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1

A STUDY OF 17-7 PH STAINLESS STEEL. Period covered: January 1957 to December 1958  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of different heat-treatments on mechanical properties and ; microstructures of 17-7 PH stainless steel were studied. The best tensile and ; stress-rupture properties at 600 and 800 deg F were obtained with the TH 950 ; treatment. Long exposure at 800 deg F, either with or without stress, produced ; embrittlement. It was found that original properties may

N. L. Carwile; S. J. Rosenberg

1959-01-01

2

EFFECT OF PRIOR CREEP ON SHORT-TIME MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF 17-7PH STAINLESS STEEL (RH 950 CONDITION COMPARED TO TH 1050 CONDITION). Period Covered: January 1, 1958 to March 31, 1959  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of creep to 2% in 100 hours at temperatures from 600 to 900 ; deg F was determined on the tension, compression, and tension-impact properties ; of 17-7 PH stainless steel (RH 950 Cond.) at room temperature or the exposure ; temperature. A substantial loss in ductility was observed in room temperature ; tension tests. Material exposed to

J. V. Gluck; J. W. Freeman

1959-01-01

3

A scanning tunneling microscopy study of PH3 adsorption on Si(1 1 1)-7 7 surfaces, P-segregation and thermal desorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PH3 adsorption on Si(1 1 1)-7 7 was studied after various exposures between 0.3 and 60 L at room temperature by means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). PH3-, PH2-, H-reacted, and unreacted adatoms can be identified by analyzing empty-state STM images at different sample biases. PHx-reacted rest-atoms can be observed in empty-state STM images if neighboring adatoms are hydrogen terminated. Most of the PH3 adsorbs dissociatively on the surface, generating H- and PH2-adsorbed rest-atom and adatom sites. Dangling-bonds at rest-atom sites are more reactive than adatom sites and the faulted half of the 7 7 unit cell is more reactive than the unfaulted half. Center adatoms are overwhelmingly preferred over corner adatoms for PH2 adsorption. The saturation P coverage is 0.18 ML. Annealing of PH3-reacted 7 7 surfaces at 900 K generates disordered, partially P-covered surfaces, but dosing PH3 at 900 K forms P/Si(1 1 1)-63 surfaces. Si deposition at 510 K leaves disordered clusters on the surface, which cannot be reordered by annealing up to 800 K. However, annealing above 900 K recreates P/Si(1 1 1)-63 surfaces. Surface morphologies formed by sequential rapid thermal annealing are also presented.

Ji, Jeong-Young; Shen, T.-C.

2007-04-01

4

Metallurgical Evaluation of 17-4 PH Stainless Steel Castings,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A metallurgical evaluation was conducted to determine if selected castings of 17-4 PH stainless steel used in head caps on missile weapon systems had been properly heat treated as required by SAE specification AMS-5355D. Optical metallographic analysis an...

G. E. Hicho J. H. Smith

1989-01-01

5

SEMIAUSTENITIC PRECIPITATION-HARDENABLE STAINLESS STEELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary is given of the classification, metallurgy, treatment, and ; properties of the semiaustenitic precipitatson-hardenable stainless steels: 17-7 ; PH, AM 350, AM 355, PH 15-7 Mo, AM 357, and AM 359. (auth);

Ludwigson

1961-01-01

6

Hot deformation of 15-5 PH stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hot deformation behavior of 15-5 PH stainless steel has been studied using hot compression tests over the temperature range of 9001150C and strain rates varying between 0.001 and 0.5s?1. The results showed that dynamic recrystallization is the main softening mechanism when the alloy deformed at imposed temperature and strain rate region. Strain rate sensitivity of the material was evaluated

M. Aghaie-Khafri; F. Adhami

2010-01-01

7

High temperature tensile behavior of a PH stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

High temperature tensile deformation of 15-5 PH stainless steel in peak age and overaged conditions has been studied over the temperature range of 300 to 600C and different strain rates. Dynamic recrystallization was the main softening mechanism when the alloy deformed at imposed temperature and strain rate region. The apparent activation energy was calculated as 284.8 and 323.1kJ\\/mol for peak

M. Aghaie-Khafri; A. Zargaran

2010-01-01

8

Microstructure and wear behavior of stellite 6 cladding on 17-4 PH stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the investigation of the microstructure and wear behavior of the stellite 6 cladding on precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel (17-4PH) using gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) method. 17-4 PH stainless steel is widely used in oil and gas industries. Optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were employed to study the microstructure

A. Gholipour; M. Shamanian; F. Ashrafizadeh

2011-01-01

9

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF STAINLESS-STEEL SANDWICHES AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental results are presented from crippling tests of specimens in ; the temperature range from 80 to 1,200 deg F. The specimens included resistance-; welded 177 PH stainless-steel sandwiches with single-corrugated cores, type 301 ; stainless-steel sandwiches with doublecorrugated cores, and brazed 17-7 PH ; stainless-steel sandwiches with honeycomb cores. The experimental strengths are ; compared with predicted buckling and

E. E. Mathauser; R. A. Pride

1959-01-01

10

OBSERVATIONS ON CORROSION RESISTANCE OF HIGH STRENGTH STAINLESS STEELS FOR AIRCRAFT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steels of the precipitation hardening type are used ; extensively in airframe components. In this paper, compositions and properties ; of several of these alloys are described. The corrosion performances of the ; Armco 17-4 PH and 17-7 PH precipitation hardening alloys are compared with these ; of other hardenable stainless steels. The results of accelerated corrosion tests ;

J. Halbig; O. B. Ellis

1958-01-01

11

Hydrogen-Stress Cracking of 17-4PH Stainless.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The susceptibility of 17-4PH to hydrogen-stress cracking was found to increase as the hardness of the steel increased from 42 to 47 R sub c. Conditions of hydrogen-stress cracking were created by attaching a piece of aluminum (7075-T6) to a stress corrosi...

L. Raymond E. G. Kendall

1967-01-01

12

Failure analysis of holding yokes made of investment cast 17-4 PH stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holding yokes made of investment cast 17-4PH stainless steel were too soft (below 20HRC). Optical microscopy of the parts showed that there is a high fraction of retained austenite after oil quench due to high amount of molybdenum found in parts as an impurity. Subzero treatment in liquid nitrogen after solution heat treating was used to convert retained austenite to

Ahmad Reza Etemadi; Peiman Behjati; Armin Emami; Sayyed Majd-al-Din Motiei; Saeed Mirsaeedi

2011-01-01

13

Sintering densification and microstructural evolution of injection molding grade 17-4 PH stainless steel powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Densification behavior is investigated by means of dilatometry for powder-injection-molded (PIM) and die-compacted 17-4 PH\\u000a stainless steel during sintering in pure H2 and H2 + N2. The corresponding microstructural evolution is examined by quenching in a vertical furnace at various stages of sintering.\\u000a The results show that in comparison with pure H2, the H2 + N2 atmosphere retards densification and

Yunxin Wu; Debby Blaine; Connie Schlaefer; Brian Marx; Randall M. German

2002-01-01

14

Processing and properties of highly porous 17-4 PH stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly porous 17-4 PH stainless steel having porosities in the range of 3982% with an average pore size of around 700?m\\u000a was successfully fabricated using space holder technique in powder metallurgy. Irregular carbamide particles were used as\\u000a a space holder material. The final porosity was directly related to the added fraction of carbamide. The specimens were sintered\\u000a at either 1300C

I. Mutlu; E. Oktay

2011-01-01

15

Microstructural evolution in a 17-4 PH stainless steel after aging at 400 C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructure of 17-4 PH stainless steel at various stages of heat treatment, i.e., after solution heat treatment, tempering at 580 C, and long-term aging at 400 C, have been studied by atom probe field\\u000a ion microscopy (APFIM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The solution-treated specimen consists largely of martensite\\u000a with a small fraction of ?-ferrite. No precipitates are present

M. Murayama; K. Hono; Y. Katayama

1999-01-01

16

Effects of ion implantation on friction and wear of stainless steels. [15-5PH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friction and wear of 304, 15-5 PH and 440C stainless steels and of pure Fe are shown to be reduced by ion implantation of Ti and C. Mechanically polished samples were ion implanted to fluences of 2 x 10¹⁵ Ti\\/mm² (90 to 180 keV) and 2 x 10¹⁵ C\\/mm² (30 keV); the implantation profiles of the two elements extended to

L. E. Pope; F. G. Yost; D. M. Follstaedt; J. A. Knapp; S. T. Picraux

1982-01-01

17

The Structure and Properties of Diffusion Assisted Bonded Joints in 17-4 Ph, Type 347, 15-5 Ph and Nitronic 40 Stainless Steels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Diffusion assisted bonds are formed in 17-4 PH, 15-5 PH, type 347 and Nitronic 40 stainless steels using electrodeposited copper as the bonding agent. The bonds are analyzed by conventional metallographic, electron microprobe analysis, and scanning electr...

D. A. Wigley

1981-01-01

18

Hot-cracking mechanism in CO laser beam welds of dissimilar metals involving PH martensitic stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autogenous CO laser beam welds were made between Alloy HP 9-4-20 and both 15-5 PH and PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel. Small scale circular-patch test specimens revealed that the combination involving the Nb-bearing alloy, 15-5 PH, was far more crack susceptible than the combination involving the Nb-free alloy, PH 13-8 Mo. Analytical electron microscopy was used to identify an NbC\\/austenite

Cieslak

1987-01-01

19

PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF NINE COMMERCIAL PRECIPITATION HARDENABLE STAINLESS STEELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABS>The physical and mechanical properties of commercial precipitation-; hardenable stainless steels are presented. The steels covered include the ; martensitic types (Stainless W and 17⁻⁴ PH), the semiaustenitic types (17-7 ; PH, PH 15-7 Mo, AM 350, and AM 355), and the austenitic types (A-286, 17-10 P, ; and HNM). Roomand elevated-temperature tensile and compressive properties, ; stress-rupture and creep

D. A. Roberts; D. B. Roach; A. M. Hall

1959-01-01

20

Hydrogen embrittlement behavior of palladium modified PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel as a function of age hardening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrogen embrittlement (HE) susceptibility of precipitation age hardened stainless steels (17-4 PH, PH 15-5, PH 13-8 Mo, and others) is well established in the literature. Susceptibility is a strong function of strength and hence lower aging temperatures produce alloys which are more prone to HE. Recently it was shown that uniformly distributed PdAl precipitates improve the HE resistance of

J. R. Scully; M. J. Cieslak; J. A. Van Den Avyle

1994-01-01

21

The characterization of small fatigue crack growth in PH13-8 molybdenum stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rotor hubs of Navy CH-46 helicopters have been made of 4340 steel and had extensive corrosion fatigue problems. Since these helicopters have to be used until the year 2020, the Navy decided to replace 4340 steel with PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel. Because the rotors are exposed to high frequency high cycle fatigue, small fatigue cracks are important in estimating remaining lifetime of the components. The objective of this study was to characterize the small crack growth behavior in the PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel under various loading conditions. Constant amplitude loading was conducted at the stress ratios, R, 0.1 and 0.4. The crack growth rate was affected by the microstructures in early stage of the growth, mainly by the size of the martensite packets and oscillated up to the crack length of 200 mum. It was found that the crack growth rate was little influenced by the stress amplitudes and stress ratios. In addition, the small crack growth rate was found to be similar to the long crack growth rate at R = 0.1 and 0.4. Overload tests and simple block loading were performed to understand load interaction effects on the small crack growth rate. The overload tests indicated that the crack growth rate was little affected by the overload. This might result from the fact that the overload ratio used in this study was low (<1.3). However, the results of the simple block loading showed overall crack growth retardation. The compressive residual stress present at the notch root of the specimen tested at R = 0.1 may lower the effective stress ratio, Reff, from 0.1 to negative R, and may result in the crack growth retardation. The small crack growth behavior was also examined under the saltwater. There was no difference in the crack growth rate between under air and under saltwater. In addition, the crack growth rate of the specimens tested under the saltwater was not affected by the test frequencies of 10, 1 and 0.1 Hz. It was shown that under the saltwater the PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel had an excellent corrosion fatigue resistance.

Jin, Ohchang

22

Post-irradiation characterization of PH13-8Mo martensitic stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The irradiation response of PH13-8Mo stainless steel was measured up to 2.5 dpa at 200 and 300 C irradiation temperatures. The PH13-8Mo, a martensitic precipitation-hardened steel, was produced by Hot Isostatic Pressing at 1030 C. The fatigue tests (high cycle fatigue and fatigue crack propagation) showed a test temperature dependency but no irradiation effects. Tensile tests showed irradiation hardening (yield stress increase) of approximately 37% for 200 C irradiated material tested at 60 C and approximately 32% for 300 C irradiated material tested at 60 C. This contradicts the shift in reference temperature (T0) measured in toughness tests (Master Curve approach), where the ?T0 for 300 C irradiated is approximately 170 C and the ?T0 for the 200 C irradiated is approximately 160 C. This means that the irradiation hardening of PH13-8Mo steel is not suitable to predict the shift in the reference temperature for the Master Curve approach.

Jong, M.; Schmalz, F.; Rensman, J. W.; Luzginova, N. V.; Wouters, O.; Hegeman, J. B. J.; van der Laan, J. G.

2011-10-01

23

Characterization of 17-4PH stainless steel powders produced by supersonic gas atomization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

17-4PH stainless steel powders were prepared using a supersonic nozzle in a close-coupled gas atomization system. The characteristics of powder particles were carried out by means of a laser particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The results show that the mass median particle diameter is about 19.15 ?m. Three main types of surface microstructures are observed in the powders: well-developed dendrite, cellular, and cellular dendrite structure. The XRD measurements show that, as the particle size decreases, the amount of fcc phase gradually decreases and that of bcc phase increases. The cooling rate is inversely related to the particle size, i.e., it decreases with an increase in particle size.

Zhao, Xin-Ming; Xu, Jun; Zhu, Xue-Xin; Zhang, Shao-Ming; Zhao, Wen-Dong; Yuan, Guo-Liang

2012-01-01

24

Failure analysis of a set of stainless steel disc springs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the failure of a set of disc springs, broken in service in a seawater environment and at high temperature. These components were manufactured using a 17-7 PH, UNS S17700 precipitation hardening stainless steel. The morphology of the cracks was intergranular and it was attributed to hydrogen embrittlement due to the hydrogen that entered into the steel during

G. Atxaga; A. Pelayo; A. M. Irisarri

2006-01-01

25

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND pH ON THE CORROSION RESISTANCE OF PASSIVATED NITINOL AND STAINLESS STEEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of this study were to assess the influence of temperature and pH on the corrosion resistance of Nitinol. Electropolished NiTi and passivated 316L stainless steel wires were tested in Hank's physiological solution at temperatures ranging from 10C to 80C and pH varying from 1 to 9. Results show that the ability of Nitinol to repassivate is reduced by

Christine Trpanier; Alan R. Pelton

26

A Fracture Mechanics and Fractographic Study of Fatigue Crack Propagation Resistance in 17-4 PH Stainless Steels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A determination of fatigue-crack propagation resistance in heat-treated samples of 17-4 PH stainless steel has been made, together with correlative microscopic observations via electron fractography. Two rolled plates of 1/2-in. thickness were investigate...

T. W. Crooker D. F. Hasson G. R. Yoder

1975-01-01

27

On the correlation between fracture toughness and precipitation hardening heat treatments in 15-5PH Stainless Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the fracture toughness, Kq, and the yield strength of precipitation heat-treated Stainless Steel 15-5 PH was determined. Thirty six cylindrical tensile bars and eighteen compact tension C(T) specimens were tested. It was found that the high tolerance for solution heat treatment decreases the Kq value significantly, while the yield strength remains virtually unaltered.

M. Abdelshehid; K. Mahmodieh; K. Mori; L. Chen; P. Stoyanov; D. Davlantes; J. Foyos; J. Ogren; R CLARKJR; O. S. Es-Said

2007-01-01

28

Effect of implantation species on the tribological response of stainless steel surfaces. [SS15-5PH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The friction and wear properties of 304 and 15-5 PH stainless steels which were ion implanted with P and with P plus C have been examined and are compared with the properties of the same steels implanted with N and with Ti plus C. While benefits are obtained with the P and the P plus C implantation treatments, the N

L. E. Pope; S. T. Picraux; D. M. Follstaedt; J. A. Knapp; F. G. Yost

1984-01-01

29

Alloy Shrinkage Factors for the Investment Casting of 17-4PH Stainless Steel Parts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, alloy shrinkage factors were obtained for the investment casting of 17-4PH stainless steel parts. For the investment casting process, unfilled wax and fused silica with a zircon prime coat were used for patterns and shell molds, respectively. The dimensions of the die tooling, wax pattern, and casting were measured using a coordinate measurement machine (CMM). For all the properties, the experimental data available in the literature did not cover the entire temperature range necessary for process simulation. A comparison between the predicted material property data and measured property data is made. It was found that most material properties were accurately predicted over most of the temperature range of the process. Several assumptions were made, in order to obtain a complete set of mechanical property data at high temperatures. Thermal expansion measurements for the 17-4PH alloy were conducted during heating and cooling. As a function of temperature, the thermal expansion for both the alloy and shell mold materials showed a different evolution on heating and cooling. Thus, one generic simulation was performed with thermal expansion obtained on heating, and another one was performed with thermal expansion obtained on cooling. The alloy dimensions were obtained from the numerical simulation results of the solidification, heat transfer, and deformation phenomena. As compared with experimental results, the numerical simulation results for the shrinkage factors were slightly overpredicted.

Sabau, Adrian S.; Porter, Wallace D.

2008-04-01

30

Alloy Shrinkage factors for the investment casting of 17-4PH stainless steel parts  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the alloy shrinkage factors were obtained for the investment casting of 17-4PH stainless steel parts. For the investment casting process, unfilled wax and fused silica with a zircon prime coat were used for patterns and shell molds, respectively. Dimensions of the die tooling, wax pattern, and casting were measured using a Coordinate Measurement Machine. For all the properties, the experimental data available in the literature did not cover the entire temperature range necessary for process simulation. A comparison between the predicted material property data measured property data is made. It was found that most material properties were accurately predicted over the most of the temperature range of the process. Several assumptions were made in order to obtain a complete set of mechanical property data at high temperatures. Thermal expansion measurements for the 17-4PH alloy were conducted at heating and cooling. As a function of temperature, the thermal expansion for both the alloy and shell mold materials showed different evolution at heating and cooling. Thus, one generic simulation were performed with thermal expansion obtained at heating and another one with thermal expansion obtained at cooling. The alloy dimensions were obtained from numerical simulation results of solidification, heat transfer, and deformation phenomena. As compared with experimental results, the numerical simulation results for the shrinkage factors were slightly over-predicted.

Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL

2008-01-01

31

Growth of small fatigue cracks in PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

The growth of small fatigue cracks in PH 13-8 Mo (H1050) stainless steel under constant amplitude loading at different mean stresses (R = 0.1 and {minus}1) under generally high cycle fatigue conditions was investigated. Small cracks were allowed to initiate naturally at the root of a single edge notch specimen and were monitored using a surface replicating technique. It was found that the initiation and growth of surface cracks up to 100 {micro}m encompassed 70 to 90 pct of the total fatigue life at stress amplitudes just above the fatigue limit. Cracks of length less than 100 {micro}m were subject to strong influences of the microstructure and exhibited stage 1 (shear-dominated) growth, which was manifested in oscillatory crack growth rates. The oscillations diminished as the crack transitioned to stage 2 growth. The higher stress ratio (R = 0.1) resulted in a more rapid transition from stage 1 to stage 2 growth in comparison to R = {minus}1. After transitioning to stage 2, the crack growth could be well characterized by conventional long crack tools even when the crack was still physically small. The small crack growth behavior is shown to be similar to that of a quenched and tempered AISI 4340 steel having a comparable strength.

Patel, A.M.; Neu, R.W.; Pape, J.A. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering

1999-05-01

32

Simulation of the sintering densification and shrinkage behavior of powder-injection-molded 17-4 PH stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study simulates the sintering behavior of powder-injection-molded 17-4 PH stainless steel to predict the geometry of\\u000a the sintered components. Sintering is considered as the viscous deformation process of a porous body under the influence of\\u000a sintering stress. Consequently, modified constitutive equations applicable to linear viscous, compressible material, based\\u000a on a continuum-mechanics approach, were utilized in simulating the sintering kinetics,

Young-Sam Kwon; Yunxin Wu; Pavan Suri; Randall M. German

2004-01-01

33

Influence of high temperature exposure on the mechanical behavior and microstructure of 17-4 PH stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical behavior and microstructural evolution of 17-4 PH stainless steels in three conditions, i.e. unaged (Condition A), peak-aged (H900) and overaged (H1150), exposed at temperatures ranging from 200 to 700C were investigated. The high-temperature yield strength of each condition decreased with an increase in temperature from 200 to 400C except for Condition A at 400C with a longer hold

Jui-Hung Wu; Chih-Kuang Lin

2003-01-01

34

Heat treatment of investment cast PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel: Part II. Isothermal aging kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hardening response of investment cast PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel has been evaluated by hardness measurements following\\u000a aging in the temperature range normally specified for this alloy (510 ?C to 593 ?C). A new relationship between fraction transformed\\u000a and hardness was developed, and analysis of the data in terms of the kinetics of precipitation, in a manner similar to

C. V. Robino; M. J. Cieslak; P. W. Hochanadel; G. R. Edwards

1994-01-01

35

The influence of palladium on the hydrogen-assisted cracking resistance of PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare the hydrogen-assisted cracking resistance of wrought PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel alloyed with 0.4 to 1.0 wt pct\\u000a palladium to the conventional alloy when aged to yield strengths of 1170 to 1250 MPa. Intergranular hydrogen cracking is suppressed\\u000a with Pd in both static load and constant extension rate tests conducted with electrochemical hydrogen charging. These results\\u000a are analyzed

J. R. Scully; J. A. Van Den Avyle; M. J. Cieslak; A. D. Romig; C. R. Hills

1991-01-01

36

Carbide precipitates in solution-quenched PH13-8 Mo stainless steel: A small-angle neutron scattering investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) investigation on solution-quenched PH13-8 Mo stainless steel.\\u000a From the nature of the variation of the functionality of the profiles for varying specimen thickness and also from the transmission\\u000a electron microscopy (TEM), it has been established that the small-angle scattering signal predominantly originates from the\\u000a block-like metallic carbide precipitates in the specimen.

D. Sen; A. K. Patra; S. Mazumder; J. Mittra; G. K. Dey; P. K. De

2004-01-01

37

The effect of ageing upon the microstructure and mechanical properties of type 15-5 PH stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microstructures developed in commercial 15-5 PH precipitation-hardened stainless steel after different heat treatments have been studied. In the as received condition, two types of carbides, NbC and M7C3, were present. Age hardening involves initial formation of fine precipitates rich in copper. Conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM) studies have revealed the formation of a 9R

H. R. Habibi Bajguirani

2002-01-01

38

7 CFR 17.7 - Notice of sale procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notice of sale procedures. 17.7 Section 17.7...Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SALES OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES MADE AVAILABLE...1954, AS AMENDED § 17.7 Notice of sale procedures. (a) Telephonic...

2012-01-01

39

7 CFR 17.7 - Notice of sale procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notice of sale procedures. 17.7 Section 17.7...Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SALES OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES MADE AVAILABLE...1954, AS AMENDED § 17.7 Notice of sale procedures. (a) Telephonic...

2013-01-01

40

25 CFR 17.7 - Limiting number of witnesses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Limiting number of witnesses. 17.7 Section 17.7 Indians...INDIANS § 17.7 Limiting number of witnesses. When the evidence seems clear...in his discretion, limit the number of witnesses to be examined formally upon any...

2011-04-01

41

Surface modification of 17-4PH stainless steel by DC plasma nitriding and titanium nitride film duplex treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

17-4PH stainless steel was modified by direct current (DC) plasma nitriding and titanium nitride film duplex treatment in this study. The microstructure, wear resistance and corrosion resistance were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), pin-on-disk tribological test and polarization experiment. The results revealed that the DC plasma nitriding pretreatment was in favor of improving properties of titanium nitride film. The corrosion resistance and wear resistance of duplex treatment specimen was more superior to that of only coated titanium nitride film.

Qi, F.; Leng, Y. X.; Huang, N.; Bai, B.; Zhang, P. Ch.

2007-04-01

42

TENSILE PROPERTIES OF FIVE LOW-ALLOY AND STAINLESS STEELS UNDER HIGH HEATING-RATE AND CONSTANT-TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-heating-rate results were obtained for three lowalloy steels: 4340 ; (400 deg F temper), 4130 (800 deg F temper), and 4130 (1050 deg F temper) and two ; stainless steels: 17-7 PH (TH 1050) and 410 (700 deg F temper). Stress levels ; ranging from 10 to 125 ksi and heating rates varying from 40 to 2000 deg F\\/sec ;

W. W. Gerberich; H. E. Martens; R. A. Boundy

1962-01-01

43

TUNGSTEN-ARC WELDING OF 0.002IN. AND 0.005IN. STAINLESS STEEL AND TITANIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cover of The Welding Journal is 0.005 in. thick. That is just right ; for a magazine cover but pretty slim from the staadpoint of welding the same ; thickness of 17--7 PH stainless-steel sheet. To complicate matters, this weld ; must be made without the use of a filler rod because of aerodynamic requirements. ; In addition, the

J. C. Collins; S. P. Jenkins

1958-01-01

44

Hydrogen embrittlement of stainless steels by lithium hydride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests were made on 304L and 17-7 PH stainless steels in contact with LiH powder. Reduction in area relative to ductility in\\u000a air decreased for both alloys. It was essential that the LiH be baked in contact with the alloys for the ductility loss to\\u000a be observed; thermodynamic and kinetic evidence indicated that the LiH was reacting with surface oxides

Anthony W. Thompson

1973-01-01

45

Hydrogen embrittlement of stainless steels by lithium hydride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests were made on 304L and 17-7 PH stainless steels in contact with LiH powder. Reduction in area relative to ductility in air decreased for both alloys. It was essential that the LiH be baked in contact with the alloys for the ductility loss to be observed; thermodynamic and kinetic evidence indicated that the LiH was reacting with surface oxides

Anthony W. Thompson

1973-01-01

46

The spinodal decomposition in 17-4PH stainless steel subjected to long-term aging at 350 deg. C  

SciTech Connect

The influence of aging time on the microstructure evolution of 17-4 PH martensitic stainless steel was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results showed that the martensite decomposed by a spinodal decomposition mechanism after the alloy was subjected to long-term aging at 350 deg. C. The fine scale spinodal decomposition of {alpha}-ferrite brought about a Cr-enriched bright stripe and a Fe-enriched dark stripe, i.e., {alpha}' and {alpha} phases, separately, which were perpendicular to the grain boundary. The spinodal decomposition started at the grain boundary. Then with prolonged aging time, the decomposition microstructure expanded from the grain boundary to interior. The wavelength of the spinodally decomposed microstructure changed little with extended aging time.

Wang Jun [School of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China) and National Key Laboratory for Nuclear Fuel and Materials, Nuclear Power Institute of China, P.O. Box 436, Chengdu, 610041 (China)], E-mail: srwangjun@163.com; Zou Hong; Li Cong; Qiu Shaoyu [National Key Laboratory for Nuclear Fuel and Materials, Nuclear Power Institute of China, P.O. Box 436, Chengdu, 610041 (China); Shen Baoluo [School of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China)

2008-05-15

47

Carbide precipitates in solution-quenched PH13-8 Mo stainless steel: A small-angle neutron scattering investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) investigation on solution-quenched PH13-8 Mo stainless steel. From the nature of the variation of the functionality of the profiles for varying specimen thickness and also from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), it has been established that the small-angle scattering signal predominantly originates from the block-like metallic carbide precipitates in the specimen. The contribution due to double Bragg reflection is not significant in the present case. The single scattering profile has been extracted from the experimental profiles corresponding to different values of specimen thickness. In order to avoid complexity and non-uniqueness of the multi-parameter minimization for randomly oriented polydisperse block-like precipitate model, the data have been analyzed assuming randomly oriented polydisperse cylindrical particle model with a locked aspect ratio.

Sen, D.; Patra, A. K.; Mazumder, S.; Mittra, J.; Dey, G. K.; de, P. K.

2004-08-01

48

Heat treatment of investment cast PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel: Part II. Isothermal aging kinetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hardening response of investment cast PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel has been evaluated by hardness measurements following aging in the temperature range normally specified for this alloy (510 C to 593 C). A new relationship between fraction transformed and hardness was developed, and analysis of the data in terms of the kinetics of precipitation, in a manner similar to that frequently applied to other precipitation-hardenable martensitic steels, yielded low time exponents and a low value for the apparent activation energy. The values of the time exponents were 0.49, 0.37, 0.56, and 0.53 at 510 C, 538 C, 566 C, and 593 C, respectively, and that for the apparent activation energy was 139 kJ/mole. As has been proposed for other maraging type steels, these estimates suggest that ?-NiAl precipitates along or near dislocations and that growth of the precipitates is dominated by dislocation pipe diffusion. However, these predictions were neither supported nor refuted by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) because of difficulties in imaging the ?-NiAl precipitates at the aging times and temperatures used. Further, analysis of the data using the formalism of Wert and Zener for the growth of precipitates with interfering diffusion fields indicated that the estimates of fraction transformed from hardness data are not fully appropriate for maraging type steels. Consideration of the nature of the Avrami analysis and the electron microscopy results suggests that other phenomena, including dislocation recovery and reversion of martensite to austenite, occur at rates sufficient to convolute the Avrami analysis. It is further suggested that these results cast doubt on the fundamental implications of previous analyses of precipitation kinetics in age-hardening martensitic steels. Although the Avrami analysis was found not to provide a tenable description of the precipitation kinetics, it does provide a reasonable methodology for portrayal of the hardening response of PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel.

Robino, C. V.; Cieslak, M. J.; Hochanadel, P. W.; Edwards, G. R.

1994-04-01

49

A pH Sensor Based on a Stainless Steel Electrode Electrodeposited with Iridium Oxide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A simple procedure to make an iridium oxide (IrO[subscript 2]) electrodeposited pH sensor, that can be used in a chemical, biomedical, or materials laboratory, is presented here. Some exercises, based on this sensor, that can be used to teach important concepts in the field of biomedical, biochemical, tissue, or materials engineering, are also

Martinez, C. C. M.; Madrid, R. E.; Felice, C. J.

2009-01-01

50

A pH Sensor Based on a Stainless Steel Electrode Electrodeposited with Iridium Oxide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple procedure to make an iridium oxide (IrO[subscript 2]) electrodeposited pH sensor, that can be used in a chemical, biomedical, or materials laboratory, is presented here. Some exercises, based on this sensor, that can be used to teach important concepts in the field of biomedical, biochemical, tissue, or materials engineering, are also

Martinez, C. C. M.; Madrid, R. E.; Felice, C. J.

2009-01-01

51

Solution quenched structure of wrought PH 138 Mo stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solution-quenched structure of wrought PH13-8Mo steel was investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Retained austenite and primary carbide were observed in the TEM. SANS measurements indicated microstructural inhomogeneities, comprising carbides and atom-clusters of elements having small scattering length, such as, Al, Si, S and P.

J. Mittra; G. K. Dey; D. Sen; A. K. Patra; S. Mazumder; P. K. De

2004-01-01

52

Numerical simulation of the solidification microstructure of a 17-4PH stainless steel investment casting and its experimental verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to develop a technique of numerically simulating the microstructure of 17-4PH (precipitation hardening) stainless steel during investment casting. A cellular automation (CA) algorithm was adopted to simulate the nucleation and grain growth. First a calibration casting was made, and then by comparing the microstructures of the calibration casting with those simulated using different kinetic growth coefficients (a2, a3) in CA, the most appropriate set of values for a2 and a3 would be obtained. Then, this set of values was applied to the microstructure simulation of a separate casting, where the casting was actually made. Through this approach, this study has arrived at a set of growth kinetic coefficients from the calibration casting: a2 is 2.9 10-5, a3 is 1.49 10-7, which is then used to predict the microstructure of the other test casting. Consequently, a good correlation has been found between the microstructure of actual 17-4PH casting and the simulation result.

Li, You Yun; Tsai, DeChang; Hwang, Weng Sing

2008-06-01

53

Microstructural evolution in a PH13-8 stainless steel after ageing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precipitation process in a wrought PH13-8 steel during ageing was investigated using a position sensitive atom probe. The precipitates formed are enriched in Ni and Al, and depleted of Fe and Cr, yet the composition is far from the stoichiometric NiAl phase. They may take on different shapes at different temperatures. The hardening effects observed during early stages of

Z. Guo; W. Sha; D. Vaumousse

2003-01-01

54

Mechanism of austenitic transformation in the martensitic stainless steel of type PH 15-5  

Microsoft Academic Search

By dilatometric analysis and TEM experiments, the martensite (M)+austenite (y) transformation and the formation of the precipitates in PH 15-5 alloy were studied between 20 and 1050C, using heating rate (Rh) , and cooling rate &) = 300OC.h-1. For this heating rate the M+ y transformation develops in two steps. Detailed analysis of the diffusion processes controlling the two stages

H. R. HABIBI BAJGUIRANI

1994-01-01

55

The influence of palladium on the hydrogen-assisted cracking resistance of PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare the hydrogen-assisted cracking resistance of wrought PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel alloyed with 0.4 to 1.0 wt pct palladium to the conventional alloy when aged to yield strengths of 1170 to 1250 MPa. Intergranular hydrogen cracking is suppressed with Pd in both static load and constant extension rate tests conducted with electrochemical hydrogen charging. These results are analyzed to elucidate the role of Pd in suppressing intergranular cracking. Palladium is found both in substitutional solid solution in the martensitic phase and also in the form of randomly distributed PdAl precipitates in all Pd-modified alloys. Interfacial segregation of Pd to grain boundaries and lath boundaries is not observed at any levels above a detection limit of approximately 0.5 monolayers. Hydrogen permeation analyses indicate that hydrogen ingress is not inhibited by Pd but that apparent diffusion coefficients are lowered relative to the conventional alloy. Lower diffusion coefficients are consistent with the creation of a strong but reversible hydrogen trap, identified as the uniformly distributed PdAl phase. We hypothesize that PdAl trap sites force a redistribution of trapped hydrogen, which lowers the amount of interfacially segregated hydrogen at prior austenite grain boundaries for the electrochemical conditions applied. These assertions are supported by a simplistic trapping model for PH 13-8 Mo which shows that both the hydrogen trap binding energy and the trap density for the PdAl trapping site are greater than the hydrogen trap binding energy and density for prior austenite grain boundaries.

Scully, J. R.; van den Avyle, J. A.; Cieslak, M. J.; Romig, A. D.; Hills, C. R.

1991-10-01

56

Heat treatment of investment cast PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel: Part I. Mechanical properties and microstructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructure of investment cast PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel heat-treated to various conditions was studied using light and electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and Mssbauer spectroscopy. The mechanical properties were investigated by using uniaxial tensile testing, hardness testing, and Charpy impact testing. The ?-NiAl strengthening precipitates, though detectable by electron diffraction, were difficult to resolve by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in specimens aged at low temperatures (566 C and below). A high dislocation density was observed in the lath martensitic structure. The higher strength and lower ductility observed at low aging temperatures was attributed to both the high dislocation density and the precipitation of ?-NiAl. When samples were aged at high temperatures (> 566 C), a lower dislocation density and a reverted austenite fraction on the order of 15 pct were observed. Spherical ?-NiAl precipitates were observed in the overaged condition. The decrease in strength and corresponding increase in ductility observed in samples aged at temperatures above 566 C were attributed to the reverted austenite and recovery. Mechanical properties were improved when the homogenizing temperature and time were increased. Electron probe microanalysis quantified the increased homogeneity realized by increasing homogenizing temperature and time. Elimination of the refrigeration step, which normally follows the solution treatment, did not degrade the mechanical properties. Mssbauer spectroscopy showed only minor decreases in the fraction of retained austenite when refrigeration followed the solution treatment.

Hochanadel, P. W.; Edwards, G. R.; Robino, C. V.; Cieslak, M. J.

1994-04-01

57

Constituted oxides/nitrides on nitriding 304, 430 and 17-4 PH stainless steel in salt baths over the temperature range 723 to 923 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progressively developed oxides and nitrides that form on nitriding 304, 430 and 17-4 PH stainless steel are analysed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) in this study. The experimental results show that the Cr contents and matrix structures (ferrite, austenite and martensite) play an important role in forming FeCr2O4, Cr2O3 and Fe2O3 oxides as well as nitrides. After a short immersion time, oxides of Cr2O3 and FeCr2O4 form in nitride films on 304 stainless steel samples. Fe2O3 oxide will subsequently form following an increasing immersion time. For the 430 stainless steel, Cr2O3 predominately forms after a short dipping time which hinders the growth of the nitride layer. As a result, this sample had the thinnest nitride film of the three for a given immersion time. After the formation of oxides, both CrN and Cr2N were detected near the surface of the nitride films of three samples while Cr2N phases formed in the deeper zone. The greatest amount of Fe2O3 oxide among the three samples was obtained on the nitriding 17-4 PH stainless steel which also had a high intensity count of N 1s.

Shih, Teng-Shih; Huang, Yung-Sen; Chen, Chi-Fan

2011-10-01

58

Effects of residual carbon content on sintering shrinkage, microstructure and mechanical properties of injection molded 17-4 PH stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon contamination from the thermoplastic binder is an inherent problem with the metal powder injection molding process. Residual carbon in the compacts after debinding has a strong impact on the sintering process, microstructure, and mechanical properties. In this study, injection molded 17-4 PH stainless steel was debound to two levels of residual carbon, 0.203 0.014 wt% and 0.113

Yunxin Wu; R. M. German; D. Blaine; B. Marx; C. Schlaefer

2002-01-01

59

Constituted oxides\\/nitrides on nitriding 304, 430 and 17-4 PH stainless steel in salt baths over the temperature range 723 to 923 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progressively developed oxides and nitrides that form on nitriding 304, 430 and 17-4 PH stainless steel are analysed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) in this study. The experimental results show that the Cr contents and matrix structures (ferrite, austenite and martensite) play an important role in forming FeCr2O4, Cr2O3 and Fe2O3 oxides as well as

Teng-Shih Shih; Yung-Sen Huang; Chi-Fan Chen

2011-01-01

60

Influence of temperature, electrical conductivity, power and pH on ascorbic acid degradation kinetics during ohmic heating using stainless steel electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degradation kinetics of ascorbic acid was determined in pH 5.7 buffer solution using an isothermal batch ohmic heater with stainless steel electrodes. Variables included in this study were temperature (40, 60 and 80 C); power (0, 100,150 and 300 W); and electrical conductivity (varied using 0.25%, 0.5% and 1.0% NaCl). Ascorbic acid concentration was detected by using a HPLC technique.

AlHussein M. Assiry; Sudhir K. Sastry; Chaminda P. Samaranayake

2006-01-01

61

Morphology of carbide precipitates in solution quenched PH13-8 Mo stainless steel: A small-angle neutron scattering investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations on solution quenched PH13-8 Mo stainless steel. The metallic carbide precipitates of parallelepiped like morphology, as revealed by TEM, have been mainly responsible for the strong scattering signal in SANS measurements. Scattering signal from the needle like austenites, which have been also identified by TEM,

D. Sen; A. K. Patra; S. Mazumder; J. Mittra; G. K. Dey; P. K. De

2005-01-01

62

Microstructures of stainless steels exhibiting reduced friction and wear after implantation with Ti and C. [304; 15-5 PH; Nitronic 60; 440C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implantation of Ti and C into stainless steel discs of Types 304, 15-5 PH, Nitronic 60 and 440C has previously been reported to reduce wear depths by up to approx. 85% and friction by approx. 50% in unlubricated pin-on-disc tests. Our earlier studies relating microstructure to friction and wear results in Type 304 are first summarized: these indicate that the

D. M. Follstaedt; F. G. Yost; L. E. Pope

1983-01-01

63

Nuclear microprobe analysis of wear tracks on ¹⁴N-implanted steels. [15-5 PH and 304 stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two nuclear microbeam analysis techniques (3.7 MeV (..cap alpha..,p) and 6 MeV (..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..)) have been used to determine the local areal density of ¹⁴N which remains in wear tracks resulting from pin-on-disc testing of nitrogen implanted 15-5 PH and 304 stainless steels. The microbeam analysis shows that the extent of N migration into the 15-5 substrate was to

B. L. Doyle; D. M. Follstaedt; S. T. Picraux; F. G. Yost; L. E. Pope; J. A. Knapp

1984-01-01

64

The effect of 17-4PH stainless steel on the lifetime of a Pennzane lubricated Microwave Limb Sounder Antenna Actuator Assembly ball screw for the AURA spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During ground based life testing of a Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Antenna Actuator Assembly (AAA) ball-screw assembly, lubricant darkening and loss were noted when approximately 10% of required lifetime was completed. The MLS-AAA ball screw and nut are made from 17-4 PH steel, the nut has 440C stainless steel balls, and the assembly is lubricated with a Pennzane formulation containing a three weight percent lead naphthenate additive. Life tests were done in dry nitrogen at 50C. To investigate the MLS-AAA life test anomaly, Spiral Orbit Tribometer (SOT) accelerated tests were performed. SOT results indicated greatly reduced relative lifetimes of Pennzane formulations in contact with 17-4 PH steel compared to 440C stainless steel. Also, dry nitrogen tests yielded longer relative lifetimes than comparable ultrahigh vacuum tests. Generally, oxidized Pennzane formulations yielded shorter lifetimes than non-oxidized lubricant. This study emphasizes surface chemistry effects on the lubricated lifetime of moving mechanical assemblies.

Jones, William R., Jr.; Jansen, Mark J.; Chen, Gun-Shing; Lam, Jonathan; Balzer, Mark; Lo, John; Anderson, Mark; Schepis, Joseph P.

2005-07-01

65

Effects of the Treating Time on Microstructure and Erosion Corrosion Behavior of Salt-Bath-Nitrided 17-4PH Stainless Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of salt-bath nitriding time on the microstructure, microhardness, and erosion-corrosion behavior of nitrided 17-4PH stainless steel at 703 K (430 C) were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and erosion-corrosion testing. The experimental results revealed that the microstructure and phase constituents of the nitrided surface alloy are highly process condition dependent. When 17-4PH stainless steel was subjected to complex salt-bathing nitriding, the main phase of the nitrided layer was expanded martensite ( ?`), expanded austenite (S), CrN, Fe4N, and Fe2N. The thickness of nitrided layers increased with the treating time. The salt-bath nitriding improves effectively the surface hardness. The maximum values measured from the treated surface are observed to be 1100 HV0.1 for 40 hours approximately, which is about 3.5 times as hard as the untreated material (309 HV0.1). Low-temperature nitriding can improve the erosion-corrosion resistance against two-phase flow. The sample nitrided for 4 hours has the best corrosion resistance.

Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuanhua; Li, Mingxing; Fan, Hongyuan; Zeng, Dezhi; Xiong, Ji

2013-08-01

66

Ar ion induced desorption yields at the energies 5-17.7 MeV/u  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle accelerators have, during operation with heavy ion beams, shown a significant pressure rise when the intensity of the beam is increased. This pressure rise is due to ion induced desorption, which is the result of beam ions colliding with residual gas atoms in the beam pipe, where they undergo charge exchange. This causes them to hit the vacuum chamber after the next dipole magnet and gas to be released. For the upgrade of the SIS18 synchrotron at GSI the intensity has to be a few orders of magnitude higher than it is today at the injection energy of 10 MeV/u. The aim of this experiment is to measure desorption yields, ?, (released molecules per incident ion) from materials commonly used in accelerators: 316LN stainless steel, Cu, etched Cu, gold coated Cu and Ta, using an Ar beam at impact energies in the range of 5-17.7 MeV/u for perpendicular incidence. The measured initial desorption yields vary for the same material from sample to sample: up to 4.5 times for stainless steel and up to 3 times for etched Cu. Therefore more samples should be studied to have better statistics. Beam conditioning at lower energy does not significantly reduce the desorption yield at higher energy. There is a significant difference of up to a few times in desorption yield between flat and tubular samples. The desorption yield from a Cu sample at grazing incident angle of 125 mrad was an order of magnitude larger than at normal incident angle. It was found that the total number of positively and negatively charged secondary particles, emitted from the surface bombarded with heavy ions, does not exceed 40 secondary particles per impact heavy ion. The current of negatively charged particles was about 2.3 times larger than the current for positively charged particles. The impact from secondary particles on dynamic gas pressure was not possible to investigate.

Hedlund, E.; Westerberg, L.; Malyshev, O. B.; Edqvist, E.; Leandersson, M.; Kollmus, H.; Bellachioma, M. C.; Bender, M.; Krmer, A.; Reich-Sprenger, H.; Zajec, B.; Krasnov, A.

2009-02-01

67

Influence of pH and chloride concentration on the pitting and crevice corrosion behavior of high-alloy stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

Localized corrosion resistance (pitting and crevice corrosion) of two high-alloy stainless steels (superduplex and superaustenitic) was studied in solutions with chloride concentrations of 200, 400, 600, and 6,000 ppm at pH values ranging from 2 to 6.5. Critical temperatures for pitting and crevice corrosion were calculated for these test media using electrochemical techniques (continuous current). From results obtained for cyclic polarization, the critical pitting temperature (CPT) and critical crevice temperature (CCT) of these materials in the different test media were determined. Under the tested conditions, the resistance of these materials to localized corrosion was very high. Only in test conditions of higher aggressivity (6,000 ppm CL{sup {minus}} and pH 6.5), pitting or crevice corrosion was observed. In those cases, values of pitting potential (E{sub pit}) and crevice potential (E{sub cre}) showed little tendency to decrease with an increase in CL{sup {minus}} concentration, temperature, and pH. Moreover, the CPT of these steels was determined in a ferric chloride (FeCl{sub 3}) medium, which corresponds to the standard ASTM G48 practice (Method A).

Pardo, A.; Otero, E.; Merino, M.C.; Lopez, M.D.; Utrilla, M.V.; Moreno, F.

2000-04-01

68

Stress Corrosion Study of PH13-8MO Stainless Steel Using the Slow Strain Rate Technique.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need for a fast and reliable method to study stress corrosion in metals has caused increased interest in the Slow Strain Rate Technique (SSRT) during the last few decades. PH13-8MoH950 and H1000 round tensile specimens were studied by this method. Per...

P. D. Torres

1989-01-01

69

An investigation of the high-temperature and solidification microstructures of PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential thermal analysis (DTA), high-temperature water-quench (WQ) experiments, and optical and electron microscopy were\\u000a used to establish the near-solidus and solidification microstructures in PH 13-8 Mo. On heating at a rate of 0. 33 C\\/s, this\\u000a alloy begins to transform from austenite to ?-ferrite at ?1350 C. Transformation is complete by ?1435 C. The solidus is\\u000a reached at ?1447 C,

M. J. Cieslak; C. R. Hills; P. F. Hlava; S. A. David

1990-01-01

70

Electrochemical Reduction of m-nitrotoluene at Glassy Carbon and Stainless Steel Electrode at Different pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The voltammograms of m-nitrotoluene (aqueous-methanol solution) in BR buffer at different pH 4.0, 7.0, 9.0 exhibits the one reduction peak; effect of scan rate on cathodic peak potential indicates that these reactions are irreversible. Constant current electrolysis in acidic and basic media of m-nitrotoluene gives m-toluidine and 3,3' dimethyl azo benzene respectively as a major products which were confirmed by

Meenu Vijay; Bhagwan Saha; Manu Gupta; I. K. Sharma; P. S. Verm

71

Microstructure and dry-sliding wear properties of DC plasma nitrided 17-4 PH stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An attempt that the precipitation hardening steel 17-4PH was conducted by DC plasma nitriding (DCPN) is made to develop a kind of candidate material for nuclear reactor. Nitriding process performed at temperature ? 400 C takes effect on creation of the layers composed of S-phase (expanded austenite) and ?N? (expanded martensite). Up to the temperature of 420 C, the S-phase peaks disappear due to the transformation occurrence (S-phase ??N? + CrN). For the samples nitrided at temperature ? 450 C, no evidence of ?N? is found owing to a precipitation (?N???+CrN) taking place. For the 480 C/4 h treated sample, it is the surface microhardness that plays the lead role in the wear rate reduction but the surface roughness; while for the 400 C/4 h treated sample, it is both of the surface roughness and the S-phase formation. Dry sliding wear of the untreated 17-4PH is mainly characterized by strong adhesion, abrasion and oxidation mechanism. Samples nitrided at 400 C which is dominated by slight abrasion and plastic deformation exhibit the best dry sliding wear resistance compared to the samples nitrided at other temperatures.

Li, Gui-Jiang; Wang, Jun; Li, Cong; Peng, Qian; Gao, Jian; Shen, Bao-Luo

2008-05-01

72

An investigation of the high-temperature and solidification microstructures of PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differential thermal analysis (DTA), high-temperature water-quench (WQ) experiments, and optical and electron microscopy were used to establish the near-solidus and solidification microstructures in PH 13-8 Mo. On heating at a rate of 0. 33 C/s, this alloy begins to transform from austenite to ?-ferrite at ?1350 C. Transformation is complete by ?1435 C. The solidus is reached at ?1447 C, and the liquidus is ?1493 C. On cooling from the liquid state at a rate of 0. 33 C/s, solidification is completed as ?-ferrite with subsequent transformation to austenite beginning in the solid state at ?1364 C. Insufficient time at temperature is available for complete transformation and the resulting room-temperature microstructure consists of matrix martensite (derived from the shear decomposition of the austenite) and residual ?-ferrite. The residual ?-ferrite in the DTA sample is enriched in Cr (?16 wt pct), Mo (?4 wt pct), and Al (?1. 5 wt pct) and depleted in Ni (?4 wt pct) relative to the martensite (?12. 5 wt pct Cr, ?2 wt pct Mo, ?1 wt pct Al, ?9 wt pct Ni). Solid-state transformation of ? ? ? was found to be quench-rate sensitive with large grain, fully ferritic microstructures undergoing a massive transformation as a result of water quenching, while a diffusionally controlled Widmansttten structure was produced in air-cooled samples.

Cieslak, M. J.; Hills, C. R.; Hlava, P. F.; David, S. A.

1990-09-01

73

The effect of microstructural evolution on hardening behavior of type 17-4PH stainless steel in long-term aging at 350 deg. C  

SciTech Connect

The effect of microstructural evolution on hardening behavior of 17-4PH stainless steel in long-term aging at 350 deg. C was studied by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that there is the matrix of lath martensite and nanometer-sized particles of {epsilon}-Cu precipitated from the matrix after the alloy is solution treated and tempered. When the alloy was aged 350 deg. C for 9 months, {alpha}-{alpha}' spinodal decomposition occurred along the grain boundaries and caused an increase in hardness which compensated for the weakening effect due to ripening of the {epsilon}-copper precipitates. Upon further aging to 12 months, the Cr-rich {alpha}'-phase and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitated, both of which strengthened the alloy considerably and led to enhanced hardening despite the continued softening by overaging of the {epsilon}-copper precipitates. With the aging time extended to 15 months, substantial reversed austenite transformed and precipitation of the intermetallic G-phase occurred near the {epsilon}-Cu precipitates in the matrix. The abundant amount of reversed austenite that transformed led to rapid softening.

Wang Jun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China) and Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu, 610041 (China)]. E-mail: srwangjun@163.com; Zou Hong [Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu, 610041 (China); Li Cong [Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu, 610041 (China); Qiu Shaoyu [Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu, 610041 (China); Shen Baoluo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China)

2006-12-15

74

Corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steels as a function of pH for use as bipolar plates in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steels (types 304 and 310S) were employed as bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. For the cell operation, the decayed cell voltage was approximately 22mV for the type 310S stainless steel after 1000h operation, while that for type 304 stainless steel was about 46mV. Corrosion products appeared on the cathode side bipolar plate for the type 304

Masanobu Kumagai; Seung-Taek Myung; Shiho Kuwata; Ryo Asaishi; Hitoshi Yashiro

2008-01-01

75

Development of a potentiometric flow cell with a stainless steel electrode for pH measurements. Determination of acid mixtures using flow injection analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work a stainless steel electrode was prepared, characterised and used as indicator electrode in a potentiometric flow cell. Due to its versatility, it was possible to study different electrode geometries and flow cell arrangements. After optimising the system, mixtures of succinic and oxalic acids were determined by titration. Partial least squares (PLS) regression as multivariate calibration tool was

Cleidiane G Zampronio; Jarbas J. R Rohwedder; Ronei J Poppi

2000-01-01

76

Spectrum Resource Assessment of the Aeronautical Mobile Service between 400 MHz and 17.7 GHz.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a spectrum resource assessment of the Aeronautical Mobile Service between 400 MHz and 17.7 GHz, which addresses the long-range planning of this service. It presents an assessment of 15 Federal Government frequency bands that are allocated to...

F. Matos

1984-01-01

77

Tool wear and tool life in end milling of 155 PH stainless steel under different cooling and lubrication conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the machining operations on stainless steel alloys are carried out with cutting fluid due to the poor machinability\\u000a of this kind of material. Tool wear mechanisms are directly influenced by the cooling and lubrication condition to which the\\u000a tool is exposed, especially in interrupted cutting processes. This work investigates tool wear mechanisms for an end milling\\u000a operation of

Aldo Braghini Junior; Anselmo Eduardo Diniz; Fernando Teixeira Filho

2009-01-01

78

Influence of interface microstructure on the mechanical properties of titanium\\/17-4 PH stainless steel solid state diffusion bonded joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, titanium was diffusion bonded to a type 17-4 precipitation hardening stainless steel in vacuum at different temperatures and times. Bonded samples were characterized using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction technique (XRD). The inter-diffusion of the chemical species across the diffusion interface was evaluated by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Up to 850C for

S. Kundu; D. Roy; S. Chatterjee; D. Olson; B. Mishra

79

Plane Shock Generator Explosive Lens: PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel versus 4340 steel shock wave separators and LX-13 versus PBX-9501 explosive particle velocity-time profiles  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories is currently involved in the optimization of a Plane Shock Generator Explosive Lens (PSGEL). This PSGEL component is designed to generate a planar shock wave transmitted to perform a function through a steel bulkhead without rupturing or destroying the integrity of the bulkhead. The PSGEL component consists of a detonator, explosive, brass cone and tamper housing. The purpose of the PSGEL component is to generate a plane shock wave input to 4340 steel bulkhead (wave separator) with a ferro-electric (PZT) ceramic disk attached to the steel on the surface opposite the PSGEL. The planar shock wave depolarizes the PZT 65/35 ferroelectric ceramic to produce an electrical output. Elastic, plastic I and plastic II waves with different velocities are generated in the steel bulkhead. The depolarization of the PZT ceramic is produced by the elastic wave of specific amplitude (10--20 Kilobars) and this process must be completed before (about 0. 15 microseconds) the first plastic wave arrives at the PZT ceramic. Measured particle velocity versus time profiles, using a Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) are presented for the brass and steel output free surfaces. Peak pressures are calculated from the particle velocities for the elastic, plastic I and plastic 11 waves in the steel. The work presented here investigates replacing the current 4340 steel with PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel in order to have a more corrosion resistant, weldable and more compatible material for the multi-year life of the component. Therefore, the particle velocity versus time profile data are presented comparing the 4340 steel and PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel. Additionally, in order to reduce the amount of explosive, data are presented to show that LX-13 can replace PBX-9501 explosive to produce more desirable results.

Vigil, M.G.

1993-02-01

80

Depth distribution of martensite in xenon-implanted stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of stress-induced martensite and its distribution in depth in xenon-implanted austenitic stainless-steel poly- and single crystals have been measured by Rutherford backscattering and channeling analysis, depth-selective conversion-electron Mssbauer spectroscopy, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. In low-nickel 17\\/7, 304 and 316 commercial stainless steels and in 17:13 single crystals the martensitic transformation starts at the surface

A. Johansen; E. Johnson; L. Sarholt-Kristensen; S. Steenstrup; E. Gerritsen; C. J. M. Denissen; H. Keetels; J. Politiek; N. Hayashi; I. Sakamoto

1990-01-01

81

THE PHYSICAL METALLURGY OF PRECIPITATION-HARDENABLE STAINLESS STEELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present knowledge on the physical metallurgy of precipitation-; hardenable stainless steels is presented. The alloys discussed include the ; martensitic types (Stainless W and 17-4 PH), the semiaustenitic types (177 PH, PH ; 15-7 Mo, AM 350, and AM 355), and the austenitic types (A-286 and HNM). The ; areas of metallurgy common to most or all of these

D. C. Ludwigson; A. M. Hall

1959-01-01

82

Quantitative measurement of fatigue crack initiation and propagation in 304 stainless steel as related to design and nondestructive evaluation. Ph.D. Thesis  

SciTech Connect

The initiation and propagation of short fatigue cracks in 304 stainless steel have been examined through replication techniques and through a mechanical vibration resonant frequency technique, which allows the measurement of elastic modulus and internal friction. Center hole and side notch specimens 6.3 mm thick were used for low cycles fatigue tests. The notches localize the crack initiation sites to facilitate the observation of the cracks and also simulate stress risers in real parts. The cracks initiate at several locations at the notch root inside the notches. These cracks then grow and link up along the surface of the notches and propagate to the specimen surface. The cracks are often nonlinear and link up through a bridging feature. Once the crack has reached the specimen surfaces at the edges of the notch, it propagates through the specimen as a through crack. The crack profile at this point has a small amount of curvature, allowing a measurement of the crack length through surface examination. The stress intensity factor is used as the driving force for the small crack propagation. Justification for the linear elastic fracture mechanics based stress intensity factor is found through examination of the cyclic stress-strain curves. The maximum amount of plastic strain is a factor of five less than the 0.2 percent plastic strain used to define the yield strength. Therefore, there is no gross yielding. The plastic zone size due to the notch was also calculated and found to be smaller than the crack length in most cases. Finally, the elastic plastic fracture mechanics based delta J was calculated for the specimen which experienced the maximum plastic strain. Only a small difference is found between the elastic delta K(exp 2)/E term and delta J. The short cracks grew at stress intensity factors below the long crack threshold. The crack growth rate of the small cracks fit a power law relation commonly called the Paris relation.

Mcguire, S.M.

1993-12-31

83

Stress Corrosion Cracking Evaluation of Martensitic Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The resistance of the martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steels PH13-8Mo, 15-5PH, and 17-4PH to stress corrosion cracking was investigated. Round tensile and c-ring type specimens taken from several heats of the three alloys were stressed up to...

T. S. Humphries E. E. Nelson

1980-01-01

84

Over-expression of a small heat shock protein, sHSP17.7, confers both heat tolerance and UV-B resistance to rice plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings to a high temperature (42?C) for 24 h resulted in a significant increase in resistance to UV-B damage. UV-B resistance was enhanced in parallel with the period of heat treatment. sHSP17.7 was isolated from heated rice seedlings, and the influence of rice sHSP17.7 expression on the viability of E. coli under heat-shock conditions

Toyotaka Murakami; Shuichi Matsuba; Hideyuki Funatsuki; Kentaro Kawaguchi; Haruo Saruyama; Masatoshi Tanida; Yutaka Sato

2004-01-01

85

Avoid stainless steel failures in FGD systems  

SciTech Connect

Preventing pitting and localized corrosion is the key to success where low maintenance and high reliability are rime considerations in flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) designs. Knowing when to use a stainless steel, and when not to, is crucial. Operating parameters and environmental factors greatly affect alloy performance, especially pH, temperature, and chloride and oxygen levels. Failures of stainless steels can be avoided by understanding their limits in light of these variables. This article will focus on the capabilities of Types 316L, 317L, 317LM, 317LMN, 904L, and 6% Mo stainless steels and their applications, as well as provide details on unique combination of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the 22% Cr duplex and 25% Cr super-duplex stainless steels in acid chloride systems. Guidelines will be presented on methods to prevent intergranular corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and pitting and crevice corrosion, and what process steps can be taken to assure reasonable performance of marginal alloy selections. Emphasis will be on the lime/limestone wet scrubbing process and the quencher/absorber.

Mills, J.P.; Schillmoller, C.M.

1995-11-01

86

Chromium-Makes stainless steel stainless  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chromium, a steely-gray, lustrous, hard metal that takes a high polish and has a high melting point, is a silvery white, hard, and bright metal plating on steel and other material. Commonly known as chrome, it is one of the most important and indispensable industrial metals because of its hardness and resistance to corrosion. But it is used for more than the production of stainless steel and nonferrous alloys; it is also used to create pigments and chemicals used to process leather.

Kropschot, S. J.; Doebrich, Jeff

2010-01-01

87

PRECIPITATION-HARDENING STAINLESS STEELS IN WATER-COOLED REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study is made of the stress corrosion susceptibiity of unirradiated ; precipitation-hardening stainless steels. This study is made because of the ; failures encouatered with these materials in the Dresden and Vallecltos boiling ; water reactors. Service experience, static steam autoclave tests, and dynamic ; water and steam corrosion loop tests have demonstrated that 17-4 PH in the high-;

M. C. Rowland; W. R. Sr. Smith

1962-01-01

88

Effect of powder loading on metal injection molding stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powder loading is one of the most critical factors which has important influence on metal injection molding processes. Using the gas atomized spherical 17-4 PH stainless steel powder and the binder of 65% PW+30% EVA+5% SA, four kinds of feedstocks were prepared at the powder loading of 60, 64, 68 and 72%, respectively. The effects of the powder loading on

Yimin Li; Liujun Li; K. A. Khalil

2007-01-01

89

Corrosion in stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

Although it is unreasonable to assume that technology will eventually eliminate all corrosion, it is of vital importance to note that many problems could be avoided through failure analysis and corrosion-preventive design. Laboratory analysis and testing often prove to be a wise investment in preventing potential corrosion problems in stainless steels. This article discusses important corrosion modes in stainless steels, including general, pitting, galvanic, and microbiologically induced corrosion, as well as stress corrosion cracking. It also includes descriptions of failure analysis techniques, including visual and stereomicroscopic examination, chemical analysis, metallographic examination, scanning electron microscopy, immersion testing, and electrochemical corrosion testing.

Suess, S.J. [Technimet Corp., New Berlin, WI (United States)

1997-04-01

90

Recent developments in stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an overview of the developments in stainless steels made since the 1990s. Some of the new applications that involve the use of stainless steel are also introduced.A brief introduction to the various classes of stainless steels, their precipitate phases and the status quo of their production around the globe is given first. The advances in a variety

K. H. Lo; C. H. Shek; J. K. L. Lai

2009-01-01

91

Laser spectroscopy of the B[17.7]8-X8 and C[19.3]9-X8 transitions of holmium monochloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several new transitions of holmium monochloride (HoCl) have been studied at high resolution using laser excitation spectroscopy. Two main transitions, B[17.7]8-X8 and C[19.3]9-X8 have been observed and five bands, 0-0, 0-1, 1-0, 1-1, and 2-1 of the B-X transition and three bands, 0-0, 0-1, and 0-3 of the C-X transition have been obtained at high resolution and rotationally analyzed. Among several low lying states observed in dispersed fluorescence was a strong transition from the C state to a state ~2140cm-1 above the ground state. Excitation spectra of this transition have shown that there are apparently two states, ~6cm-1 apart. Comparison with ligand field theory calculations are consistent with assigning these states to the excited low lying Ho+(4f116s)Cl- configuration. Several other low lying electronic states have been observed in dispersed fluorescence spectra. Although their assignments could not be established, their energies suggest that they are from the Ho+(4f106s2)Cl- or Ho+(4f116s)Cl- configurations. Rotational constants have been obtained for the B[17.7]8 and C[19.3]9 states and have been used to speculate on the possible electron configurations for these states.

Dick, M. J.; Linton, C.

2004-10-01

92

Corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel was compared with that of AISI type 316L stainless steel. The 2205 stainless steel is a potential orthodontic bracket material with low nickel content (4 to 6 wt%), whereas the 316L stainless steel (nickel content: 10 to 14 wt%) is a currently used bracket material. Both stainless steels were subjected to electrochemical

Jeffrey A. Platt; Andres Guzman; Arnaldo Zuccari; David W. Thornburg; Barbara F. Rhodes; Yoshiki Oshida; B. Keith Moore

1997-01-01

93

Mechanical, Corrosion, and Fatigue Properties of 15-5 PH, Inconel 718, and Rene 41 Weldments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Weldments of three hydrofoil strut/foil candidate materials (15-5 PH stainless steel, Inconel 718, and Rene 41) for hydrofoils were prepared. Mechanical, fatigue, corrosion fatigue, and corrosion tests were performed on these materials with various postwe...

H. P. Hack

1975-01-01

94

Nano-crater formation on a Si(1 1 1)-(7 7) surface by slow highly charged ion-impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF/SIMS), we observed radiation effects on a Si(1 1 1)-(7 7) surface in the collision of a single highly charged ion (HCI) with a charge state q up to q = 50. The STM observation with atomic resolution revealed that a nanometer sized crater-like structure was created by a single HCI impact, where the size increased rapidly with q. The secondary ion yields also increased with q in which multiply charged Si ions (Sin+) were clearly observed in higher q HCI-collisions. The sputtering mechanism is briefly discussed, based on the so-called Coulomb explosion model.

Tona, Masahide; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Satoshi; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Yoshiyasu, Nobuo; Sakurai, Makoto; Terui, Toshifumi; Mashiko, Shinro; Yamada, Chikashi; Ohtani, Shunsuke

2007-02-01

95

Electrochemical Studies of Passive Film Stability on Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4 Amorphous Metal in Seawater at 90oCElectrochemical Studies of Passive Film Stability on Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4 Amorphous Metal in Seawater at 9  

SciTech Connect

An iron-based amorphous metal, Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4} (SAM2X5), with very good corrosion resistance was developed. This material was prepared as a melt-spun ribbon, as well as gas atomized powder and a thermal-spray coating. During electrochemical testing in several environments, including seawater at 90 C, the passive film stability was found to be comparable to that of high-performance nickel-based alloys, and superior to that of stainless steels, based on electrochemical measurements of the passive film breakdown potential and general corrosion rates. This material also performed very well in standard salt fog tests. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) provided corrosion resistance, and boron (B) enabled glass formation. The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal made it an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. This material and its parent alloy maintained corrosion resistance up to the glass transition temperature, and remained in the amorphous state during exposure to relatively high neutron doses.

Farmer, J C; Haslam, J; Day, S D; Lian, T; Saw, C K; Hailey, P D; Choi, J S; Rebak, R B; Yang, N; Payer, J H; Perepezko, J H; Hildal, K; Lavernia, E J; Ajdelsztajn, L; Branagan, D J; Buffa, E J; Aprigliano, L F

2007-04-25

96

STAINLESS ALLOYS, PRESENT AND FUTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ths corrosion and metallurgicai properties of stainless steels are ; discussed, and the properties of new stainless steels and high alloys are given ; and compared. Included in the discussion of properties are: stress-corrosion ; cracking and its prevention; effect of sigraa- and chi-phase precipitation on ; strength, ductility, and corrosion; intergranular corrosion and its prevention; ; and hot-shortness during

1958-01-01

97

Cavitation wear behaviour of austenitic stainless steels with different grain sizes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cavitation erosion behaviour of two different austenitic stainless steels in water with different pH values and room temperature have been studied by means of a 20-kHz ultrasonic vibrator operating at a peak-to-peak amplitude of 40?m. The austenitic stainless steels used were AISI 304 (18Cr10Ni) steel and a high nitrogen (HN) containing steel. Each of the steels were fabricated to

G. Bregliozzi; A. Di Schino; S. I.-U. Ahmed; J. M. Kenny; H. Haefke

2005-01-01

98

A SURVEY OF THE CORROSION OF MARTENSITIC AND FERRITIC STAINLESS STEELS IN PRESSURIZED WATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion resistance of mantensitic and ferritic austenitic ; stainless steels and carbon steels in pressurized water at 500 to 600 deg F is ; compared. Included are specific out-of-pile data for austenitic stainless ; steels, AISI types types 410, 420, 431, and 440C; the ferritic AISI types 430, ; 442, and 446; the precipitation-hardening type 17-4PH; and carbon steels,

R. J. Beaver; C. F. Jr. Leitten

1963-01-01

99

Refrigerant capacity of austenite in as-quenched and annealed Ni51.1Mn31.2In17.7 melt spun ribbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal dependence of the magnetic entropy change (?SM(T)) and refrigerant capacity (RC) of austenite in as-quenched ribbons of chemical composition Ni51.1Mn31.2In17.7 produced by melt spinning at a high cooling rate of 48 ms-1 is reported. The effect of annealing at 1073 K on the structure and the magnetic properties was studied. The as-quenched sample is a single-phase austenite that presents a B2 ordered structure. The annealing on the melt spun samples produced a L21-type ordered structure. Austenite is characterized by a broad ?SM(T) curve that, for a field change of 5.0 T, exhibits a full-width at half-maximum ?TFMHW of 107 K, a peak value of the magnetic entropy change ?SMpeak of -3.1 Jkg-1 K-1, and RC = 345 Jkg-1. Although annealed samples show larger ?SMpeak values the narrower ?SM(T) curves leads to a reduction in RC. Thus, the as-quenched sample shows a higher efficiency for a refrigerant cycle.

Snchez Llamazares, J. L.; Flores-Zuiga, H.; Snchez-Valdes, C.; Ross, C. A.; Garca, C.

2012-04-01

100

Stainless steel decontamination manipulators  

SciTech Connect

Three, large-volume coverage manipulator systems were designed and built for the Defense Water Processing Facility at the Savannah River Laboratory. These stainless steel systems will be used for high-pressure spray decontamination of waste containers and large process equipment modules. Each system has a manipulator arm, folding boom, and vertical drive and guide structure. Handling capacity is 45 kg, horizontal reach is 4.6 m with a 180-deg swing motion, and the vertical travel is 6 m. The system is remotely removable and replaceable in modules using an overhead crane and an impact wrench. The manipulator arm has seven motions: Shoulder rotation and pivot, elbow pivot, wrist pivot and rotation, and grip open-close. All motions are variable speed and are slip-clutch protected to prevent overloading from external forces (collisions).

Sullivan, R.J.

1986-01-01

101

pH  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab activity is designed to teach students how to test for pH and understand its relationship to them and their environment. They will learn what pH is, draw and label a pH scale, measure the pH of various items, and explain why it's important to understand pH, for example, the danger presented by substances having very high or low pH.

102

Chemical composition and electronic structure of the oxide films formed on 316L stainless steel and nickel based alloys in high temperature aqueous environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auger analysis, capacitance measurements and photoelectrochemical measurements have been used in order to study the oxide films formed on 316L stainless steel, Alloy 690 and Alloy 600 in high temperature aqueous environments at pH 8 and 10. The analytical study reveals the duplex character of the films formed on 316L stainless steel and Alloy 690. For these materials it is

M. F. Montemor; M. G. S. Ferreira; N. E. Hakiki; M. Da Cunha Belo

2000-01-01

103

Corrosion and inhibition of stainless steel pitting corrosion in alkaline medium and the effect of Cl - and Br - anions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of carbonate anion on the pitting corrosion and inhibition behavior of stainless steel samples (304L SS and 316L SS) has been studied using potentiodynamic and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. The effect of concentration of CO 32- ions, pH, potential scanning rate and the composition of stainless steel are discussed. Additions of Cl - and Br - ions into the carbonate solution increase the anodic dissolution of stainless steel and decrease its pitting corrosion resistance. The effect of CO 32- anion on the inhibition of chloride and bromide pitting corrosion of the two stainless steel types has been studied also. Pitting corrosion decrease with the increasing of sodium carbonate concentration, i.e. increases the resistance of stainless steels towards the chloride and bromide pitting corrosion. This inhibition effect argued to formation of [Fe,Cr]CO 3 film caused by preferential adsorption of the CO 32- ion, leading to instantaneous repair of weak sites for pit nucleation.

Refaey, S. A. M.; Taha, F.; El-Malak, A. M. Abd

2005-03-01

104

Achievement of a superpolish on bare stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

We report the achievement of a superpolished surface, suitable for x-ray reflection, on bare stainless steel. The rms roughness obtained on various samples varied from 2.2 to 4.2 {angstrom}, as measured by an optical profiler with a bandwidth 0.29-100 mm{sup -1}. The type 17-4 PH precipitation-hardening stainless steel used to make the mirrors is also capable of ultrastability and has good manufactureability. This combination of properties makes it an excellent candidate material for mirror substrates. We describe the successful utilization of this type of steel in making elliptical-cylinder mirrors for a soft-x-ray microprobe system at the Advanced Light Source, and discuss possible for its unusual stability and polishability.

Howells, M.R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Casstevens, J. [Dallas Optical Systems, Rockwell, TX (United States)

1997-08-01

105

Overlay welding irradiated stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overlay technique developed for welding irradiated stainless steel may be important for repair or modification of fusion reactor materials. Helium, present due to (n,alpha) reactions, is known to cause cracking using conventional welding methods. Stainless steel impregnated with 3 to 220 appm helium by decay of tritium was used to develop a welding process that could be used for repair. The result was a gas metal arc weld overlay technique with low-heat input and low-penetration into the helium-containing material. Extensive metallurgical and mechanical testing of this technique demonstrated substantial reduction of helium embrittlement damage. The overlay technique was applied to irradiated 304 stainless steel containing 10 appm helium. Surface cracking, present in conventional welds made on the same steel at lower helium concentrations, was eliminated. Underbead cracking, although greater than for tritium charged and aged material, was minimal compared to conventional welding methods.

Kanne, W. R.; Chandler, G. T.; Nelson, D. Z.; Franco-Ferreira, E. A.

106

Overlay welding irradiated stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

An overlay technique developed for welding irradiated stainless steel may be important for repair or modification of fusion reactor materials. Helium, present due to n,{alpha} reactions, is known to cause cracking using conventional welding methods. Stainless steel impregnated with 3 to 220 appm helium by decay of tritium was used to develop a welding process that could be used for repair. The result was a gas metal arc weld overlay technique with low-heat input and low-penetration into the helium-containing material. Extensive metallurgical and mechanical testing of this technique demonstrated substantial reduction of helium embrittlement damage. The overlay technique was applied to irradiated 304 stainless steel containing 10 appm helium. Surface cracking, present in conventional welds made on the same steel at lower helium concentrations, was eliminated. Underbead cracking, although greater than for tritium charged and aged material, was minimal compared to conventional welding methods.

Kanne, W.R.; Chandler, G.T.; Nelson, D.Z.; Franco-Ferreira, E.A.

1993-08-01

107

Weld microstructure development and properties of precipitation-strengthened martensitic stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The weld microstructural evolution, mechanical properties and solidification cracking susceptibility of three precipitation-strengthened martensitic stainless steels--PH 13-8 Mo, Custom 450 and 15-5 PH--were investigated. Liquid tin quenching of gas tungsten arc welds revealed that all three welds solidified as single-phase ferrite with a high degree of microsegregation. However, during further solidification and cooling almost complete homogenization occurred as a result

J. A. Brooks; W. R. Jr. Garrison

1999-01-01

108

Accelerated determination of the resistance of stainless steels to crevice corrosion in sea water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors assess a wide range of stainless chromium steels used in platforms and other offshore facilities for their resistance or susceptibility to crevice as well as electrochemical and pitting corrosion in sea water and discuss an electrochemical method, based on the effect of the pH value on the solution potential, which they find determines corrosion resistance under the given

Korovin; Yu. M

1987-01-01

109

Degradation kinetics of ascorbic acid during ohmic heating with stainless steel electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascorbic acid degradation experiments were performed in buffer solution at pH 3.5 using a batch ohmic heater with uncoated stainless steel electrodes. The electrical conductivity of the buffer solution was adjusted using sodium chloride. The concentration of ascorbic acid was found using an HPLC technique. Kinetics of degradation can be described adequately by a first order model for both conventional

A. Assiry; S. K. Sastry; C. Samaranayake

2003-01-01

110

Plating on stainless steel alloys  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative adhesion data are presented for a variety of electroplated stainless steel type alloys. Results show that excellent adhesion can be obtained by using a Wood's nickel strike or a sulfamate nickel strike prior to final plating. Specimens plated after Wood's nickel striking failed in the deposit rather than at the interface between the substrate and the coating. Flyer plate quantitative tests showed that use of anodic treatment in sulfuric acid prior to Wood's nickel striking even further improved adhesion. In contrast activation of stainless steels by immersion or cathodic treatment in hydrochloric acid resulted in very reduced bond strengths with failure always occurring at the interface between the coating and substrate.

Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

1981-09-11

111

Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Stainless Steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Stainless Steels, the first book in over twenty years to address welding metallurgy and weldability issues associated with stainless steel, offers the most up-to-date and comprehensive treatment of these topics currently available. The authors emphasize fundamental metallurgical principles governing microstructure evolution and property development of stainless steels, including martensistic, ferric, austenitic, duplex, and precipitation hardening

John C. Lippold; Damian J. Kotecki

2005-01-01

112

NIOBIUM IN FERRITIC AND MARTENSITIC STAINLESS STEELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review has been presented of the effects of niobium in ferritic and martensitic stainless steels, introducing some new stainless steels containing niobium. An addition of niobium to the steel has a beneficial effect on improving the corrosion resistance of ferritic stainless steel, since niobium reacts with carbon to form stable carbides, consequently, resulting in keeping effective content of chromium

Naoto Hiramatsu

113

Stainless and Stainless-Clad Reinforcement for Highway Bridge Use.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Stainless steel as concrete reinforcement has been in use for several decades. Although highly resistant to corrosion, and able to provide greater than 100 years maintenance-free service life, the main drawback to widespread use has been the cost of the m...

S. Kahl

2011-01-01

114

Automotive frames of stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lightweight, stainless steel vehicle modular frame that meets the requirements of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) is being jointly developed by Armco and Autokinetics. Reaching the long-term goal of the program known as the Supercar will require technology that is capable of significantly reducing mass, while holding the cost of the finished vehicle to current

J. B. Emmons; J. Douthett

1996-01-01

115

Free-Cutting Stainless Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The object of the invention is a free-cutting stainless steel containing 0.35 - 0.45% carbon, 16 - 18% chromium, 1.5 - 2.5% nickel, 0.7 - 1.2% manganese and up to 0.5% silicon is distinguished by the fact that, in order to enhance the mechanical and antic...

N. M. Pisarev V. M. Kozhin

1965-01-01

116

Corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel.  

PubMed

The corrosion of 2205 duplex stainless steel was compared with that of AISI type 316L stainless steel. The 2205 stainless steel is a potential orthodontic bracket material with low nickel content (4 to 6 wt%), whereas the 316L stainless steel (nickel content: 10 to 14 wt%) is a currently used bracket material. Both stainless steels were subjected to electrochemical and immersion (crevice) corrosion tests in 37 degrees C, 0.9 wt% sodium chloride solution. Electrochemical testing indicates that 2205 has a longer passivation range than 316L. The corrosion rate of 2205 was 0.416 MPY (milli-inch per year), whereas 316L exhibited 0.647 MPY. When 2205 was coupled to 316L with equal surface area ratio, the corrosion rate of 2205 reduced to 0.260 MPY, indicating that 316L stainless steel behaved like a sacrificial anode. When 316L is coupled with NiTi, TMA, or stainless steel arch wire and was subjected to the immersion corrosion test, it was found that 316L suffered from crevice corrosion. On the other hand, 2205 stainless steel did not show any localized crevice corrosion, although the surface of 2205 was covered with corrosion products, formed when coupled to NiTi and stainless steel wires. This study indicates that considering corrosion resistance, 2205 duplex stainless steel is an improved alternative to 316L for orthodontic bracket fabrication when used in conjunction with titanium, its alloys, or stainless steel arch wires. PMID:9228844

Platt, J A; Guzman, A; Zuccari, A; Thornburg, D W; Rhodes, B F; Oshida, Y; Moore, B K

1997-07-01

117

Shrinkage Prediction for the Investment Casting of Stainless Steels  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the alloy shrinkage factors were obtained for the investment casting of 17-4PH stainless steel parts. For the investment casting process, unfilled wax and fused silica with a zircon prime coat were used for patterns and shell molds, respectively. Dimensions of the die tooling, wax pattern, and casting were measured using a Coordinate Measurement Machine in order to obtain the actual tooling allowances. The alloy dimensions were obtained from numerical simulation results of solidification, heat transfer, and deformation phenomena. The numerical simulation results for the shrinkage factors were compared with experimental results.

Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL

2007-01-01

118

High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Iron-Based Amorphous Metals - The Effects of Composition, Structure and Environment: Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4  

SciTech Connect

Several Fe-based amorphous metal formulations have been identified that appear to have corrosion resistance comparable to (or better than) that of Ni-based Alloy C-22 (UNS No. N06022), based on measurements of breakdown potential and corrosion rate in seawater. Both chromium (Cr) and molybdenum (Mo) provide corrosion resistance, boron (B) enables glass formation, and rare earths such as yttrium (Y) lower critical cooling rate (CCR). SAM2X5 (Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4}) has no yttrium, and is characterized by relatively high critical cooling rates of approximately 600 Kelvin per second. Data for the SAM2X5 formulation is reported here. In contrast to yttrium-containing iron-based amorphous metals, SAM2X5 can be readily gas atomized to produce spherical powders which enable more facile thermal spray deposition. The reference material, nickel-based Alloy C-22, is an outstanding corrosion-resistant engineering material. Even so, crevice corrosion has been observed with C-22 in hot sodium chloride environments without buffer or inhibitor. SAM2X5 also experiences crevice corrosion under sufficiently harsh conditions. Both Alloy C-22 and Type 316L stainless lose their resistance to corrosion during thermal spraying, due to the formation of deleterious intermetallic phases which depletes the matrix of key alloy elements, whereas SAM2X5 can be applied as coatings with the same corrosion resistance as a fully-dense completely amorphous melt-spun ribbon, provided that its amorphous nature is preserved during thermal spraying. The hardness of Type 316L Stainless Steel is approximately 150 VHN, that of Alloy C-22 is approximately 250 VHN, and that of HVOF SAM2X5 ranges from 1100-1300 VHN [MRS12-13]. Such hardness makes these materials particularly attractive for applications where corrosion-erosion and wear are also issues. Since SAM2X5 has high boron content, it can absorb neutrons efficiently, and may therefore find useful applications as a criticality control material within the nuclear industry.

Farmer, J; Haslam, J; Day, S; Lian, T; Saw, C; Hailey, P; Choi, J; Yang, N; Bayles, R; Aprigliano, L; Payer, J; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Lavernia, E; Ajdelsztajn, L; Branagan, D J; Beardsely, M B

2006-10-20

119

Corrosion Resistance of Amorphous Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4 coating - a new criticality-controlled material  

SciTech Connect

An iron-based amorphous metal with good corrosion resistance and a high absorption cross-section for thermal neutrons has been developed and is reported here. This amorphous alloy has the approximate formula Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4} and is known as SAM2X5. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) were added to provide corrosion resistance, while boron (B) was added to promote glass formation and the absorption of thermal neutrons. Since this amorphous metal has a higher boron content than conventional borated stainless steels, it provides the nuclear engineer with design advantages for criticality control structures with enhanced safety. While melt-spun ribbons with limited practical applications were initially produced, large quantities (several tons) of gas atomized powder have now been produced on an industrial scale, and applied as thermal-spray coatings on prototypical half-scale spent nuclear fuel containers and neutron-absorbing baskets. These prototypes and other SAM2X5 samples have undergone a variety of corrosion testing, including both salt-fog and long-term immersion testing. Modes and rates of corrosion have been determined in various relevant environments, and are reported here. While these coatings have less corrosion resistance than melt-spun ribbons and optimized coatings produced in the laboratory, substantial corrosion resistance has been achieved.

Farmer, J C; Choi, J S; Saw, C K; Rebak, R; Day, S D; Lian, T; Hailey, P; Payer, J H; Branagan, D J; Aprigliano, L F

2007-03-28

120

Long-Term Corrosion Tests of Prototypical SAM2X5 (Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4) Coatings  

SciTech Connect

An iron-based amorphous metal with good corrosion resistance and a high absorption cross-section for thermal neutrons has been developed and is reported here. This amorphous alloy has the approximate formula Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4} and is known as SAM2X5. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) were added to provide corrosion resistance, while boron (B) was added to promote glass formation and the absorption of thermal neutrons. Since this amorphous metal has a higher boron content than conventional borated stainless steels, it provides the nuclear engineer with design advantages for criticality control structures with enhanced safety. While melt-spun ribbons with limited practical applications were initially produced, large quantities (several tons) of gas atomized powder have now been produced on an industrial scale, and applied as thermal-spray coatings on prototypical half-scale spent nuclear fuel containers and neutron-absorbing baskets. These prototypes and other SAM2X5 samples have undergone a variety of corrosion testing, including both salt-fog and long-term immersion testing. The modes and rates of corrosion have been determined in the various environments, and are reported here. While these coatings have less corrosion resistance than melt-spun ribbons and optimized coatings produced in the laboratory, substantial corrosion resistance has been achieved.

Farmer, J C; Choi, J S; Saw, C K; Rebak, R H; Day, S D; Lian, T; Hailey, P D; Payer, J H; Branagan, D J; Aprigliano, L F

2007-05-10

121

Effects of microstructure on ultrasonic examination of stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic inspection of cast stainless steel components or stainless steel welds is difficult, and the results obtained are hard to interpret. The present study describes the effects of stainless steel microstructure on ultrasonic test results. Welded coupons, 2.5 and 5.0 cm thick, were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel, with Type 308 stainless steel as the weld material. Metallography of

D. S. Kupperman; K. J. Reimann

1976-01-01

122

Automotive frames of stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

A lightweight, stainless steel vehicle modular frame that meets the requirements of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) is being jointly developed by Armco and Autokinetics. Reaching the long-term goal of the program known as the Supercar will require technology that is capable of significantly reducing mass, while holding the cost of the finished vehicle to current levels. The structure should reduce mass by at least 50%, and must be high in performance, practical to manufacture, and conceptually simple compared to current practice. Another key PNGV goal is the development of a manufacturing infrastructure to attain cost and production levels consistent with auto industry norms. A third goal is to spin off as much of the resulting advanced technology as possible to conventional vehicles, enabling them to benefit from advances in mass reduction, aerodynamics, and materials technologies. All of these benefits can be realized with the stainless steel modular frame.

Emmons, J.B. [Autokinetics Inc., Rochester Hills, MI (United States); Douthett, J. [Armco Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1996-08-01

123

Nickel -- Makes stainless steel strong  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nickel is a silvery-white metal that is used mainly to make stainless steel and other alloys stronger and better able to withstand extreme temperatures and corrosive environments. Nickel was first identified as a unique element in 1751 by Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, a Swedish mineralogist and chemist. He originally called the element kupfernickel because it was found in rock that looked like copper (kupfer) ore and because miners thought that "bad spirits" (nickel) in the rock were making it difficult for them to extract copper from it. Approximately 80 percent of the primary (not recycled) nickel consumed in the United States in 2011 was used in alloys, such as stainless steel and superalloys. Because nickel increases an alloy's resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand extreme temperatures, equipment and parts made of nickel-bearing alloys are often used in harsh environments, such as those in chemical plants, petroleum refineries, jet engines, power generation facilities, and offshore installations. Medical equipment, cookware, and cutlery are often made of stainless steel because it is easy to clean and sterilize. All U.S. circulating coins except the penny are made of alloys that contain nickel. Nickel alloys are increasingly being used in making rechargeable batteries for portable computers, power tools, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Nickel is also plated onto such items as bathroom fixtures to reduce corrosion and provide an attractive finish.

Boland, Maeve A.

2012-01-01

124

Development of a carburizing stainless steel alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new carburizing stainless steel alloy that resists corrosion, heat, and fatigue has been developed for bearing and gear applications. Pyrowear 675 Stainless alloy is vacuum induction melted and vacuum arc remelted (VIM\\/VAR) for aircraft-quality cleanliness. Test results show that it has corrosion resistance similar to that of AISI Type 440-C stainless, and its rolling fatigue resistance is superior to

Wert

1994-01-01

125

Aging degradation of cast stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program is being conducted to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast-duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. Data from room-temperature Charpy-impact tests for several heats of cast stainless steel aged up to 10,000 h at 350, 400, and 450°C are presented and compared with results from other studies. Microstructures of cast-duplex stainless steels subjected to long-term

O. K. Chopra; H. M. Chung

1985-01-01

126

pH Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to teach students about the acidity levels of liquids and other substances around their school so they understand what pH levels tell us about the environment. Students will create mixtures of water samples, soil samples, plants and other natural materials to better understand the importance of pH levels.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

127

Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Stainless Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Stainless Steels, the first book in over twenty years to address welding metallurgy and weldability issues associated with stainless steel, offers the most up-to-date and comprehensive treatment of these topics currently available. The authors emphasize fundamental metallurgical principles governing microstructure evolution and property development of stainless steels, including martensistic, ferric, austenitic, duplex, and precipitation hardening grades. They present a logical and well-organized look at the history, evolution, and primary uses of each stainless steel, including detailed descriptions of the associated weldability issues.

Lippold, John C.; Kotecki, Damian J.

2005-03-01

128

21 CFR 872.3350 - Gold or stainless steel cusp.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gold or stainless steel cusp. 872.3350 ...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3350 Gold or stainless steel cusp. (a) Identification. A gold or stainless steel cusp is a...

2013-04-01

129

77 FR 23752 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Preliminary)] Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China Determinations On the basis...of imports from China of drawn stainless sinks, provided for in subheading 7324.10...reason of LTFV imports of drawn stainless sinks and subsidized imports of drawn...

2012-04-20

130

Characteristics of VHF radiowave scintillations over a solar cycle (1983-1993) at a low-latitude station: Waltair (17.7 deg N, 83.3 deg E)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of VHF radiowave scintillations at 244 MHz (FLEETSAT) during a complete solar cycle (1983-93) at a low-latitude station, Waltair (17.7 deg N, 83.3 deg E), are presented. The occurrence of night-time scintillations shows equinoctial maxima and summer minima in all the epochs of solar activity, and follows the solar activity. The daytime scintillation occurrence is negatively correlated with the solar activity and shows maximum occurrence during the summer months in a period of low solar activity. The occurrence of night-time scintillations is inhibited during disturbed days of high solar activity and enhanced during low solar activity.

Rama Rao, P. V. S.; Jayachandran, P. T.; Sri Ram, P.; Ramana Rao, B. V.; Prasad, D. S. V. V. D.; Bose, K. K.

1997-06-01

131

CONTROL OF pH BY ION EXCHANGE. Contains an addendum by E. Glueckauf  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for treating water to minimize the corrosion ; obtained in a stainless steel--water system. It consists of a mixed-bed ion ; exchanger with the cation resin in the Li state. This. should remove all the ; soluble corrosion products and replace them with LiOH, thereby maintaining the pH. ; (W.L.H.);

P. C. Davidge; D. E. Glanville

1954-01-01

132

Urine pH  

MedlinePLUS

... Drugs that can decrease urine pH include ammonium chloride, thiazide diuretics, and methenamine mandelate. Eat a normal, ... is associated with xanthine, cystine, uric acid , and calcium oxalate stones. Alkaline urine is associated with calcium ...

133

Modelling solid solution hardening in stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solid solution hardening of stainless steels is studied by using the LabuschNabarro relation. Models are evaluated in order to predict the mechanical properties from chemical composition, solution hardening misfit parameters, grain size, ferrite content and product thickness. A data source of six grades of steels is used for the modelling. Both austenitic and duplex stainless steels are covered including

Henrik Sieurin; Johan Zander; Rolf Sandstrm

2006-01-01

134

Corrosion of stainless steel, 2. edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book describes corrosion characteristics in all the major and minor groups of stainless steels, namely, in austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, duplex, and precipitation hardenable steels. Several chapters are spent on those special forms of corrosion that are investigated in the great detail in stainless steels, namely, pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking. The influences of thermal treatment (heat

Sedriks

1996-01-01

135

The energy benefit of stainless steel recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy used to produce austenitic stainless steel was quantified throughout its entire life cycle for three scenarios: (1) current global operations, (2) 100% recycling, and (3) use of only virgin materials. Data are representative of global average operations in the early 2000s. The primary energy requirements to produce 1 metric ton of austenitic stainless steel (with assumed metals concentrations

Jeremiah Johnson; B. K. Reck; T. Wang; T. E. Graedel

2008-01-01

136

PRECIPITATION HARDENING P\\/M STAINLESS STEELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications requiring high strength stainless steels are growing rapidally. Precipitation- hardening stainless steels have seen limited use in powder metallurgy despite their high strength. Strengthening of these alloys is achieved by adding elements such as copper and niobium, which form intermetallic precipitates during aging. The precipitation-hardening grades exhibit corrosion resistance levels comparable with those of the chromium-nickel (300 series) grades.

Chris Schade; Pat Stears; Alan Lawley; Roger Doherty

137

Ultrasonic properties of austenitic stainless steel welds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation were made on welded austenitic stainless steel specimens, and data correlated to flaw detectability. Measurements were made at 2.25 MHz for both longitudinal and shear waves as functions of propagation and polarization directions. The results of ultrasonic velocity measurements show that, in stainless steel welds, a high degree of anisotropy exists with respect to

Lott

1980-01-01

138

METHOD FOR JOINING ALUMINUM TO STAINLESS STEEL  

DOEpatents

Aluminum may be joined to stainless steel without the use of flux by tinning the aluminum with a tin solder containing 1% silver and 1% lead, tinning the stainless steel with a 50% lead 50% tin solder, and then sweating the tinned surfaces together.

Lemon, L.C.

1960-05-24

139

Passivation and anodic oxidation of duplex TiN coating on stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

The passivation and anodic oxidation of duplex TiN coatings deposited by arc ion plating onto prenitrided AISI 304 stainless steel have been studied by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and Mott-Schottky measurements in 0.1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 0.05 M HCl. The chemical composition of the oxidized surface film atop TiN was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Up to 1.2 V/SHE the TiN coating exhibits passive behavior, which is attributed to the formation of a TiO{sub 2}-like film of nanometer thickness which grows linearly with anodic potential at a rate of 2.4 nm/V. Above 1.2 V/SHE enhanced anodic oxidation of TiN is observed at a rate of 17.7 nm/V, and the overall corrosion performance is governed both by the oxidized TiN coating and by a metallic Ti interlayer atop the nitrided stainless steel substrate. At all potentials the TiO{sub 2} film is characterized by relatively high donor densities and is, furthermore, terminated by a hydroxylated surface.

Rudenja, S.; Pan, J.; Wallinder, I.O.; Leygraf, C.; Kulu, P.

1999-11-01

140

Interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal  

SciTech Connect

Long-term storage of excess plutonium is of great concern in the U.S. as well as abroad. The current accepted configuration involves intimate contact between the stored material and an iron-bearing container such as stainless steel. While many safety scenario studies have been conducted and used in the acceptance of stainless steel containers, little information is available on the physical interaction at elevated temperatures between certain forms of stored material and the container itself. The bulk of the safety studies has focused on the ability of a package to keep the primary stainless steel containment below the plutonium-iron eutectic temperature of approximately 410 C. However, the interactions of plutonium metal with stainless steel have been of continuing interest. This paper reports on a scoping study investigating the interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal in a pseudo diffusion couple at temperatures above the eutectic melt-point.

Dunwoody, John T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mason, Richard E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Freibert, Franz J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Willson, Stephen P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veirs, Douglas K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Worl, Laura A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Archuleta, Alonso [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Conger, Donald J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

141

Development of New Stainless Steel  

SciTech Connect

A new family of innovative martensitic stainless steels, 521-A, 521-B, and 521-C has been developed by Advanced Steel Technology, LLC (Trafford, PA) as high strength fastener (bolt) materials for use at moderate temperatures in turbine engines, including steam turbines, gas turbines, and aircraft engines. The primary objective of the development program was to create a martensitic stainless steel with high strength at moderate temperatures, and which could replace the expensive nickel-based superalloy IN 718 in some fasteners applications. A secondary objective was to replace conventional 12Cr steels such as AISI 422 used as blades, buckets and shafts that operate at intermediate temperatures in turbine engines with stronger steel. The composition of the new alloys was specifically designed to produce excellent mechanical properties while integrating heat treatment steps into production to reduce energy consumption during manufacturing. As a result, production costs and energy consumption during production of rolled bar products is significantly lower than conventional materials. Successful commercialization of the new alloys would permit the installed cost of certain turbine engines to be reduced without sacrificing high availability or operational flexibility, thereby enhancing the global competitiveness of U.S. turbine engine manufacturers. Moreover, the domestic specialty steel industry would also benefit through increased productivity and reduced operating costs, while increasing their share of the international market for turbine engine fasteners, blades, buckets and shafts.

Robert F. Buck

2005-08-30

142

Effect of different environmental parameters on pitting behavior of AISI type 316L stainless steel: Experimental studies and neural network modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

AISI type 316L stainless steel was subjected to electrochemical polarization tests in an aqueous environment of varying chloride ion concentration (17,50070,000ppm), pH (1.235.0) and temperature (298333K). Values of critical pitting potentials (Epit) were determined from the polarization tests. Increasing concentration and temperature, and decreasing pH were found to decrease the Epit. Eighty values of Epit, at different chloride concentrations, pH

K. V. S. Ramana; T. Anita; Sumantra Mandal; S. Kaliappan; H. Shaikh; P. V. Sivaprasad; R. K. Dayal; H. S. Khatak

2009-01-01

143

Corrosionerosion of nitrogen bearing martensitic stainless steels in seawaterquartz slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

AISI 410S stainless steel was nitrided at 1473K in N2 atmosphere, direct quenched and tempered at temperatures between 473 and 873K. Martensitic cases with circa 0.52wt.%N at the surface were obtained. Corrosionerosion tests were carried out in slurries composed by quartz particles and tap or substitute ocean water. The concentration of solids, the impact angle and the pH of solution

A. Toro; A. Sinatora; D. K. Tanaka; A. P. Tschiptschin

2001-01-01

144

Chloride-Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking of Powder Metallurgy Duplex Stainless Steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance of nitrogen-alloyed, powder metallurgically (P\\/M) produced and hot isostatically pressed (HIP) duplex stainless steels (DSS) was investigated and compared to the SCC resistance of two commercial wrought (forged) DSS. Constant-strain (deflection) SCC tests with four-point, loaded-bend specimens were performed in aerated 50 wt% calcium chloride solution at 100 C with pH = 6.5

A. Laitinen; H. Haenninen

1996-01-01

145

Austenitic Stainless Steel EN 1.4404 Corrosion Detection Using Classification Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Different methods of classification have been used in this paper to model pitting corrosion behaviour of austenitic stainless\\u000a steel EN 1.4404. This material was subjected to electrochemical polarization tests in aqueous environment of varying chloride\\u000a ion concentration (from NaCl solutions), pH values and temperature in order to determine values of critical pitting potentials\\u000a (Epit) for each condition tested. In this

M. Jimnez-Come; E. Muoz; R. Garca; V. Matres; M. Martn; F. Trujillo; I. Turias

146

Experimental investigation of tribological performance of laser textured stainless steel rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments is conducted to examine the frictional characteristics of laser surface-textured, heat-treated 17-4 PH stainless steel specimens. Two dimple shapes are tested: circular and elliptical. The circular dimples are designed with different sizes, dimple densities and dimple depth-to-diameter ratios. It is found that the cavitation pressure (Pcav) in a circular dimple is strongly affected by the operational

Y. Qiu; M. M. Khonsari

2011-01-01

147

Electrocoagulation of a real reactive dyebath effluent using aluminum and stainless steel electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of real reactive dyebath effluent comprising of an exhausted reactive dyebath and its sequential rinses with electrocoagulation (EC) using aluminum (Al) and stainless steel (SS) electrodes was investigated. The experimental study focused on the effect of applied current density (2287mA\\/cm2; at an initial, optimum pH of 5.5) on decolorization and COD removal rates using Al and SS as electrode

Idil Arslan-Alaton; I??k Kabda?l?; Deniz Hanbaba; Elif Kuybu

2008-01-01

148

Friction and wear of stainless steels implanted with Ti and C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friction and wear tests were completed on Fe and stainless steels of the type 304, 15-5 pH, Nitronic 60, and 440C implanted with Ti and C. Samples were mechanically polished prior to ion implantation to fluences of 2 x 10¹⁷ Ti\\/cm² (90 to 180 keV) and 2 x 10¹⁷ C\\/cm² (30 keV); the implantation profiles of the two elements overlapped

F. G. Yost; L. E. Pope; D. M. Follstaedt; J. A. Knapp; S. T. Picraux

1981-01-01

149

Effect of ion implantation species on the tribological response of stainless steel surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The friction and wear properties of 304 and 155 PH stainless steels which were ion implanted with P and with P plus C have\\u000a been examined and are compared with the properties of the same steels implanted with N and with Ti plus C. While benefits\\u000a are obtained with the P and the P plus C implantation treatments, the N

L. E. Pope; S. T. Picraux; D. M. Follstaedt; J. A. Knapp; F. G. Yost

1985-01-01

150

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study of the adsorption behaviour of ?-lactalbumin and ?-casein at stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption behaviour of holo-?-lactalbumin (?-LA) and ?-casein (?-CN) on high-purity austenitic low-carbon stainless steel and its effect on the state of the electrode surface have been studied in a pH 7.0 phosphate buffer solution over the temperature range 299343 K. Cyclic voltammetry measurements were used to characterize the effects of polishing on the electrode surface. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

Nicholas P. Cosman; Khalid Fatih; Sharon G. Roscoe

2005-01-01

151

Effect of variable intensity ultraviolet radiation on passivity breakdown of AISI Type 304 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ultraviolet illumination on passivity breakdown of a commercial grade (CG) of AISI Type 304 stainless steel and of a high purity heat (HPH) of the same material in neutral 0.5 M NaCl solution and in 0.025 M NaCl + 0.15 M H3BO3\\/0.007 M Na2B4O7, pH = 7.5, solution was experimentally studied. Passivity breakdown on the CG, as

Digby D. Macdonald; Donald F. Heaney

2000-01-01

152

Accelerated determination of the resistance of stainless steels to crevice corrosion in sea water  

SciTech Connect

The authors assess a wide range of stainless chromium steels used in platforms and other offshore facilities for their resistance or susceptibility to crevice as well as electrochemical and pitting corrosion in sea water and discuss an electrochemical method, based on the effect of the pH value on the solution potential, which they find determines corrosion resistance under the given conditions more quickly and efficiently than existing methods.

Korovin, Yu.M.

1987-03-01

153

Oxidation resistance of sintered stainless steels: effect of yttria additions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The porosity of sintered stainless steels modifies their oxidation behavior, as compared to that of wrought stainless steels. This work studies the oxidation behavior of three sintered stainless steels: one ferritic (AISI 434L) and two austenitic (AISI 316L and 304L). 304L with yttria additions is also been studied to explore the possibility of reducing the oxidation rate of austenitic stainless

A Bautista; F Velasco; J Abenojar

2003-01-01

154

Duplex stainless steels for osteosynthesis devices.  

PubMed

The austenitic stainless steels used today for the manufacture of osteosynthesis devices are sensitive to crevice corrosion. In this study the corrosion properties of some duplex stainless steels were evaluated and compared to traditional austenitic stainless steels. According to our results the following ranking was established: 23Cr-4Ni less than AISI 316L less than ASTM F138 less than 22Cr-5Ni-3Mo less than 27Cr-31Ni-3.5Mo less than 25Cr-7Ni-4Mo-N. In particular the results showed that the high-performance 25Cr-7Ni-4Mo-N duplex stainless steel, with high molybdenum and nitrogen contents, can be considered not susceptible to crevice corrosion in the human body. The duplex stainless steels have also better mechanical properties at the same degree of cold working compared with austenitic stainless steels. Hence the 25Cr-7Ni-4Mo-N duplex stainless steel can be considered a convenient substitute of ASTM F138 for orthopedic and osteosynthesis devices. PMID:2777835

Cigada, A; Rondelli, G; Vicentini, B; Giacomazzi, M; Roos, A

1989-09-01

155

Corrosion of stainless steel, 2. edition  

SciTech Connect

The book describes corrosion characteristics in all the major and minor groups of stainless steels, namely, in austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, duplex, and precipitation hardenable steels. Several chapters are spent on those special forms of corrosion that are investigated in the great detail in stainless steels, namely, pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking. The influences of thermal treatment (heat affected zone cases), composition, and microstructure on corrosion are given good coverage. Corrosive environments include high temperature oxidation, sulfidation as well as acids, alkalis, various different petroleum plant environments, and even human body fluids (stainless steels are commonly used prosthetic materials).

Sedriks, A.J.

1996-10-01

156

Mechanism of dissimilar metal crevice corrosion of superferritic stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

Superferritic stainless steels (SS) can suffer from dissimilar metal crevice (DMC) corrosion when part of a crevice with certain other stainless alloys. For example, UNS S44735 is attacked when part of a crevice with type 316 SS (UNS S30400). To understand this phenomenon better, solutions which form inside such crevices were collected and analyzed with ion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis for their metal ion content. These analyses provided the data required to design bulk solutions for electrochemical kinetics measurements. Electrochemical measurements in these simulated crevice solutions were compared to measurements made in simple hydrochloric acid solutions. The simulated crevice solutions were much more aggressive toward the materials than the simple HCl solutions. The superferritic SS was depassivated more easily in the simulated crevice solutions and exhibited a much larger active-to-passive transition in these solutions. In HCl solutions of the same pH, the superferritic SS passivated quite easily and could be depassivated only with great difficulty. These results were used to rationalize the observations of DMC corrosion of UNS S44735 when part of a crevice with type 316 SS and the failure of electrochemical measurements in simple HCl solutions to predict this attack. The origin of the specificity of the alloys that cause DMC corrosion of UNSS44735 was explained in terms of the effect of alloyed molybdenum on electrode kinetics of these alloys in the critical crevice solution. The roles of ohmic drop and chloride ion concentration on the initiation and propagation of DMC corrosion also were considered.

Salamat, G.; Juhl, G.A.; Kelly, R.G. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

1995-11-01

157

Investigation on the adsorption of alkoxysilanes on stainless steel.  

PubMed

Alkoxysilanes, and mainly trialkoxysilanes, have been widely used as coupling agents on metallic surfaces. They are of interest mainly because they form a water-stable covalent bond with a surface composed of hydroxides. The grafting of these molecules should also give rise to the formation of a siloxane network at the substrate's surface. However, only a few studies examine stainless steel substrate, such as AISI 316L, for which the main difficulty is the low surface reactivity. In order to improve the silane anchoring, a prehydrolysis of the alkoxysilane was performed to transform the methoxy groups into silanol groups. This reaction happened in an aqueous medium and at a controlled pH, which impacted the prehydrolysis efficiency. Curing followed this step, which allows the grafting of the alkoxysilane on stainless steel's surface. Polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) was performed in order to identify the grafting of the silane molecules. Tests were made to compare the grafting of alkoxysilanes as a function of their functional groups and their prehydrolysis conditions. PM-IRRAS coupled with atomic force microscopy allowed the observation of the grafting of the studied alkoxysilanes. The nature of the remaining functional group (its ability to react with polymer, for example) of the alkoxysilane plays a major role in this process, since its chemical nature influences the grafting mechanism. PMID:24160883

Huser, Julien; Bistac, Sophie; Brogly, Maurice; Delaite, Christelle; Lasuye, Thierry; Stasik, Bernard

2013-11-01

158

Behavior of type 304 and type 316 austenitic stainless in 55% lithium bromide heavy brine environments  

SciTech Connect

Cylindrical tensile specimens of AISI type 304 (UNS S30400) and type 316 (UNS S31600) stainless steels (SS) were tested under constant-load conditions in 55% lithium bromide (LiBr) heavy brines at temperatures of 120 C and 140 C. Elongation and open-circuit potential (OCP) were recorded during the tensile test. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements were conducted, and the failed surface fractures were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The tested SS were subjected to stress corrosion under the test environments. Sensitivity was affected strongly by pH values. In LiBr brine of pH = 11.6, the passivation processes were more effective than in brine of pH = 6 [approximately] 8. Because of effective passivation behavior in brine of pH = 11.6, lower values of [delta]l[sub 0] were measured, indicating lower dislocation relaxation processes and high resistance to stress corrosion cracking.

Itzhak, D.; Elias, O. (Ben-Gurion Univ., Beer-Sheva (Israel). Dept. of Materials Engineering)

1994-02-01

159

Warm Press Forming of Stainless Steel Sheets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of 'warm press forming' on the press formability of stainless steel sheets in deep drawing and restriking was studied. The result indicates that the press formability of both austenitic and ferritic steels is markedly improved by the compositio...

1985-01-01

160

Characteristics of Cold Rolled Stainless Steel Sheets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cold rolling of sheets of austenitic stainless steel was investigated for different temperatures and percentages of reduction. It was also established under which conditions are the mechanical strenght and the ductility improved. It was found that thi...

I. de Cerqueira Abud D. Soares S. N. Monteiro

1976-01-01

161

Ultrasonic Testing of Austenitic Stainless Steel Welds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ultrasonic testing of austenitic stainless steel welds has been considered difficult because of the high noise level and remarkable attenuation of ultrasonic waves. To improve flaw detectability in this kind of steel, various inspection techniques have be...

S. Nishino Y. Hida M. Yamamoto T. Ando T. Shirai

1982-01-01

162

Nonmetallic Inclusions in JBK-75 Stainless Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Stainless steel alloys that are chemically complex, such as A-286 or JBK-75, are designed to improve such high-temperature properties as strength. This is accomplished by precipitating secondary phases during aging. Such multicomponent systems, however, c...

A. W. Brewer R. W. Krenzer J. H. Doyle D. H. Riefenberg

1977-01-01

163

Copper-Nickel Cladding on Stainless Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Copper-nickel cladding on conventional and super-austenitic stainless steel has proved effective in reducing maintenance (from biofouling, reapplication of anti-fouling coatings, and corrosion) for various small ferries, tankers, and ships in Europe and N...

D. A. Shifler

2005-01-01

164

Accelerated electrochemical MIC test for stainless alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Previous work in our laboratory and elsewhere has suggested that microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of stainless steels and nickel-base alloys occurs in locally anaerobic regions that support the growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The cathodic...

T. S. Gendron R. D. Cleland

1994-01-01

165

Grain Growth in Austenitic Stainless Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Despite the extensive use of Type 347 stainless steel tubing for regeneratively cooled thrust chambers, very little is known about its grain growth characteristics. Lacking, also, is information on the other 18 Cr 8 Ni austenitic steels. Therefore, grain ...

J. K. Stanley A. J. Perrotta

1969-01-01

166

Lowcycle fatigue behavior on duplex stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steels are used predominantly for their corrosion resistance in moderate to highly aggressive environments. For\\u000a construction purposes, engineers normally select carbon steel due to low cost, long experience, applicable design rules and\\u000a a large variety of strength classes. However, different stainless steel types can also provide a very wide range of mechanical\\u000a properties and they have the advantage of

I. Alvarez-Armas

2010-01-01

167

Are the stainless steel electrodes inert?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrodes used for electroporation, electrofusion, and electrotransfection, as well as in electrochemotherapy should not interact with the object and release electrolysis products. We studied how far the stainless steel electrodes fulfil these requirements. The results showed that in the case of the exponential electric pulses with amplitude of 3 kV cm?1 and time constant of 0.5 ms, the stainless

T. Tomov; I. Tsoneva

2000-01-01

168

Impedance properties of stainless steel needle electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We here present experimental findings on the stability of impedance properties of stainless steel needle electrodes in-vitro.\\u000a Impedance spectra were measured with a 0.3 mm medical grade stainless steel needle electrode in vitro before and after electrolytic\\u000a treatment. These first results show large changes in impedance properties both after electrolytic treatment and long-term\\u000a saline exposure. The electrode polarization impedance of

H. Kalvy; B. Nordbotten; C. Tronstad; . G. Martinsen; S. Grimnes

169

Properties of HIPed stainless steel powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current design of ITER primary wall, 316LN stainless steel is the reference structural material. Austenitic stainless steel is used for water-cooling channels and structures. As material data on hot isostatic pressed (HIP) 316LN were not available in open literature and from powder producers, the main properties of unirradiated samples have been measured in CEA\\/CEREM. Fully dense material without

Ch. Dellis; G. Le Marois; J. M. Gentzbittel; G. Robert; F. Moret

1996-01-01

170

PhET: Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page contains links to published research articles relating to the Physics Education Technology Project (PhET). This project provides technology-based resources and information for physics education, most notably, simulations on a wide range of topics including Newton's Laws, electricity, waves, light, and quantum physics. The simulations are developed in conjunction with careful research to enhance their effectiveness as learning tools.

Project, The P.

2009-02-10

171

Stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steels in caustic solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Duplex stainless steels (DSS) with roughly equal amount of austenite and ferrite phases are being used in industries such as petrochemical, nuclear, pulp and paper mills, de-salination plants, marine environments, and others. However, many DSS grades have been reported to undergo corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in some aggressive environments such as chlorides and sulfide-containing caustic solutions. Although stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steels in chloride solution has been investigated and well documented in the literature but the SCC mechanisms for DSS in caustic solutions were not known. Microstructural changes during fabrication processes affect the overall SCC susceptibility of these steels in caustic solutions. Other environmental factors, like pH of the solution, temperature, and resulting electrochemical potential also influence the SCC susceptibility of duplex stainless steels. In this study, the role of material and environmental parameters on corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steels in caustic solutions were investigated. Changes in the DSS microstructure by different annealing and aging treatments were characterized in terms of changes in the ratio of austenite and ferrite phases, phase morphology and intermetallic precipitation using optical micrography, SEM, EDS, XRD, nano-indentation and microhardness methods. These samples were then tested for general and localized corrosion susceptibility and SCC to understand the underlying mechanisms of crack initiation and propagation in DSS in the above-mentioned environments. Results showed that the austenite phase in the DSS is more susceptible to crack initiation and propagation in caustic solutions, which is different from that in the low pH chloride environment where the ferrite phase is the more susceptible phase. This study also showed that microstructural changes in duplex stainless steels due to different heat treatments could affect their SCC susceptibility. Annealed and water quenched specimens were found to be immune to SCC in caustic environment. Aging treatment at 800C gave rise to sigma and chi precipitates in the DSS. However, these sigma and chi precipitates, known to initiate cracking in DSS in chloride environment did not cause any cracking of DSS in caustic solutions. Aging of DSS at 475C had resulted in '475C embrittlement' and caused cracks to initiate in the ferrite phase. This was in contrast to the cracks initiating in the austenite phase in the as-received DSS. Alloy composition and microstructure of DSS as well as solution composition (dissolved ionic species) was also found to affect the electrochemical behavior and passivation of DSS which in turn plays a major role in stress corrosion crack initiation and propagation. Corrosion rates and SCC susceptibility of DSS was found to increase with addition of sulfide to caustic solutions. Corrosion films on DSS, characterized using XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, indicated that the metal sulfide compounds were formed along with oxides at the metal surface in the presence of sulfide containing caustic environments. These metal sulfide containing passive films are unstable and hence breaks down under mechanical straining, leading to SCC initiations. The overall results from this study helped in understanding the mechanism of SCC in caustic solutions. Favorable slip systems in the austenite phase of DSS favors slip-induced local film damage thereby initiating a stress corrosion crack. Repeated film repassivation and breaking, followed by crack tip dissolution results in crack propagation in the austenite phase of DSS alloys. Result from this study will have a significant impact in terms of identifying the alloy compositions, fabrication processes, microstructures, and environmental conditions that may be avoided to mitigate corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of DSS in caustic solutions.

Bhattacharya, Ananya

172

Kawasaki Steel Technical Report No. 14, March 1986. Special Issue on Stainless Steels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: Manufacturing process and properties of stainless steels; Progress in stainless steel production by top and bottom blown converter; Production of high grade stainless steels; New equipment for improvement of stainless steel casting qual...

1986-01-01

173

Aging degradation of cast stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

A program is being conducted to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast-duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. Data from room-temperature Charpy-impact tests for several heats of cast stainless steel aged up to 10,000 h at 350, 400, and 450/sup 0/C are presented and compared with results from other studies. Microstructures of cast-duplex stainless steels subjected to long-term aging either in the laboratory or in reactor service have been characterized. The results indicate that at least two processes contribute to the low-temperature embrittleent of duplex stainless steels, viz., weakening of the ferrite/austenite phase boundary by carbide precipitation and embrittlement of ferrite matrix by the formation of additional phases such as G-phase, Type X, or the ..cap alpha..' phase. Carbide precipitation has a significant effect on the onset of embrittlement of CF-8 and -8M grades of stainless steels aged at 400 or 450/sup 0/C. The existing correlations do not accurately represent the embrittlement behavior over the temperature range 300 to 450/sup 0/C. 18 refs., 13 figs.

Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.

1985-10-01

174

Semiconducting properties of passive films formed on stainless steels: Influence of the alloying elements  

SciTech Connect

Passive films formed on stainless steels in a borate buffer solution (pH 9.2) have been investigated by capacitance measurements and photoelectrochemistry. The study was carried out on films formed on AISI type 304 and 316 stainless steels and high purity alloys with differing chromium, nickel, and molybdenum contents. Complementary research by Auger analysis shows that the passive films are composed essentially of an inner chromium region in contact with the metallic substrate and an outer iron oxide region developed at the film/electrolyte interface. The semiconducting properties of the passive films are determined by those of the constituent chromium and iron oxides which are of p-type and n-type, respectively. Thus the influence of the alloying elements on the semiconducting properties of the passive films is explained by changes in the electronic structure of each of these two oxide regions.

Hakiki, N.E.; Belo, M.D.C. [CNRS, Vitry-sur-Seine (France). Centre d`Etudes de Chimie Metallurgique; Simoes, A.M.P.; Ferreira, M.G.S. [Inst. Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

1998-11-01

175

Surface Modified Stainless Steels for PEM Fuel Cell Bipolar Plates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A nitridation treated stainless steel article (such as a bipolar plate for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell) having lower interfacial contact electrical resistance and better corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel article is disclosed....

M. P. Brady H. Wang J. A. Turner

2005-01-01

176

Quantitative Modeling of Sensitization Development in Austenitic Stainless Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Stainless steel is the most versatile, corrosion-resistant alloy for engineering structures. Applications encompass a wide range of temperatures from cryogenic to elevated and stainless steels are used in various industries including power production, che...

S. M. Bruemmer

1989-01-01

177

The Corrosion Behavior of Selected Stainless Steels in Soil Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to obtain more definitive information regarding the corrosion and stress corrosion of stainless steels in soil environments, NBS in cooperation with the Committee of Stainless Steel producers, AISI, initiated in 1970 a soil burial program in repr...

W. F. Gerhold E. Escalante B. T. Sanderson

1981-01-01

178

21 CFR 878.4495 - Stainless steel suture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4495 Stainless steel...is a needled or unneedled nonabsorbable surgical suture composed of 316L stainless...Special Controls Guidance Document: Surgical Sutures; Guidance for Industry and...

2013-04-01

179

Thermophysical properties of stainless steel foils  

SciTech Connect

Evacuated panel superinsulations with very high center-of-panel thermal resistances are being developed for use in refrigerators/freezers. Attainment of high resistances relies upon the maintenance of low vacuum levels by the use of stainless steel vacuum jackets. However, the metal jackets also present a path for heat conduction around the high resistance fillers. This paper presents results of a study of the impact of metal vacuum jackets on the overall thermal performance of vacuum superinsulations when incorporated into the walls and doors of refrigerators/freezers. Results are presented on measurements of the thermophysical properties of several types and thicknesses of stainless steel foils that were being considered for application in superinsulations. A direct electrical heating method was used for simultaneous measurements of the electrical resistivity, total hemispherical emittance, and thermal conductivity of the foils. Results are also presented on simulations of the energy usage of refrigerators/freezers containing stainless-steel-clad vacuum superinsulations.

Wilkes, K.E.; Strizak, J.P.; Weaver, F.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Besser, J.E.; Smith, D.L. [Aladdin Industries, Inc. (United States)

1997-10-01

180

Metal dissolution and maximum stress during SCC process of ferritic (type 430) and austenitic (type 304 and type 316) stainless steels in acidic chloride solutions under constant applied stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using a constant load method and inductive coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometer, the metal dissolution and maximum stress (?mair) of type 430 ferritic stainless, and type 304 and type 316 austenitic stainless steels during stress corrosion cracking (SCC) process were investigated under a constant applied stress condition in 0.82 kmol\\/m3 hydrochloric acid (HCl) and 0.82 kmol\\/m3 acidic chloride (pH 1.0)

Rokuro Nishimura; Yasuaki Maeda

2004-01-01

181

Ultralight Stainless Steel Urban Bus Concept  

SciTech Connect

While stainless steel buses are certainly not new, this study reveals opportunities for substantial improvements in structural performance.The objective of this project was to investigate the mass saving potential of ultra-high strength stainless steel as applied to the structure of a full size urban transit bus.The resulting design for a low floor,hybrid bus has an empty weight less than half that of a conventional transit bus.The reduced curb weight allows for a greater payload,without exceeding legal axle limits. A combination of finite element modeling and dynamic testing of scale models was used to predict structural performance.

J. Bruce Emmons; Leonard J. Blessing

2001-05-14

182

BUCKLING REDUCTION FACTORS FOR STAINLESS STEEL SHELL STRUCTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The material behaviour of stainless steel strongly differs from that of mild steel beyond the proportional limit. Consequently, the buckling behaviour of mild steel structures and stainless steel structures will differ from each other in so far as for any given stainless steel structure of medium slenderness, i.e. belonging to the 'elastic-plastic' region, the buckling capacity is lower than for

K. T. Hautala

183

78 FR 21417 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-1201 (Final)] Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China Determinations On the basis...reason of imports of drawn stainless steel sinks from China, provided for in subheading...Commerce that imports of drawn stainless steel sinks from China were subsidized within the...

2013-04-10

184

Stressstrain curves for stainless steel at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the mechanical properties data of stainless steel at elevated temperatures. Accurate prediction of the material properties of stainless steel at elevated temperatures is necessary for determining the load-carrying capacity of structures under fire conditions. However, full utilization of the special feature of stainless steel has not been possible due to lack of technique data on the fire

Ju Chen; Ben Young

2006-01-01

185

Precipitate modification in PH13-8 Mo type maraging steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of precipitates in PH13-8 Mo type stainless maraging steel alloyed with Cu was investigated during aging at 525C. Atom probe tomography was used to follow the evolution of precipitates with respect to type and chemical composition. It was found that Cu modifies the precipitation sequence in such alloys. Instead of Ni3(Ti,Al) and G-phase the formation of NiAl and

H. Leitner; R. Schnitzer; M. Schober; S. Zinner

2011-01-01

186

Impact of Graphite Gasket\\/Duplex Stainless Steel Couples on Crevice Chemistry and the Likelihood of Crevice Attack in Seawater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crevice corrosion in seawater usually is assumed to be induced by attainment of a critical solution chemistry. Electrochemical polarization measurements were made on a graphite laminate gasket and a super-duplex stainless steel (DSS) in deaerated 1M sodium chloride (NaCl) solution over a range of pH. The open-circuit potential of the graphite was significantly more noble than that of the DSS,

A. Turnbull

1999-01-01

187

Hydrogen embrittlement of duplex stainless steel under cathodic protection in acidic artificial sea water in the presence of sulphide ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

By slow strain rate technique, hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of a 2205 duplex stainless steel was studied in deaerated acidic (pH6.5) artificial sea water, in the absence and in presence of sulphide ions (130ppm). Strain rate tests (110?6s?1) were performed on specimens polarized at ?0.9; ?1.0 and ?1.2VSCE at 250.1C. HE was evaluated by R, the ratio between the % elongation

F. Zucchi; V. Grassi; C. Monticelli; G. Trabanelli

2006-01-01

188

Stress corrosion cracking of type 321 stainless steels in simulated petrochemical process environments containing hydrogen sulfide and chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of type 321 stainless steel (type 321s) in a simulated petrochemical process environment containing hydrogen sulfide and chloride (20wt.% NaCl+0.01M Na2S2O3, pH 2) was assessed using the slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) test and static load (U-bend) tests at the free corrosion potentials. In the SSRT, effects of environmental factors, such as chloride

Y. Y. Chen; Y. M. Liou; H. C. Shih

2005-01-01

189

Thermal creep properties of alloy D9 stainless steel and 316 stainless steel fuel clad tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uniaxial thermal creep rupture properties of 20% cold worked alloy D9 stainless steel (alloy D9 SS) fuel clad tubes for fast breeder reactors have been evaluated at 973K in the stress range 125250MPa. The rupture lives were in the range 908100h. The results are compared with the properties of 20% cold worked type 316 stainless steel (316 SS) clad tubes.

S. Latha; M. D. Mathew; P. Parameswaran; K. Bhanu Sankara Rao; S. L. Mannan

2008-01-01

190

Amorphous stainless steel coatings prepared by reactive magnetron-sputtering from austenitic stainless steel targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steel films were reactively magnetron sputtered in argon\\/methane gas flow onto oxidized silicon wafers using austenitic\\u000a stainless-steel targets. The deposited films of about 200nm thickness were characterized by conversion electron Mssbauer\\u000a spectroscopy, magnetooptical Kerr-effect, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry,\\u000a atomic force microscopy, corrosion resistance tests, and Raman spectroscopy. These complementary methods were used for a detailed

Salvatore Cusenza; Peter Schaaf

2009-01-01

191

Outgassing of thin wall stainless steel chamber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steel with its unique mechanical properties is the most frequently used material for manufacturing of vacuum chambers and components. Its disadvantage is hydrogen outgassing which makes obtaining of ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) troublesome. Vacuum annealing, prolonged in situ bake out, air bake, low-permeable coatings, and other, usually expensive methods, are applied to reduce the outgassing rate and the concentration of

V Nemani?; T Bogataj

1998-01-01

192

Nanoscopic studies of stainless steel electropolishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoscopic AFM studies of electrobrightening of stainless steel show that, under well defined experimental conditions, a regular network of hexagonal cells (100nm wide) can be observed at the surface of this alloy as it was at the electropolished aluminium surface. Its origin is tentatively attributed to an electroconvection process occurring at the metal\\/electrolyte interface.

V Vignal; J. C Roux; S Flandrois; A Fevrier

2000-01-01

193

The martensite transformation in stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleation of the low temperature h.c.p. and b.c.c. ? phases produced by deformation in a 304 stainless steel has been studied by transmission electron microscopy. The phase has been found to be an intermediate phase in the nucleation of ? martensite from the austenitic matrix.

J. A. Venables

1962-01-01

194

Stress corrosion cracking of stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The similarities and differences in the stress corrosion cracking response of ferritic and austenitic stainless steels in chloride solutions will be examined. Both classes of materials exhibit a cracking potential: similar transient response (to loading) of the potential in open circuit tests or the current in potentiostatic tests and similar enrichment of chromium and depletion of iron in the film

R. F. Hehemann

1985-01-01

195

Copper metallization of stainless steels. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steel plates were vacuum metallized with pure copper films 0.004 inch thick. Prior to metallization the surfaces were cleaned with EPA-approved detergents. A thin layer of chromium was sputtered for improved adhesion followed by sputtering of the copper. Results showed excellent adhesion of the sputtered films to the substrates.

Rosenblum, B.Z.

1994-09-01

196

Thermal solidification of stainless steelmaking dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steelmaking dust makes an environmental problem in the disposal or landfills and has been assigned as a hazardous waste by various government regulatory agencies because it leaches heavy metals to the groundwater or rainwater in the concentrations exceeding the environmental guidelines for solid waste disposal. Solidification of the dust is to stabilize the hazardous components into amorphous silica-alumina-based clays.

Mo-tang TANG; Ji PENG; Bing PENG; Di YU; Chao-bo TANG

2008-01-01

197

Hot rolling simulations of austenitic stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic, static and metadynamic recrystallization behavior of austenitic stainless steel during hot rolling was analyzed. In this approach, each of those recrystallization behaviors is described by appropriate kinetics equations. The critical strain for dynamic recrystallization was determined so that a distinction could be made between static and metadynamic recrystallization; then the amounts of strain accumulation compared with the critical

Sang-Hyun Cho; Yeon-Chul Yoo

2001-01-01

198

Ultrasonic properties of austenitic stainless steel welds  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation were made on welded austenitic stainless steel specimens, and data correlated to flaw detectability. Measurements were made at 2.25 MHz for both longitudinal and shear waves as functions of propagation and polarization directions. The results of ultrasonic velocity measurements show that, in stainless steel welds, a high degree of anisotropy exists with respect to ultrasonic wave propagation: for different propagation and polarization directions, shear wave velocities varied from 2.8 to 4.2 mm/..mu..s compared to 3.1 mm ..mu..s for base material, and longitudinal wave velocities varied from 5.5 to 6.0 mm/..mu..s compared to 5.9 mm ..mu..s for base material. Measurements of reflected signals from simulated defects in a welded stainless steel plate indicate that, for 45-degree angle beams, longitudinal waves exhibit larger signal-to-noise ratios than shear waves. Horizontally polarized shear waves exhibit larger signal-to-noise ratios than shear waves. Horizontally polarized shear waves exhibit larger signal-to-noise ratios than commonly used vertically polarized shear waves at 45-degrees. These results have potential significance for practical ultrasonic examination of welded stainless steel structures.

Lott, L.A.

1980-05-01

199

GRAPHITE-STAINLESS STEEL COMPATIBILITY STUDIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

S>The compatibility of type 304L stainless steel in intimate contact ; with graphite is being studied as a function of temperature and contact pressure. ; This study is an outgrowth of materials compatibility problems in present and ; advanced gas-cooled reactors, where structural members in direct contact with ; graphite provide the possibility of both carburization and self-welding. Initial ;

B. Fleischer; J. H. DeVan; J. H. Coobs

1962-01-01

200

Nonmetallic inclusions in JBK-75 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steel alloys that are chemically complex, such as A-286 or JBK-75, are designed to improve such high-temperature properties as strength. This is accomplished by precipitating secondary phases during aging. Such multicomponent systems, however, can also produce undesirable phases that are detrimental to forgeability and final mechanical properties. Cast segregation and numerous nonmetallic inclusions can have a degrading influence on

A. W. Brewer; R. W. Krenzer; J. H. Doyle; D. H. Riefenberg

1977-01-01

201

Fracture Toughness of Stainless Steel Welds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of temperature, composition and weld-process variations on the fracture toughness behavior for Types 308 and 16-8-2 stainless steel (SS) welds were examined using the multiple-specimen J/sub R/-curve procedure. Fracture characteristics were fo...

W. J. Mills

1985-01-01

202

Sintered Cu Alloyed Stainless Steels and Their Corrosion Behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper is an effective element to activate the sintering process of stainless steels and to enhance corrosion resistance of the sintered specimens. Ways of introducing Cu into stainless steel powders lead to different consequence in the microstructure and corrosion behavior of sintered Cu alloyed stainless steel. In the present work, two methods, mixing Cu with stainless steel powder and coating stainless steel powder with Cu by electroless plating, were introduced in order to investigate their influence on the sintered specimens. It was found that the sintered specimens from Cu-coated stainless steel powders (1-5 wt.%Cu) produce less porous surfaces with isolated pores than the specimens from mixed powders and the former have obviously high density and relatively even Cu distribution. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements indicate that Cu-electroless plating of 1-5 wt.%Cu improves the corrosion resistance of sintered stainless steel due to the lowering of passivation current density.

Wang, Jun'an; He, Ying; He, Peng; Zhou, Bangxin

2008-10-01

203

PH as a stress signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pH of the xylem sap of plants experiencing a range of environmental conditions can increase by over a whole pH unit. This results in an increased ABA concentration in the apoplast adjacent to the stomatal guard cells in the leaf epidermis, by reducing the ability of the mesophyll and epidermal symplast to sequester ABA away from this compartment. As

Sally Wilkinson

1999-01-01

204

The pH Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a game that can be used to teach students about the acidity of liquids and substances around their school and enable them to understand what pH levels tell us about the environment. Students collect samples and measure the pH of water, soil, plants, and other natural material. (DDR)

Chemecology, 1996

1996-01-01

205

The pH Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a game that can be used to teach students about the acidity of liquids and substances around their school and enable them to understand what pH levels tell us about the environment. Students collect samples and measure the pH of water, soil, plants, and other natural material. (DDR)|

Chemecology, 1996

1996-01-01

206

Chromium and nickel aerosols in stainless steel manufacturing, grinding and welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composition, morphology and solubility of chromium and nickel in fumes from stainless steel manufacturing, based on ferrochrome, and in dusts from grinding of stainless steel, were studied. The results were compared with corresponding analyses of stainless steel welding fumes. In fumes from the melting of ferrochrome and stainless steel, as well as in dusts from the grinding of stainless steel,

MATTI KOPONEN; TOM GUSTAFSSON; PIRKKO-LIISA KALLIOMKI; LAURI PYY

1981-01-01

207

Phase Transformation in Cast Superaustenitic Stainless Steels  

SciTech Connect

Superaustenitic stainless steels constitute a group of Fe-based alloys that are compositionally balanced to have a purely austenitic matrix and exhibit favorable pitting and crevice corrosion resistant properties and mechanical strength. However, intermetallic precipitates such as sigma and Laves can form during casting or exposure to high-temperature processing, which degrade the corrosion and mechanical properties of the material. The goal of this study was to accurately characterize the solid-solid phase transformations seen in cast superaustenitic stainless steels. Heat treatments were performed to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formations in alloys CN3MN and CK3MCuN. Microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, WDS). The equilibrium microstructures, composed primarily of sigma and Laves within purely austenitic matrices, showed slow transformation kinetics. Factors that determine the extent of transformation, including diffusion, nucleation, and growth, are discussed.

Nathaniel Steven Lee Phillips

2006-12-12

208

Atmospheric crevice corrosion of stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

Crevice corrosion of stainless steels such as high-strength 08X15H5{Pi}2T, 06X14H6{Pi}2M{Pi}T, 03X10H11M2T, 03X12H10MT, 03X9H9K5m3, 13X11H2B2M{Phi}, 20X13, 40X13, 95X18, and 12X18H10T steels has been studied in salt spray fog, using specially designed specimens. The steels were subdivided into three groups according to crevice corrosion resistance. A test solution containing NaCl and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} has been elaborated for fast determination of susceptibility of stainless steels to crevice corrosion.

Belous, V.Ya.; Gurvich, L.Ya.; Erofeeva, V.L. [and others

1995-03-01

209

Metallurgical evaluation of recycled stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

Recycled Type 304 stainless steel from both Carolina Metals Inc. (CMI) and Manufacturing Science Corporation (MSC) met all the requirements of ASTM A-240 required by Procurement Specification G-SPP-K-00005 Rev. 4. Mechanical strength and corrosion resistance of the material are adequate for service as burial boxes, overpacks, and drums. Inclusion content of both manufacturer`s material was high, resulting in a corresponding decrease in the corrosion resistance. Therefore, an evaluation of the service conditions should be performed before this material is approved for other applications. These heats of stainless steel are not suitable for fabricating DWPF glass canisters because the inclusion and carbon contents are high. However, MSC has recently installed a vacuum induction furnace capable of producing L grade material with a low inclusion content. Material produced from this furnace should be suitable for canister material if appropriate care is taken during the melting/casting process.

Imrich, K.J.

1997-01-22

210

Effect of ferrite on cast stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

Premature failure of stainless steel castings in bleach washing service is attributed to poor casting quality high porosity and to a high ferrite content, which makes the castings susceptible to corrosion by hot acid chloride solutions. A survey of the chemical compositions and ferrite contents of corrosion-resistant castings in bleach plants at three pulp mills found high [delta]-ferrite levels in the austenitic matrix due to the improper balance between austenite and ferrite stabilizers.

Nadezhdin, A.; Cooper, K. (Noranda Technology Centre, Pointe Claire, Quebec (Canada)); Timbers, G. (James Maclaren Inc., Quebec (Canada). Kraft Pulp Division)

1994-09-01

211

The martensite phases in 304 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed analysis of martensite transformations in 18\\/8 (304) stainless steel, utilizing transmission electron microscopy\\u000a and diffraction in conjunction with X-ray and magnetization techniques, has established that the sequence of transformation\\u000a is ? ? ? ? ?. ? is a thermodynamically stable hcp phase whose formation is greatly enhanced as a result of plastic deformation.\\u000a Comparison with the ? ?

Pat L. Mangonon; Gareth Thomas

1970-01-01

212

Corrosion Behavior of Stainless Steel Clad Rebar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steel clad rebar (SCR) was investigated because it may become a cost-effective means of controlling corrosion in concrete under very aggressive environments. Sound SCR (316L cladding) resisted corrosion in saturated Ca(OH) 2 solution (SCS) with up to 5 wt% chloride. Cladding breaks on SCR induced significant corrosion of exposed underlying CS in SCS with only 1 wt% chloride. A

Fushuang Cui; Alberto Sagues; Rodney G. Powers

2001-01-01

213

Aging degradation of cast stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program is being conducted to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. Microstructures of cast materials subjected to long-term aging either in reactor service or in the laboratory have been characterized by TEM, SANS, and APFIM techniques. Two precipitate phases, i.e., the Cr-rich ..cap alpha..' and Ni- and Si-rich G

O. K. Chopra; H. M. Chung

1986-01-01

214

Measuring secondary phases in duplex stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of duplex stainless steels is limited by their susceptibility to the formation of dangerous intermetallic phases resulting\\u000a in detrimental effects on impact toughness and corrosion resistance. This precipitation and the quantitative determinations\\u000a of the phases have received considerable attention and different precipitation sequences (? phase, ? phase, and carbides)\\u000a have been suggested. This study investigates the phase transformation

I. Calliari; K. Brunelli; M. Dabal; E. Ramous

2009-01-01

215

Stress corrosion cracking of stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The similarities and differences in the stress corrosion cracking response of ferritic and austenitic stainless steels in\\u000a chloride solutions will be examined. Both classes of materials exhibit a cracking potential: similar transient response (to\\u000a loading) of the potential in open circuit tests or the current in potentiostatic tests and similar enrichment of chromium\\u000a and depletion of iron in the film

R. F. Hehemann

1985-01-01

216

Thermophysical properties of stainless steel foils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evacuated panel superinsulations with very high center-of-panel thermal resistances are being developed for use in refrigerators\\/freezers. Attainment of high resistances relies upon the maintenance of low vacuum levels by the use of stainless steel vacuum jackets. However, the metal jackets also present a path for heat conduction around the high resistance fillers. This paper presents results of a study of

K. E. Wilkes; J. P. Strizak; F. J. Weaver; J. E. Besser; D. L. Smith

1997-01-01

217

Powder injection molding 440C stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the processing steps for producing 440C stainless steel parts by means of powder injection molding technique\\u000a were investigated. The molded specimens were debinded by solvent debinding followed by thermal debinding methods and were\\u000a sintered under vacuum atmosphere. Effective densification took place in the temperature range 1,2301,240C in the sintering.\\u000a After heat treatment, specimens sintered at 1,240C for

Duxin Li; Haitao Hou; Lianghua Liang; Kun Lee

2010-01-01

218

The impedance of stainless-steel electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resistive and capacitive properties of stainless-steel electrodes in contact with saline solutions of various concentrations\\u000a were investigated over a frequency range extending from 20 to 10 kHz by using a variable-length conductivity cell. With a\\u000a low current density, the series-equivalent resistance and capacitance of a single electrode-electrolyte interface were found\\u000a to vary almost inversely as the square root of

L. A. Geddes; C. P. Da Costa; G. Wise

1971-01-01

219

Welding bimetal pipes in duplex stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Butting bimetal pipes in duplex stainless steel are quite recent and present a set of interesting characteristics especially\\u000a for oil and gas transportation, namely weight to corrosion resistance ratio. Gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding is used to join\\u000a these pipes, but several problems are identified as lack of penetration and cracking resulting not only from the material\\u000a itself, but also

A. M. Torbati; R. M. Miranda; L. Quintino; S. Williams

2011-01-01

220

Biologics formulation factors affecting metal leachables from stainless steel.  

PubMed

An area of increasing concern and scientific scrutiny is the potential contamination of drug products by leachables entering the product during manufacturing and storage. These contaminants may either have a direct safety impact on the patients or act indirectly through the alteration of the physicochemical properties of the product. In the case of biotherapeutics, trace amounts of metal contaminants can arise from various sources, but mainly from contact with stainless steel (ss). The effect of the various factors, buffer species, solution fill volume per unit contact surface area, metal chelators, and pH, on metal leachables from contact with ss over time were investigated individually. Three major metal leachables, iron, chromium, and nickel, were monitored by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry because they are the major components of 316L ss. Iron was primarily used to evaluate the effect of each factor since it is the most abundant. It was observed that each studied factor exhibited its own effect on metal leachables from contact with ss. The effect of buffer species and pH exhibited temperature dependence over the studied temperature range. The metal leachables decreased with the increased fill volume (mL) per unit contact ss surface area (cm(2)) but a plateau was achieved at approximately 3 mL/cm(2). Metal chelators produced the strongest effect in facilitating metal leaching. In order to minimize the metal leachables and optimize biological product stability, each formulation factor must be evaluated for its impact, to balance its risk and benefit in achieving the target drug product shelf life. PMID:21360314

Zhou, Shuxia; Schneich, Christian; Singh, Satish K

2011-03-01

221

Amorphous stainless steel coatings prepared by reactive magnetron-sputtering from austenitic stainless steel targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stainless steel films were reactively magnetron sputtered in argon/methane gas flow onto oxidized silicon wafers using austenitic stainless-steel targets. The deposited films of about 200 nm thickness were characterized by conversion electron Mssbauer spectroscopy, magneto-optical Kerr-effect, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, atomic force microscopy, corrosion resistance tests, and Raman spectroscopy. These complementary methods were used for a detailed examination of the carburization effects in the sputtered stainless-steel films. The formation of an amorphous and soft ferromagnetic phase in a wide range of the processing parameters was found. Further, the influence of the substrate temperature and of post vacuum-annealing were examined to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the carburization process and phase formation.

Cusenza, Salvatore; Schaaf, Peter

2009-01-01

222

PhET Simulation: Microwaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an interactive simulation on the topic of microwave radiation. Users adjust the frequency and amplitude of microwaves in an oven-shaped cavity and watch water molecules rotate, bounce, and behave as dipoles. They can view the microwave field as a wave, a single line of vectors, or the entire field. This item is part of a larger and growing collection by the Physics Education Technology Project (PhET). Each PhET resource was developed using principles from physics education research. SEE RELATED MATERIALS BELOW for an activity designed by the PhET team specifically for use with the Microwaves simulation.

2008-10-30

223

Sinter-hardening process applicable to stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: of this paper was to describe sintered duplex stainless steels manufactured in sinter-hardening process and its usability in field of stainless steels. Design\\/methodology\\/approach: In presented study duplex stainless steels were obtained through powder metallurgy starting from austenitic, ferritic base powders by controlled addition of alloying elements, such as Cr, Ni, Mo and Cu. In the studies apart from the

L. A. Dobrza?ski a; Z. Brytan; M. Rosso

224

Oxidation of high-aluminum austenitic stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyclical oxidation behavior of an austenitic stainless steel (24% Ni, 10% Cr, 5% Al, and balance Fe) has been evaluated in the temperature range 8001300C. The effects of trace elements such as S, Y, Zr, and Ti on the oxidation of the austenitic stainless steel have also been evaluated. The results indicate that Fe-Ni-Cr-Al stainless steels exhibit superior oxidation

Vijay Ramakrishnan; James A. McGurty; N. Jayaraman

1988-01-01

225

Mouse inflammatory response to stainless steel corrosion products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion occurs regularly following long-term implantation of stainless steel. Little is known about the inflammatory and immunological potential of stainless steel corrosion products. AISI 316L stainless steel was anodically dissolved in a physiologically solution, HBSS, through a chronoamperometric process by imposing an external constant current of 0.5 mA. The solution, containing 245 g of Fe, 112 g of Cr, 75

R. B. Tracana; J. P. Sousa; G. S. Carvalho

1994-01-01

226

Equation to estimate the surface tensions of stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface tension (?) data for both austenitic and ferritic stainless steels have been analysed to derive an equation which\\u000a will apply to the surface tensions of all stainless steels. It was assumed that the Al content was sufficient to hold the\\u000a soluble oxygen content down to 5 ppm. The surface tensions of stainless steels can be expressed in terms of

Y. Su; Z. Li; K. C. Mills

2005-01-01

227

Beneficial effects of nitrogen on austenite antibacterial stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen is a significant alloying element in austenite stainless steels. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effects of nitrogen on the microstructure and properties of austenite antibacterial stainless steels. Two austenite antibacterial stainless steels containing copper and different nitrogen concentration (0.02 and 0.08wt%, respectively) were fabricated. The microstructures and composition analysis were carried out using field emission

Z. X. Zhang; G. Lin; L. Z. Jiang; Z. Xu

2008-01-01

228

Exercise and Pulmonary Hypertension (PH)  

MedlinePLUS

... Yoamna and Scott's Wedding Fight for the Cause Online Sometimes its PH: An Early Diagnosis Campaign Raise Awareness with Your Social Networks Facebook Fundraising Volunteer Volunteer Form Volunteer Profiles ...

229

49 CFR 178.47 - Specification 4DS welded stainless steel cylinders for aircraft use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Specification 4DS welded stainless steel cylinders for aircraft use...47 Specification 4DS welded stainless steel cylinders for aircraft use...4DS cylinder is either a welded stainless steel sphere (two seamless...

2009-10-01

230

46 CFR 148.04-13 - Ferrous metal borings, shavings, turnings, or cuttings (excluding stainless steel).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...turnings, or cuttings (excluding stainless steel). 148.04-13 Section...turnings, or cuttings (excluding stainless steel). (a) This section...on board vessels (excluding stainless steel). However, unmanned...

2010-10-01

231

46 CFR 148.04-13 - Ferrous metal borings, shavings, turnings, or cuttings (excluding stainless steel).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...turnings, or cuttings (excluding stainless steel). 148.04-13 Section...turnings, or cuttings (excluding stainless steel). (a) This section...on board vessels (excluding stainless steel). However, unmanned...

2009-10-01

232

77 FR 58355 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Investigation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [C-570-984] Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic...duty investigations of drawn stainless steel sinks from the People's Republic...1\\ See Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's...

2012-09-20

233

49 CFR 178.47 - Specification 4DS welded stainless steel cylinders for aircraft use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Specification 4DS welded stainless steel cylinders for aircraft use...47 Specification 4DS welded stainless steel cylinders for aircraft use...4DS cylinder is either a welded stainless steel sphere (two seamless...

2010-10-01

234

76 FR 46323 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-798-803 (Second Review)] Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany...the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany...countervailing duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip from Korea...

2011-08-02

235

75 FR 30434 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan AGENCY...on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan...on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan...

2010-06-01

236

75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan AGENCY...on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan...on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan...

2010-09-28

237

75 FR 81309 - Stainless Steel Plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Stainless Steel Plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan AGENCY...on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan...on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan...

2010-12-27

238

77 FR 41754 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-570-983] Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China...investigation on drawn stainless steel sinks from the People's Republic of China...1\\ See Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of...

2012-07-16

239

77 FR 27437 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...C-570-984] Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China...investigation of drawn stainless steel sink from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks from the People's Republic of...

2012-05-10

240

76 FR 43981 - Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe from the People's Republic...austenitic stainless pressure pipe not greater than 14 inches...specifications; (2) boiler, heat exchanger, superheater, refining...Jiuli Welded Stainless Steel Pipe Co., Ltd.'',...

2011-07-22

241

76 FR 69292 - Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water...Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water...aging management of stainless steel structures and components exposed to treated...

2011-11-08

242

76 FR 74831 - Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water...Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water...aging management of stainless steel structures and components exposed to treated...

2011-12-01

243

78 FR 35253 - Welded Stainless Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...imports of welded stainless pipe from Malaysia, Thailand, and...exporters of welded stainless pipe from Malaysia: Amalgamated...Tan Timur Stainless Steel Dan Copper Sdn. Bhd.; Prestar Precision...Corporation Berhad; and Superinox Pipe Industry Sdn....

2013-06-12

244

78 FR 45271 - Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam Determination...materially injured by reason of imports from Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of welded stainless...welded stainless steel pressure pipe from Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam....

2013-07-26

245

PhEDEx Data Service  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PhEDEx Data Service provides access to information from the central PhEDEx database, as well as certificate-authenticated managerial operations such as requesting the transfer or deletion of data. The Data Service is integrated with the "SiteDB" service for fine-grained access control, providing a safe and secure environment for operations. A plug-in architecture allows server-side modules to be developed rapidly and easily by anyone familiar with the schema, and can automatically return the data in a variety of formats for use by different client technologies. Using HTTP access via the Data Service instead of direct database connections makes it possible to build monitoring web-pages with complex drill-down operations, suitable for debugging or presentation from many aspects. This will form the basis of the new PhEDEx website in the near future, as well as providing access to PhEDEx information and certificate-authenticated services for other CMS dataflow and workflow management tools such as CRAB, WMCore, DBS and the dashboard. A PhEDEx command-line client tool provides one-stop access to all the functions of the PhEDEx Data Service interactively, for use in simple scripts that do not access the service directly. The client tool provides certificate-authenticated access to managerial functions, so all the functions of the PhEDEx Data Service are available to it. The tool can be expanded by plug-ins which can combine or extend the client-side manipulation of data from the Data Service, providing a powerful environment for manipulating data within PhEDEx.

Egeland, Ricky; Wildish, Tony; Huang, Chih-Hao

2010-04-01

246

Electrochemical Studies of Passive Film Stability on Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4 Amorphous Metal in Seawater at 90oCElectrochemical Studies of Passive Film Stability on Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4 Amorphous Metal in Seawater at 9  

Microsoft Academic Search

An iron-based amorphous metal, Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4} (SAM2X5), with very good corrosion resistance was developed. This material was prepared as a melt-spun ribbon, as well as gas atomized powder and a thermal-spray coating. During electrochemical testing in several environments, including seawater at 90 C, the passive film stability was found to be comparable to

J C Farmer; J Haslam; S D Day; T Lian; C K Saw; P D Hailey; J S Choi; R B Rebak; N Yang; J H Payer; J H Perepezko; K Hildal; E J Lavernia; L Ajdelsztajn; D J Branagan; E J Buffa; L F Aprigliano

2007-01-01

247

Aging degradation of cast stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

A program is being conducted to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. Microstructures of cast materials subjected to long-term aging either in reactor service or in the laboratory have been characterized by TEM, SANS, and APFIM techniques. Two precipitate phases, i.e., the Cr-rich ..cap alpha..' and Ni- and Si-rich G phase, have been identified in the ferrite matrix of the aged steels. The results indicate that the low-temperature embrittlement is primarily caused by ..cap alpha..' precipitates which form by spinodal decomposition. The relative contribution of G phase to loss of toughness is now known. Microstructural data also indicate that weakening of ferrite/austenite phase boundary by carbide precipitates has a significant effect on the onset and extent of embrittlement of the high-carbon CF-8 and CF-8M grades of stainless steels, particularly after aging at 400 or 450/sup 0/C. Data from Charpy-impact, tensile, and J-R curve tests for several heats of cast stainless steel aged up to 10,000 h at 350, 400, and 450/sup 0/C are presented and correlated with the microstructural results. Thermal aging of the steels results in an increase in tensile strength and a decrease in impact energy, J/sub IC/, and tearing modulus. The fracture toughness results show good agreement with the Charpy-impact data. The effects of compositional and metallurgical variables on loss of toughness are discussed.

Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.

1986-10-01

248

Gas Atomization of Stainless Steel - Slow Motion  

ScienceCinema

Stainless steel liquid atomized by supersonic argon gas into a spray of droplets at ~1800C. Atomization of metal requires high pressure gas and specialized chambers for cooling and collecting the powders without contamination. The critical step for morphological control is the impingement of the gas on the melt stream. The video is a black and white high speed video of a liquid metal stream being atomized by high pressure gas. This material was atomized at the Ames Laboratory's Materials Preparation Center http://www.mpc.ameslab.gov

249

High Aluminum, Low Chromium Austenitic Stainless Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High aluminum, low chromium content austenitic stainless steel superalloys offer substantial cost savings for many applications at relatively high temperatures. The resulting protective Al2O3 adherent films provide an excellent oxidation resistance that is superior to that of commercially available alloys. In addition to the technological advantages gained through longer life in an oxidizing atmosphere, these alloys also show the dimensional stability that is desirable in high temperature furnace applications. Because of their aluminum content, the alloys are considerably less dense than commercial heat resistant alloys. The weight savings possible by using these alloys should be of interest to design engineers in aircraft propulsion and space power applications.

McGurty, J. A.; Nekkanti, R.; Moteff, J.

1986-05-01

250

Durable icephobic coating for stainless steel.  

PubMed

In this work, we present a modification of a stainless steel surface to impart superhydrophobic properties to it that are robust with respect to mechanical stresses associated with cyclic icing/deicing treatment, as well as to long-term contact with aqueous media and high humidity. The durability of the superhydrophobic state is ensured by the texture with multimodal roughness stable against mechanical stresses and a 2D polymer network of fluorooxysilane chemically bound to the texture elements. The designed superhydrophobic coating is characterized by contact angles exceeding 155 and a maximum rolling angle of 42 after 100 icing/deicing cycles. PMID:23470194

Boinovich, Ludmila B; Emelyanenko, Alexandre M; Ivanov, Vladimir K; Pashinin, Andrei S

2013-03-20

251

Formability Limits of a SPIFed Stainless Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single point incremental forming (SPIF) is a new cheep, flexible solution for manufacturing rapid prototypes and products with shorts series. Besides, it has been experimentally proven by different researchers that SPIF assures a higher formability than conventional sheet forming processes, enlarging thus its applicability. The aim of this paper is to examine the forming limits of a stainless steel when it is processed by SPIF. Since sheet thickness has an important role in this process, the analysis is performed for three different thicknesses of metal sheet: 0.8, 1 and 1.2 mm respectively.

Radu, Crina; Thibaud, Sebastian

2011-05-01

252

Superplastic deformation in two microduplex stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

The deformation behavior and mechanisms of superplastic flow in two microduplex stainless steels (SuperDux64 and Nitronic 19D) were studied at {similar_to}0.7T{sub m}. The two steels differed in initial grain size by a factor of 3. Both steels exhibited solute-drag-controlled grain boundary sliding in a high temperature {gamma}+{delta} phase field. In a lower temperature {gamma}+{sigma} phase field, the fine-grained steel ({bar L}=5{mu}m) exhibited climb-controlled grain boundary sliding and the coarser- grained steel ({bar L}=15{mu}m) exhibited solute-drag-controlled slip creep.

Lesuer, D.R.; Nieh, T.G.; Syn, C.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Taleff, E.M. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

1996-09-01

253

Helium damage in austenitic stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

Helium produced by tritium decay was first shown to embrittle austenitic stainless steel at ambient temperature in tensile specimens of Nitronic-40 steel (Armco, Inc.). A long-term study was initiated to study this form of helium damage in five austenitic alloys. Results from this study have been analyzed by the J-integral technique and show a decrease in ductile fracture toughness with increasing He-3 concentration. Sustained-load cracking tests indicate that the stress intensity required to initiate and propagate a crack also decreases with increasing He-3 concentration. 9 figures, 3 tables.

Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Mezzanotte, D.A. Jr.; Rawl, D.E. Jr.

1983-01-01

254

The influence of aging treatments on sulfide stress corrosion cracking of PH 13-8 Mo steel welds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slow displacement rate tensile tests were carried out to study sulfide stress corrosion cracking (SSCC) of PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel welds in a saturated H2S solution. The welds aged in the temperature range of 482593C were susceptible to SSCC; the fracture surfaces revealed mainly quasi-cleavage fractures after notched tensile tests. However, the SSCC susceptibility in terms of the percentage

L. W. Tsay; H. H. Chen; M. F. Chiang; C. Chen

2007-01-01

255

Cleavage-like fracture of austenite in duplex stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen alloying of stainless steel has proved to be extremely successful for mechanical and corrosion properties. For duplex stainless steel, which appears to be very promising for industrial application, the beneficial influence of nitrogen has also been established for contents of about 0.2 wt-%. Duplex structures are found in many alloys and systems as, for instance, in Cu- and Ti-alloys

J. Foct; N. Akdut

1993-01-01

256

Evaluation of nikel release in stainless steel attachments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Most metallic orthodontic attachments are made of a variety of stainless steels that are put together (soldered, brazed) with the help of other alloys. Aside these variations, several processes methods are currently used for their manufacture and service. While resistant against most corrosive agents, all stainless steel devices are corrosion susceptible, depending from their composition and treatment. As a

Claude G. Malasa

257

Scanning kelvin probe analysis of welded stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welded type 316L stainless steel parts with different surface finish and passivation treatment have been evaluated by Scanning Kelvin Probe Analysis (SKPA). The stainless samples were cut from welded pipes of 2? diameter. One set of samples had been electropolished, while the other set had been mechanically polished. In addition, one sample in each set was passivated after welding in

L. T. Han; F. Mansfeld

1997-01-01

258

Stainless steel as new substrate for coil coating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing needs of very high resistance to cosmetic corrosion, of more extended service life and reduced maintenance costs for infrastructures, civil and industrial buildings open new fields of application for coil coated stainless steel. This paper describes the adhesion and corrosion properties of new coil coated stainless steel materials produced in industrial coil coating lines. The use of an electrochemical

L. Lori; A. Tamba; F. Deflorian; L. Fedrizzi; P. L. Bonora

1996-01-01

259

Barnacle cement: An etchant for stainless steel 316L?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Localized corrosion of stainless steel beneath the barnacle-base is an unsolved issue for the marine industry. In this work, we clearly bring out for the first time the role of the barnacle cement in acting as an etchant, preferentially etching the grain boundaries, and initiating the corrosion process in stainless steel 316L. The investigations include structural characterization of the cement

R. Sangeetha; R. Kumar; M. Doble; R. Venkatesan

2010-01-01

260

METAL INJECTION MOLDING OF ULTRAFINE 316L STAINLESS STEEL POWDERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steels have become one of the most popular materials for the metal injection molding (MIM) process. Due to the poor yield of fine particles in powder production, the cost of relatively fine powders was extremely high. With improvements in the powder processing technique, relatively fine stainless steel powders (mean 10 to 15 micrometers) became available during the 1990's, resulting

Animesh Bose; Takafumi Yoshida; Hisataka Toyoshima

2007-01-01

261

Thermal desorption study of selected austenitic stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residual hydrogen in stainless steel results in a steady outgassing from vacuum chamber walls, hindering the achievement of ultrahigh vacuum conditions. The total content, the binding states, and the diffusivity of residual hydrogen in austenitic stainless steels, which together define the room temperature hydrogen outgassing rate, have been investigated by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Seven different steel types have been

J.-P. Bacher; C. Benvenuti; P. Chiggiato; M.-P. Reinert; S. Sgobba; A.-M. Brass

2003-01-01

262

CORROSION SIMULATION TESTS ON STAINLESS FOR AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steel is largely used in the automotive market, essentially for exhaust system. In that field of application, designs are more and more complex and the guarantee durations continuously increase. Thus laboratory tests were developed in order to simulate automotive environments and estimate their impact on stainless steel durability. Corrosion mechanisms greatly depend on the temperature and so the exhaust

B. Michel; S. Saedlou; J. M. Herbelin; P. O. Santacreu

263

Thermal conductivity of Inconel 718 and 304 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of thermal conductivity measurements on Inconel 718 and 304 stainless steel by the comparative and flash diffusivity techniques are reported for the temperature range 0700C. For 304 stainless steel, excellent agreement with published data is found for the specific heat, thermal diffusivity, and thermal conductivity. In the case of Inconel 718, the measurements show that the conductivity depends

J. N. Sweet; E. P. Roth; M. Moss

1987-01-01

264

Infrared electro-thermal NDE of stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electro-thermal examination, a branch of thermal testing, is a promising ; method being developed for nondestructive examination of stainless steel welds. ; This paper describes the first phase of development; i.e., preliminary ; demonstration and laboratory evaluation of the method's sensitivity to notches in ; Type 304 stainless steel plate specimens. It also includes a description of the ; basic

D. R. Green; J. A. Hassberger

1975-01-01

265

What you should know about austenitic stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Austenitic stainless steels are iron-based alloys that typically contain low carbon, between 15 and 32% chromium and between 8 and 37% nickel. These steels are available in both wrought and cast forms. Their compositions produce a primarily austenitic microstructure in the annealed condition at room temperature. Austenitic stainless steels have good corrosion resistance, particularly to slightly oxidizing or reducing environments.

Castner

1993-01-01

266

Thermal conductivity of Inconel 718 and 304 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of thermal conductivity measurements on Inconel 718 and 304 stainless steel by the comparative and flash diffusivity techniques are reported for the temperature range 0 700C. For 304 stainless steel, excellent agreement with published data is found for the specific heat, thermal diffusivity, and thermal conductivity. In the case of Inconel 718, the measurements show that the conductivity

J. N. Sweet; E. P. Roth; M. Moss

1987-01-01

267

Surface modification of superaustenitic and maraging stainless steels by low-temperature gas-phase carburization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-temperature gas-phase carburization of 316L austenitic stainless steel was developed in recent years by the Swagelok company. This process generates great mechanical and electrochemical surface properties. Hardness, wear resistance, fatigue behavior, and corrosion resistance are dramatically improved, while the formation of carbides is effectively suppressed. This new technique is of technical, economical, but especially of scientific interest because the surface properties of common stainless steel can be enhanced to a level of more sophisticated and more expensive superalloys. The consequential continuation of previous research is the application of the carburization process to other steel grades. Differences in chemical composition, microstructure, and passivity between the various alloys may cause technical problems and it is expected that the initial process needs to be optimized for every specific material. This study presents results of low-temperature carburization of AL-6XN (superaustenitic stainless steel) and PH13-8Mo (precipitation-hardened martensitic stainless steel). Both alloys have been treated successfully in terms of creating a hardened surface by introducing high amounts of interstitially dissolved carbon. The surface hardness of AL-6XN was increased to 12GPa and is correlated with a colossal carbon supersaturation at the surface of up to 20 at.%. The hardened case develops a carburization time-dependent thickness between 10mum after one carburization cycle and up to 35mum after four treatments and remains highly ductile. Substantial broadening of X-ray diffraction peaks in low-temperature carburized superaustenitic stainless steels are attributed to the generation of very large compressive biaxial residual stresses. Those large stresses presumably cause relaxations of the surface, so-called undulations. Heavily expanded regions of carburized AL-6XN turn ferromagnetic. Non-carburized AL-6XN is known for its outstanding corrosion resistance, which is not impaired upon carburization. The passive film as analyzed by XPS is fully intact. Carbon concentration levels in PH13-8Mo reach 10 at.% and correlate with a surface hardness of up to 14GPa. Indication for the transformation from martensite to austenite during the process are observed. In this context, the shape of the carbon concentration-depth profile can be explained. Also the absence of carbides, as analyzed by TEM, can be rationalized. Upon cooling to room temperature, most of the austenite backtransforms into martensite and the surface regains its ferromagnetic properties. Compressive biaxial residual stresses in carburized PH13-8Mo are measured around (2--2.5)GPa. The applied low-temperature carburization process gives rise to a substantial loss in corrosion resistance of PH13-8Mo. Possible reasons including the observed formation of internal and external oxides as well as the change in alloy composition are discussed. Due to the penetration depth of X-rays into the probed specimen surface, a carbon concentration gradient may cause detectable asymmetry of diffraction peaks for certain alloys and under certain conditions. For the first time, this effect is rationalized, explained, and demonstrated on the basis of measured data.

Gentil, Johannes

268

Comparison of experimental values of anti V°, anti C\\/sub P\\/°, and anti C\\/sub V\\/° for aqueous NaCl with predictions using the born equation at temperatures from 300 to 573. 15 K at 17. 7 MPa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental values of anti V (molal volume)°, (par. deltaanti V°\\/par. deltaT)\\/sub p\\/ (change in molal volume with respect to temperature at constant pressure) and anti C\\/sub p\\/° (partial molal heat capacity at constant pressure) are used to calculate anti C\\/sub V\\/° (partial model heat capacity at constant volume) for aqueous NaCl at infinite dilution and 17.7 MPa over the temperature

R. H. Wood; D. Smith-Magowan; K. S. Pitzer; P. S. Z. Rogers

1983-01-01

269

Evaluation of the stress corrosion behavior of selected stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this investigation was to determine the stress corrosion behavior of selected stainless steels in several fluorinating environments. The possibility of stress corrosion cracking or pitting which could substantially reduce the serviceability of the stainless steels was the primary concern. Laboratory testing indicated that stress corrosion cracking or other forms of localized attack of the austenitic stainless steels tested (304, 304-L, 316, and 316-L) would not occur in the dry gas environments investigated. AISI 316 and 316-L stainless steels exhibited no significant corrosion in any of the test environments. Stressed 304 and 304-L stainless steels exhibited increased general corrosion and pitting when moisture was added to the fluorinating environment. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Dorning, R.E. II

1983-11-05

270

PhET: Masses & Springs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation provides a realistic virtual mass-and-spring laboratory. Users can explore spring motion by manipulating stiffness of the spring and mass of the hanging weight. Concepts of Hooke's Law and elastic potential energy are further clarified through charts showing kinetic, potential, and thermal energy for each spring. This item is part of a larger collection of simulations developed by the Physics Education Technology project (PhET). The simulations are animated, interactive, and game-like environments in which students learn through exploration. All of the sims are freely available from the PhET website for incorporation into classes.

2008-07-29

271

Flux-free ultrasonic soldering of aluminum and stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flux-free ultrasonic soldering of 2024 Alclad and 304 stainless steel was conducted to determine the conditions to produce the highest joint shear strength in lap joints. Prior to this time, ultrasonic energy was always applied directly to the molten liquid pool to promote excellent coupling and fluxing by a mechanism of cavitation of the substrate. In this study, the ultrasonic energy was applied to a solid aluminum manifold (heated to the soldering temperature) and further transmitted through the aluminum or stainless steel test sheets to form a lap joint containing solder. Fundamental studies on aluminum and stainless steel samples revealed that the oxide removal and subsequent solder wetting resulted from the erosion of the substrate surface by the cavitation action caused by the ultrasonic vibrations. Although aluminum was successfully joined by the ultrasonic soldering, stainless steel could not be ultrasonically soldered regardless of the surface preparation. Therefore, it may be impractical to chemically clean stainless steel and expect any wetting without a strong fluxing agent. In fact, the results showed that practical soldering of stainless steel could only be achieved by plating the stainless steel substrate surfaces prior to soldering. The Al2O3 oxidation reaction is far more stable than the Cr2O3 reaction, however, the results imply that the rate of oxide formation and growth after chemical cleaning of stainless steel was several times faster than that for aluminum and the applied ultrasonic vibrations were not able to remove the thicker Cr 2O3 from the stainless steel substrate surfaces. with the results of this research, it is now possible to transmit ultrasonic energy through a solid to joint aluminum or stainless steel in a lap joint, it is also more feasible to optimize the most effective soldering variables for increasing the reliability and integrity of an ultrasonic soldering operation.

Faridi, Hamid Reza

272

Embrittlement of austenitic stainless steel welds  

SciTech Connect

The microstructure of type-308 austenitic stainless steel weld metal containing {gamma} and {delta} and ferrite is shown. Typical composition of the weld metal is Cr-20.2, Ni-9.4, Mn-1.7, Si-0.5, C-0.05, N-0.06 and balance Fe (in wt %). Exposure of austenitic stainless steel welds to elevated temperatures can lead to extensive changes in the microstructural features of the weld metal. On exposure to elevated temperatures over a long period of time, a continuous network of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbide forms at the austenite/ferrite interface. Upon aging at temperatures between 550--850 C, ferrite in the weld has been found to be unstable and transforms to sigma phase. These changes have been found to influence mechanical behavior of the weld metal, in particular the creep-rupture properties. For aging temperatures below 550 C the ferrite decomposes spinodally into {alpha} and {alpha}{prime} phases. In addition, precipitation of G-phase occurs within the decomposed ferrite. These transformations at temperatures below 550 C lead to embrittlement of the weld metal as revealed by the Charpy impact properties.

David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

1997-12-31

273

Antibacterial polyelectrolyte micelles for coating stainless steel.  

PubMed

In this study, we report on the original synthesis and characterization of novel antimicrobial coatings for stainless steel by alternating the deposition of aqueous solutions of positively charged polyelectrolyte micelles doped with silver-based nanoparticles with a polyanion. The micelles are formed by electrostatic interaction between two oppositely charged polymers: a polycation bearing 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine units (DOPA, a major component of natural adhesives) and a polyanion (poly(styrene sulfonate), PSS) without using any block copolymer. DOPA units are exploited for their well-known ability to anchor to stainless steel and to form and stabilize biocidal silver nanoparticles (Ag(0)). The chlorine counteranion of the polycation forms and stabilizes biocidal silver chloride nanoparticles (AgCl). We demonstrate that two layers of micelles (alternated by PSS) doped with silver particles are enough to impart to the surface strong antibacterial activity against gram-negative E. coli. Moreover, micelles that are reservoirs of biocidal Ag(+) can be easily reactivated after depletion. This novel water-based approach is convenient, simple, and attractive for industrial applications. PMID:22506542

Falentin-Daudr, Cline; Faure, Emilie; Svaldo-Lanero, Tiziana; Farina, Fabrice; Jrme, Christine; Van De Weerdt, Ccile; Martial, Joseph; Duwez, Anne-Sophie; Detrembleur, Christophe

2012-04-26

274

Making pH Tangible.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a laboratory exercise in which students test the pH of different substances, study the effect of a buffer on acidic solutions by comparing the behavior of buffered and unbuffered solutions upon the addition of acid, and compare common over-the-counter antacid remedies. (MKR)|

McIntosh, Elizabeth; Moss, Robert

1995-01-01

275

Adhesion measurements and chemical and microstructural characterization at interfaces of titanium nitride and titanium aluminum nitride coatings on stainless steel, inconel and titanium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the adhesion of nitride coatings on metal alloys, Ti 6Al-4V, 17-4 PH stainless steel and Inconel 718 alloy substrates were coated with titanium nitride (TiN) using both cathodic arc and electron beam evaporation. Titanium aluminum nitride ((Ti,Al)N) was also deposited using cathodic arc evaporation. X-ray photoelectron, Auger electron, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopies were used in tandem with

Robert Dallas James

1997-01-01

276

Environment-Assisted Cracking in Custom 465 Stainless Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of cold work and aging on the environment-assisted cracking (EAC) behavior and mechanical properties of Custom 465 stainless steel (SS) was studied. Four sets of specimens were made and tested. All specimens were initially solution annealed, rapidly cooled, and refrigerated (SAR condition). The first specimen set was steel in the SAR condition. The second specimen set was aged to the H1000 condition. The third specimen set was 60 pct cold worked, and the fourth specimen set was 60 pct cold worked and aged at temperatures ranging from 755 K to 825 K (482 C to 552 C) for 4 hours in air. The specimens were subsequently subjected to EAC and mechanical testing. The EAC testing was conducted, using the rising step load (RSL) technique, in aqueous solutions of NaCl of pH 7.3 with concentrations ranging from 0.0035 to 3.5 pct at room temperature. The microstructure, dislocation substructure, and crack paths, resulting from the cold work, aging, or subsequent EAC testing, were examined by optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The aging of the cold-worked specimens induced carbide precipitation within the martensite lath, but not at the lath or packet boundaries. In the aged specimens, as aging temperature rose, the threshold stress intensity for EAC (KIEAC), elongation, and fracture toughness increased, but the strength and hardness decreased. The KIEAC also decreased with increasing yield strength and NaCl concentration. In the SAR and H1000 specimens, the EAC propagated along the prior austenite grain boundary, while in the cold-worked and cold-worked and aged specimens, the EAC propagated along the martensite lath, and its packet and prior austenite grain boundaries. The controlling mechanism for the observed EAC was identified to be hydrogen embrittlement.

Lee, E. U.; Goswami, R.; Jones, M.; Vasudevan, A. K.

2011-02-01

277

The Effect of pH Value of a Simulated Physiological Solution on the Corrosion Resistance of Orthopaedic Alloys.  

PubMed

Metals and alloys used in orthopaedics and dentistry are exposed in vivo to various agents and environmental conditions. One of the important factors that determine the corrosion behaviour of metallic biomaterials is the pH of the environment. The corrosion resistance of stainless steel 316L (Fe/Cr18/Ni10/Mo3), titanium and titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V (Ti90/Al6/V4) was studied in terms of their electrochemical properties and biodegradation in simulated physiological solutions of different pH values (4.5, 6.5, 7.5 and 8). The electrochemical characteristics of individual metal components were also investigated using cyclic voltammetry, linear polarization and potentiodynamic polarization methods. The concentration of dissolved metal ions released during 32 days immersion under simulated physiological conditions was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The corrosion behaviour of stainless steel 316L is strongly affected by the pH of the physiological solution in the range from 4.5 to 8.0. The corrosion resistance was enhanced at higher pH and the concentrations of released metal ions lower. The behaviour of titanium and its alloy however is almost independent of the pH. PMID:24061184

Kova?evi?, Nataa; Pihlar, Boris; Selih, Vid Simon; Miloev, Ingrid

2012-03-01

278

The effects of grain boundary precipitates on cryogenic properties of aged 316-type stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is documented that sensitization in stainless steels results from the formation of grain boundary carbides that deplete the Cr in the vicinities of the grain boundaries. Sensitized austenitic stainless steels become brittle at cryogenic temperatures. Low carbon stainless steels are considered to be resistant to aging embrittlement. Our study of low carbon stainless steels demonstrates that aging at sensitization

K. Han; Y. Xin; R. Walsh; S. Downey II; P. N. Kalu

2009-01-01

279

Characterization of silane layers on modified stainless steel surfaces and related stainless steel-plastic hybrids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to characterize silane layers on the modified stainless steel surfaces and relate it to the adhesion in the injection-molded thermoplastic urethane-stainless steel hybrids. The silane layers were characterized with scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope, allowing the direct quantization of silane layer thickness and its variation. The surface topographies were characterized with atomic force microscope and chemical analyses were performed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The mechanical strength of the respective stainless steel-thermoplastic urethane hybrids was determined by peel test. Polishing and oxidation treatment of the steel surface improved the silane layer uniformity compared to the industrially pickled surface and increased the adhesion strength of the hybrids, resulting mainly cohesive failure in TPU. XPS analysis indicated that the improved silane bonding to the modified steel surface was due to clean Fe 2O 3-type surface oxide and stronger interaction with TPU was due to more amino species on the silane layer surface compared to the cleaned, industrially pickled surface. Silane layer thickness affected failure type of the hybrids, with a thick silane layer the hybrids failed mainly in the silane layer and with a thinner layer cohesively in plastic.

Honkanen, Mari; Hoikkanen, Maija; Vippola, Minnamari; Vuorinen, Jyrki; Lepist, Toivo; Jussila, Petri; Ali-Lytty, Harri; Lampimki, Markus; Valden, Mika

2011-09-01

280

The effect of molybdenum on corrosion of low-temperature nitrided stainless steels in sulphatechloride solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance of stainless steels to pitting corrosion is strongly enhanced by nitriding at 380450C. In this work, anodic behaviour of steels with 0.13, 2.1, 4.5 and 6.1wt% Mo was studied before and after nitriding at 450C for 30h which gave 13.015.8wt% N at the surface. Electrochemical measurements were carried out in 0.1M Na2SO4 + 0.4M NaCl at pH3.0. Nitriding of

J. Flis; M. Kuczynska-Wydorska; I. Flis-Kabulska

2006-01-01

281

Electrocrystallization of palladium from Pd(NH 3 ) 4 Cl 2 bath on stainless steel 316L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical deposition of palladium from 0.04M Pd(NH3)4Cl2, NH4Cl, and NH4OH bath (pH?=?10) on stainless steel electrode was studied by voltammetry, chronopotentiometry, and chronoamperometry. Crossovers\\u000a in cyclic voltammograms demonstrate that the deposition of palladium proceed via a nucleation\\/growth mechanism. Chronopotentiograms\\u000a indicate that palladium reduction is not controlled by diffusion and Sands law is not obeyed. In the early stage of the

I. Danaee; F. Shoghi; M. Dehghani Mobarake; M. Kameli

2010-01-01

282

Hydrogen embrittlement of type 410 stainless steel in sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, and sodium hydroxide environments at 90 C  

SciTech Connect

Susceptibility of martensitic type 410 (UNS S41000) stainless steel (SS) to environmental cracking was evaluated at 90 C in concentrated sodium chloride, sodium sulfate and sodium hydroxide solutions, all of which are environments related to steam turbine conditions, using the slow strain rate testing (SSRT) technique. In NaCl, the effects of solution pH, concentration, and anodic and cathodic polarization were investigated. Tests were supplemented by detailed electron fractography and hydrogen permeation measurements. A clear correlation was found between the degree of embrittlement and the amount of hydrogen permeating the steel, suggesting a hydrogen-induced cracking mechanism.

Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G.; Salinas-Bravo, V.M. [Inst. de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico). Dept. Fisico Quimica Aplicada; Martinez-Villafane, A. [Centro de Investigaciones en Materiales Avanzados Leon Tolstoi, Chihuahua (Mexico)

1997-06-01

283

A XPS study of the Mo effect on passivation behaviors for highly controlled stainless steels in neutral and alkaline conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this work is to study the effect of Mo additions on film passive properties of three different stainless steels (SS) types (austenitic, ferritic and duplex alloys). A comparison between Mo containing (3 wt% Mo) and free Mo (0 wt% Mo) grades of highly controlled laboratory heats was done considering their passive film formed in different aggressive conditions, from neutral to alkaline pH. The presence of oxidized Mo on the passive layer was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The presence of Mo within the passive film improved the passivity breakdown potential for the duplex and ferritic SS, but seemed to have no effect for austenitic SS.

Mesquita, Thiago J.; Chauveau, Eric; Mantel, Marc; Nogueira, Ricardo P.

2013-04-01

284

Austenitic stainless steel and drill collar  

SciTech Connect

A non-magnetic austenitic stainless steel, and a drill collar fabricated therefrom solely by hot forging, the steel having a 0.2% yield strength of at least 85 ksi in the hot worked condition, high stress corrosion cracking resistance, good ductility, and low magnetic permeability even if cold worked, and consisting essentially of, in weight percent, from 0.12% to 0.20% carbon, 11% to 14% manganese, about 16% to about 19% chromium, 1.5% to 2.7% nickel, 0.30% to 0.45% nitrogen, 0.5% to 1.0% copper, about 0.75% maximum molybdenum, about 0.80% maximum silicon, about 0.04% maximum phosphorus, about 0.025% maximum sulfur, and balance essentially iron, with the carbon:nitrogen ratio not greater than 0.6:1.

Cordea, J. N.; Jasper, J. C.; Sheth, H. V.

1985-03-05

285

Wear evaluation of high interstitial stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

A new series of high nitrogen-carbon manganese stainless steel alloys are studied for their wear resistance. High nitrogen and carbon concentrations were obtained by melting elemental iron-chromium-manganese (several with minor alloy additions of nickel, silicon, and molybdenum) in a nitrogen atmosphere and adding elemental graphite. The improvement in material properties (hardness and strength) with increasing nitrogen and carbon interstitial concentration was consistent with previously reported improvements in similar material properties alloyed with nitrogen only. Wear tests included: scratch, pin-on-disk, sand-rubber-wheel, impeller, and jet erosion. Additions of interstitial nitrogen and carbon as well as interstitial nitrogen and carbide precipitates were found to greatly improve material properties. In general, with increasing nitrogen and carbon concentrations, strength, hardness, and wear resistance increased.

Rawers, J.C.; Tylczak, J.H.

2008-07-01

286

THE CLEANING OF 303 STAINLESS STEEL  

SciTech Connect

The sulfur found on the surfaces of stainless steel 303 (SS303) after nitric acid passivation originated from the MnS inclusions in the steel. The nitric acid attacked and dissolved these MnS inclusions, and redeposited micron-sized elemental sulfur particles back to the surface. To develop an alternative passivation procedure for SS303, citric and phosphoric acids have been evaluated. The experimental results show neither acid causes a significant amount of sulfur deposit. Thus, these two acids can be used as alternatives to nitric acid passivation for NIF applications. For SS303 previously passivated by nitric acid, NaOH soak can be used as a remedial cleaning process to effectively remove the sulfur deposits.

Shen, T H

2004-04-20

287

Stainless steel-zirconium alloy waste forms  

SciTech Connect

An electrometallurgical treatment process has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory to convert various types of spent nuclear fuels into stable storage forms and waste forms for repository disposal. The first application of this process will be to treat spent fuel alloys from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II. Three distinct product streams emanate from the electrorefining process: (1) refined uranium; (2) fission products and actinides extracted from the electrolyte salt that are processed into a mineral waste form; and (3) metallic wastes left behind at the completion of the electrorefining step. The third product stream (i.e., the metal waste stream) is the subject of this paper. The metal waste stream contains components of the chopped spent fuel that are unaffected by the electrorefining process because of their electrochemically ``noble`` nature; this includes the cladding hulls, noble metal fission products (NMFP), and, in specific cases, zirconium from metal fuel alloys. The selected method for the consolidation and stabilization of the metal waste stream is melting and casting into a uniform, corrosion-resistant alloy. The waste form casting process will be carried out in a controlled-atmosphere furnace at high temperatures with a molten salt flux. Spent fuels with both stainless steel and Zircaloy cladding are being evaluated for treatment; thus, stainless steel-rich and Zircaloy-rich waste forms are being developed. Although the primary disposition option for the actinides is the mineral waste form, the concept of incorporating the TRU-bearing product into the metal waste form has enough potential to warrant investigation.

McDeavitt, S.M.; Abraham, D.P.; Keiser, D.D. Jr.; Park, J.Y.

1996-07-01

288

PhET Simulation: Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation provides a highly visual, intuitive way for students to explore how density is related to an object's mass and volume. Using a virtual water tank, users drop various objects to see what floats and what sinks. Use the mouse to submerge the object and see how much fluid it displaces. A scale is provided to measure the mass of the objects, with a density table available for view. Students can easily see why the density formula works, especially when they identify the "mystery" objects. Editor's Note: Scroll down on the page for exemplary lesson plans for grades 6-12 developed by the PhET project specifically to accompany the "Density" simulation. This item is part of a larger collection of simulations developed by the Physics Education Technology project (PhET).

2011-02-16

289

Effect of condenser design on stress corrosion cracking of stainless alloys in boiling chloride solutions  

SciTech Connect

The design of condensers used to reflux boiling chloride solutions for stress corrosion tests on stainless alloys was shown to have a significant effect on time to cracking. This effect resulted from the different steady-state concentrations of oxygen produced by various types of condensers. The condenser that provided the least amount of preheating before returning the condensate to the solution established the largest concentrations of air (oxygen) in the boiling solution and the shortest times to failure by stress corrosion cracking (SCC). This was demonstrated with magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}) and sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions on type 304 stainless steel (UNS S30400), Carpenter 20 Cb-3 (UNS N08020), and Incoloy 825 (UNS N08825). In MgCl{sub 2}, the effect of oxygen on stress corrosion depended upon the concentration of the solution. The effect was maximum in the range from 24% to 32% and decreased or disappeared at higher concentrations depending upon the alloy. These findings can be used to assess previously published data, for the design of new experiments, and for the development of new evaluation tests. Using a solution of 26% NaCl with phosphoric acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) to reduce the pH to 1.0 provides a more realistic method for evaluating alloys for service on plants than testing in MgCl{sub 2} solutions.

Chiang, Y.L.; Streicher, M.A. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

1998-09-01

290

Role of molybdenum on impact toughness in precipitation hardened stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

Segregation of impurity elements such as P, As, Sb and Sn at grain boundaries can drastically influence the mechanical properties, even at very low bulk concentrations. Studies of phosphorus segregation in pure iron and Fe-C-P alloys with up to 0.1%C show that the phosphorus segregation pure iron is as high as customarily observed in steels but that carbon, if present, will also segregate, reducing the phosphorus segregation through site competition and thereby improving grain boundary cohesion by counteracting embrittlement. In a previous paper, the authors reported the effect of phosphorus segregation on impact toughness variation in 17-4 PH martensitic stainless steel (AISI 630) with a nominal composition of Fe-17Cr-4Ni-4Cu-0.3 Nb. The striking variation in impact toughness was explained on the basis of Nb-C-P interactions. It was concluded from the study that the NbC ratio plays a pivotal role in influencing toughness; in order to obtain good toughness in conjunction with high strength, the Nb/C ratio should be maintained at a value less than 6. The study reported in this article is aimed at an understanding of the improvement in impact toughness of an almost similar grade of martensitic stainless steel, except for the presence of -- 1.5% molybdenum.

Misra, R.D.K.; Prasad, C.Y.; Balasubramanian, T.V.; Rama Rao, P.

1986-01-01

291

An in vitro investigation of the anodic polarization and capacitance behavior of 316-L stainless steel.  

PubMed

Determinations were made of how the corrosion-resistant properties of the passive film on 316-L stainless steel are influenced by the material's mechanical and surface states, and the variable pH and PO2 conditions of the interstitial fluid. Cold-rolled and annealed specimens were surface-prepared, commercially and in the laboratory, respectively, as if for orthopedic implantation. Passive film behavior was studied by the anodic polarization and pulse-potentiostatic capacitance methods. The pH and PO2 of the Ringer's test solution were varied to include interstitial fluid values occurring postoperatively and onto recovery. The anodic polarization behavior of all specimens was found to be pH- and PO2-independent. Breakdown potentials of annealed specimens were 800-950 mV (SCE), in contrast to previously reported values of approximately 350 mV. This substantial increase is related to the influence of surface preparation and, in particular, to the optimization of electropolishing time which acts to produce a microscopically smooth surface, free of debris and disarrayed material. Capacitance behavior of annealed material for potentials greater than 400 mV was consistent with a model involving the entry of chloride and metal ions (mostly Fe) into the passive film. This entry is related to the onset of pitting. PMID:10307

Sutow, E J; Pollack, S R; Korostoff, E

1976-09-01

292

Kinetics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion to 304 and 316-L stainless steel: role of cell surface hydrophobicity.  

PubMed

Fifteen different isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used to study the kinetics of adhesion to 304 and 316-L stainless steel. Stainless steel plates were incubated with approximately 1.5 X 10(7) CFU/ml in 0.01 M phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4). After the plates were rinsed with the buffer, the number of adhering bacteria was determined by a bioluminescence assay. Measurable adhesion, even to the electropolished surfaces, occurred within 30 s. Bacterial cell surface hydrophobicity, as determined by the bacterial adherence to hydrocarbons test and the contact angle measurement test, was the major parameter influencing the adhesion rate constant for the first 30 min of adhesion. A parabolic relationship between the CAM values and the logarithm of the adhesion rate constants (In k) was established. No correlation between either the salt aggregation or the improved salt aggregation values and the bacterial adhesion rate constants could be found. Since there was no significant correlation between the bacterial electrophoretic mobilities and the In k values, the bacterial cell surface charge seemed of minor importance in the process of adhesion of P. aeruginosa to 304 and 316-L stainless steel. PMID:2107796

Vanhaecke, E; Remon, J P; Moors, M; Raes, F; De Rudder, D; Van Peteghem, A

1990-03-01

293

Kinetics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion to 304 and 316-L stainless steel: role of cell surface hydrophobicity.  

PubMed Central

Fifteen different isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used to study the kinetics of adhesion to 304 and 316-L stainless steel. Stainless steel plates were incubated with approximately 1.5 X 10(7) CFU/ml in 0.01 M phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4). After the plates were rinsed with the buffer, the number of adhering bacteria was determined by a bioluminescence assay. Measurable adhesion, even to the electropolished surfaces, occurred within 30 s. Bacterial cell surface hydrophobicity, as determined by the bacterial adherence to hydrocarbons test and the contact angle measurement test, was the major parameter influencing the adhesion rate constant for the first 30 min of adhesion. A parabolic relationship between the CAM values and the logarithm of the adhesion rate constants (In k) was established. No correlation between either the salt aggregation or the improved salt aggregation values and the bacterial adhesion rate constants could be found. Since there was no significant correlation between the bacterial electrophoretic mobilities and the In k values, the bacterial cell surface charge seemed of minor importance in the process of adhesion of P. aeruginosa to 304 and 316-L stainless steel.

Vanhaecke, E; Remon, J P; Moors, M; Raes, F; De Rudder, D; Van Peteghem, A

1990-01-01

294

High-strength stainless steels for corrosion mitigation in prestressed concrete: Development and evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion of prestressing reinforcement in concrete structures exposed to marine environments and/or deicing chemicals is a problem of critical concern. While many corrosion mitigation technologies are available for reinforced concrete (RC), those available for use in prestressed concrete (PSC) are limited and in many cases cannot provide the 100+ year service life needed in new construction, particularly when exposed to severe marine environments. The use of stainless steel alloys in RC structures has shown great success in mitigating corrosion in even the most severe of exposures. However, the use of high-strength stainless steels (HSSSs) for corrosion mitigation in PSC structures has received limited attention. To address these deficiencies in knowledge, an experimental study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using HSSSs for corrosion mitigation in PSC. The study examined mechanical behavior, corrosion resistance, and techniques for the production of HSSS prestressing strands. Stainless steel grades 304, 316, 2101, 2205, 2304, and 17-7 were produced as cold drawn wires with diameters of approximately 4 mm (0.16 in). A 1080 prestressing steel was also included to serve as a control. Tensile strengths of 1250 to 1550 MPa (181 to 225 ksi) were achieved in the cold-drawn candidate HSSSs. Non-ductile failure modes with no post-yield strain hardening were observed in all candidate HSSSs. 1000 hr stress relaxation of all candidate HSSSs was predicted to be between 6 and 8 % based on the results of 200 hr tests conducted at 70 % of the ultimate tensile strength. Residual stresses due to the cold drawing had a significant influence on stress vs. strain behavior and stress relaxation. Electrochemical corrosion testing found that in solutions simulating alkaline concrete, all candidate HSSSs showed exceptional corrosion resistance at chloride (Cl-) concentrations from zero to 0.25 M. However, when exposed to solutions simulating carbonated concrete, corrosion resistance was reduced and the only candidate HSSSs with acceptable corrosion resistance were duplex grades 2205 and 2304, with 2205 being resistant to corrosion initiation at Cl- concentrations of up to 1.0 M (twice the Cl- concentration in seawater). A strong correlation between microstructural defects and corrosion damage was observed in the heavily cold-drawn HSSSs. Based on these results, duplex grades 2205 and 2304 were identified as optimal HSSSs and were included in additional studies which found that: (1) 2304 is susceptible to corrosion when tested in a stranded geometry, (2) 2205 and 2304 are not susceptible to stress corrosion cracking, and (3) 2205 and 2304 are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Efforts focused on the production of 2205 and 2304 prestressing strands showed that they could be produced as strands using existing ASTM A416 prestressing strand production facilities. Due to the ferromagnetic properties of 2205 and 2304, a low-relaxation heat treatment to reduce stress relaxation and improve mechanical properties was also found to be feasible. The overall conclusion of the study was that HSSSs, especially duplex grades 2205 and 2304, show excellent promise to mitigate corrosion if utilized as prestressing reinforcement in PSC structures exposed to severe marine environments.

Moser, Robert D.

295

Stainless Steel in Waste Packages for TSPA-SR  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the calculation is to determine how commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) stainless-steel clad assemblies are distributed over the CSNF waste packages (WPs) in the Yucca Mountain repository. The calculation defines the number of CSNF WPs that will contain stainless-steel clad assemblies, and the stainless steel content, on average, in those WPs for the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR). Cladding models for TSPA-SR for stainless-steel clad assemblies differ from the models used for zirconium-clad assemblies. The information derived in this calculation helps to determine how the-cladding models are applied to WPs in TSPA-SR. The calculation addresses the WP configurations for CSNF defined in an interoffice correspondence from E.P. Stroupe to D.R. Wilkins (Stroupe 2000) and shown in Table 1.

C.D. Leigh

2000-06-12

296

Fusion Welding of Irradiated AISI 304L Stainless Steel Tubings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fast reactor irradiated AISI 304L stainless steel tubing was fusion-welded using conventional inert gas-tungsten arc welding (GTAW) procedures which were adapted for remote operation. Metallographic examination of weld joints sometimes revealed porosity i...

M. M. Hall A. G. Hins J. R. Summers D. E. Walker

1978-01-01

297

77 FR 64545 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-489 (Final) and 731-TA-1201 (Final)] Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From...phase of countervailing duty investigation No. 701-TA-489 (Final) under section 705(b) of the...

2012-10-22

298

Failure Assessment Diagram for Brazed 304 Stainless Steel Joints.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interaction equations were proposed earlier to predict failure in Albemet 162 brazed joints. Present study demonstrates that the same interaction equations can be used for lower bound estimate of the failure criterion in 304 stainless steel joints brazed ...

Y. Flom

2011-01-01

299

Hafnium stainless steel absorber rod for control rod  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a control rod having a stainless steel body for enclosing a neutron absorbing poison, the control rod having movement along an axial direction for insertion into and out of a nuclear reactor for controlling a nuclear reaction. The improvement comprising: a piece of hafnium; a piece of stainless steel joined to the hafnium by a thin diffusion interface created by friction welding. The hafnium and the stainless steel oriented serially in the axial direction with the thin diffusion interface disposed normal to the axial direction of the control rod movement; means for confining the hafnium to movement along the axial direction with the control rod; and means for attaching the piece of stainless steel to the remaining portion of the control rod to load the weld therebetween under compression or tension during the control rod movement. Whereby the thin diffusion interface is loaded in tension or compression only upon dynamic movement of the control rod.

Charnley, J.E.; Cearley, J.E.; Dixon, R.C.; Izzo, K.R.; Aiello, L.L.

1989-08-01

300

Enhanced Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel Carburized at Low Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pitting corrosion resistance of surface-modified 316L austenitic stainless steel and N08367 (a superaustenitic stainless steel) were evaluated in 0.6 M NaCl solutions and compared to untreated samples of the same materials. The surface modification process used to treat the surfaces was a low-temperature carburization technology termed low-temperature colossal supersaturation (LTCSS). The process typically produces surface carbon concentrations of ~15 at. pct without the formation of carbides. The pitting potential of the LTCSS-treated 316L stainless steel in the NaCl solution substantially increased compared to untreated 316L stainless steel, while the pitting behavior of the LTCSS-treated N08367 was unchanged compared to the untreated alloy.

Martin, F. J.; Natishan, P. M.; Lemieux, E. J.; Newbauer, T. M.; Rayne, R. J.; Bayles, R. A.; Kahn, H.; Michal, G. M.; Ernst, F.; Heuer, A. H.

2009-08-01

301

Systems design of high performance stainless steels II. Prototype characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the framework of a systems approach, the design of a high performance stainless steel integrated processing/structure/property/performance relations with mechanistic computational models. Using multicomponent thermodynamic and diffusion software platforms, the models were integrated to design a carburizable, secondary-hardening, martensitic stainless steel for advanced gear and bearing applications. Prototype evaluation confirmed the predicted martensitic transformation temperature and the desired carburizing and tempering responses, achieving a case hardness of R c 64 in the secondary-hardened condition without case primary carbides. Comparison with a commercial carburizing stainless steel demonstrated the advantage of avoiding primary carbides to resist quench cracking associated with a martensitic start temperature gradient reversal. Based on anodic polarization measurements and salt-spray testing, the prototype composition exhibited superior corrosion resistance in comparison to the 440C stainless bearing steel, which has a significantly higher alloy Cr concentration.

Campbell, C. E.; Olson, G. B.

2000-10-01

302

Evaluation of the Stress Corrosion Behavior of Selected Stainless Steels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this investigation was to determine the stress corrosion behavior of selected stainless steels in several fluorinating environments. The possibility of stress corrosion cracking or pitting which could substantially reduce the serviceabili...

R. E. Dorning

1983-01-01

303

Surface modified stainless steels for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates  

DOEpatents

A nitridation treated stainless steel article (such as a bipolar plate for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell) having lower interfacial contact electrical resistance and better corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel article is disclosed. The treated stainless steel article has a surface layer including nitrogen-modified chromium-base oxide and precipitates of chromium nitride formed during nitridation wherein oxygen is present in the surface layer at a greater concentration than nitrogen. The surface layer may further include precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide. The surface layer in the treated article is chemically heterogeneous surface rather than a uniform or semi-uniform surface layer exclusively rich in chromium, titanium or aluminum. The precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide are formed by the nitriding treatment wherein titanium and/or aluminum in the stainless steel are segregated to the surface layer in forms that exhibit a low contact resistance and good corrosion resistance.

Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Wang, Heli [Littleton, CO; Turner, John A [Littleton, CO

2007-07-24

304

Stretch Forming of Very Long Stainless Steel Skins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Precipitation hardening FV 520 stainless steel was stretch formed in the fully softened (austenitic) and the cold rolled and transformed (martensitic) conditions using the H.S.A. 250T stretching machine; the skins were subjected to various heat treatments...

N. Padley J. Fray

1967-01-01

305

Ageing Effects in Welded Cast CF3 Stainless Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Welded duplex stainless steel castings are used widely in the PWR (pressurized water reactor) primary coolant circuit at operational temperatures close to 300 C and design lifetimes of several hundred thousand hours. Under these conditions, microstructura...

M. Strangwood S. G. Druce

1989-01-01

306

Mb-328: Chicago Stainless Sani-Flow Battery Powered Digital ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Mb-328: Chicago Stainless Sani-Flow Battery Powered Digital Thermometer. << Back to Index of Memoranda of Information (Mb) Main Page. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation

307

Electrochemical Behavior of Stainless Steels in Natural Seawater.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The detailed electrochemical reactions on stainless steels in natural seawater cannot be predicted without an understanding of the composition of the biofilm. Electrochemical reactions are influenced by biofilm formation and the chemical microenvironment ...

B. Little R. Ray P. Wagner

1990-01-01

308

Modified Metallographic Method to Detect Sensitization in Austenitic Stainless Steels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For detecting susceptibility to intergranular corrosion (IGC) in austenitic stainless steels, ASTM Standard A-262 practice A (metallographic test) serves as a screening test. Alloys showing 'step' or 'dual' structures are considered to have passed the tes...

N. Paravathavarthini R. K. Dayal J. B. Gnanamoorthy

1984-01-01

309

Microstructural Characterization of Rapidly Solidified Type 304 Stainless Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The microstructures of rapidly solidified Type 304 stainless steel powders produced by vacuum gas (VGA) and centrifugal (CA) atomization have been examined. The solidification morphology and phase distribution have been characterized using optical and sca...

R. N. Wright J. E. Flinn G. E. Korth

1985-01-01

310

Characterization of Rapidly Solidified Type 304 Stainless Steel Powder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The microstructure, morphology, size distribution and surface characteristics of rapidly solidified Type 304 stainless steel powders produced by centrifugal atomization and vacuum gas atomization have been characterized. Both powders are generally spheric...

R. N. Wright J. E. Flinn G. E. Korth

1986-01-01

311

Electrochemical corrosion behavior of spectrally tailored neutron irradiated stainless steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of neutron irradiation on corrosion behavior of a type 316 stainless steel irradiated at the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) under the spectrally tailored condition was studied by applying electrochemical techniques. Electrochemical potentioki...

T. Tsukada K. Shiba H. Nakajima

1992-01-01

312

Behavior of duplex stainless steel casting defects under mechanical loadings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several components in the primary circuit of pressurized water reactors are made of cast duplex stainless steels. This material contains small casting defects, mainly shrinkage cavities, due to the manufacturing process. In safety analyses, the structural...

S. Jayet-Gendrot P. Gilles C. Migne

1997-01-01

313

Surface Modification of Stainless Steels By Carbon/nitrogen Implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma immersion ion implantation has been used for simultaneous implantation of carbon and nitrogen into austenitic, ferritic, and duplex stainless steels at 400C for 3 h. The surface phase composition, studied by means of Conversion Electron Mssbauer Spectroscopy and X-Ray difraction, is correlated with the mechanical properties represented by hardness (Vickers) measurements. The results extend information about the expanded austenite phase formed during the low temperature modification of stainless steel surface by nitrogen.

Jirskov, Y.; Schneeweiss, O.; Havl?ek, S.; Blawert, C.; Kalvelage, H.

2001-07-01

314

Probing the duplex stainless steel phases via magnetic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Duplex stainless steels are austenitic-ferritic alloys used in many applications, thanks to their excellent mechanical properties and high corrosion resistance. In this work, chemical analyses, x-ray diffraction, and magnetic force microscopy (MFM) were employed to characterize the solution annealed and aged duplex stainless steel. The samples exhibited no changes in lattice parameters and the MFM technique proved successful in clearly imaging the magnetic domain structure of the ferrite phase.

Gheno, S. M.; Santos, F. S.; Kuri, S. E.

2008-03-01

315

Characterizing pre-polished Type 304L stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prepolished Type 304L stainless steel surfaces are being specified for replacement of some equipment in the 221-H Canyon Building at the Savannah River Site. A prepolished stainless steel surface picks up less contamination than a hot-rolled and pickled surface and is easier to decontaminate; therefore, less waste is generated. Surface-characterization techniques and specification for a prepolished surface were developed to

R. H. Hsu; M. E. Summer; W. N. Rankin

1994-01-01

316

Development of high strain rate equations for stainless steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic response of four types of stainless steel sheet was investigated at different strain rates from 10-2 up to 103 s-1. The results from the tensile tests were used to evaluate the parameters in three different multiplicative strain rate equations of the type used in crashworthiness calculations. A new type of sigmoid constitutive equation is proposed for one grade of stainless steel.

Andersson, R.; Syk, M.; Powell, J.; Magnusson, G.

2005-10-01

317

Characterization of borided AISI 316L stainless steel implant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports on characterization of borided AISI 316L stainless steel implant. Boronizing heat treatment was performed on a cylindrical bar of AISI 316L austenitic surgical stainless steel with a diameter of 2mm and a length of 10mm using slurry salt bath consisting of borax, boric acid and ferro-silicon. The susbstrate AISI 316L was essentially containing 0.022wt% C, 0.79wt%

I. zbek; B. A. Konduk; C. Bindal; A. H. Ucisik

2002-01-01

318

Creep properties of austenitic stainless-steel weld metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creep behavior of two austeitic stainless-steel weld metals was investigated. Two AISI 316L stainless-steel base plates\\u000a were welded together using the submerged arc-welding process. Creep tests were carried out on the welds at constant load,\\u000a over a stress range of 100 to 400 MPa, and in the temperature range of 600 to 700 ?C. The relationships between stress and

A. Nassour; W. W. Bose; D. Spinelli

2001-01-01

319

Behavior of Stainless Steel 316L Under Impact Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stainless steels remain not easily replaceable taking into consideration their high mechanical characteristic (capacity\\u000a resistance, hardness and impact resistance) what their offer to be used in significant fields such as the nuclear power, the\\u000a storage of the chemical products. This work presents an experimental study of the behavior of austenitic stainless steel 316L\\u000a under the impact. The various tests

M. Benachour; A. Hadjoui; F. Z. Seriari

320

Corrosion behaviour of some stainless steels in chlorinated Gulf seawater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion resistance of conventional and high alloy stainless steels (specifically 316L, 317L, 904L, duplex 2205, 3127hMO, 1925hMO, 254SMO, 654SMO and Remanit-4565) was determined electrochemically in chlorinated and unchlorinated Arabian Gulf Seawater at 25 and 50 C. The stainless steels 316L and 317L were used as reference alloys. The electrochemical potentiodynamic cyclic polarization method was used to determine the passive

S. Ahmad; A. U. Malik

2001-01-01

321

Enhanced Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel Carburized at Low Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pitting corrosion resistance of surface-modified 316L austenitic stainless steel and N08367 (a ``superaustenitic'' stainless steel) were evaluated in 0.6 M NaCl solutions and compared to untreated samples of the same materials. The surface modification process used to treat the surfaces was a low-temperature carburization technology termed ``low-temperature colossal supersaturation'' (LTCSS). The process typically produces surface carbon concentrations of ~15

F. J. Martin; P. M. Natishan; E. J. Lemieux; T. M. Newbauer; R. J. Rayne; R. A. Bayles; H. Kahn; G. M. Michal; F. Ernst; A. H. Heuer

2009-01-01

322

Phase formation at bonded vanadium and stainless steel interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interface between vanadium bonded to stainless steel was studies to determine whether a brittle phase formed during three joining operations. Inertia friction welds between V and 21-6-9 stainless steel were examined using TEM. In the as-welded condition, a continuous, polygranular intermetallic layer about 0.25 μm thick was present at the interface. This layer grew to about 50 μm thick

Summers

1992-01-01

323

Systems design of high performance stainless steels II. Prototype characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the framework of a systems approach, the design of a high performance stainless steel integrated processing\\/structure\\/property\\/performance\\u000a relations with mechanistic computational models. Using multicomponent thermodynamic and diffusion software platforms, the\\u000a models were integrated to design a carburizable, secondary-hardening, martensitic stainless steel for advanced gear and bearing\\u000a applications. Prototype evaluation confirmed the predicted martensitic transformation temperature and the desired carburizing\\u000a and

C. E. Campbell; G. B. Olson

2000-01-01

324

Electron beam freeforming of stainless steel using solid wire feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of electron beam technology for freeforming build-ups on 321 stainless steel substrates was investigated in this work by using 347 stainless steel as a filler metal. The electron beam freeforming studies indicated that line build-ups could be deposited on the substrate material for optimized processing conditions and a slight linear thickening of the re-build occurred as a function

P. Wanjara; M. Brochu; M. Jahazi

2007-01-01

325

Aging degradation of cast stainless steels: Effects on mechanical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program is being conducted to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steels under light-water operating conditions. Mechanical property data are presented from Charpy-impact, tensile, and J-R curve tests for several heats of cast stainless steel aged up to 10,000 h at 450, 400, 350, 320, and 290°C. The results indicate that thermal aging increases the

O. K. Chopra; H. M. Chung

1987-01-01

326

Kinetics of hydrogen evolution reaction on a stainless steel electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetic parameters for the hydrogen evolution reaction on a stainless steel substrate have been obtained from a study\\u000a of the steady-state polarization curves as well as the galvanostatic transients. The high Tafel slope obtained in the steady-state\\u000a polarization measurements was ascribed to the presence of an oxide film present on the surface of the stainless steel electrode.

P. Radhakrishnamurthy; S. Sathyanarayana; A. K. N. Reddy

1977-01-01

327

Microstructural modification of austenitic stainless steels by rapid solidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructural modifications in three austenitic stainless steels (types 308, 310, and 312) were evaluated after rapid\\u000a solidification. These three steels are commonly used weld filler metals. Two methods of rapid solidification were investigated,\\u000a autogenous laser welding and arc-hammer splat quenching. The structure of 310 stainless steel was found to be 100 pct austenite,\\u000a and did not vary over the

J. M. Vitek; A. Dasgupta; S. A. David

1983-01-01

328

Fusion welding of a modern borated stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments designed to assess the fabrication and service weldability of 304B4A borated stainless steel were conducted. Welding procedures and parameters for manual gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding, autogenous electron beam (EB) welding and filler-added EB welding were developed and found to be similar to those for austenitic stainless steels. Following the procedure development, four test welds were produced and evaluated

C. V. Robino; M. J. Cieslak

1997-01-01

329

Micro Machine Parts Fabricated from Aqueous Based Stainless Steel Slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A fabrication process of stainless steel micro components from metallic powder is reported. The process consists of two stages.\\u000a In the first stage, high quality SU-8 master moulds and their negative replicas from soft moulds are produced using photolithography\\u000a and soft moulding techniques respectively. The second stage includes preparation of stainless steel slurry, filling the soft\\u000a mould, obtaining the green

Mohamed Imbaby; Isaac Chang; Kyle Jiang

330

Corrosion fatigue of surgical stainless steel in synthetic physiological solution.  

PubMed

Fatigue tests conducted both in air and synthetic physiological solution show that the fatigue strength of surgical stainless steel in synthetic physiological solution is about 10% lower than the strength in air for a given endurance level. It is proposed that surgical stainless steel which is normally passive in physiological solution suffers corrosion fatigue because of susceptibility to crevice corrosion which occurs at extrusions and intrusions (crevices) on the surface thereby shortening the crack initiation time and the fatigue life. PMID:7348709

Cahoon, J R; Holte, R N

1981-03-01

331

Measurement of intergranular attack in stainless steel using ultrasonic energy  

DOEpatents

Ultrasonic test methods are used to measure the depth of intergranular attack (IGA) in a stainless steel specimen. The ultrasonic test methods include a pitch-catch surface wave technique and a through-wall pulse-echo technique. When used in combination, these techniques can establish the extent of IGA on both the front and back surfaces of a stainless steel specimen from measurements made on only one surface.

Mott, Gerry (Pittsburgh, PA); Attaar, Mustan (Monroeville, PA); Rishel, Rick D. (Monroeville, PA)

1989-08-08

332

Marine Atmospheric SCC of Unsensitized Stainless Steel Rock Climbing Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A failure investigation into the root cause of fixed austenitic stainless steel climbing anchor hardware in tropical marine\\u000a climates has been presented. The incident 316L climbing anchor was fixed in a seaside limestone cliff in southern Thailand\\u000a and underwent transgranular chloride stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC) after 10 years of service. Since stainless steel does\\u000a not normally undergo stress corrosion cracking

A. Sjong; L. Eiselstein

2008-01-01

333

Synergistic tellurium-caesium embrittlement of Type 316 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Austenitic stainless steels have become important high-temperature structural and containment alloys in applications ranging from industrial processes to energy generation and conversion. The AISI Type-300 series of iron-base austenitic stainless steels, in particular, is widely used as a barrier or primary containment material for both nuclear and fossil fuels operation at temperatures as high as 700 and 1,000 C, respectively.

M. G. Adamson

1982-01-01

334

Quantification of corrosion resistance of a new-class of criticality control materials: thermal-spray coatings of high-boron iron-based amorphous metals - Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4  

Microsoft Academic Search

An iron-based amorphous metal, Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4} (SAM2X5), with very good corrosion resistance was developed. This material was produced as a melt-spun ribbon, as well as gas atomized powder and a thermal-spray coating. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) provided corrosion resistance, and boron (B) enabled glass formation. The high boron content of

J C Farmer; J S Choi; C K Shaw; R Rebak; S D Day; T Lian; P Hailey; J H Payer; D J Branagan; L F Aprigliano

2007-01-01

335

Corrosion Resistance of Amorphous Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4 coating - a new criticality-controlled material  

Microsoft Academic Search

An iron-based amorphous metal with good corrosion resistance and a high absorption cross-section for thermal neutrons has been developed and is reported here. This amorphous alloy has the approximate formula Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4} and is known as SAM2X5. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) were added to provide corrosion resistance, while boron (B)

J C Farmer; J S Choi; C K Saw; R Rebak; S D Day; T Lian; P Hailey; J H Payer; D J Branagan; L F Aprigliano

2007-01-01

336

Long-Term Corrosion Tests of Prototypical SAM2X5 (Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4) Coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

An iron-based amorphous metal with good corrosion resistance and a high absorption cross-section for thermal neutrons has been developed and is reported here. This amorphous alloy has the approximate formula Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4} and is known as SAM2X5. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) were added to provide corrosion resistance, while boron (B)

J C Farmer; J S Choi; C K Saw; R H Rebak; S D Day; T Lian; P D Hailey; J H Payer; D J Branagan; L F Aprigliano

2007-01-01

337

T-SCC of austenitic stainless steels in acidic-chloride media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism of transgranular stress corrosion cracking (T-SCC) was investigated using oriented 304 and 316L single crystals in boiling MgCl2 solutions and polycrystalline 304 stainless steels in acidic-chloride (H2SO4 + NaCl) solutions at room temperature. The effect of chloride-ion concentration, pH, applied potential, strain rate, and sensitization were investigated. For the polycrystalline tests at room temperature, high acid concentration (2.5M H2SO4) combined with low chloride concentration (0.05M NaCl) resulted in gross corrosion (active dissolution). On the other hand, very low acid concentration (0.0375M) in 1M NaCl resulted in ductile failure due to low dissolution rate. Increasing chloride-ion concentration in 2.5M H2SO4 and the H2SO4 concentration in 1M NaCl resulted in T-SCC. Increasing both the applied anodic potential in the active region and the strain rate increased the average crack growth rate due to enhanced dissolution at the crack tip. High strain-rates also favored formation of secondary cracks. The secondary cracks were believed to nucleate and propagate mainly along the slip planes. The influence of the strain rate and applied potential on crack nucleation, varied, indicating that crack nucleation and crack growth are two independent processes. Furthermore, the results clearly indicated that hydrogen is not essential for T-SCC of these steels. It can play, however, a secondary role by enhancing the dissolution process. The results also showed that {110} is the preferred fracture plane for both single crystals of 304 and 316L stainless-steels at high temperature and for polycrystalline 304 stainless-steel at room temperature. The cracks appear to propagate continuously, with <110> as the average crack growth direction but changing to approximately <211> at later stages. The fracture surface consisted of parallel facets separated by steps. The steps are crystallographic in nature. Finally, the Stress-Assisted Directed Dissolution (SADD) model can be used to explain many aspects of the mechanism of T-SCC of austenitic stainless-steels in acidic-chloride media.

Al-Shamsi, Ahmad Saeed

338

X-ray attenuation properties of stainless steel (u)  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steel vessels are used to enclose solid materials for studying x-ray radiolysis that involves gas release from the materials. Commercially available stainless steel components are easily adapted to form a static or a dynamic condition to monitor the gas evolved from the solid materials during and after the x-ray irradiation. Experimental data published on the x-ray attenuation properties of stainless steel, however, are very scarce, especially over a wide range of x-ray energies. The objective of this work was to obtain experimental data that will be used to determine how a poly-energetic x-ray beam is attenuated by the stainless steel container wall. The data will also be used in conjunction with MCNP (Monte Carlos Nuclear Particle) modeling to develop an accurate method for determining energy absorbed in known solid samples contained in stainless steel vessels. In this study, experiments to measure the attenuation properties of stainless steel were performed for a range of bremsstrahlung x-ray beams with a maximum energy ranging from 150 keV to 10 MeV. Bremsstrahlung x-ray beams of these energies are commonly used in radiography of engineering and weapon components. The weapon surveillance community has a great interest in understanding how the x-rays in radiography affect short-term and long-term properties of weapon materials.

Wang, Lily L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berry, Phillip C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

339

Effect of microstructure on pitting and corrosion fatigue of 17-4 PH turbine blade steel in chloride environments  

SciTech Connect

Depending on its heat treatment, 17-4 PH stainless steel may contain significant levels of reformed austenite and untempered martensite in a matrix of tempered martensite. Shot peening can cause changes in the microstructure of the surface layers by transforming the austenite to untempered martensite. The effect of these microstructural varations on the resistance of 17-4 PH stainless steel to pitting and corrosion fatigue has been determined in simulated steam turbine environments. The results of two electrochemical tests (large amplitude cyclic voltammetry and the pit propagation rate (PPR) test) indicate that tempering temperature and shot peening have only minor effects on resistance to pit initiation and propagation in any one of three aqueous chloride environments. However, the susceptibility of this stainless steel to corrosion fatigue in one of these environments (6 wt % FeCl/sub 3/) was reduced by increasing the tempering temperature from 538/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F) to 649/sup 0/C (1200/sup 0/F).

Syrett, B.C.; Viswanathan, R.

1982-02-01

340

Phase transformations in cast duplex stainless steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Duplex stainless steels (DSS) constitute both ferrite and austenite as a matrix. Such a microstructure confers a high corrosion resistance with favorable mechanical properties. However, intermetallic phases such as sigma (sigma) and chi (chi) can also form during casting or high-temperature processing and can degrade the properties of the DSS. This research was initiated to develop time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams of two types of cast duplex stainless steels, CD3MN (Fe-22Cr-5Ni-Mo-N) and CD3MWCuN (Fe-25Cr-7Ni-Mo-W-Cu-N), in order to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formation. The alloys were heat treated isothermally or under controlled cooling conditions and then characterized using conventional metallographic methods that included tint etching, and also using electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). The kinetics of intermetallic-phase (sigma + chi) formation were analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) equation in the case of isothermal transformations and a modified form of this equation in the case of continuous cooling transformations. The rate of intermetallic-phase formation was found to be much faster in CD3MWCuN than CD3MN due mainly to differences in the major alloying contents such as Cr, Ni and Mo. To examine in more detail the effects of these elements of the phase stabilities, a series of eight steel castings was designed with the Cr, Ni and Mo contents systematically varied with respect to the nominal composition of CD3MN. The effects of varying the contents of alloying additions on the formation of intermetallic phases were also studied computationally using the commercial thermodynamic software package, Thermo-Calc. In general, a was stabilized with increasing Cr addition and chi by increasing Mo addition. However, a delicate balance among Ni and other minor elements such as N and Si also exists. Phase equilibria in DSS can be affected by local composition fluctuations in the cast alloy. This may cause discrepancy between thermodynamic prediction and experimental observation.

Kim, Yoon-Jun

341

Effect of Ultra-Clean Stainless Steel Surfaces on the Strength of Epoxide-Stainless Steel Butt Joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Butt joints between stainless steel epoxy\\/stainless steel have been constructed from steel samples which have had their bonding surfaces subject to (a) argon-ion bombardment at 8 keV, total flux of 10 ions cm, (b) abraded with 180-220 mesh alumina grit and degreased, and (c) similar treatment to (b) but subjected to ion-bombardment. All the steel surfaces which were sputtered in

F. S. Baker

1979-01-01

342

Liquid Metal Corrosion of 316L Stainless Steel, 410 Stainless Steel, and 1015 Carbon Steel in a Molten Zinc Bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion tests of 1015 low-carbon steel and two stainless steels (410 and 316L) were conducted in a pure zinc bath (99.98wtpct\\u000a Zn) in order to better understand the reaction mechanisms that occur during the degradation of submerged hardware at industrial\\u000a general (batch) galvanizing operations. Through this testing, it was found that, in general, 316L stainless steel showed the\\u000a best dissolution

Jing Xu; Mark A. Bright; Xingbo Liu; Ever Barbero

2007-01-01

343

NanoComposite Stainless Steel Powder Technologies  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating a new class of Fe-based amorphous material stemming from a DARPA, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency initiative in structural amorphous metals. Further engineering of the original SAM materials such as chemistry modifications and manufacturing processes, has led to the development of a class of Fe based amorphous materials that upon processing, devitrify into a nearly homogeneous distribution of nano sized complex metal carbides and borides. The powder material is produced through the gas atomization process and subsequently utilized by several methods; laser fusing as a coating to existing components or bulk consolidated into new components through various powder metallurgy techniques (vacuum hot pressing, Dynaforge, and hot isostatic pressing). The unique fine scale distribution of microstructural features yields a material with high hardness and wear resistance compared to material produced through conventional processing techniques such as casting while maintaining adequate fracture toughness. Several compositions have been examined including those specifically designed for high hardness and wear resistance and a composition specifically tailored to devitrify into an austenitic matrix (similar to a stainless steel) which poses improved corrosion behavior.

DeHoff, R.; Glasgow, C. (MesoCoat, Inc.)

2012-07-25

344

Austenitic stainless steel for high temperature applications  

DOEpatents

This invention describes a composition for an austenitic stainless steel which has been found to exhibit improved high temperature stress rupture properties. The composition of this alloy is about (in wt. %): 12.5 to 14.5 Cr; 14.5 to 16.5 Ni; 1.5 to 2.5 Mo; 1.5 to 2.5 Mn; 0.1 to 0.4 Ti; 0.02 to 0.08 C; 0.5 to 1.0 Si; 0.01 maximum, N; 0.02 to 0.08 P; 0.002 to 0.008 B; 0.004-0.010 S; 0.02-0.05 Nb; 0.01-0.05 V; 0.005-0.02 Ta; 0.02-0.05 Al; 0.01-0.04 Cu; 0.02-0.05 Co; 0.03 maximum, As; 0.01 maximum, O; 0.01 maximum, Zr; and with the balance of the alloy being essentially iron. The carbon content of the alloy is adjusted such that wt. % Ti/(wt. % C+wt. % N) is between 4 and 6, and most preferably about 5. In addition the sum of the wt. % P+wt. % B+wt. % S is at least 0.03 wt. %. This alloy is believed to be particularly well suited for use as fast breeder reactor fuel element cladding.

Johnson, Gerald D. (Kennewick, WA); Powell, Roger W. (Pasco, WA)

1985-01-01

345

Microchemical evolution of irradiated stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

The precipitates that develop during irradiation play the dominant role in the response of 300 series alloys, which alters not only the diffusional properties of point defects but also the rate of acceptance of point defects at dislocations and voids. The major elemental participants are carbon, nickel and silicon. Carbon appears to function as a major governing factor of the route and rate by which the radiation-induced evolution proceeds. It is the sensitivity of carbon's response to a wide range of variables that accounts for much of the variability observed in the swelling of 316 stainless steel. Silicon's role is two-fold: while in solution it depresses void nucleation and determines the duration of the void incubation period, and it also coprecipitates with nickel. The eventual level of nickel in the alloy matrix appears to control the steady-state swelling rate and is determined by the silicon and carbon content. The other participating elements appear to affect primarily the distribution and activity of carbon. Dislocations introduced either by irradiation or cold work likewise appear to influence the role of carbon. Several new physical mechanisms appear to be operating: Inverse Kirkendall effect, interstitial-altered phase stability, solute-interstitial binding, infiltration-exchange process, and creation of radiation-stable precipitates. The sensitivity of the latter phenomenon to temperature and flux has been shown to account for much of the unusual behavior of AISI 316 during irradiation.

Garner, F.A.

1980-01-01

346

Characterization of stainless steel 304 tubing  

SciTech Connect

Earlier studies have shown that stainless steel 304 (SS304) containing martensite is susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. This generated concern regarding the structural integrity of SS304 tubing we use in the W87 pit tube. During surveillance operations, the pit tube undergoes a series of bending and straightening as it goes through a number of surveillance cycles. This motivated the study to characterize austenitic SS304 tubing obtained from Rocky Flats. The tubes continued to display structural soundness even after numerous repeated bending and straightening cycles. The minimum and maximum number of bends to failure occurred after 13 and 16 cycles, respectively. After 5 bends, both the inner and outer surfaces of the tubing showed no microcracks. When the bent tubing samples were pressurized and tested using deuterium at 74{degrees}C and at {approximately}78{degrees}C, they failed away from the bent area. Thus deuterium embrittlement of the bent SS304 tubing should not be a problem. Moreover, to increase our 95% confidence level to 5 bends, we are planning to perform at least four additional bends to failure tests.

Sunwoo, A.J.; Brooks, M.A.; Kervin, J.E.

1995-10-16

347

Welding Behavior of Free Machining Stainless Steel  

SciTech Connect

The weld solidification and cracking behavior of sulfur bearing free machining austenitic stainless steel was investigated for both gas-tungsten arc (GTA) and pulsed laser beam weld processes. The GTA weld solidification was consistent with those predicted with existing solidification diagrams and the cracking response was controlled primarily by solidification mode. The solidification behavior of the pulsed laser welds was complex, and often contained regions of primary ferrite and primary austenite solidification, although in all cases the welds were found to be completely austenite at room temperature. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) pattern analysis indicated that the nature of the base metal at the time of solidification plays a primary role in initial solidification. The solid state transformation of austenite to ferrite at the fusion zone boundary, and ferrite to austenite on cooling may both be massive in nature. A range of alloy compositions that exhibited good resistance to solidification cracking and was compatible with both welding processes was identified. The compositional range is bounded by laser weldability at lower Cr{sub eq}/Ni{sub eq} ratios and by the GTA weldability at higher ratios. It was found with both processes that the limiting ratios were somewhat dependent upon sulfur content.

BROOKS,JOHN A.; ROBINO,CHARLES V.; HEADLEY,THOMAS J.; MICHAEL,JOSEPH R.

2000-07-24

348

Weldable, age hardenable, austenitic stainless steel  

DOEpatents

An age hardenable, austenitic stainless steel having superior weldability properties as well as resistance to degradation of properties in a hydrogen atmosphere is described. It has a composition of from about 24.0 to about 34.0 weight percent (w/o) nickel, from about 13.5 to about 16.0 w/o chromium, from about 1.9 to about 2.3 w/o titanium, from about 1.0 to about 1.5 w/ o molybdenum, from about 0.01 to about 0.05 w/o carbon, from about 0 to about 0.25 w/o manganese, from about 0 to about 0.01 w/o phosphorous and preferably about 0.005 w/o maximum, from about 0 to about 0.010 w/o sulfur and preferably about 0.005 w/o maximum, from about 0 to about 0.25 w/o silicon, from about 0.1 to about 0.35 w/o aluminum, from about 0.10 to about 0.50 w/o vanadium, from about 0 to about 0.0015 w/o boron, and the balance essentially iron. (auth)

Brooks, J.A.; Krenzer, R.W.

1975-07-22

349

Electrical impedance of stainless steel needle electrodes.  

PubMed

We present experimental findings regarding variability and stability of the electrical impedance properties of medical grade stainless steel needle electrodes in vitro. Monopolar impedance spectra (1 Hz to 1 MHz) were measured and scanning electron microscope images were obtained for five needle types with active electrode area from 0.28 to 0.7 mm(2). A saline tank (0.9% NaCl) was used as tissue model. Measurements were done before and after electrolytic treatment with anodic and cathodic DC currents of 1 muA. With active electrode areas below 1 mm(2), high influence from electrode polarization impedance (EPI) was expected at low frequencies (LF). For higher frequencies (HF) the EPI decreases and the impedance of the surrounding tissue is more pronounced. The hypothesis tested was that the EPI at LF would depend upon contact area, alloy composition, surface structure, and treatment of the active electrode, and at HF upon the electrode area geometry, and the specific resistivity of saline. Our results show large differences in electrical properties between needle types. After electrolytic treatment the EPI decreased. After 5-48 h of saline exposure the EPI increased, both for treated and untreated needles. Cathodic treatment gave lower impedance and drift than anodic or no treatment. PMID:20217478

Kalvy, Hvard; Tronstad, Christian; Nordbotten, Bernt; Grimnes, Sverre; Martinsen, rjan G

2010-03-09

350

Defining and Teaching pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1909 definition of pH given in most general chemistry textbooks conflicts with the modern, operationally-defined pH scale that underlies laboratory measurement and relates to activities. At an elementary level, pH and the algebra of equilibria can be simply and correctly taught, without logarithms, in terms of the latter scale.

Richard F. Burton

2007-01-01

351

Inexpensive and Disposable pH Electrodes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Inexpensive electrodes for the measurement of pH have been constructed using the ionophore tribenzylamine for sensing H[superscript +] concentrations. Both traditional liquid-membrane electrodes and coated-wire electrodes have been constructed and studied, and both exhibit linear, nearly Nernstian responses to changes in pH. Measurements of pH

Goldcamp, Michael J.; Conklin, Alfred; Nelson, Kimberly; Marchetti, Jessica; Brashear, Ryan; Epure, Emily

2010-01-01

352

Defining and Teaching pH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1909 definition of pH given in most general chemistry textbooks conflicts with the modern, operationally-defined pH scale that underlies laboratory measurement and relates to activities. At an elementary level, pH and the algebra of equilibria can be simply and correctly taught, without logarithms, in terms of the latter scale.

Burton, Richard F.

2007-07-01

353

PhET Simulation: Sound  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive simulation allows users to analyze the properties of sound waves. Frequency and amplitude can be controlled, and users can enable audio tones to explore how pitch is related to frequency. Other options allow users to experiment with constructive and destructive interference by moving positions of speakers and listeners. Tools are also provided to measure wavelengths of various frequencies. Experimenting with interference from a wall and exploring sound in environments without air pressure are also possible. This simulation is part of a large and growing collection developed by the Physics Educational Technology Project using research-based principles. See the Related Materials below for a link to clicker questions and tutorials designed specifically for this simulation by the PhET team.

2008-10-29

354

Characterization and corrosion behavior of injection molded 17-4 PH steel electrochemically coated with poly[ trans -dichloro(4-vinylpyridine)ruthenium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study describes preliminary results on the corrosion resistance of injection molded 17-4 PH stainless steel potentiostatically\\u000a coated with poly {trans-[RuCl2(vpy)4]}, where vpy (4-vinylpyridine) acts as a ligand. The coated electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy\\u000a and energy dispersive spectroscopy, as well as by electrochemical techniques. The microstructural analysis indicated that\\u000a the films reached up to 100??m thickness.

A. V. C. Sobral; W. Ristow Jr.; S. C. Domenech; C. V. Franco

2000-01-01

355

43 CFR 17.7 - Procedure for effecting compliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or National Origin § 17...and shall be limited in its effect to the particular program...authorized by law. No action to effect compliance by any other means...of the action to be taken to effect compliance, and (3)...

2012-10-01

356

43 CFR 17.7 - Procedure for effecting compliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or National Origin § 17...and shall be limited in its effect to the particular program...authorized by law. No action to effect compliance by any other means...of the action to be taken to effect compliance, and (3)...

2011-10-01

357

Complexing agent and heavy metal removals from metal plating effluent by electrocoagulation with stainless steel electrodes.  

PubMed

In the present study, the treatability of a metal plating wastewater containing complexed metals originating from the nickel and zinc plating process by electrocoagulation using stainless steel electrodes was experimentally investigated. The study focused on the effect of important operation parameters on electrocoagulation process performance in terms of organic complex former, nickel and zinc removals as well as sludge production and specific energy consumption. The results indicated that increasing the applied current density from 2.25 to 9.0 mA/cm(2) appreciably enhanced TOC removal efficiency from 20% to 66%, but a further increase in the applied current density to 56.25 mA/cm(2) did not accelerate TOC removal rates. Electrolyte concentration did not affect the process performance significantly and the highest TOC reduction (66%) accompanied with complete heavy metal removals were achieved at the original chloride content ( approximately 1500 mg Cl/L) of the wastewater sample. Nickel removal performance was adversely affected by the decrease of initial pH from its original value of 6. Optimum working conditions for electrocoagulation of metal plating effluent were established as follows: an applied current density of 9 mA/cm(2), the effluent's original electrolyte concentration and pH of the composite sample. TOC removal rates obtained for all electrocoagulation runs fitted pseudo-first-order kinetics very well (R(2)>92-99). PMID:19046620

Kabda?li, I?ik; Arslan, Tlin; Olmez-Hanci, Tu?ba; Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Tnay, Olcay

2008-11-01

358

Corrosion behavior of ferritic stainless steel with 15wt% chromium for the automobile exhaust system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of chloride ion concentration, pH value, and grain size on the pitting corrosion resistance of a new ferritic stainless steel with 15wt% Cr was investigated using the anodic polarization method. The semiconducting properties of passive films with different chloride ion concentrations were performed using capacitance measurement and Mott-Schottky analysis methods. The aging precipitation and intergranular corrosion behavior were evaluated at 400-900C. It is found that the pitting potential decreases when the grain size increases. With the increase in chloride ion concentration, the doping density and the flat-bland potential increase but the thickness of the space charge layer decreases. The pitting corrosion resistance increases rapidly with the decrease in pH value. Precipitants is identified as Nb(C,N) and NbC, rather than Cr-carbide. The intergranular corrosion is attributed to the synergistic effects of Nb(C,N) and NbC precipitates and Cr segregation adjacent to the precipitates.

Li, Hua-bing; Jiang, Zhou-hua; Feng, Hao; Zhu, Hong-chun; Sun, Bin-han; Li, Zhen

2013-09-01

359

Ruostumaton Teras Maa- ja Vesirakentamisessa (Stainless Steel in Soil and Water Applications).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication is a preliminary study of the possibilities of stainless steel in soil and water applications. The study gives information for product development. Material grades, material costs and benefits achieved by the use of stainless steel are pre...

A. Talja E. Nippala H. Kivikoski J. Tornqvist L. Carpen

2007-01-01

360

Characteristics of Stainless Steel for Automotive Exhaust System and Its Production by Tandem Cold Rolling Mill,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ferritic stainless steels for automotive exhaust systems are reexamined for corrosion resistance and properties at elevated temperatures. Production process of the steels using conventional facilities for plain carbon steels is also studied. Stainless ste...

M. Kabayashi T. Kawasaki Y. Mihara H. Sato M. Takada

1988-01-01

361

Anisotropic Properties of Stainless Steel-Clad Aluminum Sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of a stainless steel-clad aluminum sheet by the cold rolling process is a more efficient and economical approach compared with the other types of processes utilized for the production of such sheets. Because both the stainless steel and aluminum sheets show the highly anisotropic behavior, it is necessary to investigate anisotropic properties of clad sheets for the design of process. In this paper, to investigate the anisotropic properties of stainless steel-clad aluminum sheet, two kinds of clad sheets were considered: STS439/AA3003 and STS439/AA1050/STS304 clad sheets. The uni-axial tension tests at 0, 45 and 90 degrees for the rolling direction were performed to obtained yield stresses and R values. The strain ratio at balanced biaxial tension state was measured from compression disk test. In order to describe the anisotropic behavior of the clad sheet, nonquadratic anisotropic yield function Yld2000-2d was utilized.

Kim, Daeyong; Hwang, Bum Kyu; Lee, Young Seon; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Min-Joong

2010-06-01

362

Survey of stainless steel performance in low chloride waters  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steel is well-known for its corrosion-resistant properties and has seen widespread application in many situations. In a special user survey of stainless steel performance, the authors examined its use in municipal potable water distribution systems, municipal potable water treatment plants, building water supply systems, wastewater treatment plants, household plumbing systems, dams, locks, and hydroelectric plants. Type 304/304L (UNS S30400/30403) and type 316/316L (UNS S31600/31603) are the principal materials used. The authors found cases of under deposit corrosion at incompletely fused circumferential welds, corrosion at brazed joints where acid chloride fluxes had been used, corrosion from excessive chlorination, corrosion from iron embedded during fabrication, and microbiological corrosion from water left standing after hydrotesting. The incidence of such problems in the approximately 70,000 tons of stainless steel currently used per year worldwide in these applications is estimated to be less than 0.01%.

Tuthill, A.H. [Tuthill Associates, Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Avery, R.E. [Avery Consulting Associates Inc., Londonderry, NH (United States)

1994-11-01

363

Aging properties of vanadium-bearing high manganese stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

Strengthening of austenitic ({gamma}) stainless steel is of great interest to utilization for the structural component. Strengthening of the steel is attained by a combination of following mechanisms such as solution strengthening, strengthening by grain size effect, strain hardening, and precipitation hardening. A selection for the strengthening of {gamma} steel is precipitation hardening due to carbides, nitrides, and intermetallic phases, by which both high strength and low permeability of {gamma} steel may be satisfied. Among Mo, Ti, V, and Nb carbides, it is known that vanadium carbide is considered to be potent contributor to hardening because it precipitates finely in the matrix and grow relatively slower. However, carbide precipitation hardening behavior of highly alloyed {gamma} stainless steel has not been much studied. In this paper, hardening behavior of the vanadium added, low permeability {gamma} stainless steel, Fe-Cr-6Ni-10Mn-V-C, was investigated focusing on the microstructural change and compositional aspects.

Haruna, Y. [Sanyo Special Steel Co., Ltd., Himeji (Japan). Technological Research Lab.; Yamamoto, A.; Tsubakino, H. [Himeji Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1997-11-01

364

Current drain to cathodically protected stainless steels in seawater  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes tests conducted on small test panels in order to determine the current drain to cathodically protected stainless steels in seawater. The tests consisted of galvanostatic and potentiostatic polarization as well as galvanic coupling to sacrificial anodes. Cyclic polarization curves were recorded for some test samples. The steels investigated were AISI (13% chromium), AISI 316, ''Duples,'' and a high-alloyed 6% molybdenum steel. A reference sample of carbon steel was also included in the polarization tests. When polarized to -800mV and below vs Ag/AgCl/seawater reference electrode, the stainless steels require the same or slightly more current than carbon steels. With present cathodic protection design practices, stainless steel surfaces should be included in the total surface area and the same design current applied to all.

Lye, R.E. (Norsk Hydro, Research Centre, N-3900 Porsgrunn (NO))

1988-10-01

365

Microbially influenced corrosion of stainless steels in nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the components, causative agents, corrosion sites, and potential failure modes of stainless steel components susceptible to microbially influenced corrosion (MIC). The stainless steel components susceptible to MIC are located in the reactor coolant, emergency, and reactor auxiliary systems, and in many plants, in the feedwater train and condenser. The authors assessed the areas of most high occurrence of corrosion and found the sites most susceptible to MIC to the heat-affected zones in the weldments of sensitized stainless steel. Pitting is the predominant MIC corrosion mechanisms, caused by sulfur reducing bacteria (SRB). Also discussed is the current status of the diagnostic, preventive, and mitigation techniques, including use of improved water chemistry, alternate materials, and improved thermomechanical treatments. 37 refs., 3 figs.

Sinha, U.P.; Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D.

1990-01-01

366

Machinability of a Stainless Steel by Electrochemical Discharge Microdrilling  

SciTech Connect

Due to the chemical elements included in their structure for ensuring an increased resistance to the environment action, the stainless steels are characterized by a low machinability when classical machining methods are applied. For this reason, sometimes non-traditional machining methods are applied, one of these being the electrochemical discharge machining. To obtain microholes and to evaluate the machinability by electrochemical discharge microdrilling, test pieces of stainless steel were used for experimental research. The electrolyte was an aqueous solution of sodium silicate with different densities. A complete factorial plan was designed to highlight the influence of some input variables on the sizes of the considered machinability indexes (electrode tool wear, material removal rate, depth of the machined hole). By mathematically processing of experimental data, empirical functions were established both for stainless steel and carbon steel. Graphical representations were used to obtain more suggestive vision concerning the influence exerted by the considered input variables on the size of the machinability indexes.

Coteata, Margareta; Pop, Nicolae; Slatineanu, Laurentiu ['Gheorghe Asachi' Technical University of Iasi, Department of Machine Manufacturing Technology, Blvd. D Mangeron 59A, 700050 Iasi (Romania); Schulze, Hans-Peter [Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Institute of Fundamental Electrical Engineering and EMC Universitaetsplatz 2, D-39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Besliu, Irina [University 'Stefan cel Mare' of Suceava, Department of Technologies and Management, Str. Universitatii, 13, 720 229 Suceava (Romania)

2011-05-04

367

Bacterial adhesion on ion-implanted stainless steel surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stainless steel disks were implanted with N+, O+ and SiF3+, respectively at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre. The surface properties of the implanted surfaces were analyzed, including surface chemical composition, surface topography, surface roughness and surface free energy. Bacterial adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, which frequently cause medical device-associated infections was evaluated under static condition and laminar flow condition. The effect of contact time, growth media and surface properties of the ion-implanted steels on bacterial adhesion was investigated. The experimental results showed that SiF3+-implanted stainless steel performed much better than N+-implanted steel, O+-implanted steel and untreated stainless steel control on reducing bacterial attachment under identical experimental conditions.

Zhao, Q.; Liu, Y.; Wang, C.; Wang, S.; Peng, N.; Jeynes, C.

2007-08-01

368

Machinability of a Stainless Steel by Electrochemical Discharge Microdrilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the chemical elements included in their structure for ensuring an increased resistance to the environment action, the stainless steels are characterized by a low machinability when classical machining methods are applied. For this reason, sometimes non-traditional machining methods are applied, one of these being the electrochemical discharge machining. To obtain microholes and to evaluate the machinability by electrochemical discharge microdrilling, test pieces of stainless steel were used for experimental research. The electrolyte was an aqueous solution of sodium silicate with different densities. A complete factorial plan was designed to highlight the influence of some input variables on the sizes of the considered machinability indexes (electrode tool wear, material removal rate, depth of the machined hole). By mathematically processing of experimental data, empirical functions were established both for stainless steel and carbon steel. Graphical representations were used to obtain more suggestive vision concerning the influence exerted by the considered input variables on the size of the machinability indexes.

Cotea??, Margareta; Schulze, Hans-Peter; Pop, Nicolae; Be?liu, Irina; Sl?tineanu, Lauren?iu

2011-05-01

369

Online PH measurement technique in seawater desalination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement technology of pH is essential in seawater desalination. Glass electrode is the main pH sensor in seawater desalination. Because the internal impedance of glass electrode is high and the signal of pH sensor is easy to be disturbed, a signal processing circuit with high input impedance was designed. Because of high salinity of seawater and the characteristic of glass electrode, ultrasonic cleaning technology was used to online clean pH sensor. Temperature compensation was also designed to reduce the measurement error caused by variety of environment temperature. Additionally, the potential drift of pH sensor was analyzed and an automatic calibration method was proposed. In order to online monitor the variety of pH in seawater desalination, three operating modes were designed. The three modes are online monitoring mode, ultrasonic cleaning mode and auto-calibration mode. The current pH in seawater desalination was measured and displayed in online monitoring mode. The cleaning process of pH sensor was done in ultrasonic cleaning mode. The calibration of pH sensor was finished in auto-calibration mode. The result of experiments showed that the measurement technology of pH could meet the technical requirements for desalination. The glass electrode could be promptly and online cleaned and its service life was lengthened greatly.

Wang, Haibo; Wu, Kaihua; Hu, Shaopeng

2009-11-01

370

Functional photoacoustic microscopy of pH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

pH is a tightly regulated indicator of metabolic activity. In mammalian systems, imbalance of pH regulation may result from or result in serious illness. Even though the regulation system of pH is very robust, tissue pH can be altered in many diseases such as cancer, osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus. Traditional high-resolution optical imaging techniques, such as confocal microscopy, routinely image pH in cells and tissues using pH sensitive fluorescent dyes, which change their fluorescence properties with the surrounding pH. Since strong optical scattering in biological tissue blurs images at greater depths, high-resolution pH imaging is limited to penetration depths of 1mm. Here, we report photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) of commercially available pH-sensitive fluorescent dye in tissue phantoms. Using both opticalresolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM), and acoustic resolution photoacoustic microscopy (AR-PAM), we explored the possibility of recovering the pH values in tissue phantoms. In this paper, we demonstrate that PAM was capable of recovering pH values up to a depth of 2 mm, greater than possible with other forms of optical microscopy.

Chatni, M. Rameez; Yao, Junjie; Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P.; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.

2012-02-01

371

Cyclic behaviour of a duplex stainless steel under multiaxial loading: Experiments and modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-cycle fatigue behaviour of a duplex stainless steel, 60 % ferrite 40 % austenite, is studied under tension-compression\\/torsion loading at room temperature. It is shown that the duplex stainless steel has an isotropic behaviour under cyclic proportional loading. The non-proportional loading paths induce an extra-hardening, but lower on duplex stainless steel than on austenitic stainless steels. Three models

Vronique Aubin; Philippe Quaegebeur; Suzanne Degallaix

2003-01-01

372

Influence of surface roughness of stainless steel on microbial adhesion and corrosion resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether hygienic characteristics of stainless steel used in the food industry could be improved by smoothing surface roughness (Ra) from Ra 0.90.01?m. The adherence of Pseudomonas sp., Listeria monocytogenes and Candida lipolytica, to stainless steel was not affected by surface roughness ranging from grit 4000 polished stainless steel (Ra<0.01) to ground stainless

Lisbeth R. Hilbert; Dorthe Bagge-Ravn; John Kold; Lone Gram

2003-01-01

373

Effect of laser surface melting on intergranular corrosion behaviour of aged austenitic and duplex stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the effect of laser surface melting (LSM) on intergranular corrosion behaviour of aged austenitic stainless steels (UNS S30400, S31603, S32100 and S34700) and aged duplex stainless steels (UNS S31803 and S32950) were investigated. LSM of the aged stainless steels was carried out using a 2.5kW CW Nd:YAG laser. The microstructure of the aged stainless steels after

C. T. Kwok; K. H. Lo; W. K. Chan; F. T. Cheng; H. C. Man

2011-01-01

374

Development of nano\\/sub-micron grain structures in metastable austenitic stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation is a part of a collaborative work between the University of Texas, Austin-Texas, the University of Oulu, Oulu-Finland, and Outokumpu Stainless Oy, Tornio-Finland, to develop commercial austenitic stainless steels with high strength and ductility. The idea behind this work involves cold-rolling a commercial metastable austenitic stainless steel - AISI 301LN stainless steel to produce strain-induced martensite, followed by

Shreyas Rajasekhara

2007-01-01

375

Characterization of properties in plastically deformed austenitic-stainless steels joined by friction welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friction welding is widely used as a mass-production method in various industries. Welding is used for joining parts with equal and\\/or different diameters. Austenitic-stainless steels are preferred over other stainless steels due greater ease in welding. In the present study, an experimental set-up was designed in order to achieve friction welding of plastically deformed austenitic-stainless steels. AISI 304 austenitic-stainless steels

Mumin Sahin

2009-01-01

376

Paraequilibrium Carburization of Duplex and Ferritic Stainless Steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

AISI 301 and E-BRITE stainless steels were subjected to low-temperature (743K) carburization experiments using a commercial\\u000a technology developed for carburization of 316 austenitic stainless steels. The AISI 301 steel contained ~40volpct ferrite\\u000a before carburization but had a fully austenitic hardened case, ~20-?m thick, and a surface carbon concentration of ~8at.pct after treatment; this colossal paraequilibrium carbon supersaturation\\u000a caused an increase

G. M. Michal; X. Gu; W. D. Jennings; H. Kahn; F. Ernst; A. H. Heuer

2009-01-01

377

Twinning-Induced Plasticity Aided High Ductile Duplex Stainless Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extended ductility over 70 pct was realized in duplex stainless steel by implementing twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP). The steel also exhibited the tensile strength over 800 MPa. The steel chemistry was designed so that the stacking fault energy of austenite was high enough to induce TWIP during deformation. After the initial decrease, the strain hardening rate increased at high tensile strains above ~30 pct. The microstructures of austenite at such high strains were manifested by well-developed primary twins and nanotwins between them, which effectively block dislocation motion. This observation ensures that extended ductility and high strength of a newly designed duplex stainless steel are originated from TWIP in austenite.

Choi, Jeom Yong; Hwang, Si Woo; Park, Kyung-Tae

2013-02-01

378

Thermal stability of sputtered Cu/304 stainless steel multilayer films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the thermal stability of sputter-deposited Cu/304 stainless steel nanoscale multilayer films. For individual layer thickness of approximately 70 nm, the layered morphology was stable up to 600 C with no significant change in the hardness. The stainless steel layer had a duplex bcc+fcc structure that was also preserved in annealed films. After annealing at temperatures of 650 C or higher, the hardness of these multilayer films decreased from 4.75 to 3.4 GPa due to morphological evolution from layers to equiaxed grains and coarsening of the nanolayers.

Zhang, X.; Schulze, R. K.; Wang, H.; Misra, A.

2007-06-01

379

Simultaneous chromizing-aluminizing coating of austenitic stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

Chromium and aluminum were simultaneously co-deposited by diffusion into austenitic stainless steel substrates, by a single-step, pack-cementation process. The mechanism for the formation of diffusion-coated products on 304 and 316 stainless steels and on Incoloy 800 is discussed. The morphologies of the phases formed at the surface, i.e., an external beta layer and an underlying multiphase interdiffusion zone, are presented. The formation of the brittle, ..beta.., outer layer was minimized by variations in the pack composition and activator. The coated 304 and 316 steels exhibited excellent scaling resistance upon oxidation in air at 1000/degrees/C.

Miller, D.M.; Kung, S.C.; Scarberry, S.D.; Rapp, R.A.

1988-04-01

380

Transmission electron microscopy of undermined passive films on stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

A study has been made of the passive film remaining over pits on stainless steel using a high resolution transmission electron microscope. Type 305 stainless steel was passivated in a borate buffer solution and pitted in ferric chloride. Passive films formed at 0.2 V relative to a saturated calomel electrode were found to be amorphous. Films formed at higher potentials showed only broad diffraction rings. The passive film was found to cover a remnant lacy structure formed over pits passivated at 0.8 V. The metallic strands of the lace were roughly hemitubular in shape with the curved surface facing the center of the pit.

Isaacs, H.S.; Zhu, Y.; Sabatini, R.L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Science; Ryan, M.P. [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials

1999-06-01

381

Advanced Cast Austenitic Stainless Steels for High Temperature Components  

SciTech Connect

In July of 2002, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Caterpillar, Inc. (Caterpillar Technical Center) to develop and commercialize new cast stainless steels invented and initially tested on a prior CRADA. This CRADA is a direct follow-on project to CRADA ORNL-99-0533 for diesel engine exhaust component and gas turbine engine structural component applications. The goal of this new CRADA was to develop and commercialize the newly discovered cast stainless steels (primarily CF8C-Plus) with improved performance and reliability, as lower-cost upgrade alternatives to more costly cast Ni-based superalloys.

Maziasz, P.J.; Shingledecker, J.P.; Evans, N.D.; Pollard, M.J. (Caterpillar, Inc.)

2008-10-09

382

Microstructure and texture of Nb + Ti stabilized ferritic stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

The microstructure, texture and grain boundary character distribution of Nb + Ti stabilized ferritic stainless steel were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The addition of alloying elements such as Ti and Nb to ferritic stainless steel causes the formation of TiN, NbC and Fe{sub 2}Nb. The textures of cold rolled samples were dominated by the {alpha}-fiber, while the textures of annealed samples exhibit a very strong {gamma}-fiber. The changes in texture are closely related to the grain boundary characteristics.

Yan Haitao [Key Laboratory for High Temperature Materials and Tests of Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Shanghai Baosteel Research Institute, Shanghai 200431 (China)], E-mail: yanhaitao@sjtu.edu.cn; Bi Hongyun; Li Xin [Shanghai Baosteel Research Institute, Shanghai 200431 (China); Xu Zhou [Key Laboratory for High Temperature Materials and Tests of Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

2008-12-15

383

Enhanced Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel Carburized at Low Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pitting corrosion resistance of surface-modified 316L austenitic stainless steel and N08367 (a superaustenitic stainless\\u000a steel) were evaluated in 0.6M NaCl solutions and compared to untreated samples of the same materials. The surface modification\\u000a process used to treat the surfaces was a low-temperature carburization technology termed low-temperature colossal supersaturation\\u000a (LTCSS). The process typically produces surface carbon concentrations of ~15 at.

F. J. Martin; P. M. Natishan; E. J. Lemieux; T. M. Newbauer; R. J. Rayne; R. A. Bayles; H. Kahn; G. M. Michal; F. Ernst; A. H. Heuer

2009-01-01

384

From flint to stainless steel: observations on surgical instrument composition.  

PubMed Central

Man's failure to extract deeply embedded thorns and arrowheads, with bare hands and teeth, stimulated 'instrument substitutes' mimicking these appendages. Evidence from primitive communities suggest animal, plant and mineral items were employed, both before and after metal became the standard material of today's armamentarium. Changing surgical instrument composition has mirrored concurrent technology and manufacturing methods both of which are reviewed. Particular significance is accorded flint, bronze, crucible steel, thermal sterilisation, nickel-plate, stainless steel and disposable plastics. The paper is based on an exhibition From Flint to Stainless Steel on display at the College. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5

Kirkup, J.

1993-01-01

385

Procedure for flaw detection in cast stainless steel  

DOEpatents

This paper describes a method of ultrasonic flaw detection in cast stainless steel components incorporating the steps of determining the nature of the microstructure of the cast stainless steel at the site of the flaw detection measurements by ultrasonic means independent of the component thickness at the site. Then, choosing from a plurality of flaw detection techniques, one such technique appropriate to the nature of the microstructure as determined is discussed. The detection of flaws by means of the chosen technique is then detailed.

Kupperman, D.S.

1986-08-29

386

TOPICAL REVIEW: Nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adverse effects of nickel ions being released into the human body have prompted the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications. Nitrogen not only replaces nickel for austenitic structure stability but also much improves steel properties. Here we review the harmful effects associated with nickel in medical stainless steels, the advantages of nitrogen in stainless steels,

Ke Yang; Yibin Ren

2010-01-01

387

Chemical assembly of silver nanoparticles on stainless steel for antimicrobial applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial adhesion on stainless steel is the most common contamination in many applications. In this work, we present a simple method to fabricate stainless steel-based antimicrobial composites by fixing silver nanoparticles onto the surface. Silver nanoparticles were covalently assembled on the surface of stainless steel by using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as the coupling agent. After 24h immersion the release of silver

Limei Chen; Lin Zheng; Yaohui Lv; Hong Liu; Guancong Wang; Na Ren; Duo Liu; Jiyang Wang; Robert I. Boughton

2010-01-01

388

Phase transformations evaluation on a UNS S31803 duplex stainless steel based on nondestructive testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duplex stainless steel presents special mechanical properties such as, for example, mechanical and corrosion strength, becoming competitive in relation to the other types of stainless steel. One of the great problems of duplex stainless steel microstructural changes study is related to embrittlement above 300C, with the precipitation of the ?? phase occurring over the ferritic microstructure. Aiming to characterise embrittlement

Edgard de Macedo Silva; Victor Hugo Costa de Albuquerque; Josinaldo Pereira Leite; Antonio Carlos Gomes Varela; Elineudo Pinho de Moura; Joo Manuel R. S. Tavares

2009-01-01

389

DEVELOPMENT OF A DUAL-PHASE PRECIPITATION-HARDENING PM STAINLESS STEEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steels can now be fabricated by the pressing and sintering of water atomized powder. PM grades embrace: ferritic, austenitic, martensitic, duplex (ferritic + austenitic), dual-phase (ferritic + martensitic), and precipitation hardening (martensitic). Development of dual-phase PM stainless steels reflects the growing need for higher strength, coupled with ductility and toughness. In the present study, a new low-cost PM stainless

Chris Schade; Tom Murphy; Alan Lawley; Roger Doherty

390

Evaluation of Susceptibility to Crevice Corrosion in Drinking Water of Stainless Steel Pipes with Connections  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new electrochemical corrosion testing method has been established for evaluating the crevice corrosion resistance of stainless steel pipes joined with stainless steel connections. The test has been used for approval of such systems for drinking water in Denmark. The test program is based on the assumption that stainless steel in both hot and cold domestic water can reach maximum

Troels Mathiesen; Kate Nielsen

391

On the processing, microstructure, mechanical and wear properties of cermet\\/stainless steel layer composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with layer composites of carbide reinforcements and stainless steel prepared successfully by powder technology. The layer material consisted of two layers. The top layer consisted of reinforcements (TiC and NbC) and 465 stainless steel as the binder material for the carbides. The bottom layer was entirely of binder material (465 stainless steel). The microstructure of the composite

Akhtar Farid; Shiju Guo

2007-01-01

392

75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan AGENCY...stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan...stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan...

2010-09-28

393

Marine microbial fuel cell: Use of stainless steel electrodes as anode and cathode materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous biocorrosion studies have stated that biofilms formed in aerobic seawater induce an efficient catalysis of the oxygen reduction on stainless steels. This property was implemented here for the first time in a marine microbial fuel cell (MFC). A prototype was designed with a stainless steel anode embedded in marine sediments coupled to a stainless steel cathode in the overlying

C. Dumas; A. Mollica; D. Fron; R. Bassguy; L. Etcheverry; A. Bergel

2007-01-01

394

Magnetic measurements of martensitic transformation in austenitic stainless steel after room temperature rolling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the detection of martensite phase in deformed austenitic stainless steel, magnetic properties were examined by means of super conducting quantum interface device (SQUID) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques. Stainless steel specimens were rolled at room temperature with 15 to 55% reduction in thickness. Results indicate that the magnetic properties of stainless steel were sensitive to

K. Mumtaz; S. Takahashi; J. Echigoya; Y. Kamada; L. F. Zhang; H. Kikuchi; K. Ara; M. Sato

2004-01-01

395

78 FR 63517 - Control of Ferrite Content in Stainless Steel Weld Metal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRC-2012-0231] Control of Ferrite Content in Stainless Steel Weld Metal AGENCY...RG) 1.31, ``Control of Ferrite Content in Stainless Steel Weld Metal.'' This...considers acceptable for controlling ferrite content in stainless steel weld metal. It...

2013-10-24

396

Self-Calibrating Sensor for Measuring Density through Stainless Steel Pipeline Wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ultrasonic sensor has been developed in which 1) the transducer is bonded to the stainless steel pipeline wall, possibly as part of a spool piece or 2) a separate clamp-on sensor is fastened to the stainless steel pipeline. In either case, the stainless steel acts as part of the sensing system, in which ultrasound is reflected at the interface

Margaret S. Greenwood; Judith A. Bamberger

2004-01-01

397

Effect of alloying Cu on the corrosion resistance of stainless steels in chloride media  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to explain the effect of alloying Cu on the corrosion resistance of stainless steels in chloride media for both ferritic and austenitic stainless steels, the corrosion behavior of Cu-bearing stainless steels was investigated. Alloying Cu showed beneficial effect in an active potential range and harmful effect in a noble potential range. The beneficial effect of alloying Cu was

T Ujiro; S Satoh; R. W Staehle; W. H Smyrl

2001-01-01

398

Inbred maize line Ph0R8  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An inbred maize line, designated PH0R8, the plants and seeds of inbred maize line PH0R8, methods for producing a maize plant, either inbred or hybrid, produced by crossing the inbred maize line PH0R8 with itself or with another maize plant, and hybrid maize seeds and plants produced by crossing the inbred line PH0R8 with another maize line or plant and to methods for producing a maize plant containing in its genetic material one or more transgenes and to the transgenic maize plants produced by that method. This invention also relates to inbred maize lines derived from inbred maize line PH0R8, to methods for producing other inbred maize lines derived from inbred maize line PH0R8 and to the inbred maize lines derived by the use of those methods.

2004-04-06

399

Minireview: pH and synaptic transmission.  

PubMed

As a general rule a rise in pH increases neuronal activity, whereas it is dampened by a fall of pH. Neuronal activity per se also challenges pH homeostasis by the increase of metabolic acid equivalents. Moreover, the negative membrane potential of neurons promotes the intracellular accumulation of protons. Synaptic key players such as glutamate receptors or voltage-gated calcium channels show strong pH dependence and effects of pH gradients on synaptic processes are well known. However, the processes and mechanisms that allow controlling the pH in synaptic structures and how these mechanisms contribute to normal synaptic function are only beginning to be resolved. PMID:23669358

Sinning, Anne; Hbner, Christian A

2013-05-10

400

Spectrophotometric pH measurements of freshwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of cresol red (CR) indicator for determination of freshwater pH is evaluated. Ionic strength effects and indicator pH perturbation are discussed and quantified using theoretical and empirical approaches. Spectrophotometric and potentiometric methods are directly compared by repeated analyses of a low ionic strength pH buffer. The mean and standard deviation of the two methods were 7.6180.008 (spectrophotometric) and

Craig R French; Jeffrey J Carr; Eleanor M Dougherty; Lisa A. K Eidson; Jason C Reynolds; Michael D DeGrandpre

2002-01-01

401

The pH of estuarine waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emf measurements for the TRIS buffer in seawater have been used to define buffer solutions that can be used to determine the pH on a free or total proton scale for estuarine waters. The pH is related to the stoichiometric dissociation constant (K*) of TRISH I-, the concentration of buffer (mTRrs) and salinity (5) by pH = pK* +

FRANK J. MILLERO

1986-01-01

402

pH Meter probe assembly  

DOEpatents

An assembly for mounting a pH probe in a flowing solution, such as a sanitary sewer line, which prevents the sensitive glass portion of the probe from becoming coated with grease, oil, and other contaminants, whereby the probe gives reliable pH indication over an extended period of time. The pH probe assembly utilizes a special filter media and a timed back-rinse feature for flushing clear surface contaminants of the filter. The flushing liquid is of a known pH and is utilized to check performance of the probe.

Hale, Charles J. (San Jose, CA)

1983-01-01

403

pH jump induced ?-helix folding.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

pH can be used to impact the folding equilibrium of peptides and proteins. This fact is utilized, similarly to temperature jumps, in pH jump experiments employing laser time-resolved spectroscopy to study the function and structural dynamics of these molecules. Here the application of pH jumps in folding experiments was investigated. Experiments with poly-L-glutamic acid alpha-helix formation shown the critical aspects of pH jump experiments and yielded direct information about the folding kinetics monitored with the amide I IR band.

Donten, M. L.; Hamm, P.

2013-03-01

404

Super austenitic stainless steels a promising replacement for the currently used type 316L stainless steel as the construction material for flue-gas desulphurization plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potentiodynamic anodic cyclic polarization experiments on type 316L stainless steel and 6Mo super austenitic stainless steels were carried out in simulated flue-gas desulphurization (FGD) environment in order to assess the localized corrosion resistance. The pitting corrosion resistance was higher in the case of the super austenitic stainless steel containing 6Mo and a higher amount of nitrogen. The pit-protection potential of

N. Rajendran; S. Rajeswari

1996-01-01

405

Structure formation processes in sintering of stainless-steel-base heterophase materials 1. Sintering of austenitic stainless-steel-base materials with additions of Cr 3 C 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier [1-3], a series of basic and applied investigations of the processes of pressing, sintering, and hot compacting of chromium and chromium-nickel stainless steel powders were presented. These works are devoted primarily to powdermetallurgy steels with a single-phase homogeneous structure basically not differing from the structure of the stainless steels produced by traditional methods. Of interest is development of stainless-steel-base

S. G. Napara-Volgina; L. N. Orlova; A. A. Mamonova; V. P. Dzeganovskii

1997-01-01

406

Welding of Austenitic Stainless Steel Internals for Nuclear Reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chromium-nickel austenitic stainless steel containing 18 to 20% chromium, 8 to 12% nickel and a maximum of 0.08% carbon (type AISI 304) was used for the manufacture of pressure vessel internals. Welding electrodes were made of low-carbon austenitic stainl...

G. P. Peloso

1975-01-01

407

Impact Tensile Testing of Stainless Steels at Various Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steels are used for the construction of numerous spent nuclear fuel or radioactive material containers that may be subjected to high strains and moderate strain rates during accidental drop events. Mechanical characteristics of these base materials and their welds under dynamic loads in the strain rate range of concern (1 to 300 per second) are not well documented. However,

D. K. Morton

2008-01-01

408

Superplastic boronizing of duplex stainless steel under dual compression method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, SPB of duplex stainless steel (DSS) under compression method is studied with the objective to produce ultra hard and thick boronized layer using minimal amount of boron powder and at a much faster boronizing time as compared to the conventional process. SPB is conducted under dual compression methods. In the first method DSS is boronized using a

I. Jauhari; H. A. M. Yusof; R. Saidan

2011-01-01

409

Magnetic property changes during embrittlement of a duplex stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in magnetic properties were used to investigate the ferrite decomposition that occurs in wrought duplex stainless steel (DSS) UNS S31803 at high (800C) and low temperatures (475C). At 800C the saturation and residual induction, the coercive force and the differential permeability decrease with time, due to the increase in the austenite content. Firstly, secondary austenite (?2) forms in the

S. S. M Tavares; M. R da Silva; J. M Neto

2000-01-01

410

Deformation behaviour of a prestrained duplex stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anisotropic flow behaviour due to a change in strain path during uniaxial deformation of a duplex stainless steel has been investigated. The anisotropic flow behaviour of the as-received material could be predicted from the crystallographic texture. However, it was found that prestraining introduces a transient work hardening behaviour during the second stage deformation, which causes an anisotropic flow behaviour

Johan J Moverare; Magnus Odn

2002-01-01

411

Paraequilibrium Carburization of Duplex and Ferritic Stainless Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AISI 301 and E-BRITE stainless steels were subjected to low-temperature (743 K) carburization experiments using a commercial technology developed for carburization of 316 austenitic stainless steels. The AISI 301 steel contained ~40 vol pct ferrite before carburization but had a fully austenitic hardened case, ~20- ?m thick, and a surface carbon concentration of ~8 at. pct after treatment; this colossal paraequilibrium carbon supersaturation caused an increase in lattice parameter of ~3 pct. The E-BRITE also developed a hardened case, 12- to 18- ?m thick, but underwent a more modest (~0.3 pct) increase in lattice parameter; the surface carbon concentration was ~10 at. pct. While the hardened case on the AISI 301 stainless steel appeared to be single-phase austenite, evidence for carbide formation was apparent in X-ray diffractometer (XRD) scans of the E-BRITE. Paraequilibrium phase diagrams were calculated for both AISI 301 and E-BRITE stainless steels using a CALPHAD compound energy-based interstitial solid solution model. In the low-temperature regime of interest, and based upon measured paraequilibrium carbon solubilities, more negative Cr-carbon interaction parameters for austenite than those in the current CALPHAD data base may be appropriate. A sensitivity analysis involving Cr-carbon interaction parameters for ferrite found a strong dependence of carbon solubility on relatively small changes in the magnitude of these parameters.

Michal, G. M.; Gu, X.; Jennings, W. D.; Kahn, H.; Ernst, F.; Heuer, A. H.

2009-08-01

412

Rearrangements of dislocations in stainless steel during electropolishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique is described for studying the rearrangement of dislocations in stainless steel during thinning by electropolishing and subsequent handling of the specimens. The foils are thinned from one side and dislocation movements during or after polishing are revealed by the appearance of single or double slip traces. The results show that less than 20% of the dislocations move after

U. Valdre; P. B. Hirsch

1963-01-01

413

The mechanical behaviour of porous austenitic stainless steel fibre structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical properties of metal fibre porous structures were studied in the light of their potential application as surface coatings of implants. Stainless steel AISI 316 L fibres with diameters of 50 and 100m were compacted and sintered. The variation of the modulus of elasticity with density, as obtained in tension, corresponds closely with theoretical models. The ultimate failure of

Paul Ducheyne; Etienne Aernoudt; PAUL DE MEESTER

1978-01-01

414

Glow discharge cleaning of carbon fiber composite and stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper experimentally investigates and analyses the features and mechanisms of both of oxygen removal by deuterium glow discharge from CFC, pyrolytic graphite and stainless steel subjected to irradiation in oxygen contaminated plasma. It is shown that oxygen implanted in pyrolytic graphite (PG) perpendicular to basal plates is removed after sputtering the layer slightly thicker than oxygen stopping zone (?2nm).

A. Airapetov; L. Begrambekov; S. Brmond; D. Douai; A. Kuzmin; Ya. Sadovsky; P. Shigin; S. Vergasov

2011-01-01

415

Statistical thermal fatigue-creep modelling of stainless steel materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to investigate the creep fatigue behavior of stainless steel materials. In the low cycle thermal fatigue life model, Manson's Universal Slopes equation was used as an empirical correlation which relates fatigue endurance to tensile properties. Fatigue test data were used in conjunction with different modes to establish the relationship between temperature and other parameters.

Xiaocong He

2009-01-01

416

Interaction of aluminium with stainless steel during plasma nitriding  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interaction between a stainless steel (AISI 316) substrate holder and an Al 2011 substrate occurred during plasma nitriding at ?575C. The interaction layer formed was ?100?m thick, with a hardness of 850HV and was composed of Al, Cu, Fe, Ni and Cr, suggesting diffusion from the steel holder into the Al substrate. Prior to the plasma treatment the hardness

Sabina Gredelj; Andrea R. Gerson; Sunil Kumar; Giuseppe P. Cavallaro

2002-01-01

417

Decontamination of actinides and fission products from stainless steel surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven in situ decontamination processes were evaluated as possible candidates to reduce radioactivity levels in nuclear facilities throughout the DOE complex. These processes were tested using stainless steel coupons (Type 304) contaminated with actinides (Pu and Am) or fission products (a mixture of Cs, Sr, and Gd). The seven processes were decontamination with nitric acid, nitric acid plus hydrofluoric acid,

C. Mertz; D. B. Chamberlain; L. Chen; C. Conner; G. F. Vandegrift; D. Drockelman; M. Kaminski; S. Landsberger; J. Stubbins

1996-01-01

418

Evaluation of Alternate Stainless Steel Surface Passivation Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steel containers were assembled from parts passivated by four commercial vendors using three passivation methods. The performance of these containers in storing hydrogen isotope mixtures was evaluated by monitoring the composition of initially 50% H 50% D gas with time using mass spectroscopy. Commercial passivation by electropolishing appears to result in surfaces that do not catalyze hydrogen isotope exchange.

Elliot A. Clark; Elliot A

2005-01-01

419

The diffusivity of hydrogen in Nb stabilized stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of hydrogen from 347 stainless steel has been studied by using a real time dynamic technique under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Auger electron spectroscopy was used to determine the surface composition as a function of time and temperature. The surface film on the electropolished samples was found to be approximately 15 thick and consisted of a carbon-oxygen complex

R. A. Outlaw; D. T. Peterson

1983-01-01

420

Purity of food cooked in stainless steel utensils  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive programme of cooking operations, using household recipes, has shown that, apart from aberrant values associated with new pans on first use, the contribution made by 19% Cr\\/9% Ni stainless steel cooking utensils to chromium and nickel in the diet is negligible. New pans, if first used with acid fruits, showed a greater pick?up of chromium and nickel, ranging

G. N. Flint; S. Packirisamy

1997-01-01

421

Impact Testing of Stainless Steel Material at Cold Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steels are used for the construction of numerous spent nuclear fuel or radioactive material containers that may be subjected to high strains and moderate strain rates during accidental drop events. Mechanical characteristics of these base materials and their welds under dynamic loads in the strain rate range of concern are not well documented. However, a previous paper [1] reported

Spencer D. Snow; D. Keith Morton; Robert K. Blandford

2008-01-01

422

Failure Analysis of Type 416 Stainless Steel Gate Valve.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A gate, made of type 416 stainless steel, used as a blocking valve in a steam injection line from a central steam generator failed after several days in the temperature range of 600 to 700 exp 0 F. An oxidizing gas, 65% steam, 22% nitrogen, and 13% carbon...

D. L. Douglass

1979-01-01

423

Failure analysis of type 416 stainless steel gate valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gate, made of type 416 stainless steel, used as a blocking valve in a steam injection line from a central steam generator failed after several days in the temperature range of 600 to 700°F. An oxidizing gas, 65% steam, 22% nitrogen, and 13% carbon dioxide passed through the valve with a pressure differential of about 1000 psi. The failed

Douglass

1979-01-01

424

THE THERMAL CONDUCTANCE OF URANIUM DIOXIDE\\/STAINLESS STEEL INTERFACES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal conductance of uranium dioxide\\/stainless steel interfaces ; was investigated in a disc-type apparatus under vacuum and with different ; interface gases (helium, argon, neon), and ranges of surface roughness (STA11 to ; 1417! x 10⁻⁶ cm, arithmetical mean height measured from Talysurf profile ; records), interface gas pressure (7 to 1226 mm Hg), contact pressure (0 to 570

A. C. Rapier; T. M. Jones; J. E. McIntosh

1963-01-01

425

Gas Leak from Vinyl Taped Stainless Steel Dressing Jars  

SciTech Connect

The leak rates of nitrogen gas from stainless steel dressing jars taped with 2 inch vinyl tape were measured. These results were used to calculate hydrogen leak rates from the same jars. The calculations show that the maximum concentration of hydrogen buildup in this type of container configuration will beat least 3 orders of magnitude below the lower explosion limit for hydrogen in air.

Tim Hayes

1999-03-01

426

Hydrogen environment embrittlement of austenitic stainless steels at low temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen environment embrittlement (HEE) is a well-known phenomenon in materials science. For the automotive industry, this topic is of special importance due to the upcoming hydrogen technology. Results on a wide variety of commercially austenitic stainless steels are presented which show that the Nickel content is one of the main parameters to meet HEE resistance. In slow strain rate tensile

Thorsten Michler; Jrg Naumann

2008-01-01

427

Tribocorrosion behaviour of duplex surface treated AISI 304 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the corrosion and tribocorrosion behaviour of AISI 304 stainless steel surfaces after processed by a duplex treatment consisting of plasma nitriding and a CrN coating by physical vapour deposition (PVD). An industrial evaporation PVD reactor chamber has been adapted to produce a nitriding layer using arc-enhanced glow discharge (AEGD) in the presence of nitrogen gas. Subsequently,

A. de Frutos; M. A. Arenas; G. G. Fuentes; R. J. Rodrguez; R. Martnez; J. C. Avelar-Batista; J. J. de Damborenea

2010-01-01

428

304L stainless steel resistance to cesium chloride  

SciTech Connect

B and W Hanford Company have two Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Type 4 canisters filled with cesium chloride (CsCl) originally produced at WESF (Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility). These canisters are constructed of 304L stainless steel per drawing ORNL 970-294. Instead of removing the CsCl from the Type 4 canisters and repacking into an Inner Capsule, it is intended (for ALARA, schedule and cost purposes) that the Type 4 canisters be decontaminated (scrubbed) and placed [whole] inside a Type ``W`` overpack. The overpack is constructed from 316L stainless steel. Several tests have been run by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) over the. years documenting the corrosion compatibility of 316L SS with CsCl (Bryan 1989 and Fullam 1972). However, no information for 304L SS compatibility is readily available. This document estimates the corrosion resistance of 304L stainless steel in a WESF CsCl environment as it compares with that of 316L stainless steel.

Graves, C.E.

1998-08-27

429

Corrosion performance of the plasma nitrided 316L stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AISI 316L stainless steel has been widely used in artificial knee or hip joints, as well as internal fixation devices. It is well known that this material has a good corrosion resistance and acceptable biocompatibility properties. Ion nitriding is a well established process for steel hardening that can also be applied to this kind of steels with the aim

Linda Gil; Sonia Brhl; Lorena Jimnez; Ovdio Leon; Rafael Guevara; Mariana H. Staia

2006-01-01

430

New equation of state for stainless steel 347  

SciTech Connect

A new SESAME equation of state (EOS) for stainless steel 347 has been generated using the computer program GRIZZLY, and has been added to the SESAME EOS library as material number 4271. This new EOS is superior to its predecesser (material number 4270) in several respects.

Boettger, J.C.

1993-12-01

431

The initiation of crevice corrosion in stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are currently at least four different models for the initiation of crevice corrosion on stainless steels: (1) passive dissolution leading to gradual acidification and general breakdown; (2) inclusion dissolution causing thiosulphate accumulation and assisting breakdown; (3) IR drop within the crevice forcing the metal into the active state; 4) stabilisation of metastable pitting by the occluded crevice geometry. A

N. J. Laycock; J. Stewart; R. C. Newman

1997-01-01

432

Stainless Steel Selection for Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses different stainless steel grades suitable for construction of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired power units. The majority of FGD units worldwide employ wet scrubbing processes using limestone. The materials of construction for wet scrubbers have to be selected with respect to the corrosive environment (chlorides, acidity, temperature) and plant design. The corrosion resistance of 2205

Gary M. Carinci

433

Fatigue Crack Growth in Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study presented in this paper is being carried out with a view to substantiating the calculations of the fatigue crack growth in pipes made of 316 L stainless steel. The results obtained may be applied to P.W.R. primary piping. It is divided into two ...

M. Bethmont J. L. Cheissoux J. Lebey

1981-01-01

434

Analysis of secondary phases precipitation in duplex stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: The austenitic-ferritic microstructure gives to duplex stainless steels (DSS) a good combination of mechanical and corrosion properties, at a competitive cost. A typical property of DSS is the high pitting resistance that makes them suitable for structural application in very aggressive environments. However the use of DSS is limited by their susceptibility to the formation of dangerous intermetallic phases

I. Calliari; M. Zanesco; P. Bassani; E. Ramous

435

Optimization of Properties in Two High Strength Stainless Steels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It was found possible to increase the strength and toughness of two high-strength stainless steels, AFC 77 and AFC 260, by austenitizing at higher-than-normal temperatures that are in the range where both austenite and delta ferrite are stable. The delta ...

D. Webster

1970-01-01

436

Environment-Assisted Cracking in Custom 465 Stainless Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of cold work and aging on the environment-assisted cracking (EAC) behavior and mechanical properties of Custom 465 stainless steel (SS) was studied. Four sets of specimens were made and tested. All specimens were initially solution annealed, rapidly cooled, and refrigerated (SAR condition). The first specimen set was steel in the SAR condition. The second specimen set was aged

E. U. Lee; R. Goswami; M. Jones; A. K. Vasudevan

2011-01-01

437

Containment of Tritium in Austenitic Stainless Steel Vessels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A vessel of type 316L stainless steel will be used for the long-term storage of tritium. The tritium may be gas, or fixed as a metal tritide. We have assembled the data and equations needed to estimate the efficiency of the containment. If the vessel wall...

C. E. Ells S. A. Kushneriuk J. H. Van Der Kuur

1981-01-01

438

Eddy Sensors for Small Diameter Stainless Steel Tubes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project was to develop non-destructive, minimally disruptive eddy sensors to inspect small diameter stainless steel metal tubes. Modifications to Sandia's Emphasis/EIGER code allowed for the modeling of eddy current bobbin sensors near or...

A. M. Alfredo B. Van Blarigan H. J. Korellis J. B. Grant J. L. Skinner L. E. Andersen M. E. LaFord

2011-01-01

439

Stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of dissimilar stainless steels welded joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of the current study is to reveal the influence of welding conditions on structure and stress corrosion cracking resistance of dissimilar stainless steels butt welded joints. Design\\/methodology\\/approach: Butt joints between duplex 2205 and austenitic 316L steels were performed with the use of submerged arc welding (SAW) method. The plates 15 mm in thickness were welded with heat

J. ?abanowski

440

Stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steels in caustic solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duplex stainless steels (DSS) with roughly equal amount of austenite and ferrite phases are being used in industries such as petrochemical, nuclear, pulp and paper mills, de-salination plants, marine environments, and others. However, many DSS grades have been reported to undergo corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in some aggressive environments such as chlorides and sulfide-containing caustic solutions. Although stress corrosion

Ananya Bhattacharya

2008-01-01

441

Stress corrosion cracking of stainless steels in geothermal systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A failure analysis was made with an austenitic stainless steel, YUS 170, pipe installed close to a flush tank of the field exposure test apparatus at Onikobe geothermal wells in Japan. The pipe eventually experienced severe leakage of geothermal fluids from the top side of the laid pipe within 2 weeks operation. The cracks initiated underneath thick deposits and propagated

T. Murata; E. Sato; Y. Hosoi

1982-01-01

442

Austenitic stainless steel bulk property considerations for fusion reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bulk properties of annealed 304, 316, and 20% cold-worked 316 stainless steels are evaluated for the temperature and radiation conditions expected in a near-term fusion reactor. Of interest are the thermophysical properties, void swelling produced by neutron radiaion, and the tensile, creep, and fatigue properties before and after irradiation.

Mattas

1979-01-01

443

Surface Preparation of a Stainless Steel for Adhesive Bonding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface preparation of stainless steel of identified martensitic structure has been studied in relation to the strength of adhesive bond with an epoxy-phenoiic, an epoxy and a polyimide adhesive. Attention has been given to replacing the inefficient mechanical removal of deposited carbon (smut) by chemical means. Seven different chemical treatments by acids or acid combinations were tried. Hydrofluoric or

K. W. Allen; H. S. Alsalim

1976-01-01

444

Stainless-steel elastic constants at low temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

For stainless steels 304, 310, and 316, longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic velocities were measured by a pulse-echo method between 295 and 4 K. From these velocities were computed five elastic constants: longitudinal modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, bulk modulus, and Poisson's ratio. All three steels show low-temperature elastic-constant anomalies, which arise from magnetic phase transitions.

H. M. Ledbetter

1981-01-01

445

Battery and fuel cell electrodes containing stainless steel charging additive  

DOEpatents

An electrode for use in electrochemical energy cells is made, comprising a hydrophilic layer and a hydrophobic layer, where the hydrophilic layer comprises a hydrophilic composite which includes: (i) carbon particles; (ii) stainless steel particles; (iii) a nonwetting agent; and (iv) a catalyst, where at least one current collector contacts said composite.

Zuckerbrod, David (Pittsburgh, PA); Gibney, Ann (Monroeville, PA)

1984-01-01

446

Effects of Cathodic Protection on Duplex Stainless Steels in Seawater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Available data on embrittlement of duplex stainless steels (DSS) under cathodic protection (CP) in seawater, including some data previously unpublished, was reviewed. Results show hydrogen enters duplex alloys at typical protection potentials (-1 V{sub SCE}), but that the risk of failure is very low. The austenite phase tends to block cracks in the ferrite, and very high stresses are needed

R. Francis; G. R. Warburton; G. Byrne

1997-01-01

447

Thermal Processing Optimization of Injection Molded Stainless Steel Powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steels constitute the largest materials application group for powder injection moulding. Because of the importance of these alloys, much attention has been directed to the optimization of the thermal processing, including carbon contamination control during binder burnout and sintering. Densification in sintering has been mastered such that high final densities and competitive mechanical properties are available. Property optimization and

Randall M. German

1997-01-01

448

Bacterial attachment to stainless steel welds: Significance of substratum microstructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

AISI Type 304 L stainless steel (SS) is a widely used material in industry due to its strength and resistance to corrosion. However, corrosion on SS is reported largely at welds or adjacent areas. Bacteria were observed to colonize preferentially near welds as a result of surface roughness. In the present study, the influence of another important metal surface condition

Kurissery R Sreekumari; Kanavillil Nandakumar; Yasushi Kikuchi

2001-01-01

449

Fatigue Property of Stainless Steel FES Electrode in Hanks' Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue property of the wire rope with 19 strands used as an FES electrode was investigated. The wire rope was made of high manganese high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel. Fatigue life of the wire rope in Hanks' solution at 310 K was evaluated using a dual-driven rotating-bending fatigue machine. Each wire of the rope was worn out and the cross

Y. Iguchi; T. Narushima; K. Suzuki; S. Yoshida; M. Watanabe; T. Kinami; C. Ouchi

450

Structural evolution during mechanical alloying of stainless steels under nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical alloying of Fe-based powders under a nitrogen atmosphere has been recently converted into the subject of many researches. This paper reviews aspects of mechanical alloying of stainless steels under a nitrogen atmosphere. Nitrogen incorporation from the viewpoints of infusion mechanism, supersaturation, and kinetics is considered. The structural refinement, leading to nanocrystallization, and phase transformations, consisting of austenitization and amorphization,

E. Salahinejad; R. Amini; M. J. Hadianfard

451

Grain refinement of wrought austenitic stainless steels by rapid heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid heating after cold deformation has been investigated as a grain refinement technique for austenitic stainless steels. The method shows considerable promise for obtaining average grain diameters in the 3 to 10 mum range without causing carbide precipitation in the alloy. This technique has been used here to obtain a wide range of grain sizes in type 316 steel for

J. A. Scott; J. E. Spruiell

1974-01-01

452

Evaluation of Hot Cracking in Austenitic Stainless Steel Welds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of criteria such as crack lengths, brittleness temperature range (BTR), critical strain and critical strain rate for initiation of cracking are used for evaluation of solidification cracking susceptibility of austenitic stainless steel welds. The strain response of the material during welding is commonly described (1) as a temperature range using temperature-strain co-ordinates, called the brittleness temperature range. However,

V. Shankar; S. L. Mannan

1992-01-01

453

Influence of Microstructure on Nitriding Properties of Stainless Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very hard and wear-resistant layers are formed after energetic nitrogen insertion into stainless steel. Here, a systematic investigation of the influence of the microstructure is presented. Nitrogen implantation was performed in austenitic, martensitic, and ferritic steels with the samples investigated with respect to formation of expanded phase, nitrogen depth distribution, hardness, and wear. Microstructure strongly affects the diffusion in austenite

Darina Manova; Inga-Maria Eichentopf; Dietmar Hirsch; Stephan Mndl; Horst Neumann; Bernd Rauschenbach

2006-01-01

454

Orthodontic band retention on primary molar stainless steel crowns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The retention of orthodontic bands cemented on primary molar stainless steel crowns (SSC) was studied in vitro. Unitek maxillary and mandibular 1st and 2nd primary molar SSC were fitted with one of four commonly used orthodontic bands (Unitek regular, Unitek narrow, Rocky Mountain, or custom bands made from SSC) using glass ionomer cement. The cemented samples were tested for their

Randy L. Beemer; Jack L. Ferracane; Harold E. Howard

1993-01-01

455

Disposable stainless steel vs plastic laryngoscope blades among paramedics  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSeveral studies have been published in the literature about intubation methods, but little is available on intubation equipment used in this setting. This is the first prehospital comparison of disposable plastic vs disposable stainless steel laryngoscope blades used by paramedics.

Frank D. Dos Santos; Roberto Schnakofsky; Anthony Cascio; Junfeng Liu; Mark A. Merlin

2011-01-01

456

Stickiness of Retorting Oil Shales on Stainless Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The stickiness of oil-shale particles was measured as the angle of tilt required to cause a thin layer of 6.4-mm particles to slide from rest on a stainless-steel surface. The test tray was enclosed in a heating chamber within an electric furnace and was ...

J. F. Carley

1982-01-01

457

TRENDS IN FORMING AND WELDING OF STAINLESS STEELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various new forming techniques (hydroforming, superplastic forming and hot metal gas forming) have become an alternative to various stamping processes. The technologies are still rather new and there is not yet enough information available to assist the product design and manufacturing. Welding of stainless steels is still often based on the conventional welding techniques, but recently high energy density laser

H. Hnninen; J. Romu

458

Outgassing from stainless steel and the effects of the gauges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The true outgassing from surfaces is often masked by the production of gases and pumping within the measuring gauge. Quadrupole mass analysers have been used to measure the outgassing from carefully prepared samples of stainless steel. By using an isolation pressure rise technique coupled to non-evaporable getter pumping, the problem of production of methane by the gauge is overcome and

J. R. J. Bennett; S. Hughes; R. J. Elsey; T. P. Parry

2004-01-01

459

Attack Polish for Nickel-Base Alloys and Stainless Steels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels is described. The chemical attack polich comprises FeNO sub 3 , concentrated CH sub 3 COOH, concentrated H sub 2 SO sub 4 and H sub ...

1980-01-01

460

Brazing of Stainless Steel to Various Aluminum Alloys in Air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brazing of a stainless steel to various aluminum alloys was carried out using an Al-Si filler metal and a fluoride-active flux in air. The brazeability was remarkably different by the aluminum alloys and the brazing conditions. It was considered that the differences were originated with the compositions of base metals and the filler metal, the solidus temperature and the partially melting behavior of the aluminum alloys, and the behavior of the surface oxide film layers of both base metals. On the other hand, the obstruction of brazeability was identified as the rapid reaction between the aluminum alloys and the brazing filler metal, which makes the molten brazing filler metal disappear at the joining interface before the wetting occurs to the stainless steel. Taking this phenomena into consideration, it was attempted to make previous wetting of the brazing filler to the stainless steel before brazing to the aluminum alloys. This method provided the successful brazed joints for the most combinations of the stainless steel and the aluminum alloys.

Liu, Shuying; Suzumura, Akio; Ikeshoji, Toshi-Taka; Yamazaki, Takahisa

461

Reactor Material Program Fracture Toughness of Type 304 Stainless Steel  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the experimental procedure for Type 304 Stainless Steel fracture toughness measurements and the application of results. Typical toughness values are given based on the completed test program for the Reactor Materials Program (RMP). Test specimen size effects and limitations of the applicability in the fracture mechanics methodology are outlined as well as a brief discussion on irradiation effects.

Awadalla, N.G.

2001-03-28

462

Bactericidal behavior of Cu-containing stainless steel surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stainless steels are one of the most common materials used in health care environments. However, the lack of antibacterial advantage has limited their use in practical application. In this paper, antibacterial stainless steel surfaces with different Cu contents have been prepared by plasma surface alloying technology (PSAT). The steel surface with Cu content 90 wt.% (Cu-SS) exhibits strong bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) within 3 h. Although the Cu-containing surface with Cu content 2.5 wt.% (CuNi-SS) can also kill all tested bacteria, this process needs 12 h. SEM observation of the bacterial morphology and an agarose gel electrophoresis were performed to study the antibacterial mechanism of Cu-containing stainless steel surfaces against E. coli. The results indicated that Cu ions are released when the Cu-containing surfaces are in contact with bacterial and disrupt the cell membranes, killing the bacteria. The toxicity of Cu-alloyed surfaces does not cause damage to the bacterial DNA. These results provide a scientific explanation for the antimicrobial applications of Cu-containing stainless steel. The surfaces with different antibacterial abilities could be used as hygienic surfaces in healthcare-associated settings according to the diverse requirement of bactericidal activities.

Zhang, Xiangyu; Huang, Xiaobo; Ma, Yong; Lin, Naiming; Fan, Ailan; Tang, Bin

2012-10-01

463

Stainless steel flow reactor for supercritical water oxidation: corrosion tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the obstacles that is inhibiting the development of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) into a viable industrial process, is the problem of corrosion. A bench scale stainless steel flow reactor for supercritical water oxidation studies was constructed. Corrosion of the reactor was studied under pressure of 400 bars and at temperatures of 250, 375 and 420C. The concentrations of

Tina M. Hayward; Igor M. Svishchev; Ramesh C. Makhija

2003-01-01

464

Creep-fatigue interactions in an austenitic stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phenomenological model of the interaction between creep and fatigue in Type 304 stainless steel at elevated temperatures is presented. The model is based on a crack-growth equation and an equation governing cavity growth, expressed in terms of current plastic strain and plastic strain rate. Failure is assumed to occur when a proposed interaction equation is satisfied. Various parameters of

S. Majumdar; P. S. Maiya

1978-01-01

465

SCC of Stainless Steel Furnace Tubes in a Heating Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some furnace tubes made of the austenitic stainless steel 1Cr18Ni9Ti for heating crude oil exhibited leakage and were on fire in a refinery. Corrosion failure analysis was conducted to explore the cause of failure. Macro- and microexamination indicated th...

Z. Y. Zhu X. Zhou J. Gu W. Ke

1994-01-01

466

Metastable austenitic stainless steel tool for magnetic abrasive finishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through selective heat treatment, a metastable austenitic stainless steel tool can be fabricated to exhibit alternating magnetic and nonmagnetic regions. Magnetic abrasive is attracted to the borders of the magnetic regions of the developed tool to create additional finishing points. In combination with a multiple pole-tip system, this unique magnetic property facilitates simultaneous finishing of multiple regions for shortening finishing

H. Yamaguchi; J. Kang; F. Hashimoto

2011-01-01

467

Electrolytic decontamination of stainless steel using a basic electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

An electrolytic plutonium decontamination process or stainless steel was developed for use as the final step in a proposed radioactive waste handling and decontamination facility to be construced at the Rockwell International Rocky Flats plutonium handling facility. This paper discusses test plan, which was executed to compare the basic electrolyte with phosphoric acid and nitric acid electrolytes. 1 ref.

Childs, E.L.; Long, J.L.

1981-08-01

468

Weld between Low Alloy Steel and 316 Stainless Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several locations of the pressurized water reactors, dissimilar metal welds using Inconel welding wires are used to join the low alloy steel components to stainless steel pipes. Because of the existence of different materials and chemistry variation within welds, the mechanical properties, such as tensile and fracture properties, are expected to show spatial variation. For design and integrity assessment

Changheui Jang; Jounghoon Lee; Jong Sung Kim; Tae Eun Jin

469

Modifying ferritic stainless steels for solid oxide fuel cell applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important problem areas associated with the solid oxide fuel cells is selection of a cost effective material for use as the interconnect component of the cell. Metals are now being considered as materials for this component, with ferritic stainless steels being the leading candidate. This work evaluates methods to combat the problem areas, namely rapid growth

Scot Jason Laney

2007-01-01

470

Phase formation at bonded vanadium and stainless steel interfaces  

SciTech Connect

The interface between vanadium bonded to stainless steel was studies to determine whether a brittle phase formed during three joining operations. Inertia friction welds between V and 21-6-9 stainless steel were examined using TEM. In the as-welded condition, a continuous, polygranular intermetallic layer about 0.25 {mu}m thick was present at the interface. This layer grew to about 50 {mu}m thick during heat treatment at 1000{degrees}C for two hours. Analysis of electron diffraction patterns confirmed that this intermetallic was the {omega} phase. The interface between vanadium and type 304, SANDVIK SAF 2205, and 21-6-9 stainless steel bonded by a co-extrusion process had intermetallic particles at the interface in the as-extruded condition. Heat treatment at 1000{degrees}C for two hours caused these particles to grow into continuous layers in all three cases. Based on the appearance, composition and hardness of this interfacial intermetallic, it was also concluded to be {omega} phase. Bonding V to type 430 stainless steel by co-extrusion caused V-rich carbides to form at the interface due to the higher concentration of C in the type 430 than in the other stainless steels investigated. The carbide particles initially present grew into a continuous layer during a two-hour heat treatment at 1000{degrees}C. Co-hipping 21-6-9 stainless steel tubing with V rod resulted in slightly more concentric specimens than the co-extruded ones, but a continuous layer of the {omega} phase formed during the hipping operation. This brittle layer could initiate failure during subsequent forming operations. The vanadium near the stainless steel interface in the co-extruded and co-hipped tubing in some cases was harder than before heat treatment. It was concluded that this hardening was due to thermal straining during cooling following heat treatment and that thermal strains might present a greater problem than seen here when longer tubes are used in actual applications.

Summers, T.S.E.

1992-01-01

471

Effect of External pH on the Internal pH of Chlorella saccharophila1  

PubMed Central

The overall internal pH of the acid-tolerant green alga, Chlorella saccharophila, was determined in the light and in the dark by the distribution of 5,5-dimethyl-2-[14C]oxazolidine-2,4-dione ([14C]DMO) or [14C]benzoic acid ([14C]BA) between the cells and the surrounding medium. [14C]DMO was used at external pH of 5.0 to 7.5 while [14C]BA was used in the range pH 3.0 to pH 5.5. Neither compound was metabolized by the algal cells and intracellular binding was minimal. The internal pH of the algae obtained with the two compounds at external pH values of 5.0 and 5.5 were in good agreement. The internal pH of C. saccharophila remained relatively constant at pH 7.3 over the external pH range of pH 5.0 to 7.5. Below pH 5.0, however, there was a gradual decrease in the internal pH to 6.4 at an external pH of 3.0. The maintenance of a constant internal pH requires energy and the downward drift of internal pH with a drop in external pH may be a mechanism to conserve energy and allow growth at acid pH.

Gehl, Katharina A.; Colman, Brian

1985-01-01

472

The PhD Student at Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The common patterns of work activity adopted by science students during the three years of PhD study are described, and their relationship to thesis submission is examined. The results suggest that the organization of PhD study is an important feature of success (defined in terms of submission of a thesis). (Author/MLW)

Welsh, Jennifer M.

1981-01-01

473

The PhD student at work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common patterns of work activity adopted by Science students during the three years of PhD study are described and their relationship to thesis submission examined. The results suggest that the organisation of PhD study, at least in Science, is an important feature of success, defined in terms of submission of a thesis.

Jennifer M. Welsh

1981-01-01

474

pH management in container media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addition of lime to increase pH is generally required for soilless media based on acidic organic materials. Media pH may decrease over time as the result of addition of acidic fertilizers. The objectives of this research were to characterize reactions of conventional or finely ground limestone in soilless media and to compare resistance to acidification in soilless media amended with

George C. Elliott

1996-01-01

475

pH. Agricultural Lesson Plans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson plan is intended for use in conducting classes on the effect of pH on plant growth. Presented first are an attention step/problem statement and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about soil pH and its effect on plants. The following topics are among those discussed: acidity and alkalinity; the

Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

476

pH. Agricultural Lesson Plans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This lesson plan is intended for use in conducting classes on the effect of pH on plant growth. Presented first are an attention step/problem statement and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about soil pH and its effect on plants. The following topics are among those discussed: acidity and alkalinity; the

Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

477

Urbanism PhD Research 2008 - 2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

To ensure the quality of the Ph.D. research the Department introduced a special procedure for periodic evaluation: after a period of nine months the potential Ph.D. candidates are asked to present their research design, theoretical framework and methodological approach to the members of the Department and to an external review, drawn up by the professors of the Department and by

F. D. Van der Hoeven; N. Brand; L. Van der Burg; O. al??kan; E. R. Tan; C.-Y. Wang; J. Zhou

2009-01-01

478

Response to the "Responsive PhD"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In June 2005, 50 graduate school deans gathered at Princeton to address the fact that the number of new PhDs conferred each year far exceeds the number of tenure-track academic jobs on offer. Under the auspices of the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation's Responsive PhD Project, these deans spoke passionately about how American

Huyssen, David

2007-01-01

479

CALCULATING THE PH OF CALCIUM CARBONATE SATURATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Two new expressions for the pH of saturation (pH subs) were derived. One is a simplified equation developed from an aqueous carbonate equilibrium system in which correction for ionic strength was considered. The other is a more accurate quadratic formula that involves computerize...

480

Middle School and pH?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A local middle school requested that the Water Center of Advanced Materials for Purification of Water With Systems (WaterCAMPWS), a National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center, provide an introduction to pH for their seventh-grade water-based service learning class. After sorting through a multitude of information about pH, a

Herricks, Susan

2007-01-01

481

TOPICAL REVIEW: Nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adverse effects of nickel ions being released into the human body have prompted the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications. Nitrogen not only replaces nickel for austenitic structure stability but also much improves steel properties. Here we review the harmful effects associated with nickel in medical stainless steels, the advantages of nitrogen in stainless steels, and emphatically, the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free stainless steels for medical applications. By combining the benefits of stable austenitic structure, high strength and good plasticity, better corrosion and wear resistances, and superior biocompatibility compared to the currently used 316L stainless steel, the newly developed high-nitrogen nickel-free stainless steel is a reliable substitute for the conventional medical stainless steels.

Yang, Ke; Ren, Yibin

2010-02-01

482

Determination Of Ph Including Hemoglobin Correction  

DOEpatents

Methods and apparatuses of determining the pH of a sample. A method can comprise determining an infrared spectrum of the sample, and determining the hemoglobin concentration of the sample. The hemoglobin concentration and the infrared spectrum can then be used to determine the pH of the sample. In some embodiments, the hemoglobin concentration can be used to select an model relating infrared spectra to pH that is applicable at the determined hemoglobin concentration. In other embodiments, a model relating hemoglobin concentration and infrared spectra to pH can be used. An apparatus according to the present invention can comprise an illumination system, adapted to supply radiation to a sample; a collection system, adapted to collect radiation expressed from the sample responsive to the incident radiation; and an analysis system, adapted to relate information about the incident radiation, the expressed radiation, and the hemoglobin concentration of the sample to pH.

Maynard, John D. (Albuquerque, NM); Hendee, Shonn P. (Albuquerque, NM); Rohrscheib, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Nunez, David (Albuquerque, NM); Alam, M. Kathleen (Cedar Crest, NM); Franke, James E. (Franklin, TN); Kemeny, Gabor J. (Madison, WI)

2005-09-13

483

Electrochemical techniques for the analysis of corrosion in stainless steel components. 303 stainless steel in contact with TATB  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical techniques can be used to predict the corrosion characteristics of a metal in a specific environment. The basic electrochemical principles, experimental techniques, and a detailed study of their use in characterizing the corrosion behavior of a particular 303 stainless steel are presented. This metal is the material of construction in a weapons component that comes in contact with 416

Firsich

1985-01-01

484

DETERMINATION OF TENSILE, COMPRESSIVE, BEARING, AND SHEAR PROPERTIES OF SHEET STEELS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES. Period covered : January 1957 to May 1958  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tensile, compressive, bearing, and shear properties of the following ; sheet metals were determined at various temperatures after exposure times of ; from1\\/2 hour tc 1000 hours at the test temperature: A-286 austeaitic alloy, ; quenched and tempered; 17-7 PH stain less steel, RH 950 condition; Thermold J ; alloy steel, quenched and tempered; Type 420 stainless steel, quenched

J. R. Kattus; J. B. Preston; H. L. Lessley

1958-01-01

485

ESTUDIO DE LA ROTURA DE UN CONJUNTO DE ARANDELAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the failure of a set of washers, broken in service in a seawater environment and a high temperature. These parts were manufactured using a 17-7 PH, UNS S17700 precipitation hardening stainless steel. The morphology of the cracks was intergranular and it was attributed to hydrogen embrittlement due to the hydrogen that entered into the steel during the

G. Atxaga; A. Pelayo; Irisarri FUNDACIN; San Sebastin

486

INVESTIGATIONS OF CREEP BEHAVIOR OF STRUCTURAL JOINTS UNDER CYCLIC LOADS AND TEMPERATURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-two structural joint specimens were tested to evaluate the ; effects of cyclic loads and cyclic temperatures on creep and rupture. The ; specimens included riveted points of 2024-T3 clad aluminum alloy, and riveted and ; spot-welded joints of 17-7 PH (TH 1050) stainless steel. The results of these ; tests show a wide variance but indicate certain trends which

L. Mordfin; N. Halsey; G. E. Greene

1959-01-01

487

HIGH-TEMPERATURE-RESISTANT CERAMIC ADHESIVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceramic adhesives were developed for bonding metal in the operational ; range 500 to lOOO F. When glassybond adhesives were suitably prepared and ; properly applied to types 302 and 17-7 PH stainless-steel specimens, shear ; strengths of the order of 2000 psi were obtained at a test temperature of 8OO ; F, and shear strengths of more than 8OO

HENRY G. LEFORT; DWIGHT G. BENNETT

1958-01-01

488

Elucidation of a trigger mechanism for pitting corrosion of stainless steels using submicron resolution scanning electrochemical and photoelectrochemical microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Scanning electrochemical microscopy with submicron resolution shows that the local current density for dissolution of certain MnS inclusions in stainless steel can be extremely high (>1 A/cm{sup 2}) and appears to be chloride-catalyzed, a result not anticipated by previous work on chemically prepared MnS. The dissolution forms a sulfur-rich crust extending over the inclusion and the surrounding metal. Photoelectrochemical and optical microscopy indicate that formation of a sulfur-rich stain around an inclusion is a necessary preliminary to the initiation of a pit and show attack on the metal underneath the stain. Therefore it is reasonable to propose that the very high local current density of inclusion dissolution leads to a significant local concentration of chloride under the crust, as a consequence of electromigration to support the current, and may also cause a significant decrease in the local pH as a consequence of the chemistry of the inclusion dissolution reaction, especially if the inclusion also contains some Cr. It is then further reasonable to propose that the conditions generated under the sulfur crust might be sufficiently extreme to cause the stainless steel to depassivate and a pit to trigger.

Williams, D.E.; Mohiuddin, T.F.; Zhu, Y.Y. [University College of London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

1998-08-01

489

Effect of poly(aspartic acid) on calcium phosphate removal from stainless steel tubing under turbulent flow conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium phosphate deposition causes cleaning problems in a number of situations including water treatment, dairy processing, and dental applications. This problem is exacerbated by the limited choices of cleaning chemicals that meet environmental regulations. To promote the development of biodegradable, non-toxic alternatives, this research examines the removal of calcium phosphate deposits consisting of brushite (dicalcium phosphate dihydrate; DCPD) and a mixture of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and DCPD from stainless steel in the presence of poly(aspartic acid) and its sodium salt (PASP). The effects of solvent pH, PASP concentration, and flow rate on the calcium phosphate removal rates are measured from stainless steel tubing under turbulent flow conditions using a solid scintillation detection technique. A mechanistic evaluation of the cleaning data in the absence of PASP indicates that DCPD removal is dominated by shear while HAP/DCPD deposit removal is limited by a combination of mass transfer and interfacial processes. Although the removal mechanisms differ, the results conclusively show that PASP promotes calcium phosphate removal under conditions that favor calcium sequestration in both cases. An in-depth study of DCPD removal in the presence of PASP reveals that this additive is most effective under conditions where calcium sequestration and phosphate protonation occur simultaneously.

Littlejohn, Felicia

490

The crystal structures of stainless steel films sputter-deposited on austenitic stainless steel substrates  

SciTech Connect

Sputter deposited austenitic stainless steels, AISI 304 and 316, almost always result in films having crystalline structures different from the parent material when the deposition temperature is below 648 K. The earlier investigation showed when 316L-SS films were sputter-deposited on glass substrates at room temperature, they contained a mixture of two phases, a ferrite like bcc phase and a hexagonal phase bearing a resemblance to [epsilon]-martensite. Sputter deposition of 304-SS performed at 77 K on rock salt resulted in an amorphous structure; however, when deposited at room temperature, it yielded a structure that could not be indexed either as bcc or as fcc. Thus, in general for AISI 304 or 316 compositions, low temperature depositions result in films with bcc crystal structure, whereas high temperature depositions yield fcc films. In addition to the temperature dependence, it is also relevant to question whether the substrate can influence the nature of the phases present in the films. In this paper, the authors address this question by changing the surface condition of the substrate. With this purpose they have selected a substrate of a similar nature to the target to be sputtered, 316L-SS, and varied the surface preparation.

Godbole, M.J.; Pedraza, A.J.; Park, J.W. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States)); Geesey, G. (Montana State Univ., Bozeman (United States))

1993-05-15

491

Pleckstrin homology (PH) domains and phosphoinositides.  

PubMed

PH (pleckstrin homology) domains represent the 11th most common domain in the human proteome. They are best known for their ability to bind phosphoinositides with high affinity and specificity, although it is now clear that less than 10% of all PH domains share this property. Cases in which PH domains bind specific phosphoinositides with high affinity are restricted to those phosphoinositides that have a pair of adjacent phosphates in their inositol headgroup. Those that do not [PtdIns3P, PtdIns5P and PtdIns(3,5)P2] are instead recognized by distinct classes of domains including FYVE domains, PX (phox homology) domains, PHD (plant homeodomain) fingers and the recently identified PROPPINs (b-propellers that bind polyphosphoinositides). Of the 90% of PH domains that do not bind strongly and specifically to phosphoinositides, few are well understood. One group of PH domains appears to bind both phosphoinositides (with little specificity) and Arf (ADP-ribosylation factor) family small G-proteins, and are targeted to the Golgi apparatus where both phosphoinositides and the relevant Arfs are both present. Here, the PH domains may function as coincidence detectors. A central challenge in understanding the majority of PH domains is to establish whether the very low affinity phosphoinositide binding reported in many cases has any functional relevance. For PH domains from dynamin and from Dbl family proteins, this weak binding does appear to be functionally important, although its precise mechanistic role is unclear. In many other cases, it is quite likely that alternative binding partners are more relevant, and that the observed PH domain homology represents conservation of structural fold rather than function. PMID:17233582

Lemmon, Mark A

2007-01-01

492

CORROSION STUDY FOR THE EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY (ETF) CHROME (VI) REDUCTANT SOLUTION USING 304 & 316L STAINLESS STEEL  

SciTech Connect

The Effluent Treatment Facility has developed a method to regenerate spent resin from the groundwater pump and treat intercepting chrome(VI) plumes (RPP-RPT-32207, Laboratory Study on Regeneration of Spent DOWEX 21K 16-20 Mesh Ion Exchange Resin). Subsequent laboratory studies have shown that the chrome(VI) may be reduced to chrome(III) by titrating with sodium metabisulfite to an oxidation reduction potential (ORP) of +280 mV at a pH of 2. This test plan describes the use of cyclic potentiodynamic polarization and linear polarization techniques to ascertain the electrochemical corrosion and pitting propensity of the 304 and 316L stainless steel in the acidified reducing the solution that will be contained in either the secondary waste receiver tank or concentrate tank.

DUNCAN, J.B.

2007-06-27

493

Electrochemical treatment of dye-bath effluent by stainless steel electrodes: multiple response optimization and residue analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to maximize the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal, and simultaneously minimize the energy consumed per unit mass of COD removed for the treatment of dye-bath effluent (DBE) by electrochemical (EC) method using stainless steel (SS) electrode in a batch EC reactor. Response surface methodology involving central composite design was employed to optimize the multiple responses. The effects of operating parameters such as pH of DBE, and important process parameters such as current density, electrolysis time and inter electrode space were studied. At the optimized condition, 91.7% COD removal and 99.8% color removal was observed with energy consumption of 7.71 kWh/kg of COD removed. Finally, the thermogravimetric analysis of the EC scum and sludge has been done in oxidizing atmosphere so as to evaluate their disposal aspects. PMID:22871001

Mondal, Bhaskar; Srivastava, Vimal C; Mall, Indra D

2012-01-01

494

Application of preoxidation treatment to suppress WCo deposition on stainless steel surfaces of boiling water reactor primary cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

Application of preoxidation treatment to stainless steel surfaces has been proposed for suppression of WCo accumulation on boiling water reactor (BWR) primary cooling pipings. To demonstrate the treatment effect, test specimens, which had been exposed to simulated BWR water in an autoclave (temperature, 286C; pH, 7; oxygen concentration, 200 ppb) for up to 200 h, were installed in the Hatch-2 inplant loop and their WCo deposition amounts were compared with those of asreceived specimens. Preoxidation treatment for 200 h resulted in deposits of about one-fourth thos of as-received specimens. It was estimated that the maximum amount of WCo deposited on primary piping during the entire plant operation life (30 yr) would be reduced to about one-half of that without preoxidation treatment if the WCo concentration in the reactor water was constant.

Kitamura, M.; Cowan, R.L.; Ibe, E.; Monda, T.; Romeo, G.; Uchida, S.

1985-06-01

495

The effect of dose rate on the response of austenitic stainless steels to neutron radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Depending on reactor design and component location, austenitic stainless steels may experience significantly different irradiation dose rates in the same reactor. Understanding the effect of dose rate on radiation performance is important to predicting component lifetime. This study examined the effect of dose rate on swelling, grain boundary segregation, and tensile properties in austenitic stainless steels through the examination of components retrieved from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) following its shutdown. Annealed 304 stainless steel, stress-relieved 304 stainless steel, 12% cold-worked 316 stainless steel, and 20% cold-worked 316 stainless steel were irradiated over a dose range of 1 56 dpa at temperatures from 371 to 440 C and dose rates from 0.5 to 5.8 10-7 dpa/s. Density and tensile properties were measured for 304 and 316 stainless steel. Changes in grain boundary composition were examined for 304 stainless steel. Swelling appears to increase at lower dose rates in both 304 and 316 stainless steel, although the effect was not always statistically significant. Grain boundary segregation also appears to increase at lower dose rate in 304 stainless steel. For the range of dose rates examined, no measurable dose rate effect on tensile properties was noted for any of the steels.

Allen, T. R.; Cole, J. I.; Trybus, C. L.; Porter, D. L.; Tsai, H.; Garner, F.; Kenik, E. A.; Yoshitake, T.; Ohta, Joji

2006-01-01

496

The effect of dose rate on the response of austenitic stainless steels to neutron radiaiton  

SciTech Connect

Depending on reactor design and component location, austenitic stainless steels may experience significantly different irradiation dose rates in the same reactor. Understanding the effect of dose rate on radiation performance is important to predicting component lifetime. This study examined the effect of dose rate on swelling, grain boundary segregation, and tensile properties in austenitic stainless steels through the examination of components retrieved from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) following its shutdown. Annealed 304 stainless steel, stress-relieved 304 stainless steel, 12% cold-worked 316 stainless steel, and 20% cold-worked 316 stainless steel were irradiated over a dose range of 1-56 dpa at temperatures from 371 to 440 C and dose rates from 0.5 to 5.8 ? 10*7 dpa/s. Density and tensile properties were measured for 304 and 316 stainless steel. Changes in grain boundary composition were examined for 304 stainless steel. Swelling appears to increase at lower dose rates in both 304 and 316 stainless steel, although the effect was not always statistically significant. Grain boundary segregation also appears to increase at lower dose rate in 304 stainless steel. For the range of dose rates examined, no measurable dose rate effect on tensile properties was noted for any of the steels.

Allen, T. R.; Cole, J I.; Trybus, Carole L.; Porter, D. L.; Tsai, Hanchung; Garner, Francis A.; Kenik, E A.; Yoshitake, T.; Ohta, Joji

2006-01-01

497

Quantification of corrosion resistance of a new-class of criticality control materials: thermal-spray coatings of high-boron iron-based amorphous metals - Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4  

SciTech Connect

An iron-based amorphous metal, Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4} (SAM2X5), with very good corrosion resistance was developed. This material was produced as a melt-spun ribbon, as well as gas atomized powder and a thermal-spray coating. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) provided corrosion resistance, and boron (B) enabled glass formation. The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal made it an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. Earlier studies have shown that ingots and melt-spun ribbons of these materials have good passive film stability in these environments. Thermal spray coatings of these materials have now been produced, and have undergone a variety of corrosion testing, including both atmospheric and long-term immersion testing. The modes and rates of corrosion have been determined in the various environments, and are reported here.

Farmer, J C; Choi, J S; Shaw, C K; Rebak, R; Day, S D; Lian, T; Hailey, P; Payer, J H; Branagan, D J; Aprigliano, L F

2007-03-28

498

SERC: PhET Interactive Science Simulations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These web pages provide background information about and help with using the PhET simulations for teaching and learning. These research-based, interactive computer simulations in physics, chemistry, math, and other sciences can be run online or downloaded for free from the PhET website. They emphasize the connections between real-life phenomena and the underlying science, and help make the visual and conceptual models of expert scientists accessible to students. This SERC Pedagogical Module provides a background on the PhET simulations, the research foundation behind the simulations, and advice on how they can be used. There are also a series of example activities based on PhET simulations. The SERC web site includes a large collection of similar pedagogical modules of best practices in science teaching, and related example activities of these teaching methods.

Mckagan, Sarah B.

2010-11-02

499

Partially Biodegradable Temperature and PH Sensitive Hydrogel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partially biodegradable hydrogel that changes its volume and shape in response to change in pH and/or temperature is prepared by UV irradiation of composition comprising dextran-maleic acid monoester and N-isopropylacrylamide.

C. C. Chu X. Z. Zhang

2003-01-01

500

Aqueous-Solution pH Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parallel existence of two forms of pH scale is considered, which is unique for the international metrological community. The basic advantages and shortcomings are considered for the multireference NIST scale and the single-reference BSI one.

O. V. Karpov; I. I. Maksimov; A. L. Seifer

2000-01-01