variation in ?13C was consistent with a diet based on C3 resources, with one group exhibiting low values consistent with a closed canopy environment. Relative to other macaque species from Europe and Asia, the macaques from Singapore exhibited a low mean ?13C value but mid-range mean ?15N value. Previous research suggesting a decline in macaque trophic level is not supported by the results of our study. PMID:23729223

  11. Plant community change mediates the response of foliar delta15N to CO2 enrichment in mesic grasslands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration may change the isotopic signature of plant N by altering plant and microbial processes involved in the N cycle. Isotope fractionation theory and limited experimental evidence indicate that CO2 may increase leaf delta15N by increasing plant community productivity,...

  12. Layer selection effect on solid state 13C and 15N chemical shifts calculation using ONIOM approach.

    PubMed

    Shaghaghi, Hoora; Ebrahimi, Hossein Pasha; Bahrami Panah, Niloufar; Tafazzoli, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Solid state (13)C and (15)N chemical shifts of uracil and imidazole have been calculated using a 2-layer ONIOM approach at 32 levels of theory. The effect of electron correlation between two layers has been investigated by choosing two different kinds of layer selection. Factorial design has been applied as a multivariate technique to analyze the effect of wave function and layer selection on solid state (13)C and (15)N chemical shifts calculations. PBEPBE/6-311+G(d,p) was recommended as an optimally selected level of theory for high layer in both models. It is illustrated that considering the electron correlation of two layers of ONIOM models is important factor to calculate solid state (15)N chemical shifts. The agreement between the calculated and experimental values of solid state (13)C and (15)N chemical shifts using ONIOM (PBEPBE/6-311+G(d,p):AM1) for both uracil and imidazole confirmed the reliability of the selected wave functions and layer selection. PMID:23414630

  13. Insight on RDX degradation mechanism by Rhodococcus strains using 13C and 15N kinetic isotope effects.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Anat; Ronen, Zeev; Gelman, Faina

    2013-01-01

    The explosive Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is known to be degraded aerobically by various isolates of the Rhodococcus species, with denitration being the key step, mediated by Cytochrome P450. Our study aimed at gaining insight into the RDX degradation mechanism by Rhodococcus species and comparing isotope effects associated with RDX degradation by distinct Rhodococcus strains. For these purposes, enrichment in (13)C and (15)N isotopes throughout RDX denitration was studied for three distinct Rhodococcus strains, isolated from soil and groundwater in an RDX-contaminated site. The observable (15)N enrichment throughout the reaction, together with minor (13)C enrichment, suggests that N-N bond cleavage is likely to be the key rate-limiting step in the reaction. The similarity in the kinetic (15)N isotope effect between the three tested strains suggests that either isotope-masking effects are negligible, or are of a similar extent for all tested strains. The lack of variability in the kinetic (15)N isotope effect allows the interpretation of environmental studies with greater confidence. PMID:23215036

  14. STATISTICAL ESTIMATES OF VARIANCE FOR 15N ISOTOPE DILUTION MEASUREMENTS OF GROSS RATES OF NITROGEN CYCLE PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has been fifty years since Kirkham and Bartholmew (1954) presented the conceptual framework and derived the mathematical equations that formed the basis of the now commonly employed method of 15N isotope dilution. Although many advances in methodology and analysis have been ma...

  15. NMR assignment of 1H, 13C, and 15N resonances of rat lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiafu; Lv, Ying; Guo, Chenyun; Lin, Donghai

    2010-10-01

    Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) acts as both a PGD(2)-synthesizing enzyme and an extracellular transporter for small lipophilic molecules. Here we report the backbone and side-chain resonance assignments of uniformly (15)N, (13)C labeled rat L-PGDS. PMID:20617402

  16. Contrasting food web linkages for the grazing pathway in 3 temperate forested streams using {sup 15}N as a tracer

    SciTech Connect

    Tank, J.L.; Mulholland, P.J.; Meyer, J.L.; Bowden, W.B.; Webster, J.R.; Peterson, B.J.

    1998-11-01

    Nitrogen is a critical element controlling the productivity and dynamics of stream ecosystems and many streams are limited by the supply of biologically available nitrogen. The authors are learning more about the fate of inorganic nitrogen entering streams through {sup 15}N tracer additions. The Lotic Intersite Nitrogen Experiment (LINX) is studying the uptake, cycling, and fate of {sup 15}N-NH{sub 4} in the stream food web of 10 streams draining different biomes. Using the {sup 15}N tracer method and data from 3 sites in the study, the authors can differentiate patterns in the cycling of nitrogen through the grazing pathway (N from the epilithon to grazing macroinvertebrates) for 3 temperate forested streams. Here, they quantify the relationship between the dominant grazer and its proposed food resource, the epilithon, by comparing {sup 15}N levels of grazers with those of the epilithon, as well as the biomass, nitrogen content, and chlorophyll a standing stocks of the epilithon in 3 streams.

  17. Ultralow Power Consumption of 1.5nW Over Wide Optical Spectrum Range in Silicon Organic Hybrid Modulator

    E-print Network

    Chen, Ray

    ) Layout of the PCW coupler (mode converter + PCW coupler). The black area corresponds toun-etched siliconUltralow Power Consumption of 1.5nW Over Wide Optical Spectrum Range in Silicon Organic Hybrid: We demonstrate an ultralow-power, low-dispersion and compact silicon-organic-hybrid photonic crystal

  18. STUDY OF DAIRY MANURE N CYCLING IN SOIL-PLANT CONTINUUM USING 15N AND OTHER METHODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most studies of manure N cycling are short-term and rely on indirect methods, such as apparent N recovery, or the difference method (DIFF), fertilizer N equivalents (FE) or incorporate 15N into ammonium-N fractions. Direct and perhaps more precise measurements may be achieved by long-term studies us...

  19. Effects of region, genotype, harvest year and their interactions on ?13C, ?15N and ?D in wheat kernels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongyan; Guo, Boli; Wei, Yimin; Wei, Shuai; Ma, Yiyan; Zhang, Wan

    2015-03-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influences of region, genotype, harvest year and their interactions on stable carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen isotopic ratio (?(13)C, ?(15)N and ?D) fingerprints in wheat kernels. A total of 270 wheat kernel samples including ten genotypes were collected from three different regions of China during 2011-2013 harvest. Analysis of variance was employed to investigate the effects of region, genotype, harvest year and their interactions on the ?(13)C, ?(15)N and ?D. The results showed that the ?(13)C and ?(15)N values in wheat kernels were significantly influenced by the region, genotype, harvest year and their interactions (region × genotype, genotype × year, region × year and region × genotype × year), ?D was significantly affected by region, genotype, harvest year and region × year. Region accounted for the largest proportion of the total variation and explained 47.57%, 58.02% and 27.96% for ?(13)C, ?(15)N and ?D, respectively. PMID:25308642

  20. Assessing waterbird habitat use in coastal evaporative systems using stable isotopes (? 13C, ? 15N and ?D) as environmental tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, Francisco; Abdennadher, Aida; Sanpera, Carola; Jover, Lluís; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Hobson, Keith A.

    2011-04-01

    Isotopic patterns of biota across salinity gradients in man-made evaporative systems could assist in determining the use of these habitats by animals. Here we report ? 13C, ? 15N and ?D measurements of a euryhaline fish, the Mediterranean toothcarp ( Aphanius fasciatus), inhabiting a range of salinities in the Thyna saltworks near Sfax (Tunisia). The contribution of these salinity niches to egg formation of two typically piscivorous bird species breeding in the area and feeding within saltworks, Little Tern ( Sternula albifrons) and Little Egret ( Egretta garzetta), was inferred trough a triple-isotope (? 13C, ? 15N and ?D) Bayesian mixing model. Isotopic trends for fish ? 15N and ?D across the salinity gradient followed the equations: ? 15N = e (1.1 + 47.68/Salinity) and ?D = -175.74 + Salinity + Salinity 2; whereas fish ? 13C increased as salinity rose (? 13C = -10.83 + 0.02·Salinity), after a sudden drop in fish isotopic values for salinities >60 (Practical Salinity Scale) (average fish ? 13C for salinities <60 = -5.92‰). Both bird species fed largely on low hypersalinity ponds (salinity = 43; average contribution = 37% and 22% for Little Egrets and Little Terns, respectively), although the use of intermediate hypersalinities (salinities 63 and 70) by Little Terns also occurred (16% and 21%, respectively). Isotopic patterns across salinity gradients allow the use of isotopic measurements to inform studies of habitat occupancy within evaporative systems and provide further insights into how wildlife communities interact with them.

  1. COMPARISON OF STABLE-NITROGEN (15N/14N) ISOTOPE RATIOS IN LARGE MOUTH BASS SCALES AND MUSCLE TISSUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable-nitrogen (15N/14N) isotope ratios of fish tissue are currently used to determine trophic structure, contaminant bioaccumulation, and the level of anthropogenic nitrogen enrichment in aquatic systems. The most common tissue used for these measurements is fileted dorsal musc...

  2. Estimating nitrogen uptake of individual roots in container- and field-grown plants using a 15 N-depletion approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Astrid VolderA; Laurel J. AndersonA; David R. SmartD; Arnold J. BloomE; Alan N. LaksoF; David M. EissenstatA

    2009-01-01

    We only have a limited understanding of the nutrient uptake physiology of individual roots as they age. Despite this shortcoming, the importance of nutrient uptake processes to our understanding of plant nutrition and nutrient cycling cannot be underestimated. In this study, we used a 15N depletion method that allowed for the measurement of nitrate-N uptake rates on intact, individual, fine

  3. Improved determination of the astrophysical S(0) factor of the (15)N(p,alpha)(12)C reaction

    E-print Network

    La Cognata, M.; Goldberg, V. Z.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Spitaleri, C.; Tribble, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    We present new improved R matrix fits of direct data and indirect Trojan Horse data for the (15)N(p,alpha)(12)C reaction and provide a more accurate recommended value of S(0)=73.0 +/- 5.0 MeV b from direct Redder data [A. Redder , Z. Phys. A 305...

  4. Mtabolisme de l'azote chez le ray-grass (Lolium perenne L.). Etude par marquage15N

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Agronomie Métabolisme de l'azote chez le ray-grass (Lolium perenne L.). Etude par marquage15N des la teneur en sucres solubles totaux. Lolium perenne L. - repousse - effet d'une coupe - remobilisations d'azote - protéines - nitrate Summary — Nitrogen metabolism in Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L

  5. Nitrate removal in stream ecosystems measured by 15N addition experiments: Denitrification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulholland, P.J.; Hall, R.O., Jr.; Sobota, D.J.; Dodds, W.K.; Findlay, S.E.G.; Grimm, N. B.; Hamilton, S.K.; McDowell, W.H.; O'Brien, J. M.; Tank, J.L.; Ashkenas, L.R.; Cooper, L.W.; Dahm, C. N.; Gregory, S.V.; Johnson, S.L.; Meyer, J.L.; Peterson, B.J.; Poole, G.C.; Valett, H.M.; Webster, J.R.; Arango, C.P.; Beaulieu, J.J.; Bernot, M.J.; Burgin, A.J.; Crenshaw, C.L.; Helton, A.M.; Johnson, L.T.; Niederlehner, B.R.; Potter, J.D.; Sheibley, R.W.; Thomasn, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    We measured denitrification rates using a field 15N-NO- 3 tracer-addition approach in a large, cross-site study of nitrate uptake in reference, agricultural, and suburban-urban streams. We measured denitrification rates in 49 of 72 streams studied. Uptake length due to denitrification (SWden) ranged from 89 m to 184 km (median of 9050 m) and there were no significant differences among regions or land-use categories, likely because of the wide range of conditions within each region and land use. N2 production rates far exceeded N2O production rates in all streams. The fraction of total NO-3 removal from water due to denitrification ranged from 0.5% to 100% among streams (median of 16%), and was related to NHz 4 concentration and ecosystem respiration rate (ER). Multivariate approaches showed that the most important factors controlling SWden were specific discharge (discharge / width) and NO-3 concentration (positive effects), and ER and transient storage zones (negative effects). The relationship between areal denitrification rate (Uden) and NO- 3 concentration indicated a partial saturation effect. A power function with an exponent of 0.5 described this relationship better than a Michaelis-Menten equation. Although Uden increased with increasing NO- 3 concentration, the efficiency of NO-3 removal from water via denitrification declined, resulting in a smaller proportion of streamwater NO-3 load removed over a given length of stream. Regional differences in stream denitrification rates were small relative to the proximate factors of NO-3 concentration and ecosystem respiration rate, and land use was an important but indirect control on denitrification in streams, primarily via its effect on NO-3 concentration. ?? 2009.

  6. Nitrate retention and removal in Mediterranean streams with contrasting land uses: a 15N tracer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Schiller, D.; Martí, E.; Riera, J. L.

    2008-08-01

    We used 15N-labelled nitrate (NO-3) additions to investigate nitrogen (N) cycling at the whole-reach scale in three Mediterranean streams subjected to contrasting land uses (i.e. forested, urban and agricultural). Our aim was to examine: i) the magnitude and relative importance of NO-3 retention (i.e. assimilatory uptake), and removal, (i.e. denitrification), ii) the relative contribution of the different primary uptake compartments to NO-3 retention, and iii) the regeneration, transformation and export pathways of the retained N. The concentration of NO-3 increased and that of dissolved oxygen (DO) decreased from the forested to the agricultural stream, with intermediate values in the urban stream. Standing stocks of primary uptake compartments were similar among streams and dominated by detritus compartments (i.e. fine and coarse benthic organic matter). In agreement, metabolism was net heterotrophic in all streams, although the degree of heterotrophy increased from the forested to the agricultural stream. The NO-3 uptake length decreased along this gradient, whereas the NO-3 mass-transfer velocity and the areal NO-3 uptake rate were highest in the urban stream. Denitrification was not detectable in the forested stream, but accounted for 9% and 68% of total NO-3 uptake in the urban and the agricultural stream, respectively. The relative contribution of detritus compartments to NO-3 assimilatory uptake was highest in the forested and lowest in the agricultural stream. In all streams, the retained N was rapidly transferred to higher trophic levels and regenerated back to the water column. Due to a strong coupling between regeneration and nitrification, most retained N was exported from the experimental reaches in the form of NO-3. This study evidences fast N cycling in Mediterranean streams. Moreover, results indicate that permanent NO-3 removal via denitrification may be enhanced over temporary NO-3 retention via assimilatory uptake in heterotrophic human-altered streams characterized by high NO-3 and low DO concentrations.

  7. Nitrate removal in stream ecosystems measured by 15N addition experiments: 2. Denitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Hall, Robert [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Sobota, Daniel [Oregon State University; Dodds, Walter [Kansas State University; Findlay, Stuart [Institute of Ecosystem Studies; Grimm, Nancy [Arizona State University; Hamilton, Stephen [Michigan State University, East Lansing; McDowell, William [University of Hew Hampshire; O'Brien, Jon [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Tank, Jennifer [University of Notre Dame, IN; Ashkenas, Linda [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Cooper, Lee W [ORNL; Dahm, Cliff [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Gregory, Stanley [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Johnson, Sherri [Oregon State University; Meyer, Judy [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Peterson, Bruce [Marine Biological Laboratory; Poole, Geoff [Eco-metrics; Valett, H. Maurice [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Webster, Jackson [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Arango, Clay [University of Notre Dame, IN; Beaulieu, Jake [University of Notre Dame, IN; Bernot, Melody [Murray State University; Burgin, Amy [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Crenshaw, Chelsea [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Helton, Ashley [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Johnson, Laura [University of Notre Dame, IN; Niederlehner, Bobbie [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Potter, Jody [University of New Hampshire; Sheibley, Rich [Arizona State University; Thomas, Suzanne [Marine Biological Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We measured denitrification rates using a field {sup 15}N-NO{sub 3}{sup -} tracer-addition approach in a large, cross-site study of nitrate uptake in reference, agricultural, and suburban-urban streams. We measured denitrification rates in 49 of 72 streams studied. Uptake length due to denitrification (S{sub Wden}) ranged from 89 m to 184 km (median of 9050 m) and there were no significant differences among regions or land-use categories, likely because of the wide range of conditions within each region and land use. N{sub 2} production rates far exceeded N{sub 2}O production rates in all streams. The fraction of total NO{sub 3}{sup -} removal from water due to denitrification ranged from 0.5% to 100% among streams (median of 16%), and was related to NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentration and ecosystem respiration rate (ER). Multivariate approaches showed that the most important factors controlling S{sub Wden} were specific discharge (discharge/width) and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration (positive effects), and ER and transient storage zones (negative effects). The relationship between areal denitrification rate (U{sub den}) and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration indicated a partial saturation effect. A power function with an exponent of 0.5 described this relationship better than a Michaelis-Menten equation. Although U{sub den} increased with increasing NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration, the efficiency of NO{sub 3}{sup -} removal from water via denitrification declined, resulting in a smaller proportion of streamwater NO{sub 3}{sup -} load removed over a given length of stream. Regional differences in stream denitrification rates were small relative to the proximate factors of NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration and ecosystem respiration rate, and land use was an important but indirect control on denitrification in streams, primarily via its effect on NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration.

  8. Separating the contributions to 15N transverse relaxation in a fibronectin type III domain.

    PubMed

    Meekhof, A E; Freund, S M

    1999-05-01

    In proteins, dynamic mobility is an important feature of structure, stability, and biomolecular recognition. Uniquely sensitive to motion throughout the milli- to picosecond range, rates of transverse relaxation, R2, are commonly obtained for the characterization of chemical exchange, and the construction of motional models that attempt to separate overall and internal mobility. We have performed an in-depth study of transverse relaxation rates of backbone 15N nuclei in TNfn3(1-90), the third fibronectin type III domain from human tenascin. By combining the results of spin-echo (CPMG) and off-resonance T1 rho experiments, we present R2 rates at effective field strengths of 2 to 40 krad/s, obtaining a full spectrum of 16 independent R2 data points for most residues. Collecting such a large number of replicate measurements provides insight into intrinsic uncertainties. The median standard deviation in R2 for non-exchanging residues is 0.31, indicating that isolated measurements may not be sufficiently accurate for a precise interpretation of motional models. Chemical exchange events on a timescale of 570 microseconds were observed in a cluster of residues at the C terminus. Rates of exchange for five other residues were faster than the sampled range of frequencies and could not be determined. Averaged 'exchange free' transverse relaxation rates, R2(0), were used to calculate the diffusion tensor for rotational motion. Despite a highly asymmetric moment of inertia, the narrow angular dispersion of N-H vectors within the beta sandwich proves insufficient to define deviations from isotropic rotation. Loop residues provide exclusive evidence for axially symmetric diffusion (Dpar/Dper = 1.55). PMID:10382303

  9. Stable Isotope Tracking of Endangered Sea Turtles: Validation with Satellite Telemetry and ?15N Analysis of Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Seminoff, Jeffrey A.; Benson, Scott R.; Arthur, Karen E.; Eguchi, Tomoharu; Dutton, Peter H.; Tapilatu, Ricardo F.; Popp, Brian N.

    2012-01-01

    Effective conservation strategies for highly migratory species must incorporate information about long-distance movements and locations of high-use foraging areas. However, the inherent challenges of directly monitoring these factors call for creative research approaches and innovative application of existing tools. Highly migratory marine species, such as marine turtles, regularly travel hundreds or thousands of kilometers between breeding and feeding areas, but identification of migratory routes and habitat use patterns remains elusive. Here we use satellite telemetry in combination with compound-specific isotope analysis of amino acids to confirm that insights from bulk tissue stable isotope analysis can reveal divergent migratory strategies and within-population segregation of foraging groups of critically endangered leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) across the Pacific Ocean. Among the 78 turtles studied, we found a distinct dichotomy in ?15N values of bulk skin, with distinct “low ?15N” and “high ?15N” groups. ?15N analysis of amino acids confirmed that this disparity resulted from isotopic differences at the base of the food chain and not from differences in trophic position between the two groups. Satellite tracking of 13 individuals indicated that their bulk skin ?15N value was linked to the particular foraging region of each turtle. These findings confirm that prevailing marine isoscapes of foraging areas can be reflected in the isotopic compositions of marine turtle body tissues sampled at nesting beaches. We use a Bayesian mixture model to show that between 82 and 100% of the 78 skin-sampled turtles could be assigned with confidence to either the eastern Pacific or western Pacific, with 33 to 66% of all turtles foraging in the eastern Pacific. Our forensic approach validates the use of stable isotopes to depict leatherback turtle movements over broad spatial ranges and is timely for establishing wise conservation efforts in light of this species’ imminent risk of extinction in the Pacific. PMID:22666354

  10. Measurement of 1H-15N and 1H-13C residual dipolar couplings in nucleic acids from TROSY intensities

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Jinfa; Wang, Jinbu; Grishaev, Alex; Yu, Ping; Wang, Yun-Xing; Bax, Ad

    2011-01-01

    Analogous to the recently introduced ARTSY method for measurement of one-bond 1H-15N residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) in large perdeuterated proteins, we introduce methods for measurement of base 13C-1H and 15N-1H RDCs in protonated nucleic acids. Measurements are based on quantitative analysis of intensities in 1H-15N and 13C-1H TROSY-HSQC spectra, and are illustrated for a 71-nucleotide adenine riboswitch. Results compare favorably with those of conventional frequency-based measurements in terms of completeness and convenience of use. The ARTSY method derives the size of the coupling from the ratio of intensities observed in two TROSY-HSQC spectra recorded with different dephasing delays, thereby minimizing potential resonance overlap problems. Precision of the RDC measurements is limited by the signal-to-noise ratio, S/N, achievable in the 2D TROSY-HSQC reference spectrum, and is approximately given by 30/(S/N) Hz for 15N-1H and 65/(S/N) Hz for 13C-1H. The signal-to-noise ratio of both 1H-15N and 1H-13C spectra greatly benefits when water magnetization during the experiments is not perturbed, such that rapid magnetization transfer from bulk water to the nucleic acid, mediated by rapid amino and hydroxyl hydrogen exchange coupled with 1H-1H NOE transfer, allows for fast repetition of the experiment. RDCs in the mutated helix 1 of the riboswitch are compatible with nucleotide-specifically modeled, idealized A-form geometry and a static orientation relative to the helix 2/3 pair, which differs by ca 6° relative to the X-ray structure of the native riboswitch. PMID:21947918

  11. Variability and directionality of temporal changes in ?(13)C and ? (15)N of aquatic invertebrate primary consumers.

    PubMed

    Woodland, Ryan J; Magnan, Pierre; Glémet, Hélène; Rodríguez, Marco A; Cabana, Gilbert

    2012-05-01

    Seasonal oscillations in the carbon (?(13)C) and nitrogen (?(15)N) isotope signatures of aquatic algae can cause seasonal enrichment-depletion cycles in the isotopic composition of planktonic invertebrates (e.g., copepods). Yet, there is growing evidence that seasonal enrichment-depletion cycles also occur in the isotope signatures of larger invertebrate consumers, taxa used to define reference points in isotope-based trophic models (e.g., trophic baselines). To evaluate the general assumption of temporal stability in non-zooplankton aquatic invertebrates, ?(13)C and ?(15)N time series data from the literature were analyzed for seasonality and the influence of biotic (feeding group) and abiotic (trophic state, climate regime) factors on isotope temporal patterns. The amplitude of ?(13)C and ?(15)N enrichment-depletion cycles was negatively related to body size, although all size-classes of invertebrates displayed a winter-to-summer enrichment in ?(13)C and depletion in ?(15)N. Among feeding groups, periphytic grazers were more variable and displayed larger temporal changes in ?(13)C than detritivores. For nitrogen, temporal variability and magnitude of directional change of ?(15)N was most strongly related to ecosystem trophic state (eutrophic > mesotrophic, oligotrophic). This study provides evidence of seasonality in the isotopic composition of aquatic invertebrates across very broad geographical and ecological gradients as well as identifying factors that are likely to modulate the strength and variability of seasonality. These results emphasize the need for researchers to recognize the likelihood of temporal changes in non-zooplankton aquatic invertebrate consumers at time scales relevant to seasonal studies and, if present, to account for temporal dynamics in isotope trophic models. PMID:22139449

  12. Using multiple quantum coherence to increase the 15N resolution in a three-dimensional TROSY HNCO experiment for accurate PRE and RDC measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Kaifeng; Doucleff, Michaeleen; Clore, G. Marius

    2009-10-01

    We present a new version of the 3D TROSY HNCO pulse scheme, referred to as HR-TROSY HNCO, with comparable resolution in the 15N dimension to a 2D 1H- 15N HSQC experiment. In the conventional 3D TROSY HNCO, the constant time period (1/2 JNC ˜ 32 ms) severely limits the maximum resolution in the 15N dimension. In the HR-TROSY HNCO experiment presented here, both constant time periods (˜32 ms each) for coherence forward and backward transfer between 15N and 13C' are utilized to double the 15N evolution time. This leads to a dramatic enhancement in peak separation along the 15N dimension, making the HR-TROSY HNCO an ideal pulse scheme for accurate paramagnetic relaxation enhancement and residual dipolar coupling measurements.

  13. Abundance, natural infection with trypanosomes, and food source of an endemic species of triatomine, Panstrongylus howardi (Neiva 1911), on the Ecuadorian Central Coast.

    PubMed

    Villacís, Anita G; Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofía; Lascano, Mauricio S; Yumiseva, César A; Baus, Esteban G; Grijalva, Mario J

    2015-01-01

    The elimination of domestic triatomines is the foundation of Chagas disease control. Regional initiatives are eliminating introduced triatomine species. In this scenario, endemic triatomines can occupy the ecological niches left open and become a threat to long-term Chagas disease control efforts. This study determined the abundance, colonization, and Trypanosoma cruzi infection rate of the endemic Panstrongylus howardi in 10 rural communities located in Ecuador's Manabí Province. In total, 518 individuals of P. howardi were collected. Infestation indices of 1.4% and 6.6% were found in the domestic and peridomestic environments, respectively. We determined a T. cruzi infection rate of 53.2% (N = 47) in this species. P. howardi has a high capacity to adapt to different habitats, especially in the peridomicile. This implies a considerable risk of transmission because of the frequency of intradomicile invasion. Therefore, this species needs to be taken into account in Chagas control and surveillance efforts in the region. PMID:25385867

  14. Experimental flume study on Potamogeton natans and Ranunculus fluitans macrophytes: impact of hydrodynamics on 15N-ammonium uptake rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woule Ebongue, V.; Brion, N.; Hove, N.; Barrón, C.; Dehairs, F.; Bal, K.; Bouma, T.; Schoelynck, J.; de Deckere, E.; Meire, P.

    2010-12-01

    By means of incubations in a flume tank using 15N enriched ammonium label we investigate the concomitant effects of (i) different morphologies and specific surfaces, (ii) bulk water flow successively set at 0.3 and 0.1 m s-1 and (iii) three patch configurations on the rates of 15N-ammonium uptake rates for two macrophytes species: Potamogeton natans and Ranunculus fluitans. Because recent studies have shown that the rate of ammonium uptake by seagrass specimens depends on hydrodynamic factors such as shear stress and turbulence -which notably influence the rate at which ammonium is delivered to the surface of the leaves- these incubations were performed together with high resolution flow velocity measurements. Results of our experiments show higher 15N-ammonium uptake rates at the edges of patches in some of the incubations involving the two species. Currents and turbulence which are supposed to be the highest at the edges of the patches can explain these patterns. R. fluitans showing the highest specific surface of the two species is also the most efficient at obtaining 15N-ammonium from the water column in all experimental conditions. Results also show enhanced 15N-ammonium uptake rates with increased bulk water flow for both species. This result which is consistent with that of previous studies on seagrass communities is explained by turbulent energy and stresses factors that increase both advection of nutrients through the community and rates of diffusion at the surfaces of the specimens as flow velocity increases. Finally, flume configuration only affects uptake rates for R. fluitans at lower bulk flow velocity (0.1 m s-1). Higher 15N-ammonium uptake rates are observed for this species in the configuration when the flume is half filled compare to the configuration when the flume fully filled with both species. No significant difference is observed between the two configurations for P. natans. Our findings provide an improved insight in the concomitant effects of factors and processes occurring in streaming rivers on the nitrogen uptake by the two studied macrophytes. This is essential for incorporating the role of macrophytes in the scope of integrated water management and for furthering knowledge of the structure and functioning of lowland river macrophyte communities.

  15. hNCOcanH pulse sequence and a robust protocol for rapid and unambiguous assignment of backbone ((1)H(N), (15)N and (13)C') resonances in (15)N/(13)C-labeled proteins.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Hosur, Ramakrishna V

    2011-09-01

    A three-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) pulse sequence named as hNCOcanH has been described to aid rapid sequential assignment of backbone resonances in (15)N/(13)C-labeled proteins. The experiment has been derived by a simple modification of the previously described HN(C)N pulse sequence [Panchal et al., J. Biomol. NMR 20 (2001) 135-147]; t2 evolution is used to frequency label (13)C' rather than (15)N (similar trick has also been used in the design of hNCAnH pulse sequence from hNcaNH [Frueh et al., JACS, 131 (2009) 12880-12881]). The modification results in a spectrum equivalent to HNCO, but in addition to inter-residue correlation peaks (i.e. Hi , Ci-1), the spectrum also contains additional intra-residue correlation peaks (i.e. Hi-1 , Ci-1) in the direct proton dimension which has maximum resolution. This is the main strength of the experiment and thus, even a small difference in amide (1) H chemical shifts (5-6 Hz) can be used for establishing a sequential connectivity. This experiment in combination with the HNN experiment described previously [Panchal et al., J. Biomol. NMR 20 (2001) 135-147] leads to a more robust assignment protocol for backbone resonances ((1) H(N) , (15)N) than could be derived from the combination of HNN and HN(C)N experiments [Bhavesh et al., Biochemistry, 40 (2001) 14727-14735]. Further, this new protocol enables assignment of (13)C' resonances as well. We believe that the experiment and the protocol presented here will be of immense value for structural-and functional-proteomics research by NMR. Performance of this experiment has been demonstrated using (13)C/(15)N labeled ubiquitin. PMID:21818779

  16. Variation in delta13C and delta15N diet-vibrissae trophic discrimination factors in a wild population of California sea otters.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Seth D; Bentall, Gena B; Tinker, M Tim; Oftedal, Olav T; Ralls, Katherine; Estes, James A; Fogel, Marilyn L

    2010-09-01

    The ability to quantify dietary inputs using stable isotope data depends on accurate estimates of isotopic differences between a consumer (c) and its diet (d), commonly referred to as trophic discrimination factors (TDFs) and denoted by delta(c-d). At present, TDFs are available for only a few mammals and are usually derived in captive settings. The magnitude of TDFs and the degree to which they vary in wild populations is unknown. We determined delta13C and delta15N TDFs for vibrissae (i.e., whiskers), a tissue that is rapidly becoming an informative isotopic substrate for ecologists, of a wild population of sea otters for which individual diet has been quantified through extensive observational study. This is one of the very few studies that report TDFs for free-living wild animals feeding on natural diets. Trophic discrimination factors of 2.2 per thousand +/- 0.7 per thousand for delta13C and 3.5 per thousand +/- 0.6 per thousand for delta15N (mean +/- SD) were similar to those reported for captive carnivores, and variation in individual delta13C TDFs was negatively but significantly related to sea urchin consumption. This pattern may relate to the lipid-rich diet consumed by most sea otters in this population and suggests that it may not be appropriate to lipid-extract prey samples when using the isotopic composition of keratinaceous tissues to examine diet in consumers that frequently consume lipid-rich foods, such as many marine mammals and seabirds. We suggest that inherent variation in TDFs should be included in isotopically based estimates of trophic level, food chain length, and mixing models used to quantify dietary inputs in wild populations; this practice will further define the capabilities and limitations of isotopic approaches in ecological studies. PMID:20945772

  17. Variation in ?13C and ?15N diet–vibrissae trophic discrimination factors in a wild population of California sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newsome, Seth D.; Bentall, Gena B.; Tinker, M. Tim; Oftedal, Olav T.; Ralls, Katherine; Estes, James A.; Fogel, Marilyn L.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to quantify dietary inputs using stable isotope data depends on accurate estimates of isotopic differences between a consumer (c) and its diet (d), commonly referred to as trophic discrimination factors (TDFs) and denoted by ?c-d. At present, TDFs are available for only a few mammals and are usually derived in captive settings. The magnitude of TDFs and the degree to which they vary in wild populations is unknown. We determined ?13C and ?15N TDFs for vibrissae (i.e., whiskers), a tissue that is rapidly becoming an informative isotopic substrate for ecologists, of a wild population of sea otters for which individual diet has been quantified through extensive observational study. This is one of the very few studies that report TDFs for free-living wild animals feeding on natural diets. Trophic discrimination factors of 2.2? ± 0.7? for ?13C and 3.5? ± 0.6? for ?15N (mean ± SD) were similar to those reported for captive carnivores, and variation in individual ?13C TDFs was negatively but significantly related to sea urchin consumption. This pattern may relate to the lipid-rich diet consumed by most sea otters in this population and suggests that it may not be appropriate to lipid-extract prey samples when using the isotopic composition of keratinaceous tissues to examine diet in consumers that frequently consume lipid-rich foods, such as many marine mammals and seabirds. We suggest that inherent variation in TDFs should be included in isotopically based estimates of trophic level, food chain length, and mixing models used to quantify dietary inputs in wild populations; this practice will further define the capabilities and limitations of isotopic approaches in ecological studies.

  18. Temporal variation in mycorrhizal diversity and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope abundance in the wintergreen meadow orchid Anacamptis morio.

    PubMed

    Ercole, Enrico; Adamo, Martino; Rodda, Michele; Gebauer, Gerhard; Girlanda, Mariangela; Perotto, Silvia

    2015-02-01

    Many adult orchids, especially photoautotrophic species, associate with a diverse range of mycorrhizal fungi, but little is known about the temporal changes that might occur in the diversity and functioning of orchid mycorrhiza during vegetative and reproductive plant growth. Temporal variations in the spectrum of mycorrhizal fungi and in stable isotope natural abundance were investigated in adult plants of Anacamptis morio, a wintergreen meadow orchid. Anacamptis morio associated with mycorrhizal fungi belonging to Tulasnella, Ceratobasidium and a clade of Pezizaceae (Ascomycetes). When a complete growing season was investigated, multivariate analyses indicated significant differences in the mycorrhizal fungal community. Among fungi identified from manually isolated pelotons, Tulasnella was more common in autumn and winter, the pezizacean clade was very frequent in spring, and Ceratobasidium was more frequent in summer. By contrast, relatively small variations were found in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotope natural abundance, A. morio samples showing similar (15)N enrichment and (13)C depletion at the different sampling times. These observations suggest that, irrespective of differences in the seasonal environmental conditions, the plant phenological stages and the associated fungi, the isotopic content in mycorrhizal A. morio remains fairly constant over time. PMID:25382295

  19. Site-specific backbone amide 15N chemical shift anisotropy tensors in a small protein from liquid crystal and cross-correlated relaxation measurements

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Lishan; Grishaev, Alexander; Cornilescu, Gabriel; Bax, Ad

    2010-01-01

    Site-specific 15N chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) tensors have been derived for the well-ordered backbone amide 15N nuclei in the B3 domain of protein G (GB3) from residual chemical shift anisotropy (RCSA) measured in six different mutants that retain the native structure but align differently relative to the static magnetic field when dissolved in a liquid crystalline Pf1 suspension. This information is complemented by measurement of cross-correlated relaxation rates between the 15N CSA tensor and either the 15N-1H or 15N-13C? dipolar interaction. In agreement with recent solid state NMR measurements, the 15N CSA tensors exhibit only a moderate degree of variation from averaged values, but have larger magnitudes in ?-helical (?173 ± 7 ppm) than in ?-sheet (?162 ± 6 ppm) residues, a finding also confirmed by quantum computations. The orientations of the least shielded tensor component cluster tightly around an in-peptide-plane vector that makes an angle of 19.6±2.5° with the N-H bond, with the asymmetry of the 15N CSA tensor being slightly smaller in ?-helix (?=0.23±0.17) than in ?-sheet (?=0.31±0.11). The residue-specific 15N CSA values are validated by improved agreement between computed and experimental 15N R1? relaxation rates measured for 15N-{2H} sites in GB3, which are dominated by the CSA mechanism. Use of residuespecific 15N CSA values also results in more uniform generalized order parameters, S2, and predicts considerable residue-by-residue variations in the magnetic field strengths where TROSY line narrowing is most effective. PMID:20199098

  20. Solving the woolly mammoth conundrum: amino acid 15N-enrichment suggests a distinct forage or habitat

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz-Narbonne, Rachel; Longstaffe, Fred J.; Metcalfe, Jessica Z.; Zazula, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Understanding woolly mammoth ecology is key to understanding Pleistocene community dynamics and evaluating the roles of human hunting and climate change in late Quaternary megafaunal extinctions. Previous isotopic studies of mammoths’ diet and physiology have been hampered by the ‘mammoth conundrum’: woolly mammoths have anomalously high collagen ?15N values, which are more similar to coeval carnivores than herbivores, and which could imply a distinct diet and (or) habitat, or a physiological adaptation. We analyzed individual amino acids from collagen of adult woolly mammoths and coeval species, and discovered greater ?15N enrichment in source amino acids of woolly mammoths than in most other herbivores or carnivores. Woolly mammoths consumed an isotopically distinct food source, reflective of extreme aridity, dung fertilization, and (or) plant selection. This dietary signal suggests that woolly mammoths occupied a distinct habitat or forage niche relative to other Pleistocene herbivores. PMID:26056037

  1. Solving the woolly mammoth conundrum: amino acid (15)N-enrichment suggests a distinct forage or habitat.

    PubMed

    Schwartz-Narbonne, Rachel; Longstaffe, Fred J; Metcalfe, Jessica Z; Zazula, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Understanding woolly mammoth ecology is key to understanding Pleistocene community dynamics and evaluating the roles of human hunting and climate change in late Quaternary megafaunal extinctions. Previous isotopic studies of mammoths' diet and physiology have been hampered by the 'mammoth conundrum': woolly mammoths have anomalously high collagen ?(15)N values, which are more similar to coeval carnivores than herbivores, and which could imply a distinct diet and (or) habitat, or a physiological adaptation. We analyzed individual amino acids from collagen of adult woolly mammoths and coeval species, and discovered greater ?(15)N enrichment in source amino acids of woolly mammoths than in most other herbivores or carnivores. Woolly mammoths consumed an isotopically distinct food source, reflective of extreme aridity, dung fertilization, and (or) plant selection. This dietary signal suggests that woolly mammoths occupied a distinct habitat or forage niche relative to other Pleistocene herbivores. PMID:26056037

  2. Evidence for shifting environmental conditions in Southwestern France from 33?000 to 15?000 years ago derived from carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 natural abundances in collagen of large herbivores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorothée G. Drucker; Hervé Bocherens; Daniel Billiou

    2003-01-01

    A paleoenvironmental reconstruction of terrestrial environments in Southwestern France between 33 and 15 cal kyr BP is provided using ?13C and ?15N variations in collagen of three herbivorous mammals. Altogether 161 analyses have been carried out on collagen extracted from skeletal fragments of reindeer, horse and Bos\\/Bison from four successive chronological phases covering the end of MOIS 3 and MOIS

  3. Probability distribution functions of delta15N and delta18O in groundwater nitrate to probabilistically solve complex mixing scenarios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Chrystal; J. M. Heikoop; P. Davis; J. Syme; S. Hagerty; G. Perkins; T. E. Larson; P. Longmire; J. E. Fessenden

    2010-01-01

    Elevated nitrate (NO3-) concentrations in drinking water pose a health risk to the public. The dual stable isotopic signatures of delta15N and delta18O in NO3- in surface- and groundwater are often used to identify and distinguish among sources of NO3- (e.g., sewage, fertilizer, atmospheric deposition). In oxic groundwaters where no denitrification is occurring, direct calculations of mixing fractions using a

  4. Nitrogen input, 15 N balance and mineral N dynamics in a rice–wheat rotation in southwest China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mingsheng Fan; Shihua Lu; Rongfeng Jiang; Xuejun Liu; Xiangzhong Zeng; Keith W. T. Goulding; Fusuo Zhang

    2007-01-01

    A field experiment and farm survey were conducted to test nitrogen (N) inputs, 15N-labelled fertilizer balance and mineral N dynamics of a rice–wheat rotation in southwest China. Total N input in one rice–wheat\\u000a cycle averaged about 448 kg N ha?1, of which inorganic fertilizer accounted for 63% of the total. The effects of good N management strategies on N cycling were\\u000a clear:

  5. Analysis of 15N incorporation into D-alanine: a new method for tracing nitrogen uptake by bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bart Veuger; Jack J. Middelburg; Henricus T. S. Boschker; Marco Houtekamer

    2005-01-01

    The quantitative contribution of bacteria to total microbial uptake of nitrogenous substrates is an aspect of the aquatic nitrogen cycle that is still largely unclear, mainly because existing methods are generally inadequate. We investigated the feasibility of measuring 15N incorporation into bacterial D-amino acids by gas chromatography- combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-c-IRMS) and the potential of this method as a

  6. Use of a 15N tracer to determine linkages between a mangrove and an upland freshwater swamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenzie, R. A.; Cormier, N.

    2005-05-01

    Mangrove forests and adjacent upland freshwater swamps are important components of subsistence-based economies of Pacific islands. Mangroves provide valuable firewood (Rhizophora apiculata) and mangrove crabs (Scylla serrata); intact freshwater swamps are often used for agroforestry (e.g., taro cultivation). While these two systems are connected hydrologically via groundwater and surface flows, little information is available on how they may be biogeochemically or ecologically linked. For example, mangrove leaf litter was once thought to be an important food source for resident and transient nekton and invertebrates, but this value may have been overestimated. Instead, nutrients or allochthonous material (e.g., phytoplankton, detritus) delivered via groundwater or surface water from upland freshwater swamps may play a larger role in mangrove food webs. Understanding the linkages between these two ecologically and culturally important ecosystems will help us to understand the potential impacts of hydrological alterations that occur when roads or bridges are constructed through them. We conducted a 15N tracer study in the Yela watershed on the island of Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia. K15NO3 was continually added at trace levels for 4 weeks to the Yela River in an upland freshwater swamp adjacent to a mangrove forest. Nitrate and ammonium pools, major primary producers, macroinvertebrates, and fish were sampled from stations 5 m upstream (freshwater swamp) and 138, 188, 213, and 313 m downstream (mangrove) from the tracer addition. Samples were collected once a week prior to, during, and after the 15N addition for a total of 6 weeks. Preliminary results revealed no significant enrichment (< 1 ‰) in the 15N isotope composition of either resident shrimp (Macrobrachium sp.) or mudskipper fish (Periophthalmus sp.). However, the 15N signature of ammonium pools was enriched 10-60 ‰ by the end of the third week. These results suggest that the tracer was present in the mangrove but was either unavailable to higher organisms or was incorporated into organic matter not utilized by shrimp or mudskippers.

  7. Integrated effects of abiotic stresses on inoculant performance, legume growth and symbiotic dependence estimated by 15 N dilution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip M. Chalk; Bruno J. R. Alves; Robert M. Boddey; Segundo Urquiaga

    2010-01-01

    Temperature, water, salinity, sodicity, acidity and nutrient disorders are major abiotic stresses that can affect legume growth\\u000a or the establishment and function of the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis. We have examined the literature where the application of the 15N isotope dilution methodology permits the effect of individual abiotic stresses to be independently and quantitatively separated\\u000a into plant growth-mediated and BNF (biological N2

  8. Estimation of residual N effect of faba bean and pea on two succeeding cereals using 15 N methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Senaratne; G. Hardarson

    1988-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted using15N methodology to study the effect of cultivation of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) on the N status of soil and their residual N effect on two succeeding cereals (sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) followed by barley). Faba bean, pea and barley took up 29.6, 34.5 and 53.0

  9. Imprint of oaks on nitrogen availability and ?15N in California grassland-savanna: A case of enhanced N inputs?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, S.S.; Kellogg, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    Woody vegetation is distributed patchily in many arid and semi-arid ecosystems, where it is often associated with elevated nitrogen (N) pools and availability in islands of fertility. We measured N availability and ?15N in paired blue-oak versus annual grass dominated patches to characterize the causes and consequences of spatial variation in N dynamics of grassland-savanna in Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Park. We found significantly greater surface soil N pools (0–20 cm) in oak patches compared to adjacent grass areas across a 700 m elevation gradient from foothills to the savanna-forest boundary. N accumulation under oaks was associated with a 0.6‰ depletion in soil ?15N relative to grass patches. Results from a simple ?15N mass balance simulation model, constrained by surface soil N and ?15N measured in the field, suggest that the development of islands of N fertility under oaks can be traced primarily to enhanced N inputs. Net N mineralization and percent nitrification in laboratory incubations were consistently higher under oaks across a range of experimental soil moisture regimes, suggesting a scenario whereby greater N inputs to oak patches result in net N accumulation and enhanced N cycling, with a potential for greater nitrate loss as well. N concentrations of three common herbaceous annual plants were nearly 50% greater under oak than in adjacent grass patches, with community composition shifted towards more N-demanding species under oaks. We find that oaks imprint distinct N-rich islands of fertility that foster local feedback between soil N cycling, plant N uptake, and herbaceous community composition. Such patch-scale differences in N inputs and plant–soil interactions increase biogeochemical heterogeneity in grassland-savanna ecosystems and may shape watershed-level responses to chronic N deposition.

  10. 13C and 15N N.M.R. in thorium carbides and carbonitrides J. L. Boutard (*),

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    845 13C and 15N N.M.R. in thorium carbides and carbonitrides J. L. Boutard (*), SFMA, DECPu, Centre-réseau et les dépla- cements de fréquence mesurés contiennent de fortes contributions orbitales solid solution ThC1 -xNx. The carbide ThCy can be made non-stoichiometric with 0.70 S y S 0.98. The elec

  11. Temporal effects of dredging and dredged material disposal on nekton in the offshore waters of Galveston, Texas, with notes on the natural histories of the most abundant taxa 

    E-print Network

    Henningsen, Brandt Flynn

    1977-01-01

    of fish populations were influenced more by seasonal temperature and salinity changes rather than by dredged material disposal. Bardarik, Alden, and Shema (no date) stated that sand snd gravel dredg'ng had no effect on fishes in the Allegheny River..., Briggs and O' Connor (1971) observed that fish populations of a shallow New York estuary preferred naturally vegetated bottoms over that offered by dredged sand deposits. Stickney (1972) noted no dredging effects on ich- thyofauna of a Georgia estuary...

  12. Carbon flow and trophic structure of an Antarctic coastal benthic community as determined by ? 13C and ? 15N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, C. L.; Stark, J. S.; Johnstone, G. J.; Smith, S. D. A.

    2012-01-01

    Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used to determine the different carbon pathways and trophic assemblages amongst coastal benthic fauna of the Windmill Islands, East Antarctica. Macroalgae, pelagic POM, sediment POM and sea ice POM had well-separated ? 13C signatures, which ranged from -36.75‰ for the red alga Phyllophora antarctica, to -10.35‰ for sea ice POM. Consumers were also well separated by ? 13C, ranging from -21.42‰ for the holothurian Staurocucumis sp. up to -7.47‰ for the urchin Sterechinus neumayeri. Analysis of ? 13C and ? 15N revealed distinct groups for suspension feeders, grazer/herbivores and deposit feeders, whilst predators and predator/scavengers showed less grouping. Consumers spanned a ? 15N range of 8.71‰, equivalent to four trophic levels, although ? 15N ratios amongst consumers were continuous, rather than grouped into discrete trophic levels. The study has built a trophic model for the Windmill Islands and summarises three main carbon pathways utilised by the benthos: (1) pelagic POM; (2) macroalgae/epiphytic/benthic diatoms and (3) sediment POM/benthic diatoms. The movement of carbon within the coastal benthic community of the Windmill Islands is considered complex, and stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were valuable tools in determining specific feeding guilds and in tracing carbon flow, particularly amongst lower-order consumers.

  13. Auto-inducing media for uniform isotope labeling of proteins with (15)N, (13)C and (2)H.

    PubMed

    Guthertz, Nicolas; Klopp, Julia; Winterhalter, Aurélie; Fernández, César; Gossert, Alvar D

    2015-06-01

    Auto-inducing media for protein expression offer many advantages like robust reproducibility, high yields of soluble protein and much reduced workload. Here, an auto-inducing medium for uniform isotope labelling of proteins with (15)N, (13)C and/or (2)H in E. coli is presented. So far, auto-inducing media have not found widespread application in the NMR field, because of the prohibitively high cost of labeled lactose, which is an essential ingredient of such media. Here, we propose using lactose that is only selectively labeled on the glucose moiety. It can be synthesized from inexpensive and readily available substrates: labeled glucose and unlabeled activated galactose. With this approach, uniformly isotope labeled proteins were expressed in unattended auto-inducing cultures with incorporation of (13)C, (15)N of 96.6 % and (2)H, (15)N of 98.8 %. With the present protocol, the NMR community could profit from the many advantages that auto-inducing media offer. PMID:25893498

  14. Acetylene reduction, H2 evolution and (15)N 2 fixation in the Alnus incana-Frankia symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Sellstedt, A

    1986-03-01

    Acetylene reduction, (15)N2 reduction and H2 evolution were measured in root systems of intact plants of grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) in symbiosis with Frankia. The ratios of C2H2: (15)N2 were compared with C2H2:N2 ratios calculated from C2H2 reduction and H2 evolution, and with C2H2:N2 ratios calculated from accumulated C2H4 production and nitrogen content. It was possible to calculate C2H2:N2 ratios from C2H2 reduction and H2 evolution because this source of Frankia did not show any hydrogenase activity. The ratios obtained using the different methods ranged from 2.72 to 4.42, but these values were not significantly different. It was also shown that enriched (15)N could be detected in the shoot after a 1-h incubation of the root-system. It is concluded that the measurement of H2 evolution in combination with C2H2 reduction represents a nondestructive assay for nitrogen fixation in a Frankia symbiosis which shows no detectable hydrogenase activity. PMID:24240308

  15. Bioconcentration of (15)N-tamoxifen at environmental concentration in liver, gonad and muscle of Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Orias, Frédéric; Simon, Laurent; Mialdea, Gladys; Clair, Angéline; Brosselin, Vanessa; Perrodin, Yves

    2015-10-01

    Pharmaceutical compounds (PCs) are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems. In addition to the direct ecotoxicological risk presented by certain PCs, others can accumulate inside organisms and along trophic webs, subsequently contaminating whole ecosystems. We studied the bioconcentration of a bioaccumulative PC already found several times in the environment: tamoxifen. To this end, we exposed Danio rerio for 21d to (15)N-tamoxifen concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10µg/L and used an analytic method based on stable isotopes to evaluate the tamoxifen content in these organisms. The evolution of the (15)N/(14)N ratio was thus measured in liver, muscle and gonads of exposed fish compared to control fish. We succeeded in quantifying (15)N-tamoxifen bioconcentrations at all the exposure concentrations tested. The highest bioconcentration factors of tamoxifen measured were 14,920 in muscle, 73,800 in liver and 85,600 in gonads of fish after 21d exposure at a nominal concentration of 10µg/L. However, these bioconcentration factors have to be considered as maximal values (BCFMAX). Indeed, despite its proven stability, tamoxifen can be potentially partially degraded during experiments. We now need to refine these results by using a direct analytic method (i.e. LC-MS/MS). PMID:26163873

  16. 15N NMR investigation of the covalent binding of reduced TNT amines to soil humic acid, model compounds, and lignocellulose

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Kennedy, K.R.

    2002-01-01

    The five major reductive degradation products of TNT-4ADNT (4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene), 2ADNT (2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene), 2,4DANT (2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene), 2,6DANT (2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene), and TAT (2,4,6-triaminotoluene)-labeled with 15N in the amine positions, were reacted with the IHSS soil humic acid and analyzed by 15N NMR spectrometry. In the absence of catalysts, all five amines underwent nucleophilic addition reactions with quinone and other carbonyl groups in the soil humic acid to form both heterocyclic and nonheterocyclic condensation products. Imine formation via 1,2-addition of the amines to quinone groups in the soil humic acid was significant with the diamines and TAT but not the monoamines. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) catalyzed an increase in the incorporation of all five amines into the humic acid. In the case of the diamines and TAT, HRP also shifted the binding away from heterocyclic condensation product toward imine formation. A comparison of quantitative liquid phase with solid-state CP/MAS 15N NMR indicated that the CP experiment underestimated imine and heterocyclic nitrogens in humic acid, even with contact times optimal for observation of these nitrogens. Covalent binding of the mono- and diamines to 4-methylcatechol, the HRP catalyzed condensation of 4ADNT and 2,4DANT to coniferyl alcohol, and the binding of 2,4DANT to lignocellulose with and without birnessite were also examined.

  17. 15N NMR investigation of the reduction and binding of TNT in an aerobic bench scale reactor simulating windrow composting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Pennington, J.C.; Hayes, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    T15NT was added to a soil of low organic carbon content and composted for 20 days in an aerobic bench scale reactor. The finished whole compost and fulvic acid, humic acid, humin, and lignocellulose fractions extracted from the compost were analyzed by solid-state CP/MAS and DP/MAS 15N NMR. 15N NMR spectra provided direct spectroscopic evidence for reduction of TNT followed by covalent binding of the reduced metabolites to organic matter of the composted soil, with the majority of metabolite found in the lignocellulose fraction, by mass also the major fraction of the compost. In general, the types of bonds formed between soil organic matter and reduced TNT amines in controlled laboratory reactions were observed in the spectra of the whole compost and fractions, confirming that during composting TNT is reduced to amines that form covalent bonds with organic matter through aminohydroquinone, aminoquinone, heterocyclic, and imine linkages, among others. Concentrations of imine nitrogens in the compost spectra suggestthat covalent binding bythe diamines 2,4DANT and 2,6DANT is a significant process in the transformation of TNT into bound residues. Liquid-phase 15N NMR spectra of the fulvic acid and humin fractions provided possible evidence for involvement of phenoloxidase enzymes in covalent bond formation.

  18. Astrophysical S(E) factor of the (15)N(p, alpha)(12)C reaction at sub-Coulomb energies via the Trojan horse method

    E-print Network

    La Cognata, M.; Romano, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Tumino, A.; Tribble, Robert E.; Fu, Changbo; Goldberg, V. Z.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Schmidt, D.; Tabacaru, G.; Trache, L.; Irgaziev, B. F.

    2007-01-01

    The low-energy bare-nucleus cross section for (15)N(p, alpha)(12)C is extracted by means of the Trojan horse method applied to the (2)H((15)N,alpha(12)C)n reaction at E(beam) = 60 MeV. For the first time we applied the modified half...

  19. Resolving the bulk ? 15N values of ancient human and animal bone collagen via compound-specific nitrogen isotope analysis of constituent amino acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy K. Styring; Judith C. Sealy; Richard P. Evershed

    2010-01-01

    Stable nitrogen isotope analysis is a fundamental tool in assessing dietary preferences and trophic positions within contemporary and ancient ecosystems. In order to assess more fully the dietary contributions to human tissue isotope values, a greater understanding of the complex biochemical and physiological factors which underpin bulk collagen ?15N values is necessary. Determinations of ?15N values of the individual amino

  20. 1H, 13C and 15N resonances of the AlgE62 subunit from Azotobacter vinelandii mannuronan C5-epimerase.

    PubMed

    Andreassen, Trygve; Buchinger, Edith; Skjåk-Bræk, Gudmund; Valla, Svein; Aachmann, Finn L

    2011-10-01

    The 17.7 kDa R2 module from Azotobacter vinelandii mannronan C5-epimerase AlgE6 has been isotopically labeled ((13)C,(15)N) and recombinantly expressed. Here we report the (1)H, (13)C, (15)N resonance assignment of AlgE6R2. PMID:21188559

  1. Measurement for isotopic abundances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1973-01-01

    Review was made on the determination of isotopic abundance ratio by the ; mass spectroscopic method, relation between the abundance ratio and atomic ; weight, problems in the relative measurement of the ratio, standard materials for ; the determination of the abundance ratio and extraterrestrial materials, and ; specific topics on varlous elements. Use of mass spectrographs is classified ;

  2. Non-homogeneity of isotopic labelling in 15N gas flux studies: theory, some observations and possible lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Well, Reinhard; Buchen, Caroline; Deppe, Marianna; Eschenbach, Wolfram; Gattinger, Andreas; Giesemann, Anette; Krause, Hans-Martin; Lewicka-Szczebak, Dominika

    2015-04-01

    Quantifying dinitrogen (N2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from different soil N pools and processes can be accomplished using the 15N tracer technique but this is subject to four different sources of bias (i. - iv.). This approach includes 15N labelling of selected N pools in soil and subsequent isotope analysis of all relevant N pools as well as of gas samples from enclosures, i.e. mixtures of soil-derived and atmospheric N2 and N2O. Depending on the processes of interest, there may be 15N labelling of one or several N pools, were several labelling treatment are needed in the latter case (e.g. Müller et al., 2004). Measuring pool-derived N2 or N2O has been shown to include two calculation problems, (i.) arising from multiple pools (e.g. Arah, 1992) and (ii.) dealing with the non-random distribution of N2 and N2O mole masses (Hauck et al., 1958). Non-randomness can be solved if m/z 28, 29 and 30 are correctly analysed and the 15N enrichment of one (to distinguish two pools, i.e. soil and atmosphere) or two pools (in case of three pools) is known (Spott & Stange, 2008). Moreover (iii.), NO3- pools generating N2 and N2O via denitrification can be identical or different, e.g. if N2O evolved from higher enriched NO3- in deeper soil was more reduced to N2 compared to N2O evolved from N2O from shallow soil with lower enrichment, or vice versa. Apportioning N2O fluxes to NH4+ (nitrification and/or nitrifier denitrification) and NO3- (denitrification) is often conducted by NO3-labeling, measuring ?15N of emitted N2O and applying mixing equations were the measured 15N enrichment of NH4+and NO3-pool is used. However, this assumes that the average 15N enrichment of NH4+and NO3-in the soil is identical to the enrichment in the active soil domain producing N2 and/or N2O. Violation of this precondition must lead to bias in source apportionment (iv.), but to our knowledge this has not been investigated until now. Here we present conceptual models and model calculations addressing cases iii. and iv.. Furthermore we present some experimental data illustrating this. These include two data sets from denitrification experiments exhibiting substantial deviations in 15N enrichment between the N pools producing N2 and N2O. Moreover, results from a lab incubation study to quantify NH4+-derived N2O with increasing NH4+ amendment under conditions favouring nitrification are shown, were non-labelled NH4+ was added together with 15N labelled NO3-. Here we found large deviations between the 15N enrichment of NO3- in extracted soil water and the 15N enrichment of the labelled N pool as calculated from N2O isotopologues (Bergsma et al., 2001). We think that this reflects type iv. bias, probably because enrichment of NO3- in anoxic micro-sites was less diluted by non-labelled NO3- from nitrification compared to NO3- in oxic zones. Our data analysis provides a means to overcome bias iv. and thus to obtain correct source apportionment. References: Arah, J.R.M. (1992): Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 56, 795 - 800, 1992. Bergsma, T. et al. (2001): Env. Sci. & Technol. 35(21): 4307-4312. Hauck, R.D., et al.(1958): Soil Science 86, 287 - 291, 1958. Lewicka-Szczebak, D. et al.(2013): Rapid Comm. Mass Spectrom., 27 1548-1558. Müller, C. et al. (2004): Soil Biol. Biochem. 36(4): 619-632. Mulvaney, R.L.(1984):. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48:690 - 692. Spott, O, et al.. (2006): Rapid Comm. Mass Spectrom., 20: 3267-3274. Spott, O. and C. F. Stange (2007): Rapid Comm. Mass Spectrom., 21: 2398-2406.

  3. Nature

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nature is a weekly international journal publishing the finest peer-reviewed research in all fields of science and technology on the basis of its originality, importance, interdisciplinary interest, timeliness, accessibility, elegance, and surprising conclusions. Nature also provides rapid, authoritative, insightful and arresting news and interpretation of topical and coming trends affecting science, scientists and the wider public. Nature publishes more articles than any other multidisciplinary journal, and retains its position as the most cited weekly science journal. The site provides free access to news stories in the latest issue; access to research articles, and to the Nature archive, is by subscription.

  4. The decrease in Greenland ice-core ?15N of nitrate in the industrial period: influenced by changes in atmospheric acidity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, L.; Cole-Dai, J.; Alexander, B.; Steig, E. J.; Schauer, A. J.; Savarino, J.

    2012-12-01

    Previous study in a central Greenland ice core has revealed a decreasing trend in ?15N of nitrate (?15N (nitrate)) starting as early as 1850 C.E.. Lake sediment cores from North America show a similar trend in ?15N of total nitrogen starting around 1895 C.E.. The decrease in ?15N has been proposed to be due to the increasing deposition of anthropogenically derived (i.e., fossil fuel combustion) nitrate in the industrial period. However, this interpretation is questioned by measurements of ?15N in NOx and atmospheric nitrate. Here, we present new, annually-resolved records of ?15N (nitrate) and major ion concentrations (Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+) obtained from two central Greenland ice cores. The results (Figure 1) indicate that the significant decrease in ?15N is coincident with an increase in acidity (H+ concentration estimated based on ionic balance) beginning around 1895 C.E., which is about 50 years earlier than the start of the increase in nitrate concentration (~1945 C.E.) . This observation suggests that it is likely the acidity change, instead of the input of anthropogenic nitrate, triggered the decrease in ice-core ?15N (nitrate). Atmospheric aerosol acidity influences the partitioning of atmospheric nitrate between its gaseous (HNO3) and particulate (p-NO3-) phases, resulting in a depletion of ?15N in HNO3 relative to p-NO3-. If atmospheric nitrate is transported to central Greenland preferentially in its gaseous form (HNO3), which is an open question, a decrease in ice-core ?15N (nitrate) would be expected with an increase in atmospheric acidity. We will examine the relationships between ?15N (nitrate) and the ice-core records of acidity, and HNO3, to discern the processes from changes in atmospheric acidity to the observed variability in ice core ?15N (nitrate) during the Industrial era.igure 1. The annual NO3- (blue curve), H+ (black curve) concentrations, and annual ?15N (nitrate) (red curve, y-axis is reversely plotted). Gray dots represent the annual data; the curves are plotted from 3-year running averages.

  5. Nicotine, acetanilide and urea multi-level 2 N-abundance reference materials for continuous-flow

    E-print Network

    Nicotine, acetanilide and urea multi-level 2 H-, 13 C- and 15 N-abundance reference materials the development and quality testing of (i) four nicotine laboratory reference materials for on-line (i nicotines for oxidative C, N gas chroma- tography-combustion-isotope ratio mass-spectrometry (GC

  6. Relative stability of major types of beta-turns as a function of amino acid composition: a study based on Ab initio energetic and natural abundance data.

    PubMed

    Perczel, András; Jákli, Imre; McAllister, Michael A; Csizmadia, Imre G

    2003-06-01

    Folding properties of small globular proteins are determined by their amino acid sequence (primary structure). This holds both for local (secondary structure) and for global conformational features of linear polypeptides and proteins composed from natural amino acid derivatives. It thus provides the rational basis of structure prediction algorithms. The shortest secondary structure element, the beta-turn, most typically adopts either a type I or a type II form, depending on the amino acid composition. Herein we investigate the sequence-dependent folding stability of both major types of beta-turns using simple dipeptide models (-Xxx-Yyy-). Gas-phase ab initio properties of 16 carefully selected and suitably protected dipeptide models (for example Val-Ser, Ala-Gly, Ser-Ser) were studied. For each backbone fold most probable side-chain conformers were considered. Fully optimized 321G RHF molecular structures were employed in medium level [B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)//RHF/3-21G] energy calculations to estimate relative populations of the different backbone conformers. Our results show that the preference for beta-turn forms as calculated by quantum mechanics and observed in Xray determined proteins correlates significantly. PMID:12794897

  7. Natural 13C abundance reveals trophic status of fungi and host-origin of carbon in mycorrhizal fungi in mixed forests

    PubMed Central

    Högberg, Peter; Plamboeck, Agneta H.; Taylor, Andrew F. S.; Fransson, Petra M. A.

    1999-01-01

    Fungi play crucial roles in the biogeochemistry of terrestrial ecosystems, most notably as saprophytes decomposing organic matter and as mycorrhizal fungi enhancing plant nutrient uptake. However, a recurrent problem in fungal ecology is to establish the trophic status of species in the field. Our interpretations and conclusions are too often based on extrapolations from laboratory microcosm experiments or on anecdotal field evidence. Here, we used natural variations in stable carbon isotope ratios (?13C) as an approach to distinguish between fungal decomposers and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungal species in the rich sporocarp flora (our sample contains 135 species) of temperate forests. We also demonstrated that host-specific mycorrhizal fungi that receive C from overstorey or understorey tree species differ in their ?13C. The many promiscuous mycorrhizal fungi, associated with and connecting several tree hosts, were calculated to receive 57–100% of their C from overstorey trees. Thus, overstorey trees also support, partly or wholly, the nutrient-absorbing mycelia of their alleged competitors, the understorey trees. PMID:10411910

  8. Determination of the delta(15N/14N)of Ammonium (NH4+) in Water: RSIL Lab Code 2898

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hannon, Janet E.; Böhlke, John Karl

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the technique described by Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory (RSIL) lab code 2898 is to determine the N isotopic composition, delta(15N/14N), abbreviated as d15N, of ammonium (NH4+) in water (freshwater and saline water). The procedure involves converting dissolved NH4+ into NH3 gas by raising the pH of the sample to above 9 with MgO and subsequently trapping the gas quantitatively as (NH4)2SO4 on a glass fiber (GF) filter. The GF filter is saturated with NaHSO4 and pressure sealed between two gas-permeable polypropylene filters. The GF filter 'sandwich' floats on the surface of the water sample in a closed bottle. NH3 diffuses from the water through the polypropylene filter and reacts with NaHSO4, forming (NH4)2SO4 on the GF filter. The GF filter containing (NH4)2SO4 is dried and then combusted with a Carlo Erba NC 2500 elemental analyzer (EA), which is used to convert total nitrogen in a solid sample into N2 gas. The EA is connected to a continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS), which determines the relative difference in ratios of the amounts of the stable isotopes of nitrogen (15N and 14N) of the product N2 gas and a reference N2 gas. The filters containing the samples are compressed in tin capsules and loaded into a Costech Zero-Blank Autosampler on the EA. Under computer control, samples then are dropped into a heated reaction tube that contains an oxidant, where combustion takes place in a He atmosphere containing an excess of O2 gas. To remove S-O gases produced from the NaHSO4, a plug of Ag-coated Cu wool is inserted at the bottom of the reaction tube. Combustion products are transported by a He carrier through a reduction furnace to remove excess O2, toconvert all nitrogen oxides to N2, and to remove any remaining S-O gases. The gases then pass through a drying tube to remove water. The gas-phase products, mainly N2 and a small amount of background CO2, are separated by a gas chromatograph (GC). The gas is then introduced into the IRMS through a Finnigan ConFlo II interface. The ConFlo II interface is used to introduce not only sample into the IRMS but also N2 reference gas and He for sample dilution. The flash combustion is quantitative, so no isotopic fractionation is involved. The IRMS is a Finnigan Delta V CF-IRMS with 10 cups and is capable of detecting ion beams with mass/charge (m/z) 28, 29, 30. The ion beams from N2 are as follows: m/z 28 = 14N14N, m/z 29 = 14N15N, and m/z 30 = 15N15N. The ion beam with m/z 30 also represents 14N16O, which may indicate contamination or incomplete reduction.

  9. Similarities and differences in 13C and 15N stable isotope ratios in two non-lethal tissue types from shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus (Rafinesque, 1820)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeVries, R. J.; Schramm, Harold L., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that ?13C and ?15N signatures of pectoral spines would provide measures of ?13C and ?15N similar to those obtained from fin clips for adult shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus. Thirty-two shovelnose sturgeon (fork length [FL] = 500–724 mm) were sampled from the lower Mississippi River, USA on 23 February 2013. Isotopic relationships between the two tissue types were analyzed using mixed model analysis of covariance. Tissue types differed significantly for both ?13C (P < 0.01; spine: mean = ?23.83, SD = 0.62; fin clip: mean = ?25.74, SD = 0.97) and ?15N (P = 0.01; spine: mean = 17.01, SD = 0.51; fin clip: mean = 17.19, SD = 0.62). Neither FL nor the FL × tissue type interaction had significant (P > 0.05) effects on ?13C. Fin clip ?13C values were highly variable and weakly correlated (r = 0.16, P = 0.40) with those from pectoral spines. We found a significant FL-tissue type interaction for ?15N, reflecting increasing ?15N with FL for spines and decreasing ?15N with FL for fin clips. These results indicate that spines are not a substitute for fin clip tissue for measuring ?13C and ?15N for shovelnose sturgeon in the lower Mississippi River, but the two tissues have different turnover rates they may provide complementary information for assessing trophic position at different time scales.

  10. Alkaline Hydrolysis/Polymerization of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene: Characterization of Products by 13C and 15N NMR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Thorne, P.G.; Cox, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    Alkaline hydrolysis has been investigated as a nonbiological procedure for the destruction of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in explosives contaminated soils and munitions scrap. Nucleophilic substitutions of the nitro and methyl groups of TNT by hydroxide ion are the initial steps in the alkaline degradation of TNT. Potential applications of the technique include both in situ surface liming and ex situ alkaline treatment of contaminated soils. A number of laboratory studies have reported the formation of an uncharacterized polymeric material upon prolonged treatment of TNT in base. As part of an overall assessment of alkaline hydrolysis as a remediation technique, and to gain a better understanding of the chemical reactions underlying the hydrolysis/polymerization process, the soluble and precipitate fractions of polymeric material produced from the calcium hydroxide hydrolysis of unlabeled and 15N-labeled TNT were analyzed by elemental analysis and 13C and 15N nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Spectra indicated that reactions leading to polymerization included nucleophilic displacement of nitro groups by hydroxide ion, formation of ketone, carboxyl, alcohol, ether, and other aliphatic carbons, conversion of methyl groups to diphenyl methylene carbons, and recondensation of aromatic amines and reduced forms of nitrite, including ammonia and possibly hydroxylamine, into the polymer. Compared to the distribution of carbons in TNT as 14% sp 3- and 86% sp2-hybridized, the precipitate fraction from hydrolysis of unlabeled TNT contained 33% sp3- and 67% sp 2-hybridized carbons. The concentration of nitrogen in the precipitate was 64% of that in TNT. The 15N NMR spectra showed that, in addition to residual nitro groups, forms of nitrogen present in the filtrate and precipitate fractions include aminohydroquinone, primary amide, indole, imine, and azoxy, among others. Unreacted nitrite was recovered in the filtrate fraction. The toxicities and susceptibilities to microbial or chemical degradation of the polymeric materials remain unknown.

  11. Changes in soil nitrogen storage and ?15N with woody plant encroachment in a subtropical savanna parkland landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutton, T. W.; Liao, J. D.

    2010-09-01

    Subtropical woodlands dominated by N-fixing tree legumes have largely replaced grasslands in the Rio Grande Plains, southwestern United States, during the past century. To evaluate the impact of this vegetation change on the N cycle, we measured the mass and isotopic composition (?15N) of N in the soil system of remnant grasslands and woody plant stands ranging in age from 10 to 130 years. Nitrogen accumulated at linear rates following woody encroachment in the litter (0.10-0.14 g N m-2 yr-1), roots (0.63-0.98 g N m-2 yr-1), and soils (0.75-3.50 g N m-2 yr-1), resulting in a 50%-150% increase in N storage in the soil system (0-30 cm) in woody stands older than 60 years. Simultaneous decreases in soil ?15N of up to 2‰ in the upper 30 cm of the profile are consistent with a scenario in which N inputs have exceeded losses following woody encroachment and suggest N accrual was derived from symbiotic N fixation by tree legumes and/or differential atmospheric N deposition to wooded areas. Vertical uplift and lateral transfer of N by the more deeply and intensively rooted woody plants may have contributed to N accumulation in wooded areas, but soil ?15N values are inconsistent with this explanation. N accumulation following woody encroachment may alter soil N availability, species interactions and successional dynamics, flux rates of key trace gases such as NOX and N2O and ecosystem C sequestration. Given the geographic dimensions of woody encroachment, these results may have implications for atmospheric composition and the climate system.

  12. THE RGB AND AGB STAR NUCLEOSYNTHESIS IN LIGHT OF THE RECENT {sup 17}O(p, {alpha}){sup 14}N AND {sup 18}O(p, {alpha}){sup 15}N REACTION-RATE DETERMINATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Palmerini, S.; Sergi, M. L.; La Cognata, M.; Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy)] [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2013-02-20

    In recent years, the Trojan Horse Method (THM) has been used to investigate the low-energy cross sections of proton-induced reactions on A = 17 and A = 18 oxygen isotopes, overcoming extrapolation procedures and enhancement effects due to electron screening. In particular, the strengths of the 20 keV and 65 keV resonances in the {sup 18}O(p, {alpha}){sup 15}N and {sup 17}O(p, {alpha}){sup 14}N reactions, respectively, have been extracted, as well as the contribution of the tail of the broad 656 keV resonance in the {sup 18}O(p, {alpha}){sup 15}N reaction inside the Gamow window. The strength of the 65 keV resonance in the {sup 17}O(p, {alpha}){sup 14}N reaction, measured by means of the THM, has been used to renormalize the corresponding resonance strength in the {sup 17}O + p radiative capture channel. As a result, more accurate reaction rates for the {sup 18}O(p, {alpha}){sup 15}N, {sup 17}O(p, {alpha}){sup 14}N, and {sup 17}O(p, {gamma}){sup 18}F processes have been deduced, devoid of systematic errors due to extrapolation or the electron screening effect. Such rates have been introduced into state-of-the-art red giant branch and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) models for proton-capture nucleosynthesis coupled with extra-mixing episodes. The predicted abundances have been compared with isotopic compositions provided by geochemical analysis of presolar grains. As a result, an improved agreement is found between the models and the isotopic mix of oxide grains of AGB origins, whose composition is the signature of low-temperature proton-capture nucleosynthesis. The low {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N found in SiC grains cannot be explained by the revised nuclear reaction rates and remains a serious problem that has not been satisfactorily addressed.

  13. The Solar Argon Abundance

    E-print Network

    Katharina Lodders

    2007-10-24

    The solar argon abundance cannot be directly derived by spectroscopic observations of the solar photosphere. The solar Ar abundance is evaluated from solar wind measurements, nucleosynthetic arguments, observations of B stars, HII regions, planetary nebulae, and noble gas abundances measured in Jupiter's atmosphere. These data lead to a recommended argon abundance of N(Ar) = 91,200(+/-)23,700 (on a scale where Si = 10^6 atoms). The recommended abundance for the solar photosphere (on a scale where log N(H) = 12) is A(Ar)photo = 6.50(+/-)0.10, and taking element settling into account, the solar system (protosolar) abundance is A(Ar)solsys = 6.57(+/-)0.10.

  14. A new strategy for sequential assignment of intrinsically unstructured proteins based on 15N single isotope labelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Juan; Ahuja, Puneet; Gerard, Melanie; Wieruszeski, Jean-Michel; Lippens, Guy

    2013-11-01

    We describe a new efficient strategy for the sequential assignment of amide resonances of a conventional 15N-1H HSQC spectrum of intrinsically unfolded proteins, based on composite NOESY-TOCSY and TOCSY-NOESY mixing times. These composite mixing times lead to a H?-proton mediated unidirectional transfer of amide to amide proton. We have implemented the composite mixing times in an HSQC-NOESY-HSQC manner to obtain directional connectivity between amides of neighbouring residues. We experimentally determine the optimal mixing times for both transfer schemes, and demonstrate its use in the assignment for both a fragment of the neuronal tau protein and for ?-synuclein.

  15. Determination of the ?15N and ?13C of total nitrogen and carbon in solids; RSIL lab code 1832

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Revesz, Kinga; Qi, Haiping; Coplan, Tyler B.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory (RSIL) lab code 1832 is to determine the ?(15N/14N), abbreviated as ?15N, and the ?(13C/12C), abbreviated as ?13C, of total nitrogen and carbon in a solid sample. A Carlo Erba NC 2500 elemental analyzer (EA) is used to convert total nitrogen and carbon in a solid sample into N2 and CO2 gas. The EA is connected to a continuous flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS), which determines the relative difference in stable nitrogen isotope-amount ratio (15N/14N) of the product N2 gas and the relative difference in stable carbon isotope-amount ratio (13C/12C) of the product CO2 gas. The combustion is quantitative; no isotopic fractionation is involved. Samples are placed in tin capsules and loaded into a Costech Zero Blank Autosampler on the EA. Under computer control, samples then are dropped into a heated reaction tube that contains an oxidant, where combustion takes place in a helium atmosphere containing an excess of oxygen gas. Combustion products are transported by a helium carrier through a reduction furnace to remove excess oxygen and to convert all nitrous oxides into N2 and through a drying tube to remove water. The gas-phase products, mainly CO2 and N2, are separated by a gas chromatograph. The gas is then introduced into the IRMS through a Finnigan MAT (now Thermo Scientific) ConFlo II interface. The Finnigan MAT ConFlo II interface is used for introducing not only sample into the IRMS but also N2 and CO2 reference gases and helium for sample dilution. The flash combustion is quantitative; no isotopic fractionation is involved. The IRMS is a Thermo Scientific Delta V CF-IRMS. It has a universal triple collector, two wide cups with a narrow cup in the middle; it is capable of measuring mass/charge (m/z) 28, 29, 30 or with a magnet current change 44, 45, 46, simultaneously. The ion beams from these m/z values are as follows: m/z 28 = N2 = 14N/14N; m/z 29 = N2 = 14N/15N primarily; m/z 30 = NO = 14N/16O primarily, which is a sign of contamination or incomplete reduction; m/z 44 = CO2 = 12C16O16O; m/z 45 = CO2 = 13C16O16O primarily; and m/z 46 = CO2 = 12C16O18O primarily.

  16. A priori predictions of the rotational constants for HC13N, HC15N, C5O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeFrees, D. J.; McLean, A. D.

    1989-01-01

    Ab initio molecular orbital theory is used to estimate the rotational constant for several carbon-chain molecules that are candidates for discovery in interstellar space. These estimated rotational constants can be used in laboratory or astronomical searches for the molecules. The rotational constant for HC13N is estimated to be 0.1073 +/- 0.0002 GHz and its dipole moment 5.4 D. The rotational constant for HC15N is estimated to be 0.0724 GHz, with a somewhat larger uncertainty. The rotational constant of C5O is estimated to be 1.360 +/- 2% GHz and its dipole moment 4.4. D.

  17. Partitioning Residue-derived and Residue-induced Emissions of N2O Using 15N-labelled Crop Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, R. E.; Carverhill, J.; Lemke, R.; Knight, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Estimates of N2O emissions in Canada indicate that 17% of all agriculture-based emissions are associated with the decomposition of crop residues. However, research specific to the western Canadian prairies (including Saskatchewan) has shown that the N2O emission factor for N sources in this region typically ranges between 0.2 and 0.6%, which is well below the current IPCC default emission factor of 1.0%. Thus, it stands to reason that emissions from crop residues should also be lower than those calculated using the current IPCC emission factor. Current data indicates that residue decomposition, N mineralization and N2O production are affected by a number of factors such as C:N ratio and chemical composition of the residue, soil type, and soil water content; thus, a bench-scale incubation study was conducted to examine the effects of soil type and water content on N2O emissions associated with the decomposition of different crop residues. The study was carried out using soils from the Black, Dark Brown, Brown, and Gray soil zones and was conducted at both 50% and 70% water-filled pore space (WFPS); the soils were amended with 15N-labeled residues of wheat, pea, canola, and flax, or with an equivalent amount of 15N-labeled urea; 15N2O production was monitored using a Picarro G5101-i isotopic N2O analyzer. Crop residue additions to the soils resulted in both direct and indirect emissions of N2O, with residue derived emissions (RDE; measured as 15N2O) generally exceeding residue-induced emissions (RIE) at 50% WFPS—with RDEs ranging from 42% to 88% (mean = 58%) of the total N2O. Conversely, at 70% WFPS, RDEs were generally lower than RIEs—ranging from 21% to 83% (mean = 48%). Whereas both water content and soil type had an impact on N2O production, there was a clear and consistent trend in the emission factors for the residues; i.e., emissions were always greatest for the canola residue and lowest for the wheat residue and urea fertilizer; and intermediate for pea and flax. Results of this research demonstrate that—under the right environmental conditions—there is considerable potential for both direct and indirect N2O emissions during crop residue decomposition. Moreover, emission factors for the various crop residues tended to increase in the order: wheat ? urea < pea < flax << canola.

  18. The Bliss of Motor Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Latash, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Motor control is an area of natural science exploring how the nervous system interacts with other body parts and the environment to produce purposeful, coordinated actions. A central problem of motor control – the problem of motor redundancy – was formulated by Nikolai Bernstein as the problem of elimination of redundant degrees-of-freedom. Traditionally, this problem has been addressed using optimization methods based on a variety of cost functions. This review draws attention to a body of recent findings suggesting that the problem has been formulated incorrectly. An alternative view has been suggested as the principle of abundance, which considers the apparently redundant degrees-of-freedom as useful and even vital for many aspects of motor behavior. Over the past ten years, dozens of publications have provided support for this view based on the ideas of synergic control, computational apparatus of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis, and the equilibrium-point (referent configuration) hypothesis. In particular, large amounts of “good variance” – variance in the space of elements that has no effect on the overall performance – have been documented across a variety of natural actions. “Good variance” helps an abundant system to deal with secondary tasks and unexpected perturbations; its amount shows adaptive modulation across a variety of conditions. These data support the view that there is no problem of motor redundancy; there is bliss of motor abundance. PMID:22246105

  19. 1H, 13C, and 15N backbone, side-chain, and heme chemical shift assignments for oxidized and reduced forms of the monoheme c-type cytochrome ApcA isolated from the acidophilic metal-reducing bacterium Acidiphilium cryptum.

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, John R.; Swenson, Michael; Magnuson, Timothy S.

    2011-03-04

    We report the 1H, 13C, and 15N chemical shift assignments of both oxidized and reduced forms of an abundant periplasmic c-type cytochrome, designated ApcA, from the acidophilic gram-negative facultatively anaerobic metal-reducing alpha-proteobacterium Acidiphilium cryptum. These resonance assignments prove that ApcA is a monoheme cytochrome c2 and the product of the Acry_2099 gene. An absence of resonance peaks in the NMR spectra for the 21 N-terminal residues suggests that a predicted N-terminal signal sequence is cleaved. We also describe the preparation and purification of the protein in labeled form from laboratory cultures of A. cryptum growing on 13C- and 15N- labeled substrates.

  20. 1H, 13C, and 15N backbone, side-chain, and heme chemical shift assignments for oxidized and reduced forms of the monoheme c-type cytochrome ApcA isolated from the acidophilic metal-reducing bacterium Acidiphilium cryptum.

    PubMed

    Cort, John R; Swenson, Michael W; Magnuson, Timothy S

    2011-04-01

    We report the (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N chemical shift assignments of both oxidized and reduced forms of an abundant periplasmic c-type cytochrome, designated ApcA, isolated from the acidophilic gram-negative facultatively anaerobic metal-reducing alphaproteobacterium Acidiphilium cryptum. These resonance assignments prove that ApcA is a monoheme cytochrome c (2) and the product of the Acry_2099 gene. An absence of resonance peaks in the NMR spectra for the 21N-terminal residues suggests that a predicted N-terminal signal sequence is cleaved. We also describe the preparation and purification of the protein in labeled form from laboratory cultures of A. cryptum growing on (13)C- and (15)N- labeled substrates. PMID:21197590

  1. Dietary macronutrients influence 13C and 15N signatures of pinnipeds: captive feeding studies with harbor seals (Phoca vitulina).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liying; Schell, Donald M; Castellini, Michael A

    2006-04-01

    Metabolic effects of dietary macronutrients on diet-tissue isotopic discrimination factors were investigated in harbor seals. Three seals were fed either high fat/low protein herring (H), or low fat/high protein pollock (P), and switched to the alternative every 4 months. This allowed each seal to be subjected to two dietary treatments in each of three metabolically defined seasons (breeding from May to September, molting from September to January, and late winter/early spring period from January to May) over a 2 year cycle, and function as its internal control regardless of physiological changes over season. One seal was fed a constant equal mix of H and P over the entire trial. Up to 1 per thousand differences in serum delta15N values of one seal fed alternatively on H and P were observed. Progressively more enriched serum delta15N values as diet switching from H to P might link to changes in seal digestive physiology and protein metabolism in response to very high protein intake on P diet. These findings demonstrate that dietary macronutrients of prey species and protein intake level of consumers also play important roles in shaping isotopic patterns of a consumer's tissues, and thus influence accurate data interpretation of stable isotope techniques in ecological applications. PMID:16459116

  2. 15N Kinetic Analysis of N2O Production by Nitrosomonas europaea: an Examination of Nitrifier Denitrification

    PubMed Central

    Poth, Mark; Focht, Dennis D.

    1985-01-01

    A series of 15N isotope tracer experiments showed that Nitrosomonas europaea produces nitrous oxide only under oxygen-limiting conditions and that the labeled N from nitrite, but not nitrate, is incorporated into nitrous oxide, indicating the presence of the “denitrifying enzyme” nitrite reductase. A kinetic analysis of the m/z 44, 45, and 46 nitrous oxide produced by washed cell suspensions of N. europaea when incubated with 4 mM ammonium (99% 14N) and 0.4 mM nitrite (99% 15N) was performed. No labeled nitrite was reduced to ammonium. All labeled material added was accounted for as either nitrite or nitrous oxide. The hypothesis that nitrous oxide is produced directly from nitrification was rejected since (i) it does not allow for the large amounts of double-labeled (m/z 46) nitrous oxide observed; (ii) the observed patterns of m/z 44, 45, and 46 nitrous oxide were completely consistent with a kinetic analysis based on denitrification as the sole mechanism of nitrous oxide production but not with a kinetic analysis based on both mechanisms; (iii) the asymptotic ratio of m/z 45 to m/z 46 nitrous oxide was consistent with denitrification kinetics but inconsistent with nitrification kinetics, which predicted no limit to m/z 45 production. It is concluded that N. europaea is a denitrifier which, under conditions of oxygen stress, uses nitrite as a terminal electron acceptor and produces nitrous oxide. PMID:16346787

  3. Pathways for nitrate release from an alpine watershed: determination using d15N and d18O

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Donald H.; Kendall, Carol; Chang, Cecily C.Y.; Silva, Steven R.; Tonnessen, Kathy A.

    2002-01-01

    [1] Snowpack, snowmelt, precipitation, surface water, and groundwater samples from the Loch Vale watershed in Colorado were analyzed for ??15N and ??18O of nitrate to determine the processes controlling the release of atmospherically deposited nitrogen from alpine and subalpine ecosystems. Although overlap was found between the ??15N(NO3) values for all water types (-4 to +6???), the ??18O(NO3) values for surface water and groundwater (+10 to +30???) were usually distinct from snowpack, snowmelt, and rainfall values (+40 to +70???). During snowmelt, ??18O(NO3) indicated that about half of the nitrate in stream water was the product of microbial nitrification; at other times that amount was greater than half. Springs emerging from talus deposits had high nitrate concentrations and a seasonal pattern in ??18O(NO3) that was similar to the pattern in the streams, indicating that shallow groundwater in talus deposits is a likely source of stream water nitrate. Only a few samples of surface water and groundwater collected during early snowmelt and large summer rain events had isotopic compositions that indicated most of the nitrate came directly from atmospheric deposition with no biological assimilation and release. This study demonstrates the value of the nitrate double-isotope technique for determining nitrogen-cycling processes and sources of nitrate in small, undisturbed watersheds that are enriched with inorganic nitrogen.

  4. The agricultural history of human-nitrogen interactions as recorded in ice core ?15N-NO3-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix, J. David; Elliott, Emily M.

    2013-04-01

    The advent and industrialization of the Haber Bosch process in the early twentieth century ushered in a new era of reactive nitrogen distributions on Earth. Since the appearance of the first commercial scale Haber Bosch fertilizer plants, fertilizer application rates have greatly increased in the U.S. While the contributions of fertilizer runoff to eutrophication and anoxic dead zones in coastal regions have been well-documented, the potential influences of increased fertilizer applications on air quality and precipitation chemistry are poorly constrained. Here we combine a 255-year record of precipitation nitrate isotopes preserved in a Greenland ice core, historical reconstructions of fertilizer application rates, and field characterization of the isotopic composition of nitrogen oxides produced biogenically in soils, to provide new constraints on the contributions of biogenic emissions to North American NOx inventories. Our results indicate that increases in twentieth century commercial fertilizer use led to large increases in soil NO, a byproduct released during nitrification and denitrification reactions. These large shifts in soil NO production are evidenced by sharp declines in ice core ?15N-NO3- values. Further, these results suggest that biogenic NOx emissions are underestimated by two to four fold in the U.S. NOx emission inventories used to construct global reactive nitrogen budgets. These results demonstrate that nitrate isotopes in ice cores, coupled with newly constrained ?15N-NOx values for NOx emission sources, provide a novel means for estimating contemporary and historic contributions from individual NOx emission sources to deposition.

  5. Multi-Isotope Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Combining Heavy Water 2H with 15N Labeling As Complementary Tracers for Metabolic Heterogeneity at the Single-Cell Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf, S.; McGlynn, S.; Cowley, E.; Green, A.; Newman, D. K.; Orphan, V. J.

    2014-12-01

    Metabolic rates of microbial communities constitute a key physiological parameter for understanding the in situ growth constraints for life in any environment. Isotope labeling techniques provide a powerful approach for measuring such biological activity, due to the use of isotopically enriched substrate tracers whose incorporation into biological materials can be detected with high sensitivity by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Nano-meter scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) combined with stable isotope labeling provides a unique tool for studying the spatiometabolic activity of microbial populations at the single cell level in order to assess both community structure and population diversity. However, assessing the distribution and range of microbial activity in complex environmental systems with slow-growing organisms, diverse carbon and nitrogen sources, or heterotrophic subpopulations poses a tremendous technical challenge because the introduction of isotopically labeled substrates frequently changes the nutrient availability and can inflate or bias measures of activity. Here, we present the use of hydrogen isotope labeling with deuterated water as an important new addition to the isotopic toolkit and apply it for the determination of single cell microbial activities by NanoSIMS imaging. This tool provides a labeling technique that minimally alters any aquatic chemical environment, can be administered with strong labels even in minimal addition (natural background is very low), is an equally universal substrate for all forms of life even in complex, carbon and nitrogen saturated systems, and can be combined with other isotopic tracers. The combination of heavy water labeling with the most commonly used NanoSIMS tracer, 15N, is technically challenging but opens up a powerful new set of multi-tracer experiments for the study of microbial activity in complex communities. We present the first truly simultaneous single cell triple isotope system measurements of 2H/1H, 13C/12C and 15N/14N and apply it to study of microbial metabolic heterogeneity and nitrogen metabolism in a continuous culture case study. Our data provide insight into both the diversity of microbial activity rates, as well as patterns of ammonium utilization at the single cell level.

  6. Controls on the Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopic Composition (? 15N, ? 18O, ? 17O) of Atmospheric Nitrate in Princeton, NJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, M. G.; Malcolm, E.; Kaiser, J.; Sigman, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrate reflects the oxidative mechanisms that convert NOx to HNO3, while the nitrogen isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrate may reflect different NOx source signatures and/or fractionations related to NOx chemistry [Michalski et al., 2003; Hastings et al., 2003; Freyer et al., 1993]. New analysis techniques are capable of determining the 15N/14N, 18O/16O and 17O/16O isotope ratios in samples at the nanomolar level [Sigman et al., 2001; Casciotti et al., 2002; see Kaiser et al., session H38]. This allows for the analysis of short-term variations in the isotopes of HNO3 with the potential to diagnose causal relationships by comparing the isotopic data with other features of atmospheric deposition. The 15N/14N, 18O/16O and 17O/16O of nitrate were analyzed from precipitation samples collected on an event-basis in Princeton, NJ between December 2002 and 2003. The nitrate concentration in Princeton rain ranges from 2.5 to 99.7 ? M (mean=21.1 ? M, n=61), similar to that found in other urban areas of New Jersey by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program. The isotopes of nitrate fall in the wide range reported for various environments with the ? 15N ranging from -4.0 to 9.5‰ (vs. air), and the ? 18O and ? 17O ranging from 57.2 to 90.5‰ and 50.7 to 77.8‰ (vs. VSMOW), respectively. The correlation between nitrate and sulfate concentration (R2=0.66) and the lack of a relationship between these major ions and the isotopes of nitrate supports the conclusion that below cloud scavenging is not the dominant control on the isotopic variations observed. Seasonal variations are observed in both the nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate. Overall the ? 15N is not correlated with either ? 18O or ? 17O, although both the ? 15N and ? 18O average lowest in the summer and highest in the winter. ? 18O is highly correlated with ? 17O of nitrate with anomalous enrichment in 17O relative to 18O (? 17O ranges from 19.7 to 30.8‰ ), as a result of the interaction of NOx and ozone in the atmosphere prior to HNO3 deposition. Comparison of ? 17O and ? 18O of nitrate show the data falling along a mixing line between the oxygen isotopic composition of tropospheric ozone and that of hydroxy/peroxy radicals (i.e. water), which has also been observed in nitrate aerosol samples collected in La Jolla, CA [Michalski et al., 2003]. Although there is considerable scatter in the isotopic time series, a distinctive increase in the oxygen isotope ratios occurs in mid-September and continues through the end of December 2003. This aspect of the time series will be discussed in the context of changes in atmospheric chemistry based on seasonal variations in atmospheric transport patterns, meteorology, and NOx and ozone concentrations. In addition to these parameters, the nitrogen isotopic variations will also be interpreted in the context of changes in source contributions, e.g. coal burning in the Midwest, based on multiple chemical analyses including trace metals, mercury, and major ion concentrations.

  7. Predicting the denitrification capacity of sandy aquifers from in situ measurements using push-pull 15N tracer tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eschenbach, W.; Well, R.; Walther, W.

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge about the spatial variability of in situ denitrification rates (Dr(in situ)) and their relation to the denitrification capacity in nitrate-contaminated aquifers is crucial to predict the development of groundwater quality. Therefore, 28 push-pull 15N tracer tests for the measurement of in situ denitrification rates were conducted in two sandy Pleistocene aquifers in Northern Germany. The 15N analysis of denitrification derived 15N labelled N2 and N2O dissolved in water samples collected during the push-pull 15N tracer tests was performed by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) in the lab and additionally for some tracer tests online in the field with a quadrupole membrane inlet mass spectrometer (MIMS), in order to test the feasibility of on-site real-time 15N analysis. Aquifer material from the same locations and depths as the push-pull injection points was incubated and the initial and cumulative denitrification after one year of incubation (Dcum(365)) as well as the stock of reduced compounds (SRC) was compared with in situ measurements of denitrification. This was done to derive transfer functions suitable to predict Dcum(365) and SRC from Dr(in situ). Dr(in situ) ranged from 0 to 51.5 ?g N kg-1 d-1. Denitrification rates derived from on-site isotope analysis using membrane-inlet mass spectrometry satisfactorily coincided with laboratory analysis by conventional isotope ratio mass spectrometry, thus proving the feasibility of in situ analysis. Dr(in situ) was significantly higher in the sulphidic zone of both aquifers compared to the zone of non-sulphidic aquifer material. Overall, regressions between the Dcum(365) and SRC of the tested aquifer material with Dr(in situ) exhibited only a modest linear correlation for the full data set. But the predictability of Dcum(365) and SRC from Dr(in situ) data clearly increased for aquifer samples from the zone of NO3--bearing groundwater. In the NO3--free aquifer zone a lag phase of denitrification after NO3- injections was observed, which confounded the relationship between reactive compounds and in situ denitrification activity. This finding was attributed to adaptation processes in the microbial community after NO3- injections. Exemplarily, it was demonstrated that the microbial community in the NO3--free zone close below the NO3--bearing zone can be adapted to denitrification by amending wells with NO3--injections for an extended period. In situ denitrification rates were 30 to 65% higher after pre-conditioning with NO3-. Results from this study suggest that such pre-conditioning is crucial for the measurement of Dr(in situ) in deeper aquifer material from the NO3--free groundwater zone and thus for the prediction of Dcum(365) and SRC from Dr(in situ).

  8. Predicting the denitrification capacity of sandy aquifers from in situ measurements using push-pull 15N tracer tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eschenbach, W.; Well, R.; Walther, W.

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge about the spatial variability of in situ denitrification rates (Dr(in situ)) and their relation to the denitrification capacity in nitrate-contaminated aquifers is crucial to predict the development of groundwater quality. Therefore, 28 push-pull 15N tracer tests for the measurement of in situ denitrification rates were conducted in two sandy Pleistocene aquifers in northern Germany. The 15N analysis of denitrification-derived 15N-labelled N2 and N2O dissolved in water samples collected during the push-pull 15N tracer tests was performed using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) in the lab and additionally for some tracer tests online in the field with a quadrupole membrane inlet mass spectrometer (MIMS) in order to test the feasibility of on-site real-time 15N analysis. Aquifer material from the same locations and depths as the push-pull injection points was incubated, and the initial and cumulative denitrification after 1 year of incubation (Dcum(365)) as well as the stock of reduced compounds (SRC) was compared with in situ measurements of denitrification. This was done to derive transfer functions suitable to predict Dcum(365) and SRC from Dr(in situ). Dr(in situ) ranged from 0 to 51.5 ?g N kg-1 d-1. Denitrification rates derived from on-site isotope analysis using MIMS satisfactorily coincided with laboratory analysis by conventional IRMS, thus proving the feasibility of in situ analysis. Dr(in situ) was significantly higher in the sulfidic zone of both aquifers compared to the zone of non-sulfidic aquifer material. Overall, regressions between the Dcum(365) and SRC of the tested aquifer material with Dr(in situ) exhibited only a modest linear correlation for the full data set. However, the predictability of Dcum(365) and SRC from Dr(in situ) data clearly increased for aquifer samples from the zone of NO3--bearing groundwater. In the NO3--free aquifer zone, a lag phase of denitrification after NO3- injections was observed, which confounded the relationship between reactive compounds and in situ denitrification activity. This finding was attributed to adaptation processes in the microbial community after NO3- injections. It was also demonstrated that the microbial community in the NO3--free zone just below the NO3--bearing zone can be adapted to denitrification by NO3- injections into wells for an extended period. In situ denitrification rates were 30 to 65 times higher after pre-conditioning with NO3-. Results from this study suggest that such pre-conditioning is crucial for the measurement of Dr(in situ) in deeper aquifer material from the NO3--free groundwater zone and thus for the prediction of Dcum(365) and SRC from Dr(in situ).

  9. The solar hafnium abundance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Andersen; P. Petersen; Ö. Hauge

    1976-01-01

    The solar Hf abundance is determined using nine Hf ii lines in the photospheric spectrum. The transition probabilities were obtained from lifetime measurements performed by the beam-foil technique. The abundance derived from synthetic spectrum calculations is A(Hf) = 0.88 ± 0.08 in the logarithmic A(H) = 12.00 scale.

  10. Stellar oxygen abundances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy R. King

    1993-01-01

    We address a variety of issues concerning stellar oxygen abundances. We first investigate the discrepancy in O abundances of halo stars as derived from the 7774 A O I triplet and other lines and propose a resolution to this discrepancy. Next, possible cosmological implications of the hotter Teff scale are discussed along with additional evidence supporting the need for a

  11. Mechanism of Solid-State Thermolysis of Ammonia Boraine: 15N NMR Study Using Fast Magic-Angle Spinning and Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Takeshi [Ames Laboratory; Gupta, Shalabh [Ames Laboratory; Caporini, Marc A [Bruker BioSpin Corporation; Pecharsky, Vitalij K [Ames Laboratory; Pruski, Marek [Ames Laboratory

    2014-08-28

    The solid-state thermolysis of ammonia borane (NH3BH3, AB) was explored using state-of-the-art 15N solid-state NMR spectroscopy, including 2D indirectly detected 1H{15N} heteronuclear correlation and dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-enhanced 15N{1H} cross-polarization experiments as well as 11B NMR. The complementary use of 15N and 11B NMR experiments, supported by density functional theory calculations of the chemical shift tensors, provided insights into the dehydrogenation mechanism of AB—insights that have not been available by 11B NMR alone. Specifically, highly branched polyaminoborane derivatives were shown to form from AB via oligomerization in the “head-to-tail” manner, which then transform directly into hexagonal boron nitride analog through the dehydrocyclization reaction, bypassing the formation of polyiminoborane.

  12. Identification of the magnesium-histidine stretching vibration of the bacteriochlorophyll cofactors in photosynthetic reaction centers via {sup 15}N-labeling of the histidines

    SciTech Connect

    Czarnecki, K.; Bocian, D.F. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Chynwat, V.; Erickson, J.P.; Frank, H.A. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)] [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    1997-03-12

    In this communication, we report low-frequency, near-infrared-exciation RR spectra of bacterial RCs in which the histidine residues of the protein are selectively labeled with {sup 15}N. For practical reasons, the studies were conducted by comparing the vibrational signatures of RCs in which {sup 15}N was universally incorporated (all cofactors and all protein residues) (designated all-{sup 15}N RCs) with those in which [{sup 14}N]histidine was introduced as a reverse label (disignated {sup 14}N-His RCs) into the all {sup 15}N-labeled RCs. The studies of the histidine-labeled RCs reveal that the vibrational characteristics of the BChl core are far more complicated than originally anticipated. These results have clear implications for the photoexcitation dynamics of the BChls in RCs and may also have significant consequences for the dynamics of exogenous ligand binding to heme-based oxygen carriers. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  13. The use of sedimentary %C, %N, delta(15)N, and Pb concentrations to assess historical changes in anthropogenic influence on Portuguese estuaries.

    PubMed

    Castro, Paula; Valiela, Ivan; Freitas, Helena

    2007-06-01

    Vertical profiles of C, N, delta(15)N and Pb were measured in the Mondego and Mira estuaries as markers that conveyed notions as to the relative influence of anthropogenic influence over the past decades. Recent carbon changes in both estuaries may reflect changes in estuarine productivity, probably as a consequence of sediment reworking and erosion, and also of losses in salt marsh area and dwarf eelgrass beds. delta(15)N values began to diverge considerably before the %C and %N and were higher in Mondego. delta(15)N signatures detected N enrichment at relatively low rates, and indicated that Mondego received more enriched N than Mira. Lead concentrations differed between estuaries, with higher concentrations in Mondego. The secular increase in %N, Pb, and delta(15)N signatures was significantly related to human density in the watersheds of the estuaries and were sensitive indicators of anthropogenic activity. PMID:17129649

  14. Ultraviolet irradiation effects incorporation of nitrate and nitrite nitrogen into aquatic natural organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, Kevin A.; Cox, Larry G.

    2012-01-01

    One of the concerns regarding the safety and efficacy of ultraviolet radiation for treatment of drinking water and wastewater is the fate of nitrate, particularly its photolysis to nitrite. In this study, 15N NMR was used to establish for the first time that UV irradiation effects the incorporation of nitrate and nitrite nitrogen into aquatic natural organic matter (NOM). Irradiation of 15N-labeled nitrate in aqueous solution with an unfiltered medium pressure mercury lamp resulted in the incorporation of nitrogen into Suwannee River NOM (SRNOM) via nitrosation and other reactions over a range of pH from approximately 3.2 to 8.0, both in the presence and absence of bicarbonate, confirming photonitrosation of the NOM. The major forms of the incorporated label include nitrosophenol, oxime/nitro, pyridine, nitrile, and amide nitrogens. Natural organic matter also catalyzed the reduction of nitrate to ammonia on irradiation. The nitrosophenol and oxime/nitro nitrogens were found to be susceptible to photodegradation on further irradiation when nitrate was removed from the system. At pH 7.5, unfiltered irradiation resulted in the incorporation of 15N-labeled nitrite into SRNOM in the form of amide, nitrile, and pyridine nitrogen. In the presence of bicarbonate at pH 7.4, Pyrex filtered (cutoff below 290–300 nm) irradiation also effected incorporation of nitrite into SRNOM as amide nitrogen. We speculate that nitrosation of NOM from the UV irradiation of nitrate also leads to production of nitrogen gas and nitrous oxide, a process that may be termed photo-chemodenitrification. Irradiation of SRNOM alone resulted in transformation or loss of naturally abundant heterocyclic nitrogens.

  15. The use of 15N-labeled dietary proteins for determining true ileal amino acid digestibilities is limited by their rapid recycling in the endogenous secretions of pigs.

    PubMed

    Leterme, P; Théwis, A; François, E; Van Leeuwen, P; Wathelet, B; Huisman, J

    1996-09-01

    We assessed the use of 15N-labeled dietary proteins as a possible tool for the determination of the true ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility in pigs. The first experiment was designed to study the dietary N excretion pattern at the ileum subsequent to the ingestion of a single 15N-labeled meal. In a second experiment, we compared ileal endogenous AA outputs and true AA digestibility estimates obtained in pigs ingesting 15N-labeled dietary proteins in a single meal vs. intravenous infusion of [15N]leucine for 10 d during the ingestion of a pea-based diet and a protein-free starch diet. The proportion of endogenous N found in the ileal digesta differed when the label was delivered orally (50%) vs. intravenously (72%) and changed with time. As a consequence, the true ileal AA digestibilities measured with labeled diets were lower. A third experiment demonstrated that this was due to the rapid recycling of labeled dietary N in endogenous moieties, because 15N was found in blood within 10 min of consuming the labeled meal, within 50 min of consumption in pancreatic enzymes, 90 min in bile and 4 h in ileal mucins. We conclude that the use of 15N-labeled meals for determination of true ileal AA digestibilities is limited by the fast recycling of dietary N in endogenous secretions following a single 15N-labeled meal. The accuracy of results will depend on meaningful estimates of AA flow during a limited period and accurate estimates of 15N in AA. PMID:8814207

  16. 15N Tracing Studies on In Vitro Reactions of Ferredoxin-Dependent Nitrite Reductase and Glutamate Synthase Using Reconstituted Electron Donation Systems.

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, Tadakatsu; Fujimori, Tamaki; Yanagisawa, Shuichi; Hase, Toshiharu; Suzuki, Akira

    2015-06-01

    It is known that plants contain ferredoxin (Fd)-dependent nitrite reductase (NiR) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT). The Fd-NiR reaction produces ammonia from nitrite, and the activity is usually measured by nitrite disappearance. The Fd-GOGAT reaction forms two glutamates of different origin, from glutamine and 2-oxoglutarate, and the activity is measured by the oxidation of reductant (NADPH) or by formation of total glutamate. Here, a quantitative probe of the products and efficiency of the process was conducted using (15)N tracing techniques on these reactions in vitro. We quantified the reduction of (15)N-labeled [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] and the formation of [(15)N]glutamate and [(14)N]glutamate from [5-(15)N-amide]glutamine plus 2-oxoglutarate by NiR and GOGAT, respectively, with the reductant-Fd-NADP(+) oxidoreductase (FNR)-Fd system as the sequential electron donors. The supply of dithionite or NADPH to recombinant cyanobacterial NiR led to electron donation system-dependent formation of [(15)N]ammonium from [(15)N]nitrite. Addition of 20 mM NaCl and 20 mM Na-ascorbate accelerated nitrite reduction under high concentrations of NADPH. A sufficient supply of NADPH to recombinant Zea mays Fd-GOGAT generated complete GOGAT activity (transferring the [5-(15)N]amide of glutamine to 2-oxoglutarate to form [(15)N]glutamate), whereas a shortage of NADPH resulted in glutaminase activity only, which removed the amide from glutamine and released ammonia and [(14)N]glutamate. We conclude that although the recombinant Fd-GOGAT enzyme has two forms of glutamate synthesis, the first by glutaminase (ammonia release by glutamine amidotransferase) and the second by glutamate synthase (coupling of the ammonia and exogenously applied 2-oxoglutarate), the first works without NADPH, while the second is strictly dependent on NADPH availability. PMID:25745028

  17. 15N/14N Variation in CalCOFI Zooplankton: A 51 year history of Marine Nitrogen Dynamics and Climate Variability off Central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, G. H.; Ohman, M. D.; Pierrot-Bults, A.

    2003-12-01

    Long-term variability in marine zooplankton 15N/14N was investigated in two species of calanoid copepods (Calanus pacificus and Eucalanus californicus) and two chaetognaths (Sagitta bierii and Sagitta euneritica) sampled in the spring of selected years from 1951 to 2001 near Monterey Bay, California. No statistically significant trend in 15N/14N was detected for any of the four species, with isotopic ratios in 2001 resembling those in copepods and chaetognaths sampled from the same area five decades earlier. With respect to proposed oceanographic regime shifts in this region, heterogeneity in 15N/14N was detected only for S. bierii when comparing the periods 1951-1975, 1978-1998, and 1999-2001. In this species the 15N/14N in the most recent, brief period (1999-2001) averaged slightly lower than in the previous period. Three of the four species (C. pacificus, S. bierii, and S. euneritica) showed significant increases in 15N/14N during major El Ninos. El Nino-related enrichment in 15N could arise as a consequence of increased nitrate demand/supply at the base of the food web or advection of 15N-enriched nitrate from more southerly waters. While a range of physical and climate indices were evaluated, anomalies of 15N/14N from the long-term mean were found to be significantly related only to; i) the Southern Oscillation Index in the case of both chaetognath species, ii) a regional surface water temperature record (S. bierii only), iii) an index of wind-driven coastal upwelling for the surface-dwelling C. pacificus, and iv) variability in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation for the somewhat deeper-dwelling E. californicus.

  18. Solid-phase peptide synthesis and solid-state NMR spectroscopy of (Ala/sup 3/-/sup 15/N)(Val/sup 1/)gramicidin A

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, G.B.; Fields, C.G.; Petefish, J.; Van Wart, H.E.; Cross, T.A.

    1988-03-01

    (Ala/sup 3-15/N)(Val/sup 1/)Gramicidin A has been prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis and studied by solid-state /sup 15/N nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The synthesis of desformyl(Ala/sup 3-15/N)(Val/sup 1/)gramicidin A employed N-hydroxysuccinimide esters of 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-N/sup ..cap alpha../-amino acids and completely avoided the use of acid. Since deblocking was done with piperidine and the peptide was removed from the resin by treatment with ethanolamine, this synthetic protocol prevented oxidation of the indole rings of this tryptophan-rich peptide and reduced truncations produced by acid hydrolysis. After formylation and purification by anion-exchange and high-pressure liquid chromatography, the peptide was obtained in an overall yield of 30%. Solid-state /sup 15/N nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of this peptide and uniformly labeled (/sup 15/N)gramicidin A' oriented in hydrated lipid bilayers have been obtained, allowing unambiguous assignment of the (/sup 15/N)Ala/sup 3/ resonance in the latter. The solid-state /sup 15/N nuclear magnetic resonance experiments provide evidence that (Val/sup 1/)gramicidin A is rotating about an axis that is perpendicular to the plane of the lipid bilayer and that the N-H axis is nearly parallel with the rotational axis. This study demonstrates that site-specifically labeled (/sup 15/N)gramicidin A analogs prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis are valuable tools in the study of the solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of samples in oriented lipid bilayers.

  19. Primary metabolism in N 2 -fixing Alnus incana – Frankia symbiotic root nodules studied with 15 N and 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Lundberg; Per-Olof Lundquist

    2004-01-01

    The primary nitrogen metabolism of the N 2-fixing root nodule symbiosis Alnus incana (L.)– Frankia was investigated by 31P and 15N nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Perfusion of root nodules in a pulse–chase approach with 15N- or 14N-labeled NH 4 + revealed the presence of the amino acids alanine (Ala), ?-amino butyric acid, glutamine (Gln), glutamic acid (Glu), citrulline (Cit)

  20. Nitrate removal in stream ecosystems measured by 15N addition experiments: Total uptake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.O., Jr.; Tank, J.L.; Sobota, D.J.; Mulholland, P.J.; O'Brien, J. M.; Dodds, W.K.; Webster, J.R.; Valett, H.M.; Poole, G.C.; Peterson, B.J.; Meyer, J.L.; McDowell, W.H.; Johnson, S.L.; Hamilton, S.K.; Grimm, N. B.; Gregory, S.V.; Dahm, C. N.; Cooper, L.W.; Ashkenas, L.R.; Thomas, S.M.; Sheibley, R.W.; Potter, J.D.; Niederlehner, B.R.; Johnson, L.T.; Helton, A.M.; Crenshaw, C.M.; Burgin, A.J.; Bernot, M.J.; Beaulieu, J.J.; Arangob, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    We measured uptake length of 15NO-3 in 72 streams in eight regions across the United States and Puerto Rico to develop quantitative predictive models on controls of NO-3 uptake length. As part of the Lotic Intersite Nitrogen eXperiment II project, we chose nine streams in each region corresponding to natural (reference), suburban-urban, and agricultural land uses. Study streams spanned a range of human land use to maximize variation in NO-3 concentration, geomorphology, and metabolism. We tested a causal model predicting controls on NO-3 uptake length using structural equation modeling. The model included concomitant measurements of ecosystem metabolism, hydraulic parameters, and nitrogen concentration. We compared this structural equation model to multiple regression models which included additional biotic, catchment, and riparian variables. The structural equation model explained 79% of the variation in log uptake length (S Wtot). Uptake length increased with specific discharge (Q/w) and increasing NO-3 concentrations, showing a loss in removal efficiency in streams with high NO-3 concentration. Uptake lengths shortened with increasing gross primary production, suggesting autotrophic assimilation dominated NO-3 removal. The fraction of catchment area as agriculture and suburban-urban land use weakly predicted NO-3 uptake in bivariate regression, and did improve prediction in a set of multiple regression models. Adding land use to the structural equation model showed that land use indirectly affected NO-3 uptake lengths via directly increasing both gross primary production and NO-3 concentration. Gross primary production shortened SWtot, while increasing NO-3 lengthened SWtot resulting in no net effect of land use on NO- 3 removal. ?? 2009.

  1. Using 15N to determine a budget for effluent-derived nitrogen applied to forest.

    PubMed

    Tozer, W C; Wilkins, K J; Wang, H; van den Heuvel, M; Charleson, T; Silvester, W B

    2005-03-01

    Using stable N isotopes, the fate of effluent-derived N has been determined within a land based municipal effluent irrigation scheme. Over 900 metric tonnes(t) of effluent-derived N have been applied to 192 ha of production conifer forest near Rotorua (NZ) over the past 11 years. The effluent N has a natural isotopic signal, generated by the treatment process, allowing it to be traced into various components of the system. Using this isotopic signal, a realistic approximation of storage capacity of various components of the system has been generated, including a calculation of the contribution of effluent N exiting the catchment via stream flow. Forest storage accounts for 50% of the applied N with a considerable proportion of that immobilized in wood and soil. The wetland, although not intensively sampled, retains 115 t, (13%) of the applied N. Denitrification, including that occurring within the wetland, accounts for 23 t (3%). Nitrogen isotope data confirm that the rise in NO3 concentrations is directly attributable to effluent N. Currently 88% of NO3-N in the stream is effluent-derived. Using current N isotope values for the stream and extrapolating over the discharge period, export of effluent N via the stream is estimated as 263 t (29%) of the applied N. Overall the forest and wetland ecosystem has intercepted or denitrified 65% of applied N, with 29% lost to the stream, and 50 t (5%) unaccounted for. The forest ecosystem is currently over-supplied with N and a number of management implications flows from these findings. In the long term the continued application of effluent N to the current irrigation area is not sustainable. PMID:15823854

  2. Nitrate removal in stream ecosystems measured by 15N addition experiments: Total uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Hall, Robert [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Tank, Jennifer [University of Notre Dame, IN; Sobota, Daniel [Oregon State University; O'Brien, Jon [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Webster, Jackson [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Valett, H. Maurice [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Dodds, Walter [Kansas State University; Poole, Geoff [Eco-metrics; Peterson, Chris G. [Loyola University; Meyer, Judy [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; McDowell, William [University of Hew Hampshire; Johnson, Sherri [Oregon State University; Hamilton, Stephen [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Gregory, Stanley [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Grimm, Nancy [Arizona State University; Dahm, Cliff [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Cooper, Lee W [ORNL; Ashkenas, Linda [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Thomas, Suzanne [Marine Biological Laboratory; Sheibley, Rich [Arizona State University; Potter, Jody [University of New Hampshire; Niederlehner, Bobbie [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Johnson, Laura [University of Notre Dame, IN; Helton, Ashley [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Crenshaw, Chelsea [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Burgin, Amy [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Bernot, Melody [Murray State University; Beaulieu, Jake [University of Notre Dame, IN; Arango, Clay [University of Notre Dame, IN

    2009-01-01

    We measured uptake length of {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup -} in 72 streams in eight regions across the United States and Puerto Rico to develop quantitative predictive models on controls of NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake length. As part of the Lotic Intersite Nitrogen Experiment II project, we chose nine streams in each region corresponding to natural (reference), suburban-urban, and agricultural land uses. Study streams spanned a range of human land use to maximize variation in NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration, geomorphology, and metabolism. We tested a causal model predicting controls on NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake length using structural equation modeling. The model included concomitant measurements of ecosystem metabolism, hydraulic parameters, and nitrogen concentration. We compared this structural equation model to multiple regression models which included additional biotic, catchment, and riparian variables. The structural equation model explained 79% of the variation in log uptake length (S{sub Wtot}). Uptake length increased with specific discharge (Q/w) and increasing NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations, showing a loss in removal efficiency in streams with high NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration. Uptake lengths shortened with increasing gross primary production, suggesting autotrophic assimilation dominated NO{sub 3}{sup -} removal. The fraction of catchment area as agriculture and suburban-urban land use weakly predicted NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake in bivariate regression, and did improve prediction in a set of multiple regression models. Adding land use to the structural equation model showed that land use indirectly affected NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake lengths via directly increasing both gross primary production and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration. Gross primary production shortened S{sub Wtot}, while increasing NO{sub 3}{sup -} lengthened S{sub Wtot} resulting in no net effect of land use on NO{sub 3}{sup -} removal.

  3. Natural Isotopic Signatures of Variations in Body Nitrogen Fluxes: A Compartmental Model Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Poupin, Nathalie; Mariotti, François; Huneau, Jean-François; Hermier, Dominique; Fouillet, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Body tissues are generally 15N-enriched over the diet, with a discrimination factor (?15N) that varies among tissues and individuals as a function of their nutritional and physiopathological condition. However, both 15N bioaccumulation and intra- and inter-individual ?15N variations are still poorly understood, so that theoretical models are required to understand their underlying mechanisms. Using experimental ?15N measurements in rats, we developed a multi-compartmental model that provides the first detailed representation of the complex functioning of the body's ?15N system, by explicitly linking the sizes and ?15N values of 21 nitrogen pools to the rates and isotope effects of 49 nitrogen metabolic fluxes. We have shown that (i) besides urea production, several metabolic pathways (e.g., protein synthesis, amino acid intracellular metabolism, urea recycling and intestinal absorption or secretion) are most probably associated with isotope fractionation and together contribute to 15N accumulation in tissues, (ii) the ?15N of a tissue at steady-state is not affected by variations of its P turnover rate, but can vary according to the relative orientation of tissue free amino acids towards oxidation vs. protein synthesis, (iii) at the whole-body level, ?15N variations result from variations in the body partitioning of nitrogen fluxes (e.g., urea production, urea recycling and amino acid exchanges), with or without changes in nitrogen balance, (iv) any deviation from the optimal amino acid intake, in terms of both quality and quantity, causes a global rise in tissue ?15N, and (v) ?15N variations differ between tissues depending on the metabolic changes involved, which can therefore be identified using simultaneous multi-tissue ?15N measurements. This work provides proof of concept that ?15N measurements constitute a new promising tool to investigate how metabolic fluxes are nutritionally or physiopathologically reorganized or altered. The existence of such natural and interpretable isotopic biomarkers promises interesting applications in nutrition and health. PMID:25275306

  4. Facile backbone (1H, 15N, 13Ca, and 13C') assignment of 13C/15N-labeled proteins using orthogonal projection planes of HNN and HN(C)N experiments and its automation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Borkar, Aditi; Hosur, Ramakrishna V

    2012-05-01

    Recently, we introduced an efficient high-throughput protocol for backbone assignment of small folded proteins based on two-dimensional (2D) projections of HN(C)N suite of experiments and its automation [Borkar et al., J. Biomol. NMR 2011, 50(3), 285-297]. This strategy provides complete sequence-specific assignment of backbone ((1)H, (15)N, (13)C(?), and (13)C') resonances in less than a day; thus, it has great implications for high-throughput structural proteomics. However, in cases when such small folded protein exhibits substantial amide (1)H shift degeneracy (typically seen in alpha-helical proteins), the strategy may fail or lead to ambiguities. Another limitation is with respect to the identification of checkpoints from the variants of 2D-hncNH spectrum. For example, a protein with many GG, GA, AA, SS, TS, TT, and TS types of dipeptide stretches along its sequence, thus the identification of NH cross-peak corresponding to second G, A, S, or T becomes difficult. In this backdrop, we present here two improvements to enhance the utility of the proposed high-throughput AUTOmatic Backbone Assignment protocol: (i) use of 2D-hNnH spectrum and its variants that display additional (1)H-(15)N correlations and thus help to resolve ambiguities arising because of amide (1)H shift degeneracy and (ii) optimization of the ?(CN) delay in the 2D-hncNH experiment that, when properly adjusted, is observed to help remove ambiguities in the identification of the checkpoints. These improvements have also been incorporated in the automation program AUTOmatic Backbone Assignment. Finally, the performance of the strategy and the automation has been demonstrated using the chicken SH3 domain protein. PMID:22508472

  5. Mechanistic Determination of Nitrogen Removal By Advanced Soil-Based Wastewater Treatment Systems Using 15n Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J.; Loomis, G.; Kalen, D.; Boving, T. B.; Morales, I.; Amador, J.

    2014-12-01

    Current levels of nitrogen removal by onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are inadequate, with release of N from OWTS contributing to environmental N pollution, especially in coastal zones where aquatic ecosystems are sensitive to eutrophication. Current mechanistic understand of N removal are limited and mainly attributed to denitrification in the drainfield. Loss of N from N2O production during nitrification, a sparsely researched topic, may be a significant mechanism in advanced OWTS systems that enhance O2 diffusion by sand filter pre-treatment, shallow placement of infiltrative areas and timed dosing controls to prevent drainfield saturation. Replicate (n=3) intact soil mesocosms were used with 15N isotope to evaluate the effectiveness and mechanisms of N removal in drainfields with a conventional wastewater delivery (pipe-and-stone, P&S) compared to two advanced types of drainfields, pressurized shallow narrow drainfield (SND) and Geomat (GEO), a variation of a SND drainfield. Over the 11 day experiment, dissolved O2 was 1.6 mg/L for P&S and 3.0 mg/L for SND and GEO. Removal of total N was 13.5% for P&S, 4.8% for SND and 5.4% for GEO. 15NH4 labeled nitrogen inputs to drainfields were transformed primarily to 15NO3 in all outputs. Consistent low 15N2O levels were present in P&S, with increasing levels of N2 peaking 48h after 15NH4 injection, suggesting denitrification dominated N removal. By contrast, SND and GEO 15N2O levels rose quickly, peaking 8h after 15NH4 injection, suggesting N loss by nitrification. When the whole system is considered, including sand filter removal, 26 - 27% of total N was removed by the SND and GEO systems, whereas 14% of total N was removed in the P&S system. Our results suggest the SND and GEO systems as a whole are capable of removing a greater mass of N than the P&S system.

  6. LINE LISTS FOR THE A {sup 2}?-X {sup 2}?{sup +} (RED) AND B {sup 2}?{sup +}-X {sup 2}?{sup +} (VIOLET) SYSTEMS OF CN, {sup 13}C{sup 14}N, AND {sup 12}C{sup 15}N, AND APPLICATION TO ASTRONOMICAL SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Sneden, Christopher [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Lucatello, Sara [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Ram, Ram S.; Brooke, James S. A.; Bernath, Peter, E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: sara.lucatello@oapd.inaf.it, E-mail: rr662@york.ac.uk, E-mail: jsabrooke@gmail.com, E-mail: pbernath@odu.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-01

    New red and violet system line lists for the CN isotopologues {sup 13}C{sup 14}N and {sup 12}C{sup 15}N have been generated. These new transition data are combined with those previously derived for {sup 12}C{sup 14}N, and applied to the determination of CNO