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Sample records for 16s rrna apra

  1. Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides WCFur3 partial 16S rRNA gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study used a partial 535 base pair 16S rRNA gene sequence to identify a bacterial isolate. Fatty acid profiles are consistent with the 16S rRNA gene sequence identification of this bacterium. The isolate was obtained from a compost bin in Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. The 16S rRNA gene sequen...

  2. Characteristic archaebacterial 16S rRNA oligonucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, T. J.; Jurka, J.; Sobieski, J. M.; Pickett, M. H.; Woese, C. R.; Fox, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    A method of analyzing 16S rRNA catalog data has been developed in which groupings at various taxonomic levels can be characterized in terms of specific "signature" oligonucleotides. This approach provides an alternative means for evaluating higher order branching possibilities and can be used to assess the phylogenetic position of isolates that are poorly placed by the usual clustering procedures. This signature approach has been applied to forty archaebacterial catalogs and every oligonucleotide with significant signature value has been identified. Sets of specific oligonucleotides were identified for every major group on a dendrogram produced by cluster analysis procedures. Signatures that would establish between group relationships were also sought and found. In the case of the Methanobacteriaceae the clustering methods suggest a specific relationship to the Methanococcaceae. This inclusion is in fact supported by six strong signature oligonucleotides. However there are also significant numbers of signature oligonucleotides supporting a specific relationship of the Methanobacteriaceae to either the Halobacteriaceae or the Methanomicrobiaceae. Thus the placement of the Methanobacteriaceae is less certain than the usual dendrograms imply. The signature approach also was used to assess the phylogenetic position of Thermoplasma acidophilum which is found to be more closely related to the methanogen/halophile Division than to the sulfur dependent Division of the archaebacteria. This does not imply however that Thermoplasma acidophilum is properly regarded as being in the methanogen/halophile Division.

  3. Tetrathiobacter kashmirensis Strain CA-1 16S rRNA gene complete sequence.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study used 1326 base pair 16S rRNA gene sequence methods to confirm the identification of a bacterium as Tetrathiobacter kashmirensis. Morphological, biochemical characteristics, and fatty acid profiles are consistent with the 16S rRNA gene sequence identification of the bacterium. The isolate...

  4. Thermus thermophilus 16S rRNA is transcribed from an isolated transcription unit.

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, R K; Erdmann, V A

    1989-01-01

    A cloned 16S rRNA gene from the extreme thermophilic eubacterium Thermus thermophilus HB8 was used to characterize the in vivo expression of the 16S rRNA genes in this organism by nuclease S1 mapping. The gene represents an isolated transcription unit encoding solely 16S rRNA. Under exponential growth conditions, transcription was initiated at a single promoter, which represents the structural equivalent of Escherichia coli rrn P2 promoters. The promoter-leader region was very similar to the E. coli rrn P2 promoter-leader segment that is responsible for antitermination. The T. thermophilus leader region was approximately 85 nucleotides shorter than its E. coli P2 counterpart. Potential processing intermediates were correlated with a proposed secondary structure of T. thermophilus pre-16S rRNA. Images PMID:2722737

  5. Depletion of pre-16S rRNA in starved Escherichia coli cells.

    PubMed

    Cangelosi, G A; Brabant, W H

    1997-07-01

    Specific hybridization assays for intermediates in rRNA synthesis (pre-rRNA) may become useful for monitoring the growth activity of individual microbial species in complex natural systems. This possibility depends upon the assumption that rRNA processing in microbial cells continues after growth and pre-rRNA synthesis cease, resulting in drainage of the pre-rRNA pool. This is not the case in many eukaryotic cells, but less is known about the situation in bacteria. Therefore, we used DNA probes to measure steady-state cellular pre-16S rRNA pools during growth state transitions in Escherichia coli. Pre-16S rRNA became undetectable when cells entered the stationary phase on rich medium and was replenished upon restoration of favorable growth conditions. These fluctuations were of much greater magnitude than concurrent fluctuations in the mature 16S rRNA pool. The extent of pre-16S rRNA depletion depended upon the circumstances limiting growth. It was significantly more pronounced in carbon-energy-starved cells than in nitrogen-starved cells or in cells treated with energy uncouplers. In the presence of the transcriptional inhibitor rifampin, rates of pre-16S rRNA depletion in carbon-energy-starved cells and nitrogen-starved cells were similar, suggesting that the difference between these conditions resides primarily at the level of pre-rRNA synthesis. Chloramphenicol, which inhibits the final steps in rRNA maturation, halted pre-16S rRNA depletion under all conditions. The data show that E. coli cells continue to process pre-rRNA after growth and rrn operon transcription cease, leading to drainage of the pre-rRNA pool. This supports the feasibility of using pre-rRNA-targeted probes to monitor bacterial growth in natural systems, with the caveat that patterns of pre-rRNA depletion vary with the conditions limiting growth. PMID:9226253

  6. Sequence heterogeneity in the two 16S rRNA genes of Phormium yellow leaf phytoplasma.

    PubMed Central

    Liefting, L W; Andersen, M T; Beever, R E; Gardner, R C; Forster, R L

    1996-01-01

    Phormium yellow leaf (PYL) phytoplasma causes a lethal disease of the monocotyledon, New Zealand flax (Phormium tenax). The 16S rRNA genes of PYL phytoplasma were amplified from infected flax by PCR and cloned, and the nucleotide sequences were determined. DNA sequencing and Southern hybridization analysis of genomic DNA indicated the presence of two copies of the 16S rRNA gene. The two 16S rRNA genes exhibited sequence heterogeneity in 4 nucleotide positions and could be distinguished by the restriction enzymes BpmI and BsrI. This is the first record in which sequence heterogeneity in the 16S rRNA genes of a phytoplasma has been determined by sequence analysis. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that PYL phytoplasma is most closely related to the stolbur and German grapevine yellows phytoplasmas, which form the stolbur subgroup of the aster yellows group. This phylogenetic position of PYL phytoplasma was supported by 16S/23S spacer region sequence data. PMID:8795200

  7. Accurate taxonomy assignments from 16S rRNA sequences produced by highly parallel pyrosequencers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zongzhi; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Andersen, Gary L.; Knight, Rob

    2008-01-01

    The recent introduction of massively parallel pyrosequencers allows rapid, inexpensive analysis of microbial community composition using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences. However, a major challenge is to design a workflow so that taxonomic information can be accurately and rapidly assigned to each read, so that the composition of each community can be linked back to likely ecological roles played by members of each species, genus, family or phylum. Here, we use three large 16S rRNA datasets to test whether taxonomic information based on the full-length sequences can be recaptured by short reads that simulate the pyrosequencer outputs. We find that different taxonomic assignment methods vary radically in their ability to recapture the taxonomic information in full-length 16S rRNA sequences: most methods are sensitive to the region of the 16S rRNA gene that is targeted for sequencing, but many combinations of methods and rRNA regions produce consistent and accurate results. To process large datasets of partial 16S rRNA sequences obtained from surveys of various microbial communities, including those from human body habitats, we recommend the use of Greengenes or RDP classifier with fragments of at least 250 bases, starting from one of the primers R357, R534, R798, F343 or F517. PMID:18723574

  8. Direct detection of 16S rRNA in soil extracts by using oligonucleotide microarrays.

    PubMed

    Small, J; Call, D R; Brockman, F J; Straub, T M; Chandler, D P

    2001-10-01

    We report on the development and validation of a simple microarray method for the direct detection of intact 16S rRNA from unpurified soil extracts. Total RNAs from Geobacter chapellei and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans were hybridized to an oligonucleotide array consisting of universal and species-specific 16S rRNA probes. PCR-amplified products from Geobacter and Desulfovibrio were easily and specifically detected under a range of hybridization times, temperatures, and buffers. However, reproducible, specific hybridization and detection of intact rRNA could be accomplished only by using a chaperone-detector probe strategy. With this knowledge, assay conditions were developed for rRNA detection using a 2-h hybridization time at room temperature. Hybridization specificity and signal intensity were enhanced using fragmented RNA. Formamide was required in the hybridization buffer in order to achieve species-specific detection of intact rRNA. With the chaperone detection strategy, we were able to specifically hybridize and detect G. chapellei 16S rRNA directly from a total-RNA soil extract, without further purification or removal of soluble soil constituents. The detection sensitivity for G. chapellei 16S rRNA in soil extracts was at least 0.5 microg of total RNA, representing approximately 7.5 x 10(6) Geobacter cell equivalents of RNA. These results suggest that it is now possible to apply microarray technology to the direct detection of microorganisms in environmental samples, without using PCR. PMID:11571176

  9. Yersinia spp. Identification Using Copy Diversity in the Chromosomal 16S rRNA Gene Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuhuang; Liu, Chang; Xiao, Yuchun; Li, Xu; Su, Mingming; Jing, Huaiqi; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    API 20E strip test, the standard for Enterobacteriaceae identification, is not sufficient to discriminate some Yersinia species for some unstable biochemical reactions and the same biochemical profile presented in some species, e.g. Yersinia ferderiksenii and Yersinia intermedia, which need a variety of molecular biology methods as auxiliaries for identification. The 16S rRNA gene is considered a valuable tool for assigning bacterial strains to species. However, the resolution of the 16S rRNA gene may be insufficient for discrimination because of the high similarity of sequences between some species and heterogeneity within copies at the intra-genomic level. In this study, for each strain we randomly selected five 16S rRNA gene clones from 768 Yersinia strains, and collected 3,840 sequences of the 16S rRNA gene from 10 species, which were divided into 439 patterns. The similarity among the five clones of 16S rRNA gene is over 99% for most strains. Identical sequences were found in strains of different species. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the five 16S rRNA gene sequences for each strain where the phylogenetic classifications are consistent with biochemical tests; and species that are difficult to identify by biochemical phenotype can be differentiated. Most Yersinia strains form distinct groups within each species. However Yersinia kristensenii, a heterogeneous species, clusters with some Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia ferderiksenii/intermedia strains, while not affecting the overall efficiency of this species classification. In conclusion, through analysis derived from integrated information from multiple 16S rRNA gene sequences, the discrimination ability of Yersinia species is improved using our method. PMID:26808495

  10. Yersinia spp. Identification Using Copy Diversity in the Chromosomal 16S rRNA Gene Sequence.

    PubMed

    Hao, Huijing; Liang, Junrong; Duan, Ran; Chen, Yuhuang; Liu, Chang; Xiao, Yuchun; Li, Xu; Su, Mingming; Jing, Huaiqi; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    API 20E strip test, the standard for Enterobacteriaceae identification, is not sufficient to discriminate some Yersinia species for some unstable biochemical reactions and the same biochemical profile presented in some species, e.g. Yersinia ferderiksenii and Yersinia intermedia, which need a variety of molecular biology methods as auxiliaries for identification. The 16S rRNA gene is considered a valuable tool for assigning bacterial strains to species. However, the resolution of the 16S rRNA gene may be insufficient for discrimination because of the high similarity of sequences between some species and heterogeneity within copies at the intra-genomic level. In this study, for each strain we randomly selected five 16S rRNA gene clones from 768 Yersinia strains, and collected 3,840 sequences of the 16S rRNA gene from 10 species, which were divided into 439 patterns. The similarity among the five clones of 16S rRNA gene is over 99% for most strains. Identical sequences were found in strains of different species. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the five 16S rRNA gene sequences for each strain where the phylogenetic classifications are consistent with biochemical tests; and species that are difficult to identify by biochemical phenotype can be differentiated. Most Yersinia strains form distinct groups within each species. However Yersinia kristensenii, a heterogeneous species, clusters with some Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia ferderiksenii/intermedia strains, while not affecting the overall efficiency of this species classification. In conclusion, through analysis derived from integrated information from multiple 16S rRNA gene sequences, the discrimination ability of Yersinia species is improved using our method. PMID:26808495

  11. Tax4Fun: predicting functional profiles from metagenomic 16S rRNA data

    PubMed Central

    Aßhauer, Kathrin P.; Wemheuer, Bernd; Daniel, Rolf; Meinicke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: The characterization of phylogenetic and functional diversity is a key element in the analysis of microbial communities. Amplicon-based sequencing of marker genes, such as 16S rRNA, is a powerful tool for assessing and comparing the structure of microbial communities at a high phylogenetic resolution. Because 16S rRNA sequencing is more cost-effective than whole metagenome shotgun sequencing, marker gene analysis is frequently used for broad studies that involve a large number of different samples. However, in comparison to shotgun sequencing approaches, insights into the functional capabilities of the community get lost when restricting the analysis to taxonomic assignment of 16S rRNA data. Results: Tax4Fun is a software package that predicts the functional capabilities of microbial communities based on 16S rRNA datasets. We evaluated Tax4Fun on a range of paired metagenome/16S rRNA datasets to assess its performance. Our results indicate that Tax4Fun provides a good approximation to functional profiles obtained from metagenomic shotgun sequencing approaches. Availability and implementation: Tax4Fun is an open-source R package and applicable to output as obtained from the SILVAngs web server or the application of QIIME with a SILVA database extension. Tax4Fun is freely available for download at http://tax4fun.gobics.de/. Contact: kasshau@gwdg.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25957349

  12. 16S rRNA Phylogenetic Investigation of the Candidate Division “Korarchaeota”

    PubMed Central

    Auchtung, Thomas A.; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D.; Cavanaugh, Colleen M.

    2006-01-01

    The environmental distribution and phylogeny of “Korarchaeota,” a proposed ancient archaeal division, was investigated by using the 16S rRNA gene framework. Korarchaeota-specific primers were designed based on previously published sequences and used to screen a variety of environments. Korarchaeota 16S rRNA genes were amplified exclusively from high temperature Yellowstone National Park hot springs and a 9°N East Pacific Rise deep-sea hydrothermal vent. Phylogenetic analyses of these and all available sequences suggest that Korarchaeota exhibit a high level of endemicity. PMID:16820509

  13. Molecular Diagnosis of Actinomadura madurae Infection by 16S rRNA Deep Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    SenGupta, Dhruba J.; Hoogestraat, Daniel R.; Cummings, Lisa A.; Bryant, Bronwyn H.; Natividad, Catherine; Thielges, Stephanie; Monsaas, Peter W.; Chau, Mimosa; Barbee, Lindley A.; Rosenthal, Christopher; Cookson, Brad T.; Hoffman, Noah G.

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation DNA sequencing can be used to catalog individual organisms within complex, polymicrobial specimens. Here, we utilized deep sequencing of 16S rRNA to implicate Actinomadura madurae as the cause of mycetoma in a diabetic patient when culture and conventional molecular methods were overwhelmed by overgrowth of other organisms. PMID:24108607

  14. Bacterial metabarcoding by 16S rRNA gene ion torrent amplicon sequencing.

    PubMed

    Fantini, Elio; Gianese, Giulio; Giuliano, Giovanni; Fiore, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    Ion Torrent is a next generation sequencing technology based on the detection of hydrogen ions produced during DNA chain elongation; this technology allows analyzing and characterizing genomes, genes, and species. Here, we describe an Ion Torrent procedure applied to the metagenomic analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons to study the bacterial diversity in food and environmental samples. PMID:25343859

  15. 16S rRNA region based PCR protocol for identification and subtyping of Parvimonas micra

    PubMed Central

    Ota-Tsuzuki, C.; Brunheira, A.T.P.; Mayer, M.P.A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study established a PCR protocol in order to identify Parvimonas micra and to evaluate the intra-species diversity by PCR-RFLP of 16S rRNA partial sequence. The data indicated that the protocol was able to identify this species which could be clustered in five genotypes. PMID:24031274

  16. 16S classifier: a tool for fast and accurate taxonomic classification of 16S rRNA hypervariable regions in metagenomic datasets.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Nikhil; Sharma, Ashok K; Agarwal, Piyush; Gupta, Ankit; Sharma, Vineet K

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of microbial species in a metagenomic study is commonly assessed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. With the rapid developments in genome sequencing technologies, the focus has shifted towards the sequencing of hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA gene instead of full length gene sequencing. Therefore, 16S Classifier is developed using a machine learning method, Random Forest, for faster and accurate taxonomic classification of short hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA sequence. It displayed precision values of up to 0.91 on training datasets and the precision values of up to 0.98 on the test dataset. On real metagenomic datasets, it showed up to 99.7% accuracy at the phylum level and up to 99.0% accuracy at the genus level. 16S Classifier is available freely at http://metagenomics.iiserb.ac.in/16Sclassifier and http://metabiosys.iiserb.ac.in/16Sclassifier. PMID:25646627

  17. Phylogenetic diversity in the genus Bacillus as seen by 16S rRNA sequencing studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossler, D.; Ludwig, W.; Schleifer, K. H.; Lin, C.; McGill, T. J.; Wisotzkey, J. D.; Jurtshuk, P. Jr; Fox, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    Comparative sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal (r)RNAs or DNAs of Bacillus alvei, B. laterosporus, B. macerans, B. macquariensis, B. polymyxa and B. stearothermophilus revealed the phylogenetic diversity of the genus Bacillus. Based on the presently available data set of 16S rRNA sequences from bacilli and relatives at least four major "Bacillus clusters" can be defined: a "Bacillus subtilis cluster" including B. stearothermophilus, a "B. brevis cluster" including B. laterosporus, a "B. alvei cluster" including B. macerans, B. maquariensis and B. polymyxa and a "B. cycloheptanicus branch".

  18. A renaissance for the pioneering 16S rRNA gene

    SciTech Connect

    Tringe, Susannah; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2008-09-07

    Culture-independent molecular surveys using the 16S rRNA gene have become a mainstay for characterizing microbial community structure over the last quarter century. More recently this approach has been overshadowed by metagenomics, which provides a global overview of a community's functional potential rather than just an inventory of its inhabitants. However, the pioneering 16S rRNA gene is making a comeback in its own right thanks to a number of methodological advancements including higher resolution (more sequences), analysis of multiple related samples (e.g. spatial and temporal series) and improved metadata and use of metadata. The standard conclusion that microbial ecosystems are remarkably complex and diverse is now being replaced by detailed insights into microbial ecology and evolution based only on this one historically important marker gene.

  19. Rapid identification of Renibacterium salmoninarum using an oligonucleotide probe complementary to 16S rRNA.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, J G; Gersdorf, H; Jansson, E; Hongslo, T; Göbel, U B; Johansson, K E

    1993-02-01

    Bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fish is caused by the slow-growing Gram-positive rod, Renibacterium salmoninarum. The partial sequence of 16S rRNA from R. salmoninarum was determined and compared with published bacterial 16S rRNA sequences. From this sequence information, a 30-bases-long oligonucleotide was designed and used as a specific probe for identification of R. salmoninarum in filter hybridization experiments. Strong specific hybridization signals were observed for all strains of R. salmoninarum tested. Furthermore, no cross-hybridization could be seen against 22 other bacterial species, among them other salmonid fish pathogens. The detection limit for the probe in direct filter hybridization by the dot-blot technique was 2.5 x 10(4) bacteria. It was also possible to detect R. salmoninarum in clinical samples by direct filter hybridization. PMID:8455640

  20. Structural Analysis of Base Substitutions in Thermus thermophilus 16S rRNA Conferring Streptomycin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Hasan; Murphy, Frank V.; Murphy, Eileen L.; Connetti, Jacqueline L.; Dahlberg, Albert E.; Jogl, Gerwald

    2014-01-01

    Streptomycin is a bactericidal antibiotic that induces translational errors. It binds to the 30S ribosomal subunit, interacting with ribosomal protein S12 and with 16S rRNA through contacts with the phosphodiester backbone. To explore the structural basis for streptomycin resistance, we determined the X-ray crystal structures of 30S ribosomal subunits from six streptomycin-resistant mutants of Thermus thermophilus both in the apo form and in complex with streptomycin. Base substitutions at highly conserved residues in the central pseudoknot of 16S rRNA produce novel hydrogen-bonding and base-stacking interactions. These rearrangements in secondary structure produce only minor adjustments in the three-dimensional fold of the pseudoknot. These results illustrate how antibiotic resistance can occur as a result of small changes in binding site conformation. PMID:24820088

  1. Greengenes: Chimera-checked 16S rRNA gene database and workbenchcompatible in ARB

    SciTech Connect

    DeSantis, T.Z.; Hugenholtz, P.; Larsen, N.; Rojas, M.; Brodie,E.L; Keller, K.; Huber, T.; Dalevi, D.; Hu, P.; Andersen, G.L.

    2006-02-01

    A 16S rRNA gene database (http://greengenes.lbl.gov) addresses limitations of public repositories by providing chimera-screening, standard alignments and taxonomic classification using multiple published taxonomies. It was revealed that incongruent taxonomic nomenclature exists among curators even at the phylum-level. Putative chimeras were identified in 3% of environmental sequences and 0.2% of records derived from isolates. Environmental sequences were classified into 100 phylum-level lineages within the Archaea and Bacteria.

  2. Characterization of the genus Bifidobacterium by automated ribotyping and 16S rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Shinji; Ryu, Chun Sun; Kitahara, Maki; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Hayashi, Hidenori; Fukuyama, Masafumi; Benno, Yoshimi

    2006-01-01

    In order to characterize the genus Bifidobacterium, ribopatterns and approximately 500 bp (Escherichia coli positions 27 to 520) of 16S rRNA gene sequences of 28 type strains and 64 reference strains of the genus Bifidobacterium were determined. Ribopatterns obtained from Bifidobacterium strains were divided into nine clusters (clusters I-IX) with a similarity of 60%. Cluster V, containing 17 species, was further subdivided into 22 subclusters with a similarity of 90%. In the genus Bifidobacterium, four groups were shown according to Miyake et al.: (i) the Bifidobacterium longum infantis-longum-suis type group, (ii) the B. catenulatum-pseudocatenulatum group, (iii) the B. gallinarum-saeculare-pullorum group, and (iv) the B. coryneforme-indicum group, which showed higher than 97% similarity of the 16S rRNA gene sequences in each group. Using ribotyping analysis, unique ribopatterns were obtained from these species, and they could be separated by cluster analysis. Ribopatterns of six B. adolescentis strains were separated into different clusters, and also showed diversity in 16S rRNA gene sequences. B. adolescentis consisted of heterogeneous strains. The nine strains of B. pseudolongum subsp. pseudolongum were divided into five subclusters. Each type strain of B. pseudolongum subsp. pseudolongum and B. pseudolongum subsp. globosum and two intermediate groups, which were suggested by Yaeshima et al., consisted of individual clusters. B. animalis subsp. animalis and B. animalis subsp. lactis could not be separated by ribotyping using Eco RI. We conclude that ribotyping is able to provide another characteristic of Bifidobacterium strains in addition to 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogenetic analysis, and this information suggests that ribotyping analysis is a useful tool for the characterization of Bifidobacterium species in combination with other techniques for taxonomic characterization. PMID:16428867

  3. Intrinsic challenges in ancient microbiome reconstruction using 16S rRNA gene amplification

    PubMed Central

    Ziesemer, Kirsten A.; Mann, Allison E.; Sankaranarayanan, Krithivasan; Schroeder, Hannes; Ozga, Andrew T.; Brandt, Bernd W.; Zaura, Egija; Waters-Rist, Andrea; Hoogland, Menno; Salazar-García, Domingo C.; Aldenderfer, Mark; Speller, Camilla; Hendy, Jessica; Weston, Darlene A.; MacDonald, Sandy J.; Thomas, Gavin H.; Collins, Matthew J.; Lewis, Cecil M.; Hofman, Corinne; Warinner, Christina

    2015-01-01

    To date, characterization of ancient oral (dental calculus) and gut (coprolite) microbiota has been primarily accomplished through a metataxonomic approach involving targeted amplification of one or more variable regions in the 16S rRNA gene. Specifically, the V3 region (E. coli 341–534) of this gene has been suggested as an excellent candidate for ancient DNA amplification and microbial community reconstruction. However, in practice this metataxonomic approach often produces highly skewed taxonomic frequency data. In this study, we use non-targeted (shotgun metagenomics) sequencing methods to better understand skewed microbial profiles observed in four ancient dental calculus specimens previously analyzed by amplicon sequencing. Through comparisons of microbial taxonomic counts from paired amplicon (V3 U341F/534R) and shotgun sequencing datasets, we demonstrate that extensive length polymorphisms in the V3 region are a consistent and major cause of differential amplification leading to taxonomic bias in ancient microbiome reconstructions based on amplicon sequencing. We conclude that systematic amplification bias confounds attempts to accurately reconstruct microbiome taxonomic profiles from 16S rRNA V3 amplicon data generated using universal primers. Because in silico analysis indicates that alternative 16S rRNA hypervariable regions will present similar challenges, we advocate for the use of a shotgun metagenomics approach in ancient microbiome reconstructions. PMID:26563586

  4. Oligodeoxynucleotide probes for Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis based on 16S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Wesley, I V; Wesley, R D; Cardella, M; Dewhirst, F E; Paster, B J

    1991-01-01

    Deoxyoligonucleotide probes were constructed for the identification of Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis based on 16S rRNA sequence data. Probes were targeted to hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA. Specificity of oligonucleotide probes was tested in a colony blot assay with type strains of 15 Campylobacter and Arcobacter species as well as in a slot blot format using genomic DNA extracted from field strains of C. fetus and C. hyointestinalis. Two oligonucleotides were constructed for C. fetus that hybridized with equal specificity with each of 57 biochemically confirmed isolates of C. fetus but not with any other Campylobacter species. The C. hyointestinalis probe reacted with 47 of 48 biochemically confirmed field isolates of C. hyointestinalis. In Southern blot hybridization of BglII digests of genomic DNA, the respective probes reacted within three restriction fragments of either C. hyointestinalis (7.2, 8.2, and 10.1 kb) or C. fetus (7.0, 7.7, and 9.0 kb). This suggests multiple copies of genes encoding 16S rRNA. Images PMID:1723076

  5. Intrinsic challenges in ancient microbiome reconstruction using 16S rRNA gene amplification.

    PubMed

    Ziesemer, Kirsten A; Mann, Allison E; Sankaranarayanan, Krithivasan; Schroeder, Hannes; Ozga, Andrew T; Brandt, Bernd W; Zaura, Egija; Waters-Rist, Andrea; Hoogland, Menno; Salazar-García, Domingo C; Aldenderfer, Mark; Speller, Camilla; Hendy, Jessica; Weston, Darlene A; MacDonald, Sandy J; Thomas, Gavin H; Collins, Matthew J; Lewis, Cecil M; Hofman, Corinne; Warinner, Christina

    2015-01-01

    To date, characterization of ancient oral (dental calculus) and gut (coprolite) microbiota has been primarily accomplished through a metataxonomic approach involving targeted amplification of one or more variable regions in the 16S rRNA gene. Specifically, the V3 region (E. coli 341-534) of this gene has been suggested as an excellent candidate for ancient DNA amplification and microbial community reconstruction. However, in practice this metataxonomic approach often produces highly skewed taxonomic frequency data. In this study, we use non-targeted (shotgun metagenomics) sequencing methods to better understand skewed microbial profiles observed in four ancient dental calculus specimens previously analyzed by amplicon sequencing. Through comparisons of microbial taxonomic counts from paired amplicon (V3 U341F/534R) and shotgun sequencing datasets, we demonstrate that extensive length polymorphisms in the V3 region are a consistent and major cause of differential amplification leading to taxonomic bias in ancient microbiome reconstructions based on amplicon sequencing. We conclude that systematic amplification bias confounds attempts to accurately reconstruct microbiome taxonomic profiles from 16S rRNA V3 amplicon data generated using universal primers. Because in silico analysis indicates that alternative 16S rRNA hypervariable regions will present similar challenges, we advocate for the use of a shotgun metagenomics approach in ancient microbiome reconstructions. PMID:26563586

  6. Rare Events of Intragenus and Intraspecies Horizontal Transfer of the 16S rRNA Gene

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ren-Mao; Cai, Lin; Zhang, Wei-Peng; Cao, Hui-Luo; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of operational genes has been widely reported in prokaryotic organisms. However, informational genes such as those involved in transcription and translation processes are very difficult to be horizontally transferred, as described by Woese’s complexity hypothesis. Here, we analyzed all of the completed prokaryotic genome sequences (2,143 genomes) in the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) database, scanned for genomes with high intragenomic heterogeneity of 16S rRNA gene copies, and explored potential HGT events of ribosomal RNA genes based on the phylogeny, genomic organization, and secondary structures of the ribosomal RNA genes. Our results revealed 28 genomes with relatively high intragenomic heterogeneity of multiple 16S rRNA gene copies (lowest pairwise identity <98.0%), and further analysis revealed HGT events and potential donors of the heterogeneous copies (such as HGT from Chlamydia suis to Chlamydia trachomatis) and mutation events of some heterogeneous copies (such as Streptococcus suis JS14). Interestingly, HGT of the 16S rRNA gene only occurred at intragenus or intraspecies levels, which is quite different from the HGT of operational genes. Our results improve our understanding regarding the exchange of informational genes. PMID:26220935

  7. Efficient Nucleic Acid Extraction and 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing for Bacterial Community Characterization.

    PubMed

    Anahtar, Melis N; Bowman, Brittany A; Kwon, Douglas S

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation for the role of microbial communities as critical modulators of human health and disease. High throughput sequencing technologies have allowed for the rapid and efficient characterization of bacterial communities using 16S rRNA gene sequencing from a variety of sources. Although readily available tools for 16S rRNA sequence analysis have standardized computational workflows, sample processing for DNA extraction remains a continued source of variability across studies. Here we describe an efficient, robust, and cost effective method for extracting nucleic acid from swabs. We also delineate downstream methods for 16S rRNA gene sequencing, including generation of sequencing libraries, data quality control, and sequence analysis. The workflow can accommodate multiple samples types, including stool and swabs collected from a variety of anatomical locations and host species. Additionally, recovered DNA and RNA can be separated and used for other applications, including whole genome sequencing or RNA-seq. The method described allows for a common processing approach for multiple sample types and accommodates downstream analysis of genomic, metagenomic and transcriptional information. PMID:27168460

  8. Efficient Nucleic Acid Extraction and 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing for Bacterial Community Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Anahtar, Melis N.; Bowman, Brittany A.; Kwon, Douglas S.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation for the role of microbial communities as critical modulators of human health and disease. High throughput sequencing technologies have allowed for the rapid and efficient characterization of bacterial communities using 16S rRNA gene sequencing from a variety of sources. Although readily available tools for 16S rRNA sequence analysis have standardized computational workflows, sample processing for DNA extraction remains a continued source of variability across studies. Here we describe an efficient, robust, and cost effective method for extracting nucleic acid from swabs. We also delineate downstream methods for 16S rRNA gene sequencing, including generation of sequencing libraries, data quality control, and sequence analysis. The workflow can accommodate multiple samples types, including stool and swabs collected from a variety of anatomical locations and host species. Additionally, recovered DNA and RNA can be separated and used for other applications, including whole genome sequencing or RNA-seq. The method described allows for a common processing approach for multiple sample types and accommodates downstream analysis of genomic, metagenomic and transcriptional information. PMID:27168460

  9. Rhizobium sp. strain BN4 (a selenium oxyanion-reducing bacterium) 16S rRNA gene complete sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study used 1482 base pair 16S rRNA gene sequence methods in conjunction with other biochemical and morphological studies to confirm the identification of a bacterium (refer to as the BN4 strain) as a Rhizobium sp. The 16S rRNA gene sequence places it with the Rhizobium clade that includes R. d...

  10. Lessons from an evolving rRNA: 16S and 23S rRNA structures from a comparative perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutell, R. R.; Larsen, N.; Woese, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    The 16S and 23S rRNA higher-order structures inferred from comparative analysis are now quite refined. The models presented here differ from their immediate predecessors only in minor detail. Thus, it is safe to assert that all of the standard secondary-structure elements in (prokaryotic) rRNAs have been identified, with approximately 90% of the individual base pairs in each molecule having independent comparative support, and that at least some of the tertiary interactions have been revealed. It is interesting to compare the rRNAs in this respect with tRNA, whose higher-order structure is known in detail from its crystal structure (36) (Table 2). It can be seen that rRNAs have as great a fraction of their sequence in established secondary-structure elements as does tRNA. However, the fact that the former show a much lower fraction of identified tertiary interactions and a greater fraction of unpaired nucleotides than the latter implies that many of the rRNA tertiary interactions remain to be located. (Alternatively, the ribosome might involve protein-rRNA rather than intramolecular rRNA interactions to stabilize three-dimensional structure.) Experimental studies on rRNA are consistent to a first approximation with the structures proposed here, confirming the basic assumption of comparative analysis, i.e., that bases whose compositions strictly covary are physically interacting. In the exhaustive study of Moazed et al. (45) on protection of the bases in the small-subunit rRNA against chemical modification, the vast majority of bases inferred to pair by covariation are found to be protected from chemical modification, both in isolated small-subunit rRNA and in the 30S subunit. The majority of the tertiary interactions are reflected in the chemical protection data as well (45). On the other hand, many of the bases not shown as paired in Fig. 1 are accessible to chemical attack (45). However, in this case a sizeable fraction of them are also protected against chemical

  11. PhylOPDb: a 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probe database for prokaryotic identification

    PubMed Central

    Jaziri, Faouzi; Parisot, Nicolas; Abid, Anis; Denonfoux, Jérémie; Ribière, Céline; Gasc, Cyrielle; Boucher, Delphine; Brugère, Jean-François; Mahul, Antoine; Hill, David R.C.; Peyretaillade, Eric; Peyret, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, high-throughput molecular tools have led to an exponential growth of available 16S rRNA gene sequences. Incorporating such data, molecular tools based on target-probe hybridization were developed to monitor microbial communities within complex environments. Unfortunately, only a few 16S rRNA gene-targeted probe collections were described. Here, we present PhylOPDb, an online resource for a comprehensive phylogenetic oligonucleotide probe database. PhylOPDb provides a convivial and easy-to-use web interface to browse both regular and explorative 16S rRNA-targeted probes. Such probes set or subset could be used to globally monitor known and unknown prokaryotic communities through various techniques including DNA microarrays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), targeted gene capture or in silico rapid sequence identification. PhylOPDb contains 74 003 25-mer probes targeting 2178 genera including Bacteria and Archaea. Database URL: http://g2im.u-clermont1.fr/phylopdb/ PMID:24771669

  12. Analysis, Optimization and Verification of Illumina-Generated 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Michael C.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Benjamino, Jacquelynn; Grim, Sharon L.; Graf, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    The exploration of microbial communities by sequencing 16S rRNA genes has expanded with low-cost, high-throughput sequencing instruments. Illumina-based 16S rRNA gene sequencing has recently gained popularity over 454 pyrosequencing due to its lower costs, higher accuracy and greater throughput. Although recent reports suggest that Illumina and 454 pyrosequencing provide similar beta diversity measures, it remains to be demonstrated that pre-existing 454 pyrosequencing workflows can transfer directly from 454 to Illumina MiSeq sequencing by simply changing the sequencing adapters of the primers. In this study, we modified 454 pyrosequencing primers targeting the V4-V5 hyper-variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene to be compatible with Illumina sequencers. Microbial communities from cows, humans, leeches, mice, sewage, and termites and a mock community were analyzed by 454 and MiSeq sequencing of the V4-V5 region and MiSeq sequencing of the V4 region. Our analysis revealed that reference-based OTU clustering alone introduced biases compared to de novo clustering, preventing certain taxa from being observed in some samples. Based on this we devised and recommend an analysis pipeline that includes read merging, contaminant filtering, and reference-based clustering followed by de novo OTU clustering, which produces diversity measures consistent with de novo OTU clustering analysis. Low levels of dataset contamination with Illumina sequencing were discovered that could affect analyses that require highly sensitive approaches. While moving to Illumina-based sequencing platforms promises to provide deeper insights into the breadth and function of microbial diversity, our results show that care must be taken to ensure that sequencing and processing artifacts do not obscure true microbial diversity. PMID:24722003

  13. Greengenes, a Chimera-checked 16S rRNA gene database and workbenchcompatible with ARB

    SciTech Connect

    DeSantis, Todd Z.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Larsen, Neils; Rojas,Mark; Brodie, Eoin L.; Keller, Keith; Huber, Thomas; Dalevi, Daniel; Hu,Ping; Andersen, Gary L.

    2006-04-10

    A 16S rRNA gene database (http://greengenes.lbl.gov) addresses limitations of public repositories by providing chimera-screening, standard alignments and taxonomic classification using multiple published taxonomies. It was revealed that in congruent taxonomic nomenclature exists among curators even at the phylum-level. Putative chimeras were identified in 3 percent of environmental sequences and 0.2 percent of records derived from isolates. Environmental sequences were classified into 100 phylum-level lineages within the Archaea and Bacteria.

  14. Mutation analysis of 16S rRNA in patients with Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, J; Pineda, M; Monrós, E

    2000-07-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder that affects one in 10,000-15,000 females. RTT is mainly sporadic; familial cases have an estimated frequency of less than 1%. Before the recent identification of de novo dominant mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene, many other hypotheses had been proposed to explain the particular pattern of inheritance and the phenotypic expression of the disease. The involvement of mitochondrial DNA had been investigated because of the structural and functional mitochondrial abnormalities evident in the patients. In 1997 the finding of mutations at 16S rRNA in several affected RTT females and their mothers was reported, suggesting that mitochondrial DNA might play a key role in the pathogenesis of RTT. To investigate the relevance of such mutations, we used the same methodologic approach to analyze RTT mitochondrial DNA in our series. No 16S rRNA alterations were evident in 27 Spanish patients with classic RTT. PMID:10963979

  15. Greengenes: 16S rRNA Database and Workbench Compatible with ARB

    DOE Data Explorer

    DeSantis, T. Z.; Hugenholtz, P.; Larsen, N.; Rojas, M.; Brodie, E. L.; Keller, K.; Huber, T.; Dalevi, D. Hu, P. Andersen, G. L.

    Greengenes was developed, as the abstract of an AEM reprint states, to "addresse limitations of public repositories by providing chimera screening, standard alignment, and taxonomic classification using multiple published taxonomies. It was found that there is incongruent taxonomic nomenclature among curators even at the phylum level. Putative chimeras were identified in 3% of environmental sequences and in 0.2% of records derived from isolates. Environmental sequences were classified into 100 phylum-level lineages in the Archaea and Bacteria....Greengenes is also a functional workbench to assist in analysis of user-generated 16S rRNA gene sequences. Batches of sequencing reads can be uploaded for quality-based trimming and creation of multiple-sequence alignments (9). Three types of non-MSA similarity searches are also available, seed extension by BLAST (1), similarity based on shared 7-mers by a tool called Simrank, and a direct degenerative pattern match for probe/primer evaluation. Results are displayed using user-preferred taxonomic nomenclature and can be saved between sessions. [Taken from DeSantis, T. Z., P. Hugenholtz, N. Larsen, M. Rojas, E. L. Brodie, K. Keller, T. Huber, D. Dalevi, P. Hu, and G. L. Andersen. 2006. Greengenes, a Chimera-Checked 16S rRNA Gene Database and Workbench Compatible with ARB. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:5069-72, pages 1 and 3] (Specialized Interface)

  16. The Unique 16S rRNA Genes of Piezophiles Reflect both Phylogeny and Adaptation▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lauro, Federico M.; Chastain, Roger A.; Blankenship, Lesley E.; Yayanos, A. Aristides; Bartlett, Douglas H.

    2007-01-01

    In the ocean's most extreme depths, pressures of 70 to 110 megapascals prevent the growth of all but the most hyperpiezophilic (pressure-loving) organisms. The physiological adaptations required for growth under these conditions are considered to be substantial. Efforts to determine specific adaptations permitting growth at extreme pressures have thus far focused on relatively few γ-proteobacteria, in part due to the technical difficulties of obtaining piezophilic bacteria in pure culture. Here, we present the molecular phylogenies of several new piezophiles of widely differing geographic origins. Included are results from an analysis of the first deep-trench bacterial isolates recovered from the southern hemisphere (9.9-km depth) and of the first gram-positive piezophilic strains. These new data allowed both phylogenetic and structural 16S rRNA comparisons among deep-ocean trench piezophiles and closely related strains not adapted to high pressure. Our results suggest that (i) the Circumpolar Deep Water acts as repository for hyperpiezophiles and drives their dissemination to deep trenches in the Pacific Ocean and (ii) the occurrence of elongated helices in the 16S rRNA genes increases with the extent of adaptation to growth at elevated pressure. These helix changes are believed to improve ribosome function under deep-sea conditions. PMID:17158629

  17. Analysis of a marine picoplankton community by 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, T M; DeLong, E F; Pace, N R

    1991-01-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of an oligotrophic marine picoplankton community was examined by analyzing the sequences of cloned ribosomal genes. This strategy does not rely on cultivation of the resident microorganisms. Bulk genomic DNA was isolated from picoplankton collected in the north central Pacific Ocean by tangential flow filtration. The mixed-population DNA was fragmented, size fractionated, and cloned into bacteriophage lambda. Thirty-eight clones containing 16S rRNA genes were identified in a screen of 3.2 x 10(4) recombinant phage, and portions of the rRNA gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. The resulting sequences were used to establish the identities of the picoplankton by comparison with an established data base of rRNA sequences. Fifteen unique eubacterial sequences were obtained, including four from cyanobacteria and eleven from proteobacteria. A single eucaryote related to dinoflagellates was identified; no archaebacterial sequences were detected. The cyanobacterial sequences are all closely related to sequences from cultivated marine Synechococcus strains and with cyanobacterial sequences obtained from the Atlantic Ocean (Sargasso Sea). Several sequences were related to common marine isolates of the gamma subdivision of proteobacteria. In addition to sequences closely related to those of described bacteria, sequences were obtained from two phylogenetic groups of organisms that are not closely related to any known rRNA sequences from cultivated organisms. Both of these novel phylogenetic clusters are proteobacteria, one group within the alpha subdivision and the other distinct from known proteobacterial subdivisions. The rRNA sequences of the alpha-related group are nearly identical to those of some Sargasso Sea picoplankton, suggesting a global distribution of these organisms. Images PMID:2066334

  18. Multi-site-specific 16S rRNA Methyltransferase RsmF from Thermus thermophilus

    SciTech Connect

    Demirci, H.; Larsen, L; Hansen, T; Rasmussen, A; Cadambi, A; Gregory, S; Kirpekar, F; Jogl, G

    2010-01-01

    Cells devote a significant effort toward the production of multiple modified nucleotides in rRNAs, which fine tune the ribosome function. Here, we report that two methyltransferases, RsmB and RsmF, are responsible for all four 5-methylcytidine (m{sup 5}C) modifications in 16S rRNA of Thermus thermophilus. Like Escherichia coli RsmB, T. thermophilus RsmB produces m{sup 5}C967. In contrast to E. coli RsmF, which introduces a single m{sup 5}C1407 modification, T. thermophilus RsmF modifies three positions, generating m{sup 5}C1400 and m{sup 5}C1404 in addition to m{sup 5}C1407. These three residues are clustered near the decoding site of the ribosome, but are situated in distinct structural contexts, suggesting a requirement for flexibility in the RsmF active site that is absent from the E. coli enzyme. Two of these residues, C1400 and C1404, are sufficiently buried in the mature ribosome structure so as to require extensive unfolding of the rRNA to be accessible to RsmF. In vitro, T. thermophilus RsmF methylates C1400, C1404, and C1407 in a 30S subunit substrate, but only C1400 and C1404 when naked 16S rRNA is the substrate. The multispecificity of T. thermophilus RsmF is potentially explained by three crystal structures of the enzyme in a complex with cofactor S-adenosyl-methionine at up to 1.3 {angstrom} resolution. In addition to confirming the overall structural similarity to E. coli RsmF, these structures also reveal that key segments in the active site are likely to be dynamic in solution, thereby expanding substrate recognition by T. thermophilus RsmF.

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of the Listeria monocytogenes based on sequencing of 16S rRNA and hlyA genes.

    PubMed

    Soni, Dharmendra Kumar; Dubey, Suresh Kumar

    2014-12-01

    The discrimination between Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria species has been detected. The 16S rRNA and hlyA were PCR amplified with set of oligonucleotide primers with flank 1,500 and 456 bp fragments, respectively. Based on the differences in 16S rRNA and hlyA genes, a total 80 isolates from different environmental, food and clinical samples confirmed it to be L. monocytogenes. The 16S rRNA sequence similarity suggested that the isolates were similar to the previously reported ones from different habitats by others. The phylogenetic interrelationships of the genus Listeria were investigated by sequencing of 16S rRNA and hlyA gene. The 16S rRNA sequence indicated that genus Listeria is comprised of following closely related but distinct lines of descent, one is the L. monocytogenes species group (including L. innocua, L. ivanovii, L. seeligeri and L. welshimeri) and other, the species L. grayi, L. rocourtiae and L. fleischmannii. The phylogenetic tree based on hlyA gene sequence clearly differentiates between the L. monocytogenes, L. ivanovii and L. seeligeri. In the present study, we identified 80 isolates of L. monocytogenes originating from different clinical, food and environmental samples based on 16S rRNA and hlyA gene sequence similarity. PMID:25205124

  20. PCR primers to amplify 16S rRNA genes from cyanobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Nübel, U; Garcia-Pichel, F; Muyzer, G

    1997-01-01

    We developed and tested a set of oligonucleotide primers for the specific amplification of 16S rRNA gene segments from cyanobacteria and plastids by PCR. PCR products were recovered from all cultures of cyanobacteria and diatoms that were checked but not from other bacteria and archaea. Gene segments selectively retrieved from cyanobacteria and diatoms in unialgal but nonaxenic cultures and from cyanobionts in lichens could be directly sequenced. In the context of growing sequence databases, this procedure allows rapid and phylogenetically meaningful identification without pure cultures or molecular cloning. We demonstrate the use of this specific PCR in combination with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to probe the diversity of oxygenic phototrophic microorganisms in cultures, lichens, and complex microbial communities. PMID:9251225

  1. Preliminary study on mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene sequences and phylogeny of flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Feng; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Peijun; Xiang, Jianhai

    2005-09-01

    A 605 bp section of mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene from Paralichthys olivaceus, Pseudorhombus cinnamomeus, Psetta maxima and Kareius bicoloratus, which represent 3 families of Order Pleuronectiformes was amplified by PCR and sequenced to show the molecular systematics of Pleuronectiformes for comparison with related gene sequences of other 6 flatfish downloaded from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis based on genetic distance from related gene sequences of 10 flatfish showed that this method was ideal to explore the relationship between species, genera and families. Phylogenetic trees set-up is based on neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods that accords to the general rule of Pleuronectiformes evolution. But they also resulted in some confusion. Unlike data from morphological characters, P. olivaceus clustered with K. bicoloratus, but P. cinnamomeus did not cluster with P. olivaceus, which is worth further studying.

  2. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing dataset for conventionalized and conventionally raised zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Davis, Daniel J; Bryda, Elizabeth C; Gillespie, Catherine H; Ericsson, Aaron C

    2016-09-01

    Data presented here contains metagenomic analysis regarding the sequential conventionalization of germ-free zebrafish embryos. Zebrafish embryos that underwent a germ-free sterilization process immediately after fertilization were promptly exposed to and raised to larval stage in conventional fish water. At 6 days postfertilization (dpf), these "conventionalized" larvae were compared to zebrafish larvae that were raised in conventional fish water never undergoing the initial sterilization process. Bacterial 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was performed on DNA isolated from homogenates of the larvae revealing distinct microbiota variations between the two groups. The dataset described here is also related to the research article entitled "Microbial modulation of behavior and stress responses in zebrafish larvae" (Davis et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27508247

  3. Identification of the Microbiota in Carious Dentin Lesions Using 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Obata, Junko; Takeshita, Toru; Shibata, Yukie; Yamanaka, Wataru; Unemori, Masako; Akamine, Akifumi; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    While mutans streptococci have long been assumed to be the specific pathogen responsible for human dental caries, the concept of a complex dental caries-associated microbiota has received significant attention in recent years. Molecular analyses revealed the complexity of the microbiota with the predominance of Lactobacillus and Prevotella in carious dentine lesions. However, characterization of the dentin caries-associated microbiota has not been extensively explored in different ethnicities and races. In the present study, the bacterial communities in the carious dentin of Japanese subjects were analyzed comprehensively with molecular approaches using the16S rRNA gene. Carious dentin lesion samples were collected from 32 subjects aged 4–76 years, and the 16S rRNA genes, amplified from the extracted DNA with universal primers, were sequenced with a pyrosequencer. The bacterial composition was classified into clusters I, II, and III according to the relative abundance (high, middle, low) of Lactobacillus. The bacterial composition in cluster II was composed of relatively high proportions of Olsenella and Propionibacterium or subdominated by heterogeneous genera. The bacterial communities in cluster III were characterized by the predominance of Atopobium, Prevotella, or Propionibacterium with Streptococcus or Actinomyces. Some samples in clusters II and III, mainly related to Atopobium and Propionibacterium, were novel combinations of microbiota in carious dentin lesions and may be characteristic of the Japanese population. Clone library analysis revealed that Atopobium sp. HOT-416 and P. acidifaciens were specific species associated with dentinal caries among these genera in a Japanese population. We summarized the bacterial composition of dentinal carious lesions in a Japanese population using next-generation sequencing and found typical Japanese types with Atopobium or Propionibacterium predominating. PMID:25083880

  4. Improved PCR primers to amplify 16S rRNA genes from NC10 bacteria.

    PubMed

    He, Zhanfei; Wang, Jiaqi; Hu, Jiajie; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Chaoyang; Shen, Jiaxian; Xu, Xinhua; Zheng, Ping; Hu, Baolan

    2016-06-01

    Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to nitrite reduction (AOM-NIR) is ecologically significant for mitigating the methane-induced greenhouse effect. The microbes responsible for this reaction, NC10 bacteria, have been widely detected in diverse ecosystems. However, some defects were discovered in the commonly used NC10-specific primers, 202F and qP1F. In the present work, the primers were redesigned and improved to overcome the defects found in the previous primers. A new nested PCR method was developed using the improved primers to amplify 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes from NC10 bacteria. In the new nested PCR method, the qP1mF/1492R and 1051F/qP2R primer sets were used in the first and second rounds, respectively. The PCR products were sequenced, and more operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of the NC10 phylum were obtained using the new primers compared to the previous primers. The sensitivity of the new nested PCR was tested by the serial dilution method, and the limit of detection was approximately 10(3) copies g(-1) dry sed. for the environmental samples compared to approximately 10(5) copies g(-1) dry sed. by the previous method. Finally, the improved primer, qP1mF, was used in quantitative PCR (qPCR) to determine the abundance of NC10 bacteria, and the results agreed well with the activity of AOM-NIR measured by isotope tracer experiments. The improved primers are able to amplify NC10 16S rRNA genes more efficiently than the previous primers and useful to explore the microbial community of the NC10 phylum in different systems. PMID:27020287

  5. Identification of the microbiota in carious dentin lesions using 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

    PubMed

    Obata, Junko; Takeshita, Toru; Shibata, Yukie; Yamanaka, Wataru; Unemori, Masako; Akamine, Akifumi; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    While mutans streptococci have long been assumed to be the specific pathogen responsible for human dental caries, the concept of a complex dental caries-associated microbiota has received significant attention in recent years. Molecular analyses revealed the complexity of the microbiota with the predominance of Lactobacillus and Prevotella in carious dentine lesions. However, characterization of the dentin caries-associated microbiota has not been extensively explored in different ethnicities and races. In the present study, the bacterial communities in the carious dentin of Japanese subjects were analyzed comprehensively with molecular approaches using the16S rRNA gene. Carious dentin lesion samples were collected from 32 subjects aged 4-76 years, and the 16S rRNA genes, amplified from the extracted DNA with universal primers, were sequenced with a pyrosequencer. The bacterial composition was classified into clusters I, II, and III according to the relative abundance (high, middle, low) of Lactobacillus. The bacterial composition in cluster II was composed of relatively high proportions of Olsenella and Propionibacterium or subdominated by heterogeneous genera. The bacterial communities in cluster III were characterized by the predominance of Atopobium, Prevotella, or Propionibacterium with Streptococcus or Actinomyces. Some samples in clusters II and III, mainly related to Atopobium and Propionibacterium, were novel combinations of microbiota in carious dentin lesions and may be characteristic of the Japanese population. Clone library analysis revealed that Atopobium sp. HOT-416 and P. acidifaciens were specific species associated with dentinal caries among these genera in a Japanese population. We summarized the bacterial composition of dentinal carious lesions in a Japanese population using next-generation sequencing and found typical Japanese types with Atopobium or Propionibacterium predominating. PMID:25083880

  6. How close is close: 16S rRNA sequence identity may not be sufficient to guarantee species identity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, G. E.; Wisotzkey, J. D.; Jurtshuk, P. Jr

    1992-01-01

    16S rRNA (genes coding for rRNA) sequence comparisons were conducted with the following three psychrophilic strains: Bacillus globisporus W25T (T = type strain) and Bacillus psychrophilus W16AT, and W5. These strains exhibited more than 99.5% sequence identity and within experimental uncertainty could be regarded as identical. Their close taxonomic relationship was further documented by phenotypic similarities. In contrast, previously published DNA-DNA hybridization results have convincingly established that these strains do not belong to the same species if current standards are used. These results emphasize the important point that effective identity of 16S rRNA sequences is not necessarily a sufficient criterion to guarantee species identity. Thus, although 16S rRNA sequences can be used routinely to distinguish and establish relationships between genera and well-resolved species, very recently diverged species may not be recognizable.

  7. Predictive functional profiling of microbial communities using 16S rRNA marker gene sequences

    PubMed Central

    Langille, Morgan G. I.; Zaneveld, Jesse; Caporaso, J. Gregory; McDonald, Daniel; Knights, Dan; Reyes, Joshua A.; Clemente, Jose C.; Burkepile, Deron E.; Vega Thurber, Rebecca L.; Knight, Rob; Beiko, Robert G.; Huttenhower, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    Profiling phylogenetic marker genes, such as the 16S rRNA gene, is a key tool for studies of microbial communities but does not provide direct evidence of a community’s functional capabilities. Here we describe PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States), a computational approach to predict the functional composition of a metagenome using marker gene data and a database of reference genomes. PICRUSt uses an extended ancestral-state reconstruction algorithm to predict which gene families are present and then combines gene families to estimate the composite metagenome. Using 16S information, PICRUSt recaptures key findings from the Human Microbiome Project and accurately predicts the abundance of gene families in host-associated and environmental communities, with quantifiable uncertainty. Our results demonstrate that phylogeny and function are sufficiently linked that this ‘predictive metagenomic’ approach should provide useful insights into the thousands of uncultivated microbial communities for which only marker gene surveys are currently available. PMID:23975157

  8. A Mutation in the 16S rRNA Decoding Region Attenuates the Virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shinya; Matsumura, Kazunori; Iwai, Hiroki; Funatogawa, Keiji; Haishima, Yuji; Fukui, Chie; Okumura, Kayo; Kato-Miyazawa, Masako; Hashimoto, Masahito; Teramoto, Kanae; Kirikae, Fumiko; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Kirikae, Teruo

    2016-08-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis contains a single rRNA operon that encodes targets for antituberculosis agents, including kanamycin. To date, only four mutations in the kanamycin binding sites of 16S rRNA have been reported in kanamycin-resistant clinical isolates. We hypothesized that another mutation(s) in the region may dramatically decrease M. tuberculosis viability and virulence. Here, we describe an rRNA mutation, U1406A, which was generated in vitro and confers resistance to kanamycin while highly attenuating M. tuberculosis virulence. The mutant showed decreased expression of 20% (n = 361) of mycobacterial proteins, including central metabolic enzymes, mycolic acid biosynthesis enzymes, and virulence factors such as antigen 85 complexes and ESAT-6. The mutation also induced three proteins, including KsgA (Rv1010; 16S rRNA adenine dimethyltransferase), which closely bind to the U1406A mutation site on the ribosome; these proteins were associated with ribosome maturation and translation initiation processes. The mutant showed an increase in 17S rRNA (precursor 16S rRNA) and a decrease in the ratio of 30S subunits to the 70S ribosomes, suggesting that the U1406A mutation in 16S rRNA attenuated M. tuberculosis virulence by affecting these processes. PMID:27245411

  9. Technologically important extremophile 16S rRNA sequence Shannon entropy and fractal property comparison with long term dormant microbes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Todd; Gadura, N.; Dehipawala, S.; Cheung, E.; Tuffour, M.; Schneider, P.; Tremberger, G., Jr.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.

    2011-10-01

    Technologically important extremophiles including oil eating microbes, uranium and rocket fuel perchlorate reduction microbes, electron producing microbes and electrode electrons feeding microbes were compared in terms of their 16S rRNA sequences, a standard targeted sequence in comparative phylogeny studies. Microbes that were reported to have survived a prolonged dormant duration were also studied. Examples included the recently discovered microbe that survives after 34,000 years in a salty environment while feeding off organic compounds from other trapped dead microbes. Shannon entropy of the 16S rRNA nucleotide composition and fractal dimension of the nucleotide sequence in terms of its atomic number fluctuation analyses suggest a selected range for these extremophiles as compared to other microbes; consistent with the experience of relatively mild evolutionary pressure. However, most of the microbes that have been reported to survive in prolonged dormant duration carry sequences with fractal dimension between 1.995 and 2.005 (N = 10 out of 13). Similar results are observed for halophiles, red-shifted chlorophyll and radiation resistant microbes. The results suggest that prolonged dormant duration, in analogous to high salty or radiation environment, would select high fractal 16S rRNA sequences. Path analysis in structural equation modeling supports a causal relation between entropy and fractal dimension for the studied 16S rRNA sequences (N = 7). Candidate choices for high fractal 16S rRNA microbes could offer protection for prolonged spaceflights. BioBrick gene network manipulation could include extremophile 16S rRNA sequences in synthetic biology and shed more light on exobiology and future colonization in shielded spaceflights. Whether the high fractal 16S rRNA sequences contain an asteroidlike extra-terrestrial source could be speculative but interesting.

  10. Functional Specialization of Domains Tandemly Duplicated Witin 16S rRNA Methyltransferase RsmC

    SciTech Connect

    Sunita,S.; Purta, E.; Durawa, M.; Tkaczuk, K.; Swaathi, J.; Bujnicki, J.; Sivaraman, J.

    2007-01-01

    RNA methyltransferases (MTases) are important players in the biogenesis and regulation of the ribosome, the cellular machine for protein synthesis. RsmC is a MTase that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to G1207 of 16S rRNA. Mutations of G1207 have dominant lethal phenotypes in Escherichia coli, underscoring the significance of this modified nucleotide for ribosome function. Here we report the crystal structure of E. coli RsmC refined to 2.1 Angstroms resolution, which reveals two homologous domains tandemly duplicated within a single polypeptide. We characterized the function of the individual domains and identified key residues involved in binding of rRNA and SAM, and in catalysis. We also discovered that one of the domains is important for the folding of the other. Domain duplication and subfunctionalization by complementary degeneration of redundant functions (in particular substrate binding versus catalysis) has been reported for many enzymes, including those involved in RNA metabolism. Thus, RsmC can be regarded as a model system for functional streamlining of domains accompanied by the development of dependencies concerning folding and stability.

  11. Molecular Evolution of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae Strains, Based on Polymorphisms in the 16S rRNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, Bertil; Bölske, Göran; Thiaucourt, François; Uhlén, Mathias; Johansson, Karl-Erik

    1998-01-01

    Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae belongs to the so-called Mycoplasma mycoides cluster and is the causal agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP). All members of the M. mycoides cluster have two rRNA operons. The sequences of the 16S rRNA genes of both rRNA operons from 20 strains of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae of different geographical origins in Africa and Asia were determined. Nucleotide differences which were present in only one of the two operons (polymorphisms) were detected in 24 positions. The polymorphisms were not randomly distributed in the 16S rRNA genes, and some of them were found in regions of low evolutionary variability. Interestingly, 11 polymorphisms were found in all the M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strains, thus defining a putative ancestor. A sequence length difference between the 16S rRNA genes in a poly(A) region and 12 additional polymorphisms were found in only one or some of the strains. A phylogenetic tree was constructed by comparative analysis of the polymorphisms, and this tree revealed two distinct lines of descent. The nucleotide substitution rate of strains within line II was up to 50% higher than within line I. A tree was also constructed from individual operonal 16S rRNA sequences, and the sequences of the two operons were found to form two distinct clades. The topologies of both clades were strikingly similar, which supports the use of 16S rRNA sequence data from homologous operons for phylogenetic studies. The strain-specific polymorphism patterns of the 16S rRNA genes of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae may be used as epidemiological markers for CCPP. PMID:9573185

  12. [Strategy of selecting 16S rRNA hypervariable regions for metagenome-phylogenetic marker genes based analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-yi; Zhu, Bing-chuan; Xu, Chao; Ding, Xiao; Li, Jun-feng; Zhang, Xue-gong; Lu, Zu-hong

    2015-11-01

    The advent of next generation sequencing technology enables parallel analysis of the whole microbial community from multiple samples. Particularly, sequencing 16S rRNA hypervariable tags has become the most efficient and cost-effective method for assessing microbial diversity. Due to its short read length of the 2nd-generation sequencing methods that cannot cover the full 16S rRNA genomic region, specific hypervariable regions or V-regions must be selected to act as the proxy. Over the past decade, selection of V-regions has not been consistent in assessing microbial diversity. Here we evaluated the current strategies of selecting 16S rRNA hypervariable regions for surveying microbial diversity. The environmental condition was considered as one of the important factors for selection of 16S rRNA hypervariable regions. We suggested that a pilot study to test different V-regions is required in bacterial diversity studies based on 16S rRNA genes. PMID:26915214

  13. RiboFR-Seq: a novel approach to linking 16S rRNA amplicon profiles to metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanming; Ji, Peifeng; Wang, Jinfeng; Zhao, Fangqing

    2016-06-01

    16S rRNA amplicon analysis and shotgun metagenome sequencing are two main culture-independent strategies to explore the genetic landscape of various microbial communities. Recently, numerous studies have employed these two approaches together, but downstream data analyses were performed separately, which always generated incongruent or conflict signals on both taxonomic and functional classifications. Here we propose a novel approach, RiboFR-Seq (Ribosomal RNA gene flanking region sequencing), for capturing both ribosomal RNA variable regions and their flanking protein-coding genes simultaneously. Through extensive testing on clonal bacterial strain, salivary microbiome and bacterial epibionts of marine kelp, we demonstrated that RiboFR-Seq could detect the vast majority of bacteria not only in well-studied microbiomes but also in novel communities with limited reference genomes. Combined with classical amplicon sequencing and shotgun metagenome sequencing, RiboFR-Seq can link the annotations of 16S rRNA and metagenomic contigs to make a consensus classification. By recognizing almost all 16S rRNA copies, the RiboFR-seq approach can effectively reduce the taxonomic abundance bias resulted from 16S rRNA copy number variation. We believe that RiboFR-Seq, which provides an integrated view of 16S rRNA profiles and metagenomes, will help us better understand diverse microbial communities. PMID:26984526

  14. RiboFR-Seq: a novel approach to linking 16S rRNA amplicon profiles to metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanming; Ji, Peifeng; Wang, Jinfeng; Zhao, Fangqing

    2016-01-01

    16S rRNA amplicon analysis and shotgun metagenome sequencing are two main culture-independent strategies to explore the genetic landscape of various microbial communities. Recently, numerous studies have employed these two approaches together, but downstream data analyses were performed separately, which always generated incongruent or conflict signals on both taxonomic and functional classifications. Here we propose a novel approach, RiboFR-Seq (Ribosomal RNA gene flanking region sequencing), for capturing both ribosomal RNA variable regions and their flanking protein-coding genes simultaneously. Through extensive testing on clonal bacterial strain, salivary microbiome and bacterial epibionts of marine kelp, we demonstrated that RiboFR-Seq could detect the vast majority of bacteria not only in well-studied microbiomes but also in novel communities with limited reference genomes. Combined with classical amplicon sequencing and shotgun metagenome sequencing, RiboFR-Seq can link the annotations of 16S rRNA and metagenomic contigs to make a consensus classification. By recognizing almost all 16S rRNA copies, the RiboFR-seq approach can effectively reduce the taxonomic abundance bias resulted from 16S rRNA copy number variation. We believe that RiboFR-Seq, which provides an integrated view of 16S rRNA profiles and metagenomes, will help us better understand diverse microbial communities. PMID:26984526

  15. International interlaboratory study comparing single organism 16S rRNA gene sequencing data: Beyond consensus sequence comparisons.

    PubMed

    Olson, Nathan D; Lund, Steven P; Zook, Justin M; Rojas-Cornejo, Fabiola; Beck, Brian; Foy, Carole; Huggett, Jim; Whale, Alexandra S; Sui, Zhiwei; Baoutina, Anna; Dobeson, Michael; Partis, Lina; Morrow, Jayne B

    2015-03-01

    This study presents the results from an interlaboratory sequencing study for which we developed a novel high-resolution method for comparing data from different sequencing platforms for a multi-copy, paralogous gene. The combination of PCR amplification and 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rRNA) sequencing has revolutionized bacteriology by enabling rapid identification, frequently without the need for culture. To assess variability between laboratories in sequencing 16S rRNA, six laboratories sequenced the gene encoding the 16S rRNA from Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933 and Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4b strain NCTC11994. Participants performed sequencing methods and protocols available in their laboratories: Sanger sequencing, Roche 454 pyrosequencing(®), or Ion Torrent PGM(®). The sequencing data were evaluated on three levels: (1) identity of biologically conserved position, (2) ratio of 16S rRNA gene copies featuring identified variants, and (3) the collection of variant combinations in a set of 16S rRNA gene copies. The same set of biologically conserved positions was identified for each sequencing method. Analytical methods using Bayesian and maximum likelihood statistics were developed to estimate variant copy ratios, which describe the ratio of nucleotides at each identified biologically variable position, as well as the likely set of variant combinations present in 16S rRNA gene copies. Our results indicate that estimated variant copy ratios at biologically variable positions were only reproducible for high throughput sequencing methods. Furthermore, the likely variant combination set was only reproducible with increased sequencing depth and longer read lengths. We also demonstrate novel methods for evaluating variable positions when comparing multi-copy gene sequence data from multiple laboratories generated using multiple sequencing technologies. PMID:27077030

  16. The feline oral microbiome: a provisional 16S rRNA gene based taxonomy with full-length reference sequences.

    PubMed

    Dewhirst, Floyd E; Klein, Erin A; Bennett, Marie-Louise; Croft, Julie M; Harris, Stephen J; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V

    2015-02-25

    The human oral microbiome is known to play a significant role in human health and disease. While less well studied, the feline oral microbiome is thought to play a similarly important role. To determine roles oral bacteria play in health and disease, one first has to be able to accurately identify bacterial species present. 16S rRNA gene sequence information is widely used for molecular identification of bacteria and is also useful for establishing the taxonomy of novel species. The objective of this research was to obtain full 16S rRNA gene reference sequences for feline oral bacteria, place the sequences in species-level phylotypes, and create a curated 16S rRNA based taxonomy for common feline oral bacteria. Clone libraries were produced using "universal" and phylum-selective PCR primers and DNA from pooled subgingival plaque from healthy and periodontally diseased cats. Bacteria in subgingival samples were also cultivated to obtain isolates. Full-length 16S rDNA sequences were determined for clones and isolates that represent 171 feline oral taxa. A provisional curated taxonomy was developed based on the position of each taxon in 16S rRNA phylogenetic trees. The feline oral microbiome curated taxonomy and 16S rRNA gene reference set will allow investigators to refer to precisely defined bacterial taxa. A provisional name such as "Propionibacterium sp. feline oral taxon FOT-327" is an anchor to which clone, strain or GenBank names or accession numbers can point. Future next-generation-sequencing studies of feline oral bacteria will be able to map reads to taxonomically curated full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences. PMID:25523504

  17. The phylogeny of intestinal porcine spirochetes (Serpulina species) based on sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene.

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, B; Fellström, C; Andersson, A; Uhlén, M; Gunnarsson, A; Johansson, K E

    1996-01-01

    Four type or reference strains and twenty-two field strains of intestinal spirochetes isolated from Swedish pig herds were subjected to phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequences. Almost complete (>95%) 16S rRNA sequences were obtained by solid-phase DNA sequencing of in vitro-amplified rRNA genes. The genotypic patterns were compared with a previously proposed biochemical classification scheme, comprising beta-hemolysis, indole production, hippurate hydrolysis, and alpha-galactosidase, alpha-glucosidase, and beta-glucosidase activities. Comparison of the small-subunit rRNA sequences showed that the strains of the genus Serpulina were closely related. Phylogenetic trees were constructed, and three clusters were observed. This was also confirmed by signature nucleotide analysis of the serpulinas. The indole-producing strains, including the strains of S. hyodysenteriae and some weakly beta-hemolytic Serpulina strains, formed one cluster. A second cluster comprised weakly beta-hemolytic strains that showed beta-galactosidase activity but lacked indole production and hippurate-hydrolyzing capacity. The second cluster contained two subclusters with similar phenotypic profiles. A third cluster involved strains that possessed a hippurate-hydrolyzing capacity which was distinct from that of the former two clusters, because of 17 unique nucleotide positions of the 16S rRNA gene. Interestingly, the strains of this third cluster were found likely to have a 16S rRNA structure in the V2 region of the molecule different from that of the serpulinas belonging to the other clusters. As a consequence of these findings, we propose that the intestinal spirochetes of this phenotype (i.e., P43/6/78-like strains) should be regarded as a separate Serpulina species. Furthermore, this cluster was found to be by far the most homogeneous one. In conclusion, the biochemical classification of porcine intestinal spirochetes was comparable to that by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA

  18. Emergence of 16S rRNA methylase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in hospitals in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background 16S rRNA methylase-producing Gram-negative bacteria are highly resistant to all clinically important aminoglycosides. We analyzed clinical strains of 16S rRNA methylase-producing Acinetobactor baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa obtained from clinical isolates in medical settings in Vietnam. Methods From 2008 to 2011, 101 clinical strains of A. baumannii and 15 of P. aeruginosa were isolated from patients in intensive care units (ICUs) in two medical settings in Vietnam. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined using the microdilution method and epidemiological analysis was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and MLST. Genes encoding the 16S rRNA methylases, OXAs and CTX-Ms were analyzed by PCR and sequence analysis. Results 16S rRNA methylase-producing Gram-negative pathogens were detected in two hospitals in Vietnam. Of the 101 clinical isolates of A. baumannii and the 15 of P. aeruginosa isolated from two ICUs in these hospitals, 72 (71.3%) were highly resistant to amikacin, arbekacin and gentamicin, with MICs greater than 1,024 mg/L. The 16S rRNA methylases ArmA and RmtB were produced by 61 and 9 isolates of A. baumannii, respectively, and RmtB was produced by 2 isolates of P. aeruginosa. Moreover, 52 of the A. baumannii isolates producing 16S rRNA methylases harbored both blaOXA-23-like and blaOXA-51-like genes. Most A. baumannii isolates producing 16S rRNA methylase obtained in hospital A in Hanoi were ST91 and ST231, whereas most from hospital B in Ho Chi Minh City were ST136, ST195, and ST254. The two P. aeruginosa isolates harboring rmtB showed different patterns on PFGE, one each corresponding to ST217 and ST313. Conclusions Gram-negative bacteria producing the 16S rRNA methylases ArmA and RmtB are emerging in medical settings in Vietnam. A. baumannii isolates in northern and southern regions of Vietnam may be of different lineages. PMID:23721359

  19. Assessing the Fecal Microbiota: An Optimized Ion Torrent 16S rRNA Gene-Based Analysis Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Foroni, Elena; Duranti, Sabrina; Turroni, Francesca; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Sanchez, Borja; Martín, Rebeca; Gueimonde, Miguel; van Sinderen, Douwe; Margolles, Abelardo; Ventura, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the distribution of 16S rRNA gene sequences within a biological sample represents the current state-of-the-art for determination of human gut microbiota composition. Advances in dissecting the microbial biodiversity of this ecosystem have very much been dependent on the development of novel high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies, like the Ion Torrent. However, the precise representation of this bacterial community may be affected by the protocols used for DNA extraction as well as by the PCR primers employed in the amplification reaction. Here, we describe an optimized protocol for 16S rRNA gene-based profiling of the fecal microbiota. PMID:23869230

  20. Strengths and Limitations of 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon Sequencing in Revealing Temporal Microbial Community Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Poretsky, Rachel; Rodriguez-R, Luis M.; Luo, Chengwei; Tsementzi, Despina; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the short-term planktonic microbial community structure and resilience in Lake Lanier (GA, USA) while simultaneously evaluating the technical aspects of identifying taxa via 16S rRNA gene amplicon and metagenomic sequence data. 16S rRNA gene amplicons generated from four temporally discrete samples were sequenced with 454 GS-FLX-Ti yielding ∼40,000 rRNA gene sequences from each sample and representing ∼300 observed OTUs. Replicates obtained from the same biological sample clustered together but several biases were observed, linked to either the PCR or sequencing-preparation steps. In comparisons with companion whole-community shotgun metagenome datasets, the estimated number of OTUs at each timepoint was concordant, but 1.5 times and ∼10 times as many phyla and genera, respectively, were identified in the metagenomes. Our analyses showed that the 16S rRNA gene captures broad shifts in community diversity over time, but with limited resolution and lower sensitivity compared to metagenomic data. We also identified OTUs that showed marked shifts in abundance over four close timepoints separated by perturbations and tracked these taxa in the metagenome vs. 16S rRNA amplicon data. A strong summer storm had less of an effect on community composition than did seasonal mixing, which revealed a distinct succession of organisms. This study provides insights into freshwater microbial communities and advances the approaches for assessing community diversity and dynamics in situ. PMID:24714158

  1. CATCh, an ensemble classifier for chimera detection in 16S rRNA sequencing studies.

    PubMed

    Mysara, Mohamed; Saeys, Yvan; Leys, Natalie; Raes, Jeroen; Monsieurs, Pieter

    2015-03-01

    In ecological studies, microbial diversity is nowadays mostly assessed via the detection of phylogenetic marker genes, such as 16S rRNA. However, PCR amplification of these marker genes produces a significant amount of artificial sequences, often referred to as chimeras. Different algorithms have been developed to remove these chimeras, but efforts to combine different methodologies are limited. Therefore, two machine learning classifiers (reference-based and de novo CATCh) were developed by integrating the output of existing chimera detection tools into a new, more powerful method. When comparing our classifiers with existing tools in either the reference-based or de novo mode, a higher performance of our ensemble method was observed on a wide range of sequencing data, including simulated, 454 pyrosequencing, and Illumina MiSeq data sets. Since our algorithm combines the advantages of different individual chimera detection tools, our approach produces more robust results when challenged with chimeric sequences having a low parent divergence, short length of the chimeric range, and various numbers of parents. Additionally, it could be shown that integrating CATCh in the preprocessing pipeline has a beneficial effect on the quality of the clustering in operational taxonomic units. PMID:25527546

  2. Phylogenetic relationship of phosphate solubilizing bacteria according to 16S rRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Javadi Nobandegani, Mohammad Bagher; Saud, Halimi Mohd; Yun, Wong Mui

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) can convert insoluble form of phosphorous to an available form. Applications of PSB as inoculants increase the phosphorus uptake by plant in the field. In this study, isolation and precise identification of PSB were carried out in Malaysian (Serdang) oil palm field (University Putra Malaysia). Identification and phylogenetic analysis of 8 better isolates were carried out by 16S rRNA gene sequencing in which as a result five isolates belong to the Beta subdivision of Proteobacteria, one isolate was related to the Gama subdivision of Proteobacteria, and two isolates were related to the Firmicutes. Bacterial isolates of 6upmr, 2upmr, 19upmnr, 10upmr, and 24upmr were identified as Alcaligenes faecalis. Also, bacterial isolates of 20upmnr and 17upmnr were identified as Bacillus cereus and Vagococcus carniphilus, respectively, and bacterial isolates of 31upmr were identified as Serratia plymuthica. Molecular identification and characterization of oil palm strains as the specific phosphate solubilizer can reduce the time and cost of producing effective inoculate (biofertilizer) in an oil palm field. PMID:25632387

  3. Primer and platform effects on 16S rRNA tag sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblay, Julien; Singh, Kanwar; Fern, Alison; Kirton, Edward S.; He, Shaomei; Woyke, Tanja; Lee, Janey; Chen, Feng; Dangl, Jeffery L.; Tringe, Susannah G.

    2015-08-04

    Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene tags is a popular method for profiling and comparing microbial communities. The protocols and methods used, however, vary considerably with regard to amplification primers, sequencing primers, sequencing technologies; as well as quality filtering and clustering. How results are affected by these choices, and whether data produced with different protocols can be meaningfully compared, is often unknown. Here we compare results obtained using three different amplification primer sets (targeting V4, V6–V8, and V7–V8) and two sequencing technologies (454 pyrosequencing and Illumina MiSeq) using DNA from a mock community containing a known number of species as well as complex environmental samples whose PCR-independent profiles were estimated using shotgun sequencing. We find that paired-end MiSeq reads produce higher quality data and enabled the use of more aggressive quality control parameters over 454, resulting in a higher retention rate of high quality reads for downstream data analysis. While primer choice considerably influences quantitative abundance estimations, sequencing platform has relatively minor effects when matched primers are used. In conclusion, beta diversity metrics are surprisingly robust to both primer and sequencing platform biases.

  4. Primer and platform effects on 16S rRNA tag sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Julien; Singh, Kanwar; Fern, Alison; Kirton, Edward S.; He, Shaomei; Woyke, Tanja; Lee, Janey; Chen, Feng; Dangl, Jeffery L.; Tringe, Susannah G.

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene tags is a popular method for profiling and comparing microbial communities. The protocols and methods used, however, vary considerably with regard to amplification primers, sequencing primers, sequencing technologies; as well as quality filtering and clustering. How results are affected by these choices, and whether data produced with different protocols can be meaningfully compared, is often unknown. Here we compare results obtained using three different amplification primer sets (targeting V4, V6–V8, and V7–V8) and two sequencing technologies (454 pyrosequencing and Illumina MiSeq) using DNA from a mock community containing a known number of species as well as complex environmental samples whose PCR-independent profiles were estimated using shotgun sequencing. We find that paired-end MiSeq reads produce higher quality data and enabled the use of more aggressive quality control parameters over 454, resulting in a higher retention rate of high quality reads for downstream data analysis. While primer choice considerably influences quantitative abundance estimations, sequencing platform has relatively minor effects when matched primers are used. Beta diversity metrics are surprisingly robust to both primer and sequencing platform biases. PMID:26300854

  5. Molecular identification of adulteration in mutton based on mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Mengru; Wen, Yuanju; Xie, Tao; He, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Yongfeng; Cao, Suizhong; Niu, Lili; Zhang, Hongping; Zhong, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to set up a protocol for identification of the adulteration in mutton based on mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. The multiplex polymerase chain reaction (multi-PCR) assay was carried out to trace the impure DNA in mutton. A universal primer pair yielded an approximate 610 bp fragment in mutton, pork, duck, chicken, horse and cat meats. The amplicons of multi-PCR assay represented the species-specific products, which could be discriminated by the size ranging from 106 bp to 532 bp. Subsequently, the authentication of each fragment was also confirmed by sequencing. Random analyses of adulterants with various meats yielded the identical results to their components, showing the suitability of the multi-PCR assay for tracing of adulterant meats with high-accuracy and precision. This assay was sensitive to detect the species-specific DNA in different proportional mixtures of mutton and duck/pork (9.1%-90.9%). In conclusion, this multi-PCR assay successfully discriminated the double-, triple-, quadruple-, and quintuple-mixtures containing variant counterparts. This method will be particularly useful in the detection of mutton adulteration in processed foods further. PMID:24739005

  6. Phylogenetic Relationship of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria according to 16S rRNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Javadi Nobandegani, Mohammad Bagher; Saud, Halimi Mohd; Yun, Wong Mui

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) can convert insoluble form of phosphorous to an available form. Applications of PSB as inoculants increase the phosphorus uptake by plant in the field. In this study, isolation and precise identification of PSB were carried out in Malaysian (Serdang) oil palm field (University Putra Malaysia). Identification and phylogenetic analysis of 8 better isolates were carried out by 16S rRNA gene sequencing in which as a result five isolates belong to the Beta subdivision of Proteobacteria, one isolate was related to the Gama subdivision of Proteobacteria, and two isolates were related to the Firmicutes. Bacterial isolates of 6upmr, 2upmr, 19upmnr, 10upmr, and 24upmr were identified as Alcaligenes faecalis. Also, bacterial isolates of 20upmnr and 17upmnr were identified as Bacillus cereus and Vagococcus carniphilus, respectively, and bacterial isolates of 31upmr were identified as Serratia plymuthica. Molecular identification and characterization of oil palm strains as the specific phosphate solubilizer can reduce the time and cost of producing effective inoculate (biofertilizer) in an oil palm field. PMID:25632387

  7. Primer and platform effects on 16S rRNA tag sequencing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tremblay, Julien; Singh, Kanwar; Fern, Alison; Kirton, Edward S.; He, Shaomei; Woyke, Tanja; Lee, Janey; Chen, Feng; Dangl, Jeffery L.; Tringe, Susannah G.

    2015-08-04

    Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene tags is a popular method for profiling and comparing microbial communities. The protocols and methods used, however, vary considerably with regard to amplification primers, sequencing primers, sequencing technologies; as well as quality filtering and clustering. How results are affected by these choices, and whether data produced with different protocols can be meaningfully compared, is often unknown. Here we compare results obtained using three different amplification primer sets (targeting V4, V6–V8, and V7–V8) and two sequencing technologies (454 pyrosequencing and Illumina MiSeq) using DNA from a mock community containing a known number of species as wellmore » as complex environmental samples whose PCR-independent profiles were estimated using shotgun sequencing. We find that paired-end MiSeq reads produce higher quality data and enabled the use of more aggressive quality control parameters over 454, resulting in a higher retention rate of high quality reads for downstream data analysis. While primer choice considerably influences quantitative abundance estimations, sequencing platform has relatively minor effects when matched primers are used. In conclusion, beta diversity metrics are surprisingly robust to both primer and sequencing platform biases.« less

  8. Insights into the phylogenetic positions of photosynthetic bacteria obtained from 5S rRNA and 16S rRNA sequence data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, G. E.

    1985-01-01

    Comparisons of complete 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequences established that the secondary structure of these molecules is highly conserved. Earlier work with 5S rRNA secondary structure revealed that when structural conservation exists the alignment of sequences is straightforward. The constancy of structure implies minimal functional change. Under these conditions a uniform evolutionary rate can be expected so that conditions are favorable for phylogenetic tree construction.

  9. Intragenomic heterogeneity in the 16S rRNA genes of Flavobacterium columnare and relevance to genomovar assignment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic variability in 16S rRNA gene sequences has been demonstrated among isolates of Flavobacterium columnare and a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay is available for genetic typing this important fish pathogen. Interpretation of restriction patterns can be difficult due to th...

  10. Distinct Ectomycorrhizospheres Share Similar Bacterial Communities as Revealed by Pyrosequencing-Based Analysis of 16S rRNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Oger, P.; Morin, E.; Frey-Klett, P.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences generated from Xerocomus pruinatus and Scleroderma citrinum ectomycorrhizospheres revealed that similar bacterial communities inhabited the two ectomycorrhizospheres in terms of phyla and genera, with an enrichment of the Burkholderia genus. Compared to the bulk soil habitat, ectomycorrhizospheres hosted significantly more Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria. PMID:22307291

  11. Species Identification and Profiling of Complex Microbial Communities Using Shotgun Illumina Sequencing of 16S rRNA Amplicon Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Lay, Christophe; Ho, Eliza Xin Pei; Low, Louie; Hibberd, Martin Lloyd; Nagarajan, Niranjan

    2013-01-01

    The high throughput and cost-effectiveness afforded by short-read sequencing technologies, in principle, enable researchers to perform 16S rRNA profiling of complex microbial communities at unprecedented depth and resolution. Existing Illumina sequencing protocols are, however, limited by the fraction of the 16S rRNA gene that is interrogated and therefore limit the resolution and quality of the profiling. To address this, we present the design of a novel protocol for shotgun Illumina sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, optimized to amplify more than 90% of sequences in the Greengenes database and with the ability to distinguish nearly twice as many species-level OTUs compared to existing protocols. Using several in silico and experimental datasets, we demonstrate that despite the presence of multiple variable and conserved regions, the resulting shotgun sequences can be used to accurately quantify the constituents of complex microbial communities. The reconstruction of a significant fraction of the 16S rRNA gene also enabled high precision (>90%) in species-level identification thereby opening up potential application of this approach for clinical microbial characterization. PMID:23579286

  12. Phylogenetic Analysis of Bacteroidales 16S rRNA Genes Unveils Sequences Specific to Diverse Swine Fecal Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two of the currently available methods to assess swine fecal pollution (Bac1 and PF163) target Bacteroidales 16S rRNA genes. However, these assays have been shown to exhibit poor host-specificity and low detection limits in environmental waters, in part due to the limited number...

  13. Ureaplasma urealyticum continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis diagnosed by 16S rRNA gene PCR.

    PubMed

    Yager, Jessica E; Ford, Emily S; Boas, Zachary P; Haseley, Leah A; Cookson, Brad T; Sengupta, Dhruba J; Fang, Ferric C; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S

    2010-11-01

    In some patients with peritonitis complicating continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), a causative organism is never identified. We report a case of Ureaplasma urealyticum CAPD-associated peritonitis diagnosed by 16S rRNA gene PCR. Ureaplasma may be an underrecognized cause of peritonitis because it cannot be recovered using routine culture methods. PMID:20739488

  14. Comparison of gull-specific assays targeting 16S rRNA gene of Catellicoccus marimammalium and Streptococcus spp.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gulls have been implicated as a source of fecal contamination in inland and coastal waters. Only one gull-specific assay is currently available (i.e., gull2 qPCR assay). This assay is based on the 16S rRNA gene of Catellicocclls marimammalium and has showed a high level of host-s...

  15. Intragenomic heterogeneity in the 16S rRNA genes of Flavobacterium columnare and relevance to genomovar assignment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease which severely impacts channel catfish production in the USA and may be emerging as an important pathogen in the rainbow trout industry. The 16S rRNA gene is a housekeeping gene commonly used for bacterial taxonomy and genotyping...

  16. Micelle PCR reduces chimera formation in 16S rRNA profiling of complex microbial DNA mixtures.

    PubMed

    Boers, Stefan A; Hays, John P; Jansen, Ruud

    2015-01-01

    16S rRNA gene profiling has revolutionized the field of microbial ecology. Many researchers in various fields have embraced this technology to investigate bacterial compositions of samples derived from many different ecosystems. However, it is important to acknowledge the current limitations and drawbacks of 16S rRNA gene profiling. Although sample handling, DNA extraction methods and the choice of universal 16S rRNA gene PCR primers are well known factors that could seriously affect the final results of microbiota profiling studies, inevitable amplification artifacts, such as chimera formation and PCR competition, are seldom appreciated. Here we report on a novel micelle based amplification strategy, which overcomes these limitations via the clonal amplification of targeted DNA molecules. Our results show that micelle PCR drastically reduces chimera formation by a factor of 38 (1.5% vs. 56.9%) compared with traditional PCR, resulting in improved microbial diversity estimates. In addition, compartmentalization during micelle PCR prevents PCR competition due to unequal amplification rates of different 16S template molecules, generating robust and accurate 16S microbiota profiles required for comparative studies (e.g. longitudinal surveys). PMID:26373611

  17. Intra-Genomic Heterogeneity in 16S rRNA Genes in Strictly Anaerobic Clinical Isolates from Periodontal Abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiazhen; Miao, Xinyu; Xu, Meng; He, Junlin; Xie, Yi; Wu, Xingwen; Chen, Gang; Yu, Liying; Zhang, Wenhong

    2015-01-01

    Background Members of the genera Prevotella, Veillonella and Fusobacterium are the predominant culturable obligate anaerobic bacteria isolated from periodontal abscesses. When determining the cumulative number of clinical anaerobic isolates from periodontal abscesses, ambiguous or overlapping signals were frequently encountered in 16S rRNA gene sequencing chromatograms, resulting in ambiguous identifications. With the exception of the genus Veillonella, the high intra-chromosomal heterogeneity of rrs genes has not been reported. Methods The 16S rRNA genes of 138 clinical, strictly anaerobic isolates and one reference strain were directly sequenced, and the chromatograms were carefully examined. Gene cloning was performed for 22 typical isolates with doublet sequencing signals for the 16S rRNA genes, and four copies of the rrs-ITS genes of 9 Prevotella intermedia isolates were separately amplified by PCR, sequenced and compared. Five conserved housekeeping genes, hsp60, recA, dnaJ, gyrB1 and rpoB from 89 clinical isolates of Prevotella were also amplified by PCR and sequenced for identification and phylogenetic analysis along with 18 Prevotella reference strains. Results Heterogeneity of 16S rRNA genes was apparent in clinical, strictly anaerobic oral bacteria, particularly in the genera Prevotella and Veillonella. One hundred out of 138 anaerobic strains (72%) had intragenomic nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in multiple locations, and 13 strains (9.4%) had intragenomic insertions or deletions in the 16S rRNA gene. In the genera Prevotella and Veillonella, 75% (67/89) and 100% (19/19) of the strains had SNPs in the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Gene cloning and separate amplifications of four copies of the rrs-ITS genes confirmed that 2 to 4 heterogeneous 16S rRNA copies existed. Conclusion Sequence alignment of five housekeeping genes revealed that intra-species nucleotide similarities were very high in the genera Prevotella, ranging from 94.3–100%. However, the

  18. Prevalence of 16S rRNA methylase genes among β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al Sheikh, Yazeed A.; Marie, Mohammed Ali M.; John, James; Krishnappa, Lakshmana Gowda; Dabwab, Khaled Homoud M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Co production of 16S rRNA methylases gene and β-Lactamase gene among Enterobacteriaceae isolates conferring resistance to both therapeutic options has serious implications for clinicians worldwide. Methods To study co existence of 16S rRNA methylases (armA, rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, rmtD, and npmA) and β-Lactamase (blaTEM-1, blaSHV-12, blaCTX-M-14) genes, we screened all phenotypic positive β-Lactamase producing enterobacteriaceae by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting above genes. A total of 330 enterobacteriaceae strains were collected during study period out of that 218 isolates were identified phenotypically as β-Lactamase producers, which include 50 (22.9%) Escherichia coli; 92 (42.2%) Klebsiella pneumoniae, 44 (20.2%), Citrobactor freundii and 32 (14.7%) Enterobacter spp. Results Among this 218, only 188 isolates harbored the resistant gene for β-Lactamase production. Major β-Lactamase producing isolates were bla TEM-1 type. 122 (56 %) isolates were found to produce any one of the 16S rRNA methylase genes. A total of 116 isolates co produced β-Lactamase and at least one 16S rRNA methylases gene Co production of armA gene was found in 26 isolates with rmtB and in 4 isolates with rmtC. The rmtA and rmtD genes were not detected in any of the tested isolates. Six isolates were positive for a 16S rRNA methylase gene alone. Conclusion β-Lactamase producing isolates appears to coexist with 16S rRNA methylase predominantly armA and rmtB genes in the same isolate. We conclude the major β-Lactamase and 16S rRNA methylases co-producer was K. pneumoniae followed by E. coli. We suggest further work on evaluating other β-lactamases types and novel antibiotic resistance mechanisms among Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:25005152

  19. The inconstant gut microbiota of Drosophila species revealed by 16S rRNA gene analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Adam C-N; Chaston, John M; Douglas, Angela E

    2013-01-01

    The gut microorganisms in some animals are reported to include a core microbiota of consistently associated bacteria that is ecologically distinctive and may have coevolved with the host. The core microbiota is promoted by positive interactions among bacteria, favoring shared persistence; its retention over evolutionary timescales is evident as congruence between host phylogeny and bacterial community composition. This study applied multiple analyses to investigate variation in the composition of gut microbiota in drosophilid flies. First, the prevalence of five previously described gut bacteria (Acetobacter and Lactobacillus species) in individual flies of 21 strains (10 Drosophila species) were determined. Most bacteria were not present in all individuals of most strains, and bacterial species pairs co-occurred in individual flies less frequently than predicted by chance, contrary to expectations of a core microbiota. A complementary pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from the gut microbiota of 11 Drosophila species identified 209 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs), with near-saturating sampling of sequences, but none of the OTUs was common to all host species. Furthermore, in both of two independent sets of Drosophila species, the gut bacterial community composition was not congruent with host phylogeny. The final analysis identified no common OTUs across three wild and four laboratory samples of D. melanogaster. Our results yielded no consistent evidence for a core microbiota in Drosophila. We conclude that the taxonomic composition of gut microbiota varies widely within and among Drosophila populations and species. This is reminiscent of the patterns of bacterial composition in guts of some other animals, including humans. PMID:23719154

  20. The inconstant gut microbiota of Drosophila species revealed by 16S rRNA gene analysis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Adam C-N; Chaston, John M; Douglas, Angela E

    2013-10-01

    The gut microorganisms in some animals are reported to include a core microbiota of consistently associated bacteria that is ecologically distinctive and may have coevolved with the host. The core microbiota is promoted by positive interactions among bacteria, favoring shared persistence; its retention over evolutionary timescales is evident as congruence between host phylogeny and bacterial community composition. This study applied multiple analyses to investigate variation in the composition of gut microbiota in drosophilid flies. First, the prevalence of five previously described gut bacteria (Acetobacter and Lactobacillus species) in individual flies of 21 strains (10 Drosophila species) were determined. Most bacteria were not present in all individuals of most strains, and bacterial species pairs co-occurred in individual flies less frequently than predicted by chance, contrary to expectations of a core microbiota. A complementary pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from the gut microbiota of 11 Drosophila species identified 209 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs), with near-saturating sampling of sequences, but none of the OTUs was common to all host species. Furthermore, in both of two independent sets of Drosophila species, the gut bacterial community composition was not congruent with host phylogeny. The final analysis identified no common OTUs across three wild and four laboratory samples of D. melanogaster. Our results yielded no consistent evidence for a core microbiota in Drosophila. We conclude that the taxonomic composition of gut microbiota varies widely within and among Drosophila populations and species. This is reminiscent of the patterns of bacterial composition in guts of some other animals, including humans. PMID:23719154

  1. 16S rRNA Gene Survey of Microbial Communities in Winogradsky Columns

    PubMed Central

    Rundell, Ethan A.; Banta, Lois M.; Ward, Doyle V.; Watts, Corey D.; Birren, Bruce; Esteban, David J.

    2014-01-01

    A Winogradsky column is a clear glass or plastic column filled with enriched sediment. Over time, microbial communities in the sediment grow in a stratified ecosystem with an oxic top layer and anoxic sub-surface layers. Winogradsky columns have been used extensively to demonstrate microbial nutrient cycling and metabolic diversity in undergraduate microbiology labs. In this study, we used high-throughput 16s rRNA gene sequencing to investigate the microbial diversity of Winogradsky columns. Specifically, we tested the impact of sediment source, supplemental cellulose source, and depth within the column, on microbial community structure. We found that the Winogradsky columns were highly diverse communities but are dominated by three phyla: Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes. The community is structured by a founding population dependent on the source of sediment used to prepare the columns and is differentiated by depth within the column. Numerous biomarkers were identified distinguishing sample depth, including Cyanobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria as biomarkers of the soil-water interface, and Clostridia as a biomarker of the deepest depth. Supplemental cellulose source impacted community structure but less strongly than depth and sediment source. In columns dominated by Firmicutes, the family Peptococcaceae was the most abundant sulfate reducer, while in columns abundant in Proteobacteria, several Deltaproteobacteria families, including Desulfobacteraceae, were found, showing that different taxonomic groups carry out sulfur cycling in different columns. This study brings this historical method for enrichment culture of chemolithotrophs and other soil bacteria into the modern era of microbiology and demonstrates the potential of the Winogradsky column as a model system for investigating the effect of environmental variables on soil microbial communities. PMID:25101630

  2. A framework for establishing predictive relationships between specific bacterial 16S rRNA sequence abundances and biotransformation rates.

    PubMed

    Helbling, Damian E; Johnson, David R; Lee, Tae Kwon; Scheidegger, Andreas; Fenner, Kathrin

    2015-03-01

    The rates at which wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) microbial communities biotransform specific substrates can differ by orders of magnitude among WWTP communities. Differences in taxonomic compositions among WWTP communities may predict differences in the rates of some types of biotransformations. In this work, we present a novel framework for establishing predictive relationships between specific bacterial 16S rRNA sequence abundances and biotransformation rates. We selected ten WWTPs with substantial variation in their environmental and operational metrics and measured the in situ ammonia biotransformation rate constants in nine of them. We isolated total RNA from samples from each WWTP and analyzed 16S rRNA sequence reads. We then developed multivariate models between the measured abundances of specific bacterial 16S rRNA sequence reads and the ammonia biotransformation rate constants. We constructed model scenarios that systematically explored the effects of model regularization, model linearity and non-linearity, and aggregation of 16S rRNA sequences into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) as a function of sequence dissimilarity threshold (SDT). A large percentage (greater than 80%) of model scenarios resulted in well-performing and significant models at intermediate SDTs of 0.13-0.14 and 0.26. The 16S rRNA sequences consistently selected into the well-performing and significant models at those SDTs were classified as Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira groups. We then extend the framework by applying it to the biotransformation rate constants of ten micropollutants measured in batch reactors seeded with the ten WWTP communities. We identified phylogenetic groups that were robustly selected into all well-performing and significant models constructed with biotransformation rates of isoproturon, propachlor, ranitidine, and venlafaxine. These phylogenetic groups can be used as predictive biomarkers of WWTP microbial community activity towards these specific

  3. Intragenomic heterogeneity of the 16S rRNA gene in strain UFO1 caused by a 100-bp insertion in helix 6

    SciTech Connect

    Allison E. Ray; Stephanie A. Connon; Peter P. Sheridan; Jeremy Gilbreath; Malcolm S. Shields; Deborah T. Newby; Yoshiko Fujita; Timothy S. Magnuson

    2010-06-01

    The determination of variation in 16S rRNA gene sequences is perhaps the most common method for assessing microbial community diversity. However, the occurrence of multiple copies of 16S rRNA genes within some organisms can bias estimates of microbial diversity. During phylogenetic characterization of a metal-transforming, fermentative bacterium (strain UFO1) isolated from the Field Research Center (FRC) in Oak Ridge, TN, we detected an apparent 16S rRNA pseudogene. The putative 16S rRNA pseudogene was first detected in clone libraries constructed with 16S rRNA genes amplified from UFO1 genomic DNA. Sequencing revealed two distinct 16S rRNA genes, with one differing from the other by a 100 bp insert near the 5’ end. Ribosomal RNA was extracted from strain UFO1 and analyzed by RT-qPCR with insert and non-insert specific primers; however, only the non-insert 16S rRNA sequence was expressed. Reverse-transcribed rRNA from strain UFO1 was also used to construct a cDNA library. Of 190 clones screened by PCR, none contained the 16S rRNA gene with the 100 bp insert. Examination of GenBank 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the same insert sequence was present in other clones, including those from an environmental library constructed from FRC enrichments. These findings demonstrate the existence of widely disparate copies of the 16S rRNA gene in the same species and a putative 16S rRNA pseudogene, which may confound 16S rRNA-based methods for assessments of microbial diversity in environmental samples.

  4. [Antimicrobial susceptibilities of clinical Nocardia isolates identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis].

    PubMed

    Uner, Mahmut Celalettin; Hasçelik, Gülşen; Müştak, Hamit Kaan

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia species are ubiquitous in the environment and responsible for various human infections such as pulmonary, cutaneous, central nervous system and disseminated nocardiosis. Since the clinical pictures and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Nocardia species exhibit variability, susceptibility testing is recommended for every Nocardia isolates. The aims of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Nocardia clinical isolates and to compare the results of broth microdilution and disc diffusion susceptibility tests. A total of 45 clinical Nocardia isolates (isolated from 17 respiratory tract, 8 brain abscess, 7 pus, 3 skin, 3 conjunctiva, 2 blood, 2 tissue, 2 pleural fluid and 1 cerebrospinal fluid samples) were identified by using conventional methods and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Susceptibility testing was performed for amikacin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, linezolid and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) by broth microdilution method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) criteria recommended in 2011 approved standard (M24-A2) and disk diffusion method used as an alternative comparative susceptibility testing method. Among the 45 Nocardia strains, N.cyriacigeorgica (n: 26, 57.8%) was the most common species, followed by N.farcinica (n: 12, 26.7%), N.otitiscaviarum (n: 4, 8.9%), N.asteroides (n: 1, 2.2%), N.neocaledoniensis (n: 1, 2.2%) and N.abscessus (n: 1, 2.2%). Amikacin and linezolid were the only two antimicrobials to which all isolates were susceptible for both broth microdilution and disk diffusion tests. In broth microdilution test, resistance rates to TMP-SMX, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin were found as 15.6%, 37.8% and 84.4% respectively, whereas in the disk diffusion test, the highest resistance rate was observed against ciprofloxacin (n: 33, 73.3%), followed by TMP-SMX (n: 22, 48.9%) and ceftriaxone (n: 15, 33.3%). In both of these tests, N.cyriacigeorgica was the species with the

  5. The Identification of Discriminating Patterns from 16S rRNA Gene to Generate Signature for Bacillus Genus.

    PubMed

    More, Ravi P; Purohit, Hemant J

    2016-08-01

    The 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene has been widely used for the taxonomic classification of bacteria. A molecular signature is a set of nucleotide patterns, which constitute a regular expression that is specific to each particular taxon. Our main goal was to identify discriminating nucleotide patterns in 16S rRNA gene and then to generate signatures for taxonomic classification. To demonstrate our approach, we used the phylum Firmicutes as a model using representative taxa Bacilli (class), Bacillales (order), Bacillaceae (family), and Bacillus (genus), according to their dominance at each hierarchical taxonomic level. We applied combined composite vector and multiple sequence alignment approaches to generate gene-specific signatures. Further, we mapped all the patterns into the different hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA gene and confirmed the most appropriate distinguishing region as V3-V4 for targeted taxa. We also examined the evolution in discriminating patterns of signatures across taxonomic levels. We assessed the comparative classification accuracy of signatures with other methods (i.e., RDP Classifier, KNN, and SINA). Results revealed that the signatures for taxa Bacilli, Bacillales, Bacillaceae, and Bacillus could correctly classify isolate sequences with sensitivity of 0.99, 0.97, 0.94, and 0.89, respectively, and specificity close to 0.99. We developed signature-based software DNA Barcode Identification (DNA BarID) for taxonomic classification that is available at website http://www.neeri.res.in/DNA_BarID.htm . This pattern-based study provides a deeper understanding of taxon-specific discriminating patterns in 16S rRNA gene with respect to taxonomic classification. PMID:27104769

  6. Plastid 16S rRNA Gene Diversity among Eukaryotic Picophytoplankton Sorted by Flow Cytometry from the South Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiao Li; Lepère, Cécile; Scanlan, David J.; Vaulot, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The genetic diversity of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes was investigated in the South East Pacific Ocean. Genetic libraries of the plastid 16S rRNA gene were constructed on picoeukaryote populations sorted by flow cytometry, using two different primer sets, OXY107F/OXY1313R commonly used to amplify oxygenic organisms, and PLA491F/OXY1313R, biased towards plastids of marine algae. Surprisingly, the two sets revealed quite different photosynthetic picoeukaryote diversity patterns, which were moreover different from what we previously reported using the 18S rRNA nuclear gene as a marker. The first 16S primer set revealed many sequences related to Pelagophyceae and Dictyochophyceae, the second 16S primer set was heavily biased toward Prymnesiophyceae, while 18S sequences were dominated by Prasinophyceae, Chrysophyceae and Haptophyta. Primer mismatches with major algal lineages is probably one reason behind this discrepancy. However, other reasons, such as DNA accessibility or gene copy numbers, may be also critical. Based on plastid 16S rRNA gene sequences, the structure of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes varied along the BIOSOPE transect vertically and horizontally. In oligotrophic regions, Pelagophyceae, Chrysophyceae, and Prymnesiophyceae dominated. Pelagophyceae were prevalent at the DCM depth and Chrysophyceae at the surface. In mesotrophic regions Pelagophyceae were still important but Chlorophyta contribution increased. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a new clade of Prasinophyceae (clade 16S-IX), which seems to be restricted to hyper-oligotrophic stations. Our data suggest that a single gene marker, even as widely used as 18S rRNA, provides a biased view of eukaryotic communities and that the use of several markers is necessary to obtain a complete image. PMID:21552558

  7. Specific multiplex analysis of pathogens using a direct 16S rRNA hybridization in microarray system.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Byeong Hee; Shin, Hwa Hui; Seo, Jeong Hyun; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2012-06-01

    For the rapid multiplex analysis of pathogens, 16S rRNAs from cell lysates were directly applied onto a DNA microarray at room temperature (RT) for RNA-DNA hybridization. To eliminate the labeling step, seven fluorescent-labeled detector probes were cohybridized with 16S rRNA targets and adjacent specific capture probes. We found that eight pathogens were successfully discriminated by the 16S rRNA-based direct method, which showed greater specificity than the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-labeled method due to chaperone and distance effects. A new specificity criterion for a perfect match between RNA and DNA was suggested to be 21-41% dissimilarity using correlation analysis between the mismatch and the sequence according to the guanine-cytosine (GC) percentage or the distribution of mismatches. Six categories of food matrix (egg, meat, milk, rice, vegetable, and mixed) were also tested, and the target pathogen was successfully discriminated within statistically significant levels. Finally, we found that the intrinsic abundance of 16S rRNA molecules successfully substituted PCR-based amplification with a low limit of detection of 10-10(3) cells mL(-1) and a high quantitative linear correlation. Collectively, our suggested 16S rRNA-based direct method enables the highly sensitive, specific, and quantitative analysis of selected pathogens at RT within 2 h, even in food samples. PMID:22551354

  8. Homology of the 3' terminal sequences of the 18S rRNA of Bombyx mori and the 16S rRNA of Escherchia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Samols, D R; Hagenbuchle, O; Gage, L P

    1979-01-01

    The terminal 220 base pairs (bp) of the gene for 18S rRNA and 18 bp of the adjoining spacer rDNA of the silkworm Bombyx mori have been sequenced. Comparison with the sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of Escherichia coli has shown that a region including 45 bp of the B. mori sequence at the 3' end is remarkably homologous with the 3' terminal E. coli sequence. Other homologies occur in the terminal regions of the 18S and 16S rRNAs, including a perfectly conserved stretch of 13 bp within a longer homology located 150--200 bp from the 3' termini. These homologies are the most extensive so far reported between prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomic DNA. Images PMID:390496

  9. Assessing hog lagoon waste contamination in the Cape Fear Watershed using Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Ann M; Song, Bongkeun; Mallin, Michael A

    2015-09-01

    Hog lagoons can be major sources of waste and nutrient contamination to watersheds adjacent to pig farms. Fecal source tracking methods targeting Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes in pig fecal matter may underestimate or fail to detect hog lagoon contamination in riverine environments. In order to detect hog lagoon wastewater contamination in the Cape Fear Watershed, where a large number of hog farms are present, we conducted pyrosequencing analyses of Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes in hog lagoon waste and identified new hog lagoon-specific marker sequences. Additional pyrosequencing analyses of Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes were conducted with surface water samples collected at 4 sites during 5 months in the Cape Fear Watershed. Using an operational taxonomic unit (OTU) identity cutoff value of 97 %, these newly identified hog lagoon markers were found in 3 of the river samples, while only 1 sample contained the pig fecal marker. In the sample containing the pig fecal marker, there was a relatively high percentage (14.1 %) of the hog lagoon markers and a low pig fecal marker relative abundance of 0.4 % in the Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene sequences. This suggests that hog lagoon contamination must be somewhat significant in order for pig fecal markers to be detected, and low levels of hog lagoon contamination cannot be detected targeting only pig-specific fecal markers. Thus, new hog lagoon markers have a better detection capacity for lagoon waste contamination, and in conjunction with a pig fecal marker, provide a more comprehensive and accurate detection of hog lagoon waste contamination in susceptible watersheds. PMID:26189016

  10. Phylogenetic diversity of bacterial symbionts of Solemya hosts based on comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes.

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, D M; Cavanaugh, C M

    1997-01-01

    The bacterial endosymbionts of two species of the bivalve genus Solemya from the Pacific Ocean, Solemya terraeregina and Solemya pusilla, were characterized. Prokaryotic cells resembling gram-negative bacteria were observed in the gills of both host species by transmission electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of the symbiosis in both host species is remarkably similar to that of all previously described Solemya spp. By using sequence data from 16S rRNA, the identity and evolutionary origins of the S. terraeregina and S. pusilla symbionts were also determined. Direct sequencing of PCR-amplified products from host gill DNA with primers specific for Bacteria 16S rRNA genes gave a single, unambiguous sequence for each of the two symbiont species. In situ hybridization with symbiont-specific oligonucleotide probes confirmed that these gene sequences belong to the bacteria residing in the hosts gills. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene sequences by both distance and parsimony methods identify the S. terraeregina and S. pusilla symbionts as members of the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria. In contrast to symbionts of other bivalve families, which appear to be monophyletic, the S. terraeregina and S. pusilla symbionts share a more recent common ancestry with bacteria associating endosymbiotically with bivalves of the superfamily Lucinacea than with other Solemya symbionts (host species S. velum, S. occidentalis, and S. reidi). Overall, the 16S rRNA gene sequence data suggest that the symbionts of Solemya hosts represent at least two distinct bacterial lineages within the gamma-Proteobacteria. While it is increasingly clear that all extant species of Solemya live in symbiosis with specific bacteria, the associations appear to have multiple evolutionary origins. PMID:8979342

  11. Quantifying Microbial Diversity: Morphotypes, 16S rRNA Genes, and Carotenoids of Oxygenic Phototrophs in Microbial Mats

    PubMed Central

    Nübel, Ulrich; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Kühl, Michael; Muyzer, Gerard

    1999-01-01

    We quantified the diversity of oxygenic phototrophic microorganisms present in eight hypersaline microbial mats on the basis of three cultivation-independent approaches. Morphological diversity was studied by microscopy. The diversity of carotenoids was examined by extraction from mat samples and high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis. The diversity of 16S rRNA genes from oxygenic phototrophic microorganisms was investigated by extraction of total DNA from mat samples, amplification of 16S rRNA gene segments from cyanobacteria and plastids of eukaryotic algae by phylum-specific PCR, and sequence-dependent separation of amplification products by denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis. A numerical approach was introduced to correct for crowding the results of chromatographic and electrophoretic analyses. Diversity estimates typically varied up to twofold among mats. The congruence of richness estimates and Shannon-Weaver indices based on numbers and proportional abundances of unique morphotypes, 16S rRNA genes, and carotenoids unveiled the underlying diversity of oxygenic phototrophic microorganisms in the eight mat communities studied. PMID:9925563

  12. Sulfur-oxidizing bacterial endosymbionts: analysis of phylogeny and specificity by 16S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Distel, D L; Lane, D J; Olsen, G J; Giovannoni, S J; Pace, B; Pace, N R; Stahl, D A; Felbeck, H

    1988-06-01

    The 16S rRNAs from the bacterial endosymbionts of six marine invertebrates from diverse environments were isolated and partially sequenced. These symbionts included the trophosome symbiont of Riftia pachyptila, the gill symbionts of Calyptogena magnifica and Bathymodiolus thermophilus (from deep-sea hydrothermal vents), and the gill symbionts of Lucinoma annulata, Lucinoma aequizonata, and Codakia orbicularis (from relatively shallow coastal environments). Only one type of bacterial 16S rRNA was detected in each symbiosis. Using nucleotide sequence comparisons, we showed that each of the bacterial symbionts is distinct from the others and that all fall within a limited domain of the gamma subdivision of the purple bacteria (one of the major eubacterial divisions previously defined by 16S rRNA analysis [C. R. Woese, Microbiol. Rev. 51: 221-271, 1987]). Two host specimens were analyzed in five of the symbioses; in each case, identical bacterial rRNA sequences were obtained from conspecific host specimens. These data indicate that the symbioses examined are species specific and that the symbiont species are unique to and invariant within their respective host species. PMID:3286609

  13. Microbial community of salt crystals processed from Mediterranean seawater based on 16S rRNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Baati, Houda; Guermazi, Sonda; Gharsallah, Neji; Sghir, Abdelghani; Ammar, Emna

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA was used to investigate for the first time the structure of the microbial community that inhabits salt crystals retrieved from the bottom of a solar saltern, located in the coastal area of the Mediterranean Sea (Sfax, Tunisia). This community lives in an extremely salty environment of 250-310 g/L total dissolved salt. A total of 78 bacterial 16S rRNA clone sequences making up to 21 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), determined by the DOTUR program to 97% sequence similarity, was analyzed. These OTUs were affiliated to Bacteroidetes (71.4% of OTUs), and gamma-Proteobacteria and alpha-Proteobacteria (equally represented by 14.2% of the OTUs observed). The archaeal community composition appeared more diverse with 68 clones, resulting in 44 OTUs, all affiliated with the Euryarchaeota phylum. Of the bacterial and archaeal clones showing <97% 16S rRNA sequence identity with sequences in public databases, 47.6% and 84.1% respectively were novel clones. Both rarefaction curves and diversity measurements (Simpson, Shannon-Weaver, Chao) showed a more diverse archaeal than bacterial community at the Tunisian solar saltern pond. The analysis of an increasing clone's number may reveal additional local diversity. PMID:20130693

  14. Complete ecological isolation and cryptic diversity in Polynucleobacter bacteria not resolved by 16S rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Martin W; Jezberová, Jitka; Koll, Ulrike; Saueressig-Beck, Tanja; Schmidt, Johanna

    2016-07-01

    Transplantation experiments and genome comparisons were used to determine if lineages of planktonic Polynucleobacter almost indistinguishable by their 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences differ distinctively in their ecophysiological and genomic traits. The results of three transplantation experiments differing in complexity of biotic interactions revealed complete ecological isolation between some of the lineages. This pattern fits well to the previously detected environmental distribution of lineages along chemical gradients, as well as to differences in gene content putatively providing adaptation to chemically distinct habitats. Patterns of distribution of iron transporter genes across 209 Polynucleobacter strains obtained from freshwater systems and representing a broad pH spectrum further emphasize differences in habitat-specific adaptations. Genome comparisons of six strains sharing ⩾99% 16S rRNA similarities suggested that each strain represents a distinct species. Comparison of sequence diversity among genomes with sequence diversity among 240 cultivated Polynucleobacter strains indicated a large cryptic species complex not resolvable by 16S rRNA sequences. The revealed ecological isolation and cryptic diversity in Polynucleobacter bacteria is crucial in the interpretation of diversity studies on freshwater bacterioplankton based on ribosomal sequences. PMID:26943621

  15. Structure of ERA in complex with the 3′ end of 16S rRNA: Implications for ribosome biogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, Chao; Zhou, Xiaomei; Tropea, Joseph E.; Austin, Brian P.; Waugh, David S.; Court, Donald L.; Ji, Xinhua

    2009-10-09

    ERA, composed of an N-terminal GTPase domain followed by an RNA-binding KH domain, is essential for bacterial cell viability. It binds to 16S rRNA and the 30S ribosomal subunit. However, its RNA-binding site, the functional relationship between the two domains, and its role in ribosome biogenesis remain unclear. We have determined two crystal structures of ERA, a binary complex with GDP and a ternary complex with a GTP-analog and the {sub 1531}AUCACCUCCUUA{sub 1542} sequence at the 3' end of 16S rRNA. In the ternary complex, the first nine of the 12 nucleotides are recognized by the protein. We show that GTP binding is a prerequisite for RNA recognition by ERA and that RNA recognition stimulates its GTP-hydrolyzing activity. Based on these and other data, we propose a functional cycle of ERA, suggesting that the protein serves as a chaperone for processing and maturation of 16S rRNA and a checkpoint for assembly of the 30S ribosomal subunit. The AUCA sequence is highly conserved among bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, whereas the CCUCC, known as the anti-Shine-Dalgarno sequence, is conserved in noneukaryotes only. Therefore, these data suggest a common mechanism for a highly conserved ERA function in all three kingdoms of life by recognizing the AUCA, with a 'twist' for noneukaryotic ERA proteins by also recognizing the CCUCC.

  16. Ribosome Shut-Down by 16S rRNA Fragmentation in Stationary-Phase Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Luidalepp, Hannes; Berger, Stefan; Joss, Oliver; Tenson, Tanel; Polacek, Norbert

    2016-05-22

    Stationary-phase bacterial cells are characterized by vastly reduced metabolic activities yielding a dormant-like phenotype. Several hibernation programs ensure the establishment and maintenance of this resting growth state. Some of the stationary phase-specific modulations affect the ribosome and its translational activity directly. In stationary-phase Escherichia coli, we observed the appearance of a 16S rRNA fragmentation event at the tip of helix 6 within the small ribosomal subunit (30S). Stationary-phase 30S subunits showed markedly reduced activities in protein biosynthesis. On the other hand, the functional performance of stationary-phase large ribosomal subunits (50S) was indistinguishable from particles isolated from exponentially growing cells. Introduction of the 16S rRNA cut in vitro at helix 6 of exponential phase 30S subunits renders them less efficient in protein biosynthesis. This indicates that the helix 6 fragmentation is necessary and sufficient to attenuate translational activities of 30S ribosomal subunits. These results suggest that stationary phase-specific cleavage of 16S rRNA within the 30S subunit is an efficient means to reduce global translation activities under non-proliferating growth conditions. PMID:27067112

  17. Analysis of the mouse gut microbiome using full-length 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jongoh; Lee, Sooin; Go, Min-Jeong; Lee, Sang Yup; Kim, Sun Chang; Lee, Chul-Ho; Cho, Byung-Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Demands for faster and more accurate methods to analyze microbial communities from natural and clinical samples have been increasing in the medical and healthcare industry. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have facilitated the elucidation of the microbial community composition with higher accuracy and greater throughput than was previously achievable; however, the short sequencing reads often limit the microbial composition analysis at the species level due to the high similarity of 16S rRNA amplicon sequences. To overcome this limitation, we used the nanopore sequencing platform to sequence full-length 16S rRNA amplicon libraries prepared from the mouse gut microbiota. A comparison of the nanopore and short-read sequencing data showed that there were no significant differences in major taxonomic units (89%) except one phylotype and three taxonomic units. Moreover, both sequencing data were highly similar at all taxonomic resolutions except the species level. At the species level, nanopore sequencing allowed identification of more species than short-read sequencing, facilitating the accurate classification of the bacterial community composition. Therefore, this method of full-length 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing will be useful for rapid, accurate and efficient detection of microbial diversity in various biological and clinical samples. PMID:27411898

  18. Analysis of the mouse gut microbiome using full-length 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jongoh; Lee, Sooin; Go, Min-Jeong; Lee, Sang Yup; Kim, Sun Chang; Lee, Chul-Ho; Cho, Byung-Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Demands for faster and more accurate methods to analyze microbial communities from natural and clinical samples have been increasing in the medical and healthcare industry. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have facilitated the elucidation of the microbial community composition with higher accuracy and greater throughput than was previously achievable; however, the short sequencing reads often limit the microbial composition analysis at the species level due to the high similarity of 16S rRNA amplicon sequences. To overcome this limitation, we used the nanopore sequencing platform to sequence full-length 16S rRNA amplicon libraries prepared from the mouse gut microbiota. A comparison of the nanopore and short-read sequencing data showed that there were no significant differences in major taxonomic units (89%) except one phylotype and three taxonomic units. Moreover, both sequencing data were highly similar at all taxonomic resolutions except the species level. At the species level, nanopore sequencing allowed identification of more species than short-read sequencing, facilitating the accurate classification of the bacterial community composition. Therefore, this method of full-length 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing will be useful for rapid, accurate and efficient detection of microbial diversity in various biological and clinical samples. PMID:27411898

  19. Complete ecological isolation and cryptic diversity in Polynucleobacter bacteria not resolved by 16S rRNA gene sequences

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Martin W; Jezberová, Jitka; Koll, Ulrike; Saueressig-Beck, Tanja; Schmidt, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation experiments and genome comparisons were used to determine if lineages of planktonic Polynucleobacter almost indistinguishable by their 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences differ distinctively in their ecophysiological and genomic traits. The results of three transplantation experiments differing in complexity of biotic interactions revealed complete ecological isolation between some of the lineages. This pattern fits well to the previously detected environmental distribution of lineages along chemical gradients, as well as to differences in gene content putatively providing adaptation to chemically distinct habitats. Patterns of distribution of iron transporter genes across 209 Polynucleobacter strains obtained from freshwater systems and representing a broad pH spectrum further emphasize differences in habitat-specific adaptations. Genome comparisons of six strains sharing ⩾99% 16S rRNA similarities suggested that each strain represents a distinct species. Comparison of sequence diversity among genomes with sequence diversity among 240 cultivated Polynucleobacter strains indicated a large cryptic species complex not resolvable by 16S rRNA sequences. The revealed ecological isolation and cryptic diversity in Polynucleobacter bacteria is crucial in the interpretation of diversity studies on freshwater bacterioplankton based on ribosomal sequences. PMID:26943621

  20. Turkey fecal microbial community structure and functional gene diversity revealed by 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequences.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jingrang; Domingo, Jorge Santo

    2008-10-01

    The primary goal of this study was to better understand the microbial composition and functional genetic diversity associated with turkey fecal communities. To achieve this, 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic clone libraries were sequenced from turkey fecal samples. The analysis of 382 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the most abundant bacteria were closely related to Lactobacillales (47%), Bacillales (31%), and Clostridiales (11%). Actinomycetales, Enterobacteriales, and Bacteroidales sequences were also identified, but represented a smaller part of the community. The analysis of 379 metagenomic sequences showed that most clones were similar to bacterial protein sequences (58%). Bacteriophage (10%) and avian viruses (3%) sequences were also represented. Of all metagenomic clones potentially encoding for bacterial proteins, most were similar to low G+C Gram-positive bacterial proteins, particularly from Lactobacillales (50%), Bacillales (11%), and Clostridiales (8%). Bioinformatic analyses suggested the presence of genes encoding for membrane proteins, lipoproteins, hydrolases, and functional genes associated with the metabolism of nitrogen and sulfur containing compounds. The results from this study further confirmed the predominance of Firmicutes in the avian gut and highlight the value of coupling 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequencing data analysis to study the microbial composition of avian fecal microbial communities. PMID:18974945

  1. Species-level identification of staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis in Brazil using partial 16S rRNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Lange, Carla C; Brito, Maria A V P; Reis, Daniele R L; Machado, Marco A; Guimarães, Alessandro S; Azevedo, Ana L S; Salles, Érica B; Alvim, Mariana C T; Silva, Fabiana S; Meurer, Igor R

    2015-04-17

    Staphylococci isolated from bovine milk and not classified as Staphylococcus aureus represent a heterogeneous group of microorganisms that are frequently associated with bovine mastitis. The identification of these microorganisms is important, although it is difficult and relatively costly. Genotypic methods add precision in the identification of Staphylococcus species. In the present study, partial 16S rRNA sequencing was used for the species identification of coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis. Two hundred and two (95%) of the 213 isolates were successfully identified at the species level. The assigning of an isolate to a particular species was based on ≥99% identity with 16S rRNA sequences deposited in GenBank. The identified isolates belonged to 13 different Staphylococcus species; Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the most frequently identified species. Eight isolates could not be assigned to a single species, as the obtained sequences showed 99% or 100% similarity to sequences from two or three different Staphylococcus species. The relatedness of these isolates with the other isolates and reference strains was visualized using a cladogram. In conclusion, 16S rRNA sequencing was an objective and accurate method for the proper identification of Staphylococcus species isolated from bovine mastitis. Additional target genes could be used in non-conclusive cases for the species-level identification of these microorganisms. PMID:25704228

  2. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Questing Ixodes ricinus Ticks: Comparison of Prevalences and Partial 16S rRNA Gene Variants in Urban, Pasture, and Natural Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Pfister, Kurt; Thiel, Claudia; Herb, Ingrid; Mahling, Monia; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    Urban, natural, and pasture areas were investigated for prevalences and 16S rRNA gene variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks. The prevalences differed significantly between habitat types, and year-to-year variations in prevalence and habitat-dependent occurrence of 16S rRNA gene variants were detected. PMID:23263964

  3. Changes in the Composition of Drinking Water Bacterial Clone Libraries Introduced by Using Two Different 16S rRna Gene PCR Primers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries is a popular tool used to describe the composition of natural microbial communities. Commonly, clone libraries are developed by direct cloning of 16S rRNA gene PCR products. Different primers are often employed in the initial amp...

  4. Changes in the Composition of Drinking Water Bacterial Clone Libraries Introduced by Using Two Different 16S rRNA Gene PCR Primers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries is a popular tool used to describe the composition of natural microbial communities. Commonly, clone libraries are developed by direct cloning of 16S rRNA gene PCR products. Different primers are often employed in the initial amp...

  5. Development of a Multiplex PCR Method for Detection of the Genes Encoding 16S rRNA, Coagulase, Methicillin Resistance and Enterotoxins in Staphylococcus aureus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multiplex PCR method was developed for simultaneous detection of the genes encoding methicillin resistance (mecA), staphylococcal enterotoxins A, B and C (sea, seb and sec), coagulase (coa) and 16S rRNA. The primers for amplification of the 16S rRNA gene were specific for Staphylococcus spp., and ...

  6. [Cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene of Phytoplasma CWB1 strain associated with cactus witches' broom].

    PubMed

    Cai, H; Li, F; Kong, B; Chen, H

    2001-12-01

    A 1.5 kb DNA fragment was amplified in DNA samples extracted from Opuntia salmiana porm showed witches'-broom symptom. The result indicates the existence of phytoplasma associated with this disease and this phytoplasma was designated as CWB1. The amplified fragment was ligated to pGEM-T easy vector and then transformed into JM109 strain of E. coli. Cloned DNA fragments were verified by PCR, restriction endonuclease (EcoRI) digestion and sequence analysis. The result revealed that the 16S rRNA gene of CWB1 consists of 1489 bp and shared 99.7% homology with Faba bean phyllody which belongs to phytoplasma 16S rII-C subgroup. So we can classify this strain into phytoplasma 16S rII-C subgroup. PMID:12552825

  7. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for 16S rRNA methylase genes in Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Mitsuaki; Kaku, Mitsuo; Kamachi, Kazunari; Shibayama, Keigo; Arakawa, Yoshichika; Yamaguchi, Keizo; Ishii, Yoshikazu

    2014-10-01

    Using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method, we developed a rapid assay for detection of 16S rRNA methylase genes (rmtA, rmtB, and armA), and investigated 16S rRNA methylase-producing strains among clinical isolates. Primer Explorer V3 software was used to design the LAMP primers. LAMP primers were prepared for each gene, including two outer primers (F3 and B3), two inner primers (FIP and BIP), and two loop primers (LF and LB). Detection was performed with the Loopamp DNA amplification kit. For all three genes (rmtA, rmtB, and armA), 10(2) copies/tube could be detected with a reaction time of 60 min. When nine bacterial species (65 strains saved in National Institute of Infectious Diseases) were tested, which had been confirmed to possess rmtA, rmtB, or armA by PCR and DNA sequencing, the genes were detected correctly in these bacteria with no false negative or false positive results. Among 8447 clinical isolates isolated at 36 medical institutions, the LAMP method was conducted for 191 strains that were resistant to aminoglycosides based on the results of antimicrobial susceptibility tests. Eight strains were found to produce 16S rRNA methylase (0.09%), with rmtB being identified in three strains (0.06%) of 4929 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, rmtA in three strains (0.10%) of 3284 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and armA in two strains (0.85%) of 234 isolates of Acinetobacter spp. At present, the incidence of strains possessing 16S rRNA methylase genes is very low in Japan. However, when Gram-negative bacteria showing high resistance to aminoglycosides are isolated by clinical laboratories, it seems very important to investigate the status of 16S rRNA methylase gene-harboring bacilli and monitor their trends among Japanese clinical settings. PMID:25179393

  8. Chimeric 16S rRNA sequence formation and detection in Sanger and 454-pyrosequenced PCR amplicons

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Brian J.; Gevers, Dirk; Earl, Ashlee M.; Feldgarden, Mike; Ward, Doyle V.; Giannoukos, Georgia; Ciulla, Dawn; Tabbaa, Diana; Highlander, Sarah K.; Sodergren, Erica; Methé, Barbara; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Knight, Rob; Birren, Bruce W.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial diversity among environmental samples is commonly assessed with PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene (16S) sequences. Perceived diversity, however, can be influenced by sample preparation, primer selection, and formation of chimeric 16S amplification products. Chimeras are hybrid products between multiple parent sequences that can be falsely interpreted as novel organisms, thus inflating apparent diversity. We developed a new chimera detection tool called Chimera Slayer (CS). CS detects chimeras with greater sensitivity than previous methods, performs well on short sequences such as those produced by the 454 Life Sciences (Roche) Genome Sequencer, and can scale to large data sets. By benchmarking CS performance against sequences derived from a controlled DNA mixture of known organisms and a simulated chimera set, we provide insights into the factors that affect chimera formation such as sequence abundance, the extent of similarity between 16S genes, and PCR conditions. Chimeras were found to reproducibly form among independent amplifications and contributed to false perceptions of sample diversity and the false identification of novel taxa, with less-abundant species exhibiting chimera rates exceeding 70%. Shotgun metagenomic sequences of our mock community appear to be devoid of 16S chimeras, supporting a role for shotgun metagenomics in validating novel organisms discovered in targeted sequence surveys. PMID:21212162

  9. Discordant 16S and 23S rRNA gene phylogenies for the genus Helicobacter: implications for phylogenetic inference and systematics.

    PubMed

    Dewhirst, Floyd E; Shen, Zeli; Scimeca, Michael S; Stokes, Lauren N; Boumenna, Tahani; Chen, Tsute; Paster, Bruce J; Fox, James G

    2005-09-01

    Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences has become the primary method for determining prokaryotic phylogeny. Phylogeny is currently the basis for prokaryotic systematics. Therefore, the validity of 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic analyses is of fundamental importance for prokaryotic systematics. Discrepancies between 16S rRNA gene analyses and DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic analyses have been noted in the genus Helicobacter. To clarify these discrepancies, we sequenced the 23S rRNA genes for 55 helicobacter strains representing 41 taxa (>2,700 bases per sequence). Phylogenetic-tree construction using neighbor-joining, parsimony, and maximum likelihood methods for 23S rRNA gene sequence data yielded stable trees which were consistent with other phenotypic and genotypic methods. The 16S rRNA gene sequence-derived trees were discordant with the 23S rRNA gene trees and other data. Discrepant 16S rRNA gene sequence data for the helicobacters are consistent with the horizontal transfer of 16S rRNA gene fragments and the creation of mosaic molecules with loss of phylogenetic information. These results suggest that taxonomic decisions must be supported by other phylogenetically informative macromolecules, such as the 23S rRNA gene, when 16S rRNA gene-derived phylogeny is discordant with other credible phenotypic and genotypic methods. This study found Wolinella succinogenes to branch with the unsheathed-flagellum cluster of helicobacters by 23S rRNA gene analyses and whole-genome comparisons. This study also found intervening sequences (IVSs) in the 23S rRNA genes of strains of 12 Helicobacter species. IVSs were found in helices 10, 25, and 45, as well as between helices 31' and 27'. Simultaneous insertion of IVSs at three sites was found in H. mesocricetorum. PMID:16109952

  10. Development of an Analysis Pipeline Characterizing Multiple Hypervariable Regions of 16S rRNA Using Mock Samples

    PubMed Central

    Barb, Jennifer J.; Oler, Andrew J.; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Chalmers, Natalia; Wallen, Gwenyth R.; Cashion, Ann; Munson, Peter J.; Ames, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There is much speculation on which hypervariable region provides the highest bacterial specificity in 16S rRNA sequencing. The optimum solution to prevent bias and to obtain a comprehensive view of complex bacterial communities would be to sequence the entire 16S rRNA gene; however, this is not possible with second generation standard library design and short-read next-generation sequencing technology. Methods This paper examines a new process using seven hypervariable or V regions of the 16S rRNA (six amplicons: V2, V3, V4, V6-7, V8, and V9) processed simultaneously on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY). Four mock samples were amplified using the 16S Ion Metagenomics Kit™ (Life Technologies) and their sequencing data is subjected to a novel analytical pipeline. Results Results are presented at family and genus level. The Kullback-Leibler divergence (DKL), a measure of the departure of the computed from the nominal bacterial distribution in the mock samples, was used to infer which region performed best at the family and genus levels. Three different hypervariable regions, V2, V4, and V6-7, produced the lowest divergence compared to the known mock sample. The V9 region gave the highest (worst) average DKL while the V4 gave the lowest (best) average DKL. In addition to having a high DKL, the V9 region in both the forward and reverse directions performed the worst finding only 17% and 53% of the known family level and 12% and 47% of the genus level bacteria, while results from the forward and reverse V4 region identified all 17 family level bacteria. Conclusions The results of our analysis have shown that our sequencing methods using 6 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA and subsequent analysis is valid. This method also allowed for the assessment of how well each of the variable regions might perform simultaneously. Our findings will provide the basis for future work intended to assess microbial abundance at

  11. Diversity of thermophiles in a Malaysian hot spring determined using 16S rRNA and shotgun metagenome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chia Sing; Chan, Kok-Gan; Tay, Yea-Ling; Chua, Yi-Heng; Goh, Kian Mau

    2015-01-01

    The Sungai Klah (SK) hot spring is the second hottest geothermal spring in Malaysia. This hot spring is a shallow, 150-m-long, fast-flowing stream, with temperatures varying from 50 to 110°C and a pH range of 7.0–9.0. Hidden within a wooded area, the SK hot spring is continually fed by plant litter, resulting in a relatively high degree of total organic content (TOC). In this study, a sample taken from the middle of the stream was analyzed at the 16S rRNA V3-V4 region by amplicon metagenome sequencing. Over 35 phyla were detected by analyzing the 16S rRNA data. Firmicutes and Proteobacteria represented approximately 57% of the microbiome. Approximately 70% of the detected thermophiles were strict anaerobes; however, Hydrogenobacter spp., obligate chemolithotrophic thermophiles, represented one of the major taxa. Several thermophilic photosynthetic microorganisms and acidothermophiles were also detected. Most of the phyla identified by 16S rRNA were also found using the shotgun metagenome approaches. The carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen metabolism within the SK hot spring community were evaluated by shotgun metagenome sequencing, and the data revealed diversity in terms of metabolic activity and dynamics. This hot spring has a rich diversified phylogenetic community partly due to its natural environment (plant litter, high TOC, and a shallow stream) and geochemical parameters (broad temperature and pH range). It is speculated that symbiotic relationships occur between the members of the community. PMID:25798135

  12. Sequencing 16S rRNA gene fragments using the PacBio SMRT DNA sequencing system

    PubMed Central

    Jenior, Matthew L.; Koumpouras, Charles C.; Westcott, Sarah L.; Highlander, Sarah K.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, microbial ecologists have largely abandoned sequencing 16S rRNA genes by the Sanger sequencing method and have instead adopted highly parallelized sequencing platforms. These new platforms, such as 454 and Illumina’s MiSeq, have allowed researchers to obtain millions of high quality but short sequences. The result of the added sequencing depth has been significant improvements in experimental design. The tradeoff has been the decline in the number of full-length reference sequences that are deposited into databases. To overcome this problem, we tested the ability of the PacBio Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) DNA sequencing platform to generate sequence reads from the 16S rRNA gene. We generated sequencing data from the V4, V3–V5, V1–V3, V1–V5, V1–V6, and V1–V9 variable regions from within the 16S rRNA gene using DNA from a synthetic mock community and natural samples collected from human feces, mouse feces, and soil. The mock community allowed us to assess the actual sequencing error rate and how that error rate changed when different curation methods were applied. We developed a simple method based on sequence characteristics and quality scores to reduce the observed error rate for the V1–V9 region from 0.69 to 0.027%. This error rate is comparable to what has been observed for the shorter reads generated by 454 and Illumina’s MiSeq sequencing platforms. Although the per base sequencing cost is still significantly more than that of MiSeq, the prospect of supplementing reference databases with full-length sequences from organisms below the limit of detection from the Sanger approach is exciting. PMID:27069806

  13. Sequencing 16S rRNA gene fragments using the PacBio SMRT DNA sequencing system.

    PubMed

    Schloss, Patrick D; Jenior, Matthew L; Koumpouras, Charles C; Westcott, Sarah L; Highlander, Sarah K

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, microbial ecologists have largely abandoned sequencing 16S rRNA genes by the Sanger sequencing method and have instead adopted highly parallelized sequencing platforms. These new platforms, such as 454 and Illumina's MiSeq, have allowed researchers to obtain millions of high quality but short sequences. The result of the added sequencing depth has been significant improvements in experimental design. The tradeoff has been the decline in the number of full-length reference sequences that are deposited into databases. To overcome this problem, we tested the ability of the PacBio Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) DNA sequencing platform to generate sequence reads from the 16S rRNA gene. We generated sequencing data from the V4, V3-V5, V1-V3, V1-V5, V1-V6, and V1-V9 variable regions from within the 16S rRNA gene using DNA from a synthetic mock community and natural samples collected from human feces, mouse feces, and soil. The mock community allowed us to assess the actual sequencing error rate and how that error rate changed when different curation methods were applied. We developed a simple method based on sequence characteristics and quality scores to reduce the observed error rate for the V1-V9 region from 0.69 to 0.027%. This error rate is comparable to what has been observed for the shorter reads generated by 454 and Illumina's MiSeq sequencing platforms. Although the per base sequencing cost is still significantly more than that of MiSeq, the prospect of supplementing reference databases with full-length sequences from organisms below the limit of detection from the Sanger approach is exciting. PMID:27069806

  14. Microbial Dark Matter: Unusual intervening sequences in 16S rRNA genes of candidate phyla from the deep subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Jarett, Jessica; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Kieft, Thomas; Onstott, Tullis; Woyke, Tanja

    2014-03-17

    The Microbial Dark Matter project has sequenced genomes from over 200 single cells from candidate phyla, greatly expanding our knowledge of the ecology, inferred metabolism, and evolution of these widely distributed, yet poorly understood lineages. The second phase of this project aims to sequence an additional 800 single cells from known as well as potentially novel candidate phyla derived from a variety of environments. In order to identify whole genome amplified single cells, screening based on phylogenetic placement of 16S rRNA gene sequences is being conducted. Briefly, derived 16S rRNA gene sequences are aligned to a custom version of the Greengenes reference database and added to a reference tree in ARB using parsimony. In multiple samples from deep subsurface habitats but not from other habitats, a large number of sequences proved difficult to align and therefore to place in the tree. Based on comparisons to reference sequences and structural alignments using SSU-ALIGN, many of these ?difficult? sequences appear to originate from candidate phyla, and contain intervening sequences (IVSs) within the 16S rRNA genes. These IVSs are short (39 - 79 nt) and do not appear to be self-splicing or to contain open reading frames. IVSs were found in the loop regions of stem-loop structures in several different taxonomic groups. Phylogenetic placement of sequences is strongly affected by IVSs; two out of three groups investigated were classified as different phyla after their removal. Based on data from samples screened in this project, IVSs appear to be more common in microbes occurring in deep subsurface habitats, although the reasons for this remain elusive.

  15. High-density universal 16S rRNA microarray analysis revealsbroader diversity than typical clone library when sampling theenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    DeSantis, Todd Z.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Moberg, Jordan P.; Zubieta,Ingrid X.; Piceno, Yvette M.; Andersen, Gary L.

    2006-06-15

    Molecular approaches aimed at detection of a broad-range ofprokaryotes in the environment routinely rely upon classifyingheterogeneous 16S rRNA genes amplified by PCR using primers with broadspecificity. The general method of sampling and categorizing DNA has beento clone then sequence the PCR products. However, the number of clonesrequired to adequately catalogue the majority of taxa in a sample isunwieldy. Alternatively, hybridizing target sequences to a universal 16SrRNA gene microarray may provide a more rapid and comprehensive view ofprokaryotic community composition. This study investigated the breadthand accuracy of a microarray in detecting diverse 16S rRNA gene sequencetypes compared to clone-and-sequencing using three environmental samples:urban aerosol, subsurface soil and subsurface water. PCR productsgenerated from universal 16S rRNA gene-targeted primers were classifiedusing either the clone-and-sequence method or by hybridization to a novelhigh-density microarray of 297,851 probes complementary to 842prokaryotic sub-families. The three clone libraries comprised 1,391high-quality sequences. Approximately 8 percent of the clones could notbe placed into a known sub-family and were considered novel. Themicroarray results confirmed the majority of clone-detected sub-familiesand additionally demonstrated greater amplicon diversity extending intophyla not observed by the cloning method. Sequences matching OTUs withinthe phyla Nitrospira, Planctomycetes, and TM7, which were uniquelydetected by the array, were verified with specific primers and subsequentamplicon sequencing. Sub-family richness detected by the arraycorresponded well with non-parametric richness predictions extrapolatedfrom clone libraries except in the water community where clone-basedrichness predictions were greatly exceeded. It was concluded thatalthough the microarray is unreliable inidentifying novel prokaryotictaxa, it reveals greater diversity in environmental samples thansequencing a

  16. Point mutations in the 3' minor domain of 16S rRNA of E.coli.

    PubMed Central

    Jemiolo, D K; Zwieb, C; Dahlberg, A E

    1985-01-01

    Point mutations were produced near the 3' end of E. coli 16S rRNA by bisulfite mutagenesis in a 121 base loop-out (1385 to 1505) in a heteroduplex of wild type (pKK3535) and deletion mutant plasmids. Two highly conserved, single stranded regions flank an irregular helix (1409-1491) in the area studied. Only a single mutation was isolated in the flanking regions, a transition at C1402, (normally methylated on the base and ribose in rRNA). Mutations occurred throughout the irregular helix. All mutant rRNAs were processed and assembled into 30S subunits capable of interacting with 50S subunits. Growth rates ranged from faster to significantly slower than cells with the wild type transcript. In particular, mutations at C1467 or C1469 cause slow growth. These two transitions (in a bulge region within the helix) reduced the bulge by additional base pairing. PMID:3909106

  17. Sampling of intestinal microbiota and targeted amplification of bacterial 16S rRNA genes for microbial ecologic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Maomeng; Jacobs, Jonathan P.; McHardy, Ian H.; Braun, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Dysbiosis of host-associated commensal microbiota is emerging as an important factor in risk and phenotype of immunologic, metabolic, and behavioral diseases. Appropriate collection and pre-processing of biospecimens from humans or mice is necessary for accurate analysis of microbial composition and functional state. Methods to sample intestinal luminal and mucosal microbiota from humans and mice, and to profile microbial phylogenetic composition using 16S rRNA sequencing are presented here. Data generated using this protocol can be used for downstream quantitative analysis of microbial ecology. PMID:25367129

  18. Novel 16S rRNA Methyltransferase RmtH Produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae Associated with War-Related Trauma

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, Jessica A.; McGann, Patrick; Snesrud, Erik C.; Clifford, Robert J.; Waterman, Paige E.; Lesho, Emil P.

    2013-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae strain MRSN2404 was isolated from the chronic wound of a soldier who had been wounded in Iraq in 2006. The strain displayed very high MICs of all aminoglycosides, including arbekacin. A gene encoding a novel 16S rRNA methyltransferase, now designated RmtH, was identified. RmtH had 64% identity with RmtB1 and RmtB2. rmtH was bracketed by two copies of ISCR2, which may have played a role in its mobilization. PMID:23478957

  19. Use of 16S rRNA gene for identification of a broad range of clinically relevant bacterial pathogens

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Srinivasan, Ramya; Karaoz, Ulas; Volegova, Marina; MacKichan, Joanna; Kato-Maeda, Midori; Miller, Steve; Nadarajan, Rohan; Brodie, Eoin L.; Lynch, Susan V.; Heimesaat, Markus M.

    2015-02-06

    According to World Health Organization statistics of 2011, infectious diseases remain in the top five causes of mortality worldwide. However, despite sophisticated research tools for microbial detection, rapid and accurate molecular diagnostics for identification of infection in humans have not been extensively adopted. Time-consuming culture-based methods remain to the forefront of clinical microbial detection. The 16S rRNA gene, a molecular marker for identification of bacterial species, is ubiquitous to members of this domain and, thanks to ever-expanding databases of sequence information, a useful tool for bacterial identification. In this study, we assembled an extensive repository of clinical isolates (n =more » 617), representing 30 medically important pathogenic species and originally identified using traditional culture-based or non-16S molecular methods. This strain repository was used to systematically evaluate the ability of 16S rRNA for species level identification. To enable the most accurate species level classification based on the paucity of sequence data accumulated in public databases, we built a Naïve Bayes classifier representing a diverse set of high-quality sequences from medically important bacterial organisms. We show that for species identification, a model-based approach is superior to an alignment based method. Overall, between 16S gene based and clinical identities, our study shows a genus-level concordance rate of 96% and a species-level concordance rate of 87.5%. We point to multiple cases of probable clinical misidentification with traditional culture based identification across a wide range of gram-negative rods and gram-positive cocci as well as common gram-negative cocci.« less

  20. Use of 16S rRNA gene for identification of a broad range of clinically relevant bacterial pathogens

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, Ramya; Karaoz, Ulas; Volegova, Marina; MacKichan, Joanna; Kato-Maeda, Midori; Miller, Steve; Nadarajan, Rohan; Brodie, Eoin L.; Lynch, Susan V.; Heimesaat, Markus M.

    2015-02-06

    According to World Health Organization statistics of 2011, infectious diseases remain in the top five causes of mortality worldwide. However, despite sophisticated research tools for microbial detection, rapid and accurate molecular diagnostics for identification of infection in humans have not been extensively adopted. Time-consuming culture-based methods remain to the forefront of clinical microbial detection. The 16S rRNA gene, a molecular marker for identification of bacterial species, is ubiquitous to members of this domain and, thanks to ever-expanding databases of sequence information, a useful tool for bacterial identification. In this study, we assembled an extensive repository of clinical isolates (n = 617), representing 30 medically important pathogenic species and originally identified using traditional culture-based or non-16S molecular methods. This strain repository was used to systematically evaluate the ability of 16S rRNA for species level identification. To enable the most accurate species level classification based on the paucity of sequence data accumulated in public databases, we built a Naïve Bayes classifier representing a diverse set of high-quality sequences from medically important bacterial organisms. We show that for species identification, a model-based approach is superior to an alignment based method. Overall, between 16S gene based and clinical identities, our study shows a genus-level concordance rate of 96% and a species-level concordance rate of 87.5%. We point to multiple cases of probable clinical misidentification with traditional culture based identification across a wide range of gram-negative rods and gram-positive cocci as well as common gram-negative cocci.

  1. Direct PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene from single microbial cells isolated from an Antarctic iceberg using laser microdissection microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagihara, Katsuhiko; Niki, Hironori; Baba, Tomoya

    2011-09-01

    Here, we describe a technique that allows the genetic linage analysis of 16S rRNA genes in bacteria observed under a microscope. The technique includes the isolation of microbial cells using a laser microdissection microscope, lysis of the cells, and amplification of the 16S rRNA genes in the isolated cells without interference by bacterial DNA contamination from the experimental environment or reagents. Using this technique, we successfully determined 15 16S rRNA gene sequences in cells isolated from an Antarctic iceberg. These sequences showed 94%-100% identity to their closest strains, which included bacteria that occur in aqueous, marine, and soil environments.

  2. Rapid in situ hybridization technique using 16S rRNA segments for detecting and differentiating the closely related gram-positive organisms Bacillus polymyxa and Bacillus macerans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurtshuk, R. J.; Blick, M.; Bresser, J.; Fox, G. E.; Jurtshuk, P. Jr

    1992-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive, inexpensive in situ hybridization technique, using 30-mer 16S rRNA probes, can specifically differentiate two closely related Bacillus spp., B. polymyxa and B. macerans. The 16S rRNA probes were labeled with a rhodamine derivative (Texas Red), and quantitative fluorescence measurements were made on individual bacterial cells. The microscopic fields analyzed were selected by phase-contrast microscopy, and the fluorescence imaging analyses were performed on 16 to 67 individual cells. The labeled 16S rRNA probe, POL, whose sequence was a 100% match with B. polymyxa 16S rRNA but only a 60% match with B. macerans 16S rRNA, gave quantitative fluorescence ratio measurements that were 34.8-fold higher for B. polymyxa cells than for B. macerans cells. Conversely, the labeled probe, MAC, which matched B. polymyxa 16S rRNA in 86.6% of its positions and B. macerans 16S rRNA in 100% of its positions, gave quantitative fluorescence measurements that were 59.3-fold higher in B. macerans cells than in B. polymyxa cells. Control probes, whose 16S rRNA sequence segment (P-M) was present in both B. polymyxa and B. macerans as well as a panprokaryotic probe (16S), having a 100% match with all known bacteria, hybridized equally well with both organisms. These latter hybridizations generated very high fluorescence signals, but their comparative fluorescence ratios (the differences between two organisms) were low. The control paneukaryotic probe (28S), which had less than 30% identity for both B. macerans and B. polymyxa, did not hybridize with either organism.

  3. Bacterial diversity in Adirondack mountain lakes as revealed by 16S rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Hiorns, W D; Methé, B A; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S A; Zehr, J P

    1997-01-01

    Bacterial communities of seven lakes in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State were characterized by amplification and sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA. Analysis of over 100 partial sequences revealed a diverse collection of lineages, largely of the class Proteobacteria (19% alpha subdivision, 31% beta subdivision, and 9% gamma subdivision), the phylum Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroides (15%), and the order Actinomycetales (18%). Additionally, a number of the sequences were similar to those of the order Verrucomicrobiales. However, few of the sequence types are closely related to those of characterized species. The relative contributions of the groups of sequences differed among the lakes, suggesting that bacterial population structure varies and that it may be possible to relate aquatic bacterial community structure to water chemistry. PMID:9212443

  4. Bacterial diversity of a Carolina bay as determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis: confirmation of novel taxa.

    PubMed Central

    Wise, M G; McArthur, J V; Shimkets, L J

    1997-01-01

    Carolina bays are naturally occurring shallow elliptical depressions largely fed by rain and shallow ground water. To identify members of the domain Bacteria which inhibit such an environment, we used PCR to construct a library of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNAs) cloned from DNA extracted from the sediments of Rainbow bay, located on the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, S.C. Oligonucleotides complementary to conserved regions of 16S rDNA were used as primers for PCR, and gel-purified PCR products were cloned into vector pGEM-T. Partial sequencing of the cloned 16S rDNAs revealed an extensive amount of phylogenetic diversity within this system. Of the 35 clones sequenced, 32 were affiliated with five bacterial groups: 11 clustered with the Proteobacteria division (including members of the alpha, beta, and delta subdivisions), 8 clustered with the Acidobacterium subdivision of the Fibrobacter division (as categorized by the Ribosomal Database Project's taxonomic scheme, version 5.0), 7 clustered with the Verrucomicrobium subdivision of the Planctomyces division, 3 clustered with the gram-positive bacteria (Clostridium and relatives subdivision), and 3 clustered with the green nonsulfur bacteria. One sequence branched very deeply from the Bacteria and was found not to be associated with any of the major divisions when phylogenetic trees were constructed. Two clones did not consistently cluster with specific groups and may be chimeric sequences. None of the clones exhibited an exact match to any of the 16S rDNA sequences deposited in the databases, suggesting that most of the bacteria in Rainbow Bay are novel species. In particular, the clones related to the Acidobacterium subdivision and the Verrucomicrobium subdivision confirm the presence of novel taxa discovered previously in other molecular surveys of this type. PMID:9097448

  5. Bacterial diversity of a Carolina Bay as determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis: Confirmation of novel taxa

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, M.G.; Shimkets, L.J.; McArthur, J.V.

    1997-04-01

    Carolina bays are naturally occurring shallow elliptical depressions largely fed by rain and shallow ground water. To identify members of the domain Bacteria which inhabit such an environment, we used PCR to construct a library of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNAs) cloned from DNA extracted from the sediments of Rainbow Bay, located on the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, S.C. Oligonucleotides complementary to conserved regions of 16S rDNA were used as primers for PCR, and gel-purified PCR products were cloned into vector pGEM-T. Partial sequencing of the cloned 16S rDNAs revealed an extensive amount of phylogenetic diversity within this system. Of the 35 clones sequenced, 32 were affiliated with five bacterial groups: 11 clustered with the Proteobacteria division (including members of the alpha, beta, and delta subdivisions), 8 clustered with the Acidobacterium subdivision of the Fibrobacter division (as categorized by the Ribosomal Database Project`s taxonomic scheme, version 5.0), 7 clustered with the Verrucomicrobium subdivision of the Planctomyces division, 3 clustered with the gram-positive bacteria (Clostridium and relatives subdivision), and 3 clustered with the green nonsulfur bacteria. One sequence branched very deeply from the Bacteria and was found not to be associated with any of the major divisions when phylogenetic trees were constructed. Two clones did not consistently cluster with specific groups and may be chimeric sequences. None of the clones exhibited an exact match to any of the 16S rDNA sequences deposited in the databases, suggesting that most of the bacteria in Rainbow Bay are novel species. In particular, the clones related to the Acidobacterium subdivision and the Verrucomicrobium subdivision confirm the presence of novel taxa discovered previously in other molecular surveys of this type. 50 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Bacterial diversity of a Carolina bay as determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis: confirmation of novel taxa.

    PubMed

    Wise, M G; McArthur, J V; Shimkets, L J

    1997-04-01

    Carolina bays are naturally occurring shallow elliptical depressions largely fed by rain and shallow ground water. To identify members of the domain Bacteria which inhibit such an environment, we used PCR to construct a library of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNAs) cloned from DNA extracted from the sediments of Rainbow bay, located on the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, S.C. Oligonucleotides complementary to conserved regions of 16S rDNA were used as primers for PCR, and gel-purified PCR products were cloned into vector pGEM-T. Partial sequencing of the cloned 16S rDNAs revealed an extensive amount of phylogenetic diversity within this system. Of the 35 clones sequenced, 32 were affiliated with five bacterial groups: 11 clustered with the Proteobacteria division (including members of the alpha, beta, and delta subdivisions), 8 clustered with the Acidobacterium subdivision of the Fibrobacter division (as categorized by the Ribosomal Database Project's taxonomic scheme, version 5.0), 7 clustered with the Verrucomicrobium subdivision of the Planctomyces division, 3 clustered with the gram-positive bacteria (Clostridium and relatives subdivision), and 3 clustered with the green nonsulfur bacteria. One sequence branched very deeply from the Bacteria and was found not to be associated with any of the major divisions when phylogenetic trees were constructed. Two clones did not consistently cluster with specific groups and may be chimeric sequences. None of the clones exhibited an exact match to any of the 16S rDNA sequences deposited in the databases, suggesting that most of the bacteria in Rainbow Bay are novel species. In particular, the clones related to the Acidobacterium subdivision and the Verrucomicrobium subdivision confirm the presence of novel taxa discovered previously in other molecular surveys of this type. PMID:9097448

  7. 16S rRNA gene phylogenesis of culturable predominant bacteria from diseased Apostichopus japonicus (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Haiyan; Jiang, Guoliang; Wu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xin

    2009-06-01

    Cultured Apostichopus japonicus in China suffers from a kind of skin ulceration disease that has caused severe economic loss in recent years. The disease, pathogens of which are supposed to be bacteria by most researchers, is highly infectious and can often cause all individuals in the same culture pool to die in a very short time. The 16S rRNA gene phylogenesis of the culturable bacteria from the lesions of diseased individuals was conducted to study the biodiversity of the bacterial communities in the lesions and to identify probable pathogen(s) associated with this kind of disease. S. japonica samples were selected from a hatchery located in the eastern part of Qingdao, China. Bacterial universal primers GM5F and DS907R were used to amplify the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria colonies, and touchdown PCR was performed to amplify the target sequences. The results suggest that γ- proteobacteria (Alteromonadales and Vibrionales) of CFB group, many strains of which have been also determined as pathogens in other marine species, are the predominant bacterial genera of the diseased Apostichopus japonicus individuals.

  8. Application of 16S rRNA metagenomics to analyze bacterial communities at a respiratory care centre in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chuan Yi; Yiu, Siu-Ming; Kuo, Han-Yueh; Tan, Te-Sheng; Liao, Ki-Hok; Liu, Chih-Chin; Hon, Wing-Kai; Liou, Ming-Li

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we applied a 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) metagenomics approach to survey inanimate hospital environments (IHEs) in a respiratory care center (RCC). A total of 16 samples, including 9 from medical devices and 7 from workstations, were analyzed. Besides, clinical isolates were retrospectively analyzed during the sampling period in the RCC. A high amount of microbial diversity was detected, with an average of 1,836 phylotypes per sample. In addition to Acinetobacter, more than 60 % of the bacterial communities present among the top 25 abundant genera were dominated by skin-associated bacteria. Differences in bacterial profiles were restricted to individual samples. Furthermore, compliance with hand hygiene guidelines may be unsatisfactory among hospital staff according to a principal coordinate analysis that indicated clustering of bacterial communities between devices and workstations for most of the sampling sites. Compared to the high incidence of clinical isolates in the RCC, only Staphylococcus and Acinetobacter were highly abundant in the IHEs. Despite Acinetobacter was the most abundant genus present in IHEs of the RCC, potential pathogens, e.g., Acinetobacter baumannii, might remain susceptible to carbapenem. This study is the first in Taiwan to demonstrate a high diversity of human-associated bacteria in the RCC via 16S rRNA metagenomics, which allows for new assessment of potential health risks in RCCs, aids in the evaluation of existing sanitation protocols, and furthers our understanding of the development of healthcare-associated infections. PMID:25359480

  9. Assessment of microbial dynamics in the Pearl River Estuary by 16S rRNA terminal restriction fragment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Madeline; Song, Liansheng; Ren, Jianping; Kan, Jianjun; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2004-10-01

    We have evaluated the feasibility of using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) pattern of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified 16S rRNA sequences to track the changes of the free-living bacterial community for the Pearl River Estuary surface waters. The suitability of specific PCR primers, PCR bias induced by thermal cycles, and field-sampling volumes were critically evaluated in laboratory tests. We established a workable protocol and obtained TRF patterns that reflected the changes in the bacterial population. The temporal dynamics over a 24 h period were examined at one anchored station, as well as the spatial distribution pattern of the bacterial community at several stations, covering the transects along the river discharge direction and across the river plume. The TRF pattern revealed 9 dominant bacterial groups. Changes in their relative abundance reflecting the changes in the bacterial community composition were documented. Many culturable species were isolated from each field sample and a portion of the 16S rRNA gene for each species was sequenced. The species was identified based on sequence data comparison. In this region, the dominant species belong to the γ-subdivision of proteobacteria and the Bacillus/Clostridium group of Firmicutes. We also detected the wide spread distribution of Acinetobacter spp.; many of these species are known nosocomial pathogen for humans.

  10. Rapid diagnosis of leptospirosis in patients with different clinical manifestations by 16S rRNA gene based nested PCR

    PubMed Central

    Natarajaseenivasan, K.; Raja, V.; Narayanan, R.

    2011-01-01

    Leptospirosis, a zoonosis of global importance and it is underreported in India and more than 50,000 severe cases are reported each year. Here we present the evaluation of 16S rRNA based nested PCR assay for the rapid identification of human leptospires using serum and urine samples. The study includes 261 suspected cases for leptospirosis with different clinical manifestations. 16S rRNA based nested PCR assay was compared and evaluated against the conventional serological methods such as MAT and ELISA. The technique enabled amplification of a 289 bp product with notable percentage of positivity in all sample groups including 94.8 in pediatric cases, 93 in pregnant women, 94.2 in renal failure, 87.8 in jaundice and 94.6 in common febrile cases. The sensitivity and specificity was 94.4% and 100%, respectively. The technique proved to be prompt and effective for the diagnosis of leptospiral infection at the acute phase of the disease. PCR based approach detects leptospiral DNA from the clinical samples both at the acute and leptospiruria phase on comparison with its counter parts where detection is made possible only after 7 days or 7–30 days post-infection. In this regard PCR based diagnosis of leptospirosis should be made available for clinicians for the early diagnosis and prompt treatment of the disease. PMID:23961174

  11. Reassessment of PCR primers targeting 16S rRNA genes of the organohalide-respiring genus Dehalogenimonas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Bowman, Kimberly S; Rainey, Fred A; Moe, William M

    2014-09-01

    Representatives from the genus Dehalogenimonas have the metabolic capacity to anaerobically transform a variety of environmentally important polychlorinated aliphatic compounds. In light of the recent isolation of additional strains, description of a new species, and an expanded number of uncultured DNA sequences, PCR primers and protocols intended to uniquely target members of this organohalide-respiring genus were reevaluated. Nine of fourteen primer combinations reported previously as genus-specific failed to amplify 16S rRNA genes of recently isolated Dehalogenimonas strains. Use of alternative combinations or modified genus-specific primers, however, allowed detection of all presently known Dehalogenimonas strains. Use of a modified primer set in qPCR revealed an approximately two-order of magnitude increase in concentration of Dehalogenimonas 16S rRNA gene copies following subsurface injection of electron donors at a Louisiana Superfund site, demonstrating the utility of the newly developed protocol and suggesting that the genus Dehalogenimonas can respond to biostimulation remediation strategies in a manner similar to that previously reported for other dechlorinating genera such as Dehalococcoides. PMID:24989478

  12. Structural and Functional Studies of the Thermus Thermophilus 16S rRNA Methyltransferase RsmG

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, S.; Demirci, H; Belardinelli, R; Monshupanee, T; Gualerzi, C; Dahlberg, A; Jogl, G

    2009-01-01

    The RsmG methyltransferase is responsible for N7 methylation of G527 of 16S rRNA in bacteria. Here, we report the identification of the Thermus thermophilus rsmG gene, the isolation of rsmG mutants, and the solution of RsmG X-ray crystal structures at up to 1.5 A resolution. Like their counterparts in other species, T. thermophilus rsmG mutants are weakly resistant to the aminoglycoside antibiotic streptomycin. Growth competition experiments indicate a physiological cost to loss of RsmG activity, consistent with the conservation of the modification site in the decoding region of the ribosome. In contrast to Escherichia coli RsmG, which has been reported to recognize only intact 30S subunits, T. thermophilus RsmG shows no in vitro methylation activity against native 30S subunits, only low activity with 30S subunits at low magnesium concentration, and maximum activity with deproteinized 16S rRNA. Cofactor-bound crystal structures of RsmG reveal a positively charged surface area remote from the active site that binds an adenosine monophosphate molecule. We conclude that an early assembly intermediate is the most likely candidate for the biological substrate of RsmG.

  13. Bases in 16S rRNA Important for Subunit Association, tRNA binding, and Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xinying; Chiu, Katie; Ghosh, Srikanta; Joseph, Simpson

    2009-01-01

    Ribosomes are the cellular machinery responsible for protein synthesis. A well-orchestrated step in the elongation cycle of protein synthesis is the precise translocation of the tRNA-mRNA complex within the ribosome. Here we report the application of a new in vitro modification-interference method for the identification of bases in 16S rRNA that are essential for translocation. Our results suggest that conserved bases U56, U723, A1306, A1319, and A1468 in 16S rRNA are important for translocation. These five bases were deleted or mutated in order to study their role in translation. Depending on the type of mutation, we observed inhibition of growth rate, subunit association, tRNA binding and/or translocation. Interestingly, deletion of U56 or A1319 or mutation of A1319 to C showed a lethal phenotype and were defective in protein synthesis in vitro. Further analysis showed that deletion of U56 or A1319 caused defects in 30S subunit assembly, subunit association and tRNA binding. In contrast, A1319C mutation showed no defects in subunit association; however, the extent of tRNA binding and translocation was significantly reduced. These results show that conserved bases located as far away as 100 Å from the tRNA binding sites can be important for translation. PMID:19545171

  14. Analysis of the cystic fibrosis lung microbiota via serial Illumina sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA hypervariable regions.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Heather; Wang, Pauline W; Diaz Caballero, Julio; Fung, Pauline; Gong, Yunchen; Donaldson, Sylva L; Yuan, Lijie; Keshavjee, Shaf; Zhang, Yu; Yau, Yvonne C W; Waters, Valerie J; Tullis, D Elizabeth; Hwang, David M; Guttman, David S

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of bacterial communities using DNA sequencing has revolutionized our ability to study microbes in nature and discover the ways in which microbial communities affect ecosystem functioning and human health. Here we describe Serial Illumina Sequencing (SI-Seq): a method for deep sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene using next-generation sequencing technology. SI-Seq serially sequences portions of the V5, V6 and V7 hypervariable regions from barcoded 16S rRNA amplicons using an Illumina short-read genome analyzer. SI-Seq obtains taxonomic resolution similar to 454 pyrosequencing for a fraction of the cost, and can produce hundreds of thousands of reads per sample even with very high multiplexing. We validated SI-Seq using single species and mock community controls, and via a comparison to cystic fibrosis lung microbiota sequenced using 454 FLX Titanium. Our control runs show that SI-Seq has a dynamic range of at least five orders of magnitude, can classify >96% of sequences to the genus level, and performs just as well as 454 and paired-end Illumina methods in estimation of standard microbial ecology diversity measurements. We illustrate the utility of SI-Seq in a pilot sample of central airway secretion samples from cystic fibrosis patients. PMID:23056217

  15. Identification and phylogeny of Arabian snakes: Comparison of venom chromatographic profiles versus 16S rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Al Asmari, Abdulrahman; Manthiri, Rajamohammed Abbas; Khan, Haseeb Ahmad

    2014-11-01

    Identification of snake species is important for various reasons including the emergency treatment of snake bite victims. We present a simple method for identification of six snake species using the gel filtration chromatographic profiles of their venoms. The venoms of Echis coloratus, Echis pyramidum, Cerastes gasperettii, Bitis arietans, Naja arabica, and Walterinnesia aegyptia were milked, lyophilized, diluted and centrifuged to separate the mucus from the venom. The clear supernatants were filtered and chromatographed on fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). We obtained the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the above species and performed phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining method. The chromatograms of venoms from different snake species showed peculiar patterns based on the number and location of peaks. The dendrograms generated from similarity matrix based on the presence/absence of particular chromatographic peaks clearly differentiated Elapids from Viperids. Molecular cladistics using 16S rRNA gene sequences resulted in jumping clades while separating the members of these two families. These findings suggest that chromatographic profiles of snake venoms may provide a simple and reproducible chemical fingerprinting method for quick identification of snake species. However, the validation of this methodology requires further studies on large number of specimens from within and across species. PMID:25313278

  16. Identification of bacteria associated with underground parts of Crocus sativus by 16S rRNA gene targeted metagenomic approach.

    PubMed

    Ambardar, Sheetal; Sangwan, Naseer; Manjula, A; Rajendhran, J; Gunasekaran, P; Lal, Rup; Vakhlu, Jyoti

    2014-10-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L), an autumn-flowering perennial sterile plant, reproduces vegetatively by underground corms. Saffron has biannual corm-root cycle that makes it an interesting candidate to study microbial dynamics in its rhizosphere and cormosphere (area under influence of corm). Culture independent 16S rRNA gene metagenomic study of rhizosphere and cormosphere of Saffron during flowering stage revealed presence of 22 genera but none of the genus was common in all the three samples. Bulk soil bacterial community was represented by 13 genera with Acidobacteria being dominant. In rhizosphere, out of eight different genera identified, Pseudomonas was the most dominant genus. Cormosphere bacteria comprised of six different genera, dominated by the genus Pantoea. This study revealed that the bacterial composition of all the three samples is significantly different (P < 0.05) from each other. This is the first report on the identification of bacteria associated with rhizosphere, cormosphere and bulk soil of Saffron, using cultivation independent 16S rRNA gene targeted metagenomic approach. PMID:24989343

  17. Impact of acquisition of 16S rRNA methylase RmtB on the fitness of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ou, Bingming; Chen, Lin; Song, Yujie; Yang, Ying; Zhang, Qian; Yang, Yi; Li, Luan; Tham, Wai Liang; Francis, David H; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the biological phenotypes of 16S rRNA methylase RmtB in Escherichia coli and the impact of RmtB acquisition on the fitness of the target bacterium. An rmtB in-frame deletion mutant in E. coli was constructed using a suicide vector (pDMS197)-based double crossover allelic exchange, and its corresponding complemented strain was established. Combined studies of microdilution susceptibility testing, conjugation experiments, growth kinetics assays, competitive experiments, biofilm formation tests and motility assays were performed to study the rmtB-mediated fitness among the prototype E. coli strain, its isogenic mutant and the corresponding complemented strain. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 4,6-disubstituted 2-deoxystreptamines for the rmtB wild-type strain, its isogenic mutant and the complemented strain were ≥1024, ≤2 and ≥1024mg/L, respectively. Both the growth rates and the competitive abilities of the wild-type and complemented strains were relatively inferior to the ΔrmtB mutant. There was no significant difference in biofilm formation and motility among the three strains. In conclusion, the data presented here suggest that acquisition of the 16S rRNA methylase gene rmtB in E. coli can exact a fitness cost on the bacteria, subsequently reducing the growth rate slightly and decreasing the competitive capacity of the bacterium, whereas it does not affect biofilm formation or motility. PMID:27530836

  18. 16S rRNA PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis of Oral Lactobacillus casei Group and Their Phenotypic Appearances

    PubMed Central

    Piwat, S.; Teanpaisan, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a 16S rRNA PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to identify the species level of Lactobacillus casei group and to investigate their characteristics of acid production and inhibitory effect. PCR-DGGE has been developed based on the 16S rRNA gene, and a set of HDA-1-GC and HDA-2, designed at V2-V3 region, and another set of CARP-1-GC and CARP-2, designed at V1 region, have been used. The bacterial strains included L. casei ATCC 393, L. paracasei CCUG 32212, L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469, L. zeae CCUG 35515, and 46 clinical strains of L. casei/paracasei/rhamnosus. Inhibitory effect against Streptococcus mutans and acid production were examined. Results revealed that each type species strain and identified clinical isolate showed its own unique DGGE pattern using CARP1-GC and CARP2 primers. HDA1-GC and HDA2 primers could distinguish the strains of L. paracasei from L. casei. It was found that inhibitory effect of L. paracasei was stronger than L. casei and L. rhamnosus. The acid production of L. paracasei was lower than L. casei and L. rhamnosus. In conclusion, the technique has been proven to be able to differentiate between closely related species in L. casei group and thus provide reliable information of their phenotypic appearances. PMID:24191230

  19. Identification and characterization of alkaline protease producing Bacillus firmus species EMBS023 by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wishard, Rohan; wishard, Rohan; Jaiswal, Mahak; Parveda, Maheshwari; Amareshwari, P; Bhadoriya, Sneha Singh; Rathore, Pragya; Yadav, Mukesh; Nayarisseri, Anuraj; Nair, Achuthsankar S

    2014-12-01

    Probiotic microorganisms are those which exert a positive exect on the growth of the host, when administered as a dietary mixture in an adequate amount. They form the best alternative to the use of antibiotics for controlling enteric diseases in poultry farm animals, especially in the light of the gruesome problems of development of antibiotic resistance in enteric pathogens and the contamination of poultry products with antibiotics. 16S rDNA sequencing which has gained wide popularity amongst microbiologists for the molecular characterization and identification of newly discovered isolates provides accurate identification of isolates down to the level of sub-species (strain). It's most important advantage over the traditional biochemical characterization methods are that it can provide an accurate identification of strains with atypical phenotypic characters as well. The following work is an application of 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach to identify a novel, alkaline protease producing bacteria, from poultry farm waste. The sample was collected from a local poultry farm in the Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Subsequently the sample was serially diluted and the aliquots were incubated for a suitable time period following which the suspected colony was subjected to 16S rDNA sequencing. The results showed the isolate to be a novel, high alkaline protease producing bacteria, which was named Bacillus firmus isolate EMBS023, after characterization the sequence of isolate was deposited in GenBank with accession number JN990980. PMID:25118655

  20. Role of conserved nucleotides in building the 16 S rRNA binding site for ribosomal protein S15.

    PubMed

    Serganov, A; Bénard, L; Portier, C; Ennifar, E; Garber, M; Ehresmann, B; Ehresmann, C

    2001-01-26

    Ribosomal protein S15 recognizes a highly conserved target on 16 S rRNA, which consists of two distinct binding regions. Here, we used extensive site-directed mutagenesis on a Escherichia coli 16 S rRNA fragment containing the S15 binding site, to investigate the role of conserved nucleotides in protein recognition and to evaluate the relative contribution of the two sites. The effect of mutations on S15 recognition was studied by measuring the relative binding affinity, RNA probing and footprinting. The crystallographic structure of the Thermus thermophilus complex allowed molecular modelling of the E. coli complex and facilitated interpretation of biochemical data. Binding is essentially driven by site 1, which includes a three-way junction constrained by a conserved base triple and cross-strand stacking. Recognition is based mainly on shape complementarity, and the role of conserved nucleotides is to maintain a unique backbone geometry. The wild-type base triple is absolutely required for protein interaction, while changes in the conserved surrounding nucleotides are partially tolerated. Site 2, which provides functional groups in a conserved G-U/G-C motif, contributes only modestly to the stability of the interaction. Binding to this motif is dependent on binding at site 1 and is allowed only if the two sites are in the correct relative orientation. Non-conserved bulged nucleotides as well as a conserved purine interior loop, although not directly involved in recognition, are used to provide an appropriate flexibility between the two sites. In addition, correct binding at the two sites triggers conformational adjustments in the purine interior loop and in a distal region, which are known to be involved for subsequent binding of proteins S6 and S18. Thus, the role of site 1 is to anchor S15 to the rRNA, while binding at site 2 is aimed to induce a cascade of events required for subunit assembly. PMID:11162092

  1. Comparison of Genotypic and Phylogenetic Relationships of Environmental Enterococcus Isolates by BOX-PCR Typing and 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing ▿

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Bina S.; Badgley, Brian; Harwood, Valerie J.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental Enterococcus spp. were compared by BOX-PCR genotyping and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to clarify the predictive relationship of BOX-PCR fingerprints to species designation. BOX-PCR and 16S rRNA gene relationships agreed for 77% of strains. BOX-PCR provided superior intraspecies discrimination but incorrectly identified some strains to the species level and divided some species into multiple groups. PMID:21622792

  2. 16S rRNA gene mutations associated with decreased susceptibility to tetracycline in Mycoplasma bovis.

    PubMed

    Amram, E; Mikula, I; Schnee, C; Ayling, R D; Nicholas, R A J; Rosales, R S; Harrus, S; Lysnyansky, I

    2015-02-01

    Mycoplasma bovis isolates with decreased susceptibilities to tetracyclines are increasingly reported worldwide. The acquired molecular mechanisms associated with this phenomenon were investigated in 70 clinical isolates of M. bovis. Sequence analysis of the two 16S rRNA-encoding genes (rrs3 and rrs4 alleles) containing the primary binding pocket for tetracycline (Tet-1 site) was performed on isolates with tetracycline hydrochloride MICs of 0.125 to 16 μg/ml. Mutations at positions A965T, A967T/C (Escherichia coli numbering) of helix 31, U1199C of helix 34, and G1058A/C were identified. Decreased susceptibilities to tetracycline (MICs, ≥2 μg/ml) were associated with mutations present at two (A965 and A967) or three positions (A965, A967, and G1058) of the two rrs alleles. No tet(M), tet(O), or tet(L) determinants were found in the genome of any of the 70 M. bovis isolates. The data presented correlate (P<0.0001) the mutations identified in the Tet-1 site of clinical isolates of M. bovis with decreased susceptibility to tetracycline. PMID:25403668

  3. [Determination of 16S rRNA gene sequence for a new ANAMMOX bacterial species].

    PubMed

    Zu, Bo; Zhang, Dai-jun; Yan, Qing

    2008-02-01

    The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) activity of the sludge was about 9.84 x 10(-4) mg x (mg x h)(-1) by measuring the simultaneous consumption of ammonium and nitrite under anoxic conditions in the batch tests. The consumption of NO2(-) -N and NH4+ -N was 1.311 for ANAMMOX bacteria. The partial 16S rDNA sequence was obtained by using molecule biology methods. Crude DNA of the total bacteria in granular sludge from EGSB reactor was extracted and purified. Then, PCR amplification by using specific primer, clone and sequence determination was performed. ANAMMOX bacterial species(anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing Planctomycete cquenviron-1) which was enrichment cultivated from EGSB reactor were the same genera with Candidatus "Anammoxoglobus propionicus" and Candidatus "Jettenia asiatica" by analyzing phylogenetic tree. The maximum identities of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing Planctomycete cquenviron-1 with other ANAMMOX bacterial species was about 93%. The results showed that a new ANAMMOX bacterial species which was enrichment cultivated from EGSB reactor was found and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing Planctomycete cquenviron-1 was denominated. PMID:18613522

  4. 16S rRNA Gene Mutations Associated with Decreased Susceptibility to Tetracycline in Mycoplasma bovis

    PubMed Central

    Amram, E.; Mikula, I.; Schnee, C.; Ayling, R. D.; Nicholas, R. A. J.; Rosales, R. S.; Harrus, S.

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis isolates with decreased susceptibilities to tetracyclines are increasingly reported worldwide. The acquired molecular mechanisms associated with this phenomenon were investigated in 70 clinical isolates of M. bovis. Sequence analysis of the two 16S rRNA-encoding genes (rrs3 and rrs4 alleles) containing the primary binding pocket for tetracycline (Tet-1 site) was performed on isolates with tetracycline hydrochloride MICs of 0.125 to 16 μg/ml. Mutations at positions A965T, A967T/C (Escherichia coli numbering) of helix 31, U1199C of helix 34, and G1058A/C were identified. Decreased susceptibilities to tetracycline (MICs, ≥2 μg/ml) were associated with mutations present at two (A965 and A967) or three positions (A965, A967, and G1058) of the two rrs alleles. No tet(M), tet(O), or tet(L) determinants were found in the genome of any of the 70 M. bovis isolates. The data presented correlate (P < 0.0001) the mutations identified in the Tet-1 site of clinical isolates of M. bovis with decreased susceptibility to tetracycline. PMID:25403668

  5. Metagenomic and near full-length 16S rRNA sequence data in support of the phylogenetic analysis of the rumen bacterial community in steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Next generation sequencing technologies have vastly changed the approach of sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene for studies in microbial ecology. Three distinct technologies are available for large-scale 16S sequencing. All three are subject to biases introduced by sequencing error rates, amplificatio...

  6. Evaluation of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing using two next-generation sequencing technologies for phylogenetic analysis of the rumen bacterial community in steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Next generation sequencing technologies have vastly changed the approach of sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene for studies in microbial ecology. Three distinct technologies are available for large-scale 16S sequencing. All three are subject to biases introduced by sequencing error rates, amplificatio...

  7. Evaluation of 16S Rrna amplicon sequencing using two next-generation sequencing technologies for phylogenetic analysis of the rumen bacterial community in steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Next generation sequencing technologies have vastly changed the approach of sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene for studies in microbial ecology. Three distinct technologies are available for large-scale 16S sequencing. All three are subject to biases introduced by sequencing error rates, amplificatio...

  8. Microbiological and 16S rRNA analysis of sulphite-reducing clostridia from river sediments in central Italy

    PubMed Central

    Marcheggiani, Stefania; Iaconelli, Marcello; D'angelo, Annamaria; Pierdominici, Elio; La Rosa, Giuseppina; Muscillo, Michele; Equestre, Michele; Mancini, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Background Microbiological indicators are commonly used in the assessment of public health risks associated with fecal contamination of freshwater ecosystems. Sediments are a reservoir of microorganisms, and can thus provide information on past pollution events, not obtainable through the testing of surface water. Moreover, pathogens present in sediment may represent future threats to human health. Clostridium perfringens, a typical colonizer of sediments, has been suggested as an alternative indicator of fecal pollution. In order to be suitable for such purpose, the microorganism should be widely distributed in contaminated environments. The objective of this study was thus to determine the composition of the anaerobic community in sediment samples of the lower Tiber basin, in central Italy, through a combined approach involving granulometric analysis of sediment samples, as well as a microbiological and molecular (16S rRNA) analysis of strains. Results Granulometry showed a similar, clayey sediment composition, in most sampling sites. The microbiological method, employing, an adaptation of the standard method, proved to be effective in isolating anaerobic bacteria from the environmental matrix for the purpose of genetic analysis. Eighty-three strains of bacteria were isolated and the partial 16S rRNA gene sequenced. While biochemical analysis detected only C. perfringens strains, phylogenetic analysis indicated the presence of three clusters: C. perfringens, C. bifermentans and B. cereus, comprising eight taxa. C. perfringens, the commonest in almost all sediment sampling sites, was present in all sites, and in both seasons (seasonal sampling was carried out only along the Tiber and Aniene rivers). None of the described genetic profiles showed complete similarity with GenBank sequences. Conclusion The study underlines the value of C. perfringens as an alternative microbial indicator of fecal contamination in river sediments. This is supported by the bacterium

  9. Bacterial Population Dynamics in a Laboratory Activated Sludge Reactor Monitored by Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Hiroyasu; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Ranasinghe, Purnika; Li, Ning; Gunawardana, Egodaha Gedara Wasana; Hattori, Masahira; Mino, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The microbial population in a laboratory activated sludge reactor was monitored for 245 d at 75 time points by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA. Synthetic wastewater was used as the influent, and the reactor was operated under the same conditions throughout the experiment. The behaviors of different bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were observed. Multiple OTUs showed periodic propagation and recession. One of the OTUs showed sharp recession, which suggests that cells in the OTU were selectively killed. The behaviors of different phylogenetic lineages of Candidatus ‘Accumulibacter phosphatis’ were also visualized. It was clearly demonstrated that pyrosequencing with barcoded primers is a very effective tool to clarify the dynamics of the bacterial population in activated sludge. PMID:23100021

  10. Identification of Atypical Rhodococcus-Like Clinical Isolates as Dietzia spp. by 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing▿

    PubMed Central

    Pilares, Lilian; Agüero, Jesús; Vázquez-Boland, José A.; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Navas, Jesús

    2010-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi and Dietzia spp. are closely related actinomycetes that show similar phenotypic properties. In humans, R. equi is an opportunistic pathogen associated with severe immunodeficiency. Dietzia spp. are environmental bacteria that have been isolated recently from clinical material and are presumptively associated with human infections. During the last 5 years, 15 bacterial isolates from human clinical samples collected at the Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander, Spain, were identified as R. equi by the API Coryne test. 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed seven isolates to be true R. equi strains, whereas the other eight were identified as members of the genus Dietzia, including Dietzia maris (four isolates), Dietzia natronolimnaea (two isolates), and Dietzia timorensis and Dietzia sp. (one isolate each). The eight Dietzia isolates were highly sensitive to 12 antimicrobial compounds. PMID:20220156

  11. Next-Generation Sequencing of the Bacterial 16S rRNA Gene for Forensic Soil Comparison: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Jesmok, Ellen M; Hopkins, James M; Foran, David R

    2016-05-01

    Soil has the potential to be valuable forensic evidence linking a person or item to a crime scene; however, there is no established soil individualization technique. In this study, the utility of soil bacterial profiling via next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was examined for associating soils with their place of origin. Soil samples were collected from ten diverse and nine similar habitats over time, and within three habitats at various horizontal and vertical distances. Bacterial profiles were analyzed using four methods: abundance charts and nonmetric multidimensional scaling provided simplification and visualization of the massive datasets, potentially aiding in expert testimony, while analysis of similarities and k-nearest neighbor offered objective statistical comparisons. The vast majority of soil bacterial profiles (95.4%) were classified to their location of origin, highlighting the potential of bacterial profiling via next-generation sequencing for the forensic analysis of soil samples. PMID:27122396

  12. Comparative sequence analyses of the genes coding for 16S rRNA of Lactobacillus casei-related taxa.

    PubMed

    Mori, K; Yamazaki, K; Ishiyama, T; Katsumata, M; Kobayashi, K; Kawai, Y; Inoue, N; Shinano, H

    1997-01-01

    The primary structures of the 16S rRNA genes of the type strains of Lactobacillus casei and related taxa were determined by PCR DNA-sequencing methods. The sequences of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus zeae, Lactobacillus paracasei, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus were different. The Knuc values ranged from 0.0040 to 0.0126. On the basis of the Knuc values and the levels of DNA-DNA relatedness among the strains of these species, the L. casei-related taxa should be classified in the following three species: L. zeae, which includes the type strains of L. zeae and L. casei; a species that includes the strains of L. paracasei and L. casei ATCC 334; and L. rhamnosus. PMID:8995801

  13. Direct application to dairy foods of a Listeria-specific oligonucleotide probe to 16S rRNA.

    PubMed

    Brooks, J L; Back, J P; Kroll, R G

    1992-08-01

    A potentially Listeria-specific 28 base oligonucleotide probe was designed from 16S rRNA sequence data. Using either 32P or non-radioactive (alkaline phosphatase) labels, the probe was shown to be highly specific as it hybridised to RNA extracted from all of the species of Listeria but not to any of the other bacteria tested. Both probe methods were highly sensitive and ca 10(2) cfu/ml Listeria could be detected in pure cultures. A rapid procedure for extracting RNA from milk, Camembert and cottage cheese was developed. This allowed the direct application of the probe to these foods and gave a rapid and specific method of detecting > 10(2) cfu/g or ml Listeria in these foods. PMID:1280986

  14. Lyme disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi with two homeologous 16S rRNA genes: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sin Hang

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease (LD), the most common tick-borne disease in North America, is believed to be caused exclusively by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and is usually diagnosed by clinical evaluation and serologic assays. As reported previously in a peer-reviewed article, a 13-year-old boy living in the Northeast of the USA was initially diagnosed with LD based on evaluation of his clinical presentations and on serologic test results. The patient was treated with a course of oral doxycycline for 28 days, and the symptoms resolved. A year later, the boy developed a series of unusual symptoms and did not attend school for 1 year. A LD specialist reviewed the case and found the serologic test band patterns nondiagnostic of LD. The boy was admitted to a psychiatric hospital. After discharge from the psychiatric hospital, a polymerase chain reaction test performed in a winter month when the boy was 16 years old showed a low density of B. burgdorferi sensu lato in the blood of the patient, confirmed by partial 16S rRNA (ribosomal RNA) gene sequencing. Subsequent DNA sequencing analysis presented in this report demonstrated that the spirochete isolate was a novel strain of B. burgdorferi with two homeologous 16S rRNA genes, which has never been reported in the world literature. This case report shows that direct DNA sequencing is a valuable tool for reliable molecular diagnosis of Lyme and related borrelioses, as well as for studies of the diversity of the causative agents of LD because LD patients infected by a rare or novel borrelial variant may produce an antibody pattern that can be different from the pattern characteristic of an infection caused by a typical B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strain. PMID:27186082

  15. Lyme disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi with two homeologous 16S rRNA genes: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sin Hang

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease (LD), the most common tick-borne disease in North America, is believed to be caused exclusively by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and is usually diagnosed by clinical evaluation and serologic assays. As reported previously in a peer-reviewed article, a 13-year-old boy living in the Northeast of the USA was initially diagnosed with LD based on evaluation of his clinical presentations and on serologic test results. The patient was treated with a course of oral doxycycline for 28 days, and the symptoms resolved. A year later, the boy developed a series of unusual symptoms and did not attend school for 1 year. A LD specialist reviewed the case and found the serologic test band patterns nondiagnostic of LD. The boy was admitted to a psychiatric hospital. After discharge from the psychiatric hospital, a polymerase chain reaction test performed in a winter month when the boy was 16 years old showed a low density of B. burgdorferi sensu lato in the blood of the patient, confirmed by partial 16S rRNA (ribosomal RNA) gene sequencing. Subsequent DNA sequencing analysis presented in this report demonstrated that the spirochete isolate was a novel strain of B. burgdorferi with two homeologous 16S rRNA genes, which has never been reported in the world literature. This case report shows that direct DNA sequencing is a valuable tool for reliable molecular diagnosis of Lyme and related borrelioses, as well as for studies of the diversity of the causative agents of LD because LD patients infected by a rare or novel borrelial variant may produce an antibody pattern that can be different from the pattern characteristic of an infection caused by a typical B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strain. PMID:27186082

  16. Rapid Sanger Sequencing of the 16S rRNA Gene for Identification of Some Common Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guangbiao; Shi, Xiaojun; Su, Jianhui; Chen, Guanwu; Lin, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Conventional Sanger sequencing remains time-consuming and laborious. In this study, we developed a rapid improved sequencing protocol of 16S rRNA for pathogens identification by using a new combination of SYBR Green I real-time PCR and Sanger sequencing with FTA® cards. To compare the sequencing quality of this method with conventional Sanger sequencing, 12 strains, including three kinds of strains (1 reference strain and 3 clinical strains, which were previously identified by biochemical tests), which have 4 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 4 Staphyloccocus aureus and 4 Escherichia coli, were targeted. Additionally, to validate the sequencing results and bacteria identification, expanded specimens with 90 clinical strains, also comprised of the three kinds of strains which included 30 samples respectively, were performed as just described. The results showed that although statistical differences (P<0.05) were found in sequencing quality between the two methods, their identification results were all correct and consistent. The workload, the time consumption and the cost per batch were respectively light versus heavy, 8 h versus 11 h and $420 versus $400. In the 90 clinical strains, all of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphyloccocus aureus strains were correctly identified, but only 26.7% of the Escherichia coli strains were recognized as Escherichia coli, while 33.3% as Shigella sonnei and 40% as Shigella dysenteriae. The protocol described here is a rapid, reliable, stable and convenient method for 16S rRNA sequencing, and can be used for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphyloccocus aureus identification, yet it is not completely suitable for discriminating Escherichia coli and Shigella strains. PMID:24551186

  17. 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis of the bacterial endosymbionts associated with cytoplasmic incompatibility in insects.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, S L; Giordano, R; Colbert, A M; Karr, T L; Robertson, H M

    1992-01-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts of insects have long been implicated in the phenomenon of cytoplasmic incompatibility, in which certain crosses between symbiont-infected individuals lead to embryonic death or sex ratio distortion. The taxonomic position of these bacteria has, however, not been known with any certainty. Similarly, the relatedness of the bacteria infecting various insect hosts has been unclear. The inability to grow these bacteria on defined cell-free medium has been the major factor underlying these uncertainties. We circumvented this problem by selective PCR amplification and subsequent sequencing of the symbiont 16S rRNA genes directly from infected insect tissue. Maximum parsimony analysis of these sequences indicates that the symbionts belong in the alpha-subdivision of the Proteobacteria, where they are most closely related to the Rickettsia and their relatives. They are all closely related to each other and are assigned to the type species Wolbachia pipientis. Lack of congruence between the phylogeny of the symbionts and their insect hosts suggest that horizontal transfer of symbionts between insect species may occur. Comparison of the sequences for W. pipientis and for Wolbachia persica, an endosymbiont of ticks, shows that the genus Wolbachia is polyphyletic. A PCR assay based on 16S primers was designed for the detection of W. pipientis in insect tissue, and initial screening of insects indicates that cytoplasmic incompatibility may be a more general phenomenon in insects than is currently recognized. Images PMID:1557375

  18. Bacterial communities in two Antarctic ice cores analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segawa, Takahiro; Ushida, Kazunari; Narita, Hideki; Kanda, Hiroshi; Kohshima, Shiro

    2010-08-01

    Antarctic ice cores could preserve ancient airborne microorganisms. We examined bacteria in two Antarctic ice core samples, an interglacial age sample from Mizuho Base and a glacial age sample from the Yamato Mountains, by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Bacterial density, the number of bacterial OTUs and Simpson’s diversity index was larger in the Mizuho sample than in the Yamato sample. The 16S rDNA clone library from the Mizuho sample was dominated by the phylum Firmicutes, while the large part of that from the Yamato sample was composed of the Gamma proteobacteria group. Major sources of these identified bacteria estimated from their database records also differed between the samples: in the Mizuho sample bacterial species recorded from animals were higher than that of the Yamato sample, while in the Yamato sample bacteria from aquatic and snow-ice environments were higher than that of the Mizuho sample. The results suggest that these bacteria were past airborne bacteria that would vary in density, diversity and species composition depending on global environmental change. Our results imply that bacteria in Antarctic ice cores could be used as new environmental markers for past environmental studies.

  19. In vivo translation of a region within the rrnB 16S rRNA gene of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Berg, K L; Squires, C L; Squires, C

    1987-01-01

    In this study we show that a segment of the Escherichia coli rrnB 16S gene can be translated in vivo. Other laboratories have previously reported that there are internal transcription and translation signals and open reading frames within the E. coli rrnB rRNA operon. Their studies revealed a translation start signal followed by a 252-base-pair open reading frame (ORF16) within the 16S gene and detected a promoter (p16) in the same general region by using in vitro RNA polymerase binding and transcription initiation assays. By using plasmid gene fusions of ORF16 to lacZ we showed that an ORF16'-'beta-galactosidase fusion protein was made in vivo. Transcripts encoding the fusion protein were expressed either from the rrnB p1p2 control region or from a hybrid trp-lac promoter (tacP), but the amount of expression was considerably less than for a lacZ control plasmid. We used fusions to the cat gene to show that p16 is one-half as active as lacP. Deletions were used to show that p16 is located within ORF16 and thus cannot promote a transcript encoding the ORF16 peptide. A comparison of sequences from different organisms shows that ORF16 and p16 lie in a highly conserved region of the procaryotic 16S RNA structure. The first 20 amino acids of ORF16 are conserved in most eubacterial and plant organellar sequences, and promoter activity has been detected in this region of the Caulobacter crescentus sequence by other workers. Images PMID:2435709

  20. Prevalence of Corynebacterial 16S rRNA Sequences in Patients with Bacterial and “Nonbacterial” Prostatitis

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Michael A.; Shoskes, Daniel; Shahed, Asha; Pace, Norman R.

    1999-01-01

    The etiology of chronic prostatitis syndromes in men is controversial, particularly when positive cultures for established uropathogens are lacking. Although identification of bacteria in prostatic fluid has relied on cultivation and microscopy, most microorganisms in the environment, including some human pathogens, are resistant to cultivation. We report here on an rRNA-based molecular phylogenetic approach to the identification of bacteria in prostate fluid from prostatitis patients. Positive bacterial signals were seen for 65% of patients with chronic prostatitis overall. Seven of 11 patients with bacterial signals but none of 6 patients without bacterial signals were cured with antibiotic-based therapy. Results indicate the occurrence in the prostate fluid of a wide spectrum of bacterial species representing several genera. Most rRNA genes were closely related to those of species belonging to the genera Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus, Peptostreptococcus, Streptococcus, and Escherichia. Unexpectedly, a wide diversity of Corynebacterium species was found in high proportion compared to the proportions of other bacterial species found. A subset of these 16S rRNA sequences represent those of undescribed species on the basis of their positions in phylogenetic trees. These uncharacterized organisms were not detected in control samples, suggesting that the organisms have a role in the disease or are the consequence of the disease. These studies show that microorganisms associated with prostatitis generally occur as complex microbial communities that differ between patients. The results also indicate that microbial communities distinct from those associated with prostatitis may occur at low levels in normal prostatic fluid. PMID:10325338

  1. Analysis of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of chrysanthemum via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA as well as DNA fragments coding for 16S rRNA.

    PubMed

    Duineveld, B M; Kowalchuk, G A; Keijzer, A; van Elsas, J D; van Veen, J A

    2001-01-01

    The effect of developing chrysanthemum roots on the presence and activity of bacterial populations in the rhizosphere was examined by using culture-independent methods. Nucleic acids were extracted from rhizosphere soil samples associated with the bases of roots or root tips of plants harvested at different stages of development. PCR and reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR were used to amplify 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and 16S rRNA, respectively, and the products were subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Prominent DGGE bands were excised and sequenced to gain insight into the identities of predominantly present (PCR) and predominantly active (RT-PCR) bacterial populations. The majority of DGGE band sequences were related to bacterial genera previously associated with the rhizosphere, such as Pseudomonas, Comamonas, Variovorax, and Acetobacter, or typical of root-free soil environments, such as Bacillus and Arthrobacter. The PCR-DGGE patterns observed for bulk soil were somewhat more complex than those obtained from rhizosphere samples, and the latter contained a subset of the bands present in bulk soil. DGGE analysis of RT-PCR products detected a subset of bands visible in the rDNA-based analysis, indicating that some dominantly detected bacterial populations did not have high levels of metabolic activity. The sequences detected by the RT-PCR approach were, however, derived from a wide taxonomic range, suggesting that activity in the rhizosphere was not determined at broad taxonomic levels but rather was a strain- or species-specific phenomenon. Comparative analysis of DGGE profiles grouped all DNA-derived root tip samples together in a cluster, and within this cluster the root tip samples from young plants formed a separate subcluster. Comparison of rRNA-derived bacterial profiles showed no grouping of root tip samples versus root base samples. Rather, all profiles derived from 2-week-old plant rhizosphere soils grouped together regardless of

  2. Development and evaluation of immunochromatography to detect Gram-negative bacteria producing ArmA 16S rRNA methylase responsible for aminoglycoside resistance.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Satoshi; Tada, Tatsuya; Kameoka, Yousuke; Suzuki, Kazuo; Ohmagari, Norio; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Kirikae, Teruo

    2015-11-01

    Rapid and reliable detection of aminoglycoside-resistant bacteria is an important infection-control measure and a crucial aspect of antimicrobial chemotherapy. The enzyme 16S rRNA methylase has been shown to mediate aminoglycoside resistance in bacteria. This study describes a newly developed immunochromatographic assay using novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize ArmA 16S rRNA methylase. Epitope mapping showed that these mAbs recognized amino acids 1-93 of ArmA, which consists of 257 amino acids. Evaluation of the assay using ArmA producing and non-producing bacterial species, as well as bacteria producing other types of 16S rRNA methylases, indicated that immunochromatographic detection of the ArmA-type 16S rRNA methylase was fully consistent with PCR analysis for armA genes, with all immunochromatographically positive strains being resistant to aminoglycosides (MIC≥128μg/mL). The detection limit of the assay was 12ng ArmA. These findings indicate that this assay can be used for the rapid and reliable detection of the production of ArmA 16S rRNA methylase by Gram-negative bacteria, including Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli. PMID:26381663

  3. Selective Phylogenetic Analysis Targeted at 16S rRNA Genes of Thermophiles and Hyperthermophiles in Deep-Subsurface Geothermal Environments

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Hiroyuki; Sugihara, Maki; Kato, Kenji; Hanada, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    Deep-subsurface samples obtained by deep drilling are likely to be contaminated with mesophilic microorganisms in the drilling fluid, and this could affect determination of the community structure of the geothermal microflora using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. To eliminate possible contamination by PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes from mesophiles, a combined thermal denaturation and enzyme digestion method, based on a strong correlation between the G+C content of the 16S rRNA gene and the optimum growth temperatures of most known prokaryotic cultures, was used prior to clone library construction. To validate this technique, hot spring fluid (76°C) and river water (14°C) were used to mimic a deep-subsurface sample contaminated with drilling fluid. After DNA extraction and PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA genes from individual samples separately, the amplified products from river water were observed to be denatured at 82°C and completely digested by exonuclease I (Exo I), while the amplified products from hot spring fluid remained intact after denaturation at 84°C and enzyme digestion with Exo I. DNAs extracted from the two samples were mixed and used as a template for amplification of the 16S rRNA genes. The amplified rRNA genes were denatured at 84°C and digested with Exo I before clone library construction. The results indicated that the 16S rRNA gene sequences from the river water were almost completely eliminated, whereas those from the hot spring fluid remained. PMID:16391020

  4. A single base change in the Shine-Dalgarno region of 16S rRNA of Escherichia coli affects translation of many proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, W F; Santer, M; Dahlberg, A E

    1987-01-01

    A single base mutation was constructed at position 1538 of Escherichia coli 16S rRNA, changing a cytidine to a uridine. This position is in the Shine-Dalgarno region, thought to be involved in base-pairing to mRNA during initiation of protein synthesis. The mutation was constructed by using a synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide that differs in sequence by one base from the wild-type sequence of 16S rRNA. This oligonucleotide was used as a primer on single-stranded DNA of phage M13, into which was cloned a specific region of DNA encoding 16S rRNA. The mutation is lethal when expressed from the normal promoters of rRNA operons, P1 and P2, in a high-copy-number plasmid. Expression can be repressed by a temperature-sensitive repressor, cI857, in combination with the bacteriophage lambda PL promoter. Induction of transcription by temperature shift yields mutant 16S rRNA that is processed and assembled into functional ribosomal subunits. The presence of mutant ribosomes retards cell growth and dramatically alters incorporation of [35S]methionine into a large proportion of the cellular proteins. The change in level of synthesis of individual proteins correlates with the change in base-pairing between mutant rRNA and the Shine-Dalgarno region of the mRNA. Images PMID:2440027

  5. Thinking beside the box: Should we care about the non-coding strand of the 16S rRNA gene?

    PubMed

    Garcia-Mazcorro, Jose F; Barcenas-Walls, Jose R

    2016-08-01

    The 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA) codes for RNA that plays a fundamental role during translation in the ribosome and is used extensively as a marker gene to establish relationships among bacteria. However, the complementary non-coding 16S rDNA (nc16S rDNA) has been ignored. An idea emerged in the course of analyzing bacterial 16S rDNA sequences in search for nucleotide composition and substitution patterns: Does the nc16S rDNA code? If so, what does it code for? More importantly: Does 16S rDNA evolution reflect its own evolution or the evolution of its counterpart nc16S rDNA? The objective of this minireview is to discuss these thoughts. nc strands often encode small RNAs (sRNAs), ancient components of gene regulation. nc16S rDNA sequences from different bacterial groups were used to search for possible matches in the Bacterial Small Regulatory RNA Database. Intriguingly, the sequence of one published sRNA obtained from Legionella pneumophila (GenBank: AE0173541) showed high non-random similarity with nc16S rDNA corresponding in part to the V5 region especially from Legionella and relatives. While the target(s) of this sRNA is unclear at the moment, its mere existence might open up a new chapter in the use of the 16S rDNA to study relationships among bacteria. PMID:27412167

  6. Methanosarcina acetivorans 16S rRNA and transcription factor nucleotide fluctuation with implications in exobiology and pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Todd; Tremberger, G., Jr.; Cheung, E.; Subramaniam, R.; Sullivan, R.; Schneider, P.; Flamholz, A.; Marchese, P.; Hiciano, O.; Yao, H.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.

    2008-08-01

    Cultures of the methane-producing archaea Methanosarcina, have recently been isolated from Alaskan sediments. It has been proposed that methanogens are strong candidates for exobiological life in extreme conditions. The spatial environmental gradients, such as those associated with the polygons on Mars' surface, could have been produced by past methanogenesis activity. The 16S rRNA gene has been used routinely to classify phenotypes. Using the fractal dimension of nucleotide fluctuation, a comparative study of the 16S rRNA nucleotide fluctuation in Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A, Deinococcus radiodurans, and E. coli was conducted. The results suggest that Methanosarcina acetivorans has the lowest fractal dimension, consistent with its ancestral position in evolution. Variation in fluctuation complexity was also detected in the transcription factors. The transcription factor B (TFB) was found to have a higher fractal dimension as compared to transcription factor E (TFE), consistent with the fact that a single TFB in Methanosarcina acetivorans can code three different TATA box proteins. The average nucleotide pair-wise free energy of the DNA repair genes was found to be highest for Methanosarcina acetivorans, suggesting a relatively weak bonding, which is consistent with its low prevalence in pathology. Multitasking capacity comparison of type-I and type-II topoisomerases has been shown to correlate with fractal dimension using the methicillin-resistant strain MRSA 252. The analysis suggests that gene adaptation in a changing chemical environment can be measured in terms of bioinformatics. Given that the radiation resistant Deinococcus radiodurans is a strong candidate for an extraterrestrial origin and that the cold temperature Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5 can function in Siberian permafrost, the fractal dimension comparison in this study suggests that a chemical resistant methanogen could exist in extremely cold conditions (such as that which existed on early

  7. Microbial methane turnover at Marmara Sea cold seeps: a combined 16S rRNA and lipid biomarker investigation.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, N; Bouloubassi, I; Birgel, D; Taphanel, M-H; López-García, P

    2013-01-01

    Lipid biomarkers and their stable carbon isotopic composition, as well as 16S rRNA gene sequences, were investigated in sediment cores from active seepage zones in the Sea of Marmara (Turkey) located on the active North Anatolian Fault, to assess processes associated with methane turnover by indigenous microbial communities. Diagnostic (13) C-depleted archaeal lipids of anaerobic methane oxidizers were only found in one core from the South of Çinarcik Basin and consist mainly of archaeol, sn-2 hydroxyarchaeol and various unsaturated pentamethylicosenes. Concurrently, abundant fatty acids (FAs) and a substantial amount of monoalkylglycerolethers (MAGEs), assigned to sulphate-reducing bacteria, were detected with strong (13) C-depletions. Both microbial lipids and their δ(13) C values suggest that anaerobic oxidation of methane with sulphate reduction (AOM/SR) occurs, specially in the 10- to 12-cm depth interval. Lipid biomarker results accompanied by 16S rRNA-based microbial diversity analyses showed that ANME-2 (ANME-2a and -2c) archaea and Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus and Desulfobulbus deltaproteobacterial clades are the major AOM assemblages, which indicate a shallow AOM community at high methane flux. Apart from the typical AOM lipid biomarker pattern, a (13) C-depleted diunsaturated hydrocarbon, identified as 7,14-tricosadiene, occurred in the inferred maximum AOM interval at 10-12 cm depth. Its isotopic fingerprint implies that its microbial precursor occurs in close association with the AOM communities. Interestingly, the presence of 7,14-tricosadiene coincides with the presence of the so-far uncultured bacterial Candidate Division JS1, often detected in AOM areas. We propose the hypothesis that the JS1 bacterial group could be the potential source of (13) C-depleted tricosadiene. Future testing of this hypothesis is essential to fully determine the role of this bacterial group in AOM. PMID:23205581

  8. Detection of WWE2-related Lentisphaerae by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization in landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Limam, Rim Driss; Bouchez, Théodore; Chouari, Rakia; Li, Tianlun; Barkallah, Insaf; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Sghir, Abdelghani

    2010-10-01

    We collected samples of anaerobic landfill leachate from municipal solid waste landfill (Vert-le-Grand, France) and constructed 16S rRNA clone libraries using primers targeting Planctomycetes and relatives (Pla46F and 1390R). Analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences resulted in the abundant representation of WWE2-related Lentisphaerae, members of the phylum Lentisphaerae, in the clone library (98% of the retrieved sequences). Although the sequences that are phylogenetically affiliated with the cultured isolate Victivallis vadensis were identified (WWE2 subgroup II), the majority of the sequences were affiliated with an uncultured Lentisphaerae lineage (WWE2 subgroup I). We designed oligonucleotides probes targeting the specific 16S rRNA gene regions of those 2 subgroups. Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed the abundance of the uncultivated WWE2 subgroup I in our leachate samples. PMID:20962908

  9. 16S rRNA genes reveal stratified open ocean bacterioplankton populations related to the Green Non-Sulfur bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Giovannoni, S J; Rappé, M S; Vergin, K L; Adair, N L

    1996-01-01

    Microorganisms play an important role in the biogeochemistry of the ocean surface layer, but spatial and temporal structures in the distributions of specific bacterioplankton species are largely unexplored, with the exceptions of those organisms that can be detected by either autofluorescence or culture methods. The use of rRNA genes as genetic markers provides a tool by which patterns in the growth, distribution, and activity of abundant bacterioplankton species can be studied regardless of the ease with which they can be cultured. Here we report an unusual cluster of related 16S rRNA genes (SAR202, SAR263, SAR279, SAR287, SAR293, SAR307) cloned from seawater collected at 250 m in the Sargasso Sea in August 1991, when the water column was highly stratified and the deep chlorophyll maximum was located at a depth of 120 m. Phylogenetic analysis and an unusual 15-bp deletion confirmed that the genes were related to the Green Non-Sulfur phylum of the domain Bacteria. This is the first evidence that representatives of this phylum occur in the open ocean. Oligonucleotide probes were used to examine the distribution of the SAR202 gene cluster in vertical profiles (0-250 m) from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and in discrete (monthly) time series (O and 200 m) (over 30 consecutive months in the Western Sargasso Sea. The data provide robust statistical support for the conclusion that the SAR202 gene cluster is proportionately most abundant at the lower boundary of the deep chlorophyll maximum (P = 2.33 x 10(-5)). These results suggest that previously unsuspected stratification of microbial populations may be a significant factor in the ecology of the ocean surface layer. Images Fig. 4 PMID:8755588

  10. 16S rRNA gene sequencing is a non-culture method of defining the specific bacterial etiology of ventilator-associated pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Li-Ping; Bian, Long-Yan; Xu, Min; Liu, Ying; Tang, Ai-Ling; Ye, Wen-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is an acquired respiratory tract infection following tracheal intubation. The most common hospital-acquired infection among patients with acute respiratory failure, VAP is associated with a mortality rate of 20-30%. The standard bacterial culture method for identifying the etiology of VAP is not specific, timely, or accurate in identifying the bacterial pathogens. This study used 16S rRNA gene metagenomic sequencing to identify and quantify the pathogenic bacteria in lower respiratory tract and oropharyngeal samples of 55 VAP patients. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene has served as a valuable tool in bacterial identification, particularly when other biochemical, molecular, or phenotypic identification techniques fail. In this study, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed in parallel with the standard bacterial culture method to identify and quantify bacteria present in the collected patient samples. Sequence analysis showed the colonization of multidrug-resistant strains in VAP secretions. Further, this method identified Prevotella, Proteus, Aquabacter, and Sphingomonas bacterial genera that were not detected by the standard bacterial culture method. Seven categories of bacteria, Streptococcus, Neisseria, Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas and Klebsiella, were detectable by both 16S rRNA gene sequencing and standard bacterial culture methods. Further, 16S rRNA gene sequencing had a significantly higher sensitivity in detecting Streptococcus and Pseudomonas when compared to standard bacterial culture. Together, these data present 16S rRNA gene sequencing as a novel VAP diagnosis tool that will further enable pathogen-specific treatment of VAP. PMID:26770469

  11. Variability in abundance of the Bacterial and Archaeal 16S rRNA and amoA genes in water columns of northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Yang, C.; Chen, S.; Xie, W.; Wang, P.; Zhang, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in marine microbial ecology have shown that ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) are more abundant than ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), although total Bacteria are more abundant than total Archaea in marine environments. This study aimed to examine the spatial distribution and abundance of planktonic archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA- and amoA genes in the northern South China Sea. Water samples were collected at different depths at six stations (maximum depth ranging from 1800 m to 3200 m)with four stations (B2, B3, B6, B7) located along a transect from the northeastern continental slope to the Bashi Strait and the other two (D3, D5) located southwest of this transect. Quantitative PCR of the 16S rRNA- and amoA genes was used to estimate the abundances of total Archaea, total Bacteria, and AOA and AOB, respectively. At the B series stations, the abundance of bacterial 16S rRNA gene was twofold to 36fold higher than that of the archaeal 16S rRNA gene while fivefold lower to sixfold higher at the two D stations, with both genes showing peak values slightly below sea surface (5-75 m depths) at all stations. The archaeal amoA gene had similar variations with the archaeal 16S rRNA gene, but was 1-4 orders of magnitude lower than the archaeal 16S rRNA gene at all stations. Bacterial amoA gene was below the detection at all stations. Our results also show the difference in depth profiles among these stations, which may be caused by the difference in water movement between these regions. The non-detection of bacterial amoA gene indicates that ammonia-oxidizing Archaea are the dominant group of microorganisms in nitrification of the South China Sea, which is consistent with observations in other oceans.

  12. Composition of fecal microbiota of laboratory mice derived from Japanese commercial breeders using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries

    PubMed Central

    NOZU, Ryoko; UENO, Masami; HAYASHIMOTO, Nobuhito

    2016-01-01

    The fecal microbiota of six mice derived from three Japanese commercial breeders was analyzed by using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries to construct a database for analyzing the gut microbiota of laboratory mice. The 566 clones were obtained from the clone libraries generated from the fecal DNA samples derived from BALB/c, C57BL/6N, DBA/2 and ICR mice. Among these 566 clones, there were 446 unique 16S rRNA gene sequences. When grouped at the 98% similarity level, the 446 unique sequences consisted of 103 Clostridiales, 43 Bacteroidales, 5 Lactobacillus and 3 Erysipelotricaceae, as well as sequences from 11 other phyla. PMID:26902692

  13. Composition of fecal microbiota of laboratory mice derived from Japanese commercial breeders using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries.

    PubMed

    Nozu, Ryoko; Ueno, Masami; Hayashimoto, Nobuhito

    2016-07-01

    The fecal microbiota of six mice derived from three Japanese commercial breeders was analyzed by using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries to construct a database for analyzing the gut microbiota of laboratory mice. The 566 clones were obtained from the clone libraries generated from the fecal DNA samples derived from BALB/c, C57BL/6N, DBA/2 and ICR mice. Among these 566 clones, there were 446 unique 16S rRNA gene sequences. When grouped at the 98% similarity level, the 446 unique sequences consisted of 103 Clostridiales, 43 Bacteroidales, 5 Lactobacillus and 3 Erysipelotricaceae, as well as sequences from 11 other phyla. PMID:26902692

  14. Escherichia coli cafA gene encodes a novel RNase, designated as RNase G, involved in processing of the 5' end of 16S rRNA.

    PubMed

    Wachi, M; Umitsuki, G; Shimizu, M; Takada, A; Nagai, K

    1999-06-01

    We found that the Escherichia coli cafA::cat mutant accumulated a precursor of 16S rRNA. This precursor migrated to the same position with 16.3S precursor found in the BUMMER strain that is known to be deficient in the 5' end processing of 16S rRNA. Accumulation of 16. 3S rRNA in the BUMMER mutant was complemented by introduction of a plasmid carrying the cafA gene. The mutant type cafA gene cloned from the BUMMER strain had a 11-bp deletion in its coding region. A small amount of the mature 16S rRNA was still formed in the cafA::cat mutant. This residual activity was found to be due to RNase E encoded by the rne/ams gene by rifampicin-chase experiments of the cafA::cat ams1 double mutant. These results indicated that the cafA gene encodes a novel RNase responsible for processing of the 5' end of 16S rRNA. PMID:10362534

  15. Coamplification of eukaryotic DNA with 16S rRNA gene-based PCR primers: possible consequences for population fingerprinting of complex microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Huys, Geert; Vanhoutte, Tom; Joossens, Marie; Mahious, Amal S; De Brandt, Evie; Vermeire, Severine; Swings, Jean

    2008-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the specificity of three commonly used 16S rRNA gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer sets for bacterial community analysis of samples contaminated with eukaryotic DNA. The specificity of primer sets targeting the V3, V3-V5, and V6-V8 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene was investigated in silico and by community fingerprinting of human and fish intestinal samples. Both in silico and PCR-based analysis revealed cross-reactivity of the V3 and V3-V5 primers with the 18S rRNA gene of human and sturgeon. The consequences of this primer anomaly were illustrated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiling of microbial communities in human feces and mixed gut of Siberian sturgeon. DGGE profiling indicated that the cross-reactivity of 16S rRNA gene primers with nontarget eukaryotic DNA might lead to an overestimation of bacterial biodiversity. This study has confirmed previous sporadic indications in literature indicating that several commonly applied 16S rRNA gene primer sets lack specificity toward bacteria in the presence of eukaryotic DNA. The phenomenon of cross-reactivity is a potential source of systematic error in all biodiversity studies where no subsequent analysis of individual community amplicons by cloning and sequencing is performed. PMID:18301945

  16. Characterization of the Fecal Microbial Communities of Duroc Pigs Using 16S rRNA Gene Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Pajarillo, Edward Alain B.; Chae, Jong Pyo; Balolong, Marilen P.; Kim, Hyeun Bum; Seo, Kang-Seok; Kang, Dae-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    This study characterized the fecal bacterial community structure and inter-individual variation in 30-week-old Duroc pigs, which are known for their excellent meat quality. Pyrosequencing of the V1–V3 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA genes generated 108,254 valid reads and 508 operational taxonomic units at a 95% identity cut-off (genus level). Bacterial diversity and species richness as measured by the Shannon diversity index were significantly greater than those reported previously using denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis; thus, this study provides substantial information related to both known bacteria and the untapped portion of unclassified bacteria in the population. The bacterial composition of Duroc pig fecal samples was investigated at the phylum, class, family, and genus levels. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes predominated at the phylum level, while Clostridia and Bacteroidia were most abundant at the class level. This study also detected prominent inter-individual variation starting at the family level. Among the core microbiome, which was observed at the genus level, Prevotella was consistently dominant, as well as a bacterial phylotype related to Oscillibacter valericigenes, a valerate producer. This study found high bacterial diversity and compositional variation among individuals of the same breed line, as well as high abundance of unclassified bacterial phylotypes that may have important functions in the growth performance of Duroc pigs. PMID:25656184

  17. 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing data mining of microbial diversity and interactions.

    PubMed

    Ju, Feng; Zhang, Tong

    2015-05-01

    The ubiquitous occurrence of microorganisms gives rise to continuous public concerns regarding their pathogenicity and threats to human environment, as well as potential engineering benefits in biotechnology. The development and wide application of environmental biotechnology, for example in bioenergy production, wastewater treatment, bioremediation, and drinking water disinfection, have been bringing us with both environmental and economic benefits. Strikingly, extensive applications of microscopic and molecular techniques since 1990s have allowed engineers to peep into the microbiology in "black box" of engineered microbial communities in biotechnological processes, providing guidelines for process design and optimization. Recently, revolutionary advances in DNA sequencing technologies and rapidly decreasing costs are altering conventional ways of microbiology and ecology research, as it launches an era of next-generation sequencing (NGS). The principal research burdens are now transforming from traditional labor-intensive wet-lab experiments to dealing with analysis of huge and informative NGS data, which is computationally expensive and bioinformatically challenging. This study discusses state-of-the-art bioinformatics and statistical analyses of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene high-throughput sequencing (HTS) data from prevalent NGS platforms to promote its applications in exploring microbial diversity of functional and pathogenic microorganisms, as well as their interactions in biotechnological processes. PMID:25808518

  18. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the 16S rRNA methyltransferase RsmI from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mohan; Wang, Li; Zhang, Heng; Dong, Yuhui; Gong, Yong; Zhang, Linbo; Wang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    RsmI and RsmH are AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases that are responsible for the 2′-O-methylation and N 4-methylation of C1402 of Escherichia coli 16S rRNA, respectively. Modification of this site has been found to play a role in fine-tuning the shape and function of the P-site to increase the decoding fidelity. It is interesting to study the mechanism by which C1402 can be methylated by both RsmI and RsmH. The crystal structure of RsmH in complex with AdoMet and cytidine has recently been determined and provided some implications for N 4-methylation of this site. Here, the purification and crystallization of RsmI as well as its preliminary crystallographic analysis are reported. Co-crystallization of RsmI with AdoMet was carried out by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.60 Å resolution on beamline 1W2B at BSRF. The crystal contained three molecules per asymmetric unit and belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 121.9, b = 152.5, c = 54.2 Å, β = 93.4°. PMID:25195904

  19. Comparison of Bacteroides-Prevotella 16S rRNA genetic markers for fecal samples from different animal species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogarty, L.R.; Voytek, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    To effectively manage surface and ground waters it is necessary to improve our ability to detect and identify sources of fecal contamination. We evaluated the use of the anaerobic bacterial group Bacteroides-Prevotella as a potential fecal indicator. Terminal restriction length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of the 16S rRNA genes from this group was used to determine differences in populations and to identify any unique populations in chickens, cows, deer, dogs, geese, horses, humans, pigs, and seagulls. The group appears to be a good potential fecal indicator in all groups tested except for avians. Cluster analysis of Bacteroides-Prevotella community T-RFLP profiles indicates that Bacteroides-Prevotella populations from samples of the same host species are much more similar to each other than to samples from different source species. We were unable to identify unique peaks that were exclusive to any source species; however, for most host species, at least one T-RFLP peak was identified to be more commonly found in that species, and a combination of peaks could be used to identify the source. T-RFLP profiles obtained from water spiked with known-source feces contained the expected diagnostic peaks from the source. These results indicate that the approach of identifying Bacteroides-Prevotella molecular markers associated with host species might be useful in identifying sources of fecal contamination in the environment.

  20. Bacterial Community Diversity of Oil-Contaminated Soils Assessed by High Throughput Sequencing of 16S rRNA Genes.

    PubMed

    Peng, Mu; Zi, Xiaoxue; Wang, Qiuyu

    2015-10-01

    Soil bacteria play a major role in ecological and biodegradable function processes in oil-contaminated soils. Here, we assessed the bacterial diversity and changes therein in oil-contaminated soils exposed to different periods of oil pollution using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. No less than 24,953 valid reads and 6246 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from all five studied samples. OTU richness was relatively higher in contaminated soils than clean samples. Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla among all the soil samples. The heatmap plot depicted the relative percentage of each bacterial family within each sample and clustered five samples into two groups. For the samples, bacteria in the soils varied at different periods of oil exposure. The oil pollution exerted strong selective pressure to propagate many potentially petroleum degrading bacteria. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that organic matter was the highest determinant factor for explaining the variations in community compositions. This suggests that compared to clean soils, oil-polluted soils support more diverse bacterial communities and soil bacterial community shifts were mainly controlled by organic matter and exposure time. These results provide some useful information for bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil in the future. PMID:26404329

  1. Comparison of bacteroides-prevotella 16S rRNA genetic markers for fecal samples from different animal species.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, Lisa R; Voytek, Mary A

    2005-10-01

    To effectively manage surface and ground waters it is necessary to improve our ability to detect and identify sources of fecal contamination. We evaluated the use of the anaerobic bacterial group Bacteroides-Prevotella as a potential fecal indicator. Terminal restriction length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of the 16S rRNA genes from this group was used to determine differences in populations and to identify any unique populations in chickens, cows, deer, dogs, geese, horses, humans, pigs, and seagulls. The group appears to be a good potential fecal indicator in all groups tested except for avians. Cluster analysis of Bacteroides-Prevotella community T-RFLP profiles indicates that Bacteroides-Prevotella populations from samples of the same host species are much more similar to each other than to samples from different source species. We were unable to identify unique peaks that were exclusive to any source species; however, for most host species, at least one T-RFLP peak was identified to be more commonly found in that species, and a combination of peaks could be used to identify the source. T-RFLP profiles obtained from water spiked with known-source feces contained the expected diagnostic peaks from the source. These results indicate that the approach of identifying Bacteroides-Prevotella molecular markers associated with host species might be useful in identifying sources of fecal contamination in the environment. PMID:16204514

  2. Bacterial community variations in an alfalfa-rice rotation system revealed by 16S rRNA gene 454-pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana R; Manaia, Célia M; Nunes, Olga C

    2014-03-01

    Crop rotation is a practice harmonized with the sustainable rice production. Nevertheless, the implications of this empirical practice are not well characterized, mainly in relation to the bacterial community composition and structure. In this study, the bacterial communities of two adjacent paddy fields in the 3rd and 4th year of the crop rotation cycle and of a nonseeded subplot were characterized before rice seeding and after harvesting, using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Although the phyla Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes predominated in all the samples, there were variations in relative abundance of these groups. Samples from the 3rd and 4th years of the crop rotation differed on the higher abundance of groups of presumable aerobic bacteria and of presumable anaerobic and acidobacterial groups, respectively. Members of the phylum Nitrospira were more abundant after rice harvest than in the previously sampled period. Rice cropping was positively correlated with the abundance of members of the orders Acidobacteriales and 'Solibacterales' and negatively with lineages such as Chloroflexi 'Ellin6529'. Studies like this contribute to understand variations occurring in the microbial communities in soils under sustainable rice production, based on real-world data. PMID:24245591

  3. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the 16S rRNA methyltransferase RsmI from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mohan; Wang, Li; Zhang, Heng; Dong, Yuhui; Gong, Yong; Zhang, Linbo; Wang, Jian

    2014-09-01

    RsmI and RsmH are AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases that are responsible for the 2'-O-methylation and N(4)-methylation of C1402 of Escherichia coli 16S rRNA, respectively. Modification of this site has been found to play a role in fine-tuning the shape and function of the P-site to increase the decoding fidelity. It is interesting to study the mechanism by which C1402 can be methylated by both RsmI and RsmH. The crystal structure of RsmH in complex with AdoMet and cytidine has recently been determined and provided some implications for N(4)-methylation of this site. Here, the purification and crystallization of RsmI as well as its preliminary crystallographic analysis are reported. Co-crystallization of RsmI with AdoMet was carried out by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.60 Å resolution on beamline 1W2B at BSRF. The crystal contained three molecules per asymmetric unit and belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 121.9, b = 152.5, c = 54.2 Å, β = 93.4°. PMID:25195904

  4. 16S rRNA survey revealed complex bacterial communities and evidence of bacterial interference on human adenoids.

    PubMed

    Ren, Tiantian; Glatt, Dominique Ulrike; Nguyen, Tam Nhu; Allen, Emma Kaitlynn; Early, Stephen V; Sale, Michele; Winther, Birgit; Wu, Martin

    2013-02-01

    Adenoid microbiota plays an important role in the development of various infectious and non-infectious diseases of the upper airways, such as otitis media, adenotonsillitis, rhinosinusitis and adenoid hypertrophy. Studies have suggested that adenoids could act as a potential reservoir of opportunistic pathogens. However, previous bacterial surveys of adenoids were mainly culture based and therefore might only provide an incomplete and potentially biased assessment of the microbial diversity. To develop an in-depth and comprehensive understanding of the adenoid microbial communities and test the 'pathogen reservoir hypothesis', we carried out a 16S rRNA based, culture-independent survey of bacterial communities on 67 human adenoids removed by surgery. Our survey revealed highly diverse adenoid bacterial communities distinct from those of other body habitats. Despite large interpersonal variations, adenoid microbiota shared a core set of taxa and can be classified into at least five major types based on its bacterial species composition. Our results support the 'pathogen reservoir hypothesis' as we found common pathogens of otitis media to be both prevalent and abundant. Co-occurrence analyses revealed evidence consistent with the bacterial interference theory in that multiple common pathogens showed 'non-coexistence' relationships with non-pathogenic members of the commensal microflora. PMID:23113966

  5. Sequencing of 16S rRNA reveals a distinct salivary microbiome signature in Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Coit, Patrick; Mumcu, Gonca; Ture-Ozdemir, Filiz; Unal, Ali Ugur; Alpar, Ugur; Bostanci, Nagihan; Ergun, Tulin; Direskeneli, Haner; Sawalha, Amr H

    2016-08-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is characterized by recurrent oro-genital ulcers, mucocutaneous lesions, and serious organ involvement. We investigated the salivary microbiome in BD using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 region. Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 31 BD patients and 15 healthy controls, and in 9 BD patients, a second saliva sample was collected following dental and periodontal treatment. Sequence analysis identified a total of 908 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) present across all samples. Patients had a microbial community structure that is significantly less diverse than healthy controls. The most overabundant species in BD was Haemophilus parainfluenzae, while the most depleted included Alloprevotella rava and species in the genus Leptotrichia. Periodontal treatment improved oral health indices in BD but had no short-term effect on bacterial community structure. Neither the BD-associated genetic risk locus within the HLA-B/MICA region nor being on immunosuppressive medications explained the differences between patients and controls. PMID:27283393

  6. Potential applications of next generation DNA sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons in microbial water quality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Vierheilig, J; Savio, D; Ley, R E; Mach, R L; Farnleitner, A H; Reischer, G H

    2015-01-01

    The applicability of next generation DNA sequencing (NGS) methods for water quality assessment has so far not been broadly investigated. This study set out to evaluate the potential of an NGS-based approach in a complex catchment with importance for drinking water abstraction. In this multi-compartment investigation, total bacterial communities in water, faeces, soil, and sediment samples were investigated by 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons to assess the capabilities of this NGS method for (i) the development and evaluation of environmental molecular diagnostics, (ii) direct screening of the bulk bacterial communities, and (iii) the detection of faecal pollution in water. Results indicate that NGS methods can highlight potential target populations for diagnostics and will prove useful for the evaluation of existing and the development of novel DNA-based detection methods in the field of water microbiology. The used approach allowed unveiling of dominant bacterial populations but failed to detect populations with low abundances such as faecal indicators in surface waters. In combination with metadata, NGS data will also allow the identification of drivers of bacterial community composition during water treatment and distribution, highlighting the power of this approach for monitoring of bacterial regrowth and contamination in technical systems. PMID:26606090

  7. Bacterial diversity assessment of pristine mangrove microbial community from Dhulibhashani, Sundarbans using 16S rRNA gene tag sequencing.

    PubMed

    Basak, Pijush; Pramanik, Arnab; Sengupta, Sohan; Nag, Sudip; Bhattacharyya, Anish; Roy, Debojyoti; Pattanayak, Rudradip; Ghosh, Abhrajyoti; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti; Bhattacharyya, Maitree

    2016-03-01

    The global knowledge of microbial diversity and function in Sundarbans ecosystem is still scarce, despite global advancement in understanding the microbial diversity. In the present study, we have analyzed the diversity and distribution of bacteria in the tropical mangrove sediments of Sundarbans using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Metagenome is comprised of 1,53,926 sequences with 108.8 Mbp data and with 55 ± 2% G + C content. Metagenome sequence data are available at NCBI under the Bioproject database with accession no. PRJNA245459. Bacterial community metagenome sequences were analyzed by MG-RAST software representing the presence of 56,547 species belonging to 44 different phyla. The taxonomic analysis revealed the dominance of phyla Proteobacteria within our dataset. Further taxonomic analysis revealed abundance of Bacteroidetes, Acidobactreia, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Nitrospirae, Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes and Fusobacteria group as the predominant bacterial assemblages in this largely pristine mangrove habitat. The distribution of different community datasets obtained from four sediment samples originated from one sampling station at two different depths providing better understanding of the sediment bacterial diversity and its relationship to the ecosystem dynamics of this pristine mangrove sediment of Dhulibhashani in, Sundarbans. PMID:26981367

  8. Bacterial Community Diversity of Oil-Contaminated Soils Assessed by High Throughput Sequencing of 16S rRNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Mu; Zi, Xiaoxue; Wang, Qiuyu

    2015-01-01

    Soil bacteria play a major role in ecological and biodegradable function processes in oil-contaminated soils. Here, we assessed the bacterial diversity and changes therein in oil-contaminated soils exposed to different periods of oil pollution using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. No less than 24,953 valid reads and 6246 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from all five studied samples. OTU richness was relatively higher in contaminated soils than clean samples. Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla among all the soil samples. The heatmap plot depicted the relative percentage of each bacterial family within each sample and clustered five samples into two groups. For the samples, bacteria in the soils varied at different periods of oil exposure. The oil pollution exerted strong selective pressure to propagate many potentially petroleum degrading bacteria. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that organic matter was the highest determinant factor for explaining the variations in community compositions. This suggests that compared to clean soils, oil-polluted soils support more diverse bacterial communities and soil bacterial community shifts were mainly controlled by organic matter and exposure time. These results provide some useful information for bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil in the future. PMID:26404329

  9. High-resolution microbial community reconstruction by integrating short reads from multiple 16S rRNA regions.

    PubMed

    Amir, Amnon; Zeisel, Amit; Zuk, Or; Elgart, Michael; Stern, Shay; Shamir, Ohad; Turnbaugh, Peter J; Soen, Yoav; Shental, Noam

    2013-12-01

    The emergence of massively parallel sequencing technology has revolutionized microbial profiling, allowing the unprecedented comparison of microbial diversity across time and space in a wide range of host-associated and environmental ecosystems. Although the high-throughput nature of such methods enables the detection of low-frequency bacteria, these advances come at the cost of sequencing read length, limiting the phylogenetic resolution possible by current methods. Here, we present a generic approach for integrating short reads from large genomic regions, thus enabling phylogenetic resolution far exceeding current methods. The approach is based on a mapping to a statistical model that is later solved as a constrained optimization problem. We demonstrate the utility of this method by analyzing human saliva and Drosophila samples, using Illumina single-end sequencing of a 750 bp amplicon of the 16S rRNA gene. Phylogenetic resolution is significantly extended while reducing the number of falsely detected bacteria, as compared with standard single-region Roche 454 Pyrosequencing. Our approach can be seamlessly applied to simultaneous sequencing of multiple genes providing a higher resolution view of the composition and activity of complex microbial communities. PMID:24214960

  10. High-resolution microbial community reconstruction by integrating short reads from multiple 16S rRNA regions

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Amnon; Zeisel, Amit; Zuk, Or; Elgart, Michael; Stern, Shay; Shamir, Ohad; Turnbaugh, Peter J.; Soen, Yoav; Shental, Noam

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of massively parallel sequencing technology has revolutionized microbial profiling, allowing the unprecedented comparison of microbial diversity across time and space in a wide range of host-associated and environmental ecosystems. Although the high-throughput nature of such methods enables the detection of low-frequency bacteria, these advances come at the cost of sequencing read length, limiting the phylogenetic resolution possible by current methods. Here, we present a generic approach for integrating short reads from large genomic regions, thus enabling phylogenetic resolution far exceeding current methods. The approach is based on a mapping to a statistical model that is later solved as a constrained optimization problem. We demonstrate the utility of this method by analyzing human saliva and Drosophila samples, using Illumina single-end sequencing of a 750 bp amplicon of the 16S rRNA gene. Phylogenetic resolution is significantly extended while reducing the number of falsely detected bacteria, as compared with standard single-region Roche 454 Pyrosequencing. Our approach can be seamlessly applied to simultaneous sequencing of multiple genes providing a higher resolution view of the composition and activity of complex microbial communities. PMID:24214960

  11. First microbiota assessments of children's paddling pool waters evaluated using 16S rRNA gene-based metagenome analysis.

    PubMed

    Sawabe, Toko; Suda, Wataru; Ohshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Sawabe, Tomoo

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient chloric sterilization of children's paddling pool waters increases the risk of diarrheal illness. Therefore, we investigated the microbiota changes after children use pools. First, we applied 16S rRNA gene-based metagenome analysis to understand the dynamics of microbiota in pool water, especially with respect to the bio-contamination by potential pathogens. Proteobacteria were major taxa detected in every pool water sample after children spent time in the pool. In more detail, Gammaproteobacteria comprised the dominant class, which was followed by Betaproteobacteria. Five phyla, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Deinococcus-Thermus phyla were minor groups. The pool water microbiota are likely to be a consortium of intestinal and skin microbiota from humans. Interestingly, the ratio of Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria differed according to the age of the children who used the pool, which means the pool water was additionally contaminated by soil microbiota as a result of the children's behavior. Furthermore, potential pathogens, such as Campylobacter spp., Comamonas testosteroni and Burkholderia pseudomallei, were also found. Considering the standard plate counts, the abundances of these human pathogens are unlikely to be a sufficiently infectious dose. We suggest the importance of sanitary measures in paddling pool waters to reduce bio-contamination from both humans and the environment. PMID:26671497

  12. Bacterial diversity assessment of pristine mangrove microbial community from Dhulibhashani, Sundarbans using 16S rRNA gene tag sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Basak, Pijush; Pramanik, Arnab; Sengupta, Sohan; Nag, Sudip; Bhattacharyya, Anish; Roy, Debojyoti; Pattanayak, Rudradip; Ghosh, Abhrajyoti; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti; Bhattacharyya, Maitree

    2015-01-01

    The global knowledge of microbial diversity and function in Sundarbans ecosystem is still scarce, despite global advancement in understanding the microbial diversity. In the present study, we have analyzed the diversity and distribution of bacteria in the tropical mangrove sediments of Sundarbans using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Metagenome is comprised of 1,53,926 sequences with 108.8 Mbp data and with 55 ± 2% G + C content. Metagenome sequence data are available at NCBI under the Bioproject database with accession no. PRJNA245459. Bacterial community metagenome sequences were analyzed by MG-RAST software representing the presence of 56,547 species belonging to 44 different phyla. The taxonomic analysis revealed the dominance of phyla Proteobacteria within our dataset. Further taxonomic analysis revealed abundance of Bacteroidetes, Acidobactreia, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Nitrospirae, Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes and Fusobacteria group as the predominant bacterial assemblages in this largely pristine mangrove habitat. The distribution of different community datasets obtained from four sediment samples originated from one sampling station at two different depths providing better understanding of the sediment bacterial diversity and its relationship to the ecosystem dynamics of this pristine mangrove sediment of Dhulibhashani in, Sundarbans. PMID:26981367

  13. Quantification of Hyphomicrobium Populations in Activated Sludge from an Industrial Wastewater Treatment System as Determined by 16S rRNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Layton, A. C.; Karanth, P. N.; Lajoie, C. A.; Meyers, A. J.; Gregory, I. R.; Stapleton, R. D.; Taylor, D. E.; Sayler, G. S.

    2000-01-01

    The bacterial community structure of the activated sludge from a 25 million-gal-per-day industrial wastewater treatment plant was investigated using rRNA analysis. 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) libraries were created from three sludge samples taken on different dates. Partial rRNA gene sequences were obtained for 46 rDNA clones, and nearly complete 16S rRNA sequences were obtained for 18 clones. Seventeen of these clones were members of the beta subdivision, and their sequences showed high homology to sequences of known bacterial species as well as published 16S rDNA sequences from other activated sludge sources. Sixteen clones belonged to the alpha subdivision, 7 of which showed similarity to Hyphomicrobium species. This cluster was chosen for further studies due to earlier work on Hyphomicrobium sp. strain M3 isolated from this treatment plant. A nearly full-length 16S rDNA sequence was obtained from Hyphomicrobium sp. strain M3. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Hyphomicrobium sp. strain M3 was 99% similar to Hyphomicrobium denitrificans DSM 1869T in Hyphomicrobium cluster II. Three of the cloned sequences from the activated sludge samples also grouped with those of Hyphomicrobium cluster II, with a 96% sequence similarity to that of Hyphomicrobium sp. strain M3. The other four cloned sequences from the activated sludge sample were more closely related to those of the Hyphomicrobium cluster I organisms (95 to 97% similarity). Whole-cell fluorescence hybridization of microorganisms in the activated sludge with genus-specific Hyphomicrobium probe S-G-Hypho-1241-a-A-19 enhanced the visualization of Hyphomicrobium and revealed that Hyphomicrobium appears to be abundant both on the outside of flocs and within the floc structure. Dot blot hybridization of activated sludge samples from 1995 with probes designed for Hyphomicrobium cluster I and Hyphomicrobium cluster II indicated that Hyphomicrobium cluster II-positive 16S rRNA dominated over Hyphomicrobium cluster I

  14. PCR-Independent Detection of Bacterial Species-Specific 16S rRNA at 10 fM by a Pore-Blockage Sensor.

    PubMed

    Esfandiari, Leyla; Wang, Siqing; Wang, Siqi; Banda, Anisha; Lorenzini, Michael; Kocharyan, Gayane; Monbouquette, Harold G; Schmidt, Jacob J

    2016-01-01

    A PCR-free, optics-free device is used for the detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) 16S rRNA at 10 fM, which corresponds to ~100-1000 colony forming units/mL (CFU/mL) depending on cellular rRNA levels. The development of a rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective nucleic acid detection platform is sought for the detection of pathogenic microbes in food, water and body fluids. Since 16S rRNA sequences are species specific and are present at high copy number in viable cells, these nucleic acids offer an attractive target for microbial pathogen detection schemes. Here, target 16S rRNA of E. coli at 10 fM concentration was detected against a total RNA background using a conceptually simple approach based on electromechanical signal transduction, whereby a step change reduction in ionic current through a pore indicates blockage by an electrophoretically mobilized bead-peptide nucleic acid probe conjugate hybridized to target nucleic acid. We investigated the concentration detection limit for bacterial species-specific 16S rRNA at 1 pM to 1 fM and found a limit of detection of 10 fM for our device, which is consistent with our previous finding with single-stranded DNA of similar length. In addition, no false positive responses were obtained with control RNA and no false negatives with target 16S rRNA present down to the limit of detection (LOD) of 10 fM. Thus, this detection scheme shows promise for integration into portable, low-cost systems for rapid detection of pathogenic microbes in food, water and body fluids. PMID:27455337

  15. Identification of Polybacterial Communities in Patients with Postoperative, Posttraumatic, and Endogenous Endophthalmitis through 16S rRNA Gene Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Jayasudha, Rajagopalaboopathi; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Manikandan, Palanisamy

    2014-01-01

    Endophthalmitis is a potential vision-threatening complication following surgical procedures (postoperative endophthalmitis [POE]), trauma (posttraumatic endophthalmitis [PTE]), and bacteremic seeding of the eye from a distant infection site (endogenous endophthalmitis [EE]). Several studies have revealed the polybacterial characteristics of endophthalmitis, which make the administration of antibiotics to treat the disease challenging. However, until now, the polybacterial communities of POE, PTE, and EE have not been precisely studied. Hence, the present study was designed to identify the bacterial community of endophthalmitis through 16S rRNA gene libraries. Of the 40 intraocular samples tested, 30 libraries were constructed with bacterial nested-PCR-positive samples. The obtained recombinant clones were screened through amplified rRNA gene restriction analysis (ARDRA) to identify unique clones. The multiple types of ARDRA patterns (P = 0.345) and diverse bacterial sequences (P = 0.277) within the libraries revealed the polybacterial nature of infection in POE, PTE, and EE. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on polybacterial infection in EE. Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus spp. (n = 19), Streptococcus spp. (n = 18), Staphylococcus spp. (n = 6), Exiguobacterium spp. (n = 3), Gemella spp. (n = 2), Enterococcus spp. (n = 2), a Lysinibacillus sp. (n = 1), a Clostridium sp. (n = 1), and a Nocardia sp. (n = 1), and Gram-negative bacteria, including Serratia spp. (n = 18), Pseudomonas spp. (n = 10), Enterobacter spp. (n = 8), Acinetobacter spp. (n = 3), Pantoea spp. (n = 3), a Haemophilus sp. (n = 1), and a Massilia sp. (n = 1), were identified. Interestingly, among them, 10 bacterial species were not previously reported to be associated with endophthalmitis or other ocular infections. Besides, the presence of 4 unidentifiable clones suggests the possibility of novel organisms that might cause eye infections. Therefore, it is

  16. Identification of polybacterial communities in patients with postoperative, posttraumatic, and endogenous endophthalmitis through 16S rRNA gene libraries.

    PubMed

    Jayasudha, Rajagopalaboopathi; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Manikandan, Palanisamy; Prabagaran, Solai Ramatchandirane

    2014-05-01

    Endophthalmitis is a potential vision-threatening complication following surgical procedures (postoperative endophthalmitis [POE]), trauma (posttraumatic endophthalmitis [PTE]), and bacteremic seeding of the eye from a distant infection site (endogenous endophthalmitis [EE]). Several studies have revealed the polybacterial characteristics of endophthalmitis, which make the administration of antibiotics to treat the disease challenging. However, until now, the polybacterial communities of POE, PTE, and EE have not been precisely studied. Hence, the present study was designed to identify the bacterial community of endophthalmitis through 16S rRNA gene libraries. Of the 40 intraocular samples tested, 30 libraries were constructed with bacterial nested-PCR-positive samples. The obtained recombinant clones were screened through amplified rRNA gene restriction analysis (ARDRA) to identify unique clones. The multiple types of ARDRA patterns (P=0.345) and diverse bacterial sequences (P=0.277) within the libraries revealed the polybacterial nature of infection in POE, PTE, and EE. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on polybacterial infection in EE. Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus spp. (n=19), Streptococcus spp. (n=18), Staphylococcus spp. (n=6), Exiguobacterium spp. (n=3), Gemella spp. (n=2), Enterococcus spp. (n=2), a Lysinibacillus sp. (n=1), a Clostridium sp. (n=1), and a Nocardia sp. (n=1), and Gram-negative bacteria, including Serratia spp. (n=18), Pseudomonas spp. (n=10), Enterobacter spp. (n=8), Acinetobacter spp. (n=3), Pantoea spp. (n=3), a Haemophilus sp. (n=1), and a Massilia sp. (n=1), were identified. Interestingly, among them, 10 bacterial species were not previously reported to be associated with endophthalmitis or other ocular infections. Besides, the presence of 4 unidentifiable clones suggests the possibility of novel organisms that might cause eye infections. Therefore, it is recommended that, in addition to the

  17. Decoupled distance-decay patterns between dsrA and 16S rRNA genes among salt marsh sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Angermeyer, Angus; Crosby, Sarah C; Huber, Julie A

    2016-01-01

    In many habitats, microorganisms exhibit significant distance-decay patterns as determined by analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and various other genetic elements. However, there have been few studies that examine how the similarities of both taxonomic and functional genes co-vary over geographic distance within a group of ecologically related microbes. Here, we determined the biogeographic patterns of the functional dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrA) and the 16S rRNA gene in sulfate-reducing bacterial communities of US East Coast salt marsh sediments. Distance-decay, ordination and statistical analyses revealed that the distribution of 16S rRNA genes is strongly influenced by geographic distance and environmental factors, whereas the dsrA gene is not. Together, our results indicate that 16S rRNA genes are likely dispersal limited and under environmental selection, whereas dsrA genes appear randomly distributed and not selected for by any expected environmental variables. Selection, drift, dispersal and mutation are all factors that may help explain the decoupled biogeographic patterns for the two genes. These data suggest that both the taxonomic and functional elements of microbial communities should be considered in future studies of microbial biogeography to aid in our understanding of the diversity, distribution and function of microorganisms in the environment. PMID:25727503

  18. Functional dichotomy in the 16S rRNA (m1A1408) methyltransferase family and control of catalytic activity via a novel tryptophan mediated loop reorganization

    PubMed Central

    Witek, Marta A.; Conn, Graeme L.

    2016-01-01

    Methylation of the bacterial small ribosomal subunit (16S) rRNA on the N1 position of A1408 confers exceptionally high-level resistance to a broad spectrum of aminoglycoside antibiotics. Here, we present a detailed structural and functional analysis of the Catenulisporales acidiphilia 16S rRNA (m1A1408) methyltransferase (‘CacKam’). The apo CacKam structure closely resembles other m1A1408 methyltransferases within its conserved SAM-binding fold but the region linking core β strands 6 and 7 (the ‘β6/7 linker’) has a unique, extended structure that partially occludes the putative 16S rRNA binding surface, and sequesters the conserved and functionally critical W203 outside of the CacKam active site. Substitution of conserved residues in the SAM binding pocket reveals a functional dichotomy in the 16S rRNA (m1A1408) methyltransferase family, with two apparently distinct molecular mechanisms coupling cosubstrate/ substrate binding to catalytic activity. Our results additionally suggest that CacKam exploits the W203-mediated remodeling of the β6/7 linker as a novel mechanism to control 30S substrate recognition and enzymatic turnover. PMID:26609134

  19. Evaluation of Multiplexed 16S rRNA Microbial Population Surveys Using Illumina MiSeq Platform (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblay, Julien

    2012-06-01

    Julien Tremblay from DOE JGI presents "Evaluation of Multiplexed 16S rRNA Microbial Population Surveys Using Illumina MiSeq Platorm" at the 7th Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting held in June, 2012 in Santa Fe, NM.

  20. Comparison of Gull Feces-specific Assays Targeting the 16S rRNA Gene of Catellicoccus Marimammalium and Streptococcus spp.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two novel gull-specific qPCR assays were developed using 16S rRNA gene sequences from gull fecal clone libraries: a SYBR-green-based assay targeting Streptococcus spp. (i.e., gull3) and a TaqMan qPCR assay targeting Catellicoccus marimammalium (i.e., gull4). The main objectives ...

  1. Evaluation of Multiplexed 16S rRNA Microbial Population Surveys Using Illumina MiSeq Platform (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    ScienceCinema

    Tremblay, Julien [DOE JGI

    2013-01-25

    Julien Tremblay from DOE JGI presents "Evaluation of Multiplexed 16S rRNA Microbial Population Surveys Using Illumina MiSeq Platorm" at the 7th Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting held in June, 2012 in Santa Fe, NM.

  2. Avoidance and Potential Remedy Solutions of Chimeras in Reconstructing the Phylogeny of Aphids Using the 16S rRNA Gene of Buchnera: A Case in Lachninae (Hemiptera).

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Jing; Qiao, Ge-Xia

    2015-01-01

    It is known that PCR amplification of highly homologous genes from complex DNA mixtures can generate a significant proportion of chimeric sequences. The 16S rRNA gene is not only widely used in estimating the species diversity of endosymbionts in aphids but also used to explore the co-diversification of aphids and their endosymbionts. Thus, chimeric sequences may lead to the discovery of non-existent endosymbiont species and mislead Buchnera-based phylogenetic analysis that lead to false conclusions. In this study, a high probability (6.49%) of chimeric sequence occurrence was found in the amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences of endosymbionts from aphid species in the subfamily Lachninae. These chimeras are hybrid products of multiple parent sequences from the dominant species of endosymbionts in each corresponding host. It is difficult to identify the chimeric sequences of a new or unidentified species due to the high variability of their main parent, Buchnera aphidicola, and because the chimeric sequences can confuse the phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. These chimeras present a challenge to Buchnera-based phylogenetic research in aphids. Thus, our study strongly suggests that using appropriate methods to detect chimeric 16S rRNA sequences may avoid some false conclusions in endosymbiont-based aphid research. PMID:26307984

  3. Assembly of the 5′ and the 3′ minor domains of 16S rRNA as monitored by tethered probing from ribosomal protein S20

    PubMed Central

    Dutca, Laura M.; Culver, Gloria M.

    2008-01-01

    The ribosomal protein (r-protein) S20 is a primary binding protein. As such it interacts directly and independently with the 5′ domain and the 3′ minor domain of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in minimal particles and the fully assembled 30S subunit. The interactions observed between r-protein S20 and the 5′ domain of 16S rRNA are quite extensive, while the interactions with the 3′ minor domain are significantly more limited. In this study directed hydroxyl radical probing mediated by Fe(II)-derivatized S20 proteins was used to monitor the folding of 16S rRNA during r-protein association and 30S subunit assembly. An analysis of the cleavage patterns in the minimal complexes [16S rRNA and Fe(II)-S20] and the fully assembled 30S subunit containing the same Fe(II)-derivatized proteins shows intriguing similarities and differences. These results suggest that the two domains, the 5′ and 3′ minor, are organized relative to S20 at different stages of assembly. The 5′ domain acquires, in a less complex ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP) than the 3′ minor domain, the same architecture as observed in mature subunits. These results are similar to what would be predicted of subunit assembly by the 5′ to 3′ direction assembly model. PMID:18155048

  4. Avoidance and Potential Remedy Solutions of Chimeras in Reconstructing the Phylogeny of Aphids Using the 16S rRNA Gene of Buchnera: A Case in Lachninae (Hemiptera)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Jing; Qiao, Ge-Xia

    2015-01-01

    It is known that PCR amplification of highly homologous genes from complex DNA mixtures can generate a significant proportion of chimeric sequences. The 16S rRNA gene is not only widely used in estimating the species diversity of endosymbionts in aphids but also used to explore the co-diversification of aphids and their endosymbionts. Thus, chimeric sequences may lead to the discovery of non-existent endosymbiont species and mislead Buchnera-based phylogenetic analysis that lead to false conclusions. In this study, a high probability (6.49%) of chimeric sequence occurrence was found in the amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences of endosymbionts from aphid species in the subfamily Lachninae. These chimeras are hybrid products of multiple parent sequences from the dominant species of endosymbionts in each corresponding host. It is difficult to identify the chimeric sequences of a new or unidentified species due to the high variability of their main parent, Buchnera aphidicola, and because the chimeric sequences can confuse the phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. These chimeras present a challenge to Buchnera-based phylogenetic research in aphids. Thus, our study strongly suggests that using appropriate methods to detect chimeric 16S rRNA sequences may avoid some false conclusions in endosymbiont-based aphid research. PMID:26307984

  5. Comparison between rpoB and 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing for Molecular Identification of 168 Clinical Isolates of Corynebacterium

    PubMed Central

    Khamis, Atieh; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Higher proportions (91%) of 168 corynebacterial isolates were positively identified by partial rpoB gene determination than by that based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. This method is thus a simple, molecular-analysis-based method for identification of corynebacteria, but it should be used in conjunction with other tests for definitive identification. PMID:15815024

  6. Bacteroides isolated from four mammalian hosts lack host-specific 16S rRNA gene phylogeny and carbon and nitrogen utilization patterns*

    PubMed Central

    Atherly, Todd; Ziemer, Cherie J

    2014-01-01

    One-hundred-and-three isolates of Bacteroides ovatus,B. thetaiotaomicron, and B. xylanisolvens were recovered from cow, goat, human, and pig fecal enrichments with cellulose or xylan/pectin. Isolates were compared using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR), and phenotypic microarrays. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed high sequence identity in these Bacteroides; with distinct phylogenetic groupings by bacterial species but not host origin. Phenotypic microarray analysis demonstrated these Bacteroides shared the ability to utilize many of the same carbon substrates, without differences due to species or host origin, indicative of their broad carbohydrate fermentation abilities. Limited nitrogen substrates were utilized; in addition to ammonia, guanine, and xanthine, purine derivatives were utilized by most isolates followed by a few amino sugars. Only rep-PCR analysis demonstrated host-specific patterns, indicating that genomic changes due to coevolution with host did not occur by mutation in the 16S rRNA gene or by a gain or loss of carbohydrate utilization genes within these Bacteroides. This is the first report to indicate that host-associated genomic differences are outside of 16S rRNA gene and carbohydrate utilization genes and suggest conservation of specific bacterial species with the same functionality across mammalian hosts for this Bacteroidetes clade. PMID:24532571

  7. 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Analysis of Drinking Water Using RNA and DNA Extracts as Targets for Clone Library Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bacterial composition of chlorinated drinking water was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from DNA extracts of 12 samples and compared to clone libraries previously generated using RNA extracts from the same samples. Phylogenetic analysis of 761 DNA-based ...

  8. 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Analysis of Drinking Water Using RNA and DNA Extracts as Targets for Clone Library Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the bacterial composition of chlorinated drinking water using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from RNA and DNA extracted from twelve water samples collected in three different months (June, August, and September of 2007). Phylogenetic analysis of 1234 and 1117 ...

  9. 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Analysis of Drinking Water Using RNA and DNA Extracts as Targets for Clone Library Development - Poster

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the bacterial composition of chlorinated drinking water using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from RNA and DNA extracted from twelve water samples collected in three different months (June, August, and September of 2007). Phylogenetic analysis of 1234 and 1117 ...

  10. Genus- and Species-Specific PCR-Based Detection of Dairy Propionibacteria in Environmental Samples by Using Primers Targeted to the Genes Encoding 16S rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Franca; Torriani, Sandra; Dellaglio, Franco

    1999-01-01

    PCR assays with primers targeted to the genes encoding 16S rRNA were developed for detection of dairy propionibacteria. Propionibacterium thoenii specific oligonucleotide PT3 was selected after partial resequencing. Tests allowed the detection of less than 10 cells per reaction from milk and cheese and 102 cells per reaction from forage and soil. PMID:10473444

  11. Plasmid-mediated ArmA and RmtB 16S rRNA methylases in Escherichia coli isolated from chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aminoglycosides are widely used antibiotics in China for the prevention and control of Escherichia coli infections in chickens. High-level aminoglycoside resistance mediated by the production of 16S rRNA methylase has been increasingly reported among various Gram-negative pathogens. Previously, onl...

  12. Prevalence of 16S rRNA methylase, modifying enzyme, and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genes among Acinetobacter baumannii isolates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenru; Ling, Baodong; Zhou, Liming

    2015-08-01

    Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has become a worldwide problem, and methylation of 16S rRNA has recently emerged as a new mechanism of resistance to aminoglycosides, which is mediated by a newly recognized group of 16S rRNA methylases. 16S rRNA methylase confers a high-level resistance to all 4,6-substituted deoxystreptamine aminoglycosides that are currently used in clinical practice. Some of the A. baumannii isolates have been found to coproduce extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), contributing to their multidrug resistance. The aim of this study was to detect the determinants of the 16S rRNA methylase genes armA, rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, rmtD, rmtE, and npmA, the modifying enzyme genes aac(6')-Ib, ant(3″)-Ia, aph(3')-I, and the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genes bla(TEM), bla(SHV), and bla(CTX-M-3) among A. baumannii isolates in northeastern Sichuan, China. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 21 different antimicrobial agents against the A. baumannii isolates were determined. The clinical isolates showed a high level of resistance (MIC≧256 μg/ml) to aminoglycosides, which ranged from 50·1 to 83·8%. The resistances to meropenem and imipenem, two of the beta-lactam antibiotics and the most active antibiotics against A. baumannii, were 9·1 and 8·2%, respectively. Among 60 amikacin-resistant isolates, only the 16S rRNA methylase gene armA was found to be prevalent (66·7%), but the other 16S rRNA methylase genes rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, rmtD, rmtE, and npmA were not detected. The prevalences of the modifying enzyme genes aac (6')-Ib, ant (3″)-Ia, and aph (3')-I were 51·7, 81·7, and 58·3%, respectively, which are different from a previous study in which the occurrences of these genes were 3, 64, and 72%, respectively. Among the 40 isolates that were armA-positive, the prevalences of bla(TEM), bla(SHV), and bla(CTX-M-3) genes were detected for the first time in China, and their occurrences were 45, 65, and 52·5%, respectively. In all, A

  13. Uncultured bacterial diversity in a seawater recirculating aquaculture system revealed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da-Eun; Lee, Jinhwan; Kim, Young-Mog; Myeong, Jeong-In; Kim, Kyoung-Ho

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial diversity in a seawater recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) was investigated using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to understand the roles of bacterial communities in the system. The RAS was operated at nine different combinations of temperature (15°C, 20°C, and 25°C) and salinity (20‰, 25‰, and 32.5‰). Samples were collected from five or six RAS tanks (biofilters) for each condition. Fifty samples were analyzed. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were most common (sum of both phyla: 67.2% to 99.4%) and were inversely proportional to each other. Bacteria that were present at an average of ≥ 1% included Actinobacteria (2.9%) Planctomycetes (2.0%), Nitrospirae (1.5%), and Acidobacteria (1.0%); they were preferentially present in packed bed biofilters, mesh biofilters, and maturation biofilters. The three biofilters showed higher diversity than other RAS tanks (aerated biofilters, floating bed biofilters, and fish tanks) from phylum to operational taxonomic unit (OTU) level. Samples were clustered into several groups based on the bacterial communities. Major taxonomic groups related to family Rhodobacteraceae and Flavobacteriaceae were distributed widely in the samples. Several taxonomic groups like [Saprospiraceae], Cytophagaceae, Octadecabacter, and Marivita showed a cluster-oriented distribution. Phaeobacter and Sediminicola-related reads were detected frequently and abundantly at low temperature. Nitrifying bacteria were detected frequently and abundantly in the three biofilters. Phylogenetic analysis of the nitrifying bacteria showed several similar OTUs were observed widely through the biofilters. The diverse bacterial communities and the minor taxonomic groups, except for Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, seemed to play important roles and seemed necessary for nitrifying activity in the RAS, especially in packed bed biofilters, mesh biofilters, and maturation biofilters. PMID:27033205

  14. Aminoglycoside resistance 16S rRNA methyltransferases block endogenous methylation, affect translation efficiency and fitness of the host

    PubMed Central

    Lioy, Virginia S.; Goussard, Sylvie; Guerineau, Vincent; Yoon, Eun-Jeong; Courvalin, Patrice; Galimand, Marc; Grillot-Courvalin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, acquired 16S rRNA methyltransferases ArmA and NpmA confer high-level resistance to all clinically useful aminoglycosides by modifying, respectively, G1405 and A1408 in the A-site. These enzymes must coexist with several endogenous methyltransferases that are essential for fine-tuning of the decoding center, such as RsmH and RsmI in Escherichia coli, which methylate C1402 and RsmF C1407. The resistance methyltransferases have a contrasting distribution—ArmA has spread worldwide, whereas a single clinical isolate producing NpmA has been reported. The rate of dissemination of resistance depends on the fitness cost associated with its expression. We have compared ArmA and NpmA in isogenic Escherichia coli harboring the corresponding structural genes and their inactive point mutants cloned under the control of their native constitutive promoter in the stable plasmid pGB2. Growth rate determination and competition experiments showed that ArmA had a fitness cost due to methylation of G1405, whereas NpmA conferred only a slight disadvantage to the host due to production of the enzyme. MALDI MS indicated that ArmA impeded one of the methylations at C1402 by RsmI, and not at C1407 as previously proposed, whereas NpmA blocked the activity of RsmF at C1407. A dual luciferase assay showed that methylation at G1405 and A1408 and lack of methylation at C1407 affect translation accuracy. These results indicate that resistance methyltransferases impair endogenous methylation with different consequences on cell fitness. PMID:24398977

  15. Bacterial Community Shift in Treated Periodontitis Patients Revealed by Ion Torrent 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Jünemann, Sebastian; Prior, Karola; Szczepanowski, Rafael; Harks, Inga; Ehmke, Benjamin; Goesmann, Alexander; Stoye, Jens; Harmsen, Dag

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis, one of the most common diseases in the world, is caused by a mixture of pathogenic bacteria and inflammatory host responses and often treated by antimicrobials as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP). Our study aims to elucidate explorative and descriptive temporal shifts in bacterial communities between patients treated by SRP alone versus SRP plus antibiotics. This is the first metagenomic study using an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Eight subgingival plaque samples from four patients with chronic periodontitis, taken before and two months after intervention were analyzed. Amplicons from the V6 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene were generated and sequenced each on a 314 chip. Sequencing reads were clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 3% distance), described by community metrics, and taxonomically classified. Reads ranging from 599,933 to 650,416 per sample were clustered into 1,648 to 2,659 non-singleton OTUs, respectively. Increased diversity (Shannon and Simpson) in all samples after therapy was observed regardless of the treatment type whereas richness (ACE) showed no correlation. Taxonomic analysis revealed different microbial shifts between both therapy approaches at all taxonomic levels. Most remarkably, the genera Porphyromonas, Tannerella, Treponema, and Filifactor all harboring periodontal pathogenic species were removed almost only in the group treated with SPR and antibiotics. For the species T. forsythia and P. gingivalis results were corroborated by real-time PCR analysis. In the future, hypothesis free metagenomic analysis could be the key in understanding polymicrobial diseases and be used for therapy monitoring. Therefore, as read length continues to increase and cost to decrease, rapid benchtop sequencers like the PGM might finally be used in routine diagnostic. PMID:22870235

  16. Microbial Community Composition and Diversity via 16S rRNA Gene Amplicons: Evaluating the Illumina Platform

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Lucas; Osman, Omneya Ahmed; Bertilsson, Stefan; Eiler, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    As new sequencing technologies become cheaper and older ones disappear, laboratories switch vendors and platforms. Validating the new setups is a crucial part of conducting rigorous scientific research. Here we report on the reliability and biases of performing bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicon paired-end sequencing on the MiSeq Illumina platform. We designed a protocol using 50 barcode pairs to run samples in parallel and coded a pipeline to process the data. Sequencing the same sediment sample in 248 replicates as well as 70 samples from alkaline soda lakes, we evaluated the performance of the method with regards to estimates of alpha and beta diversity. Using different purification and DNA quantification procedures we always found up to 5-fold differences in the yield of sequences between individually barcodes samples. Using either a one-step or a two-step PCR preparation resulted in significantly different estimates in both alpha and beta diversity. Comparing with a previous method based on 454 pyrosequencing, we found that our Illumina protocol performed in a similar manner – with the exception for evenness estimates where correspondence between the methods was low. We further quantified the data loss at every processing step eventually accumulating to 50% of the raw reads. When evaluating different OTU clustering methods, we observed a stark contrast between the results of QIIME with default settings and the more recent UPARSE algorithm when it comes to the number of OTUs generated. Still, overall trends in alpha and beta diversity corresponded highly using both clustering methods. Our procedure performed well considering the precisions of alpha and beta diversity estimates, with insignificant effects of individual barcodes. Comparative analyses suggest that 454 and Illumina sequence data can be combined if the same PCR protocol and bioinformatic workflows are used for describing patterns in richness, beta-diversity and taxonomic composition. PMID:25647581

  17. Discrimination of Bacillus anthracis from closely related microorganisms by analysis of 16S and 23S rRNA with oligonucleotide microchips

    DOEpatents

    Bavykin, Sergei G.; Mirzabekova, legal representative, Natalia V.; Mirzabekov, deceased, Andrei D.

    2007-12-04

    The present invention relates to methods and compositions for using nucleotide sequence variations of 16S and 23S rRNA within the B. cereus group to discriminate a highly infectious bacterium B. anthracis from closely related microorganisms. Sequence variations in the 16S and 23S rRNA of the B. cereus subgroup including B. anthracis are utilized to construct an array that can detect these sequence variations through selective hybridizations and discriminate B. cereus group that includes B. anthracis. Discrimination of single base differences in rRNA was achieved with a microchip during analysis of B. cereus group isolates from both single and in mixed samples, as well as identification of polymorphic sites. Successful use of a microchip to determine the appropriate subgroup classification using eight reference microorganisms from the B. cereus group as a study set, was demonstrated.

  18. First report on the bacterial diversity in the distal gut of dholes (Cuon alpinus) by using 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Honghai; Liu, Guangshuai; Sha, Weilai

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial community in the distal gut of dholes (Cuon alpinus) based on the analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences. Fecal samples were collected from five healthy unrelated dholes captured from Qilian Mountain in Gansu province of China. The diversity of the fecal bacteria community was investigated by constructing a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified 16S rRNA gene clone library. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified by using universal bacterial primers 27F and 1492R. A total of 275 chimera-free near full length 16S rRNA gene sequences were collected, and 78 non-redundant bacteria phylotypes (operational taxonomical units, OTUs) were identified according to the 97 % sequence similarity. Forty-two OTUs (53.8 %) showed less than 98 % sequence similarity to 16S rRNA gene sequences reported previously. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that dhole bacterial community comprised five different phyla, with the majority of sequences being classified within the phylum Bacteroidetes (64.7 %), followed by Firmicutes (29.8 %), Fusobacteria (4.7 %),Proteobacteria (0.4 %), and Actinobacteria (0.4 %). The only order Bacteroidales in phylum Bacteroidetes was the most abundant bacterial group in the intestinal bacterial community of dholes. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the two most diverse bacterial phyla with 46.2 and 44.9 % of OTUs contained, respectively. Bacteroidales and Clostridiales were the two most diverse bacterial orders that contained 44.9 and 39.7 % of OTUs, respectively. PMID:26423781

  19. Characterization of Mycobacterium leprae Genotypes in China—Identification of a New Polymorphism C251T in the 16S rRNA Gene

    PubMed Central

    You, Yuangang; Xing, Yan; Li, Huanying; Weng, Xiaoman; Wu, Nan; Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Shanshan; Zhang, Wenhong; Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Leprosy continues to be prevalent in some mountainous regions of China, and genotypes of leprosy strains endemic to the country are not known. Mycobacterium lepromatosis is a new species that was discovered in Mexico in 2008, and it remains unclear whether this species exists in China. Here, we conducted PCR- restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis to classify genotypes of 85 DNA samples collected from patients from 18 different provinces. All 171 DNA samples from skin biopsies of leprosy patients were tested for the presence of Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis by amplifying the 16S rRNA gene using nested PCR, followed by DNA sequencing. The new species M. lepromatosis was not found among the 171 specimens from leprosy patients in 22 provinces in China. However, we found three SNP genotypes among 85 leprosy patients. A mutation at C251T in the 16S rRNA gene was found in 76% of the strains. We also found that the strains that showed the 16S rRNA C251T mutation belonged to SNP type 3, whereas strains without the point mutation belonged to SNP type 1. The SNP type 3 leprosy strains were observed in patients from both the inner and coastal regions of China, but the SNP type 1 strains were focused only in the coastal region. This indicated that the SNP type 3 leprosy strains were more prevalent than the SNP type 1 strains in China. In addition, the 16S rRNA gene sequence mutation at C251T also indicated a difference in the geographical distribution of the strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a new polymorphism in 16S rRNA gene in M. leprae in China. Our findings shed light on the prevalent genotypes and provide insight about leprosy transmission that are important for leprosy control in China. PMID:26196543

  20. Distribution of 16S rRNA methylases among different species of Gram-negative bacilli with high-level resistance to aminoglycosides.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Yu, H; Guo, Q; Xu, X; Ye, X; Wu, S; Guo, Y; Wang, M

    2010-11-01

    16S rRNA methylases confer high-level resistance to most aminoglycosides in Gram-negative bacteria. Seven 16S rRNA methylase genes, armA, rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, rmtD, rmtE and npmA, have been identified since 2003. We studied the distribution of methylase genes in more than 200 aminoglycoside-resistant Gram-negative clinical isolates collected in 2007 at our hospital in Shanghai, China. 16S rRNA methylase genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) among 217 consecutive clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacilli resistant to gentamicin and amikacin by a disk diffusion method. 16S rRNA methylase genes were present in 97.5% (193/198) of clinical isolates highly resistant to amikacin (≥512 μg/ml), with armA and rmtB detected in 67.2 and 30.3% of strains, respectively, while no 16S rRNA methylase genes were detected in 19 strains with amikacin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≤256 μg/ml. armA or rmtB genes were detected in 100% of 104 strains of Enterobacteriaceae, and these two genes were equally represented (49 vs. 55 strains). Genes for armA or rmtB were detected in 94.7% (89/94) of Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, and armA was predominant (84 vs. 5 strains with rmtB). No rmtA, rmtC, rmtD or npmA genes were found. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence (ERIC-PCR) indicated that armA and rmtB genes were spread by both horizontal transfer and clonal dissemination. PMID:20614151

  1. Automated Identification of Medically Important Bacteria by 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing Using a Novel Comprehensive Database, 16SpathDB▿

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Teng, Jade L. L.; Yeung, Juilian M. Y.; Tse, Herman; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2011-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, interpretation of 16S rRNA gene sequence results is one of the most difficult problems faced by clinical microbiologists and technicians. To overcome the problems we encountered in the existing databases during 16S rRNA gene sequence interpretation, we built a comprehensive database, 16SpathDB (http://147.8.74.24/16SpathDB) based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences of all medically important bacteria listed in the Manual of Clinical Microbiology and evaluated its use for automated identification of these bacteria. Among 91 nonduplicated bacterial isolates collected in our clinical microbiology laboratory, 71 (78%) were reported by 16SpathDB as a single bacterial species having >98.0% nucleotide identity with the query sequence, 19 (20.9%) were reported as more than one bacterial species having >98.0% nucleotide identity with the query sequence, and 1 (1.1%) was reported as no match. For the 71 bacterial isolates reported as a single bacterial species, all results were identical to their true identities as determined by a polyphasic approach. For the 19 bacterial isolates reported as more than one bacterial species, all results contained their true identities as determined by a polyphasic approach and all of them had their true identities as the “best match in 16SpathDB.” For the isolate (Gordonibacter pamelaeae) reported as no match, the bacterium has never been reported to be associated with human disease and was not included in the Manual of Clinical Microbiology. 16SpathDB is an automated, user-friendly, efficient, accurate, and regularly updated database for 16S rRNA gene sequence interpretation in clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:21389154

  2. Pyrosequencing of mcrA and Archaeal 16S rRNA Genes Reveals Diversity and Substrate Preferences of Methanogen Communities in Anaerobic Digesters

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, David; Lu, Xiao-Ying; Shen, Zhiyong; Chen, Jiapeng

    2014-01-01

    Methanogenic archaea play a key role in biogas-producing anaerobic digestion and yet remain poorly taxonomically characterized. This is in part due to the limitations of low-throughput Sanger sequencing of a single (16S rRNA) gene, which in the past may have undersampled methanogen diversity. In this study, archaeal communities from three sludge digesters in Hong Kong and one wastewater digester in China were examined using high-throughput pyrosequencing of the methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) and 16S rRNA genes. Methanobacteriales, Methanomicrobiales, and Methanosarcinales were detected in each digester, indicating that both hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogenesis was occurring. Two sludge digesters had similar community structures, likely due to their similar design and feedstock. Taxonomic classification of the mcrA genes suggested that these digesters were dominated by acetoclastic methanogens, particularly Methanosarcinales, while the other digesters were dominated by hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales. The proposed euryarchaeotal order Methanomassiliicoccales and the uncultured WSA2 group were detected with the 16S rRNA gene, and potential mcrA genes for these groups were identified. 16S rRNA gene sequencing also recovered several crenarchaeotal groups potentially involved in the initial anaerobic digestion processes. Overall, the two genes produced different taxonomic profiles for the digesters, while greater methanogen richness was detected using the mcrA gene, supporting the use of this functional gene as a complement to the 16S rRNA gene to better assess methanogen diversity. A significant positive correlation was detected between methane production and the abundance of mcrA transcripts in digesters treating sludge and wastewater samples, supporting the mcrA gene as a biomarker for methane yield. PMID:25381241

  3. Characterization of Mycobacterium leprae Genotypes in China--Identification of a New Polymorphism C251T in the 16S rRNA Gene.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Youhua; Wen, Yan; You, Yuangang; Xing, Yan; Li, Huanying; Weng, Xiaoman; Wu, Nan; Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Shanshan; Zhang, Wenhong; Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Leprosy continues to be prevalent in some mountainous regions of China, and genotypes of leprosy strains endemic to the country are not known. Mycobacterium lepromatosis is a new species that was discovered in Mexico in 2008, and it remains unclear whether this species exists in China. Here, we conducted PCR- restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis to classify genotypes of 85 DNA samples collected from patients from 18 different provinces. All 171 DNA samples from skin biopsies of leprosy patients were tested for the presence of Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis by amplifying the 16S rRNA gene using nested PCR, followed by DNA sequencing. The new species M. lepromatosis was not found among the 171 specimens from leprosy patients in 22 provinces in China. However, we found three SNP genotypes among 85 leprosy patients. A mutation at C251T in the 16S rRNA gene was found in 76% of the strains. We also found that the strains that showed the 16S rRNA C251T mutation belonged to SNP type 3, whereas strains without the point mutation belonged to SNP type 1. The SNP type 3 leprosy strains were observed in patients from both the inner and coastal regions of China, but the SNP type 1 strains were focused only in the coastal region. This indicated that the SNP type 3 leprosy strains were more prevalent than the SNP type 1 strains in China. In addition, the 16S rRNA gene sequence mutation at C251T also indicated a difference in the geographical distribution of the strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a new polymorphism in 16S rRNA gene in M. leprae in China. Our findings shed light on the prevalent genotypes and provide insight about leprosy transmission that are important for leprosy control in China. PMID:26196543

  4. Microbial Contaminants of Cord Blood Units Identified by 16S rRNA Sequencing and by API Test System, and Antibiotic Sensitivity Profiling.

    PubMed

    França, Luís; Simões, Catarina; Taborda, Marco; Diogo, Catarina; da Costa, Milton S

    2015-01-01

    Over a period of ten months a total of 5618 cord blood units (CBU) were screened for microbial contamination under routine conditions. The antibiotic resistance profile for all isolates was also examined using ATB strips. The detection rate for culture positive units was 7.5%, corresponding to 422 samples.16S rRNA sequence analysis and identification with API test system were used to identify the culturable aerobic, microaerophilic and anaerobic bacteria from CBUs. From these samples we recovered 485 isolates (84 operational taxonomic units, OTUs) assigned to the classes Bacteroidia, Actinobacteria, Clostridia, Bacilli, Betaproteobacteria and primarily to the Gammaproteobacteria. Sixty-nine OTUs, corresponding to 447 isolates, showed 16S rRNA sequence similarities above 99.0% with known cultured bacteria. However, 14 OTUs had 16S rRNA sequence similarities between 95 and 99% in support of genus level identification and one OTU with 16S rRNA sequence similarity of 90.3% supporting a family level identification only. The phenotypic identification formed 29 OTUs that could be identified to the species level and 9 OTUs that could be identified to the genus level by API test system. We failed to obtain identification for 14 OTUs, while 32 OTUs comprised organisms producing mixed identifications. Forty-two OTUs covered species not included in the API system databases. The API test system Rapid ID 32 Strep and Rapid ID 32 E showed the highest proportion of identifications to the species level, the lowest ratio of unidentified results and the highest agreement to the results of 16S rRNA assignments. Isolates affiliated to the Bacilli and Bacteroidia showed the highest antibiotic multi-resistance indices and microorganisms of the Clostridia displayed the most antibiotic sensitive phenotypes. PMID:26512991

  5. Microbial Contaminants of Cord Blood Units Identified by 16S rRNA Sequencing and by API Test System, and Antibiotic Sensitivity Profiling

    PubMed Central

    França, Luís; Simões, Catarina; Taborda, Marco; Diogo, Catarina; da Costa, Milton S.

    2015-01-01

    Over a period of ten months a total of 5618 cord blood units (CBU) were screened for microbial contamination under routine conditions. The antibiotic resistance profile for all isolates was also examined using ATB strips. The detection rate for culture positive units was 7.5%, corresponding to 422 samples.16S rRNA sequence analysis and identification with API test system were used to identify the culturable aerobic, microaerophilic and anaerobic bacteria from CBUs. From these samples we recovered 485 isolates (84 operational taxonomic units, OTUs) assigned to the classes Bacteroidia, Actinobacteria, Clostridia, Bacilli, Betaproteobacteria and primarily to the Gammaproteobacteria. Sixty-nine OTUs, corresponding to 447 isolates, showed 16S rRNA sequence similarities above 99.0% with known cultured bacteria. However, 14 OTUs had 16S rRNA sequence similarities between 95 and 99% in support of genus level identification and one OTU with 16S rRNA sequence similarity of 90.3% supporting a family level identification only. The phenotypic identification formed 29 OTUs that could be identified to the species level and 9 OTUs that could be identified to the genus level by API test system. We failed to obtain identification for 14 OTUs, while 32 OTUs comprised organisms producing mixed identifications. Forty-two OTUs covered species not included in the API system databases. The API test system Rapid ID 32 Strep and Rapid ID 32 E showed the highest proportion of identifications to the species level, the lowest ratio of unidentified results and the highest agreement to the results of 16S rRNA assignments. Isolates affiliated to the Bacilli and Bacteroidia showed the highest antibiotic multi-resistance indices and microorganisms of the Clostridia displayed the most antibiotic sensitive phenotypes. PMID:26512991

  6. Differentiation of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua by 16S rRNA genes and intraspecies discrimination of Listeria monocytogenes strains by random amplified polymorphic DNA polymorphisms.

    PubMed Central

    Czajka, J; Bsat, N; Piani, M; Russ, W; Sultana, K; Wiedmann, M; Whitaker, R; Batt, C A

    1993-01-01

    Differences in the 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA) which can be used to discriminate Listeria monocytogenes from Listeria innocua have been detected. The 16S rDNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction with a set of oligonucleotide primers which flank a 1.5-kb fragment. Sequence differences were observed in the V2 region of the 16S rDNA both between L. monocytogenes Scott A and L. innocua and between different L. monocytogenes serotypes. Although L. monocytogenes SLCC2371 had the same V2 region sequence as L. innocua, the two species were different within the V9 region at nucleotides 1259 and 1292, in agreement with previous studies (R.-F. Wang, W.-W. Cao, and M.G. Johnson, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:3666-3670, 1991). Intraspecies discrimination of L. monocytogenes strains was achieved by using the patterns generated by random amplified polymorphic DNA primers. Although some distinction can be made within the L. monocytogenes species by their 16S rDNA sequence, a far greater discrimination within species could be made by generating random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns from chromosomal DNA. By using a number of 10-bp primers, unique patterns for each isolate which in all cases examined differentiate between various L. monocytogenes serotypes, even though they may have the same 16S rRNA sequences, could be generated. Images PMID:8439157

  7. Evaluation of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing using two next-generation sequencing technologies for phylogenetic analysis of the rumen bacterial community in steers.

    PubMed

    Myer, Phillip R; Kim, MinSeok; Freetly, Harvey C; Smith, Timothy P L

    2016-08-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies have vastly changed the approach of sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene for studies in microbial ecology. Three distinct technologies are available for large-scale 16S sequencing. All three are subject to biases introduced by sequencing error rates, amplification primer selection, and read length, which can affect the apparent microbial community. In this study, we compared short read 16S rRNA variable regions, V1-V3, with that of near-full length 16S regions, V1-V8, using highly diverse steer rumen microbial communities, in order to examine the impact of technology selection on phylogenetic profiles. Short paired-end reads from the Illumina MiSeq platform were used to generate V1-V3 sequence, while long "circular consensus" reads from the Pacific Biosciences RSII instrument were used to generate V1-V8 data. The two platforms revealed similar microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs), as well as similar species richness, Good's coverage, and Shannon diversity metrics. However, the V1-V8 amplified ruminal community resulted in significant increases in several orders of taxa, such as phyla Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia (P < 0.05). Taxonomic classification accuracy was also greater in the near full-length read. UniFrac distance matrices using jackknifed UPGMA clustering also noted differences between the communities. These data support the consensus that longer reads result in a finer phylogenetic resolution that may not be achieved by shorter 16S rRNA gene fragments. Our work on the cattle rumen bacterial community demonstrates that utilizing near full-length 16S reads may be useful in conducting a more thorough study, or for developing a niche-specific database to use in analyzing data from shorter read technologies when budgetary constraints preclude use of near-full length 16S sequencing. PMID:27282101

  8. Genotypic Characterization of Bradyrhizobium Strains Nodulating Endemic Woody Legumes of the Canary Islands by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Genes Encoding 16S rRNA (16S rDNA) and 16S-23S rDNA Intergenic Spacers, Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic PCR Genomic Fingerprinting, and Partial 16S rDNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Vinuesa, Pablo; Rademaker, Jan L. W.; de Bruijn, Frans J.; Werner, Dietrich

    1998-01-01

    We present a phylogenetic analysis of nine strains of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from nodules of tagasaste (Chamaecytisus proliferus) and other endemic woody legumes of the Canary Islands, Spain. These and several reference strains were characterized genotypically at different levels of taxonomic resolution by computer-assisted analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs), 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) RFLPs, and repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) genomic fingerprints with BOX, ERIC, and REP primers. Cluster analysis of 16S rDNA restriction patterns with four tetrameric endonucleases grouped the Canarian isolates with the two reference strains, Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110spc4 and Bradyrhizobium sp. strain (Centrosema) CIAT 3101, resolving three genotypes within these bradyrhizobia. In the analysis of IGS RFLPs with three enzymes, six groups were found, whereas rep-PCR fingerprinting revealed an even greater genotypic diversity, with only two of the Canarian strains having similar fingerprints. Furthermore, we show that IGS RFLPs and even very dissimilar rep-PCR fingerprints can be clustered into phylogenetically sound groupings by combining them with 16S rDNA RFLPs in computer-assisted cluster analysis of electrophoretic patterns. The DNA sequence analysis of a highly variable 264-bp segment of the 16S rRNA genes of these strains was found to be consistent with the fingerprint-based classification. Three different DNA sequences were obtained, one of which was not previously described, and all belonged to the B. japonicum/Rhodopseudomonas rDNA cluster. Nodulation assays revealed that none of the Canarian isolates nodulated Glycine max or Leucaena leucocephala, but all nodulated Acacia pendula, C. proliferus, Macroptilium atropurpureum, and Vigna unguiculata. PMID:9603820

  9. Phylogeny and evolutionary genetics of Frankia strains based on 16S rRNA and nifD-K gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Arun Kumar; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Singh, Prashant; Singh, Anumeha; Singh, Satya Shila; Srivastava, Amrita; Srivastava, Alok Kumar; Sarma, Hridip Kumar

    2015-08-01

    16S rRNA and nifD-nifK sequences were used to study the molecular phylogeny and evolutionary genetics of Frankia strains isolated from Hippöphae salicifolia D. Don growing at different altitudes (ecologically classified as riverside and hillside isolates) of the Eastern Himalayan region of North Sikkim, India. Genetic information for the small subunit rRNA (16S rRNA) revealed that the riverside Frankia isolates markedly differed from the hillside isolates suggesting that the riverside isolates are genetically compact. Further, for enhanced resolutions, the partial sequence of nifD (3' end), nifK (5' end) and nifD-K IGS region have been investigated. The sequences obtained, failed to separate riverside isolates and hillside isolates, thus suggesting a possible role of genetic transfer events either from hillside to riverside or vice versa. The evolutionary genetic analyses using evogenomic extrapolations of gene sequence data obtained from 16S rRNA and nifD-K provided differing equations with the pace of evolution being more appropriately, intermediate. Values of recombination frequency (R), nucleotide diversity per site (Pi), and DNA divergence estimates supported the existence of an intermixed zone where spatial isolations occurred in sync with the temporal estimates. J. Basic Microbiol. 2015, 54, 1-9. PMID:25871924

  10. Intragenomic diversity of the V1 regions of 16S rRNA genes in high-alkaline protease-producing Bacillus clausii spp.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Yasushi; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Shimamura, Shigeru; Nishi, Shinro; Nogi, Yuichi; Uchimura, Kohsuke; Kobayashi, Tohru; Hitomi, Jun; Ozaki, Katsuya; Kawai, Shuji; Ito, Susumu; Horikoshi, Koki

    2007-07-01

    Alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. strain KSM-K16, which produces high-alkaline M-protease, was characterized phenotypically, biochemically and genetically. This strain was identified as Bacillus clausii based on the results of taxonomic studies, including sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and DNA-DNA hybridization. Seven rRNA operons in the genome were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Sequencing of cloned 16S rRNA genes revealed two distinct types of variable region V1. Moreover, some cloned 16S rRNA genes in some of the reference strains of B. clausii had a V1 region of yet another type. The B. clausii strains could clearly be divided into at least two subgroups based on the frequencies of the types of cloned V1 sequence. Bacillus sp. strain KSM-K16 was found to be in a different phylogenetic position from other high-alkaline protease-producing strains of B. clausii. PMID:17429572

  11. Identification of Bacillus Probiotics Isolated from Soil Rhizosphere Using 16S rRNA, recA, rpoB Gene Sequencing and RAPD-PCR.

    PubMed

    Mohkam, Milad; Nezafat, Navid; Berenjian, Aydin; Mobasher, Mohammad Ali; Ghasemi, Younes

    2016-03-01

    Some Bacillus species, especially Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus groups, have highly similar 16S rRNA gene sequences, which are hard to identify based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis. To conquer this drawback, rpoB, recA sequence analysis along with randomly amplified polymorphic (RAPD) fingerprinting was examined as an alternative method for differentiating Bacillus species. The 16S rRNA, rpoB and recA genes were amplified via a polymerase chain reaction using their specific primers. The resulted PCR amplicons were sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis was employed by MEGA 6 software. Identification based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing was underpinned by rpoB and recA gene sequencing as well as RAPD-PCR technique. Subsequently, concatenation and phylogenetic analysis showed that extent of diversity and similarity were better obtained by rpoB and recA primers, which are also reinforced by RAPD-PCR methods. However, in one case, these approaches failed to identify one isolate, which in combination with the phenotypical method offsets this issue. Overall, RAPD fingerprinting, rpoB and recA along with concatenated genes sequence analysis discriminated closely related Bacillus species, which highlights the significance of the multigenic method in more precisely distinguishing Bacillus strains. This research emphasizes the benefit of RAPD fingerprinting, rpoB and recA sequence analysis superior to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis for suitable and effective identification of Bacillus species as recommended for probiotic products. PMID:26898909

  12. Extremely Acidophilic Protists from Acid Mine Drainage Host Rickettsiales-Lineage Endosymbionts That Have Intervening Sequences in Their 16S rRNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Brett J.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Dawson, Scott C.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2003-01-01

    During a molecular phylogenetic survey of extremely acidic (pH < 1), metal-rich acid mine drainage habitats in the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain, Calif., we detected 16S rRNA gene sequences of a novel bacterial group belonging to the order Rickettsiales in the Alphaproteobacteria. The closest known relatives of this group (92% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity) are endosymbionts of the protist Acanthamoeba. Oligonucleotide 16S rRNA probes were designed and used to observe members of this group within acidophilic protists. To improve visualization of eukaryotic populations in the acid mine drainage samples, broad-specificity probes for eukaryotes were redesigned and combined to highlight this component of the acid mine drainage community. Approximately 4% of protists in the acid mine drainage samples contained endosymbionts. Measurements of internal pH of the protists showed that their cytosol is close to neutral, indicating that the endosymbionts may be neutrophilic. The endosymbionts had a conserved 273-nucleotide intervening sequence (IVS) in variable region V1 of their 16S rRNA genes. The IVS does not match any sequence in current databases, but the predicted secondary structure forms well-defined stem loops. IVSs are uncommon in rRNA genes and appear to be confined to bacteria living in close association with eukaryotes. Based on the phylogenetic novelty of the endosymbiont sequences and initial culture-independent characterization, we propose the name “Candidatus Captivus acidiprotistae.” To our knowledge, this is the first report of an endosymbiotic relationship in an extremely acidic habitat. PMID:12957940

  13. Phylogeny of All Recognized Species of Ammonia Oxidizers Based on Comparative 16S rRNA and amoA Sequence Analysis: Implications for Molecular Diversity Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Purkhold, Ulrike; Pommerening-Röser, Andreas; Juretschko, Stefan; Schmid, Markus C.; Koops, Hans-Peter; Wagner, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The current perception of evolutionary relationships and the natural diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) is mainly based on comparative sequence analyses of their genes encoding the 16S rRNA and the active site polypeptide of the ammonia monooxygenase (AmoA). However, only partial 16S rRNA sequences are available for many AOB species and most AOB have not yet been analyzed on the amoA level. In this study, the 16S rDNA sequence data of 10 Nitrosomonas species and Nitrosococcus mobilis were completed. Furthermore, previously unavailable 16S rRNA sequences were determined for three Nitrosomonas sp. isolates and for the gamma-subclass proteobacterium Nitrosococcus halophilus. These data were used to revaluate the specificities of published oligonucleotide primers and probes for AOB. In addition, partial amoA sequences of 17 AOB, including the above-mentioned 15 AOB, were obtained. Comparative phylogenetic analyses suggested similar but not identical evolutionary relationships of AOB by using 16S rRNA and AmoA as marker molecules, respectively. The presented 16S rRNA and amoA and AmoA sequence data from all recognized AOB species significantly extend the currently used molecular classification schemes for AOB and now provide a more robust phylogenetic framework for molecular diversity inventories of AOB. For 16S rRNA-independent evaluation of AOB species-level diversity in environmental samples, amoA and AmoA sequence similarity threshold values were determined which can be used to tentatively identify novel species based on cloned amoA sequences. Subsequently, 122 amoA sequences were obtained from 11 nitrifying wastewater treatment plants. Phylogenetic analyses of the molecular isolates showed that in all but two plants only nitrosomonads could be detected. Although several of the obtained amoA sequences were only relatively distantly related to known AOB, none of these sequences unequivocally suggested the existence of previously unrecognized species in the

  14. Application of 16S rRNA, cytochrome b and control region sequences for understanding the phylogenetic relationships in Oryx species.

    PubMed

    Khan, H A; Arif, I A; Al Homaidan, A A; Al Farhan, A H

    2008-01-01

    The present study reports the application of mitochondrial markers for the molecular phylogeny of Oryx species, including the Arabian oryx (AO), scimitar-horned oryx (SHO) and plains oryx (PO), using the Addax as an outgroup. Sequences of three molecular markers, 16S rRNA, cytochrome b and a control region, for the above four taxa were aligned and the topologies of respective phylogenetic trees were compared. All these markers clearly differentiated the genus Addax from Oryx. However, for species-level grouping, while 16S rRNA and cytochrome b produced similar phylogeny (SHO grouped with PO), the control region grouped SHO with AO. Further studies are warranted to generate more sequencing data, apply multiple bioinformatics tools and to include relevant nuclear markers for phylogenetic analysis of Oryx species. PMID:19224456

  15. Phylogeny and Taxonomy of Archaea: A Comparison of the Whole-Genome-Based CVTree Approach with 16S rRNA Sequence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Guanghong; Xu, Zhao; Hao, Bailin

    2015-01-01

    A tripartite comparison of Archaea phylogeny and taxonomy at and above the rank order is reported: (1) the whole-genome-based and alignment-free CVTree using 179 genomes; (2) the 16S rRNA analysis exemplified by the All-Species Living Tree with 366 archaeal sequences; and (3) the Second Edition of Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology complemented by some current literature. A high degree of agreement is reached at these ranks. From the newly proposed archaeal phyla, Korarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota, Nanoarchaeota and Aigarchaeota, to the recent suggestion to divide the class Halobacteria into three orders, all gain substantial support from CVTree. In addition, the CVTree helped to determine the taxonomic position of some newly sequenced genomes without proper lineage information. A few discrepancies between the CVTree and the 16S rRNA approaches call for further investigation. PMID:25789552

  16. Community Structure and Diversity of Biofilms from a Beer Bottling Plant as Revealed Using 16S rRNA Gene Clone Libraries†

    PubMed Central

    Timke, Markus; Wang-Lieu, Ngoc Quynh; Altendorf, Karlheinz; Lipski, André

    2005-01-01

    The microbial composition of biofilms from a beer bottling plant was analyzed by a cultivation independent analysis of the 16S rRNA genes. Clone libraries were differentiated by amplified 16S rRNA gene restriction analysis and representative clones from each group were sequenced. The diversity of the clone libraries was comparable with the diversity found for environmental samples. No evidences for the presence of strictly anaerobic taxa or important beer spoilers were found, indicating that biofilms developed for more than 6 months at the plant formed no appropriate habitat for those microorganisms. The genus Methylobacterium was one of the dominating groups of the clone libraries. The size of this population was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and fatty acid analysis. In addition, considerable numbers of clones were assigned to uncultivated organisms. PMID:16204578

  17. [Bacteria closely related to Phyllobacterium trifolii according to their 16S rRNA gene are discovered in the nodules of Hungarian sainfoin].

    PubMed

    Baĭmiev, Al Kh; Baĭmiev, An Kh; Gubaĭdullin, I I; Kulikova, O L; Chemeris, A V

    2007-05-01

    The population genetic diversity and phylogeny of the bacteria entering the symbiosis with sainfoin that grows on the Chesnokovskaya Mountain, Ufa region, Republic of Bashkortostan, have been studied. RAPD analysis of DNA polymorphism of the microbial strains grown from the nodules of 20 plants using several random primers detected a high degree of genetic homogeneity in their population as compared with the populations of rhizobia of other leguminous plants growing at the same site. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes of the three most different samples have demonstrated that these genes were identical and display 99.9% homology with the sequence of Phyllobacterium trifolii 16S rRNA gene. PMID:17633565

  18. Investigation of Microbial Diversity in Geothermal Hot Springs in Unkeshwar, India, Based on 16S rRNA Amplicon Metagenome Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Mehetre, Gajanan T; Paranjpe, Aditi; Dastager, Syed G; Dharne, Mahesh S

    2016-01-01

    Microbial diversity in geothermal waters of the Unkeshwar hot springs in Maharashtra, India, was studied using 16S rRNA amplicon metagenomic sequencing. Taxonomic analysis revealed the presence of Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Archeae, and OD1 phyla. Metabolic function prediction analysis indicated a battery of biological information systems indicating rich and novel microbial diversity, with potential biotechnological applications in this niche. PMID:26950332

  19. Diversity and distribution of 16S rRNA and phenol monooxygenase genes in the rhizosphere and endophytic bacteria isolated from PAH-contaminated sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Anping; Liu, Juan; Ling, Wanting; Chen, Zeyou; Gao, Yanzheng

    2015-07-01

    This is the first investigation of the diversity and distribution of 16S rRNA and phenol monooxygenase (PHE) genes in endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria of plants at sites contaminated with different levels of PAHs. Ten PAHs at concentrations from 34.22 to 55.29 and 45.79 to 97.81 mg·kg-1 were measured in rhizosphere soils of Alopecurus aequalis Sobol and Oxalis corniculata L., respectively. The diversity of 16S rRNA and PHE genes in rhizosphere soils or plants changed with varying PAH pollution levels, as shown based on PCR-DGGE data. Generally, higher Shannon-Weiner indexes were found in mild or moderate contaminated areas. A total of 82 different bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences belonging to five phyla; namely, Acfinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Cyanophyta, and Bacteroidetes, were obtained from rhizosphere soils. For the 57 identified PHE gene sequences, 18 were excised from rhizosphere bacteria and 39 from endophytic bacteria. The copy numbers of 16S rRNA and PHE genes in rhizosphere and endophytic bacteria varied from 3.83 × 103 to 2.28 × 106 and 4.17 × 102 to 1.99 × 105, respectively. The copy numbers of PHE genes in rhizosphere bacteria were significantly higher than in endophytic bacteria. Results increase our understanding of the diversity of rhizosphere and endophytic bacteria from plants grown in PAH-contaminated sites.

  20. Comparison of Traditional Phenotypic Identification Methods with Partial 5′ 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing for Species-Level Identification of Nonfermenting Gram-Negative Bacilli▿

    PubMed Central

    Cloud, Joann L.; Harmsen, Dag; Iwen, Peter C.; Dunn, James J.; Hall, Gerri; LaSala, Paul Rocco; Hoggan, Karen; Wilson, Deborah; Woods, Gail L.; Mellmann, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Correct identification of nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NFB) is crucial for patient management. We compared phenotypic identifications of 96 clinical NFB isolates with identifications obtained by 5′ 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Sequencing identified 88 isolates (91.7%) with >99% similarity to a sequence from the assigned species; 61.5% of sequencing results were concordant with phenotypic results, indicating the usability of sequencing to identify NFB. PMID:20164273

  1. Evaluation of 16S rRNA Gene PCR Sensitivity and Specificity for Diagnosis of Prosthetic Joint Infection: a Prospective Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Plouzeau, Chloé; Tande, Didier; Léger, Julie; Giraudeau, Bruno; Valentin, Anne Sophie; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Vincent, Pascal; Corvec, Stéphane; Gibaud, Sophie; Juvin, Marie Emmanuelle; Héry-Arnaud, Genevieve; Lemarié, Carole; Kempf, Marie; Bret, Laurent; Quentin, Roland; Coffre, Carine; de Pinieux, Gonzague; Bernard, Louis; Burucoa, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    There is no standard method for the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI). The contribution of 16S rRNA gene PCR sequencing on a routine basis remains to be defined. We performed a prospective multicenter study to assess the contributions of 16S rRNA gene assays in PJI diagnosis. Over a 2-year period, all patients suspected to have PJIs and a few uninfected patients undergoing primary arthroplasty (control group) were included. Five perioperative samples per patient were collected for culture and 16S rRNA gene PCR sequencing and one for histological examination. Three multicenter quality control assays were performed with both DNA extracts and crushed samples. The diagnosis of PJI was based on clinical, bacteriological, and histological criteria, according to Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines. A molecular diagnosis was modeled on the bacteriological criterion (≥1 positive sample for strict pathogens and ≥2 for commensal skin flora). Molecular data were analyzed according to the diagnosis of PJI. Between December 2010 and March 2012, 264 suspected cases of PJI and 35 control cases were included. PJI was confirmed in 215/264 suspected cases, 192 (89%) with a bacteriological criterion. The PJIs were monomicrobial (163 cases [85%]; staphylococci, n = 108; streptococci, n = 22; Gram-negative bacilli, n = 16; anaerobes, n = 13; others, n = 4) or polymicrobial (29 cases [15%]). The molecular diagnosis was positive in 151/215 confirmed cases of PJI (143 cases with bacteriological PJI documentation and 8 treated cases without bacteriological documentation) and in 2/49 cases without confirmed PJI (sensitivity, 73.3%; specificity, 95.5%). The 16S rRNA gene PCR assay showed a lack of sensitivity in the diagnosis of PJI on a multicenter routine basis. PMID:25056331

  2. Evaluation of 16S rRNA gene PCR sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection: a prospective multicenter cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bémer, Pascale; Plouzeau, Chloé; Tande, Didier; Léger, Julie; Giraudeau, Bruno; Valentin, Anne Sophie; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Vincent, Pascal; Corvec, Stéphane; Gibaud, Sophie; Juvin, Marie Emmanuelle; Héry-Arnaud, Genevieve; Lemarié, Carole; Kempf, Marie; Bret, Laurent; Quentin, Roland; Coffre, Carine; de Pinieux, Gonzague; Bernard, Louis; Burucoa, Christophe

    2014-10-01

    There is no standard method for the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI). The contribution of 16S rRNA gene PCR sequencing on a routine basis remains to be defined. We performed a prospective multicenter study to assess the contributions of 16S rRNA gene assays in PJI diagnosis. Over a 2-year period, all patients suspected to have PJIs and a few uninfected patients undergoing primary arthroplasty (control group) were included. Five perioperative samples per patient were collected for culture and 16S rRNA gene PCR sequencing and one for histological examination. Three multicenter quality control assays were performed with both DNA extracts and crushed samples. The diagnosis of PJI was based on clinical, bacteriological, and histological criteria, according to Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines. A molecular diagnosis was modeled on the bacteriological criterion (≥ 1 positive sample for strict pathogens and ≥ 2 for commensal skin flora). Molecular data were analyzed according to the diagnosis of PJI. Between December 2010 and March 2012, 264 suspected cases of PJI and 35 control cases were included. PJI was confirmed in 215/264 suspected cases, 192 (89%) with a bacteriological criterion. The PJIs were monomicrobial (163 cases [85%]; staphylococci, n = 108; streptococci, n = 22; Gram-negative bacilli, n = 16; anaerobes, n = 13; others, n = 4) or polymicrobial (29 cases [15%]). The molecular diagnosis was positive in 151/215 confirmed cases of PJI (143 cases with bacteriological PJI documentation and 8 treated cases without bacteriological documentation) and in 2/49 cases without confirmed PJI (sensitivity, 73.3%; specificity, 95.5%). The 16S rRNA gene PCR assay showed a lack of sensitivity in the diagnosis of PJI on a multicenter routine basis. PMID:25056331

  3. Diversity and distribution of 16S rRNA and phenol monooxygenase genes in the rhizosphere and endophytic bacteria isolated from PAH-contaminated sites

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Anping; Liu, Juan; Ling, Wanting; Chen, Zeyou; Gao, Yanzheng

    2015-01-01

    This is the first investigation of the diversity and distribution of 16S rRNA and phenol monooxygenase (PHE) genes in endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria of plants at sites contaminated with different levels of PAHs. Ten PAHs at concentrations from 34.22 to 55.29 and 45.79 to 97.81 mg·kg−1 were measured in rhizosphere soils of Alopecurus aequalis Sobol and Oxalis corniculata L., respectively. The diversity of 16S rRNA and PHE genes in rhizosphere soils or plants changed with varying PAH pollution levels, as shown based on PCR-DGGE data. Generally, higher Shannon-Weiner indexes were found in mild or moderate contaminated areas. A total of 82 different bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences belonging to five phyla; namely, Acfinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Cyanophyta, and Bacteroidetes, were obtained from rhizosphere soils. For the 57 identified PHE gene sequences, 18 were excised from rhizosphere bacteria and 39 from endophytic bacteria. The copy numbers of 16S rRNA and PHE genes in rhizosphere and endophytic bacteria varied from 3.83 × 103 to 2.28 × 106 and 4.17 × 102 to 1.99 × 105, respectively. The copy numbers of PHE genes in rhizosphere bacteria were significantly higher than in endophytic bacteria. Results increase our understanding of the diversity of rhizosphere and endophytic bacteria from plants grown in PAH-contaminated sites. PMID:26184609

  4. Evaluation of the 16S and 12S rRNA genes as universal markers for the identification of commercial fish species in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cawthorn, Donna-Mareè; Steinman, Harris Andrew; Witthuhn, R Corli

    2012-01-01

    The development of DNA-based methods for the identification of fish species is important for fisheries research and control, as well as for the detection of unintentional or fraudulent species substitutions in the marketplace. The aim of this study was to generate a comprehensive reference database of DNA sequences from the mitochondrial 16S and 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes for 53 commercial fish species in South Africa and to evaluate the applicability of these genetic markers for the identification of fish at the species level. The DNA extracted from all target species was readily amplified using universal primers targeting both rRNA gene regions. Sequences from the 16S and 12S rRNA genes were submitted to GenBank for the first time for 34% and 53% of the fish species, respectively. Cumulative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed mean conspecific, congeneric and confamilial Kimura two parameter (K2P) distances of 0.03%, 0.70% and 5.10% and the corresponding values at the 12S level were 0.03%, 1.00% and 5.57%. K2P neighbour-joining trees based on both sequence datasets generally clustered species in accordance with their taxonomic classifications. The nucleotide variation in both the 16S and 12S sequences was suitable for identifying the large majority of the examined fish specimens to at least the level of genus, but was found to be less useful for the explicit differentiation of certain congeneric fish species. It is recommended that one or more faster-evolving DNA regions be analysed to confirm the identities of closely-related fish species in South Africa. PMID:21963445

  5. 16S rRNA Gene Sequence-Based Identification of Bacteria in Automatically Incubated Blood Culture Materials from Tropical Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Hahn, Andreas; Boahen, Kennedy; Sarpong, Nimako; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Halbgewachs, Eva; Marks, Florian; von Kalckreuth, Vera; Poppert, Sven; Loderstaedt, Ulrike; May, Jürgen; Hagen, Ralf Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Background The quality of microbiological diagnostic procedures depends on pre-analytic conditions. We compared the results of 16S rRNA gene PCR and sequencing from automatically incubated blood culture materials from tropical Ghana with the results of cultural growth after automated incubation. Methods Real-time 16S rRNA gene PCR and subsequent sequencing were applied to 1500 retained blood culture samples of Ghanaian patients admitted to a hospital with an unknown febrile illness after enrichment by automated culture. Results Out of all 1500 samples, 191 were culture-positive and 98 isolates were considered etiologically relevant. Out of the 191 culture-positive samples, 16S rRNA gene PCR and sequencing led to concordant results in 65 cases at species level and an additional 62 cases at genus level. PCR was positive in further 360 out of 1309 culture-negative samples, sequencing results of which suggested etiologically relevant pathogen detections in 62 instances, detections of uncertain relevance in 50 instances, and DNA contamination due to sample preparation in 248 instances. In two instances, PCR failed to detect contaminants from the skin flora that were culturally detectable. Pre-analytical errors caused many Enterobacteriaceae to be missed by culture. Conclusions Potentially correctable pre-analytical conditions and not the fastidious nature of the bacteria caused most of the discrepancies. Although 16S rRNA gene PCR and sequencing in addition to culture led to an increase in detections of presumably etiologically relevant blood culture pathogens, the application of this procedure to samples from the tropics was hampered by a high contamination rate. Careful interpretation of diagnostic results is required. PMID:26270631

  6. Investigation of Microbial Diversity in Geothermal Hot Springs in Unkeshwar, India, Based on 16S rRNA Amplicon Metagenome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Mehetre, Gajanan T.; Paranjpe, Aditi; Dastager, Syed G.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial diversity in geothermal waters of the Unkeshwar hot springs in Maharashtra, India, was studied using 16S rRNA amplicon metagenomic sequencing. Taxonomic analysis revealed the presence of Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Archeae, and OD1 phyla. Metabolic function prediction analysis indicated a battery of biological information systems indicating rich and novel microbial diversity, with potential biotechnological applications in this niche. PMID:26950332

  7. Use of Universal 16S rRNA Gene PCR as a Diagnostic Tool for Venous Access Port-Related Bloodstream Infections

    PubMed Central

    Marín, M.; Martín-Rabadán, P.; Echenagusia, A.; Camúñez, F.; Rodríguez-Rosales, G.; Simó, G.; Echenagusia, M.; Bouza, E.

    2013-01-01

    Amplification of the universal 16S rRNA gene using PCR has improved the diagnostic yield of microbiological samples. However, no data have been reported on the reliability of this technique with venous access ports (VAPs). We assessed the utility of 16S rRNA PCR for the prediction of VAP-related bloodstream infection (VAP-RBSI). During a 2-year period, we prospectively received all VAPs removed by interventional radiologists. PCR and conventional cultures were performed using samples from the different VAP sites. We compared the results of PCR with those of conventional culture for patients with confirmed VAP-RBSI. We collected 219 VAPs from 219 patients. Conventional VAP culture revealed 15 episodes of VAP-RBSI. PCR revealed a further 4 episodes in patients undergoing antibiotic therapy which would have gone undetected using conventional culture. Moreover, it had a negative predictive value of 97.8% for the prediction of VAP-RBSI when it was performed using biofilm from the internal surface of the port. In conclusion, universal 16S rRNA PCR performed with samples from the inside of VAPs proved to be a useful tool for the diagnosis of VAP-RBSI. It increased detection of VAP-RBSI episodes by 21.1% in patients undergoing antibiotic therapy whose episodes would have gone undetected using conventional culture. Therefore, we propose a new application of 16S rRNA PCR as a useful tool for the diagnosis of VAP-RBSI in patients receiving antibiotic therapy. PMID:23254136

  8. [Characterizing Beijing's Airborne Bacterial Communities in PM2.5 and PM1 Samples During Haze Pollution Episodes Using 16S rRNA Gene Analysis Method].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bu-ying; Lang, Ji-dong; Zhang, Li-na; Fang, Jian-huo; Cao, Chen; Hao, Ji-ming; Zhu, Ting; Tian, Geng; Jiang, Jing-kun

    2015-08-01

    During 8th-14th Jan., 2013, severe particulate matter (PM) pollution episodes happened in Beijing. These air pollution events lead to high risks for public health. In addition to various PM chemical compositions, biological components in the air may also impose threaten. Little is known about airborne microbial community in such severe air pollution conditions. PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected during that 7-day pollution period. The 16S rRNA gene V3 amplification and the MiSeq sequencing were performed for analyzing these samples. It is found that there is no significant difference at phylum level for PM2.5 bacterial communities during that 7-day pollution period both at phylum and at genus level. At genus level, Arthrobacter and Frankia are the major airborne microbes presented in Beijing winter.samples. At genus level, there are 39 common genera (combined by first 50 genera bacterial of the two analysis) between the 16S rRNA gene analysis and those are found by Metagenomic analysis on the same PM samples. Frankia and Paracoccus are relatively more abundant in 16S rRNA gene data, while Kocuria and Geodermatophilus are relatively more abundant in Meta-data. PM10 bacterial communities are similar to those of PM2.5 with some noticeable differences, i.e., at phylum level, more Firmicutes and less Actinobacteria present in PM10 samples than in PM2.5 samples, while at genus level, more Clostridium presents in PM10 samples. The findings in Beijing were compared with three 16S rRNA gene studies in other countries. Although the sampling locations and times are different from each other, compositions of bacterial community are similar for those sampled at the ground atmosphere. Airborne microbial communities near the ground surface are different from those sampled in the upper troposphere. PMID:26591997

  9. Diversity and distribution of 16S rRNA and phenol monooxygenase genes in the rhizosphere and endophytic bacteria isolated from PAH-contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Peng, Anping; Liu, Juan; Ling, Wanting; Chen, Zeyou; Gao, Yanzheng

    2015-01-01

    This is the first investigation of the diversity and distribution of 16S rRNA and phenol monooxygenase (PHE) genes in endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria of plants at sites contaminated with different levels of PAHs. Ten PAHs at concentrations from 34.22 to 55.29 and 45.79 to 97.81 mg·kg(-1) were measured in rhizosphere soils of Alopecurus aequalis Sobol and Oxalis corniculata L., respectively. The diversity of 16S rRNA and PHE genes in rhizosphere soils or plants changed with varying PAH pollution levels, as shown based on PCR-DGGE data. Generally, higher Shannon-Weiner indexes were found in mild or moderate contaminated areas. A total of 82 different bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences belonging to five phyla; namely, Acfinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Cyanophyta, and Bacteroidetes, were obtained from rhizosphere soils. For the 57 identified PHE gene sequences, 18 were excised from rhizosphere bacteria and 39 from endophytic bacteria. The copy numbers of 16S rRNA and PHE genes in rhizosphere and endophytic bacteria varied from 3.83 × 10(3) to 2.28 × 10(6) and 4.17 × 10(2) to 1.99 × 10(5), respectively. The copy numbers of PHE genes in rhizosphere bacteria were significantly higher than in endophytic bacteria. Results increase our understanding of the diversity of rhizosphere and endophytic bacteria from plants grown in PAH-contaminated sites. PMID:26184609

  10. Sulfur-oxidizing bacterial endosymbionts: analysis of phylogeny and specificity by 16S rRNA sequences. [Calyptogena magnifica; Bathymodiolus thermophilus; Lucinoma annulata; Lucinoma aequizonata; Codakia orbicularis

    SciTech Connect

    Distel, D.L.; Lane, D.J.; Olsen, G.J.; Giovannoni, S.J.; Pace, B.; Pace, N.R.; Stahl, D.A.; Felbeck, H.

    1988-06-01

    The 16S rRNAs from the bacterial endosymbionts of six marine invertebrates from diverse environments were isolated and partially sequenced. These symbionts included the trophosome symbiont of Riftia pachyptila, the gill symbionts of Calyptogena magnifica and Bathymodiolus thermophilus (from deep-sea hydrothermal vents), and the gill symbionts of Lucinoma annulata, Lucinoma aequizonata, and Codakia orbicularis (from relatively shallow coastal environments). Only one type of bacterial 16S rRNA was detected in each symbiosis. Using nucleotide sequence comparisons, we showed that each of the bacterial symbionts is distinct from the others and that all fall within a limited domain of the gamma subdivision of the purple bacteria (one of the major eubacterial divisions previously defined by 16S rRNA analysis. Two host specimens were analyzed in five of the symbioses; in each case, identical bacterial rRNA sequences were obtained from conspecific host specimens. These data indicate that the symbioses examined are species specific and that the symbiont species are unique to and invariant within their respective host species.

  11. Metagenomic and near full-length 16S rRNA sequence data in support of the phylogenetic analysis of the rumen bacterial community in steers.

    PubMed

    Myer, Phillip R; Kim, MinSeok; Freetly, Harvey C; Smith, Timothy P L

    2016-09-01

    Amplicon sequencing utilizing next-generation platforms has significantly transformed how research is conducted, specifically microbial ecology. However, primer and sequencing platform biases can confound or change the way scientists interpret these data. The Pacific Biosciences RSII instrument may also preferentially load smaller fragments, which may also be a function of PCR product exhaustion during sequencing. To further examine theses biases, data is provided from 16S rRNA rumen community analyses. Specifically, data from the relative phylum-level abundances for the ruminal bacterial community are provided to determine between-sample variability. Direct sequencing of metagenomic DNA was conducted to circumvent primer-associated biases in 16S rRNA reads and rarefaction curves were generated to demonstrate adequate coverage of each amplicon. PCR products were also subjected to reduced amplification and pooling to reduce the likelihood of PCR product exhaustion during sequencing on the Pacific Biosciences platform. The taxonomic profiles for the relative phylum-level and genus-level abundance of rumen microbiota as a function of PCR pooling for sequencing on the Pacific Biosciences RSII platform were provided. For more information, see "Evaluation of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing using two next-generation sequencing technologies for phylogenetic analysis of the rumen bacterial community in steers" P.R. Myer, M. Kim, H.C. Freetly, T.P.L. Smith (2016) [1]. PMID:27508263

  12. 30S Subunit-Dependent Activation of the Sorangium cellulosum So ce56 Aminoglycoside Resistance-Conferring 16S rRNA Methyltransferase Kmr

    PubMed Central

    Savic, Miloje; Sunita, S.; Zelinskaya, Natalia; Desai, Pooja M.; Macmaster, Rachel; Vinal, Kellie

    2015-01-01

    Methylation of bacterial 16S rRNA within the ribosomal decoding center confers exceptionally high resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics. This resistance mechanism is exploited by aminoglycoside producers for self-protection while functionally equivalent methyltransferases have been acquired by human and animal pathogenic bacteria. Here, we report structural and functional analyses of the Sorangium cellulosum So ce56 aminoglycoside resistance-conferring methyltransferase Kmr. Our results demonstrate that Kmr is a 16S rRNA methyltransferase acting at residue A1408 to confer a canonical aminoglycoside resistance spectrum in Escherichia coli. Kmr possesses a class I methyltransferase core fold but with dramatic differences in the regions which augment this structure to confer substrate specificity in functionally related enzymes. Most strikingly, the region linking core β-strands 6 and 7, which forms part of the S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) binding pocket and contributes to base flipping by the m1A1408 methyltransferase NpmA, is disordered in Kmr, correlating with an exceptionally weak affinity for SAM. Kmr is unexpectedly insensitive to substitutions of residues critical for activity of other 16S rRNA (A1408) methyltransferases and also to the effects of by-product inhibition by S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). Collectively, our results indicate that adoption of a catalytically competent Kmr conformation and binding of the obligatory cosubstrate SAM must be induced by interaction with the 30S subunit substrate. PMID:25733511

  13. First Experience of a Multicenter External Quality Assessment of Molecular 16S rRNA Gene Detection in Bone and Joint Infections

    PubMed Central

    Bémer, Pascale; Valentin, Anne Sophie; Héry-Arnaud, Geneviève; Tandé, Didier; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Vincent, Pascal; Kempf, Marie; Lemarié, Carole; Guinard, Jérôme; Bret, Laurent; Cognée, Anne Sophie; Gibaud, Sophie; Burucoa, Christophe; Corvec, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the performance of seven French laboratories for 16S rRNA gene detection by real-time PCR in the diagnosis of bone and joint infection (BJI) to validate a large multicenter study. External quality control (QC) was required owing to the differences in extraction procedures and the molecular equipment used in the different laboratories. Three proficiency sets were organized, including four bacterial DNA extracts and four bead mill-pretreated osteoarticular specimens. Extraction volumes, 16S rRNA gene primers, and sequencing interpretation rules were standardized. In order to assess each laboratory's ability to achieve the best results, scores were assigned, and each QC series was classified as optimal, acceptable, or to be improved. A total of 168 QCs were sent, and 160 responses were analyzed. The expected results were obtained for 93.8%, with the same proportion for extracts (75/80) and clinical specimens (75/80). For the specimens, there was no significant difference between manual and automated extraction. This QC demonstrated the ability to achieve good and homogeneous results using the same 16S rRNA gene PCR with different equipment and validates the possibility of high-quality multicenter studies using molecular diagnosis for BJI. PMID:25411177

  14. First experience of a multicenter external quality assessment of molecular 16S rRNA gene detection in bone and joint infections.

    PubMed

    Plouzeau, Chloé; Bémer, Pascale; Valentin, Anne Sophie; Héry-Arnaud, Geneviève; Tandé, Didier; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Vincent, Pascal; Kempf, Marie; Lemarié, Carole; Guinard, Jérôme; Bret, Laurent; Cognée, Anne Sophie; Gibaud, Sophie; Burucoa, Christophe; Corvec, Stéphane

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the performance of seven French laboratories for 16S rRNA gene detection by real-time PCR in the diagnosis of bone and joint infection (BJI) to validate a large multicenter study. External quality control (QC) was required owing to the differences in extraction procedures and the molecular equipment used in the different laboratories. Three proficiency sets were organized, including four bacterial DNA extracts and four bead mill-pretreated osteoarticular specimens. Extraction volumes, 16S rRNA gene primers, and sequencing interpretation rules were standardized. In order to assess each laboratory's ability to achieve the best results, scores were assigned, and each QC series was classified as optimal, acceptable, or to be improved. A total of 168 QCs were sent, and 160 responses were analyzed. The expected results were obtained for 93.8%, with the same proportion for extracts (75/80) and clinical specimens (75/80). For the specimens, there was no significant difference between manual and automated extraction. This QC demonstrated the ability to achieve good and homogeneous results using the same 16S rRNA gene PCR with different equipment and validates the possibility of high-quality multicenter studies using molecular diagnosis for BJI. PMID:25411177

  15. Comparative analyses of phenotypic methods and 16S rRNA, khe, rpoB genes sequencing for identification of clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    He, Yanxia; Guo, Xianguang; Xiang, Shifei; Li, Jiao; Li, Xiaoqin; Xiang, Hui; He, Jinlei; Chen, Dali; Chen, Jianping

    2016-07-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate 16S rRNA, khe and rpoB gene sequencing for the identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae in comparison with phenotypic methods. Fifteen clinical isolates were examined, which were initially identified as K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae using the automated VITEK 32 system in two hospitals in Enshi City, China. Their identity was further supported by conventional phenotypic methods on the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics. Using Bayesian phylogenetic analyses and haplotypes network reconstruction, 13 isolates were identified as K. pneumoniae, whereas the other two isolates (K19, K24) were classified as Shigella sp. and Enterobacter sp., respectively. Of the three genes, 16S rRNA and khe gene could discriminate the clinical isolates at the genus level, whereas rpoB could discriminate Klebsiella at the species and even subspecies level. Overall, the gene tree based on rpoB is more compatible with the currently accepted classification of Klebsiella than those based on 16S rRNA and khe genes, showing that rpoB can be a powerful tool for identification of K. pneumoniae isolates. Above all, our study challenges the utility of khe as a species-specific marker for identification of K. pneumoniae. PMID:27147066

  16. Bacterial Diversity Analysis of Huanglongbing Pathogen-Infected Citrus, Using PhyloChip Arrays and 16S rRNA Gene Clone Library Sequencing▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sagaram, Uma Shankar; DeAngelis, Kristen M.; Trivedi, Pankaj; Andersen, Gary L.; Lu, Shi-En; Wang, Nian

    2009-01-01

    The bacterial diversity associated with citrus leaf midribs was characterized for citrus groves that contained the Huanglongbing (HLB) pathogen, which has yet to be cultivated in vitro. We employed a combination of high-density phylogenetic 16S rRNA gene microarrays and 16S rRNA gene clone library sequencing to determine the microbial community composition for symptomatic and asymptomatic citrus midribs. Our results revealed that citrus leaf midribs can support a diversity of microbes. PhyloChip analysis indicated that 47 orders of bacteria in 15 phyla were present in the citrus leaf midribs, while 20 orders in 8 phyla were observed with the cloning and sequencing method. PhyloChip arrays indicated that nine taxa were significantly more abundant in symptomatic midribs than in asymptomatic midribs. “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” was detected at a very low level in asymptomatic plants but was over 200 times more abundant in symptomatic plants. The PhyloChip analysis results were further verified by sequencing 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, which indicated the dominance of “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” in symptomatic leaves. These data implicate “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” as the pathogen responsible for HLB disease. PMID:19151177

  17. In silico analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of endophytic bacteria, isolated from the aerial parts and seeds of important agricultural crops.

    PubMed

    Bredow, C; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A; Mangolin, C A; Rhoden, S A

    2015-01-01

    Because of human population growth, increased food production and alternatives to conventional methods of biocontrol and development of plants such as the use of endophytic bacteria and fungi are required. One of the methods used to study microorganism diversity is sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, which has several advantages, including universality, size, and availability of databases for comparison. The objective of this study was to analyze endophytic bacterial diversity in agricultural crops using published papers, sequence databases, and phylogenetic analysis. Fourteen papers were selected in which the ribosomal 16S rRNA gene was used to identify endophytic bacteria, in important agricultural crops, such as coffee, sugar cane, beans, corn, soybean, tomatoes, and grapes, located in different geographical regions (America, Europe, and Asia). The corresponding 16S rRNA gene sequences were selected from the NCBI database, aligned using the Mega 5.2 program, and phylogenetic analysis was undertaken. The most common orders present in the analyzed cultures were Bacillales, Enterobacteriales, and Actinomycetales and the most frequently observed genera were Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Microbacterium. Phylogenetic analysis showed that only approximately 1.56% of the total sequences were not properly grouped, demonstrating reliability in the identification of microorganisms. This study identified the main genera found in endophytic bacterial cultures from plants, providing data for future studies on improving plant agriculture, biotechnology, endophytic bacterium prospecting, and to help understand relationships between endophytic bacteria and their interactions with plants. PMID:26345903

  18. Targeting single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the 16S rRNA gene to detect and differentiate Legionella pneumophila and non-Legionella pneumophila species.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiao-Yong; Hu, Chao-Hui; Zhu, Qing-Yi

    2016-08-01

    A PCR-based method targeting single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 16S rRNA gene was developed for differential identification of Legionella pneumophila and non-Legionella pneumophila. Based on the bioinformatics analysis for 176 Legionella 16S rRNA gene fragments of 56 different Legionella species, a set of SNPs, A(628)C(629) was found to be highly specific to L. pneumophila strains. A multiplex assay was designed that was able to distinguish sites with limited sequence heterogeneity between L. pneumophila and non-L. pneumophila in the targeted 16S rRNA gene. The assay amplified a 261-bp amplicon for Legionella spp. and a set of 203- and 97-bp amplicons only specific to L. pneumophila species. Among 49 ATCC strains and 284 Legionella isolates from environmental water and clinical samples, 100 % of L. pneumophila and non-L. pneumophila strains were correctly identified and differentiated by this assay. The assay presents a more rapid, sensitive and alternative method to the currently available PCR-sequencing detection and differentiation method. PMID:27112927

  19. Identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from ovine milk samples by PCR-RFLP of 16S rRNA and gap genes.

    PubMed

    Onni, T; Sanna, G; Cubeddu, G P; Marogna, G; Lollai, S; Leori, G; Tola, S

    2010-08-26

    The identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) causing ovine infections remains problematic, although these bacteria are considered the main etiologic agents of subclinical mastitis in sheep and goats. In this study, 226 CNS isolates were collected from 2201 milking sarda sheep belonging to 15 flocks with high somatic cell count scores. All isolates were subjected to identification with the API Staph ID test, and then to the amplification of staphylococcal 16S rRNA and gap genes by PCR assays. The gap gene was subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with the restriction endonuclease AluI, whereas the 16S rRNA gene was subjected to ribosomal fingerprinting with the restriction endonucleases RsaI, PstI and AluI. When PCR-RFLP patterns of CNS isolates were different from those of their reference strains, gap gene amplicons were sequenced for definitive identification. The API Staph ID test, in alternative to the genotypic identification method, produced considerably different results in terms of species identified within each group. Using the PCR-RFLP assay, most of the isolates clustered together with the Staphylococcus epidermidis type strain (131, corresponding to 57.9%), followed by S. caprae (34, corresponding to 15%) and S. chromogenes (30, corresponding to 13.2%). In conclusion, the PCR-RFLP assay of 16S rRNA and gap genes is a more reliable and reproducible method than the API Staph ID test for the identification of CNS causing sheep mastitis. PMID:20167442

  20. Pseudomonas sp. strain CA5 (a selenite-reducing bacterium) 16S rRNA gene complete sequence. National Institute of Health, National Center for Biotechnology Information, GenBank sequence. Accession FJ422810.1.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study used 1321 base pair 16S rRNA gene sequence methods to confirm the phylogenetic position of a soil isolate as a bacterium belonging to the genus Pesudomonas sp. Morphological, biochemical characteristics, and fatty acid profiles are consistent with the 16S rRNA gene sequence identification...

  1. Mutations in E.coli 16s rRNA that enhance and decrease the activity of a suppressor tRNA.

    PubMed

    Prescott, C D; Kornau, H C

    1992-04-11

    The in vivo expression of mutations constructed within helix 34 of 16S rRNA has been examined together with a nonsense tRNA suppressor for their action at stop codons. The data revealed two novel results: in contrast to previous findings, some of the rRNA mutations affected suppression at UAA and UAG nonsense codons. Secondly, both an increase and a decrease in the efficiency of the suppressor tRNA were induced by the mutations. This is the first report that rRNA mutations decreased the efficiency of a suppressor tRNA. The data are interpreted as there being competition between the two release factors (RF-1 and RF-2) for an overlapping domain and that helix 34 influences this interaction. PMID:1374555

  2. Mutations in E.coli 16s rRNA that enhance and decrease the activity of a suppressor tRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, C D; Kornau, H C

    1992-01-01

    The in vivo expression of mutations constructed within helix 34 of 16S rRNA has been examined together with a nonsense tRNA suppressor for their action at stop codons. The data revealed two novel results: in contrast to previous findings, some of the rRNA mutations affected suppression at UAA and UAG nonsense codons. Secondly, both an increase and a decrease in the efficiency of the suppressor tRNA were induced by the mutations. This is the first report that rRNA mutations decreased the efficiency of a suppressor tRNA. The data are interpreted as there being competition between the two release factors (RF-1 and RF-2) for an overlapping domain and that helix 34 influences this interaction. PMID:1374555

  3. Sensitive Detection and Serovar Differentiation of Typhoidal and Nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica Species Using 16S rRNA Gene PCR Coupled with High-Resolution Melt Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Masek, Billie J.; Hardick, Justin; Won, Helen; Yang, Samuel; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Rothman, Richard E.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica species infections are a significant public health problem causing high morbidity rates worldwide and high mortality rates in the developing world. These infections are not always rapidly diagnosed as a cause of bloodstream infections because of the limitations of blood culture, which greatly affects clinical care as a result of treatment delays. A molecular diagnostic assay that could rapidly detect and identify S. enterica species infections as a cause of sepsis is needed. Nine typhoidal and nontyphoidal S. enterica serovars were used to establish the limit of detection (LOD) of a previously published 16S rRNA gene PCR (16S PCR) in mock whole blood specimens. In addition, 16 typhoidal and nontyphoidal S. enterica serovars were used to evaluate the serovar differentiation capability of 16S PCR coupled with high-resolution melt analysis. The overall LOD of 16S PCR for the nine typhoidal and nontyphoidal S. enterica serovars analyzed was <10 colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) in mock whole blood specimens, with the lowest and highest LOD at <1 CFU/mL and 9 CFU/mL, respectively. By high-resolution melt analysis, the typhoidal and nontyphoidal S. enterica serovar groups analyzed each generated a unique grouping code, allowing for serovar-level identification. 16S PCR coupled with high-resolution melt analysis could be a useful molecular diagnostic that could enhance the current diagnostic, treatment, and surveillance methods of S. enterica bloodstream infections. PMID:24365382

  4. MULTIPLE ENZYME RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM ANALYSIS FOR HIGH RESOLUTION DISTINCTION OF PSEUDOMONAS (SENSU STRICTO) 16S RRNA GENES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pseudomonas specific 16S rDNA PCR amplification and multiple enzyme restriction fragment length polymorphism (MERFLP) analysis using a single digestion mixture of Alu I, Hinf I, Rsa I, and Tru 9I distinguished 150 published sequences and reference strains of authentic Pseudomonas...

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF ACTIVE BACTERIAL COMMUNITIES IN A MODEL DRINKING WATER BIOFILM SYSTEM USING 16S RRNA-BASED CLONE LIBRARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent phylogenetic studies have used DNA as the target molecule for the development of environmental 16S rDNA clone libraries. As DNA may persist in the environment, DNA-based libraries cannot be used to identify metabolically active bacteria in water systems. In this study, a...

  6. Bacterial diversity in Philippine fermented mustard (burong mustasa) as revealed by 16S rRNA gene analysis.

    PubMed

    Larcia, L L H; Estacio, R C; Dalmacio, L M M

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies on the bacterial profile of burong mustasa, a traditional Philippine fermented food, had been conducted using culture-dependent techniques. Since these methods may underestimate the total microbiota of a sample, a culture-independent study was done to determine the bacterial diversity in burong mustasa through molecular biology techniques. Bacterial DNA was isolated from fermented mustard samples at different stages of fermentation. The isolated genomic DNA was amplified by PCR using specific primers for the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rDNA). The 1.5 kb amplicons obtained were subjected to nested PCR using primers for the internal variable region of the 16S rDNA. The 585 bp nested PCR amplicons were then subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to separate the different bacteria present in each sample. Distinct and unique bands in the DGGE profile were excised, reamplified, purified and sequenced for bacterial identification. Molecular cloning of the 1.5 kb 16S rDNA was also performed using the pGEM-T Easy Vector System. The cloned gene was sequenced for bacterial identification. The identified microbiota in burong mustasa at different stages of fermentation include lactic acid bacteria and several uncultured bacteria (initial up to the final stages); acetic acid bacteria (middle stage); and Streptobacillus and Fusobacterium species (initial stage). The potential probiotic bacteria found in burong mustasa are Weissella and Lactobacillus. PMID:22146686

  7. Differentiation of Phylogenetically Related Slowly Growing Mycobacteria Based on 16S-23S rRNA Gene Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Andreas; Fischer, Marga; Hamid, Mohamed E.; Michalke, Sabine; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Mauch, Harald

    1998-01-01

    Interspecific polymorphisms of the 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) are widely used for species identification of mycobacteria. 16S rDNA sequences, however, do not vary greatly within a species, and they are either indistinguishable in some species, for example, in Mycobacterium kansasii and M. gastri, or highly similar, for example, in M. malmoense and M. szulgai. We determined 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of 60 strains in the genus Mycobacterium representing 13 species (M. avium, M. conspicuum, M. gastri, M. genavense, M. kansasii, M. malmoense, M. marinum, M. shimoidei, M. simiae, M. szulgai, M. triplex, M. ulcerans, and M. xenopi). An alignment of these sequences together with additional sequences available in the EMBL database (for M. intracellulare, M. phlei, M. smegmatis, and M. tuberculosis) was established according to primary- and secondary-structure similarities. Comparative sequence analysis applying different treeing methods grouped the strains into species-specific clusters with low sequence divergence between strains belonging to the same species (0 to 2%). The ITS-based tree topology only partially correlated to that based on 16S rDNA, but the main branching orders were preserved, notably, the division of fast-growing from slowly growing mycobacteria, separate branching for M. simiae, M. genavense, and M. triplex, and distinct branches for M. xenopi and M. shimoidei. Comparisons of M. gastri with M. kansasii and M. malmoense with M. szulgai revealed ITS sequence similarities of 93 and 88%, respectively. M. marinum and M. ulcerans possessed identical ITS sequences. Our results show that ITS sequencing represents a supplement to 16S rRNA gene sequences for the differentiation of closely related species. Slowly growing mycobacteria show a high sequence variation in the ITS; this variation has the potential to be used for the development of probes as a rapid approach to mycobacterial identification. PMID:9431937

  8. Improved Bacterial 16S rRNA Gene (V4 and V4-5) and Fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer Marker Gene Primers for Microbial Community Surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Walters , William; Hyde, Embriette R.; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Ackermann, Gail; Humphrey, Greg; Parada , Alma; Gilbert, Jack A.; Jansson, Janet K.; Caporaso, Greg; Fuhrman, Jed A.; Apprill, Amy; Knight, Rob

    2015-12-22

    Designing primers for PCR-based taxonomic surveys that amplify a broad range of phylotypes in varied community samples is a difficult challenge, and the comparability of datasets amplified with varied primers requires attention. Here we examine the performance of modified 16S rRNA gene and ITS primers for archaea/bacteria and fungi, respectively, with non-aquatic samples. We moved primer barcodes to the 5’-end, allowing for a range of different 3’ primer pairings, such as the 515f/926r primer pair, which amplifies variable regions 4-5 of the 16S rRNA gene. We additionally demonstrate that modifications to the 515f/806r (variable region 4) 16S primer pair, which improves detection of Thaumarchaeota and SAR11 in marine samples, do not degrade performance on taxa already amplified effectively by the original primer set. Alterations to the fungal ITS primers did result in differential but overall improved performance compared to the original primers. In both cases, the improved primers should be widely adopted for amplicon studies.

  9. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of 16S rRNA gene clones (Clone-FISH) for probe validation and screening of clone libraries.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Andreas; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Nielsen, Jeppe L; Tonolla, Mauro; Stahl, David A

    2002-11-01

    A method is presented for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of 16S rRNA gene clones targeting in vivo transcribed plasmid inserts (Clone-FISH). Several different cloning approaches and treatments to generate target-rRNA in the clones were compared. Highest signal intensities of Clone-FISH were obtained using plasmids with a T7 RNA polymerase promoter and host cells with an IPTG-inducible T7 RNA polymerase. Combined IPTG-induction and chloramphenicol treatment of those clones resulted in FISH signals up to 2.8-fold higher than signals of FISH with probe EUB338 to cells of Escherichia coli. Probe dissociation curves for three oligonucleotide probes were compared for reference cells containing native (FISH) or cloned (Clone-FISH) target sequences. Melting behaviour and calculated T(d) values were virtually identical for clones and cells, providing a format to use 16S rRNA gene clones instead of pure cultures for probe validation and optimization of hybridization conditions. The optimized Clone-FISH protocol was also used to screen an environmental clone library for insert sequences of interest. In this application format, 13 out of 82 clones examined were identified to contain sulphate-reducing bacterial rRNA genes. In summary, Clone-FISH is a simple and fast technique, compatible with a wide variety of cloning vectors and hosts, that should have general utility for probe validation and screening of clone libraries. PMID:12460279

  10. Comparative Phylogenetic Assignment of Environmental Sequences of Genes Encoding 16S rRNA and Numerically Abundant Culturable Bacteria from an Anoxic Rice Paddy Soil

    PubMed Central

    Hengstmann, Ulf; Chin, Kuk-Jeong; Janssen, Peter H.; Liesack, Werner

    1999-01-01

    We used both cultivation and direct recovery of bacterial 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) sequences to investigate the structure of the bacterial community in anoxic rice paddy soil. Isolation and phenotypic characterization of 19 saccharolytic and cellulolytic strains are described in the accompanying paper (K.-J. Chin, D. Hahn, U. Hengstmann, W. Liesack, and P. H. Janssen, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:5042–5049, 1999). Here we describe the phylogenetic positions of these strains in relation to 57 environmental 16S rDNA clone sequences. Close matches between the two data sets were obtained for isolates from the culturable populations determined by the most-probable-number counting method to be large (3 × 107 to 2.5 × 108 cells per g [dry weight] of soil). This included matches with 16S rDNA similarity values greater than 98% within distinct lineages of the division Verrucomicrobia (strain PB90-1) and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group (strains XB45 and PB90-2), as well as matches with similarity values greater than 95% within distinct lines of descent of clostridial cluster XIVa (strain XB90) and the family Bacillaceae (strain SB45). In addition, close matches with similarity values greater than 95% were obtained for cloned 16S rDNA sequences and bacteria (strains DR1/8 and RPec1) isolated from the same type of rice paddy soil during previous investigations. The correspondence between culture methods and direct recovery of environmental 16S rDNA suggests that the isolates obtained are representative geno- and phenotypes of predominant bacterial groups which account for 5 to 52% of the total cells in the anoxic rice paddy soil. Furthermore, our findings clearly indicate that a dual approach results in a more objective view of the structural and functional composition of a soil bacterial community than either cultivation or direct recovery of 16S rDNA sequences alone. PMID:10543822

  11. Targeting Species-Specific Low-Affinity 16S rRNA Binding Sites by Using Peptide Nucleic Acids for Detection of Legionellae in Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Wilks, Sandra A.; Keevil, C. William

    2006-01-01

    Using fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect bacterial groups has several inherent limitations. DNA probes are generally used, targeting sites on the 16S rRNA. However, much of the 16S rRNA is highly conserved, with variable regions often located in inaccessible areas where secondary structures can restrict probe access. Here, we describe the use of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes as a superior alternative to DNA probes, especially when used for environmental samples. A complex bacterial genus (Legionella) was studied, and two probes were designed, one to detect all species and one targeted to Legionella pneumophila. These probes were developed from existing sequences and are targeted to low-binding-affinity sites on the 16S rRNA. In total, 47 strains of Legionella were tested. In all cases, the Legionella spp. PNA probe labeled cells strongly but did not bind to any non-Legionella species. Likewise, the specific L. pneumophila PNA probe labeled only strains of L. pneumophila. By contrast, the equivalent DNA probes performed poorly. To assess the applicability of this method for use on environmental samples, drinking-water biofilms were spiked with a known concentration of L. pneumophila bacteria. Quantifications of the L. pneumophila bacteria were compared using PNA hybridization and standard culture methods. The culture method quantified only 10% of the number of L. pneumophila bacteria found by PNA hybridization. This illustrates the value of this method for use on complex environmental samples, especially where cells may be in a viable but noncultivable state. PMID:16885298

  12. Monitoring Bacterial Communities in Raw Milk and Cheese by Culture-Dependent and -Independent 16S rRNA Gene-Based Analyses▿

    PubMed Central

    Delbès, Céline; Ali-Mandjee, Leila; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2007-01-01

    The diversity and dynamics of bacterial populations in Saint-Nectaire, a raw-milk, semihard cheese, were investigated using a dual culture-dependent and direct molecular approach combining single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) fingerprinting and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The dominant clones, among 125 16S rRNA genes isolated from milk, belonged to members of the Firmicutes (58% of the total clones) affiliated mainly with the orders Clostridiales and the Lactobacillales, followed by the phyla Proteobacteria (21.6%), Actinobacteria (16.8%), and Bacteroidetes (4%). Sequencing the 16S rRNA genes of 126 milk isolates collected from four culture media revealed the presence of 36 different species showing a wider diversity in the Gammaproteobacteria phylum and Staphylococcus genus than that found among clones. In cheese, a total of 21 species were obtained from 170 isolates, with dominant species belonging to the Lactobacillales and subdominant species affiliated with the Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes (Chryseobacterium sp.), or Gammaproteobacteria (Stenotrophomonas sp.). Fingerprinting DNA isolated from milk by SSCP analysis yielded complex patterns, whereas analyzing DNA isolated from cheese resulted in patterns composed of a single peak which corresponded to that of lactic acid bacteria. SSCP fingerprinting of mixtures of all colonies harvested from plate count agar supplemented with crystal violet and vancomycin showed good potential for monitoring the subdominant Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes (Flavobacteria) organisms in milk and cheese. Likewise, analyzing culturable subcommunities from cheese-ripening bacterial medium permitted assessment of the diversity of halotolerant Actinobacteria and Staphylococcus organisms. Direct and culture-dependent approaches produced complementary information, thus generating a more accurate view of milk and cheese microbial ecology. PMID:17259356

  13. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing reveals shift in patient faecal microbiota during high-dose chemotherapy as conditioning regimen for bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Montassier, Emmanuel; Batard, Eric; Massart, Sébastien; Gastinne, Thomas; Carton, Thomas; Caillon, Jocelyne; Le Fresne, Sophie; Caroff, Nathalie; Hardouin, Jean Benoit; Moreau, Philippe; Potel, Gilles; Le Vacon, Françoise; de La Cochetière, Marie France

    2014-04-01

    Gastrointestinal disturbances are a side-effect frequently associated with haematological malignancies due to the intensive cytotoxic treatment given in connection with bone marrow transplantation (BMT). However, intestinal microbiota changes during chemotherapy remain poorly described, probably due to the use of culture-based and low-resolution molecular methods in previous studies. The objective of our study was to apply a next generation DNA sequencing technology to analyse chemotherapy-induced changes in faecal microbiota. We included eight patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma undergoing one course of BMT conditioning chemotherapy. We collected a prechemotherapy faecal sample, the day before chemotherapy was initiated, and a postchemotherapy sample, collected 1 week after the initiation of chemotherapy. Total DNA was extracted from faecal samples, denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography based on amplification of the V6 to V8 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene, and 454-pyrosequencing of the 16 S rRNA gene, using PCR primers targeting the V5 and V6 hypervariable 16S rRNA gene regions were performed. Raw sequence data were screened, trimmed, and filtered using the QIIME pipeline. We observed a steep reduction in alpha diversity and significant differences in the composition of the intestinal microbiota in response to chemotherapy. Chemotherapy was associated with a drastic drop in Faecalibacterium and accompanied by an increase of Escherichia. The chemotherapy-induced shift in the intestinal microbiota could induce severe side effects in immunocompromised cancer patients. Our study is a first step in identifying patients at risk for gastrointestinal disturbances and to promote strategies to prevent this drastic shift in intestinal microbiota. PMID:24402367

  14. Persistent spread of the rmtB 16S rRNA methyltransferase gene among Escherichia coli isolates from diseased food-producing animals in China.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jing; Sun, Jian; Cheng, Ke; Li, Liang; Fang, Liang-Xing; Zou, Meng-Ting; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Ya-Hong

    2016-05-30

    A total of 963 non-duplicate Escherichia coli strains isolated from food-producing animals between 2002 and 2012 were screened for the presence of the 16S rRNA methyltransferase genes. Among the positive isolates, resistance determinants to extended spectrum β-lactamases, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes as well as floR and fosA/A3/C2 were detected using PCR analysis. These isolates were further subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, molecular typing, PCR-based plasmid replicon typing and plasmid analysis. Of the 963 E. coli isolates, 173 (18.0%), 3 (0.3%) and 2 (0.2%) were rmtB-, armA- and rmtE-positive strains, respectively. All the 16S rRNA methyltransferase gene-positive isolates were multidrug resistant and over 90% of them carried one or more type of resistance gene. IncF (especially IncFII) and non-typeable plasmids played the main role in the dissemination of rmtB, followed by the IncN plasmids. Plasmids that harbored rmtB ranged in size from 20kb to 340kb EcoRI-RFLP testing of the 109 rmtB-positive plasmids from different years and different origins suggested that horizontal (among diverse animals) and vertical transfer of IncF, non-typeable and IncN-type plasmids were responsible for the spread of rmtB gene. In summary, our findings highlight that rmtB was the most prevalent 16S rRNA methyltransferase gene, which present persistent spread in food-producing animals in China and a diverse group of plasmids was responsible for rmtB dissemination. PMID:27139028

  15. Prevalence of Lysogeny among Soil Bacteria and Presence of 16S rRNA and trzN Genes in Viral-Community DNA▿

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Dhritiman; Roy, Krishnakali; Williamson, Kurt E.; White, David C.; Wommack, K. Eric; Sublette, Kerry L.; Radosevich, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Bacteriophages are very abundant in the biosphere, and viral infection is believed to affect the activity and genetic diversity of bacterial communities in aquatic environments. Lysogenic conversion, for example, can improve host fitness and lead to phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer. However, little is known about lysogeny and transduction in the soil environment. In this study we employed atrazine-impregnated Bio-Sep beads (a cell immobilization matrix) to sample active microbiota from soils with prior pesticide exposure history. Once recovered from soil, the bead communities were induced with mitomycin C (MC), and viral and bacterial abundances were determined to evaluate the incidence of inducible prophage in soil bacteria. The inducible fraction calculated within bead communities was high (ca. 85%) relative to other studies in aquatic and sedimentary environments. Moreover, the bacterial genes encoding 16S rRNA and trzN, a chlorohydrolase gene responsible for dehalogenation of atrazine, were detected by PCR in the viral DNA fraction purified from MC-induced bead communities. A diverse collection of actinobacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences occurred within the viral DNA fraction of induced, water-equilibrated beads. Similar results were observed in induced atrazine-equilibrated beads, where 77% of the cloned sequences were derived from actinobacterial lineages. Heterogeneous 16S rRNA gene sequences consisting of fragments from two different taxa were detected in the clone libraries. The results suggest that lysogeny is a prevalent reproductive strategy among soil bacteriophages and that the potential for horizontal gene transfer via transduction is significant in soil microbial communities. PMID:17993550

  16. Quantitative identification of fecal water pollution sources by TaqMan real-time PCR assays using Bacteroidales 16S rRNA genetic markers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Young; Weir, Susan C; Lee, Hung; Trevors, Jack T

    2010-12-01

    PCR-based analysis of Bacteroidales 16S rRNA genes has emerged as a promising tool to identify sources of fecal water pollution. In this study, three TaqMan real-time PCR assays (BacGeneral, BacHuman, and BacBovine) were developed and evaluated for their ability to quantitatively detect general (total), human-specific, and bovine-specific Bacteroidales 16S rRNA genetic markers. The detection sensitivity was determined to be 6.5 copies of 16S rRNA gene for the BacGeneral and BacHuman assays and 10 copies for the BacBovine assay. The assays were capable of detecting approximately one to two cells per PCR. When tested with 70 fecal samples from various sources (human, cattle, pig, deer, dog, cat, goose, gull, horse, and raccoon), the three assays positively identified the target markers in all samples without any false-negative results. The BacHuman and BacBovine assays exhibited false-positive reactions with non-target samples in a few cases. However, the level of the false-positive reactions was about 50 times smaller than that of the true-positive ones, and therefore, these cross-reactions were unlikely to cause misidentifications of the fecal pollution sources. Microbial source-tracking capability was tested at two freshwater streams of which water quality was influenced by human and cattle feces, respectively. The assays accurately detected the presence of the corresponding host-specific markers upon fecal pollution and the persistence of the markers in downstream areas. The assays are expected to reliably determine human and bovine fecal pollution sources in environmental water samples. PMID:20871990

  17. The genetic diversity of genus Bacillus and the related genera revealed by 16s rRNA gene sequences and ardra analyses isolated from geothermal regions of turkey

    PubMed Central

    Cihan, Arzu Coleri; Tekin, Nilgun; Ozcan, Birgul; Cokmus, Cumhur

    2012-01-01

    Previously isolated 115 endospore-forming bacilli were basically grouped according to their temperature requirements for growth: the thermophiles (74%), the facultative thermophiles (14%) and the mesophiles (12%). These isolates were taken into 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, and they were clustered among the 7 genera: Anoxybacillus, Aeribacillus, Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Geobacillus, Paenibacillus, and Thermoactinomycetes. Of these bacilli, only the thirty two isolates belonging to genera Bacillus (16), Brevibacillus (13), Paenibacillus (1) and Thermoactinomycetes (2) were selected and presented in this paper. The comparative sequence analyses revealed that the similarity values were ranged as 91.4–100 %, 91.8- 99.2 %, 92.6- 99.8 % and 90.7 - 99.8 % between the isolates and the related type strains from these four genera, respectively. Twenty nine of them were found to be related with the validly published type strains. The most abundant species was B. thermoruber with 9 isolates followed by B. pumilus (6), B. lichenformis (3), B. subtilis (3), B. agri (3), B. smithii (2), T. vulgaris (2) and finally P. barengoltzii (1). In addition, isolates of A391a, B51a and D295 were proposed as novel species as their 16S rRNA gene sequences displayed similarities ≤ 97% to their closely related type strains. The AluI-, HaeIII- and TaqI-ARDRA results were in congruence with the 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. The ARDRA results allowed us to differentiate these isolates, and their discriminative restriction fragments were able to be determined. Some of their phenotypic characters and their amylase, chitinase and protease production were also studied and biotechnologically valuable enzyme producing isolates were introduced in order to use in further studies. PMID:24031834

  18. Characterization of Microbial Communities Found in the Human Vagina by Analysis of Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms of 16S rRNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Coolen, Marco J. L.; Post, Eduard; Davis, Catherine C.; Forney, Larry J.

    2005-01-01

    To define and monitor the structure of microbial communities found in the human vagina, a cultivation-independent approach based on analyses of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) of 16S rRNA genes was developed and validated. Sixteen bacterial strains commonly found in the human vagina were used to construct model communities that were subsequently used to develop efficient means for the isolation of genomic DNA and an optimal strategy for T-RFLP analyses. The various genera in the model community could best be resolved by digesting amplicons made using bacterial primers 8f and 926r with HaeIII; fewer strains could be resolved using other primer-enzyme combinations, and no combination successfully distinguished certain species of the same genus. To demonstrate the utility of the approach, samples from five women that had been collected over a 2-month period were analyzed. Differences and similarities among the vaginal microbial communities of the women were readily apparent. The T-RFLP data suggest that the communities of three women were dominated by a single phylotype, most likely species of Lactobacillus. In contrast, the communities of two other women included numerically abundant populations that differed from Lactobacillus strains whose 16S rRNA genes had been previously determined. The T-RFLP profiles of samples from all the women were largely invariant over time, indicating that the kinds and abundances of the numerically dominant populations were relatively stable throughout two menstrual cycles. These findings show that T-RFLP of 16S rRNA genes can be used to compare vaginal microbial communities and gain information about the numerically dominant populations that are present. PMID:16332868

  19. Report of an immunocompetent case with disseminated infection due to Nocardia otitidiscaviarum: Identification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

    PubMed

    Eren, Esma; Ulu-Kilic, Aysegul; Atalay, Altay; Demiraslan, Hayati; Parkan, Omur; Koc, Nedret

    2016-03-01

    Nocardia otitidiscaviarum belongs to the agents of opportunistic infections seen in immunocompromised patients, but may occur rarely in immunocompetent patients. In this report we described a case of a previously healthy 69-year-old woman with cerebral and retroperitoneal abscess due to Nocardia otitidiscaviarum. The patient was admitted to hospital because of loss of strength in her right arm and leg. Nocardia spp. was isolated from the abscess material. The intracranial lesions were drained by stereotactic craniotomy. The large abscess located around the left kidney was drained and microscopic examination of aspirated material showed Nocardia spp. For species identification, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was carried out and was 100% concordant with Nocardia otitidiscaviarum. Use of 16S rDNA gene sequencing for identification permits detection of rare aetiologic agents that cause brain abscesses. PMID:27031902

  20. Phylogeny and classification of bacteria in the genera Clavibacter and Rathayibacter on the basis of 16s rRNA gene sequence analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, I M; Bartoszyk, I M; Gundersen-Rindal, D E; Davis, R E

    1997-01-01

    A phylogenetic analysis by parsimony of 16S rRNA gene sequences (16S rDNA) revealed that species and subspecies of Clavibacter and Rathayibacter form a discrete monophyletic clade, paraphyletic to Corynebacterium species. Within the Clavibacter-Rathayibacter clade, four major phylogenetic groups (subclades) with a total of 10 distinct taxa were recognized: (I) species C. michiganensis; (II) species C. xyli; (III) species R. iranicus and R. tritici; and (IV) species R. rathayi. The first three groups form a monophyletic cluster, paraphyletic to R. rathayi. On the basis of the phylogeny inferred, reclassification of members of Clavibacter-Rathayibacter group is proposed. A system for classification of taxa in Clavibacter and Rathayibacter was developed based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S rDNA sequences. The groups delineated on the basis of RFLP patterns of 16S rDNA coincided well with the subclades delineated on the basis of phylogeny. In contrast to previous classification systems, which are based primarily on phenotypic properties and are laborious, the RFLP analyses allow for rapid differentiation among species and subspecies in the two genera. PMID:9212413

  1. Discrimination of Bacillus anthracis from closely related microorganisms by analysis of 16S and 23S rRNA with oligonucleotide microchips

    DOEpatents

    Bavykin, Sergei G.; Mirzabekov, Andrei D.

    2007-10-30

    The present invention is directed to a novel method of discriminating a highly infectious bacterium Bacillus anthracis from a group of closely related microorganisms. Sequence variations in the 16S and 23S rRNA of the B. cereus subgroup including B. anthracis are utilized to construct an array that can detect these sequence variations through selective hybridizations. The identification and analysis of these sequence variations enables positive discrimination of isolates of the B. cereus group that includes B. anthracis. Discrimination of single base differences in rRNA was achieved with a microchip during analysis of B. cereus group isolates from both single and in mixed probes, as well as identification of polymorphic sites. Successful use of a microchip to determine the appropriate subgroup classification using eight reference microorganisms from the B. cereus group as a study set, was demonstrated.

  2. Molecular Methods for Identification of Acinetobacter Species by Partial Sequencing of the rpoB and 16S rRNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Azar Dokht; Shahraki, Abdolrazagh Hashemi; Heidarieh, Parvin; Sheikhi, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    Background Acinetobacter spp. is a diverse group of Gram-negative bacteria which are ubiquitous in soil and water, and an important cause of nosocomial infections. The purpose of this study was to identify a collection of Acinetobacter spp. clinical isolates accurately and to investigate their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Materials and Methods A total of 197 non-duplicate clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp. isolates identified using conventional biochemical tests. The molecular technique of PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis of rpoB and 16S rRNA genes was applied for species identification. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed with a disk diffusion assay. Results Based on 16S rRNA and rpoB genes analysis separately, most of clinical isolates can be identified with high bootstrap values. However, the identity of the isolate 555T was uncertain due to high similarity of A. grimontii and A. junii. Identification by concatenation of 16S rRNA and rpoB confirmed the identity of clinical isolates of Acenitobacer to species level confidently. Accordingly, the isolate 555T assigned as A. grimontii due to 100% similarity to A. grimontii. Moreover, this isolate showed 98.64% to A. junii. Besides, the identity of the isolates 218T and 364T was confirmed as Genomic species 3 and A. calcoaceticus respectively. So, the majority of Acinetobacter spp. isolates, were identified as: A. baumannii (131 isolates, 66%), A. calcoaceticus (9 isolates, 4.5%), and A. genomosp 16 (8 isolates, 4%). The rest of identified species showed the lower frequencies. In susceptibility test, 105 isolates (53%), presented high antibiotic resistance of 90% to ceftriaxone, piperacillin, piperacillin tazobactam, amikacin, and 81% to ciprofloxacin. Conclusion Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and rpoB spacer simultaneously was able to do identification of Acinetobacter spp. to species level. A.baumannii was identified as the most prevalent species with high antibiotic resistance. Other

  3. CLUSTOM-CLOUD: In-Memory Data Grid-Based Software for Clustering 16S rRNA Sequence Data in the Cloud Environment

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min-Kyu; Kim, Byung Kwon; Hwang, Kyuin; Lee, Sang-Heon; Hong, Soon Gyu; Nasir, Arshan; Cho, Wan-Sup; Kim, Kyung Mo

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing can produce hundreds of thousands of 16S rRNA sequence reads corresponding to different organisms present in the environmental samples. Typically, analysis of microbial diversity in bioinformatics starts from pre-processing followed by clustering 16S rRNA reads into relatively fewer operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The OTUs are reliable indicators of microbial diversity and greatly accelerate the downstream analysis time. However, existing hierarchical clustering algorithms that are generally more accurate than greedy heuristic algorithms struggle with large sequence datasets. To keep pace with the rapid rise in sequencing data, we present CLUSTOM-CLOUD, which is the first distributed sequence clustering program based on In-Memory Data Grid (IMDG) technology–a distributed data structure to store all data in the main memory of multiple computing nodes. The IMDG technology helps CLUSTOM-CLOUD to enhance both its capability of handling larger datasets and its computational scalability better than its ancestor, CLUSTOM, while maintaining high accuracy. Clustering speed of CLUSTOM-CLOUD was evaluated on published 16S rRNA human microbiome sequence datasets using the small laboratory cluster (10 nodes) and under the Amazon EC2 cloud-computing environments. Under the laboratory environment, it required only ~3 hours to process dataset of size 200 K reads regardless of the complexity of the human microbiome data. In turn, one million reads were processed in approximately 20, 14, and 11 hours when utilizing 20, 30, and 40 nodes on the Amazon EC2 cloud-computing environment. The running time evaluation indicates that CLUSTOM-CLOUD can handle much larger sequence datasets than CLUSTOM and is also a scalable distributed processing system. The comparative accuracy test using 16S rRNA pyrosequences of a mock community shows that CLUSTOM-CLOUD achieves higher accuracy than DOTUR, mothur, ESPRIT-Tree, UCLUST and Swarm. CLUSTOM-CLOUD is written in

  4. CLUSTOM-CLOUD: In-Memory Data Grid-Based Software for Clustering 16S rRNA Sequence Data in the Cloud Environment.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jeongsu; Choi, Chi-Hwan; Park, Min-Kyu; Kim, Byung Kwon; Hwang, Kyuin; Lee, Sang-Heon; Hong, Soon Gyu; Nasir, Arshan; Cho, Wan-Sup; Kim, Kyung Mo

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing can produce hundreds of thousands of 16S rRNA sequence reads corresponding to different organisms present in the environmental samples. Typically, analysis of microbial diversity in bioinformatics starts from pre-processing followed by clustering 16S rRNA reads into relatively fewer operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The OTUs are reliable indicators of microbial diversity and greatly accelerate the downstream analysis time. However, existing hierarchical clustering algorithms that are generally more accurate than greedy heuristic algorithms struggle with large sequence datasets. To keep pace with the rapid rise in sequencing data, we present CLUSTOM-CLOUD, which is the first distributed sequence clustering program based on In-Memory Data Grid (IMDG) technology-a distributed data structure to store all data in the main memory of multiple computing nodes. The IMDG technology helps CLUSTOM-CLOUD to enhance both its capability of handling larger datasets and its computational scalability better than its ancestor, CLUSTOM, while maintaining high accuracy. Clustering speed of CLUSTOM-CLOUD was evaluated on published 16S rRNA human microbiome sequence datasets using the small laboratory cluster (10 nodes) and under the Amazon EC2 cloud-computing environments. Under the laboratory environment, it required only ~3 hours to process dataset of size 200 K reads regardless of the complexity of the human microbiome data. In turn, one million reads were processed in approximately 20, 14, and 11 hours when utilizing 20, 30, and 40 nodes on the Amazon EC2 cloud-computing environment. The running time evaluation indicates that CLUSTOM-CLOUD can handle much larger sequence datasets than CLUSTOM and is also a scalable distributed processing system. The comparative accuracy test using 16S rRNA pyrosequences of a mock community shows that CLUSTOM-CLOUD achieves higher accuracy than DOTUR, mothur, ESPRIT-Tree, UCLUST and Swarm. CLUSTOM-CLOUD is written in JAVA

  5. Western immunoblot analysis of Haemobartonella muris and comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences of H. muris, H. felis, and Eperythrozoon suis.

    PubMed Central

    Rikihisa, Y; Kawahara, M; Wen, B; Kociba, G; Fuerst, P; Kawamori, F; Suto, C; Shibata, S; Futohashi, M

    1997-01-01

    Infectious agents were isolated from the spleens of three wild mice (Apodemus argenteus) by intraperitoneal inoculation of the spleen homogenate into laboratory mice. The laboratory mice developed clinical signs and splenomegaly, and three isolates were maintained by passage in mice. Tetracyclines were effective in preventing infection of mice with these agents, but streptomycin and penicillin were ineffective. The agents did not grow in bacterial growth media or chicken embryos. In smears of blood from infected mice stained by the Giemsa or the indirect immunofluorescence method, numerous organisms were found on the surfaces of erythrocytes. Electron microscopy revealed cell wall-less pleomorphic cocci of 350 to 700 nm in diameter. On the basis of these results, the isolates were identified as Haemobartonella muris. There was no antigenic cross-reactivity with Rickettsia or Ehrlichia spp. or other related organisms. Western immunoblot analysis of three strains of H. muris with mouse antisera to H. muris revealed identical major antigens of 118, 65, 53, 45, and 40 kDa. By heteroduplex analysis of the three PCR-amplified segments of the 16S rRNA genes, the three strains of H. muris were found to be identical. The 16S rRNA genes of one of the H. muris strains, four strains of H. felis, and two strains of Eperythrozoon suis were sequenced and compared. The sequences of two strains of H. felis from cats in California were identical, as were the sequences of a strain from a cat in Ohio and a strain from a cat in Florida, but the similarity of sequences between the California and the Ohio-Florida strains was only 85%. The sequence of an H. muris strain was unique and was more closely related to that of the Ohio-Florida strain of H. felis (89%) than to that of the California strain of H. felis (84%). The sequence of E. suis from a pig in Illinois was identical to that from another pig from Taiwan. The similarity of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of E. suis with those of three

  6. Isolation of endophytic bacteria from arboreal species of the Amazon and identification by sequencing of the 16S rRNA encoding gene.

    PubMed

    Coêlho, Mariza M; Ferreira-Nozawa, Monica S; Nozawa, Sérgio R; Santos, André L W

    2011-10-01

    Endophytic bacteria from three arboreal species native to the Amazon (Carapa guianenses, Ceiba pentandra, and Swietenia macrophylla), were isolated and identified, through partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA encoding gene. From these, 16 isolates were obtained, although, when compared to sequences deposited in GenBank, only seven had produced identifiable fragments. Bacillus, Pantoea and two non-culturable samples were identified. Results obtained through sequence analysis revealed low genetic diversity across the isolates, even when analyzing different species and plant structures. This is the first report concerning the isolation and identification of endophytic bacteria in these plant species. PMID:22215973

  7. Identification by 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing of Negativicoccus succinicivorans Recovered from the Blood of a Patient with Hemochromatosis and Pancreatitis ▿

    PubMed Central

    Church, D. L.; Simmon, K. E.; Sporina, Jan; Lloyd, T.; Gregson, D. B.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a case of Negativicoccus succinicivorans bacteremia in an adult man with hemochromatosis and acute pancreatitis. Conventional phenotypic tests and commercial identification systems failed to definitively identify the tiny anaerobic Gram-negative coccus isolated from two sets of blood cultures. The bacterium was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and analysis using the SmartGene Integrated Database Network System software. This is the first published report of the recovery of this organism from a patient with invasive infection. PMID:21653773

  8. Isolation of endophytic bacteria from arboreal species of the Amazon and identification by sequencing of the 16S rRNA encoding gene

    PubMed Central

    Coêlho, Mariza M.; Ferreira-Nozawa, Monica S.; Nozawa, Sérgio R.; Santos, André L.W.

    2011-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria from three arboreal species native to the Amazon (Carapa guianenses, Ceiba pentandra, and Swietenia macrophylla), were isolated and identified, through partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA encoding gene. From these, 16 isolates were obtained, although, when compared to sequences deposited in GenBank, only seven had produced identifiable fragments. Bacillus, Pantoea and two non-culturable samples were identified. Results obtained through sequence analysis revealed low genetic diversity across the isolates, even when analyzing different species and plant structures. This is the first report concerning the isolation and identification of endophytic bacteria in these plant species. PMID:22215973

  9. A phylogenetic comparison of the 16S rRNA sequence of the fish pathogen, Renibacterium salmoninarum, to gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gutenberger, S K; Giovannoni, S J; Field, K G; Fryer, J L; Rohovec, J S

    1991-01-15

    The 16S rRNA of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease in salmonids, was sequenced by reverse transcriptase to produce a nearly complete sequence (97%) of 1475 nucleotides. Phylogenetic comparisons to seventeen genera and signature sequence analysis indicated that R. salmoninarum was a member of the high G + C Gram-positive eubacterial subdivision although the reported G + C value is only 53%. A phylogenetic tree details the relationship of R. salmoninarum to ten actinomycetes from diverse environments. PMID:1709893

  10. Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fish, detected by nested reverse transcription-PCR of 16S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Magnússon, H B; Fridjónsson, O H; Andrésson, O S; Benediktsdóttir, E; Gudmundsdóttir, S; Andrésdóttir, V

    1994-01-01

    An assay based on reverse transcription and nested PCR amplification of hypervariable regions within the 16S rRNA sequence was used to specifically detect Renibacterium salmoninarum, the slowly growing causative agent of bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fish. This assay detected 1 to 10 bacteria per sample and took 1 to 2 days to perform. The assay was used to detect R. salmoninarum in ovarian fluid obtained from naturally infected fish. The assay was unreliable when it was used to examine kidney tissue. Images PMID:7529017

  11. Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fish, detected by nested reverse transcription-PCR of 16S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Magnússon, H B; Fridjónsson, O H; Andrésson, O S; Benediktsdóttir, E; Gudmundsdóttir, S; Andrésdóttir, V

    1994-12-01

    An assay based on reverse transcription and nested PCR amplification of hypervariable regions within the 16S rRNA sequence was used to specifically detect Renibacterium salmoninarum, the slowly growing causative agent of bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fish. This assay detected 1 to 10 bacteria per sample and took 1 to 2 days to perform. The assay was used to detect R. salmoninarum in ovarian fluid obtained from naturally infected fish. The assay was unreliable when it was used to examine kidney tissue. PMID:7529017

  12. Diversity, dynamics, and activity of bacterial communities during production of an artisanal Sicilian cheese as evaluated by 16S rRNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Randazzo, Cinzia L; Torriani, Sandra; Akkermans, Antoon D L; de Vos, Willem M; Vaughan, Elaine E

    2002-04-01

    The diversity and dynamics of the microbial communities during the manufacturing of Ragusano cheese, an artisanal cheese produced in Sicily (Italy), were investigated by a combination of classical and culture-independent approaches. The latter included PCR, reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA genes (rDNA). Bacterial and Lactobacillus group-specific primers were used to amplify the V6 to V8 and V1 to V3 regions of the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. DGGE profiles from samples taken during cheese production indicated dramatic shifts in the microbial community structure. Cloning and sequencing of rDNA amplicons revealed that mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB), including species of Leuconostoc, Lactococcus lactis, and Macrococcus caseolyticus were dominant in the raw milk, while Streptococcus thermophilus prevailed during lactic fermentation. Other thermophilic LAB, especially Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Lactobacillus fermentum, also flourished during ripening. Comparison of the rRNA-derived patterns obtained by RT-PCR to the rDNA DGGE patterns indicated a substantially different degree of metabolic activity for the microbial groups detected. Identification of cultivated LAB isolates by phenotypic characterization and 16S rDNA analysis indicated a variety of species, reflecting to a large extent the results obtained from the 16S rDNA clone libraries, with the significant exception of the Lactobacillus delbrueckii species, which dominated in the ripening cheese but was not detected by cultivation. The present molecular approaches combined with culture can effectively describe the complex ecosystem of natural fermented dairy products, giving useful information for starter culture design and preservation of artisanal fermented food technology. PMID:11916708

  13. A comprehensive benchmarking study of protocols and sequencing platforms for 16S rRNA community profiling

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Podar, Mircea; Shakya, Migun; D'Amore, Rosalinda; Ijaz, Umer Zeeshan; Schirmer, Melanie; Kenny, John G.; Gregory, Richard; Darby, Alistair C.; Quince, Christopher; Hall, Neil

    2016-01-14

    In the last 5 years, the rapid pace of innovations and improvements in sequencing technologies has completely changed the landscape of metagenomic and metagenetic experiments. Therefore, it is critical to benchmark the various methodologies for interrogating the composition of microbial communities, so that we can assess their strengths and limitations. Here, the most common phylogenetic marker for microbial community diversity studies is the 16S ribosomal RNA gene and in the last 10 years the field has moved from sequencing a small number of amplicons and samples to more complex studies where thousands of samples and multiple different gene regions aremore » interrogated.« less

  14. Structural Rearrangements in the Active Site of the Thermus thermophilus 16S rRNA Methyltransferase KsgA in a Binary Complex with 5'-Methylthioadenosine

    SciTech Connect

    Demirci, H.; Belardinelli, R; Seri, E; Gregory, S; Gualerzi, C; Dahlberg, A; Jogl, G

    2009-01-01

    Posttranscriptional modification of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) occurs in all kingdoms of life. The S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methyltransferase KsgA introduces the most highly conserved rRNA modification, the dimethylation of A1518 and A1519 of 16S rRNA. Loss of this dimethylation confers resistance to the antibiotic kasugamycin. Here, we report biochemical studies and high-resolution crystal structures of KsgA from Thermus thermophilus. Methylation of 30S ribosomal subunits by T. thermophilus KsgA is more efficient at low concentrations of magnesium ions, suggesting that partially unfolded RNA is the preferred substrate. The overall structure is similar to that of other methyltransferases but contains an additional ?-helix in a novel N-terminal extension. Comparison of the apoenzyme with complex structures with 5?-methylthioadenosine or adenosine bound in the cofactor-binding site reveals novel features when compared with related enzymes. Several mobile loop regions that restrict access to the cofactor-binding site are observed. In addition, the orientation of residues in the substrate-binding site indicates that conformational changes are required for binding two adjacent residues of the substrate rRNA.

  15. Phylogenetic analyses of Chlamydia psittaci strains from birds based on 16S rRNA gene sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, T; Masuda, M; Tsuruno, T; Mori, Y; Takashima, I; Hiramune, T; Kikuchi, N

    1997-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were determined for 39 strains of Chlamydia psittaci (34 from birds and 5 from mammals) and for 4 Chlamydia pecorum strains. The sequences were compared phylogenetically with the gene sequences of nine Chlamydia strains (covering four species of the genus) retrieved from nucleotide databases. In the neighbor-joining tree, C. psittaci strains were more closely related to each other than to the other Chlamydia species, although a feline pneumonitis strain was distinct (983 to 98.6% similarity to other strains) and appeared to form the deepest subline within the species of C. psittaci (bootstrap value, 99%). The other strains of C. psittaci exhibiting similarity values of more than 99% were branched into several subgroups. Two pigeon strains and one turkey strain formed a distinct clade recovered in 97% of the bootstrapped trees. The other pigeon strains seemed to be distinct from the strains from psittacine birds, with 88% of bootstrap value. In the cluster of psittacine strains, three parakeet strains and an ovine abortion strain exhibited a specific association (level of sequence similarity, 99.9% or more; bootstrap value, 95%). These suggest that at least four groups of strains exist within the species C. psittaci. The 16S rDNA sequence is a valuable phylogenetic marker for the taxonomy of chlamydiae, and its analysis is a reliable tool for identification of the organisms. PMID:9350757

  16. Isolation and characterization of a novel chlorpyrifos degrading flavobacterium species EMBS0145 by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

    PubMed

    Amareshwari, P; Bhatia, Mayuri; Venkatesh, K; Roja Rani, A; Ravi, G V; Bhakt, Priyanka; Bandaru, Srinivas; Yadav, Mukesh; Nayarisseri, Anuraj; Nair, Achuthsankar S

    2015-03-01

    Indiscriminate application of pesticides like chlorpyrifos, diazinon, or malathion contaminate the soil in addition has being unsafe often it has raised severe health concerns. Conversely, microorganisms like Trichoderma, Aspergillus and Bacteria like Rhizobium Bacillus, Azotobacter, Flavobacterium etc have evolved that are endowed with degradation of pesticides aforementioned to non-toxic products. The current study pitches into identification of a novel species of Flavobacterium bacteria capable to degrade the Organophosphorous pesticides. The bacterium was isolated from agricultural soil collected from Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. The samples were serially diluted and the aliquots were incubated for a suitable time following which the suspected colony was subjected to 16S rDNA sequencing. The sequence thus obtained was aligned pairwise against Flavobacterium species, which resulted in identification of novel specie of Flavobacterium later named as EMBS0145, the sequence of which was deposited in in GenBank with accession number JN794045. PMID:25248957

  17. Vertical Distribution of Bacterial Communities in the Indian Ocean as Revealed by Analyses of 16S rRNA and nasA Genes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xuexia; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2016-09-01

    Bacteria play an important role in the marine biogeochemical cycles. However, research on the bacterial community structure of the Indian Ocean is scarce, particularly within the vertical dimension. In this study, we investigated the bacterial diversity of the pelagic, mesopelagic and bathypelagic zones of the southwestern Indian Ocean (50.46°E, 37.71°S). The clone libraries constructed by 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that most phylotypes retrieved from the Indian Ocean were highly divergent from those retrieved from other oceans. Vertical differences were observed based on the analysis of natural bacterial community populations derived from the 16S rRNA gene sequences. Based on the analysis of the nasA gene sequences from GenBank database, a pair of general primers was developed and used to amplify the bacterial nitrate-assimilating populations. Environmental factors play an important role in mediating the bacterial communities in the Indian Ocean revealed by canonical correlation analysis. PMID:27407295

  18. Phylogeny of a novel "Helicobacter heilmannii" organism from a Japanese patient with chronic gastritis based on DNA sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and urease genes.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takehisa; Kawakubo, Masatomo; Shiohara, Mayumi; Kumagai, Toshiko; Hidaka, Eiko; Yamauchi, Kazuyoshi; Oana, Kozue; Matsuzawa, Kenji; Ota, Hiroyoshi; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2009-04-01

    "Helicobacter heilmannii" is an uncultivable spiral-shaped bacterium inhabiting the human gastric mucosa. It is larger and more tightly-coiled than H. pylori. We encountered a patient with chronic gastritis infected a "H. heilmannii"-like organism (HHLO), designated as SH6. Gastric mucosa derived from the patient was orally ingested by specific pathogen free mice. Colonization of the mice by SH6 was confirmed by electron microscopy of gastric tissue specimens. In an attempt to characterize SH6, 16S rRNA and urease genes were sequenced. The 16S rRNA gene sequence was most similar (99.4%; 1,437/1,445 bp) to HHLO C4E from a cheetah. However, the urease gene sequence displayed low similarity (81.7%; 1,240/1,516 bp) with HHLO C4E. Taxonomic analysis disclosed that SH6 represents a novel strain and should constitute a novel taxon in the phylogenetic trees, being discriminated from any other taxon, with the ability of infecting human gastric mucosa. PMID:19412605

  19. Soil Acidobacterial 16S rRNA Gene Sequences Reveal Subgroup Level Differences between Savanna-Like Cerrado and Atlantic Forest Brazilian Biomes

    PubMed Central

    Catão, Elisa C. P.; Lopes, Fabyano A. C.; Araújo, Janaína F.; de Castro, Alinne P.; Barreto, Cristine C.; Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.; Quirino, Betania F.; Krüger, Ricardo H.

    2014-01-01

    16S rRNA sequences from the phylum Acidobacteria have been commonly reported from soil microbial communities, including those from the Brazilian Savanna (Cerrado) and the Atlantic Forest biomes, two biomes that present contrasting characteristics of soil and vegetation. Using 16S rRNA sequences, the present work aimed to study acidobacterial diversity and distribution in soils of Cerrado savanna and two Atlantic forest sites. PCA and phylogenetic reconstruction showed that the acidobacterial communities found in “Mata de galeria” forest soil samples from the Cerrado biome have a tendency to separate from the other Cerrado vegetation microbial communities in the direction of those found in the Atlantic Forest, which is correlated with a high abundance of Acidobacteria subgroup 2 (GP2). Environmental conditions seem to promote a negative correlation between GP2 and subgroup 1 (GP1) abundance. Also GP2 is negatively correlated to pH, but positively correlated to high Al3+ concentrations. The Cerrado soil showed the lowest Acidobacteria richness and diversity indexes of OTUs at the species and subgroups levels when compared to Atlantic Forest soils. These results suggest specificity of acidobacterial subgroups to soils of different biomes and are a starting point to understand their ecological roles, a topic that needs to be further explored. PMID:25309599

  20. Mineral Type and Solution Chemistry Affect the Structure and Composition of Actively Growing Bacterial Communities as Revealed by Bromodeoxyuridine Immunocapture and 16S rRNA Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Kelly, L C; Colin, Y; Turpault, M-P; Uroz, S

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how minerals affect bacterial communities and their in situ activities in relation to environmental conditions are central issues in soil microbial ecology, as minerals represent essential reservoirs of inorganic nutrients for the biosphere. To determine the impact of mineral type and solution chemistry on soil bacterial communities, we compared the diversity, composition, and functional abilities of a soil bacterial community incubated in presence/absence of different mineral types (apatite, biotite, obsidian). Microcosms were prepared containing different liquid culture media devoid of particular essential nutrients, the nutrients provided only in the introduced minerals and therefore only available to the microbial community through mineral dissolution by biotic and/or abiotic processes. By combining functional screening of bacterial isolates and community analysis by bromodeoxyuridine DNA immunocapture and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, we demonstrated that bacterial communities were mainly impacted by the solution chemistry at the taxonomic level and by the mineral type at the functional level. Metabolically active bacterial communities varied with solution chemistry and mineral type. Burkholderia were significantly enriched in the obsidian treatment compared to the biotite treatment and were the most effective isolates at solubilizing phosphorous or mobilizing iron, in all the treatments. A detailed analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the OTUs or isolated strains assigned as Burkholderia in our study showed high homology with effective mineral-weathering bacteria previously recovered from the same experimental site. PMID:27138048

  1. Simultaneous DNA-RNA Extraction from Coastal Sediments and Quantification of 16S rRNA Genes and Transcripts by Real-time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Tatti, Enrico; McKew, Boyd A.; Whitby, Corrine; Smith, Cindy J.

    2016-01-01

    Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction also known as quantitative PCR (q-PCR) is a widely used tool in microbial ecology to quantify gene abundances of taxonomic and functional groups in environmental samples. Used in combination with a reverse transcriptase reaction (RT-q-PCR), it can also be employed to quantify gene transcripts. q-PCR makes use of highly sensitive fluorescent detection chemistries that allow quantification of PCR amplicons during the exponential phase of the reaction. Therefore, the biases associated with 'end-point' PCR detected in the plateau phase of the PCR reaction are avoided. A protocol to quantify bacterial 16S rRNA genes and transcripts from coastal sediments via real-time PCR is provided. First, a method for the co-extraction of DNA and RNA from coastal sediments, including the additional steps required for the preparation of DNA-free RNA, is outlined. Second, a step-by-step guide for the quantification of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts from the extracted nucleic acids via q-PCR and RT-q-PCR is outlined. This includes details for the construction of DNA and RNA standard curves. Key considerations for the use of RT-q-PCR assays in microbial ecology are included. PMID:27341629

  2. Nature of polymorphisms in 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic transcribed spacer fingerprinting of Bacillus and related genera.

    PubMed

    Daffonchio, Daniele; Cherif, Ameur; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Rizzi, Aurora; Mora, Diego; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Borin, Sara

    2003-09-01

    The intergenic transcribed spacers (ITS) between the 16S and 23S rRNA genetic loci are frequently used in PCR fingerprinting to discriminate bacterial strains at the species and intraspecies levels. We investigated the molecular nature of polymorphisms in ITS-PCR fingerprinting of low-G+C-content spore-forming bacteria belonging to the genera Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Geobacillus, and Paenibacillus: We found that besides the polymorphisms in the homoduplex fragments amplified by PCR, heteroduplex products formed during PCR between amplicons from different ribosomal operons, with or without tRNA genes in the ITS, contribute to the interstrain variability in ITS-PCR fingerprinting patterns obtained in polyacrylamide-based gel matrices. The heteroduplex nature of the discriminating bands was demonstrated by fragment separation in denaturing polyacrylamide gels, by capillary electrophoresis, and by cloning, sequencing, and recombination of purified short and tRNA gene-containing long ITS. We also found that heteroduplex product formation is enhanced by increasing the number of PCR cycles. Homoduplex-heteroduplex polymorphisms (HHP) in a conserved region, such as the 16S and 23S rRNA gene ITS, allowed discrimination of closely related strains and species undistinguishable by other methods, indicating that ITS-HHP analysis is an easy and reproducible additional tool for strain typing. PMID:12957895

  3. Seasonal and regional diversity of maple sap microbiota revealed using community PCR fingerprinting and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries.

    PubMed

    Filteau, Marie; Lagacé, Luc; LaPointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

    2010-04-01

    An arbitrary primed community PCR fingerprinting technique based on capillary electrophoresis was developed to study maple sap microbial community characteristics among 19 production sites in Québec over the tapping season. Presumptive fragment identification was made with corresponding fingerprint profiles of bacterial isolate cultures. Maple sap microbial communities were subsequently compared using a representative subset of 13 16S rRNA gene clone libraries followed by gene sequence analysis. Results from both methods indicated that all maple sap production sites and flow periods shared common microbiota members, but distinctive features also existed. Changes over the season in relative abundance of predominant populations showed evidence of a common pattern. Pseudomonas (64%) and Rahnella (8%) were the most abundantly and frequently represented genera of the 2239 sequences analyzed. Janthinobacterium, Leuconostoc, Lactococcus, Weissella, Epilithonimonas and Sphingomonas were revealed as occasional contaminants in maple sap. Maple sap microbiota showed a low level of deep diversity along with a high variation of similar 16S rRNA gene sequences within the Pseudomonas genus. Predominance of Pseudomonas is suggested as a typical feature of maple sap microbiota across geographical regions, production sites, and sap flow periods. PMID:20202776

  4. The phylogeny of Aerococcus and Pediococcus as determined by 16S rRNA sequence analysis: description of Tetragenococcus gen. nov.

    PubMed

    Collins, M D; Williams, A M; Wallbanks, S

    1990-08-01

    The phylogenetic interrelationships of the genera Pediococcus and Aerococcus were investigated using reverse transcriptase sequencing of 16S rRNA. The genus Pediococcus was found to be phylogenetically heterogeneous. The four species P. acidilactici, P. damnosus, P. parvulus and P. pentosaceus formed a phylogenetically distinct group. Within this pediococcal cluster, P. acidilactici was closely related to P. pentosaceus whereas P. damnosus showed a specific relationship with P. parvulus. The species P. dextrinicus, although showing significant sequence relatedness with these pediococcal species, was peripheral to the genus. Pediococcus halophilus exhibited low sequence homology with all of the species examined and formed a distinct line of descent. Pediococcus halophilus exhibited a closer affinity with enterococci and carnobacteria than with the other lactic acid bacteria. Pediococcus urinae-equi was phylogenetically very closely related to Aerococcus viridans. The 16S rRNA sequences of the type strains of these species differed by only two nucleotides (99.9% sequence homology) and clearly demonstrate that P. urinae-equi is a member of the genus Aerococcus. PMID:2227360

  5. 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing, Multilocus Sequence Analysis, and Mass Spectrometry Identification of the Proposed New Species “Clostridium neonatale”

    PubMed Central

    Bouvet, Philippe; Ferraris, Laurent; Dauphin, Brunhilde; Popoff, Michel-Robert; Butel, Marie Jose

    2014-01-01

    In 2002, an outbreak of necrotizing enterocolitis in a Canadian neonatal intensive care unit was associated with a proposed novel species of Clostridium, “Clostridium neonatale.” To date, there are no data about the isolation, identification, or clinical significance of this species. Additionally, C. neonatale has not been formally classified as a new species, rendering its identification challenging. Indeed, the C. neonatale 16S rRNA gene sequence shows high similarity to another Clostridium species involved in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, Clostridium butyricum. By performing a polyphasic study combining phylogenetic analysis (16S rRNA gene sequencing and multilocus sequence analysis) and phenotypic characterization with mass spectrometry, we demonstrated that C. neonatale is a new species within the Clostridium genus sensu stricto, for which we propose the name Clostridium neonatale sp. nov. Now that the status of C. neonatale has been clarified, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) can be used for better differential identification of C. neonatale and C. butyricum clinical isolates. This is necessary to precisely define the role and clinical significance of C. neonatale, a species that may have been misidentified and underrepresented during previous neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis studies. PMID:25232167

  6. Characterization of diatom-cyanobacteria symbioses on the basis of nifH, hetR and 16S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Foster, Rachel A; Zehr, Jonathan P

    2006-11-01

    Richelia intracellularis is a symbiotic heterocystous cyanobacterium that is capable of forming associations with several genera of diatoms. nifH, 16S rRNA and hetR sequences were amplified and cloned from field populations of Richelia associated with Hemiaulus hauckii (N. Atlantic), with Rhizosolenia clevei (N. Pacific), and from a cultivated isolate of Calothrix associated with Chaetoceros from station ALOHA (N. Pacific). Sequence identity was highest (98.2%) among the 16S rRNA sequences, and more divergent for the hetR (83.8%) and nifH (91.1%) sequences. The hetR and nifH DNA and amino acid sequences obtained from the symbionts associated with the three different diatom genera diverged into three separate lineages supported by high bootstrap values. The data indicate that symbionts in the different hosts are distinct species or strains. Furthermore, three previously unidentified heterocystous-like nifH sequence groups recently reported from station ALOHA in the subtropical Pacific, het-1, het-2 and het-3, were linked to Richelia associated with R. clevei, H. hauckii and the Calothrix symbiont of Chaetoceros sp. respectively. PMID:17014491

  7. Efficacy of a 3rd generation high-throughput sequencing platform for analyses of 16S rRNA genes from environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Mosher, Jennifer J; Bernberg, Erin L; Shevchenko, Olga; Kan, Jinjun; Kaplan, Louis A

    2013-11-01

    Longer sequences of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene could provide greater phylogenetic and taxonomic resolutions and advance knowledge of population dynamics within complex natural communities. We assessed the accuracy of a Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) single molecule, real time (SMRT) sequencing based on DNA polymerization, a promising 3rd generation high-throughput technique, and compared this to the 2nd generation Roche 454 pyrosequencing platform. Amplicons of the 16S rRNA gene from a known isolate, Shewanella oneidensis MR1, and environmental samples from two streambed habitats, rocks and sediments, and a riparian zone soil, were analyzed. On the PacBio we analyzed ~500 bp amplicons that covered the V1-V3 regions and the full 1500 bp amplicons of the V1-V9 regions. On the Roche 454 we analyzed the ~500 bp amplicons. Error rates associated with the isolate were lowest with the Roche 454 method (2%), increased by more than 2-fold for the 500 bp amplicons with the PacBio SMRT chip (4-5%), and by more than 8-fold for the full gene with the PacBio SMRT chip (17-18%). Higher error rates with the PacBio SMRT chip artificially inflated estimates of richness and lowered estimates of coverage for environmental samples. The 3rd generation sequencing technology we evaluated does not provide greater phylogenetic and taxonomic resolutions for studies of microbial ecology. PMID:23999276

  8. Molecular characterisation of Mycoplasma hyorhinis isolated from pigs using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguti, Maurício; Oliveira, Rosângela C; Marques, Lucas M; Buzinhani, Melissa; Buim, Marcos R; Neto, Renata L; Guimarães, Ana Márcia S; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Economic loss in pig breeding is common due to respiratory disorders, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyorhinis, namely, are the most common infectious agents. The aim of this study is to recover these mollicutes and detect their genotypic variations by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and sequencing the 16 s rRNA gene. One hundred and twenty-six swabs from tonsil and nasal mucus of pigs with respiratory disorders were analysed. A total of 78 lungs were sampled, as well as two trachea and two tonsils obtained from animals with respiratory disorder. A total of 59 isolates were obtained: 1 (1.70 per cent) of M hyopneumoniae, 2 (3.40 per cent) of Mycoplasma flocculare and 56 (94.90 per cent) of M hyorhinis. The PFGE for M hyorhinis showed 10 profiles with enzyme AvaI and 9 profiles with XhoI. A low polymorphism of the 16sRNS gene was detected in M hyorhinis isolates compared with the type strain in the GenBank. M hyorhinis isolates of different herds showed a large heterogenicity with enzymes AvaI and XhoI. The sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene allowed for analysing the interspecific and intraspecific variations of isolated mycoplasmas. PMID:26688737

  9. Molecular characterisation of Mycoplasma hyorhinis isolated from pigs using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yamaguti, Maurício; Oliveira, Rosângela C; Marques, Lucas M; Buzinhani, Melissa; Buim, Marcos R; Neto, Renata L; Guimarães, Ana Márcia S; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Economic loss in pig breeding is common due to respiratory disorders, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyorhinis, namely, are the most common infectious agents. The aim of this study is to recover these mollicutes and detect their genotypic variations by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and sequencing the 16 s rRNA gene. One hundred and twenty-six swabs from tonsil and nasal mucus of pigs with respiratory disorders were analysed. A total of 78 lungs were sampled, as well as two trachea and two tonsils obtained from animals with respiratory disorder. A total of 59 isolates were obtained: 1 (1.70 per cent) of M hyopneumoniae, 2 (3.40 per cent) of Mycoplasma flocculare and 56 (94.90 per cent) of M hyorhinis. The PFGE for M hyorhinis showed 10 profiles with enzyme AvaI and 9 profiles with XhoI. A low polymorphism of the 16sRNS gene was detected in M hyorhinis isolates compared with the type strain in the GenBank. M hyorhinis isolates of different herds showed a large heterogenicity with enzymes AvaI and XhoI. The sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene allowed for analysing the interspecific and intraspecific variations of isolated mycoplasmas. PMID:26688737

  10. Colicin E3 cleavage of 16S rRNA impairs decoding and accelerates tRNA translocation on Escherichia coli ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Lorna E; Savelsbergh, Andreas; Kleanthous, Colin; Wintermeyer, Wolfgang; Rodnina, Marina V

    2008-01-01

    The cytotoxin colicin E3 targets the 30S subunit of bacterial ribosomes and specifically cleaves 16S rRNA at the decoding centre, thereby inhibiting translation. Although the cleavage site is well known, it is not clear which step of translation is inhibited. We studied the effects of colicin E3 cleavage on ribosome functions by analysing individual steps of protein synthesis. We find that the cleavage affects predominantly the elongation step. The inhibitory effect of colicin E3 cleavage originates from the accumulation of sequential impaired decoding events, each of which results in low occupancy of the A site and, consequently, decreasing yield of elongating peptide. The accumulation leads to an almost complete halt of translation after reading of a few codons. The cleavage of 16S rRNA does not impair monitoring of codon–anticodon complexes or GTPase activation during elongation-factor Tu-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNA, but decreases the stability of the codon–recognition complex and slows down aminoacyl-tRNA accommodation in the A site. The tRNA–mRNA translocation is faster on colicin E3-cleaved than on intact ribosomes and is less sensitive to inhibition by the antibiotic viomycin. PMID:18485067

  11. Development of a universal microarray based on the ligation detection reaction and 16S rrna gene polymorphism to target diversity of cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Castiglioni, Bianca; Rizzi, Ermanno; Frosini, Andrea; Sivonen, Kaarina; Rajaniemi, Pirjo; Rantala, Anne; Mugnai, Maria Angela; Ventura, Stefano; Wilmotte, Annick; Boutte, Christophe; Grubisic, Stana; Balthasart, Pierre; Consolandi, Clarissa; Bordoni, Roberta; Mezzelani, Alessandra; Battaglia, Cristina; De Bellis, Gianluca

    2004-12-01

    The cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes of significant ecological and biotechnological interest, since they strongly contribute to primary production and are a rich source of bioactive compounds. In eutrophic fresh and brackish waters, their mass occurrences (water blooms) are often toxic and constitute a high potential risk for human health. Therefore, rapid and reliable identification of cyanobacterial species in complex environmental samples is important. Here we describe the development and validation of a microarray for the identification of cyanobacteria in aquatic environments. Our approach is based on the use of a ligation detection reaction coupled to a universal array. Probes were designed for detecting 19 cyanobacterial groups including Anabaena/Aphanizomenon, Calothrix, Cylindrospermopsis, Cylindrospermum, Gloeothece, halotolerants, Leptolyngbya, Palau Lyngbya, Microcystis, Nodularia, Nostoc, Planktothrix, Antarctic Phormidium, Prochlorococcus, Spirulina, Synechococcus, Synechocystis, Trichodesmium, and Woronichinia. These groups were identified based on an alignment of over 300 cyanobacterial 16S rRNA sequences. For validation of the microarrays, 95 samples (24 axenic strains from culture collections, 27 isolated strains, and 44 cloned fragments recovered from environmental samples) were tested. The results demonstrated a high discriminative power and sensitivity to 1 fmol of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene. Accurate identification of target strains was also achieved with unbalanced mixes of PCR amplicons from different cyanobacteria and an environmental sample. Our universal array method shows great potential for rapid and reliable identification of cyanobacteria. It can be easily adapted to future development and could thus be applied both in research and environmental monitoring. PMID:15574913

  12. Rapid Origin Determination of the Northern Mauxia Shrimp (Acetes chinensis) Based on Allele Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction of Partial Mitochondrial 16S rRNA Gene

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung-Ha; Noh, Eun-Soo; Park, Jung-Youn; An, Chel-Min; Choi, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Jin-Koo

    2015-01-01

    Acetes chinensis is an economically important shrimp that belongs to the Sergestidae family; following fermentation, A. chinensis′ economic value, however, is low in China, and much of the catch in China is exported to Korea at a low price, thus leading to potential false labeling. For this reason, we developed a simple method to identify A. chinensis′ origin using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified from partial (i.e., 570 bp) DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial 16s rRNA gene in 96 Korean and 96 Chinese individual shrimp. Among 10 SNP sites, four sites were observed in populations from both countries, and two sites located in the middle with SNP sites at their 3′-ends were used to design allele-specific primers. Among the eight internal primers, the C220F primer specific to the Chinese A. chinensis population amplified a DNA fragment of 364 bp only from that population. We were able to identify the A. chinensis population origin with 100% accuracy using multiplex PCR performed with two external primers and C220F primers. These results show that the 16S rRNA gene that is generally used for the identification of species can be used for the identification of the origin within species of A. chinensis, which is an important finding for the fair trade of the species between Korea and China. PMID:25656197

  13. The Mycoplasma gallisepticum 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region sequence as a novel tool for epizootiological studies.

    PubMed

    Raviv, Ziv; Callison, S; Ferguson-Noel, N; Laibinis, V; Wooten, R; Kleven, S H

    2007-06-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) contains two sets of rRNA genes (5S, 16S and 23S) in its genome, but only one of the two is organized in an operon cluster and contains a unique 660-nucleotide intergenic spacer region (IGSR) between the 16S and the 23S rRNA genes. We designed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the specific amplification of the complete MG IGSR segment. The MG IGSR PCR was tested on 18 avian mollicute species and was confirmed as MG specific. The reaction sensitivity was demonstrated by comparing it to the well-established MG mgc2 PCR. The MG IGSR sequence was found to be highly variable (discrimination [D] index of 0.950) among a variety of MG laboratory strains, vaccine strains, and field isolates. The sequencing of the MG IGSR appears to be a valuable single-locus sequence typing (SLST) tool for MG isolate differentiation in diagnostic cases and epizootiological studies. PMID:17626483

  14. Rapid Origin Determination of the Northern Mauxia Shrimp (Acetes chinensis) Based on Allele Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction of Partial Mitochondrial 16S rRNA Gene.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Ha; Noh, Eun-Soo; Park, Jung-Youn; An, Chel-Min; Choi, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Jin-Koo

    2015-04-01

    Acetes chinensis is an economically important shrimp that belongs to the Sergestidae family; following fermentation, A. chinensis' economic value, however, is low in China, and much of the catch in China is exported to Korea at a low price, thus leading to potential false labeling. For this reason, we developed a simple method to identify A. chinensis' origin using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified from partial (i.e., 570 bp) DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial 16s rRNA gene in 96 Korean and 96 Chinese individual shrimp. Among 10 SNP sites, four sites were observed in populations from both countries, and two sites located in the middle with SNP sites at their 3'-ends were used to design allele-specific primers. Among the eight internal primers, the C220F primer specific to the Chinese A. chinensis population amplified a DNA fragment of 364 bp only from that population. We were able to identify the A. chinensis population origin with 100% accuracy using multiplex PCR performed with two external primers and C220F primers. These results show that the 16S rRNA gene that is generally used for the identification of species can be used for the identification of the origin within species of A. chinensis, which is an important finding for the fair trade of the species between Korea and China. PMID:25656197

  15. Design and evaluation of universal 16S rRNA gene primers for high-throughput sequencing to simultaneously detect DAMO microbes and anammox bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yong-Ze; Ding, Zhao-Wei; Ding, Jing; Fu, Liang; Zeng, Raymond J

    2015-12-15

    To develop universal 16S rRNA gene primers for high-throughput sequencing for the simultaneous detection of denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) archaea, DAMO bacteria, and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria, four published primer sets (PS2-PS5) were modified. The overall coverage of the four primer pairs was evaluated in silico with the Silva SSU r119 dataset. Based on the virtual evaluation, the two best primer pairs (PS4 and PS5) were selected for further verification. Illumina MiSeq sequencing of a freshwater sediment and a culture from a DAMO-anammox reactor using these two primer pairs revealed that PS5 (341b4F-806R) was the most promising universal primer pair. This pair of primers detected both archaea and bacteria with less bias than PS4. Furthermore, an anaerobic fermentation culture and a wastewater treatment plant culture were used to verify the accuracy of PS5. More importantly, it detected DAMO archaea, DAMO bacteria, and anammox bacteria simultaneously with no false positives appeared. This universal 16S rRNA gene primer pair extends the existing molecular tools for studying the community structures and distributions of DAMO microbes and their potential interactions with anammox bacteria in different environments. PMID:26454634

  16. Assessment of fecal pollution sources in a small northern-plains watershed using PCR and phylogenetic analyses of Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamendella, R.; Domingo, J.W.S.; Oerther, D.B.; Vogel, J.R.; Stoeckel, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy, sensitivity, host-specificity, and spatial/temporal dynamics of human- and ruminant-specific 16S rRNA gene Bacteroidetes markers used to assess the sources of fecal pollution in a fecally impacted watershed. Phylogenetic analyses of 1271 fecal and environmental 16S rRNA gene clones were also performed to study the diversity of Bacteroidetes in this watershed. The host-specific assays indicated that ruminant feces were present in 28-54% of the water samples and in all sampling seasons, with increasing frequency in downstream sites. The human-targeted assays indicated that only 3-5% of the water samples were positive for human fecal signals, although a higher percentage of human-associated signals (19-24%) were detected in sediment samples. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that 57% of all water clones clustered with yet-to-be-cultured Bacteroidetes species associated with sequences obtained from ruminant feces, further supporting the prevalence of ruminant contamination in this watershed. However, since several clusters contained sequences from multiple sources, future studies need to consider the potential cosmopolitan nature of these bacterial populations when assessing fecal pollution sources using Bacteroidetes markers. Moreover, additional data is needed in order to understand the distribution of Bacteroidetes host-specific markers and their relationship to water quality regulatory standards. ?? 2006 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  17. Microbial Diversity of the Brine-Seawater Interface of the Kebrit Deep, Red Sea, Studied via 16S rRNA Gene Sequences and Cultivation Methods

    PubMed Central

    Eder, Wolfgang; Jahnke, Linda L.; Schmidt, Mark; Huber, Robert

    2001-01-01

    The brine-seawater interface of the Kebrit Deep, northern Red Sea, was investigated for the presence of microorganisms using phylogenetic analysis combined with cultivation methods. Under strictly anaerobic culture conditions, novel halophiles were isolated. The new rod-shaped isolates belong to the halophilic genus Halanaerobium and are the first representatives of the genus obtained from deep-sea, anaerobic brine pools. Within the genus Halanaerobium, they represent new species which grow chemoorganotrophically at NaCl concentrations ranging from 5 to 34%. The cellular fatty acid compositions are consistent with those of other Halanaerobium representatives, showing unusually large amounts of Δ7 and Δ11 16:1 fatty acids. Phylogenetic analysis of the brine-seawater interface sample revealed the presence of various bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences dominated by cultivated members of the bacterial domain, with the majority affiliated with the genus Halanaerobium. The new Halanaerobium 16S rRNA clone sequences showed the highest similarity (99.9%) to the sequence of isolate KT-8-13 from the Kebrit Deep brine. In this initial survey, our polyphasic approach demonstrates that novel halophiles thrive in the anaerobic, deep-sea brine pool of the Kebrit Deep, Red Sea. They may contribute significantly to the anaerobic degradation of organic matter enriched at the brine-seawater interface. PMID:11425725

  18. Analysis of 16S rRNA and mxaF genes revealing insights into Methylobacterium niche-specific plant association

    PubMed Central

    Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Conti, Raphael; Araújo, Janete Magali; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2012-01-01

    The genus Methylobacterium comprises pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic (PPFM) bacteria, known to be an important plant-associated bacterial group. Species of this group, described as plant-nodulating, have the dual capacity of producing cytokinin and enzymes, such as pectinase and cellulase, involved in systemic resistance induction and nitrogen fixation under specific plant environmental conditions. The aim hereby was to evaluate the phylogenetic distribution of Methylobacterium spp. isolates from different host plants. Thus, a comparative analysis between sequences from structural (16S rRNA) and functional mxaF (which codifies for a subunit of the enzyme methanol dehydrogenase) ubiquitous genes, was undertaken. Notably, some Methylobacterium spp. isolates are generalists through colonizing more than one host plant, whereas others are exclusively found in certain specific plant-species. Congruency between phylogeny and specific host inhabitance was higher in the mxaF gene than in the 16S rRNA, a possible indication of function-based selection in this niche. Therefore, in a first stage, plant colonization by Methylobacterium spp. could represent generalist behavior, possibly related to microbial competition and adaptation to a plant environment. Otherwise, niche-specific colonization is apparently impelled by the host plant. PMID:22481887

  19. Genetic diversity of Datisca cannabina-compatible Frankia strains as determined by sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene.

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, M S; Hameed, S; Akkermans, A D

    1994-01-01

    The presence of Frankia strains in soil samples collected from northern areas of Pakistan was detected by inoculating Coriaria nepalensis and Datisca cannabina plants. The abundance of compatible Frankia strains in some areas was indicated by profuse nodulation of the host plants, whereas soil samples from other localities failed to result in nodulation. An oligonucleotide probe (COR/DAT) directed against the 16S rRNA gene of the endophytes of Coriaria and Datisca spp. that did not cross-react with the RNA gene of Frankia strains isolated from other hosts was developed. Genetic diversity among Frankia strains nodulating D. cannabina was determined by sequence analysis of the partial 16S rRNA gene amplified from nodules induced by soil samples from different localities by PCR. Four types of Frankia sequences and one non-Frankia sequence were detected by hybridization with a Frankia genus probe and the COR/DAT probe as well as by sequence analysis of the cloned PCR products. Images PMID:7521157

  20. Differentiation of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and intergenic regions and Mycobacterium tuberculosis katG genes by structure-specific endonuclease cleavage.

    PubMed Central

    Brow, M A; Oldenburg, M C; Lyamichev, V; Heisler, L M; Lyamicheva, N; Hall, J G; Eagan, N J; Olive, D M; Smith, L M; Fors, L; Dahlberg, J E

    1996-01-01

    We describe here a new approach for analyzing nucleic acid sequences using a structure-specific endonuclease, Cleavase I. We have applied this technique to the detection and localization of mutations associated with isoniazid resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and for differentiating bacterial genera, species and strains. The technique described here is based on the observation that single strands of DNAs can assume defined conformations, which can be detected and cleaved by structure-specific endonucleases such as Cleavase I. The patterns of fragments produced are characteristic of the sequences responsible for the structure, so that each DNA has its own structural fingerprint. Amplicons, containing either a single 5'-fluorescein or 5'-tetramethyl rhodamine label were generated from a 620-bp segment of the katG gene of isoniazid-resistant and -sensitive M. tuberculosis, the 5' 350 bp of the 16S rRNA genes of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella arizonae, Shigella sonnei, Shigella dysenteriae, Campylobacter jejuni, staphylococcus, hominis, Staphylococcus warneri, and Staphylococcus aureus and an approximately 550-bp DNA segment comprising the intergenic region between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella arizonae, Shigella sonnei, and Shigella dysenteriae serotypes 1, 2, and 8. Changes in the structural fingerprints of DNA fragments derived from the katG genes of isoniazid-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates were clearly identified and could be mapped to the site of the actual mutation relative to the labeled end. Bland patterns which clearly differentiated bacteria to the level of genus and, in some cases, species were generated from the 16S genes. Cleavase I analysis of the intergenic regions of Salmonella and Shigella species differentiated genus, species, and serotypes. Structural fingerprinting by digestion with Cleavase I is a rapid, simple, and sensitive

  1. Characterization of methanogenic and prokaryotic assemblages based on mcrA and 16S rRNA gene diversity in sediments of the Kazan mud volcano (Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Kormas, K A; Meziti, A; Dählmann, A; DE Lange, G J; Lykousis, V

    2008-12-01

    The diversity of the methyl-coenzyme reductase A (mcrA) and 16S rRNA genes was investigated in gas hydrate containing sediment from the Kazan mud volcano, eastern Mediterranean Sea. mcrA was detected only at 15 and 20 cm below seafloor (cmbsf) from a 40-cm long push core, while based on chemical profiles of methane, sulfate, and sulfide, possible anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) depth was inferred at 12-15 cmbsf. The phylogenetic relationships of the obtained mcrA, archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA genes, showed that all the found sequences were found in both depths and at similar relative abundances. mcrA diversity was low. All sequences were related to the Methanosarcinales, with the most dominant (77.2%) sequences falling in group mcrA-e. The 16S rRNA-based archaeal diversity also revealed low diversity and clear dominance (72.8% of all archaeal phylotypes) of the Methanosarcinales and, in particular, ANME-2c. Bacteria showed higher diversity but 83.2% of the retrieved phylotypes from both sediment layers belonged to the delta-Proteobacteria. These phylotypes fell in the SEEP-SRB1 putative AOM group. In addition, the rest of the less abundant phylotypes were related to yet-uncultivated representatives of the Actinobacteria, Spirochaetales, and candidate divisions OP11 and WS3 from gas hydrate-bearing habitats. These phylotype patterns indicate that AOM is occurring in the 15 and 20 cmbsf sediment layers. PMID:19076636

  2. Suspension Array Analysis of 16S rRNA from Fe- and SO42-Reducing Bacteria in Uranium-Contaminated Sediments Undergoing Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Darrell P.; Jarrell, Ann E.; Roden, Eric R.; Golova, Julia; Chernov, Boris; Schipma, Matthew J.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Long, Philip E.

    2006-01-01

    A 16S rRNA-targeted tunable bead array was developed and used in a retrospective analysis of metal- and sulfate-reducing bacteria in contaminated subsurface sediments undergoing in situ U(VI) bioremediation. Total RNA was extracted from subsurface sediments and interrogated directly, without a PCR step. Bead array validation studies with total RNA derived from 24 isolates indicated that the behavior and response of the 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes could not be predicted based on the primary nucleic acid sequence. Likewise, signal intensity (absolute or normalized) could not be used to assess the abundance of one organism (or rRNA) relative to the abundance of another organism (or rRNA). Nevertheless, the microbial community structure and dynamics through time and space and as measured by the rRNA-targeted bead array were consistent with previous data acquired at the site, where indigenous sulfate- and iron-reducing bacteria and near neighbors of Desulfotomaculum were the organisms that were most responsive to a change in injected acetate concentrations. Bead array data were best interpreted by analyzing the relative changes in the probe responses for spatially and temporally related samples and by considering only the response of one probe to itself in relation to a background (reference) environmental sample. By limiting the interpretation of the data in this manner and placing it in the context of supporting geochemical and microbiological analyses, we concluded that ecologically relevant and meaningful information can be derived from direct microarray analysis of rRNA in uncharacterized environmental samples, even with the current analytical uncertainty surrounding the behavior of individual probes on tunable bead arrays. PMID:16820459

  3. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry as an Alternative to 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing for Identification of Difficult-To-Identify Bacterial Strains▿†

    PubMed Central

    Bizzini, A.; Jaton, K.; Romo, D.; Bille, J.; Prod'hom, G.; Greub, G.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional methods are sometimes insufficient to identify human bacterial pathogens, and alternative techniques, often molecular, are required. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identified with a valid score 45.9% of 410 clinical isolates from 207 different difficult-to-identify species having required 16S rRNA gene sequencing. MALDI-TOF MS might represent an alternative to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. PMID:21106794

  4. Improved group-specific primers based on the full SILVA 16S rRNA gene reference database.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Stefan; Pastar, Milica; Mitter, Birgit; Lippert, Kathrin; Hackl, Evelyn; Lojan, Paul; Oswald, Andreas; Sessitsch, Angela

    2014-08-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and community fingerprinting methods, such as the Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis,are well-suited techniques for the examination of microbial community structures. The use of phylum and class-specific primers can provide enhanced sensitivity and phylogenetic resolution as compared with domain-specific primers. To date, several phylum- and class-specific primers targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA gene have been published. However, many of these primers exhibit low discriminatory power against non-target bacteria in PCR. In this study, we evaluated the precision of certain published primers in silico and via specific PCR. We designed new qPCR and T-RFLP primer pairs (for the classes Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, and the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria) by combining the sequence information from a public dataset (SILVA SSU Ref 102 NR) with manual primer design. We evaluated the primer pairs via PCR using isolates of the above-mentioned groups and via screening of clone libraries from environmental soil samples and human faecal samples. As observed through theoretical and practical evaluation, the primers developed in this study showed a higher level of precision than previously published primers, thus allowing a deeper insight into microbial community dynamics. PMID:25229098

  5. Bacterial Community Composition of South China Sea Sediments through Pyrosequencing-Based Analysis of 16S rRNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Daochen; Tanabe, Shoko-Hosoi; Yang, Chong; Zhang, Weimin; Sun, Jianzhong

    2013-01-01

    Background Subseafloor sediments accumulate large amounts of organic and inorganic materials that contain a highly diverse microbial ecosystem. The aim of this study was to survey the bacterial community of subseafloor sediments from the South China Sea. Methodology/Principal Findings Pyrosequencing of over 265,000 amplicons of the V3 hypervariable region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene was performed on 16 sediment samples collected from multiple locations in the northern region of the South China Sea from depths ranging from 35 to 4000 m. A total of 9,726 operational taxonomic units (OTUs; between 695 and 2819 unique OTUs per sample) at 97% sequence similarity level were generated. In total, 40 bacterial phyla including 22 formally described phyla and 18 candidate phyla, with Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi being most diverse, were identified. The most abundant phylotype, accounting for 42.6% of all sequences, belonged to Gammaproteobacteria, which possessed absolute predominance in the samples analyzed. Among the 18 candidate phyla, 12 were found for the first time in the South China Sea. Conclusions This study provided a novel insight into the composition of bacterial communities of the South China Sea subseafloor. Furthermore, abundances and community similarity analysis showed that the compositions of the bacterial communities are very similar at phylum level at different depths from 35-4000 m. PMID:24205246

  6. 16S rRNA assessment of the influence of shading on early-successional biofilms in experimental streams.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Katja; Singer, Andrew; Bowes, Michael J; Ings, Nicola L; Field, Dawn; Bell, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Elevated nutrient levels can lead to excessive biofilm growth, but reducing nutrient pollution is often challenging. There is therefore interest in developing control measures for biofilm growth in nutrient-rich rivers that could act as complement to direct reductions in nutrient load. Shading of rivers is one option that can mitigate blooms, but few studies have experimentally examined the differences in biofilm communities grown under shaded and unshaded conditions. We investigated the assembly and diversity of biofilm communities using in situ mesocosms within the River Thames (UK). Biofilm composition was surveyed by 454 sequencing of 16S amplicons (∼400 bp length covering regions V6/V7). The results confirm the importance of sunlight for biofilm community assembly; a resource that was utilized by a relatively small number of dominant taxa, leading to significantly less diversity than in shaded communities. These differences between unshaded and shaded treatments were either because of differences in resource utilization or loss of diatom-structures as habitats for bacteria. We observed more co-occurrence patterns and network interactions in the shaded communities. This lends further support to the proposal that increased river shading can help mitigate the effects from macronutrient pollution in rivers. PMID:26499485

  7. 16S rRNA assessment of the influence of shading on early-successional biofilms in experimental streams

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Katja; Singer, Andrew; Bowes, Michael J.; Ings, Nicola L.; Field, Dawn; Bell, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Elevated nutrient levels can lead to excessive biofilm growth, but reducing nutrient pollution is often challenging. There is therefore interest in developing control measures for biofilm growth in nutrient-rich rivers that could act as complement to direct reductions in nutrient load. Shading of rivers is one option that can mitigate blooms, but few studies have experimentally examined the differences in biofilm communities grown under shaded and unshaded conditions. We investigated the assembly and diversity of biofilm communities using in situ mesocosms within the River Thames (UK). Biofilm composition was surveyed by 454 sequencing of 16S amplicons (∼400 bp length covering regions V6/V7). The results confirm the importance of sunlight for biofilm community assembly; a resource that was utilized by a relatively small number of dominant taxa, leading to significantly less diversity than in shaded communities. These differences between unshaded and shaded treatments were either because of differences in resource utilization or loss of diatom-structures as habitats for bacteria. We observed more co-occurrence patterns and network interactions in the shaded communities. This lends further support to the proposal that increased river shading can help mitigate the effects from macronutrient pollution in rivers. PMID:26499485

  8. 'Candidatus Phytoplasmas pruni', a novel taxon associated with X-disease of stone fruits, Prunus spp.: multilocus characterization based on 16S rRNA, secY, and ribosomal protein genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    X-disease is one of the most serious diseases known in peach (Prunus persica). Based on RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, peach X-disease phytoplasma strains from eastern and western United States and eastern Canada were classified in 16S rDNA RFLP group 16SrIII, subgroup A. Phylogenetic a...

  9. Real-Time PCR Quantification and Diversity Analysis of the Functional Genes aprA and dsrA of Sulfate-Reducing Prokaryotes in Marine Sediments of the Peru Continental Margin and the Black Sea

    PubMed Central

    Blazejak, Anna; Schippers, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) are ubiquitous and quantitatively important members in many ecosystems, especially in marine sediments. However their abundance and diversity in subsurface marine sediments is poorly understood. In this study, the abundance and diversity of the functional genes for the enzymes adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate reductase (aprA) and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) of SRP in marine sediments of the Peru continental margin and the Black Sea were analyzed, including samples from the deep biosphere (ODP site 1227). For aprA quantification a Q-PCR assay was designed and evaluated. Depth profiles of the aprA and dsrA copy numbers were almost equal for all sites. Gene copy numbers decreased concomitantly with depth from around 108/g sediment close to the sediment surface to less than 105/g sediment at 5 mbsf. The 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of total bacteria were much higher than those of the functional genes at all sediment depths and used to calculate the proportion of SRP to the total Bacteria. The aprA and dsrA copy numbers comprised in average 0.5–1% of the 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of total bacteria in the sediments up to a depth of ca. 40 mbsf. In the zone without detectable sulfate in the pore water from about 40–121 mbsf (Peru margin ODP site 1227), only dsrA (but not aprA) was detected with copy numbers of less than 104/g sediment, comprising ca. 14% of the 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of total bacteria. In this zone, sulfate might be provided for SRP by anaerobic sulfide oxidation. Clone libraries of aprA showed that all isolated sequences originate from SRP showing a close relationship to aprA of characterized species or form a new cluster with only distant relation to aprA of isolated SRP. For dsrA a high diversity was detected, even up to 121 m sediment depth in the deep biosphere. PMID:22203820

  10. Robust species taxonomy assignment algorithm for 16S rRNA NGS reads: application to oral carcinoma samples

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hebshi, Nezar Noor; Nasher, Akram Thabet; Idris, Ali Mohamed; Chen, Tsute

    2015-01-01

    Background Usefulness of next-generation sequencing (NGS) in assessing bacteria associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been undermined by inability to classify reads to the species level. Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a robust algorithm for species-level classification of NGS reads from oral samples and to pilot test it for profiling bacteria within OSCC tissues. Methods Bacterial 16S V1-V3 libraries were prepared from three OSCC DNA samples and sequenced using 454's FLX chemistry. High-quality, well-aligned, and non-chimeric reads ≥350 bp were classified using a novel, multi-stage algorithm that involves matching reads to reference sequences in revised versions of the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD), HOMD extended (HOMDEXT), and Greengene Gold (GGG) at alignment coverage and percentage identity ≥98%, followed by assignment to species level based on top hit reference sequences. Priority was given to hits in HOMD, then HOMDEXT and finally GGG. Unmatched reads were subject to operational taxonomic unit analysis. Results Nearly, 92.8% of the reads were matched to updated-HOMD 13.2, 1.83% to trusted-HOMDEXT, and 1.36% to modified-GGG. Of all matched reads, 99.6% were classified to species level. A total of 228 species-level taxa were identified, representing 11 phyla; the most abundant were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Thirty-five species-level taxa were detected in all samples. On average, Prevotella oris, Neisseria flava, Neisseria flavescens/subflava, Fusobacterium nucleatum ss polymorphum, Aggregatibacter segnis, Streptococcus mitis, and Fusobacterium periodontium were the most abundant. Bacteroides fragilis, a species rarely isolated from the oral cavity, was detected in two samples. Conclusion This multi-stage algorithm maximizes the fraction of reads classified to the species level while ensuring reliable classification by giving priority to the human, oral reference

  11. Species-level core oral bacteriome identified by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing in a healthy young Arab population

    PubMed Central

    Al-hebshi, Nezar Noor; Abdulhaq, Ahmed; Albarrag, Ahmed; Basode, Vinod Kumar; Chen, Tsute

    2016-01-01

    Background Reports on the composition of oral bacteriome in Arabs are lacking. In addition, the majority of previous studies on other ethnic groups have been limited by low-resolution taxonomic assignment of next-generation sequencing reads. Furthermore, there has been a conflict about the existence of a ‘core’ bacteriome. Objective The objective of this study was to characterize the healthy core oral bacteriome in a young Arab population at the species level. Methods Oral rinse DNA samples obtained from 12 stringently selected healthy young subjects of Arab origin were pyrosequenced (454's FLX chemistry) for the bacterial 16S V1–V3 hypervariable region at an average depth of 11,500 reads. High-quality, non-chimeric reads ≥380 bp were classified to the species level using the recently described, prioritized, multistage assignment algorithm. A core bacteriome was defined as taxa present in at least 11 samples. The Chao2, abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE), and Shannon indices were computed to assess species richness and diversity. Results Overall, 557 species-level taxa (211±42 per subject) were identified, representing 122 genera and 13 phyla. The core bacteriome comprised 55 species-level taxa belonging to 30 genera and 7 phyla, namely Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Saccharibacteria, and SR1. The core species constituted between 67 and 87% of the individual bacteriomes. However, the abundances differed by up to three orders of magnitude among the study subjects. On average, Streptococcus mitis, Rothia mucilaginosa, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Neisseria flavescence/subflava group, Prevotella melaninogenica, and Veillonella parvula group were the most abundant. Streptococcus sp. C300, a taxon never reported in the oral cavity, was identified as a core species. Species richness was estimated at 586 (Chao2) and 614 (ACE) species, whereas diversity (Shannon index) averaged at 3.99. Conclusions A species

  12. Prevalence of 16S rRNA Methylase Gene rmtB Among Escherichia coli Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Ningxia, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ting; He, Tao; Yao, Hong; Zhang, Jin-Bao; Li, Xiao-Na; Zhang, Rong-Ming; Wang, Gui-Qin

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the prevalence and molecular characterization of 16S rRNA methylase gene, rmtB, among Escherichia coli strains isolated from bovine mastitis in China. A total of 245 E. coli isolates were collected from bovine mastitis in China between 2013 and 2014 and were screened for 16S rRNA methylase genes (armA, rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, rmtD, rmtE, and npmA) by polymerase chain reaction. About 5.3% (13/245) of the isolates carried the rmtB gene; the isolates were highly resistant to amikacin. Thirteen rmtB-positive strains were analyzed for the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes (bla(TEM), bla(CTX-M), bla(OXA), and bla(SHV)). All the isolates harbored both bla(TEM-1) and bla(CTX-M-15) genes and two of the isolates were also positive for bla(OXA-1). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis indicated that the nine rmtB-positive strains belonging to ST10 from one farm showed the similar PFGE pattern, indicating a clonal expansion in this farm. S1-PFGE and Southern blotting showed that 12 isolates harbored the rmtB gene in plasmids of two different sizes (≈45 kb [n=10] and ≈48 kb [n=2]), while only 1 strain harbored the rmtB gene in the chromosome. These plasmids were transferable by conjugation studies, and two isolates from two respective farms carried the same size of plasmid, suggesting that the horizontal transmission of plasmids also contributed to the spread of rmtB gene. This is the first report of prevalence of the 16S rRNA methylase gene rmtB among E. coli isolated from bovine mastitis in China, and rmtB-carrying E. coli may pose a threat to the treatment of bovine mastitis. PMID:26203763

  13. From learning taxonomies to phylogenetic learning: Integration of 16S rRNA gene data into FAME-based bacterial classification

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Machine learning techniques have shown to improve bacterial species classification based on fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) data. Nonetheless, FAME analysis has a limited resolution for discrimination of bacteria at the species level. In this paper, we approach the species classification problem from a taxonomic point of view. Such a taxonomy or tree is typically obtained by applying clustering algorithms on FAME data or on 16S rRNA gene data. The knowledge gained from the tree can then be used to evaluate FAME-based classifiers, resulting in a novel framework for bacterial species classification. Results In view of learning in a taxonomic framework, we consider two types of trees. First, a FAME tree is constructed with a supervised divisive clustering algorithm. Subsequently, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, phylogenetic trees are inferred by the NJ and UPGMA methods. In this second approach, the species classification problem is based on the combination of two different types of data. Herein, 16S rRNA gene sequence data is used for phylogenetic tree inference and the corresponding binary tree splits are learned based on FAME data. We call this learning approach 'phylogenetic learning'. Supervised Random Forest models are developed to train the classification tasks in a stratified cross-validation setting. In this way, better classification results are obtained for species that are typically hard to distinguish by a single or flat multi-class classification model. Conclusions FAME-based bacterial species classification is successfully evaluated in a taxonomic framework. Although the proposed approach does not improve the overall accuracy compared to flat multi-class classification, it has some distinct advantages. First, it has better capabilities for distinguishing species on which flat multi-class classification fails. Secondly, the hierarchical classification structure allows to easily evaluate and visualize the resolution of FAME data for

  14. Vibrio salilacus sp. nov., a new member of the Anguillarum clade with six alleles of the 16S rRNA gene from a saline lake.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Ying; Liu, Hong-Can; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, facultatively aerobic bacterium, strain DSG-S6T, was isolated from Dasugan Lake (salinity 3.1%, w/w), China. Its taxonomic position was determined by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain DSG-S6T were non-spore-forming, slightly bent rods, and motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Growth occurred in the presence of 0-7.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2.0%), at 4-35 °C (optimum, 30 °C) and at pH 6.0-10.5 (optimum, pH 8.0-8.5). C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω7c and C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c were the major fatty acids. Six alleles of the 16S rRNA gene sharing 98.9-99.9  % similarity were detected in strain DSG-S6T, which showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Vibrio aestuarianus ATCC 35048T (97.7 %), then to Vibrio pacinii LMG 19999T (97.6%) and Vibrio metschnikovii CIP 69.14T (96.8%). Multilocus sequence analysis of four housekeeping genes and 16S rRNA genes clearly clustered it as a member of the Anguillarum clade. Mean DNA-DNA relatedness between strain DSG-S6T and V. aestuarianus NBRC 15629T, V. pacinii CGMCC 1.12557T and V. metschnikovii JCM 21189T was 20.6 ± 2.3, 38.1 ± 3.5 and 24.2 ± 2.8%, respectively. The DNA G+C content was 46.8 mol% (Tm). Based on the data, it is concluded that strain DSG-S6T represents a novel species of the genus Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio salilacus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DSG-S6T ( = CGMCC 1.12427T = JCM 19265T). PMID:25964518

  15. Bacterial community structure in the intestinal ecosystem of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as revealed by pyrosequencing-based analysis of 16S rRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Etyemez, Miray; Balcázar, José Luis

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we determined the diversity and composition of bacterial communities within the intestinal ecosystem of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Healthy rainbow trout, weighing between 520 and 750 g, were fed a commercial diet. Subsequently, genomic DNA was isolated from the intestinal mucus (n = 16 fish samples) and combined into groups of four fish samples each for pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The results revealed that the most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were affiliated to the genera Acinetobacter, Cetobacterium, Pseudomonas, and Psychrobacter, and to a lesser extent, the genera Aeromonas, Clostridium, Deefgea, Flavobacterium, Neptuniibacter, and Mycoplasma. These findings could be used as a baseline for further studies about the role of bacterial communities in normal and altered host physiological states. PMID:25843896

  16. Transferable Resistance to Aminoglycosides by Methylation of G1405 in 16S rRNA and to Hydrophilic Fluoroquinolones by QepA-Mediated Efflux in Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Périchon, Bruno; Courvalin, Patrice; Galimand, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Plasmid pIP1206 was detected in Escherichia coli strain 1540 during the screening of clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae for high-level resistance to aminoglycosides. The sequence of this IncFI conjugative plasmid of ca. 100 kb was partially determined. pIP1206 carried the rmtB gene for a ribosome methyltransferase that was shown to modify the N7 position of nucleotide G1405, located in the A site of 16S rRNA. It also contained the qepA (quinolone efflux pump) gene that encodes a 14-transmembrane-segment putative efflux pump belonging to the major facilitator superfamily of proton-dependent transporters. Disruption of membrane proton potential by the efflux pump inhibitor carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone in a transconjugant harboring the qepA gene resulted in elevation of norfloxacin accumulation. The transporter conferred resistance to the hydrophilic quinolones norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. PMID:17470656

  17. 16S rRNA Amplicon Sequencing Demonstrates that Indoor-Reared Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) Harbor a Core Subset of Bacteria Normally Associated with the Wild Host

    PubMed Central

    Meeus, Ivan; Parmentier, Laurian; Billiet, Annelies; Maebe, Kevin; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Deforce, Dieter; Wäckers, Felix; Vandamme, Peter; Smagghe, Guy

    2015-01-01

    A MiSeq multiplexed 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of the gut microbiota of wild and indoor-reared Bombus terrestris (bumblebees) confirmed the presence of a core set of bacteria, which consisted of Neisseriaceae (Snodgrassella), Orbaceae (Gilliamella), Lactobacillaceae (Lactobacillus), and Bifidobacteriaceae (Bifidobacterium). In wild B. terrestris we detected several non-core bacteria having a more variable prevalence. Although Enterobacteriaceae are unreported by non next-generation sequencing studies, it can become a dominant gut resident. Furthermore the presence of some non-core lactobacilli were associated with the relative abundance of bifidobacteria. This association was not observed in indoor-reared bumblebees lacking the non-core bacteria, but having a more standardized microbiota compared to their wild counterparts. The impact of the bottleneck microbiota of indoor-reared bumblebees when they are used in the field for pollination purpose is discussed. PMID:25923917

  18. Diversity of endophytic bacteria in Malaysian plants as revealed by 16S rRNA encoding gene sequence based method of bacterial identification☆

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Chye Ying; Tan, Yin Yin; Rohani, Rahim; Weber, Jean-Frédéric F.; Bhore, Subhash Janardhan

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial endophytes do have several potential applications in pharmacy, medicine and agricultural biotech industry. The main objective of this study was to understand types of bacterial endophytes associated with dicotyledonous (dicot) and monocotyledonous (monocot) plant species. Isolation of the endophytic bacteria was performed using surface-sterilized various tissue samples, and identification of the endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) was completed using 16S rRNA encoding gene sequence similarity based method. In total, 996 EBIs were isolated and identified from 1055 samples of 31 monocot and 65 dicot plant species from Peninsular Malaysia. The 996 EBIs represented 71 different types of bacterial species. Twelve (12) out of 71 species are reported as endophytes for the first time. We conclude that diverse types of bacterial endophytes are associated with dicot and monocot plants, and could be useful in pharmacy, medicine and agricultural biotechnology for various potential applications. PMID:24396249

  19. A report of cat scratch disease in Korea confirmed by PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic region of Bartonella henselae.

    PubMed

    Suh, Borum; Chun, Jin-Kyoung; Yong, Dongeun; Lee, Yang Soon; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Yang, Woo Ick; Kim, Dong Soo

    2010-02-01

    We report a case of cat scratch disease in an 8-yr-old girl who presented with fever and enlargement of both axillary lymph nodes. Both aerobic and anaerobic cultures of the lymph node aspirate were negative for microbial growth. Gram staining and Warthin-Starry silver staining did not reveal any organism. Purified DNA from the PCR-amplicon of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic region was sequenced and showed 99.7% identity with the corresponding sequence of Bartonella henselae strain Houston-1. Our findings suggest that the internal transcribed spacer is a reliable region for PCR identification of Bartonella species. In patients with lymphadenitis, a history of contact with cats or dogs necessitates the use of diagnostic approaches that employ not only the conventional staining and culture but also molecular methods to detect B. henselae. PMID:20197720

  20. Identification of Raoultella terrigena as a Rare Causative Agent of Subungual Abscess Based on 16S rRNA and Housekeeping Gene Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Jiang, Xiawei; Xu, Zemin; Ying, Chaoqun; Yu, Wei; Xiao, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    A 63-year-old-man was admitted to our hospital with severe subungual abscess. Bacteria were isolated from pus samples, and an inconsistent identification was shown by VITEK 2 system and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as Raoultella planticola and Raoultella terrigena, respectively. Molecular identification by 16S rRNA sequencing suggested that the isolate is R. terrigena, and this was further demonstrated by sequencing three housekeeping genes (rpoB, gyrA, and parC) with phylogenetic analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of subungual abscess caused by R. terrigena, a rare case of human infection due to soil bacterium. Our study highlights the technique importance on this pathogen identification. PMID:27379169

  1. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons to study the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The microbes in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are of high importance for the health of the host. In this study, Roche 454 pyrosequencing was applied to a pooled set of different 16S rRNA gene amplicons obtained from GI content of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to make an inventory of the diversity of the microbiota in the GI tract. Compared to other studies, our culture-independent investigation reveals an impressive diversity of the microbial flora of the carp GI tract. The major group of obtained sequences belonged to the phylum Fusobacteria. Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes and Gammaproteobacteria were other well represented groups of micro-organisms. Verrucomicrobiae, Clostridia and Bacilli (the latter two belonging to the phylum Firmicutes) had fewer representatives among the analyzed sequences. Many of these bacteria might be of high physiological relevance for carp as these groups have been implicated in vitamin production, nitrogen cycling and (cellulose) fermentation. PMID:22093413

  2. Evaluation of composition and individual variability of rumen microbiota in yaks by 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Li, Ying; Wang, Lizhi; Wang, Jiwen; Xu, Qin; Yan, Tianhai; Xue, Bai

    2015-08-01

    The Yak (Bos grunniens) is a unique species of ruminant animals that is important to agriculture of the Tibetan plateau, and has a complex intestinal microbial community. The objective of the present study was to characterize the composition and individual variability of microbiota in the rumen of yaks using 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing technique. Rumen samples used in the present study were obtained from grazing adult male yaks (n = 6) in a commercial farm in Ganzi Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan Province, China. Universal prokaryote primers were used to target the V4-V5 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA gene. A total of 7200 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained after sequence filtering and chimera removal. Within these OTUs, 0.56% belonged to Archaea (40 OTUs), 7.19% to unassigned species (518 OTUs), and the remaining OTUs (6642) in all samples were of bacterial origin. When examining the community structure of bacteria, we identified 23 phyla within 159 families after taxonomic summarization. Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the predominant phyla accounting for 39.68% (SD = 0.05) and 45.90% (SD = 0.06), respectively. Moreover, 3764 OTUs were identified as shared OTUs (i.e. represented in all yaks) and belonged to 35 genera, exhibiting highly variable abundance across individual samples. Phylogenetic placement of these genera across individual samples was examined. In addition, we evaluated the distance among the 6 rumen samples by adding taxon phylogeny using UniFrac, representing 24.1% of average distance. In summary, the current study reveals a shared rumen microbiome and phylogenetic lineage and presents novel information on composition and individual variability of the bacterial community in the rumen of yaks. PMID:25911445

  3. Toolbox Approaches Using Molecular Markers and 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon Data Sets for Identification of Fecal Pollution in Surface Water.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Staley, C; Sadowsky, M J; Gyawali, P; Sidhu, J P S; Palmer, A; Beale, D J; Toze, S

    2015-10-01

    In this study, host-associated molecular markers and bacterial 16S rRNA gene community analysis using high-throughput sequencing were used to identify the sources of fecal pollution in environmental waters in Brisbane, Australia. A total of 92 fecal and composite wastewater samples were collected from different host groups (cat, cattle, dog, horse, human, and kangaroo), and 18 water samples were collected from six sites (BR1 to BR6) along the Brisbane River in Queensland, Australia. Bacterial communities in the fecal, wastewater, and river water samples were sequenced. Water samples were also tested for the presence of bird-associated (GFD), cattle-associated (CowM3), horse-associated, and human-associated (HF183) molecular markers, to provide multiple lines of evidence regarding the possible presence of fecal pollution associated with specific hosts. Among the 18 water samples tested, 83%, 33%, 17%, and 17% were real-time PCR positive for the GFD, HF183, CowM3, and horse markers, respectively. Among the potential sources of fecal pollution in water samples from the river, DNA sequencing tended to show relatively small contributions from wastewater treatment plants (up to 13% of sequence reads). Contributions from other animal sources were rarely detected and were very small (<3% of sequence reads). Source contributions determined via sequence analysis versus detection of molecular markers showed variable agreement. A lack of relationships among fecal indicator bacteria, host-associated molecular markers, and 16S rRNA gene community analysis data was also observed. Nonetheless, we show that bacterial community and host-associated molecular marker analyses can be combined to identify potential sources of fecal pollution in an urban river. This study is a proof of concept, and based on the results, we recommend using bacterial community analysis (where possible) along with PCR detection or quantification of host-associated molecular markers to provide information on

  4. Assessment of a 16S rRNA amplicon Illumina sequencing procedure for studying the microbiome of a symbiont-rich aphid genus.

    PubMed

    Jousselin, E; Clamens, A-L; Galan, M; Bernard, M; Maman, S; Gschloessl, B; Duport, G; Meseguer, A S; Calevro, F; Coeur d'acier, A

    2016-05-01

    The bacterial communities inhabiting arthropods are generally dominated by a few endosymbionts that play an important role in the ecology of their hosts. Rather than comparing bacterial species richness across samples, ecological studies on arthropod endosymbionts often seek to identify the main bacterial strains associated with each specimen studied. The filtering out of contaminants from the results and the accurate taxonomic assignment of sequences are therefore crucial in arthropod microbiome studies. We aimed here to validate an Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing protocol and analytical pipeline for investigating endosymbiotic bacteria associated with aphids. Using replicate DNA samples from 12 species (Aphididae: Lachninae, Cinara) and several controls, we removed individual sequences not meeting a minimum threshold number of reads in each sample and carried out taxonomic assignment for the remaining sequences. With this approach, we show that (i) contaminants accounted for a negligible proportion of the bacteria identified in our samples; (ii) the taxonomic composition of our samples and the relative abundance of reads assigned to a taxon were very similar across PCR and DNA replicates for each aphid sample; in particular, bacterial DNA concentration had no impact on the results. Furthermore, by analysing the distribution of unique sequences across samples rather than aggregating them into operational taxonomic units (OTUs), we gained insight into the specificity of endosymbionts for their hosts. Our results confirm that Serratia symbiotica is often present in Cinara species, in addition to the primary symbiont, Buchnera aphidicola. Furthermore, our findings reveal new symbiotic associations with Erwinia- and Sodalis-related bacteria. We conclude with suggestions for generating and analysing 16S rRNA gene sequences for arthropod-endosymbiont studies. PMID:26458227

  5. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing reveals alterations of intestinal microbiota in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Frémont, Marc; Coomans, Danny; Massart, Sebastien; De Meirleir, Kenny

    2013-08-01

    Human intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the maintenance of host health by providing energy, nutrients, and immunological protection. Intestinal dysfunction is a frequent complaint in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) patients, and previous reports suggest that dysbiosis, i.e. the overgrowth of abnormal populations of bacteria in the gut, is linked to the pathogenesis of the disease. We used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to investigate the presence of specific alterations in the gut microbiota of ME/CFS patients from Belgium and Norway. 43 ME/CFS patients and 36 healthy controls were included in the study. Bacterial DNA was extracted from stool samples, PCR amplification was performed on 16S rRNA gene regions, and PCR amplicons were sequenced using Roche FLX 454 sequencer. The composition of the gut microbiota was found to differ between Belgian controls and Norwegian controls: Norwegians showed higher percentages of specific Firmicutes populations (Roseburia, Holdemania) and lower proportions of most Bacteroidetes genera. A highly significant separation could be achieved between Norwegian controls and Norwegian patients: patients presented increased proportions of Lactonifactor and Alistipes, as well as a decrease in several Firmicutes populations. In Belgian subjects the patient/control separation was less pronounced, however some abnormalities observed in Norwegian patients were also found in Belgian patients. These results show that intestinal microbiota is altered in ME/CFS. High-throughput sequencing is a useful tool to diagnose dysbiosis in patients and could help designing treatments based on gut microbiota modulation (antibiotics, pre and probiotics supplementation). PMID:23791918

  6. Molecular diversity of soil and marine 16S rRNA gene sequences related to beta-subgroup ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, J R; McCaig, A E; Smith, Z; Prosser, J I; Embley, T M

    1996-01-01

    We have conducted a preliminary phylogenetic survey of ammonia-oxidizing beta-proteobacteria, using 16S rRNA gene libraries prepared by selective PCR and DNA from acid and neutral soils and polluted and nonpolluted marine sediments. Enrichment cultures were established from samples and analyzed by PCR. Analysis of 111 partial sequences of c. 300 bases revealed that the environmental sequences formed seven clusters, four of which are novel, within the phylogenetic radiation defined by cultured autotrophic ammonia oxidizers. Longer sequences from 13 cluster representatives support their phylogenetic positions relative to cultured taxa. These data suggest that known taxa may not be representative of the ammonia-oxidizing beta-proteobacteria in our samples. Our data provide further evidence that molecular and culture-based enrichment methods can select for different community members. Most enrichments contained novel Nitrosomonas-like sequences whereas novel Nitrosospira-like sequences were more common from gene libraries of soils and marine sediments. This is the first evidence for the occurrence of Nitrosospira-like strains in marine samples. Clear differences between the sequences of soil and marine sediment libraries were detected. Comparison of 16S rRNA sequences from polluted and nonpolluted sediments provided no strong evidence that the community composition was determined by the degree of pollution. Soil clone sequences fell into four clusters, each containing sequences from acid and neutral soils in varying proportions. Our data suggest that some related strains may be present in both samples, but further work is needed to resolve whether there is selection due to pH for particular sequence types. PMID:8900005

  7. Microdiversity of Deep-Sea Bacillales Isolated from Tyrrhenian Sea Sediments as Revealed by ARISA, 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing and BOX-PCR Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Ettoumi, Besma; Guesmi, Amel; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Borin, Sara; Najjari, Afef; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Cherif, Ameur

    2013-01-01

    With respect to their terrestrial relatives, marine Bacillales have not been sufficiently investigated. In this report, the diversity of deep-sea Bacillales, isolated from seamount and non-seamount stations at 3,425 to 3,580 m depth in the Tyrrhenian Sea, was investigated using PCR fingerprinting and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The isolate collection (n=120) was de-replicated by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), and phylogenetic diversity was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of representatives of each ARISA haplotype (n=37). Phylogenetic analysis of isolates showed their affiliation to six different genera of low G+C% content Gram-positive Bacillales: Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Exiguobacterium, Paenibacillus, Lysinibacillus and Terribacillus. Bacillus was the dominant genus represented by the species B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. firmus, typically isolated from marine sediments. The most abundant species in the collection was B. licheniformis (n=85), which showed seven distinct ARISA haplotypes with haplotype H8 being the most dominant since it was identified by 63 isolates. The application of BOX-PCR fingerprinting to the B. licheniformis sub-collection allowed their separation into five distinct BOX genotypes, suggesting a high level of intraspecies diversity among marine B. licheniformis strains. This species also exhibited distinct strain distribution between seamount and non-seamount stations and was shown to be highly prevalent in non-seamount stations. This study revealed the great microdiversity of marine Bacillales and contributes to understanding the biogeographic distribution of marine bacteria in deep-sea sediments. PMID:24005887

  8. Microdiversity of deep-sea Bacillales isolated from Tyrrhenian sea sediments as revealed by ARISA, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and BOX-PCR fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Ettoumi, Besma; Guesmi, Amel; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Borin, Sara; Najjari, Afef; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Cherif, Ameur

    2013-01-01

    With respect to their terrestrial relatives, marine Bacillales have not been sufficiently investigated. In this report, the diversity of deep-sea Bacillales, isolated from seamount and non-seamount stations at 3,425 to 3,580 m depth in the Tyrrhenian Sea, was investigated using PCR fingerprinting and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The isolate collection (n=120) was de-replicated by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), and phylogenetic diversity was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of representatives of each ARISA haplotype (n=37). Phylogenetic analysis of isolates showed their affiliation to six different genera of low G+C% content Gram-positive Bacillales: Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Exiguobacterium, Paenibacillus, Lysinibacillus and Terribacillus. Bacillus was the dominant genus represented by the species B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. firmus, typically isolated from marine sediments. The most abundant species in the collection was B. licheniformis (n=85), which showed seven distinct ARISA haplotypes with haplotype H8 being the most dominant since it was identified by 63 isolates. The application of BOX-PCR fingerprinting to the B. licheniformis sub-collection allowed their separation into five distinct BOX genotypes, suggesting a high level of intraspecies diversity among marine B. licheniformis strains. This species also exhibited distinct strain distribution between seamount and non-seamount stations and was shown to be highly prevalent in non-seamount stations. This study revealed the great microdiversity of marine Bacillales and contributes to understanding the biogeographic distribution of marine bacteria in deep-sea sediments. PMID:24005887

  9. Crystal Structure of the Thermus thermophilus 16 S rRNA Methyltransferase RsmC in Complex with Cofactor and Substrate Guanosine*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Hasan; Gregory, Steven T.; Dahlberg, Albert E.; Jogl, Gerwald

    2008-01-01

    Post-transcriptional modification is a ubiquitous feature of ribosomal RNA in all kingdoms of life. Modified nucleotides are generally clustered in functionally important regions of the ribosome, but the functional contribution to protein synthesis is not well understood. Here we describe high resolution crystal structures for the N2-guanine methyltransferase RsmC that modifies residue G1207 in 16 S rRNA near the decoding site of the 30 S ribosomal subunit. RsmC is a class I S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methyltransferase composed of two methyltransferase domains. However, only one S-adenosyl-l-methionine molecule and one substrate molecule, guanosine, bind in the ternary complex. The N-terminal domain does not bind any cofactor. Two structures with bound S-adenosyl-l-methionine and S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine confirm that the cofactor binding mode is highly similar to other class I methyltransferases. Secondary structure elements of the N-terminal domain contribute to cofactor-binding interactions and restrict access to the cofactor-binding site. The orientation of guanosine in the active site reveals that G1207 has to disengage from its Watson-Crick base pairing interaction with C1051 in the 16 S rRNA and flip out into the active site prior to its modification. Inspection of the 30 S crystal structure indicates that access to G1207 by RsmC is incompatible with the native subunit structure, consistent with previous suggestions that this enzyme recognizes a subunit assembly intermediate. PMID:18667428

  10. Cloning of 16S rRNA genes amplified from normal and disturbed vaginal microflora suggests a strong association between Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Verhelst, Rita; Verstraelen, Hans; Claeys, Geert; Verschraegen, Gerda; Delanghe, Joris; Van Simaey, Leen; De Ganck, Catharine; Temmerman, Marleen; Vaneechoutte, Mario

    2004-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis remains largely elusive, although some microorganisms, including Gardnerella vaginalis, are suspected of playing a role in the etiology of this disorder. Recently culture-independent analysis of microbial ecosystems has proven its efficacy in characterizing the diversity of bacterial populations. Here, we report on the results obtained by combining culture and PCR-based methods to characterize the normal and disturbed vaginal microflora. Results A total of 150 vaginal swab samples from healthy women (115 pregnant and 35 non-pregnant) were categorized on the basis of Gram stain of direct smear as grade I (n = 112), grade II (n = 26), grade III (n = 9) or grade IV (n = 3). The composition of the vaginal microbial community of eight of these vaginal swabs (three grade I, two grade II and three grade III), all from non-pregnant women, were studied by culture and by cloning of the 16S rRNA genes obtained after direct amplification. Forty-six cultured isolates were identified by tDNA-PCR, 854 cloned 16S rRNA gene fragments were analysed of which 156 by sequencing, yielding a total of 38 species, including 9 presumptively novel species with at least five species that have not been isolated previously from vaginal samples. Interestingly, cloning revealed that Atopobium vaginae was abundant in four out of the five non-grade I specimens. Finally, species specific PCR for A. vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis pointed to a statistically significant co-occurrence of both species in the bacterial vaginosis samples. Conclusions Although historically the literature regarding bacterial vaginosis has largely focused on G. vaginalis in particular, several findings of this study – like the abundance of A. vaginae in disturbed vaginal microflora and the presence of several novel species – indicate that much is to be learned about the composition of the vaginal microflora and its relation to the etiology of BV. PMID:15102329

  11. Bacterial communities of traditional salted and fermented seafoods from Jeju Island of Korea using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Soo; Park, Eun-Jin

    2014-05-01

    Jeotgal, which is widely consumed as a nutritional supplement in Korea, is traditional type of preserved seafood that is prepared by salting and fermenting. Here, we report on the bacterial community structure and diversity of jeotgal obtained from the Korean island of Jeju, which has a subtropical climate. Two samples of Jeotgal were collected from Jeju, made from either damselfish (Chromis notata; jari-dom-jeot, J1 and J2) or silver-stripe round herring (Spratelloides gracilis; ggot-myulchi-jeot, K1 and K2). The physical characteristics (pH and salinity) were assessed and the bacterial communities characterized using 16S rRNA gene-clone library analysis and cultural isolation. No difference was found in the community composition between the J and K fermented seafoods. Both fermented seafoods had relatively high salinity (26% to 33%) and high pH values (pH 6.08 to 6.72). Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, the halophilic lactic-acid bacteria Tetragenococcus halophilus and T. muriaticus were observed to be dominant in the J and K fermented seafoods, accompanied by halophilic bacteria including Halanaerobium spp., Halomonas spp., and Chromohalobacter spp. When compared with 7 other types of fermented seafood from a previous study, the communities of the J and K fermented seafoods were separated by the most influential group, the genus Tetragenococcus. The results suggest that these 2 types of traditional salted fermented seafood from Jeju have distinct communities dominated by Tetragenococcus spp., which are derived from the raw ingredients and are dependent on the physical conditions. This may explain how the seafoods that are made in Jeju may differ from other jeotgals. PMID:24689962

  12. Analysis of 16S rRNA and 51-kilodalton antigen gene and transmission in mice of Ehrlichia risticii in virgulate trematodes from Elimia livescens snails in Ohio.

    PubMed

    Kanter, M; Mott, J; Ohashi, N; Fried, B; Reed, S; Lin, Y C; Rikihisa, Y

    2000-09-01

    Operculate snails (the family Pleuroceridae: Elimia livescens) were collected between June and October 1998 from a river in central Ohio where repeated cases of Potomac horse fever (PHF) have occurred. Of collected snails, consistently 50 to 80% carried a combination of cercariae and sporocysts of digenetic virgulate trematodes. The trematodes obtained from each snail were pooled and tested for Ehrlichia risticii, the agent of PHF, by nested PCR using primers specific to the 16S rRNA gene. Out of a total of 209 trematode pools, 50 pools were found to be positive by PCR. The DNA sequence of the 16S rRNA gene identified in one trematode pool was identical to that of the type strain of E. risticii, and the sequence of the gene identified in another pool differed from that of the type strain by 1 nucleotide. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the partial 51-kDa antigen gene from various sources revealed that Maryland, Ohio (except Ohio 081), and Kentucky strains are in a cluster distinct from the sequences obtained from sources in California and Oregon. Ohio 081 was shown previously by antigenic composition analysis to be distinct from other groups. However, all sequences examined were not segregated according to their sources: horse blood or infected trematodes. E. risticii was found to be transmittable from trematodes to mice and was subsequently passaged from infected mice to additional mice, as determined by PCR analysis. Our findings suggest the evolution of E. risticii in the natural reservoir in separate geographic regions and persistent infection of trematode populations with E. risticii during summer and early fall. The study also suggests that the mouse can be used to isolate E. risticii from the infected trematode. PMID:10970382

  13. Phylogenetic relationships of marine bacteria, mainly members of the family Vibrionaceae, determined on the basis of 16S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Kita-Tsukamoto, K; Oyaizu, H; Nanba, K; Simidu, U

    1993-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of 50 reference strains, mostly marine bacteria which require Na+ for growth, were determined on the basis of 600 16S rRNA nucleotides by using reverse transcriptase sequencing. Strains belonging to 10 genera were included (four genera of the family Vibrionaceae, the genus Aeromonas of the family Aeromonadaceae, and the genera Alteromonas, Marinomonas, Shewanella, Pseudomonas, and Deleya). The sequences were aligned, the similarity values and evolutionary distance values were determined, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed by using the neighbor-joining method. On the basis of our results, the family Vibrionaceae was separated into at least seven groups (genera and families). Vibrio marinus clearly was on a line of descent that was remote from other vibrios. As determined by the similarity and evolutionary distance values, V. marinus is more distantly related to the family Vibrionaceae than the members of the Aeromonadaceae are. Also, Vibrio cholerae strains formed a separate group with Vibrio mimicus at the genus level. Of 30 species of the Vibrionaceae, 17 formed a large phylogenetic cluster. The genus Listonella was found to be a heterogeneous group, and the species were distributed in various subgroups of the Vibrionaceae. The separation of the family Aeromonadaceae from the family Vibrionaceae and the separation of the genera Marinomonas and Shewanella from the genus Alteromonas were confirmed in this phylogenetic study. However, a marine Pseudomonas species, Pseudomonas nautica, was clearly separated from two terrestrial Pseudomonas species. Each group that was separated by the phylogenetic analysis had characteristic 16S rRNA sequence patterns that were common only to species in that group. Therefore, the characteristic sequences described in this paper may be useful for identification purposes. PMID:8427811

  14. Bacterial diversity of soil in the vicinity of Pindari glacier, Himalayan mountain ranges, India, using culturable bacteria and soil 16S rRNA gene clones.

    PubMed

    Shivaji, S; Pratibha, M S; Sailaja, B; Hara Kishore, K; Singh, Ashish K; Begum, Z; Anarasi, Uttam; Prabagaran, S R; Reddy, G S N; Srinivas, T N R

    2011-01-01

    Three 16S rRNA gene clone libraries (P1L, P4L and P8L) were constructed using three soil samples (P1S, P4S and P8S) collected near Pindari glacier, Himalayas. The three libraries yielded a total of 703 clones. Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were common to the three libraries. In addition to the above P1L and P8L shared the phyla Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Planctomycetes. Phyla Chlamydiae, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, Dictyoglomi, Fibrobacteres, Nitrospirae, Verrucomicrobia, candidate division SPAM and candidate TM7s TM7a phylum were present only in P1L. Rarefaction analysis indicated that the bacterial diversity in P4S and P8S soil samples was representative of the sample. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that P1S and P8S were different from P4S soil sample. PCA also indicated that arsenic content, pH, Cr and altitude influence the observed differences in the percentage of specific OTUs in the three 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. The observed bacterial diversity was similar to that observed for other Himalayan and non-polar cold habitats. A total of 40 strains of bacteria were isolated from the above three soil samples and based on the morphology 20 bacterial strains were selected for further characterization. The 20 bacteria belonged to 12 different genera. All the isolates were psychro-, halo- and alkalitolerant. Amylase and urease activities were detected in majority of the strains but lipase and protease activities were not detected. Long chain, saturated, unsaturated and branched fatty acids were predominant in the psychrotolerant bacteria. PMID:21061031

  15. The Era GTPase recognizes the GAUCACCUCC sequence and binds helix 45 near the 3; end of 16S rRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, Chao; Zhou, Xiaomei; Tarasov, Sergey G.; Tropea, Joseph E.; Austin, Brian P.; Waugh, David S.; Court, Donald L.; Ji, Xinhua

    2012-03-26

    Era, composed of a GTPase domain and a K homology domain, is essential for bacterial cell viability. It is required for the maturation of 16S rRNA and assembly of the 30S ribosomal subunit. We showed previously that the protein recognizes nine nucleotides (1531{sup AUCACCUCC}1539) near the 3{prime} end of 16S rRNA, and that this recognition stimulates GTP-hydrolyzing activity of Era. In all three kingdoms of life, the 1530{sup GAUCA}1534 sequence and helix 45 (h45) (nucleotides 1506-1529) are highly conserved. It has been shown that the 1530{sup GA}1531 to 1530{sup AG}1531 double mutation severely affects the viability of bacteria. However, whether Era interacts with G1530 and/or h45 and whether such interactions (if any) contribute to the stimulation of Era's GTPase activity were not known. Here, we report two RNA structures that contain nucleotides 1506-1542 (RNA301), one in complex with Era and GDPNP (GNP), a nonhydrolysable GTP-analogue, and the other in complex with Era, GNP, and the KsgA methyltransferase. The structures show that Era recognizes 10 nucleotides, including G1530, and that Era also binds h45. Moreover, GTPase assay experiments show that G1530 does not stimulate Era's GTPase activity. Rather, A1531 and A1534 are most important for stimulation and h45 further contributes to the stimulation. Although G1530 does not contribute to the intrinsic GTPase activity of Era, its interaction with Era is important for binding and is essential for the protein to function, leading to the discovery of a new cold-sensitive phenotype of Era.

  16. Toolbox Approaches Using Molecular Markers and 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon Data Sets for Identification of Fecal Pollution in Surface Water

    PubMed Central

    Staley, C.; Sadowsky, M. J.; Gyawali, P.; Sidhu, J. P. S.; Palmer, A.; Beale, D. J.; Toze, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, host-associated molecular markers and bacterial 16S rRNA gene community analysis using high-throughput sequencing were used to identify the sources of fecal pollution in environmental waters in Brisbane, Australia. A total of 92 fecal and composite wastewater samples were collected from different host groups (cat, cattle, dog, horse, human, and kangaroo), and 18 water samples were collected from six sites (BR1 to BR6) along the Brisbane River in Queensland, Australia. Bacterial communities in the fecal, wastewater, and river water samples were sequenced. Water samples were also tested for the presence of bird-associated (GFD), cattle-associated (CowM3), horse-associated, and human-associated (HF183) molecular markers, to provide multiple lines of evidence regarding the possible presence of fecal pollution associated with specific hosts. Among the 18 water samples tested, 83%, 33%, 17%, and 17% were real-time PCR positive for the GFD, HF183, CowM3, and horse markers, respectively. Among the potential sources of fecal pollution in water samples from the river, DNA sequencing tended to show relatively small contributions from wastewater treatment plants (up to 13% of sequence reads). Contributions from other animal sources were rarely detected and were very small (<3% of sequence reads). Source contributions determined via sequence analysis versus detection of molecular markers showed variable agreement. A lack of relationships among fecal indicator bacteria, host-associated molecular markers, and 16S rRNA gene community analysis data was also observed. Nonetheless, we show that bacterial community and host-associated molecular marker analyses can be combined to identify potential sources of fecal pollution in an urban river. This study is a proof of concept, and based on the results, we recommend using bacterial community analysis (where possible) along with PCR detection or quantification of host-associated molecular markers to provide information on

  17. Genus-specific primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene for PCR detection of members of the genus Verrucosispora.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qingyi; Hong, Kui; Goodfellow, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Little is known about the genus Verrucosispora though it does contain organisms which produce novel antibiotics. A set of genus-specific oligonucleotide primers was generated to gain an insight into the presence, distribution and taxonomic diversity of members of this genus in diverse samples taken from marine habitats. In silico and pure culture studies showed that the primers matched perfectly with target sequences of the 16S rRNA genes of representatives of the genus Verrucosispora. The primers, designated S-G-Verr-0195-a-S-20 and S-G-Verr-1152-a-A-18, amplified an ≈960 bp stretch of the 16S rRNA genes of Verrucosispora strains but not those of representatives of other genera classified in the family Micromonosporaceae. Genus-specific amplicons were detected from 17 out of 20 community DNA samples prepared from diverse marine sediments and coastal soils. Phylogenetic analysis of over 40% of clones derived from five of the samples indicated they belonged to novel Verrucosispora species. The primers were also used to confirm the identity of Verrucosispora-like strains isolated from two of the environmental samples. The primers can be used to facilitate the isolation of novel Verrucosispora strains by allowing prescreening of environmental samples and the subsequent identification of verrucosisporae on selective isolation plates. For this purpose, a novel medium facilitating the recovery of Verrucosispora strains was formulated and used to recover novel isolates validated using the novel PCR primers. This medium may be useful as the basis for development of a selective medium. PMID:21374042

  18. Different bacterial communities in heat and gamma irradiation treated replant disease soils revealed by 16S rRNA gene analysis - contribution to improved aboveground apple plant growth?

    PubMed

    Yim, Bunlong; Winkelmann, Traud; Ding, Guo-Chun; Smalla, Kornelia

    2015-01-01

    Replant disease (RD) severely affects apple production in propagation tree nurseries and in fruit orchards worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the effects of soil disinfection treatments on plant growth and health in a biotest in two different RD soil types under greenhouse conditions and to link the plant growth status with the bacterial community composition at the time of plant sampling. In the biotest performed we observed that the aboveground growth of apple rootstock M26 plants after 8 weeks was improved in the two RD soils either treated at 50°C or with gamma irradiation compared to the untreated RD soils. Total community DNA was extracted from soil loosely adhering to the roots and quantitative real-time PCR revealed no pronounced differences in 16S rRNA gene copy numbers. 16S rRNA gene-based bacterial community analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 454-pyrosequencing revealed significant differences in the bacterial community composition even after 8 weeks of plant growth. In both soils, the treatments affected different phyla but only the relative abundance of Acidobacteria was reduced by both treatments. The genera Streptomyces, Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Sphingomonas had a higher relative abundance in both heat treated soils, whereas the relative abundance of Mucilaginibacter, Devosia, and Rhodanobacter was increased in the gamma-irradiated soils and only the genus Phenylobacterium was increased in both treatments. The increased abundance of genera with potentially beneficial bacteria, i.e., potential degraders of phenolic compounds might have contributed to the improved plant growth in both treatments. PMID:26635733

  19. [Identification of new conserved and variable regions in the 16S rRNA gene of acetic acid bacteria and acetobacteraceae family].

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, S; Sarkar, S; Gachhui, R

    2015-01-01

    The Acetobacteraceae family of the class Alpha Proteobacteria is comprised of high sugar and acid tolerant bacteria. The Acetic Acid Bacteria are the economically most significant group of this family because of its association with food products like vinegar, wine etc. Acetobacteraceae are often hard to culture in laboratory conditions and they also maintain very low abundances in their natural habitats. Thus identification of the organisms in such environments is greatly dependent on modern tools of molecular biology which require a thorough knowledge of specific conserved gene sequences that may act as primers and or probes. Moreover unconserved domains in genes also become markers for differentiating closely related genera. In bacteria, the 16S rRNA gene is an ideal candidate for such conserved and variable domains. In order to study the conserved and variable domains of the 16S rRNA gene of Acetic Acid Bacteria and the Acetobacteraceae family, sequences from publicly available databases were aligned and compared. Near complete sequences of the gene were also obtained from Kombucha tea biofilm, a known Acetobacteraceae family habitat, in order to corroborate the domains obtained from the alignment studies. The study indicated that the degree of conservation in the gene is significantly higher among the Acetic Acid Bacteria than the whole Acetobacteraceae family. Moreover it was also observed that the previously described hypervariable regions V1, V3, V5, V6 and V7 were more or less conserved in the family and the spans of the variable regions are quite distinct as well. PMID:26510592

  20. PCR assay based on DNA coding for 16S rRNA for detection and identification of mycobacteria in clinical samples.

    PubMed Central

    Kox, L F; van Leeuwen, J; Knijper, S; Jansen, H M; Kolk, A H

    1995-01-01

    A PCR and a reverse cross blot hybridization assay were developed for the detection and identification of mycobacteria in clinical samples. The PCR amplifies a part of the DNA coding for 16S rRNA with a set of primers that is specific for the genus Mycobacterium and that flanks species-specific sequences within the genes coding for 16S rRNA. The PCR product is analyzed in a reverse cross blot hybridization assay with probes specific for M. tuberculosis complex (pTub1), M. avium (pAvi3), M. intracellulare (pInt5 and pInt7), M. kansasii complex-M. scrofulaceum complex (pKan1), M. xenopi (pXen1), M. fortuitum (pFor1), M. smegmatis (pSme1), and Mycobacterium spp. (pMyc5a). The PCR assay can detect 10 fg of DNA, the equivalent of two mycobacteria. The specificities of the probes were tested with 108 mycobacterial strains (33 species) and 31 nonmycobacterial strains (of 17 genera). The probes pAvi3, pInt5, pInt7, pKan1, pXen1, and pMyc5a were specific. With probes pTub1, pFor1, and pSme1, slight cross hybridization occurred. However, the mycobacterial strains from which the cross-hybridizing PCR products were derived belonged to nonpathogenic or nonopportunistic species which do not occur in clinical samples. The test was used on 31 different clinical specimens obtained from patients suspected of having mycobacterial disease, including a patient with a double mycobacterial infection. The samples included sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage, tissue biopsy samples, cerebrospinal fluid, pus, peritoneal fluid, pleural fluid, and blood. The results of the PCR assay agreed with those of conventional identification methods or with clinical data, showing that the test can be used for the direct and rapid detection and identification of mycobacteria in clinical samples. PMID:8586707

  1. Relationships between parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae), fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their host plants based on 16S rRNA, 12S rRNA, and ND1 gene sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, N. J.; Md-Zain, B. M.; Yaakop, S.

    2013-11-01

    Opiinae is among the l0 largest subfamilies under the family Braconidae. Opiines species have great potential as natural enemies against fruit fly pests. Before using them as a biological control agent, construction of the phylogenetic trees could facilitate in the molecular identification of individual species and their relationships among members of the Opiines, as well as between Opiines and their host plants. Larval specimens of tephritids were collected from four crop species at five localities throughout the Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 44 specimens of opiines had successfully emerged from the hosts, fruit fly larvae. The DNA sequences of 12S and 16S rRNA were obtained for the braconids while the mitochondrial ND1 sequences were obtained for the tephritids species through polymerase chain reaction. Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian trees were constructed by using PAUP 4.0b10 and MrBayes 3.1.2 to identify the relationships among the taxa. This study illustrates the phylogenetic relationships among parasitoid opiines collected and reared from parasitized fruit flies. The phylogenetic trees constructed based on the mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA sequences exhibited similar topology and sequence divergence. The opiines were divided into several clades and subclades according to the genus and species. Each clade also was supported by the similar host plants with high support values. However, their pests were not specific, except for Bactrocera cucurbitae. This study has reconfirmed the associations between Opiinae, tephritids, and host plants based on molecular data.

  2. Phylogenetic analyses of some extremely halophilic archaea isolated from Dead Sea water, determined on the basis of their 16S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Arahal, D R; Dewhirst, F E; Paster, B J; Volcani, B E; Ventosa, A

    1996-10-01

    Twenty-two extremely halophilic aerobic archaeal strains were isolated from enrichments prepared from Dead Sea water samples collected 57 years ago. The isolates were phenotypically clustered into five different groups, and a representative from each group was chosen for further study. Almost the entire sequences of the 16S rRNA genes of these representatives, and of Haloarcula hispanica ATCC 33960, were determined to establish their phylogenetic positions. The sequences of these strains were compared to previously published sequences of 27 reference halophilic archaea (members of the family Halobacteriaceae) and two other archaea, Methanobacterium formicicum DSM 1312 and Methanospirillum hungatei DSM 864. Phylogenetic analysis using approximately 1,400 base comparisons of 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequences demonstrated that the five isolates clustered closely to species belonging to three different genera--Haloferax, Halobacterium, and Haloarcula. Strains E1 and E8 were closely related and identified as members of the species Haloferax volcanii, and strain E12 was closely related and identified as a member of the species Halobacterium salinarum. However, strains E2 and E11 clustered in the Haloarcula branch with Haloarcula hispanica as the closest relative at 98.9 and 98.8% similarity, respectively. Strains E2 and E11 could represent two new species of the genus Haloarcula. However, because strains of these two new species were isolated from a single source, they will not be named until additional strains are isolated from other sources and fully characterized. PMID:8837434

  3. Comparative 16S rRNA signatures and multilocus sequence analysis for the genus Salinicola and description of Salinicola acroporae sp. nov., isolated from coral Acropora digitifera.

    PubMed

    Lepcha, Rinchen T; Poddar, Abhijit; Schumann, Peter; Das, Subrata K

    2015-07-01

    A novel Gram-negative, aerobic, motile marine bacterium, strain S4-41(T), was isolated from mucus of the coral Acropora digitifera from the Andaman Sea. Heterotrophic growth was observed in 0-25 % NaCl, at 15-45 °C and pH 4.5-9. In phylogenetic trees, strain S4-41(T) was grouped within the genus Salinicola but formed a separate branch distant from a cluster composed of Salinicola salarius M27(T) and Salinicola socius SMB35(T). DNA-DNA relatedness between strain S4-41(T) and these reference strains were well below 70 %. Q-9 was the sole respiratory quinone. The DNA G+C content was determined to be 63.6 mol%. Based on a polyphasic analysis, strain S4-41(T) is concluded to represent a novel species in the genus Salinicola for which the name Salinicola acroporae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S4-41(T) (=JCM 30412(T) = LMG 28587(T)). Comparative 16S rRNA analysis of the genera Salinicola, Kushneria, Chromohalobacter and Cobetia revealed the presence of genus specific sequence signatures. Multilocus sequence analysis based on concatenated sequences of rRNAs (16S and 23S) and four protein coding housekeeping genes (atpA, gyrB, secA, rpoD) was found to be unnecessary for phylogenetic studies of the genus Salinicola. PMID:25944083

  4. Application of Sequence-Specific Labeled 16S rRNA Gene Oligonucleotide Probes for Genetic Profiling of Cyanobacterial Abundance and Diversity by Array Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Rudi, Knut; Skulberg, Olav M.; Skulberg, Randi; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

    2000-01-01

    DNA sequence information for the small-subunit rRNA gene (16S rDNA) obtained from cyanobacterial cultures was used to investigate the presence of cyanobacteria and their abundance in natural habitats. Eight planktonic communities developing in lakes characterized by relatively low algal biomass (mesotrophic) and in lakes with correspondingly high biomass (eutrophic) were selected for the study. The organismal compositions of the water samples were analyzed genetically, using multiplex sequence-specific labeling of oligonucleotide probes targeted to 16S rDNA and subsequent hybridization of the labeled probes to their respective complements spotted onto a solid support (DNA array). Ten probes were established to determine the relative abundances of the discernible cyanobacteria encountered in the selected lakes. The probes were generally specific for their targets, as determined through analyses of clone cultures. Reproducible abundance profiles were established for the lakes investigated in the subsequent analyses of natural cyanobacterial communities. The results from the genetic analyses were then compared with information obtained from standard hydrobiological and hydrochemical analyses. Qualitatively, there were relatively good correlations among the groups of organisms (Nostoc, Microcystis, and Planktothrix species) found in the different lakes. The levels of correlation were lower for the quantitative data. This may, however, be due to differences in sample processing technique. The conclusions from these comparisons are that the genetic abundance profiles may provide a foundation for separating and quantifying genetically distinct groups of cyanobacteria in their natural habitats. PMID:10966421

  5. Molecular Identification of Mycobacterium Species of Public Health Importance in Cattle in Zimbabwe by 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Padya, Leah; Chin'ombe, Nyasha; Magwenzi, Marcelyn; Mbanga, Joshua; Ruhanya, Vurayai; Nziramasanga, Pasipanodya

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium species are naturally found in the environment as well as in domestic animals such as cattle. So far, more than 150 species of Mycobacterium, some of which are pathogenic, have been identified. Laboratory isolation, detection and identification of Mycobacterium species are therefore critical if human and animal infections are to be controlled. The objective of this study was to identify Mycobacterium species isolated in cattle in Zimbabwe using 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplification and sequencing. A total of 134 cow dung samples were collected throughout Zimbabwe and mycobacteria were isolated by culture. Only 49 culture isolates that were found to be acid-fast bacilli positive by Ziehl-Neelsen staining. The 16S rRNA gene was successfully amplified by PCR in 41 (84%) of the samples. There was no amplification in 8 (16%) of the samples. Out of the 41 samples that showed amplification, 26 (63%) had strong PCR bands and were selected for DNA sequencing. Analysis of the DNA sequences showed that 7 (27%) belonged to Mycobacterium neoaurum, 6 (23%) belonged to Mycobacterium fortuitum, 3 (12%) to Mycobacterium goodii, 2 (1%) to Mycobacterium arupense, 2 (1%) to Mycobacterium peregrinum or M. septicum and 1 isolate (0.04%) to Mycobacterium elephantis. There were 5 (19%) isolates that were non-mycobacteria and identified as Gordonia terrae, a close relative of Mycobacterium. The study therefore provided a molecular basis for detection and identification of Mycobacterium species in animals and humans. PMID:26668660

  6. 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis reveals differences in bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jae Young; Rho, Mina; You, Young-Ah; Kwon, Eun Jin; Kim, Min-Hye; Kym, Sungmin; Jee, Young-Koo; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important for host–microbe communication. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether bacteria-derived EVs are excreted via the urinary tract and to compare the composition of bacteria-derived EVs in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Seventy-three non-pregnant and seventy-four pregnant women were enrolled from Dankook University and Ewha Womans University hospitals. DNA was extracted from urine EVs after EV isolation using the differential centrifugation method. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing was performed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing after amplification of the V1–V3 region of the 16S rDNA. The composition of 13 taxa differed significantly between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. At the genus level, Bacillus spp. EVs were more significantly enriched in the urine of the pregnant women than in that of the non-pregnant women (45.61% vs 0.12%, respectively). However, Pseudomonas spp. EVs were more dominant in non-pregnant women than in pregnant women (13.2% vs 4.09%, respectively). Regarding the compositional difference between pregnant women with normal and preterm delivery, EVs derived from Ureaplasma spp. and the family Veillonellaceae (including Megasphaera spp.) were more abundant in the urine of preterm-delivered women than in that of women with normal deliveries. Taken together, these data showed that Bacillus spp. EVs predominate in the urine of pregnant women, whereas Pseudomonas spp. EVs predominate in the urine of non-pregnant women; this suggests that Bacillus spp. EVs might have an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:26846451

  7. Metagenomic 16s rRNA investigation of microbial communities in the Black Sea estuaries in South-West of Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Bobrova, Oleksandra; Kristoffersen, Jon Bent; Oulas, Anastasis; Ivanytsia, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    The Black Sea estuaries represent interfaces of the sea and river environments. Microorganisms that inhabit estuarine water play an integral role in all biochemical processes that occur there and form unique ecosystems. There are many estuaries located in the Southern-Western part of Ukraine and some of them are already separated from the sea. The aim of this research was to determine the composition of microbial communities in the Khadzhibey, Dniester and Sukhyi estuaries by metagenomic 16S rDNA analysis. This study is the first complex analysis of estuarine microbiota based on isolation of total DNA from a biome that was further subjected to sequencing. DNA was extracted from water samples and sequenced on the Illumina Miseq platform using primers to the V4 variable region of the 16S rRNA gene. Computer analysis of the obtained raw sequences was done with QIIME (Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology) software. As the outcome, 57970 nucleotide sequences were retrieved. Bioinformatic analysis of bacterial community in the studied samples demonstrated a high taxonomic diversity of Prokaryotes at above genus level. It was shown that majority of 16S rDNA bacterial sequences detected in the estuarine samples belonged to phyla Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Planctomycetes. The Khadhzibey estuary was dominated by the Proteobacteria phylum, while Dniester and Sukhyi estuaries were characterized by dominance of Cyanobacteria. The differences in bacterial populations between the Khadzhibey, Dniester and Sukhyi estuaries were demonstrated through the Beta-diversity analysis. It showed that the Khadzhibey estuary's microbial community significantly varies from the Sukhyi and Dniester estuaries. The majority of identified bacterial species is known as typical inhabitants of marine environments, however, for 2.5% of microbial population members in the studied estuaries no relatives were determined. PMID:26929931

  8. 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis reveals differences in bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae Young; Rho, Mina; You, Young-Ah; Kwon, Eun Jin; Kim, Min-Hye; Kym, Sungmin; Jee, Young-Koo; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important for host-microbe communication. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether bacteria-derived EVs are excreted via the urinary tract and to compare the composition of bacteria-derived EVs in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Seventy-three non-pregnant and seventy-four pregnant women were enrolled from Dankook University and Ewha Womans University hospitals. DNA was extracted from urine EVs after EV isolation using the differential centrifugation method. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing was performed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing after amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. The composition of 13 taxa differed significantly between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. At the genus level, Bacillus spp. EVs were more significantly enriched in the urine of the pregnant women than in that of the non-pregnant women (45.61% vs 0.12%, respectively). However, Pseudomonas spp. EVs were more dominant in non-pregnant women than in pregnant women (13.2% vs 4.09%, respectively). Regarding the compositional difference between pregnant women with normal and preterm delivery, EVs derived from Ureaplasma spp. and the family Veillonellaceae (including Megasphaera spp.) were more abundant in the urine of preterm-delivered women than in that of women with normal deliveries. Taken together, these data showed that Bacillus spp. EVs predominate in the urine of pregnant women, whereas Pseudomonas spp. EVs predominate in the urine of non-pregnant women; this suggests that Bacillus spp. EVs might have an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:26846451

  9. Modified nucleotides m(2)G966/m(5)C967 of Escherichia coli 16S rRNA are required for attenuation of tryptophan operon.

    PubMed

    Prokhorova, Irina V; Osterman, Ilya A; Burakovsky, Dmitry E; Serebryakova, Marina V; Galyamina, Maria A; Pobeguts, Olga V; Altukhov, Ilya; Kovalchuk, Sergey; Alexeev, Dmitry G; Govorun, Vadim M; Bogdanov, Alexey A; Sergiev, Petr V; Dontsova, Olga A

    2013-01-01

    Ribosomes contain a number of modifications in rRNA, the function of which is unclear. Here we show--using proteomic analysis and dual fluorescence reporter in vivo assays--that m(2)G966 and m(5)C967 in 16S rRNA of Escherichia coli ribosomes are necessary for correct attenuation of tryptophan (trp) operon. Expression of trp operon is upregulated in the strain where RsmD and RsmB methyltransferases were deleted, which results in the lack of m(2)G966 and m(5)C967 modifications. The upregulation requires the trpL attenuator, but is independent of the promotor of trp operon, ribosome binding site of the trpE gene, which follows trp attenuator and even Trp codons in the trpL sequence. Suboptimal translation initiation efficiency in the rsmB/rsmD knockout strain is likely to cause a delay in translation relative to transcription which causes misregulation of attenuation control of trp operon. PMID:24241179

  10. Modified nucleotides m2G966/m5C967 of Escherichia coli 16S rRNA are required for attenuation of tryptophan operon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorova, Irina V.; Osterman, Ilya A.; Burakovsky, Dmitry E.; Serebryakova, Marina V.; Galyamina, Maria A.; Pobeguts, Olga V.; Altukhov, Ilya; Kovalchuk, Sergey; Alexeev, Dmitry G.; Govorun, Vadim M.; Bogdanov, Alexey A.; Sergiev, Petr V.; Dontsova, Olga A.

    2013-11-01

    Ribosomes contain a number of modifications in rRNA, the function of which is unclear. Here we show - using proteomic analysis and dual fluorescence reporter in vivo assays - that m2G966 and m5C967 in 16S rRNA of Escherichia coli ribosomes are necessary for correct attenuation of tryptophan (trp) operon. Expression of trp operon is upregulated in the strain where RsmD and RsmB methyltransferases were deleted, which results in the lack of m2G966 and m5C967 modifications. The upregulation requires the trpL attenuator, but is independent of the promotor of trp operon, ribosome binding site of the trpE gene, which follows trp attenuator and even Trp codons in the trpL sequence. Suboptimal translation initiation efficiency in the rsmB/rsmD knockout strain is likely to cause a delay in translation relative to transcription which causes misregulation of attenuation control of trp operon.

  11. Temporal dynamics of fibrolytic and methanogenic rumen microorganisms during in situ incubation of switchgrass determined by 16S rRNA gene profiling

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Hailan; Lachman, Medora; Malfatti, Stephanie; Sczyrba, Alexander; Knierim, Bernhard; Auer, Manfred; Tringe, Susannah G.; Mackie, Roderick I.; Yeoman, Carl J.; Hess, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The rumen microbial ecosystem is known for its biomass-degrading and methane-producing phenotype. Fermentation of recalcitrant plant material, comprised of a multitude of interwoven fibers, necessitates the synergistic activity of diverse microbial taxonomic groups that inhabit the anaerobic rumen ecosystem. Although interspecies hydrogen (H2) transfer, a process during which bacterially generated H2 is transferred to methanogenic Archaea, has obtained significant attention over the last decades, the temporal variation of the different taxa involved in in situ biomass-degradation, H2 transfer and the methanogenesis process remains to be established. Here we investigated the temporal succession of microbial taxa and its effect on fiber composition during rumen incubation using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Switchgrass filled nylon bags were placed in the rumen of a cannulated cow and collected at nine time points for DNA extraction and 16S pyrotag profiling. The microbial community colonizing the air-dried and non-incubated (0 h) switchgrass was dominated by members of the Bacilli (recruiting 63% of the pyrotag reads). During in situ incubation of the switchgrass, two major shifts in the community composition were observed: Bacilli were replaced within 30 min by members belonging to the Bacteroidia and Clostridia, which recruited 34 and 25% of the 16S rRNA reads generated, respectively. A second significant shift was observed after 16 h of rumen incubation, when members of the Spirochaetes and Fibrobacteria classes became more abundant in the fiber-adherent community. During the first 30 min of rumen incubation ~13% of the switchgrass dry matter was degraded, whereas little biomass degradation appeared to have occurred between 30 min and 4 h after the switchgrass was placed in the rumen. Interestingly, methanogenic members of the Euryarchaeota (i.e., Methanobacteria) increased up to 3-fold during this period of reduced biomass-degradation, with peak abundance just

  12. Interconversion of active and inactive 30 S ribosomal subunits is accompanied by a conformational change in the decoding region of 16 S rRNA.

    PubMed

    Moazed, D; Van Stolk, B J; Douthwaite, S; Noller, H F

    1986-10-01

    Zamir, Elson and their co-workers have shown that 30 S ribosomal subunits are reversibly inactivated by depletion of monovalent or divalent cations. We have re-investigated the conformation of 16 S rRNA in the active and inactive forms of the 30 S subunit, using a strategy that is designed to eliminate reversible ion-dependent conformational effects that are unrelated to the heat-dependent Zamir-Elson transition. A combination of structure-specific chemical probes enables us to monitor the accessibility of pyrimidines at N-3 and purines at N-1 and N-7. Chemically modified bases are identified by end-labeling followed by analine-induced strand scission (in some cases preceded by hybrid selection), or by primer extension using synthetic DNA oligomers. These studies show the following: The transition from the active to the inactive state cannot be described as a simple loosening or unfolding of native structure, such as that which is observed under conditions of more severe ion depletion. Instead, it has the appearance of a reciprocal interconversion between two differently structured states; some bases become more reactive toward the probes, whilst others become less reactive as a result of inactivation. Changes in reactivity are almost exclusively confined to the "decoding site" centered at positions 1400 and 1500, but significant differences are also detected at U723 and G791 in the central domain. This may reflect possible structural and functional interactions between the central and 3' regions of 16 S rRNA. The inactive form also shows significantly decreased reactivity at positions 1533 to 1538 (the Shine-Dalgarno region), in agreement with earlier findings. The principal changes in reactivity involve the universally conserved nucleotides G926, C1395, A1398 and G1401. The three purines show reciprocal behavior at their N-1 versus N-7 positions. G926 loses its reactivity at N-1, but becomes highly reactive at N-7 as a result of the transition of the inactive

  13. Phylogeny of 54 representative strains of species in the family Pasteurellaceae as determined by comparison of 16S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Dewhirst, F E; Paster, B J; Olsen, I; Fraser, G J

    1992-01-01

    Virtually complete 16S rRNA sequences were determined for 54 representative strains of species in the family Pasteurellaceae. Of these strains, 15 were Pasteurella, 16 were Actinobacillus, and 23 were Haemophilus. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on sequence similarity, using the Neighbor-Joining method. Fifty-three of the strains fell within four large clusters. The first cluster included the type strains of Haemophilus influenzae, H. aegyptius, H. aphrophilus, H. haemolyticus, H. paraphrophilus, H. segnis, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. This cluster also contained A. actinomycetemcomitans FDC Y4, ATCC 29522, ATCC 29523, and ATCC 29524 and H. aphrophilus NCTC 7901. The second cluster included the type strains of A. seminis and Pasteurella aerogenes and H. somnus OVCG 43826. The third cluster was composed of the type strains of Pasteurella multocida, P. anatis, P. avium, P. canis, P. dagmatis, P. gallinarum, P. langaa, P. stomatis, P. volantium, H. haemoglobinophilus, H. parasuis, H. paracuniculus, H. paragallinarum, and A. capsulatus. This cluster also contained Pasteurella species A CCUG 18782, Pasteurella species B CCUG 19974, Haemophilus taxon C CAPM 5111, H. parasuis type 5 Nagasaki, P. volantium (H. parainfluenzae) NCTC 4101, and P. trehalosi NCTC 10624. The fourth cluster included the type strains of Actinobacillus lignieresii, A. equuli, A. pleuropneumoniae, A. suis, A. ureae, H. parahaemolyticus, H. parainfluenzae, H. paraphrohaemolyticus, H. ducreyi, and P. haemolytica. This cluster also contained Actinobacillus species strain CCUG 19799 (Bisgaard taxon 11), A. suis ATCC 15557, H. ducreyi ATCC 27722 and HD 35000, Haemophilus minor group strain 202, and H. parainfluenzae ATCC 29242. The type strain of P. pneumotropica branched alone to form a fifth group. The branching of the Pasteurellaceae family tree was quite complex. The four major clusters contained multiple subclusters. The clusters contained both rapidly and slowly evolving

  14. 16S rRNA and As-Related Functional Diversity: Contrasting Fingerprints in Arsenic-Rich Sediments from an Acid Mine Drainage.

    PubMed

    Fahy, Anne; Giloteaux, Ludovic; Bertin, Philippe; Le Paslier, Denis; Médigue, Claudine; Weissenbach, Jean; Duran, Robert; Lauga, Béatrice

    2015-07-01

    To gain an in-depth insight into the diversity and the distribution of genes under the particular evolutionary pressure of an arsenic-rich acid mine drainage (AMD), the genes involved in bacterial arsenic detoxification (arsB, ACR3) and arsenite oxidation (aioA) were investigated in sediment from Carnoulès (France), in parallel to the diversity and global distribution of the metabolically active bacteria. The metabolically active bacteria were affiliated mainly to AMD specialists, i.e., organisms detected in or isolated from AMDs throughout the world. They included mainly Acidobacteria and the non-affiliated "Candidatus Fodinabacter communificans," as well as Thiomonas and Acidithiobacillus spp., Actinobacteria, and unclassified Gammaproteobacteria. The distribution range of these organisms suggested that they show niche conservatism. Sixteen types of deduced protein sequences of arsenite transporters (5 ArsB and 11 Acr3p) were detected, whereas a single type of arsenite oxidase (AioA) was found. Our data suggested that at Carnoulès, the aioA gene was more recent than those encoding arsenite transporters and subjected to a different molecular evolution. In contrast to the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) genes associated with AMD environments worldwide, the functional genes aioA, ACR3, and to a lesser extent arsB, were either novel or specific to Carnoulès, raising the question as to whether these functional genes are specific to high concentrations of arsenic, AMD-specific, or site-specific. PMID:25592635

  15. Impact of Fishmeal Replacement in Diets for Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) on the Gastrointestinal Microbiota Determined by Pyrosequencing the 16S rRNA Gene.

    PubMed

    Estruch, G; Collado, M C; Peñaranda, D S; Tomás Vidal, A; Jover Cerdá, M; Pérez Martínez, G; Martinez-Llorens, S

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the impact of diet on microbiota composition, but the essential need for the optimization of production rates and costs forces farms and aquaculture production to carry out continuous dietary tests. In order to understand the effect of total fishmeal replacement by vegetable-based feed in the sea bream (Sparus aurata), the microbial composition of the stomach, foregut, midgut and hindgut was analysed using high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing, also considering parameters of growth, survival and nutrient utilisation indices.A total of 91,539 16S rRNA filtered-sequences were analysed, with an average number of 3661.56 taxonomically assigned, high-quality sequences per sample. The dominant phyla throughout the whole gastrointestinal tract were Actinobacteria, Protebacteria and Firmicutes. A lower diversity in the stomach in comparison to the other intestinal sections was observed. The microbial composition of the Recirculating Aquaculture System was totally different to that of the sea bream gastrointestinal tract. Total fishmeal replacement had an important impact on microbial profiles but not on diversity. Streptococcus (p-value: 0.043) and Photobacterium (p-value: 0.025) were highly represented in fish fed with fishmeal and vegetable-meal diets, respectively. In the stomach samples with the vegetable diet, reads of chloroplasts and mitochondria from vegetable dietary ingredients were rather abundant. Principal Coordinate Analysis showed a clear differentiation between diets in the microbiota present in the gut, supporting the presence of specific bacterial consortia associated with the diet.Although differences in growth and nutritive parameters were not observed, a negative effect of the vegetable diet on the survival rate was determined. Further studies are required to shed more light on the relationship between the immune system and sea bream gastrointestinal tract microbiota and should consider the modulation of the microbiota to

  16. Identification to the species level of Lactobacillus isolated in probiotic prospecting studies of human, animal or food origin by 16S-23S rRNA restriction profiling

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, João Luiz S; Mota, Rodrigo M; Horta, Maria F; Teixeira, Santuza MR; Neumann, Elisabeth; Nicoli, Jacques R; Nunes, Álvaro C

    2005-01-01

    Background The accurate identification of Lactobacillus and other co-isolated bacteria during microbial ecological studies of ecosystems such as the human or animal intestinal tracts and food products is a hard task by phenotypic methods requiring additional tests such as protein and/or lipids profiling. Results Bacteria isolated in different probiotic prospecting studies, using de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium (MRS), were typed at species level by PCR amplification of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers using universal primers that anneal within 16S and 23S genes, followed by restriction digestion analyses of PCR products. The set of enzymes chosen differentiates most species of Lactobacillus genus and also co-isolated bacteria such as Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Weissella, Staphylococcus, and Escherichia species. The in silico predictions of restriction patterns generated by the Lactobacillus shorter spacers digested with 11 restriction enzymes with 6 bp specificities allowed us to distinguish almost all isolates at the species level but not at the subspecies one. Simultaneous theoretical digestions of the three spacers (long, medium and short) with the same set of enzymes provided more complex patterns and allowed us to distinguish the species without purifying and cloning of PCR products. Conclusion Lactobacillus isolates and several other strains of bacteria co-isolated on MRS medium from gastrointestinal ecosystem and fermented food products could be identified using DNA fingerprints generated by restriction endonucleases. The methodology based on amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) is easier, faster and more accurate than the current methodologies based on fermentation profiles, used in most laboratories for the purpose of identification of these bacteria in different prospecting studies. PMID:15788104

  17. Identification of bacteria in a biodegraded wall painting by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified gene fragments coding for 16S rRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Rölleke, S; Muyzer, G; Wawer, C; Wanner, G; Lubitz, W

    1996-01-01

    Medieval wall paintings are often affected by biodecay. An inventory of the existing microorganisms associated with the damage to the paintings is not yet an integral part of the restoration process. This stems from the lack of effective means for such a stocktaking. Nevertheless, fungi and bacteria cause severe damage through mechanical processes from growth into the painting and its grounding and through their metabolism. Detailed information on the bacterial colonization of ancient wall paintings is essential for the protection of the paintings. We used a molecular approach based on the detection and identification of DNA sequences encoding rRNA (rDNA) to identify bacteria present on an ancient wall painting without prior cultivation of the organisms, since it has been shown that most of these bacteria cannot be cultivated under laboratory conditions. To trace the noncultivated fraction of bacteria, total DNA from a biodegraded wall painting sample from a 13th century fresco was extracted and 194-bp fragments of the 16S rDNA were amplified with eubacterial primers. The 16S rDNA fragments of uniform length obtained from the different bacterial species were separated according to their sequence differences by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). By sequencing excised and reamplified individual DNA bands, we characterized the phylogenetic affiliation of the corresponding bacteria. Using this approach, we identified members or close relatives of the genera Halomonas, Clostridium, and Frankia. To our knowledge, these groups of bacteria have not yet been isolated and implicated by conventional microbiological techniques as contributing to the biodegradation of wall paintings. PMID:8787403

  18. Impact of Fishmeal Replacement in Diets for Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) on the Gastrointestinal Microbiota Determined by Pyrosequencing the 16S rRNA Gene

    PubMed Central

    Estruch, G.; Collado, M. C.; Peñaranda, D. S.; Tomás Vidal, A.; Jover Cerdá, M.; Pérez Martínez, G.; Martinez-Llorens, S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the impact of diet on microbiota composition, but the essential need for the optimization of production rates and costs forces farms and aquaculture production to carry out continuous dietary tests. In order to understand the effect of total fishmeal replacement by vegetable-based feed in the sea bream (Sparus aurata), the microbial composition of the stomach, foregut, midgut and hindgut was analysed using high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing, also considering parameters of growth, survival and nutrient utilisation indices.A total of 91,539 16S rRNA filtered-sequences were analysed, with an average number of 3661.56 taxonomically assigned, high-quality sequences per sample. The dominant phyla throughout the whole gastrointestinal tract were Actinobacteria, Protebacteria and Firmicutes. A lower diversity in the stomach in comparison to the other intestinal sections was observed. The microbial composition of the Recirculating Aquaculture System was totally different to that of the sea bream gastrointestinal tract. Total fishmeal replacement had an important impact on microbial profiles but not on diversity. Streptococcus (p-value: 0.043) and Photobacterium (p-value: 0.025) were highly represented in fish fed with fishmeal and vegetable-meal diets, respectively. In the stomach samples with the vegetable diet, reads of chloroplasts and mitochondria from vegetable dietary ingredients were rather abundant. Principal Coordinate Analysis showed a clear differentiation between diets in the microbiota present in the gut, supporting the presence of specific bacterial consortia associated with the diet.Although differences in growth and nutritive parameters were not observed, a negative effect of the vegetable diet on the survival rate was determined. Further studies are required to shed more light on the relationship between the immune system and sea bream gastrointestinal tract microbiota and should consider the modulation of the microbiota to

  19. Protein-RNA crosslinking in Escherichia coli 30S ribosomal subunits. Identification of a 16S rRNA fragment crosslinked to protein S12 by the use of the chemical crosslinking reagent 1-ethyl-3-dimethyl-aminopropylcarbodiimide.

    PubMed Central

    Chiaruttini, C; Expert-Bezançon, A; Hayes, D; Ehresmann, B

    1982-01-01

    1-ethyl-3-dimethyl aminopropylcarbodiimide (EDC) was used to cross-link 30S ribosomal proteins to 16S rRNA within the E. coli 3OS ribosomal subunit. Covalently linked complexes containing 30S proteins and 16S rRNA, isolated by sedimentation of dissociated crosslinked 30S subunits through SDS containing sucrose gradients, were digested with RNase T1, and the resulting oligonucleotide-protein complexes were fractionated on SDS containing polyacrylamide gels. Eluted complexes containing 30S proteins S9 and S12 linked to oligonucleotides were obtained in pure form. Oligonucleotide 5'terminal labelling was successful in the case of S12 containing but not of the S9 containing complex and led to identification of the S12 bound oligonucleotide as CAACUCG which is located at positions 1316-1322 in the 16S rRNA sequence. Protein S12 is crosslinked to the terminal G of this heptanucleotide. Images PMID:6760129

  20. Elongation factor G-induced structural change in helix 34 of 16S rRNA related to translocation on the ribosome.

    PubMed Central

    Matassova, A B; Rodnina, M V; Wintermeyer, W

    2001-01-01

    During the translocation step of the elongation cycle, two tRNAs together with the mRNA move synchronously and rapidly on the ribosome. The movement is catalyzed by the binding of elongation factor G (EF-G) and driven by GTP hydrolysis. Here we study structural changes of the ribosome related to EF-G binding and translocation by monitoring the accessibility of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) for chemical modification by dimethyl sulfate or cleavage by hydroxyl radicals generated by Fe(II)-EDTA. In the state of the ribosome that is formed upon binding of EF-G but before the movement of the tRNAs takes place, residues 1054,1196, and 1201 in helix 34 in 16S rRNA are strongly protected. The protections depend on EF-G binding, but do not require GTP hydrolysis, and are lost upon translocation. Mutants of EF-G, which are active in ribosome binding and GTP hydrolysis but impaired in translocation, do not bring about the protections. According to cryo-electron microscopy (Stark et al., Cell, 2000, 100:301-309), there is no contact of EF-G with the protected residues of helix 34 in the pretranslocation state, suggesting that the observed protections are due to an induced conformational change. Thus, the present results indicate that EF-G binding to the pretranslocation ribosome induces a structural change of the head of the 30S subunit that is essential for subsequent tRNA-mRNA movement in translocation. PMID:11780642

  1. Analysis of Diversity and Activity of Sulfate-Reducing Bacterial Communities in Sulfidogenic Bioreactors Using 16S rRNA and dsrB Genes as Molecular Markers▿

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Shabir A.; Yao, Li; van Dongen, Udo; Kuenen, J. Gijs; Muyzer, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    Here we describe the diversity and activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in sulfidogenic bioreactors by using the simultaneous analysis of PCR products obtained from DNA and RNA of the 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes. We subsequently analyzed the amplified gene fragments by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). We observed fewer bands in the RNA-based DGGE profiles than in the DNA-based profiles, indicating marked differences in the populations present and in those that were metabolically active at the time of sampling. Comparative sequence analyses of the bands obtained from rRNA and dsrB DGGE profiles were congruent, revealing the same SRB populations. Bioreactors that received either ethanol or isopropanol as an energy source showed the presence of SRB affiliated with Desulfobulbus rhabdoformis and/or Desulfovibrio sulfodismutans, as well as SRB related to the acetate-oxidizing Desulfobacca acetoxidans. The reactor that received wastewater containing a diverse mixture of organic compounds showed the presence of nutritionally versatile SRB affiliated with Desulfosarcina variabilis and another acetate-oxidizing SRB, affiliated with Desulfoarculus baarsii. In addition to DGGE analysis, we performed whole-cell hybridization with fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probes to estimate the relative abundances of the dominant sulfate-reducing bacterial populations. Desulfobacca acetoxidans-like populations were most dominant (50 to 60%) relative to the total SRB communities, followed by Desulfovibrio-like populations (30 to 40%), and Desulfobulbus-like populations (15 to 20%). This study is the first to identify metabolically active SRB in sulfidogenic bioreactors by using the functional gene dsrAB as a molecular marker. The same approach can also be used to infer the ecological role of coexisting SRB in other habitats. PMID:17098925

  2. Bacterial diversity in typical Italian salami at different ripening stages as revealed by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons.

    PubMed

    Połka, Justyna; Rebecchi, Annalisa; Pisacane, Vincenza; Morelli, Lorenzo; Puglisi, Edoardo

    2015-04-01

    The bacterial diversity involved in food fermentations is one of the most important factors shaping the final characteristics of traditional foods. Knowledge about this diversity can be greatly improved by the application of high-throughput sequencing technologies (HTS) coupled to the PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA subunit. Here we investigated the bacterial diversity in batches of Salame Piacentino PDO (Protected Designation of Origin), a dry fermented sausage that is typical of a regional area of Northern Italy. Salami samples from 6 different local factories were analysed at 0, 21, 49 and 63 days of ripening; raw meat at time 0 and casing samples at 21 days of ripening where also analysed, and the effect of starter addition was included in the experimental set-up. Culture-based microbiological analyses and PCR-DGGE were carried out in order to be compared with HTS results. A total of 722,196 high quality sequences were obtained after trimming, paired-reads assembly and quality screening of raw reads obtained by Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the two bacterial 16S hypervariable regions V3 and V4; manual curation of 16S database allowed a correct taxonomical classification at the species for 99.5% of these reads. Results confirmed the presence of main bacterial species involved in the fermentation of salami as assessed by PCR-DGGE, but with a greater extent of resolution and quantitative assessments that are not possible by the mere analyses of gel banding patterns. Thirty-two different Staphylococcus and 33 Lactobacillus species where identified in the salami from different producers, while the whole data set obtained accounted for 13 main families and 98 rare ones, 23 of which were present in at least 10% of the investigated samples, with casings being the major sources of the observed diversity. Multivariate analyses also showed that batches from 6 local producers tend to cluster altogether after 21 days of ripening, thus indicating that HTS has the potential

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIAL BIOMASS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS BENEATH THE ROSS ICE SHEET, ANTARCTICA BY PHOSPHOLIPIDS ANALYSIS AND 16S RRNA GENE SEQUENCING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, S. A.; Glossner, A. W.; Dunbar, R. B.; Vogel, S. W.; Brandes, J.; Sahl, J. W.; Pepe-Ranney, C.; Spear, J. R.; Naish, T.; Powell, R. D.; Mandernack, K. W.

    2009-12-01

    heterotrophic organisms dominate these sediments, with the implication that primary productivity is derived from above. Integrating structural analyses and δ13C values of phospholipids, porewater chemistry, δ13CDIC and δ13CDIC values with 16S rRNA gene sequences provides a more comprehensive understanding of the biogeochemical influences of microbial carbon cycling that occur beneath marine sediments of Antarctica and elsewhere.

  4. Melioidosis presenting as a mycotic aneurysm in a Korean patient, diagnosed by 16S rRNA sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hee Ryeong; Lee, Chung Won; Ok, Soon Jung; Kim, Min Ji; Bae, Mi Ju; Song, Seunghwan; Yi, Jongyoun; Kim, Kye-Hyung

    2015-09-01

    A case of melioidosis with a mycotic aneurysm is reported. The blood and tissue isolates were identified as three different species of Burkholderia using the automated identification systems, VITEK 2 and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The isolate was confirmed as Burkholderia pseudomallei by 16S rRNA sequencing. The typical features of the Gram staining of colonies and 16S rRNA sequencing can be useful to identify B. pseudomallei. PMID:26216763

  5. bioOTU: An Improved Method for Simultaneous Taxonomic Assignments and Operational Taxonomic Units Clustering of 16s rRNA Gene Sequences.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi-Yi; Deng, Feilong; Huang, Ying; Jia, Xianbo; Liu, Yi-Ping; Lai, Song-Jia

    2016-04-01

    Clustering of 16s rRNA amplicon sequences into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) is the most common bioinformatics pipeline for investigating microbial community by high-throughput sequencing technologies. However, the existing algorithms of OTUs clustering still remain to be improved at reliability. Here we propose an improved method (bioOTU) that first assigns taxonomy to unique tags at genus level for separating the error-free sequences of known species in reference database from artifacts, and then cluster them into OTUs by different strategies. The remaining tags, which fail to be clustered in the previous step, are further subjected to independent OTUs clustering by the optimized algorithm of heuristic clustering. The performance tests on both mock and real communities revealed that bioOTU is powerful for recovering the underlying profiles at both microbial composition and abundance, and it also produces comparable or less number of OTUs in comparison with the prevailing tools of Mothur and UPARSE. The bioOTU is implemented in C and Python languages with source codes freely available on the GitHub repository. PMID:26950196

  6. Shifts of microbial community structure in soils of a photovoltaic plant observed using tag-encoded pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shijin; Li, Yuan; Wang, Penghua; Zhong, Li; Qiu, Lequan; Chen, Jianmeng

    2016-04-01

    The environmental risk of fluoride and chloride pollution is pronounced in soils adjacent to solar photovoltaic sites. The elevated levels of fluoride and chloride in these soils have had significant impacts on the population size and overall biological activity of the soil microbial communities. The microbial community also plays an essential role in remediation of these soils. Questions remain as to how the fluoride and chloride contamination and subsequent remediation at these sites have impacted the population structure of the soil microbial communities. We analyzed the microbial communities in soils collected from close to a solar photovoltaic enterprise by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA tag. In addition, we used multivariate statistics to identity the relationships shared between sequence diversity and heterogeneity in the soil environment. The overall microbial communities were surprisingly diverse, harboring a wide variety of taxa and sharing significant correlations with different degrees of fluoride and chloride contamination. The contaminated soils harbored abundant bacteria that were probably resistant to the high acidity, high fluoride and chloride concentration, and high osmotic pressure environment. The dominant genera were Sphingomonas, Subgroup_6_norank, Clostridium sensu stricto, Nitrospira, Rhizomicrobium, and Acidithiobacillus. The results of this study provide new information regarding a previously uncharacterized ecosystem and show the value of high-throughput sequencing in the study of complex ecosystems. PMID:26695154

  7. 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis identifies a novel bacterial co-prevalence pattern in dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Jagathrakshakan, Sri Nisha; Sethumadhava, Raghavendra Jayesh; Mehta, Dhaval Tushar; Ramanathan, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the prevalence of acidogenic and nonacidogenic bacteria in patients with polycaries lesions, and to ascertain caries specific bacterial prevalence in relation to noncaries controls. Materials and Methods: Total genomic DNA extracted from saliva of three adults and four children from the same family were subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis on a next generation sequencer, the PGS-Ion Torrent. Those bacterial genera with read counts > 1000 were considered as significant in each of the subject and used to associate the occurrence with caries. Results and Conclusion: Sequencing analysis indicated a higher prevalence of Streptococcus, Rothia, Granulicatella, Gemella, Actinomyces, Selenomonas, Haemophilus and Veillonella in the caries group relative to controls. While higher prevalence of Streptococcus, Rothia and Granulicatella were observed in all caries samples, the prevalence of others was observable in 29–57% of samples. Interestingly, Rothia and Selenomonas, which are known to occur within anaerobic environments of dentinal caries and subgingival plaque biofilms, were seen in the saliva of these caries patients. Taken together, the study has identified for the first time a unique co-prevalence pattern of bacteria in caries patients that may be explored as distinct caries specific bacterial signature to predict cariogenesis in high-risk primary and mixed dentition age groups. PMID:25713496

  8. Introducing EzTaxon-e: a prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene sequence database with phylotypes that represent uncultured species.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ok-Sun; Cho, Yong-Joon; Lee, Kihyun; Yoon, Seok-Hwan; Kim, Mincheol; Na, Hyunsoo; Park, Sang-Cheol; Jeon, Yoon Seong; Lee, Jae-Hak; Yi, Hana; Won, Sungho; Chun, Jongsik

    2012-03-01

    Despite recent advances in commercially optimized identification systems, bacterial identification remains a challenging task in many routine microbiological laboratories, especially in situations where taxonomically novel isolates are involved. The 16S rRNA gene has been used extensively for this task when coupled with a well-curated database, such as EzTaxon, containing sequences of type strains of prokaryotic species with validly published names. Although the EzTaxon database has been widely used for routine identification of prokaryotic isolates, sequences from uncultured prokaryotes have not been considered. Here, the next generation database, named EzTaxon-e, is formally introduced. This new database covers not only species within the formal nomenclatural system but also phylotypes that may represent species in nature. In addition to an identification function based on Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (blast) searches and pairwise global sequence alignments, a new objective method of assessing the degree of completeness in sequencing is proposed. All sequences that are held in the EzTaxon-e database have been subjected to phylogenetic analysis and this has resulted in a complete hierarchical classification system. It is concluded that the EzTaxon-e database provides a useful taxonomic backbone for the identification of cultured and uncultured prokaryotes and offers a valuable means of communication among microbiologists who routinely encounter taxonomically novel isolates. The database and its analytical functions can be found at http://eztaxon-e.ezbiocloud.net/. PMID:22140171

  9. Use of 16S rRNA sequencing and quantitative PCR to correlate venous leg ulcer bacterial bioburden dynamics with wound expansion, antibiotic therapy, and healing

    PubMed Central

    Sprockett, Daniel D.; Ammons, Christine G.; Tuttle, Marie S.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical diagnosis of infection in chronic wounds is currently limited to subjective clinical signs and culture-based methods that underestimate the complexity of wound microbial bioburden as revealed by DNA-based microbial identification methods. Here, we use 16S rRNA next generation sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction to characterize weekly changes in bacterial load, community structure, and diversity associated with a chronic venous leg ulcer over the 15-week course of treatment and healing. Our DNA-based methods and detailed sampling scheme reveal that the bacterial bioburden of the wound is unexpectedly dynamic, including changes in the bacterial load and community structure that correlate with wound expansion, antibiotic therapy, and healing. We demonstrate that these multidimensional changes in bacterial bioburden can be summarized using swabs taken prior to debridement, and therefore, can be more easily collected serially than debridement or biopsy samples. Overall, this case illustrates the importance of detailed clinical indicators and longitudinal sampling to determine the pathogenic significance of chronic wound microbial dynamics and guide best use of antimicrobials for improvement of healing outcomes. PMID:25902876

  10. MiSeq HV4 16S rRNA gene analysis of bacterial community composition among the cave sediments of Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    De Mandal, Surajit; Zothansanga; Panda, Amrita Kumari; Bisht, Satpal Singh; Senthil Kumar, Nachimuthu

    2016-06-01

    Caves in Mizoram, Northeast India, are potential hotspot diversity regions due to the historical significance of the formation of the Indo-Burman plateau and also because of their unexplored and unknown diversity. High-throughput paired end Illumina sequencing of the V4 region of 16S rRNA was performed to study the bacterial community of three caves situated in Champhai district of Mizoram, Northeast India. A total of 10,643 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (based on 97 % cutoff) comprising of 21 major and 21 candidate phyla with a sequencing depth of 1,140,013 were found in this study. The overall taxonomic profile obtained by the RDP classifier and Greengenes OTU database revealed high diversity within the bacterial communities. Communities were dominated by Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes, while members of Archaea were less varied and mostly comprising of Eukaryoarchea. Analysis revealed that Farpuk (CFP) cave sediment has low microbial diversity and is mainly dominated by Actinobacteria (80 % reads), whereas different bacterial communities were found in the caves of Murapuk (CMP) and Lamsialpuk (CLP). Analysis also revealed that a major portion of the identified OTUs was classified under rare biosphere. Importantly, all these caves recorded a high number of unclassified OTUs, which might represent new species. Further analysis with whole genome sequencing is needed to validate the unknown species as well as to determine their functional role. PMID:26971799

  11. Differentiation of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, the Cause of American Foulbrood of Honeybees, by Using PCR and Restriction Fragment Analysis of Genes Encoding 16S rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Alippi, Adriana M.; López, Ana Claudia; Aguilar, O. Mario

    2002-01-01

    A rapid procedure for the identification of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, the causal agent of American foulbrood (AFB) disease of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.), based on PCR and restriction fragment analysis of the 16S rRNA genes (rDNA) is described. Eighty-six bacterial strains belonging to 39 species of the genera Paenibacillus, Bacillus, Brevibacillus, and Virgibacillus were characterized. Amplified rDNA was digested with seven restriction endonucleases. The combined data from restriction analysis enabled us to distinguish 35 profiles. Cluster analysis revealed that P. larvae subsp. larvae and Paenibacillus larvae subsp. pulvifaciens formed a group with about 90% similarity; however, the P. larvae subsp. larvae restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern produced by endonuclease HaeIII was found to be unique and distinguishable among other closely related bacteria. This pattern was associated with DNA extracted directly from honeybee brood samples showing positive AFB clinical signs that yielded the restriction profile characteristic of P. larvae subsp. larvae, while no amplification product was obtained from healthy larvae. The method described here is particularly useful because of the short time required to carry it out and because it allows the differentiation of P. larvae subsp. larvae-infected larvae from all other species found in apiarian sources. PMID:12089057

  12. NDM-1 Metallo-β-Lactamase and ArmA 16S rRNA methylase producing Providencia rettgeri clinical isolates in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Drug-resistant Providencia rettgeri producing metallo-β-lactamase and 16S rRNA methylase has been reported in several countries. We analyzed P. rettgeri clinical isolates with resistance to carbapenems and aminoglycosides in a hospital in Nepal. Methods Five clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant P. rettgeri were obtained in a hospital in Nepal. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined using the microdilution method and entire genomes were sequenced to determine drug-resistant genes. Epidemiological analysis was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Results Four of the 5 isolates were resistant to carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem), with MICs ≥16 mg/L, with the remaining isolate showing intermediate resistance to imipenem, with an MIC of 2 mg/L and susceptibility to meropenem with an MIC ≤1 mg/L. All 5 isolates had blaVEB-1. Of the 4 carbapenem-resistant strains, 3 had blaNDM-1 and 1 had blaOXA-72. All isolates were highly resistant to aminoglycosides (MICs ≥1,024 mg/L) and harbored armA. As the result of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern analysis in the 5 P. rettgeri isolates, 4 had identical PFGE patterns and the fifth showed 95.7% similarity. Conclusions This is the first report describing multidrug-resistant P. rettgeri strains harboring blaNDM-1 or blaOXA-72 and armA isolated from patients in Nepal. PMID:24484534

  13. Abundance and Activity of 16S rRNA, AmoA and NifH Bacterial Genes During Assisted Phytostabilization of Mine Tailings.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Karis N; Neilson, Julia W; Root, Robert A; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M

    2015-01-01

    Mine tailings in semiarid regions are highly susceptible to erosion and are sources of dust pollution and potential avenues of human exposure to toxic metals. One constraint to revegetation of tailings by phytostabilization is the absence of microbial communities critical for biogeochemical cycling of plant nutrients. The objective of this study was to evaluate specific genes as in situ indicators of biological soil response during phytoremediation. The abundance and activity of 16S rRNA, nifH, and amoA were monitored during a nine month phytostabilization study using buffalo grass and quailbush grown in compost-amended, metalliferous tailings. The compost amendment provided a greater than 5-log increase in bacterial abundance, and survival of this compost-inoculum was more stable in planted treatments. Despite increased abundance, the activity of the introduced community was low, and significant increases were not detected until six and nine months in quailbush, and unplanted compost and buffalo grass treatments, respectively. In addition, increased abundances of nitrogen-fixation (nifH) and ammonia-oxidizing (amoA) genes were observed in rhizospheres of buffalo grass and quailbush, respectively. Thus, plant establishment facilitated the short term stabilization of introduced bacterial biomass and supported the growth of two key nitrogen-cycling populations in compost-amended tailings. PMID:25495940

  14. Direct Analysis of Genes Encoding 16S rRNA from Complex Communities Reveals Many Novel Molecular Species within the Human Gut

    PubMed Central

    Suau, Antonia; Bonnet, Régis; Sutren, Malène; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Gibson, Glenn R.; Collins, Matthew D.; Doré, Joel

    1999-01-01

    The human intestinal tract harbors a complex microbial ecosystem which plays a key role in nutrition and health. Although this microbiota has been studied in great detail by culture techniques, microscopic counts on human feces suggest that 60 to 80% of the observable bacteria cannot be cultivated. Using comparative analysis of cloned 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) sequences, we have investigated the bacterial diversity (both cultivated and noncultivated bacteria) within an adult-male fecal sample. The 284 clones obtained from 10-cycle PCR were classified into 82 molecular species (at least 98% similarity). Three phylogenetic groups contained 95% of the clones: the Bacteroides group, the Clostridium coccoides group, and the Clostridium leptum subgroup. The remaining clones were distributed among a variety of phylogenetic clusters. Only 24% of the molecular species recovered corresponded to described organisms (those whose sequences were available in public databases), and all of these were established members of the dominant human fecal flora (e.g., Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Fusobacterium prausnitzii, and Eubacterium rectale). However, the majority of generated rDNA sequences (76%) did not correspond to known organisms and clearly derived from hitherto unknown species within this human gut microflora. PMID:10543789

  15. Pushing the limits for amplifying BrdU-labeled DNA encoding 16S rRNA: DNA polymerase as the determining factor.

    PubMed

    Roux-Michollet, Dad D; Schimel, Joshua P; Holden, Patricia A

    2010-12-01

    Identifying microorganisms that are active under specific conditions in ecosystems is a challenge in microbial ecology. Recently, the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) technique was developed to label actively growing cells. BrdU, a thymidine analog, is incorporated into newly synthesized DNA, and the BrdU-labeled DNA is then isolated from total extractable DNA by immunocapture using a BrdU-specific antibody. Analyzing the BrdU-labeled DNA allows for assessing the actively growing community, which can then be compared to the unlabeled DNA that represents the total community. However, applying the BrdU approach to study soils has been problematic due to low DNA amounts and soil contaminants. To address these challenges, we developed a protocol, optimizing specificity and reproducibility, to amplify BrdU-labeled gene fragments encoding 16S rRNA. We found that the determining factor was the DNA polymerase: among the 13 different polymerases we tested, only 3 provided adequate yields with minimal contamination, and only two of those three produced similar amplification patterns of community DNA. PMID:20883730

  16. Distribution and diversity of bacteria in a saline meromictic lake as determined by PCR-DGGE of 16S rRNA gene fragments.

    PubMed

    Gugliandolo, Concetta; Lentini, Valeria; Maugeri, Teresa L

    2011-01-01

    The variations in vertical distribution and composition of bacteria in the meromictic Lake Faro (Messina, Italy) were analysed by culture-independent methods in two different mixing conditions. Water samples were collected from a central station from the surface to the bottom (30 m depth) on two different sampling dates--the first characterised by a well-mixed water mass and the second by a marked stratification. A 'red-water' layer, caused by a dense growth of photosynthetic sulphur bacteria, was present at a depth of 25 m in December 2005 and at 15 m in August 2006, defining two different zones in terms of their physicochemical properties. The vertical distribution of bacterioplankton showed that the interface zones were more densely populated than others. In both sampling periods, the highest numbers of live cells were observed within 'red water' layers. The dominant phylotypes of the bacterial community were determined by sequencing the Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) bands resulting from PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragments. The number of DGGE bands, considered indicative of the total species richness, did not vary predictably across the two different sampling periods. Proteobacteria (α-, γ-, δ- and ε subclass members), Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides, green sulphur bacteria and Cyanobacteria were retrieved from Lake Faro. Most of the bands showed DNA sequences that did not match with other previously described organisms, suggesting the presence of new indigenous bacterial phylotypes. PMID:20544199

  17. A heritability-based comparison of methods used to cluster 16S rRNA gene sequences into operational taxonomic units

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Jordana T.; Spector, Tim D.; Steves, Claire J.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of methods are available to collapse 16S rRNA gene sequencing reads to the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) used in microbiome analyses. A number of studies have aimed to compare the quality of the resulting OTUs. However, in the absence of a standard method to define and enumerate the different taxa within a microbial community, existing comparisons have been unable to compare the ability of clustering methods to generate units that accurately represent functional taxonomic segregation. We have previously demonstrated heritability of the microbiome and we propose this as a measure of each methods’ ability to generate OTUs representing biologically relevant units. Our approach assumes that OTUs that best represent the functional units interacting with the hosts’ properties will produce the highest heritability estimates. Using 1,750 unselected individuals from the TwinsUK cohort, we compared 11 approaches to OTU clustering in heritability analyses. We find that de novo clustering methods produce more heritable OTUs than reference based approaches, with VSEARCH and SUMACLUST performing well. We also show that differences resulting from each clustering method are minimal once reads are collapsed by taxonomic assignment, although sample diversity estimates are clearly influenced by OTU clustering approach. These results should help the selection of sequence clustering methods in future microbiome studies, particularly for studies of human host-microbiome interactions.

  18. DNA extraction protocols cause differences in 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing efficiency but not in community profile composition or structure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    None

    2014-12-01

    The recent development of methods applying next-generation sequencing to microbial community characterization has led to the proliferation of these studies in a wide variety of sample types. Yet, variation in the physical properties of environmental samples demands that optimal DNA extraction techniques be explored for each new environment. The microbiota associated with many species of insects offer an extraction challenge as they are frequently surrounded by an armored exoskeleton, inhibiting disruption of the tissues within. In this study, we examine the efficacy of several commonly used protocols for extracting bacterial DNA from ants. While bacterial community composition recovered using Illuminamore » 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was not detectably biased by any method, the quantity of bacterial DNA varied drastically, reducing the number of samples that could be amplified and sequenced. These results indicate that the concentration necessary for dependable sequencing is around 10,000 copies of target DNA per microliter. Exoskeletal pulverization and tissue digestion increased the reliability of extractions, suggesting that these steps should be included in any study of insect-associated microorganisms that relies on obtaining microbial DNA from intact body segments. Although laboratory and analysis techniques should be standardized across diverse sample types as much as possible, minimal modifications such as these will increase the number of environments in which bacterial communities can be successfully studied.« less

  19. Microbial profiles of liquid and solid fraction associated biomaterial in buffalo rumen fed green and dry roughage diets by tagged 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Singh, K M; Jisha, T K; Reddy, Bhaskar; Parmar, Nidhi; Patel, Anand; Patel, A K; Joshi, C G

    2015-01-01

    The microbiome of buffalo rumen plays an important role in animal health and productivity. The rumen bacterial composition of both liquid and solid fraction was surveyed using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequences were analyzed using taxonomy-dependent clustering methods and revealed that the dominant ruminal bacteria shared by samples belonged to phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Fibrobacteres and Proteobacteria. The core rumen microbiome of the rumen consisted of 10 phyla, 19 classes, 22 orders and 25 families. However, the relative abundance of these bacterial groups was markedly affected by diet composition as well as in type of biomaterial. In animals fed with a green and dry roughage diet, the cellulolytic bacteria, Ruminococcaceae, and Fibrobacteraceae was found in highest abundance in all biomaterials which reflected the need for enhanced fiber-digesting capacity in buffalo. The polysaccharide-degrading Prevotellaceae bacteria were most abundant in buffalo rumen. In taxonomic comparison of rumen bacteria, about 26 genera were differentially abundant among liquid and solid fraction of ruminal fluid. These results highlight the buffalo ruminal microbiome's ability to adapt to feed with different composition. PMID:25249226

  20. An interlaboratory comparison of 16S rRNA gene-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing methods for assessing microbial diversity of seafloor basalts

    PubMed Central

    Orcutt, Beth; Bailey, Brad; Staudigel, Hubert; Tebo, Bradley M; Edwards, Katrina J

    2009-01-01

    We present an interlaboratory comparison between full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) for microbial communities hosted on seafloor basaltic lavas, with the goal of evaluating how similarly these two different DNA-based methods used in two independent labs would estimate the microbial diversity of the same basalt samples. Two samples were selected for these analyses based on differences detected in the overall levels of microbial diversity between them. Richness estimators indicate that TRFLP analysis significantly underestimates the richness of the relatively high-diversity seafloor basalt microbial community: at least 50% of species from the high-diversity site are missed by TRFLP. However, both methods reveal similar dominant species from the samples, and they predict similar levels of relative diversity between the two samples. Importantly, these results suggest that DNA-extraction or PCR-related bias between the two laboratories is minimal. We conclude that TRFLP may be useful for relative comparisons of diversity between basalt samples, for identifying dominant species, and for estimating the richness and evenness of low-diversity, skewed populations of seafloor basalt microbial communities, but that TRFLP may miss a majority of species in relatively highly diverse samples. PMID:19508561

  1. Abundance and activity of 16S rRNA, amoA and nifH bacterial genes during assisted phytostabilization of mine tailings

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Karis N.; Neilson, Julia W.; Root, Robert A.; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M.

    2014-01-01

    Mine tailings in semiarid regions are highly susceptible to erosion and are sources of dust pollution and potential avenues of human exposure to toxic metals. One constraint to revegetation of tailings by phytostabilization is the absence of microbial communities critical for biogeochemical cycling of plant nutrients. The objective of this study was to evaluate specific genes as in situ indicators of biological soil response during phytoremediation. The abundance and activity of 16S rRNA, nifH, and amoA were monitored during a nine month phytostabilization study using buffalo grass and quailbush grown in compost-amended, metalliferous tailings. The compost amendment provided a greater than 5-log increase in bacterial abundance, and survival of this compost-inoculum was more stable in planted treatments. Despite increased abundance, the activity of the introduced community was low, and significant increases were not detected until six and nine months in quailbush, and unplanted compost and buffalo grass treatments, respectively. In addition, increased abundances of nitrogen-fixation (nifH) and ammonia-oxidizing (amoA) genes were observed in rhizospheres of buffalo grass and quailbush, respectively. Thus, plant establishment facilitated the short term stabilization of introduced bacterial biomass and supported the growth of two key nitrogen-cycling populations in compost-amended tailings. PMID:25495940

  2. Direct detection of Brucella spp. in raw milk by PCR and reverse hybridization with 16S-23S rRNA spacer probes.

    PubMed Central

    Rijpens, N P; Jannes, G; Van Asbroeck, M; Rossau, R; Herman, L M

    1996-01-01

    The 16S-23S rRNA spacer regions of Brucella abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis were cloned and subcloned after PCR amplification. Sequence analysis of the inserts revealed a spacer of about 800 bp with very high ( > 99%) homology among the three species examined. Two genus-specific primer pairs, BRU-P5-BRU-P8 and BRU-P6-BRU-P7, that could be used in a nested PCR format and three genus-specific DNA probes, BRU-ICG2, BRU-ICG3, and BRU-ICG4, were deduced from this spacer. The specificity and sensitivity of both primer sets and probes were examined by testing them against a collection of 18 Brucella strains and 56 strains from other relevant taxa by using PCR and the Line Probe Assay (LiPA), respectively. A method for direct detection of Brucella spp. in 1 ml of raw milk was developed on the basis of enzymatic treatment of the milk components and subsequent PCR and LiPA hybridization. After a single PCR, sensitivities of 2.8 x 10(5) and 2.8 x 10(4) CFU/ml were obtained for detection by agarose gel electrophoresis and LiPA, respectively. Nested PCR yielded a sensitivity of 2.8 x 10(2) CFU/ml for both methods. PMID:8633866

  3. Characterisation of caecum and crop microbiota of Indian indigenous chicken targeting multiple hypervariable regions within 16S rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Saxena, S; Saxena, V K; Tomar, S; Sapcota, D; Gonmei, G

    2016-06-01

    A comparative analysis of caecum and crop microbiota of chick, grower and adult stages of Indian indigenous chickens was conducted to investigate the role of the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract, which play an important role in host performance, health and immunity. High-throughput Illumina sequencing was performed for V3, V4 and V4-V6 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. M5RNA and M5NR databases under MG-RAST were used for metagenomic datasets annotation. In the crop, Firmicutes (~78%) and Proteobacteria (~16%) were the predominant phyla whereas in the caecum, Firmicutes (~50%), Bacteroidetes (~29%) and Actinobacteria (~10%) were predominant. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index suggested that sample richness and diversity increased as the chicken aged. For the first time, the presence of Lactobacillus species such as L. frumenti, L. antri, L. mucosae in the chicken crop along with Kineococcus radiotolerans, Desulfohalobium retbaense and L. jensenii in the caecum are reported. Many of these bacterial species have been found to be involved in immune response modulation and disease prevention in pigs and humans. The gut microbiome of the indigenous chicken was enriched with microbes having probiotic potential which might be essential for their adaptability. PMID:26962896

  4. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Dicronocephalus (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae) based on mtCOI and 16S rRNA genes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ga-Eun; Han, Taeman; Jeong, Jongchel; Kim, Seong-Hyun; Park, In Gyun; Park, Haechul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The seven species belonging to the genus Dicronocephalus are a very interesting group with a unique appearance and distinct sexual dimorphism. Only one species among them, Dicronocephalus adamsi, has been known in the Korean fauna. This species is recognized as having a wide distribution from Tibet to Korean Peninsula and is currently represented by two subspecies that have separated geographical ranges. The phylogenetic relationships of Dicronocephalus adamsi were still unclear. The phylogeny of Dicronocephalus is reconstructed with a phylogenetic study of five species including four subspecies based on a molecular approach using mitochondrial COI and 16S rRNA genes. Our results are compared with the results obtained by previous authors based on morphological characters. They show that the tested taxa are divided into two major clades. Clade A consists of two species (Dicronocephalus adamsi + Dicranocephalus yui) and Clade B includes the others (Dicronocephalus dabryi + Dicranocephalus uenoi + Dicranocephalus wallichii). This result generally supports Kurosawa’s proposal except that Dicronocephalus dabryi and Dicranocephalus uenoi are newly recognized as members of a monophyletic group. We propose that Dicronocephalus adamsi drumonti is a junior subjective synonym of Dicronocephalus adamsi adamsi. These results show that three members of the Dicranocephalus wallichii group should be treated as species rather than subspecies. However, further research including analyses of different genetic markers is needed to reconfirm our results. PMID:25987879

  5. [Dominant phylotypes in the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from bacterial mats of the Uzon caldera (Kamchatka, Russia) hydrothermal springs].

    PubMed

    Akimov, V N; Podosokorskaia, O A; Shliapnikov, M G; Gal'chenko, V F

    2013-01-01

    In situ analysis of the 16S rRNA genes form bacterial mats of five hydrothermal springs (36-58 degrees C) in the Uzon caldera (Kamchatka, Russia) was carried out using clone libraries. Eight clone libraries contained 18 dominant phylotypes (over 4-5%). In most clone libraries, the phylotype of the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum sp. was among the dominant ones. The phylotypes of the green nonsulfur bacteria Chloroflexus and Roseiflexus and of purple nonsulfur bacteria Rhodoblastus, Rhodopseudomonas, and Rhodoferax were also among the dominant ones. Cyanobacteria were represented by one dominant phylotype in a single spring. Among nonphototrophic bacteria, the dominant phylotypes belonged to Sulfyrihydrogenibium sp., Geothrixsp., Acidobacterium sp., Meiothermus sp., Thiomonas sp., Thiofaba sp., and Spirochaeta sp. Three phylotypes were not identified at the genus level. Most genera of phototrophic and nonphototrophic organisms corresponding to the phylotypes from Uzon hydrotherms have been previously revealed in the hydrotherms of volcanically active regions of America, Asia, and Europe. These results indicate predominance of bacterial mats carrying out anaerobic photosynthesis in the hydrotherms of the Uzon caldera. PMID:25509409

  6. DNA extraction protocols cause differences in 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing efficiency but not in community profile composition or structure

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-01

    The recent development of methods applying next-generation sequencing to microbial community characterization has led to the proliferation of these studies in a wide variety of sample types. Yet, variation in the physical properties of environmental samples demands that optimal DNA extraction techniques be explored for each new environment. The microbiota associated with many species of insects offer an extraction challenge as they are frequently surrounded by an armored exoskeleton, inhibiting disruption of the tissues within. In this study, we examine the efficacy of several commonly used protocols for extracting bacterial DNA from ants. While bacterial community composition recovered using Illumina 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was not detectably biased by any method, the quantity of bacterial DNA varied drastically, reducing the number of samples that could be amplified and sequenced. These results indicate that the concentration necessary for dependable sequencing is around 10,000 copies of target DNA per microliter. Exoskeletal pulverization and tissue digestion increased the reliability of extractions, suggesting that these steps should be included in any study of insect-associated microorganisms that relies on obtaining microbial DNA from intact body segments. Although laboratory and analysis techniques should be standardized across diverse sample types as much as possible, minimal modifications such as these will increase the number of environments in which bacterial communities can be successfully studied.

  7. Archaeal and bacterial diversity in two hot springs from geothermal regions in Bulgaria as demostrated by 16S rRNA and GH-57 genes.

    PubMed

    Stefanova, Katerina; Tomova, Iva; Tomova, Anna; Radchenkova, Nadja; Atanassov, Ivan; Kambourova, Margarita

    2015-12-01

    Archaeal and bacterial diversity in two Bulgarian hot springs, geographically separated with different tectonic origin and different temperature of water was investigated exploring two genes, 16S rRNA and GH-57. Archaeal diversity was significantly higher in the hotter spring Levunovo (LV) (82°C); on the contrary, bacterial diversity was higher in the spring Vetren Dol (VD) (68°C). The analyzed clones from LV library were referred to twenty eight different sequence types belonging to five archaeal groups from Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. A domination of two groups was observed, Candidate Thaumarchaeota and Methanosarcinales. The majority of the clones from VD were referred to HWCG (Hot Water Crenarchaeotic Group). The formation of a group of thermophiles in the order Methanosarcinales was suggested. Phylogenetic analysis revealed high numbers of novel sequences, more than one third of archaeal and half of the bacterial phylotypes displayed similarity lower than 97% with known ones. The retrieved GH-57 gene sequences showed a complex phylogenic distribution. The main part of the retrieved homologous GH-57 sequences affiliated with bacterial phyla Bacteroidetes, Deltaproteobacteria, Candidate Saccharibacteria and affiliation of almost half of the analyzed sequences is not fully resolved. GH-57 gene analysis allows an increased resolution of the biodiversity assessment and in depth analysis of specific taxonomic groups. [Int Microbiol 18(4):217-223 (2015)]. PMID:27611674

  8. Comprehensive Meta-analysis of Ontology Annotated 16S rRNA Profiles Identifies Beta Diversity Clusters of Environmental Bacterial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Henschel, Andreas; Anwar, Muhammad Zohaib; Manohar, Vimitha

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive mapping of environmental microbiomes in terms of their compositional features remains a great challenge in understanding the microbial biosphere of the Earth. It bears promise to identify the driving forces behind the observed community patterns and whether community assembly happens deterministically. Advances in Next Generation Sequencing allow large community profiling studies, exceeding sequencing data output of conventional methods in scale by orders of magnitude. However, appropriate collection systems are still in a nascent state. We here present a database of 20,427 diverse environmental 16S rRNA profiles from 2,426 independent studies, which forms the foundation of our meta-analysis. We conducted a sample size adaptive all-against-all beta diversity comparison while also respecting phylogenetic relationships of Operational Taxonomic Units(OTUs). After conventional hierarchical clustering we systematically test for enrichment of Environmental Ontology terms and their abstractions in all possible clusters. This post-hoc algorithm provides a novel formalism that quantifies to what extend compositional and semantic similarity of microbial community samples coincide. We automatically visualize significantly enriched subclusters on a comprehensive dendrogram of microbial communities. As a result we obtain the hitherto most differentiated and comprehensive view on global patterns of microbial community diversity. We observe strong clusterability of microbial communities in ecosystems such as human/mammal-associated, geothermal, fresh water, plant-associated, soils and rhizosphere microbiomes, whereas hypersaline and anthropogenic samples are less homogeneous. Moreover, saline samples appear less cohesive in terms of compositional properties than previously reported. PMID:26458130

  9. Comprehensive Meta-analysis of Ontology Annotated 16S rRNA Profiles Identifies Beta Diversity Clusters of Environmental Bacterial Communities.

    PubMed

    Henschel, Andreas; Anwar, Muhammad Zohaib; Manohar, Vimitha

    2015-10-01

    Comprehensive mapping of environmental microbiomes in terms of their compositional features remains a great challenge in understanding the microbial biosphere of the Earth. It bears promise to identify the driving forces behind the observed community patterns and whether community assembly happens deterministically. Advances in Next Generation Sequencing allow large community profiling studies, exceeding sequencing data output of conventional methods in scale by orders of magnitude. However, appropriate collection systems are still in a nascent state. We here present a database of 20,427 diverse environmental 16S rRNA profiles from 2,426 independent studies, which forms the foundation of our meta-analysis. We conducted a sample size adaptive all-against-all beta diversity comparison while also respecting phylogenetic relationships of Operational Taxonomic Units(OTUs). After conventional hierarchical clustering we systematically test for enrichment of Environmental Ontology terms and their abstractions in all possible clusters. This post-hoc algorithm provides a novel formalism that quantifies to what extend compositional and semantic similarity of microbial community samples coincide. We automatically visualize significantly enriched subclusters on a comprehensive dendrogram of microbial communities. As a result we obtain the hitherto most differentiated and comprehensive view on global patterns of microbial community diversity. We observe strong clusterability of microbial communities in ecosystems such as human/mammal-associated, geothermal, fresh water, plant-associated, soils and rhizosphere microbiomes, whereas hypersaline and anthropogenic samples are less homogeneous. Moreover, saline samples appear less cohesive in terms of compositional properties than previously reported. PMID:26458130

  10. Quantification of Listeria monocytogenes in minimally processed leafy vegetables using a combined method based on enrichment and 16S rRNA real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Aparecida de Oliveira, Maria; Abeid Ribeiro, Eliana Guimarães; Morato Bergamini, Alzira Maria; Pereira De Martinis, Elaine Cristina

    2010-02-01

    Modern lifestyle markedly changed eating habits worldwide, with an increasing demand for ready-to-eat foods, such as minimally processed fruits and leafy greens. Packaging and storage conditions of those products may favor the growth of psychrotrophic bacteria, including the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. In this work, minimally processed leafy vegetables samples (n = 162) from retail market from Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil, were tested for the presence or absence of Listeria spp. by the immunoassay Listeria Rapid Test, Oxoid. Two L. monocytogenes positive and six artificially contaminated samples of minimally processed leafy vegetables were evaluated by the Most Probable Number (MPN) with detection by classical culture method and also culture method combined with real-time PCR (RTi-PCR) for 16S rRNA genes of L. monocytogenes. Positive MPN enrichment tubes were analyzed by RTi-PCR with primers specific for L. monocytogenes using the commercial preparation ABSOLUTE QPCR SYBR Green Mix (ABgene, UK). Real-time PCR assay presented good exclusivity and inclusivity results and no statistical significant difference was found in comparison with the conventional culture method (p < 0.05). Moreover, RTi-PCR was fast and easy to perform, with MPN results obtained in ca. 48 h for RTi-PCR in comparison to 7 days for conventional method. PMID:19913686

  11. Isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria from Tarag in Eastern Inner Mongolia of China by 16S rRNA sequences and DGGE analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjun; Bao, Qiuhua; Jirimutu; Qing, Manjun; Siriguleng; Chen, Xia; Sun, Ting; Li, Meihua; Zhang, Jiachao; Yu, Jie; Bilige, Menghe; Sun, Tiansong; Zhang, Heping

    2012-01-20

    Tarag is a characteristic fermented dairy product with rich microflora (especially lactic acid bacteria), developed by the people of Mongolian nationality in Inner Mongolia of China and Mongolia throughout history. One hundred and ninety-eight samples of Tarag were collected from scattered households in Eastern Inner Mongolia, and total of 790 isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated by traditional pure culture method. To identify these isolates and analyze their biodiversity, 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis and PCR-DGGE were performed respectively. The results showed that 790 isolates could be classified as 31 species and subspecies. Among these isolates, Lactobacillus helveticus (153 strains, about 19.4%), Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (132 strains, about 16.7%) and Lactobacillus casei (106 strains, about 11.0%) were considered as the predominated species in the traditional fermented dairy products (Tarag) in Eastern Inner Mongolia. It was shown that the biodiversity of LAB in Tarag in Inner Mongolia was very abundant, and this traditional fermented dairy product could be considered as valuable resources for LAB isolation and probiotic selection. PMID:21689912

  12. Rapid qualitative characterization of bacterial community in eutrophicated wastewater stabilization plant by T-RFLP method based on 16S rRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Belila, Abdelaziz; Snoussi, Mejdi; Hassan, Abdennaceur

    2012-01-01

    Waste stabilization ponds are a simple, low-cost extensive process for treating wastewater, and well adapted to low socio-economic conditions in developing countries where the microbial populations in these systems are not well characterized. The phylogenetic bacterial community structure within a Tunisian wastewater stabilization plant treating domestic wastewater was assessed by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism method targeting 16S rRNA genes and by the APLAUS+ software of the Microbial Community Analysis (MiCA) web based tool. The dimeric enzymatic digestion with HaeIII and HinfI restriction enzymes revealed high bacterial diversity within the plant where 11 bacterial phyla were identified. The total bacterial community structure includes bacteria catalysing nitrogen and phosphorus removal and bacteria involved in the sulfur cycle. The bacterial community was characterized by the dominance of Proteobacteria which was the most populous phylum (60%) followed by the Actinobacteria (20%), the Firmicutes (10.3%), the Bacteroidetes (2.3%), the Nitrospira (2.2%). Minor bacterial phyla groups occupied smaller fractions such as Chloroflexi, Deferribacteres and Verrumicrobia. T-RFLP analysis revealed also that The Proteobacteria phylum was characterized by the dominance of bacteria of The Gammaproteobacteria class. PMID:22806789

  13. Effects of DNA extraction and universal primers on 16S rRNA gene-based DGGE analysis of a bacterial community from fish farming water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Peng; Hu, Chaoqun; Zhang, Lüping; Ren, Chunhua; Shen, Qi

    2007-07-01

    Among many reports investigating microbial diversity from environmental samples with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), limited attention has been given to the effects of universal primers and DNA extraction on the outcome of DGGE analysis. In this study, these effects were tested with 16S rRNA gene-based DGGE on a bacterial community from farming water samples. The results indicate that the number of discernable bands in the DGGE fingerprint differed with the primer pairs used; the bands produced by 63f/518r, 341f/926r and 933f/1387r primer pairs were obviously fewer than those by 968f/1401r. Also, we found that each DNA extraction method resulted in different community profiles, reflected by the number and intensity of bands in the DGGE fingerprint. Furthermore, the main bands (theoretically representing dominant bacteria) differed with the extraction methods applied. It is therefore believed that the effects of universal primers and DNA extraction should be given more attention and carefully chosen before performing an investigation into a new environment with DGGE.

  14. Gallaecimonas pentaromativorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a bacterium carrying 16S rRNA gene heterogeneity and able to degrade high-molecular-mass polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Blanco, Arturo; Vetion, Gilles; Escande, Marie-Line; Delille, Daniel; Ghiglione, Jean-François

    2010-03-01

    A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, halotolerant bacterium, designated strain CEE_131(T), which degraded high-molecular-mass polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of four and five rings, was isolated from intertidal sediment of Corcubion Ria in Cee, A Coruña, Spain. Direct sequencing showed ambiguities and suggested heterogeneity. Cloned 16S rRNA gene sequence PCR products yielded five different sequences varying at five positions. Strain CEE_131(T) showed rather distant relationships to its phylogenetically closest neighbours, including the genera Rheinheimera and Serratia , exhibiting 91 % sequence similarity with Rheinheimera perlucida BA131(T) and Serratia proteamaculans subsp. quinovora DSM 4597(T). The major fatty acids were C(16 : 1 )omega7c, C(16 : 0) and C(18 : 1)omega7c. The DNA G+C content was 41.7 mol%. On the basis of these distinct phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strain CEE_131(T) is considered to represent a novel species in a new genus in the class Gammaproteobacteria, for which the name Gallaecimonas pentaromativorans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CEE_131(T) (=DSM 21945(T)=CECT 7479(T)). PMID:19654338

  15. Characterization and potential of three temperature ranges for hydrogen fermentation of cellulose by means of activity test and 16s rRNA sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Gadow, Samir I; Jiang, Hongyu; Li, Yu-You

    2016-06-01

    A series of standardized activity experiments were performed to characterize three different temperature ranges of hydrogen fermentation from different carbon sources. 16S rRNA sequences analysis showed that the bacteria were close to Enterobacter genus in the mesophilic mixed culture (MMC) and Thermoanaerobacterium genus in the thermophilic and hyper-thermophilic mixed cultures (TMC and HMC). The MMC was able to utilize the glucose and cellulose to produce methane gas within a temperature range between 25 and 45 °C and hydrogen gas from 35 to 60°C. While, the TMC and HMC produced only hydrogen gas at all temperature ranges and the highest activity of 521.4mlH2/gVSSd was obtained by TMC. The thermodynamic analysis showed that more energy is consumed by hydrogen production from cellulose than from glucose. The experimental results could help to improve the economic feasibility of cellulosic biomass energy using three-phase technology to produce hythane. PMID:26954308

  16. Identification of Clinical Coryneform Bacterial Isolates: Comparison of Biochemical Methods and Sequence Analysis of 16S rRNA and rpoB Genes▿

    PubMed Central

    Adderson, Elisabeth E.; Boudreaux, Jan W.; Cummings, Jessica R.; Pounds, Stanley; Wilson, Deborah A.; Procop, Gary W.; Hayden, Randall T.

    2008-01-01

    We compared the relative levels of effectiveness of three commercial identification kits and three nucleic acid amplification tests for the identification of coryneform bacteria by testing 50 diverse isolates, including 12 well-characterized control strains and 38 organisms obtained from pediatric oncology patients at our institution. Between 33.3 and 75.0% of control strains were correctly identified to the species level by phenotypic systems or nucleic acid amplification assays. The most sensitive tests were the API Coryne system and amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene using primers optimized for coryneform bacteria, which correctly identified 9 of 12 control isolates to the species level, and all strains with a high-confidence call were correctly identified. Organisms not correctly identified were species not included in the test kit databases or not producing a pattern of reactions included in kit databases or which could not be differentiated among several genospecies based on reaction patterns. Nucleic acid amplification assays had limited abilities to identify some bacteria to the species level, and comparison of sequence homologies was complicated by the inclusion of allele sequences obtained from uncultivated and uncharacterized strains in databases. The utility of rpoB genotyping was limited by the small number of representative gene sequences that are currently available for comparison. The correlation between identifications produced by different classification systems was poor, particularly for clinical isolates. PMID:18160450

  17. Distribution of bacterioplankton in meromictic Lake Saelenvannet, as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified gene fragments coding for 16S rRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Ovreås, L; Forney, L; Daae, F L; Torsvik, V

    1997-01-01

    The community structure of bacterioplankton in meromictic Lake Saelenvannet was examined by PCR amplification of the V3 region of 16S rRNA from microbial communities recovered from various depths in the water column. Two different primer sets were used, one for amplification of DNA from the domain Bacteria and another specific for DNA from the domain Archaea. Amplified DNA fragments were resolved by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the resulting profiles were reproducible and specific for the communities from different depths. Bacterial diversity estimated from the number and intensity of specific fragments in DGGE profiles decreased with depth. The reverse was true for the Archaea, with the diversity increasing with depth. Hybridization of DGGE profiles with oligonucleotide probes specific for phylogenetic groups of microorganisms showed the presence of both sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogens throughout the water column, but they appeared to be most abundant below the chemocline. Several dominant fragments in the DGGE profiles were excised and sequenced. Among the dominant populations were representatives related to Chlorobium phaeovibrioides, chloroplasts from eukaryotic algae, and unidentified Archaea. PMID:9292986

  18. Identification of mycobacteria from animals by restriction enzyme analysis and direct DNA cycle sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, M S; Skuce, R A; Beck, L A; Neill, S D

    1993-01-01

    Two methods, based on analysis of the polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA gene by restriction enzyme analysis (REA) or direct cycle sequencing, were developed for rapid identification of mycobacteria isolated from animals and were compared to traditional phenotypic typing. BACTEC 7H12 cultures of the specimens were examined for "cording," and specific polymerase chain reaction amplification was performed to identify the presence of tubercle complex mycobacteria. Combined results of separate REAs with HhaI, MspI, MboI, and ThaI differentiated 12 of 15 mycobacterial species tested. HhaI, MspI, and ThaI restriction enzyme profiles differentiated Actinobacillus species from mycobacterial species. Mycobacterium bovis could not be differentiated from M. bovis BCG or Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Similarly, Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium paratuberculosis could not be distinguished from each other by REA but were differentiated by cycle sequencing. Compared with traditional typing, both methods allowed rapid and more accurate identification of acid-fast organisms recovered from 21 specimens of bovine and badger origin. Two groups of isolates were not typed definitively by either molecular method. One group of four isolates may constitute a new species phylogenetically very closely related to Mycobacterium simiae. The remaining unidentified isolates (three badger and one bovine) had identical restriction enzyme profiles and shared 100% nucleotide identify over the sequenced signature region. This nucleotide sequence most closely resembled the data base sequence of Mycobacterium senegalense. Images PMID:7508456

  19. Comparison of bacterial culture and 16S rRNA community profiling by clonal analysis and pyrosequencing for the characterization of the dentine caries-associated microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Schulze-Schweifing, Kathrin; Banerjee, Avijit; Wade, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Culture-independent analyses have greatly expanded knowledge regarding the composition of complex bacterial communities including those associated with oral diseases. A consistent finding from such studies, however, has been the under-reporting of members of the phylum Actinobacteria. In this study, five pairs of broad range primers targeting 16S rRNA genes were used in clonal analysis of 6 samples collected from tooth lesions involving dentine in subjects with active caries. Samples were also subjected to cultural analysis and pyrosequencing by means of the 454 platform. A diverse bacterial community of 229 species-level taxa was revealed by culture and clonal analysis, dominated by representatives of the genera Prevotella, Lactobacillus, Selenomonas, and Streptococcus. The five most abundant species were: Lactobacillus gasseri, Prevotella denticola, Alloprevotella tannerae, S. mutans and Streptococcus sp. HOT 070, which together made up 31.6 % of the sequences. Two samples were dominated by lactobacilli, while the remaining samples had low numbers of lactobacilli but significantly higher numbers of Prevotella species. The different primer pairs produced broadly similar data but proportions of the phylum Bacteroidetes were significantly higher when primer 1387R was used. All of the primer sets underestimated the proportion of Actinobacteria compared to culture. Pyrosequencing analysis of the samples was performed to a depth of sequencing of 4293 sequences per sample which were identified to 264 species-level taxa, and resulted in significantly higher coverage estimates than the clonal analysis. Pyrosequencing, however, also underestimated the relative abundance of Actinobacteria compared to culture. PMID:25429361

  20. Comparison of bacterial culture and 16S rRNA community profiling by clonal analysis and pyrosequencing for the characterization of the dentine caries-associated microbiome.

    PubMed

    Schulze-Schweifing, Kathrin; Banerjee, Avijit; Wade, William G

    2014-01-01

    Culture-independent analyses have greatly expanded knowledge regarding the composition of complex bacterial communities including those associated with oral diseases. A consistent finding from such studies, however, has been the under-reporting of members of the phylum Actinobacteria. In this study, five pairs of broad range primers targeting 16S rRNA genes were used in clonal analysis of 6 samples collected from tooth lesions involving dentine in subjects with active caries. Samples were also subjected to cultural analysis and pyrosequencing by means of the 454 platform. A diverse bacterial community of 229 species-level taxa was revealed by culture and clonal analysis, dominated by representatives of the genera Prevotella, Lactobacillus, Selenomonas, and Streptococcus. The five most abundant species were: Lactobacillus gasseri, Prevotella denticola, Alloprevotella tannerae, S. mutans and Streptococcus sp. HOT 070, which together made up 31.6 % of the sequences. Two samples were dominated by lactobacilli, while the remaining samples had low numbers of lactobacilli but significantly higher numbers of Prevotella species. The different primer pairs produced broadly similar data but proportions of the phylum Bacteroidetes were significantly higher when primer 1387R was used. All of the primer sets underestimated the proportion of Actinobacteria compared to culture. Pyrosequencing analysis of the samples was performed to a depth of sequencing of 4293 sequences per sample which were identified to 264 species-level taxa, and resulted in significantly higher coverage estimates than the clonal analysis. Pyrosequencing, however, also underestimated the relative abundance of Actinobacteria compared to culture. PMID:25429361

  1. Molecular profiling of 16S rRNA genes reveals diet-related differences of microbial communities in soil, gut, and casts of Lumbricus terrestris L. (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae).

    PubMed

    Egert, Markus; Marhan, Sven; Wagner, Bianca; Scheu, Stefan; Friedrich, Michael W

    2004-05-01

    Earthworms are important members of the soil macrofauna. They modify soil physical properties, soil organic matter decomposition, and thus regulate carbon and nitrogen cycling in soil. However, their interactions with soil microorganisms are still poorly understood, in particular the effect of gut passage on the community structure of ingested microorganisms. Moreover, it is still unsolved, if earthworms, like many other soil-feeding invertebrates, possess an indigenous gut microbial community. Therefore, we investigated the bacterial and archaeal community structure in soil (with and without additional beech litter), gut, and fresh casts of Lumbricus terrestris, an anecic litter-feeding earthworm, by means of terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments. Ecological indices of community diversity and similarity, calculated from the T-RFLP profiles, revealed only small differences between the bacterial and archaeal communities in soil, gut, and fresh casts under both feeding conditions, especially in comparison to other soil-feeding invertebrates. However, multivariate statistical analysis combining multidimensional scaling and discriminant function analysis proved that these differences were highly significant, in particular when the earthworms were fed beech litter in addition. Because there were no dominant gut-specific OTUs detectable, the existence of an abundant indigenous earthworm microbial community appears unlikely, at least in the midgut region of L. terrestris. PMID:19712402

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of Euthyneura (Gastropoda) by means of the 16S rRNA gene: use of a 'fast' gene for 'higher-level' phylogenies

    PubMed Central

    Thollesson, M.

    1999-01-01

    The phylogeny of Euthyneura is analysed by using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. Despite the common notion that this gene is too variable to provide useful information at high taxonomic levels, such as in the present study, bootstrap proportions are high for several clades in the study. This indicates that there is a useful amount of variation despite the noise due to multiple substitutions. The analyses furthermore indicate that (i) Gymnosomata (represented by Clione) is not a part of Euthyneura, but Clione forms a clade with the caenogastropods; (ii) Acteon is the sister group to the remaining euthyneuran taxa in the study; (iii) the nudibranch taxa form two clades, one comprising Dendronotoidea, Arminoidea and Aeolidoidea (together Cladobranchia) with Notaspidea (represented by Berthella) as sister group, while the fourth nudibranch taxon, Doridoidea, forms a separate clade; (iv) Cephalaspidea s.s. and Anaspidea form clades that are each other's sister groups (together Pleurocoela). Finally, there is no clade present in the analyses corresponding to the taxon Opisthobranchia in the traditional sense, and the use of this name is probably better abandoned altogether.

  3. Black Box Chimera Check (B2C2): a Windows-Based Software for Batch Depletion of Chimeras from Bacterial 16S rRNA Gene Datasets.

    PubMed

    Gontcharova, Viktoria; Youn, Eunseog; Wolcott, Randall D; Hollister, Emily B; Gentry, Terry J; Dowd, Scot E

    2010-01-01

    The existing chimera detection programs are not specifically designed for "next generation" sequence data. Technologies like Roche 454 FLX and Titanium have been adapted over the past years especially with the introduction of bacterial tag-encoded FLX/Titanium amplicon pyrosequencing methodologies to produce over one million 250-600 bp 16S rRNA gene reads that need to be depleted of chimeras prior to downstream analysis. Meeting the needs of basic scientists who are venturing into high-throughput microbial diversity studies such as those based upon pyrosequencing and specifically providing a solution for Windows users, the B2C2 software is designed to be able to accept files containing large multi-FASTA formatted sequences and screen for possible chimeras in a high throughput fashion. The graphical user interface (GUI) is also able to batch process multiple files. When compared to popular chimera screening software the B2C2 performed as well or better while dramatically decreasing the amount of time required generating and screening results. Even average computer users are able to interact with the Windows .Net GUI-based application and define the stringency to which the analysis should be done. B2C2 may be downloaded from http://www.researchandtesting.com/B2C2. PMID:21339894

  4. Bacterial community composition in the gut content and ambient sediment of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus revealed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Li, Fenghui; Tan, Jie; Yan, Jingping; Sun, Huiling

    2014-01-01

    The composition of the bacterial communities in the contents of the foregut and hindgut of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and in the ambient surface sediment was surveyed by 16S rRNA gene 454-pyrosequencing. A total of 188,623 optimized reads and 15,527 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the ten gut contents samples and four surface sediment samples. The sequences in the sediments, foregut contents, and hindgut contents were assigned to 38.0±4.7, 31.2±6.2 and 27.8±6.5 phyla, respectively. The bacterial richness and Shannon diversity index were both higher in the ambient sediments than in the gut contents. Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum in both the gut contents and sediment samples. The predominant classes in the foregut, hindgut, and ambient sediment were Holophagae and Gammaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria, respectively. The potential probiotics, including sequences related to Bacillus, lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Streptococcus) and Pseudomonas were detected in the gut of A. japonicus. Principle component analysis and heatmap figure showed that the foregut, hindgut, and ambient sediment respectively harbored different characteristic bacterial communities. Selective feeding of A. japonicus may be the primary source of the different bacterial communities between the foregut contents and ambient sediments. PMID:24967593

  5. Detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum in tissue samples by sequence capture and fluorescent PCR based on the 16S rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Königsson, Malin Heldtander; Ballagi, Andras; Jansson, Eva; Johansson, Karl-Erik

    2005-02-25

    The 16S rRNA genes from eight isolates of Renibacterium salmoninarum with different origins and dates of isolation were sequenced to evaluate the possibility to construct a diagnostic PCR system with target sites within this gene. The sequences were found to be identical but for one single position in one of the isolates, and two regions with an adequate number of nucleotide differences as compared to closely related species were identified. Species-specific fluorescent PCR primers complementary to these regions were constructed as well as oligonucleotides for DNA preparation by sequence capture. A mimic molecule was constructed to be used as an internal control. The PCR was specific and allowed the detection of DNA equivalent to 1-10 R. salmoninarum genomes per reaction. The DNA preparation with sequence capture and analysis by PCR with a mimic was found to be a reliable method for analysis of kidneys from fish with BKD. The amount of PCR inhibiting substances present in the tissue was reduced, and the relevant DNA was concentrated in the capture step. Furthermore, the use of the mimic molecule in the system assured that false negative results could be identified. PMID:15708821

  6. Use of 16S rRNA gene based clone libraries to assess microbial communities potentially involved in anaerobic methane oxidation in a Mediterranean cold seep.

    PubMed

    Heijs, Sander K; Haese, Ralf R; van der Wielen, Paul W J J; Forney, Larry J; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2007-04-01

    This study provides data on the diversities of bacterial and archaeal communities in an active methane seep at the Kazan mud volcano in the deep Eastern Mediterranean sea. Layers of varying depths in the Kazan sediments were investigated in terms of (1) chemical parameters and (2) DNA-based microbial population structures. The latter was accomplished by analyzing the sequences of directly amplified 16S rRNA genes, resulting in the phylogenetic analysis of the prokaryotic communities. Sequences of organisms potentially associated with processes such as anaerobic methane oxidation and sulfate reduction were thus identified. Overall, the sediment layers revealed the presence of sequences of quite diverse bacterial and archaeal communities, which varied considerably with depth. Dominant types revealed in these communities are known as key organisms involved in the following processes: (1) anaerobic methane oxidation and sulfate reduction, (2) sulfide oxidation, and (3) a range of (aerobic) heterotrophic processes. In the communities in the lowest sediment layer sampled (22-34 cm), sulfate-reducing bacteria and archaea of the ANME-2 cluster (likely involved in anaerobic methane oxidation) were prevalent, whereas heterotrophic organisms abounded in the top sediment layer (0-6 cm). Communities in the middle layer (6-22 cm) contained organisms that could be linked to either of the aforementioned processes. We discuss how these phylogeny (sequence)-based findings can support the ongoing molecular work aimed at unraveling both the functioning and the functional diversities of the communities under study. PMID:17431711

  7. Bacterial Community Composition in the Gut Content and Ambient Sediment of Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Revealed by 16S rRNA Gene Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fei; Li, Fenghui; Tan, Jie; Yan, Jingping; Sun, Huiling

    2014-01-01

    The composition of the bacterial communities in the contents of the foregut and hindgut of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and in the ambient surface sediment was surveyed by 16S rRNA gene 454-pyrosequencing. A total of 188,623 optimized reads and 15,527 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the ten gut contents samples and four surface sediment samples. The sequences in the sediments, foregut contents, and hindgut contents were assigned to 38.0±4.7, 31.2±6.2 and 27.8±6.5 phyla, respectively. The bacterial richness and Shannon diversity index were both higher in the ambient sediments than in the gut contents. Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum in both the gut contents and sediment samples. The predominant classes in the foregut, hindgut, and ambient sediment were Holophagae and Gammaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria, respectively. The potential probiotics, including sequences related to Bacillus, lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Streptococcus) and Pseudomonas were detected in the gut of A. japonicus. Principle component analysis and heatmap figure showed that the foregut, hindgut, and ambient sediment respectively harbored different characteristic bacterial communities. Selective feeding of A. japonicus may be the primary source of the different bacterial communities between the foregut contents and ambient sediments. PMID:24967593

  8. DNA extraction protocols cause differences in 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing efficiency but not in community profile composition or structure

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Benjamin E R; Sanders, Jon G; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad; Owens, Sarah M; Gilbert, Jack A; Moreau, Corrie S

    2014-01-01

    The recent development of methods applying next-generation sequencing to microbial community characterization has led to the proliferation of these studies in a wide variety of sample types. Yet, variation in the physical properties of environmental samples demands that optimal DNA extraction techniques be explored for each new environment. The microbiota associated with many species of insects offer an extraction challenge as they are frequently surrounded by an armored exoskeleton, inhibiting disruption of the tissues within. In this study, we examine the efficacy of several commonly used protocols for extracting bacterial DNA from ants. While bacterial community composition recovered using Illumina 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was not detectably biased by any method, the quantity of bacterial DNA varied drastically, reducing the number of samples that could be amplified and sequenced. These results indicate that the concentration necessary for dependable sequencing is around 10,000 copies of target DNA per microliter. Exoskeletal pulverization and tissue digestion increased the reliability of extractions, suggesting that these steps should be included in any study of insect-associated microorganisms that relies on obtaining microbial DNA from intact body segments. Although laboratory and analysis techniques should be standardized across diverse sample types as much as possible, minimal modifications such as these will increase the number of environments in which bacterial communities can be successfully studied. PMID:25257543

  9. Fine-scale analysis of 16S rRNA sequences reveals a high level of taxonomic diversity among vaginal Atopobium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Mendes-Soares, Helena; Krishnan, Vandhana; Settles, Matthew L.; Ravel, Jacques; Brown, Celeste J.; Forney, Larry J.

    2015-01-01

    Although vaginal microbial communities of some healthy women have high proportions of Atopobium vaginae, the genus Atopobium is more commonly associated with bacterial vaginosis, a syndrome associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. Genetic differences within Atopobium species may explain why single species can be associated with both health and disease. We used 16S rRNA gene sequences from previously published studies to explore the taxonomic diversity of the genus Atopobium in vaginal microbial communities of healthy women. Although A. vaginae was the species most commonly found, we also observed three other Atopobium species in the vaginal microbiota, one of which, A. parvulum, was not previously known to reside in the human vagina. Furthermore, we found several potential novel species of the genus Atopobium and multiple phylogenetic clades of A. vaginae. The diversity of Atopobium found in our study, which focused only on samples from healthy women, is greater than previously recognized, suggesting that analysis of samples from women with BV would yield even more diversity. Classification of microbes only to the genus level may thus obfuscate differences that might be important to better understand health or disease. PMID:25778779

  10. Bacterial diversity analysis of Huanglongbing pathogen-infected citrus, using PhyloChip and 16S rRNA gene clone library sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Shankar Sagaram, U.; DeAngelis, K.M.; Trivedi, P.; Andersen, G.L.; Lu, S.-E.; Wang, N.

    2009-03-01

    relative abundance, species richness and phylogenetic diversity of the microbial communities associated with the leaf midribs of HLB symptomatic and asymptomatic citrus trees were investigated using high-density 16S rDNA microarray PhyloChip and 16S rRNA gene clone library methods.

  11. Effects of Cr(III) and CR(VI) on nitrification inhibition as determined by SOUR, function-specific gene expression and 16S rRNA sequence analysis of wastewater nitrifying enrichments

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) on ammonia oxidation, the transcriptional responses of functional genes involved in nitrification and changes in 16S rRNA level sequences were examined in nitrifying enrichment cultures. The nitrifying bioreactor was operated as a continuous react...

  12. Molecular characterization and Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA from a new Candidatus Liberibacter strain associated with Zebra chip disease of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and the potato psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The full-length 16S rRNA gene region of a new Candidatus Liberibacter strain was PCR amplified from tubers of potato plants showing Zebra Chip (ZC) disease symptoms and also from the potato psyllid [Bactericera (= Paratrioza) cockerelli Sulc], the presumptive vector of the ZC disease causal agent. ...

  13. Deep 16S rRNA pyrosequencing reveals a bacterial community associated with Banana Fusarium Wilt disease suppression induced by bio-organic fertilizer application.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zongzhuan; Wang, Dongsheng; Ruan, Yunze; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Jian; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2014-01-01

    Our previous work demonstrated that application of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) to a banana mono-culture orchard with serious Fusarium wilt disease effectively decreased the number of soil Fusarium sp. and controlled the soil-borne disease. Because bacteria are an abundant and diverse group of soil organisms that responds to soil health, deep 16 S rRNA pyrosequencing was employed to characterize the composition of the bacterial community to investigate how it responded to BIO or the application of other common composts and to explore the potential correlation between bacterial community, BIO application and Fusarium wilt disease suppression. After basal quality control, 137,646 sequences and 9,388 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the 15 soil samples. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria were the most frequent phyla and comprised up to 75.3% of the total sequences. Compared to the other soil samples, BIO-treated soil revealed higher abundances of Gemmatimonadetes and Acidobacteria, while Bacteroidetes were found in lower abundance. Meanwhile, on genus level, higher abundances compared to other treatments were observed for Gemmatimonas and Gp4. Correlation and redundancy analysis showed that the abundance of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas and the soil total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen content were higher after BIO application, and they were all positively correlated with disease suppression. Cumulatively, the reduced Fusarium wilt disease incidence that was seen after BIO was applied for 1-year might be attributed to the general suppression based on a shift within the bacteria soil community, including specific enrichment of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas. PMID:24871319

  14. The 16S rRNA binding site of Thermus thermophilus ribosomal protein S15: comparison with Escherichia coli S15, minimum site and structure.

    PubMed

    Serganov, A A; Masquida, B; Westhof, E; Cachia, C; Portier, C; Garber, M; Ehresmann, B; Ehresmann, C

    1996-11-01

    Binding of Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus ribosomal proteins S15 to a 16S ribosomal RNA fragment from T. thermophilus (nt 559-753) has been investigated in detail by extensive deletion analysis, filter-binding assays, gel mobility shift, structure probing, footprinting with chemical, enzymatic, and hydroxyl radical probes. Both S15 proteins recognize two distinct sites. The first one maps in the bottom of helix 638-655/717-734 (H22) and in the three-way junction between helix 560-570/737-747 (H20), helix 571-600/606-634 (H21), and H22. The second is located in a conserved purine-rich region in the center of H22. The first site provides a higher contribution to the free energy of binding than the second one, and both are required for efficient binding. A short RNA fragment of 56 nt containing these elements binds S15 with high affinity. The structure of the rRNA is constrained by the three-way junction and requires both magnesium and S15 to be stabilized. A 3D model, derived by computer modeling with the use of experimental data, suggests that the bound form adopts a Y-shaped conformation, with a quasi-coaxial stacking of H22 on H20, and H21 forming an acute angle with H22. In this model, S15 binds to the shallow groove of the RNA on the exterior side of the Y-shaped structure, making contact with the two sites, which are separated by one helix turn. PMID:8903343

  15. Sponge-associated actinobacterial diversity: validation of the methods of actinobacterial DNA extraction and optimization of 16S rRNA gene amplification.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qi; Franco, Christopher M M; Zhang, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Experiments were designed to validate the two common DNA extraction protocols (CTAB-based method and DNeasy Blood & Tissue Kit) used to effectively recover actinobacterial DNA from sponge samples in order to study the sponge-associated actinobacterial diversity. This was done by artificially spiking sponge samples with actinobacteria (spores, mycelia and a combination of the two). Our results demonstrated that both DNA extraction methods were effective in obtaining DNA from the sponge samples as well as the sponge samples spiked with different amounts of actinobacteria. However, it was noted that in the presence of the sponge, the bacterial 16S rRNA gene could not be amplified unless the combined DNA template was diluted. To test the hypothesis that the extracted sponge DNA contained inhibitors, dilutions of the DNA extracts were tested for six sponge species representing five orders. The results suggested that the inhibitors were co-extracted with the sponge DNA, and a high dilution of this DNA was required for the successful PCR amplification for most of the samples. The optimized PCR conditions, including primer selection, PCR reaction system and program optimization, further improved the PCR performance. However, no single PCR condition was found to be suitable for the diverse sponge samples using various primer sets. These results highlight for the first time that the DNA extraction methods used are effective in obtaining actinobacterial DNA and that the presence of inhibitors in the sponge DNA requires high dilution coupled with fine tuning of the PCR conditions to achieve success in the study of sponge-associated actinobacterial diversity. PMID:26245685

  16. Noma Affected Children from Niger Have Distinct Oral Microbial Communities Based on High-Throughput Sequencing of 16S rRNA Gene Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Whiteson, Katrine L.; Lazarevic, Vladimir; Tangomo-Bento, Manuela; Girard, Myriam; Maughan, Heather; Pittet, Didier; Francois, Patrice; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    We aim to understand the microbial ecology of noma (cancrum oris), a devastating ancient illness which causes severe facial disfigurement in>140,000 malnourished children every year. The cause of noma is still elusive. A chaotic mix of microbial infection, oral hygiene and weakened immune system likely contribute to the development of oral lesions. These lesions are a plausible entry point for unidentified microorganisms that trigger gangrenous facial infections. To catalog bacteria present in noma lesions and identify candidate noma-triggering organisms, we performed a cross-sectional sequencing study of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from sixty samples of gingival fluid from twelve healthy children, twelve children suffering from noma (lesion and healthy sites), and twelve children suffering from Acute Necrotizing Gingivitis (ANG) (lesion and healthy sites). Relative to healthy individuals, samples taken from lesions in diseased mouths were enriched with Spirochaetes and depleted for Proteobacteria. Samples taken from healthy sites of diseased mouths had proportions of Spirochaetes and Proteobacteria that were similar to healthy control individuals. Samples from noma mouths did not have a higher abundance of Fusobacterium, casting doubt on its role as a causative agent of noma. Microbial communities sampled from noma and ANG lesions were dominated by the same Prevotella intermedia OTU, which was much less abundant in healthy sites sampled from the same mouths. Multivariate analysis confirmed that bacterial communities in healthy and lesion sites were significantly different. Several OTUs in the Orders Erysipelotrichales, Clostridiales, Bacteroidales, and Spirochaetales were identified as indicators of noma, suggesting that one or more microbes within these Orders is associated with the development of noma lesions. Future studies should include longitudinal sampling of viral and microbial components of this community, before and early in noma lesion development. PMID

  17. Influence of DNA extraction method, 16S rRNA targeted hypervariable regions, and sample origin on microbial diversity detected by 454 pyrosequencing in marine chemosynthetic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Cruaud, Perrine; Vigneron, Adrien; Lucchetti-Miganeh, Céline; Ciron, Pierre Emmanuel; Godfroy, Anne; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne

    2014-08-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) opens up exciting possibilities for improving our knowledge of environmental microbial diversity, allowing rapid and cost-effective identification of both cultivated and uncultivated microorganisms. However, library preparation, sequencing, and analysis of the results can provide inaccurate representations of the studied community compositions. Therefore, all these steps need to be taken into account carefully. Here we evaluated the effects of DNA extraction methods, targeted 16S rRNA hypervariable regions, and sample origins on the diverse microbes detected by 454 pyrosequencing in marine cold seep and hydrothermal vent sediments. To assign the reads with enough taxonomic precision, we built a database with about 2,500 sequences from Archaea and Bacteria from deep-sea marine sediments, affiliated according to reference publications in the field. Thanks to statistical and diversity analyses as well as inference of operational taxonomic unit (OTU) networks, we show that (i) while DNA extraction methods do not seem to affect the results for some samples, they can lead to dramatic changes for others; and (ii) the choice of amplification and sequencing primers also considerably affects the microbial community detected in the samples. Thereby, very different proportions of pyrosequencing reads were obtained for some microbial lineages, such as the archaeal ANME-1, ANME-2c, and MBG-D and deltaproteobacterial subgroups. This work clearly indicates that the results from sequencing-based analyses, such as pyrosequencing, should be interpreted very carefully. Therefore, the combination of NGS with complementary approaches, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)/catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD)-FISH or quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), would be desirable to gain a more comprehensive picture of environmental microbial communities. PMID:24837380

  18. Assignment of fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria to Syntrophomonadaceae fam. nov. on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, H.; Yang, D.; Woese, C. R.; Bryant, M. P.

    1993-01-01

    After enrichment from Chinese rural anaerobic digestor sludge, anaerobic, sporing and nonsporing, saturated fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria were isolated as cocultures with H2- and formate-utilizing Methanospirillum hungatei or Desulfovibrio sp. strain G-11. The syntrophs degraded C4 to C8 saturated fatty acids, including isobutyrate and 2-methylbutyrate. They were adapted to grow on crotonate and were isolated as pure cultures. The crotonate-grown pure cultures alone did not grow on butyrate in either the presence or the absence of some common electron acceptors. However, when they were reconstituted with M. hungatei, growth on butyrate again occurred. In contrast, crotonate-grown Clostridium kluyveri and Clostridium sticklandii, as well as Clostridium sporogenes, failed to grow on butyrate when these organisms were cocultured with M. hungatei. The crotonate-grown pure subcultures of the syntrophs described above were subjected to 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Several previously documented fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophs grown in pure cultures with crotonate were also subjected to comparative sequence analyses. The sequence analyses revealed that the new sporing and nonsporing isolates and other syntrophs that we sequenced, which had either gram-negative or gram-positive cell wall ultrastructure, all belonged to the phylogenetically gram-positive phylum. They were not closely related to any of the previously known subdivisions in the gram-positive phylum with which they were compared, but were closely related to each other, forming a new subdivision in the phylum. We recommend that this group be designated Syntrophomonadaceae fam. nov.; a description is given.

  19. Anterior Foregut Microbiota of the Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter Explored Using Deep 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing from Individual Insects

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Elizabeth E.; Backus, Elaine A.

    2014-01-01

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS) is an invasive insect species that transmits Xylella fastidiosa, the bacterium causing Pierce's disease of grapevine and other leaf scorch diseases. X. fastidiosa has been shown to colonize the anterior foregut (cibarium and precibarium) of sharpshooters, where it may interact with other naturally-occurring bacterial species. To evaluate such interactions, a comprehensive list of bacterial species associated with the sharpshooter cibarium and precibarium is needed. Here, a survey of microbiota associated with the GWSS anterior foregut was conducted. Ninety-six individual GWSS, 24 from each of 4 locations (Bakersfield, CA; Ojai, CA; Quincy, FL; and a laboratory colony), were characterized for bacteria in dissected sharpshooter cibaria and precibaria by amplification and sequencing of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene using Illumina MiSeq technology. An average of approximately 150,000 sequence reads were obtained per insect. The most common genus detected was Wolbachia; sequencing of the Wolbachia ftsZ gene placed this strain in supergroup B, one of two Wolbachia supergroups most commonly associated with arthropods. X. fastidiosa was detected in all 96 individuals examined. By multilocus sequence typing, both X. fastidiosa subspecies fastidiosa and subspecies sandyi were present in GWSS from California and the colony; only subspecies fastidiosa was detected in GWSS from Florida. In addition to Wolbachia and X. fastidiosa, 23 other bacterial genera were detected at or above an average incidence of 0.1%; these included plant-associated microbes (Methylobacterium, Sphingomonas, Agrobacterium, and Ralstonia) and soil- or water-associated microbes (Anoxybacillus, Novosphingobium, Caulobacter, and Luteimonas). Sequences belonging to species of the family Enterobacteriaceae also were detected but it was not possible to assign these to individual genera. Many of these species likely interact with X. fastidiosa in the cibarium and

  20. Binding of Neomycin-Class Aminoglycoside Antibiotics to Mutant Ribosomes with Alterations in the A Site of 16S rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Hobbie, Sven N.; Pfister, Peter; Bruell, Christian; Sander, Peter; François, Boris; Westhof, Eric; Böttger, Erik C.

    2006-01-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics that bind to the aminoacyl-tRNA site (A site) of the ribosome are composed of a common neamine core in which a glycopyranosyl ring is attached to position 4 of a 2-deoxystreptamine moiety. The core is further substituted by one (ribostamycin), two (neomycin and paromomycin), or three (lividomycin A) additional sugars attached to position 5 of the 2-deoxystreptamine. To study the role of rings III, IV, and V in aminoglycoside binding, we used isogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis ΔrrnB mutants carrying homogeneous populations of mutant ribosomes with alterations in the 16S rRNA A site. MICs were determined to investigate drug-ribosome interactions, and the results were compared with that of the previously published crystal structure of paromomycin bound to the ribosomal A site. Our analysis demonstrates that the stacking interaction between ring I and G1491 is largely sequence independent, that rings III and IV each increase the strength of drug binding to the ribosome, that ring IV of the 6′-NH3+ aminoglycosides compensates for loss of interactions between ring II and U1495 and between ring III and G1491, that the aminoglycosides rely on pseudo-base pairing between ring I and A1408 for binding independently of the number of sugar rings attached to the neamine core, that addition of ring V to the 6′-OH 4,5-aminoglycoside paromomycin does not alter the mode of binding, and that alteration of the U1406 · U1495 wobble base pair to the Watson-Crick interaction pair 1406C-1495G yields ribosomal drug susceptibilities to 4,5-aminoglycosides comparable to those seen with the wild-type A site. PMID:16569869

  1. Horizon-Specific Bacterial Community Composition of German Grassland Soils, as Revealed by Pyrosequencing-Based Analysis of 16S rRNA Genes ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Will, Christiane; Thürmer, Andrea; Wollherr, Antje; Nacke, Heiko; Herold, Nadine; Schrumpf, Marion; Gutknecht, Jessica; Wubet, Tesfaye; Buscot, François; Daniel, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    The diversity of bacteria in soil is enormous, and soil bacterial communities can vary greatly in structure. Here, we employed a pyrosequencing-based analysis of the V2-V3 16S rRNA gene region to characterize the overall and horizon-specific (A and B horizons) bacterial community compositions in nine grassland soils, which covered three different land use types. The entire data set comprised 752,838 sequences, 600,544 of which could be classified below the domain level. The average number of sequences per horizon was 41,824. The dominant taxonomic groups present in all samples and horizons were the Acidobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. Despite these overarching dominant taxa, the abundance, diversity, and composition of bacterial communities were horizon specific. In almost all cases, the estimated bacterial diversity (H′) was higher in the A horizons than in the corresponding B horizons. In addition, the H′ was positively correlated with the organic carbon content, the total nitrogen content, and the C-to-N ratio, which decreased with soil depth. It appeared that lower land use intensity results in higher bacterial diversity. The majority of sequences affiliated with the Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Fibrobacteres, Firmicutes, Spirochaetes, Verrucomicrobia, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria were derived from A horizons, whereas the majority of the sequences related to Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospira, TM7, and WS3 originated from B horizons. The distribution of some bacterial phylogenetic groups and subgroups in the different horizons correlated with soil properties such as organic carbon content, total nitrogen content, or microbial biomass. PMID:20729324

  2. Comparison of Fecal Microbiota of Mongolian and Thoroughbred Horses by High-throughput Sequencing of the V4 Region of the 16S rRNA Gene.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yiping; Li, Bei; Bai, Dongyi; Huang, Jinlong; Shiraigo, Wunierfu; Yang, Lihua; Zhao, Qinan; Ren, Xiujuan; Wu, Jing; Bao, Wuyundalai; Dugarjaviin, Manglai

    2016-09-01

    The hindgut of horses is an anaerobic fermentative chamber for a complex and dynamic microbial population, which plays a critical role in health and energy requirements. Research on the gut microbiota of Mongolian horses has not been reported until now as far as we know. Mongolian horse is a major local breed in China. We performed high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes V4 hypervariable regions from gut fecal material to characterize the gut microbiota of Mongolian horses and compare them to the microbiota in Thoroughbred horses. Fourteen Mongolian and 19 Thoroughbred horses were used in the study. A total of 593,678 sequence reads were obtained from 33 samples analyzed, which were found to belong to 16 phyla and 75 genera. The bacterial community compositions were similar for the two breeds. Firmicutes (56% in Mongolian horses and 53% in Thoroughbred horses) and Bacteroidetes (33% and 32% respectively) were the most abundant and predominant phyla followed by Spirochaete, Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria, and Fibrobacteres. Of these 16 phyla, five (Synergistetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, TM7, and Chloroflexi) were significantly different (p<0.05) between the two breeds. At the genus level, Treponema was the most abundant genus (43% in Mongolian horses vs 29% in Thoroughbred horses), followed by Ruminococcus, Roseburia, Pseudobutyrivibrio, and Anaeroplasma, which were detected in higher distribution proportion in Mongolian horses than in Thoroughbred horses. In contrast, Oscillibacter, Fibrobacter, Methanocorpusculum, and Succinivibrio levels were lower in Mongolian horses. Among 75 genera, 30 genera were significantly different (p<0.05) be