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Sample records for 15q24 deleted patients

  1. Further clinical and molecular delineation of the 15q24 microdeletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Jill A; Shur, Natasha; Slavotinek, Anne M; Cox, Victoria A; Hennekam, Raoul C; Firth, Helen V; Willatt, Lionel; Wheeler, Patricia; Morrow, Eric M; Cook, Joseph; Sullivan, Rachel; Oh, Albert; McDonald, Marie T; Zonana, Jonathan; Keller, Kory; Hannibal, Mark C; Ball, Susie; Kussmann, Jennifer; Gorski, Jerome; Zelewski, Susan; Banks, Valerie; Smith, Wendy; Smith, Rosemarie; Paull, Lindsay; Rosenbaum, Kenneth N; Amor, David J; Silva, Joao; Lamb, Allen; Eichler, Evan E

    2011-01-01

    Background Chromosome 15q24 microdeletion syndrome is a rare genomic disorder characterised by intellectual disability, growth retardation, unusual facial morphology and other anomalies. To date, 20 patients have been reported; 18 have had detailed breakpoint analysis. Aim To further delineate the features of the 15q24 microdeletion syndrome, the clinical and molecular characterisation of fifteen patients with deletions in the 15q24 region was performed, nearly doubling the number of reported patients. Methods Breakpoints were characterised using a custom, high-density array comparative hybridisation platform, and detailed phenotype information was collected for each patient. Results Nine distinct deletions with different breakpoints ranging in size from 266 kb to 3.75 Mb were identified. The majority of breakpoints lie within segmental duplication (SD) blocks. Low sequence identity and large intervals of unique sequence between SD blocks likely contribute to the rarity of 15q24 deletions, which occur 8–10 times less frequently than 1q21 or 15q13 microdeletions in our series. Two small, atypical deletions were identified within the region that help delineate the critical region for the core phenotype in the 15q24 microdeletion syndrome. Conclusion The molecular characterisation of these patients suggests that the core cognitive features of the 15q24 microdeletion syndrome, including developmental delays and severe speech problems, are largely due to deletion of genes in a 1.1–Mb critical region. However, genes just distal to the critical region also play an important role in cognition and in the development of characteristic facial features associated with 15q24 deletions. Clearly, deletions in the 15q24 region are variable in size and extent. Knowledge of the breakpoints and size of deletion combined with the natural history and medical problems of our patients provide insights that will inform management guidelines. Based on common phenotypic features, all

  2. A further case of the recurrent 15q24 microdeletion syndrome, detected by array CGH.

    PubMed

    Klopocki, Eva; Graul-Neumann, Luitgard M; Grieben, Ulrike; Tönnies, Holger; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Horn, Denise; Mundlos, Stefan; Ullmann, Reinhard

    2008-08-01

    We report on a 10-year-old patient with developmental delay, craniofacial dysmorphism, digital and genital abnormalities. In addition, muscular hypotonia, strabism, and splenomegaly were observed; inguinal and umbilical hernias were surgically corrected. Mucopolysaccharidoses and CDG syndromes could not be found. Chromosome analysis revealed a normal male karyotype (46,XY). A more detailed investigation of the patient's genomic DNA by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) detected an interstitial 3.7 Mb deletion ranging from 15q24.1 to 15q24.3 which was shown to be de novo. Interstitial deletions involving 15q24 are rare. Sharp et al. (Hum Mol Genet 16:567-572, 2007) recently characterized a recurrent 15q24 microdeletion syndrome with breakpoints in regions of segmental duplications. The de novo microdeletion described here colocalizes with the minimal deletion region of the 15q24 microdeletion syndrome. The distinct clinical phenotype associated with this novel microdeletion syndrome is similar to the phenotype of our patient with respect to specific facial features, developmental delay, microcephaly, digital abnormalities, and genital abnormalities in males. We present a genotype-phenotype correlation and comparison with patients from the literature. PMID:17932688

  3. Characterization of a recurrent 15q24 microdeletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Andrew J; Selzer, Rebecca R; Veltman, Joris A; Gimelli, Stefania; Gimelli, Giorgio; Striano, Pasquale; Coppola, Antonietta; Regan, Regina; Price, Sue M; Knoers, Nine V; Eis, Peggy S; Brunner, Han G; Hennekam, Raoul C; Knight, Samantha J L; de Vries, Bert B A; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Eichler, Evan E

    2007-03-01

    We describe multiple individuals with mental retardation and overlapping de novo submicroscopic deletions of 15q24 (1.7-3.9 Mb in size). High-resolution analysis showed that in three patients both proximal and distal breakpoints co-localized to highly identical segmental duplications (>51 kb in length, > 94% identity), suggesting non-allelic homologous recombination as the likely mechanism of origin. Sequencing studies in a fourth individual provided base pair resolution and showed that both breakpoints in this case were located in unique sequence. Despite the differences in the size and location of the deletions, all four individuals share several major features (growth retardation, microcephaly, digital abnormalities, hypospadias and loose connective tissue) and resemble one another facially (high anterior hair line, broad medial eyebrows, hypertelorism, downslanted palpebral fissures, broad nasal base, long smooth philtrum and full lower lip), indicating that this represents a novel syndrome caused by haploinsufficiency of one or more dosage-sensitive genes in the minimal deletion region. Our results define microdeletion of 15q24 as a novel recurrent genomic disorder. PMID:17360722

  4. An inferential study of the phenotype for the chromosome 15q24 microdeletion syndrome: a bootstrap analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Prado, Dolores; Cortés, Ernesto; Aguilar-Segura, María Soledad; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco

    2016-01-01

    In January 2012, a review of the cases of chromosome 15q24 microdeletion syndrome was published. However, this study did not include inferential statistics. The aims of the present study were to update the literature search and calculate confidence intervals for the prevalence of each phenotype using bootstrap methodology. Published case reports of patients with the syndrome that included detailed information about breakpoints and phenotype were sought and 36 were included. Deletions in megabase (Mb) pairs were determined to calculate the size of the interstitial deletion of the phenotypes studied in 2012. To determine confidence intervals for the prevalence of the phenotype and the interstitial loss, we used bootstrap methodology. Using the bootstrap percentiles method, we found wide variability in the prevalence of the different phenotypes (3–100%). The mean interstitial deletion size was 2.72 Mb (95% CI [2.35–3.10 Mb]). In comparison with our work, which expanded the literature search by 45 months, there were differences in the prevalence of 17% of the phenotypes, indicating that more studies are needed to analyze this rare disease. PMID:26925314

  5. Paratesticular leiomyoma with a der(14)t(12;14)(q15;q24).

    PubMed

    Gorunova, Ludmila; Bjerkehagen, Bodil; Heim, Sverre

    2011-08-01

    While uterine leiomyomas are among the most common and best cytogenetically characterized solid tumors, leiomyomas at other sites are rare. Only two karyotypically abnormal leiomyomas in males have been reported to date, both of them with unspecific chromosome aberrations. We recently analyzed by G-banding a paratesticular leiomyoma, a tumor type not cytogenetically examined before, and found the pseudodiploid karyotype 46,XY,der(5)t(5;14)(q31;q24),der(14)t(12;14)(q15;q24). The leiomyoma cells demonstrated strong immunohistochemical nuclear expression of the HMGA2 protein, supporting a role of HMGA2 as the target gene in 12q14∼15 rearrangements. In uterine leiomyomas, the t(12;14)(q15;q24) is the most frequent translocation leading to overexpression of HMGA2, therefore it seems that a common pathogenetic pathway exists for benign smooth muscle tumors of both the female and male reproductive organs. The finding of this abnormality may help identify a scrotal tumor of uncertain biologic potential but with smooth muscle differentiation as benign. PMID:21962898

  6. Ancient Haplotypes at the 15q24.2 Microdeletion Region Are Linked to Brain Expression of MAN2C1 and Children's Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Cáceres, Alejandro; Esko, Tõnu; Pappa, Irene; Gutiérrez, Armand; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Llop, Sabrina; Bustamante, Mariona; Tiemeier, Henning; Metspalu, Andres; Wilsonx, James F.; Reina-Castillón, Judith; Shin, Jean; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš; Sunyer, Jordi; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A.; González, Juan R.

    2016-01-01

    The chromosome bands 15q24.1-15q24.3 contain a complex region with numerous segmental duplications that predispose to regional microduplications and microdeletions, both of which have been linked to intellectual disability, speech delay and autistic features. The region may also harbour common inversion polymorphisms whose functional and phenotypic manifestations are unknown. Using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data, we detected four large contiguous haplotype-genotypes at 15q24 with Mendelian inheritance in 2,562 trios, African origin, high population stratification and reduced recombination rates. Although the haplotype-genotypes have been most likely generated by decreased or absent recombination among them, we could not confirm that they were the product of inversion polymorphisms in the region. One of the blocks was composed of three haplotype-genotypes (N1a, N1b and N2), which significantly correlated with intelligence quotient (IQ) in 2,735 children of European ancestry from three independent population cohorts. Homozygosity for N2 was associated with lower verbal IQ (2.4-point loss, p-value = 0.01), while homozygosity for N1b was associated with 3.2-point loss in non-verbal IQ (p-value = 0.0006). The three alleles strongly correlated with expression levels of MAN2C1 and SNUPN in blood and brain. Homozygosity for N2 correlated with over-expression of MAN2C1 over many brain areas but the occipital cortex where N1b homozygous highly under-expressed. Our population-based analyses suggest that MAN2C1 may contribute to the verbal difficulties observed in microduplications and to the intellectual disability of microdeletion syndromes, whose characteristic dosage increment and removal may affect different brain areas. PMID:27355585

  7. Ancient Haplotypes at the 15q24.2 Microdeletion Region Are Linked to Brain Expression of MAN2C1 and Children's Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Alejandro; Esko, Tõnu; Pappa, Irene; Gutiérrez, Armand; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Llop, Sabrina; Bustamante, Mariona; Tiemeier, Henning; Metspalu, Andres; Joshi, Peter K; Wilsonx, James F; Reina-Castillón, Judith; Shin, Jean; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš; Sunyer, Jordi; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A; González, Juan R

    2016-01-01

    The chromosome bands 15q24.1-15q24.3 contain a complex region with numerous segmental duplications that predispose to regional microduplications and microdeletions, both of which have been linked to intellectual disability, speech delay and autistic features. The region may also harbour common inversion polymorphisms whose functional and phenotypic manifestations are unknown. Using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data, we detected four large contiguous haplotype-genotypes at 15q24 with Mendelian inheritance in 2,562 trios, African origin, high population stratification and reduced recombination rates. Although the haplotype-genotypes have been most likely generated by decreased or absent recombination among them, we could not confirm that they were the product of inversion polymorphisms in the region. One of the blocks was composed of three haplotype-genotypes (N1a, N1b and N2), which significantly correlated with intelligence quotient (IQ) in 2,735 children of European ancestry from three independent population cohorts. Homozygosity for N2 was associated with lower verbal IQ (2.4-point loss, p-value = 0.01), while homozygosity for N1b was associated with 3.2-point loss in non-verbal IQ (p-value = 0.0006). The three alleles strongly correlated with expression levels of MAN2C1 and SNUPN in blood and brain. Homozygosity for N2 correlated with over-expression of MAN2C1 over many brain areas but the occipital cortex where N1b homozygous highly under-expressed. Our population-based analyses suggest that MAN2C1 may contribute to the verbal difficulties observed in microduplications and to the intellectual disability of microdeletion syndromes, whose characteristic dosage increment and removal may affect different brain areas. PMID:27355585

  8. Genetics Home Reference: 15q24 microdeletion

    MedlinePlus

    ... a full lower lip, and a long, smooth space between the upper lip and nose (philtrum). Related Information What does it mean if a disorder seems to run in my family? What is the prognosis of a genetic condition? Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Frequency ...

  9. Mitochondrial DNA deletions in patients with chronic suppurative otitis media.

    PubMed

    Tatar, Arzu; Tasdemir, Sener; Sahin, Ibrahim; Bozoglu, Ceyda; Erdem, Haktan Bagis; Yoruk, Ozgur; Tatar, Abdulgani

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the 4977 and 7400 bp deletions of mitochondrial DNA in patients with chronic suppurative otitis media and to indicate the possible association of mitochondrial DNA deletions with chronic suppurative otitis media. Thirty-six patients with chronic suppurative otitis media were randomly selected to assess the mitochondrial DNA deletions. Tympanomastoidectomy was applied for the treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media, and the curettage materials including middle ear tissues were collected. The 4977 and 7400 bp deletion regions and two control regions of mitochondrial DNA were assessed by using the four pair primers. DNA was extracted from middle ear tissues and peripheral blood samples of the patients, and then polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) were performed. PCR products were separated in 2 % agarose gel. Seventeen of 36 patients had the heterozygote 4977 bp deletion in the middle ear tissue but not in peripheral blood. There wasn't any patient who had the 7400 bp deletion in mtDNA of their middle ear tissue or peripheral blood tissue. The patients with the 4977 bp deletion had a longer duration of chronic suppurative otitis media and a higher level of hearing loss than the others (p < 0.01). Long time chronic suppurative otitis media and the reactive oxygen species can cause the mitochondrial DNA deletions and this may be a predisposing factor to sensorineural hearing loss in chronic suppurative otitis media. An antioxidant drug as a scavenger agent may be used in long-term chronic suppurative otitis media. PMID:26620342

  10. Deletion of the entire NF1 gene detected by FISH: Four deletion patients associated with severe manifestations

    SciTech Connect

    Wi, Bai-Lin; Austin, M.A.; Schneider, G.H.; Boles, R.G.; Korf, B.R.

    1995-12-04

    Genetic analysis of NF1 has indicated a wide diversity of mutations, including chromosome rearrangements, deletions, insertions, duplications, and point mutations. Recently, five severely affected individuals have been found by Kayes et al. to have deletions encompassing the entire gene. These deletions were detected by quantitative Southern analysis. To simplify deletion detection, we have employed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using intragenic probes. Thirteen unrelated individuals with NF1 have been studied. Among six with severe manifestations, four have been found to have deletions detected by probes cFF13, cFB5D, cP5, yA43A9, yA113D7 and yD8F4. All four deletion patients have severe developmental delay, minor and major anomalies (including one with bilateral iris colobomas), and multiple cutaneous neurofibromas or plexiform neurofibromas which were present before age 5 years. FISH provides a simple and rapid means of identification of NF1 gene deletions and will allow more rigorous testing of the hypothesis that such deletions are associated with severe manifestations. 15 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Molecular cytogenetic detection of chromosome 15 deletions in patients with Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, D.E.; Weksberg, R.; Shuman, C.

    1994-09-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are clinically distinct genetic disorders involving alterations of chromosome 15q11-q13. Approximately 75% of individuals with PWS and AS have deletions within 15q11-q13 by molecular analysis. We have evaluated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the clinical laboratory detection of del(15)(q11q13) using the cosmid probes D15S11 and GABRB3 (ONCOR, Gaithersburg, NY). 4/4 PWS and 1/1 AS patients previously identified as having cytogenetic deletions were deleted for both probes. In a prospectively ascertained series of 54 patient samples referred to rule out either PWS or AS, 8 were deleted for D15S11 and GABRB3. In addition, an atypical deletion patient with PWS was also identified who was found to be deleted for GABRB3 but not D15S11. The SNRPN locus was also deleted in this patient. Only 4 of the 9 patient samples having molecular cytogenetic deletions were clearly deleted by high resolution banding (HRB) analysis. The microscopic and submicroscopic deletions have been confirmed by dinucleotide (CA) repeat analysis. Microsatellite polymorphism analysis was also used to demonstrate that five non-deletion patients in this series had biparental inheritance of chromosome 15, including region q11-q13. Deletions were not detected by either HRB, FISH or microsatellite polymorphism analysis in samples obtained from parents of the deletion patients. Methylation studies of chromosome 15q11-q13 are in progress for this series of PWS and AS families. FISH analysis of chromosome 15q11-q13 in patients with PWS and AS is a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for deletion detection.

  12. Dystrophin in frameshift deletion patients with Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Gangopadhyay, S.B.; Ray, P.N.; Worton, R.G.; Sherratt, T.G.; Heckmatt, J.Z.; Dubowitz, V.; Strong, P.N.; Miller, G. ); Shokeir, M. )

    1992-09-01

    In a previous study the authors identified 14 cases with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) or its milder variant, Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), with a deletion of exons 3-7, a deletion that would be expected to shift the translational reading frame of the mRNA and give a severe phenotype. They have examined dystrophin and its mRNA from muscle biopsies of seven cases with either mild or intermediate phenotypes. In all cases they detected slightly lower-molecular-weight dystrophin in 12%-15% abundance relative to the normal. By sequencing amplified mRNA they have found that exon 2 is spliced to exon 8, a splice that produces a frameshifted mRNA, and have found no evidence for alternate splicing that might be involved in restoration of dystrophin mRNA reading frame in the patients with a mild phenotype. Other transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms such as cryptic promoter, ribosomal frameshifting, and reinitiation are suggested that might play some role in restoring the reading frame. 34 refs., 5 figs. 1 tab.

  13. Characterisation of large F9 deletions in seven unrelated patients with severe haemophilia B.

    PubMed

    Wu, X; Lu, Y; Ding, Q; You, G; Dai, J; Xi, X; Wang, H; Wang, X

    2014-09-01

    Large deletions in the F9 gene are detected in approximately 5% of patients with severe haemophilia B, but only a few deletion breakpoints have been characterised precisely until now. In this study we identified a total of seven large F9 deletions in the index patients and nine female carriers by the AccuCopy technique. We also successfully characterised the exact breakpoints for each large deletion including four deletions encompassing the entire F9 gene by the genome walking method combined with primer walking strategy. The extents of deletion regions ranged from 11.1 to 884 kb. Microhomologies ranged from 2 to 6 bp were identified in the breakpoint junctions of six deletions. The other deletion occurred between two highly homologous sequences of the same long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE/L1). Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and microhomology-mediated break-induced replication (MMBIR) may be the main causative mechanisms for the six large deletions with microhomologies. Non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) may mediate the deletion occurred between the two tandem LINEs in the other large deletion. Repetitive elements and non-B DNA forming motifs identified in the junction regions may contribute to DNA breakage leading to large deletions. PMID:24816826

  14. Phenotypic characterization of patients with deletions in the 3'-flanking SHOX region.

    PubMed

    Kant, Sarina G; Broekman, Sander J; de Wit, Caroline C; Bos, Marloes; Scheltinga, Sitha A; Bakker, Egbert; Oostdijk, Wilma; van der Kamp, Hetty J; van Zwet, Erik W; van der Hout, Annemieke H; Wit, Jan M; Losekoot, Monique

    2013-01-01

    Context. Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis is a clinically variable skeletal dysplasia, caused by SHOX deletion or mutations, or a deletion of enhancer sequences in the 3'-flanking region. Recently, a 47.5 kb recurrent PAR1 deletion downstream of SHOX was reported, but its frequency and clinical importance are still unknown. Objective. This study aims to compare the clinical features of different sizes of deletions in the 3'-flanking SHOX region in order to determine the relevance of the regulatory sequences in this region. Design. We collected DNA from 28 families with deletions in the 3'-PAR1 region. Clinical data were available from 23 index patients and 21 relatives. Results. In 9 families (20 individuals) a large deletion ( ∼ 200-900 kb) was found and in 19 families (35 individuals) a small deletion was demonstrated, equal to the recently described 47.5 kb PAR1 deletion. Median height SDS, sitting height/height ratio SDS and the presence of Madelung deformity in patients with the 47.5 kb deletion were not significantly different from patients with larger deletions. The index patients had a median height SDS which was slightly lower than in their affected family members (p = 0.08). No significant differences were observed between male and female patients. Conclusions. The phenotype of patients with deletions in the 3'-PAR1 region is remarkably variable. Height, sitting height/height ratio and the presence of Madelung deformity were not significantly different between patients with the 47.5 kb recurrent PAR1 deletion and those with larger deletions, suggesting that this enhancer plays an important role in SHOX expression. PMID:23638371

  15. Cognitive and structural neuroimaging characteristics of schizophrenia patients with large, rare copy number deletions.

    PubMed

    Kenneth Martin, Andrew; Robinson, Gail; Reutens, David; Mowry, Bryan

    2014-12-30

    Large (>500 Kb), rare (frequency <1%) deletions are associated with risk for schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to characterise patients with these deletions using measures of cognition, grey-matter volume and white-matter integrity. Patients with schizophrenia and large, rare deletions (SZ-del) (n=17) were assessed on a test of intelligence, the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI), and compared with age- and sex-matched schizophrenia patients without large, rare deletions (SZ-nodel) (n=65), and healthy controls (HCs) (n=50). Regional grey-matter differences were investigated using voxel-based morphometry (SZ-del=9; SZ-nodel=26; HC=19). White-matter integrity was assessed using fractional anisotropy (SZ-del=9; SZ-nodel=24; HC=15). Compared with schizophrenia patients without large, rare deletions, those with large, rare deletions had lower IQ; greater grey-matter volume in clusters with peaks in the left and right cerebellum, left hippocampus, and right rectal gyrus; and increased white-matter anisotropy in the body and genu of the corpus callosum. Compared with healthy controls, patients with large, rare deletions had reduced grey matter volume in the right calcarine gyrus. In sum, patients with large, rare deletions had structural profiles intermediate to those observed in healthy controls and schizophrenia patients without large, rare deletions, but had greater impairment in intelligence. PMID:25453991

  16. Deletions spanning the neurofibromatosis 1 gene: identification and phenotype of five patients.

    PubMed Central

    Kayes, L. M.; Burke, W.; Riccardi, V. M.; Bennett, R.; Ehrlich, P.; Rubenstein, A.; Stephens, K.

    1994-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by marked variation in clinical severity. To investigate the contribution to variability by genes either contiguous to or contained within the NF1 gene, we screened six NF1 patients with mild facial dysmorphology, mental retardation, and/or learning disabilities, for DNA rearrangement of the NF1 region. Five of the six patients had NF1 gene deletions on the basis of quantitative densitometry, locus hemizygosity, and analysis of somatic cell hybrid lines. Analyses of hybrid lines carrying each of the patient's chromosomes 17, with 15 regional DNA markers, demonstrated that each of the five patients carried a deletion > 700 kb in size. Minimally, each of the deletions involved the entire 350-kb NF1 gene; the three genes--EVI2A, EVI2B, and OMG--that are contained within an NF1 intron; and considerable flanking DNA. For four of the patients, the deletions mapped to the same interval; the deletion in the fifth patient was larger, extending farther in both directions. The remaining NF1 allele presumably produced functional neurofibromin; no gene rearrangements were detected, and RNA-PCR demonstrated that it was transcribed. These data provide compelling evidence that the NF1 disorder results from haploid insufficiency of neurofibromin. Of the three documented de novo deletion cases, two involved the paternal NF1 allele and one the maternal allele. The parental origin of the single remaining expressed NF1 allele had no dramatic effect on patient phenotype. The deletion patients exhibited a variable number of physical anomalies that were not correlated with the extent of their deletion. All five patients with deletions were remarkable for exhibiting a large number of neurofibromas for their age, suggesting that deletion of an unknown gene in the NF1 region may affect tumor initiation or development. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8116612

  17. Choanal atresia in a patient with the deletion (9p) syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Shashi, V.; Golden, W.L.; Fryburg, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report on a child with choanal atresia and deletion 9p. A review of the literature documented one previous instance of choanal atresia in a patient with del(9p). Choanal atresia may be part of the spectrum of malformations in the deletion (9p) syndrome and its presence should prompt a search for this particular deletion as part of the differential diagnosis. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Microarray Analysis of 8p23.1 Deletion in New Patients with Atypical Phenotypical Traits.

    PubMed

    Khelifa, Hela Ben; Kammoun, Molka; Hannachi, Hanene; Soyah, Najla; Hammami, Saber; Elghezal, Hatem; Sanlaville, Damien; Saad, Ali; Mougou-Zerelli, Soumaya

    2015-12-01

    We describe two patients carrying deletions of chromosome 8p23.1 with a commonly critical region identified by means of oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH). They didn't present congenital heart defects or behavioral problems. Only one patient presented with intellectual disability and carrying deletion of TNKS gene. We presumed the inclusion of TNKS gene in the mental impairment. PMID:27617130

  19. Molecular analyses of 17p11.2 deletions in 62 Smith-Magenis syndrome patients.

    PubMed Central

    Juyal, R. C.; Figuera, L. E.; Hauge, X.; Elsea, S. H.; Lupski, J. R.; Greenberg, F.; Baldini, A.; Patel, P. I.

    1996-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a clinically recognizable, multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation syndrome caused by an interstitial deletion involving band p11.2 of chromosome 17. Toward the molecular definition of the interval defining this microdeletion syndrome, 62 unrelated SMS patients in conjunction with 70 available unaffected parents were molecularly analyzed with respect to the presence or absence of 14 loci in the proximal region of the short arm of chromosome 17. A multifaceted approach was used to determine deletion status at the various loci that combined (i) FISH analysis, (ii)PCR and Southern analysis of somatic cell hybrids retaining the deleted chromosome 17 from selected patients, and (iii) genotype determination of patients for whom a parent(s) was available at four microsatellite marker loci and at four loci with associated RFLPs. The relative order of two novel anonymous markers and a new microsatellite marker was determined in 17p11.2. The results confirmed that the proximal deletion breakpoint in the majority of SMS patients is located between markers D17S58 (EW301) and D17S446 (FG1) within the 17p11.1-17p11.2 region. The common distal breakpoint was mapped between markers cCI17-638, which lies distal to D17S71, and cCI17-498, which lies proximal to the Charcot Marie-Tooth disease type 1A locus. The locus D17S258 was found to be deleted in all 62 patients, and probes from this region can be used for diagnosis of the SMS deletion by FISH. Ten patients demonstrated molecularly distinct deletions; of these, two patients had smaller deletions and will enable the definition of the critical interval for SMS. Images Figure 2 PMID:8651284

  20. FISH analysis of a subtle familial Xp deletion in a female patient with Madelung deformity

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, T.Y.; Gibson, L.H.; Pober, B.R.

    1994-09-01

    A subtle deletion of Xp [del(X)(p22.32)]was identified by high-resolution chromosome analysis in a twelve-year-old female with short stature (<2 percentile) and Madelung deformity suggestive of Turner syndrome. The proband`s mother, who has short stature (<2 percentile) and demyelinating disorder, also showed this deletion. The maternal grandmother is of normal height and carries two normal X chromosomes. Both the patient and her mother have no other physical abnormalities and are of normal intelligence. To confirm and delineate this Xp deletion, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on metaphases from the patient and her mother using probes of DXYS20 (a pseudoautosomal locus), DXS232A, and a newly isolated Xp YAC clone, YHX2, whose relative map position is unknown. Hybridization signals of DXS232A were detected on both X chromosomes, and DXYS20 and YHX2 were missing from one of the X`s of both the patient and her mother. YHX2 was thus placed distal to DXS232A (tel-DXYS20-YHX2-S232A-cen). This familial deletion with a breakpoint distal to DXS232A, which is located at -900 Kb telomeric to STS locus, appears to be the smallest Xp deletion reported thus far. Short stature is consistently associated with females carrying Xp deletions. Madelung deformity has been found in some patients with Turner syndrome or Dyschondrosteosis but it has not been reported in patients with Xp deletion. Our results suggest that the phenotype of our patient is associated with her chromosome abnormality. Due to the subtlety of the deletion identified in our patient and her mother, females presenting with short stature warrant careful clinical and cytogenetic evaluation.

  1. Genomic mechanisms underlying PARK2 large deletions identified in a cohort of patients with PD

    PubMed Central

    Morais, Sara; Bastos-Ferreira, Rita; Sequeiros, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the genomic mechanisms that result in PARK2 large gene deletions. Methods: We conducted mutation screening using PCR amplification of PARK2-coding regions and exon-intron boundaries, followed by sequencing to evaluate a large series of 244 unrelated Portuguese patients with symptoms of Parkinson disease. For the detection of large gene rearrangements, we performed multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, followed by long-range PCR and sequencing to map deletion breakpoints. Results: We identified biallelic pathogenic parkin mutations in 40 of the 244 patients. There were 18 different mutations, some of them novel. This study included mapping of 17 deletion breakpoints showing that nonhomologous end joining is the most common mechanism responsible for these gene rearrangements. None of these deletion breakpoints were previously described, and only one was present in 2 unrelated families, indicating that most of the deletions result from independent events. Conclusions: The c.155delA mutation is highly prevalent in the Portuguese population (62.5% of the cases). Large deletions were present in 42.5% of the patients. We present the largest study on the molecular mechanisms that mediate PARK2 deletions in a homogeneous population. PMID:27182553

  2. Relatively low proportion of dystrophin gene deletions in Israeli Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients.

    PubMed

    Shomrat, R; Gluck, E; Legum, C; Shiloh, Y

    1994-02-15

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) are allelic disorders caused by mutations in the X-linked dystrophin gene. The most common mutations in western populations are deletions that are spread non-randomly throughout the gene. Molecular analysis of the dystrophin gene structure by hybridization of the full length cDNA to Southern blots and by PCR in 62 unrelated Israeli male DMD/BMD patients showed deletions in 23 (37%). This proportion is significantly lower than that found in European and North American populations (55-65%). Seventy-eight percent of the deletions were confined to exons 44-52, half of these to exons 44-45, and the remaining 22% to exons 1 and 19. There was no correlation between the size of the deletion and the severity of the disease. All the deletions causing frameshift resulted in the DMD phenotypes. PMID:8160727

  3. Relatively low proportion of dystrophin gene deletions in Israeili Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients

    SciTech Connect

    Shomrat, R.; Gluck, E.; Legum, C.; Shiloh, Y.

    1994-02-15

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) are allelic disorders caused by mutations in the X-linked dystrophin gene. The most common mutations in western populations are deletions that are spread non-randomly throughout the gene. Molecular analysis of the dystrophin gene structure by hybridization of the full length cDNA to Southern blots and by PCR in 62 unrelated Israeli male DMD/BMD patients showed deletions in 23 (37%). This proportion is significantly lower than that found in European and North American populations (55-65%). Seventy-eight percent of the deletions were confined to exons 44-52, half of these exons 44-45, and the remaining 22% to exons 1 and 19. There was no correlation between the size of the deletion and the severity of the disease. All the deletions causing frameshift resulted in the DMD phenotypes. 43 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Asian-specific mitochondrial genome polymorphism (9-bp deletion) in Hungarian patients with mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Pentelenyi, Klara; Remenyi, Viktoria; Gal, Aniko; Milley, Gyorgy Mate; Csosz, Aranka; Mende, Balazs Gusztav; Molnar, Maria Judit

    2016-05-01

    A 9-bp deletion of the mtDNA is known as an anthropological marker of people with East-Asian origin. This 9-bp mtDNA deletion was analyzed in 1073 Hungarians with suspected mitochondrial disease and in 468 healthy control individuals. Fourteen cases with the 9-bp deletion were found in the cohort of mitochondrial patients, and one individual from 468 controls. In six cases the 9-bp deletion was present together with pathogenic major deletions in the mitochondrial genome. In one patient we found a frame shift mutation in the D-loop region, and in another family a pathogenic m.8322 A > G mutation in the tRNA(Lys) gene. Although the 9-bp deletion is common in the populations of the Pacific region and Asia, it is present in the Hungarian population as well. This 9-bp deletion may induce instability of the mtDNA and may provoke the introduction of other pathogenic mutations. PMID:25242187

  5. Novel airway findings in a patient with 1p36 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ferril, Geoffrey R; Barham, Henry P; Prager, Jeremy D

    2014-01-01

    1p36 deletion syndrome comprises a phenotypic presentation that includes central nervous system, cardiac, and craniofacial anomalies. There has been no report of associated airway anomalies with this syndrome. We present here a case report and literature review. Prenatally, amniocentesis for chromosomal analysis was performed on our patient, with results consistent with 1p36 deletion syndrome. Respiratory distress and unsuccessful attempts at intubation prompted transfer to Children's Hospital of Colorado. Microlaryngoscopy was subsequently performed, revealing a persistent buccopharyngeal membrane and unidentifiable larynx. Emergent tracheostomy was then performed to secure the airway. Airway anomalies may be associated with 1p36 deletion syndrome. PMID:24290305

  6. Two patients with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion presenting with childhood obesity and hyperphagia.

    PubMed

    Bassett, J K; Chandler, K E; Douzgou, S

    2016-08-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a clinically heterogeneous condition of intellectual disability, parathyroid and thyroid hypoplasia, palatal abnormalities, cardiac malformations and psychiatric symptoms. Hyperphagia and childhood obesity is widely reported in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) but there is only one previous report of this presentation in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. We describe two further cases of chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in which hyperphagia and childhood obesity were the presenting features. This may be a manifestation of obsessive behaviour secondary to some of the psychiatric features commonly seen in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Serious complications may result from hyperphagia and childhood obesity therefore early recognition and intervention is crucial. Due to the similar clinical presentation of these two patients to patients with PWS, it is suggested that the hyperphagia seen here should be managed in a similar way to how it is managed in PWS. PMID:27184501

  7. Neuropsychological profiles of patients with 2q37.3 deletion associated with developmental dyspraxia.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Kaeko; Takeshita, Kenzo; Arakawa, Chikako; Shimojima, Keiko; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2014-12-01

    Patients with 2q37 deletions manifest brachydactyly mental retardation syndrome (BDMR). Recent advances in human molecular research have revealed that alterations in the histone deacetylase 4 gene (HDAC4) are responsible for the clinical manifestations of BDMR. Here, we report two male patients with 2q37.3 deletions. One of the patients showed a typical BDMR phenotype, and HDAC4 was included in the deletion region. HDAC4 was preserved in the other patient, and he showed a normal intelligence level with the delayed learning of complex motor skills. Detailed neuropsychological examinations revealed similar neuropsychological profiles in these two patients (visuo-spatial dyspraxia) that suggested developmental dyspraxia. These observations suggested that some other candidate genes for neuronal development exist in the telomeric region of HDAC4. PMID:25329715

  8. 5q11.2 deletion in a patient with tracheal agenesis

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Elisabeth M; Douben, Hannie; Eussen, Bert H; Felix, Janine F; Wessels, Marja W; Poddighe, Pino J; Nikkels, Peter G J; de Krijger, Ronald R; Tibboel, Dick; de Klein, Annelies

    2010-01-01

    Tracheal agenesis (TA) is a rare congenital anomaly of the respiratory tract. Many patients have associated anomalies, suggesting a syndromal phenotype. In a cohort of 12 patients, we aimed to detect copy number variations. In addition to routine cytogenetic analysis, we applied oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization. Our patient cohort showed various copy number variations, of which many were parentally inherited variants. One patient had, in addition to an inherited 16p12.1 deletion, a 3.6 Mb deletion on chromosomal locus 5q11.2. This patient had a syndromic phenotype, including vertebral, anal, cardiovascular and tracheo-oesophageal associated anomalies, and other foregut-related anomalies, such as cartilage rings in the oesophagus and an aberrant right bronchus. No common deletions or duplications are found in our cohort, suggesting that TA is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. PMID:20551993

  9. A FURTHER PATIENT OF PURE 15q DELETION: CLINICAL AND MOLECULAR CYTOGENETIC FINDINGS.

    PubMed

    Solmaz, A Ece; Durmaz, B; Braekeleer, M D; Cogulu, O; Ozkinay, F

    2016-01-01

    A deletion of the distal long arm of chromosome 15 is generally reported with the formation of ring chromosome 15, whereas an isolated 15q deletion is rarely described. Here we report an 11 year-old girl, from non-consanguineous parents, who was referred to the Pediatric Genetics Department with growth retardation and multiple congenital abnormalities. In her medical history, she had a cleft palate, hip dislocation and crossed renal ectopia. Dysmorphological evaluation revealed a triangular face, low-set ears, fissured cleft tongue, micrognathia, proximally placed hypoplastic thumbs, genu valgus, 2-3 toe skin syndactyly, clinodactyly and nail hypoplasia. Speech problems were also noticed. The karyotype was normal. Subtelomeric fluorescent in-situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis showed a de novo terminal deletion about 755 kb. Furthermore, the breakpoint was located within the CHSY1 gene that is responsible for Temtamy preaxial brachydactyly syndrome which shares clinical features with 15qter deletion syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this deletion is the smallest among reported patients. It is considered that the patient presented here significant contribution to phenotype-genotype correlation in 15q deletion patients. PMID:27192887

  10. 22q11.2 Deletions in Patients with Conotruncal Defects: Data from 1610 Consecutive Cases

    PubMed Central

    Peyvandi, Shabnam; Lupo, Philip J; Garbarini, Jennifer; Woyciechowski, Stacy; Edman, Sharon; Emanuel, Beverly S; Mitchell, Laura; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Background The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is characterized by multiple congenital anomalies including conotruncal cardiac defects. Identifying the patient with a 22q11.2 deletion (22q11del) can be challenging because many extracardiac features become apparent later in life. We sought to better define the cardiac phenotype associated with a 22q11del to help direct genetic testing. Methods 1,610 patients with conotruncal defects were sequentially tested for a 22q11del. Counts and frequencies for primary lesions and cardiac features were tabulated for those with and without a 22q11del. Logistic regression models investigated cardiac features that predicted deletion status in tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Results Deletion frequency varied by primary anatomic phenotype. Regardless of the cardiac diagnosis, a concurrent aortic arch anomaly (AAA) was strongly associated with deletion status (OR 5.07, 95% CI: 3.66–7.04). In the TOF subset, the strongest predictor of deletion status was an AAA (OR 3.14, 95% CI: 1.87–5.27, p <0.001), followed by pulmonary valve atresia (OR 2.03, 95% CI: 1.02–4.02, p= 0.04). Among those with double outlet right ventricle and transposition of the great arteries, only those with an AAA had a 22q11del. However, five percent of patients with an isolated conoventricular ventricular septal defect and normal aortic arch anatomy had a 22q11del, while no one with an IAA-A had a 22q11del. Conclusion A subset of patients with conotruncal defects are at risk for a 22q11del. A concurrent AAA increases the risk regardless of the intracardiac anatomy. These findings help direct genetic screening for the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in the cardiac patient. PMID:23604262

  11. Translocation and deletion around SOX9 in a patient with acampomelic campomelic dysplasia and sex reversal.

    PubMed

    Jakubiczka, S; Schröder, C; Ullmann, R; Volleth, M; Ledig, S; Gilberg, E; Kroisel, P; Wieacker, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Campomelic dysplasia (MIM 114290) is a severe malformation syndrome frequently accompanied by male-to-female sex reversal. Causative are mutations within the SOX9 gene on 17q24.3 as well as chromosomal aberrations (translocations, inversions or deletions) in the vicinity of SOX9. Here, we report on a patient with muscular hypotonia, craniofacial dysmorphism, cleft palate, brachydactyly, malformations of thoracic spine, and gonadal dysgenesis with female external genitalia and müllerian duct derivatives in the presence of a male karyotype. X-ray examination and clinical examinations revealed no signs of campomelia. The combination of molecular cytogenetic analysis and array CGH revealed an unbalanced translocation between one chromosome 7 and one chromosome 17 [46,XY,t(7;17)(q33;q24).ish t(7;17)(wcp7+,wcp17+;wcp7+wcp17+)] with a deletion of approximately 4.2 Mb located about 0.5 Mb upstream of SOX9. STS analysis confirmed the deletion of chromosome 17, which has occurred de novo on the paternal chromosome. The proximal breakpoint on chromosome 17 is localized outside the known breakpoint cluster regions. The deletion on chromosome 17q24 removes several genes. Among these genes PRKAR1A is deleted. Inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A cause Carney complex. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with acampomelic campomelic dysplasia, carrying both a deletion and a translocation. PMID:20453475

  12. A catalog of hemizygous variation in 127 22q11 deletion patients

    PubMed Central

    Hestand, Matthew S; Nowakowska, Beata A; Vergaelen, Elfi; Van Houdt, Jeroen; Dehaspe, Luc; Suhl, Joshua A; Del-Favero, Jurgen; Mortier, Geert; Zackai, Elaine; Swillen, Ann; Devriendt, Koenraad; Gur, Raquel E; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Warren, Stephen T; Emanuel, Beverly S; Vermeesch, Joris R

    2016-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is the most common microdeletion disorder, with wide phenotypic variability. To investigate variation within the non-deleted allele we performed targeted resequencing of the 22q11.2 region for 127 patients, identifying multiple deletion sizes, including two deletions with atypical breakpoints. We cataloged ~12,000 hemizygous variant positions, of which 84% were previously annotated. Within the coding regions 95 non-synonymous variants, three stop gains, and two frameshift insertions were identified, some of which we speculate could contribute to atypical phenotypes. We also catalog tolerability of 22q11 gene mutations based on related autosomal recessive disorders in man, embryonic lethality in mice, cross-species conservation and observations that some genes harbor more or less variants than expected. This extensive catalog of hemizygous variants will serve as a blueprint for future experiments to correlate 22q11DS variation with phenotype. PMID:27274857

  13. Identification of 1p36 deletion syndrome in patients with facial dysmorphism and developmental delay

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Go Hun; Kim, Ja Hye; Cho, Ja Hyang; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Seo, Eul-Ju; Lee, Beom Hee; Choi, Jin-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The 1p36 deletion syndrome is a microdeletion syndrome characterized by developmental delays/intellectual disability, craniofacial dysmorphism, and other congenital anomalies. To date, many cases of this syndrome have been reported worldwide. However, cases with this syndrome have not been reported in Korean populations anywhere. This study was performed to report the clinical and molecular characteristics of five Korean patients with the 1p36 deletion syndrome. Methods The clinical characteristics of the 5 patients were reviewed. Karyotyping and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analyses were performed for genetic diagnoses. Results All 5 patients had typical dysmorphic features including frontal bossing, flat right parietal bone, low-set ears, straight eyebrows, down-slanting palpebral fissure, hypotelorism, flat nasal roots, midface hypoplasia, pointed chins, small lips, and variable degrees of developmental delay. Each patient had multiple and variable anomalies such as a congenital heart defect including ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, and patent duct arteriosus, ventriculomegaly, cryptorchism, or hearing loss. Karyotyping revealed the 1p36 deletion in only 1 patient, although it was confirmed in all 5 patients by MLPA analyses. Conclusion All the patients had the typical features of 1p36 deletion. These hallmarks can be used to identify other patients with this condition in their early years in order to provide more appropriate care. PMID:26893599

  14. Molecular deletion patterns in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients from KwaZulu Natal.

    PubMed

    Hallwirth Pillay, K D; Bill, P L A; Madurai, S; Mubaiwa, L; Rapiti, P

    2007-01-15

    There exists much phenotypic heterogeneity in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and its allelic variant, Becker muscular dystrophy. The molecular findings on 53 patients with Duchenne and 15 patients with Becker type muscular dystrophy in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa are reported. Multiplex PCR was performed using primers targeting 18 hot-spot exons throughout the dystrophin gene. Analysis of the multiplex PCR data revealed that 39/68 (57.0%) patients included in the study showed a deletion (33 DMD and 6 BMD patients). Twenty-five patients were Black, 4 were White and 10 were Indian. Using the Chamberlain and Beggs multiplex PCR assays, the region of the genome most frequently affected by a deletion includes exons 47-51. The distal region of the dystrophin gene was most frequently affected by the deletion in both Black and Indian patients. There were too few White patients for conclusions to be drawn concerning the most frequently affected part of the gene. Although the numbers are insufficient to determine whether ethnic differences are present, the Chamberlain and Beggs multiplex PCR assays detect deletions with the same frequency in South African DMD/BMD patients as that reported in the literature. PMID:17141273

  15. Third case of 8q23.3-q24.13 deletion in a patient with Langer-Giedion syndrome phenotype without TRPS1 gene deletion.

    PubMed

    Pereza, Nina; Severinski, Srećko; Ostojić, Saša; Volk, Marija; Maver, Aleš; Dekanić, Kristina Baraba; Kapović, Miljenko; Peterlin, Borut

    2012-03-01

    Langer-Giedion syndrome (LGS) is a contiguous gene syndrome caused by a hemizygous deletion on chromosome 8q23.3-q24.11 involving TRPS1 and EXT1 genes. We report on a girl with LGS phenotype and a 7.5 Mb interstitial deletion at chromosome 8q23.3-q24.13. Array-comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) revealed a deletion encompassing only the EXT1 and not the TRPS1 gene. Even though the deletion of TRPS1 and EXT1 genes is responsible for craniofacial and skeletal features of LGS, there have been previous reports of patients with LGS phenotype and 8q24 deletions leaving the TRPS1 gene intact. To our knowledge, this is the third such case. Our patient differs from previously reported LGS patients without TRPS1 gene deletion in that she has the typical LGS facial dysmorphism and skeletal abnormalities. However, the girl is of normal height and has only a mild developmental delay. Additionally, she has dyslalia and premature adrenarche classified as Tanner stage 3 premature pubarche which have not yet been described as features of LGS. We examine the molecular breakpoints and phenotypes of our patient and previously reported cases. PMID:22315192

  16. Molecular definition of 22q11 deletions in 151 velo-cardio-facial syndrome patients.

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, C; Sirotkin, H; Pandita, R; Goldberg, R; McKie, J; Wadey, R; Patanjali, S R; Weissman, S M; Anyane-Yeboa, K; Warburton, D; Scambler, P; Shprintzen, R; Kucherlapati, R; Morrow, B E

    1997-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is a relatively common developmental disorder characterized by craniofacial anomalies and conotruncal heart defects. Many VCFS patients have hemizygous deletions for a part of 22q11, suggesting that haploinsufficiency in this region is responsible for its etiology. Because most cases of VCFS are sporadic, portions of 22q11 may be prone to rearrangement. To understand the molecular basis for chromosomal deletions, we defined the extent of the deletion, by genotyping 151 VCFS patients and performing haplotype analysis on 105, using 15 consecutive polymorphic markers in 22q11. We found that 83% had a deletion and >90% of these had a similar approximately 3 Mb deletion, suggesting that sequences flanking the common breakpoints are susceptible to rearrangement. We found no correlation between the presence or size of the deletion and the phenotype. To further define the chromosomal breakpoints among the VCFS patients, we developed somatic hybrid cell lines from a set of VCFS patients. An 11-kb resolution physical map of a 1,080-kb region that includes deletion breakpoints was constructed, incorporating genes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) isolated by the hybridization selection method. The ordered markers were used to examine the two separated copies of chromosome 22 in the somatic hybrid cell lines. In some cases, we were able to map the chromosome breakpoints within a single cosmid. A 480-kb critical region for VCFS has been delineated, including the genes for GSCL, CTP, CLTD, HIRA, and TMVCF, as well as a number of novel ordered ESTs. PMID:9326327

  17. Clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular characterization of seven patients with deletions of chromosome 22q13. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Nesslinger, N.J.; McDermid, H.E. ); Gorski, J.L. ); Kurczynski, T.W.; French, B.N. ); Shapira, S.K. ); Siegel-Bartelt, J. ); Dumanski, J.P.; Cullen, R.F. Jr. )

    1994-03-01

    The authors have studied seven patients who have chromosome 22q13.3 deletions as revealed by high-resolution cytogenetic analysis. Clinical evaluation of the patients revealed a common phenotype that includes generalized developmental delay, normal or accelerated growth, hypotonia, severe delays in expressive speech, and mild facial dysmorphic features. Dosage analysis using a series of genetically mapped probes showed that the proximal breakpoints of the deletions varied over [approximately]13.8 cM, between loci D22S92 and D22S94. The most distally mapped locus, arylsulfatase A (ARSA), was deleted in all seven patients. Therefore, the smallest region of overlap (critical region) extends between locus D22S94 and a region distal to ARSA a distance of >25.5 cM. 38 rfs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Detection of classical 17p11.2 deletions, an atypical deletion and RAI1 alterations in patients with features suggestive of Smith–Magenis syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Gustavo H; Rodriguez, Jayson D; Carmona-Mora, Paulina; Cao, Lei; Gamba, Bruno F; Carvalho, Daniel R; de Rezende Duarte, Andréa; Santos, Suely R; de Souza, Deise H; DuPont, Barbara R; Walz, Katherina; Moretti-Ferreira, Danilo; Srivastava, Anand K

    2012-01-01

    Smith–Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex disorder whose clinical features include mild to severe intellectual disability with speech delay, growth failure, brachycephaly, flat midface, short broad hands, and behavioral problems. SMS is typically caused by a large deletion on 17p11.2 that encompasses multiple genes including the retinoic acid induced 1, RAI1, gene or a mutation in the RAI1 gene. Here we have evaluated 30 patients with suspected SMS and identified SMS-associated classical 17p11.2 deletions in six patients, an atypical deletion of ∼139 kb that partially deletes the RAI1 gene in one patient, and RAI1 gene nonsynonymous alterations of unknown significance in two unrelated patients. The RAI1 mutant proteins showed no significant alterations in molecular weight, subcellular localization and transcriptional activity. Clinical features of patients with or without 17p11.2 deletions and mutations involving the RAI1 gene were compared to identify phenotypes that may be useful in diagnosing patients with SMS. PMID:21897445

  19. Molecular and clinical characterization of patients with overlapping 10p deletions.

    PubMed

    Lindstrand, Anna; Malmgren, Helena; Verri, Annapia; Benetti, Elisa; Eriksson, Maud; Nordgren, Ann; Anderlid, Britt-Marie; Golovleva, Irina; Schoumans, Jacqueline; Blennow, Elisabeth

    2010-05-01

    Chromosome 10p terminal deletions have been associated with DiGeorge phenotype, and within the same genomic region haploinsufficiency of GATA3 causes the HDR syndrome (hypoparathyroidism, sensorineural deafness, renal dysplasia). We have performed detailed molecular analysis of four patients with partial overlapping 10p deletions by using FISH-mapping, array-CGH, and custom-designed high-resolution oligonucleotide array. All four patients had mental retardation and speech impairment and three of them showed variable signs of HDR syndrome. In addition, two patients had autistic behaviors and had similar dysmorphic features giving them a striking physical resemblance. A review of the literature identified 10 previously published cases with similar 10p deletions and reliable molecular or molecular cytogenetic mapping data. The combined information of present and previous cases suggests that partial deletions of 10p14-p15 represent a syndrome with a distinct and more severe phenotype than previously assumed. The main characteristics include severe mental retardation, language impairment, autistic behavior, and characteristic clinical features. A critical region involved in mental retardation and speech impairment is defined within 1.6 Mb in 10p15.3. In addition, deletion of 4.3 Mb within 10p14 is associated with autism and characteristic clinical findings. PMID:20425828

  20. A patient with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Eryılmaz, Sema Kabataş; Baş, Firdevs; Satan, Ali; Darendeliler, Feyza; Bundak, Rüveyde; Günöz, Hülya; Saka, Nurçin

    2009-01-01

    22q11 deletion is one of the most frequently encountered genetic syndromes. The phenotypic spectrum shows a wide variability. We report a boy who presented at age 11.9 years with seizures due to hypocalcemia as a result of hypoparathyroidism. FISH analysis revealed a heterozygote deletion at 22q11.2. Positive findings for the syndrome were delayed speech development due to velofacial dysfunction, recurrent croup attacks in early childhood due to latent hypocalcemia and mild dysmorphic features. The findings of this patient indicate that 22q11 deletion syndrome may present with a wide spectrum of clinical findings and that this diagnosis needs to be considered even in patients of older ages presenting with hypocalcemia. PMID:21274400

  1. A novel large deletion mutation of FERMT1 gene in a Chinese patient with Kindler syndrome

    PubMed Central

    GAO, Ying; BAI, Jin-li; LIU, Xiao-yan; QU, Yu-jin; CAO, Yan-yan; WANG, Jian-cai; JIN, Yu-wei; WANG, Hong; SONG, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Kindler syndrome (KS; OMIM 173650) is a rare autosomal recessive skin disorder, which results in symptoms including blistering, epidermal atrophy, increased risk of cancer, and poor wound healing. The majority of mutations of the disease-determining gene (FERMT1 gene) are single nucleotide substitutions, including missense mutations, nonsense mutations, etc. Large deletion mutations are seldom reported. To determine the mutation in the FERMT1 gene associated with a 7-year-old Chinese patient who presented clinical manifestation of KS, we performed direct sequencing of all the exons of FERMT1 gene. For the exons 2–6 without amplicons, we analyzed the copy numbers using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with specific primers. The deletion breakpoints were sublocalized and the range of deletion was confirmed by PCR and direct sequencing. In this study, we identified a new 17-kb deletion mutation spanning the introns 1–6 of FERMT1 gene in a Chinese patient with severe KS phenotypes. Her parents were carriers of the same mutation. Our study reported a newly identified large deletion mutation of FERMT1 gene involved in KS, which further enriched the mutation spectrum of the FERMT1 gene. PMID:26537214

  2. Acute Dystonia in a Patient with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kontoangelos, Konstantinos; Maillis, Antonis; Maltezou, Maria; Tsiori, Sofia; Papageorgiou, Charalambos C.

    2015-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (di George syndrome) is one of the most prevalent genetic disorders. The clinical features of the syndrome are distinct facial appearance, velopharyngeal insufficiency, conotruncal heart disease, parathyroid and immune dysfunction; however, little is known about possible neurodegenerative diseases. We describe the case of an 18-year old patient suffering from 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Since adolescence, he presented with behavioral disorders, recommended treatment with 2 mg aloperidin and he presented cervical dystonia and emergence of torticollis and trunk dystonia. Antipsychotic medications either accelerate or reveal dystonic symptoms. PMID:26605035

  3. Molecular analysis of chromosome 9q deletions in two Gorlin syndrome patients.

    PubMed Central

    Shimkets, R.; Gailani, M. R.; Siu, V. M.; Yang-Feng, T.; Pressman, C. L.; Levanat, S.; Goldstein, A.; Dean, M.; Bale, A. E.

    1996-01-01

    Gorlin syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, medulloblastomas, ovarian fibromas, and a variety of developmental defects. All affected individuals share certain key features, but there is significant phenotypic variability within and among kindreds with respect to malformations. The gene (NBCCS) maps to chromosome 9q22, and allelic loss at this location is common in tumors from Gorlin syndrome patients. Two recessive cancer-predisposition syndromes, xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPAC) and Fanconi anemia group C (FACC), map to the NBCCS region; and unusual, dominant mutations in these genes have been proposed as the cause of Gorlin syndrome. This study presents cytogenetic and molecular characterization of germ-line deletions in one patient with a chromosome 9q22 deletion and in a second patient with a deletion of 9q22-q3l. Both have typical features of Gorlin syndrome plus additional findings, including mental retardation, conductive hearing loss, and failure to thrive. That Gorlin syndrome can be caused by null mutations (deletions) rather than by activating mutations has several implications. First, in conjunction with previous analyses of allelic loss in tumors, this study provides evidence that associated neoplasms arise with homozygous inactivation of the gene. In addition, dominant mutations of the XPAC and FACC1 genes can be ruled out as the cause of Gorlin syndrome, since the two patients described have null mutations. Finally, phenotypic features that show variable expression must be influenced by genetic background, epigenetic effects, somatic mutations, or environmental factors, since these two patients with identical alterations (deletions) of the Gorlin syndrome gene have somewhat different manifestations of Gorlin syndrome. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8755929

  4. Hereditary deletion of the entire FAM20C gene in a patient with Raine syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ababneh, Farouq K; AlSwaid, Abdulrahman; Youssef, Talaat; Al Azzawi, Manaf; Crosby, Andrew; AlBalwi, Mohammed A

    2013-12-01

    Raine syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the FAM20C gene that is characterized by generalized osteosclerosis with periosteal new bone formation and distinctive craniofacial dysmorphism. We report on a child who is homozygous for a 487-kb deletion in 7p22.3 that contains FAM20C. Both parents were heterozygous for the deletion. Our patient had the common craniofacial features as well as, uncommon features such as protruding tongue, short stature, and hypoplastic distal phalanges. In addition, he had wormian bones and pyriform aperture stenosis, features that are usually under diagnosed. It is clear that Raine syndrome has a wide range of expression and may not be lethal in the neonatal period. Furthermore, Raine cases due to whole gene deletion do not seem to have a major difference in the phenotype over those caused by various mutations. PMID:24039075

  5. Xp21 contiguous gene syndromes: Deletion quantitation with bivariate flow karyotyping allows mapping of patient breakpoints

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, E.R.B.; Towbin, J.A. ); Engh, G. van den; Trask, B.J. )

    1992-12-01

    Bivariate flow karyotyping was used to estimate the deletion sizes for a series of patients with Xp21 contiguous gene syndromes. The deletion estimates were used to develop an approximate scale for the genomic map in Xp21. The bivariate flow karyotype results were compared with clinical and molecular genetic information on the extent of the patients' deletions, and these various types of data were consistent. The resulting map spans >15 Mb, from the telomeric interval between DXS41 (99-6) and DXS68 (1-4) to a position centromeric to the ornithine transcarbamylase locus. The deletion sizing was considered to be accurate to [plus minus]1 Mb. The map provides information on the relative localization of genes and markers within this region. For example, the map suggests that the adrenal hypoplasia congenita and glycerol kinase genes are physically close to each other, are within 1-2 Mb of the telomeric end of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene, and are nearer to the DMD locus than to the more distal marker DXS28 (C7). Information of this type is useful in developing genomic strategies for positional cloning in Xp21. These investigations demonstrate that the DNA from patients with Xp21 contiguous gene syndromes can be valuable reagents, not only for ordering loci and markers but also for providing an approximate scale to the map of the Xp21 region surrounding DMD. 44 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Han Chinese patients with dopa-responsive dystonia exhibit a low frequency of exonic deletion in the GCH1 gene.

    PubMed

    Shi, W T; Cai, C Y; Li, M S; Ling, C; Li, W D

    2015-01-01

    We identified three novel mutations of the GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) gene in patients with familial dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD), but were unable to identify meaningful sporadic mutations in patients with no obvious family DRD background. To investigate whether GCH1 regional deletions account for the etiology of DRD, we screened for heterozygous exonic deletions in DRD families and in patients with sporadic DRD. Multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification was performed in all members of our DRD cohort and in controls to detect exonic deletions in GCH1, tyrosine hydroxylase, and the epsilon-sarcoglycan-encoding (SGCE) genes. Using these techniques, we detected a GCH1 exon 1 heterozygous deletion in 1 of 10 patients with sporadic DRD. Therefore, we concluded that exonic deletion in the GCH1 gene only accounted for the etiology in a small percentage of patients with sporadic DRD in our Han Chinese cohort. PMID:26400349

  7. SHOX gene and conserved noncoding element deletions/duplications in Colombian patients with idiopathic short stature

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, Gloria Tatiana Vinasco; Jaimes, Giovanna Carola; Barrios, Mauricio Coll; Cespedes, Camila; Velasco, Harvy Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    SHOX gene mutations or haploinsufficiency cause a wide range of phenotypes such as Leri Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD), Turner syndrome, and disproportionate short stature (DSS). However, this gene has also been found to be mutated in cases of idiopathic short stature (ISS) with a 3–15% frequency. In this study, the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique was employed to determine the frequency of SHOX gene mutations and their conserved noncoding elements (CNE) in Colombian patients with ISS. Patients were referred from different centers around the county. From a sample of 62 patients, 8.1% deletions and insertions in the intragenic regions and in the CNE were found. This result is similar to others published in other countries. Moreover, an isolated case of CNE 9 duplication and a new intron 6b deletion in another patient, associated with ISS, are described. This is one of the first studies of a Latin American population in which deletions/duplications of the SHOX gene and its CNE are examined in patients with ISS. PMID:24689071

  8. Novel deletions involving the USH2A gene in patients with Usher syndrome and retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    García-García, Gema; Jaijo, Teresa; Aparisi, Maria J.; Larrieu, Lise; Faugère, Valérie; Blanco-Kelly, Fiona; Ayuso, Carmen; Roux, Anne-Francoise; Millán, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present work was to identify and characterize large rearrangements involving the USH2A gene in patients with Usher syndrome and nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa. Methods The multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique combined with a customized array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis was applied to 40 unrelated patients previously screened for point mutations in the USH2A gene in which none or only one pathologic mutation was identified. Results We detected six large deletions involving USH2A in six out of the 40 cases studied. Three of the patients were homozygous for the deletion, and the remaining three were compound heterozygous with a previously identified USH2A point mutation. In five of these cases, the patients displayed Usher type 2, and the remaining case displayed nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa. The exact breakpoint junctions of the deletions found in USH2A in four of these cases were characterized. Conclusions Our study highlights the need to develop improved efficient strategies of mutation screening based upon next generation sequencing (NGS) that reduce cost, time, and complexity and allow simultaneous identification of all types of disease-causing mutations in diagnostic procedures. PMID:25352746

  9. Fragile X phenotype in a patient with a large de novo deletion in Xq27-q28

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, S.G.; Rao, K.W.; Tennison, M.B.; Aylsworth, A.S.; Lachiewicz, A.M.; Tarleton, J.C.; Schwartz, C.E.; Richie, R.

    1994-07-15

    A 2-year-old boy with manifestations of the fragile X syndrome was found to have a cytogenetically visible deletion of Xq27-q28 including deletion of FMR-1. Molecular analysis of the patient was recently described in Tarleton et al. and the deletion was estimated to be at least 3 megabases (Mb). His mother had 2 FMR-1 alleles with normal numbers of CGG repeats, 20 and 32, respectively. Thus, the deletion occurred as a de novo event. The patient does not appear to have clinical or laboratory findings other than those typically associated with fragile X syndrome, suggesting that the deletion does not remove other contiguous genes. This report describes the phenotype of the patient, including psychological studies. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Mullerian Duct Cyst Causing Bladder Outlet Obstruction in a Patient with HNF-1β Gene Deletion

    PubMed Central

    Honore, Matthew; Fowler, Ross; Kiosoglous, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    A 24-year-old male was referred to a tertiary hospital for a possible prostatic abscess. The patient went into acute urinary retention. Transurethral drainage was performed. MRI pelvis three days post-operatively identified the prostatic cystic structure as a müllerian duct cyst. Several other phenotypical features were noted on examination as well as findings on investigations. From these diagnosis of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β (HNF-1β) gene deletion was made. PMID:27390584

  11. Craniosynostosis in 10q26 deletion patients: A consequence of brain underdevelopment or altered suture biology?

    PubMed

    Faria, Ágatha Cristhina; Rabbi-Bortolini, Eliete; Rebouças, Maria R G O; de S Thiago Pereira, Andréia L A; Frasson, Milena G Tonini; Atique, Rodrigo; Lourenço, Naila Cristina V; Rosenberg, Carla; Kobayashi, Gerson S; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita; Errera, Flávia Imbroisi Valle

    2016-02-01

    Approximately a hundred patients with terminal 10q deletions have been described. They present with a wide range of clinical features always accompanied by delayed development, intellectual disability and craniofacial dysmorphisms. Here, we report a girl and a boy with craniosynostosis, developmental delay and other congenital anomalies. Karyotyping and molecular analysis including Multiplex Ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) were performed in both patients. We detected a 13.1 Mb pure deletion at 10q26.12-q26.3 in the girl and a 10.9 Mb pure deletion at 10q26.13-q26.3 in the boy, both encompassing about 100 genes. The clinical and molecular findings in these patients reinforce the importance of the DOCK1 smallest region of overlap I (SRO I), previously suggested to explain the clinical signs, and together with a review of the literature suggest a second 3.5 Mb region important for the phenotype (SRO II). Genotype-phenotype correlations and literature data suggest that the craniosynostosis is not directly related to dysregulated signaling in suture development, but may be secondary to alterations in brain development instead. Further, genes at 10q26 may be involved in the molecular crosstalk between brain and cranial vault. PMID:26566760

  12. MiRNA expression profile of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with 13q deletion.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Sánchez, María; Rodríguez-Vicente, Ana E; Hernández, José-Ángel; Lumbreras, Eva; Sarasquete, María-Eugenia; Martín, Ana-África; Benito, Rocío; Vicente-Gutiérrez, Carlos; Robledo, Cristina; Heras, Natalia de Las; Rodríguez, Juan-Nicolás; Alcoceba, Miguel; Coca, Alfonso García de; Aguilar, Carlos; González, Marcos; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús-María

    2016-07-01

    Deletion 13q (13q-) is the most common cytogenetic aberration in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and is associated with the most favorable prognosis as the sole cytogenetic abnormality. However, it is heterogeneous whereby CLL patients with higher percentages of 13q- cells (13q-H) have a more aggressive clinical course and a distinct gene expression profile. The microRNA (miRNA) expression profile of CLL gives additional biological and prognostic information, but its expression in 13q- CLL has not been examined in detail. The miRNA expression of clonal B cell lymphocytes (CD19+ cells) of 38 CLL patients and normal B cells of six healthy donors was analyzed. CLL patients with higher percentages of 13q- cells (≥80%) showed a different level of miRNA expression from patients with lower percentages (<80%). Interestingly, miR-143 was downregulated and miR-155 was overexpressed in 13q-H. This deregulation affected important validated target genes involved in apoptosis (BCL2, MDM2, TP53INP1) and proliferation (KRAS, PI3K-AKT signaling), that could lead to decreased apoptosis and increased proliferation in 13q-H patients. This study provides new evidence about the heterogeneity of the 13q deletion in CLL patients, showing that miRNA regulation could be involved in several significant pathways deregulated in CLL patients with a high number of losses in 13q. PMID:27111859

  13. Cytogenetic and clinical findings in a patient with a deletion of 16q23.1: first report of bilateral cataracts and a 16q deletion.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, K G; Van Dyke, D L; Wiktor, A; Feldman, G L

    1997-12-12

    The most commonly reported manifestations of 16q deletions are severe growth and developmental disorders and anomalies of the craniofacial, visceral, and musculoskeletal systems. We reviewed the findings of patients reported with 16q- syndrome and compared them to our patient, a 4 1/2-year-old boy with a deletion of 16q23.1. Findings include psychomotor retardation, hypotonia, high forehead, hypertelorism, upslanting palpebral fissures, low-set abnormally modeled ears, and talipes equinovarus. Anomalies present in our patient not reported in others with 16q- syndrome include bilateral cataracts, iris coloboma, and autistic-like behavior. It is of note that a locus for autosomal dominant congenital cataract, known as Marner cataract, was mapped previously to 16q22. Because our patient has bilateral cataracts and a unilateral iris coloboma, it seems likely that a gene involved in ocular development is located within 16q23.1. Our patient's deletion may also include the gene involved in Marner cataract and may further assist in the isolation of this gene. PMID:9409869

  14. Analysis of 22q11.2 deletions by FISH in a series of velocardiofacial syndrome patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ravnan, J.B.; Golabi, M.; Lebo, R.V.

    1994-09-01

    Deletions in chromosome 22 band q11.2 have been associated with velocardiofacial (VCF or Shprintzen) syndrome and the DiGeorge anomaly. A study of VCF patients evaluated at the UCSF Medical Center was undertaken to correlate disease phenotype with presence or absence of a deletion. Patients referred for this study had at least two of the following: dysmorphic facial features, frequent ear infections or hearing loss, palate abnormalities, thymic hypoplasia, hypocalcemia, congenital heart defect, hypotonia, and growth or language delay. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using the DiGeorge critical region probe N25 was used to classify patients according to the presence or absence of a deletion in 22q11.2, and the results were compared to clinical characteristics. We have completed studies on 58 patients with features of VCF. Twenty-one patients (36%) were found to have a deletion in 22q11.2 by FISH. A retrospective study of archived slides from 14 patients originally studied only by prometaphase GTG banding found six patients had a deletion detected by FISH; of these, only two had a microscopically visible chromosome deletion. Our study of 11 sets of parents of children with the deletion found two clinically affected mothers with the deletion, including one with three of three children clinically affected. A few patients who did not fit the classical VCF description had a 22q11.2 deletion detected by FISH. These included one patient with both cleft lip and palate, and another with developmental delay and typical facial features but no cardiac or palate abnormalities. Both patients with the DiGeorge anomaly as part of VCF had the deletion. On the other hand, a number of patients diagnosed clinically with classical VCF did not have a detectable deletion. This raises the question whether they represent a subset of patients with a defect of 22q11.2 not detected by the N25 probe, or whether they represent a phenocopy of VCF.

  15. Increased frequency of minimal homozygous deletions is associated with poor prognosis in primary malignant melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Boi, Sebastiana; Tebaldi, Toma; Re, Angela; Cantaloni, Chiara; Adami, Valentina; Barbareschi, Mattia; Cristofolini, Mario; Pasini, Luigi; Quattrone, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    Identification of prognostic melanoma-associated copy number alterations (CNAs) is still an area of active research. Here, we investigated by high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) a cohort of 31 paraffin-preserved primary malignant melanomas (MMs), whose prognosis was not predictable on the basis of conventional histopathological parameters. Although we identified a variety of highly recurrent sites of genomic lesions, the total number of CNAs per patient was not a discriminator of MM outcome. Furthermore, validation of aCGH by quantitative PCR on an extended population of 65 MM samples confirmed the absence of predictive value for the most recurrent CNA loci. Instead, our analysis revealed specific prognostic potential of the frequency of homozygous deletions (representing less than 3% of the total CNAs on average per sample), which was strongly associated with sentinel lymph node (SLN) invasion (P = 0.003), and distant metastasis (P = 0.003). Increased number of homozygous deletions was also indicative of poor patient survival (P = 0.01), both in our samples and in an independent validation of public dataset of primary and metastatic MMs. Moreover, we identified 77 hotspots of minimal common homozygous deletions, enriched in genes involved in cell adhesion processes and cell-communication functions, which preferentially accumulated in primary MMs showing the most severe outcome. Therefore, specific loss of gene loci in regions of minimal homozygous deletion may represent a pivotal type of genomic alteration accumulating during MM progression with potential prognostic implication. PMID:24615732

  16. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of 19q12q13.1 deletions: a report of five patients.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Shimul; Bandholz, Anne M; Parkash, Sandhya; Dyack, Sarah; Rideout, Andrea L; Leppig, Kathleen A; Thiese, Heidi; Wheeler, Patricia G; Tsang, Marilyn; Ballif, Blake C; Shaffer, Lisa G; Torchia, Beth S; Ellison, Jay W; Rosenfeld, Jill A

    2014-01-01

    A syndrome associated with 19q13.11 microdeletions has been proposed based on seven previous cases that displayed developmental delay, intellectual disability, speech disturbances, pre- and post-natal growth retardation, microcephaly, ectodermal dysplasia, and genital malformations in males. A 324-kb critical region was previously identified as the smallest region of overlap (SRO) for this syndrome. To further characterize this microdeletion syndrome, we present five patients with deletions within 19q12q13.12 identified using a whole-genome oligonucleotide microarray. Patients 1 and 2 possess deletions overlapping the SRO, and Patients 3-5 have deletions proximal to the SRO. Patients 1 and 2 share significant phenotypic overlap with previously reported cases, providing further definition of the 19q13.11 microdeletion syndrome phenotype, including the first presentation of ectrodactyly in the syndrome. Patients 3-5, whose features include developmental delay, growth retardation, and feeding problems, support the presence of dosage-sensitive genes outside the SRO that may contribute to the abnormal phenotypes observed in this syndrome. Multiple genotype-phenotype correlations outside the SRO are explored, including further validation of the deletion of WTIP as a candidate for male hypospadias observed in this syndrome. We postulate that unique patient-specific deletions within 19q12q13.1 may explain the phenotypic variability observed in this emerging contiguous gene deletion syndrome. PMID:24243649

  17. Exon skipping and translation in patients with frameshift deletions in the dystrophin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Sherratt, T.G.; Dubowitz, V.; Sewry, C.A.; Strong, P.N. ); Vulliamy, T. )

    1993-11-01

    Although many Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients have a deletion in the dystrophin gene which disrupts the translational reading frame, they express dystrophin in a small proportion of skeletal muscle fibers ([open quotes]revertant fibers[close quotes]). Antibody studies have shown, indirectly, that dystrophin synthesis in revertant fibers is facilitated by a frame-restoring mechanism; in the present study, the feasibility of mRNA splicing was investigated. Dystrophin transcripts were analyzed in skeletal muscle from individuals possessing revertant fibers and a frameshift deletion in the dystrophin gene. In each case a minor in-frame transcript was detected, in which exons adjacent to those deleted from the genome had been skipped. There appeared to be some correlation between the levels of in-frame transcripts and the predicted translation products. Low levels of alternatively spliced transcripts were also present in normal muscle. The results provide further evidence of exon skipping in the dystrophin gene and indicate that this may be involved in the synthesis of dystrophin by revertant fibers. 44 refs., 12 figs.

  18. Prevalence of the 4977-bp and 4408-bp mitochondrial DNA deletions in mesenteric arteries from patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Chen, Gui-Lan; Lan, Huan; Mao, Liang; Zeng, Bo

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions are found in many diseased tissues and lead to impairment of mitochondrial functions. In this study, we found wide presence of the common 4977-bp and a novel 4408-bp deletion in the mtDNA of mesenteric arteries from patients with colorectal cancer. These two deletions were also detected in samples from healthy individuals. The content of mtDNA with the 4977-bp deletion was significantly lower in healthy controls than cancer-associated samples, and there was no significant difference for the 4408-bp deletion between the two groups. These results suggest that mtDNA in blood vessels around cancer cells may be strongly affected by oxidative stress and tend to accumulate more large-scale variations. PMID:26332461

  19. 8p23.1 Interstitial Deletion in a Patient with Congenital Cardiopathy, Neurobehavioral Disorders, and Minor Signs Suggesting 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Molck, Miriam C; Monteiro, Fabíola P; Simioni, Milena; Gil-da-Silva-Lopes, Vera L

    2015-09-01

    Copy number variation studies of known disorders have the potential to improve the characterization of clinical phenotypes and may help identifying candidate genes and their pathways. The authors described a child with congenital heart disease, microcephaly, facial dysmorphisms, developmental delay, learning difficulties, and behavioral problems. There was initially a clinical suspicion of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS), but molecular cytogenetic analysis (array genomic hybridization [aGH]) showed the presence of a de novo 3.6-Mb interstitial microdeletion in 8p23.1. The main features of 8p23.1 DS include congenital heart disease and behavioral problems, in addition to minor dysmorphisms and mental delay. Therefore, this article highlights the application of aGH to investigate 8p23.1 deletion in nonconfirmed 22q11.2 DS patients presenting neurobehavioral disorders, congenital cardiopathy, and minor dysmorphisms. PMID:26263419

  20. Clinical implications of cytosine deletion of exon 5 of P53 gene in non small cell lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Rashid; Masroor, Mirza; Javid, Jamsheed; Ahamad, Imtiyaz; Farooq, Shazia; Yadav, Prasant; Zuberi, Mariyam; Lone, Maqbool; Ray, P. C; Saxena, Alpana

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Lung cancer is considered to be the most common cancer in the world. In humans, about 50% or more cancers have a mutated tumor suppressor p53 gene thereby resulting in accumulation of p53 protein and losing its function to activate the target genes that regulate the cell cycle and apoptosis. Extensive research conducted in murine cancer models with activated p53, loss of p53, or p53 missense mutations have facilitated researchers to understand the role of this key protein. Our study was aimed to evaluate the frequency of cytosine deletion in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods: One hundred NSCLC patients were genotyped for P53 (exon5, codon168) cytosine deletion leading to loss of its function and activate the target genes by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. The P53 cytosine deletion was correlated with all the clinicopathological parameters of the patients. Results and Analysis: 59% cases were carrying P53 cytosine deletion. Similarly, the significantly higher incidence of cytosine deletion was reported in current smokers (75%) in comparison to exsmoker and nonsmoker. Significantly higher frequency of cytosine deletion was reported in adenocarcinoma (68.08%) than squamous cell carcinoma (52.83%). Also, a significant difference was reported between p53 cytosine deletion and metastasis (64.28%). Further, the majority of the cases assessed for response carrying P53 cytosine deletion were found to show faster disease progression. Conclusion: The data suggests that there is a significant association of the P53 exon 5 deletion of cytosine in codon 168 with metastasis and staging of the disease. PMID:27169122

  1. Copy number deletion burden is associated with cognitive, structural, and resting-state network differences in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Martin, A K; Robinson, G; Reutens, D; Mowry, B

    2014-10-01

    Total burden of copy number deletions has been implicated in schizophrenia risk and has been associated with reduced cognitive functioning. The current study aims to replicate the cognitive findings and investigate regional grey and white matter volumes. Moreover, it will explore resting-state networks for correlations between functional connectivity and total deletion burden. All imaging differences will be investigated for correlations with cognitive differences. Seventy-eight patients with chronic schizophrenia, who formed a subset of a large genome-wide association study (GWAS), were assessed for intelligence, 34 had structural magnetic resonance imaging, 33 had resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, and 32 had diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Total deletion burden was negatively associated with IQ performance and positively associated with regional volumes in the striatum bilaterally and in the right superior temporal gyrus and white-matter in the corpus callosum. Correlations were identified between deletion burden and both hyper and hypoconnectivity within the default-mode network and hypoconnectivity within the cognitive control network. The functional connectivity correlations with deletion burden were also correlated with the IQ differences identified. Total deletion burden affects regional volumes and resting-state functional connectivity in key brain networks in patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, effects of deletions on cognitive functioning in may be due to inefficiency of key brain networks as identified by dysconnectivity in resting-state networks. PMID:25036426

  2. Multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions and persistent hyperthermia in a patient with Brachmann-de Lange phenotype

    SciTech Connect

    Melegh, B.; Bock, I.; Mehes, K.

    1996-10-02

    In a newborn boy with characteristics of Brachmann-de Lange syndrome (BDLS), high temperatures were observed on the second day after birth and recurred 2-6 times daily during the 7 months of the patient`s life. After, transient hypertonia hypotonia developed. In muscle biopsy specimen taken on the 51st day of life, serious and progressive distortion of mitochondria was observed. In several mitochondria the cristae structure was broken, other mitochondria were shrunken and the damage progressed towards further deterioration in other organelles. At several points between the myofibrils, amorphous material was seen, possibly debris of destroyed mitochondria. Most myofibrils seemed to be intact; however, in some areas myolytic signs were present. Analysis of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) showed multiple deletions in skeletal and heart muscles, liver, lung and kidney. Since the mtDNA encodes several proteins of the respiratory complexes, the deleted mtDNA certainly affected the integrity of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation process by synthesis of abnormal proteins. In the present case the hyperthermia may have been a result of the mtDNA damage. 13 refs.

  3. Two craniosynostotic patients with 11q deletions, and review of 48 cases

    SciTech Connect

    Lewanda, A.F.; Jabs, E.W.; Morsey, S.

    1995-11-06

    Many chromosomal abnormalities have craniofacial manifestations. One such abnormality, partial monosomy of chromosome 11q, is associated with metopic synostosis and resultant trigonocephaly. We reviewed 48 published cases of 11q deletions and translocations. Eighty percent were associated with abnormal head shape. Also commonly found were hypertelorism, ptosis of the eyelids, wide or low nasal bridge, apparently low-set malformed ears, down-turned mouth, micro/retrognathia, digital and cardiac anomalies, and psychomotor retardation. We report on two patients referred for abnormal head shape. The first case had brachycephaly, flat occiput, hypertelorism, and maxillary hypoplasia. Karyotype was 46,XY,del(11)(q24.1{yields}qter). The second patient had trigonocephaly, hypotelorism, posteriorly angulated ears, horizontal crease below his lower lip, syndactyly, shawl scrotum, cryptorchidism, and inguinal hernias. Karyotype showed partial trisomy of chromosome 4q as well as partial monosomy of 11q [46,XY,11,+der(11)t(4;11)(q31.3;q25)], a combination not previously reported. Deletions of 11q appear to produce a wide spectrum of abnormalities. 46 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Tracking donor-reactive T cells: evidence for clonal deletion in tolerant kidney transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Heather; DeWolf, Susan; Robins, Harlan; Sprangers, Ben; LoCascio, Samuel A.; Shonts, Brittany A.; Kawai, Tatsuo; Wong, Waichi; Yang, Suxiao; Zuber, Julien; Shen, Yufeng; Sykes, Megan

    2015-01-01

    T cell responses to allogeneic major histocompatibility (MHC) antigens present a formidable barrier to organ transplantation, necessitating long-term immunosuppression to minimize rejection. Chronic rejection and drug-induced morbidities are major limitations that could be overcome by allograft tolerance induction. Tolerance was first intentionally induced in humans via combined kidney and bone marrow transplantation (CKBMT), but the mechanisms of tolerance in these patients are incompletely understood. We now establish an assay to identify donor-reactive T cells and test the role of deletion in tolerance after CKBMT. Using high-throughput sequencing of the TCRB chain CDR3 region, we define a fingerprint of the donor-reactive T cell repertoire prior to transplantation and track those clones post-transplant. We observed post-transplant reductions in donor-reactive T cell clones in three tolerant CKBMT patients; such reductions were not observed in a fourth, non-tolerant, CKBMT patient or in two conventional kidney transplant recipients on standard immunosuppressive regimens. T cell repertoire turnover due to lymphocyte-depleting conditioning only partially accounted for the observed reductions in tolerant patients; in fact, conventional transplant recipients showed expansion of circulating donor-reactive clones, despite extensive repertoire turnover. Moreover, loss of donor-reactive T cell clones more closely associated with tolerance induction than in vitro functional assays. Our analysis supports clonal deletion as a mechanism of allograft tolerance in CKBMT patients. The results validate the significance of donor-reactive T cell clones identified pre-transplant by our method, supporting further exploration as a potential biomarker of transplant outcomes. PMID:25632034

  5. Evidence for a distinct region causing a cat-like cry in patients with 5p deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Gersh, M.; Goodart, S.A.; Overhauser, J.

    1995-06-01

    The cri-du-chat syndrome is a contiguous gene syndrome that results from a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p). Patients present with a cat-like cry at birth, which is usually considered diagnostic of this syndrome. Additional features of the syndrome include failure to thrive, microcephaly, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, hypotonia, and severe mental retardation. We report on four families in which patients with 5p deletions have only the characteristic cat-like cry, with normal to mildly delayed development. The precise locations of the deletions in each family were determined by FISH using lambda phage and cosmic clones. All of the deletion breakpoints map distal to a chromosomal region that is implicated with the facial features and severe mental and developmental delay in the cri-du-chat syndrome. DNA clones mapping in the chromosomal region associated with the cat-like cry feature will be useful diagnostic tools. They will allow for the distinction between 5p deletions that will result in the severe delay observed in most cri-du-chat syndrome patients and those deletions that result in the isolated cat-like cry feature, which is associated with a better prognosis. 19 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. 17q12 Deletion in a patient with Williams syndrome: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Lilian; Samanich, Joy; Pan, Quilu; Mehta, Lakshmi; Marion, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a complex genomic disorder entailing distinctive facial dysmorphism, cardiovascular abnormalities, intellectual disabilities, unusual behavioral features, and a specific cognitive profile with considerable variability. Additional symptoms include endocrine abnormalities, renal anomalies and connective tissue disorders. We report a monozygotic twin patient with WS who presented with multicystic kidneys in the newborn period, and, in addition to the typical WS deletion at 7q11.23, was found to have a de novo 1.7 Mb deletion in the 17q12 region on microarray comparative genomic hybridization. The co-twin was selectively terminated at 23 wk of gestation after being diagnosed with bilateral multicystic dysplastic kidneys and anhydramnios. Review of the literature shows that deletion of chromosome 17q12, encompassing hepatocyte nuclear factor 1beta gene, is associated with cystic renal disease and is the first recurrent genomic deletion associated with maturity onset diabetes of the young. In addition, reports of female reproductive tract malformations and patients with neurocognitive or psychiatric phenotypes have recently been described. This review of the literature summarizes 47 other cases involving 17q12 deletions with wide variability in phenotype, possibly suggesting a contiguous gene syndrome. It is likely that the additional 17q12 deletion has played a role in modifying the phenotype in our patient. This case highlights the importance of using array comparative genomic hybridization in the clinical setting to uncover the etiology of atypical findings in individuals with known microdeletion syndromes.

  7. Molecular characterization of two proximal deletion breakpoint regions in both Prader-Willi and Angelman syndrome patients

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, S.L.; Huang, B.; Ledbetter, D.H.

    1995-07-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are distinct mental retardation syndromes caused by paternal and maternal deficiencies, respectively, in chromosome 15q11{minus}q13. Approximately 70% of these patients have a large deletion of {approximately}4 Mb extending from D15S9 (ML34) through D15S12 (IR10A). To further characterize the deletion breakpoints proximal to D15S9, three new polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed that showed observed heterozygosities of 60%-87%. D15S541 and D15S542 were isolated for YAC A124A3 containing the D15S18 (IR39) locus. D15S543 was isolated from a cosmid cloned from the proximal right end of YAC 254B5 containing the D15S9 (ML34) locus. Gene-centromere mapping of these markers, using a panel of ovarian teratomas of known meiotic origin, extended the genetic map of chromosome 15 by 2-3 cM toward the centromere. Analysis of the more proximal S541/S542 markers on 53 Prader-Willi and 33 Angelman deletion patients indicated two classes of patients: 44% (35/80) of the informative patients were deleted for these markers (class I), while 56% (45/80) were not deleted (class II), with no difference between PWS and AS. In contrast, D15S543 was deleted in all informative patients (13/48) or showed the presence of a single allele (in 35/48 patients), suggesting that this marker is deleted in the majority of PWS and AS cases. These results confirm the presence of two common proximal deletion breakpoint regions in both Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes and are consistent with the same deletion mechanism being responsible for paternal and maternal deletions. One breakpoint region lies between D15S541/S542 and D15S543, with an additional breakpoint region being proximal to D15S541/S542. 46 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Identification of an Alu-repeat-mediated deletion of OPTN upstream region in a patient with a complex ocular phenotype.

    PubMed

    Schilter, Kala F; Reis, Linda M; Sorokina, Elena A; Semina, Elena V

    2015-11-01

    Genetic causes of ocular conditions remain largely unknown. To reveal the molecular basis for a congenital ocular phenotype associated with glaucoma we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) and whole-genome copy number analyses of patient DNA. WES did not identify a causative variant. Copy number variation analysis identified a deletion of 10p13 in the patient and his unaffected father; the deletion breakpoint contained a single 37-bp sequence that is normally present in two distinct Alu repeats separated by ~181 kb. The deletion removed part of the upstream region of optineurin (OPTN) as well as the upstream sequence and two coding exons of coiled-coil domain containing 3 (CCDC3); analysis of the patient's second allele showed normal OPTN and CCDC3 sequences. Studies of zebrafish orthologs identified expression in the developing eye for both genes. OPTN is a known factor in dominant adult-onset glaucoma and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). The deletion eliminates 98 kb of the OPTN upstream sequence leaving only ~1 kb of the proximal promoter region. Comparison of transcriptional activation capability of the 3 kb normal and the rearranged del(10)(p13) OPTN promoter sequences demonstrated a statistically significant decrease for the deleted allele; sequence analysis of the entire deleted region identified multiple conserved elements with possible cis-regulatory activity. Additional screening of CCDC3 indicated that heterozygous loss-of-function alleles are unlikely to cause congenital ocular disease. In summary, we report the first regulatory region deletion involving OPTN, caused by Alu-mediated nonallelic homologous recombination and possibly contributing to the patient's ocular phenotype. In addition, our data indicate that Alu-mediated rearrangements of the OPTN upstream region may represent a new source of affected alleles in human conditions. Evaluation of the upstream OPTN sequences in additional ocular and ALS patients may help to determine the role

  9. 6p22.3 deletion: report of a patient with autism, severe intellectual disability and electroencephalographic anomalies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The interstitial 6p deletions, involving the 6p22-p24 chromosomal region, are rare events characterized by variable phenotypes and no clear genotype-phenotype correlation has been established so far. Results High resolution array-CGH identified 1 Mb de novo interstitial deletion in 6p22.3 chromosomal region in a patient affected by severe Intellectual Disability (ID), Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), and electroencephalographic anomalies. This deletion includes ATXN1, DTNBP1, JARID2 and MYLIP genes, known to play an important role in the brain, and the GMPR gene whose function in the nervous system is unknown. Conclusions We support the suggestion that ATXN1, DTNBP1, JARID2 and MYLIP are candidate genes for the pathophysiology of ASDs and ID, and we propose that deletion of DTNBP1 and/or JARID2 contributes to the hypotonia phenotype. PMID:23324214

  10. Rare large homozygous CFTR gene deletion in an Iranian patient with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Farjadian, Shirin; Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Zuntini, Roberta; Ferrari, Simona

    2014-08-16

    Cystic fibrosis, a common autosomal recessive genetic disorder among Caucasians, is caused by defects in the transmembrane conductance regulatory (CFTR) gene. The analysis of CFTR gene mutations is useful to better characterize the disease, and for preconceptional screening, prenatal and preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Here we report the results of a genetic analysis in a 16-year-old boy from southwestern Iran diagnosed as having cystic fibrosis in infancy based on gastrointestinal and pulmonary manifestations, with positive sweat chloride tests. He lacked both normal and mutant forms of the fragment corresponding to the ∆F508 allele in initial genetic studies. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification-based testing revealed a homozygous deletion spanning exons 4 to 10 of the CFTR gene. We predict an in-frame deletion removing 373 amino acids based on our sequencing results. Determining CFTR gene mutations in patients and their family members would be helpful to prevent the occurrence of new cases, especially in populations in which consanguinity is common. PMID:25133155

  11. JAK2 Exon 14 Deletion in Patients with Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wanlong; Kantarjian, Hagop; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Xiuqiang; Zhang, Zhong; Yeh, Chen-Hsiung; O'Brien, Susan; Giles, Francis; Bruey, Jean Marie; Albitar, Maher

    2010-01-01

    Background The JAK2 V617F mutation in exon 14 is the most common mutation in chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs); deletion of the entire exon 14 is rarely detected. In our previous study of >10,000 samples from patients with suspected MPNs tested for JAK2 mutations by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) with direct sequencing, complete deletion of exon 14 (Δexon14) constituted <1% of JAK2 mutations. This appears to be an alternative splicing mutation, not detectable with DNA-based testing. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the possibility that MPN patients may express the JAK2 Δexon14 at low levels (<15% of total transcript) not routinely detectable by RT-PCR with direct sequencing. Using a sensitive RT-PCR–based fluorescent fragment analysis method to quantify JAK2 Δexon14 mRNA expression relative to wild-type, we tested 61 patients with confirmed MPNs, 183 with suspected MPNs (93 V617F-positive, 90 V617F-negative), and 46 healthy control subjects. The Δexon14 variant was detected in 9 of the 61 (15%) confirmed MPN patients, accounting for 3.96% to 33.85% (mean  = 12.04%) of total JAK2 transcript. This variant was also detected in 51 of the 183 patients with suspected MPNs (27%), including 20 of the 93 (22%) with V617F (mean [range] expression  = 5.41% [2.13%–26.22%]) and 31 of the 90 (34%) without V617F (mean [range] expression  = 3.88% [2.08%–12.22%]). Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that patients expressing Δexon14 mRNA expressed a corresponding truncated JAK2 protein. The Δexon14 variant was not detected in the 46 control subjects. Conclusions/Significance These data suggest that expression of the JAK2 Δexon14 splice variant, leading to a truncated JAK2 protein, is common in patients with MPNs. This alternatively spliced transcript appears to be more frequent in MPN patients without V617F mutation, in whom it might contribute to leukemogenesis. This mutation is missed if DNA rather than RNA is used for

  12. De novo deletion of HOXB gene cluster in a patient with failure to thrive, developmental delay, gastroesophageal reflux and bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Pajusalu, Sander; Reimand, Tiia; Uibo, Oivi; Vasar, Maire; Talvik, Inga; Zilina, Olga; Tammur, Pille; Õunap, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    We report a female patient with a complex phenotype consisting of failure to thrive, developmental delay, congenital bronchiectasis, gastroesophageal reflux and bilateral inguinal hernias. Chromosomal microarray analysis revealed a 230 kilobase deletion in chromosomal region 17q21.32 (arr[hg19] 17q21.32(46 550 362-46 784 039)×1) encompassing only 9 genes - HOXB1 to HOXB9. The deletion was not found in her mother or father. This is the first report of a patient with a HOXB gene cluster deletion involving only HOXB1 to HOXB9 genes. By comparing our case to previously reported five patients with larger chromosomal aberrations involving the HOXB gene cluster, we can suppose that HOXB gene cluster deletions are responsible for growth retardation, developmental delay, and specific facial dysmorphic features. Also, we suppose that bilateral inguinal hernias, tracheo-esophageal abnormalities, and lung malformations represent features with incomplete penetrance. Interestingly, previously published knock-out mice with targeted heterozygous deletion comparable to our patient did not show phenotypic alterations. PMID:25907420

  13. Deletion of CBFB in a patient with acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML M4Eo) and inversion 16.

    PubMed

    Egan, Nicole; O'Reilly, John; Chipper, Lucia; Higgins, Melinda; Herrmann, Richard; Cannell, Paul

    2004-10-01

    Acute myelomonocytic leukemia with bone marrow eosinophilia (AML M4Eo) is a subtype of AML with distinct morphological features. Inversion (16)(p13.1q22), t(16;16)(p13.1;q22), and del(16)(q22) are nonrandom abnormalities associated with AML M4Eo and a favorable prognosis, compared with the standard risk group for AML. Deletions of the proximal region of the MYH11 gene located at 16p13.1 have been detected in about 20% of patients with inv(16), with an undetermined effect on patient survival. We present the case of a patient with AML M4Eo and inversion 16 with a distal deletion of the CBFB gene at 16q22 detected with fluorescence in situ hybridization. To our knowledge, only one previous report of a similar deletion has appeared in the literature. PMID:15381374

  14. Typical Renal-coloboma Syndrome Phenotype in a Patient with a Submicroscopic Deletion of the PAX2 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Laimutis, Kucinskas; Jackson, Craig; Xu, Xinjie; Warman, Berta; Sarunas, Rudaitis; Birute, Pundziene; Schimmenti, Lisa A.; Raca, Gordana

    2012-01-01

    We present a patient with optic nerve hypoplasia, secondary strabismus, mild deafness, abnormal external ear helices and renal hypoplasia. The clinical phenotype was consistent with renal-coloboma syndrome, but no point mutation in the PAX2 gene could be identified. High resolution array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) analysis showed that this patient has a submicroscopic deletion on chromosome 10, affecting the entire coding region of the PAX2 gene. This finding provided the molecular confirmation of the patient’s clinical diagnosis and showed that, in addition to point mutations, deletions of the PAX2 gene contribute to the etiology of the renal-coloboma syndrome. PMID:22581475

  15. Characterisation of two deletions involving NPC1 and flanking genes in Niemann-Pick type C disease patients.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pascau, Laura; Toma, Claudio; Macías-Vidal, Judit; Cozar, Mónica; Cormand, Bru; Lykopoulou, Lilia; Coll, Maria Josep; Grinberg, Daniel; Vilageliu, Lluïsa

    2012-12-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is an autosomal recessive lysosomal disorder characterised by the accumulation of a complex pattern of lipids in the lysosomal-late endosomal system. More than 300 disease-causing mutations have been identified so far in the NPC1 and NPC2 genes, including indel, missense, nonsense and splicing mutations. Only one genomic deletion, of more than 23 kb, has been previously reported. We describe two larger structural variants, encompassing NPC1 and flanking genes, as a cause of the disease. QMPSF, SNP inheritance and CytoScan® HD Array were used to confirm and further characterise the presence of hemizygous deletions in two patients. One of the patients (NPC-57) bore a previously described missense mutation (p.T1066N) and an inherited deletion that included NPC1, C18orf8 and part of ANKRD29 gene. The second patient (NPC-G1) had a 1-bp deletion (c.852delT; p.F284Lfs*26) and a deletion encompassing the promoter region and exons 1-10 of NPC1 and the adjacent ANKRD29 and LAMA3. This study characterised two novel chromosomal microdeletions at 18q11-q12 that cause NPC disease and provide insight into missing NPC1 mutant alleles. PMID:23142039

  16. A Deletion Involving CD38 and BST1 Results in a Fusion Transcript in a Patient With Autism and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ceroni, Fabiola; Sagar, Angela; Simpson, Nuala H.; Gawthrope, Alex J.T.; Newbury, Dianne F.; Pinto, Dalila; Francis, Sunday M.; Tessman, Dorothy C.; Cook, Edwin H.; Monaco, Anthony P.; Maestrini, Elena; Pagnamenta, Alistair T.; Jacob, Suma

    2015-01-01

    CD38 encodes a ligand in the oxytocin signaling pathway. Some single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene have been associated with low serum oxytocin levels in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients. Oxytocin disruption has been hypothesized to account for features of ASD, including impaired communication and social behavior, based on animal studies. Recent human studies have shown administration of oxytocin improving emotion recognition, promoting social behavior, and improving auditory processing of social stimuli in ASD patients. In addition to its role in oxytocin signaling, CD38 is involved in the regulation of calcium concentration in airway smooth muscle with impairment of CD38 being implicated in airway diseases like asthma. While a number of studies have implicated rare chromosomal deletions and duplications in helping determine genetic risk for autism, there are to our knowledge no reports describing rearrangements involving CD38 or deletions in patients with ASD. Here, we present two sisters diagnosed with autism and with features of regression—previously acquired speech lost in the second year of life. The younger sister, who also had asthma, inherited a maternal deletion of 4p15.32 that results in a BST1-CD38 fusion transcript. Their mother's deletion was mosaic and she was not affected. Although further work is required to assess functional consequences of the fusion transcript, we hypothesize that the proband's deletion may have served as a risk factor for autism that, when combined with other susceptibility variants, resulted in a more severe presentation than her sister. PMID:24634087

  17. Further phenotype description, genotype characterization in patients with de novo interstitial deletion on 2p23.2-24.1.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Mercedes; Leonard, Anissa; Diplas, Andreas A; Pepermans, Xavier; Emanuel, Beverly S; Santa Rocca, Maria; Revencu, Nicole; Sznajer, Yves

    2014-07-01

    Interstitial deletions of the distal part of chromosome 2p seem to be rarely identified or reported: to date, only nine distinct patients have been published. The last three patients were diagnosed with the use of more recent molecular karyotyping technology (SNP array). We report on the natural history of an 8-year-old boy with dysmorphic features, postnatal overgrowth, microcephaly, generalized hypotonia, and global developmental delay. The diagnosis was accomplished by SNP array investigation that led to the identification of a de novo 7.4 Mb deletion of 2p23.2-p24.1. The present patient also developed a nonsyndromic auditory neuropathy. Since the deletion encompassed the OTOF gene, this haploinsufficiency suggests second allele sequencing as a possible cause (DFNB9). We describe the phenotype of the patient and review reports in patients with del 2p23 subsequent to the advent of the genomic era. At the time of identification of "new" micro- deletion and -duplication syndromes, the present report adds to the description of phenotype in patients with del(2)p(23.2;24.1) and the 2p23.2 region in particular. PMID:24700699

  18. Clinical features of patients with dystrophinopathy sharing the 45-55 exon deletion of DMD gene.

    PubMed

    Taglia, Antonella; Petillo, Roberta; D'Ambrosio, Paola; Picillo, Esther; Torella, Annalaura; Orsini, Chiara; Ergoli, Manuela; Scutifero, Marianna; Passamano, Luigia; Palladino, Alberto; Nigro, Gerardo; Politano, Luisa

    2015-05-01

    Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) was first described in 1953 by Emile Becker as a benign variant of Duchenne muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Compared with DMD, BMD is clinically more heterogeneous, with initial presentation in the teenage years and loss of ambulation beyond the age of 16 and a wide spectrum of clinical presentations, ranging from only myalgias and muscle cramps to exercise intolerance and myoglobinuria, asymptomatic elevation of serum creatin-kinase, or mild limb-girdle weakness and quadriceps myopathy. About 50% of patients become symptomatic by the age of 10 and the most part by the age of 20 years. However few patients can be free of symptoms till their fifties and cases of late-onset Becker Muscular Dystrophy have also been described. In this report we describe the clinical features of patients with dystrophinopathy sharing a deletion of exons 45-55, occasionally or retrospectively diagnosed. These data are important for both the prognostic aspects of children presenting this dystrophin gene mutation, and for the genetic counseling in these families (reassuring them on the benign course of the disease), and last but not least to keep in mind a diagnosis of BMD in asymptomatic adults with mild hyperckemia. PMID:26155064

  19. Deletion of CFTR Translation Start Site Reveals Functional Isoforms of the Protein in CF Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ramalho, Anabela S.; Lewandowska, Marzena A.; Farinha, Carlos M.; Mendes, Filipa; Gonçalves, Juan; Barreto, Celeste; Harris, Ann; Amaral, Margarida D.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Mutations in the CFTR gene cause Cystic Fibrosis (CF) the most common life-threatening autosomal recessive disease affecting Caucasians. We identified a CFTR mutation (c.120del23) abolishing the normal translation initiation codon, which occurs in two Portuguese CF patients. This study aims at functionally characterizing the effect of this novel mutation. Methods: RNA and protein techniques were applied to both native tissues from CF patients and recombinant cells expressing CFTR constructs to determine whether c.120del23 allows CFTR protein production through usage of alternative internal codons, and to characterize the putative truncated CFTR form(s). Results: Our data show that two shorter forms of CFTR protein are produced when the initiation translation codon is deleted indicating usage of internal initiation codons. The N-truncated CFTR generated by this mutation has decreased stability, very low processing efficiency, and drastically reduced function. Analysis of mutants of four methionine codons downstream to M1 (M82, M150, M152, M156) revealed that each of the codons M150/M152/M156 (exon 4) can mediate CFTR alternative translation. Conclusions: The CFTR N-terminus has an important role in avoiding CFTR turnover and in rendering effective its plasma membrane traffic. These data correlate well with the severe clinical phenotype of CF patients bearing the c.120del23 mutation. PMID:19910674

  20. GJB1/Connexin 32 whole gene deletions in patients with X-linked Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease

    PubMed Central

    Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Zhang, Feng; Towne, Charles F.; Batish, Sat Dev

    2014-01-01

    The X-linked form of Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMTX) is the second most common form of this genetically heterogeneous inherited peripheral neuropathy. CMT1X is caused by mutations in the GJB1 gene. Most of the mutations causative for CMT1X are missense mutations. In addition, a few disease causative nonsense mutations and frameshift deletions that lead to truncated forms of the protein have also been reported to be associated with CMT1X. Previously, there have been reports of patients with deletions of the coding sequence of GJB1; however, the size and breakpoints of these deletions were not assessed. Here, we report five patients with deletions that range in size from 12.2 to 48.3 kb and that completely eliminate the entire coding sequence of the GJB1 gene, resulting in a null allele for this locus. Analyses of the breakpoints of these deletions showed that they are nonrecurrent and that they can be generated by different mechanisms. In addition to PMP22, GJB1 is the second CMT gene for which both point mutations and genomic rearrangements can cause a neuropathy phenotype, stressing the importance of CMT as a genomic disorder. PMID:20532933

  1. Tetralogy of Fallot associated with pulmonary atresia and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries in a patient with interstitial deletion of 16q21-q22.1.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Dowa, Yuri; Ueda, Hideaki; Kawataki, Motoyoshi; Asou, Toshihide; Sasaki, Yuki; Harada, Naoki; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Matsuoka, Rumiko; Kurosawa, Kenji

    2008-06-15

    A newborn male had an interstitial deletion of 16q21-q22.1 accompanying tetralogy of Fallot associated with pulmonary atresia and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCA), dysmorphic craniofacial features, failure to thrive, and severe psychomotor developmental delay. When the deletion in this patient and other reported patients are compared, the 16q22 region appears to be the smallest region for 16q deletion syndrome. Since over 50% of patients with the deletion of 16q22 region have congenital heart disease, there may be a responsible gene in this region. PMID:18470894

  2. Pattern of deletions of the dystrophin gene in Mexican Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy patients: the use of new designed primers for the analysis of the major deletion "hot spot" region.

    PubMed

    Coral-Vazquez, R; Arenas, D; Cisneros, B; Peñaloza, L; Salamanca, F; Kofman, S; Mercado, R; Montañez, C

    1997-06-13

    We have analyzed 59 unrelated Mexican Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy patients (DMD/BMD) using PCR analysis of the 2 prone deletion regions in the DMD gene. Thirty one (52%) of the patients had a deletion of one or several of the exons. Most of the alterations (87%) were clustered in exons 44-52, this being the highest percentage reported until now. In order to improve the molecular diagnosis in the Mexican population, we designed a new multiplex assay to PCR amplify exons 44-52. This assay allowed for the identification of a greater number of deletions in this region compared with the 9 and 5-plex assays previously described and to determine most of the deletion end boundaries. This is a reliable alternative for the initial screening of the DMD patients in the Mexican population. PMID:9188659

  3. Diagnosis and fine mapping of a deletion in distal 11q in two Chinese patients with developmental delay.

    PubMed

    Ji, Taoyun; Wu, Ye; Wang, Huifang; Wang, Jingmin; Jiang, Yuwu

    2010-08-01

    Jacobsen syndrome (JBS) is a haploinsufficiency syndrome caused by partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11. It is characterized by developmental delay (DD)/mental retardation (MR), physical growth retardation, facial dysmorphism, visceral malformations and thrombocytopenia. We report two JBS patients from China out of a total of 451 patients with unexplained DD/MR. The genotypes of these patients were compared with earlier reported patients in North America and Europe. Both patients presented with severe DD, microcephaly and facial dysmorphism; one patient had a low birth weight, congenital heart disease and structural brain abnormalities. Neither patient was thrombocytopenic at the time of diagnosis. The two deletions were 4.1 and 12.8 Mb. The 4.1 Mb deletion is the smallest of all pathogenic regions earlier reported in JBS. Therefore, the critical region underlying DD/MR might be located in the distal portion of the chromosomal segment within 4.1 Mb of the telomere. Candidate genes for DD/MR in this region include SNX19, THYN1, OPCML, NCAPD3 and NTM. One of the critical regions for craniofacial abnormalities may be within 130.3-134.4 Mb in chromosome 11q. Further analysis of Chinese JBS patients would elucidate the relation of phenotype to genotype further. PMID:20520618

  4. Loss of both CSF1R (FMS) alleles in patients with myelodysplasia and a chromosome 5 deletion

    SciTech Connect

    Boultwood, J.; Rack, K.; Buckle, V.J.; Wainscoat, J.S. ); Kelly, S. ); Madden, J.; Oscier, D.G. ); Sakaguchi, A.Y.; Wang, Lingmei )

    1991-07-15

    A high proportion of patients with myelodysplasia show characteristic karyotypic abnormalities in bone marrow cells. The most distinctive of the myelodysplastic syndromes is the 5q- syndrome characterized by refractory anemia, poorly lobulated megakaryocytes, and an interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 5 (5q deletion) as the sole karyotypic abnormality. Recently, several genes encoding hemopoietic growth factors and receptors, have been localized to the long arm of chromosome 5, and there has been much speculation that deletion of one or more of these genes may be critical to the pathogenesis of the associated myeloid disorders. One candidate gene is CSF1R. The authors have carried out a molecular examination of the CSF1R, both on the 5q- chromosome and on the apparently normal homologous chromsome 5, in 10 patients with myelodysplasia and a 5q deletion. They have found, using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and gene dosage experiments, that all 10 patients showed deletion of CSF1R. The homozygous CSF1R loss has been confirmed in 2 patients by an in situ hybridization technique comparing the signal in affected cells to that in control sex-mismatched cells on the same slides. This loss of one CSF1R allele, together with loss in some cells of the remaining allele on the homologous chromsome 5, in patients with myelodysplasia indicates that this is a region of critical gene loss on 5q. The loss of the hemopoietic growth factor receptor gene CSF1R may be important in the pathogenesis of human myeloid leukemia.

  5. Analysis of sporadic tuberous sclerosis patients with the TSC2 cDNA reveals several gene rearrangements and deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.J.; Short, M.P.; Bove, C.

    1994-09-01

    Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hamartomas and hamartias in many organs including brain, skin, heart and kidneys. Two TSC genes have been localized through linkage analysis, TSC1 to 9q34 and TSC2 to 16p13.3. TSC2 was recently cloned. The distribution of sporadic TSC patients between TSC1 and TSC2 is at present unknown, but tests of genetic heterogeneity in families suggest that each is equally represented. Genetic heterogeneity may account for some of the variation in clinical expression; however, there is no evidence at present to support differences in clinical phenotypes between the 2 genetic loci. With the isolation of the TSC2 gene we have commenced mutation studies of our familial and sporadic TSC patients. Thus far six chromosome 16-linked families have been screened with the TSC2 cDNA and no detectable changes were observed using Southern analysis. In addition, 85 sporadic TSC patients were analyzed by Southern analysis. Using multiple restriction digests, nine patients revealed altered patterns, including three patients that appeared to have complete deletions. RT-PCR was performed on these patients confirming that the TSC2 gene was deleted. However, the remaining patients showed normal patterns, indicating that they either have TSC1 mutations or they possess more subtle small deletions or point mutations. At present we are designing an SSCP-based approach to determine the nature of the mutations in our 16 linked TSC families.

  6. DNA methylation and gene deletion analysis of brain metastases in melanoma patients identifies mutually exclusive molecular alterations

    PubMed Central

    Marzese, Diego M.; Scolyer, Richard A.; Roqué, Maria; Vargas-Roig, Laura M.; Huynh, Jamie L.; Wilmott, James S.; Murali, Rajmohan; Buckland, Michael E.; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Thompson, John F.; Morton, Donald L.; Kelly, Daniel F.; Hoon, Dave S. B.

    2014-01-01

    Background The brain is a common target of metastases for melanoma patients. Little is known about the genetic and epigenetic alterations in melanoma brain metastases (MBMs). Unraveling these molecular alterations is a key step in understanding their aggressive nature and identifying novel therapeutic targets. Methods Genome-wide DNA methylation analyses of MBMs (n = 15) and normal brain tissues (n = 91) and simultaneous multigene DNA methylation and gene deletion analyses of metastatic melanoma tissues (99 MBMs and 43 extracranial metastases) were performed. BRAF and NRAS mutations were evaluated in MBMs by targeted sequencing. Results MBMs showed significant epigenetic heterogeneity. RARB, RASSF1, ESR1, APC, PTEN, and CDH13 genes were frequently hypermethylated. Deletions were frequently detected in the CDKN2A/B locus. Of MBMs, 46.1% and 28.8% had BRAF and NRAS missense mutations, respectively. Compared with lung and liver metastases, MBMs exhibited higher frequency of CDH13 hypermethylation and CDKN2A/B locus deletion. Mutual exclusivity between hypermethylated genes and CDKN2A/B locus deletion identified 2 clinically relevant molecular subtypes of MBMs. CDKN2A/B deletions were associated with multiple MBMs and frequently hypermethylated genes with shorter time to brain metastasis. Conclusions Melanoma cells that colonize the brain harbor numerous genetically and epigenetically altered genes. This study presents an integrated genomic and epigenomic analysis that reveals MBM-specific molecular alterations and mutually exclusive molecular subtypes. PMID:24968695

  7. PTCH mutations and deletions in patients with typical nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome and in patients with a suspected genetic predisposition to basal cell carcinoma: a French study

    PubMed Central

    Soufir, N; Gerard, B; Portela, M; Brice, A; Liboutet, M; Saiag, P; Descamps, V; Kerob, D; Wolkenstein, P; Gorin, I; Lebbe, C; Dupin, N; Crickx, B; Basset-Seguin, N; Grandchamp, B

    2006-01-01

    The patched (PTCH) mutation rate in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) reported in various studies ranges from 40 to 80%. However, few studies have investigated the role of PTCH in clinical conditions suggesting an inherited predisposition to basal cell carcinoma (BCC), although it has been suggested that PTCH polymorphisms could predispose to multiple BCC (MBCC). In this study, we therefore performed an exhaustive analysis of PTCH (mutations detection and deletion analysis) in 17 patients with the full complement of criteria for NBCCS (14 sporadic and three familial cases), and in 48 patients suspected of having a genetic predisposition to BCC (MBCC and/or age at diagnosis ⩽40 years and/or familial BCC). Eleven new germline alterations of the PTCH gene were characterised in 12 out of 17 patients harbouring the full complement of criteria for the syndrome (70%). These were frameshift mutations in five patients, nonsense mutations in five patients, a small inframe deletion in one patient, and a large germline deletion in another patient. Only one missense mutation (G774R) was found, and this was in a patient affected with MBCC, but without any other NBCCS criterion. We therefore suggest that patients harbouring the full complement of NBCCS criteria should as a priority be screened for PTCH mutations by sequencing, followed by a deletion analysis if no mutation is detected. In other clinical situations that suggest genetic predisposition to BCC, germline mutations of PTCH are not common. PMID:16909134

  8. High frequency of COH1 intragenic deletions and duplications detected by MLPA in patients with Cohen syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Parri, Veronica; Katzaki, Eleni; Uliana, Vera; Scionti, Francesca; Tita, Rossella; Artuso, Rosangela; Longo, Ilaria; Boschloo, Renske; Vijzelaar, Raymon; Selicorni, Angelo; Brancati, Francesco; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Zelante, Leopoldo; Hamel, Christian P; Sarda, Pierre; Lalani, Seema R; Grasso, Rita; Buoni, Sabrina; Hayek, Joussef; Servais, Laurent; de Vries, Bert B A; Georgoudi, Nelly; Nakou, Sheena; Petersen, Michael B; Mari, Francesca; Renieri, Alessandra; Ariani, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Cohen syndrome is a rare, clinically variable autosomal recessive disorder characterized by mental retardation, postnatal microcephaly, facial dysmorphisms, ocular abnormalities and intermittent neutropenia. Mutations in the COH1 gene have been found in patients from different ethnic origins. However, a high percentage of patients have only one or no mutated allele. To investigate whether COH1 copy number changes account for missed mutations, we used multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) to test a group of 14 patients with Cohen syndrome. This analysis has allowed us to identify multi-exonic deletions in 11 alleles and duplications in 4 alleles. Considering our previous study, COH1 copy number variations represent 42% of total mutated alleles. To our knowledge, COH1 intragenic duplications have never been reported in Cohen syndrome. The three duplications encompassed exons 4–13, 20–30 and 57–60, respectively. Interestingly, four deletions showed the same exon coverage (exons 6–16) with respect to a deletion recently reported in a large Greek consanguineous family. Haplotype analysis suggested a possible founder effect in the Mediterranean basin. The use of MLPA was therefore crucial in identifying mutated alleles undetected by traditional techniques and in defining the extent of the deletions/duplications. Given the high percentage of identified copy number variations, we suggest that this technique could be used as the initial screening method for molecular diagnosis of Cohen syndrome. PMID:20461111

  9. Low frequency of the CYP21A2 deletion in ethnic Chinese (Taiwanese) patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsien-Hsiung; Lee, Yann-Jinn; Wang, Yu-Mei; Chao, Hsiang-Tai; Niu, Dau-Ming; Chao, Mei-Chyn; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Lo, Fu-Sung; Lin, Shio-Jean

    2008-04-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a common autosomal recessive disorder which causes more than 90% of CAH cases due to defects in the steroid 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21A2). The frequency of large mutations was determined in 200 ethnic Chinese (i.e., Taiwanese) CAH patients belonging to 200 families with different clinical forms of CYP21A2 deficiency over 10 years of molecular diagnoses. For a large-gene deletion (or conversion) and the CYP21A2 deletion identification, a PCR product covering the TNXB gene and the 5'-end of the CYP21A2 gene with TaqI endonuclease digestion was analyzed by electrophoresis on agarose gels. For CYP21A2 mutational analysis, secondary PCR amplification of the amplification-created restriction site method was applied. From the results of the analysis, we found that large-gene deletions (or conversions) occurred in 7.5% of the alleles including three different types of the chimeric CYP21A1P/CYP21A2 genes and the haplotype of IVS2-12A/C>G in combination with the 707-714del mutation (without the P30L mutation). The CYP21A2 deletion occurred in 2.0% of the alleles which contained three types of the chimeric TNXA/TNXB genes with two novel ones. We concluded that the CYP21A2 deletion in the ethnic Chinese (Taiwanese) patients exhibits a low occurrence, with the haplotype of the IVS2-12A/C>G in combination with the 707-714del mutation (without the P30L mutation) being prevalent among large gene deletions or conversions. PMID:18039588

  10. Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia patients

    SciTech Connect

    Maslen, C.L.; O`Malley, J.P.; Illingworth, D.R.

    1994-09-01

    The insertion/deletion polymorphism in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE/ID) has been shown to be an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI). Patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) are known to be at greatly increased risk for heart disease because of their high levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol. We obtained DNA samples from 105 unrelated FH patients and typed them for ACE/ID by PCR analysis. The frequencies of the DD, DI, and II genotypes were 0.381, 0.390, and 0.229, respectively. The allele frequencies were 0.576 for D and 0.423 for I. This is similar to the allele frequencies observed by Cambien et al. in a control population in Toulouse, France. The relative risk for MI or coronary artery disease (CAD) was assessed in patients who were aged 50 years or older. The criteria for CAD was history of coronary arterial bypass surgery. While the relative risk of having had a myocardial infarction was slightly increased from 0.14 (4/28) in the DI + II group to 0.16 (3/19) in the DD genotype, the differences were not statistically significant. The individual`s risk of CAD increased in the DD genotype, (0.579 of the DD population (n=19) compared to 0.321 of the DI + II population (n=28)). Therefore the ACE/ID polymorphism does appear to interact with FH in increasing a DD individual`s risk of heart disease by a factor of 1.8 relative to the DI and II genotypes.

  11. Muscle hypertrophy as the presenting sign in a patient with a complete FHL1 deletion.

    PubMed

    Willis, T A; Wood, C L; Hudson, J; Polvikoski, T; Barresi, R; Lochmüller, H; Bushby, K; Straub, V

    2016-08-01

    Four and a half LIM protein 1 (FHL1/SLIM1) has recently been identified as the causative gene mutated in four distinct diseases affecting skeletal muscle that have overlapping features, including reducing body myopathy, X-linked myopathy, X-linked dominant scapuloperoneal myopathy and Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. FHL1 localises to the sarcomere and the sarcolemma and is believed to participate in muscle growth and differentiation as well as in sarcomere assembly. We describe in this case report a boy with a deletion of the entire FHL1 gene who is now 15 years of age and presented with muscle hypertrophy, reduced subcutaneous fat, rigid spine and short stature. This case is the first, to our knowledge, with a complete loss of the FHL1 protein and MAP7D3 in combination. It supports the theory that dominant negative effects (accumulation of cytotoxic-mutated FHL1 protein) worsen the pathogenesis. It extends the phenotype of FHL1-related myopathies and should prompt future testing in undiagnosed patients who present with unexplained muscle hypertrophy, contractures and rigid spine, particularly if male. PMID:27409453

  12. Detection of TRIM32 deletions in LGMD patients analyzed by a combined strategy of CGH array and massively parallel sequencing.

    PubMed

    Nectoux, Juliette; de Cid, Rafael; Baulande, Sylvain; Leturcq, France; Urtizberea, Jon Andoni; Penisson-Besnier, Isabelle; Nadaj-Pakleza, Aleksandra; Roudaut, Carinne; Criqui, Audrey; Orhant, Lucie; Peyroulan, Delphine; Ben Yaou, Raba; Nelson, Isabelle; Cobo, Anna Maria; Arné-Bes, Marie-Christine; Uro-Coste, Emmanuelle; Nitschke, Patrick; Claustres, Mireille; Bonne, Gisèle; Lévy, Nicolas; Chelly, Jamel; Richard, Isabelle; Cossée, Mireille

    2015-07-01

    Defects in TRIM32 were reported in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H (LGMD2H), sarcotubular myopathies (STM) and in Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Few cases have been described to date in LGMD2H/STM, but this gene is not systematically analysed because of the absence of specific signs and difficulties in protein analysis. By using high-throughput variants screening techniques, we identified variants in TRIM32 in two patients presenting nonspecific LGMD. We report the first case of total inactivation by homozygous deletion of the entire TRIM32 gene. Of interest, the deletion removes part of the ASTN2 gene, a large gene in which TRIM32 is nested. Despite the total TRIM32 gene inactivation, the patient does not present a more severe phenotype. However, he developed a mild progressive cognitive impairment that may be related to the loss of function of ASTN2 because association between ASTN2 heterozygous deletions and neurobehavioral disorders was previously reported. Regarding genomic characteristics at breakpoint of the deleted regions of TRIM32, we found a high density of repeated elements, suggesting a possible hotspot. These observations illustrate the importance of high-throughput technologies for identifying molecular defects in LGMD, confirm that total loss of function of TRIM32 is not associated with a specific phenotype and that TRIM32/ASTN2 inactivation could be associated with cognitive impairment. PMID:25351777

  13. Occupational hydrocarbon exposure among fathers of Prader-Willi syndrome patients with and without deletions of 15q

    SciTech Connect

    Cassidy, S.B.; Gainey, A.J.; Butler, M.G.

    1989-06-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a multiple-anomaly disorder in which 50%-70% of cases are associated with a de novo interstitial deletion (del 15(q11-13)) on prometaphase cytogenetic analysis, the remainder having apparently normal chromosomes. In most instances, the paternally derived chromosome has become deleted in the affected child, suggesting the possibility of a predisposing environmental factor. Strakowski and Butler found an increased incidence of paternal periconceptional employment in hydrocarbon-exposing occupations in this population. This observation may suggest a causal relationship to PWS. To determine whether this association may distinguish the cytogenetically different groups, we identified 81 patients with the disorder who were physically and cytogenetically examined in three centers, and we compared the frequency of possible periconceptional occupational hydrocarbon exposure between fathers of patients who demonstrate a 15q deletion and those who do not. There was no statistically significant difference between the cytogenetically different groups. In both groups, approximately half of the fathers had been employed in hydrocarbon-exposing jobs. These findings suggest lack of etiologic heterogeneity between the cytogenetically different groups for PWS and affirm the need to seek submicroscopic deletions through molecular genetic studies. These data also provide additional evidence that hydrocarbon exposure among fathers of children with PWS may be causally related to the disorder, and they also suggest the need for more accurate assessment of exposure via a large, controlled study.

  14. Supernumerary inv dup (15) in a patient with Angelman syndome and a deletion of 15q11-q13

    SciTech Connect

    Spinner, N.B.; Zackai, E.; Knoll, J.H.M.

    1995-05-22

    We have studied a patient with Angelman syndrome (AS) and a 47,XY,+inv dup(15) (pter{r_arrow}q11::q11{r_arrow}pter) karyotype. Molecular cytogenetic studies demonstrated that one of the apparently normal 15s was deleted at loci D15S9, GABRB3, and D15S12. There were no additional copies of these loci on the inv dup(15). The inv dup(15) contained only the pericentromeric sequence D15Z1. Quantitative DNA analysis confirmed these findings and documented a standard large deletion of sequences from 15q11-q13, as usually seen in patients with AS. DNA methylation testing at D15S63 showed a deletion of the maternally derived chromosome. AS in this patient can be explained by the absence of DNA sequences from chromosome 15q11-q13 on one of the apparently cytogenetically normal 15s, and not by the presence of an inv dup(15). This is the fourth patient with an inv dup(15) and AS or Prader Willi syndrome, who has been studied at the molecular level. In all cases an additional alteration of chromosome 15 was identified, which was hypothesized to be the cause of the disease. Patients with inv dup(15)s may be at increased risk for other chromosome abnormalities involving 15q11-q13. 29 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Failure to thrive as primary feature in two patients with subtle chromosomal aneuploidy: Interstitial deletion 2q33

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, K.; Mulla, W.; Stump, T.

    1994-09-01

    It is well known that patients with chromosomal aneuploidy present with multiple congenital anomalies and dysmorphia, and that they may have associated failure to thrive. However, rarely is failure to thrive the predominant presenting feature. We report two such patients. Patient 1 had a marked history of failure to thrive, (weight 50% for 5 1/2 months at 20 months, length 50% for 15 months at 20 months). Patient 2 was noted to be growth retarded at 2 months upon presenting to the hospital with respiratory symptoms (weight 50% for a newborn, length 50% for 36 weeks gestation). There was relative head sparing in both patients. Chromosome analysis in patient 1, prompted by a negative work-up for the failure to thrive, and emerging evidence of developmental delay, revealed a 46,XY,del(2)(q32.2q33) karyotype. Chromosome analysis in patient 2, done as part of a complete workup for the failure to thrive, revealed a 46,XX,del(2)(q33.2q33.2 or q33.2q33.3) karyotype. On careful examination, subtle dysmorphic features were seen. In both patients these included a long flat philtrum, thin upper lip and high arched palate. Patient 1 also had a small posterior cleft of the palate. These patients have the smallest interstitial deletions of chromosome 2 so far reported. Their deletions overlap within 2q33 although they are not identical. Review of the literature reveals 15 patients with interstitial deletions which include 2q33. Marked growth retardation is reported in 14 of these cases. Cleft palate/abnormal uvula were frequently associated. These cases illustrate the need to include high resolution chromosomal studies as part of a complete work-up for unexplained failure to thrive.

  16. Accuracy in identification of patients with 22q11.2 deletion by likely care providers using facial photographs.

    PubMed

    Becker, Devra B; Pilgram, Thomas; Marty-Grames, Lynn; Govier, Daniel P; Marsh, Jeffrey L; Kane, Alex A

    2004-11-01

    Numerous facial characteristics are associated with velocardiofacial syndrome. Care providers may use these facial characteristics to identify patients who may benefit from fluorescence in situ hybridization genetic testing to determine the presence of the 22q11.2 deletion. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that experienced care providers were able to correctly diagnose the 22q11.2 deletion on the basis of studying frontal facial photographs. After approval was obtained from the human studies committee, patients who had undergone fluorescence in situ hybridization genetics testing for the presence of a 22q11.2 deletion were asked to submit two frontal photographs: one at infancy and one beyond the second birthday. These photographs were randomized, made anonymous, and then placed on a secure Web site. Specialists in the fields of plastic surgery, otolaryngology, genetics, and speech pathology were asked to evaluate their experience and confidence levels in diagnosing a 22q11.2 deletion and were then asked to rate the photographs by likelihood of deletion using a five-point Likert scale. Thirty-two specialists (10 surgeons, nine geneticists, and 13 speech pathologists) participated in the study. On the basis of clear responses, respondents predicted the presence (sensitivity) and absence (specificity) of the 22q11.2 deletion at chance levels. Of the remaining responses, 20 to 25 percent were unsure and 20 to 25 percent were clearly wrong. When an unsure response was treated as a weak positive, the results favored sensitivity slightly, with a sensitivity of 70 percent and a specificity of 50 percent. Sensitivity improved somewhat with experience, as measured by the number of patients seen per year. The prediction of the presence or absence of the 22q11.2 deletion at chance levels suggests that the ability to diagnose on the basis of appearance alone is not a sufficient diagnostic tool. Although the ability does increase with experience, it is of

  17. CDKN2 Gene Deletion as Poor Prognosis Predictor Involved in the Progression of Adult B-Lineage Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Na; Li, Yu-ling; Zhou, Xuan; Cao, Rui; Li, Huan; Lu, Qi-si; Li, Lin; Lu, Zi-yuan; Huang, Ji-xian; Sun, Jing; Liu, Qi-fa; Du, Qing-feng; Liu, Xiao-li

    2015-01-01

    Deletion of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A/B (CDKN2A/B) is well known in many hematologic malignancies, but only few reports have investigated this deletion effect on clinical prognosis. This study performed analysis of the CDKN2 deletion in 215 adult B- lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) patients, and related cytogenetic prognostic factors (BCR/ABL; E2A/PBXl; TEL/AML1; Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) rearrangement; MYC, Immunoglobulin heavy locus (IGH) translocation). The prevalence of CDKN2 deletions in all study populations was 28.4%. There is no difference between patients with CDKN2 deletion and wild-type patients in sex, age, white blood cells (WBC) count, BM blast percentage, extra infiltration and induction complete remission (CR) rate. Analysis in relapse patients revealed that the distribution of CDKN2 deletion is higher in relapse patients (44.6%) than all patients (28.4%, P=0.006). Deletion of CDKN2 was significantly associated with poor outcomes including decreased overall survival (OS) (P<0.001), lower disease free-survival (DFS) (P<0.001), and increased cumulative incidence of relapse (P=0.002); Also, CDKN2 deletion was strongly associated with IGH translocation (P=0.021); and had an adverse effect on patients with BCR-ABL fusion gene or with MLL rearrangement. Patients with CDKN2 gene deletion benefited from allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT). Deletion of CDKN2 gene was commonly observed through leukemia progression and was poor prognostic marker in long-term outcomes. PMID:26516359

  18. Interstitial deletions of the short arm of chromosome 4 in patients with a similar combination of multiple minor anomalies and mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.M.; Pillers, D.A.M.; Magenis, R.E.

    1995-07-17

    Interstitial deletions of chromosome 4 have been described rarely and have had variable presentations. We describe the phenotypic characteristics associated with interstitial deletion of the p14-16 region of chromosome 4 in 7 patients with multiple minor anomalies in common, and with mental retardation. A review of published cases of interstitial deletions of the short arm of chromosome 4 is provided. These deletions present a distinct phenotype which is different from that of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. 52 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Characterization of an APC Promoter 1B deletion in a Patient Diagnosed with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis via Whole Genome Shotgun Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Kalbfleisch, Ted; Brock, Pamela; Snow, Angela; Neklason, Deborah; Gowans, Gordon; Klein, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Recently, deletions have been identified and published as causal for Familial Adenomatous Polyposis in the 1B promoter region of the APC gene.  Those deletions were measured using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.  Here, we present and characterize an ~11kb deletion identified by whole genome shotgun sequencing.  The deletion occurred in a patient diagnosed with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis, and was located on chr5, between bases 112,034,824 and 112,045,845, fully encompassing the 1B promoter region of the APC gene.   Results are presented here that include the sequence evidence supporting the presence of the deletion as well as base level characterization of the deletion site.  These results demonstrate the capacity of whole genome sequencing for the detection of large structural variants in single individuals. PMID:26213617

  20. Characterization of an APC Promoter 1B deletion in a Patient Diagnosed with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis via Whole Genome Shotgun Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Kalbfleisch, Ted; Brock, Pamela; Snow, Angela; Neklason, Deborah; Gowans, Gordon; Klein, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Recently, deletions have been identified and published as causal for Familial Adenomatous Polyposis in the 1B promoter region of the APC gene.  Those deletions were measured using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.  Here, we present and characterize an ~11kb deletion identified by whole genome shotgun sequencing.  The deletion occurred in a patient diagnosed with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis, and was located on chr5, between bases 112,034,824 and 112,045,845, fully encompassing the 1B promoter region of the APC gene.   Results are presented here that include the sequence evidence supporting the presence of the deletion as well as base level characterization of the deletion site.  These results demonstrate the capacity of whole genome sequencing for the detection of large structural variants in single individuals. PMID:26213617

  1. An atypical 7q11.23 deletion in a normal IQ Williams–Beuren syndrome patient

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero, Giovanni Battista; Howald, Cédric; Micale, Lucia; Biamino, Elisa; Augello, Bartolomeo; Fusco, Carmela; Turturo, Maria Giuseppina; Forzano, Serena; Reymond, Alexandre; Merla, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Williams–Beuren syndrome (WBS; OMIM no. 194050) is a multisystemic neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a hemizygous deletion of 1.55 Mb on chromosome 7q11.23 spanning 28 genes. Haploinsufficiency of the ELN gene was shown to be responsible for supravalvular aortic stenosis and generalized arteriopathy, whereas LIMK1, CLIP2, GTF2IRD1 and GTF2I genes were suggested to be linked to the specific cognitive profile and craniofacial features. These insights for genotype–phenotype correlations came from the molecular and clinical analysis of patients with atypical deletions and mice models. Here we report a patient showing mild WBS physical phenotype and normal IQ, who carries a shorter 1 Mb atypical deletion. This rearrangement does not include the GTF2IRD1 and GTF2I genes and only partially the BAZ1B gene. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that hemizygosity of the GTF2IRD1 and GTF2I genes might be involved in the facial dysmorphisms and in the specific motor and cognitive deficits observed in WBS patients. PMID:19568270

  2. Intragenic ILRAPL1 deletion in a male patient with intellectual disability, mild dysmorphic signs, deafness, and behavioral problems.

    PubMed

    Barone, Chiara; Bianca, Sebastiano; Luciano, Daniela; Di Benedetto, Daniela; Vinci, Mirella; Fichera, Marco

    2013-06-01

    Intellectual disability affects approximately 2% of the population, with affected males outnumbering affected female, partly due to disturbances involving X-linked genes. To date >90 genes associated with X-linked intellectual disability have been identified and, among these, IL1RAPL1 (interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein-like 1), was first described and mapped to Xp21.3-22.1 in 1999. Intragenic deletions of IL1RAPL1, only rarely identified, have mostly been associated with nonspecific intellectual disability (IDX) and autism spectrum disorder. Array-CGH analysis performed in our patient with intellectual disability, mild dysmorphic signs and changes in behavior identified a 285 Kb deletion in chromosome Xp21.3-21.2, with breakpoints lying in IL1RAPL1 gene intron 2 and intron 3. This is the first patient reported in literature with deletion of only exon 3 of IL1RAPL1 gene. Our patient also exhibits bilateral progressive neurosensorial deafness, which has not been previously associated with IL1RAPL1 mutations. PMID:23613341

  3. Intragenic deletions affecting two alternative transcripts of the IMMP2L gene in patients with Tourette syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bertelsen, Birgitte; Melchior, Linea; Jensen, Lars R; Groth, Camilla; Glenthøj, Birte; Rizzo, Renata; Debes, Nanette Mol; Skov, Liselotte; Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen; Paschou, Peristera; Silahtaroglu, Asli; Tümer, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics, and the disorder is often accompanied by comorbidities such as attention-deficit hyperactivity-disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder. Tourette syndrome has a complex etiology, but the underlying environmental and genetic factors are largely unknown. IMMP2L (inner mitochondrial membrane peptidase, subunit 2) located on chromosome 7q31 is one of the genes suggested as a susceptibility factor in disease pathogenesis. Through screening of a Danish cohort comprising 188 unrelated Tourette syndrome patients for copy number variations, we identified seven patients with intragenic IMMP2L deletions (3.7%), and this frequency was significantly higher (P=0.0447) compared with a Danish control cohort (0.9%). Four of the seven deletions identified did not include any known exons of IMMP2L, but were within intron 3. These deletions were found to affect a shorter IMMP2L mRNA species with two alternative 5′-exons (one including the ATG start codon). We showed that both transcripts (long and short) were expressed in several brain regions, with a particularly high expression in cerebellum and hippocampus. The current findings give further evidence for the role of IMMP2L as a susceptibility factor in Tourette syndrome and suggest that intronic changes in disease susceptibility genes should be investigated further for presence of alternatively spliced exons. PMID:24549057

  4. Mitochondrial DNA deletion in a patient with combined features of Leigh and Pearson syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Blok, R.B.; Thorburn, D.R.; Danks, D.M.

    1994-09-01

    We describe a heteroplasmic 4237 bp mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion in an 11 year old girl who has suffered from progressive illness since birth. She has some features of Leigh syndrome (global developmental delay with regression, brainstem dysfunction and lactic acidosis), together with other features suggestive of Pearson syndrome (history of pancytopenia and failure to thrive). The deletion was present at a level greater than 50% in skeletal muscle, but barely detectable in skin fibroblasts following Southern blot analysis, and only observed in blood following PCR analysis. The deletion spanned nt 9498 to nt 13734, and was flanked by a 12 bp direct repeat. Genes for cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, NADH dehydrogenase subunits 3, 4L, 4 and 5, and tRNAs for glycine, arginine, histidine, serine({sup AGY}) and leucine({sup CUN}) were deleted. Southern blotting also revealed an altered Apa I restriction site which was shown by sequence analysis to be caused by G{r_arrow}A nucleotide substitution at nt 1462 in the 12S rRNA gene. This was presumed to be a polymorphism. No abnormalities of mitochondrial ultrastructure, distribution or of respiratory chain enzyme complexes I-IV in skeletal muscle were observed. Mitochondrial disorders with clinical features overlapping more than one syndrome have been reported previously. This case further demonstrates the difficulty in correlating observed clinical features with a specific mitochondrial DNA mutation.

  5. A novel α(0) -thalassemia deletion in a Greek patient with HbH disease and β-thalassemia trait.

    PubMed

    Phylipsen, Marion; Traeger-Synodinos, Jan; van der Kraan, Martijn; van Delft, Peter; Bakker, Greet; Geerts, Mariska; Kanavakis, Emmanuel; Stamoulakatou, Alexandra; Karagiorga, Markissia; Giordano, Piero C; Harteveld, Cornelis L

    2011-12-30

    Objectives:  To determine the molecular basis in a Greek child suspected of having HbH disease and β-thalassemia trait. Methods:  Standard hematology, Hb electrophoresis and HPLC. MLPA, direct sequencing and breakpoint characterization by NimbleGen fine-tiling array analysis. Results:  The index patient showed a moderate microcytic hypochromic anemia with normal ZPP and elevated HbA(2) , indicative for β-thalassemia trait. However the moderate microcytic hypochromic anemia, along with the observation of HbH inclusions in occasional red blood cells suggested a co-existing α-thalassemia. Molecular analysis indicated that the propositus inherited the β(+) -thalassemia mutation IVS2-745 (c>g) and a novel α(0) -thalassemia deletion from the mother, and the common non-deletion α-thalassemia allele α(2) (-5nt)α from the father. The α(0) -thalassemia deletion is approximately 131.6 kb in length. It removes the major regulatory elements along with the functional α-globin genes, but leaves the theta-gene intact. Conclusions:  The compound interaction of a β-thalassemia defect along with a single functional α-globin gene is quite rare. Although patients with HbH/β-thal and simple HbH disease, have comparable levels of Hb, the absence of free β-globin chains and thus detectable non-functional HbH means that in HbH/β-thal the levels of functional Hb are higher, resulting in a better compensated functional anemia. Rare large deletions as the one described here remain undetected by gap-PCR in routine molecular screening. The introduction of MLPA as a diagnostic screening tool may improve laboratory diagnostics for these defects. The use of NimbleGen fine tiling arrays may give additional information about the precise location of breakpoints. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. PMID:22211883

  6. Deletion 17p11.2 (Smith-Magenis syndrome) is relatively common among patients having mental retardation and myopia

    SciTech Connect

    Finucane, B.; Jaeger, E.R.; Freitag, S.K.

    1994-09-01

    We recently reported the finding of moderate to severe myopia in 6 of 10 patients with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS). To investigate the prevalence of SMS among mentally retarded people having myopia, we surveyed a cohort of patients residing at a facility for individuals with mental retardation (MR). Of 547 institutionalized individuals with MR, 72 (13.2%) had moderate to high myopia defined as a visual acuity of minus 3 diopters or more. It should be noted that our institution does not specifically select for people with visual impairment; rather, the facility serves people with a primary diagnosis of MR. Sixty-five of 72 (90.3%) myopic individuals identified were available for cytogenetic analysis. Seventeen (26.2%) of these patients had trisomy 21. Down syndrome (DS) is well known to be associated with eye abnormalities, including myopia. Of 48 individuals with moderate to high myopia not having DS, 5 (10.4%) were shown to have deletions of 17p11.2. This is a high prevalence considering the relative rarity of SMS. By contrast, in a randomized sample of 48 patients without significant myopia at the same facility, we found no individuals with deletion 17p11.2. We conclude that the diagnosis of SMS should be considered in any non-Down syndrome individual having MR and myopia, and that ophthalmologists serving people with MR should be made aware of this deletion syndrome. Furthermore, our results suggest that significant numbers of people having SMS could be identified through selective institutional screening of patients having a combination of MR and moderate to severe myopia.

  7. Array-CGH in patients with Kabuki-like phenotype: Identification of two patients with complex rearrangements including 2q37 deletions and no other recurrent aberration

    PubMed Central

    Cuscó, Ivon; del Campo, Miguel; Vilardell, Mireia; González, Eva; Gener, Blanca; Galán, Enrique; Toledo, Laura; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A

    2008-01-01

    Background Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by specific facial features, mild to moderate mental retardation, postnatal growth delay, skeletal abnormalities, and unusual dermatoglyphic patterns with prominent fingertip pads. A 3.5 Mb duplication at 8p23.1-p22 was once reported as a specific alteration in KS but has not been confirmed in other patients. The molecular basis of KS remains unknown. Methods We have studied 16 Spanish patients with a clinical diagnosis of KS or KS-like to search for genomic imbalances using genome-wide array technologies. All putative rearrangements were confirmed by FISH, microsatellite markers and/or MLPA assays, which also determined whether the imbalance was de novo or inherited. Results No duplication at 8p23.1-p22 was observed in our patients. We detected complex rearrangements involving 2q in two patients with Kabuki-like features: 1) a de novo inverted duplication of 11 Mb with a 4.5 Mb terminal deletion, and 2) a de novo 7.2 Mb-terminal deletion in a patient with an additional de novo 0.5 Mb interstitial deletion in 16p. Additional copy number variations (CNV), either inherited or reported in normal controls, were identified and interpreted as polymorphic variants. No specific CNV was significantly increased in the KS group. Conclusion Our results further confirmed that genomic duplications of 8p23 region are not a common cause of KS and failed to detect other recurrent rearrangement causing this disorder. The detection of two patients with 2q37 deletions suggests that there is a phenotypic overlap between the two conditions, and screening this region in the Kabuki-like patients should be considered. PMID:18405349

  8. Clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular characterization of six patients with ring chromosomes 22, including one with concomitant 22q11.2 deletion.

    PubMed

    Guilherme, Roberta Santos; Soares, Karina Cunha; Simioni, Milena; Vieira, Tarsis Paiva; Gil-da-Silva-Lopes, Vera Lúcia; Kim, Chong Ae; Brunoni, Décio; Spinner, Nancy Bettina; Conlin, Laura Kathleen; Christofolini, Denise Maria; Kulikowski, Leslie Domenici; Steiner, Carlos Eduardo; Melaragno, Maria Isabel

    2014-07-01

    We report here on six patients with a ring chromosome 22 and the range of cytogenetic and phenotypic features presented by them. Genomic analysis was carried out using classical and molecular cytogenetics, MLPA (Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification) and genome-wide SNP-array analysis. The ring was found in all patients, but Patient 6 displayed constitutional mosaicism with a normal cell line. Five patients had deletions in the ring chromosome 22, and in four of them the breakpoints--unique for each patient--could be identified by genome-wide SNP-array analysis. One patient presented with a 22q11.2 deletion concomitant with the deletion caused by the ring formation. Common phenotypic features included autism, speech delay and seizures, as previously reported for individuals with r(22) and/or 22q13.3 deletions. Investigation of the genes within the deletions revealed multiple genes related to development of the central nervous system, psychomotor delay, severe language impairment, hypotonia, and autistic symptoms. There was no clear correlation between the severity of clinical features and the size of the deleted segment. This study underscores the variability in ring structure and clinical presentation of the r(22) and adds information to the limited literature on this rare disorder. PMID:24700634

  9. A French multicenter study of over 700 patients with 22q11 deletions diagnosed using FISH or aCGH.

    PubMed

    Poirsier, Céline; Besseau-Ayasse, Justine; Schluth-Bolard, Caroline; Toutain, Jérôme; Missirian, Chantal; Le Caignec, Cédric; Bazin, Anne; de Blois, Marie Christine; Kuentz, Paul; Catty, Marie; Choiset, Agnès; Plessis, Ghislaine; Basinko, Audrey; Letard, Pascaline; Flori, Elisabeth; Jimenez, Mélanie; Valduga, Mylène; Landais, Emilie; Lallaoui, Hakima; Cartault, François; Lespinasse, James; Martin-Coignard, Dominique; Callier, Patrick; Pebrel-Richard, Céline; Portnoi, Marie-France; Busa, Tiffany; Receveur, Aline; Amblard, Florence; Yardin, Catherine; Harbuz, Radu; Prieur, Fabienne; Le Meur, Nathalie; Pipiras, Eva; Kleinfinger, Pascale; Vialard, François; Doco-Fenzy, Martine

    2016-06-01

    Although 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most recurrent human microdeletion syndrome associated with a highly variable phenotype, little is known about the condition's true incidence and the phenotype at diagnosis. We performed a multicenter, retrospective analysis of postnatally diagnosed patients recruited by members of the Association des Cytogénéticiens de Langue Française (the French-Speaking Cytogeneticists Association). Clinical and cytogenetic data on 749 cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2013 were collected by 31 French cytogenetics laboratories. The most frequent reasons for referral of postnatally diagnosed cases were a congenital heart defect (CHD, 48.6%), facial dysmorphism (49.7%) and developmental delay (40.7%). Since 2007 (the year in which array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) was introduced for the routine screening of patients with intellectual disability), almost all cases have been diagnosed using FISH (96.1%). Only 15 cases (all with an atypical phenotype) were diagnosed with aCGH; the deletion size ranged from 745 to 2904 kb. The deletion was inherited in 15.0% of cases and was of maternal origin in 85.5% of the latter. This is the largest yet documented cohort of patients with 22q11.2DS (the most commonly diagnosed microdeletion) from the same population. French cytogenetics laboratories diagnosed at least 108 affected patients (including fetuses) per year from among a national population of ∼66 million. As observed for prenatal diagnoses, CHDs were the most frequently detected malformation in postnatal diagnoses. The most common CHD in postnatal diagnoses was an isolated septal defect. PMID:26508576

  10. Schizophrenia and chromosomal deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, E.A.; Baldini, A.; Morris, M. A.

    1995-06-01

    Recent genetic linkage analysis studies have suggested the presence of a schizophrenia locus on the chromosomal region 22q11-q13. Schizophrenia has also been frequently observed in patients affected with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), a disorder frequently associated with deletions within 22q11.1. It has been hypothesized that psychosis in VCFS may be due to deletion of the catechol-o-methyl transferase gene. Prompted by these observations, we screened for 22q11 deletions in a population of 100 schizophrenics selected from the Maryland Epidemiological Sample. Our results show that there are schizophrenic patients carrying a deletion of 22q11.1 and a mild VCFS phenotype that might remain unrecognized. These findings should encourage a search for a schizophrenia-susceptibility gene within the deleted region and alert those in clinical practice to the possible presence of a mild VCFS phenotype associated with schizophrenia. 9 refs.

  11. Isochromosome 15q of maternal origin in two Prader-Willi syndrome patients previously diagnosed erroneously as cytogenetic deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, Shinji; Niikawa, Norio; Mutirangura, A.; Kuwano, A.; Ledbetter, D.H.

    1994-03-01

    Since a previous report on two Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) patients with t(15q;15q) was erroneous, the authors report new data and a corrected interpretation. Reexamination of the parental origin of their t(15q;15q) using polymorphic DNA markers that are mapped to various regions of 15q documented no molecular deletions at the 15q11-q13 region in either patient. Both patients were homozygous at all loci examined and their haplotypes on 15q coincided with one of those in their respective mothers. These results indicate that the presumed t(15q;15q) in each patient was actually an isochromosome 15q producing maternal uniparental disomy, consistent with genomic imprinting at the PWS locus. 30 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  12. Interstitial 1q23.3q24.1 deletion in a patient with renal malformation, congenital heart disease, and mild intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Mackenroth, Luisa; Hackmann, Karl; Klink, Barbara; Weber, Julia Sara; Mayer, Brigitte; Schröck, Evelin; Tzschach, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Interstitial deletions including chromosome region 1q23.3q24.1 are rare. Only eight patients with molecularly characterized deletions have been reported to date. Their phenotype included intellectual disability/developmental delay, growth retardation, microcephaly, congenital heart disease, and renal malformations. We report on a female patient with mild developmental delay, congenital heart disease, and bilateral renal hypoplasia in whom an interstitial de novo deletion of approximately 2.7 Mb in 1q23.3q24.1 was detected by array CGH. This is the smallest deletion described in this region so far. Genotype-phenotype comparison with previously published patients allowed us to propose LMX1A and RXRG as potential candidate genes for intellectual disability, PBX1 as a probable candidate gene for renal malformation, and enabled us to narrow down a chromosome region associated with microcephaly. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27255444

  13. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification detection of an unknown large deletion of the CREB-binding protein gene in a patient with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Calì, F; Failla, P; Chiavetta, V; Ragalmuto, A; Ruggeri, G; Schinocca, P; Schepis, C; Romano, V; Romano, C

    2013-01-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant congenital disorder characterized by postnatal growth retardation, psychomotor developmental delay, skeletal anomalies, peculiar facial morphology, and tumorigenesis. Mutations in the gene encoding the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB, also known as CREBBP or CBP) on chromosome 16p13.3 have been identified. In addition, some patients with low intelligence quotients and autistic features bear large deletions. Based on these observations, we used multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification to search for large deletions affecting the CREBBP gene in a Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome patient. We identified a novel heterozygote deletion removing five exons (exons 17-21), encoding the histone acetyltransferase domain. We propose the use of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification as a fast, accurate and cheap test for detecting large deletions in the CREBBP gene in the sub-group of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome patients with low intelligence quotients and autistic features. PMID:23315884

  14. Distinctive Phenotype in 9 Patients with Deletion of Chromosome 1q24-q25

    PubMed Central

    Burkardt, Deepika D’Cunha; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Helgeson, Maria; Angle, Brad; Banks, Valerie; Smith, Wendy; Gripp, Karen W.; Moline, Jessica; Moran, Rocio; Niyazov, Dmitriy M.; Stevens, Cathy; Zackai, Elaine; Lebel, Robert Roger; Ashley, Douglas; Kramer, Nancy; Lachman, Ralph S.; Graham, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Reports of individuals with deletions of 1q24→q25 share common features of prenatal onset growth deficiency, microcephaly, small hands and feet, dysmorphic face and severe cognitive deficits. We report nine individuals with 1q24q25 deletions, who show distinctive features of a clinically recognizable 1q24q25 microdeletion syndrome: prenatal-onset microcephaly and proportionate growth deficiency, severe cognitive disability, small hands and feet with distinctive brachydactyly, single transverse palmar flexion creases, fifth finger clinodactyly and distinctive facial features: upper eyelid fullness, small ears, short nose with bulbous nasal tip, tented upper lip, and micrognathia. Radiographs demonstrate disharmonic osseous maturation with markedly delayed bone age. Occasional features include cleft lip and/or palate, cryptorchidism, brain and spinal cord defects, and seizures. Using oligonucleotide-based array comparative genomic hybridization, we defined the critical deletion region as 1.9 Mb at 1q24.3q25.1 (chr1: 170135865–172099327, hg18 coordinates), containing 13 genes and including CENPL, which encodes centromeric protein L, a protein essential for proper kinetochore function and mitotic progression. The growth deficiency in this syndrome is similar to what is seen in other types of primordial short stature with microcephaly, such as Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism, type II (MOPD2) and Seckel syndrome, which result from loss-of-function mutations in genes coding for centrosomal proteins. DNM3 is also in the deleted region and expressed in the brain, where it participates in the Shank-Homer complex and increases synaptic strength. Therefore, DNM3 is a candidate for the cognitive disability, and CENPL is a candidate for growth deficiency in this 1q24q25 microdeletion syndrome. PMID:21548129

  15. Epilepsy is a possible feature in Williams-Beuren syndrome patients harboring typical deletions of the 7q11.23 critical region.

    PubMed

    Nicita, Francesco; Garone, Giacomo; Spalice, Alberto; Savasta, Salvatore; Striano, Pasquale; Pantaleoni, Chiara; Spartà, Maria Valentina; Kluger, Gerhard; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Pruna, Dario; Freri, Elena; D'Arrigo, Stefano; Verrotti, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Seizures are rarely reported in Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS)--a contiguous-gene-deletion disorder caused by a 7q11.23 heterozygous deletion of 1.5-1.8 Mb--and no previous study evaluated electro-clinical features of epilepsy in this syndrome. Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that atypical deletion (e.g., larger than 1.8 Mb) may be responsible for a more pronounced neurological phenotypes, especially including seizures. Our objectives are to describe the electro-clinical features in WBS and to correlate the epileptic phenotype with deletion of the 7q11.23 critical region. We evaluate the electro-clinical features in one case of distal 7q11.23 deletion syndrome and in eight epileptic WBS (eWBS) patients. Additionally, we compare the deletion size-and deleted genes-of four epileptic WBS (eWBS) with that of four non-epileptic WBS (neWBS) patients. Infantile spasms, focal (e.g., motor and dyscognitive with autonomic features) and generalized (e.g., tonic-clonic, tonic, clonic, myoclonic) seizures were encountered. Drug-resistance was observed in one patient. Neuroimaging discovered one case of focal cortical dysplasia, one case of fronto-temporal cortical atrophy and one case of periventricular nodular heterotopia. Comparison of deletion size between eWBS and neWBS patients did not reveal candidate genes potentially underlying epilepsy. This is the largest series describing electro-clinical features of epilepsy in WBS. In WBS, epilepsy should be considered both in case of typical and atypical deletions, which do not involve HIP1, YWHAG or MAGI2. PMID:26437767

  16. Chromosome 10p deletion in a patient with hypoparathyroidism, severe mental retardation, autism and basal ganglia calcifications.

    PubMed

    Verri, Annapia; Maraschio, Paola; Devriendt, Koen; Uggetti, Carla; Spadoni, Emanuela; Haeusler, Edward; Federico, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Chromosome 10p terminal deletions have been associated with a DiGeorge like phenotype. Haploinsufficiency of the region 10p14-pter, results in hypoparathyroidism, sensorineural deafness, renal anomaly, that is the triad that features the HDR syndrome. Van Esch (2000) identified in a HDR patient, within a 200 kb critical region, the GATA3 gene, a transcription factor involved in the embryonic development of the parathyroids, auditory system and kidneys. We describe a new male patient, 33-year-old, with 10p partial deletion affected by hypocalcemia, basal ganglia calcifications and a severe autistic syndrome associated with mental retardation. Neurologically he presented severe impairment of language, hypotonia, clumsiness and a postural dystonic attitude. A peripheral involvement of auditory pathways was documented by auditory evoked potentials alterations. CT scan documented basal ganglia calcifications. Hyperintensity of the lentiform nuclei was evident at the MRI examination. Renal ultrasound scan was normal. Haploinsufficiency for GATA3 gene was documented with FISH analysis using cosmid clone 1.2. Phenotypic spectrum observed in del (10p) is more severe than the classical DGS spectrum. GATA3 has been found to regulate the development of serotoninergic neurons. A serotoninergic dysfunction may be linked with autism in this patient. PMID:15337474

  17. Two patients with duplication of 17p11.2: The reciprocal of the Smith-Magenis syndrome deletion?

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, A. |; Phelan, M.C.; Rogers, R.C.

    1996-05-17

    J.M. and H.G. are two unrelated male patients with developmental delay. Cytogenetic analysis detected a duplication of 17p11.2 in both patients. The extent of the duplicated region was determined using single copy DNA probes: cen-D17S58-D17S29-D17S258-D17S71-D17S445-D17S122-tel. Four of the six markers, D17S29, D17S258, D17S71, and D17S445, were duplicated by dosage analysis. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of H.G., using cosmids for locus D17S29, confirmed the duplication in 17p11.2. Because the deletion that causes the Smith-Magenis syndrome involves the same region of 17p11.2 as the duplication in these patients, the mechanism may be similar to that proposed for the reciprocal deletion/ duplication event observed in Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies (HNPP) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 1A disease (CMT1A). 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Screening Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients for deletions in 30 exons of the dystrophin gene by three-multiplex PCR

    SciTech Connect

    Risch, N. )

    1992-09-01

    Deletion mutations of the dystrophin gene may cause either the severe Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) or the milder, allelic Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) and are clustered in two high-frequency-deletion regions (HFDRs) located, respectively, 500 kb and 1,200 kb downstream from the 5[prime] end of the gene. Three PCR reactions described allowed the analysis of a total of 30 exons and led, to the identification of three additional deletions involving the following exons: (a) 42 only, (b) 28-42, and (c) 16 only, none of which were detected with the two original multiplex reactions. Therefore, the three modified multiplexes detected 95 of the 96 deletions identified among the 152 patients studied so far by using Southern analysis and cDNA probes. The only deletion that remained undetected with this system involves exons 22-25 and generates the junction fragment described elsewhere. The percentage of deletion mutations among DMS/BMD patients amounts to 63%, which is in agreement with similar estimates from other laboratories. When field-inversion gel electrophoresis is coupled to Southern analysis, the detection rate of deletion and duplication mutations reaches 65%.

  19. Frequent intragenic deletion of the P gene in Tanzanian patients with Type II oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2)

    SciTech Connect

    Spritz, R.; Fukai, K.; Holmes, S.A.

    1995-06-01

    Type II oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which the biosynthesis of melanin pigment is reduced in the skin, hair, and eyes. OCA2, which results from mutations of the P gene, is the most frequent type of albinism in African and African-American patients. OCA2 is especially frequent in Tanzania, where it occurs with an incidence of {approximately}1/1,400. We have identified abnormalities of the P gene in each of 13 unrelated patients with OCA2 from Tanzania. One of these, a deletion of exon 7, is strongly predominant, accounting for {approximately}77% of mutant alleles in this group of patients. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Screening for mutations in the muscle promoter region and for exonic deletions in a series of 115 DMD and BMD patients.

    PubMed Central

    Vitiello, L; Mostacciuolo, M L; Oliviero, S; Schiavon, F; Nicoletti, L; Angelini, C; Danieli, G A

    1992-01-01

    Mutations in the muscle promoter region and exonic deletions were screened in a series of 115 unrelated DMD and BMD patients from north-east Italy. No gross mutations of the promoter region were found. In three cases in which dystrophin of normal size was expressed at low levels, the analysis of DNA sequences of the promoter region failed to detect abnormalities. The majority of deletions in coding sequences, detected by cDNA probes, occur in the deletion hot spot identified by the probe P20. Intrafamilial variability in the severity of the disease is reported and discussed. Images PMID:1613762

  1. Spontaneous deletion in the FMR-1 gene in a patient with fragile X syndrome and cherubism

    SciTech Connect

    Popovich, B.W.; Anoe, K.S.; Johnson, D.B.

    1994-09-01

    Fragile X mental retardation results from the transcriptional inactivation of the FMR-1 gene and is commonly caused by the expansion of an unstable CGG trinucleotide repeat located in the first exon of the FMR-1 gene. We describe here a two generation fragile X family in which expansion of the CGG repeat may have resulted in a deletion of a least portion of the FMR-1 gene. One member of this family, AB, carries an apparent deletion of the FMR-1 gene and presents with mental retardation and also cherubism, a feature not usually associated with fragile X syndrome. Cherubism is a condition characterized by a swelling of the lower face and is caused by giant cell lesions of the mandible and maxilla, and often the anterior ends of the ribs. The size of the CGG repeat region in this family was determined by Southern analysis of BglII, EcoRI, and PstI digested genomic DNA, isolated from peripheral blood lymphocytes, using a 558 bp PstI-Xhol fragment specific for the 5{prime}-end of the FMR-1 gene. SB and TB, the mother and maternal half-brother of AB, respectively, were both found to carry an expanded FMR-1 allele with greater than 200 CGG repeats. Negligible hybridization was observed in the DNA of AB. In addition, no amplification was observed when the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed using primers flanking the CGG repeat region. These results are consistent with a deletion of at least the 5{prime} portion of the FMR-1 gene in the majority of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Further work is underway using FMR-1 cDNA probes and additional PCR primers to determine the nature of the molecular lesion in AB`s DNA and determine the relationship of this lesion to his cherubism.

  2. 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome due to a Translocation t(6;22) in a Patient Conceived via in vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Gollo Dantas, Anelisa; Bortolai, Adriana; Moysés-Oliveira, Mariana; Takeno Herrero, Sylvia; Azoubel Antunes, Adriana; Tavares Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz; Ayres Meloni, Vera; Melaragno, Maria Isabel

    2016-01-01

    We report on a patient conceived via in vitro fertilization (IVF) with a 22q11.2 deletion due to an unusual unbalanced translocation involving chromosomes 6 and 22 in a karyotype with 45 chromosomes. Cytogenomic studies showed that the patient has a 3.3-Mb deletion of chromosome 22q and a 0.4-Mb deletion of chromosome 6p, which resulted in haploinsufficiency of the genes responsible for the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and also of the IRF4 gene, a member of the interferon regulatory factor family of transcription factors, which is expressed in the immune system cells. The rearrangement could be due to the manipulation of the embryo or as a sporadic event unrelated to IVF. Translocation involving chromosome 22 in a karyotype with 45 chromosomes is a rare event, with no previous reports involving chromosomes 6p and 22q. PMID:26997945

  3. 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome due to a Translocation t(6;22) in a Patient Conceived via in vitro Fertilization.

    PubMed

    Gollo Dantas, Anelisa; Bortolai, Adriana; Moysés-Oliveira, Mariana; Takeno Herrero, Sylvia; Azoubel Antunes, Adriana; Tavares Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz; Ayres Meloni, Vera; Melaragno, Maria Isabel

    2016-02-01

    We report on a patient conceived via in vitro fertilization (IVF) with a 22q11.2 deletion due to an unusual unbalanced translocation involving chromosomes 6 and 22 in a karyotype with 45 chromosomes. Cytogenomic studies showed that the patient has a 3.3-Mb deletion of chromosome 22q and a 0.4-Mb deletion of chromosome 6p, which resulted in haploinsufficiency of the genes responsible for the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and also of the IRF4 gene, a member of the interferon regulatory factor family of transcription factors, which is expressed in the immune system cells. The rearrangement could be due to the manipulation of the embryo or as a sporadic event unrelated to IVF. Translocation involving chromosome 22 in a karyotype with 45 chromosomes is a rare event, with no previous reports involving chromosomes 6p and 22q. PMID:26997945

  4. Deletion of the Snord116/SNORD116 Alters Sleep in Mice and Patients with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lassi, Glenda; Priano, Lorenzo; Maggi, Silvia; Garcia-Garcia, Celina; Balzani, Edoardo; El-Assawy, Nadia; Pagani, Marco; Tinarelli, Federico; Giardino, Daniela; Mauro, Alessandro; Peters, Jo; Gozzi, Alessandro; Grugni, Graziano; Tucci, Valter

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep-wake disturbances are often reported in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a rare neurodevelopmental syndrome that is associated with paternally-expressed genomic imprinting defects within the human chromosome region 15q11-13. One of the candidate genes, prevalently expressed in the brain, is the small nucleolar ribonucleic acid-116 (SNORD116). Here we conducted a translational study into the sleep abnormalities of PWS, testing the hypothesis that SNORD116 is responsible for sleep defects that characterize the syndrome. Methods: We studied sleep in mutant mice that carry a deletion of Snord116 at the orthologous locus (mouse chromosome 7) of the human PWS critical region (PWScr). In particular, we assessed EEG and temperature profiles, across 24-h, in PWScr m+/p− heterozygous mutants compared to wild-type littermates. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to explore morphoanatomical differences according to the genotype. Moreover, we complemented the mouse work by presenting two patients with a diagnosis of PWS and characterized by atypical small deletions of SNORD116. We compared the individual EEG parameters of patients with healthy subjects and with a cohort of obese subjects. Results: By studying the mouse mutant line PWScrm+/p−, we observed specific rapid eye movement (REM) sleep alterations including abnormal electroencephalograph (EEG) theta waves. Remarkably, we observed identical sleep/EEG defects in the two PWS cases. We report brain morphological abnormalities that are associated with the EEG alterations. In particular, mouse mutants have a bilateral reduction of the gray matter volume in the ventral hippocampus and in the septum areas, which are pivotal structures for maintaining theta rhythms throughout the brain. In PWScrm+/p− mice we also observed increased body temperature that is coherent with REM sleep alterations in mice and human patients. Conclusions: Our study indicates that paternally expressed

  5. A candidate gene approach to identify modifiers of the palatal phenotype in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Widdershoven, Josine C.C.; Bowser, Mark; Sheridan, Molly B.; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Zackai, Elaine H.; Solot, Cynthia B.; Kirschner, Richard E.; Beemer, Frits A.; Morrow, Bernice E.; Devoto, Marcella; Emanuel, Beverly S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Palatal anomalies are one of the identifying features of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) affecting about one third of patients. To identify genetic variants that increase the risk of cleft or palatal anomalies in 22q11.2DS patients, we performed a candidate gene association study in 101 patients with 22q11.2DS genotyped with the Affymetrix genome-wide human SNP array 6.0. Methods Patients from Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, USA and Wilhelmina Children's Hospital Utrecht, The Netherlands were stratified based on palatal phenotype (overt cleft, submucosal cleft, bifid uvula). SNPs in 21 candidate genes for cleft palate were analyzed for genotype-phenotype association. In addition, TBX1 sequencing was carried out. Quality control and association analyses were conducted using the software package PLINK. Results Genotype and phenotype data of 101 unrelated patients (63 non-cleft subjects (62.4%), 38 cleft subjects (37.6%)) were analyzed. A Total of 39 SNPs on 10 genes demonstrated a p-value ≤0.05 prior to correction. The most significant SNPs were found on FGF10. However none of the SNPs remained significant after correcting for multiple testing. Conclusions Although these results are promising, analysis of additional samples will be required to confirm that variants in these regions influence risk for cleft palate or palatal anomalies in 22q11.2DS patients. PMID:23121717

  6. Micromegakaryocytes in a patient with partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11 [del(11)(q24.2qter)] and chronic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    Gangarossa, S; Mattina, T; Romano, V; Milana, G; Mollica, F; Schilirò, G

    1996-03-15

    Thrombocytopenia or pancytopenia is frequently reported in patients with partial 11q deletion but there are no reports on bone marrow morphology of these patients. We report on a patient with partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11 [del(11)(q24.2qter)] and its classical clinical manifestations including chronic thrombocytopenic purpura in whom micromegakaryocytes were found in the bone marrow aspirate. This is the first report of the presence of micromegakaryocytes in the bone marrow of a patient with 11q deletion. Accurate examination of the bone marrow of other patients with the 11q deletion may clarify whether the observation of micromegakaryocytes is common in these patients. Micromegakaryocytes may indicate a defect of development. Two genes for two DNA binding proteins that are likely to be involved in hematopoiesis map in the 11q region: Ets-1, that maps to 11q24, close to D11S912, and the nuclear-factor-related-kB gene that maps to 11q24-q25. It is possible that these genes, when present in only one copy, result in thrombocytopenia or pancytopenia as observed in this patient. PMID:8882392

  7. Micromegakaryocytes in a patient with partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11 [del(11)(q24.2qter)] and chronic thrombocytopenic purpura

    SciTech Connect

    Gangarossa, S.; Mattina, T.; Romano, V.; Milana, G.; Mollica, F.; Schiliro, G.

    1996-03-15

    Thrombocytopenia or pancytopenia is frequently reported in patients with partial 11q deletion but there are no reports on bone marrow morphology of these patients. We report on a patient with partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11 [del(11)(q24.2qter)] and its classical clinical manifestations including chronic thrombocytopenic purpura in whom micromegakaryocytes were found in the bone marrow aspirate. This is the first report of the presence of micromegakaryocytes in the bone marrow of a patient with 11q deletion. Accurate examination of the bone marrow of other patients with the 11q deletion may clarify whether the observation of micromegakaryocytes is common in these patients. Micromegakaryocytes may indicate a defect of development. Two genes for two DNA binding proteins that are likely to be involved in hematopoiesis map in the 11q region: Ets-1, that maps to 11q24, close to D11S912, and the nuclear-factor-related-kB gene that maps to 11q24-q25. It is possible that these genes, when present in only one copy, result in thrombocytopenia or pancytopenia as observed in this patient. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in African-American patients: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Veerapandiyan, Aravindhan; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A; Adam, Margaret P; Lyons, Michael J; Manning, Melanie; Coleman, Karlene; Kobrynski, Lisa; Taneja, Deeksha; Schoch, Kelly; Zimmerman, Holly H; Shashi, Vandana

    2011-09-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with numerous and variable clinical manifestations including conotruncal heart abnormalities, palatal anomalies, hypoparathyroidism, immune deficiency, and cognitive deficits. The clinical suspicion of this syndrome is often heightened by the presence of characteristic facial features. A previous report highlighted the under-diagnosis of this condition in African Americans, thought to be related to a paucity of typical facial features. We ascertained the largest cohort (n = 50) of African-American individuals with 22q11DS reported thus far, across five genetics centers in the United States and report on their facial and other phenotypic features. About 3/4 of our cohort has at least one dysmorphic facial feature. Auricular abnormalities, especially small ears, are the most common dysmorphic facial feature followed by nasal and ocular abnormalities. Skeletal findings are seen in about 2/3 of our cohort, higher than the typical frequency reported in 22q11DS. Cardiac anomalies, developmental delay, and palatal abnormalities are seen at a lower frequency in our cohort. Thus, it is evident that the features traditionally associated with 22q11DS are difficult to recognize in African-American individuals with this syndrome, due to both altered frequencies of major anomalies and a non-classic facial appearance. Therefore, a high index of suspicion is needed to recognize 22q11DS in African-American individuals. PMID:21834039

  9. The angiotensin-converting enzyme gene insertion–deletion polymorphism in a white British patient cohort with obstetric cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Müllenbach, Roman; Tetlow, Natasha; Bennett, Amanda; Pipkin, Fiona Broughton; Morgan, Linda; Williamson, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The DD genotype of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene is over-represented in Finnish patients with obstetric cholestasis (OC). The purpose of this study was to establish whether this genotype is associated with cholestasis in UK cases. In a retrospective case-control study, we determined the ACE insertion/deletion frequencies in 166 British cases and 100 control women by polymerase chain reaction analysis. No significant difference in allele frequencies was found between these groups, but allele frequencies differed significantly between Finnish and UK OC cases (P = 0.0005). The prevalence of the DD genotype is lower in UK cases than in controls (χ2 [1 d.f.] = 4.32, P = 0.05) and the odds ratio for OC associated with the DD genotypeis 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.30–0.97. In contrast to Finnish OC cases, the DD genotype of the ACE is not increased in UK cases.

  10. Velopharyngeal incompetence diagnosed in a series of cardiac patients prompted by the finding of a 22q11.2 deletion

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, D.A.; Emanuel, B.S.; Goldmuntz, E.

    1994-09-01

    Congenital heart disease is very common and may occur as an isolated malformation or as part of a well-defined syndrome. In some syndromes, specific types are overrepresented as compared to their incidence in the general population. Conotruncal anomalies are one such example where they are seen as part of DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) and Velo-Cardio-Facial syndrome (VCFS). Often, the diagnosis of VCFS is not suspected because mild facial dysmorphia is frequently not appreciated in the newborn period. While overt cleft palate, a characteristic finding in VCFS, would be detected early, a submucousal cleft palate or velopharyngeal incompetence (VPI) may go unrecognized in the pre-verbal child and may remain undiagnosed in the older patient who is not referred for a palatal evaluation. In patients with either DGS or VCFS, microdeletions of chromosome 22q11.2 have been demonstrated in almost 90% of patients. As part of our ongoing study, twenty patients with a conotruncal cardiac anomaly, without an overt cleft palate, were referred for 22q11.2 deletion analysis. 13/20 patients were found to have a deletion. All 13 deleted patients underwent palatal evaluations by a plastic surgeon and speech pathologist. 7 patients were noted to have VPI. Intervention including speech therapy and/or posterior pharyngeal flap surgery for these previously undiagnosed abnormalities is underway. These results suggest that palatal abnormalities are underdiagnosed in a significant proportion of patients with conotruncal cardiac defects. We therefore propose deletion studies in these patients followed by prompt palatal evaluations when the deletion is present. Early diagnosis of VPI and submucousal cleft palate should lead to early intervention and appropriate management of the speech difficulties encountered by these individuals.

  11. Caregiver and adult patient perspectives on the importance of a diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Costain, G.; Chow, E. W. C.; Ray, P. N.; Bassett, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent advances in genetics are particularly relevant in the field of intellectual disability (ID), where sub-microscopic deletions or duplications of genetic material are increasingly implicated as known or suspected causal factors. Data-driven reports on the impact of providing an aetiological explanation in ID are needed to help justify widespread use of new and expensive genetic technologies. Methods We conducted a survey of caregivers on the value of a genetic/aetiologic diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), the most common microdeletion syndrome in ID. We also surveyed the opinion of a high-functioning subset of adults with 22q11.2DS themselves. We used standard quantitative and qualitative methods to analyse the responses. Results In total, 73 of 118 surveys were returned (61.9%). There was convergence of quantitative and qualitative results, and consistency between adult patient and caregiver responses. A definitive molecular diagnosis of 22q11.2DS was a critical event with diverse positive repercussions, even if occurring later in life. Frequently cited benefits included greater understanding and certainty, newfound sense of purpose and a platform for advocacy, and increased opportunities to optimise medical, social and educational needs. Conclusions This is the first study to characterise the impact of a diagnosis of this representative microdeletion syndrome on adult patients and their families. The results both validate and expand on the theoretical benefits proposed by clinicians and researchers. The use of genome-wide microarray technologies will provide an increasing number of molecular diagnoses. The importance of a diagnosis of 22q11.2DS demonstrated here therefore has implications for changing attitudes about molecular genetic diagnosis that could benefit individuals with ID of currently unknown cause and their families. PMID:22142442

  12. Characterization of chromosome 11 breakpoints and the areas of deletion and amplification in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Sarova, Iveta; Brezinova, Jana; Zemanova, Zuzana; Bystricka, Dagmar; Krejcik, Zdenek; Soukup, Petr; Vydra, Jan; Cermak, Jaroslav; Jonasova, Anna; Michalova, Kyra

    2013-07-01

    Chromosome 11 abnormalities are found in many hematological malignancies. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a proto-oncogene MLL (11q23.3) is frequently altered. However, rearrangements involving other regions of chromosome 11 have been reported. Therefore, we have characterized the chromosome 11 breakpoints and common deleted and amplified areas in the bone marrow or peripheral blood cells of newly diagnosed patients with AML. Using molecular-cytogenetic methods (multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH), multicolor banding (mBAND), microarrays, and FISH with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) probes, chromosome 11 abnormalities were delineated in 54 out of 300 (18%) newly diagnosed AML patients. At least 36 different chromosome 11 breakpoints were identified; two were recurrent (11p15.4 in the NUP98 gene and 11q23.3 in the MLL gene), and three were possibly nonrandom: 11p13 (ch11:29.31-31.80 Mb), 11p12 (ch11:36.75-37.49 Mb) and 11q13.2 (68.31-68.52 Mb). One new MLL gene rearrangement is also described. No commonly deleted region of chromosome 11 was identified. However, some regions were affected more often: 11pter-11p15.5 (n = 4; ch11:0-3.52 Mb), 11p14.1-11p13 (n = 4; ch11:28.00-31.00 Mb) and 11p13 (n = 4; ch11:31.00-31.50 Mb). One commonly duplicated (3 copies) region was identified in chromosomal band 11q23.3-11q24 (n = 9; ch11:118.35-125.00 Mb). In all eight cases of 11q amplification (>3 copies), only the 5' part of the MLL gene was affected. This study highlights several chromosome 11 loci that might be important for the leukemogeneic process in AML. PMID:23580398

  13. Mutation screening of fumarate hydratase by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification: detection of exonic deletion in a patient with leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahvenainen, Taru; Lehtonen, Heli J; Lehtonen, Rainer; Vahteristo, Pia; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Baynam, Gareth; Dommering, Charlotte; Eng, Charis; Gruber, Stephen B; Grönberg, Henrik; Harvima, Rauno; Herva, Riitta; Hietala, Marja; Kujala, Minna; Kääriäinen, Helena; Sunde, Lone; Vierimaa, Outi; Pollard, Patrick J; Tomlinson, Ian P M; Björck, Erik; Aaltonen, Lauri A; Launonen, Virpi

    2008-06-01

    Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is a syndrome predisposing to cutaneous and uterine leiomyomatosis as well as renal cell cancer and uterine leiomyosarcoma. Heterozygous germline mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH, fumarase) gene are known to cause HLRCC. On occasion, no FH mutation is detected by direct sequencing, despite the evident HLRCC phenotype in a family. In the present study, to investigate whole gene or exonic deletions and amplifications in FH mutation-negative patients, we used multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification technology. The study material comprised 7 FH mutation-negative HLRCC patients and 12 patients affected with HLRCC-associated phenotypes, including papillary RCC, early-onset RCC, uterine leiomyomas, or uterine leiomyosarcoma. A novel FH mutation, a deletion of FH exon 1 that encodes the mitochondrial signal peptide, was detected in one of the HLRCC patients (1/7). The patient with the FH mutation displayed numerous painful cutaneous leiomyomas and papillary type renal cell cancer. Our finding, together with the two patients with whole FH gene deletion who had been detected previously, suggests that exonic or whole-gene FH deletions are not a frequent cause of HLRCC syndrome. PMID:18503824

  14. Novel deletion of the E3A ubiquitin protein ligase gene detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification in a patient with Angelman syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Calì, Francesco; Ragalmuto, Alda; Chiavetta, Valeria; Calabrese, Giuseppe; Fichera, Marco; Vinci, Mirella; Ruggeri, Giuseppa; Schinocca, Pietro; Sturnio, Maurizio; Romano, Salvatore; Elia, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a severe neurobehavioural disorder caused by failure of expression of the maternal copy of the imprinted domain located on 15q11-q13. There are different mechanisms leading to AS: maternal microdeletion, uniparental disomy, defects in a putative imprinting centre, mutations of the E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (UBE3A) gene. However, some of suspected cases of AS are still scored negative to all the latter mutations. Recently, it has been shown that a proportion of negative cases bear large deletions overlapping one or more exons of the UBE3A gene. These deletions are difficult to detect by conventional gene-scanning methods due to the masking effect by the non-deleted allele. In this study, we have used for the first time multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and comparative multiplex dosage analysis (CMDA) to search for large deletions affecting the UBE3A gene. Using this approach, we identified a novel causative deletion involving exon 8 in an affected sibling. Based on our results, we propose the use of MLPA as a fast, accurate and inexpensive test to detect large deletions in the UBE3A gene in a small but significant percentage of AS patients. PMID:21072004

  15. 9q31.1q31.3 deletion in two patients with similar clinical features: a newly recognized microdeletion syndrome?

    PubMed

    Mucciolo, M; Magini, P; Marozza, A; Mongelli, P; Mencarelli, M A; Hayek, G; Tavalazzi, F; Mari, F; Seri, M; Renieri, A; Graziano, C

    2014-03-01

    Interstitial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 9 are rare and most patients have been detected by conventional cytogenetic techniques. Disparities in size and localization are large and no consistent region of overlap has been delineated. We report two similar de novo deletions of 6.3 Mb involving the 9q31.1q31.3 region, identified in two monozygotic twins and one unrelated patient through array-CGH analysis. By cloning the deletion breakpoints, we could show that these deletions are not mediated by segmental duplications. The patients displayed a distinct clinical phenotype characterized by mild intellectual disability, short stature with high body mass index, thick hair, arched eyebrows, flat profile with broad chin and mild prognathism, broad, and slightly overhanging tip of the nose, short neck with cervical gibbus. The twin patients developed a metabolic syndrome (type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, vascular hypertension) during the third decade of life. Although long-term follow-up and collection of additional patients will be needed to obtain a better definition of the phenotype, our findings characterize a previously undescribed syndromic disorder associated with haploinsufficiency of the chromosome 9q31.1q31.3 region. PMID:24376033

  16. Molecular cytogenetic and clinical characterization of a patient with a 5.6-Mb deletion in 7p15 including HOXA cluster.

    PubMed

    Jun, Kyung Ran; Seo, Eul-Ju; Lee, Jin-Ok; Yoo, Han-Wook; Park, In-Sook; Yoon, Hye-Kyung

    2011-03-01

    Here, we describe the clinical features of a boy with a 5.6-Mb deletion at chromosome 7p15.1-p15.3. He has mild facial anomalies, hand-foot abnormalities, hypospadias, congenital heart defects, and supernumerary nipples. This deletion was detected by array comparative genomic hybridization and verified by fluorescence in situ hybridization using BACs selected from the USCS genome browser. This deletion was not found in subsequent FISH analysis of the parental chromosomes. The deleted region contains several genes, including contiguous developmental genes on the HOXA cluster, which play a role in regulating aspects of morphogenesis during normal embryonic development. The patient's limb and urogenital features were similar to those observed in hand-foot-genital syndrome, which is caused by haploinsufficiency of HOXA13, whereas the congenital heart defect may reflect the deletion of HOXA3. We hypothesized that many clinical features of the patient were due to combined haploinsufficiency of the HOXA cluster. Our study also demonstrates the clinical usefulness of a molecular cytogenetic tool that is capable of detecting imbalances in the genome. PMID:21344639

  17. Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency: Single-base deletion in exon 7 is the predominant mutation in Caribbean Hispanic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, P.Y.; Ernst, A.R.; Sly, W.S. ); Venta, P.J. ); Skaggs, L.A.; Tashian, R.E. )

    1994-04-01

    To date, three different structural gene mutations have been identified in patients with carbonic anhydrase II deficiency (osteopetrosis with renal tubular acidosis and cerebral calcification). These include a missense mutation (H107Y) in two families, a splice junction mutation in intron 5 in one of these families, and a splice junction mutation in intron 2 for which many Arabic patients are homozygous. The authors report here a novel mutation for which carbonic anhydrase II-deficient patients from seven unrelated Hispanic families were found to be homozygous. The proband was a 2 1/2-year-old Hispanic girl of Puerto Rican ancestry who was unique clinically, in that she had no evidence of renal tubular acidosis, even though she did have osteopetrosis, developmental delay, and cerebral calcification. She proved to be homozygous for a single-base deletion in the coding region of exon 7 that produces a frameshift that changes the next 12 amino acids before leading to chain termination and that also introduces a new MaeIII restriction site. The 27-kD truncated enzyme produced when the mutant cDNA was expressed in COS cells was enzymatically inactive, present mainly in insoluble aggregates, and detectable immunologically at only 5% the level of the 29-kD normal carbonic anhydrase II expressed from the wild-type cDNA. Metabolic labeling revealed that this 27-kD mutant protein has an accelerated rate of degradation. Six subsequent Hispanic patients of Caribbean ancestry, all of whom had osteopetrosis and renal tubular acidosis but who varied widely in clinical severity, were found to be homozygous for the same mutation. These findings identify a novel mutation common to Hispanic patients from the Caribbean islands and provide a ready means for PCR-based diagnosis of the [open quotes]Hispanic mutation.[close quotes] The basis for their phenotypic variability is not yet clear. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Deletion of late cornified envelope genes, LCE3C_LCE3B-del, is not associated with psoriatic arthritis in Tunisian patients.

    PubMed

    Chiraz, Bouchlaka Souissi; Myriam, Ammar; Ines, Zarra; Catherine, Jordan; Fatma, Bouazizi; Ilhem, Cheour; Raoudha, Tekaya; Hela, Zeglaoui; Hela, Fourati; Elyes, Bouajina; Nejib, Doss; Cindy, Helms; Amel, Elgaaied; Slaheddine, Sellami

    2014-06-01

    A deletion of two genes from the late cornified envelope (LCE), LCE3B and LCE3C within epidermal differentiation complex on chromosome 1 was shown to be associated with both psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in several populations. To assess whether this deletion may contribute to the genetic predisposition to PsA in Tunisia, a total of 73 patients with PsA and 120 healthy matched controls were screened for the deletion, LCE3C_LCE3B-del, and its tag SNP, rs4112788. We also evaluated a possible relationship between PSORS1 and LCE3C_LCE3B-del through genotyping two proxy markers to HLA-C (rs12191877 and rs2073048). Our results did not provide evidence for association between the LCE3C_LCE3B-del nor the rs4112788 and the PsA. Similarly, no significant epistatic effect was observed. Our data suggest that The LCE deletion, previously identified in patients with psoriasis, is not of a major importance in the development of PsA in Tunisian patients supporting the current perception that different genetic risk factors contribute to skin and joint disease. However, these results need to be confirmed by additional large-scale studies of Tunisian PsA patients and controls. PMID:24566688

  19. A novel interstitial deletion of 2q22.3 q23.3 in a patient with dysmorphic features, epilepsy, aganglionosis, pure red cell aplasia, and skeletal malformations.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Lurie, Iosif W; Elizondo-Cárdenas, Gabriela; Peña-Zepeda, Claudia; Salazar-Martínez, Abel; Correa-González, Cecilia; Castrillo, José Luis; Avila, Silvia; Esmer, Carmen

    2015-08-01

    Many chromosomal deletions encompassing the 2q23.1 region have been described ranging from small deletions of 38 kb up to >19 Mb. Most phenotypic features of the 2q23.1 deletion syndrome are due to a MBD5 gene loss independent of the size of the deletion. Here, we describe a male patient harboring a novel interstitial deletion encompassing the 2q22.3 q23.3 chromosomal region. Array-CGH revealed a 7.1 Mb deletion causing haploinsufficiency of several genes including MBD5, ACVR2, KIF5C, and EPC2. This patient presents with additional findings to those already described in individuals who have deletions of MBD5 including toes absence of halluces, pure red cell aplasia, and intestinal aganglionosis. Interestingly, in the deleted region there are previously identified regulatory sequences which are located upstream to ZEB2, which is associated with Hirschsprung disease (HSCR). Several genes have been associated with pure red cell aplasia, but to our knowledge, this is the first time that 2q deletion is associated with this phenotype. These additional findings should be added to the list of manifestations associated with 2q deletion, and provide support for the hypothesis that this individual has a true contiguous gene deletion syndrome. PMID:25988649

  20. Constitutional de novo deletion of the FBXW7 gene in a patient with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and multiple primitive tumors

    PubMed Central

    Roversi, Gaia; Picinelli, Chiara; Bestetti, Ilaria; Crippa, Milena; Perotti, Daniela; Ciceri, Sara; Saccheri, Fabiana; Collini, Paola; Poliani, Pietro L.; Catania, Serena; Peissel, Bernard; Pagni, Fabio; Russo, Silvia; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Finelli, Palma

    2015-01-01

    Multiple primary malignant neoplasms are rare entities in the clinical setting, but represent an important issue in the clinical management of patients since they could be expression of a genetic predisposition to malignancy. A high resolution genome wide array CGH led us to identify the first case of a de novo constitutional deletion confined to the FBXW7 gene, a well known tumor suppressor, in a patient with a syndromic phenotype characterized by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and multiple primary early/atypical onset tumors, including Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Wilms tumor and breast cancer. Other genetic defects may be associated with patient’s phenotype. In this light, constitutional mutations at BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, PALB2 and WT1 genes were excluded by performing sequencing and MLPA analysis; similarly, we ruled out constitutional abnormalities at the imprinted 11p15 region by methylation specific -MLPA assay. Our observations sustain the role of FBXW7 as cancer predisposition gene and expand the spectrum of its possible associated diseases. PMID:26482194

  1. Deletion of PREPL, a Gene Encoding a Putative Serine Oligopeptidase, in Patients with Hypotonia-Cystinuria Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jaeken, Jaak; Martens, Kevin; François, Inge; Eyskens, François; Lecointre, Claudine; Derua, Rita; Meulemans, Sandra; Slootstra, Jerry W.; Waelkens, Etienne; Zegher, Francis de; Creemers, John W. M.; Matthijs, Gert

    2006-01-01

    In 11 patients with a recessive congenital disorder, which we refer to as “the hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome,” microdeletion of part of the SLC3A1 and PREPL genes on chromosome 2p21 was found. Patients present with generalized hypotonia at birth, nephrolithiasis, growth hormone deficiency, minor facial dysmorphism, and failure to thrive, followed by hyperphagia and rapid weight gain in late childhood. Since loss-of-function mutations in SLC3A1 are known to cause isolated cystinuria type I, and since the expression of the flanking genes, C2orf34 and PPM1B, was normal, the extended phenotype can be attributed to the deletion of PREPL. PREPL is localized in the cytosol and shows homology with prolyl endopeptidase and oligopeptidase B. Substitution of the predicted catalytic residues (Ser470, Asp556, and His601) by alanines resulted in loss of reactivity with a serine hydrolase-specific probe. In sharp contrast to prolyl oligopeptidase and oligopeptidase B, which require both aminoterminal and carboxyterminal sequences for activity, PREPL activity appears to depend only on the carboxyterminal domain. Taken together, these results suggest that PREPL is a novel oligopeptidase, with unique structural and functional characteristics, involved in hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome. PMID:16385448

  2. Genome-wide analysis identifies 16q deletion associated with survival, molecular subtypes, mRNA expression, and germline haplotypes in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Nordgard, Silje H; Johansen, Fredrik E; Alnaes, Grethe I G; Bucher, Elmar; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Naume, Bjørn; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Kristensen, Vessela N

    2008-08-01

    Breast carcinomas are characterized by DNA copy number alterations (CNAs) with biological and clinical significance. This explorative study integrated CNA, expression, and germline genotype data of 112 early-stage breast cancer patients. Recurrent CNAs differed substantially between tumor subtypes classified according to expression pattern. Deletion of 16q was overrepresented in Luminal A, and a predictor of good prognosis, both overall and for the nonluminal A subgroups. The deleted region most significantly associated with survival mapped to 16q22.2, harboring the genes TXNL4B and DXH38, whose expression was strongly correlated with the deletion. The area most frequently deleted resided on 16q23.1, 3.5 MB downstream of the area most significantly associated with survival, and included the tumor suppressor gene ADAMTS18 and the cell recognition gene CNTNAP4. Whole-genome association analysis identified germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their corresponding haplotypes, residing on several different chromosomes, to be associated with deletion of 16q. The genes where these SNPs reside encode proteins involved in the extracellular matrix (CHST3 and SPOCK2), in regulation of the cell cycle (JMY, PTPRN2, and Cwf19L2) and chromosome stability (KPNB1). PMID:18398821

  3. Clinical and molecular characterization of a patient with a combination of a deletion and a duplication of 22q13 using array CGH

    PubMed Central

    Ochando, Isabel; Urbano, Antonio; Rubio, Juana; Rueda, Joaquín

    2012-01-01

    Phelan–McDermid syndrome is caused by the loss of terminal regions of different sizes at 22q13. There is a wide range of severity of symptoms in patients with a 22q13 deletion, but these patients usually show neonatal hypotonia, global developmental delay, and dysmorphic traits. We carried out a clinical and molecular characterization of a patient with neonatal hypotonia and dysmorphic features. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization showed an 8.24 Mb terminal deletion associated with a 0.20 Mb duplication. Characterization of patients with Phelan–McDermid syndrome both clinically and at the molecular level allows genotype-phenotype correlations that provide clues to help elucidate the clinical implications. PMID:23776384

  4. Deletion mutations of the Bs-alpha gene in patients with Albright hereditary osteodystrophy: Possible mutation hot-spot in exon 7

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, L.S.; Hainline, B.E.; Schuster, V.

    1994-09-01

    Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by short stature, centripetal obesity, subcutaneous ossifications and focal brachydactyly. Patients with this disorder may have these features alone (pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism) or these features in association with resistance to multiple hormones which raise intracellular cAMP (pseudohypoparathyroidism, PHP). In most kindreds, affected members have decreased function of the G protein Gs and decreased levels of the Gs{alpha}-subunit. Heterozygous inactivating mutations of the Gs{alpha} gene have been previously identified in AHO. Exons 2-13 of the Gs{alpha} gene and their splice junctions were PCR-amplified and the products analyzed by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) and direct sequencing. Using this approach, a new heterozygous 2 bp deletion in exon 4 creating a premature stop codon was identified in 5 affected members of a previously reported family. The mutation was not present in an unaffected family member. We also have identified a previously reported 4 bp deletion in the coding region of exon 7 in 2 further unrelated sporadic cases of PHP. In one case, the mutation was absent in her siblings and in both parents, confirming that this is a de novo mutation in this patient. This specific 4 bp deletion has now been reported in 4 PHP patients, at least 3 of whom are unrelated. These results suggest that this region of the Gs{alpha} gene may be a hot-spot for deletions.

  5. Deletion and low expression of NFKBIA are associated with poor prognosis in lower-grade glioma patients

    PubMed Central

    Kinker, Gabriela Sarti; Thomas, Andrew Maltez; Carvalho, Vinicius Jardim; Lima, Felipe Prata; Fujita, André

    2016-01-01

    Lower-grade gliomas (LGGs), which are uniformly fatal in young adults, are classified as grades II-III tumors according to their histological features. The NFκB transcription factor, a crucial player in cancer initiation and progression, is inactivated in the cytoplasm by inhibitory proteins (IκBs) that have been shown to exert tumor-suppressor activity. Therefore, using The Cancer Genome Atlas copy number alteration and RNA-Seq data from 398 patients, we evaluated the association between the expression and dosage of NFKBIA, which encodes IκBα, and the overall malignancy of LGGs. Deletion and low expression of NFKBIA were associated with enhanced tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis in LGGs. Accordingly, the dosage and expression of NFKBIA were independent prognostic factors for 5-year survival (dosage: P = 0.016; expression: P = 0.002) and 5-year recurrence-free survival (dosage: P = 0.009; expression: P = 0.005). Moreover, gene set enrichment analyses and co-expression network analyses indicated a role for NFKBIA in the negative regulation of cell proliferation, possibly through the modulation of downstream NFκB activation. Overall, the present findings reveal the prognostic value of NFKBIA in LGGs, reinforcing the relevance of NFκB signaling in the development and progression of gliomas. PMID:27052952

  6. Juvenile polyposis of infancy associated with paracentric inversion and deletion of chromosome 10 in a Hispanic patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Vargas-González, Roberto; de la Torre-Mondragón, Luis; Aparicio-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel; Paniagua-Morgan, Froylan; López-Hernández, Gerardo; Garrido-Hernández, Miguel Angel; Nuñez-Barrera, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Juvenile polyposis of infancy is a rare genetic disorder, involving multiple hamartomatous polyps of the gastrointestinal tract, which usually has a very aggressive clinical course and is often fatal. It is characterized by early onset (during the 1st months of life) and by diffuse juvenile polyposis with anemia, recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding, diarrhea, rectal prolapse, intussusception, protein-losing enteropathy, starvation, and malnutrition. There is a hypothesis that mutation of the tumor-suppressor genes BMPR1A and PTEN, located on the long arm of chromosome 10, is associated with the development of this disease. Medical treatment for this disorder is challenging and should be conservative whenever possible. We present the case of a 3-year-old girl with juvenile polyposis of infancy who eventually died from mesenteric artery thrombosis during surgical colectomy. Karyotype of the patient showed a paracentric inversion in 10q and a deletion in 10p. We will briefly comment on some genetic considerations of this disease. PMID:20334546

  7. Deletion and low expression of NFKBIA are associated with poor prognosis in lower-grade glioma patients.

    PubMed

    Kinker, Gabriela Sarti; Thomas, Andrew Maltez; Carvalho, Vinicius Jardim; Lima, Felipe Prata; Fujita, André

    2016-01-01

    Lower-grade gliomas (LGGs), which are uniformly fatal in young adults, are classified as grades II-III tumors according to their histological features. The NFκB transcription factor, a crucial player in cancer initiation and progression, is inactivated in the cytoplasm by inhibitory proteins (IκBs) that have been shown to exert tumor-suppressor activity. Therefore, using The Cancer Genome Atlas copy number alteration and RNA-Seq data from 398 patients, we evaluated the association between the expression and dosage of NFKBIA, which encodes IκBα, and the overall malignancy of LGGs. Deletion and low expression of NFKBIA were associated with enhanced tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis in LGGs. Accordingly, the dosage and expression of NFKBIA were independent prognostic factors for 5-year survival (dosage: P = 0.016; expression: P = 0.002) and 5-year recurrence-free survival (dosage: P = 0.009; expression: P = 0.005). Moreover, gene set enrichment analyses and co-expression network analyses indicated a role for NFKBIA in the negative regulation of cell proliferation, possibly through the modulation of downstream NFκB activation. Overall, the present findings reveal the prognostic value of NFKBIA in LGGs, reinforcing the relevance of NFκB signaling in the development and progression of gliomas. PMID:27052952

  8. The double polymethylmethacrylate filter (DELETE system) in the removal of light chains in chronic dialysis patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Antonio; Grazia, Michele; Mancini, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is still one of the most common haematological diseases and is associated with a poor prognosis. It is frequently worsened by acute kidney failure that, in turn, aggravates the risk of death. In the past few years, the idea has made headway that the removal of free light chains (FLC) by means of extracorporeal blood purification systems may facilitate the recovery of renal function. Up to now, many different extracorporeal techniques have been put forward in FLC removal, such as plasma exchange, dialysis with super-flux filters, and adsorption by means of cartridge of resins. In this paper, we illustrate the use of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) dialysis membranes with a high adsorptive capacity (Toray BK-F; Toray Industries, Inc., Tokyo, Japan). We have evaluated light chain removal by means of an original dialysis procedure using a double-filter circuit made of PMMA working in sequential dialysis (DELETE system). The system provides satisfactory results in terms of FLC removal and, at the same time, ensures an adequate dialysis treatment (Kt/V >1.5) with significant reduction in urea, creatinine, and β2-microglobulin. The dual PMMA filter system combines an acceptable cost/efficiency ratio when compared with other methods and constitutes a concrete prospect in FLC removal. Its preferential setting of use is in patients with MM or with monoclonal gammopathies, who are on chronic dialysis and maintain high circulating levels of FLC. PMID:23676829

  9. Deletion at 6q24.2-26 predicts longer survival of high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kamieniak, Marta M; Rico, Daniel; Milne, Roger L; Muñoz-Repeto, Ivan; Ibáñez, Kristina; Grillo, Miguel A; Domingo, Samuel; Borrego, Salud; Cazorla, Alicia; García-Bueno, José M; Hernando, Susana; García-Donas, Jesús; Hernández-Agudo, Elena; Y Cajal, Teresa Ramón; Robles-Díaz, Luis; Márquez-Rodas, Ivan; Cusidó, Maite; Sáez, Raquel; Lacambra-Calvet, Carmen; Osorio, Ana; Urioste, Miguel; Cigudosa, Juan C; Paz-Ares, Luis; Palacios, José; Benítez, Javier; García, María J

    2015-02-01

    Standard treatments for advanced high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOCs) show significant side-effects and provide only short-term survival benefits due to disease recurrence. Thus, identification of novel prognostic and predictive biomarkers is urgently needed. We have used 42 paraffin-embedded HGSOCs, to evaluate the utility of DNA copy number alterations, as potential predictors of clinical outcome. Copy number-based unsupervised clustering stratified HGSOCs into two clusters of different immunohistopathological features and survival outcome (HR = 0.15, 95%CI = 0.03-0.81; Padj = 0.03). We found that loss at 6q24.2-26 was significantly associated with the cluster of longer survival independently from other confounding factors (HR = 0.06, 95%CI = 0.01-0.43, Padj = 0.005). The prognostic value of this deletion was validated in two independent series, one consisting of 36 HGSOCs analyzed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (P = 0.04) and another comprised of 411 HGSOCs from the Cancer Genome Atlas study (TCGA) (HR = 0.67, 95%CI = 0.48-0.93, Padj = 0.019). In addition, we confirmed the association of low expression of the genes from the region with longer survival in 799 HGSOCs (HR = 0.74, 95%CI = 0.61-0.90, log-rank P = 0.002) and 675 high-FIGO stage HGSOCs (HR = 0.76, 95%CI = 0.61-0.96, log-rank P = 0.02) available from the online tool KM-plotter. Finally, by integrating copy number, RNAseq and survival data of 296 HGSOCs from TCGA we propose a few candidate genes that can potentially explain the association. Altogether our findings indicate that the 6q24.2-26 deletion is an independent marker of favorable outcome in HGSOCs with potential clinical value as it can be analyzed by FISH on tumor sections and guide the selection of patients towards more conservative therapeutic strategies in order to reduce side-effects and improve quality of life. PMID:25454820

  10. Detection of deleted mitochondrial genomes in cytochrome-c oxidase-deficient muscle fibers of a patient with Kearns-Sayre syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Mita, S.; Schmidt, B.; Schon, E.A.; DiMauro, S.; Bonilla, E. )

    1989-12-01

    Using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry, the authors studied a muscle biopsy sample from a patient with Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) who had a deletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and partial deficiency of cytochrome-c oxidase. They sought a relationship between COX deficiency and abnormalities of mtDNA at the single-fiber level. COX deficiency clearly correlated with a decrease of normal mtDNA and, conversely, deleted mtDNA was more abundant in COX-deficient fibers, especially ragged-red fibers. The distribution of mtRNA has a similar pattern, suggesting that deleted mtDNA is transcribed. Immunocytochemistry showed that the nuclear DNA-encoded subunit IV of COX was present but that the mtDNA-encoded subunit II was markedly diminished in COX-deficient ragged-red fibers. Because the mtDNA deletion in this patient did not comprise the gene encoding COX subunit II, COX deficiency may have resulted from lack of translation of mtRNA encoding all three mtDNA-encoded subunits of COX.

  11. High frequency of mosaic CREBBP deletions in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome patients and mapping of somatic and germ-line breakpoints.

    PubMed

    Gervasini, Cristina; Castronovo, Paola; Bentivegna, Angela; Mottadelli, Federica; Faravelli, Francesca; Giovannucci-Uzielli, Maria Luisa; Pessagno, Alice; Lucci-Cordisco, Emanuela; Pinto, Anna Maria; Salviati, Leonardo; Selicorni, Angelo; Tenconi, Romano; Neri, Giovanni; Larizza, Lidia

    2007-11-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a rare malformation disorder caused by mutations in the closely related CREBBP and EP300 genes, accounting respectively for up to 60 and 3% of cases. About 10% of CREBBP mutations are whole gene deletions often extending into flanking regions. Using FISH and microsatellite analyses as a first step in the CREBBP mutation screening of 42 Italian RSTS patients, we identified six deletions, three of which were in a mosaic condition that has not been previously reported in RSTS. The use of region-specific BAC clones and small CREBBP probes allowed us to assess the extent of all of the deletions by mapping their endpoints to genomic intervals of 5-10 kb. Four of our five intragenic breakpoints cluster at the 5' end of CREBBP, where there is a peak of breakpoints underlying rearrangements in RSTS patients and tumors. The search for genomic motifs did not reveal any low-copy repeats (LCRs) or any greater density of repetitive sequences. In contrast, the percentage of interspersed repetitive elements (mainly Alu and LINEs in the CREBBP exon 2 region) is significantly higher than that in the entire gene or the average in the genome, thus suggesting that this characteristic may be involved in the region's vulnerability to breaking and nonhomologous pairing. The FISH analysis extended to the EP300 genomic region did not reveal any deletions. The clinical presentation was typical in all cases, but more severe in the three patients carrying constitutional deletions, raising a question about the possible underdiagnosis of a few cases of mild RSTS. PMID:17855048

  12. Central 22q11.2 deletions.

    PubMed

    Rump, Patrick; de Leeuw, Nicole; van Essen, Anthonie J; Verschuuren-Bemelmans, Corien C; Veenstra-Knol, Hermine E; Swinkels, Mariëlle E M; Oostdijk, Wilma; Ruivenkamp, Claudia; Reardon, Willie; de Munnik, Sonja; Ruiter, Mariken; Frumkin, Ayala; Lev, Dorit; Evers, Christina; Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; Dijkhuizen, Trijnie; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M

    2014-11-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome is one of the most common microdeletion syndromes. Most patients have a deletion resulting from a recombination of low copy repeat blocks LCR22-A and LCR22-D. Loss of the TBX1 gene is considered the most important cause of the phenotype. A limited number of patients with smaller, overlapping deletions distal to the TBX1 locus have been described in the literature. In these patients, the CRKL gene is deleted. Haploinsufficiency of this gene has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. To distinguish these deletions (comprising the LCR22-B to LCR22-D region) from the more distal 22q11.2 deletions (located beyond LCR22-D), we propose the term "central 22q11.2 deletions". In the present study we report on 27 new patients with such a deletion. Together with information on previously published cases, we review the clinical findings of 52 patients. The prevalence of congenital heart anomalies and the frequency of de novo deletions in patients with a central deletion are substantially lower than in patients with a common or distal 22q11.2 deletion. Renal and urinary tract malformations, developmental delays, cognitive impairments and behavioral problems seem to be equally frequent as in patients with a common deletion. None of the patients had a cleft palate. Patients with a deletion that also encompassed the MAPK1 gene, located just distal to LCR22-D, have a different and more severe phenotype, characterized by a higher prevalence of congenital heart anomalies, growth restriction and microcephaly. Our results further elucidate genotype-phenotype correlations in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome spectrum. PMID:25123976

  13. The mitochondrial ND1 m.3337G>A mutation associated to multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions in a patient with Wolfram syndrome and cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Mezghani, Najla; Mnif, Mouna; Mkaouar-Rebai, Emna; Kallel, Nozha; Salem, Ikhlass Haj; Charfi, Nadia; Abid, Mohamed; Fakhfakh, Faiza

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} We reported a patient with Wolfram syndrome and dilated cardiomyopathy. {yields} We detected the ND1 mitochondrial m.3337G>A mutation in 3 tested tissues (blood leukocytes, buccal mucosa and skeletal muscle). {yields} Long-range PCR amplification revealed the presence of multiple mitochondrial deletions in the skeletal muscle. {yields} The deletions remove several tRNA and protein-coding genes. -- Abstract: Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare hereditary disorder also known as DIDMOAD (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness). It is a heterogeneous disease and full characterization of all clinical and biological features of this disorder is difficult. The wide spectrum of clinical expression, affecting several organs and tissues, and the similarity in phenotype between patients with Wolfram syndrome and those with certain types of respiratory chain diseases suggests mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) involvement in Wolfram syndrome patients. We report a Tunisian patient with clinical features of moderate Wolfram syndrome including diabetes, dilated cardiomyopathy and neurological complications. The results showed the presence of the mitochondrial ND1 m.3337G>A mutation in almost homoplasmic form in 3 tested tissues of the proband (blood leukocytes, buccal mucosa and skeletal muscle). In addition, the long-range PCR amplifications revealed the presence of multiple deletions of the mitochondrial DNA extracted from the patient's skeletal muscle removing several tRNA and protein-coding genes. Our study reported a Tunisian patient with clinical features of moderate Wolfram syndrome associated with cardiomyopathy, in whom we detected the ND1 m.3337G>A mutation with mitochondrial multiple deletions.

  14. Paracentric inversion of chromosome 2 associated with cryptic duplication of 2q14 and deletion of 2q37 in a patient with autism

    PubMed Central

    Devillard, Françoise; Guinchat, Vincent; Moreno-De-Luca, Daniel; Tabet, Anne-Claude; Gruchy, Nicolas; Guillem, Pascale; Nguyen Morel, Marie-Ange; Leporrier, Nathalie; Leboyer, Marion; Jouk, Pierre-Simon; Lespinasse, James; Betancur, Catalina

    2010-01-01

    We describe a patient with autism and a paracentric inversion of chromosome 2q14.2q37.3, with a concurrent duplication of the proximal breakpoint at 2q14.1q14.2 and a deletion of the distal breakpoint at 2q37.3. The abnormality was derived from his mother with a balanced paracentric inversion. The inversion in the child appeared to be cytogenetically balanced but subtelomere FISH revealed a cryptic deletion at the 2q37.3 breakpoint. High-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism array confirmed the presence of a 3.5 Mb deletion that extended to the telomere, and showed a 4.2 Mb duplication at 2q14.1q14.2. FISH studies using a 2q14.2 probe showed that the duplicated segment was located at the telomeric end of chromosome 2q. This recombinant probably resulted from breakage of a dicentric chromosome. The child had autism, mental retardation, speech and language delay, hyperactivity, growth retardation with growth hormone deficiency, insulin-dependent diabetes, and mild facial dysmorphism. Most of these features have been previously described in individuals with simple terminal deletion of 2q37. Pure duplications of the proximal chromosome 2q are rare and no specific syndrome has been defined yet, so the contribution of the 2q14.1q14.2 duplication to the phenotype of the patient is unknown. These findings underscore the need to explore apparently balanced chromosomal rearrangements inherited from a phenotypically normal parent in subjects with autism and/or developmental delay. In addition, they provide further evidence indicating that chromosome 2q terminal deletions are among the most frequently reported cytogenetic abnormalities in individuals with autism. PMID:20684015

  15. EGFR exon 19 in-frame deletion and polymorphisms of DNA repair genes in never-smoking female lung adenocarcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shi-Yi; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Li, Yao-Jen; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Liao, Kuo-Meng; Hsu, Kuo-Hsuan; Tsai, Chi-Ren; Chen, Chih-Yi; Hsu, Chung-Ping; Hsia, Jiun-Yi; Chuang, Cheng-Yen; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Su, Wu-Chou; Chen, Yuh-Min; Hsiung, Chao A; Shen, Chen-Yang; Chang, Gee-Chen; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2013-01-15

    We explored potential associations between genetic polymorphisms in genes related to DNA repair and detoxification metabolism and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in a cohort of 410 never-smoking patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) of EGFR mutation status in association with the genotypes of DNA repair and detoxification metabolism genes were evaluated using logistic regression analysis. We found an association between in-frame deletion in EGFR exon 19 and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1800566C/T located in NQO1 (aOR, 2.2 with 95% CI, 1.0-4.8) in female never-smokers. The SNP rs744154C/G in ERCC4 was also associated with the EGFR exon 19 in-frame deletion both in never-smokers (aOR, 1.7 with 95% CI, 1.0-3.0) and female never-smokers (aOR, 1.9 with 95% CI, 1.0-3.6). Although the association was marginally significant in multivariate logistic regression analysis, the A/A genotype of rs1047840 in EXO1 was associated with a 7.6-fold increase in the occurrence of the EGFR exon 19 in-frame deletion in female never-smokers. Moreover, risk alleles in NQO1, ERCC4 and EXO1 were associated with an increasing aOR of the EGFR exon 19 in-frame deletion both in never-smokers (p = 0.007 for trend) and female never-smokers (p = 0.002 for trend). Our findings suggest that the in-frame deletion in EGFR exon 19 is associated with polymorphisms in DNA repair and detoxification metabolism genes in never-smoking lung adenocarcinoma patients, especially in females. PMID:22573488

  16. Identification of novel mutations in CD2BP1 gene in clinically proven rheumatoid arthritis patients of south India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bhattaram Siddhartha; Kumar, Pasupuleti Santhosh; Sowgandhi, Nannepaga; Prajwal, Bhattaram Manoj; Mohan, Alladi; Sarma, Kadainti Venkata Subbaraya; Sarma, Potukuchi Venkata Gurunadha Krishna

    2016-08-01

    Pyogenic Arthritis, Pyoderma gangrenosum, and Acne (PAPA syndrome) is a rare autosomal dominant, auto-inflammatory disease that affects joints and skin. The disease results due to mutations in the cluster of differentiation 2 binding protein 1 (CD2BP1) gene on chromosome 15q24.3. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common, genetically complex disease that affects the joints with occasional skin manifestations. Studies related to the pathophysiology of inflammation in these two disorders show a certain degree of overlap at genetic level. The present study was done to confirm the existence of such a genetic overlap between PAPA syndrome and RA in south Indian population. In the present study 100 patients who were clinically diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis and 100 apparently healthy controls were chosen and the 15 exons of CD2BP1 gene were PCR-amplified and sequenced. The sequence analysis showed that in exon 3 thirty eight patients revealed presence of novel heterozygous missense mutations p.Glu51Asp, p.Leu57Arg and p.Ala64Thr. In exons 6, 10 and 14 eight patients showed 44 novel missense mutations and two patients showed novel frame shift mutations p.(Met123_Leu416delinsThr) and p.(Thr337Profs*52) leading to truncated protein formation. Such mutations were not seen in controls. Further, the in silico analysis revealed the mutant CD2BP1 structure showed deletion of Cdc15 and SH3 domains when superimposed with the wild type CD2BP1 structure with variable RMSD values. Therefore, these structural variations in CD2BP1 gene due to the mutations could be one of the strongest reasons to demonstrate the involvement of these gene variations in the patients with rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:27184502

  17. Persistent Production of an Integrase-Deleted HIV-1 Variant with No Resistance Mutation and Wild-Type Proviral DNA in a Treated Patient

    PubMed Central

    Cotte, Laurent; Saison, Julien; Ramière, Christophe; Ronfort, Corinne; Venet, Fabienne; Tardy, Jean-Claude; Monneret, Guillaume; André, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An HIV-infected patient presenting an unexpected viral escape under combined antiretroviral treatment is described. The virus isolated from plasma contained a large deletion in the HIV-1 integrase gene but no known resistance mutation. Nested polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) with patient virus integrase-specific primers and probes were developed and used to detect the mutant from plasma, blood, rectal biopsies, and sperm. The variant progressively emerged during a period of therapy-induced virosuppression, and persisted at a low but detectable level for at least 5 years. Surprisingly, proviral DNA from lymphocytes, rectal cells, and sperm cells was, and remained, mainly wild type. Cellular HIV RNA with the deletion was detected only once from the rectum. The origin and mechanisms underlying this so far not described production at a detectable level are largely hypothetical. This observation raised concern about the ability of defective viruses to spread. PMID:25333615

  18. A DNA fragment from Xq21 replaces a deleted region containing the entire FVIII gene in a severe hemophilia A patient

    SciTech Connect

    Murru, S.; Casula, L.; Moi, P.

    1994-09-15

    In this paper the authors report the molecular characterization of a large deletion that removes the entire Factor VIII gene in a severe hemophilia A patient. Accurate DNA analysis of the breakpoint region revealed that a large DNA fragment replaced the 300-kb one, which was removed by the deletion. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the size of the inserted fragment is about 550 kb. In situ hybridization demonstrated that part of the inserted region normally maps to Xq21 and to the tip of the short arm of the Y chromosome (Yp). In this patient this locus is present both in Xq21 and in Xq28, in addition to the Yp, being thus duplicated in the X chromosome. Sequence analysis of the 3` breakpoint suggested that an illegitimate recombination is probably the cause of this complex rearrangement. 52 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Partial protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX) gene deletions, due to different Alu-mediated mechanisms, identified by MLPA analysis in patients with variegate porphyria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Variegate porphyria (VP) is an autosomal dominantly inherited hepatic porphyria. The genetic defect in the PPOX gene leads to a partial defect of protoporphyrinogen oxidase, the penultimate enzyme of heme biosynthesis. Affected individuals can develop cutaneous symptoms in sun-exposed areas of the skin and/or neuropsychiatric acute attacks. The identification of the genetic defect in VP families is of crucial importance to detect the carrier status which allows counseling to prevent potentially life threatening neurovisceral attacks, usually triggered by factors such as certain drugs, alcohol or fasting. In a total of 31 Swedish VP families sequence analysis had identified a genetic defect in 26. In the remaining five families an extended genetic investigation was necessary. After the development of a synthetic probe set, MLPA analysis to screen for single exon deletions/duplications was performed. We describe here, for the first time, two partial deletions within the PPOX gene detected by MLPA analysis. One deletion affects exon 5 and 6 (c.339-197_616+320del1099) and has been identified in four families, most probably after a founder effect. The other extends from exon 5 to exon 9 (c.339-350_987+229del2609) and was found in one family. We show that both deletions are mediated by Alu repeats. Our findings emphasize the usefulness of MLPA analysis as a complement to PPOX gene sequencing analysis for comprehensive genetic diagnostics in patients with VP. PMID:23324528

  20. A Williams syndrome patient with a familial t(6;7) translocation and deletion of the elastin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Pober, B.R.; Gibson, L.H.; Yang-Feng, T.L.

    1994-09-01

    Discovery of a {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} reciprocal translocation [46,XX,t(6;7)(q11.2;q11.23)] on routine amniocentesis prompted clinical and cytogenetic study of additional family members. The same t(6;7) translocation was found in the clincally normal father and in a sibling with Williams syndrome (WS). WS had been diagnosed previously according to clinical criteria including distinctive facial features, supravalvar aortic stenosis requiring surgical repair, dental abnormalties and developmental delay. A clinically normal female was delivered and the translocation was confirmed with a cord blood specimen. Hemizygosity for the gene, elastin, (which has been mapped to the chromosome 7 translocation breakpoint, 7q11.23, in this family) appears to be a cause of WS. We therefore investigated whether the t(6;7) in the phenotypically normal father represented more than a simple reciprocal translocation. FISH using a chromosome 7 specific library revealed no differences between the cytogenetically identical, yet phenotypically distinct, father and son. Hybridization with a cosmid MR127D4 containing elastin sequence showed that the WS patient was missing one allele from the derivative chromosome 7 whereas both his mother and father had two copies of the elastin gene. This family indicates that the de novo loss of one copy of the elastin gene produces the recognizable phenotype of Williams syndrome. Molecular characterization (with additional probes) of the extent of this de novo deletion near the translocation breakpoint is in progress. This information will be valuable for defining the WS-critical region and will lead to a better understanding of the molecular basis for WS.

  1. Malan syndrome: Sotos-like overgrowth with de novo NFIX sequence variants and deletions in six new patients and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Klaassens, Merel; Morrogh, Deborah; Rosser, Elisabeth M; Jaffer, Fatima; Vreeburg, Maaike; Bok, Levinus A; Segboer, Tim; van Belzen, Martine; Quinlivan, Ros M; Kumar, Ajith; Hurst, Jane A; Scott, Richard H

    2015-05-01

    De novo monoallelic variants in NFIX cause two distinct syndromes. Whole gene deletions, nonsense variants and missense variants affecting the DNA-binding domain have been seen in association with a Sotos-like phenotype that we propose is referred to as Malan syndrome. Frameshift and splice-site variants thought to avoid nonsense-mediated RNA decay have been seen in Marshall-Smith syndrome. We report six additional patients with Malan syndrome and de novo NFIX deletions or sequence variants and review the 20 patients now reported. The phenotype is characterised by moderate postnatal overgrowth and macrocephaly. Median height and head circumference in childhood are 2.0 and 2.3 standard deviations (SD) above the mean, respectively. There is overlap of the facial phenotype with NSD1-positive Sotos syndrome in some cases including a prominent forehead, high anterior hairline, downslanting palpebral fissures and prominent chin. Neonatal feeding difficulties and/or hypotonia have been reported in 30% of patients. Developmental delay/learning disability have been reported in all cases and are typically moderate. Ocular phenotypes are common, including strabismus (65%), nystagmus (25% ) and optic disc pallor/hypoplasia (25%). Other recurrent features include pectus excavatum (40%) and scoliosis (25%). Eight reported patients have a deletion also encompassing CACNA1A, haploinsufficiency of which causes episodic ataxia type 2 or familial hemiplegic migraine. One previous case had episodic ataxia and one case we report has had cyclical vomiting responsive to pizotifen. In individuals with this contiguous gene deletion syndrome, awareness of possible later neurological manifestations is important, although their penetrance is not yet clear. PMID:25118028

  2. From Whole Gene Deletion to Point Mutations of EP300-Positive Rubinstein-Taybi Patients: New Insights into the Mutational Spectrum and Peculiar Clinical Hallmarks.

    PubMed

    Negri, Gloria; Magini, Pamela; Milani, Donatella; Colapietro, Patrizia; Rusconi, Daniela; Scarano, Emanuela; Bonati, Maria Teresa; Priolo, Manuela; Crippa, Milena; Mazzanti, Laura; Wischmeijer, Anita; Tamburrino, Federica; Pippucci, Tommaso; Finelli, Palma; Larizza, Lidia; Gervasini, Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a rare congenital neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by growth deficiency, skeletal abnormalities, dysmorphic features, and intellectual disability. Causative mutations in CREBBP and EP300 genes have been identified in ∼55% and ∼8% of affected individuals. To date, only 28 EP300 alterations in 29 RSTS clinically described patients have been reported. EP300 analysis of 22 CREBBP-negative RSTS patients from our cohort led us to identify six novel mutations: a 376-kb deletion depleting EP300 gene; an exons 17-19 deletion (c.(3141+1_3142-1)_(3590+1_3591-1)del/p.(Ile1047Serfs*30)); two stop mutations, (c.3829A>T/p.(Lys1277*) and c.4585C>T/p.(Arg1529*)); a splicing mutation (c.1878-12A>G/p.(Ala627Glnfs*11)), and a duplication (c.4640dupA/p.(Asn1547Lysfs*3)). All EP300-mutated individuals show a mild RSTS phenotype and peculiar findings including maternal gestosis, skin manifestation, especially nevi or keloids, back malformations, and a behavior predisposing to anxiety. Furthermore, the patient carrying the complete EP300 deletion does not show a markedly severe clinical picture, even if a more composite phenotype was noticed. By characterizing six novel EP300-mutated patients, this study provides further insights into the EP300-specific clinical presentation and expands the mutational repertoire including the first case of a whole gene deletion. These new data will enhance EP300-mutated cases identification highlighting distinctive features and will improve the clinical practice allowing a better genotype-phenotype correlation. PMID:26486927

  3. Malan syndrome: Sotos-like overgrowth with de novo NFIX sequence variants and deletions in six new patients and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Klaassens, Merel; Morrogh, Deborah; Rosser, Elisabeth M; Jaffer, Fatima; Vreeburg, Maaike; Bok, Levinus A; Segboer, Tim; van Belzen, Martine; Quinlivan, Ros M; Kumar, Ajith; Hurst, Jane A; Scott, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    De novo monoallelic variants in NFIX cause two distinct syndromes. Whole gene deletions, nonsense variants and missense variants affecting the DNA-binding domain have been seen in association with a Sotos-like phenotype that we propose is referred to as Malan syndrome. Frameshift and splice-site variants thought to avoid nonsense-mediated RNA decay have been seen in Marshall–Smith syndrome. We report six additional patients with Malan syndrome and de novo NFIX deletions or sequence variants and review the 20 patients now reported. The phenotype is characterised by moderate postnatal overgrowth and macrocephaly. Median height and head circumference in childhood are 2.0 and 2.3 standard deviations (SD) above the mean, respectively. There is overlap of the facial phenotype with NSD1-positive Sotos syndrome in some cases including a prominent forehead, high anterior hairline, downslanting palpebral fissures and prominent chin. Neonatal feeding difficulties and/or hypotonia have been reported in 30% of patients. Developmental delay/learning disability have been reported in all cases and are typically moderate. Ocular phenotypes are common, including strabismus (65%), nystagmus (25% ) and optic disc pallor/hypoplasia (25%). Other recurrent features include pectus excavatum (40%) and scoliosis (25%). Eight reported patients have a deletion also encompassing CACNA1A, haploinsufficiency of which causes episodic ataxia type 2 or familial hemiplegic migraine. One previous case had episodic ataxia and one case we report has had cyclical vomiting responsive to pizotifen. In individuals with this contiguous gene deletion syndrome, awareness of possible later neurological manifestations is important, although their penetrance is not yet clear. PMID:25118028

  4. A novel mitochondrial DNA deletion in a patient with Pearson syndrome and neonatal diabetes mellitus provides insight into disease etiology, severity and progression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin-Yu; Zhao, Si-Yu; Wang, Yan; Wang, Dong; Dong, Chang-Hu; Yang, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Hua; Wu, Yuan-Ming

    2016-07-01

    Pearson syndrome (PS) is a rare, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion disorder mainly affecting hematopoietic system and exocrine pancreas in early infancy, which is characterized by multi-organ involvement, variable manifestations and poor prognosis. Since the clinical complexity and uncertain outcome of PS, the ability to early diagnose and anticipate disease progression is of great clinical importance. We described a patient with severe anemia and hyperglycinemia at birth was diagnosed with neonatal diabetes mellitus, and later with PS. Genetic testing revealed that a novel mtDNA deletion existed in various non-invasive tissues from the patient. The disease course was monitored by mtDNA deletion heteroplasmy and mtDNA/nucleus DNA genome ratio in different tissues and at different time points, showing a potential genotype-phenotype correlation. Our findings suggest that for patient suspected for PS, it may be therapeutically important to first perform detailed mtDNA analysis on non-invasive tissues at the initial diagnosis and during disease progression. PMID:26016877

  5. Review of Disrupted Sleep Patterns in Smith-Magenis Syndrome and Normal Melatonin Secretion in a Patient with an Atypical Interstitial 17p11.2 Deletion

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau, Eilis A.; Johnson, Kyle P.; Jackman, Angela R.; Blancato, Jan; Huizing, Marjan; Bendavid, Claude; Jones, MaryPat; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C.; Lewy, Alfred J.; Smith, Ann C. M.; Magenis, R. Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and behavior problems, including abnormal sleep patterns. It is most commonly due to a 3.5 Mb interstitial deletion of chromosome 17 band p11.2. Secretion of melatonin, a hormone produced by the pineal gland, is the body’s signal for nighttime darkness. Published reports of 24-hour melatonin secretion patterns in two independent SMS cohorts (US & France) document an inverted endogenous melatonin pattern in virtually all cases (96%), suggesting that this finding is pathognomic for the syndrome. We report on a woman with SMS due to an atypical large proximal deletion (∼6Mb; cen<->TNFRSFproteinB) of chromosome band (17)(p11.1p11.2) who presents with typical sleep disturbances but a normal pattern of melatonin secretion. We further describe a melatonin light suppression test in this patient. This is the second reported patient with a normal endogenous melatonin rhythm in SMS associated with an atypical large deletion. These two patients are significant because they suggest that the sleep disturbances in SMS cannot be solely attributed to the abnormal diurnal melatonin secretion versus the normal nocturnal pattern. PMID:19530184

  6. Comparative genomic hybridization of microdissected familial ovarian carcinoma: two deleted regions on chromosome 15q not previously identified in sporadic ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zweemer, R P; Ryan, A; Snijders, A M; Hermsen, M A; Meijer, G A; Beller, U; Menko, F H; Jacobs, I J; Baak, J P; Verheijen, R H; Kenemans, P; van Diest, P J

    2001-10-01

    The vast majority of familial ovarian cancers harbor a germline mutation in either the breast cancer gene BRCA1 or BRCA2 tumor suppressor genes. However, mutations of these genes in sporadic ovarian cancer are rare. This suggests that in contrast to hereditary disease, BRCA1 and BRCA2 are not commonly involved in sporadic ovarian cancer and may indicate that there are two distinct pathways for the development of ovarian cancer. To characterize further differences between hereditary and sporadic cancers, the comparative genomic hybridization technique was employed to analyze changes in copy number of genetic material in a panel of 36 microdissected hereditary ovarian cancers. Gains at 8q23-qter (18 of 36, 5 cases with high-level amplifications), 3q26.3-qter (18 of 36, 2 cases with high-level amplifications), 11q22 (11 of 36) and 2q31-32 (8 of 36) were most frequent. Losses most frequently occurred (in decreasing order of frequency) on 8p21-pter (23 of 36), 16q22-pter (19 of 36), 22q13 (19 of 36), 9q31-33 (16 of 36), 12q24 (16 of 36), 15q11-15 (16 of 36), 17p12-13 (14 of 36), Xp21-22 (14 of 36), 20q13 (13 of 36), 15q24-25 (12 of 36), and 18q21 (12 of 36). Comparison with the literature revealed that the majority of these genetic alterations are also common in sporadic ovarian cancer. Deletions of 15q11-15, 15q24-25, 8p21-ter, 22q13, 12q24 and gains at 11q22, 13q22, and 17q23-25, however, appear to be specific to hereditary ovarian cancer. Aberrations at 15q11-15 and 15q24-25 have not yet been described in familial ovarian cancer. In these regions, important tumor suppressor genes, including the hRAD51 gene, are located. These and other yet unknown suppressor genes may be involved in a specific carcinogenic pathway for familial ovarian cancer and may explain the distinct clinical presentation and behavior of familial ovarian cancer. PMID:11598149

  7. Is long-term virological response related to CCR5 Δ32 deletion in HIV-1-infected patients started on highly active antiretroviral therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Laurichesse, Jean-Jacques; Taieb, Audrey; Capoulade-Metay, Corinne; Katlama, Christine; Villes, Virginie; Drobacheff-Thiebaud, Marie-Christine; Raffi, François; Chêne, Genevieve; Theodorou, Ioannis; Leport, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine whether CCR5 Δ32 deletion is associated with long-term response to combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) in HIV-1 infected patients. Methods The genetic sub-study of ANRS CO8 APROCO-COPILOTE cohort included 609 patients who started a protease inhibitor-containing cART in 1997–99. Patients were considered to have a sustained virological response if all plasma HIV-RNA measurements between month 4 and years 3–5 were <500 copies/ml, allowing for a single blip. Virological response was compared between patients heterozygous for CCR5 Δ32 (Δ32/wt) and wild-type patients (wt/wt) from month 4 to year 3 and month 4 to year 5. Logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for baseline demographical data, HIV-RNA, CD4 cell counts, antiretroviral naive status, time spent on antiretroviral therapy at year 3 and 5 and adherence to treatment (month 4 to year 3 and 5). Results Sustained virological response was better in Δ32/wt than in wt/wt patients: 66% versus 52% up to year 3 (p=0.02), nearly significant after adjustment to potential cofounders (p=0.07). Δ32/wt patients had a better virological response, up to year 5, 48% versus 35% (p=0.01), and remained significantly better, after adjustment, associated with a better virological response up to 5 years post initiation of cART (p=0.04). There was no association with CD4 response. Conclusion Δ32/wt deletion is associated with a beneficial virological response to cART on the long-term. Whether this association can be a direct effect of Δ32/wt deletion remains questionable and needs confirmation in other observational studies. PMID:20050936

  8. Recurrent Distal 7q11.23 Deletion Including HIP1 and YWHAG Identified in Patients with Intellectual Disabilities, Epilepsy, and Neurobehavioral Problems

    PubMed Central

    Ramocki, Melissa B.; Bartnik, Magdalena; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Kołodziejska, Katarzyna E.; Xia, Zhilian; Bravo, Jaclyn; Miller, G. Steve; Rodriguez, Diana L.; Williams, Charles A.; Bader, Patricia I.; Szczepanik, Elżbieta; Mazurczak, Tomasz; Antczak-Marach, Dorota; Coldwell, James G.; Akman, Cigdem I.; McAlmon, Karen; Cohen, Melinda P.; McGrath, James; Roeder, Elizabeth; Mueller, Jennifer; Kang, Sung-Hae L.; Bacino, Carlos A.; Patel, Ankita; Bocian, Ewa; Shaw, Chad A.; Cheung, Sau Wai; Mazurczak, Tadeusz; Stankiewicz, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    We report 26 individuals from ten unrelated families who exhibit variable expression and/or incomplete penetrance of epilepsy, learning difficulties, intellectual disabilities, and/or neurobehavioral abnormalities as a result of a heterozygous microdeletion distally adjacent to the Williams-Beuren syndrome region on chromosome 7q11.23. In six families with a common recurrent ∼1.2 Mb deletion that includes the Huntingtin-interacting protein 1 (HIP1) and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein gamma (YWHAG) genes and that is flanked by large complex low-copy repeats, we identified sites for nonallelic homologous recombination in two patients. There were no cases of this ∼1.2 Mb distal 7q11.23 deletion copy number variant identified in over 20,000 control samples surveyed. Three individuals with smaller, nonrecurrent deletions (∼180–500 kb) that include HIP1 but not YWHAG suggest that deletion of HIP1 is sufficient to cause neurological disease. Mice with targeted mutation in the Hip1 gene (Hip1−/−) develop a neurological phenotype characterized by failure to thrive, tremor, and gait ataxia. Overall, our data characterize a neurodevelopmental and epilepsy syndrome that is likely caused by recurrent and nonrecurrent deletions, including HIP1. These data do not exclude the possibility that YWHAG loss of function is also sufficient to cause neurological phenotypes. Based on the current knowledge of Hip1 protein function and its proposed role in AMPA and NMDA ionotropic glutamate receptor trafficking, we believe that HIP1 haploinsufficiency in humans will be amenable to rational drug design for improved seizure control and cognitive and behavioral function. PMID:21109226

  9. Exonic microdeletions in the X-linked PQBP1 gene in mentally retarded patients: a pathogenic mutation and in-frame deletions of uncertain effect.

    PubMed

    Cossée, Mireille; Demeer, Bénédicte; Blanchet, Patricia; Echenne, Bernard; Singh, Deepika; Hagens, Olivier; Antin, Manuela; Finck, Sonja; Vallee, Louis; Dollfus, Hélène; Hegde, Sridevi; Springell, Kelly; Thelma, B K; Woods, Geoffrey; Kalscheuer, Vera; Mandel, Jean-Louis

    2006-04-01

    Mutations in PQBP1 were recently identified in families with syndromic and non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). Clinical features frequently associated with MR were microcephaly and/or short stature. The predominant mutations detected so far affect a stretch of six AG dinucleotides in the polar-amino-acid-rich domain (PRD), causing frameshifts in the fourth coding exon. We searched for PQBP1 exon 4 frameshifts in 57 mentally retarded males in whom initial referral description indicated at least one of the following criteria: microcephaly, short stature, spastic paraplegia or family history compatible with XLMR, and in 772 mentally retarded males not selected for specific clinical features or family history. We identified a novel frameshift mutation (23 bp deletion) in two half-brothers with specific clinical features, and performed prenatal diagnosis in this family. We also found two different 21 bp in-frame deletions (c.334-354del(21 bp) and c.393-413del(21 bp)) in four unrelated probands from various ethnic origins, each deleting one of five copies of an imperfect seven amino-acid repeat. Although such deletions have not been detected in 1180 X chromosomes from European controls, the c. 334-354del(21 bp) was subsequently found in two of 477 Xs from Indian controls. We conclude that pathogenic frameshift mutations in PQBP1 are rare in mentally retarded patients lacking specific associated signs and that the 21 bp in-frame deletions may be non-pathogenic, or alternatively could act subtly on PQBP1 function. This touches upon a common dilemma in XLMR, that is, how to distinguish between mutations and variants that may be non-pathogenic or represent risk factors for cognitive impairment. PMID:16493439

  10. Molecular Analysis of the Retinoic Acid Induced 1 Gene (RAI1) in Patients with Suspected Smith-Magenis Syndrome without the 17p11.2 Deletion

    PubMed Central

    Vilboux, Thierry; Ciccone, Carla; Blancato, Jan K.; Cox, Gerald F.; Deshpande, Charu; Introne, Wendy J.; Gahl, William A.; Smith, Ann C. M.; Huizing, Marjan

    2011-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex neurobehavioral disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies. The syndrome is primarily ascribed to a ∼3.7 Mb de novo deletion on chromosome 17p11.2. Haploinsufficiency of multiple genes likely underlies the complex clinical phenotype. RAI1 (Retinoic Acid Induced 1) is recognized as a major gene involved in the SMS phenotype. Extensive genetic and clinical analyses of 36 patients with SMS-like features, but without the 17p11.2 microdeletion, yielded 10 patients with RAI1 variants, including 4 with de novo deleterious mutations, and 6 with novel missense variants, 5 of which were familial. Haplotype analysis showed two major RAI1 haplotypes in our primarily Caucasian cohort; the novel RAI1 variants did not occur in a preferred haplotype. RNA analysis revealed that RAI1 mRNA expression was significantly decreased in cells of patients with the common 17p11.2 deletion, as well as in those with de novo RAI1 variants. Expression levels varied in patients with familial RAI1 variants and in non-17p11.2 deleted patients without identified RAI1 defects. No correlation between SNP haplotype and RAI1 expression was found. Two clinical features, ocular abnormalities and polyembolokoilomania (object insertion), were significantly correlated with decreased RAI1 expression. While not significantly correlated, the presence of hearing loss, seizures, hoarse voice, childhood onset of obesity and specific behavioral aspects and the absence of immunologic abnormalities and cardiovascular or renal structural anomalies, appeared to be specific for the de novo RAI1 subgroup. Recognition of the combination of these features will assist in referral for RAI1 analysis of patients with SMS-like features without detectable microdeletion of 17p11.2. Moreover, RAI1 expression emerged as a genetic target for development of therapeutic interventions for SMS. PMID:21857958

  11. Novel splicing, missense, and deletion mutations in seven adenosine deaminase-deficient patients with late/delayed onset of combined immunodeficiency disease. Contribution of genotype to phenotype.

    PubMed Central

    Santisteban, I; Arredondo-Vega, F X; Kelly, S; Mary, A; Fischer, A; Hummell, D S; Lawton, A; Sorensen, R U; Stiehm, E R; Uribe, L

    1993-01-01

    We examined the genetic basis for adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency in seven patients with late/delayed onset of immunodeficiency, an underdiagnosed and relatively unstudied condition. Deoxyadenosine-mediated metabolic abnormalities were less severe than in the usual, early-onset disorder. Six patients were compound heterozygotes; 7 of 10 mutations found were novel, including one deletion (delta 1019-1020), three missense (Arg156 > His, Arg101 > Leu, Val177 > Met), and three splicing defects (IVS 5, 5'ss T+6 > A; IVS 10, 5'ss G+1 > A; IVS 10, 3'ss G-34 > A). Four of the mutations generated stop signals at codons 131, 321, 334, and 348; transcripts of all but the last, due to delta 1019-1020, were severely reduced. delta 1019-1020 (like delta 955-959, found in one patient and apparently recurrent) is at a short deletional hot spot. Arg156 > His, the product of which had detectable activity, was found in three patients whose second alleles were unlikely to yield active ADA. The oldest patient diagnosed was homozygous for a single base change in intron 10, which activates a cryptic splice acceptor, resulting in a protein with 100 extra amino acids. We speculate that this "macro ADA," as well as the Arg156 > His, Arg101 > Leu, Ser291 > Leu, and delta 1019-1020 products, may contribute to mild phenotype. Tissue-specific variation in splicing efficiency may also ameliorate disease severity in patients with splicing mutations. Images PMID:8227344

  12. Deletion (2)(q37)

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.F.; Tolworthy, J.A.; Young, R.S.

    1994-06-01

    We report on a 5-month-old girl with widely spaced nipples, redundant nuchal skin, coarctation of the aorta, anal atresia with distal fistula, postnatal growth retardation, hypotonia, and sparse scalp hair. Initial clinical assessment suggested the diagnosis of Ullrich-Turner syndrome. Chromosome analysis showed a 46,XX,del(2)(q37) karyotype in peripheral lymphocytes. We compare her findings to those of other reported patients with terminal deletions of 2q. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Caregiver and Adult Patient Perspectives on the Importance of a Diagnosis of 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costain, G.; Chow, E. W. C.; Ray, P. N.; Bassett, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recent advances in genetics are particularly relevant in the field of intellectual disability (ID), where sub-microscopic deletions or duplications of genetic material are increasingly implicated as known or suspected causal factors. Data-driven reports on the impact of providing an aetiological explanation in ID are needed to help…

  14. Bortezomib-based induction improves progression-free survival of myeloma patients harboring 17p deletion and/or t(4;14) and overcomes their adverse prognosis.

    PubMed

    El-Ghammaz, Amro M S; Abdelwahed, Essam

    2016-08-01

    Providing a risk-adapted treatment strategy has been a key goal in the ongoing research efforts aimed at providing treatment tailored to the individual genetic make-up. Eighty myeloma patients have been tested for presence of 17p deletion and/or t(4;14) by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Based on FISH results, they have been categorized into patients lacking them (standard risk) and those harboring them (high risk). Patients in each category were randomly assigned 1:1 to induction treatment by either vincristine, adriamycin and dexamethasone (VAD), or bortezomib and dexamethasone (VD) followed by autologous stem cell transplantation and thalidomide maintenance and were followed up for 32 months. 32.5 % of patients were high risk. Following induction, there were significantly higher rates of at least very good partial response achievement in VD arms in standard- and high-risk patients. Regarding complete response achievement, there were insignificant differences between VAD and VD arms in standard and high-risk patients. After a median follow-up of 17.5 months, there was insignificant difference in overall survival (OS) between VAD and VD arms in standard and high-risk patients. There was superior progression-free survival (PFS) in VD arms in standard- and high-risk patients. Among patients who received VD, those belonging to standard and high-risk groups had similar PFS. In conclusion, bortezomib-based induction is superior to non-bortezomib-based one in patients harboring 17p deletion and/or t(4;14) in terms of improving PFS but not OS. Also, it reduces progression risk in patients harboring these high risk cytogenetics. PMID:27184486

  15. De novo 9 Mb deletion of 6q23.2q24.1 disrupting the gene EYA4 in a patient with sensorineural hearing loss, cardiac malformation, and mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Dutrannoy, Véronique; Klopocki, Eva; Wei, Ran; Bommer, Christiane; Mundlos, Stefan; Graul-Neumann, Luitgard M; Trimborn, Marc

    2009-01-01

    We report on a patient carrying a de novo interstitial deletion of chromosomal region 6q23.2-24.1. Interstitial deletions of 6q are rarely reported in the literature. Indeed, only four patients with interstitial deletions overlapping partially with the deleted region in our patient are described in the literature. The aberration was detected by GTG-banding. The size of the deletion was further refined by array-CGH and subsequently fine mapped by quantitative real-time PCR. The exact size of the deletion and the sequence composition of the breakpoints were determined by breakpoint spanning PCR and subsequent sequencing. The patient presented with microcephaly, short stature, patent ductus arteriosus, sensorineural hearing loss, mental retardation, reduced speech development, and abnormal behaviour. The deletion disrupts the gene EYA4. Mutations within this gene are associated with postlingual sensorineural hearing loss. The sequencing of the breakpoint indicated non homologous end joining as the most likely mechanism leading to the rearrangement. PMID:19576303

  16. A patient with interstitial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 3 (pter{yields}p21.2::p12{yields}qter) and a CHARGE-like phenotype

    SciTech Connect

    Wieczorek, D.; Gillessen-Kaesbach, G.

    1997-04-14

    We report on a 4-month-old boy with a de novo interstitial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 3 (pter {r_arrow} p21.2::p12 {r_arrow} qter) and clinical findings typical of proximal 3p deletion together with coloboma of iris, heart defect, choanal atresia, retardation of growth and development, genital hypoplasia, and ear anomalies. Family history was unremarkable and parental chromosomes were normal. The clinical manifestations of the patient are compared with those of 10 patients previously described with a proximal 3p deletion. The additional CHARGE- like phenotype is discussed. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Insulin-like growth factor I receptor expression and function in fibroblasts from two patients with deletion of the distal long arm of chromosome 15.

    PubMed

    Siebler, T; Lopaczynski, W; Terry, C L; Casella, S J; Munson, P; De Leon, D D; Phang, L; Blakemore, K J; McEvoy, R C; Kelley, R I

    1995-12-01

    Most patients with deletion of the distal long arm of chromosome 15 have intrauterine growth retardation and postnatal growth deficiency in addition to developmental abnormalities. It has been proposed that the absence of one copy of the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptor gene may play a role in the growth deficiency seen in this syndrome. To address this question we examined IGF-I receptor expression and function in fibroblasts from two patients with deletion of the distal long arm of chromosome 15 (15q26.1-->qter). Quantitative Southern blot analysis of the IGF-I receptor gene was performed on HindIII digests of fibroblast DNA. Radioactivity in the 1.7-kilobase receptor fragment in the two patients was 55% and 51% of the values in controls, consistent with the absence of one copy of the IGF-I receptor gene. IGF-I receptor messenger ribonucleic acid levels were quantitated by a solution hybridization/nuclease protection assay. Receptor messenger ribonucleic acid levels in the two patients were 45% and 52% of the values in controls. Northern blotting demonstrated normal size IGF-I receptor transcripts and affinity crosslinking of [125I]IGF-I to Triton X-100-solubilized fibroblasts demonstrated a normal size receptor in the patients. Analysis of placental membranes prepared from one patient revealed no difference in [125I]IGF-I binding. In the patients' fibroblasts, however, binding of [125I]long [R3]-IGF-I to the IGF-I receptor was significantly reduced, as assessed by the amount of radioactivity competed by the monoclonal antibody alpha IR-3 or insulin and Scatchard analysis of binding data. To assess IGF-I receptor function, stimulation of [alpha-1-14C]-methylaminoisobutyric acid transport and stimulation of [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA by a full range of IGF-I concentrations was examined in patient and control fibroblasts. There was a significant decrease in the maximal response to IGF-I in both assays for one of the two patients when

  18. A Member of a Gene Family on Xp22.3, VCX-A, Is Deleted in Patients with X-Linked Nonspecific Mental Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Fukami, Maki; Kirsch, Stefan; Schiller, Simone; Richter, Alexandra; Benes, Vladimir; Franco, Brunella; Muroya, Koji; Rao, Ercole; Merker, Sabine; Niesler, Beate; Ballabio, Andrea; Ansorge, Wilhelm; Ogata, Tsutomu; Rappold, Gudrun A.

    2000-01-01

    X-linked nonspecific mental retardation (MRX) has a frequency of 0.15% in the male population and is caused by defects in several different genes on the human X chromosome. Genotype-phenotype correlations in male patients with a partial nullisomy of the X chromosome have suggested that at least one locus involved in MRX is on Xp22.3. Previous deletion mapping has shown that this gene resides between markers DXS1060 and DXS1139, a region encompassing ∼1.5 Mb of DNA. Analyzing the DNA of 15 males with Xp deletions, we were able to narrow this MRX critical interval to ∼15 kb of DNA. Only one gene, VCX-A (variably charged, X chromosome mRNA on CRI-S232A), was shown to reside in this interval. Because of a variable number of tandem 30-bp repeats in the VCX-A gene, the size of the predicted protein is 186–226 amino acids. VCX-A belongs to a gene family containing at least four nearly identical paralogues on Xp22.3 (VCX-A, -B, -B1, and -C) and two on Yq11.2 (VCY-D, VCY-E), suggesting that the X and Y copies were created by duplication events. We have found that VCX-A is retained in all patients with normal intelligence and is deleted in all patients with mental retardation. There is no correlation between the presence or absence of VCX-B1, -B, and VCX-C and mental status in our patients. These results suggest that VCX-A is sufficient to maintain normal mental development. PMID:10903929

  19. DNA studies are necessary for accurate patient diagnosis in compound heterozygosity for Hb Adana (HBA2:c.179>A) with deletional or nondeletional α-thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Kho, Siew Leng; Ngim, Chin Fang; Chua, Kek Heng; Goh, Ai Sim; Yeoh, Seoh Leng; George, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Haemoglobin (Hb) Adana (HBA2:c.179>A) interacts with deletional and nondeletional α-thalassaemia mutations to produce HbH disorders with varying clinical manifestations from asymptomatic to severe anaemia with significant hepatosplenomegaly. Hb Adana carriers are generally asymptomatic and haemoglobin subtyping is unable to detect this highly unstable α-haemoglobin variant. This study identified 13 patients with compound heterozygosity for Hb Adana with either the 3.7 kb gene deletion (-α(3.7)), Hb Constant Spring (HbCS) (HBA2:c.427T>C) or Hb Paksé (HBA2:429A>T). Multiplex Amplification Refractory Mutation System was used for the detection of five deletional and six nondeletional α-thalassaemia mutations. Duplex-PCR was used to confirm Hb Paksé and HbCS. Results showed 84.6% of the Hb Adana patients were Malays. Using DNA studies, compound heterozygosity for Hb Adana and HbCS (α(codon 59)α/α(CS)α) was confirmed in 11 patients. A novel point in this investigation was that DNA studies confirmed Hb Paksé for the first time in a Malaysian patient (α(codon 59)α/α(Paksé)α) after nine years of being misdiagnosis with Hb Adana and HbCS (α(codon 59)α/α(CS)α). Thus, the reliance on haematology studies and Hb subtyping to detect Hb variants is inadequate in countries where thalassaemia is prevalent and caused by a wide spectrum of mutations. PMID:27271331

  20. DNA studies are necessary for accurate patient diagnosis in compound heterozygosity for Hb Adana (HBA2:c.179>A) with deletional or nondeletional α-thalassaemia

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Kho, Siew Leng; Ngim, Chin Fang; Chua, Kek Heng; Goh, Ai Sim; Yeoh, Seoh Leng; George, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Haemoglobin (Hb) Adana (HBA2:c.179>A) interacts with deletional and nondeletional α-thalassaemia mutations to produce HbH disorders with varying clinical manifestations from asymptomatic to severe anaemia with significant hepatosplenomegaly. Hb Adana carriers are generally asymptomatic and haemoglobin subtyping is unable to detect this highly unstable α-haemoglobin variant. This study identified 13 patients with compound heterozygosity for Hb Adana with either the 3.7 kb gene deletion (-α3.7), Hb Constant Spring (HbCS) (HBA2:c.427T>C) or Hb Paksé (HBA2:429A>T). Multiplex Amplification Refractory Mutation System was used for the detection of five deletional and six nondeletional α-thalassaemia mutations. Duplex-PCR was used to confirm Hb Paksé and HbCS. Results showed 84.6% of the Hb Adana patients were Malays. Using DNA studies, compound heterozygosity for Hb Adana and HbCS (αcodon 59α/αCSα) was confirmed in 11 patients. A novel point in this investigation was that DNA studies confirmed Hb Paksé for the first time in a Malaysian patient (αcodon 59α/αPakséα) after nine years of being misdiagnosis with Hb Adana and HbCS (αcodon 59α/αCSα). Thus, the reliance on haematology studies and Hb subtyping to detect Hb variants is inadequate in countries where thalassaemia is prevalent and caused by a wide spectrum of mutations. PMID:27271331

  1. Identification of genes from a 500-kb region at 7q11.23 that is commonly deleted in Williams syndrome patients

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, L.R.; Rommens, J.; Tsui, Lap-Chee |

    1996-09-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a multisystem developmental disorder caused by the deletion of contiguous genes at 7q11.23. Hemizygosity of the elastin (ELN) gene can account for the vascular and connective tissue abnormalities observed in WS patients, but the genes that contribute to features such as infantile hypercalcemia, dysmorphic facies, and mental retardation remain to be identified. In addition, the size of the genomic interval commonly deleted in WS patients has not been established. In this study we report the characterization of a 500-kb region that was determined to be deleted in our collection of WS patients. A detailed physical map consisting of cosmid, P1 artificial chromosomes, and yeast artificial chromosomes was constructed and used for gene isolation experiments. Using the techniques of direct cDNA selection and genomic DNA sequencing, a three known genes (ELN, LIMK1, and RFC2), a novel gene (WSCR1) with homology to RNA-binding proteins, a gene with homology to restin, and four other putative transcription units were identified. LIMK1 is a protein kinase with two repeats of the LIM/double zinc finger motif, and it is highly expressed in brain. RFC2 is the 40-kDa ATP-binding sub-unit of replication factor C, which is known to play a role in the elongation of DNA catalyzed by DNA polymerase {delta} and {epsilon}. LIMK1 and WSCR1 may be particularly relevant when explaining cognitive defects observed in WS patients. 56 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Familial 1.1 Mb deletion in chromosome Xq22.1 associated with mental retardation and behavioural disorders in female patients.

    PubMed

    Grillo, L; Reitano, S; Belfiore, G; Spalletta, A; Amata, S; Bottitta, M; Barone, C; Falco, M; Fichera, M; Romano, C

    2010-01-01

    We report on a 7-year-old girl with severe mental retardation (MR), autism, micro-brachycephaly, generalized muscle hypotonia with distal hypotrophy of lower limbs, scoliosis and facial dysmorphisms. Array-CGH analysis identified a 1.1 Mb deletion of chromosome Xq22.1. Further analysis demonstrated that the deletion was inherited from her mother who showed mild MR, short stature, brachycephaly, epilepsy and a Borderline Personality Disorder. Microsatellite segregation analysis revealed that the rearrangement arose de novo in the mother on the paternal X chromosome. The deleted Xq22.1 region contains part of the NXF gene cluster which is involved in mRNA nuclear export and metabolism. Among them, the NXF5 gene has already been linked to mental retardation whereas NXF2 protein has been recently found to be partner of FMRP in regulating Nxf1 mRNA stability in neuronal cells. The dosage imbalance of NXF5 and NXF2 genes may explain the severe phenotype in our patient. PMID:20096387

  3. Allelic deletions of the VHL gene detected in multiple microscopic clear cell renal lesions in von Hippel-Lindau disease patients.

    PubMed Central

    Lubensky, I. A.; Gnarra, J. R.; Bertheau, P.; Walther, M. M.; Linehan, W. M.; Zhuang, Z.

    1996-01-01

    Patients with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease develop a spectrum of bilateral clear-cell renal lesions including cysts and renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). VHL gene deletions have been previously reported in VHL-associated macroscopic RCC. Although histological analysis suggests that microscopic cystic lesions in the VHL patients may represent precursors of the RCC, there is at present no direct molecular evidence of their relationship. To investigate the relationship between cystic lesions and RCC, 26 microdissected archival renal lesions from two VHL disease patients were studied for loss of heterozygosity at the VHL gene locus using polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. The renal lesions included 2 benign cysts, 5 atypical cysts, 5 microscopic RCCs in situ, 5 cysts lined by a single layer of cells, in which RCCs in situ were developing, and 2 microscopic and 7 macroscopic RCCs. Except for a single benign cyst, 25 of 26 renal lesions showed nonrandom allelic loss of the VHL gene. In either of the 2 patients, the same VHL allele was deleted in all of the lesions tested, indicating loss of the wild-type allele and retention of the inherited, mutated VHL allele. The results suggest that all clear-cell lesions in the VHL kidney represent neoplasms and that the loss of the VHL gene occurs early in their development. Atypical and benign cysts most likely represent the initial phenotype in malignant transformation to the RCC. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8952541

  4. Deletion of MAOA and MAOB in a male patient causes severe developmental delay, intermittent hypotonia and stereotypical hand movements

    PubMed Central

    Whibley, Annabel; Urquhart, Jill; Dore, Jonathan; Willatt, Lionel; Parkin, Georgina; Gaunt, Lorraine; Black, Graeme; Donnai, Dian; Raymond, F Lucy

    2010-01-01

    Monoamine oxidases (MAO-A and MAO-B) have a key role in the degradation of amine neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin. We identified an inherited 240 kb deletion on Xp11.3–p11.4, which encompasses both monoamine oxidase genes but, unlike other published reports, does not affect the adjacent Norrie disease gene (NDP). The brothers who inherited the deletion, and thus have no monoamine oxidase function, presented with severe developmental delay, intermittent hypotonia and stereotypical hand movements. The clinical features accord with published reports of larger microdeletions and selective MAO-A and MAO-B deficiencies in humans and mouse models and suggest considerable functional compensation between MAO-A and MAO-B under normal conditions. PMID:20485326

  5. Genome-wide association study identifies a maternal copy-number deletion in PSG11 enriched among preeclampsia patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Specific genetic contributions for preeclampsia (PE) are currently unknown. This genome-wide association study (GWAS) aims to identify maternal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and copy-number variants (CNVs) involved in the etiology of PE. Methods A genome-wide scan was performed on 177 PE cases (diagnosed according to National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute guidelines) and 116 normotensive controls. White female study subjects from Iowa were genotyped on Affymetrix SNP 6.0 microarrays. CNV calls made using a combination of four detection algorithms (Birdseye, Canary, PennCNV, and QuantiSNP) were merged using CNVision and screened with stringent prioritization criteria. Due to limited DNA quantities and the deleterious nature of copy-number deletions, it was decided a priori that only deletions would be selected for assay on the entire case-control dataset using quantitative real-time PCR. Results The top four SNP candidates had an allelic or genotypic p-value between 10-5 and 10-6, however, none surpassed the Bonferroni-corrected significance threshold. Three recurrent rare deletions meeting prioritization criteria detected in multiple cases were selected for targeted genotyping. A locus of particular interest was found showing an enrichment of case deletions in 19q13.31 (5/169 cases and 1/114 controls), which encompasses the PSG11 gene contiguous to a highly plastic genomic region. All algorithm calls for these regions were assay confirmed. Conclusions CNVs may confer risk for PE and represent interesting regions that warrant further investigation. Top SNP candidates identified from the GWAS, although not genome-wide significant, may be useful to inform future studies in PE genetics. PMID:22748001

  6. FISH analysis of a patient with a constitutional 1p36 deletion defines a region for a neuroblastoma tumor suppressor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Biegel, J.; Hilliard, C.; White, P.

    1994-09-01

    Molecular and cytogenetic studies of neuroblastoma have implicated the presence of one or more tumor suppressor genes on chromosome 1p. We previously reported a neuroblastoma patient with a constitutional interstitial deletion of 1p36. As one means of further defining the deleted region, we have analyzed a series of chromosome 1p36 specific probes by FISH to metaphase chromosomes from a lymphoblastoid cell line established from the patient. We have also tested these probes on a neuroblastoma cell line, NGP, which has a t(1;15) translocation involving 1p36. The probes analyzed to date in order from centromere to telomere include ID-3 (heir-1), D1S56, D1S160, and CDC2L1 (p58). Cosmids for ID-3 and D1S56 were present in 2 copies and proximal to the breakpoint in the constitutional case, and retained on the derivative 1 in NGP. CDC2L1 was also present in 2 copies in the constitutional case, but is distal to the deletion. In NGP, CDC2L1 was translocated to the derivative 15. The D1S160 locus was deleted from one of the chromosomes 1 in the constitutional case, and was present in three copies in NGP: on the normal chromosome 1, the derivative chromosome 1, and the derivative chromosome 15. Molecular studies have suggested that there is a duplication involving this region in NGP, and so it is not clear where the translocation breakpoint is in this cell line. These studies have localized a critical region for a neuroblastoma tumor suppressor gene to 1p36.2, distal to D1S56, proximal to CDC2L1, and including D1S160. This region overlaps with the smallest area of deletion defined by loss of heterozygosity studies of primary neuroblastomas and neuroblastoma cell lines. Additional studies with probes that flank the D1S160 locus will facilitate a molecular cloning approach for a neuroblastoma tumor suppressor gene.

  7. Karyotype-phenotype insights from 11q14.1-q23.2 interstitial deletions: FZD4 haploinsufficiency and exudative vitreoretinopathy in a patient with a complex chromosome rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Li, Peining; Zhang, Hui Z; Huff, Shannon; Nimmakayalu, Manjunath; Qumsiyeh, Mazin; Yu, Jingwei; Szekely, Anna; Xu, Tian; Pober, Barbara R

    2006-12-15

    We detected a unique de novo complex chromosome rearrangement (CCR) in a patient with multiple abnormalities including growth retardation, facial anomalies, exudative vitreoretinopathy (EVR), cleft palate, and minor digital anomalies. Cytogenetic analysis, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and microsatellite genotyping showed a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 5 and 8, and a complex translocation-deletion-inversion process in the formation of derivative chromosomes 11 and 16. High-density whole-genome oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (oaCGH) defined a 35-megabase interstitial deletion of 11q14.1-q23.2 and a 1 megabase deletion of 16q22.3-q23.1. The Frizzled-4 (FZD4) gene is located within this 11q deletion. Parental studies and sequencing analysis confirmed that the patient was hemizygous for FZD4 due to the loss of a paternal allele on the derivative chromosome 11. Mutations in FZD4 are known to cause autosomal dominant exudative vitreoretinopathy (EVR1). Our patient's findings suggest that haploinsufficiency of the FZD4 gene product can also be a disease-causing mechanism for EVR1. We reviewed the clinical manifestations of 23 cases with 11q14-q23 interstitial deletions, with particular scrutiny of the present case and four reported cases characterized by molecular cytogenetics. These findings were used to construct a regional deletion map consisting of a haplosufficient segment at 11q14.3, a flanking centromeric segment at 11q14.1-q14.2, and a flanking telomeric segment at 11q21-q23.3. We propose that deletions of the FZD4 gene located within the centromeric segment cause retinal dysgenesis, while deletions within the telomeric segment account for dysmorphic craniofacial features, growth and mental retardation, and mild digital anomalies. These results provide insight into karyotype-phenotype correlations and prompt a rational analytic approach to cases with interstitial deletions of the 11q14-q23 region. PMID:17103440

  8. Stroke-Like Presentation Following Febrile Seizure in a Patient with 1q43q44 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, J. Elliott; Wolfe, Stephanie M.; Kaiser-Rogers, Kathleen; Greenwood, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Hemiconvulsion–hemiplegia–epilepsy syndrome (HHE) is a rare outcome of prolonged hemiconvulsion that is followed by diffuse unilateral hemispheric edema, hemiplegia, and ultimately hemiatrophy of the affected hemisphere and epilepsy. Here, we describe the case of a 3-year-old male with a 1;3 translocation leading to a terminal 1q43q44 deletion and a terminal 3p26.1p26.3 duplication that developed HHE after a prolonged febrile seizure and discuss the pathogenesis of HHE in the context of the patient’s complex genetic background. PMID:27199890

  9. Studies on Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism and Genotype Distributions in Turkish Preeclampsia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bereketoğlu, Ceyhun; Kasap, Mülkiye; Pazarbaşı, Ayfer

    2012-01-01

    Placental, immune and genetic factors are thought to play an important role in preeclampia (PE)'s pathophysiology. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) plays a vital role in the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) which regulates blood pressure by converting angiotensin I into a powerfull vasoconstrictor angiotensin II. A deletion polymorphism (D allele) has been reported to be associated with elevated ACE activity. The aim of the this study was to investigate whether there is an association between angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and PE. In this study, 120 preeclamptic and 116 normotensive Turkish pregnant women were genotyped for ACE I/D polymorphism and the distribution of genotype and allele frequencies of this polymorphism in preeclampsia and controls were evaluated. Codominant, dominant and recessive models were appplied in ACE gene I/D polymorphism. In the codominant model, DD genotype was found significantly more frequent in preeclampsia than controls (P = 0.016). Moreover, in dominant model (DD frequency versus DI+II frequency) there was a significant relation between DD genotype and preeclampsia (P = 0.006). D allele frequency was 64.6% in preeclampsia while it was 56.1% in controls (P = 0.062). In conclusion, there was significant difference in genotype distribution between preeclampsia and controls. PMID:22545216

  10. Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and clonal deletion of both 17p13.1 and 11q22.3 have a very poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Greipp, Patricia T.; Smoley, Stephanie A.; Viswanatha, David S.; Frederick, Lori S.; Rabe, Kari G.; Sharma, Ruchi G.; Slager, Susan L.; Van Dyke, Daniel L.; Tschumper, Renee C.; Shanafelt, Tait D.; Zent, Clive S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Detection of a 17p13.1 deletion (loss of TP53) or 11q22.3 deletion (loss of ATM), by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients is associated with a poorer prognosis. Because TP53 and ATM are integral to the TP53 pathway, we hypothesized that 17p13.1- (17p-) and 11q22.3- (11q-) occurring in the same cell (clonal 17p-/11q-) would confer a worse prognosis than either 17p- or 11q-. We studied 2184 CLL patients with FISH (1995–2012) for the first occurrence of 17p-, 11q-, or clonal 17p-/11q-. Twenty (1%) patients had clonal 17p-/11q-, 158 (7%) had 17p- (including 4 with 17p- and 11q- in separate clones), 247 (11%) had 11q-, and 1759 (81%) had neither 17p- nor 11q-. Eleven of 15 (73%) tested patients with clonal 17p-/11q- had dysfunctional TP53 mutations. Overall survival for clonal 17p-/11q- was significantly shorter (1.9 years) than 17p- (3.1 years, p = 0.04), 11q- (4.8 years, p = <0.0001), or neither 17p- nor 11q- (9.3 years, p = <0.0001). Clonal 17p-/11q- thus conferred significantly worse prognosis, suggesting that loss of at least one copy of both TP53 and ATM causes more aggressive disease. Use of an ATM/TP53 combination FISH probe set could identify these very-high risk patients. PMID:24032430

  11. A new patient with a terminal de novo 2p25.3 deletion of 1.9 Mb associated with early-onset of obesity, intellectual disabilities and hyperkinetic disorder

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Terminal and interstitial deletions of 2p25.3 (size < Mb), detected by array-CGH analysis, have been reported in about 18 patients sharing common clinical features represented by early-onset obesity/ overweightness associated with intellectual disabilities (ID) and behavioural troubles. This observations led to hypothesize that 2p subtelomeric deletion should be associated with syndromic obesity and MYT1L became the main candidate gene for ID and obesity since it is deleted or disrupted in all hitherto published cases. Here we described a 2p25.3 de novo terminal deletion of 1.9 Mb, of paternal origin, detected by array-CGH analysis in a girl of 4.4 years with a distinctive phenotype consisting of early-onset of obesity associated with moderate ID, and hyperkinetic disorder. The deletion disrupted MYT1L and encompassed five other OMIM genes, ACP1, TMEM18, SNTG2, TPO, and PXDN. Here, we discuss the combined functional effects of additional haploinsufficient genes, that may concur with heterozygous deletion of MYT1L, in the aetiology for syndromic obesity associated with 2p25.5 subtelomeric deletion. PMID:25126114

  12. A tumor of the uterine cervix with a complex histology in a Peutz-Jeghers syndrome patient with genomic deletion of the STK11 exon 1 region.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yusuke; Masuda, Kenta; Kimura, Tokuhiro; Nomura, Hiroyuki; Hirasawa, Akira; Banno, Kouji; Susumu, Nobuyuki; Sugano, Kokichi; Aoki, Daisuke

    2014-02-01

    Patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) have a risk of complicating malignant tumors, including cancer of the uterine cervix. Mutations in the STK11 gene have been identified as being responsible for PJS. However, the genotype-phenotype correlation in PJS is poorly understood, especially with respect to malignant tumors. Here, we report a detailed analysis of a case of a cervical tumor in a PJS patient showing a large genomic deletion in exon 1 of STK11 without human papillomavirus infection. Histological examination revealed a complex histology consisting of three components: lobular endocervical gland hyperplasia (LEGH), minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) and mucinous adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry for STK11 was positive in the LEGH and MDA components, while that of the mucinous adenocarcinoma stained very faintly. These findings support a close relationship among LEGH, MDA and mucinous adenocarcinoma and imply that inactivation of STK11 may occur during progression from MDA to mucinous adenocarcinoma. PMID:24490603

  13. High-resolution array-CGH in patients with oculocutaneous albinism identifies new deletions of the TYR, OCA2, and SLC45A2 genes and a complex rearrangement of the OCA2 gene.

    PubMed

    Morice-Picard, Fanny; Lasseaux, Eulalie; Cailley, Dorothée; Gros, Audrey; Toutain, Jérome; Plaisant, Claudio; Simon, Delphine; François, Stéphane; Gilbert-Dussardier, Brigitte; Kaplan, Josseline; Rooryck, Caroline; Lacombe, Didier; Arveiler, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is caused by mutations in six different genes, and their molecular diagnosis encompasses the search for point mutations and intragenic rearrangements. Here, we used high-resolution array-comparative genome hybridization (CGH) to search for rearrangements across exons, introns and regulatory sequences of four OCA genes: TYR, OCA2, TYRP1, and SLC45A2. We identified a total of ten new deletions in TYR, OCA2, and SLC45A2. A complex rearrangement of OCA2 was found in two unrelated patients. Whole-genome sequencing showed deletion of a 184-kb fragment (identical to a deletion previously found in Polish patients), whereby a large portion of the deleted sequence was re-inserted after severe reshuffling into intron 1 of OCA2. The high-resolution array-CGH presented here is a powerful tool to detect gene rearrangements. Finally, we review all known deletions of the OCA1-4 genes reported so far in the literature and show that deletions or duplications account for 5.6% of all mutations identified in the OCA1-4 genes. PMID:24118800

  14. Cloning and characterization of an alternatively spliced gene in proximal Xq28 deleted in two patients with intersexual genitalia and myotubular myopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Laporte, J.; Hu, Ling-Jia; Kretz, C.

    1997-05-01

    We have identified a novel human gene that is entirely deleted in two boys with abnormal genital development and myotubular myopathy (MTM1). The gene, F18, is located in proximal Xq28, approximately 80 kb centromeric to the recently isolated MTM1 gene. Northern analysis of mRNA showed a ubiquitous pattern and suggested high levels of expression in skeletal muscle, brain, and heart. A transcript of 4.6 kb was detected in a range of tissues, and additional alternate forms of 3.8 and 2.6 kb were present in placenta and pancreas, respectively. The gene extends over 100 kb and is composed of at least seven exons, of which two are non-coding. Sequence analysis of a 4.6-kb cDNA contig revealed two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) that encode putative proteins of 701 and 424 amino acids, respectively. Two alternative spliced transcripts affecting the large open reading frame were identified that, together with the Northern blot results, suggest that distinct proteins are derived from the gene. No significant homology to other known proteins was detected, but segments of the first ORF encode polyglutamine tracts and proline-rich domains, which are frequently observed in DNA-binding proteins. The F18 gene is a strong candidate for being implicated in the intersexual genitalia present in the two MTM1-deleted patients. The gene also serves as a candidate for other disorders that map to proximal Xq28. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Dental developmental abnormalities in a patient with subtelomeric 7q36 deletion syndrome may confirm a novel role for the SHH gene.

    PubMed

    Linhares, Natália D; Svartman, Marta; Salgado, Mauro Ivan; Rodrigues, Tatiane C; da Costa, Silvia S; Rosenberg, Carla; Valadares, Eugênia R

    2014-12-01

    Studies in mice demonstrated that the Shh gene is crucial for normal development of both incisors and molars, causing a severe retardation in tooth growth, which leads to abnormal placement of the tooth in the jaw and disrupted tooth morphogenesis. In humans the SHH gene is located on chromosome 7q36. Defects in its protein or signaling pathway may cause holoprosencephaly spectrum, a disorder in which the developing forebrain fails to correctly separate into right and left hemispheres and that can be manifested in microforms such as single maxillary central incisor. A novel role for this gene in the developing human primary dentition was recently demonstrated. We report a 12-year old boy with a de novo 7q36.1-qter deletion characterized by high-resolution karyotyping, oligonucleotide aCGH and FISH. His phenotype includes intellectual disability, non-verbal communication, hypospadia, partial sacral agenesis and absence of coccyx, which are distinctive features of the syndrome and mainly correlated with the MNX1, HTR5A and EN2 genes. No microforms of holoprosencephaly spectrum were observed; but the patient had diastema and dental developmental abnormalities, such as conical, asymmetric and tapered inferior central incisors. The dental anomalies are reported herein for the first time in subtelomeric 7q36 deletion syndrome and may confirm clinically a novel role for the SHH gene in dental development. PMID:25606385

  16. Identification of the -α(2.4) Deletion in One Family and in One Hb H Disease Patient in Guangxi, People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Pang, Wanrong; Sun, Lei; Long, Ju; Weng, Xunjin; Ye, Xuehe; Wang, Junjie; Liao, Yan; Tang, Weijun; Fan, Zuqian; Wu, Suping; Song, Chuanlu; Wei, Xiaoying; Zhang, Chenghong

    2016-06-01

    The 2.4 kb (or -α(2.4)) deletion in the α-globin gene cluster (NG_000006.1) is an α(+)-thalassemia (α(+)-thal) allele. The molecular basis of -α(2.4) is a deletion from 36860 to 39251 of the α-globin gene cluster. It was reported by three research groups in 2005, 2012 and 2014, respectively. In routine thalassemia screening studies by this research group, we found an individual with the -α(2.4)/αα genotype and an Hb H (β4) disease patient whose genotype was - -(SEA)/-α(2.4). Samples from the parents of the carrier of the -α(2.4)/αα genotype were collected to perform pedigree analysis, and the proband's mother's genotype was diagnosed to be - -(SEA)/-α(2.4). The research revealed that the -α(2.4) allele exists in the population of southern Guangxi, People's Republic of China. PMID:26984456

  17. Identification of an AluY-mediated deletion of exon 5 in the CPOX gene by MLPA analysis in patients with hereditary coproporphyria.

    PubMed

    Barbaro, M; Kotajärvi, M; Harper, P; Floderus, Y

    2012-03-01

    Hereditary coproporphyria (HCP) is an autosomal dominantly inherited hepatic porphyria, caused by a mutation in the coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPOX) gene. The genetic defect leads to a partial defect of CPOX, the sixth enzyme involved in haem biosynthesis. Affected individuals can develop acute life-threatening attacks of neurovisceral symptoms and/or more rarely cutaneous symptoms such as skin fragility and blistering. The identification of the genetic defect in HCP families is of crucial importance to detect the carrier status which allows counselling to prevent possible triggering factors, e.g. certain drugs, alcohol, or fasting. In a total of nine Swedish HCP families, routine gene sequence analysis had identified a causative mutation in only five. In the present study, using an in-house developed synthetic probe set for multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis, we detected a deletion of the fifth exon in the CPOX gene in the remaining four families. The deletion is 3381 bp in size and has originated by an Alu-mediated mechanism. This finding emphasizes the usefulness of MLPA analysis as a complement to gene sequencing for comprehensive genetic diagnostics in HCP patients. PMID:21231929

  18. Haploinsufficiency of XPO1 and USP34 by a de novo 230 kb deletion in 2p15, in a patient with mild intellectual disability and cranio-facial dysmorphisms.

    PubMed

    Fannemel, Madeleine; Barøy, Tuva; Holmgren, Asbjørn; Rødningen, Olaug K; Haugsand, Trine M; Hansen, Børre; Frengen, Eirik; Misceo, Doriana

    2014-09-01

    2p15p16.1-deletion syndrome was first described in 2007 based on the clinical presentation of two patients. The syndrome is characterized by intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders, microcephaly, dysmorphic facial features and a variety of congenital organ defects. The precise genotype-phenotype correlation in 2p15-deletion syndrome is not understood. However, greater insight can be obtained by thorough clinical investigation of patients carrying deletions, especially those of small size. We report a 21-year-old male patient with features overlapping the clinical spectrum of the 2p15p16.1-deletion syndrome, such as intellectual disability, dysmorphic facial features, and congenital defects. He carried a 230 kb de novo deletion (chr2:61500346-61733075 bp, hg19), which affects the genes USP34, SNORA70B and XPO1. While there is a lack of functional data on SNORA70B, the involvement of USP34 and XPO1 in the regulation of fundamental developmental processes is well known. We suggest that haploinsufficiency of one or both of these genes is likely to be responsible for the disease in our patient. PMID:24911659

  19. The deletion of 22q13 region in both intracranial and spinal meningiomas in a patient (case report).

    PubMed

    Durmaz, R; Arslantaş, A; Artan, S; Ozon, Y H; Işiksoy, S; Başaran, N; Tel, E

    1998-09-01

    We present a 69 year old man with two simultaneous meningiomas in different compartment of neural axis, in both of which 22q13 locus is lost. Histologically the two tumours appeared to be different; meningotheliomatous and transitional with psammoma bodies, respectively. No numerical or structural chromosome abnormalities were seen in karyotype analysis of the cultured spinal and cranial meningioma samples. Since long arm structural aberrations and/or whole loss of chromosome 22 are frequently reported abnormalities of meningiomas, the tumours were also analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with different colour-labelled probes in respect to relevant chromosome. The metaphases and interphase nuclei of the samples were evaluated by the combined biotinylated 22q11 and digoxigenin-labelled 22q13 locus specific FISH probes, and 22q13 deletion was revealed in both of spinal and cranial tumour cells. In conclusion, since both tumours from the presented case show the same genetic alterations, multiplicity may be derived from the same clone of cells, and support the theory of development of multiple meningiomas from the spreading of tumour cells via cerebrospinal fluid as a possible mechanism. PMID:9822846

  20. A patient presenting a 22q13 deletion associated with an apparently balanced translocation t(16;22): An illustrative case in the investigation of patients with low ARSA activity

    PubMed Central

    Artigalás, Osvaldo; Paskulin, Giorgio; Riegel, Mariluce; Burin, Maira; Saraiva-Pereira, Maria Luiza; Maluf, Sharbel; Kiss, Andrea; Schwartz, Ida Vanessa D.

    2012-01-01

    A 10-year-old speechless, mentally deficient male, with low arylsulfatase A (ARSA) activity, and presumably, methachromatic leukodystrophy, underwent genetic evaluation. As the clinical picture was not compatible with this diagnosisan ARSA gene and chromosome analysis were performed, showing the presence of a pseudodeficiency ARSA allele and a de novo apparently balanced t(16;22)(p11.2;q13) translocation. A deletion on the long arm of chromosome 22 encompassing the ARSA gene, as shown by FISH and array-CGH, indicated a 22q13 deletion syndrome. This case illustrates the importance of detailed cytogenetic investigation in patients presenting low arylsulfatase A activity and atypical/unspecific clinical features. PMID:22888290

  1. A cytogenetic deletion, del(17)(q11.22q21.1), in a patient with sporadic neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) associated with dysmorphism and developmental delay.

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, M; Roberts, S H; Maynard, J; Sorour, E; Thompson, P W; Vaughan, M; Wilkie, A O; Hughes, H E

    1996-01-01

    We report the first visible cytogenetic deletion involving the NF1 gene in a patient with sporadic neurofibromatosis, dysmorphic features, and marked developmental delay. The combined evidence of molecular and cytogenetic techniques based on dosage reduction, hemizygosity for microsatellite markers, high resolution G banding, and FISH analysis, predicts this deletion to be approximately 7 Mb in size. Our findings highlight the importance of conducting a detailed cytogenetic and FISH analysis in patients with NF1 who have additional dysmorphic features or particularly severe learning difficulties. Images PMID:8929953

  2. Deletion of 4.4 Mb at 2q33.2q33.3 May Cause Growth Deficiency in a Patient with Mental Retardation, Facial Dysmorphic Features and Speech Delay.

    PubMed

    Papoulidis, Ioannis; Paspaliaris, Vassilis; Papageorgiou, Elena; Siomou, Elissavet; Dagklis, Themistoklis; Sotiriou, Sotirios; Thomaidis, Loretta; Manolakos, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    A patient with a rare interstitial deletion of chromosomal band 2q33.2q33.3 is described. The clinical features resembled the 2q33.1 microdeletion syndrome (Glass syndrome), including mental retardation, facial dysmorphism, high-arched narrow palate, growth deficiency, and speech delay. The chromosomal aberration was characterized by whole genome BAC aCGH. A comparison of the current patient and Glass syndrome features revealed that this case displayed a relatively mild phenotype. Overall, it is suggested that the deleted region of 2q33 causative for Glass syndrome may be larger than initially suggested. PMID:25925190

  3. Inversion and deletion of 16q22 defined by array CGH, FISH, and RT-PCR in a patient with AML.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Angelika J; Bal, Shibani; McTavish, Barry; Tomiuk, Michelle; Schroedter, Ingo; Ahsanuddin, Arshad N; Seftel, Matthew D; Vallente, Rhea; Mai, Sabine; Cotter, Philip D; Hovanes, Karine; Gorre, Mercedes; Gunn, Shelly R

    2011-06-01

    Acute myelomonocytic leukemia with eosinophilia is commonly associated with pericentric inversions of chromosome 16, involving the core binding factor beta gene (CBFB) on 16q22 and the myosin heavy chain gene (MYH11) on 16p13. The inv(16)(p13q22) results in a fusion gene comprising the 5'CBFB gene and the 3'MYH11 gene on the short arm of chromosome 16. The fusion gene interferes with the normal transcription of the CBFA/CBFB heterodimer and disrupts myeloid differentiation. The inv(16) is associated with a good prognosis. The inv(16) with deletion of the 3'CBFB region of the gene is a very rare occurrence. Although the number of cases is small, inv(16) with a deleted 3'CBFB seems to be associated with a poorer prognosis than that generally associated with inv(16). Our patient was a 30-year-old man with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia who was found to have a CBFB-MYH11 fusion by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The high blast count and lack of differentiation were not typical for this entity and suggested clonal progression. The initial karyotype by conventional cytogenetic analysis, in all metaphases examined, was 46,XY,del(7)(q32),del(16)(q22). Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with a dual-color, break-apart probe corresponding to the CBFB gene locus (Abbott, Des Plaines, IL) showed a derivative chromosome 16 resulting from an inversion of the CBFB gene with a deletion of the 3'CBFB probe region. Oligonucleotide array comparative genetic hybridization analysis was performed on this patient's diagnostic bone marrow DNA referenced to a normal male control DNA by using the DNAarray Heme Profile (CombiMatrix Diagnostics, Irvine, CA) microarray. This analysis showed a 1.2 Mb loss of 16q22.1, which did not include loss of the 3'CBFB gene locus, but rather sequences distal to this locus. The DNAarray Heme Profile results illustrate the importance of microarray in the correct identification of abnormalities that will affect prognosis. PMID

  4. Monoclonal antibodies against the muscle-specific N-terminus of dystrophin: Characterization of dystrophin in a muscular dystrophy patient with a frameshift deletion of Exons 3-7

    SciTech Connect

    Thanh, L. T.; Man, N. thi; Morris, G.E. ); Love, D.R.; Davies, K.E. ); Helliwell, T.R. )

    1993-07-01

    The first three exons of the human muscle dystrophin gene were expressed as a [beta]-galactosidase fusion protein. 1-his protein was then used to prepare two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) which react with native dystrophin on frozen muscle sections and with denatured dystrophin on western blots but which do not cross-react with the distrophin-related protein, utrophin. Both mAbs recognized dystrophin in muscular dystrophy (MD) patients with deletions of exon 3, and further mapping with 11 overlapping synthetic peptides showed that they both recognize an epitope encoded by the muscle-specific exon 1. Neither mAb recognizes the brain dystrophin isoform, confirming the prediction from mRNA data that this has a different N-terminus. One Becker MD patient with a frameshift deletion of exons 3-7 is shown to produce dystrophin which reacts with the N-terminal mAbs, as well as with mAbs which bind on the C-terminal side of the deletion. The data suggest that transcription begins at the normal muscle dystrophin promoter and that the normal reading frame is restored after the deletion. A number of mechanisms have been proposed for restoration of the reading frame after deletion of exons 3-7, but those which predict dystrophin with an abnormal N-terminus do not appear to be major mechanisms in this patient. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Heterozygous deletion of a 2-Mb region including the dystroglycan gene in a patient with mild myopathy, facial hypotonia, oral-motor dyspraxia and white matter abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Frost, Amy R; Böhm, Sabrina V; Sewduth, Raj N; Josifova, Dragana; Ogilvie, Caroline Mackie; Izatt, Louise; Roberts, Roland G

    2010-07-01

    Dystroglycan is a protein which binds directly to two proteins defective in muscular dystrophies (dystrophin and laminin alpha2) and whose own aberrant post-translational modification is the common aetiological route of neuromuscular diseases associated with mutations in genes encoding at least six other proteins (POMT1, POMT2, POMGnT1, LARGE, FKTN and FKRP). It is surprising, therefore, that to our knowledge no mutations of the human dystroglycan gene itself have yet been reported. In this study, we describe a patient with a heterozygous de novo deletion of a approximately 2-Mb region of chromosome 3, which includes the dystroglycan gene (DAG1). The patient is a 16-year-old female with learning difficulties, white matter abnormalities, elevated serum creatine kinase, oral-motor dyspraxia and facial hypotonia but minimal clinically significant involvement of other muscles. As these symptoms are a subset of those observed in disorders of dystroglycan glycosylation (muscle-eye-brain disease and Warker-Warburg syndrome), we assess the likely contribution to her phenotype of her heterogosity for a null mutation of DAG1. We also show that the transcriptional compensation observed in the Dag1(+/-) mouse is not observed in the patient. Although we cannot show that haploinsufficiency of DAG1 is the sole cause of this patient's myopathy and white matter changes, this case serves to constrain our ideas of the severity of the phenotypic consequences of heterozygosity for null DAG1 mutations. PMID:20234391

  6. Heterozygous deletion of a 2-Mb region including the dystroglycan gene in a patient with mild myopathy, facial hypotonia, oral-motor dyspraxia and white matter abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Amy R; Böhm, Sabrina V; Sewduth, Raj N; Josifova, Dragana; Ogilvie, Caroline Mackie; Izatt, Louise; Roberts, Roland G

    2010-01-01

    Dystroglycan is a protein which binds directly to two proteins defective in muscular dystrophies (dystrophin and laminin α2) and whose own aberrant post-translational modification is the common aetiological route of neuromuscular diseases associated with mutations in genes encoding at least six other proteins (POMT1, POMT2, POMGnT1, LARGE, FKTN and FKRP). It is surprising, therefore, that to our knowledge no mutations of the human dystroglycan gene itself have yet been reported. In this study, we describe a patient with a heterozygous de novo deletion of a ∼2-Mb region of chromosome 3, which includes the dystroglycan gene (DAG1). The patient is a 16-year-old female with learning difficulties, white matter abnormalities, elevated serum creatine kinase, oral-motor dyspraxia and facial hypotonia but minimal clinically significant involvement of other muscles. As these symptoms are a subset of those observed in disorders of dystroglycan glycosylation (muscle–eye–brain disease and Warker–Warburg syndrome), we assess the likely contribution to her phenotype of her heterogosity for a null mutation of DAG1. We also show that the transcriptional compensation observed in the Dag1+/− mouse is not observed in the patient. Although we cannot show that haploinsufficiency of DAG1 is the sole cause of this patient's myopathy and white matter changes, this case serves to constrain our ideas of the severity of the phenotypic consequences of heterozygosity for null DAG1 mutations. PMID:20234391

  7. Patients with Exon 19 Deletion Were Associated with Longer Progression-Free Survival Compared to Those with L858R Mutation after First-Line EGFR-TKIs for Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Wenfeng; Yan, Yue; Hu, Zhihuang; Hong, Shaodong; Wu, Xuan; Qin, Tao; Liang, Wenhua; Zhang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Backgrounds It has been extensively proved that the efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) is superior to that of cytotoxic chemotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harboring sensitive EGFR mutations. However, the question of whether the efficacy of EGFR-TKIs differs between exon 19 deletion and exon 21 L858R mutation has not been yet statistically answered. Methods Subgroup data on hazard ratio (HR) for progression-free survival (PFS) of correlative studies were extracted and synthesized based on random-effect model. Comparison of outcomes between specific mutations was estimated through indirect and direct methods, respectively. Results A total of 13 studies of advanced NSCLC patients with either 19 or 21 exon alteration receiving first-line EGFR-TKIs were included. Based on the data from six clinical trials for indirect meta-analysis, the pooled HRTKI/chemotherapy for PFS were 0.28 (95% CI 0.20–0.38, P<0.001) in patients with 19 exon deletion and 0.47 (95% CI 0.35–0.64, P<0.001) in those with exon 21 L858R mutation. Indirect comparison revealed that the patients with exon 19 deletion had longer PFS than those with exon 21 L858R mutation (HR19 exon deletion/exon 21 L858R mutation  = 0.59, 95% CI 0.38–0.92; P = 0.019). Additionally, direct meta-analysis showed similar result (HR19 exon deletion/exon 21 L858R mutation  = 0.75, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.85; P<0.001) by incorporating another seven studies. Conclusions For advanced NSCLC patients, exon 19 deletion might be associated with longer PFS compared to L858 mutation at exon 21 after first-line EGFR-TKIs. PMID:25222496

  8. Deletion of Chromosomal Region 8p21 Confers Resistance to Bortezomib and Is Associated with Upregulated Decoy TRAIL Receptor Expression in Patients with Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Duru, Adil Doganay; Sutlu, Tolga; Wallblom, Ann; Uttervall, Katarina; Lund, Johan; Stellan, Birgitta; Gahrton, Gösta; Nahi, Hareth; Alici, Evren

    2015-01-01

    Loss of the chromosomal region 8p21 negatively effects survival in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) that undergo autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). In this study, we aimed to identify the immunological and molecular consequences of del(8)(p21) with regards to treatment response and bortezomib resistance. In patients receiving bortezomib as a single first line agent without any high-dose therapy, we have observed that patients with del(8)(p21) responded poorly to bortezomib with 50% showing no response while patients without the deletion had a response rate of 90%. In vitro analysis revealed a higher resistance to bortezomib possibly due to an altered gene expression profile caused by del(8)(p21) including genes such as TRAIL-R4, CCDC25, RHOBTB2, PTK2B, SCARA3, MYC, BCL2 and TP53. Furthermore, while bortezomib sensitized MM cells without del(8)(p21) to TRAIL/APO2L mediated apoptosis, in cells with del(8)(p21) bortezomib failed to upregulate the pro-apoptotic death receptors TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 which are located on the 8p21 region. Also expressing higher levels of the decoy death receptor TRAIL-R4, these cells were largely resistant to TRAIL/APO2L mediated apoptosis. Corroborating the clinical outcome of the patients, our data provides a potential explanation regarding the poor response of MM patients with del(8)(p21) to bortezomib treatment. Furthermore, our clinical analysis suggests that including immunomodulatory agents such as Lenalidomide in the treatment regimen may help to overcome this negative effect, providing an alternative consideration in treatment planning of MM patients with del(8)(p21). PMID:26378933

  9. microRNA fingerprinting of CLL patients with chromosome 17p deletion identify a miR-21 score that stratifies early survival

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Simona; Shimizu, Masayoshi; Barbarotto, Elisa; Nicoloso, Milena S.; Dimitri, Federica; Sampath, Deepa; Fabbri, Muller; Lerner, Susan; Barron, Lynn L.; Rassenti, Laura Z.; Jiang, Li; Xiao, Lianchun; Hu, Jianhua; Secchiero, Paola; Zauli, Giorgio; Volinia, Stefano; Negrini, Massimo; Wierda, William; Kipps, Thomas J.; Plunkett, William; Coombes, Kevin R.; Abruzzo, Lynne V.

    2010-01-01

    Aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been associated with clinical outcome in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To identify a powerful and easily assessable miRNA bio-marker of prognosis and survival, we performed quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) profiling in 104 CLL patients with a well-defined chromosome 17p status, and we validated our findings with miRNA microarray data from an independent cohort of 80 patients. We found that miR-15a, miR-21, miR-34a, miR-155, and miR-181b were differentially expressed between CLLs with chromosome 17p deletion and CLLs with normal 17p and normal karyotype, and that miR-181b was down-regulated in therapy-refractory cases. miR-21 expression levels were significantly higher in patients with poor prognosis and predicted overall survival (OS), and miR-181b expression levels significantly predicted treatment-free survival. We developed a 21FK score (miR-21 qRT-PCR, fluorescence in situ hybridization, Karyotype) to stratify patients according to OS and found that patients with a low score had a significantly longer OS time. When we evaluated the relative power of the 21FK score with the most used prognostic factors, the score was the most significant in both CLL cohorts. We conclude that the 21FK score represents a useful tool for distinguishing between good-prognosis and poor-prognosis CLL patients. PMID:20393129

  10. A complex insertion/deletion polymorphism in the compositionally biased region of the ZFHX3 gene in patients with coronary heart disease in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shunchang; Zhang, Wenwu; Chen, Xi; Peng, Yunsheng; Chen, Qunrong

    2015-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality around the world and has both genetic and environmental precipitants. Genetic factors are significant in determining the level of risk factors in individuals. Variants in ZFHX3 gene are associated with atrial fibrillation in individuals of European ancestry. The aim of this study was to analyze the polymorphisms in the compositionally biased region of the ZFHX3 gene in patients with coronary heart disease in a Chinese population, and to explore their associations with coronary heart disease. We recruited 278 CHD patients and 358 age and sex matched healthy controls in a Chinese Han population, polymorphisms in the compositionally biased region of the ZFHX3 gene were determined by polymerase chain reaction followed by DNA sequencing. The genotype frequencies were calculated, and statistical analysis was performed using the non-parametric mood median test. A complex insertion/deletion polymorphism was identified in the compositionally biased region of the ZFHX3 gene in a Chinese population. Six common genotypes (GGC)4GGTGGCAGT(GGC)4GGT(GGC)8, (GGC)4GGTGGCAGT(GGC)5GGT(GGC)8, (GGC)4GGTGGCAGT(GGC)5GGT(GGC)7, (GGC)2GGTGGCAGT(GGC)5GGT(GGC)10, (GGC)4GGTGGCAGT(GGC)5GGT(GGC)5, and (GGC)4GGT(GGC)8 were found in both CHD patients and healthy controls, there was no significant difference in the six genotype frequencies between CHD patients and healthy controls. Rare genotypes (GGC)4GGTGGCAGT(GGC)2GGT(GGC)2GGT(GGC)6, (GGC)4GGTGGCAGT (GGC)8, (GGC)4GGTGGCAGT(GGC)3GGT(GGC)8, and (GGC)6GGT(GGC)8 were only identified in healthy controls. Rare genotypes (GGC)4GGTGGCAGT(GGC)4GGT(GGC)5, (GGC)4GGTGGCAGT(GGC)4GGT(GGC)4, and (GGC)4GGTGGCGGT(GGC)6 were only found in CHD patients. The compositionally biased region of the ZFHX3 gene contains a poly-Gly sequence. A complex insertion/deletion polymorphism exists in this region in a Chinese population, clinical significance of some rare genotypes should be explored for

  11. Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism (insertion/deletion) and liver fibrosis in Turkish patients from the western Black Sea region, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Turhan, N K; Ilikhan, S Uygun; Hamamcioglu, A C; Ustundag, Y; Dursun, A; Kokturk, F

    2015-01-01

    Chronic viral hepatitis B, chronic viral hepatitis C, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, and secondary biliary cirrhosis are important health issues worldwide. While an association between angiotensin-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion (ACE gene I/D) polymorphism and liver fibrosis has been demonstrated in rat studies, the results of clinical studies area have been contradictory. The aim of this study was to assess the possible association between ACE gene I/D polymorphism and liver fibrosis in a large group of Turkish patients from the western Black Sea region. In 418 patients with different etiologies, ACE gene I/D polymorphism and serum ACE levels were investigated. The distribution of the "DD", "ID", "II" genotypes of the ACE gene were 32.5, 48.8, and 18.7% in the mild to moderate fibrosis group (N = 246, F:1-3 according to Ishak's score) and 39.0, 44.2, and 16.9% in the advanced fibrosis group (N = 172, F:4-6 according to Ishak's score). A significant correlation between serum ACE levels and ACE gene alleles was identified (P < 0.001): serum ACE levels of patients with D alleles were higher than those of patients with I alleles [44 (min 7-max 101) versus 29 (min 7-max 96)]. Patients with advanced fibrosis were also found to be older than those with mild to moderate fibrosis (P < 0.001). No significant association was noted between the patient gender and fibrosis severity. We conclude that ACE I/D polymorphism is not associated with the degree of liver fibrosis. PMID:26681055

  12. Study of two patients with craniosynostosis and deletions of 11q: One with features of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome and the other with concomitant partial trisomy 4q

    SciTech Connect

    Morsey, S. |; Lewanda, A.F. |; Reid, C.S.

    1994-09-01

    Partial monosomy 11q is associated with metopic craniosynostosis and trigonocephaly. Prominant features in the over 30 reported cases include downslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, hypertelorism, ptosis, wide/depressed nasal bridge, low set malformed ears, downturned mouth, micro/retrognathia, digital and cardiac anomalies and psychomotor retardation. We evaluated two patients referred for abnormal head shape. The first carried a diagnosis of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome due to brachycephaly, facial asymmetry, ptosis, cupped ears, sundactyly of 2nd and 3rd digits, developmental delay, and VSD. Karyotype revealed 46,XY,del(11)(q24.1{yields}qter). No abnormality was noted of chromosome 7p, where the Saethre-Chotzen syndrome locus has been mapped. This suggests genetic heterogeneity for this condition. The second patient had no prior diagnosis. He had trigonocephaly, bilateral cryptorchidism and inguinal hernias. He also had hypotelorism, epicanthal folds, synophrys, posteriorly rotated ears, horizontal crease below his lower lip, unilateral single palmar crease, mild soft tissue syndactyly and a shawl scrotum. His karyotype of 46,XY,-11,+der(11)t(4;11)(q31.3;q25) revealed both partial 11q monosomy and partial 4q trisomy (the latter associated with cryptorchidism, horizontal chin crease and single palmar crease). Deletions of 11q appear to produce a wide spectrum of defects, which may even mimic other known craniosynostotic conditions. Study of these patients may lead to the identification of new genes involved in craniofacial morphogenesis.

  13. NR2F1 Deletion in a Patient with a de novo Paracentric Inversion, inv(5)(q15q33.2), and Syndromic Deafness

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Kerry K.; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; Matos, Michael; Robertson, Richard L.; Kimonis, Virginia E.; Morton, Cynthia C.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to discover genes important for human development, we have ascertained patients with congenital anomalies and cytogenetically balanced chromosomal rearrangements. Herein, we report a four year-old girl with profound deafness, a history of feeding difficulties, dysmorphism, strabismus, developmental delay, and an apparently balanced de novo paracentric chromosome 5 inversion, inv(5)(q15q33.2). Molecular cytogenetic analysis of the inversion revealed the presence of microdeletions of approximately 400-500 kb at or near both breakpoints. The 5q15 microdeletion completely removes the nuclear receptor NR2F1 (COUP-TFI) from the inverted chromosome 5. We propose haploinsufficiency of NR2F1 to be the cause of the patient's deafness and many of the other associated anomalies based on striking similarity with the Nr2f1 null mouse. Additionally, this study further highlights the need for high resolution analysis of clinical samples with chromosomal rearrangements as associated deletions may be primarily responsible for the clinical features of these patients. PMID:19353646

  14. Assessment of the Olfactory Function in Italian Patients with Type 3 von Willebrand Disease Caused by a Homozygous 253 Kb Deletion Involving VWF and TMEM16B/ANO2

    PubMed Central

    Cenedese, Valentina; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Morgan, Anna; Marino, Renato; Ettorre, Cosimo Pietro; Margaglione, Maurizio; Gasparini, Paolo; Menini, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Type 3 Von Willebrand disease is an autosomal recessive disease caused by the virtual absence of the von Willebrand factor (VWF). A rare 253 kb gene deletion on chromosome 12, identified only in Italian and German families, involves both the VWF gene and the N-terminus of the neighbouring TMEM16B/ANO2 gene, a member of the family named transmembrane 16 (TMEM16) or anoctamin (ANO). TMEM16B is a calcium-activated chloride channel expressed in the olfactory epithelium. As a patient homozygous for the 253 kb deletion has been reported to have an olfactory impairment possibly related to the partial deletion of TMEM16B, we assessed the olfactory function in other patients using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). The average UPSIT score of 4 homozygous patients was significantly lower than that of 5 healthy subjects with similar sex, age and education. However, 4 other members of the same family, 3 heterozygous for the deletion and 1 wild type, had a slightly reduced olfactory function indicating that socio-cultural or other factors were likely to be responsible for the observed difference. These results show that the ability to identify odorants of the homozygous patients for the deletion was not significantly different from that of the other members of the family, showing that the 253 kb deletion does not affect the olfactory performance. As other genes may compensate for the lack of TMEM16B, we identified some predicted functional partners from in silico studies of the protein-protein network of TMEM16B. Calculation of diversity for the corresponding genes for individuals of the 1000 Genomes Project showed that TMEM16B has the highest level of diversity among all genes of the network, indicating that TMEM16B may not be under purifying selection and suggesting that other genes in the network could compensate for its function for olfactory ability. PMID:25635880

  15. Deletions of the elastin gene in Williams Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, F.; Nickerson, E.; McCaskill, C.

    1994-09-01

    To investigate deletions in the elastin gene in patients with Williams Syndrome (WS), we screened 37 patients and their parents for deletions in the elastin gene by both fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using cosmid cELN272 containing the 5{prime} end of the elastin gene and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a primer pair which amplifies intron 17 in the elastin gene, producing a polymorphic amplification product. Thirty-two patients have been investigated by both the FISH and PCR techniques, one patient was studied only by PCR, and 4 patients were studied only by FISH. Overall, 34 of 37 patients (92%) were deleted for the elastin gene. Using the PCR marker, 14 patients were informative and 12 were shown to be deleted [maternal (n=5) and paternal (n=7)]. Using cosmid cELN272, 33 of 36 patients demonstrated a deletion of chromosome 7q11.23. In one family, both the mother and daughter were deleted due to an apparently de novo deletion arising in the mother. Three patients were not deleted using the elastin cosmid; 2 of these patients have classic WS. Another non-deleted patient has the typical facial features and hypercalcemia but normal intelligence. These three patients will be important in delineating the critical region(s) responsible for the facial features, hypercalcemia, mental retardation and supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS). There was not an absolute correlation between deletions in elastin and SVAS, although these individuals may be at risk for other cardiovascular complications such as hypertention. Since the majority of WS patients are deleted for a portion of the elastin gene, most likely this marker will be an important diagnostic tool, although more patients will need to be studied. Those patients who are not deleted but clinically have WS will be missed using only this one marker. Expansion of the critical region to other loci and identification of additional markers will be essential for identifying all patients with WS.

  16. Unmasking of a Recessive SCARF2 Mutation by a 22q11.12 de novo Deletion in a Patient with Van den Ende-Gupta Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bedeschi, M.F.; Colombo, L.; Mari, F.; Hofmann, K.; Rauch, A.; Gentilin, B.; Renieri, A.; Clerici, D.

    2011-01-01

    Van den Ende-Gupta syndrome (VDEGS) is a congenital condition characterized by craniofacial and skeletal manifestations, specifically blepharophimosis, malar and maxillary hypoplasia, distinctive nose, arachnocamptodactyly, and long slender bones of the hands and feet. To date, only 24 patients have been described. It is generally thought that the syndrome is transmitted by an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, although evidence for genetic heterogeneity has recently been presented. We report on a girl followed from birth up to 3 years of life with a set of peculiar minor anomalies, arachnocamptodactyly of hands and feet, characteristic of VDEGS in association with a 22q11.12 deletion. Recently, the VDEGS gene was mapped to the DiGeorge syndrome region on 22q11.2, and homozygous mutations in the SCARF2 gene were identified. We now report the first patient with VDEGS due to compound heterozygosity for the common 22q11.2 microdeletion and a hemizygous SCARF2 splice site mutation. PMID:22140376

  17. The Difference of Clinical Characteristics Between Patients With Exon 19 Deletion and Those With L858R Mutation in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaxiong; He, Dacheng; Fang, Wenfeng; Kang, Shiyang; Chen, Gang; Hong, Shaodong; Sheng, Jin; Zhan, Jianhua; Chen, Nan; Hu, Zhihuang; Xue, Cong; Yang, Yunpeng; Ma, Yuxiang; Qin, Tao; Zhou, Ting; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have demonstrated that exon 19 deletion (19 Del) and exon 21 L858R mutation (L858R) are 2 different types of sensitive epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, whether there are some differences between those 2 groups in baseline clinical characteristics is still unclear. We enrolled consecutive 1271 NSCLC patients detected with either 19 Del or L858R and collected their baseline clinical characteristics including age, sex, comorbidity, smoking and drinking status, body mass index (BMI), TNM stage, histologic type, differentiation, tumor maximum diameter (TMD), and CEA level. χ2 test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to compare the difference. We found a higher percentage of 19 Del in younger patients group (< = 50 yr) than L858R (P < 0.001) through χ2 test. Besides, patients with 19 Del have higher risk of lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). However, there were no significant differences in other items of clinical characteristics between 19 Del and L858R. Multivariate analysis showed similar significant results. Subgroup analysis in different age groups (10 yr as an interval) and N stages (stratified by N0, N1, N2, and N3) also indicated above-mentioned trends. NSCLC patients with 19 Del are more likely to be young and have lymphatic metastasis than those with L858R. Age and N stage might be considered in predicting EGFR mutation type in NSCLC. PMID:26554801

  18. Autism spectrum disorders and hyperactive/impulsive behaviors in Japanese patients with Prader-Willi syndrome: a comparison between maternal uniparental disomy and deletion cases.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ihara, Hiroshi; Murakami, Nobuyuki; Gito, Masao; Kido, Yasuhiro; Nagai, Toshiro

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to compare maternal uniparental disomy 15 (mUPD) and a paternal deletion of 15q11-13 (DEL) of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) in regard to autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Forty-five Japanese individuals with PWS were recruited from a single recruitment center. The participants consisted of 22 children (aged from 6 to 12) and 23 adolescents (aged from 13 to 19). Six children and seven adolescents were confirmed as having mUPD. Sixteen children and 16 adolescents were confirmed as having DEL. Under blindness to the participants' genotypes, a single psychologist carried out behavioral and psychological assessments, including the Wechsler Intelligence Scales, Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), and ADHD-Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS-IV). Two comparisons were made: one between mUPD and DEL children and another between mUPD and DEL adolescents. In children, no significant differences were found between mUPD and DEL participants in terms of autistic (PARS childhood, P = 0.657) and impulsive behaviors (ADHD-RS-IV hyperactive/impulsive, P = 0.275). In adolescents, mUPD patients showed significantly more autistic symptomatology (PARS adolescent, P = 0.027) and significantly more impulsive behavior (ADHD-RS-IV hyperactive/impulsive, P = 0.01) than DEL patients. Our findings about Japanese PWS patients were consistent with previous researches from western countries not focused on Asian patients, indicating that mUPD cases would be more prone to ASD than DEL cases, regardless of ethnoregional differences. In addition, our data suggested that the behavioral difference between mUPD and DEL cases in terms of autistic and impulsive symptoms tend to be unrecognizable in their childhood. PMID:24850752

  19. The Difference of Clinical Characteristics Between Patients With Exon 19 Deletion and Those With L858R Mutation in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaxiong; He, Dacheng; Fang, Wenfeng; Kang, Shiyang; Chen, Gang; Hong, Shaodong; Sheng, Jin; Zhan, Jianhua; Chen, Nan; Hu, Zhihuang; Xue, Cong; Yang, Yunpeng; Ma, Yuxiang; Qin, Tao; Zhou, Ting; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Li

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that exon 19 deletion (19 Del) and exon 21 L858R mutation (L858R) are 2 different types of sensitive epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, whether there are some differences between those 2 groups in baseline clinical characteristics is still unclear.We enrolled consecutive 1271 NSCLC patients detected with either 19 Del or L858R and collected their baseline clinical characteristics including age, sex, comorbidity, smoking and drinking status, body mass index (BMI), TNM stage, histologic type, differentiation, tumor maximum diameter (TMD), and CEA level. χ test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to compare the difference.We found a higher percentage of 19 Del in younger patients group (< = 50 yr) than L858R (P < 0.001) through χ test. Besides, patients with 19 Del have higher risk of lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). However, there were no significant differences in other items of clinical characteristics between 19 Del and L858R. Multivariate analysis showed similar significant results. Subgroup analysis in different age groups (10 yr as an interval) and N stages (stratified by N0, N1, N2, and N3) also indicated above-mentioned trends.NSCLC patients with 19 Del are more likely to be young and have lymphatic metastasis than those with L858R. Age and N stage might be considered in predicting EGFR mutation type in NSCLC. PMID:26554801

  20. Clinical presentation of two β-thalassemic Indian patients with 1p36 deletion syndrome: Case report

    PubMed Central

    De, Puspal; Chatterjee, Tridip; Chakravarty, Sudipa; Chakravarty, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Here, we present two thalassemic patients (one male and one female), having unusual clinical phenotypes. Both had mental retardation in which one was associated with microcephaly and other had congenital cataract. They were referred to our institute for clinical evaluation and cytogenetic testing. Both patients were tested for presence of abnormal hemoglobin by high performance liquid chromatography and found to be thalassemic. Their β-globin mutation was also determined by amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction. The male patient was found to have intervening sequence 1-5 (G-C)/+, indicating β-thalassemia trait and the female was found to have Cod 26 (G-A)/IVS 1-5 (G-C), indicating hemoglobin E-β thalassemia. Their cytogenetic analysis of blood lymphocytes were studied with high-resolution GTG-banding analysis by using chromosome profiling (Cyto-vision software 3.6) on their chromosomes. Results revealed 46,XY,del(1)(p36.21) in the male and 46,XX,del(1)(p36.3) in the female. Their genotype variation showed (based on genome browser) significant gene loss which probably leads to marked phenotype variation. We believe, thalassemia with mental retardation associated with microcephaly and congenital cataract, both having loss in chromosome 1, p36 position, is reported probably first time from India. This report will definitely enlighten all concerns and add to the information in growing literature.

  1. Molecular mapping of uncharacteristically small 5q deletions in two patients with the 5q-syndrome: Delineation of the critical region on 5q and identification of a 5q-breakout

    SciTech Connect

    Boultwood, J.; Fidler, C.; Lewis, S.; Littlewood, T.J.; Wainscoat, J.S.; Buckle, V.J. ); Kelly, S. ); Sheridan, H. )

    1994-02-01

    Molecular mapping techniques have defined the region of gene loss in two patients with the 5q-syndrome and uncharacteristically small 5q deletions (5q31-q33). The allelic loss of 10 genes localized to 5q23-qter (centromere-CSF2-EGR1-FGFA-GRL-ADRB2-CSF1R-SPARC-GLUH1-NKSF1-FLT4-telomere) was investigated in peripheral blood cell fractions. Gene dosage experiments demonstrated that CSF2, EGR1, NKSF1, and FLT4 were retained on the 5q-chromosome in both patients and that FGFA was retained in one patient, thus placing these genes outside the critical region. GRL, ADRB2, CSF1R, SPARC, and GLUH1 were shown to be deleted in both patients. The proximal breakpoint is localized between EGR1 and FGFA in one patient and between FGFA and ADRB2 in the other, and the distal breakpoint is localized between GLUH1 and NKSF1 in both patients. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to map the 5q deletion breakpoints, and breakpoint-specific fragments were detected with FGFA in the granulocyte but not the lymphocyte fraction of one patient. This study has established the critical region of gene loss of the 5q-chromosome in the 5q-syndrome, giving the location for a putative tumor-suppressor gene in the 5.6-Mb region between FGFA and NKSF1. 54 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. De novo 13q13.3-21.31 deletion involving RB1 gene in a patient with hemangioendothelioma of the liver.

    PubMed

    Rapini, Novella; Lidano, Roberta; Pietrosanti, Silvia; Vitiello, Giuseppina; Grimaldi, Chiara; Postorivo, Diana; Nardone, Anna Maria; Del Bufalo, Francesca; Brancati, Francesco; Manca Bitti, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 13 (13q) are related with variable phenotypes, according to the size and the location of the deleted region. The main clinical features are moderate/severe mental and growth retardation, cranio-facial dysmorphism, variable congenital defects and increased susceptibility to tumors. Here we report a 3-year-old girl carrying a de novo 13q13.3-21.32 interstitial deletion. She showed developmental delay, growth retardation and mild dysmorphism including curly hair, high forehead, short nose, thin upper lip and long philtrum. An abnormal mass was surgically removed from her liver resulting in a hemangioendothelioma. Array analysis allowed us to define a deleted region of about 27.87 Mb, which includes the RB1 gene. This is the first report of a 13q deletion associated with infantile hemangioendothelioma of the liver. PMID:24433316

  3. De Novo 13q13.3-21.31 deletion involving RB1 gene in a patient with hemangioendothelioma of the liver

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 13 (13q) are related with variable phenotypes, according to the size and the location of the deleted region. The main clinical features are moderate/severe mental and growth retardation, cranio-facial dysmorphism, variable congenital defects and increased susceptibility to tumors. Here we report a 3-year-old girl carrying a de novo 13q13.3-21.32 interstitial deletion. She showed developmental delay, growth retardation and mild dysmorphism including curly hair, high forehead, short nose, thin upper lip and long philtrum. An abnormal mass was surgically removed from her liver resulting in a hemangioendothelioma. Array analysis allowed us to define a deleted region of about 27.87 Mb, which includes the RB1 gene. This is the first report of a 13q deletion associated with infantile hemangioendothelioma of the liver. PMID:24433316

  4. Serum Leukocyte Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor A3 (LILRA3) Is Increased in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Is a Strong Independent Indicator of Disease Severity; 6.7kbp LILRA3 Gene Deletion Is Not Associated with Diseases Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    An, Hongyan; Lim, Chai; Guillemin, Gilles J.; Vollmer-Conna, Ute; Rawlinson, William; Bryant, Katherine; Tedla, Nicodemus

    2016-01-01

    Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor A3 (LILRA3) is a soluble immune regulatory molecule primarily expressed by monocytes and macrophages. A homozygous 6.7kbp LILRA3 gene deletion that removes the first seven of its eight exons is predicted to lead to lack of LILRA3 protein, although this has not been experimentally confirmed. Moreover, there are conflicting results with regards to the link between the LILRA3 homozygous genetic deletion and susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS) in different European populations. The aim of this study was to investigate whether LILRA3 gene deletion is associated with MS susceptibility in a North American cohort of European ancestry and assess if serum LILRA3 protein level is a marker of clinical subtype and/or disease severity in MS. A total of 456 patients with MS and 99 unrelated healthy controls were genotyped for the 6.7kbp LILRA3 gene deletion and levels of LILRA3 protein in sera determined by in-house sandwich ELISA. We showed that LILRA3 gene deletion was not associated with MS susceptibility and did not affect the age of disease onset, clinical subtype or disease severity. However, we discovered for the first time that homozygous LILRA3 gene deletion results in lack of production of LILRA3 protein. Importantly, LILRA3 protein level was significantly increased in sera of patients with MS when compared with control subjects, particularly in more severe type primary progressive MS. Multiple regression analysis showed that LILRA3 level in serum was one of the strongest independent markers of disease severity in MS, which potentially can be used as a diagnostic marker. PMID:26871720

  5. SU-E-T-396: Dosimetric Accuracy of Proton Therapy for Patients with Metal Implants in CT Scans Using Metal Deletion Technique (MDT) Artifacts Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X; Kantor, M; Zhu, X; Frank, S; Sahoo, N; Li, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric accuracy for proton therapy patients with metal implants in CT using metal deletion technique (MDT) artifacts reduction. Methods: Proton dose accuracies under CT metal artifacts were first evaluated using a water phantom with cylindrical inserts of different materials (titanium and steel). Ranges and dose profiles along different beam angles were calculated using treatment planning system (Eclipse version 8.9) on uncorrected CT, MDT CT, and manually-corrected CT, where true Hounsfield units (water) were assigned to the streak artifacts. In patient studies, the treatment plans were developed on manually-corrected CTs, then recalculated on MDT and uncorrected CTs. DVH indices were compared between the dose distributions on all the CTs. Results: For water phantom study with 1/2 inch titanium insert, the proton range differences estimated by MDT CT were with 1% for all beam angles, while the range error can be up to 2.6% for uncorrected CT. For the study with 1 inch stainless steel insert, the maximum range error calculated by MDT CT was 1.09% among all the beam angles compared with maximum range error with 4.7% for uncorrected CT. The dose profiles calculated on MDT CTs for both titanium and steel inserts showed very good agreements with the ones calculated on manually-corrected CTs, while large dose discrepancies calculated using uncorrected CTs were observed in the distal end region of the proton beam. The patient study showed similar dose distribution and DVHs for organs near the metal artifacts recalculated on MDT CT compared with the ones calculated on manually-corrected CT, while the differences between uncorrected and corrected CTs were much pronounced. Conclusion: In proton therapy, large dose error could occur due to metal artifact. The MDT CT can be used for proton dose calculation to achieve similar dose accuracy as the current clinical practice using manual correction.

  6. Phenotypic variability in Angelman syndrome: comparison among different deletion classes and between deletion and UPD subjects.

    PubMed

    Varela, Monica Castro; Kok, Fernando; Otto, Paulo Alberto; Koiffmann, Celia Priszkulnik

    2004-12-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) can result from either a 15q11-q13 deletion (del), paternal uniparental disomy (UPD), imprinting, or UBE3A mutations. Here, we describe the phenotypic and behavioral variability detected in 49 patients with different classes of deletions and nine patients with UPD. Diagnosis was made by methylation pattern analysis of exon 1 of the SNRPN-SNURF gene and by microsatellite profiling of loci within and outside the 15q11-q13 region. There were no major phenotypic differences between the two main classes (BP1-BP3; BP2-BP3) of AS deletion patients, except for the absence of vocalization, more prevalent in patients with BP1-BP3 deletions, and for the age of sitting without support, which was lower in patients with BP2-BP3 deletions. Our data suggest that gene deletions (NIPA1, NIPA2, CYF1P1, GCP5) mapped to the region between breakpoints BP1 and BP2 may be involved in the severity of speech impairment, since all BP1-BP3 deletion patients showed complete absence of vocalization, while 38.1% of the BP2-BP3 deletion patients were able to pronounce syllabic sounds, with doubtful meaning. Compared to UPD patients, deletion patients presented a higher incidence of swallowing disorders (73.9% del x 22.2% UPD) and hypotonia (73.3% del x 28.57% UPD). In addition, children with UPD showed better physical growth, fewer or no seizures, a lower incidence of microcephaly, less ataxia and higher cognitive skills. As a consequence of their milder or less typical phenotype, AS may remain undiagnosed, leading to an overall underdiagnosis of the disease. PMID:15470370

  7. Cloning of the laminin alpha 3 chain gene (LAMA3) and identification of a homozygous deletion in a patient with Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Vidal, F; Baudoin, C; Miquel, C; Galliano, M F; Christiano, A M; Uitto, J; Ortonne, J P; Meneguzzi, G

    1995-11-20

    Laminin 5 and laminin 6 are basement membrane proteins synthesized by the basal cells of stratifying squamous epithelia. Altered expression of laminin 5 has been associated with Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa (H-JEB), a severe epidermal blistering disorder inherited as an autosomal recessive disease. We have isolated cDNA clones encoding the alpha 3 chain of laminin 5 and searched for mutations in the LAMA3 gene in H-JEB patients. In one H-JEB family, an affected individual exhibited drastically reduced immunoreactivity to antibodies directed against the alpha 3 chain of laminin 5 and an impaired expression of the corresponding mRNA transcripts. RT-PCR analysis of mRNA extracted from the proband's keratinocytes identified a homozygous single basepair deletion in the transcripts encoding the laminin alpha 3A and alpha 3B isoforms. The mutation causes a frameshift and premature termination codon in both alleles of the LAMA3 gene. Inheritance of the clinical H-JEB phenotype was consistent with the segregation of the mutated allele in the family. We also report the identity of the alpha chains of laminin 5 and epiligrin and provide evidence that LAMA3 transcripts are distinct from the laminin 6 alpha chain mRNA. PMID:8586427

  8. Cloning of the laminin {alpha}3 chain gene (LAMA3) and identification of a homozygous deletion in a patient with Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, F.; Ortonne, J.P. |; Galliano, M.F.

    1995-11-20

    Laminin 5 and laminin 6 are basement membrane proteins synthesized by the basal cells of stratifying squamous epithelia. Altered expression of laminin 5 has been associated with Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa (H-JEB), a severe epidermal blistering disorder inherited as an autosomal recessive disease. We have isolated cDNA clones encoding the {alpha}3 chain of laminin 5 and searched for mutations in the LAMA3 gene in H-JEB patients. In one H-JEB family, an affected individual exhibited drastically reduced immunoreactivity to antibodies directed against the {alpha}3 chain of laminin 5 and an impaired expression of the corresponding mRNA transcripts. RT-PCR analysis of mRNA extracted from the proband`s keratinocytes identified a homozygous single basepair deletion in the transcripts encoding the laminin {alpha}3A and {alpha}3B isoforms. The mutation causes a frameshift and premature termination codon in both alleles of the LAMA3 gene. Inheritance of the clinical H-JEB phenotype was consistent with the segregation of the mutated allele in the family. We also report the identity of the {alpha} chains of laminin 5 and epiligrin and provide evidence that LAMA3 transcripts are distinct from the laminin 6 {alpha} chain mRNA. 35 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 10q23 and mutation of the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 tumor suppressor gene in Korean hepatocellular carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jei-Jun; Rho, Jin-Woo; Lee, Tae-Jin; Yun, Sung-Su; Kim, Hong-Jin; Choi, Joon-Hyuk; Jeong, Daewon; Jang, Byeong-Churl; Lee, Tae-Yoon

    2007-10-01

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the 10q23 chromosomal region was analyzed in 18 tissue samples from Korean hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. LOH at the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN) region (D10S215, AFMa086wg9 and D10S541) was found in 8 of the 18 (44.4%) HCCs. LOH (20%) and microsatellite instability (26.7%) were also frequently found at the D10S2177 locus, which is located on the telomere side of the PTEN region. LOH was found in other loci, such as AFM280we1 and D10S2281. The presence of LOH in regions other than the PTEN region on chromosome 10q23 suggested the presence of additional tumor suppressor gene(s). PTEN mutation was found in only a subset of HCCs: A single base insertion at the end of the 5'-end splice signal (AG-GUAAGUU) in intron 5 and a silent mutation in exon 6 (codon 188, CTG-Val to CTA). Our data collectively suggest that the genetic alterations of chromosome 10q23, including the PTEN gene, could be important in hepatocarcinogenesis in the Korean population. PMID:17786367

  10. Epidermal growth factor receptor‐tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy is especially beneficial to patients with exon 19 deletion compared with exon 21 L858R mutation in non‐small‐cell lung cancer: Systematic review and meta analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yinghui; Ren, Zuen; Wang, Jinghui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The correlation between epidermal growth factor receptor‐tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR‐TKIs) and EGFR sensitive mutation subtypes in advanced or metastatic non‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains uncertain. We performed this meta‐analysis to determine different clinical outcomes between patients with exon 19 deletion accepting EGFR‐TKI therapy compared with those with exon 21 L858R mutation. Methods PubMed and Web of Science were analyzed for eligible trials. Raw data were extracted to give pooled estimates of the effect of EGFR‐TKI therapy on objective response rate (ORR), one‐year progression‐free survival (PFS), and two‐year overall survival (OS). Results We identified 13 eligible trials involving 912 patients. Prospective meta‐analysis demonstrated that the ORR of the 19 deletion group was significantly higher than the 21 L858R mutation group (odds ratio [OR] 1.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18–3.33; P = 0.01), but no statistical significance between the one‐year PFS rate of the 19 deletion and 21 L858R groups (OR 1.44, 95% CI 0.96–2.18; P = 0.08) was found. However, retrospective meta‐analysis demonstrated that a significantly higher one‐year PFS rate was associated with the 19 deletion group (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.17–2.56; P = 0.006). The two‐year survival rate of the 19 deletion group was significantly higher than the 21 L858R group (OR 5.27, 95 % CI 1.76–15.71; P = 0.003). Conclusions In advanced NSCLC patients, an exon 19 deleton may provide superior ORR, PFS, and OS after EGFR‐TKI treatment compared with an exon 21 L858R mutation. PMID:27385982

  11. 3p deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Anupam; Khetarpal, S

    2013-08-01

    3p deletion is a rare cytogenetic finding. Here we describe a 3 months old male with congenital malformations. His karyotype revealed 3p deletion 46,XY,del(3)(p25-pter). The child had flexion deformity of wrist and elbow which has never been reported before. PMID:24036645

  12. The effect of hypocalcemia in early childhood on autism-related social and communication skills in patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Muldoon, Meghan; Ousley, Opal Y.; Kobrynski, Lisa J.; Patel, Sheena; Oster, Matthew E.; Fernandez-Carriba, Samuel; Cubells, Joseph F.; Coleman, Karlene; Pearce, Bradley D.

    2014-01-01

    22q11 deletion syndrome (22qDS), also known as DiGeorge Syndrome, is a copy number variant disorder that has a diverse clinical presentation including hypocalcaemia, learning disabilities, and psychiatric disorders. Many patients with 22q11DS present with signs that overlap with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) yet the possible physiological mechanisms that link 22q11DS with ASD are unknown. We hypothesized that early childhood hypocalcemia influences the neurobehavioral phenotype of 22q11DS. Drawing on a longitudinal cohort of 22q11DS patients, we abstracted albumin-adjusted serum calcium levels from 151 participants ranging in age from newborn to 19.5 years (mean 2.5 years). We then examined a subset of 20 infants and toddlers from this group for the association between the lowest calcium level on record and scores on the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales-Developmental Profile Infant-Toddler Checklist (CSBS-DP ITC). The mean (SD) age at calcium testing was 6.2 (8.5) months whereas the mean (SD) age at the CSBS-DP ITC assessment was 14.7 (3.8) months. Lower calcium was associated with significantly greater impairment in the CSBS-DP ITC Social (p<0.05), Speech (p<0.01), and Symbolic domains (p<0.05), in regression models adjusted for sex, age at blood draw, and age at the psychological assessment. Nevertheless, these findings are limited by the small sample size of children with combined data on calcium and CSBS-DP ITC, and hence will require replication in a larger cohort with longitudinal assessments. Considering the role of calcium regulation in neurodevelopment and neuroplasticity, low calcium during early brain development could be a risk factor for adverse neurobehavioral outcomes. PMID:25267002

  13. [Novel large deletion c.22-1320_633+1224del in the CYB5R3 gene from patients with hereditary methemoglobinemia].

    PubMed

    Galeeva, N M; Nenasheva, S A; Kleĭmenova, I S; Poliakov, A V

    2012-11-01

    Hereditary types I and II methemoglobinemia is a rare autosomal recessive disease due to a deficiency of either soluble or soluble and membrane-bound forms of the enzyme NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase. The molecular genetic bases of both types of the disease consist in changes in the CYB5R3 gene. In this study, the novel and, to date, only large deletion in this gene is described, discovered in two unrelated families with types I and II methemoglobinemia. The common founder haplotype on the chromosomes carrying this mutation was identified. A universal approach for searching for the deletion boundaries was developed, and the c.22-1320_633+1224del deletion breakpoints were determined. In addition, a system for identifying the deletion in heterozygous and homozygous states was designed. PMID:23297489

  14. Characterization of five partial deletions of the factor VIII gene

    SciTech Connect

    Youssoufian, H.; Antonarakis, S.E.; Aronis, S.; Tsiftis, G.; Phillips, D.G.; Kazazian, H.H. Jr.

    1987-06-01

    Hemophilia A is an X-linked disorder of coagulation caused by a deficiency of factor VIII. By using cloned DNA probes, the authors have characterized the following five different partial deletions of the factor VIII gene from a panel of 83 patients with hemophilia A: (i) a 7-kilobase (kb) deletion that eliminates exon 6; (ii) a 2.5-kb deletion that eliminates 5' sequences of exon 14; (iii) a deletion of at least 7 kb that eliminates exons 24 and 25; (iv) a deletion of at least 16 kb that eliminates exons 23-25; and (v) a 5.5-kb deletion that eliminates exon 22. The first four deletions are associated with severe hemophilia A. By contrast, the last deletion is associated with moderate disease, possibly because of in-frame splicing from adjacent exons. None of those patients with partial gene deletions had circulating inhibitors to factor VIII. One deletion occurred de novo in a germ cell of the maternal grandmother, while a second deletion occurred in a germ cell of the maternal grandfather. These observations demonstrate that de novo deletions of X-linked genes can occur in either male or female gametes.

  15. Proper Interval Vertex Deletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanger, Yngve

    Deleting a minimum number of vertices from a graph to obtain a proper interval graph is an NP-complete problem. At WG 2010 van Bevern et al. gave an O((14k + 14) k + 1 kn 6) time algorithm by combining iterative compression, branching, and a greedy algorithm. We show that there exists a simple greedy O(n + m) time algorithm that solves the Proper Interval Vertex Deletion problem on \\{claw,net,allowbreak tent,allowbreak C_4,C_5,C_6\\}-free graphs. Combining this with branching on the forbidden structures claw,net,tent,allowbreak C_4,C_5, and C 6 enables us to get an O(kn 6 6 k ) time algorithm for Proper Interval Vertex Deletion, where k is the number of deleted vertices.

  16. Characterization of a Cryptic 3.3 Mb Deletion in a Patient With a “Balanced t(15;22) Translocation” Using High Density Oligo Array CGH and Gene Expression Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Li, Marilyn M.; Nimmakayalu, Manjunath A.; Mercer, Danielle; Andersson, Hans C.; Emanuel, Beverly S.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with an apparently balanced translocation and an abnormal phenotype may carry a cryptic deletion/duplication at their translocation breakpoints that may explain their abnormalities. Using microarray CGH (aCGH) and gene expression arrays we studied a child with t(15;22)(q26.1;q11.2), developmental delay and mild dysmorphic features. A high density aCGH study with 244,000 oligo probes demonstrated a 3.3 Mb deletion immediately adjacent to the 15q breakpoint. Gene expression studies with 44,000 oligos displayed an approximately 50% reduction of the expression of IGF1R gene that was translocated to the der(22). There are 18 known or hypothetical protein coding genes within the deleted region according to UniProt, RefSeq, and GenBank mRNA (UCSC HG17, May 2004). Although two of these genes, RGMA and ST8SIA2, play an important role in neural development, the mild phenotype of our patient indicates that loss of one copy of these genes may not be critical developmentally. The 50% reduction of IGF1R expression could be responsible for the growth deficiency in the patient. Reviewing the few 15q26 microdeletion cases that have been characterized by aCGH, we discovered that deletion of the segment including distal 15q26.2 to the proximal part of 15q26.3 is associated with severe phenotypes. Our experience demonstrates that high-density oligonucleotide-based aCGH is a quick and precise way to identify cryptic copy number changes in “balanced translocations.” Expression studies can also add valuable information regarding gene expression changes due to a chromosomal rearrangement. Both approaches can assist in the elucidation of the etiology of unexplained phenotypic differences in cases such as this one. PMID:18203177

  17. Phenotypic characterization of rare interstitial deletion of chromosome 4

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Samira; Helmy, Nivine A.; Mahmoud, Wael M.; El-Ruby, Mona O.

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 4 is rare. Patients with interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 4 differ from those with terminal deletions. Phenotypes may be variable, depending upon the specific length and location of the deleted portion. Here, we report on a boy exhibiting most of the congenital malformations encountered in terminal 4q syndrome. The conventional karyotyping and Fluorescence in-situ hybridization revealed a de novo interstitial del (4)(q31q32). The current report is a further document highlighting that deletion of segment q31 could be contributing to the expression of most of the phenotype of 4q deletion syndrome. Using array comparative genome hybridization methodology is recommended for investigating further cases with similar segmental interstitial deletions to support and delineate findings and to define genes implicated in the pathogenesis of the disorder.

  18. 109 kb deletion of chromosome 4p16.3 in a patient with mild phenotype of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Ohmachi, Kazumi; Shimada, Shino; Shimojima, Keiko; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2013-06-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a contiguous gene deletion syndrome associated with growth retardation, developmental disabilities, epileptic seizures, and distinct facial features resulting from a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4. The Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome Critical Region WHSCR2 includes the LETM1 gene and 5' end of the WHSC1 gene. A haploinsufficiency of WHSC1 is thought to be responsible for a number of WHS characteristics. We report on a 2-year-old male with severe growth retardation, microcephaly and a characteristic facial appearance. He had no internal anomalies and his developmental milestones were mildly delayed. An array-CGH analysis revealed loss of genomic copy numbers in the region 4p16.3, which included FGFR3, LETM1, and WHSC1. The size of the deletion was only 109 kb. The deletion included the important genes in WHSCR2. We suspect that haploinsufficiency of WHSC1 is the most probable cause of the growth deficiency, microcephaly, and characteristic facial features in WHS. PMID:23637096

  19. Ring Chromosome 9 and Chromosome 9p Deletion Syndrome in a Patient Associated with Developmental Delay: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Sivasankaran, Aswini; Kanakavalli, Murthy K; Anuradha, Deenadayalu; Samuel, Chandra R; Kandukuri, Lakshmi R

    2016-01-01

    Ring chromosomes have been described for all human chromosomes and are typically associated with physical and/or mental abnormalities resulting from a deletion of the terminal ends of both chromosome arms. This report describes the presence of a ring chromosome 9 in a 2-year-old male child associated with developmental delay. The proband manifested a severe phenotype comprising facial dysmorphism, congenital heart defects, and seizures. The child also exhibited multiple cell lines with mosaic patterns of double rings, a dicentric ring and loss of the ring associated with mitotic instability and dynamic tissue-specific mosaicism. His karyotype was 46,XY,r(9)(p22q34)[89]/46,XY,dic r(9; 9)(p22q34;p22q34)[6]/45, XY,-9[4]/47,XY,r(9),+r(9)[1]. However, the karyotypes of his parents and elder brother were normal. FISH using mBAND probe and subtelomeric probes specific for p and q arms for chromosome 9 showed no deletion in any of the regions. Chromosomal microarray analysis led to the identification of a heterozygous deletion of 15.7 Mb from 9p22.3 to 9p24.3. The probable role of the deleted genes in the manifestation of the phenotype of the proband is discussed. PMID:27222354

  20. Angelman syndrome and severe infections in a patient with de novo 15q11.2-q13.1 deletion and maternally inherited 2q21.3 microdeletion.

    PubMed

    Neubert, Gerda; von Au, Katja; Drossel, Katrin; Tzschach, Andreas; Horn, Denise; Nickel, Renate; Kaindl, Angela M

    2013-01-10

    Angelman syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by mental retardation, severe speech disorder, facial dysmorphism, secondary microcephaly, ataxia, seizures, and abnormal behaviors such as easily provoked laughter. It is most frequently caused by a de novo maternal deletion of chromosome 15q11-q13 (about 70-90%), but can also be caused by paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15q11-q13 (3-7%), an imprinting defect (2-4%) or in mutations in the ubiquitin protein ligase E3A gene UBE3A mostly leading to frame shift mutation. In addition, for patients with overlapping clinical features (Angelman-like syndrome), mutations in methyl-CpG binding protein 2 gene MECP2 and cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 gene CDKL5 as well as a microdeletion of 2q23.1 including the methyl-CpG binding domain protein 5 gene MBD5 have been described. Here, we describe a patient who carries a de novo 5Mb-deletion of chromosome 15q11.2-q13.1 known to be associated with Angelman syndrome and a further, maternally inherited deletion 2q21.3 (~364kb) of unknown significance. In addition to classic features of Angelman syndrome, she presented with severe infections in the first year of life, a symptom that has not been described in patients with Angelman syndrome. The 15q11.2-q13.1 deletion contains genes critical for Prader-Willi syndrome, the Angelman syndrome causing genes UBE3A and ATP10A/C, and several non-imprinted genes: GABRB3 and GABRA5 (both encoding subunits of GABA A receptor), GOLGA6L2, HERC2 and OCA2 (associated with oculocutaneous albinism II). The deletion 2q21.3 includes exons of the genes RAB3GAP1 (associated with Warburg Micro syndrome) and ZRANB3 (not disease-associated). Despite the normal phenotype of the mother, the relevance of the 2q21.3 microdeletion for the phenotype of the patient cannot be excluded, and further case reports will need to address this point. PMID:23124039

  1. Velo-cardio-facial syndrome: Frequency and textent of 22q11 deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, E.A.; Goldberg, R.; Jurecic, V.

    1995-07-03

    Velo-cardio-facial (VCFS) or Shprintzen syndrome is associated with deletions in a region of chromosome 22q11.2 also deleted in DiGeorge anomaly and some forms of congenital heart disease. Due to the variability of phenotype, the evaluation of the incidence of deletions has been hampered by uncertainty of diagnosis. In this study, 54 patients were diagnosed with VCFS by a single group of clinicians using homogeneous clinical criteria independent of the deletion status. Cell lines of these patients were established and the deletion status evaluated for three loci within the commonly deleted region at 22q11.2 using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In 81% of the patients all three loci were hemizygous. In one patient we observed a smaller interstitial deletion than that defined by the three loci. The phenotype of this patient was not different from that observed in patients with larger deletions. 22 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. FLCN intragenic deletions in Chinese familial primary spontaneous pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yibing; Zhu, Chengchu; Zou, Wei; Ma, Dehua; Min, Haiyan; Chen, Baofu; Ye, Minhua; Pan, Yanqing; Cao, Lei; Wan, Yueming; Zhang, Wenwen; Meng, Lulu; Mei, Yuna; Yang, Chi; Chen, Shilin; Gao, Qian; Yi, Long

    2015-05-01

    Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) is a significant clinical problem, affecting tens of thousands patients annually. Germline mutations in the FLCN gene have been implicated in etiology of familial PSP (FPSP). Most of the currently identified FLCN mutations are small indels or point mutations that detected by Sanger sequencing. The aim of this study was to determine large FLCN deletions in PSP families that having no FLCN sequence-mutations. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assays and breakpoint analyses were used to detect and characterize the deletions. Three heterozygous FLCN intragenic deletions were identified in nine unrelated Chinese families including the exons 1-3 deletion in two families, the exons 9-14 deletion in five families and the exon 14 deletion in two families. All deletion breakpoints are located in Alu repeats. A 5.5 Mb disease haplotype shared in the five families with exons 9-14 deletion may date the appearance of this deletion back to approximately 16 generations ago. Evidences for founder effects of the other two deletions were also observed. This report documents the first identification of founder mutations in FLCN, as well as expands mutation spectrum of the gene. Our findings strengthen the view that MLPA analysis for intragenic deletions/duplications, as an important genetic testing complementary to DNA sequencing, should be used for clinical molecular diagnosis in FPSP. PMID:25807935

  3. Molecular analysis of two patients with a duplicated 17p11.2 indicates that this entity may be the reciprocal of the deletion seen in Smith-Magenis syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, A.; Schwartz, C.; Rogers, R.C.

    1994-09-01

    J.M. and H.G. are two unrelated patients that presented at an early age with developmental delay and failure to thrive. Clinical features specific to J.M. include unusual facies, global developmental delay, and clinodactyly of the fifth toe. A cytogenetic analysis of H.G. was performed on amniocytes obtained due to a low MSAFP conducted as part of a routine screening. In both J.M. and H.G., a duplication of chromosome 17p11.2 was discovered. The extent of the duplicated region was determined using single copy DNA probes: cen-D17S58-D17S29-D17S258-D17S71-D17S445-tel. All of the markers were found to be duplicated by dosage analysis except for D17S58. FISH analysis of H.G., using the Smith-Magenis diagnostic probe obtained from ONCOR, also detected a duplication in 17p11.2. The chromosome containing the duplication could be the result of unequal crossing over due to a misalignment of the two chromosomes during meiosis I. It has been shown that the markers deleted in Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) patients are the same as those markers duplicated in J.M. and H.G. Therefore, the chromosomal duplication in 17p11.2 observed in these two patients could be the reciprocal of the chromosomal deletion seen in Smith-Magenis syndrome patients. Interestingly, a similar reciprocal duplication/deletion event is observed for CMT1A and HNPP (hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies) just distal to the SMS region.

  4. New assignment of the adenosine deaminase gene locus to chromosome 20q13 X 11 by study of a patient with interstitial deletion 20q.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, M B; Tranebjaerg, L; Tommerup, N; Nygaard, P; Edwards, H

    1987-01-01

    A karyotype 46,XY,del(20)(q11 X 23q13 X 11) was found in a three year old boy with mental and growth retardation, low set ears, broad nasal bridge, and macrostomia. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity was reduced by about 50%, assigning the gene locus to the deleted segment. A review of the previously reported regional assignments suggests that the ADA gene is in the region of band 20q13 X 11. Images PMID:3560174

  5. Whole genome HBV deletion profiles and the accumulation of preS deletion mutant during antiviral treatment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV), because of its error-prone viral polymerase, has a high mutation rate leading to widespread substitutions, deletions, and insertions in the HBV genome. Deletions may significantly change viral biological features complicating the progression of liver diseases. However, the clinical conditions correlating to the accumulation of deleted mutants remain unclear. In this study, we explored HBV deletion patterns and their association with disease status and antiviral treatment by performing whole genome sequencing on samples from 51 hepatitis B patients and by monitoring changes in deletion variants during treatment. Clone sequencing was used to analyze preS regions in another cohort of 52 patients. Results Among the core, preS, and basic core promoter (BCP) deletion hotspots, we identified preS to have the highest frequency and the most complex deletion pattern using whole genome sequencing. Further clone sequencing analysis on preS identified 70 deletions which were classified into 4 types, the most common being preS2. Also, in contrast to the core and BCP regions, most preS deletions were in-frame. Most deletions interrupted viral surface epitopes, and are possibly involved in evading immuno-surveillance. Among various clinical factors examined, logistic regression showed that antiviral medication affected the accumulation of deletion mutants (OR = 6.81, 95% CI = 1.296 ~ 35.817, P = 0.023). In chronic carriers of the virus, and individuals with chronic hepatitis, the deletion rate was significantly higher in the antiviral treatment group (Fisher exact test, P = 0.007). Particularly, preS2 deletions were associated with the usage of nucleos(t)ide analog therapy (Fisher exact test, P = 0.023). Dynamic increases in preS1 or preS2 deletions were also observed in quasispecies from samples taken from patients before and after three months of ADV therapy. In vitro experiments demonstrated that preS2 deletions alone

  6. Iron status in patients with pyruvate kinase deficiency: neonatal hyperferritinaemia associated with a novel frameshift deletion in the PKLR gene (p.Arg518fs), and low hepcidin to ferritin ratios.

    PubMed

    Mojzikova, Renata; Koralkova, Pavla; Holub, Dusan; Zidova, Zuzana; Pospisilova, Dagmar; Cermak, Jaroslav; Striezencova Laluhova, Zuzana; Indrak, Karel; Sukova, Martina; Partschova, Martina; Kucerova, Jana; Horvathova, Monika; Divoky, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency is an iron-loading anaemia characterized by chronic haemolysis, ineffective erythropoiesis and a requirement for blood transfusion in most cases. We studied 11 patients from 10 unrelated families and found nine different disease-causing PKLR mutations. Two of these mutations - the point mutation c.878A>T (p.Asp293Val) and the frameshift deletion c.1553delG (p.(Arg518Leufs*12)) - have not been previously described in the literature. This frameshift deletion was associated with an unusually severe phenotype involving neonatal hyperferritinaemia that is not typical of PK deficiency. No disease-causing mutations in genes associated with haemochromatosis could be found. Inappropriately low levels of hepcidin with respect to iron loading were detected in all PK-deficient patients with increased ferritin, confirming the predominant effect of accelerated erythropoiesis on hepcidin production. Although the levels of a putative hepcidin suppressor, growth differentiation factor-15, were increased in PK-deficient patients, no negative correlation with hepcidin was found. This result indicates the existence of another as-yet unidentified erythroid regulator of hepcidin synthesis in PK deficiency. PMID:24533562

  7. A patient with limb girdle muscular dystrophy carries a TRIM32 deletion, detected by a novel CGH array, in compound heterozygosis with a nonsense mutation.

    PubMed

    Neri, M; Selvatici, R; Scotton, C; Trabanelli, C; Armaroli, A; De Grandis, D; Levy, N; Gualandi, F; Ferlini, A

    2013-06-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2H is a rare autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy, clinically highly variable, caused by mutations in the TRIM32 gene. Here we describe a 35-years-old who experienced progressive muscle weakness. The muscle biopsy revealed an unspecific pattern of atrophic and hypertrophic fibers; the immunohistochemistry for several proteins was normal. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis showed a heterozygous deletion of the entire TRIM32 gene. On the other allele we identified the R316X nonsense mutation. The genetic diagnosis of LGMD2H in this case was reached by using a novel high throughput diagnostic tool. PMID:23541687

  8. A submicroscopic deletion involving part of the CREBBP gene detected by array-CGH in a patient with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lai, Angeline H M; Brett, Maggie S; Chin, Wai-Hoe; Lim, Eileen C P; Ng, Jasmine S H; Tan, Ene-Choo

    2012-05-10

    We report a girl with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) who was found to have copy number loss on 16p13.3 by array-CGH. She has developmental delay and other features of RSTS including downslanting palpebral fissures, a prominent nose with the nasal septum extending below the alae nasi, broad thumbs and big toes, postaxial polydactyly of the right foot and constipation from birth. We report the junction sequence across the breakpoint region for a microdeletion in RSTS. The sequencing results also showed that the deletion was 81.4kb involving three genes DNASE 1, TRAP 1, and CREBBP. PMID:22426292

  9. 22q13.3 Deletion Syndrome: Clinical and Molecular Analysis Using Array CGH

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, S.U.; del Gaudio, D.; German, J.R.; Peters, S.U.; Ou, Z.; Bader, P.I.; Berg, J.S.; Blazo, M.; Brown, C.W.; Graham, B.H.; Grebe, T.A.; Lalani, S.; Irons, M.; Sparagana, S.; Williams, M.; Phillips, J.A.; Beaudet, A.L.; Stankiewicz, P.; Patel, A.; Cheung, S.W.; Sahoo, T.

    2011-01-01

    The 22q13.3 deletion syndrome results from loss of terminal segments of varying sizes at 22qter. Few genotype–phenotype correlations have been found but all patients have mental retardation and severe delay, or absence of, expressive speech. We carried out clinical and molecular characterization of 13 patients. Developmental delay and speech abnormalities were common to all and comparable in frequency and severity to previously reported cases. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization showed the deletions to vary from 95 kb to 8.5 Mb. We also carried out high-resolution 244K array comparative genomic hybridization in 10 of 13 patients, that defined the proximal and distal breakpoints of each deletion and helped determine the size, extent, and gene content within the deletion. Two patients had a smaller 95 kb terminal deletion with breakpoints within the SHANK3 gene while three other patients had a similar 5.5 Mb deletion implying the recurrent nature of these deletions. The two largest deletions were found in patients with ring chromosome 22. No correlation could be made with deletion size and phenotype although complete/partial SHANK3 was deleted in all patients. There are very few reports on array comparative genomic hybridization analysis on patients with the 22q13.3 deletion syndrome, and we aim to accurately characterize these patients both clinically and at the molecular level, to pave the way for further genotype–phenotype correlations. PMID:20186804

  10. Glu-47, which forms a salt bridge between neurophysin-II and arginine vasopressin, is deleted in patients with familial central diabetes insipidus

    SciTech Connect

    Yuasa, Hiromitsu; Ito, Masafumi; Nagasaki, Hiroshi; Oiso, Yutaka; Saito, Hidehiko ); Miyamoto, S.; Sasaki, N. )

    1993-09-01

    The arginine vasopressin (AVP) gene was sequenced in a pedigree with familial central diabetes insipidus (DI). When polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNAs from affected subjects were subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, fragments including exon 2 displayed two additional, slower migrating bands. These extra bands represented DNA heteroduplexes, indicating that there was a deletion or insertion mutation in exon 2. As the region with such a mutation was identified by direct sequence analysis, polymerase chain reaction-amplified fragments including the region were subcloned and sequenced. A 3-basepair deletion (AGG) out of two consecutive AGG sequences (nucleotides 1824-1829) was identified in one of two alleles. The cosegregation of the mutation with the DI phenotype in the family was confirmed by restriction enzyme analyses. This mutation should yield an abnormal AVP precursor lacking Glu[sup 47] in its neurophysin-II (NP) moiety. Since Glu[sup 47] is essential for NP molecules to form a salt bridge with AVP, it is very likely that the function of NP as a carrier protein for AVP would be impaired. The authors suggest that AVP would undergo accelerated proteolytic degradation, and this mechanism would be involved in the pathogenesis of DI in this pedigree. 34 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.