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1

LOW-TEMPERATURE GAS-PHASE CARBURIZING AND NITRIDING OF 17-7 PH STAINLESS STEEL.  

E-print Network

??Low-temperature carburization and low-temperature nitridation were successfully applied on 17-7 PH stainless steel and significantly improved the surface hardness. Via an isothermal martensite-to-austenite phase transformation,… (more)

Wang, Danqi

2014-01-01

2

Metallurgical analysis on a bending failed pump-shaft made of 17-7PH precipitation-hardening stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal jump and bending occurred on a shaft used in an erect multiple-grades pump when performing a trial run. The failed shaft is made of 17-7PH stainless steel. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the failed pump-shaft material were examined. Two different microstructural zones were exhibited. One is composed of the tempered martensite coexisting the retained austenite, which is the normal

X. L. Xu; Z. W. Yu

2008-01-01

3

FABRICATION OF 17-7PH AND PH15-7Mo STAINLESS STEEL BY BEND ROLLING, DEEP DRAWING, AND SPINNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procedures recommended for fabrication of 17-7PH or PHl5-7Mo are given. ; ln general, the procedure for 301 stainless steel may be used as a guide; ; however, certain modifications may be necessary in some cases. The outline of ; fabrication practices is presented. (J.R.D.);

Olofson

1959-01-01

4

PROPERTIES OF RESISTANCE SPOTWELDED 24ST3 AND 75ST6 ALUMINUM ALLOY SHEET AND 17-7PH STAINLESS STEEL SHEET AT DEPRESSED AND ELEVATED TEMPERATURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resign properties and test results at room, elevated, and depressed ; temperatures of resistance spotwelded joints are presented. The major portion of ; the program was devoted to testing clad 24S-T3 and 75S-T6 aluminum alloy sheet ; and 17-7PH stainless steel sheet in two conditions, THD (hardened and aged) and ; SA (stretched and aged). Bare 24S-T3, 75S-T6, and clad

E. J. Pelochino; J. R. Bellah

1954-01-01

5

Tensile Properties of 17-7 PH and 12 MoV Stainless-Steel Sheet under Rapid-Heating and Constant-Temperature Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of rapid-heating tests of 17-7 PH and 12 MoV stainless-steel sheet heated to failure at temperature rates from about 1 F to 170 F per second under constant-load conditions. Yield and rupture strengths obtained from rapid-heating tests are compared with yield and tensile strengths obtained from short-time elevated-temperature tensile tests (30-minute exposure). A rate-temperature parameter was used to construct master curves from which yield and rupture stresses or temperatures can be predicted. A method for measuring strain by optical means is described.

Manning, Charles R., Jr.; Price, Howard L.

1961-01-01

6

Irradiation effects on 17-7 PH stainless steel, A-201 carbon steel, and titanium-6-percent-aluminum-4-percent-vanadium alloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Irradiation effects on three materials from the NASA Plum Brook Reactor Surveillance Program were determined. An increase of 105 K in the nil-ductility temperature for A-201 steel was observed at a fluence of approximately 3.1 x 10 to the 18th power neutrons/sq cm (neutron energy E sub n greater than 1.0 MeV). Only minor changes in the mechanical properties of 17-7 PH stainless steel were observed up to a fluence of 2 x 10 to the 21st power neutrons/sq cm (E sub n greater than 1.0 MeV). The titanium-6-percent-aluminum-4-percent-vanadium alloy maintained its notch toughness up to a fluence of 1 x 10 to the 21st power neutrons/sq cm (E sub n greater than 1.0 MeV).

Hasse, R. A.; Hartley, C. B.

1972-01-01

7

EFFECT OF PRIOR CREEP ON SHORT-TIME MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF 17-7PH STAINLESS STEEL (RH 950 CONDITION COMPARED TO TH 1050 CONDITION). Period Covered: January 1, 1958 to March 31, 1959  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of creep to 2% in 100 hours at temperatures from 600 to 900 ; deg F was determined on the tension, compression, and tension-impact properties ; of 17-7 PH stainless steel (RH 950 Cond.) at room temperature or the exposure ; temperature. A substantial loss in ductility was observed in room temperature ; tension tests. Material exposed to

J. V. Gluck; J. W. Freeman

1959-01-01

8

Stress-Corrosion Cracking in Martensitic PH Stainless Steels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Precipitation-hardening alloys evaluated in marine environment tests. Report describes marine-environment stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) tests of three martensitic precipitation hardening (PH) stainless-steel alloys.

Humphries, T.; Nelson, E.

1984-01-01

9

Biocompatibility of 17-4 PH stainless steel foam for implant applications.  

PubMed

In this study, biocompatibility of 17-4 PH stainless steel foam for biomedical implant applications was investigated. 17-4 PH stainless steel foams having porosities in the range of 40-82% with an average pore size of around 600 ?m were produced by space holder-sintering technique. Sintered foams were precipitation hardened for times of 1-6 h at temperatures between 450-570 °C. Compressive yield strength and Young's modulus of aged stainless steel foams were observed to vary between 80-130 MPa and 0.73-1.54 GPa, respectively. Pore morphology, pore size and the mechanical properties of the 17-4 PH stainless steel foams were close to cancellous bone. In vitro evaluations of cytotoxicity of the foams were investigated by XTT and MTT assays and showed sufficient biocompatibility. Surface roughness parameters of the stainless steel foams were also determined to characterize the foams. PMID:22182790

Mutlu, Ilven; Oktay, Enver

2011-01-01

10

Using genetic algorithm in heat treatment optimization of 17-4PH stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation heat treatment optimization of 17-4PH stainless steel has been carried out by a genetic algorithm. The optimum technique of heat treatment, adaptive to 17-4PH stainless steel, was obtained from the initial data set by the use of genetic algorithms based on modeling with artificial neural network. The results strongly indicate that the presented model has the great

M. Zakeri; A. Bahrami; S. H. Mousavi Anijdan

2007-01-01

11

Optimized postweld heat treatment procedures for 17-4 PH stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

The postweld heat treatment (PWHT) procedures for 17-4 PH stainless steel weldments of matching chemistry was optimized vis-a-vis its microstructure prior to welding based on microstructural studies and room-temperature mechanical properties. The 17-4 PH stainless steel was welded in two different prior microstructural conditions (condition A and condition H 1150) and then postweld heat treated to condition H900 or condition H1150, using different heat treatment procedures. Microstructural investigations and room-temperature tensile properties were determined to study the combined effects of prior microstructural and PWHT procedures.

Bhaduri, A.K.; Sujith, S.; Srinivasan, G.; Gill, T.P.S.; Mannan, S.L. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Materials Development Div.

1995-05-01

12

Post-irradiation characterization of PH13-8Mo martensitic stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The irradiation response of PH13-8Mo stainless steel was measured up to 2.5dpa at 200 and 300°C irradiation temperatures. The PH13-8Mo, a martensitic precipitation-hardened steel, was produced by Hot Isostatic Pressing at 1030°C. The fatigue tests (high cycle fatigue and fatigue crack propagation) showed a test temperature dependency but no irradiation effects. Tensile tests showed irradiation hardening (yield stress increase) of

M. Jong; F. Schmalz; J. W. Rensman; N. V. Luzginova; O. Wouters; J. B. J. Hegeman; J. G. van der Laan

2011-01-01

13

Pitting Behavior of Type 17-4 PH Stainless Steel Weldments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical methods of measuring pitting potentials (E{sub pit}) were used to study the pitting resistance of type 17% Cr-4% Ni (17-4, UNS S17400) precipitation hardenable (PH) stainless steel (SS) weldments. The main objectives were to evaluate the pitting resistance of the base metal, the heat-affected zone (HAZ), and the weld metal portions of 17-4 PH SS welds welded autogenously using

K. S. Raja; K. P. Rao

1995-01-01

14

Mechanical properties of 17-4PH stainless steel foam panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rectangular 17-4PH stainless steel sandwiched foam panels were fabricated using a commercial manufacturing technique by brazing two sheets to a foam core. Microstructural observations of the panels revealed large variations in the quality of the brazed areas from one panel to the next as well as within the same panel. Shear tests conducted on specimens machined from the panels exhibited

S. V. Raj; L. J. Ghosn; B. A. Lerch; M. Hebsur; L. M. Cosgriff; J. Fedor

2007-01-01

15

Failure maps for rectangular 17-4PH stainless steel sandwiched foam panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new and innovative concept is proposed for designing lightweight fan blades for aircraft engines using commercially available 17-4PH precipitation hardened stainless steel. Rotating fan blades in aircraft engines experience a complex loading state consisting of combinations of centrifugal, distributed pressure and torsional loads. Theoretical failure plastic collapse maps, showing plots of the foam relative density versus face sheet thickness,

S. V. Raj; L. J. Ghosn

2008-01-01

16

Alloy Shrinkage Factors for the Investment Casting of 17-4PH Stainless Steel Parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, alloy shrinkage factors were obtained for the investment casting of 17-4PH stainless steel parts. For the investment casting process, unfilled wax and fused silica with a zircon prime coat were used for patterns and shell molds, respectively. The dimensions of the die tooling, wax pattern, and casting were measured using a coordinate measurement machine (CMM). For all

Adrian S. Sabau; Wallace D. Porter

2008-01-01

17

Physical and mechanical properties of cast 17-4 PH stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

The physical and mechanical properties of an overaged 17-4 PH stainless steel casting have been examined. The tensile and compressive properties of cast 17-4 PH are only influenced to a slight degree by changing test temperature and strain rate. However, both the Charpy impact energy and dynamic fracture toughness exhibit a tough-to-brittle transition with decreasing temperature - this transition being related to a change in fracture mode from ductile, dimple to cleavage-like. Finally, although the overaged 17-4 PH casting had a relatively low room temperature Charpy impact energy when compared to wrought 17-4 PH, its fracture toughness was at least comparable to that of wrought 17-4 PH. This observation suggests that prior correlations between Charpy impact energies and fracture toughness, as derived from wrought materials, must be approached with caution when applied to cast alloys.

Rack, H. J.

1981-02-01

18

Characterization of 17-4 PH stainless steel foam for biomedical applications in simulated body fluid and artificial saliva environments.  

PubMed

Highly porous 17-4 PH stainless steel foam for biomedical applications was produced by space holder technique. Metal release and weight loss from 17-4 PH stainless steel foams was investigated in simulated body fluid and artificial saliva environments by static immersion tests. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer was employed to measure the concentrations of various metal ions released from the 17-4 PH stainless steel foams into simulated body fluids and artificial saliva. Effect of immersion time and pH value on metal release and weight loss in simulated body fluid and artificial saliva were determined. Pore morphology, pore size and mechanical properties of the 17-4 PH stainless steel foams were close to human cancellous bone. PMID:23827551

Mutlu, Ilven; Oktay, Enver

2013-04-01

19

Electrooxidation of stainless steel AISI 304 in carbonate aqueous solution at pH 8  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical behaviour of stainless steel AISI 304 (SS304) has been investigated in deaerated 0.1–1 m NaHCO3 solutions at pH 8 using a rotating disc electrode. The polarization curves are characterized by a broad range of passivity at low potentials (-0.8 to 0.3 V), a depassivation region at 0.4 V vs SCE and, at high potentials (0.5 to 0.85 V),

M. Drogowska; H. Ménard; L. Brossard

1996-01-01

20

Sulfide stress cracking failures of 12Cr and 17-4PH stainless steel wellhead equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper sulfide stress cracking case histories of 12 Cr and 17-4PH stainless steel tubing hangers are presented along with the results of NACE Standard TM0177 laboratory tests performed on the failed material. Even though the hangers both met NACE Standard MR0175-88 hardness requirements, failure still occurred. These failures demonstrate the limitations of these alloys in high HâS service

R. M. Thompson; G. B. Kohut; D. R. Canfield; W. R. Bass

1991-01-01

21

Microstructure and intergranular corrosion resistance of UNS S17400 (17-4PH) stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

UNS S17400 or 17-4PH is a precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel with many industrial applications. Quite different mechanical properties can be produced in this material by varying the aging temperature. In this work, the influence of aging temperature on the intergranular corrosion susceptibility was evaluated by electrochemical and metallographic tests. The microstructural features were investigated by X-ray diffraction, optical and

S. S. M. Tavares; F. J. da Silva; C. Scandian; G. F. da Silva; H. F. G. de Abreu

2010-01-01

22

Improvement of wear and corrosion resistances of 17-4PH stainless steel by plasma nitrocarburizing  

Microsoft Academic Search

17-4PH stainless steel was plasma nitrocarburized at 460°C for improving its mechanical properties without compromising its desirable corrosion resistance. The plasma nitrocarburized layers were studied by optical microscope, X-ray diffractometer, microhardness tester, pin-on-disc tribometer and the anodic polarization method in a 3.5% NaCl solution. The experimental results show that the nitrocarburized layer depths increase with increasing duration time and the

R. L. Liu; M. F. Yan

2010-01-01

23

Surface laser alloying of 17-4PH stainless steel steam turbine blades  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a known high-quality precipitation hardening stainless steel with high strength, high antifatigue, excellent corrosion resistance and good weldability, 17-4PH has been widely used to produce steam turbine blades. However, under the impact of high-speed steam and water droplets, the blades are prone to cavitation, which could lead to lower efficiency, shorter life time, and even accidents. In this article,

Jianhua Yao; Liang Wang; Qunli Zhang; Fanzhi Kong; Chenghua Lou; Zhijun Chen

2008-01-01

24

Alloy Shrinkage Factors for the Investment Casting of 17-4PH Stainless Steel Parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, alloy shrinkage factors were obtained for the investment casting of 17-4PH stainless steel parts. For the investment\\u000a casting process, unfilled wax and fused silica with a zircon prime coat were used for patterns and shell molds, respectively.\\u000a The dimensions of the die tooling, wax pattern, and casting were measured using a coordinate measurement machine (CMM). For\\u000a all

Adrian S. Sabau; Wallace D. Porter

2008-01-01

25

Flow Curve Analysis of 17-4 PH Stainless Steel under Hot Compression Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hot compression behavior of a 17-4 PH stainless steel (AISI 630) has been investigated at temperatures of 950 °C to 1150 °C\\u000a and strain rates of 10?3 to 10 s?1. Glass powder in the Rastegaev reservoirs of the specimen was used as a lubricant material. A step-by-step procedure for\\u000a data analysis in the hot compression test was given. The work hardening rate analysis

Hamed Mirzadeh; Abbas Najafizadeh; Mohammad Moazeny

2009-01-01

26

Effect of FeB additions on sintering characteristics of injection moulded 17-4PH stainless steel powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

High density sintering of precipitation hardening stainless steel such as 17-4 PH involves a combination of relatively high temperature (>1350°C) and extended sintering time. In this study, the effect of addition of FeB on sintering characteristics of 17-4 PH stainless steel was investigated. Addition of boron is promoted to get highly dense sintered steels. The amount of boron plays a

H. Ö. Gülsoy; S. Salman; S. Özbek

2004-01-01

27

Effect of hydrogen sulfide partial pressure, pH, and chloride content on the SSC resistance of martensitic stainless steels and martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

Centrifugal compressor applications require the use of martensitic stainless and martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steels at high hydrogen sulfide partial pressures. These materials do not perform well when tested with standard TM0177 test solutions. This paper describes the effect of hydrogen sulfide partial pressure, pH, and chloride content on their SSC resistance and explains their successful field operational experience. Environmental limits are determined for several materials and heat treat conditions.

Vitale, D.D. [Dresser-Rand Turbo Products, Olean, NY (United States)

1999-11-01

28

Sulfide stress cracking failures of 12Cr and 17-4PH stainless steel wellhead equipment  

SciTech Connect

In this paper sulfide stress cracking case histories of 12 Cr and 17-4PH stainless steel tubing hangers are presented along with the results of NACE Standard TM0177 laboratory tests performed on the failed material. Even though the hangers both met NACE Standard MR0175-88 hardness requirements, failure still occurred. These failures demonstrate the limitations of these alloys in high H{sub 2}S service even when MR0175 requirements are met. The need for better usage guidelines is discussed.

Thompson, R.M. (Chevron USA Inc., Bakersfield, CA (US)); Kohut, G.B. (Chicago Medical School, IL (United States)); Canfield, D.R.; Bass, W.R. (Chevron USA Inc., Englewood, CO (US))

1991-03-01

29

Effect of Casting Defect on Mechanical Properties of 17-4PH Stainless Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Damage and integrity evaluation techniques should be developed steadily in order to ensure the reliability and the economic efficiency of gas turbine engines. Casting defects may exist in most casting components of gas turbine engines, and the defects could give serious effect on mechanical properties and fracture toughness. Therefore, it is very important to understand the effect of casting defects on the above properties in order to predict the safety and life of components. In this study, specimens with internal casting defects, made from 17-4PH stainless steel, were prepared and evaluated and characterized based on the volume fraction of defects. The relation between mechanical properties such as tensile, low cycle fatigue and fracture toughness and volume fraction of defect has been investigated. As a result of the analysis, the mechanical properties of 17-4PH decreased as the defect volume fraction increased with very good linearity. The mechanical properties also showed an inversely proportional relationship to electrical resistivity.

Kim, Jong-Yup; Lee, Joon-Hyun; Nahm, Seung-Hoon

30

Hydrogen embrittlement behavior of palladium modified PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel as a function of age hardening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrogen embrittlement (HE) susceptibility of precipitation age hardened stainless steels (17-4 PH, PH 15-5, PH 13-8 Mo, and others) is well established in the literature. Susceptibility is a strong function of strength and hence lower aging temperatures produce alloys which are more prone to HE. Recently it was shown that uniformly distributed PdAl precipitates improve the HE resistance of

J. R. Scully; M. J. Cieslak; J. A. Van Den Avyle

1994-01-01

31

Effect of pH and oxygen on stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel in reactor moderator service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intergranular cracking of Type 304 stainless steel outlet nozzles in reactor moderator service prompted a broad program of laboratory studies to determine the cause of the failures. It was demonstrated that sensitized and pickled Type 304 stainless steel is extremely susceptible to both intergranular and transgranular chloride stress corrosion cracking in hot water of pH 4.5 to 5.0 which contains

Rideout

1964-01-01

32

Surface laser alloying of 17-4PH stainless steel steam turbine blades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a known high-quality precipitation hardening stainless steel with high strength, high antifatigue, excellent corrosion resistance and good weldability, 17-4PH has been widely used to produce steam turbine blades. However, under the impact of high-speed steam and water droplets, the blades are prone to cavitation, which could lead to lower efficiency, shorter life time, and even accidents. In this article, the 17-4PH blade's surface was alloyed using a high power CO 2 laser. The microstructure and microhardness of hardened 17-4PH were tested by scanning electronic microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) and a microhardness tester. After laser alloying, the surface layer was denser and the grain refined, while the microhardness of the surface (average 610HV 0.2) was about one times higher than that of the substrate material (330HV 0.2). The friction coefficient of the laser-alloyed 17-4PH layer was much lower than that of the substrate.

Yao, Jianhua; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Qunli; Kong, Fanzhi; Lou, Chenghua; Chen, Zhijun

2008-09-01

33

The characterization of small fatigue crack growth in PH13-8 molybdenum stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rotor hubs of Navy CH-46 helicopters have been made of 4340 steel and had extensive corrosion fatigue problems. Since these helicopters have to be used until the year 2020, the Navy decided to replace 4340 steel with PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel. Because the rotors are exposed to high frequency high cycle fatigue, small fatigue cracks are important in estimating remaining lifetime of the components. The objective of this study was to characterize the small crack growth behavior in the PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel under various loading conditions. Constant amplitude loading was conducted at the stress ratios, R, 0.1 and 0.4. The crack growth rate was affected by the microstructures in early stage of the growth, mainly by the size of the martensite packets and oscillated up to the crack length of 200 mum. It was found that the crack growth rate was little influenced by the stress amplitudes and stress ratios. In addition, the small crack growth rate was found to be similar to the long crack growth rate at R = 0.1 and 0.4. Overload tests and simple block loading were performed to understand load interaction effects on the small crack growth rate. The overload tests indicated that the crack growth rate was little affected by the overload. This might result from the fact that the overload ratio used in this study was low (<1.3). However, the results of the simple block loading showed overall crack growth retardation. The compressive residual stress present at the notch root of the specimen tested at R = 0.1 may lower the effective stress ratio, Reff, from 0.1 to negative R, and may result in the crack growth retardation. The small crack growth behavior was also examined under the saltwater. There was no difference in the crack growth rate between under air and under saltwater. In addition, the crack growth rate of the specimens tested under the saltwater was not affected by the test frequencies of 10, 1 and 0.1 Hz. It was shown that under the saltwater the PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel had an excellent corrosion fatigue resistance.

Jin, Ohchang

34

Post-irradiation characterization of PH13-8Mo martensitic stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The irradiation response of PH13-8Mo stainless steel was measured up to 2.5 dpa at 200 and 300 °C irradiation temperatures. The PH13-8Mo, a martensitic precipitation-hardened steel, was produced by Hot Isostatic Pressing at 1030 °C. The fatigue tests (high cycle fatigue and fatigue crack propagation) showed a test temperature dependency but no irradiation effects. Tensile tests showed irradiation hardening (yield stress increase) of approximately 37% for 200 °C irradiated material tested at 60 °C and approximately 32% for 300 °C irradiated material tested at 60 °C. This contradicts the shift in reference temperature ( T0) measured in toughness tests (Master Curve approach), where the ? T0 for 300 °C irradiated is approximately 170 °C and the ? T0 for the 200 °C irradiated is approximately 160 °C. This means that the irradiation hardening of PH13-8Mo steel is not suitable to predict the shift in the reference temperature for the Master Curve approach.

Jong, M.; Schmalz, F.; Rensman, J. W.; Luzginova, N. V.; Wouters, O.; Hegeman, J. B. J.; van der Laan, J. G.

2011-10-01

35

Failure Maps for Rectangular 17-4PH Stainless Steel Sandwiched Foam Panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new and innovative concept is proposed for designing lightweight fan blades for aircraft engines using commercially available 17-4PH precipitation hardened stainless steel. Rotating fan blades in aircraft engines experience a complex loading state consisting of combinations of centrifugal, distributed pressure and torsional loads. Theoretical failure plastic collapse maps, showing plots of the foam relative density versus face sheet thickness, t, normalized by the fan blade span length, L, have been generated for rectangular 17-4PH sandwiched foam panels under these three loading modes assuming three failure plastic collapse modes. These maps show that the 17-4PH sandwiched foam panels can fail by either the yielding of the face sheets, yielding of the foam core or wrinkling of the face sheets depending on foam relative density, the magnitude of t/L and the loading mode. The design envelop of a generic fan blade is superimposed on the maps to provide valuable insights on the probable failure modes in a sandwiched foam fan blade.

Raj, S. V.; Ghosn, L. J.

2007-01-01

36

Characterization of 17-4PH stainless steel powders produced by supersonic gas atomization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

17-4PH stainless steel powders were prepared using a supersonic nozzle in a close-coupled gas atomization system. The characteristics of powder particles were carried out by means of a laser particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The results show that the mass median particle diameter is about 19.15 ?m. Three main types of surface microstructures are observed in the powders: well-developed dendrite, cellular, and cellular dendrite structure. The XRD measurements show that, as the particle size decreases, the amount of fcc phase gradually decreases and that of bcc phase increases. The cooling rate is inversely related to the particle size, i.e., it decreases with an increase in particle size.

Zhao, Xin-Ming; Xu, Jun; Zhu, Xue-Xin; Zhang, Shao-Ming; Zhao, Wen-Dong; Yuan, Guo-Liang

2012-01-01

37

Mechanical Properties of 17-4PH Stainless Steel Foam Panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rectangular 17-4PH stainless steel sandwiched foam panels were fabricated using a commercial manufacturing technique by brazing two sheets to a foam core. Microstructural observations and ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of the panels revealed large variations in the quality of the brazed areas from one panel to the next as well as within the same panel. Shear tests conducted on specimens machined from the panels exhibited failures either in the brazed region or in the foam core for the poorly brazed and well-brazed samples, respectively. Compression tests were conducted on the foam cores to evaluate their elastic and plastic deformation behavior. These data were compared with published data on polymeric and metallic foams, and with theoretical deformation models proposed for open cell foams.

Raj, S. V.; Ghosn, L. J.; Lerch, B. a.; Hebsur, M.; Cosgriff, L. M.; Fedor, J.

2007-01-01

38

Numerical simulation of the solidification microstructure of a 17-4PH stainless steel investment casting and its experimental verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to develop a technique of numerically simulating the microstructure of 17-4PH (precipitation hardening) stainless steel during investment casting. A cellular automation (CA) algorithm was adopted to simulate the nucleation and grain growth. First a calibration casting was made, and then by comparing the microstructures of the calibration casting with those simulated using different kinetic

You Yun Li; DeChang Tsai; Weng Sing Hwang

2008-01-01

39

Influence of heat treatment on hysteresis error of force transducers manufactured from 17-4PH stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different heat treatment processes can be applied on the spring element of a force transducer in order to obtain good and satisfactory performance. The study covers the attempts of different heat treatments on spring element using 17-4PH precipitation hardened stainless steel, which is regarded as one of the best and popular spring materials for force sensor applications. Heat treatments named

Bulent Aydemir; Erdinc Kaluc; Sinan Fank

2006-01-01

40

Alloy Shrinkage factors for the investment casting of 17-4PH stainless steel parts  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the alloy shrinkage factors were obtained for the investment casting of 17-4PH stainless steel parts. For the investment casting process, unfilled wax and fused silica with a zircon prime coat were used for patterns and shell molds, respectively. Dimensions of the die tooling, wax pattern, and casting were measured using a Coordinate Measurement Machine. For all the properties, the experimental data available in the literature did not cover the entire temperature range necessary for process simulation. A comparison between the predicted material property data measured property data is made. It was found that most material properties were accurately predicted over the most of the temperature range of the process. Several assumptions were made in order to obtain a complete set of mechanical property data at high temperatures. Thermal expansion measurements for the 17-4PH alloy were conducted at heating and cooling. As a function of temperature, the thermal expansion for both the alloy and shell mold materials showed different evolution at heating and cooling. Thus, one generic simulation were performed with thermal expansion obtained at heating and another one with thermal expansion obtained at cooling. The alloy dimensions were obtained from numerical simulation results of solidification, heat transfer, and deformation phenomena. As compared with experimental results, the numerical simulation results for the shrinkage factors were slightly over-predicted.

Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL

2008-01-01

41

Pitting behavior of type 17-4 PH stainless steel weldments  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical methods of measuring pitting potentials (E{sub pit}) were used to study the pitting resistance of type 17% Cr-4% Ni (17-4, UNS S17400) precipitation hardenable (PH) stainless steel (SS) weldments. The main objectives were to evaluate the pitting resistance of the base metal, the heat-affected zone (HAZ), and the weld metal portions of 17-4 PH SS welds welded autogenously using the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. Effects of different preweld and postweld heat treatments (PWHT) and of the weld heat input on pitting resistance were studied. Results showed a solution-treated base metal had a relatively lower pitting resistance. In contrast, aging preceded by solution treatment improved pitting resistance. Direct peak aging after welding improved pitting resistance of the weld metals, but it decreased resistance of the HAZ. Welding with relatively lower weld heat input decreased the pitting resistance of the weld metals, but the reverse occurred in the case of the HAZ. Solution treatment followed by peak aging nullified effects of the weld heat input and the preweld heat treatments on pitting resistance of the different portions of the weldment. This heat treatment produced relatively higher pitting resistance in all portions of the weldment.

Raja, K.S. [EWAC Alloys Limited, Bombay (India); Rao, K.P. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering

1995-08-01

42

Alloy Shrinkage Factors for the Investment Casting of 17-4PH Stainless Steel Parts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, alloy shrinkage factors were obtained for the investment casting of 17-4PH stainless steel parts. For the investment casting process, unfilled wax and fused silica with a zircon prime coat were used for patterns and shell molds, respectively. The dimensions of the die tooling, wax pattern, and casting were measured using a coordinate measurement machine (CMM). For all the properties, the experimental data available in the literature did not cover the entire temperature range necessary for process simulation. A comparison between the predicted material property data and measured property data is made. It was found that most material properties were accurately predicted over most of the temperature range of the process. Several assumptions were made, in order to obtain a complete set of mechanical property data at high temperatures. Thermal expansion measurements for the 17-4PH alloy were conducted during heating and cooling. As a function of temperature, the thermal expansion for both the alloy and shell mold materials showed a different evolution on heating and cooling. Thus, one generic simulation was performed with thermal expansion obtained on heating, and another one was performed with thermal expansion obtained on cooling. The alloy dimensions were obtained from the numerical simulation results of the solidification, heat transfer, and deformation phenomena. As compared with experimental results, the numerical simulation results for the shrinkage factors were slightly overpredicted.

Sabau, Adrian S.; Porter, Wallace D.

2008-04-01

43

Properties of cryogenically worked metals. [stainless steels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program was conducted to determine whether the mechanical properties of cryogenically worked 17-7PH stainless steel are suitable for service from ambient to cryogenic temperatures. It was determined that the stress corrosion resistance of the cryo-worked material is quite adequate for structural service. The tensile properties and fracture toughness at room temperature were comparable to titanium alloy 6Al-4V. However, at cryogenic temperatures, the properties were not sufficient to recommend consideration for structural service.

Schwartzberg, F. R.; Kiefer, T. F.

1975-01-01

44

Microstructural evolution in a 17-4 PH stainless steel after aging at 400 C  

SciTech Connect

The microstructure of 17-4 PH stainless steel at various stages of heat treatment, i.e., after solution heat treatment, tempering at 580 C, and long-term aging at 400 C, have been studied by atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The solution-treated specimen consists largely of martensite with a small fraction of {delta}-ferrite. No precipitates are present in the martensite phase, while spherical fcc-Cu particles are present in the {delta}-ferrite. No precipitates are present in the martensite phase, while spherical fcc-Cu particles are present in the {delta}-ferrite. After tempering for 4 hours as 580 C, coherent Cu particles precipitate in the martensite phase. At this stage, the Cr concentration in the martensite phase is still uniform. After 5000 hours aging at 400 C, the martensite spinodaly decomposes into Fe-rich {alpha} and Cr-enriched {alpha}{prime}. In addition, fine particles of the G-phase (structure type D8{sub a}, space group Fm{bar 3}m) enriched in Si, Ni, and Mn have been found in intimate contact with the Cu precipitates. Following spinodal decomposition of the martensite phase, G-phase precipitation occurs after long-term aging.

Murayama, M.; Hono, K. [National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba (Japan). Materials Physics Div.; Katayama, Y. [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama (Japan). Heavy Apparatus Engineering Lab.

1999-02-01

45

Stress corrosion cracking behaviour of precipitation hardened stainless steels in high purity water environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibility of 17-4PH and 17-7PH stainless steels to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is examined in the present investigation. The specimens were tested in the presence of NaCl and NaOH (20%) at 908C and various pH values. The evaluations were carried out using the CERT test, at a speed of 10-6s-1, supplemented by anodic polarisation and electrochemical noise analysis. The

C. Gaona-Tiburcio; F. Almeraya-Calderón; A. Martínez-Villafañe; R. Bautista-Margulis

2001-01-01

46

Influence of pH on the crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking behavior of 304 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crevice corrosion, weight loss, and stress corrosion tests were performed on 304 stainless steel. Crevices of various aperture\\u000a sizes exposed to 45% magnesium chloride demonstrated the development of acidic conditions. As the aperture size was decreased,\\u000a the pH of the solutions inside the crevices decreased. Weight loss tests showed that dissolution occurred in samples exposed\\u000a to boiling 25% magnesium chloride

N. C. Pruitt; T. S. Sudarshan; M. R. Louthan

1988-01-01

47

Impedance study of the passive film on stainless steel 304 in pH 8 carbonate solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of applied d.c. potential and polarization time on the passivation of stainless steel 304 (SS304) were investigated in deaerated 1 M NaHCo3 aqueous solutions at pH 8. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used in conjunction with a rotating disc electrode. The data were analysed by considering an equivalent circuit. The changes in impedance parameters at applied d.c. potential signal

M. DRogowska; H. Ménard; A. Lasia; L. Brossard

1996-01-01

48

The effect of ageing upon the microstructure and mechanical properties of type 15-5 PH stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microstructures developed in commercial 15-5 PH precipitation-hardened stainless steel after different heat treatments have been studied. In the as received condition, two types of carbides, NbC and M7C3, were present. Age hardening involves initial formation of fine precipitates rich in copper. Conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM) studies have revealed the formation of a 9R

H. R. Habibi Bajguirani

2002-01-01

49

The microstructure and properties of 17-4PH martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steel modified by plasma nitrocarburizing  

Microsoft Academic Search

17-4PH martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steel was plasma nitrocarburized at 430°C and 460°C for 8h. The nitrocarburized layers were characterized by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer, microhardness tests, pin-on-disc tribometer and the anodic polarization method in a 3.5% NaCl solution. The results show that the microstructure of plasma nitrocarburized layer is characterized by a compound layer with no

R. L. Liu; M. F. Yan

2010-01-01

50

The corrosion and corrosion–wear behaviour of plasma nitrided 17-4PH precipitation hardening stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma surface nitriding of 17-4 PH martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steels was conducted at 350 °C, 420 °C and 500 °C for 10 h using a DC plasma nitriding unit, and the surface properties of the plasma surface engineered samples were systematically evaluated. Experimental results have shown that the surface properties of the plasma nitrided layers in terms of hardness, wear resistance, corrosion behaviour

M. Esfandiari; H. Dong

2007-01-01

51

An investigation on the sintering behavior of 316L and 17-4PH stainless steel powders for graded composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the densification and microstructure of bilayer structures made from 316L and 17-4PH stainless steels powders during sintering. The requirements for such objects could be magnetic properties at one area of the part and non-magnetic properties at another area of the object. A pressureless solid state sintering method in conjunction with a powder layering technique was used. The

A. Simchi; A. Rota; P. Imgrund

2006-01-01

52

Effect of molybdenum on SCC of 17-4PH stainless steel under different aging conditions in chloride solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 17-4 PH martensitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steel, having a combination of high mechanical properties and\\u000a good corrosion resistance is widely used in aerospace, chemical, and petrochemical and food industries This alloy has a high\\u000a resistance to stress corrosion cracking but age hardening treatment, increases its sensitivity to stress corrosion cracking.\\u000a There are several works investigating the influence of different aging

M. Karaminezhaad; S. Sharafi; K. Dalili

2006-01-01

53

Microstructures and mechanical properties of injection molded 17-4PH stainless steel powder with nickel boride additions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the sintering of an injection molded 17-4 PH stainless steel with additions of nickel boride (NiB), with the aim of producing high mechanical properties. Boron is evaluated as the best sintering enhancing element in terms of densifying the iron-based materials by formation the liquid phase. Sintered density and mechanical properties were increased with the increased amount of

H. Ö. Gülsoy; S. Salman

2005-01-01

54

The microstructure evolution of type 17-4PH stainless steel during long-term aging at 350 °C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructure evolution of 17-4 precipitation hardening (17-4PH) stainless steel during long-term aging at 350°C was studied mainly by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the matrix is lath martensite and the precipitation of nano-metric particles of ?-Cu phase after the alloy has been subjected to solution and temper treatment. When the alloy is aged at

Jun Wang; Hong Zou; Cong Li; Yanhua Peng; Shaoyu Qiu; Baoluo Shen

2006-01-01

55

Improving the mechanical properties of 17-4PH stainless steel by low temperature plasma surface treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

17-4PH stainless steel was plasma nitrocarburized at low temperature for improving its mechanical properties. The results show that the modified layer thicknesses increase with increasing treatment time and the layers growth approximately conforms to the parabolic law. The phases in the modified layers are mainly of incipient ??-Fe4N and ??-Fe with amorphous characterization, and then changed into ??-Fe4N, ??N and

M. F. Yan; R. L. Liu; D. L. Wu

2010-01-01

56

The spinodal decomposition in 17-4PH stainless steel subjected to long-term aging at 350 °C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of aging time on the microstructure evolution of 17-4 PH martensitic stainless steel was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results showed that the martensite decomposed by a spinodal decomposition mechanism after the alloy was subjected to long-term aging at 350 °C. The fine scale spinodal decomposition of ?-ferrite brought about a Cr-enriched bright stripe and a Fe-enriched dark

Jun Wang; Hong Zou; Cong Li; Shaoyu Qiu; Baoluo Shen

2008-01-01

57

Surface modification of 17-4PH stainless steel by DC plasma nitriding and titanium nitride film duplex treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

17-4PH stainless steel was modified by direct current (DC) plasma nitriding and titanium nitride film duplex treatment in this study. The microstructure, wear resistance and corrosion resistance were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), pin-on-disk tribological test and polarization experiment. The results revealed that the DC plasma nitriding pretreatment was in favor of improving properties of titanium nitride film. The corrosion

F. Qi; Y. X. Leng; N. Huang; B. Bai; P. Ch. Zhang

2007-01-01

58

Effects of the Process Parameters on the Microstructure and Properties of Nitrided 17-4PH Stainless Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of process parameters on the microstructure, microhardness, and dry-sliding wear behavior of plasma nitrided 17-4PH stainless steel were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and wear testing. The results show that a wear-resistant nitrided layer was formed on the surface of direct current plasma nitrided 17-4PH martensitic stainless steel. The microstructure and thickness of the nitrided layer is dependent on the treatment temperature rather than process pressure. XRD indicated that a single ? N phase was formed during nitriding at 623 K (350 °C). When the temperature increased, the ? N phase disappeared and CrN transformed in the nitrided layer. The hardness measurement demonstrated that the hardness of the stainless substrate steel increased from 320 HV0.1 in the untreated condition increasing to about 1275HV0.1 after nitriding 623 K (350 °C)/600 pa/4 hours. The extremely high values of the microhardness achieved by the great misfit-induced stress fields associated with the plenty of dislocation group and stacking fault. Dry-sliding wear resistance was improved by DC plasma nitriding. The best wear-resistance performance of a nitrided sample was obtained after nitriding at 673 K (350 °C), when the single ? N-phase was produced and there were no CrN precipitates in the nitrided layer.

Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuanhua; Zeng, Dezhi; Yan, Jing; Fan, Hongyuan

2013-04-01

59

TENSILE PROPERTIES OF FIVE LOW-ALLOY AND STAINLESS STEELS UNDER HIGH HEATING-RATE AND CONSTANT-TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-heating-rate results were obtained for three lowalloy steels: 4340 ; (400 deg F temper), 4130 (800 deg F temper), and 4130 (1050 deg F temper) and two ; stainless steels: 17-7 PH (TH 1050) and 410 (700 deg F temper). Stress levels ; ranging from 10 to 125 ksi and heating rates varying from 40 to 2000 deg F\\/sec ;

W. W. Gerberich; H. E. Martens; R. A. Boundy

1962-01-01

60

40 CFR 17.7 - Allowable fees and other expenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and other expenses. 17.7 Section 17.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS General Provisions § 17.7...

2012-07-01

61

40 CFR 17.7 - Allowable fees and other expenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and other expenses. 17.7 Section 17.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS General Provisions § 17.7...

2011-07-01

62

40 CFR 17.7 - Allowable fees and other expenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and other expenses. 17.7 Section 17.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS General Provisions § 17.7...

2010-07-01

63

40 CFR 17.7 - Allowable fees and other expenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and other expenses. 17.7 Section 17.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS General Provisions § 17.7...

2013-07-01

64

Surface modification of 17-4PH stainless steel by DC plasma nitriding and titanium nitride film duplex treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

17-4PH stainless steel was modified by direct current (DC) plasma nitriding and titanium nitride film duplex treatment in this study. The microstructure, wear resistance and corrosion resistance were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), pin-on-disk tribological test and polarization experiment. The results revealed that the DC plasma nitriding pretreatment was in favor of improving properties of titanium nitride film. The corrosion resistance and wear resistance of duplex treatment specimen was more superior to that of only coated titanium nitride film.

Qi, F.; Leng, Y. X.; Huang, N.; Bai, B.; Zhang, P. Ch.

2007-04-01

65

Hydrogen embrittlement of stainless steels by lithium hydride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests were made on 304L and 17-7 PH stainless steels in contact with LiH powder. Reduction in area relative to ductility in\\u000a air decreased for both alloys. It was essential that the LiH be baked in contact with the alloys for the ductility loss to\\u000a be observed; thermodynamic and kinetic evidence indicated that the LiH was reacting with surface oxides

Anthony W. Thompson

1973-01-01

66

Effects of Temperature on Microstructure and Wear of Salt Bath Nitrided 17-4PH Stainless Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salt bath nitriding of 17-4 PH martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steels was conducted at 610, 630, and 650 °C for 2 h using a complex salt bath heat-treatment, and the properties of the nitrided surface were systematically evaluated. Experimental results revealed that the microstructure and phase constituents of the nitrided surface alloy are highly process condition dependent. When 17-4PH stainless steel was subjected to complex salt bathing nitriding, the main phase of the nitrided layer was expanded martensite (?'), expanded austenite (?N), CrN, Fe4N, and (Fe,Cr) x O y . In the sample nitrided above 610 °C, the expanded martensite transformed into expanded austenite. But in the sample nitrided at 650 °C, the expanded austenite decomposed into ?N and CrN. The decomposed ?N then disassembled into CrN and alpha again. The nitrided layer depth thickened intensively with the increasing nitriding temperature. The activation energy of nitriding in this salt bath was 125 ± 5 kJ/mol.

Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuanhua; Fan, Hongyuan; Zeng, Dezhi; Peng, Qian; Shen, Baoluo

2012-08-01

67

The spinodal decomposition in 17-4PH stainless steel subjected to long-term aging at 350 deg. C  

SciTech Connect

The influence of aging time on the microstructure evolution of 17-4 PH martensitic stainless steel was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results showed that the martensite decomposed by a spinodal decomposition mechanism after the alloy was subjected to long-term aging at 350 deg. C. The fine scale spinodal decomposition of {alpha}-ferrite brought about a Cr-enriched bright stripe and a Fe-enriched dark stripe, i.e., {alpha}' and {alpha} phases, separately, which were perpendicular to the grain boundary. The spinodal decomposition started at the grain boundary. Then with prolonged aging time, the decomposition microstructure expanded from the grain boundary to interior. The wavelength of the spinodally decomposed microstructure changed little with extended aging time.

Wang Jun [School of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China) and National Key Laboratory for Nuclear Fuel and Materials, Nuclear Power Institute of China, P.O. Box 436, Chengdu, 610041 (China)], E-mail: srwangjun@163.com; Zou Hong; Li Cong; Qiu Shaoyu [National Key Laboratory for Nuclear Fuel and Materials, Nuclear Power Institute of China, P.O. Box 436, Chengdu, 610041 (China); Shen Baoluo [School of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China)

2008-05-15

68

Effect of Aging Temperature on Erosion-Corrosion Behavior of 17-4PH Stainless Steels in Dilute Sulphuric Acid Slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of aging temperature on erosion-corrosion (E-C) behavior of 17-4PH stainless steels in dilute sulphuric acid slurry containing solid particles was studied by using self-made rotating E-C apparatus. The effect of impact velocity on E-C behavior of 17-4PH steels at different aging temperatures was analyzed. Surface micrographs of the specimens after E-C test were observed by using scanning electron

Ping LI; Qi-zhou CAI; Bo-kang WEI; Xian-zhong ZHANG

2006-01-01

69

14 CFR 17.7 - Filing and computation of time.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01... Filing and computation of time. 17.7 Section 17.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Filing and computation of time. (a) Filing...

2010-01-01

70

14 CFR 17.7 - Filing and computation of time.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01... Filing and computation of time. 17.7 Section 17.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Filing and computation of time. (a) Filing...

2012-01-01

71

14 CFR 17.7 - Filing and computation of time.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01... Filing and computation of time. 17.7 Section 17.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Filing and computation of time. (a) Filing...

2011-01-01

72

14 CFR 17.7 - Filing and computation of time.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01... Filing and computation of time. 17.7 Section 17.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Filing and computation of time. (a) Filing...

2013-01-01

73

14 CFR 17.7 - Filing and computation of time.  

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01... Filing and computation of time. 17.7 Section 17.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Filing and computation of time. (a) Filing...

2014-01-01

74

Numerical simulation of the solidification microstructure of a 17-4PH stainless steel investment casting and its experimental verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to develop a technique of numerically simulating the microstructure of 17-4PH (precipitation hardening) stainless steel during investment casting. A cellular automation (CA) algorithm was adopted to simulate the nucleation and grain growth. First a calibration casting was made, and then by comparing the microstructures of the calibration casting with those simulated using different kinetic growth coefficients (a2, a3) in CA, the most appropriate set of values for a2 and a3 would be obtained. Then, this set of values was applied to the microstructure simulation of a separate casting, where the casting was actually made. Through this approach, this study has arrived at a set of growth kinetic coefficients from the calibration casting: a2 is 2.9 × 10-5, a3 is 1.49 × 10-7, which is then used to predict the microstructure of the other test casting. Consequently, a good correlation has been found between the microstructure of actual 17-4PH casting and the simulation result.

Li, You Yun; Tsai, DeChang; Hwang, Weng Sing

2008-06-01

75

Constituted oxides/nitrides on nitriding 304, 430 and 17-4 PH stainless steel in salt baths over the temperature range 723 to 923 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progressively developed oxides and nitrides that form on nitriding 304, 430 and 17-4 PH stainless steel are analysed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) in this study. The experimental results show that the Cr contents and matrix structures (ferrite, austenite and martensite) play an important role in forming FeCr 2O 4, Cr 2O 3 and Fe 2O 3 oxides as well as nitrides. After a short immersion time, oxides of Cr 2O 3 and FeCr 2O 4 form in nitride films on 304 stainless steel samples. Fe 2O 3 oxide will subsequently form following an increasing immersion time. For the 430 stainless steel, Cr 2O 3 predominately forms after a short dipping time which hinders the growth of the nitride layer. As a result, this sample had the thinnest nitride film of the three for a given immersion time. After the formation of oxides, both CrN and Cr 2N were detected near the surface of the nitride films of three samples while Cr 2N phases formed in the deeper zone. The greatest amount of Fe 2O 3 oxide among the three samples was obtained on the nitriding 17-4 PH stainless steel which also had a high intensity count of N 1s.

Shih, Teng-Shih; Huang, Yung-Sen; Chen, Chi-Fan

2011-10-01

76

Influence of Stress and pH on Susceptibility of Copper-Containing Type 304 Stainless Steels to Stress Corrosion Cracking in Sulfuric Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress corrosion tests on type 304 (UNS S30400) stainless steels (SS) with 0.3 wt% or 1.3 wt% Cu addition were conducted in hot sulfuric acid-sodium hydroxide solutions under constant loads. Cracking susceptibility, corrosion morphology, average crack growth rate (CGR), and average uniform corrosion rate were examined as functions of pH, sulfate ion concentration, and applied stress. The steel with 0.3

M. Asawa; D. Minoda

1996-01-01

77

The effect of 17-4PH stainless steel on the lifetime of a Pennzane lubricated Microwave Limb Sounder Antenna Actuator Assembly ball screw for the AURA spacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

During ground based life testing of a Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Antenna Actuator Assembly (AAA) ball-screw assembly, lubricant darkening and loss were noted when approximately 10% of required lifetime was completed. The MLS-AAA ball screw and nut are made from 17-4 PH steel, the nut has 440C stainless steel balls, and the assembly is lubricated with a Pennzane formulation containing

William R. Jones Jr.; Mark J. Jansen; Gun-Shing Chen; Jonathan Lam; Mark Balzer; John Lo; Mark Anderson; Joseph P. Schepis

2005-01-01

78

The investigation on the prediction of tool wear and the determination of optimum cutting conditions in machining 17-4PH stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to develop a predictive model for the prediction of tool flank wear and an optimization model for the determination of optimum cutting conditions in machining 17-4PH stainless steel. The back-propagation neural network (BPN) was used to construct the predictive model. The genetic algorithm (GA) was used in the optimization model. The Taguchi method (TM)

Wen-Tung Chien; Chung-Shay Tsai

2003-01-01

79

The effect of microstructural evolution on hardening behavior of type 17-4PH stainless steel in long-term aging at 350 °C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of microstructural evolution on hardening behavior of 17-4PH stainless steel in long-term aging at 350 °C was studied by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that there is the matrix of lath martensite and nanometer-sized particles of ?-Cu precipitated from the matrix after the alloy is solution treated and tempered. When the alloy was aged 350 °C

Jun Wang; Hong Zou; Cong Li; Shao-yu Qiu; Bao-luo Shen

2006-01-01

80

Influence of salt bath nitrocarburizing and post-oxidation process on surface microstructure evolution of 17-4PH stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Quench–Polish–Quench complex salt bath heat-treatment (QPQ) on surface microstructure of the 17-4PH stainless steel (SS) was investigated. A bright zone (compound ?-Fe2(N,C)) is formed at the outermost surface of the nitrocarburized sample, followed by a zone (mixture Fe3N\\/Fe4N\\/CrN\\/?-Fe) which is slightly etched. A thin oxides zone (Fe3O4\\/FeO) is formed at the outer surface of the post-oxidized sample,

Gui-jiang Li; Jun Wang; Qian Peng; Cong Li; Ying Wang; Bao-luo Shen

2008-01-01

81

Ultrasonic measurement of elastic moduli of 17-4 pH stainless steel and uranium -2 molybdenum from -40/sup 0/C to 800/sup 0/C  

SciTech Connect

Young's Modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio for 17-4 pH stainless steel and uranium -2 molybdenum are calculated from ultrasonic longitudinal and shear velocities determined from -40/sup 0/C to 800/sup 0/C. The ultrasonic velocities were determined at elevated temperatures using a through-transmission buffer rod arrangement. An indium-gallium slurry bond was used as an ultrasonic couplant between Cupernickel 10 alloy buffer rods and the specimen. Microstructural changes and phase transitions in the specimens are evident from the temperature dependence of the ultrasonic data. 10 figures, 3 tables.

Gieske, J. H.

1980-10-01

82

Initation of pitting corrosion in martensitic stainless steels. [17-4PH; 13-8Mo; Custom 450  

Microsoft Academic Search

The form of localized corrosion known as pitting often initiates preferentially at microstructural inhomogeneities. The pit initiation resistance, therefore, is controlled by the characteristics of the initiation sites, rather than by the bulk material composition. This investigation correlates the pit initiation resistance, as measured by critical pitting potentials, with preferred pit initiation sites for 3 martensitic stainless steels. Pit initiation

W. R. Cieslak; R. E. Semarge; F. S. Bovard

1986-01-01

83

The effect of 17-4PH stainless steel on the lifetime of a Pennzane lubricated Microwave Limb Sounder Antenna Actuator Assembly ball screw for the AURA spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During ground based life testing of a Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Antenna Actuator Assembly (AAA) ball-screw assembly, lubricant darkening and loss were noted when approximately 10% of required lifetime was completed. The MLS-AAA ball screw and nut are made from 17-4 PH steel, the nut has 440C stainless steel balls, and the assembly is lubricated with a Pennzane formulation containing a three weight percent lead naphthenate additive. Life tests were done in dry nitrogen at 50°C. To investigate the MLS-AAA life test anomaly, Spiral Orbit Tribometer (SOT) accelerated tests were performed. SOT results indicated greatly reduced relative lifetimes of Pennzane formulations in contact with 17-4 PH steel compared to 440C stainless steel. Also, dry nitrogen tests yielded longer relative lifetimes than comparable ultrahigh vacuum tests. Generally, oxidized Pennzane formulations yielded shorter lifetimes than non-oxidized lubricant. This study emphasizes surface chemistry effects on the lubricated lifetime of moving mechanical assemblies.

Jones, William R., Jr.; Jansen, Mark J.; Chen, Gun-Shing; Lam, Jonathan; Balzer, Mark; Lo, John; Anderson, Mark; Schepis, Joseph P.

2005-07-01

84

Effects of the Treating Time on Microstructure and Erosion Corrosion Behavior of Salt-Bath-Nitrided 17-4PH Stainless Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of salt-bath nitriding time on the microstructure, microhardness, and erosion-corrosion behavior of nitrided 17-4PH stainless steel at 703 K (430 °C) were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and erosion-corrosion testing. The experimental results revealed that the microstructure and phase constituents of the nitrided surface alloy are highly process condition dependent. When 17-4PH stainless steel was subjected to complex salt-bathing nitriding, the main phase of the nitrided layer was expanded martensite ( ?`), expanded austenite (S), CrN, Fe4N, and Fe2N. The thickness of nitrided layers increased with the treating time. The salt-bath nitriding improves effectively the surface hardness. The maximum values measured from the treated surface are observed to be 1100 HV0.1 for 40 hours approximately, which is about 3.5 times as hard as the untreated material (309 HV0.1). Low-temperature nitriding can improve the erosion-corrosion resistance against two-phase flow. The sample nitrided for 4 hours has the best corrosion resistance.

Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuanhua; Li, Mingxing; Fan, Hongyuan; Zeng, Dezhi; Xiong, Ji

2013-08-01

85

45 CFR 17.7 - Retractions or corrections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL...OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA § 17.7 Retractions or...the same manner to all of the media outlets that received the...the same manner to all of the media outlets that received the...

2013-10-01

86

45 CFR 17.7 - Retractions or corrections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

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2010-10-01

87

45 CFR 17.7 - Retractions or corrections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL...OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA § 17.7 Retractions or...the same manner to all of the media outlets that received the...the same manner to all of the media outlets that received the...

2011-10-01

88

45 CFR 17.7 - Retractions or corrections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL...OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA § 17.7 Retractions or...the same manner to all of the media outlets that received the...the same manner to all of the media outlets that received the...

2012-10-01

89

Initation of pitting corrosion in martensitic stainless steels. [17-4PH; 13-8Mo; Custom 450  

SciTech Connect

The form of localized corrosion known as pitting often initiates preferentially at microstructural inhomogeneities. The pit initiation resistance, therefore, is controlled by the characteristics of the initiation sites, rather than by the bulk material composition. This investigation correlates the pit initiation resistance, as measured by critical pitting potentials, with preferred pit initiation sites for 3 martensitic stainless steels. Pit initiation sites are determined by secondary electron (SE) and backscattered electron (BSE) imaging and energy dispersive and wavelength dispersive spectrometries (EDS and WDS) with a scalling electron microscope (SEM) and an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA).

Cieslak, W.R.; Semarge, R.E.; Bovard, F.S.

1986-01-01

90

Influence of pH and chloride concentration on the pitting and crevice corrosion behavior of high-alloy stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

Localized corrosion resistance (pitting and crevice corrosion) of two high-alloy stainless steels (superduplex and superaustenitic) was studied in solutions with chloride concentrations of 200, 400, 600, and 6,000 ppm at pH values ranging from 2 to 6.5. Critical temperatures for pitting and crevice corrosion were calculated for these test media using electrochemical techniques (continuous current). From results obtained for cyclic polarization, the critical pitting temperature (CPT) and critical crevice temperature (CCT) of these materials in the different test media were determined. Under the tested conditions, the resistance of these materials to localized corrosion was very high. Only in test conditions of higher aggressivity (6,000 ppm CL{sup {minus}} and pH 6.5), pitting or crevice corrosion was observed. In those cases, values of pitting potential (E{sub pit}) and crevice potential (E{sub cre}) showed little tendency to decrease with an increase in CL{sup {minus}} concentration, temperature, and pH. Moreover, the CPT of these steels was determined in a ferric chloride (FeCl{sub 3}) medium, which corresponds to the standard ASTM G48 practice (Method A).

Pardo, A.; Otero, E.; Merino, M.C.; Lopez, M.D.; Utrilla, M.V.; Moreno, F.

2000-04-01

91

Stress corrosion study of PH13-8Mo stainless steel using the Slow Strain Rate Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for a fast and reliable method to study stress corrosion in metals has caused increased interest in the Slow Strain Rate Technique (SSRT) during the last few decades. PH13-8MoH950 and H1000 round tensile specimens were studied by this method. Percent reduction-in-area, time-to-failure, elongation at fracture, and fracture energy were used to express the loss in ductility, which has been used to indicate susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Results from a 3.5 percent salt solution (corrosive medium) were compared to those in air (inert medium). A tendency to early failure was found when testing in the vicinity of 1.0 x 10(-6) mm/mm/sec in the 3.5 percent salt solution. PH13-8Mo H1000 was found to be less likely to suffer SCC than PH13-8Mo H950. This program showed that the SSRT is promising for the SCC characterization of metals and results can be obtained in much shorter times (18 hr for PH steels) than those required using conventional techniques.

Torres, Pablo D.

1989-01-01

92

On the microstructure and phase identification of plasma nitrided 17-4PH precipitation hardening stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systematic microstructure characterisation of plasma nitrided (350–500 °C for 10 to 30 h) 17-4PH alloy was carried out using SEM, XRD and TEM. Experimental results have shown that the microstructure and phase constituents of the plasma surface alloyed cases are highly treatment temperature dependent. When treated at low-temperatures (?420 °C), the microstructure is dominated by nitrogen supersaturated martensite (?'N-expanded martensite); Nitrogen S-phase grains

H. Dong; M. Esfandiari; X. Y. Li

2008-01-01

93

Microstructure and dry-sliding wear properties of DC plasma nitrided 17-4 PH stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An attempt that the precipitation hardening steel 17-4PH was conducted by DC plasma nitriding (DCPN) is made to develop a kind of candidate material for nuclear reactor. Nitriding process performed at temperature ? 400 °C takes effect on creation of the layers composed of S-phase (expanded austenite) and ?N' (expanded martensite). Up to the temperature of 420 °C, the S-phase peaks disappear due to the transformation occurrence (S-phase ? ?N' + CrN). For the samples nitrided at temperature ? 450 °C, no evidence of ?N' is found owing to a precipitation ( ?N'??+CrN) taking place. For the 480 °C/4 h treated sample, it is the surface microhardness that plays the lead role in the wear rate reduction but the surface roughness; while for the 400 °C/4 h treated sample, it is both of the surface roughness and the S-phase formation. Dry sliding wear of the untreated 17-4PH is mainly characterized by strong adhesion, abrasion and oxidation mechanism. Samples nitrided at 400 °C which is dominated by slight abrasion and plastic deformation exhibit the best dry sliding wear resistance compared to the samples nitrided at other temperatures.

Li, Gui-jiang; Wang, Jun; Li, Cong; Peng, Qian; Gao, Jian; Shen, Bao-luo

2008-05-01

94

The effect of microstructural evolution on hardening behavior of type 17-4PH stainless steel in long-term aging at 350 deg. C  

SciTech Connect

The effect of microstructural evolution on hardening behavior of 17-4PH stainless steel in long-term aging at 350 deg. C was studied by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that there is the matrix of lath martensite and nanometer-sized particles of {epsilon}-Cu precipitated from the matrix after the alloy is solution treated and tempered. When the alloy was aged 350 deg. C for 9 months, {alpha}-{alpha}' spinodal decomposition occurred along the grain boundaries and caused an increase in hardness which compensated for the weakening effect due to ripening of the {epsilon}-copper precipitates. Upon further aging to 12 months, the Cr-rich {alpha}'-phase and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitated, both of which strengthened the alloy considerably and led to enhanced hardening despite the continued softening by overaging of the {epsilon}-copper precipitates. With the aging time extended to 15 months, substantial reversed austenite transformed and precipitation of the intermetallic G-phase occurred near the {epsilon}-Cu precipitates in the matrix. The abundant amount of reversed austenite that transformed led to rapid softening.

Wang Jun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China) and Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu, 610041 (China)]. E-mail: srwangjun@163.com; Zou Hong [Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu, 610041 (China); Li Cong [Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu, 610041 (China); Qiu Shaoyu [Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu, 610041 (China); Shen Baoluo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China)

2006-12-15

95

Corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steels as a function of pH for use as bipolar plates in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steels (types 304 and 310S) were employed as bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. For the cell operation, the decayed cell voltage was approximately 22mV for the type 310S stainless steel after 1000h operation, while that for type 304 stainless steel was about 46mV. Corrosion products appeared on the cathode side bipolar plate for the type 304

Masanobu Kumagai; Seung-Taek Myung; Shiho Kuwata; Ryo Asaishi; Hitoshi Yashiro

2008-01-01

96

41 CFR 302-17.7 - Procedures for determining the WTA in Year 1.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Procedures for determining the WTA in Year 1. 302-17.7 Section 302-17.7 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... RELOCATION ALLOWANCES MISCELLANEOUS ALLOWANCES 17-RELOCATION INCOME TAX (RIT) ALLOWANCE §...

2010-07-01

97

41 CFR 302-17.7 - Procedures for determining the WTA in Year 1.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Procedures for determining the WTA in Year 1. 302-17.7 Section 302-17.7 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... RELOCATION ALLOWANCES MISCELLANEOUS ALLOWANCES 17-RELOCATION INCOME TAX (RIT) ALLOWANCE §...

2011-07-01

98

THE EFFECT OF 17-4PH STAINLESS STEEL ON THE LIFETIME OF A PENNZANE® LUBRICATED MICROWAVE LIMB SOUNDER ANTENNA ACTUATOR ASSEMBL Y BALL SCREW FOR THE AURA SPACECRAFT  

Microsoft Academic Search

During ground based life testing of a Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Antenna Actuator Assembly (AAA) ball-screw assembly, lubricant darkening and loss w ere noted when approximately 10% of required lifetime was completed. The MLS-AAA ball screw and nut are made from 17-4 PH steel, the nut has 440C stainless steel balls, and the assembly is lubricated with a Pennzane ®

William R. Jones; Mark J. Jansen; Jonathan Lam; Mark Balzer; John Lo; Joseph P. Schepis; Mark Anderson

99

Interface structure and mechanical properties of Ti(C,N)-based cermet and 17-4PH stainless steel joint brazed with nickel-base filler metal BNi-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of brazing temperature on microstructure and bonding strength of vacuum brazed joints of Ti(C,N)-based cermet and 17-4 PH stainless steel, using filler metal BNi-2, were investigated. At a lower brazing temperature of 1050°C, the distribution of melting point depressants (MPD) concentrated on the diffusion affected zone (DAZ) and the brazing seam near the Ti(C,N)-based cermet, the generation of

F. Z. Wang; Q. Z. Wang; B. H. Yu; B. L. Xiao; Z. Y. Ma

2011-01-01

100

The Effect of 17-4 PH Stainless Steel on the Lifetime of a Pennzane(Trademark) Lubricated Microwave Limb Sounder Antenna Actuator Assembly Ball Screw for the AURA Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During ground based life testing of a Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Antenna Actuator Assembly (AAA) ball-screw assembly, lubricant darkening and loss were noted when approximately 10 percent of required lifetime was completed. The MLS-AAA ball screw and nut are made from 17-4 PH steel, the nut has 440C stainless steel balls, and the assembly is lubricated with a Pennzane formulation containing a three weight percent lead naphthenate additive. Life tests were done in dry nitrogen at 50 C. To investigate the MLS-AAA life test anomaly, Spiral Orbit Tribometer (SOT) accelerated tests were performed. SOT results indicated greatly reduced relative lifetimes of Pennzane formulations in contact with 17-4 PH steel compared to 440C stainless steel. Also, dry nitrogen tests yielded longer relative lifetimes than comparable ultrahigh vacuum tests. Generally, oxidized Pennzane formulations yielded shorter lifetimes than non-oxidized lubricant. This study emphasizes surface chemistry effects on the lubricated lifetime of moving mechanical assemblies.

Jones, William R., Jr.; Jansen, Mark J.; Chen, Gun-Shing; Lam, Jonathan; Balzer, Mark; Anderson, Mark; Lo, John; Schepis, Joseph P.

2005-01-01

101

Tool wear and tool life in end milling of 15–5 PH stainless steel under different cooling and lubrication conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the machining operations on stainless steel alloys are carried out with cutting fluid due to the poor machinability\\u000a of this kind of material. Tool wear mechanisms are directly influenced by the cooling and lubrication condition to which the\\u000a tool is exposed, especially in interrupted cutting processes. This work investigates tool wear mechanisms for an end milling\\u000a operation of

Aldo Braghini Junior; Anselmo Eduardo Diniz; Fernando Teixeira Filho

2009-01-01

102

Fatigue Crack Growth under High Pressure of Gaseous Hydrogen in a 15-5PH Martensitic Stainless Steel: Influence of Pressure and Loading Frequency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the effect of gaseous hydrogen pressure in relation with the loading frequency on the fatigue crack growth behavior of a precipitation-hardened martensitic stainless steel is investigated. It is found that increasing the hydrogen pressure from 0.09 to 9 MPa induces an enhancement of the fatigue crack growth rates. This enhancement is pronounced particularly at higher stress intensity factor amplitudes at 9 MPa. Meanwhile, decreasing the frequency from 20 to 0.2 Hz under 0.9 MPa of hydrogen reveals a significant increase in the crack growth rates that tends to join the curve obtained under 9 MPa at 20 Hz, but with a different cracking mode. However, it is shown that the degradation in fatigue crack growth behavior derives from a complex interaction between the fatigue damage and the amount of hydrogen enriching the crack tip, which is dependent on the hydrogen pressure, loading frequency, and stress intensity factor level. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations of the fracture surfaces are used to support the explanations proposed to account for the observed phenomena.

Sun, Z.; Moriconi, C.; Benoit, G.; Halm, D.; Henaff, G.

2013-03-01

103

17-4 PH and 15-5 PH  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

17-4 PH and 15-5 PH are extremely useful and versatile precipitation-hardening stainless steels. Armco 17-4 PH is well suited for the magnetic particle inspection requirements of Aerospace Material Specification. Armco 15-5 PH and 17-4 PH are produced in billet, plate, bar, and wire. Also, 15-5 PH is able to meet the stringent mechanical properties required in the aerospace and nuclear industries. Both products are easy to heat treat and machine, making them very useful in many applications.

Johnson, Howard T.

1995-01-01

104

Bladed-shrouded-disc aeroelastic analyses: Computer program updates in NASTRAN level 17.7  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In October 1979, a computer program based on the state-of-the-art compressor and structural technologies applied to bladed-shrouded-disc was developed. The program was more operational in NASTRAN Level 16. The bladed disc computer program was updated for operation in NASTRAN Level 17.7. The supersonic cascade unsteady aerodynamics routine UCAS, delivered as part of the NASTRAN Level 16 program was recorded to improve its execution time. These improvements are presented.

Gallo, A. M.; Elchuri, V.; Skalski, S. C.

1981-01-01

105

Ultrasonic Spectroscopy of Stainless Steel Sandwich Panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Enhanced, lightweight material systems, such as 17-4PH stainless steel sandwich panels are being developed for use as fan blades and fan containment material systems for next generation engines. In order to improve the production for these systems, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, such as ultrasonic spectroscopy, are being utilized to evaluate the brazing quality between the 17-4PH stainless steel face plates and the 17-4PH stainless steel foam core. Based on NDE data, shear tests are performed on sections representing various levels of brazing quality from an initial batch of these sandwich structures. Metallographic characterization of brazing is done to corroborate NDE findings and the observed shear failure mechanisms.

Cosgriff, Laura M.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Hebsur, Mohan G.; Baaklini, George Y.; Ghosn, Louis J.

2003-01-01

106

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF IRRADIATED STAINLESS STEELS. A Compilation of Data in the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the mechanical properties of stainless steels that are caused ; by fast neutron irradiation are presented aphic form. These data were ; abstracted from classified and unclassified reports published since 1948 by ; USAEC, AECL, and AERE. Data are included for the following stainless steels: AM-; 350, Boron stainless, 301, 302, 43l, 440C, 442, 446, Armco 17-4PH (AMS5643),

1961-01-01

107

Austenitic stainless steel alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a stainless steel alloy composition for service exposed to irradiation, having resistance to irradiation promoted stress corrosion cracking and reduced long term irradiation induced radioactivity. The alloy consisting of a low carbon content austenitic stainless steel alloy composition comprising about 18 to 20 percent weight of chromium, about 9 to 11 percent weight of nickel, about 1.5

D. J. Coates; G. M. Gordon; A. J. Jacobs; D. W. Sandusky

1989-01-01

108

DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH-STRENGTH-DUAL-PHASE P\\/M STAINLESS STEEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications requiring high strength stainless steels are growing at a fast pace. Typical alloys used for these applications are either highly alloyed materials such as 17-4PH or materials that require a secondary heat treatment such as SS-410HT. A new dual-phase stainless steel has been developed as a lower cost option. The microstructure of the dual-phase stainless steel consists of a

Chris Schade; Alan Lawley; Eva Wagner

109

Semiconducting properties of passive films formed on stainless steels: Influence of the alloying elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive films formed on stainless steels in a borate buffer solution (pH 9.2) have been investigated by capacitance measurements and photoelectrochemistry. The study was carried out on films formed on AISI type 304 and 316 stainless steels and high purity alloys with differing chromium, nickel, and molybdenum contents. Complementary research by Auger analysis shows that the passive films are composed

N. E. Hakiki; M. D. C. Belo; A. M. P. Simoes; M. G. S. Ferreira

1998-01-01

110

Stress corrosion cracking evaluation of martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The resistance of the martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steels PH13-8Mo, 15-5PH, and 17-4PH to stress corrosion cracking was investigated. Round tensile and c-ring type specimens taken from several heats of the three alloys were stressed up to 100 percent of their yield strengths and exposed to alternate immersion in salt water, to salt spray, and to a seacoast environment. The results indicate that 15-5PH is highly resistant to stress corrosion cracking in conditions H1000 and H1050 and is moderately resistant in condition H900. The stress corrosion cracking resistance of PH13-8Mo and 17-4PH stainless steels in conditions H1000 and H1050 was sensitive to mill heats and ranged from low to high among the several heats included in the tests. Based on a comparison with data from seacoast environmental tests, it is apparent that alternate immersion in 3.5 percent salt water is not a suitable medium for accelerated stress corrosion testing of these pH stainless steels.

Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

1980-01-01

111

Shrinkage Prediction for the Investment Casting of Stainless Steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the alloy shrinkage factors were obtained for the investment casting of 17-4PH stainless steel parts. For the investment casting process, unfilled wax and fused silica with a zircon prime coat were used for patterns and shell molds, respectively. Dimensions of the die tooling, wax pattern, and casting were measured using a Coordinate Measurement Machine in order to

Sabau; Adrian S

2007-01-01

112

PRECIPITATION-HARDENING STAINLESS STEELS IN WATER-COOLED REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study is made of the stress corrosion susceptibiity of unirradiated ; precipitation-hardening stainless steels. This study is made because of the ; failures encouatered with these materials in the Dresden and Vallecltos boiling ; water reactors. Service experience, static steam autoclave tests, and dynamic ; water and steam corrosion loop tests have demonstrated that 17-4 PH in the high-;

M. C. Rowland; W. R. Sr. Smith

1962-01-01

113

Method of forming dynamic membrane on stainless steel support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A suitable member formed from sintered, powdered, stainless steel is contacted with a nitrate solution of a soluble alkali metal nitrate and a metal such as zirconium in a pH range and for a time sufficient to effect the formation of a membrane of zirconium oxide preferably including an organic polymeric material such as polyacrylic acid.

Gaddis, Joseph L. (inventor); Brandon, Craig A. (inventor)

1988-01-01

114

Designing stainless exhaust systems  

SciTech Connect

With the ever-increasing price of automobiles, durability and reduced operating costs have become major concerns in North America, Europe, and Japan. In the US, the exhaust system was once thought of as disposable every 3--4 years, but it is now considered a nonreplaceable item for at least 5--7 years, the average time an initial owner keeps a vehicle. Through the mid-1980s, the only stainless steel on most US car exhausts was the downpipe and catalytic converter, and these were due to government warranty mandates. Today, most US passenger car exhaust systems are almost entirely stainless steel, and with the 1996 model year switch of GM light trucks, the average use of stainless alloys in US vehicles will exceed 23 kg per vehicle. The US experience with stainless has shown that certain design considerations can further increase system life and reduce manufacturing problems. Such considerations may also benefit the European situation, which has seen an increase in the use of stainless alloys in exhaust components since tighter pollution laws began taking effect in 1990.

Douthett, J.A.

1995-11-01

115

MATERIALS ENGINEERING KEYWORDS: beryllium, stainless  

E-print Network

MATERIALS ENGINEERING KEYWORDS: beryllium, stainless steel, heat conductance EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT OF THE INTERFACE HEAT CONDUCTANCE BETWEEN NONCONFORMING BERYLLIUM AND TYPE 316 STAINLESS STEEL In fusion blanket designs that employ beryllium as a neutron multiplier, the interface conductance h plays

Abdou, Mohamed

116

Chromium-Makes stainless steel stainless  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chromium, a steely-gray, lustrous, hard metal that takes a high polish and has a high melting point, is a silvery white, hard, and bright metal plating on steel and other material. Commonly known as chrome, it is one of the most important and indispensable industrial metals because of its hardness and resistance to corrosion. But it is used for more than the production of stainless steel and nonferrous alloys; it is also used to create pigments and chemicals used to process leather.

Kropschot, S.J.; Doebrich, Jeff

2010-01-01

117

Multiple rhyolite magmas and basalt injection in the 17.7 ka Rerewhakaaitu eruption episode from Tarawera volcanic complex, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 17.7 ka Rerewhakaaitu eruption episode (volume ˜ 5 km3 DRE rhyolite magma) was the second of five major episodes that have built the Tarawera volcanic complex in the Okataina Volcanic Centre over the past 22 kyr. The Rerewhakaaitu episode produced a widespread tephra fall deposit, associated proximal pyroclastic flow deposits, and voluminous rhyolite lava extrusions. Two different rhyolite magmas

Phil Shane; S. B. Martin; V. C. Smith; K. F. Beggs; M. B. Darragh; J. W. Cole; I. A. Nairn

2007-01-01

118

47 CFR 74.32 - Operation in the 17.7-17.8 GHz and 17.8-19.7 GHz bands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...operate in the 17.8-19.7 GHz band for any service, or...Lat. on the south 105°50?00? W. Long. on the west...N. Lat. on the north 78°50?00? W. Long. on the east...operations in the 17.7-17.8 GHz band or to operate in the...

2010-10-01

119

Sensitization of stainless steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this experiment is to determine the corrosion rates of 18-8 stainless steels that have been sensitized at various temperatures and to show the application of phase diagrams. The laboratory instructor will assign each student a temperature, ranging from 550 C to 1050 C, to which the sample will be heated. Further details of the experimental procedure are detailed.

Nagy, James P.

1990-01-01

120

Stainless Steel Vacuum Chambers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vacuum properties of stainless steel are excellent. The fabrication and welding process can be handled easily by a large number of vacuum manufacturers. In particular, the use for intermediate energy light sources gives a lot of advantages, which leads to a cost effective and industrial vacuum system design. Several design solutions are compared in this paper. The common fabrication

Lothar Schulz

121

Welding of Stainless Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It would appear that welds in some stainless steels, heat-treated in some practicable way, will probably be found to have all the resistance to corrosion that is required for aircraft. Certainly these structures are not subjected to the severe conditions that are found in chemical plants.

Bull, H; Johnson, Lawrence

1929-01-01

122

Multiple rhyolite magmas and basalt injection in the 17.7 ka Rerewhakaaitu eruption episode from Tarawera volcanic complex, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 17.7 ka Rerewhakaaitu eruption episode (volume ?5 km3 DRE rhyolite magma) was the second of five major episodes that have built the Tarawera volcanic complex in the Okataina Volcanic Centre over the past 22 kyr. The Rerewhakaaitu episode produced a widespread tephra fall deposit, associated proximal pyroclastic flow deposits, and voluminous rhyolite lava extrusions. Two different rhyolite magmas (T1 and T2) were

Phil Shane; S. B. Martin; V. C. Smith; K. F. Beggs; M. B. Darragh; J. W. Cole; I. A. Nairn

2007-01-01

123

Effect of porosity on ductility variation in investment cast 17-4PH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stainless steel alloy 17-4PH contains a martensitic microstructure and second phase delta () ferrite. Strengthening of 17-4PH is attributed to Cu-rich precipitates produced during age hardening treatments at 900-1150 F (H900-H1150). For wrought 17-4PH, the effects of heat treatment and microstructure on mechanical properties are well-documented [for example, Ref. 1]. Fewer studies are available on cast 17-4PH, although it

Robert D. Wright; Alice C. Kilgo; Richard P. Grant; Thomas B. Crenshaw; Donald Francis Susan

2005-01-01

124

Fusion weld stainless steels properly  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steels are widely and effectively joined by a variety of welding techniques. There are, however, many different stainless steels, and techniques to produce quality welds differ among the types of alloys. Stainless steels are ferrous alloys containing a minimum of 10% chromium, required to produce the resistance to atmospheric corrosion that is associated with these alloys. Other alloys elements can be added to confer specific properties. There are scores of standard stainless steels, and many more property grades. These numerous types of alloys are classified into four categories based on their crystalline structure. Before addressing the welding procedures of stainless steels, features of these classes need to be described. The four classes are martensitic, ferritic, austenitic, and precipitation hardened stainless steels.

Bohl, R.W. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1995-12-01

125

TiC-maraging stainless steel composite: microstructure, mechanical and wear properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particulate TiC reinforced 17-4PH and 465 maraging stainless steel matrix composites were processed by conventional powder metallurgy (P\\/M). TiC-maraging stainless steel composites with theoretical density >97% were produced using conventional P\\/M. The microstructure, and mechanical and wear properties of the composites were evaluated. The microstructure of the composites consisted of (core-rim structure) spherical and semi-spherical TiC particles depending on the

Farid Akhtar; Shiju GUO; Peizhong FENG; Shah Khadijah Ali; Askari Syed Javid

2006-01-01

126

Stainless steel binder for the development of novel TiC-reinforced steel cermets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steel reinforced TiC composites are an attractive choice for wear resistance and corrosion resistance applications. TiC-reinforced 17-4PH maraging stainless matrix composites were processed by conventional powder metallurgy (P\\/M). TiC-reinforced maraging stainless steel composites with >97% of theoretical density were fabricated. The microstructure, mechanical and wear properties of the composites were evaluated. The microstructure of these composites consisted of spherical and

Akhtar Farid; Shiju Guo; Xia Yang; Yudong Lian

2006-01-01

127

A SURVEY OF THE CORROSION OF MARTENSITIC AND FERRITIC STAINLESS STEELS IN PRESSURIZED WATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion resistance of mantensitic and ferritic austenitic ; stainless steels and carbon steels in pressurized water at 500 to 600 deg F is ; compared. Included are specific out-of-pile data for austenitic stainless ; steels, AISI types types 410, 420, 431, and 440C; the ferritic AISI types 430, ; 442, and 446; the precipitation-hardening type 17-4PH; and carbon steels,

R. J. Beaver; C. F. Jr. Leitten

1963-01-01

128

Pitting inhibition of stainless steel by surfactants: an electrochemical and surface chemical approach.  

PubMed

Pitting corrosion of stainless steels causes tremendous damage in terms of material loss and resulting accidents. Organic surfactants have been tried as pitting inhibitors but the understanding of the inhibition mechanisms is mainly speculative. In the present study the inhibition of the pitting corrosion of 304 stainless steel by N-lauroylsarcosine sodium salt (NLS) in 0.1 M NaCl solutions at neutral pH was studied using an approach that combines surface chemical techniques with electrochemical ones. It was found that NLS increases the pitting resistance of 304 stainless steel, with possible complete inhibition at high NLS concentration (30 mM). Adsorption of NLS on 304 stainless steel particles was directly measured. NLS adsorbs significantly on 304 stainless steel with maximum adsorption density close to bilayer coverage. Electrophoretic mobility data for 304 stainless steel particles show that the surface of 304 stainless steel is negative in NaCl solution at neutral pH. The adsorption of NLS makes the interfacial charge even more negative. The relationship between pitting inhibition and adsorption density of NLS suggests that NLS does not adsorb preferentially on the pit nucleation sites and complete inhibition requires that the whole surface be covered completely by NLS. The inhibition mechanism of NLS is proposed to be due mainly to the blocking effect of a negatively charged NLS adsorption layer. This study shows that in addition to the adsorption amount of surfactant, interfacial charge also plays an important role in pitting inhibition. PMID:12651137

Wei, Zhenqiang; Duby, Paul; Somasundaran, P

2003-03-01

129

A new life extension method for high cycle fatigue using micro-martensitic transformation in an austenitic stainless steel 1 This work was carried out as a part of the Ph.D. thesis of one of the authors (T.H.M.). 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the conventional strengthening methods for metals and alloys such as work hardening, precipitation hardening, cause a decrease in ductility and are not very effective for cyclic loading. In this study, a new strengthening method, which is effective for high cycle fatigue, has been developed. The intersections of dislocations in a stainless steel are freezed by very fine martensite

T. H. Myeong; Y. Yamabayashi; M. Shimojo; Y. Higo

1997-01-01

130

Photodesorption from stainless steels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The photodesorption by low-energy photons from three types of stainless steels is examined. For all these systems both CO and CO2 were observed to photodesorb with high yields: about 0.001 molecules/photon for CO2 and about 0.0001 molecules/photon for CO at 250 nm. The observed threshold energies were found to be the same for all systems at E0 = 2.92 eV for CO2 and E0 = 2.92-3.10 eV for CO.

Mesarwi, A.; Ignatiev, A.

1988-01-01

131

Multifragment emission in reactions of sup 84 Kr on Ag and Au at 17. 7, 27, and 35 MeV/nucleon  

SciTech Connect

CR 39 solid state nuclear track detectors have been used to study the reaction products of 17.7, 27, and 35 MeV/nucleon {sup 84}Kr on Au and Ag. The visual detectors allow studying interactions producing two or more correlated intermediate mass fragments in the final state. The characteristics of these events are such that they probably arise from a fragmentation process of the quasitarget or some intermediate zone. The cross sections of 3, 4, and (5+6) correlated fragments increase with increasing {sup 84}Kr incident energy for both targets.

Zamani, M.; Debeauvais, M.; Ralarosy, J.; Adloff, J.C.; Fernandez, F.; Jokic, S.; Sampsonidis, D. (University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece) Centre de Recherches Nucleaires, Strasbourg (France) Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain) University Svetozar Markovic,'' Kragujevac (Yugoslavia))

1990-07-01

132

Electrochemical Studies of Passive Film Stability on Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4 Amorphous Metal in Seawater at 90oCElectrochemical Studies of Passive Film Stability on Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4 Amorphous Metal in Seawater at 9  

SciTech Connect

An iron-based amorphous metal, Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4} (SAM2X5), with very good corrosion resistance was developed. This material was prepared as a melt-spun ribbon, as well as gas atomized powder and a thermal-spray coating. During electrochemical testing in several environments, including seawater at 90 C, the passive film stability was found to be comparable to that of high-performance nickel-based alloys, and superior to that of stainless steels, based on electrochemical measurements of the passive film breakdown potential and general corrosion rates. This material also performed very well in standard salt fog tests. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) provided corrosion resistance, and boron (B) enabled glass formation. The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal made it an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. This material and its parent alloy maintained corrosion resistance up to the glass transition temperature, and remained in the amorphous state during exposure to relatively high neutron doses.

Farmer, J C; Haslam, J; Day, S D; Lian, T; Saw, C K; Hailey, P D; Choi, J S; Rebak, R B; Yang, N; Payer, J H; Perepezko, J H; Hildal, K; Lavernia, E J; Ajdelsztajn, L; Branagan, D J; Buffa, E J; Aprigliano, L F

2007-04-25

133

Brazing titanium to stainless steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Titanium and stainless-steel members are usually joined mechanically for lack of any other effective method. New approach using different brazing alloy and plating steel member with nickel resolves problem. Process must be carried out in inert atmosphere.

Batista, R. I.

1980-01-01

134

Welding tritium aged stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steels exposed to tritium become unweldable by conventional methods due to He buildup within the metal matrix. With longer service lives expected for new weapon systems, and service life extensions of older systems, methods for welding/repair on tritium-exposed material will become important. Results are reported that indicate that both solid-state resistance welding and low-heat gas metal arc overlay welding are promising methods for repair or modification of tritium-aged stainless steel.

Kanne, W.R. Jr.

1993-04-01

135

Corrosion and inhibition of stainless steel pitting corrosion in alkaline medium and the effect of Cl - and Br - anions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of carbonate anion on the pitting corrosion and inhibition behavior of stainless steel samples (304L SS and 316L SS) has been studied using potentiodynamic and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. The effect of concentration of CO 32- ions, pH, potential scanning rate and the composition of stainless steel are discussed. Additions of Cl - and Br - ions into the carbonate solution increase the anodic dissolution of stainless steel and decrease its pitting corrosion resistance. The effect of CO 32- anion on the inhibition of chloride and bromide pitting corrosion of the two stainless steel types has been studied also. Pitting corrosion decrease with the increasing of sodium carbonate concentration, i.e. increases the resistance of stainless steels towards the chloride and bromide pitting corrosion. This inhibition effect argued to formation of [Fe,Cr]CO 3 film caused by preferential adsorption of the CO 32- ion, leading to instantaneous repair of weak sites for pit nucleation.

Refaey, S. A. M.; Taha, F.; El-Malak, A. M. Abd

2005-03-01

136

Achievement of a superpolish on bare stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

We report the achievement of a superpolished surface, suitable for x-ray reflection, on bare stainless steel. The rms roughness obtained on various samples varied from 2.2 to 4.2 {angstrom}, as measured by an optical profiler with a bandwidth 0.29-100 mm{sup -1}. The type 17-4 PH precipitation-hardening stainless steel used to make the mirrors is also capable of ultrastability and has good manufactureability. This combination of properties makes it an excellent candidate material for mirror substrates. We describe the successful utilization of this type of steel in making elliptical-cylinder mirrors for a soft-x-ray microprobe system at the Advanced Light Source, and discuss possible for its unusual stability and polishability.

Howells, M.R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Casstevens, J. [Dallas Optical Systems, Rockwell, TX (United States)

1997-08-01

137

Metallurgical investigations of pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding of AISI 321 and AISI 630 stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding of 321 austenitic stainless steel and 630 (17-4PH) precipitation hardening stainless steel is being studied. The joints had a circular geometry and butt welded. Studies were focused on the effects of laser power, beam diameter and pulse duration on the depth and width of the welds. Microstructures of the welded joints were investigated

S. A. A. Akbari Mousavi; A. R. Sufizadeh

2009-01-01

138

Phase transformations in welded supermartensitic stainless steels  

E-print Network

. Bhadeshia and P. Woollin, Microstructural change in high temperature heat-affected zone of low carbon weldable 13 %Cr martensitic stainless steels, Proceedings of the Stainless Steel World conference 2002 (Houston, Texas, USA), 61-67. P. Woollin and D... . Carrouge, Heat-affected zone microstructures in supermarten- sitic stainless steels, Proceedings of the Supermartensitic Stainless Steels conference 2002 (Brussels, belgium), 199-204. Dominique Carrouge October 2002 i Acknowledgments I am indebted to TWI...

Carrouge, Dominique

139

Plating on stainless steel alloys  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative adhesion data are presented for a variety of electroplated stainless steel type alloys. Results show that excellent adhesion can be obtained by using a Wood's nickel strike or a sulfamate nickel strike prior to final plating. Specimens plated after Wood's nickel striking failed in the deposit rather than at the interface between the substrate and the coating. Flyer plate quantitative tests showed that use of anodic treatment in sulfuric acid prior to Wood's nickel striking even further improved adhesion. In contrast activation of stainless steels by immersion or cathodic treatment in hydrochloric acid resulted in very reduced bond strengths with failure always occurring at the interface between the coating and substrate.

Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

1981-09-11

140

Ratcheting Behavior of a Non-conventional Stainless Steel and Associated Microstructural Variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ratcheting fatigue behavior of a non-conventional stainless steel X12CrMnNiN17-7-5 has been investigated with varying combinations of mean stress (?m) and stress amplitude (?a) at room temperature using a servo-hydraulic universal testing machine. X-ray diffraction profile analysis has been carried out for assessing possible martensitic phase transformation in the steel subjected to ratcheting deformation. The results indicate that ratcheting strain as well as volume fraction of martensite increases with increasing ?m and/or ?a; the phenomenon of strain accumulation is considered to be governed by the associated mechanics of cyclic loading, increased plastic damage as well as martensitic transformation. A correlation between strain produced by ratcheting deformation and martensitic transformation has been established.

Sahu, Lopamudra; Mishra, Awanish Kumar; Dutta, Krishna

2014-09-01

141

Ratcheting Behavior of a Non-conventional Stainless Steel and Associated Microstructural Variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ratcheting fatigue behavior of a non-conventional stainless steel X12CrMnNiN17-7-5 has been investigated with varying combinations of mean stress (?m) and stress amplitude (?a) at room temperature using a servo-hydraulic universal testing machine. X-ray diffraction profile analysis has been carried out for assessing possible martensitic phase transformation in the steel subjected to ratcheting deformation. The results indicate that ratcheting strain as well as volume fraction of martensite increases with increasing ?m and/or ?a; the phenomenon of strain accumulation is considered to be governed by the associated mechanics of cyclic loading, increased plastic damage as well as martensitic transformation. A correlation between strain produced by ratcheting deformation and martensitic transformation has been established.

Sahu, Lopamudra; Mishra, Awanish Kumar; Dutta, Krishna

2014-11-01

142

Exercise and Pulmonary Hypertension (PH)  

MedlinePLUS

... International PH News and Projects Let Me Breathe Music Video PATIENTS Patients Newly Diagnosed Request an Envelope ... International PH News and Projects Let Me Breathe Music Video Help spread PH awareness and share PH ...

143

Shrinkage Prediction for the Investment Casting of Stainless Steels  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the alloy shrinkage factors were obtained for the investment casting of 17-4PH stainless steel parts. For the investment casting process, unfilled wax and fused silica with a zircon prime coat were used for patterns and shell molds, respectively. Dimensions of the die tooling, wax pattern, and casting were measured using a Coordinate Measurement Machine in order to obtain the actual tooling allowances. The alloy dimensions were obtained from numerical simulation results of solidification, heat transfer, and deformation phenomena. The numerical simulation results for the shrinkage factors were compared with experimental results.

Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL

2007-01-01

144

pH Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Test the pH of things like coffee, spit, and soap to determine whether each is acidic, basic, or neutral. Visualize the relative number of hydroxide ions and hydronium ions in solution. Switch between logarithmic and linear scales. Investigate whether changing the volume or diluting with water affects the pH. Or you can design your own liquid!

Simulations, Phet I.; Adams, Wendy; Barbera, Jack; Langdon, Laurie; Loeblein, Patricia; Malley, Chris

2008-07-01

145

pH Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to teach students about the acidity levels of liquids and other substances around their school so they understand what pH levels tell us about the environment. Students will create mixtures of water samples, soil samples, plants and other natural materials to better understand the importance of pH levels.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

146

Sensitisation of Austenitic Stainless Steels  

E-print Network

, making the steel `stainless'. However, carbide precipitation due to the welding process or heat treatment research has been conducted in the past to model grain boundary precipitation in the context precipitation has treated multicomponent systems with a pseudo{binary approximation. However, in practice

Cambridge, University of

147

EAF STAINLESS STEEL DUST PROCESSING  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the production of stainless steel iron, between 30 and 70 kg of dust and fine waste is generated per ton of steel. Mintek has developed the EnviroplasTM process for the treatment of solid wastes from the metallurgical industry, especially steel plant dusts, without requiring agglomeration to produce inert slag and at the same time recover metal values such as

G. M. Denton; N. A. Barcza; P. D. Scott; T. Fulton

148

Corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel.  

PubMed

The corrosion of 2205 duplex stainless steel was compared with that of AISI type 316L stainless steel. The 2205 stainless steel is a potential orthodontic bracket material with low nickel content (4 to 6 wt%), whereas the 316L stainless steel (nickel content: 10 to 14 wt%) is a currently used bracket material. Both stainless steels were subjected to electrochemical and immersion (crevice) corrosion tests in 37 degrees C, 0.9 wt% sodium chloride solution. Electrochemical testing indicates that 2205 has a longer passivation range than 316L. The corrosion rate of 2205 was 0.416 MPY (milli-inch per year), whereas 316L exhibited 0.647 MPY. When 2205 was coupled to 316L with equal surface area ratio, the corrosion rate of 2205 reduced to 0.260 MPY, indicating that 316L stainless steel behaved like a sacrificial anode. When 316L is coupled with NiTi, TMA, or stainless steel arch wire and was subjected to the immersion corrosion test, it was found that 316L suffered from crevice corrosion. On the other hand, 2205 stainless steel did not show any localized crevice corrosion, although the surface of 2205 was covered with corrosion products, formed when coupled to NiTi and stainless steel wires. This study indicates that considering corrosion resistance, 2205 duplex stainless steel is an improved alternative to 316L for orthodontic bracket fabrication when used in conjunction with titanium, its alloys, or stainless steel arch wires. PMID:9228844

Platt, J A; Guzman, A; Zuccari, A; Thornburg, D W; Rhodes, B F; Oshida, Y; Moore, B K

1997-07-01

149

Adsorption and protein-induced metal release from chromium metal and stainless steel.  

PubMed

A research effort is undertaken to understand the mechanism of metal release from, e.g., inhaled metal particles or metal implants in the presence of proteins. The effect of protein adsorption on the metal release process from oxidized chromium metal surfaces and stainless steel surfaces was therefore examined by quartz crystal microbalance with energy dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS). Differently charged and sized proteins, relevant for the inhalation and dermal exposure route were chosen including human and bovine serum albumin (HSA, BSA), mucin (BSM), and lysozyme (LYS). The results show that all proteins have high affinities for chromium and stainless steel (AISI 316) when deposited from solutions at pH 4 and at pH 7.4 where the protein adsorbed amount was very similar. Adsorption of albumin and mucin was substantially higher at pH 4 compared to pH 7.4 with approximately monolayer coverage at pH 7.4, whereas lysozyme adsorbed in multilayers at both investigated pH. The protein-surface interaction was strong since proteins were irreversibly adsorbed with respect to rinsing. Due to the passive nature of chromium and stainless steel (AISI 316) surfaces, very low metal release concentrations from the QCM metal surfaces in the presence of proteins were obtained on the time scale of the adsorption experiment. Therefore, metal release studies from massive metal sheets in contact with protein solutions were carried out in parallel. The presence of proteins increased the extent of metals released for chromium metal and stainless steel grades of different microstructure and alloy content, all with passive chromium(III)-rich surface oxides, such as QCM (AISI 316), ferritic (AISI 430), austentic (AISI 304, 316L), and duplex (LDX 2205). PMID:22014396

Lundin, M; Hedberg, Y; Jiang, T; Herting, G; Wang, X; Thormann, E; Blomberg, E; Wallinder, I Odnevall

2012-01-15

150

A vibrational spectroscopic study of the borate mineral ezcurrite Na4B10O17·7H2O - Implications for the molecular structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the boron containing mineral ezcurrite Na4B10O17·7H2O using electron microscopy and vibrational spectroscopy. Both tetrahedral and trigonal boron units are observed. The nominal resolution of the Raman spectrometer is of the order of 2 cm-1 and as such is sufficient enough to identify separate bands for the stretching bands of the two boron isotopes. The Raman band at 1037 cm-1 is assigned to BO stretching vibration. Raman bands at 1129, 1163, 1193 cm-1 are attributed to BO stretching vibration of the tetrahedral units. The Raman band at 947 cm-1 is attributed to the antisymmetric stretching modes of tetrahedral boron. The sharp Raman peak at 1037 cm-1 is from the 11-B component such a mode, then it should have a smaller 10-B satellite near (1.03) × (1037) = 1048 cm-1, and indeed a small peak at 1048 is observed. The broad Raman bands at 3186, 3329, 3431, 3509, 3547 and 3576 cm-1 are assigned to water stretching vibrations. Broad infrared bands at 3170, 3322, 3419, 3450, 3493, 3542, 3577 and 3597 cm-1 are also assigned to water stretching vibrations. Infrared bands at 1330, 1352, 1389, 1407, 1421 and 1457 cm-1 are assigned to the antisymmetric stretching vibrations of trigonal boron. The observation of so many bands suggests that there is considerable variation in the structure of ezcurrite. Infrared bands at 1634, 1646 and 1681 cm-1 are assigned to water bending modes. The number of water bending modes is in harmony with the number of water stretching vibrations.

Frost, Ray L.; López, Andrés; Theiss, Frederick L.; Scholz, Ricardo; Belotti, Fernanda M.

2014-07-01

151

[Stainless steels for medical instruments].  

PubMed

Both in the USSR and abroad similar types of martensitic and austenitic stainless steel are used for the manufacture of medical instruments. Martensitic steel, the cheapest and most economically alloyed, has the best combination of properties necessary for medical instruments. The analysis of the Soviet and foreign experience in using different grades of steel for the production of medical instruments demonstrates the expediency and possibility of improving the quality of martensitic steel and rolled stock, as well as that of medical instruments manufactured from these materials, by improving, the operations of the metallurgical and technological processes and by specifying more precisely the requirements for medical instruments. The possibility and expediency of using, in some technically justified cases, lower grades of alloyed steel instead of grade 12X18H9T for clamps and other instruments made of stainless steel, as well as highly corrosive grades of steel for microinstruments, have been established. PMID:7300626

Feofilov, R N

1981-01-01

152

Nickel -- Makes stainless steel strong  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nickel is a silvery-white metal that is used mainly to make stainless steel and other alloys stronger and better able to withstand extreme temperatures and corrosive environments. Nickel was first identified as a unique element in 1751 by Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, a Swedish mineralogist and chemist. He originally called the element kupfernickel because it was found in rock that looked like copper (kupfer) ore and because miners thought that "bad spirits" (nickel) in the rock were making it difficult for them to extract copper from it. Approximately 80 percent of the primary (not recycled) nickel consumed in the United States in 2011 was used in alloys, such as stainless steel and superalloys. Because nickel increases an alloy's resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand extreme temperatures, equipment and parts made of nickel-bearing alloys are often used in harsh environments, such as those in chemical plants, petroleum refineries, jet engines, power generation facilities, and offshore installations. Medical equipment, cookware, and cutlery are often made of stainless steel because it is easy to clean and sterilize. All U.S. circulating coins except the penny are made of alloys that contain nickel. Nickel alloys are increasingly being used in making rechargeable batteries for portable computers, power tools, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Nickel is also plated onto such items as bathroom fixtures to reduce corrosion and provide an attractive finish.

Boland, Maeve A.

2012-01-01

153

Cast stainless steel aging: Mechanisms and predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charpy-impact and J-R curve data are presented for several experimental and commercial heats, as well as for reactor-aged material of CF-3, CF-8, and CF-8M grades of cast stainless steel. The effects of material variables on the embrittlement of cast stainless steels are evaluated. In general, the low carbon CF-3 grades of cast stainless steels are the most resistance and molybdenum-containing

O. K. Chopra; H. M. Chung

1989-01-01

154

Bone-like apatite formation on HA\\/316L stainless steel composite surface in simulated body fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

HA\\/316L stainless steel(316L SS) biocomposites were prepared by hot-pressing technique. The formation of bone-like apatite on the biocomposite surfaces in simulated body fluid(SBF) was analyzed by digital pH meter, plasma emission spectrometer, scanning electron microscope(SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray energy spectrometer(EDX). The results indicate that the pH value in SBF varies slightly during the immersion. It is a dynamic process

Xin FAN; Jian CHEN; Jian-peng ZOU; Qian WAN; Zhong-cheng ZHOU; Jian-ming RUAN

2009-01-01

155

Martensitic Transformation in Austenitic Stainless Steels.  

E-print Network

?? Martensitic transformation is very important in austenitic stainless steels where the transformation induced plasticity phenomenon provides a combination of good mechanical properties, such as… (more)

Naraghi, Reza

2009-01-01

156

77 FR 64545 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-1201 (Final)] Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China Scheduling of...less-than-fair-value imports from China of drawn stainless steel sinks, provided for in subheading...subject merchandise as ``drawn stainless steel sinks with single or...

2012-10-22

157

Effect of Plasma Nitriding and Nitrocarburizing on HVOF-Sprayed Stainless Steel Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the effects of plasma nitriding (PN) and nitrocarburizing on HVOF-sprayed stainless steel nitride layers were investigated. 316 (austenitic), 17-4PH (precipitation hardening), and 410 (martensitic) stainless steels were plasma-nitrided and nitrocarburized using a N2 + H2 gas mixture and the gas mixture containing C2H2, respectively, at 550 °C. The results showed that the PN and nitrocarburizing produced a relatively thick nitrided layer consisting of a compound layer and an adjacent nitrogen diffusion layer depending on the crystal structures of the HVOF-sprayed stainless steel coatings. Also, the diffusion depth of nitrogen increased when a small amount of C2H2 (plasma nitrocarburizing process) was added. The PN and nitrocarburizing resulted in not only an increase of the surface hardness, but also improvement of the load bearing capacity of the HVOF-sprayed stainless steel coatings because of the formation of CrN, Fe3N, and Fe4N phases. Also, the plasma-nitrocarburized HVOF-sprayed 410 stainless steel had a superior surface microhardness and load bearing capacity due to the formation of Cr23C6 on the surface.

Park, Gayoung; Bae, Gyuyeol; Moon, Kyungil; Lee, Changhee

2013-12-01

158

Corrosion Resistance of Amorphous Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4 coating - a new criticality-controlled material  

SciTech Connect

An iron-based amorphous metal with good corrosion resistance and a high absorption cross-section for thermal neutrons has been developed and is reported here. This amorphous alloy has the approximate formula Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4} and is known as SAM2X5. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) were added to provide corrosion resistance, while boron (B) was added to promote glass formation and the absorption of thermal neutrons. Since this amorphous metal has a higher boron content than conventional borated stainless steels, it provides the nuclear engineer with design advantages for criticality control structures with enhanced safety. While melt-spun ribbons with limited practical applications were initially produced, large quantities (several tons) of gas atomized powder have now been produced on an industrial scale, and applied as thermal-spray coatings on prototypical half-scale spent nuclear fuel containers and neutron-absorbing baskets. These prototypes and other SAM2X5 samples have undergone a variety of corrosion testing, including both salt-fog and long-term immersion testing. Modes and rates of corrosion have been determined in various relevant environments, and are reported here. While these coatings have less corrosion resistance than melt-spun ribbons and optimized coatings produced in the laboratory, substantial corrosion resistance has been achieved.

Farmer, J C; Choi, J S; Saw, C K; Rebak, R; Day, S D; Lian, T; Hailey, P; Payer, J H; Branagan, D J; Aprigliano, L F

2007-03-28

159

Long-Term Corrosion Tests of Prototypical SAM2X5 (Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4) Coatings  

SciTech Connect

An iron-based amorphous metal with good corrosion resistance and a high absorption cross-section for thermal neutrons has been developed and is reported here. This amorphous alloy has the approximate formula Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4} and is known as SAM2X5. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) were added to provide corrosion resistance, while boron (B) was added to promote glass formation and the absorption of thermal neutrons. Since this amorphous metal has a higher boron content than conventional borated stainless steels, it provides the nuclear engineer with design advantages for criticality control structures with enhanced safety. While melt-spun ribbons with limited practical applications were initially produced, large quantities (several tons) of gas atomized powder have now been produced on an industrial scale, and applied as thermal-spray coatings on prototypical half-scale spent nuclear fuel containers and neutron-absorbing baskets. These prototypes and other SAM2X5 samples have undergone a variety of corrosion testing, including both salt-fog and long-term immersion testing. The modes and rates of corrosion have been determined in the various environments, and are reported here. While these coatings have less corrosion resistance than melt-spun ribbons and optimized coatings produced in the laboratory, substantial corrosion resistance has been achieved.

Farmer, J C; Choi, J S; Saw, C K; Rebak, R H; Day, S D; Lian, T; Hailey, P D; Payer, J H; Branagan, D J; Aprigliano, L F

2007-05-10

160

Corrosion–erosion of nitrogen bearing martensitic stainless steels in seawater–quartz slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

AISI 410S stainless steel was nitrided at 1473K in N2 atmosphere, direct quenched and tempered at temperatures between 473 and 873K. Martensitic cases with circa 0.52wt.%N at the surface were obtained. Corrosion–erosion tests were carried out in slurries composed by quartz particles and tap or substitute ocean water. The concentration of solids, the impact angle and the pH of solution

A. Toro; A. Sinatora; D. K. Tanaka; A. P. Tschiptschin

2001-01-01

161

Accelerated determination of the resistance of stainless steels to crevice corrosion in sea water  

SciTech Connect

The authors assess a wide range of stainless chromium steels used in platforms and other offshore facilities for their resistance or susceptibility to crevice as well as electrochemical and pitting corrosion in sea water and discuss an electrochemical method, based on the effect of the pH value on the solution potential, which they find determines corrosion resistance under the given conditions more quickly and efficiently than existing methods.

Korovin, Yu.M.

1987-03-01

162

Chloride-Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking of Powder Metallurgy Duplex Stainless Steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance of nitrogen-alloyed, powder metallurgically (P\\/M) produced and hot isostatically pressed (HIP) duplex stainless steels (DSS) was investigated and compared to the SCC resistance of two commercial wrought (forged) DSS. Constant-strain (deflection) SCC tests with four-point, loaded-bend specimens were performed in aerated 50 wt% calcium chloride solution at 100 C with pH = 6.5

A. Laitinen; H. Haenninen

1996-01-01

163

Martensitic stainless steel modified by plasma nitrocarburizing at conventional temperature with and without rare earths addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

17-4PH Martensitic stainless steel was plasma nitrocarburized at conventional temperature (560°C) with and without rare earths (RE) addition. The surface treated layers were characterized by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer, X-ray diffraction and microhardness test. The wear and corrosion behavior of the modified specimens was studied respectively using pin-on-disc tribometer and anodic polarization

M. F. Yan; R. L. Liu

2010-01-01

164

Sintering Shrinkage and Microstructure Evolution during Densification of a Martensitic Stainless Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The densification and microstructural evolution of 17-4PH stainless steel is investi- gated by means of dilatometry and quenching experiments. The densification kinetics are explained by identifying the microstructure with phase changes for this alloy at key points along the densification curve. Sintering experiments conducted in pure hydro- gen, and in hydrogen-nitrogen atomspheres illustrate the austenitic stabilizing effect that nitrogen has

D. C. Blaine; Y. Wu; C. E. Schlaefer; B. Marx; R. M. German

165

Improvement of the forgability of 17-4 precipitation hardening stainless steel by ausforming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ausforming process for 17-4 precipitation hardening (17-4PH) stainless steel is compared with the conventional warm-forging process, from the point of both the forgeability and the properties of the forged material. The forgeability is evaluated by upsetting, forward rod extrusion and backward can extrusion. The forging force required in ausforming is about half that required in conventional warm-forging: it especially

Sachihiro Isogawa; Hiroaki Yoshida; Yuzo Hosoi; Yasuhisa Tozawa

1998-01-01

166

PRECIPITATION HARDENING P\\/M STAINLESS STEELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications requiring high strength stainless steels are growing rapidally. Precipitation- hardening stainless steels have seen limited use in powder metallurgy despite their high strength. Strengthening of these alloys is achieved by adding elements such as copper and niobium, which form intermetallic precipitates during aging. The precipitation-hardening grades exhibit corrosion resistance levels comparable with those of the chromium-nickel (300 series) grades.

Chris Schade; Pat Stears; Alan Lawley; Roger Doherty

167

Tensile behavior of borated stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borated stainless steel tensile testing is being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The goal of the test program is to provide data to support a code case inquiry to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section 3. The adoption by ASME facilitates a materials qualification for structural use in transport cask applications. The borated stainless steel being tested

J. J. Stephens; K. B. Sorenson

1990-01-01

168

A stainless steel bracket for orthodontic application.  

PubMed

Aesthetics has become an essential element when choosing orthodontic fixed appliances. Most metallic brackets used in orthodontic therapy are made from stainless steel (SS) with the appropriate physical properties and good corrosion resistance, and are available as types 304, 316 and 17-4 PH SS. However, localized corrosion of these materials can frequently occur in the oral environment. This study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of sizing, microstructure, hardness, corrosion resistance, frictional resistance and cytotoxicity of commercially available Mini-diamond (S17400), Archist (S30403) and experimentally manufactured SR-50A (S32050) brackets. The size accuracy of Mini-diamond was the highest at all locations except for the external horizontal width of the tie wing (P < 0.05). Micrographs of the Mini-diamond and Archist showed precipitates in the grains and around their boundaries. SR-50A showed the only austenitic phase and the highest polarization resistance of the tested samples. SR-50A also had the highest corrosion resistance [SR-50A, Mini-diamond and Archist were 0.9 x 10(-3), 3.7 x 10(-3), and 7.4 x 10(-3) mm per year (mpy), respectively], in the artificial saliva. The frictional force of SR-50A decreased over time, but that of Mini-diamond and Archist increased. Therefore, SR-50A is believed to have better frictional properties to orthodontic wire than Mini-diamond and Archist. Cytotoxic results showed that the response index of SR-50A was 0/1 (mild), Mini-diamond 1/1 (mild+), and Archist 1/2 (mild+). SR-50A showed greater biocompatibility than either Mini-diamond or Archist. It is concluded that the SR-50A bracket has good frictional property, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility with a lower probability of allergic reaction, compared with conventionally used SS brackets. PMID:15947222

Oh, Keun-Taek; Choo, Sung-Uk; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

2005-06-01

169

LOCAL BUCKLING OF COLD-FORMED STAINLESS STEEL SECTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research at the University of Sydney, in the stainless steel area has for the last three years concentrated on the local buckling strength of stainless steel plates with application to cold-formed sections. The research has encompassed tests on single stainless steel plates, and the finite element modelling of stainless steel plates. Research was also carried out to determine the stress-strain

K J R Rasmussen; P Bezkorovainy; M R Bambach

170

Structure and properties of ion-nitrided stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and properties of ion-nitrided layers on several stainless steels, 410 martensitic stainless steel, 430 ferritic stainless steel and 321 austenitic stainless steel, has been studied under varying process conditions with microhardness-depth correlations, optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The process variables studied include time (2 to 10 h) and temperature (400 to 600° C). The highest case depth

K. Ozbaysal; O. T. Inal

1986-01-01

171

Sulphide stress cracking resistance of supermartensitic stainless steel for OCTG  

SciTech Connect

Supermartensitic stainless steels, recently made available as oil country tubular goods (OCTG), have been developed as a valuable cost effective alternative to duplex stainless steel for high CO{sub 2}, medium/high chlorides, and very low H{sub 2}S environments. Experimental tests were carried out to determine the localized corrosion and the sulfide stress cracking (SSC) resistance of supermartensitic steel UNS S41425 to be used as OCTG in slightly sour oil and gas wells and to compare its performance with standard L80 API grade UNS S42000 13% Cr steel, considered as a reference. Supermartensitic steels with yield range as per L80, C95, P110, API5CT, were developed and corrosion and mechanical properties were determined. The influence of different chloride contents (NaCl 10 {divided_by} 50 g/l), hydrogen sulfide partial pressure (0.1 {divided_by} 100 kPa) and pH (2.7 {divided_by} 4.5) has been investigated in order to simulate production service conditions. Modified NACE constant load test and slow strain rate (SSR) test were performed. SSR gave the most severe evaluation for the SSC resistance. In the SSR test supermartensitic steel is deeply influenced by the chloride concentration. Supermartensitic steel corrosion resistance is by far superior to that of 13% Cr.

Scoppio, L.; Barteri, M. [Centro Sviluppo Materiali S.p.A., Rome (Italy); Cumino, G. [Dalmine Tubi Industriali S.r.l., Bergamo (Italy)

1997-08-01

172

A porous stainless steel membrane system for extraterrestrial crop production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system was developed in which nutrient flow to plant roots is controlled by a thin (0.98 or 1.18 mm) porous (0.2 or 0.5 microns) stainless steel sheet membrane. The flow of nutrient solution through the membrane is controlled by adjusting the relative negative pressure on the nutrient solution side of the membrane. Thus, the nutrient solution is contained by the membrane and cannot escape from the compartment even under microgravity conditions if the appropriate pressure gradient across the membrane is maintained. Plant roots grow directly on the top surface of the membrane and pull the nutrient solution through this membrane interface. The volume of nutrient solution required by this system for plant growth is relatively small, since the plenum, which contains the nutrient solution in contact with the membrane, needs only to be of sufficient size to provide for uniform flow to all parts of the membrane. Solution not passing through the membrane to the root zone is recirculated through a reservoir where pH and nutrient levels are controlled. The size of the solution reservoir depends on the sophistication of the replenishment system. The roots on the surface of the membrane are covered with a polyethylene film (white on top, black on bottom) to maintain a high relative humidity and also limit light to prevent algal growth. Seeds are sown directly on the stainless steel membrane under the holes in the polyethylene film that allow a pathway for the shoots.

Koontz, H. V.; Prince, R. P.; Berry, W. L.; Knott, W. M. (Principal Investigator)

1990-01-01

173

A porous stainless steel membrane system for extraterrestrial crop production.  

PubMed

A system was developed in which nutrient flow to plant roots is controlled by a thin (0.98 or 1.18 mm) porous (0.2 or 0.5 microns) stainless steel sheet membrane. The flow of nutrient solution through the membrane is controlled by adjusting the relative negative pressure on the nutrient solution side of the membrane. Thus, the nutrient solution is contained by the membrane and cannot escape from the compartment even under microgravity conditions if the appropriate pressure gradient across the membrane is maintained. Plant roots grow directly on the top surface of the membrane and pull the nutrient solution through this membrane interface. The volume of nutrient solution required by this system for plant growth is relatively small, since the plenum, which contains the nutrient solution in contact with the membrane, needs only to be of sufficient size to provide for uniform flow to all parts of the membrane. Solution not passing through the membrane to the root zone is recirculated through a reservoir where pH and nutrient levels are controlled. The size of the solution reservoir depends on the sophistication of the replenishment system. The roots on the surface of the membrane are covered with a polyethylene film (white on top, black on bottom) to maintain a high relative humidity and also limit light to prevent algal growth. Seeds are sown directly on the stainless steel membrane under the holes in the polyethylene film that allow a pathway for the shoots. PMID:11537562

Koontz, H V; Prince, R P; Berry, W L

1990-06-01

174

Duplex stainless steels for osteosynthesis devices.  

PubMed

The austenitic stainless steels used today for the manufacture of osteosynthesis devices are sensitive to crevice corrosion. In this study the corrosion properties of some duplex stainless steels were evaluated and compared to traditional austenitic stainless steels. According to our results the following ranking was established: 23Cr-4Ni less than AISI 316L less than ASTM F138 less than 22Cr-5Ni-3Mo less than 27Cr-31Ni-3.5Mo less than 25Cr-7Ni-4Mo-N. In particular the results showed that the high-performance 25Cr-7Ni-4Mo-N duplex stainless steel, with high molybdenum and nitrogen contents, can be considered not susceptible to crevice corrosion in the human body. The duplex stainless steels have also better mechanical properties at the same degree of cold working compared with austenitic stainless steels. Hence the 25Cr-7Ni-4Mo-N duplex stainless steel can be considered a convenient substitute of ASTM F138 for orthopedic and osteosynthesis devices. PMID:2777835

Cigada, A; Rondelli, G; Vicentini, B; Giacomazzi, M; Roos, A

1989-09-01

175

Microstructure and mechanical properties of 17-4PH steel plasma nitrocarburized with and without rare earths addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

17-4PH stainless steel was plasma nitrocarburized at 500°C with and without rare earths (RE) addition. The nitrocarburized layers were characterized by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer, X-ray diffraction, hardness tests and pin-on-disc tribometer. The results show that rare earths atoms can diffuse into 17-4PH steel surface and change the microstructure of the nitrocarburized

R. L. Liu; M. F. Yan; D. L. Wu

2010-01-01

176

Tritiated Water Interaction with Stainless Steel  

SciTech Connect

Experiments conducted to study tritium permeation of stainless steel at ambient and elevated temperatures revealed that HT converts relatively quickly to HTO. Further, the HTO partial pressure contributes essentially equally with elemental tritium gas in driving permeation through the stainless steel. Such permeation appears to be due to dissociation of the water molecule on the hot stainless steel surface. There is an equilibrium concentration of HTO vapor above adsorbed gas on the walls of the experimental apparatus evident from freezing transients. The uptake process of tritium from the carrier gas involves both surface adsorption and isotopic exchange with surface bound water.

Glen R. Longhurst

2007-05-01

177

Corrosion of stainless steel, 2. edition  

SciTech Connect

The book describes corrosion characteristics in all the major and minor groups of stainless steels, namely, in austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, duplex, and precipitation hardenable steels. Several chapters are spent on those special forms of corrosion that are investigated in the great detail in stainless steels, namely, pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking. The influences of thermal treatment (heat affected zone cases), composition, and microstructure on corrosion are given good coverage. Corrosive environments include high temperature oxidation, sulfidation as well as acids, alkalis, various different petroleum plant environments, and even human body fluids (stainless steels are commonly used prosthetic materials).

Sedriks, A.J.

1996-10-01

178

Urine pH test  

MedlinePLUS

A urine pH test measures the level of acid in urine. ... pH - urine ... meat products or cranberries can decrease your urine pH. ... to check for changes in your body's acid levels.It may be done to ... more effective when urine is acidic or non-acidic (alkaline).

179

Citric Acid Passivation of Stainless Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Passivation is a process for cleaning and providing corrosion protection for stainless steel. Currently, on Kennedy Space Center (KSC), only parts passivated with nitric acid are acceptable for use. KSC disposes of approximately 125gal of concentrated nit...

C. Carl, C. Larson, D. Yasensky, J. Reali

2010-01-01

180

Stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steels in caustic solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Duplex stainless steels (DSS) with roughly equal amount of austenite and ferrite phases are being used in industries such as petrochemical, nuclear, pulp and paper mills, de-salination plants, marine environments, and others. However, many DSS grades have been reported to undergo corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in some aggressive environments such as chlorides and sulfide-containing caustic solutions. Although stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steels in chloride solution has been investigated and well documented in the literature but the SCC mechanisms for DSS in caustic solutions were not known. Microstructural changes during fabrication processes affect the overall SCC susceptibility of these steels in caustic solutions. Other environmental factors, like pH of the solution, temperature, and resulting electrochemical potential also influence the SCC susceptibility of duplex stainless steels. In this study, the role of material and environmental parameters on corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steels in caustic solutions were investigated. Changes in the DSS microstructure by different annealing and aging treatments were characterized in terms of changes in the ratio of austenite and ferrite phases, phase morphology and intermetallic precipitation using optical micrography, SEM, EDS, XRD, nano-indentation and microhardness methods. These samples were then tested for general and localized corrosion susceptibility and SCC to understand the underlying mechanisms of crack initiation and propagation in DSS in the above-mentioned environments. Results showed that the austenite phase in the DSS is more susceptible to crack initiation and propagation in caustic solutions, which is different from that in the low pH chloride environment where the ferrite phase is the more susceptible phase. This study also showed that microstructural changes in duplex stainless steels due to different heat treatments could affect their SCC susceptibility. Annealed and water quenched specimens were found to be immune to SCC in caustic environment. Aging treatment at 800°C gave rise to sigma and chi precipitates in the DSS. However, these sigma and chi precipitates, known to initiate cracking in DSS in chloride environment did not cause any cracking of DSS in caustic solutions. Aging of DSS at 475°C had resulted in '475°C embrittlement' and caused cracks to initiate in the ferrite phase. This was in contrast to the cracks initiating in the austenite phase in the as-received DSS. Alloy composition and microstructure of DSS as well as solution composition (dissolved ionic species) was also found to affect the electrochemical behavior and passivation of DSS which in turn plays a major role in stress corrosion crack initiation and propagation. Corrosion rates and SCC susceptibility of DSS was found to increase with addition of sulfide to caustic solutions. Corrosion films on DSS, characterized using XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, indicated that the metal sulfide compounds were formed along with oxides at the metal surface in the presence of sulfide containing caustic environments. These metal sulfide containing passive films are unstable and hence breaks down under mechanical straining, leading to SCC initiations. The overall results from this study helped in understanding the mechanism of SCC in caustic solutions. Favorable slip systems in the austenite phase of DSS favors slip-induced local film damage thereby initiating a stress corrosion crack. Repeated film repassivation and breaking, followed by crack tip dissolution results in crack propagation in the austenite phase of DSS alloys. Result from this study will have a significant impact in terms of identifying the alloy compositions, fabrication processes, microstructures, and environmental conditions that may be avoided to mitigate corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of DSS in caustic solutions.

Bhattacharya, Ananya

181

Microstructure of Super-duplex Stainless Steels  

E-print Network

MICROSTRUCTURE OF SUPER-DUPLEX STAINLESS STEELS By Shahriar Sharafi St. Edmund College Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy Pelnbroke Street Calnbridge CB23QZ A dissertation submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy... and the Ministry of Culture and Higher Education of Iran for their financial support and ESAB AB of Sweden for providing the materials. IV ABSTRACT Corrosion resistant stainless steels with a mixed microstructure of o-ferrite and austenite in approximately equal...

Sharafi, Shahriar

1993-12-07

182

Properties of HIPed stainless steel powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current design of ITER primary wall, 316LN stainless steel is the reference structural material. Austenitic stainless steel is used for water-cooling channels and structures. As material data on hot isostatic pressed (HIP) 316LN were not available in open literature and from powder producers, the main properties of unirradiated samples have been measured in CEA\\/CEREM. Fully dense material without

Ch. Dellis; G. Le Marois; J. M. Gentzbittel; G. Robert; F. Moret

1996-01-01

183

Duplex stainless steel—Microstructure and properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Literature describing the microstructure of austenitic-ferritic stainless steels is reviewed, including phases which can be deleterious, such as ? and ?. The mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of Carpenter Technology's 7-Mo PLUSsr stainless (UNS S32950) demonstrate the resistance of this material to the formation of these phases and their deleterious effects. This material was evaluated in the annealed and welded conditions and after extended thermal treatments to simulate boiler and pressure vessel service.

Debold, Terry A.

1989-03-01

184

Elastic property maps of austenitic stainless steels.  

PubMed

The most recent advances in theory and methodology are directed towards obtaining a quantitative description of the electronic structure and physical properties of alloy steels. Specifically, we employ ab initio alloy theories to map the elastic properties of austenitic stainless steels as a function of chemical composition. The so generated data can be used in the search for new steel grades, and, as an example, we predict two basic compositions with outstanding properties among the austenitic stainless steels. PMID:11955203

Vitos, L; Korzhavyi, P A; Johansson, B

2002-04-15

185

Joining of austenitic stainless steel and ferritic stainless steel to sialon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joining of ceramics to metal is not easy due to the difference in the thermal expansion of the two materials. In this research work, the joining of sialon to austenitic stainless steel and ferritic stainless steels were compared. At above a joining temperature of 1200°C, sialon will react with steel to form iron silicide and nitrogen is given off. Thus

P Hussain; A Isnin

2001-01-01

186

High Mn austenitic stainless steel  

DOEpatents

An austenitic stainless steel alloy includes, in weight percent: >4 to 15 Mn; 8 to 15 Ni; 14 to 16 Cr; 2.4 to 3 Al; 0.4 to 1 total of at least one of Nb and Ta; 0.05 to 0.2 C; 0.01 to 0.02 B; no more than 0.3 of combined Ti+V; up to 3 Mo; up to 3 Co; up to 1W; up to 3 Cu; up to 1 Si; up to 0.05 P; up to 1 total of at least one of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; less than 0.05 N; and base Fe, wherein the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni, and wherein the alloy forms an external continuous scale including alumina, nanometer scale sized particles distributed throughout the microstructure, the particles including at least one of NbC and TaC, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure that is essentially delta-ferrite-free and essentially BCC-phase-free.

Yamamoto, Yukinori (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Santella, Michael L (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Brady, Michael P (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Liu, Chain-tsuan (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

2010-07-13

187

Analysis of Stainless Steel Sandwich Panels with a Metal Foam Core for Lightweight Fan Blade Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The quest for cheap, low density and high performance materials in the design of aircraft and rotorcraft engine fan and propeller blades poses immense challenges to the materials and structural design engineers. The present study investigates the use of a sandwich foam fan blade mae up of solid face sheets and a metal foam core. The face sheets and the metal foam core material were an aerospace grade precipitation hardened 17-4 PH stainless steel with high strength and high toughness. The resulting structures possesses a high stiffness while being lighter than a similar solid construction. The material properties of 17-4 PH metal foam are reviewed briefly to describe the characteristics of sandwich structure for a fan blade application. A vibration analysis for natural frequencies and a detailed stress analysis on the 17-4 PH sandwich foam blade design for different combinations of kin thickness and core volume are presented with a comparison to a solid titanium blade.

Min, James B.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Raj, Sai V.; Holland, Frederic A., Jr.; Hebsur, Mohan G.

2004-01-01

188

Electrochemical behavior of titanium in saline environments: The effects of temperature, pH, and microstructure  

SciTech Connect

This research investigates the effects of temperature, pH, degree of salinity, galvanic coupling, microstructure, and composition on the electrochemical behavior of commercially pure titanium in a saline environment. Essentially, the findings establish that increased temperature, altered microstructure, decreased pH, and decreased purity of titanium all serve to increase the corrosion potential and cathodic reaction rate, thus making the metal more susceptible to hydrogen absorption. Further, the data indicate that galvanic coupling with certain metals such as naval brass and stainless steel can anodically polarize titanium, whereas coupling with metals such as aluminum, HY80 steel, and zinc catholically polarizes titanium, thus promoting hydrogen evolution on the titanium surface.

VanVliet, K.J.; Wang, Z.F.; Briant, C.L.; Kumar, K.S. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Div. of Engineering

1998-12-31

189

Corrosion performance of martensitic stainless steel seamless pipe for linepipe application  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion performance of two types of weldable martensitic stainless steel seamless pipe for pipeline application is investigated. 11Cr steel pipe developed for sweet environment gives better resistance to CO{sub 2} corrosion than the 13Cr martensitic stainless steel for OCTG. 12Cr steel pipe developed for light sour environment shows good SSC resistance in a mild sour environment and superior CO{sub 2} corrosion resistance at high temperature and high CO{sub 2} partial pressure condition. The suitable condition for the 11Cr steel pipe and the 12Cr steel pipe in sweet environment, and the critical pH and H{sub 2}S partial pressure for the 12Cr steel pipe welded joint in sour environment are clarified. Both welded joints have superior resistance to hydrogen embrittlement under the cathodic protection condition in sea water.

Kimura, Mitsuo; Miyata, Yukio; Toyooka, Takaaki; Murase, Fumio [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Handa, Aichi (Japan)

1999-11-01

190

Chiral Discrimination in Dimers of Diphosphines PH2 ?PH2 and PH2 ?PHF.  

PubMed

A theoretical study of the conformational profile of two diphosphines, PH2 ?PH2 and PH2 ?PHF, is carried using second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) computational methods. The chiral minima found are used to build homo- and heterochiral dimers. Six minima are found for the (PH2 ?PH2 )2 dimers and 27 for the (PH2 ?PHF)2 dimers. Pnicogen and hydrogen bonds, the non-covalent forces that stabilize the complexes, are characterized by Atoms in Molecules (AIM) and Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) methodologies. Those with several pnicogen bonds are more stable than those with hydrogen bonds. The chirodiastaltic energies amount to a total of 1.77 kJ?mol(-1) for the Ra :Ra versus Ra :Sa (PH2 ?PH2 )2 dimers, 0.81 kJ?mol(-1) for the RSa :RSa versus RSa :SRa (PH2 ?PHF)2 dimers, and 2.93 kJ?mol(-1) for the RRa :RRa versus RRa :SSa (PH2 ?PHF)2 dimers. In the first and second cases, the heterochiral complex is favored whereas in the third case, the homochiral complex is favored. PMID:24838830

Azofra, Luis M; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José

2014-11-10

191

Ph.D. Astronomy Program Ph.D. in Astronomy  

E-print Network

Ph.D. Astronomy Program Ph.D. in Astronomy Department(s) Physics and Astronomy College Sciences 1 physics at the graduate level 4. understand observational astronomy techniques 5. understand astrophysics strong background of knowledge and expertise in physics and astronomy #12;2. Curriculum Alignment

Hemmers, Oliver

192

Ph.D. Physics Program Ph.D. in Physics  

E-print Network

Ph.D. Physics Program Ph.D. in Physics Department(s) Physics and Astronomy College Sciences Program Assessment Coordinator Michael Pravica pravica@physics.unlv.edu 895-1723 Five-Year Implementation Dates (2010 for physics at the graduate level 4. understand statistical physics at the graduate level 5. perform

Hemmers, Oliver

193

Aging degradation of cast stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

A program is being conducted to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast-duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. Data from room-temperature Charpy-impact tests for several heats of cast stainless steel aged up to 10,000 h at 350, 400, and 450/sup 0/C are presented and compared with results from other studies. Microstructures of cast-duplex stainless steels subjected to long-term aging either in the laboratory or in reactor service have been characterized. The results indicate that at least two processes contribute to the low-temperature embrittleent of duplex stainless steels, viz., weakening of the ferrite/austenite phase boundary by carbide precipitation and embrittlement of ferrite matrix by the formation of additional phases such as G-phase, Type X, or the ..cap alpha..' phase. Carbide precipitation has a significant effect on the onset of embrittlement of CF-8 and -8M grades of stainless steels aged at 400 or 450/sup 0/C. The existing correlations do not accurately represent the embrittlement behavior over the temperature range 300 to 450/sup 0/C. 18 refs., 13 figs.

Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.

1985-10-01

194

Superplastic forming of stainless steel automotive components  

SciTech Connect

Exhaust emission standards are governmentally controlled standards, which are increasingly stringent, forcing alternate strategies to meet these standards. One approach to improve the efficiency of the exhaust emission equipment is to decrease the time required to get the catalytic converter to optimum operating temperature. To accomplish this, automotive manufacturers are using double wall stainless steel exhaust manifolds to reduce heat loss of the exhaust gases to the converter. The current method to manufacture double wall stainless steel exhaust components is to use a low-cost alloy with good forming properties and extensively form, cut, assemble, and weld the pieces. Superplastic forming (SPF) technology along with alloy improvements has potential at making this process more cost effective. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and USCAR Low Emission Partnership (LEP) worked under a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) to evaluate material properties, SPF behavior, and welding behavior of duplex stainless steel alloy for automotive component manufacturing. Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has a separate CRADA with the LEP to use SPF technology to manufacture a double wall stainless steel exhaust component. As a team these CRADAs developed and demonstrated a technical plan to accomplish making double wall stainless steel exhaust manifolds.

Bridges, B. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Elmer, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Carol, L. [AC Delco Systems World Headquarters, Flint, MI (United States). USCAR Low Emissions Technology Research and Development Partnership

1997-02-06

195

Cutting tool reliability analysis for variable feed milling of 17-4PH stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variable feed machining has recently been proposed as a significant method to improve cutting tool life particularly for hard and diffucult to machine materials. This method, which is easy to apply in industry, has been shown to improve tool life in the order of 40% in certain cases. This paper presents a reliability model for the quantitative study of the

Zdzislaw Klim; Elmekki Ennajimi; Marek Balazinski; Clément Fortin

1996-01-01

196

Effect of Casting Defect on Mechanical Properties of 17-4PH Stainless Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damage and integrity evaluation techniques should be developed steadily in order to ensure the reliability and the economic efficiency of gas turbine engines. Casting defects may exist in most casting components of gas turbine engines, and the defects could give serious effect on mechanical properties and fracture toughness. Therefore, it is very important to understand the effect of casting defects

Jong-Yup Kim; Joon-Hyun Lee; Seung-Hoon Nahm

2006-01-01

197

Coping with PH over the Long Term  

MedlinePLUS

... International PH News and Projects Let Me Breathe Music Video PATIENTS Patients Newly Diagnosed Request an Envelope ... International PH News and Projects Let Me Breathe Music Video Help spread PH awareness and share PH ...

198

The Corrosion Behavior of Selected Stainless Steels in Soil Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to obtain more definitive information regarding the corrosion and stress corrosion of stainless steels in soil environments, NBS in cooperation with the Committee of Stainless Steel producers, AISI, initiated in 1970 a soil burial program in repr...

W. F. Gerhold, E. Escalante, B. T. Sanderson

1981-01-01

199

Quantification of phase transformation in stainless steel 301LN sheets  

E-print Network

This thesis investigates the large deformation behavior of stainless steel 301LN cold-rolled sheets which is largely governed by the initial anisotropy combined with the phase transformation during deformation. Stainless ...

Beese, Allison M

2008-01-01

200

Casting Stainless-Steel Models Around Pressure Tubes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Survivability of thin-wall stainless-steel tubing increased to nearly 100 percent. Improves state of art in pressure-model castings and reduces cost associated with machining complete model from stainless-steel blank.

Vasquez, Peter; Micol, John R.

1992-01-01

201

PH as a stress signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pH of the xylem sap of plants experiencing a range of environmental conditions can increase by over a whole pH unit. This results in an increased ABA concentration in the apoplast adjacent to the stomatal guard cells in the leaf epidermis, by reducing the ability of the mesophyll and epidermal symplast to sequester ABA away from this compartment. As

Sally Wilkinson

1999-01-01

202

Corrosion behavior of sensitized duplex stainless steel.  

PubMed

The present work investigates the corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel in 0.9% NaCl solution after various heat-treatments, and compares it to that of 316L austenitic stainless steel. Both stainless steels were heat-treated at 500, 650, and 800 degrees C in air for 1 h, followed by furnace cooling. Each heat-treated sample was examined for their microstructures and Vickers micro-hardness, and subjected to the X-ray diffraction for the phase identification. Using potentiostatic polarization method, each heat-treated sample was corrosion-tested in 37 degrees C 0.9% NaCl solution to estimate its corrosion rate. It was found that simulated sensitization showed an adverse influence on both steels, indicating that corrosion rates increased by increasing the sensitization temperatures. PMID:9713683

Torres, F J; Panyayong, W; Rogers, W; Velasquez-Plata, D; Oshida, Y; Moore, B K

1998-01-01

203

BUCKLING REDUCTION FACTORS FOR STAINLESS STEEL SHELL STRUCTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The material behaviour of stainless steel strongly differs from that of mild steel beyond the proportional limit. Consequently, the buckling behaviour of mild steel structures and stainless steel structures will differ from each other in so far as for any given stainless steel structure of medium slenderness, i.e. belonging to the 'elastic-plastic' region, the buckling capacity is lower than for

K. T. Hautala

204

Characterisation of severely deformed austenitic stainless steel wire  

E-print Network

: Martensite, Mechanical Stabilization, Interface structure, Stainless steel Introduction Textiles woven usingCharacterisation of severely deformed austenitic stainless steel wire H. S. Wang1 , J. R. Yang1 of 316L austenitic stainless steel has been examined using TEM and X-ray diffraction. The deformation

Cambridge, University of

205

Analysis of deformation induced martensitic transformation in stainless steels  

E-print Network

Analysis of deformation induced martensitic transformation in stainless steels A. Das1,2,3 , P. C that the crystallographic texture due to martensitic transformation can be predicted for 18/8 austenitic stainless steel of applied stress. Keywords: Austenitic stainless steels, Stress induced transformation, Strain induced

Cambridge, University of

206

Friction Drilling of Stainless Steels Pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work describes the experimental study of the friction drilling process in stainless steel by means of an optimization of the machining conditions. For such purpose austenitic stainless steel with different thicknesses were analyzed through controlled tests at different rotation speeds and feed rates. On one hand, the torque and the thrust force were computed and monitorized. On the other hand, the dimensional tolerances of the holes were evaluated, mainly the accuracy of the hole diameter and the burr thickness at different depths. Another topic of interest inherent to this special technique is the temperature level reached during the friction process which is crucial when it comes to development of microstructural transformations.

Fernández, A.; Lopez de Lacalle, L. N.; Lamikiz, A.

2011-01-01

207

Ultralight Stainless Steel Urban Bus Concept  

SciTech Connect

While stainless steel buses are certainly not new, this study reveals opportunities for substantial improvements in structural performance.The objective of this project was to investigate the mass saving potential of ultra-high strength stainless steel as applied to the structure of a full size urban transit bus.The resulting design for a low floor,hybrid bus has an empty weight less than half that of a conventional transit bus.The reduced curb weight allows for a greater payload,without exceeding legal axle limits. A combination of finite element modeling and dynamic testing of scale models was used to predict structural performance.

J. Bruce Emmons; Leonard J. Blessing

2001-05-14

208

Friction Drilling of Stainless Steels Pipes  

SciTech Connect

This work describes the experimental study of the friction drilling process in stainless steel by means of an optimization of the machining conditions. For such purpose austenitic stainless steel with different thicknesses were analyzed through controlled tests at different rotation speeds and feed rates. On one hand, the torque and the thrust force were computed and monitorized. On the other hand, the dimensional tolerances of the holes were evaluated, mainly the accuracy of the hole diameter and the burr thickness at different depths. Another topic of interest inherent to this special technique is the temperature level reached during the friction process which is crucial when it comes to development of microstructural transformations.

Fernandez, A.; Lopez de Lacalle, L. N.; Lamikiz, A. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of the Basque Country. Alda. Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

2011-01-17

209

Author s note: Marie F. Smith, CRA;Valerie T. Eviner, PhD; Kathie Weathers, PhD; Maria Uriarte, PhD; Holly Ewing, PhD; Jonathan M. Jeschke, PhD; Peter Groffman, PhD; Clive G. Jones, PhD; Institute of Ecosystem Studies, 65 Sharon Turnpike (PO  

E-print Network

Uriarte, PhD; Holly Ewing, PhD; Jonathan M. Jeschke, PhD; Peter Groffman, PhD; Clive G. Jones, Ph. Eviner, PhD Kathie C. Weathers, PhD Maria Uriarte, PhD Holly A. Ewing, PhD Jonathan M. Jeschke, PhD Peter

Berkowitz, Alan R.

210

76 FR 87 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; ThyssenKrupp Steel and Stainless USA, LLC; (Stainless and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Stainless and Carbon Steel Products) Calvert, AL Pursuant to its authority under the...Steel and Stainless USA, LLC, located in Calvert, Alabama (FTZ Docket 51-2008, filed...Steel and Stainless USA, LLC, located in Calvert, Alabama (Subzone 82I), as...

2011-01-03

211

Influence of process time on microstructure and properties of 17-4PH steel plasma nitrocarburized with rare earths addition at low temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

17-4PH stainless steel was plasma nitrocarburized at 430°C for different time with rare earths (RE) addition. Plasma RE nitrocarburized layers were studied by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer, X-ray diffraction, microhardness tests, pin-on-disc tribometer and anodic polarization tests. The results show that rare earths atoms can diffuse into the surface of 17-4PH steel.

M. F. Yan; R. L. Liu

2010-01-01

212

The martensite transformation in stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleation of the low temperature h.c.p. and b.c.c. ? phases produced by deformation in a 304 stainless steel has been studied by transmission electron microscopy. The phase has been found to be an intermediate phase in the nucleation of ? martensite from the austenitic matrix.

J. A. Venables

1962-01-01

213

Characterization of brazing alloys with stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

To simulate braze joints, qualitative x-ray mapping of the elemental ; interactions between brazing alloys and two common types of stainless steels was ; performed via the electron microprobe. In general both steels, Types 304L and 21-; 6-9, react with a particular brazing alloy in a similar manner, the exceptions ; being the gold--copper brazing alloys which show deeper penetration

D. H. Riefenberg; J. H. Doyle; R. F. Hillyer; W. S. Bennett

1975-01-01

214

Hot deformation of duplex stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duplex stainless steels (DSSs) have become established materials, successfully employed in many industrial applications. Their combination of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance is particularly appreciated in the petrochemical field. Hot deformation of these two-phase materials is still a critical point because the different mechanical response of austenite and ferrite often leads to the formation of edge cracks. In the present

J. M. Cabrera; A. Mateo; L. Llanes; J. M. Prado; M. Anglada

2003-01-01

215

Proof Testing Of Stainless-Steel Bolts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes study of development of method for nondestructive proof testing of bolts made of A286 stainless steel. Based on concept that the higher load bolt survives, the smaller the largest flaw and, therefore, the longer its fatigue life after test. Calculations and experiments increase confidence in nondestructive proof tests.

Hsieh, Cheng H.; Hendrickson, James A.; Bamford, Robert M.

1992-01-01

216

Durable nonslip stainless-steel drivebelts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two toothed stainless-steel drive belt retains its strength and flexibility in extreme heat or cold, intense radiation, or under high loading. Belt does not stretch or slip and is particularly suited to machinery for which replacement is difficult or impossible.

Bahiman, H.

1979-01-01

217

Austenitic stainless steels for cryogenic service  

SciTech Connect

Presently available information on austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni stainless steel plate, welds, and castings for service below 77 K are reviewed with the intent (1) of developing systematic relationships between mechanical properties, composition, microstructure, and processing, and (2) of assessing the adequacy of these data bases in the design, fabrication, and operation of engineering systems at 4 K.

Dalder, E.N.C.; Juhas, M.C.

1985-09-19

218

Materials data handbooks on stainless steels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two handbooks which summarize latest available data have been published. Two types of stainless steels, alloy A-286 and Type 301, are described. Each handbook is divided into twelve chapters. Scope of information presented includes physical- and mechanical-property data at cryogenic, ambient, and elevated temperatures.

Muraca, R. F.; Whittick, J. S.

1973-01-01

219

Materials data handbook: Stainless steel type 301  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of the materials property information for stainless steel type 301 is presented. The scope of the information includes physical and mechanical properties at cryogenic, ambient, and elevated temperatures. Information on material procurement, metallurgy of the alloy, corrosion, environmental effects, fabrication, and bonding is developed.

Muraca, R. F.; Whittick, J. S.

1972-01-01

220

Stabilizing stainless steel components for cryogenic service  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Warpage and creep in stainless steel valve components are decreased by a procedure in which components are machined to a semifinish and then cold soaked in a bath of cryogenic liquid. After the treatment they are returned to ambient temperature and machine finished to the final drawing dimensions.

Holden, C. F.

1967-01-01

221

Characterization of stainless steel 304 tubing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier studies have shown that stainless steel 304 (SS304) containing martensite is susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. This generated concern regarding the structural integrity of SS304 tubing we use in the W87 pit tube. During surveillance operations, the pit tube undergoes a series of bending and straightening as it goes through a number of surveillance cycles. This motivated the study to

A. J. Sunwoo; M. A. Brooks; J. E. Kervin

1995-01-01

222

Bondable Stainless Surface Coats Protect Against Rust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes tests conducted to assess use of bondable stainless surface (BOSS) coating materials to protect steel cases of solid-fuel rocket motors against corrosion and to provide surface microstructure and chemistry suitable for bonding to insulating material. Eliminates need to cover cases with grease to prevent corrosion and degreasing immediately prior to use.

Davis, G. D.; Shaffer, D. K.; Clearfield, H. M.; Nagle, D.; Groff, G.

1995-01-01

223

Tensile Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel  

E-print Network

; The choices we make, not the chances we take, determine our destiny. #12; Preface This dissertation 2002. This dissertation contains less than 15,000 words. Except where acknowledgement and reference; Abstract The short­term mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steels can be affected by a myriad

Cambridge, University of

224

Tensile Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel  

E-print Network

choices we make, not the chances we take, determine our destiny. #12;Preface This dissertation 2002. This dissertation contains less than 15,000 words. Except where acknowledgement and reference;Abstract The short-term mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steels can be affected by a myriad

Cambridge, University of

225

Austenitic stainless steels for cryogenic service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presently available information on austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni stainless steel plate, welds, and castings for service below 77 K are reviewed with the intent (1) of developing systematic relationships between mechanical properties, composition, microstructure, and processing, and (2) of assessing the adequacy of these data bases in the design, fabrication, and operation of engineering systems at 4 K.

E. N. C. Dalder; M. C. Juhas

1985-01-01

226

Philip Prorok, PhD  

Cancer.gov

Philip Prorok, PhD, mirum est notare quam littera gothica, quam nunc putamus parum claram, anteposuerit litterarum formas humanitatis per seacula quarta decima et quinta decima. Eodem modo typi, qui nunc nobis videntur parum clari, fiant sollemnes in futurum.

227

David Cheresh, PhD  

Cancer.gov

Meetings & Events Home Agenda Speaker Biosketches Abstracts Logistics Contact Speaker Biosketches David Cheresh, PhD(University of California, San Diego) Dr. David Cheresh studies the mechanism of action of signaling networks that regulate

228

PhD-Buddy-Programme A PhD-buddy is an experienced PhD-student  

E-print Network

and their services available to you. Win great prizes at our Hannover Quiz and meet fellow PhD Students. FoodPhD-Buddy-Programme A PhD-buddy is an experienced PhD-student who will help a newly arrived PhD-student 14.03. Pub Night // Stammtisch 19.03. Workshop "Working effectively in intercultural settings" April

Nejdl, Wolfgang

229

50 CFR 17.7 - Raptor exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...a live migratory bird of the Order Falconiformes or the Order Strigiformes, other than a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) or a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos )] legally held in captivity or in a controlled environment...

2013-10-01

230

50 CFR 17.7 - Raptor exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...a live migratory bird of the Order Falconiformes or the Order Strigiformes, other than a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) or a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos )] legally held in captivity or in a controlled environment...

2011-10-01

231

50 CFR 17.7 - Raptor exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...a live migratory bird of the Order Falconiformes or the Order Strigiformes, other than a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) or a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos )] legally held in captivity or in a controlled environment...

2012-10-01

232

50 CFR 17.7 - Raptor exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...a live migratory bird of the Order Falconiformes or the Order Strigiformes, other than a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) or a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos )] legally held in captivity or in a controlled environment...

2010-10-01

233

Weld microstructure development and properties of precipitation-strengthened martensitic stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

The weld microstructural evolution, mechanical properties and solidification cracking susceptibility of three precipitation-strengthened martensitic stainless steels--PH 13-8 Mo, Custom 450 and 15-5 PH--were investigated. Liquid tin quenching of gas tungsten arc welds revealed that all three welds solidified as single-phase ferrite with a high degree of microsegregation. However, during further solidification and cooling almost complete homogenization occurred as a result of solid-state diffusion. The welds in all three alloys exhibited good resistance to solidification cracking and generally exhibited tensile and impact properties similar to those of the base metal. However, in almost all cases, the weld Charpy impact energies were somewhat less than those of the base metals. The cracking behavior and mechanical properties are discussed in terms of microstructural evolution.

Brooks, J.A. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)); Garrison, W.R. Jr. (Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

1999-08-01

234

Laryngopharyngeal pH measurement  

PubMed Central

Methods: Cohorts of unconscious adult ED and elective surgical patients were recruited. The posterior pharyngeal wall pH was measured immediately before and after intubation. Pharyngeal pH was used to indicate risk of aspiration, and pH change to assess the efficacy of cricoid pressure. Results: Eight ED and 48 control patients were recruited. In the ED cohort, pH ranged from 6.0 to 8.0 before intubation and 4.7 to 8.0 after intubation: a mean decrease of 0.3 (95% CI 1.5 decrease to 0.9 increase). In the control cohort pH ranged from 5.8 to 8.0 before intubation and 6.0 to 8.0 after intubation: a mean increase of 0.4 (95% CI 0.1 to 0.6 increase). Conclusions: This is a simple, cheap, and repeatable technique for assessing aspiration risk in emergency intubations. A larger study is required to assess the efficacy of cricoid pressure. PMID:15208239

Spurrier, E; Clancy, M; Deakin, C

2004-01-01

235

Co-sintering of M2\\/17-4PH Powders for Fabrication of Functional Graded Composite Layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stepwise-graded composite layer of M2 tool steel and 17-4PH stainless steel was fabricated by a simple powder layering technique and the isothermal and nonisothermal sintering response of the bilayer were examined. It was shown that the materials exhibit poor compatibility during co-sintering, i.e., the amount of mismatch shrinkage is significant. An improved compatibility was obtained by adding 0.2 wt% B

V. Firouzdor; A. Simchi

2010-01-01

236

Properties of HIPed stainless steel powder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the current design of ITER primary wall, 316LN stainless steel is the reference structural material. Austenitic stainless steel is used for water-cooling channels and structures. As material data on hot isostatic pressed (HIP) 316LN were not available in open literature and from powder producers, the main properties of unirradiated samples have been measured in CEA/CEREM. Fully dense material without any porosity is obtained when appropriate HIP parameters are applied. Microstructural examination and mechanical properties are confirmed that the HIPed 316LN material is equivalent to a very good fine-grain, isotropic and uniformly forged 316LN. Moreover, ultrasonic inspection showed that this fine and uniform microstructure produced a remarkably low noise, which allow the use of transverse waves at very high frequencies (4 MHz). Defects undetectable in forged material will be easily detected in HIPed material.

Dellis, Ch.; Le Marois, G.; Gentzbittel, J. M.; Robert, G.; Moret, F.

1996-10-01

237

pH Meter Calibration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The North Carolina Community College System BioNetwork's interactive eLearning tools (IETs) are reusable chunks of training that can be deployed in a variety of courses or training programs. IETs are designed to enhance, not replace hands-on training. Learners are able to enter a hands-on lab experience better prepared and more confident. This particular IET delves into pH Meter Calibration, where visitors practice performing a three point calibration of a pH meter using buffer solutions.

2013-08-06

238

Radka Stoyanova, PhD  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Radka Stoyanova, PhD has extensive background in developing approaches to best utilize imaging techniques in cancer research, diagnosis and treatment, as well as in developing approaches for the analysis, mining, and interpretation of "big data" generated by high-throughput approaches such as genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. She received her Masters Degree in Mathematics from the University of Sofia, Bulgaria. Dr. Stoyanova obtained her doctoral training and PhD degree at the Imperial College London, under the mentorship of Profs.

239

PhET: Masses & Springs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation provides a realistic virtual mass-and-spring laboratory. Users can explore spring motion by manipulating stiffness of the spring and mass of the hanging weight. Concepts of Hooke's Law and elastic potential energy are further clarified through charts showing kinetic, potential, and thermal energy for each spring. This item is part of a larger collection of simulations developed by the Physics Education Technology project (PhET). The simulations are animated, interactive, and game-like environments in which students learn through exploration. All of the sims are freely available from the PhET website for incorporation into classes.

2008-07-29

240

The martensite phases in 304 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed analysis of martensite transformations in 18\\/8 (304) stainless steel, utilizing transmission electron microscopy\\u000a and diffraction in conjunction with X-ray and magnetization techniques, has established that the sequence of transformation\\u000a is ? ? ? ? ?. ? is a thermodynamically stable hcp phase whose formation is greatly enhanced as a result of plastic deformation.\\u000a Comparison with the ? ?

Pat L. Mangonon; Gareth Thomas

1970-01-01

241

Helium damage in austenitic stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helium produced by tritium decay was first shown to embrittle austenitic stainless steel at ambient temperature in tensile specimens of Nitronic-40 steel (Armco, Inc.). A long-term study was initiated to study this form of helium damage in five austenitic alloys. Results from this study have been analyzed by the J-integral technique and show a decrease in ductile fracture toughness with

G. R. Jr. Caskey; D. A. Jr. Mezzanotte; D. E. Jr. Rawl

1983-01-01

242

Hydrogen solubility in austenitic stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of thermomechanical treatment and surface condition on hydrogen solubility in Types 304L, 21-6-9, and modified A-286 austenitic stainless steels were determined. Three thermomechanical treatments were studied: annealed, 100% cold-worked, and high-energy rate forged (HERFed). Solubility in the modified Type A-286 was less in the HERFed specimens than in solution-annealed specimens. 8 refs.

G. R. Jr. Caskey; R. D. Jr. Sisson

1981-01-01

243

Welding bimetal pipes in duplex stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Butting bimetal pipes in duplex stainless steel are quite recent and present a set of interesting characteristics especially\\u000a for oil and gas transportation, namely weight to corrosion resistance ratio. Gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding is used to join\\u000a these pipes, but several problems are identified as lack of penetration and cracking resulting not only from the material\\u000a itself, but also

A. M. Torbati; R. M. Miranda; L. Quintino; S. Williams

2011-01-01

244

Partial replacement of chromium in stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, conducted research on the partial replacement of chromium in stainless\\u000a steel. The alloys examined contain 8 to 9 pct Cr, 11 to 14 pct Ni, and additions of up to 5 pct Mo, 2 pct Cu, and 2 pct V\\u000a for corrosion-resistant applications and up to 5 pct Si and 2

M. L. Glenn; S. J. Bullard; D. E. Larson; S. C. Rhoads

1985-01-01

245

Creep cavitation in 304 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creep cavitation in 304 stainless steel at 0.5 T\\/sub m\\/ was investigated. Two specially developed techniques were used to study the nucleation and growth of grain-boundary cavities. It was found that cavities nucleated heterogeneously throughout the creep history and those observed were well in their growth stage. Comparison of these observations with the theory for cavity nucleation requires that a

I. W. Chen; A. S. Argon

1981-01-01

246

Softened-Stainless-Steel O-Rings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In fabrication of O-ring of new type, tube of 304 stainless steel bent around mandril into circle and welded closed into ring. Ring annealed in furnace to make it soft and highly ductile. In this condition, used as crushable, deformable O-ring seal. O-ring replacements used in variety of atmospheres and temperatures, relatively inexpensive, fabricated with minimum amount of work, amenable to one-of-a-kind production, reusable, and environmentally benign.

Marquis, G. A.; Waters, William I.

1993-01-01

247

The impedance of stainless-steel electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resistive and capacitive properties of stainless-steel electrodes in contact with saline solutions of various concentrations\\u000a were investigated over a frequency range extending from 20 to 10 kHz by using a variable-length conductivity cell. With a\\u000a low current density, the series-equivalent resistance and capacitance of a single electrode-electrolyte interface were found\\u000a to vary almost inversely as the square root of

L. A. Geddes; C. P. Da Costa; G. Wise

1971-01-01

248

Fracture toughness of stainless steel welds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of temperature, composition and weld-process variations on the fracture toughness behavior for Types 308 and 16-8-2 stainless steel (SS) welds were examined using the multiple-specimen J\\/sub R\\/-curve procedure. Fracture characteristics were found to be dependent on temperature and weld process but not on filler material. Gas-tungsten-arc (GTA) welds exhibited the highest fracture toughness, a shielded metal-arc (SMA) weld

1985-01-01

249

Radiation resistant austenitic stainless steel alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

An austenitic stainless steel alloy, with improved resistance to radiation-induced swelling and helium embrittlement, and improved resistance to thermal creep at high temperatures, consisting essentially of, by weight percent: from 16 to 18% nickel; from 13 to 17% chromium; from 2 to 3% molybdenum; from 1.5 to 2.5% manganese; from 0.01 to 0.5% silicon; from 0.2 to 0.4% titanium; from

P. J. Maziasz; D. N. Braski; A. F. Rowcliffe

1987-01-01

250

Radiation resistant austenitic stainless steel alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

An austenitic stainless steel alloy is disclosed, with improved resistance to radiation-induced swelling and helium embrittlement, and improved resistance to thermal creep at high temperatures, consisting essentially of, by weight percent: from 16 to 18% nickel; from 13 to 17% chromium; from 2 to 3% molybdenum; from 1.5 to 2.5% manganese; from 0.01 to 0.5% silicon; from 0.2 to 0.4%

P. J. Maziasz; D. N. Braski; A. F. Rowcliffe

1989-01-01

251

Radiation resistant austenitic stainless steel alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

An austenitic stainless steel alloy, with improved resistance to radiation-induced swelling and helium embrittlement, and improved resistance to thermal creep at high temperatures, consisting essentially of, by weight percent: from 16 to 18% nickel; from 13 to 17% chromium; from 2 to 3% molybdenum; from 1.5 to 2.5% manganese; from 0.01 to 0.5% silicon; from 0.2 to 0.4% titanium; from

Philip J. Maziasz; David N. Braski; Arthur F. Rowcliffe

1989-01-01

252

Investigations of copper to stainless steel joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tensile and fracture behaviour of two copper alloys i.e. CuAl25 IG0 and CuCrZr and their joints with 316L(N) IG stainless steel produced by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) have been determined in unirradiated and neutron irradiated conditions. The experimental results and the numerical calculations indicate that tensile properties and fracture toughness values of the Cu\\/SS HIP joint specimens are reduced with

S Tähtinen; A Laukkanen; B. N Singh

2001-01-01

253

Phase transformations in cast duplex stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duplex stainless steels (DSS) constitute both ferrite and austenite as a matrix. Such a microstructure confers a high corrosion resistance with favorable mechanical properties. However, intermetallic phases such as sigma (sigma) and chi (chi) can also form during casting or high-temperature processing and can degrade the properties of the DSS. This research was initiated to develop time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling-transformation

Yoon-Jun Kim

2004-01-01

254

Recrystallization of stabilized ferritic stainless steel sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study of the microstructural evolution attending recrystallization of cold-rolled Ti-stabilized ferritic stainless steel is presented. Particular attention is paid to the slow approach to full recrystallization. It is shown that this “sluggish” recrystallization can be attributed to the heterogeneity of microstructure and texture resulting from the processing of the material. In particular, it is shown that the presence of fine Ti(C,N) precipitates acts to significantly hinder the final approach to full recrystallization.

Sinclair, C. W.; Mithieux, J.-D.; Schmitt, J.-H.; Bréchet, Y.

2005-11-01

255

Ultrasonics examination of cast stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

The ultrasonics examination of Cast Stainless Steel is for the NDE expert a particularly difficult challenge. In this paper recent results of a program between CEA and EDF are shown. These results include: (1) comparison for different transducers, in particularly large aperture composite transducer; (2) comparison for different signal processing techniques (Split Spectrum Processing), image processing; and (3) detection capabilities for artificial defect in different structures (equiaxed, colonnar structures).

Serre, M.; Benoist, P. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Saclay (France); Villard, D.; Demathan, N. [EDF, Renardieres (France)

1994-12-31

256

Corrosion of Stainless Steel During Acetate Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion of types 304, 304L, 316, and 316L stainless steel (SS) during the esterification of acetic acid and alcohol or glycol ether was investigated. The catalyst for this reaction, sulfuric acid or para-toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA), was shown to cause more corrosion on reactor equipment than CHâCOOH under the process conditions commonly practiced in industry. The corrosive action of the

J. S. Qi; G. C. Lester

1996-01-01

257

Plasma focus characteristics using stainless steel anode  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a low energy (2.3 kJ) Mather-type plasma focus with stainless steel anode, neutron and x-ray emission is investigated by employing time-integrated and time resolved detectors. A neutron yield of 3.5 × 108 is observed, which is almost double the yield when a copper anode is used. It is speculated that a low sputtering yield of the anode material lowers

M. Zakaulah; Imtiaz Ahmad; M. Shafique; Salma Khanam; A. R. Omar; M. Mathuthu; G. Murtaza; M. M. Beg

1997-01-01

258

Karl Krueger, PhD  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Karl Krueger received a PhD in biochemistry from Vanderbilt University and continued his research training at NIH as a postdoctoral fellow before joining the faculty at Georgetown University School of Medicine. His research throughout this period focused on different aspects of drug receptors and their role in the nervous system.

259

Making pH Tangible.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a laboratory exercise in which students test the pH of different substances, study the effect of a buffer on acidic solutions by comparing the behavior of buffered and unbuffered solutions upon the addition of acid, and compare common over-the-counter antacid remedies. (MKR)

McIntosh, Elizabeth; Moss, Robert

1995-01-01

260

Evaluation of filler metals for high-strength stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weldments were produced in types 316, 17-14CuMo, and high strength 14Cr-16Ni-2Mo stainless steel base metals with four filler metals-alloy 82, 17-14CuMo stainless steel, controlled residual element CRE 16-8-2 stainless steel, and alloy 556. The welds were evaluated on the basis of microstructure, strength, and ductility. All of the base metals were prone to hot cracking, but steels high in phosphorus

R. W. Swindeman; G. M. Goodwin; J. F. King; C. D. Lundin; C. Y. P. Qiao

1991-01-01

261

76 FR 28809 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium; Termination of Five-Year Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...701-TA-376 (Second Review)] Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium; Termination...countervailing duty order on stainless steel plate from Belgium (75 FR 30777...countervailing duty order concerning stainless steel plate from Belgium,...

2011-05-18

262

78 FR 7395 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-533-810] Stainless Steel Bar From India: Preliminary...the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar (SSB) from India. The...Duty Administrative Review: Stainless Steel Bar from India'' dated...

2013-02-01

263

75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...790-793 (Second Review)] Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy...countervailing duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium and South...the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium,...

2010-09-28

264

76 FR 54207 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Italy: Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-475-822] Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Italy: Revocation...the antidumping duty order on stainless steel plate in coils (SSPC) from...reasonably foreseeable time. See Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium,...

2011-08-31

265

76 FR 31585 - Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-533-809] Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India: Notice of...antidumping duty order on forged stainless steel flanges from India. The period...antidumping duty order on forged stainless steel flanges from India. See...

2011-06-01

266

75 FR 81308 - Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And Taiwan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-798-803 (Second Review)] Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany...countervailing duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip from Korea and antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from...

2010-12-27

267

77 FR 41969 - Stainless Steel Bar From Japan: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-588-833] Stainless Steel Bar From Japan: Rescission of...the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar from Japan (the Order...Suruga to the Secretary, ``Stainless Steel Bar--Withdrawal of...

2012-07-17

268

77 FR 60673 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Investigation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-983] Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic...preliminarily determines that drawn stainless steel sinks (``drawn sinks...this investigation are drawn stainless steel sinks with single or...

2012-10-04

269

77 FR 39467 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Final Results of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-533-810] Stainless Steel Bar From India: Final Results...the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar from India. The review covers...2012, the Department published Stainless Steel Bar From India:...

2012-07-03

270

76 FR 18518 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-201-822] Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From...antidumping duty order covering stainless steel sheet and strip in coils from...the antidumping duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip in coils...

2011-04-04

271

75 FR 81309 - Stainless Steel Plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...790-793 (Second Review)] Stainless Steel Plate from Belgium, Italy...countervailing duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium and South...the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium,...

2010-12-27

272

78 FR 45271 - Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Preliminary)] Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...and Vietnam of welded stainless steel pressure pipe, provided for in subheading 7306...LTFV imports of welded stainless steel pressure pipe from Malaysia, Thailand, and...

2013-07-26

273

78 FR 62583 - Welded Stainless Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-549-830, A-552-816] Welded Stainless Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and the...duty investigations of welded stainless pressure pipe from Malaysia, Thailand, and the...1\\ See Welded Stainless Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and...

2013-10-22

274

76 FR 43981 - Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of...circular welded austenitic stainless pressure pipe from the People's Republic of...Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic...

2011-07-22

275

Surface-protein interactions on different stainless steel grades: effects of protein adsorption, surface changes and metal release.  

PubMed

Implantation using stainless steels (SS) is an example where an understanding of protein-induced metal release from SS is important when assessing potential toxicological risks. Here, the protein-induced metal release was investigated for austenitic (AISI 304, 310, and 316L), ferritic (AISI 430), and duplex (AISI 2205) grades in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) solution containing either bovine serum albumin (BSA) or lysozyme (LSZ). The results show that both BSA and LSZ induce a significant enrichment of chromium in the surface oxide of all stainless steel grades. Both proteins induced an enhanced extent of released iron, chromium, nickel and manganese, very significant in the case of BSA (up to 40-fold increase), whereas both proteins reduced the corrosion resistance of SS, with the reverse situation for iron metal (reduced corrosion rates and reduced metal release in the presence of proteins). A full monolayer coverage is necessary to induce the effects observed. PMID:23378148

Hedberg, Y; Wang, X; Hedberg, J; Lundin, M; Blomberg, E; Wallinder, I Odnevall

2013-04-01

276

Keiji TANAKA, Ph.D. Hitoshi OKAMOTO, M.D., Ph.D.  

E-print Network

Keiji TANAKA, Ph.D. Hitoshi OKAMOTO, M.D., Ph.D. Atsushi MIYAWAKI, M.D., Ph.D. Tadaharu TSUMOTO, M.D., Ph.D. Shin OHKOUCHI Masao ITO, M.D., Ph.D. Shun-ichi AMARI, D.Eng. Susumu TONEGAWA, Ph.D Committee Senior Advisor Charles YOKOYAMA, Ph.D. Neural Circuit Function Developmental Gene Regulation

Kazama, Hokto

277

Surface modification of superaustenitic and maraging stainless steels by low-temperature gas-phase carburization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-temperature gas-phase carburization of 316L austenitic stainless steel was developed in recent years by the Swagelok company. This process generates great mechanical and electrochemical surface properties. Hardness, wear resistance, fatigue behavior, and corrosion resistance are dramatically improved, while the formation of carbides is effectively suppressed. This new technique is of technical, economical, but especially of scientific interest because the surface properties of common stainless steel can be enhanced to a level of more sophisticated and more expensive superalloys. The consequential continuation of previous research is the application of the carburization process to other steel grades. Differences in chemical composition, microstructure, and passivity between the various alloys may cause technical problems and it is expected that the initial process needs to be optimized for every specific material. This study presents results of low-temperature carburization of AL-6XN (superaustenitic stainless steel) and PH13-8Mo (precipitation-hardened martensitic stainless steel). Both alloys have been treated successfully in terms of creating a hardened surface by introducing high amounts of interstitially dissolved carbon. The surface hardness of AL-6XN was increased to 12GPa and is correlated with a colossal carbon supersaturation at the surface of up to 20 at.%. The hardened case develops a carburization time-dependent thickness between 10mum after one carburization cycle and up to 35mum after four treatments and remains highly ductile. Substantial broadening of X-ray diffraction peaks in low-temperature carburized superaustenitic stainless steels are attributed to the generation of very large compressive biaxial residual stresses. Those large stresses presumably cause relaxations of the surface, so-called undulations. Heavily expanded regions of carburized AL-6XN turn ferromagnetic. Non-carburized AL-6XN is known for its outstanding corrosion resistance, which is not impaired upon carburization. The passive film as analyzed by XPS is fully intact. Carbon concentration levels in PH13-8Mo reach 10 at.% and correlate with a surface hardness of up to 14GPa. Indication for the transformation from martensite to austenite during the process are observed. In this context, the shape of the carbon concentration-depth profile can be explained. Also the absence of carbides, as analyzed by TEM, can be rationalized. Upon cooling to room temperature, most of the austenite backtransforms into martensite and the surface regains its ferromagnetic properties. Compressive biaxial residual stresses in carburized PH13-8Mo are measured around (2--2.5)GPa. The applied low-temperature carburization process gives rise to a substantial loss in corrosion resistance of PH13-8Mo. Possible reasons including the observed formation of internal and external oxides as well as the change in alloy composition are discussed. Due to the penetration depth of X-rays into the probed specimen surface, a carbon concentration gradient may cause detectable asymmetry of diffraction peaks for certain alloys and under certain conditions. For the first time, this effect is rationalized, explained, and demonstrated on the basis of measured data.

Gentil, Johannes

278

PhET Simulation: Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation provides a highly visual, intuitive way for students to explore how density is related to an object's mass and volume. Using a virtual water tank, users drop various objects to see what floats and what sinks. Use the mouse to submerge the object and see how much fluid it displaces. A scale is provided to measure the mass of the objects, with a density table available for view. Students can easily see why the density formula works, especially when they identify the "mystery" objects. Editor's Note: Scroll down on the page for exemplary lesson plans for grades 6-12 developed by the PhET project specifically to accompany the "Density" simulation. This item is part of a larger collection of simulations developed by the Physics Education Technology project (PhET).

2011-02-16

279

Aging degradation of cast stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

A program is being conducted to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. Microstructures of cast materials subjected to long-term aging either in reactor service or in the laboratory have been characterized by TEM, SANS, and APFIM techniques. Two precipitate phases, i.e., the Cr-rich ..cap alpha..' and Ni- and Si-rich G phase, have been identified in the ferrite matrix of the aged steels. The results indicate that the low-temperature embrittlement is primarily caused by ..cap alpha..' precipitates which form by spinodal decomposition. The relative contribution of G phase to loss of toughness is now known. Microstructural data also indicate that weakening of ferrite/austenite phase boundary by carbide precipitates has a significant effect on the onset and extent of embrittlement of the high-carbon CF-8 and CF-8M grades of stainless steels, particularly after aging at 400 or 450/sup 0/C. Data from Charpy-impact, tensile, and J-R curve tests for several heats of cast stainless steel aged up to 10,000 h at 350, 400, and 450/sup 0/C are presented and correlated with the microstructural results. Thermal aging of the steels results in an increase in tensile strength and a decrease in impact energy, J/sub IC/, and tearing modulus. The fracture toughness results show good agreement with the Charpy-impact data. The effects of compositional and metallurgical variables on loss of toughness are discussed.

Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.

1986-10-01

280

1. Abourashed E, El-Alfy A, Khan I, Walker L (2003). "Ephedra in perspective--a current review". Phytother Res 17 (7): 70312. 2. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Ephedra is often seen in deserts. It has evergreen photosynthetic stems and leaves  

E-print Network

1. Abourashed E, El-Alfy A, Khan I, Walker L (2003). "Ephedra in perspective--a current review". Phytother Res 17 (7): 703­12. 2. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Ephedra is often seen in deserts. It has-4.jpg Mormon Tea Ephedraceae, Ephedra sp. March 2013 Ephedra is often seen in deserts

281

Gas Atomization of Stainless Steel - Slow Motion  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steel liquid atomized by supersonic argon gas into a spray of droplets at ~1800ºC. Atomization of metal requires high pressure gas and specialized chambers for cooling and collecting the powders without contamination. The critical step for morphological control is the impingement of the gas on the melt stream. The video is a black and white high speed video of a liquid metal stream being atomized by high pressure gas. This material was atomized at the Ames Laboratory's Materials Preparation Center http://www.mpc.ameslab.gov

None

2011-01-01

282

Hydrogen induced plastic deformation of stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen can influence the behavior of materials significantly. The effects of hydrogen are specially pronounced in high fugacities of hydrogen which can occur at the surface of steels in contact with certain aqueous environments. In this investigation the effect of high fugacity hydrogen on the surface of stainless steel was investigated using electrochemical cathodic charging. Microhardness was measured on the cross section. Transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the dislocation substructure just below the surface. Computer simulation using finite element method was carried out to estimate the extent and severity of the deformation. The significance of the results are discussed in relation to the loss of ductility due to hydrogen.

Gadgil, V.J.; Keim, E.G.; Geijselaers, H.J.M. [Univ. of Twente, AE Enschede (Netherlands)

1998-12-31

283

Superplastic deformation in two microduplex stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

The deformation behavior and mechanisms of superplastic flow in two microduplex stainless steels (SuperDux64 and Nitronic 19D) were studied at {similar_to}0.7T{sub m}. The two steels differed in initial grain size by a factor of 3. Both steels exhibited solute-drag-controlled grain boundary sliding in a high temperature {gamma}+{delta} phase field. In a lower temperature {gamma}+{sigma} phase field, the fine-grained steel ({bar L}=5{mu}m) exhibited climb-controlled grain boundary sliding and the coarser- grained steel ({bar L}=15{mu}m) exhibited solute-drag-controlled slip creep.

Lesuer, D.R.; Nieh, T.G.; Syn, C.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Taleff, E.M. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

1996-09-01

284

Stabilization and sensitization of stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

This investigation examines the intergranular corrosion resistance of both welded and unwelded type 304, 304L, 321, 321L, and 347 alloys after various sensitizing and or stabilizing heat treatments. The intergranular corrosion resistance was characterized using ASTM A262 test methods and the double loop electrochemical potentiodynamic reactivation testing (EPR). The results show that stabilization by itself is not sufficient to render austenitic stainless steel immune to sensitization. The EPR testing demonstrates that the double loop parameters for all alloys correlate well with corrosion rates measured with the ASTM A262 Practice B test.

Grubb, J.F.; Fritz, J.D. [Allegheny Ludlum Corp., Brackenridge, PA (United States)

1997-12-01

285

Cem Kaner, Ph.D., J.D. Pat Bond, Ph.D.  

E-print Network

Cem Kaner, Ph.D., J.D. Professor Director Pat Bond, Ph.D. Associate Professor Scott Tilley, Ph.D. Associate Professor Mike Andrews, Ph.D. Assistant Professor James Whittaker, Ph.D. Professor MISSION Create is active investigation of a product by an outsider who is more focused on the acceptability of the product

286

Shield design, analysis, and testing to survive stainless steel projectiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 3-year period of 1987 through 1989, the Advanced Shield Phenomenology Program included a research and development effort, with both experimental work and analytical support, to design a low weight, survivable shield against a stainless steel projectile at low earth orbit velocity. The specific threat used was a 1.75 gram, length to diameter ratio of one, stainless steel cylinder.

E. D. Brewer; W. R. Hendrich; D. G. Thomas; J. E. Smith

1990-01-01

287

Self-expanding stainless steel stent application in rectosigmoid stricture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, several reports on the experimental and clinical applications of the Gianturco stent (self-expanding stainless steel stent) have been published. However, to our knowledge, the use of stents in rectosigmoid strictures has not been reported. We used self-expanding stainless steel stents to dilate rectosigmoid strictures caused by nonresectable recurrent neoplasm. Insertion and dilation (sigmoid colon and rectum) in

M. Itabashi; K. Hamano; S. Kameoka; K. Asahina

1993-01-01

288

6. DETAIL VIEW OF SPIN FORM FURNACE FOR STAINLESS STEEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. DETAIL VIEW OF SPIN FORM FURNACE FOR STAINLESS STEEL FABRICATION. STAINLESS STEEL WAS MACHINED IN SIDE A OF THE BUILDING, BEGINNING IN 1957. (4/24/78) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

289

New Method For Joining Stainless Steel to Titanium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In new process, edge of stainless-steel sheet is perforated, and joined to titanium by resistance seam welding. Titanium flows into perforations, forming a strong interlocking joint. Process creates a quasi-metallurgical bond between the thin sheets of stainless steel and titanium.

Emanuel, W. H.

1982-01-01

290

Mechanism of Dissimilar Metal Crevice Corrosion of Superferritic Stainless Steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superferritic stainless steels (SS) can suffer from dissimilar metal crevice (DMC) corrosion when part of a crevice with certain other stainless alloys. For example, UNS S44735 is attacked when part of a crevice with type 316 SS (UNS S30400). To understand this phenomenon better, solutions which form inside such crevices were collected and analyzed with ion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis

G. Salamat; G. A. Juhl; R. G. Kelly

1995-01-01

291

VIEW OF PRECISION EQUIPMENT USED IN STAINLESS COMPONENT MANUFACTURING. THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF PRECISION EQUIPMENT USED IN STAINLESS COMPONENT MANUFACTURING. THE FACILITY WAS DESCRIBED AS THE MOST MODERN NON-NUCLEAR MANUFACTURING BUILDING IN THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPLEX, WITH MANY PRECISION INSTRUMENTS. (9/21/83) - Rocky Flats Plant, Stainless Steel & Non-Nuclear Components Manufacturing, Southeast corner of intersection of Cottonwood & Third Avenues, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

292

Structural design of high-strength austenitic stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient use of material is an important factor in achieving economical and sustainable structures. Typically, annealed austenitic stainless steel has a material strength of around 220N\\/mm2, somewhat lower than that of common structural carbon steel grades. This lower strength, coupled with the higher material cost, puts stainless steel at a significant disadvantage when considering material selection, despite its other desirable

L. Gardner; A. Talja; N. R. Baddoo

2006-01-01

293

Fatigue crack propagation in austenitic stainless steels at cryogenic temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation contains a study, in two parts, that relates to fatigue crack propagation in austenitic stainless steels at cryogenic temperatures. the first part of the research concentrates on the influence of the mechanically induced martensitic transformation on the fatigue crack growth rate in metastable austenitic stainless steels. The steels 304L and 304N were used to test the influence of

Mei; Zequn

1990-01-01

294

Welding type 347 stainless steel -- An interpretive report  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steels fall into three major classifications: ferritic, austenitic and martensitic. Type 347 stainless steels are classified as austenitic, though, as well be described later, they may contain small amounts of ferrite as well. They are of the 18-8 chromium-nickel type with up to 1% niobium, an element once referred to as columbium. Type 347 stainless steel is the primary focus of this document. Similar stainless steels containing niobium will be included, such as Types 348 and 309Nb, as these are frequently encountered in certain applications in welded construction. Ferritic and duplex stainless steels, some of which may contain niobium, are not within the scope of this report. This report covers the following topics: applicable welding processes; composition; properties; ferrite potential effect of weld thermal cycle; post-weld heat treatments; cracks and microfissures; and industrial applications.

Thomas, R.D. Jr.; Messler, R.W. Jr.

1997-05-01

295

Weldment for austenitic stainless steel and method  

DOEpatents

For making defect-free welds for joining two austenitic stainless steel mers, using gas tungsten-arc welding, a thin foil-like iron member is placed between the two steel members to be joined, prior to making the weld, with the foil-like iron member having a higher melting point than the stainless steel members. When the weld is formed, there results a weld nugget comprising melted and then solidified portions of the joined members with small portions of the foil-like iron member projecting into the solidified weld nugget. The portions of the weld nugget proximate the small portions of the foil-like iron member which project into the weld nugget are relatively rich in iron. This causes these iron-rich nugget portions to display substantial delta ferrite during solidification of the weld nugget which eliminates weld defects which could otherwise occur. This is especially useful for joining austenitic steel members which, when just below the solidus temperature, include at most only a very minor proportion of delta ferrite.

Bagnall, Christopher (Hempfield, PA); McBride, Marvin A. (Hempfield, PA)

1985-01-01

296

Citric Acid Passivation of Stainless Steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Passivation is a process for cleaning and providing corrosion protection for stainless steel. Currently, on Kennedy Space Center (KSC), only parts passivated with nitric acid are acceptable for use. KSC disposes of approximately 125gal of concentrated nitric acid per year, and receives many parts from vendors who must also dispose of used nitric acid. Unfortunately, nitric acid presents health and environmental hazards. As a result, several recent industry studies have examined citric acid as an alternative. Implementing a citric acid-based passivation procedure would improve the health and environmental safety aspects of passivation process. However although there is a lack of published studies that conclusively prove citric acid is a technically sound passivation agent. In 2007, NASA's KSC Materials Advisory Working Group requested the evaluation of citric acid in place of nitric acid for passivation of parts at KSC. United Space Alliance Materials & Processes engineers have developed a three-phase test plan to evaluate citric acid as an alternative to nitric acid on three stainless steels commonly used at KSC: UNS S30400, S41000, and S17400. Phases 1 and 2 will produce an optimized citric acid treatment based on results from atmospheric exposure at NASA's Beach Corrosion Facility. Phase 3 will compare the optimized solution(s) with nitric acid treatments. If the results indicate that citric acid passivates as well or better than nitric acid, NASA intends to approve this method for parts used at the Kennedy Space Center.

Yasensky, David; Reali, John; Larson, Chris; Carl, Chad

2009-01-01

297

Repair welding of irradiated 304 stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

The heat-affected zone (HAZ) of repair welds cracked when patches were welded to the tank wall of a nuclear reactor at the Savannah River Site. The cracking was caused by helium embrittlement. The presence of helium generated in irradiated type 304 stainless steel by neutron interaction with boron and nickel impairs weld repair. Welds on material with as little as one part per million helium generated by exposure to a thermal neutron fluence of 1{times}10{sup 21}n/cm{sup 2} developed substantial cracking in the weld heat-affected zone. Evaluation of conventional welds made on type 304 stainless steel containing 1 to 12 appm helium generated by neutron irradiation, or 3 to 220 appm helium generated by tritium decay, demonstrated cracking of the weld heat-affected zones. A newly developed, low penetration, weld overlay technique mitigates cracking by modifying the stress and temperature profile in the weld heat-affected zone. These results demonstrated the potential for a practical welding alternative to mechanical clamping for repair of irradiated material. The helium embrittlement process proceeds with the formation of helium bubbles, followed by agglomeration and growth of bubbles under the influence of the heat and stress of welding. To determine the effect of stress on weld quality in practical situations, a series of test welds with various conditions of mechanical restraint was evaluated. Generally, higher restraint produced greater cracking of the welds.

Kanne, W.R. Jr.; Chandler, G.T.; Franco-Ferreira, E.A.; Rankin, D.T.; Louthan, M.R. Jr. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

1995-12-31

298

Cast alumina forming austenitic stainless steels  

DOEpatents

An austenitic stainless steel alloy consisting essentially of, in terms of weight percent ranges 0.15-0.5C; 8-37Ni; 10-25Cr; 2.5-5Al; greater than 0.6, up to 2.5 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta; up to 3Mo; up to 3Co; up to 1W; up to 3Cu; up to 15Mn; up to 2Si; up to 0.15B; up to 0.05P; up to 1 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; <0.3Ti+V; <0.03N; and, balance Fe, where the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni, and wherein the alloy forms an external continuous scale comprising alumina, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure, the austenitic matrix being essentially delta-ferrite free and essentially BCC-phase-free. A method of making austenitic stainless steel alloys is also disclosed.

Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Brady, Michael P

2013-04-30

299

The pH of antiseptic cleansers  

PubMed Central

Background Daily bathing with antiseptic cleansers are proposed by some physicians as an adjunctive management of atopic dermatitis (AD). As atopic skin is sensitive, selection of cleansing products becomes a topic of concern. Objective Our purpose is to evaluate the pH of various antiseptic body cleansers to give an overview for recommendation to patients with AD. Methods Commonly bar and liquid cleansers consisted of antiseptic agents were measured for pH using pH meter and pH-indicator strips. For comparison, mild cleansers and general body cleansers were also measured. Results All cleansing bars had pH 9.8-11.3 except syndet bar that had neutral pH. For liquid cleansers, three cleansing agents had pH close to pH of normal skin, one of antiseptic cleansers, one of mild cleansers and another one of general cleansers. The rest of antiseptic cleansers had pH 8.9-9.6 while mild cleansers had pH 6.9-7.5. Syndet liquid had pH 7 and general liquid cleansers had pH 9.6. Conclusion The pH of cleanser depends on composition of that cleanser. Adding antiseptic agents are not the only factor determining variation of pH. Moreover, benefit of antiseptic properties should be considered especially in cases of infected skin lesions in the selection of proper cleansers for patients with AD. PMID:24527408

Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Varothai, Supenya; Nuchkull, Piyavadee

2014-01-01

300

Experimental Study of Fouling and Cleaning of Sintered Stainless Steel Membrane in Electro-Microfiltration of Calcium Salt Particles  

PubMed Central

Sintered stainless steel (SSS) microfiltration membranes, which served as electrode directly, were used for the experiment of separating Alamin, a calcium salt and protein containing particles, found in dairy processing. Fouling and cleaning of the SSS membranes under the application of an external electric field were studied. The imposed electric field was found, diverging the pH of permeate and retentate. This in turn altered the solubility of the calcium salt and impacted the performance of electro microfiltration membrane. Using electric field as an enhanced cleaning-in-place (CIP) method in back flushing SSS membrane was also studied. PMID:24957615

Qin, Frank G. F.; Mawson, John; Zeng, Xin An

2011-01-01

301

Effect of microstructure on pitting and corrosion fatigue of 17-4 PH turbine blade steel in chloride environments  

SciTech Connect

Depending on its heat treatment, 17-4 PH stainless steel may contain significant levels of reformed austenite and untempered martensite in a matrix of tempered martensite. Shot peening can cause changes in the microstructure of the surface layers by transforming the austenite to untempered martensite. The effect of these microstructural varations on the resistance of 17-4 PH stainless steel to pitting and corrosion fatigue has been determined in simulated steam turbine environments. The results of two electrochemical tests (large amplitude cyclic voltammetry and the pit propagation rate (PPR) test) indicate that tempering temperature and shot peening have only minor effects on resistance to pit initiation and propagation in any one of three aqueous chloride environments. However, the susceptibility of this stainless steel to corrosion fatigue in one of these environments (6 wt % FeCl/sub 3/) was reduced by increasing the tempering temperature from 538/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F) to 649/sup 0/C (1200/sup 0/F).

Syrett, B.C.; Viswanathan, R.

1982-02-01

302

Roland Badeau, Ph.D. French Nationality  

E-print Network

;Scientific production · Habilitation and Ph.D. Theses · 19 peer reviewed journal papers · 50 peer reviewedRoland Badeau, Ph.D. French Nationality Born August 28, 1976 in Marseille, France Associate-negative decompositions with application to music signal processing". 2001-2005 : Ph.D. degree from the �cole Nationale

Badeau, Roland

303

Ph.D. Assessment Form Student Name  

E-print Network

Ph.D. Assessment Form Student Name: Major Advisor: Date: Outcome 1: Graduates will be able to successfully design and conduct original research in their specialty areas. Criterion: Ph.D. candidates related disciplinary areas. Criterion: Ph.D. students will pass their initial preliminary examination

304

Administration Noma Bennett Anderson, PhD  

E-print Network

D Department of Occupational Therapy Chair (Interim) Ann Nolen, PsyD Vice Chair Lawrence Faulkner, PhAdministration Dean Noma Bennett Anderson, PhD Assistant Deans Faculty and Academic Affairs RebeccaD Department of Physical Therapy Chair and Program Director CarolCountLikens,PT,PhD,MBA Department of Physician

Cui, Yan

305

Inexpensive and Disposable pH Electrodes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inexpensive electrodes for the measurement of pH have been constructed using the ionophore tribenzylamine for sensing H[superscript +] concentrations. Both traditional liquid-membrane electrodes and coated-wire electrodes have been constructed and studied, and both exhibit linear, nearly Nernstian responses to changes in pH. Measurements of pH

Goldcamp, Michael J.; Conklin, Alfred; Nelson, Kimberly; Marchetti, Jessica; Brashear, Ryan; Epure, Emily

2010-01-01

306

Hydrogen assisted stress-cracking behaviour of electron beam welded supermartensitic stainless steel weldments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supermartensitic stainless steel (SMSS) grades are gaining popularity as an alternate material to duplex and super duplex stainless steels for applications in oil and gas industries. The weldability of these steels, though reported to be better when compared to conventional martensitic stainless steels, so far has been addressed with duplex stainless steel electrodes\\/fillers. This work addresses the stress-cracking behaviour of

P. Bala Srinivasan; S. W. Sharkawy; W. Dietzel

2004-01-01

307

Comparison of the thrombogenicity of stainless steel and tantalum coronary stents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to compare the thrombogenicity of stainless steel and tantalum coronary stents of the same design. Stainless steel and tantalum coronary stents are being evaluated for their utility in treating acute closure and restenosis. A major disadvantage of stainless steel stents is radiolucency. To determine whether radioopaque tantalum stents may be safely substituted for stainless steel stents,

Neal A. Scott; Keith A. Robinson; Gilberto L. Nunes; Clifford N. Thomas; Kevin Viel; Spencer B. King; Laurence A. Harker; Steven M. Rowland; Ike Juman; Gustavo D. Cipolla; Stephenson R. Hanson

1995-01-01

308

76 FR 1599 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-351-825] Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...duty order on stainless steel bar from Brazil. The review covers one producer/exporter...order on stainless steel bar (SSB) from Brazil. See Stainless Steel Bar From...

2011-01-11

309

75 FR 39663 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-351-825] Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...order on certain stainless steel bar from Brazil. The review covers one producer/exporter...order on certain stainless steel bar from Brazil. See Stainless Steel Bar From...

2010-07-12

310

The effects of grain boundary precipitates on cryogenic properties of aged 316-type stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is documented that sensitization in stainless steels results from the formation of grain boundary carbides that deplete the Cr in the vicinities of the grain boundaries. Sensitized austenitic stainless steels become brittle at cryogenic temperatures. Low carbon stainless steels are considered to be resistant to aging embrittlement. Our study of low carbon stainless steels demonstrates that aging at sensitization

K. Han; Y. Xin; R. Walsh; S. Downey II; P. N. Kalu

2009-01-01

311

Role of structural orientation on the susceptibility of 2205 duplex stainless steel to hydrogen embrittlement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relationship between the microstructure directionality of delta ferrite and austenite islands and the crack morphology, crack velocity and time to failure of the mechanically notched duplex stainless samples tested in hydrogen bearing environment was assessed in aqueous solution of 3.5% seawater. A number of UNS S32205 duplex stainless steel samples were mechanically notched in perpendicular and transverse directions with respect to the austenite and ferrite rolling direction were subjected to slow tensile strain at 21.2 nm/s while undergoing cathodic charging in aqueous solution of 3.5% seawater. In order to assess the role of hydrogen content on embrittlement the hydrogen charging was conducted at various cathodic potentials of -800 mV/SCE to -1300 mV/SCE at two different pH (6.7 and 3.5). Generally, the longitudinal samples showed lower susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement compared with the transverse samples. The results also confirm that long austenite island can act as an obstacle for propagated crack owing to its low diffusivity and high solubility to the hydrogen.

Sharrfeddin, A.; Musa, S. M.; Elshawesh, F. M.

2012-09-01

312

Cryogenic coefficient of thermal expansion measurements of type 440 and 630 stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dark Energy Camera is now installed on the Blanco 4m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. The camera is cooled to 170K using a closed loop two-phase liquid nitrogen system. A submerged centrifugal pump is used to circulate the liquid from the base of the telescope to the camera in the prime focus cage. As part of the pump maintenance schedule, the rotor shaft bearings are periodically replaced. Common bearing and shaft materials are type 440 and 630 (17-4 PH) stainless steel. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the materials used is needed to predict the shaft and bearing housing dimensional changes at the 77K pump operating temperature. The thermal expansion from room temperature to 77K of type 440 and 630 stainless steel is presented . Measurements are performed using the ASTM E228 standard with a quartz push-rod dilatometer test stand. Aluminum 6061-T6 is used to calibrate the test stand.

Cease, H.; Alvarez, M.; Flaugher, B.; Montes, J.

2014-01-01

313

PhET Simulation: Sound  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive simulation allows users to analyze the properties of sound waves. Frequency and amplitude can be controlled, and users can enable audio tones to explore how pitch is related to frequency. Other options allow users to experiment with constructive and destructive interference by moving positions of speakers and listeners. Tools are also provided to measure wavelengths of various frequencies. Experimenting with interference from a wall and exploring sound in environments without air pressure are also possible. This simulation is part of a large and growing collection developed by the Physics Educational Technology Project using research-based principles. See the Related Materials below for a link to clicker questions and tutorials designed specifically for this simulation by the PhET team.

2008-10-29

314

Materials compatibility of hydride storage materials with austenitic stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

This task evaluated the materials compatibility of LaNi{sub 5-x}Al{sub x} (x= 0.3, 0.75) hydrides and palladium coated kieselguhr with austenitic stainless steel in hydrogen and tritium process environments. Based on observations of retired prototype hydride storage beds and materials exposure testing samples designed for this study, no materials compatibility problem was indicated. Scanning electron microscopy observations of features on stainless steel surfaces after exposure to hydrides are also commonly found on as-received materials before hydriding. These features are caused by either normal heat treating and acid cleaning of stainless steel or reflect the final machining operation.

Clark, E.A.

1992-09-21

315

Materials compatibility of hydride storage materials with austenitic stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

This task evaluated the materials compatibility of LaNi[sub 5-x]Al[sub x] (x= 0.3, 0.75) hydrides and palladium coated kieselguhr with austenitic stainless steel in hydrogen and tritium process environments. Based on observations of retired prototype hydride storage beds and materials exposure testing samples designed for this study, no materials compatibility problem was indicated. Scanning electron microscopy observations of features on stainless steel surfaces after exposure to hydrides are also commonly found on as-received materials before hydriding. These features are caused by either normal heat treating and acid cleaning of stainless steel or reflect the final machining operation.

Clark, E.A.

1992-09-21

316

A preliminary ferritic-martensitic stainless steel constitution diagram  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes preliminary research to develop a constitution diagram that will more accurately predict the microstructure of ferritic and martensitic stainless steel weld deposits. A button melting technique was used to produce a wide range of compositions using mixtures of conventional ferritic and martensitic stainless steels, including types 403, 409, 410, 430, 439 and 444. These samples were prepared metallographically, and the vol-% ferrite and martensite was determined quantitatively. In addition, the hardness and ferrite number (FN) were measured. Using this data, a preliminary constitution diagram is proposed that provides a more accurate method for predicting the microstructures of arc welds in ferritic and martensitic stainless steels.

Balmforth, M.C.; Lippold, J.C. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Welding and Joining Metallurgy Group

1998-01-01

317

Dissolution of stainless steel in artificial saliva.  

PubMed

Dissolution of stainless steel type 304 in artificial saliva was studied by electrochemical methods, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, and atom absorption spectroscopy. The samples were polarized in the -400 mV (saturated calomel electrode) to -50 mV (saturated calomel electrode) range. The total thickness of the passive film was found to be 25 +/- 3 A, independent of the potential. The passive film consists of a duplex structure: an inner layer of (Cr0.5Fe0.5)2O3 and an outer layer of a mixture of Cr(OH)3 and (CrxFey)PO4.2H2O. The analysis indicated that 11 micrograms/cm2 of the alloying elements were dissolved during exposure for 1 year. PMID:9197105

Lakatos-Varsányi, M; Wegrelius, L; Olefjord, I

1997-01-01

318

Automatic Welding of Stainless Steel Tubing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To determine if the use of automatic welding would allow reduction of the radiographic inspection requirement, and thereby reduce fabrication costs, a series of welding tests were performed. In these tests an automatic welder was used on stainless steel tubing of 1/2, 3/4, and 1/2 inch diameter size. The optimum parameters were investigated to determine how much variation from optimum in machine settings could be tolerate and still result in a good quality weld. The process variables studied were the welding amperes, the revolutions per minute as a function of the circumferential weld travel speed, and the shielding gas flow. The investigation showed that the close control of process variables in conjunction with a thorough visual inspection of welds can be relied upon as an acceptable quality assurance procedure, thus permitting the radiographic inspection to be reduced by a large percentage when using the automatic process.

Clautice, W. E.

1978-01-01

319

Radiation resistant austenitic stainless steel alloys  

DOEpatents

An austenitic stainless steel alloy, with improved resistance to radiation-induced swelling and helium embrittlement, and improved resistance to thermal creep at high temperatures, consisting essentially of, by weight percent: from 16 to 18% nickel; from 13 to 17% chromium; from 2 to 3% molybdenum; from 1.5 to 2.5% manganese; from 0.01 to 0.5% silicon; from 0.2 to 0.4% titanium; from 0.1 to 0.2% niobium; from 0.1 to 0.6% vanadium; from 0.06 to 0.12% carbon; from 0.01% to 0.03% nitrogen; from 0.03 to 0.08% phosphorus; from 0.005 to 0.01% boron; and the balance iron, and wherein the alloy may be thermomechanically treated to enhance physical and mechanical properties.

Maziasz, Philip J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Braski, David N. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rowcliffe, Arthur F. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1989-01-01

320

Automatic welding of stainless steel tubing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of automatic welding for making girth welds in stainless steel tubing was investigated as well as the reduction in fabrication costs resulting from the elimination of radiographic inspection. Test methodology, materials, and techniques are discussed, and data sheets for individual tests are included. Process variables studied include welding amperes, revolutions per minute, and shielding gas flow. Strip chart recordings, as a definitive method of insuring weld quality, are studied. Test results, determined by both radiographic and visual inspection, are presented and indicate that once optimum welding procedures for specific sizes of tubing are established, and the welding machine operations are certified, then the automatic tube welding process produces good quality welds repeatedly, with a high degree of reliability. Revised specifications for welding tubing using the automatic process and weld visual inspection requirements at the Kennedy Space Center are enumerated.

Clautice, W. E.

1978-01-01

321

Radiation resistant austenitic stainless steel alloys  

DOEpatents

An austenitic stainless steel alloy, with improved resistance to radiation-induced swelling and helium embrittlement, and improved resistance to thermal creep at high temperatures, consisting essentially of, by weight percent: from 16 to 18% nickel; from 13 to 17% chromium; from 2 to 3% molybdenum; from 1.5 to 2.5% manganese; from 0.01 to 0.5% silicon; from 0.2 to 0.4% titanium; from 0.1 to 0.2% niobium; from 0.1 to 0.6% vanadium; from 0.06 to 0.12% carbon; from 0.01 to 0.03% nitrogen; from 0.03 to 0.08% phosphorus; from 0.005 to 0.01% boron; and the balance iron, and wherein the alloy may be thermomechanically treated to enhance physical and mechanical properties. 4 figs.

Maziasz, P.J.; Braski, D.N.; Rowcliffe, A.F.

1987-02-11

322

PhD in Sustainable Development PhD in Sustainable Development  

E-print Network

PhD in Sustainable Development PhD in Sustainable Development 2013-2014 Handbook John Colin Mutter Director of Graduate Studies john.mutter@sipa.columbia.edu 212-854-0716 #12;2 PhD in Sustainable................................................................................................ 39 #12;3 PhD in Sustainable Development I. About the Program The sustainability of development

Qian, Ning

323

In vivo behavior of a high performance duplex stainless steel.  

PubMed

An in vivo investigation of a new high molybdenum and nitrogen duplex stainless steel (25Cr--7Ni--4Mo--0.3N) has been performed. Cylindrical pins and specially developed devices, to test in static conditions the in vivo localized corrosion resistance, made of this new duplex steel and of a common austenitic stainless steel were implanted in rabbit's femurs for 6 and 12 months. After sacrifice, SEM observations and EDS microanalyses to detect metallic ion release were carried out on the femur sections surrounding the pins. Morphologic observations with stereoscope and SEM were performed on the metallic surfaces of the special devices in order to detect the presence of localized corrosion. Both ion release and localized corrosion were observed for the specimens made of austenitic stainless steel, but not for those made of 25Cr--7Ni--4Mo--0.3N duplex stainless steel. PMID:10148344

Cigada, A; De Santis, G; Gatti, A M; Roos, A; Zaffe, D

1993-01-01

324

3. INTERIOR VIEW OF SMOKEHOUSE UNIT; NOTE STAINLESS STEEL NOZZLES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. INTERIOR VIEW OF SMOKEHOUSE UNIT; NOTE STAINLESS STEEL NOZZLES THAT INTRODUCED SMOKE INTO UNIT; FLOOR IS UNPAINTED STEEL - Rath Packing Company, Smokehouse-Hog Chilling Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

325

27. STAINLESS STEEL FERMENTING CASKS MADE BY ZERO MANG OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. STAINLESS STEEL FERMENTING CASKS MADE BY ZERO MANG OF WASHINGTON, MISSOURI. VIEW LOOKING NORTH TOWARD VAULT OF THE TWELVE APOSTLES - Stone Hill Winery, 401 West Twelfth Street, Hermann, Gasconade County, MO

326

21 CFR 878.4495 - Stainless steel suture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4495 Stainless steel suture. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

327

21 CFR 878.4495 - Stainless steel suture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4495 Stainless steel suture. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

328

21 CFR 878.4495 - Stainless steel suture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4495 Stainless steel suture. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

329

21 CFR 878.4495 - Stainless steel suture.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4495 Stainless steel suture. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

330

Cavitation erosion of duplex and super duplex stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

Owing to their excellent corrosion resistance, stainless steels are widely used both in the marine, urban water, chemical and food industries. In addition to the corrosive environment, high fluid flow speeds are always encountered for components used in these industries. The cavitation characteristics of S30400 and S31600 austenitic stainless steels and duplex stainless steels were studied in detail by a number of authors. It was generally agreed that S30400 has higher cavitation erosion resistance than that of S31600 due to higher tendency of strain induced martensitic transformation under high impulse of stress. A considerable number of results on stress corrosion cracking characteristics of SDSS and duplex stainless steels have been published but data concerning their cavitation erosion property are extremely rare.

Kwok, C.T.; Man, H.C.; Cheng, F.T. [Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Kowloon (Hong Kong)] [Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Kowloon (Hong Kong)

1998-10-05

331

Stress corrosion cracking evaluation of precipitation-hardening stainless steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accelerated test program results show which precipitation hardening stainless steels are resistant to stress corrosion cracking. In certain cases stress corrosion susceptibility was found to be associated with the process procedure.

Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

1970-01-01

332

Respiratory status of stainless steel and mild steel welders.  

PubMed

Eighty-three full-time stainless steel and 29 mild steel welders from one shipyard were examined clinically, and their lung function was measured. The stainless steel welders had used both tungsten inert-gas (low-fume concentration) and manual metal-arc (MMA) (high-fume concentration) welding methods. The individual exposure of the welders was estimated based on the time spent doing MMA welding, the amount of retained contaminants in the lungs (magnetopulmography), and urinary chromium excretion. The results suggest that there is a greater prevalence of small airway disease among shipyard mild steel MMA welders than among stainless steel welders. Among the stainless steel welders the impairment of lung function parameters was associated with the MMA welding method. The type of welding, then, is important when the health hazards of welders are studied, and welders cannot be regarded as a single, homogeneous group. PMID:7100838

Kalliomäki, P L; Kalliomäki, K; Korhonen, O; Nordman, H; Rahkonen, E; Vaaranen, V

1982-01-01

333

Surface modified stainless steels for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates  

DOEpatents

A nitridation treated stainless steel article (such as a bipolar plate for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell) having lower interfacial contact electrical resistance and better corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel article is disclosed. The treated stainless steel article has a surface layer including nitrogen-modified chromium-base oxide and precipitates of chromium nitride formed during nitridation wherein oxygen is present in the surface layer at a greater concentration than nitrogen. The surface layer may further include precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide. The surface layer in the treated article is chemically heterogeneous surface rather than a uniform or semi-uniform surface layer exclusively rich in chromium, titanium or aluminum. The precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide are formed by the nitriding treatment wherein titanium and/or aluminum in the stainless steel are segregated to the surface layer in forms that exhibit a low contact resistance and good corrosion resistance.

Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Wang, Heli [Littleton, CO; Turner, John A [Littleton, CO

2007-07-24

334

Stainless-steel elbows formed by spin forging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large seamless austenitic stainless steel elbows are fabricated by spin forging /rotary shear forming/. A specially designed spin forging tool for mounting on a hydrospin machine has been built for this purpose.

1964-01-01

335

Intergranular attack of stainless steels in kraft digester liquors  

SciTech Connect

An intergranular attack (IGA) problem in a type 304L stainless-clad (compound plate) kraft digester was investigated using both in-situ corrosion probes and laboratory autoclaves filled with alkaline digester liquors. IGA in digester liquors was found to depend on both the degree of sensitization of the stainless steel and on the corrosion potential. Clad plate which as-supplied had a small degree of sensitization was most negatively affected by heat treatment in the sensitizing range (600 C). The IGA process involved initial consumption of grain boundary carbides, then of the adjacent chromium-depleted zones and finally, complete consumption of the austenite grains, leaving behind a corrosion product rich in nickel sulfide. Anodic and cathodic protection, stainless steel weld overlay, and thermal spray coating were found to be effective measures for protection of sensitized stainless steel from IGA in digester liquors.

Wensley, A. [Bacon Donaldson Consulting Engineers, Richmond, British Columbia (Canada)

1996-08-01

336

Fabrication of stainless steel clad tubing. [gas pressure bonding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of producing stainless steel clad carbon steel tubing by a gas pressure bonding process was evaluated. Such a tube product could provide substantial chromium savings over monolithic stainless tubing in the event of a serious chromium shortage. The process consists of the initial assembly of three component tubesets from conventionally produced tubing, the formation of a strong metallurgical bond between the three components by gas pressure bonding, and conventional cold draw and anneal processing to final size. The quality of the tubes produced was excellent from the standpoint of bond strength, mechanical, and forming properties. The only significant quality problem encountered was carburization of the stainless clad by the carbon steel core which can be overcome by further refinement through at least three different approaches. The estimated cost of clad tubing produced by this process is greater than that for monolithic stainless tubing, but not so high as to make the process impractical as a chromium conservation method.

Kovach, C. W.

1978-01-01

337

Systems design of high performance stainless steels II. Prototype characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the framework of a systems approach, the design of a high performance stainless steel integrated processing/structure/property/performance relations with mechanistic computational models. Using multicomponent thermodynamic and diffusion software platforms, the models were integrated to design a carburizable, secondary-hardening, martensitic stainless steel for advanced gear and bearing applications. Prototype evaluation confirmed the predicted martensitic transformation temperature and the desired carburizing and tempering responses, achieving a case hardness of R c 64 in the secondary-hardened condition without case primary carbides. Comparison with a commercial carburizing stainless steel demonstrated the advantage of avoiding primary carbides to resist quench cracking associated with a martensitic start temperature gradient reversal. Based on anodic polarization measurements and salt-spray testing, the prototype composition exhibited superior corrosion resistance in comparison to the 440C stainless bearing steel, which has a significantly higher alloy Cr concentration.

Campbell, C. E.; Olson, G. B.

2000-10-01

338

Functional photoacoustic microscopy of pH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

pH is a tightly regulated indicator of metabolic activity. In mammalian systems, imbalance of pH regulation may result from or result in serious illness. Even though the regulation system of pH is very robust, tissue pH can be altered in many diseases such as cancer, osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus. Traditional high-resolution optical imaging techniques, such as confocal microscopy, routinely image pH in cells and tissues using pH sensitive fluorescent dyes, which change their fluorescence properties with the surrounding pH. Since strong optical scattering in biological tissue blurs images at greater depths, high-resolution pH imaging is limited to penetration depths of 1mm. Here, we report photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) of commercially available pH-sensitive fluorescent dye in tissue phantoms. Using both opticalresolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM), and acoustic resolution photoacoustic microscopy (AR-PAM), we explored the possibility of recovering the pH values in tissue phantoms. In this paper, we demonstrate that PAM was capable of recovering pH values up to a depth of 2 mm, greater than possible with other forms of optical microscopy.

Chatni, M. Rameez; Yao, Junjie; Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P.; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.

2012-02-01

339

Standard test method for evaluating stress-corrosion cracking of stainless alloys with different nickel content in boiling acidified sodium chloride solution  

E-print Network

1.1 This test method describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in an acidified boiling sodium chloride solution. This test method is performed in 25% (by mass ) sodium chloride acidified to pH 1.5 with phosphoric acid. This test method is concerned primarily with the test solution and glassware, although a specific style of U-bend test specimen is suggested. 1.2 This test method is designed to provide better correlation with chemical process industry experience for stainless steels than the more severe boiling magnesium chloride test of Practice G36. Some stainless steels which have provided satisfactory service in many environments readily crack in Practice G36, but have not cracked during interlaboratory testing using this sodium chloride test method. 1.3 This boiling sodium chloride test method was used in an interlaboratory test program to evaluate wrought stainless steels, including duplex (ferrite-austenite) stainless and an alloy with up to about 33% nickel. It may also b...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2000-01-01

340

Effects of dissolved oxygen on passive behavior of stainless alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potential-control circuit has been devised to measure passive-current (corrosion rate) on stainless alloys in conditions simulating the usual noble drift of the open-circuit corrosion potential in the presence of passivating dissolved oxidizers. Open-circuit corrosion potential and passive-current decay were measured with and without dissolved oxygen in dilute sulfuric acid solutions as a function of time on austenitic stainless steel

K. S. Raja; D. A. Jones

2006-01-01

341

PROPERTIES OF URANIUM DIOXIDE-STAINLESS STEEL DISPERSION FUEL PLATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical and mechanical properties of GCRE-type fuel elements were ;\\u000a determined from room temperature to 1650 deg F. The fuel elements were prepared ;\\u000a by cladding Type 318 stainless steel sheet to a core containing 15 to 35 wt.% UO\\/;\\u000a sub 2\\/ in either prealloyed Type 318 stainless steel or elemental iron-18 wt.% ;\\u000a chromium-14 wt. % nickel-2.5 wt.

S. J. Paprocki; D. L. Keller; J. M. Fackelmann

1959-01-01

342

Nested Stainless Steel Wire Array Implosions on the Z Accelerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent experiments on the 20 MA Z accelerator have employed stainless steel wire arrays to study the effects of large diameter nested configurations on Iron K-shell emissions. Stainless steel consists primarily of iron (72%), which radiates in the K-shell at 6.7 keV, but has significant quantities of Chromium (18.6%)and Nickel(8.2%) as well, which radiate at 5.6 keV and 7.9 keV

C. A. Coverdale; C. Deeney; M. R. Douglas; P. D. Lepell; J. P. Apruzese; K. G. Whitney; J. W. Thornhill; J. Davis; D. Bell

2000-01-01

343

Procedure for flaw detection in cast stainless steel  

DOEpatents

A method of ultrasonic flaw detection in cast stainless steel components incorporating the steps of determining the nature of the microstructure of the cast stainless steel at the site of the flaw detection measurements by ultrasonic elements independent of the component thickness at the site; choosing from a plurality of flaw detection techniques, one such technique appropriate to the nature of the microstructure as determined and detecting flaws by use of the chosen technique.

Kupperman, David S. (Oak Park, IL)

1988-01-01

344

Measurement of intergranular attack in stainless steel using ultrasonic energy  

DOEpatents

Ultrasonic test methods are used to measure the depth of intergranular attack (IGA) in a stainless steel specimen. The ultrasonic test methods include a pitch-catch surface wave technique and a through-wall pulse-echo technique. When used in combination, these techniques can establish the extent of IGA on both the front and back surfaces of a stainless steel specimen from measurements made on only one surface.

Mott, Gerry (Pittsburgh, PA); Attaar, Mustan (Monroeville, PA); Rishel, Rick D. (Monroeville, PA)

1989-08-08

345

Characterization of borided AISI 316L stainless steel implant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports on characterization of borided AISI 316L stainless steel implant. Boronizing heat treatment was performed on a cylindrical bar of AISI 316L austenitic surgical stainless steel with a diameter of 2mm and a length of 10mm using slurry salt bath consisting of borax, boric acid and ferro-silicon. The susbstrate AISI 316L was essentially containing 0.022wt% C, 0.79wt%

I. Özbek; B. A. Konduk; C. Bindal; A. H. Ucisik

2002-01-01

346

Creep properties of austenitic stainless-steel weld metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creep behavior of two austeitic stainless-steel weld metals was investigated. Two AISI 316L stainless-steel base plates\\u000a were welded together using the submerged arc-welding process. Creep tests were carried out on the welds at constant load,\\u000a over a stress range of 100 to 400 MPa, and in the temperature range of 600 to 700 ?C. The relationships between stress and

A. Nassour; W. W. Bose; D. Spinelli

2001-01-01

347

Radiation effects on environmental cracking of stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steels exposed to radiation and hot water may fail by irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking. Cracking is especially evident in austenitic stainless steels exposed to light-water reactor irradiation and oxidizing water chemistry at temperatures near 288°C. Neutron doses greater than one displacement per atom are typically required to induce observed cracking susceptibility. The evidence of a threshold dose suggests that

E. P. Simonen; S. M. Bruemmer

1998-01-01

348

Radiation effects on environmental cracking of stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steels exposed to radiation and hot water may fail by irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking. Cracking is\\u000a especially evident in austenitic stainless steels exposed to light-water reactor irradiation and oxidizing water chemistry\\u000a at temperatures near 288°C. Neutron doses greater than one displacement per atom are typically required to induce observed\\u000a cracking susceptibility. The evidence of a threshold dose suggests that

E. P. Simonen; S. M. Bruemmer

1998-01-01

349

Weak ferromagnetism in `non-magnetic' austenitic stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetization and susceptability of the non-magnetic stainless steels AISI 304 and AISI 316 have been measured at low temperatures using a SQUID magnetometer. A small but stable ferromagnetic component is always present. Field cooling shows the effects of exchange anisotropy. Another stainless steel AISI 321 is non-magnetic at room temperature but it transforms irreversibly to a partially ferromagnetic state when it is cooled below 280 K.

Crangle, John; Fogarty, A.; Taylor, M. J.

1992-06-01

350

Heat-affected zone cracking of nitronic 60 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitronic 60 is a nitrogen-strengthened austenitic stainless steel used for applications where metal-to-metal wear and galling resistance are required. In addition, it does not transfer to martensite with strain or upon cooling to cryogenic temperatures. In comparison to type 304 stainless steel, the nickel content is similar, chromium content is slightly reduced and manganese, silicon, and nitrogen are all increased

M. C. Maguire; C. V. Robino; B. K. Damkroger; T. J. Lienert

1992-01-01

351

Microstructure and mechanical properties of ?-particle irradiated stainless steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of helium injected in stainless steels on the mechanical properties are investigated. The materials used are 100 ?m thick foils of type 316 austenitic stainless steel, dual phase (9Cr-2Mo, ferritic and martensitic phase) stainless steel and duplex (22Cr-5Ni, ferritic and austenitic phase) stainless steel. The tensile strength (0.2% proof strength and ultimate strength in room temperature tensile test) of these materials increased slightly with the amount of injected alpha particles, but the elongation of these steels decreased with the alpha particle dose. Intergranular type fracture was observed only on the 316 stainless steel in which alpha particles had been injected in amounts up to 1.3 × 10 17 cm -2 at the depth of range. Transgranular fracture occurred on a post-injection annealed 316 stainless steel and on the other materials. The transmission electron microscope observation of helium bubble distribution established that the intergranular fracture is caused by a highly dense distribution of small helium bubbles at grain boundaries.

Igata, N.; Miyahara, K.; Tada, C.; Blasl, D.; Hamada, S.; Sawai, T.; Kayano, H.; Hosoi, Y.

1986-11-01

352

Liquid Metal Corrosion of 316L Stainless Steel, 410 Stainless Steel, and 1015 Carbon Steel in a Molten Zinc Bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion tests of 1015 low-carbon steel and two stainless steels (410 and 316L) were conducted in a pure zinc bath (99.98 wt pct\\u000a Zn) in order to better understand the reaction mechanisms that occur during the degradation of submerged hardware at industrial\\u000a general (batch) galvanizing operations. Through this testing, it was found that, in general, 316L stainless steel showed the\\u000a best dissolution

Jing Xu; Mark A. Bright; Xingbo Liu; Ever Barbero

2007-01-01

353

Phase Transformations in Cast Duplex Stainless Steels  

SciTech Connect

Duplex stainless steels (DSS) constitute both ferrite and austenite as a matrix. Such a microstructure confers a high corrosion resistance with favorable mechanical properties. However, intermetallic phases such as {sigma} and {chi} can also form during casting or high-temperature processing and can degrade the properties of the DSS. This research was initiated to develop time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams of two types of cast duplex stainless steels, CD3MN (Fe-22Cr-5Ni-Mo-N) and CD3MWCuN (Fe-25Cr-7Ni-Mo-W-Cu-N), in order to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formation. The alloys were heat treated isothermally or under controlled cooling conditions and then characterized using conventional metallographic methods that included tint etching, and also using electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). The kinetics of intermetallic-phase ({sigma} + {chi}) formation were analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (MA) equation in the case of isothermal transformations and a modified form of this equation in the case of continuous cooling transformations. The rate of intermetallic-phase formation was found to be much faster in CD3MWCuN than CD3MN due mainly to differences in the major alloying contents such as Cr, Ni and Mo. To examine in more detail the effects of these elements of the phase stabilities; a series of eight steel castings was designed with the Cr, Ni and Mo contents systematically varied with respect to the nominal composition of CD3MN. The effects of varying the contents of alloying additions on the formation of intermetallic phases were also studied computationally using the commercial thermodynamic software package, Thermo-Calc. In general, {sigma} was stabilized with increasing Cr addition and {chi} by increasing Mo addition. However, a delicate balance among Ni and other minor elements such as N and Si also exists. Phase equilibria in DSS can be affected by local composition fluctuations in the cast alloy. This may cause discrepancy between thermodynamic prediction and experimental observation.

Yoon-Jun Kim

2004-12-19

354

Phase transformations in cast duplex stainless steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Duplex stainless steels (DSS) constitute both ferrite and austenite as a matrix. Such a microstructure confers a high corrosion resistance with favorable mechanical properties. However, intermetallic phases such as sigma (sigma) and chi (chi) can also form during casting or high-temperature processing and can degrade the properties of the DSS. This research was initiated to develop time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams of two types of cast duplex stainless steels, CD3MN (Fe-22Cr-5Ni-Mo-N) and CD3MWCuN (Fe-25Cr-7Ni-Mo-W-Cu-N), in order to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formation. The alloys were heat treated isothermally or under controlled cooling conditions and then characterized using conventional metallographic methods that included tint etching, and also using electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). The kinetics of intermetallic-phase (sigma + chi) formation were analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) equation in the case of isothermal transformations and a modified form of this equation in the case of continuous cooling transformations. The rate of intermetallic-phase formation was found to be much faster in CD3MWCuN than CD3MN due mainly to differences in the major alloying contents such as Cr, Ni and Mo. To examine in more detail the effects of these elements of the phase stabilities, a series of eight steel castings was designed with the Cr, Ni and Mo contents systematically varied with respect to the nominal composition of CD3MN. The effects of varying the contents of alloying additions on the formation of intermetallic phases were also studied computationally using the commercial thermodynamic software package, Thermo-Calc. In general, a was stabilized with increasing Cr addition and chi by increasing Mo addition. However, a delicate balance among Ni and other minor elements such as N and Si also exists. Phase equilibria in DSS can be affected by local composition fluctuations in the cast alloy. This may cause discrepancy between thermodynamic prediction and experimental observation.

Kim, Yoon-Jun

355

New Economical 19Cr Duplex Stainless Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New economical duplex stainless steels (DSSs) containing 19Cr-6Mn- xNi-1.0Mo-0.5W-0.5Cu-0.2N ( x = 0.5 to 2.0) were developed, and the microstructure, impact property, and corrosion resistance of the alloys were studied. The ferrite content increases with the solution treatment temperature, but decreases with an increase in nickel. The sigma phase is not found precipitating in the alloys treated with solution from 1023 K to 1523 K (750 °C to 1250 °C). The low-temperature impact energy of the experimental alloys increases first and then decreases rapidly with an increase in nickel, which is mainly due to the martensite transformation with an increase in austenite. The alloys have a better mechanical property and pitting corrosion resistance than AISI 304. Among the designed DSS alloys, 19Cr-6Mn-1.3Ni-1.0Mo-0.5W-0.5Cu-0.2N is found to be an optimum alloy with proper phase proportion, a better combination of mechanical strength and elongation, and higher pitting corrosion resistance compared with those of the other alloys.

Li, Jun; Zhang, Zixing; Chen, Hong; Xiao, Xueshan; Zhao, Junliang; Jiang, Laizhu

2012-02-01

356

Instabilities in stabilized austenitic stainless steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of aging on the precipitation of grain boundary phases in three austenitic stainless steels (AISI 347, 347AP, and an experimental steel stabilized with hafnium) was investigated. Aging was performed both on bulk steels as well as on samples which were subjected to a thermal treatment to simulate the coarse grain region of the heat affected zone (HAZ) during welding. Aging of the bulk steels at 866 K for 8000 hours resulted in the precipitation of Cr23C6 carbides, ?, and Fe2Nb phases; the propensity for precipitation was least for the hafnium-stabilized steel. Weld simulation of the HAZ resulted in dissolution of the phases present in the as-received 347 and 347AP steels, leading to grain coarsening. Subsequent aging caused extensive grain boundary Cr23C6 carbides and inhomogeneous matrix precipitation. In addition, steel 347AP formed a precipitate free zone (PFZ) along the grain boundaries. The steel containing hafnium showed the best microstructural stability to aging and welding.

Ayer, Raghavan; Klein, C. F.; Marzinsky, C. N.

1992-09-01

357

NanoComposite Stainless Steel Powder Technologies  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating a new class of Fe-based amorphous material stemming from a DARPA, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency initiative in structural amorphous metals. Further engineering of the original SAM materials such as chemistry modifications and manufacturing processes, has led to the development of a class of Fe based amorphous materials that upon processing, devitrify into a nearly homogeneous distribution of nano sized complex metal carbides and borides. The powder material is produced through the gas atomization process and subsequently utilized by several methods; laser fusing as a coating to existing components or bulk consolidated into new components through various powder metallurgy techniques (vacuum hot pressing, Dynaforge, and hot isostatic pressing). The unique fine scale distribution of microstructural features yields a material with high hardness and wear resistance compared to material produced through conventional processing techniques such as casting while maintaining adequate fracture toughness. Several compositions have been examined including those specifically designed for high hardness and wear resistance and a composition specifically tailored to devitrify into an austenitic matrix (similar to a stainless steel) which poses improved corrosion behavior.

DeHoff, R.; Glasgow, C. (MesoCoat, Inc.)

2012-07-25

358

Radiation-induced swelling of stainless steel.  

PubMed

Significant swelling (1 to 10 percent due to small voids have been found in stainless steel when it is exposed to fast neutron doses less than expected in commercial fast breeder reactors. The main features of this new effect are: (i) the voids are formed by the precipitation of a small fraction of the radiation-produced vacancies; (ii) the voids form primarily in the temperature range 400 degrees to 600 degrees C (750 degrees to 1100 degrees F); and (iii) the volume increases with dose (fluence) at a rate between linear and parabolic. The limited temperature range of void formation can be explained, but the effects of fluence, microstructure, and composition are determined by a competition between several kinetic processes that are not well understood. This swelling does not affect the feasibility or safety of the breeder reactor,but will have a significant impact on the core design and economics of the breeder.Preliminary results indicate that one cannot eliminate the effect,but cold-working,heat treatment, or small changes in composition can reduce the swelling by a factor of 2 or more. Testing is hampered by the fact that several years in EBR-II are required to accumulate the fluence expected in demonstration plants. Heavyion accelerators,which allow damage rates corresponding to much higher fluxes than those found in EBR-II,hold great promise for short-term tests that will indicate the relative effect of the important variables. PMID:17796573

Shewmon, P G

1971-09-10

359

Austenitic stainless steel for high temperature applications  

DOEpatents

This invention describes a composition for an austenitic stainless steel which has been found to exhibit improved high temperature stress rupture properties. The composition of this alloy is about (in wt. %): 12.5 to 14.5 Cr; 14.5 to 16.5 Ni; 1.5 to 2.5 Mo; 1.5 to 2.5 Mn; 0.1 to 0.4 Ti; 0.02 to 0.08 C; 0.5 to 1.0 Si; 0.01 maximum, N; 0.02 to 0.08 P; 0.002 to 0.008 B; 0.004-0.010 S; 0.02-0.05 Nb; 0.01-0.05 V; 0.005-0.02 Ta; 0.02-0.05 Al; 0.01-0.04 Cu; 0.02-0.05 Co; 0.03 maximum, As; 0.01 maximum, O; 0.01 maximum, Zr; and with the balance of the alloy being essentially iron. The carbon content of the alloy is adjusted such that wt. % Ti/(wt. % C+wt. % N) is between 4 and 6, and most preferably about 5. In addition the sum of the wt. % P+wt. % B+wt. % S is at least 0.03 wt. %. This alloy is believed to be particularly well suited for use as fast breeder reactor fuel element cladding.

Johnson, Gerald D. (Kennewick, WA); Powell, Roger W. (Pasco, WA)

1985-01-01

360

Fracture toughness of stainless steel welds  

SciTech Connect

The effects of temperature, composition and weld-process variations on the fracture toughness behavior for Types 308 and 16-8-2 stainless steel (SS) welds were examined using the multiple-specimen J/sub R/-curve procedure. Fracture characteristics were found to be dependent on temperature and weld process but not on filler material. Gas-tungsten-arc (GTA) welds exhibited the highest fracture toughness, a shielded metal-arc (SMA) weld exhibited an intermediate toughness and submerged-arc (SA) welds yielded the lowest toughness. Minimum-expected fracture properties were defined from lower-bound J/sub c/ and tearing modulus values generated here and in previous studies. Fractographic examination revealed that microvoid coalescence was the operative fracture mechanism for all welds. Second phase particles of manganese silicide were found to be detrimental to the ductile fracture behavior because they separated from the matrix during the initial stages of plastic straining. In SA welds, the high density of inclusions resulting from silicon pickup from the flux promoted premature dimple rupture. The weld produced by the SMA process contained substantially less manganese silicide, while GTA welds contained no silicide inclusions. Delta ferrite particles present in all welds were substantially more resistant to local failure than the silicide phase. In welds containing little or no manganese silicide, delta ferrite particles initiated microvoid coalescence but only after extensive plastic straining.

Mills, W.J.

1985-11-01

361

Welding Behavior of Free Machining Stainless Steel  

SciTech Connect

The weld solidification and cracking behavior of sulfur bearing free machining austenitic stainless steel was investigated for both gas-tungsten arc (GTA) and pulsed laser beam weld processes. The GTA weld solidification was consistent with those predicted with existing solidification diagrams and the cracking response was controlled primarily by solidification mode. The solidification behavior of the pulsed laser welds was complex, and often contained regions of primary ferrite and primary austenite solidification, although in all cases the welds were found to be completely austenite at room temperature. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) pattern analysis indicated that the nature of the base metal at the time of solidification plays a primary role in initial solidification. The solid state transformation of austenite to ferrite at the fusion zone boundary, and ferrite to austenite on cooling may both be massive in nature. A range of alloy compositions that exhibited good resistance to solidification cracking and was compatible with both welding processes was identified. The compositional range is bounded by laser weldability at lower Cr{sub eq}/Ni{sub eq} ratios and by the GTA weldability at higher ratios. It was found with both processes that the limiting ratios were somewhat dependent upon sulfur content.

BROOKS,JOHN A.; ROBINO,CHARLES V.; HEADLEY,THOMAS J.; MICHAEL,JOSEPH R.

2000-07-24

362

Corrosion of stainless steel during acetate production  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion of types 304, 304L, 316, and 316L stainless steel (SS) during the esterification of acetic acid and alcohol or glycol ether was investigated. The catalyst for this reaction, sulfuric acid or para-toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA), was shown to cause more corrosion on reactor equipment than CH{sub 3}COOH under the process conditions commonly practiced in industry. The corrosive action of the catalyst occurred only in the presence of water. Thus, for the batch processes, corrosion occurred mostly during the initial stage of esterification, where water produced by the reaction created an aqueous environment. After water was distilled off, the corrosion rate declined to a negligible value. The corrosion inhibitor copper sulfate, often used in industrial acetate processes, was found to work well for a low-temperature process (< 95 C) such as in production of butyl acetate, but it accelerated corrosion in the glycol ether acetate processes where temperatures were > 108 C. Process conditions that imparted low corrosion rates were determined.

Qi, J.S.; Lester, G.C. [Occidental Chemical Corp. Technology Center, Grand Island, NY (United States)

1996-07-01

363

Frequently Asked Questions for Parents of Children with PH  

MedlinePLUS

... International PH News and Projects Let Me Breathe Music Video Families Patients Newly Diagnosed Request an Envelope ... International PH News and Projects Let Me Breathe Music Video Help spread PH awareness and share PH ...

364

78 FR 72864 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-983] Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic...antidumping duty order on drawn stainless steel sinks (``drawn sinks...1\\ See Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks from the People's...

2013-12-04

365

76 FR 67672 - Certain Stainless Steel Wire Rods From India: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Review of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-533-808] Certain Stainless Steel Wire Rods From India: Final...antidumping duty order on certain stainless steel wire rods from India, pursuant...antidumping duty order on certain stainless steel wire rods from India (wire...

2011-11-02

366

76 FR 64106 - Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipe From Korea and Taiwan; Scheduling of Expedited Five-Year...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Third Review)] Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipe From Korea and Taiwan...Duty Orders on Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipe From Korea and Taiwan AGENCY...duty orders on certain welded stainless steel pipe (specifically ASTM...

2011-10-17

367

78 FR 21592 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Determination of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-983] Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks from the People's Republic...antidumping duty order on drawn stainless steel sinks (``drawn sinks...1\\ See Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's...

2013-04-11

368

76 FR 64105 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-638 (Third Review)] Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India; Scheduling...the Antidumping Duty Order on Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India AGENCY...the antidumping duty order on stainless steel wire rod from India would...

2011-10-17

369

75 FR 27987 - Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipes From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-580-810] Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipes From the Republic of Korea...duty order on certain welded stainless steel pipes (WSSP) from the Republic...from Korea. See Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipes from the Republic of...

2010-05-19

370

76 FR 45511 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-423-808] Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium...the antidumping duty order on stainless steel plate in coils (``SSPC...an antidumping duty order on stainless steel plate in coils from...

2011-07-29

371

77 FR 21963 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-423-808] Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium...the antidumping duty order on stainless steel plate in coils from Belgium...an antidumping duty order on stainless steel plate in coils from...

2012-04-12

372

Stainless steel tube-based cell cryopreservation containers.  

PubMed

This study focused on increasing the freezing rate in cell vitrification cryopreservation by using a cryopreservation container possessing rigid mechanical properties and high heat-transfer efficiency. Applying a fast freezing rate in vitrification cryopreservation causes a rapid temperature change in the cryopreservation container and has a substantial impact on mechanical properties; therefore, a highly rigid cryopreservation container that possesses a fast freezing rate must be developed. To produce a highly rigid cryopreservation container possessing superior heat transfer efficiency, this study applies an electrochemical machining (ECM) method to an ANSI 316L stainless steel tube to treat the surface material by polishing and roughening, thereby increasing the freezing rate and reducing the probability of ice crystal formation. The results indicated that the ECM method provided high-quality surface treatment of the stainless steel tube. This method can reduce internal surface roughness in the stainless steel tube, thereby reducing the probability of ice crystal formation, and increase external surface roughness, consequently raising convection heat-transfer efficiency. In addition, by thinning the stainless steel tube, this method reduces heat capacity and thermal resistance, thereby increasing the freezing rate. The freezing rate (3399 ± 197 °C/min) of a stainless steel tube after interior and exterior polishing and exterior etching by applying ECM compared with the freezing rate (1818 ± 54 °C/min) of an original stainless steel tube was increased by 87%, which also exceeds the freezing rate (2015 ± 49 °C/min) of an original quartz tube that has a 20% lower heat capacity. However, the results indicated that increasing heat-transferring surface areas and reducing heat capacities cannot effectively increase the freezing rate of a stainless steel tube if only one method is applied; instead, both techniques must be implemented concurrently to improve the freezing rate. PMID:23993919

Shih, Wei-Hung; Yu, Zong-Yan; Wu, Wei-Te

2013-12-01

373

CALCULATING THE PH OF CALCIUM CARBONATE SATURATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Two new expressions for the pH of saturation (pH subs) were derived. One is a simplified equation developed from an aqueous carbonate equilibrium system in which correction for ionic strength was considered. The other is a more accurate quadratic formula that involves computerize...

374

Nursing PhD 2010 Edition  

E-print Network

Nursing PhD Handbook 2010 Edition 107 Wiggins Rd, Saskatoon SK S7N 5E5 Phone: (306) 966-8239 Fax: (306) 966-6703 Email: grad.nursing@usask.ca #12;Welcome to the College of Nursing Graduate Program & Continuing Nursing Education #12;PhD Manual 2 Table of Contents General Information

Saskatchewan, University of

375

Salivary pH: A diagnostic biomarker  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Saliva contains a variety of host defense factors. It influences calculus formation and periodontal disease. Different studies have been done to find exact correlation of salivary biomarkers with periodontal disease. With a multitude of biomarkers and complexities in their determination, the salivary pH may be tried to be used as a quick chairside test. The aim of this study was to analyze the pH of saliva and determine its relevance to the severity of periodontal disease. Study Design: The study population consisted of 300 patients. They were divided into three groups of 100 patients each: Group A had clinically healthy gingiva, Group B who had generalized chronic gingivitis and Group C who had generalized chronic periodontitis. The randomized unstimulated saliva from each patient was collected and pH was tested. Data was analyzed statistically using analysis of variance technique. Results: The salivary pH was more alkaline for patients with generalized chronic gingivitis as compared with the control group (P = 0.001) whereas patients with generalized chronic periodontitis had more acidic pH as compared with the control group (P = 0.001). Conclusion: These results indicate a significant change in the pH depending on the severity of the periodontal condition. The salivary pH shows significant changes and thus relevance to the severity of periodontal disease. Salivary pH may thus be used as a quick chairside diagnostic biomarker. PMID:24174725

Baliga, Sharmila; Muglikar, Sangeeta; Kale, Rahul

2013-01-01

376

Middle School and pH?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A local middle school requested that the Water Center of Advanced Materials for Purification of Water With Systems (WaterCAMPWS), a National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center, provide an introduction to pH for their seventh-grade water-based service learning class. After sorting through a multitude of information about pH, a…

Herricks, Susan

2007-01-01

377

PhD Studentships Biomedical Cell Biology  

E-print Network

The Division of Biomedical Cell Biology at Warwick Medical School seeks applications from candidates for Ph edge of medically relevant cell biology, preparing students for careers in academia, industryPhD Studentships Biomedical Cell Biology Funding available for UK and non-UK applicants

Goldschmidt, Christina

378

Curriculum Vitae ANNE ZISSU, PH.D.  

E-print Network

) The Effect of Probabilistic vs. Deterministic Valuation of Securitized Senior Life Settlements on the LevelCurriculum Vitae ANNE ZISSU, PH.D. CHAIRPERSON New York City College of Technology Department AND UNIVERSITY CENTER OF THE CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK Ph.D. in Economics (Concentration in Finance

Aronov, Boris

379

NEUROPSYCHOLOGIST Louis Costa Ph.D.  

E-print Network

NEUROPSYCHOLOGIST Louis Costa Ph.D. I obtained my Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology from Teachers at the Bronx VA Medical Center. On the day I deposited copies of my doctoral dissertation with my mentor, Dr intelligence, energy, enthusiasm, and charisma. I eagerly accepted the fellowship when it was offered. I

Brown, Lucy L.

380

Parametric Pumping with pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separations of aqueous solutions of Na and K have been obtained using a recuperative pH parametric pumping system. A chromatographic column of cation exchange resin was subjected simultaneously to an alternating axial displacement of solution and to an alternating pH gradient. The synchronous coupling of these two actions produced a concentration enrichment of 15–80% above the feed.

J. E. Sabadell; N. H. Sweed

1970-01-01

381

Colorimetric determination of pH  

SciTech Connect

There is a need for a simple, rapid, reliable means for determining pH values of concentrated, high salt solutions without reliance on human eye and ambient light. The method comprises the steps of preparing a set of reference solutions, measuring the light absorption by each reference solution, adding indicator dye to each reference solution, measuring the light absorption by each such reference mixture, comparing the two solutions to determine the dye color at each pH, normalizing the spectra of mixture to the isosbestic point, and matching the color of the pH of the solution to one of the colors of the pHs in the reference solution set. In this way, the pH can be determined to within 0.1 pH unit, a far more precise method than using the human eye.

Baumann, E.W.; Buchanan, B.R.

1991-12-31

382

CLYDE L. 0 INGS, M.D.,Ph.D. RICHARD G. SNYDER, Ph.D.  

E-print Network

.S. CHILDREN FOR PRODUCT SAFETY DESIGN FINAL REPORT OCTOBER 1975 CLYDE L. OWINGS, M.D., Ph.D. Departmentt aracteri CLYDE L. 0 INGS, M.D.,Ph.D. RICHARD G. SNYDER, Ph.D. RICHARD H. NORC October 1975 Sponsored by Consumer Product Safety Commission #12;#12;CONTRACT FDA-73-32 STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF U

383

Irradiation resistance of a nanostructured 316 austenitic stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reduction of grain size down to several tens or hundreds of nanometers leads to the enhancement of radiation resistance of metals. Based on this approach, the aim of the Labex EMC3 (Energy Materials and Clean Combustion Center) project "Naninox" is (1) to study the stability of the microstructure of a nanostructured 316 stainless steel under ion irradiation and (2) to link between this microstructure and the properties (corrosion resistance and the microhardness) of the steel (thanks to a better irradiation resistance, a better corrosion resistance and higher mechanical properties after irradiation are expected in the ultra-fine grained stainless steel). Ultrafine grained 316L austenitic stainless steel samples have been produced by high pressure torsion (HPT) at 430°C and then ion irradiated in Jannus facilities (CEA Saclay) at 450°C and 5 displacements per atoms (dpa). Their microstructure is characterized before and after irradiation by atom probe tomography, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Corrosion behavior in NaCl solution is tested and nano-indentation tests are performed. The first results obtained by atom probe tomography described in this paper indicate that the microstructure of ultrafine grain 316 austenitic stainless steel is more stable under irradiation than the microstructure of a coarse grain 316 austenitic stainless steel.

Revathy Rajan, P. B.; Monnet, I.; Hug, E.; Etienne, A.; Enikeev, N.; Keller, C.; Sauvage, X.; Valiev, R.; Radiguet, B.

2014-08-01

384

The hardening of Type 316L stainless steel welds with thermal aging  

E-print Network

Welded stainless steel piping is a component of boiling water reactors (BWRs). Reirculation and other large diameter piping are fabricated from Type 304 or 316 stainless steels. Delta ferrite is present in welds, because ...

Ayers, Lauren Juliet

2012-01-01

385

78 FR 35253 - Welded Stainless Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Welded Stainless Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic...INFORMATION CONTACT: Edythe Artman (Malaysia), Victoria Cho (Thailand), or Fred...pressure pipe (welded stainless pipe) from Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist...

2013-06-12

386

PLC-9 Non Rusting Stainless Steel Column 10" Square with Radius Corners  

E-print Network

PLC-9 Non Rusting Stainless Steel Column 10" Square with Radius Corners Unit includes two lights General Specifications of PLC-9 Column Non Rusting, Non Magnetic Stainless Steel - .125" Thick Dimensions

Duchowski, Andrew T.

387

78 FR 31574 - Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-1210-1212 (Preliminary)] Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of...Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of welded stainless steel pressure pipe, provided for in in subheadings 7306.40.50 and...

2013-05-24

388

75 FR 70908 - Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Extension...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-930] Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Extension of the...antidumping duty order on circular welded austenitic stainless pressure pipe from the People's Republic of China. See...

2010-11-19

389

Machinability of a Stainless Steel by Electrochemical Discharge Microdrilling  

SciTech Connect

Due to the chemical elements included in their structure for ensuring an increased resistance to the environment action, the stainless steels are characterized by a low machinability when classical machining methods are applied. For this reason, sometimes non-traditional machining methods are applied, one of these being the electrochemical discharge machining. To obtain microholes and to evaluate the machinability by electrochemical discharge microdrilling, test pieces of stainless steel were used for experimental research. The electrolyte was an aqueous solution of sodium silicate with different densities. A complete factorial plan was designed to highlight the influence of some input variables on the sizes of the considered machinability indexes (electrode tool wear, material removal rate, depth of the machined hole). By mathematically processing of experimental data, empirical functions were established both for stainless steel and carbon steel. Graphical representations were used to obtain more suggestive vision concerning the influence exerted by the considered input variables on the size of the machinability indexes.

Coteata, Margareta; Pop, Nicolae; Slatineanu, Laurentiu ['Gheorghe Asachi' Technical University of Iasi, Department of Machine Manufacturing Technology, Blvd. D Mangeron 59A, 700050 Iasi (Romania); Schulze, Hans-Peter [Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Institute of Fundamental Electrical Engineering and EMC Universitaetsplatz 2, D-39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Besliu, Irina [University 'Stefan cel Mare' of Suceava, Department of Technologies and Management, Str. Universitatii, 13, 720 229 Suceava (Romania)

2011-05-04

390

Practical handbook of stainless steels and nickel alloys  

SciTech Connect

This new handbook is an up-to-date technical guide to the grades, properties, fabrication characteristics, and applications of stainless steels and nickel alloys. The individual chapters were written by industry experts and focus on the key properties and alloy characteristics important in material selection and specification as well as the practical factors that influence the development and application of these materials. The contents include: alloy grades and their welding and fabrication characteristics and their application; monel metal; iron-based and nickel-based alloys; ferritic, austenitic, superaustenitic, and martensitic stainless steels; hastelloys; alloys 20, G, and 825; AOD and new refining technology; duplex stainless steels; 6-Mo alloys; corrosion-resistant castings; specification cross-reference tables; trade names; hardness conversions; list of common abbreviations.

Lamb, S. [ed.

1999-07-01

391

Fracture threshold and shock induced strengthening of stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hugoniot Elastic Limit and spall strength of Fe-Cr-Ni stainless steel near its dynamic fracture threshold at temperature from 293 K up to 173 K were determined from free surface velocity measurements of the samples shocked up to velocities 120-350 m/sec. The recovered samples were studied metallographically. The martensite generation in rarefaction wave was found starting at temperature 240 K while the static martensite transformation starting point in this steel is MS=214 K. The martensite generation in tension is responsible for the the stainless steel spall strength increase. A model capable of explaining of this phenomena as well as of the stainless steel behavior near its fracture threshold is suggested.

Zaretsky, E.; Kaluzhny, M.

1996-05-01

392

Corrosion in lithium-stainless steel thermal-convection systems  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion of types 304L and 316 austenitic stainless steel by flowing lithium was studied in thermal-convection loops operated at 500 to 650/sup 0/C. Both weight and compositional changes were measured on specimens distributed throughout each loop and were combined with metallographic examinations to evaluate the corrosion processes. The corrosion rate and mass transfer characteristics did not significantly differ between the two austenitic stainless steels. Addition of 500 or 1700 wt ppM N to purified lithium did not increase the dissolution rate or change the attack mode of type 316 stainless steel. Adding 5 wt % Al to the lithium reduced the weight loss of this steel by a factor of 5 relative to a pure lithium-thermal-convection loop.

Tortorelli, P.F.; DeVan, J.H.; Selle, J.E.

1980-01-01

393

Fatigue crack propagation in austenitic stainless steels at cryogenic temperatures  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation contains a study, in two parts, that relates to fatigue crack propagation in austenitic stainless steels at cryogenic temperatures. the first part of the research concentrates on the influence of the mechanically induced martensitic transformation on the fatigue crack growth rate in metastable austenitic stainless steels. The steels 304L and 304N were used to test the influence of composition, the testing temperatures 298 K and 77 K were used to study the influence of test temperature, and various load ratios were used to determine the influence of the mean stress. The second part of the research concerns the effect of low temperature on fatigue crack propagation in 310 austenitic stainless steel. Crack growth rates were measured at 298 K, 77 K, and 4 K. As temperature decreased the fatigue crack growth rate decreased while the threshold stress intensity increased. 106 refs., 29 figs., 4 tabs.

Mei, Zequn.

1990-01-01

394

Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of Gas Metal Arc Welded AISI 409 Grade Ferritic Stainless Steel Joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of filler metals such as austenitic stainless steel, ferritic stainless steel, and duplex stainless steel on fatigue\\u000a crack growth behavior of the gas metal arc welded ferritic stainless steel joints was investigated. Rolled plates of 4 mm\\u000a thickness were used as the base material for preparing single ‘V’ butt welded joints. Center cracked tensile specimens were\\u000a prepared to evaluate

A. K. Lakshminarayanan; K. Shanmugam; V. Balasubramanian

2009-01-01

395

Effects of copper content on the machinability and corrosion resistance of martensitic stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of copper addition on the machinability and corrosion resistance of martensitic stainless steel 4Cr16Mo are presented\\u000a in the article. The results showed that the machinability of stainless steel 4Cr16Mo was obviously improved by adding Cu.\\u000a When the content of copper in the stainless steel was 1.4%, the machinability of stainless steel was optimal. With the increase\\u000a in the

Hongming Geng; Xiaochun Wu; Hongbin Wang; Yongan Min

2008-01-01

396

The effect of surface mechanical attrition treatment on low temperature plasma nitriding of an austenitic stainless  

E-print Network

of an austenitic stainless steel M. Chemkhi1 , D. Retraint1,* , A. Roos1 , C. Garnier1 , L. Waltz2 , C. Demangel3) followed by plasma nitriding on the mechanical properties of a medical grade austenitic stainless steel, nanocrystalline materials, plasma nitriding, austenitic steels 1. Introduction Austenitic stainless steel AISI 316

Boyer, Edmond

397

Eddy current detection of changes in stainless steel af ter cold reductions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold rolling of austenitic stainless steel results in in crease of residual stresses, hardness, and tensile strength and dislocation density. We have studied the respo nse of eddy current impedance to austenitic change, hardness and its lift off phase in stainless steel s during cold reductions. A series of samples of austenitic stainless steel alloys were cold rolled and found

S. H. Khan; Farhad Ali; M. A. Iqbal; A. Nusair Khan

398

78 FR 63517 - Control of Ferrite Content in Stainless Steel Weld Metal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Control of Ferrite Content in Stainless Steel Weld Metal AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Control of Ferrite Content in Stainless Steel Weld Metal.'' This guide (Revision 4) describes...controlling ferrite content in stainless steel weld metal. It updates the guide to...

2013-10-24

399

77 FR 60478 - Control of Ferrite Content in Stainless Steel Weld Metal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Control of Ferrite Content in Stainless Steel Weld Metal AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Control of Ferrite Content in Stainless Steel Weld Metal.'' This guide describes a method...controlling ferrite content in stainless steel weld metal. Revision 4 updates the guide...

2012-10-03

400

75 FR 53714 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Third Review)] Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and...antidumping duty orders on stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and...antidumping duty orders on stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea,...

2010-09-01

401

77 FR 39735 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Second Review)] Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and...antidumping duty orders on stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and...2012), entitled Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Italy, Malaysia,...

2012-07-05

402

Experimental investigation of cold-formed stainless steel tubular T-joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a test program on a wide range of cold-formed stainless steel welded tubular T-joints fabricated from square and rectangular hollow section brace and chord members. A total of 22 tests was performed. High strength stainless steel (duplex and high strength austenitic) and normal strength stainless steel (AISI 304) specimens were tested. The tests were performed by supporting

Ran Feng; Ben Young

2008-01-01

403

Accepted Manuscript Effect of Corrosion on the High Cycle Fatigue Strength of Martensitic Stainless  

E-print Network

of Corrosion on the High Cycle Fatigue Strength of Martensitic Stainless Steel X12CrNiMoV12-3, International of a high mechanical strength martensitic stainless steel (X12CrNiMoV12-3) that is used in aeronauticAccepted Manuscript Effect of Corrosion on the High Cycle Fatigue Strength of Martensitic Stainless

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

404

Martensite ? austenite phase transformation kinetics in an ultrafine-grained metastable austenitic stainless steel  

E-print Network

. All rights reserved. Keywords: Austenite; Martensite; Stainless steel; Phase transformation kinetics 1 stainless steel S. Rajasekhara, P.J. Ferreira Materials Science and Engineering Program, The University-grained austenitic stainless steel. The model shows that the presence of interstitial nitro- gen and heavy cold

Ferreira, Paulo J.

405

Wear reduction in AISI 630 martensitic stainless steel after energetic nitrogen ion implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant wear reduction by several orders of magnitude is the common result for austenitic stainless steels after energetic nitrogen implantation at medium temperatures around 380 °C. In contrast, martensitic stainless steels are rarely investigated. In this investigation, one steel grade, stainless steel AISI 630\\/DIN 1.4542, is treated using low energy nitrogen implantation at 380 and 600 °C, high voltage

S. Mändl; B. Fritzsche; D. Manova; D. Hirsch; H. Neumann; E. Richter; B. Rauschenbach

2005-01-01

406

78 FR 4383 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-351-825] Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...order on stainless steel bar (SSB) from Brazil. The period of review (POR) is February...Administrative Review: Stainless Steel Bar from Brazil'' dated concurrently with this...

2013-01-22

407

75 FR 67689 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-351-825] Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...order on certain stainless steel bar from Brazil. The review covers one producer/ exporter...order on certain stainless steel bar from Brazil. See Antidumping Duty Orders:...

2010-11-03

408

75 FR 12514 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-351-825] Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...order on certain stainless steel bar from Brazil. The review covers one producer/ exporter...order on certain stainless steel bar from Brazil. See Antidumping Duty Orders:...

2010-03-16

409

Twinning-Induced Plasticity Aided High Ductile Duplex Stainless Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extended ductility over 70 pct was realized in duplex stainless steel by implementing twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP). The steel also exhibited the tensile strength over 800 MPa. The steel chemistry was designed so that the stacking fault energy of austenite was high enough to induce TWIP during deformation. After the initial decrease, the strain hardening rate increased at high tensile strains above ~30 pct. The microstructures of austenite at such high strains were manifested by well-developed primary twins and nanotwins between them, which effectively block dislocation motion. This observation ensures that extended ductility and high strength of a newly designed duplex stainless steel are originated from TWIP in austenite.

Choi, Jeom Yong; Hwang, Si Woo; Park, Kyung-Tae

2013-02-01

410

Anisotropy of nickel release and corrosion in austenitic stainless steels.  

PubMed

The study of 316L-type stainless steel reveals a significant anisotropy of nickel release that is dependent on the orientation of the test surface with respect to the casting and rolling direction. Cross-sectional specimens (transversal cuts with respect to the rolling direction) show a substantially higher sensitivity to corrosion phenomena compared with longitudinal cuts and they release nickel ions at rates 10-100 times higher. These findings indicate that orientation needs to be taken into account when interpreting test results, in particular when comparing different grades of austenitic stainless steel, as well as in product and production design. PMID:18054530

Reclaru, L; Lüthy, H; Ziegenhagen, R; Eschler, P-Y; Blatter, A

2008-05-01

411

Metal-ceramic interfaces: joining silicon nitride-stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Joining of hot pressed silicon nitride using three types of stainless steel (AISI 304, 316 and 321) as interlayer was done by diffusion bonding at 1100 °C for 120 min. An extensive reaction zone of about 7 ?m was formed in the contact region, where Cr 2N, Fe xSi y and ?-Fe were observed, outside that region the austenitic phase with precipitates of chromium nitride was observed. In the Mo-containing stainless steel (AISI 316) formation of Mo 3Si was also detected. Moderate strengths were measured by shear testing for these joints.

Polanco, R.; De Pablos, A.; Miranzo, P.; Osendi, M. I.

2004-11-01

412

Ozone decay on stainless steel and sugarcane bagasse surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ozone was generated using dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure to treat sugarcane bagasse for bioethanol production. It was shown that interaction of ozone molecules with the pretreatment reactor wall (stainless steel) needs to be considered during bagasse oxidation in order to evaluate the pretreatment efficiency. The decomposition coefficients for ozone on both materials were determined to be (3.3 ± 0.2) × 10-8 for stainless steel and (2.0 ± 0.3) × 10-7 for bagasse. The results have indicated that ozone decomposition has occurred more efficiently on the biomass material.

Souza-Corrêa, Jorge A.; Oliveira, Carlos; Amorim, Jayr

2013-07-01

413

Corrosion evaluation of stainless steel root weld shielding  

SciTech Connect

The effect of five shielding methods for gas tungsten arc root pass welds, on the corrosion resistance of stainless steel was evaluated in two laboratory solutions. The first experiment was performed in 6% ferric chloride solution, a test designed to corrode stainless steel. The second experiment was performed in a simulated paper machine white water solution that contained hydrogen peroxide. Argon shielding produced excellent results by maintaining corrosion resistance in both solutions. Nitrogen purging and flux coated TIG rod techniques produced variable results. Paste fluxes and welding without shielding are not recommended for root protection. They performed very poorly with the welds corroding in both tests.

Gorog, M.; Sawyer, L.A.

1999-07-01

414

Transmission electron microscopy of undermined passive films on stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

A study has been made of the passive film remaining over pits on stainless steel using a high resolution transmission electron microscope. Type 305 stainless steel was passivated in a borate buffer solution and pitted in ferric chloride. Passive films formed at 0.2 V relative to a saturated calomel electrode were found to be amorphous. Films formed at higher potentials showed only broad diffraction rings. The passive film was found to cover a remnant lacy structure formed over pits passivated at 0.8 V. The metallic strands of the lace were roughly hemitubular in shape with the curved surface facing the center of the pit.

Isaacs, H.S.; Zhu, Y.; Sabatini, R.L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Science; Ryan, M.P. [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials

1999-06-01

415

Welding of austenitic stainless steels for liquid-helium service  

SciTech Connect

This survey covers available information on the 4/sup 0/K mechanical and metallurgical behavior of austenitic stainless steel weldments with particular emphasis on the problems inherent in the production of defect-free welds in structures up to 5 inches thick. Austenitic Cr-Ni, Cr-Ni-N/sub 2/, and Cr-Ni-Mn-N/sub 2/ stainless steels are the most widely used structural materials in superconducting magnets. These materials show useful combinations of toughness, stiffness, and strength at 4/sup 0/K. High construction costs and the need for careful composition-control to insure microstructural stability under operational conditions are the principal drawbacks. 11 figures, 4 tables.

Dalder, E.N.C.

1981-06-01

416

Colorimetric Determination of pH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an activity in which the pH of a solution can be quantitatively measured using a spectrophotometer. The theory, experimental details, sample preparation and selection, instrumentation, and results are discussed. (CW)

Tucker, Sheryl; And Others

1989-01-01

417

Fetal scalp pH testing  

MedlinePLUS

... continue labor, or if a forceps delivery or cesarean section might be the best route of delivery. ... be delivered quickly, either by forceps or by cesarean section. Fetal scalp pH testing may need to ...

418

Mary Fennell, PhD Chair  

Cancer.gov

NCI Community Cancer Centers Program Evaluation Oversight Committee Roster CHAIR Mary Fennell, Ph.D. Chair, Department of Sociology and Community Health Brown University Box 1916, 211 Maxcy Hall 112 George Street Providence, RI 02912

419

Nadarajen A. Vydelingum, PhD  

Cancer.gov

Division of Cancer Prevention Staff Nadarajen A. Vydelingum, PhD Biologist and Program DirectorCancer Biomarkers Research Group Location Division of Cancer PreventionNational Cancer Institute9609 Medical Center Drive, Room 5E604 Rockville, MD

420

Ilsoon Lee, Ph. D. AssociateProfessor  

E-print Network

applications Teaching Fluid Mechanics, Heat Transfer, Molecular Engineering, Molecular Self Chemical Reaction Engineering CHE 802: Research Methods CHE 311: Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer1 Ilsoon Lee, Ph. D. AssociateProfessor 2527EngineeringBuilding DepartmentofChemicalEngineering

Lee, Ilsoon

421

PhD Studentships Biomedical Cell Biology  

E-print Network

applicants ONLY The Division of Biomedical Cell Biology at Warwick Medical at the cuCng edge of medically relevant cell biology, preparing studentsPhD Studentships Biomedical Cell Biology Funding available for UK and EU

Davies, Christopher

422

Ph.D. Handbook Department of English  

E-print Network

for their Ph.D. studies-- Literary and Cultural Studies, Film and Media Studies Maun Kay Stone Interim Director of Graduate Studies Graduate Program degrees. Our program is designed around three primary concentrations--Literary

Berdichevsky, Victor

423

Grit Denker, Ph.D. SRI International  

E-print Network

Grit Denker, Ph.D. SRI International Senior Computer Scientist Computer Science Laboratory and a machine -- "the last meter bandwidth." bRIGHT will increase efficiency to Lockheed Martin in DARPA's Behavioral Learning for Adaptive Electronic Warfare (BLADE

Denker, Grit

424

Curriculum Vitae Andrs Guerra, Ph.D.  

E-print Network

Design client, Elementary School Science Fair judge, Youth Track and Youth Softball volunteer coach: Richard Huggins, PhD candidate (2013), Division of Environmental Science and Engineering, Colorado School

425

Measurement of soil pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of experimental results are presented which show the variation of the pH values of several soils when samples of each are shaken with CaClâ solutions of different concentrations. These results are then interpreted on the basis of the ratio law-derived from the Gouy theory of the electrical double layer - and it is shown that the pH values

R. K. Schofield; A. Wormald Taylor

1955-01-01

426

Traceable measurements of pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary method for pH is based on the measurement of the potential difference of an electrochemical cell containing a\\u000a platinum hydrogen electrode and a silver\\/silver chloride reference electrode, often called a Harned cell. Assumptions must\\u000a be made to relate the operation of this cell to the thermodynamic definition of pH. National metrology institutes use the\\u000a primary method to assign

Petra Spitzer

2001-01-01

427

Mechanisms of Intragastric pH Sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Luminal amino acids and lack of luminal acidity as a result of acid neutralization by intragastric foodstuffs are powerful\\u000a signals for acid secretion. Although the hormonal and neural pathways underlying this regulatory mechanism are well understood,\\u000a the nature of the gastric luminal pH sensor has been enigmatic. In clinical studies, high pH, tryptic peptides, and luminal\\u000a divalent metals (Ca2+ and

Tyralee Goo; Yasutada Akiba; Jonathan D. Kaunitz

2010-01-01

428

Development of pH measurement system for legal traceability of pH standard solutions.  

PubMed

The best reproducible technology of pH measurement for precise pH buffer solutions regulated by Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) was studied. A pH meter was devised with a high resolution of +/- 0.0001 pH. An 18-bit analog-to-digital converter is used, one-bit resolution corresponding to 0.0019 mV (ca. 0.000032 pH) against an input electrode potential +/- 500 mV. Digital data were treated smoothly for some types of noise, a reproducibility of +/- 0.0002 pH being obtained with a potentiometer. A flow cell was devised to attain temperature control within +/- 0.03 degrees C and air-tight measurement prevented contamination with carbon dioxide. Also, the flow cell has a structure such that potassium chloride (KCl) inner solution effused from a ceramic junction of the reference electrode designed so as not to touch the glass membrane. A combination pH electrode (a glass electrode and a reference electrode) was assembled to minimize the dead volume of sample solution. This highly sensitive pH measuring system, consisting of a pH meter, a flow cell, a combination pH electrode, a circulating water thermostat and a peristaltic pump, was used for the certification of pH standard solutions in Japanese metrological law. The performance of this system was within +/- 0.0006 pH reproducibility and 20-30 min response time (5 min within +/- 0.0002 pH) at a sample flow rate of 3 ml min (-1). PMID:18966620

Ito, S; Hachiya, H; Baba, K; Eto, M; Asano, Y; Wada, H

1996-09-01

429

Chalcogen-Rich Lanthanide Clusters: Compounds with Te2-, (TeTe)2-, TePh, TeTePh, (TeTeTe(Ph)TeTe)5-, and [(TeTe)4TePh]9-Ligands; Single  

E-print Network

ion by pyridine, to give the pentaanion (µ-2 -2 -Te2Te(Ph)Te2).5- In the Tm compound, the displaced Te with PhTeTePh and elemental Te in pyridine to give (py)yLn4(Te)(TeTe)2(TeTeTe(Ph)- TeTe)(TexTePh) (Ln ) Sm

Lawson, Catherine L.

430

Design and Construction of Precast Piles with Stainless Reinforcing Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The service life of prestressed concrete piles is, in part, dictated by the time required to corrode the steel once chloride ions are at the surface of the steel. Stainless steel materials, although limited in availability in strand form, have a higher to...

G. Mullins, R. Sen

2014-01-01

431

Intergranular corrosion susceptibility in supermartensitic stainless steel weldments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intergranular corrosion susceptibility in supermartensitic stainless steel (SMSS) weldments was investigated by the double loop – electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) technique through the degree of sensitization (DOS). The results showed that the DOS decreased from the base metal (BM) to the weld metal (WM). The heat affected zone (HAZ) presented lower levels of DOS, despite of its complex precipitation

J. M. Aquino; C. A. Della Rovere; S. E. Kuri

2009-01-01

432

Effect of Preheat Temperature on Weldability of Martensitic Stainless Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

13\\/4 low carbon martensitic stainless steel is conventionally used for turbine blades in hydroelectric power plants. Due to silt erosion and cavitation, heavy damage often occurs in this material. In order to enhance the life of hydro-turbine components, repair welding is needed. Selection of proper welding parameters during repair welding is therefore essential in order to control any possible deterioration

Sanjeev Kumar; G. P. Chaudhari; S. K. Nath; B. Basu

2012-01-01

433

Rutherford backscattering analysis of gallium implanted 316 stainless steel  

E-print Network

Ion implantation of Ga ions into 316 stainless steel was performed at fluences ranging from 8x10¹? to 10¹? ions/cm². The depth profile of Ga in the steel was analyzed via Rutherford Backscattering and ToFSIMS. The surface effects were...

Ortensi, Javier

2012-06-07

434

73. View of line of stainless steel coolant storage tanks ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

73. View of line of stainless steel coolant storage tanks for bi-sodium sulfate/water coolant solution at first floor of transmitter building no. 102. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

435

Nonproportional low cycle fatigue criterion for type 304 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a multiaxial low cycle fatigue parameter for correlating lives under nonproportional loadings. Constant amplitude low cycle fatigue tests were carried out under 14 proportional and complex nonproportional cyclic strain paths using type 304 stainless steel hollow cylinder specimens at room temperature. In nonproportional loading tests, fatigue lives are decreased by as much as a factor of 10

Takamoto Itoh; Masao Sakane; Masateru Ohnami; Darrell F. Socie

1995-01-01

436

2. GENERAL VIEW OF STAINLESS STEEL SMOKEHOUSES ON LEVEL 6, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. GENERAL VIEW OF STAINLESS STEEL SMOKEHOUSES ON LEVEL 6, LOOKING EAST; SMOKEHOUSE UNITS WERE BUILT BY DRYING SYSTEMS COMPANY, DIVISION OF MICHIGAN OVEN COMPANY, MORTON GROVE, ILLINOIS - Rath Packing Company, Smokehouse-Hog Chilling Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

437

Plastic plus stainless-steel fibers make resilient, impermeable material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plastic material combined with stainless-steel fibers and molded under heat and pressure into a desired configuration is both soft enough to deform under a load and resilient enough to return to its original shape when the load is removed.

Smirra, J. R.

1965-01-01

438

Arc welding duplex stainless steels for maximum corrosion resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arc welding ferritic-austenitic stainless steel can influence material corrosion behavior and, therefore, service performance. This article describes the main factors in formulating a welding procedure. Depending on material composition, arc energy should be between minimum and maximum levels to promote austenite formation in the weld area without inducing intermetallic formation. Nitrogen loss should be minimized, and slight overalloying of the

T. G. Gooch; R. N. Gunn

1995-01-01

439

Submerged arc fillet welds between mild steel and stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submerged arc fillet welds between mild steel and Type 304 stainless steel, made with ER309L wire, may contain no ferrite and be at risk of hot cracking, or they may be sufficiently diluted that they transform to martensite with both hot cracking risk and low ductility. This situation is most prevalent when direct current electrode positive (DCEP) polarity is used

D. J. Kotecki; V. B. Rajan

1997-01-01

440

Electroslag and submerged arc stainless steel strip cladding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steel strip cladding is a flexible and economical way of depositing a corrosion resistant, protective layer on a load-bearing mild or low alloy steel. Strip cladding is therefore widely used in the production of components for the chemical, petrochemical and nuclear industries, for example.

Susan Pak; Solveig Rigdal; Leif Karlsson; Ann-Charlotte Gustavsson

1998-01-01

441

Stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of dissimilar stainless steels welded joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of the current study is to reveal the influence of welding conditions on structure and stress corrosion cracking resistance of dissimilar stainless steels butt welded joints. Design\\/methodology\\/approach: Butt joints between duplex 2205 and austenitic 316L steels were performed with the use of submerged arc welding (SAW) method. The plates 15 mm in thickness were welded with heat

J. ?abanowski

442

Kinetics of low temperature plasma carburizing of austenitic stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low temperature plasma carburizing technique has recently been developed to engineer the surfaces of austenitic stainless steels for combined improvement in wear and corrosion resistance. The resultant carburized layer is characterized by the supersaturation of carbon in austenite lattices, the much-increased hardness and wear resistance, and most importantly its superior corrosion resistance. This paper presents recent experimental results on

Y. Sun

2005-01-01

443

Bactericidal behavior of Cu-containing stainless steel surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stainless steels are one of the most common materials used in health care environments. However, the lack of antibacterial advantage has limited their use in practical application. In this paper, antibacterial stainless steel surfaces with different Cu contents have been prepared by plasma surface alloying technology (PSAT). The steel surface with Cu content 90 wt.% (Cu-SS) exhibits strong bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) within 3 h. Although the Cu-containing surface with Cu content 2.5 wt.% (CuNi-SS) can also kill all tested bacteria, this process needs 12 h. SEM observation of the bacterial morphology and an agarose gel electrophoresis were performed to study the antibacterial mechanism of Cu-containing stainless steel surfaces against E. coli. The results indicated that Cu ions are released when the Cu-containing surfaces are in contact with bacterial and disrupt the cell membranes, killing the bacteria. The toxicity of Cu-alloyed surfaces does not cause damage to the bacterial DNA. These results provide a scientific explanation for the antimicrobial applications of Cu-containing stainless steel. The surfaces with different antibacterial abilities could be used as hygienic surfaces in healthcare-associated settings according to the diverse requirement of bactericidal activities.

Zhang, Xiangyu; Huang, Xiaobo; Ma, Yong; Lin, Naiming; Fan, Ailan; Tang, Bin

2012-10-01

444

Electrochemically induced annealing of stainless-steel surfaces.  

PubMed

Modification of the surface properties of metals without affecting their bulk properties is of technological interest in demanding applications where surface stability and hardness are important. When austenitic stainless steel is heavily plastically deformed by grinding or rolling, a martensitic phase transformation occurs that causes significant changes in the bulk and surface mechanical properties of the alloy. This martensitic phase can also be generated in stainless-steel surfaces by cathodic charging, as a consequence of lattice strain generated by absorbed hydrogen. Heat treatment of the steel to temperatures of several hundred degrees can result in loss of the martensitic structure, but this alters the bulk properties of the alloy. Here we show that martensitic structures in stainless steel can be removed by appropriate electrochemical treatment in aqueous solutions at much lower temperature than conventional annealing treatments. This electrochemically induced annealing process allows the hardness of cold-worked stainless steels to be maintained, while eliminating the brittle martensitic phase from the surface. Using this approach, we are able to anneal the surface and near-surface regions of specimens that contain rolling-induced martensite throughout their bulk, as well as those containing surface martensite induced by grinding. Although the origin of the electrochemical annealing process still needs further clarification, we expect that this treatment will lead to further development in enhancing the surface properties of metals. PMID:11057662

Burstein, G T; Hutchings, I M; Sasaki, K

2000-10-19

445

Elevated temperature fracture toughness of AISI 403 martensitic stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AISI 403 martensitic stainless steel is used as the end fitting material in pressurised heavy water reactors. The fracture toughness of single quenched and tempered, double quenched and tempered, and Nb-modified variety of this steel has been evaluated at 473 and 573 K. Elevated temperature results are compared with the room temperature values reported in earlier studies. The double

J. S Dubey; S. L Wadekar; J. K Chakravartty

1998-01-01

446

Resistance upset butt welding of austenitic to martensitic stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, joining austenitic to martensitic stainless steels and effect of welding power on microstructure and mechanical properties of the joint were investigated. Microstructure of the weld was studied using optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) linked to SEM was used to determine chemical composition of phases and distribution of chromium (Cr), nickel

Mahmood Sharifitabar; Ayyub Halvaee

2010-01-01

447

New equation of state for stainless steel 347  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new SESAME equation of state (EOS) for stainless steel 347 has been generated using the computer program GRIZZLY, and has been added to the SESAME EOS library as material number 4271. This new EOS is superior to its predecesser (material number 4270) in several respects.

Boettger

1993-01-01

448

New equation of state for stainless steel 347  

SciTech Connect

A new SESAME equation of state (EOS) for stainless steel 347 has been generated using the computer program GRIZZLY, and has been added to the SESAME EOS library as material number 4271. This new EOS is superior to its predecesser (material number 4270) in several respects.

Boettger, J.C.

1993-12-01

449

Laser heat treatment of welds for various stainless steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a study concerning the post - weld heat treatment of a duplex stainless steel. Welded joint samples were surface - treated using the same laser source adopted during welding in order to counterbalance the excess of ferrite formed in the welding process.

Dontu, O.; Ganatsios, S.; Alexandrescu, N.; Predescu, C.

2008-03-01

450

Continuous cooling thermal cycle effects on sensitization in stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work for this study was directed towards quantifying sensitization development (defined as grain boundary chromium depletion) in high carbon Type 304 and 316 stainless steel (SS) subjected to linear heating to a given peak temperature followed by linear cooling through the sensitization development temperature range. The major variables investigated included: (1) heating rate; (2) peak temperature; (3) holding time at

D. G. Atteridge; C. A. Cedeno

1991-01-01

451

Metastable austenitic stainless steel tool for magnetic abrasive finishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through selective heat treatment, a metastable austenitic stainless steel tool can be fabricated to exhibit alternating magnetic and nonmagnetic regions. Magnetic abrasive is attracted to the borders of the magnetic regions of the developed tool to create additional finishing points. In combination with a multiple pole-tip system, this unique magnetic property facilitates simultaneous finishing of multiple regions for shortening finishing

H. Yamaguchi; J. Kang; F. Hashimoto

2011-01-01

452

Simplified Estimation of Tritium Inventory in Stainless Steel  

SciTech Connect

An important part of tritium facility waste management is estimating the residual tritium inventory in stainless steel. This was needed as part of the decontamination and decommissioning associated with the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In particular, the disposal path for three, large tanks would vary substantially depending on the tritium inventory in the stainless steel walls. For this purpose the time-dependant diffusion equation was solved using previously measured parameters. These results were compared to previous work that measured the tritium inventory in the stainless steel wall of a 50-L tritium container. Good agreement was observed. These results are reduced to a simple algebraic equation that can readily be used to estimate tritium inventories in room temperature stainless steel based on tritium partial pressure and exposure time. Results are available for both constant partial pressure exposures and for varying partial pressures. Movies of the time dependant results were prepared which are particularly helpful for interpreting results and drawing conclusions.

Willms, R. Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States)

2005-07-15

453

Heat Transport in a Stainless Steel at Very Low Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE thermal conductivity K was determined for two stainless steel tubes at several temperatures in the range 1 < T < 4° absolute. The identical specimens were of 5.50 and 6.00 +\\/- 0.01 mm internal and external diameters, respectively, and length 7 cm. Electrically introduced heat fluxes pass along the tubes (except for negligible losses by conduction, convection and radiation

Douglas Probert

1964-01-01

454

Influence of Microstructure on Nitriding Properties of Stainless Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very hard and wear-resistant layers are formed after energetic nitrogen insertion into stainless steel. Here, a systematic investigation of the influence of the microstructure is presented. Nitrogen implantation was performed in austenitic, martensitic, and ferritic steels with the samples investigated with respect to formation of expanded phase, nitrogen depth distribution, hardness, and wear. Microstructure strongly affects the diffusion in austenite

Darina Manova; Inga-Maria Eichentopf; Dietmar Hirsch; Stephan Mändl; Horst Neumann; Bernd Rauschenbach

2006-01-01

455

Kinetics of sigma phase formation in a Duplex Stainless Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work determines the kinetics of sigma phase formation in UNS S31803 Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS), describing the phase transformations that occur in isothermal aging between 700 and 900 °C for time periods up to 1032 hours, allowing the determination of the Time-Temperature-Precipitation (TTP) diagram for sigma phase and proposing a model to predict the kinetics of sigma phase formation

Rodrigo Magnabosco

2009-01-01

456

2012 ACCOMPLISHMENTS - TRITIUM AGING STUDIES ON STAINLESS STEELS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the research and development accomplishments during FY12 for the tritium effects on materials program. The tritium effects on materials program is designed to measure the long-term effects of tritium and its radioactive decay product, helium-3, on the structural properties of forged stainless steels which are used as the materials of construction for tritium reservoirs. The FY12 R&D accomplishments include: (1) Fabricated and Thermally-Charged 150 Forged Stainless Steel Samples with Tritium for Future Aging Studies; (2) Developed an Experimental Plan for Measuring Cracking Thresholds of Tritium-Charged-and-Aged Steels in High Pressure Hydrogen Gas; (3) Calculated Sample Tritium Contents For Laboratory Inventory Requirements and Environmental Release Estimates; (4) Published report on “Cracking Thresholds and Fracture Toughness Properties of Tritium-Charged-and-Aged Stainless Steels”; and, (5) Published report on “The Effects of Hydrogen, Tritium, and Heat Treatment on the Deformation and Fracture Toughness Properties of Stainless Steels”. These accomplishments are highlighted here and references given to additional reports for more detailed information.

Morgan, M.

2013-01-31

457

Hydrogen-enhanced cracking of 2205 duplex stainless steel welds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slow-displacement rate tensile tests were carried out to investigate the effect of hydrogen embrittlement on notched tensile strength (NTS) and fracture characteristics of 2205 duplex stainless steel weld. The hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility of the specimens was correlated with microstructures of the fusion zone. The results indicated that all the specimens were susceptible to gaseous hydrogen embrittlement but to different degrees.

M. C. Young; S. L. I. Chan; L. W. Tsay; C.-S. Shin

2005-01-01

458

Electrochemically induced annealing of stainless-steel surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modification of the surface properties of metals without affecting their bulk properties is of technological interest in demanding applications where surface stability and hardness are important. When austenitic stainless steel is heavily plastically deformed by grinding or rolling, a martensitic phase transformation occurs that causes significant changes in the bulk and surface mechanical properties of the alloy. This martensitic phase

G. T. Burstein; I. M. Hutchings; K. Sasaki

2000-01-01

459

DLC film coating on plasma-carburized austenitic stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low temperature plasma carburizing to austenitic stainless steels is attracted special attention because it can harden the surfaces without degradation of its corrosion resistance. The carburized layer shows very high saturation of carbon and it is called as S phase layer. However, this layer leads to give relatively high friction coefficients to the steels. In this study, diamond-like carbon (DLC)

N. Ueda; N. Yamauchi; T. Sone; A. Okamoto; M. Tsujikawa

2007-01-01

460

Quantitative modeling of sensitization development in austenitic stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steel is the most versatile, corrosion-resistant alloy for engineering structures. Applications encompass a wide range of temperatures from cryogenic to elevated and stainless steels are used in various industries including power production, chemical and petrochemical, food processing, dairy and waste handling/processing. In each case, resistance to general corrosion in aggressive environmental conditions justifies its selection. Unfortunately, like most metal systems which form passive films for corrosion resistance, stainless steels are susceptible to localized attack under certain environmental conditions. The primary forms of this localized attack are pitting, intergranular (IG) corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Sensitization is often directly responsible for the latter two and can also have an effect on pit initiation. The present work reviews the basic approach to model sensitization (chromium depletion) development in unstabilized, austenitic stainless steels. A theoretically-based, empirically-modified model is presented to quantitatively predict material degree of sensitization (DOS). Individual model components are discussed and compared to experimental results. Finally, overall model predictions are assessed relative to a large sensitization data base. More detailed information concerning this data base and model evolution has been reported elsewhere. 42 refs., 18 figs.

Bruemmer, S.M.

1989-04-01

461

Strengthening mechanism of 316LN stainless steel at cryogenic temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using vacuum metallurgical technique, we have fabricated the metastable austenitic stainless steel, 316LN which is aimed to be used as structural materials for superconducting magnets in Tokamak equipment in China. We have studied the basic properties of due materials at cryogenic temperatures, such as tensile strength, yield strength and Young's modulus. The effects of various elements on mechanical behaviors are discussed.

Li, L. F.; Yang, K.; Rong, L. J.

2002-05-01

462

MRF with adjustable pH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deterministic final polishing of high precision optics using sub-aperture processing with magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is an accepted practice throughout the world. A wide variety of materials can be successfully worked with aqueous (pH 10), magnetorheological (MR) fluids, using magnetic carbonyl iron (CI) and either ceria or nanodiamond nonmagnetic abrasives. Polycrystalline materials like zinc sulfide (ZnS) and zinc selenide (ZnSe) are difficult to polish at pH 10 with MRF, due to their grain size and the relatively low stiffness of the MR fluid lap. If microns of material are removed, the grain structure of the material begins to appear. In 2005, Kozhinova et al. (Appl. Opt. 44 4671-4677) demonstrated that lowering pH could improve MRF of ZnS. However, magnetic CI particle corrosion rendered their low pH approach unstable and unsuitable for commercial implementation. In 2009, Shafrir et al. described a sol-gel coating process for manufacturing a zirconia-coated CI particle that protects the magnetic core from aqueous corrosion (Appl. Opt .48 6797-6810). The coating process produces free nanozirconia polishing abrasives during the coating procedure, thereby creating an MR polishing powder that is "self-charged" with the polishing abrasive. By simply adding water, it was possible to polish optical glasses and ceramics with good stability at pH 8 for three weeks. The development of a corrosion resistant, MR polishing powder, opens up the possibility for polishing additional materials, wherein the pH may be adjusted to optimize effectiveness. In this paper we describe the CI coating process, the characterization of the coated powder, and procedures for making stable MR fluids with adjustable pH, giving polishing results for a variety of optical glasses and crystalline ceramics.

Jacobs, Stephen D.

2011-10-01

463

Diatoms and pH Reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palaeolimnological diatom data comprise counts of many species expressed as percentages for each sample. Reconstruction of past lake-water pH from such data involves two steps; (i) regression, where responses of modern diatom abundances to pH are modelled and (ii) calibration where the modelled responses are used to infer pH from diatom assemblages preserved in lake sediments. In view of the highly multivariate nature of diatom data, the strongly nonlinear response of diatoms to pH, and the abundance of zero values in the data, a compromise between ecological realism and computational feasability is essential. The two numerical approaches used are (i) the computationally demanding but formal statistical approach of maximum likelihood (ML) Gaussian logit regression and calibration and (ii) the computationally straightforward but heuristic approach of weighted averaging (WA) regression and calibration. When the Surface Water Acidification Project (SWAP) modern training set of 178 lakes is reduced by data-screening to 167 lakes, WA gives superior results in terms of lowest root mean squared errors of prediction in cross-validation. Bootstrapping is also used to derive prediction errors, not only for the training set as a whole but also for individual pH reconstructions by WA for stratigraphic samples from Round Loch of Glenhead, southwest Scotland covering the last 10 000 years. These reconstructions are evaluated in terms of lack-of-fit to pH and analogue measures and are interpreted in terms of rate of change by using bootstrapping of the reconstructed pH time-series.

Birks, H. J. B.; Line, J. M.; Juggins, S.; Stevenson, A. C.; Ter Braak, C. J. F.

1990-03-01

464

pH Dependence of Sphingosine Aggregation  

PubMed Central

Sphingosine and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are sphingolipid metabolites that act as signaling messengers to activate or inhibit multiple downstream targets to regulate cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. The amphiphilic nature of these compounds leads to aggregation above their critical micelle concentrations (CMCs), which may be important for understanding lysosomal glycosphingolipid storage disorders. We investigated the aggregation of sphingosine and S1P over a comprehensive, physiologically relevant range of pH values, ionic strengths, and lipid concentrations by means of dynamic light scattering, titration, and NMR spectroscopy. The results resolve discrepancies in literature reports of CMC and pKa values. At physiological pH, the nominal CMCs of sphingosine and S1P are 0.99 ± 0.12 ?M (pH 7.4) and 14.35 ± 0.08 ?M (pH 7.2), respectively. We find that pH strongly affects the aggregation behavior of sphingosine by changing the ionic and hydrogen-bonding states; the nominal critical aggregation concentrations of protonated and deprotonated sphingosine are 1.71 ± 0.24 ?M and 0.70 ± 0.02 ?M, respectively. NMR measurements revealed that the NH3+–NH2 transition of sphingosine occurs at pH 6.6, and that there is a structural shift in sphingosine aggregates caused by a transition in the predominant hydrogen-bonding network from intramolecular to intermolecular that occurs between pH 6.7 and 9.9. PMID:19348755

Sasaki, Hirotaka; Arai, Hiromi; Cocco, Melanie J.; White, Stephen H.

2009-01-01

465

Properties of super stainless steels for orthodontic applications.  

PubMed

Orthodontic stainless-steel appliances are considered to be corrosion resistant, but localized corrosion can occur in the oral cavity. This study was undertaken to evaluate the properties of super stainless steels in orthodontic applications. Accordingly, the metallurgical properties, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, amount of the released nickel, cytotoxicity, and characteristics of the passive film were investigated. Corrosion resistances of the specimens were high and in the following order: super austenitic stainless steel (SR-50A) > super ferritic stainless steel (SFSS) = super duplex stainless steel (SR-6DX) > 316L SS > super martensitic stainless steel (SR-3Mo) in artificial saliva, 37 degrees C. At 500 mV (SCE), current densities of SR-50A, SFSS, SR-6DX, 316L SS, and SR-3Mo were 5.96 microA/cm(2), 20.3 microA/cm(2), 31.9 microA/cm(2), 805 microA/cm(2), and 5.36 mA/cm(2), respectively. Open circuit potentials of SR-50A, 316L SS, SR-6DX, SR-3Mo, and SFSS were - 0.2, - 0.22, - 0.24, - 0.43, and - 0.46 V (SCE), respectively. SR-50A, SFSS, and SR-6DX released below 3 ng/ml nickel for 8 weeks, and increased a little with immersion time, and 316L SS released about 3.5 ng/ml nickel, but SR-3Mo released a large amount of nickel, which increased with immersion time. The study demonstrated that SR-50A, SR-6DX, and SFSS have high corrosion resistance and mild or no cytotoxicity, due to the passive film enhanced by synergistic effect of Mo + N or by high addition effect of Cr + W. All super stainless steels showed very low cytotoxicity regardless of their nickel contents, although SR-3Mo was found to be relatively cytotoxic. From these studies, these steels are considered suitable for orthodontic applications. PMID:15116408

Oh, Keun-Taek; Kim, Young-Sik; Park, Yong-Soo; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

2004-05-15

466

Biomimetic PEG-catecholates for stabile antifouling coatings on metal surfaces: applications on TiO2 and stainless steel.  

PubMed

Trimeric catecholates have been designed for the stable immobilization of effector molecules on metal surfaces. The design of these catecholates followed a biomimetic approach and was inspired by natural multivalent metal binders, such as mussel adhesion proteins (MAPs) and siderophores. Three catecholates have been conjugated to central scaffolds based on adamantyl or trisalkylmethyl core structures. The resulting triscatecholates have been immobilized on TiO2 and stainless steel. In a proof of concept study we have demonstrated the high stability of the resulting nanolayers at neutral and slightly acidic pH. Furthermore, polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugates of our triscatecholates have been synthesized and were immobilized on TiO2 and stainless steel. The PEG coated surfaces showed excellent antifouling properties upon exposure to human blood and bacteria as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy, ellipsometry and a bacterial assay with Staphylococcus epidermidis. In addition, our PEG-triscatecholates showed no cytotoxicity against bone-marrow stem cells on TiO2. PMID:24632391

Khalil, Faiza; Franzmann, Elisa; Ramcke, Julian; Dakischew, Olga; Lips, Katrin S; Reinhardt, Alexander; Heisig, Peter; Maison, Wolfgang

2014-05-01

467

Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of Gas Metal Arc Welded AISI 409 Grade Ferritic Stainless Steel Joints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of filler metals such as austenitic stainless steel, ferritic stainless steel, and duplex stainless steel on fatigue crack growth behavior of the gas metal arc welded ferritic stainless steel joints was investigated. Rolled plates of 4 mm thickness were used as the base material for preparing single ‘V’ butt welded joints. Center cracked tensile specimens were prepared to evaluate fatigue crack growth behavior. Servo hydraulic controlled fatigue testing machine with a capacity of 100 kN was used to evaluate the fatigue crack growth behavior of the welded joints. From this investigation, it was found that the joints fabricated by duplex stainless steel filler metal showed superior fatigue crack growth resistance compared to the joints fabricated by austenitic and ferritic stainless steel filler metals. Higher yield strength and relatively higher toughness may be the reasons for superior fatigue performance of the joints fabricated by duplex stainless steel filler metal.

Lakshminarayanan, A. K.; Shanmugam, K.; Balasubramanian, V.

2009-10-01

468

CORROSION STUDY FOR THE EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY (ETF) CHROME (VI) REDUCTANT SOLUTION USING 304 & 316L STAINLESS STEEL  

SciTech Connect

The Effluent Treatment Facility has developed a method to regenerate spent resin from the groundwater pump and treat intercepting chrome(VI) plumes (RPP-RPT-32207, Laboratory Study on Regeneration of Spent DOWEX 21K 16-20 Mesh Ion Exchange Resin). Subsequent laboratory studies have shown that the chrome(VI) may be reduced to chrome(III) by titrating with sodium metabisulfite to an oxidation reduction potential (ORP) of +280 mV at a pH of 2. This test plan describes the use of cyclic potentiodynamic polarization and linear polarization techniques to ascertain the electrochemical corrosion and pitting propensity of the 304 and 316L stainless steel in the acidified reducing the solution that will be contained in either the secondary waste receiver tank or concentrate tank.

DUNCAN, J.B.

2007-06-27

469

CRCHD Principal Investigator: Campbell, Janis, Ph.D.  

Cancer.gov

CRCHD Principal Investigator: Campbell, Janis, Ph.D.  Back to CRCHD Ongoing Research CNP Project Listing Janis Campbell, Ph.D. CNP Project Listing CNP Pilot Projects Project Investigator Biography Campbell, Janis, Ph.D. University of

470

CRCHD Principal Investigator: Paula A. Espinoza, Ph.D.  

Cancer.gov

CRCHD Principal Investigator: Paula A. Espinoza, Ph.D.  Back to CRCHD Ongoing Research CNP Project Listing Paula A. Espinoza, Ph.D. CNP Project Listing CNP Pilot Projects Project Investigator Biography Paula A. Espinoza, Ph.D. University

471

M.S. and Ph.D. in Environmental  

E-print Network

, Ph.D. Marine Biotechnology Richard Johnson, Ph.D. Contaminant Hydrology Joseph Needoba, Ph.D. Marine. The EOS track is focused on multidisciplinary approachs to understanding marine systems. M.S. students can

Chapman, Michael S.

472

IMPEE PhD Opportunity Project title: LightFoot PhD A PhD Investigation Lightning Protection of HV Overhead Lines with Non-Ideal  

E-print Network

IMPEE PhD Opportunity Project title: LightFoot PhD ­ A PhD Investigation Lightning Protection of HV.swingler@hw.ac.uk Abstract LightFoot PhD ­ A PhD Investigation Lightning Protection of HV Overhead Lines with Non-Ideal Tower to the understanding of the effect of lightning strikes on an overhead transmission line in terms of its electrical

Greenaway, Alan

473

PhET Teacher Activities: Hooke's Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This two-hour activity for high school physics was created to accompany the PhET simulation Masses & Springs. In the first lesson, students will use the simulation to explore how displacement of a spring is mathematically related to the load applied to it. In the next day's exploration, learners analyze the energy of a mass oscillating on a spring by observing distribution and transfer of kinetic, elastic potential, and gravitational potential energy. Materials include learning goals, explicit directions for use of the simulation, homework problems, and answer key. The spring motion simulation (which is required to complete this activity) is available from PhET at: Masses & Springs. This lesson is part of the PhET (Physics Education Technology Project), a large collection of free interactive science simulations.

Mullins, Jessica

474

PhET Simulation: Projectile Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this simulation, students can fire various objects out of a cannon, including a golf ball, football, pumpkin, human being, a piano, and a car. By manipulating angle, initial speed, mass, and air resistance, concepts of projectile motion come to light in a fun and game-like environment. Can you set the initial conditions so that you hit the target? This item is part of a larger collection of interactive simulations developed by the Physics Education Technology project (PhET), all freely available from the PhET web site for incorporation into classes.

2006-04-07

475

PhEt - Physics Education Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PhEt is a free website of over sixty interactive simulations that provides opportunities for students to learn physics and chemistry through exploration and virtual labs. A browsable teacher-contributed collection of homework assignments, lectures, activities, and concept questions is available. Additional contributions designed to be used in conjunction with the PhET simulations may be submitted. Simulations can be run in three different ways: on line, by downloading one or more simulations at a time, or by a download of the entire website to your computer. Many simulations have been translated into different languages.

476

Outline PhD Research Plan D-ERDW PhD Research Plan Outline  

E-print Network

research: field work, laboratory work, modeling technique, interdisciplinary collaboration, etc. 5 WorkOutline PhD Research Plan D-ERDW PhD Research Plan ­ Outline Doctoral students compile a research plan outlining the goals, type of work and the responsibilities they have. The research plan

Gilli, Adrian

477

PhD in Management The PhD program in Management is  

E-print Network

PhD in Management The PhD program in Management is designed to provide advanced education currently features two distinct, focused tracks: (1) Supply Chain and Operations Management, and (2) Information Systems. With globalization and technological progress, supply chain management and global

Stuart, Steven J.

478

Patricia A . Grady, Ph .D ., R .N . Ph.D.: (Physiology)  

E-print Network

National Institute of Nursing Research Patricia A . Grady, Ph .D ., R .N . Director EDUCATION Ph. Research is as an investment in the future. MENTORING & WORK/LIFE BALANCE Mentoring is vital in nursing with their professional interests. We must always strive to maintain this balance, to develop both our own personal

Bandettini, Peter A.

479

Differential genotoxicity of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 and diphenyl ditelluride (PhTe)2  

PubMed Central

Organoselenium compounds have been pointed out as therapeutic agents. In contrast, the potential therapeutic aspects of tellurides have not yet been demonstrated. The present study evaluated the comparative toxicological effects of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 and diphenyl ditelluride (PhTe)2 in mice after in vivo administration. Genotoxicity (as determined by comet assay) and mutagenicicity were used as end-points of toxicity. Subcutaneous administration of high doses of (PhSe)2 or (PhTe)2 (500 µmol/kg) caused distinct genotoxicity in mice. (PhSe)2 significantly decreased the DNA damage index after 48 and 96 h of its injection (p < 0.05). In contrast, (PhTe) caused a significant increase in DNA damage (p < 0.05) after 48 and 96 h of intoxication. (PhSe)2 did not cause mutagenicity but (PhTe)2 increased the micronuclei frequency, indicating its mutagenic potential. The present study demonstrated that acute in vivo exposure to ditelluride caused genotoxicity in mice, which may be associated with pro-oxidant effects of diphenyl ditelluride. In addition, the use of this compound and possibly other related tellurides must be carefully controlled. PMID:24711962

Meinerz, Daiane Francine; Allebrandt, Josiane; Mariano, Douglas O.C.; Waczuk, Emily P.; Soares, Felix Antunes

2014-01-01

480

Differential genotoxicity of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 and diphenyl ditelluride (PhTe)2.  

PubMed

Organoselenium compounds have been pointed out as therapeutic agents. In contrast, the potential therapeutic aspects of tellurides have not yet been demonstrated. The present study evaluated the comparative toxicological effects of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 and diphenyl ditelluride (PhTe)2 in mice after in vivo administration. Genotoxicity (as determined by comet assay) and mutagenicicity were used as end-points of toxicity. Subcutaneous administration of high doses of (PhSe)2 or (PhTe)2 (500 µmol/kg) caused distinct genotoxicity in mice. (PhSe)2 significantly decreased the DNA damage index after 48 and 96 h of its injection (p < 0.05). In contrast, (PhTe) caused a significant increase in DNA damage (p < 0.05) after 48 and 96 h of intoxication. (PhSe)2 did not cause mutagenicity but (PhTe)2 increased the micronuclei frequency, indicating its mutagenic potential. The present study demonstrated that acute in vivo exposure to ditelluride caused genotoxicity in mice, which may be associated with pro-oxidant effects of diphenyl ditelluride. In addition, the use of this compound and possibly other related tellurides must be carefully controlled. PMID:24711962

Meinerz, Daiane Francine; Allebrandt, Josiane; Mariano, Douglas O C; Waczuk, Emily P; Soares, Felix Antunes; Hassan, Waseem; Rocha, João Batista T

2014-01-01

481

arXiv:hep-ph/0302030v215May2003 hep-ph/0302030  

E-print Network

was that a fraction of the photons emitted by a super- nova could convert into axions in the presencearXiv:hep-ph/0302030v215May2003 hep-ph/0302030 CITA-2003-03 Super-GZK Photons from Photon facilitates the survival of super-GZK photons most efficiently with a photon-axion coupling scale M > 1011 Ge

Terning, John

482

Electron emission from PH 2 produced via fast dissociation of core-excited PH 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have observed resonant Auger electron emission following P 2p ? 3e (?*) excitation of PH3 and, with the help of ab initio calculations, assigned some fine structure to the emission from the P 2p core-excited PH2 fragment produced via fast dissociation.

K. Ueda; Y. Muramatsu; H. Chiba; Y. Sato; E. Shigemasa

1998-01-01

483

PH 222-3A Spring 2007PH 222 3A Spring 2007 ELECTRIC CHARGE  

E-print Network

PH 222-3A Spring 2007PH 222 3A Spring 2007 ELECTRIC CHARGE Lecture 1 Chapter 21 (Halliday/Resnick/Walker, Fundamentals of Physics 8th edition) 1 #12;Chapter 21 Electric Charge In this chapter we will introduce a new

Mirov, Sergey B.

484

Version 3.0 SOP 6a --pH October 12, 2007 pH (total hydrogen  

E-print Network

Version 3.0 SOP 6a -- pH October 12, 2007 117 SOP 6a pH - / 1. pH (total hydrogen ion concentration pH scale) . , [H+ ] 1 kg . 2. . F T S F 4 [H ] [H ] (1 / ) [H ] [HSO ] S K+ + + - = + + (1) [H+ ]F (free concentration), ST ([HSO4 - ]+[SO4 2- ]) KS [HSO4 - ] . pH . 10 1 [H ] pH

485

EFFECT OF DIET pH ON THE CONSUMPTION, BROOD REARING, AND pH OF WORKER JELLY  

E-print Network

are sensitive to changes in pH, the gut pH of the honey bee must be maintained at a fairly constant level maintain the gut and hemolymph pH at levels critical for survival because changes in pH could resultEFFECT OF DIET pH ON THE CONSUMPTION, BROOD REARING, AND pH OF WORKER JELLY PRODUCED BY CAGED HONEY

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

486

Accelerated corrosion of stainless steel in thiocyanate-containing solutions  

SciTech Connect

It is known that reduced sulfur compounds (such as thiocyanate and thiosulfate) can accelerate active corrosion of austenitic stainless steel in acid solutions, but before we started this project the mechanism of acceleration was largely unclear. This work combined electrochemical measurements and analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS), which provided a comprehensive understanding of the catalytic effect of reduced sulfur species on the active corrosion of stainless steel. Both the behavior of the pure elements and the steel were studied and the work focused on the interaction between the pure elements of the steel, which is the least understood area. Upon completion of this work, several aspects are now much clearer. The main results from this work can be summarized as follows: The presence of low concentrations (around 0.1 mM) of thiocyanate or tetrathionate in dilute sulfuric acid greatly accelerates the anodic dissolution of chromium and nickel, but has an even stronger effect on stainless steels (iron-chromium-nickel alloys). Electrochemical measurements and surface analyses are in agreement with the suggestion that accelerated dissolution really results from suppressed passivation. Even well below the passivation potential, the electrochemical signature of passivation is evident in the electrode impedance; the electrode impedance shows clearly that this pre-passivation is suppressed in the presence of thiocyanate. For the stainless steels, remarkable changes in the morphology of the corroded metal surface and in the surface concentration of chromium support the suggestion that pre-passivation of stainless steels is suppressed because dissolution of chromium is accelerated. Surface analysis confirmed that adsorbed sulfur / sulfide forms on the metal surfaces upon exposure to solutions containing thiocyanate or thiosulfate. For pure nickel, and steels containing nickel (and residual copper), bulk sulfide (visible as a black corrosion product) forms during anodic dissolution. The sulfide is electronically conductive, and gives an increase of several orders of magnitude in the electrode capacitance; the sulfide also causes anodic activation to persist after the pure metals and steels were removed from the thiocyanate-containing electrolyte and transferred to a thiocyanate-free electrolyte. The main practical implications of this work are that low concentrations of reduced sulfur compounds strongly affect anodic dissolution of stainless steels, and that selecting steels with elevated concentrations of chromium, nickel or molybdenum would serve to limit the anodic dissolution rate in the presence of reduced sulfur compounds.

Pistorius, P Chris; Li, Wen

2012-09-19

487

Influence of corrosive environments on near-threshold fatigue crack growth in 403 stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The near-threshold fatigue crack growth behavior of 403 stainless steel has been investigated in low O2 steam (<1 ppm), high O2 steam (40 ppm), and boiling water with various concentrations of NaCl and Na2SO4 at a test frequency of 160 Hz. High O2 steam tends to increase the crack propagation rates in the threshold region, relative to low O2 steam. Values of threshold stress intensity range, ?Kth, slightly increase with an increase in the concentration of NaCl in the solution. During threshold crack growth, the percentage of intergranularity decreases with a decrease in AK. Varying pH from 5.0 to 10.0 in a 0.1 gm NaCl plus 1.0 gm Na2SO4 per 100 ml H2O solution does not affect the rates of near-threshold crack propagation. However, increasing the hydrazine level from 30 to 107 ppb in the same salt solution enhances the resistance to crack growth while reducing the percentage of intergranular fracture to nearly zero.

Liaw, Peter K.; Anello, J.; Donald, J. K.

1982-12-01

488

The Biological Safety of Stainless Steel Needles Used in Warm-needling  

PubMed Central

Warm-needling (also called thermo-acupuncture) is a combination of acupuncture and moxibustion. Due to the intense heat involved, there have been concerns over the biological safety of the acuneedles used in the treatment. This paper reports two phases of a safety test. For a preliminary test, we compared the temperature change patterns of stainless steel (SS304) needles and traditional gold alloy needles, which have been increasingly replaced by the former. To verify the effects of the presence of coating materials, the main test involved three different kinds of SS304: silicone-coated, salicylic acid-coated and non-coated needles. Each group of needles was tested for pH level, heavy metals and UV absorbance spectrum along with biological tests on the cytotoxicity and hemolysis of the needle. All the tests on the extractants from the needles were negative. In the biological tests, each test result showed a significant difference from the positive control samples, while no significant difference was observed compared with the negative control samples. In the hemolysis tests, all samples satisfied the Korean Government Standards. All the results suggest that SS304 needles are biologically safe to be used in warm-needling, though they can be improved to perform as well as the gold alloy needles in terms of temperature fluctuations. PMID:19098297

Lee, Seunghun; Yi, Seung-Ho; Son, Yang-Sun; Choi, Sung-min; Kim, Young-Kon

2010-01-01

489

Weld microstructure development and properties of precipitation-strengthened martensitic stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

Precipitation-strengthened martensitic stainless steels provide excellent strength (170--220 ksi Y.S.) with high corrosion resistance. However, upon aging, a large reduction in toughness may also occur. The gas tungsten arc (GTA) cold wire feed process was used to weld half inch thick plates of PH 13-8 Mo and Custom 450 from which both tensile and Charpy specimens were machined. A fundamental understanding of the details of weld microstructural evolution was developed by liquid tin quenching GTA welds in which the solidification behavior, primary phase of solidification, microsegregation, and solid-state transformations could be followed. For both alloys studied, the as-welded yield strengths were similar to those of the unaged base material, 130 ksi. Weld properties were very similar to those of the base materials for both alloy systems. Weld strength increases significantly upon aging and achieves a maximum at intermediate aging temperatures. The increase in strength is accompanied by a large decrease in Charpy impact energy; however, the minimum in toughness occurs at aging temperatures slightly less than those resulting in peak strengths. The evolution of the weld microstructure was found to support predictions of microstructural modeling. Although a high degree of alloying partitioning occurs during solidification, a large degree of homogenization occurs upon further solidification and cooling as a result of solid-state diffusion.

Brooks, J.

1994-12-31

490

The Biological Safety of Stainless Steel Needles Used in Warm-needling.  

PubMed

Warm-needling (also called thermo-acupuncture) is a combination of acupuncture and moxibustion. Due to the intense heat involved, there have been concerns over the biological safety of the acuneedles used in the treatment. This paper reports two phases of a safety test. For a preliminary test, we compared the temperature change patterns of stainless steel (SS304) needles and traditional gold alloy needles, which have been increasingly replaced by the former. To verify the effects of the presence of coating materials, the main test involved three different kinds of SS304: silicone-coated, salicylic acid-coated and non-coated needles. Each group of needles was tested for pH level, heavy metals and UV absorbance spectrum along with biological tests on the cytotoxicity and hemolysis of the needle. All the tests on the extractants from the needles were negative. In the biological tests, each test result showed a significant difference from the positive control samples, while no significant difference was observed compared with the negative control samples. In the hemolysis tests, all samples satisfied the Korean Government Standards. All the results suggest that SS304 needles are biologically safe to be used in warm-needling, though they can be improved to perform as well as the gold alloy needles in terms of temperature fluctuations. PMID:19098297

Lim, Sabina; Lee, Seunghun; Yi, Seung-Ho; Son, Yang-Sun; Choi, Sung-Min; Kim, Young-Kon

2010-06-01

491

Microbiological test results using three urine pretreatment regimes with 316L stainless steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three urine pretreatments, (1) Oxone (Dupont) and sulfuric acid, (2) sodium hypochlorite and sulfuric acid, (3) and ozone, were studied for their ability to reduce microbial levels in urine and minimize surface attachment to 316L stainless steel coupons. Urine samples inoculated with Bacillus insolitus and a filamentous mold, organisms previously recovered from the vapor compression distillation subsystem of NASA Space Station Freedom water recovery test were tested in glass corrosion cells containing base or weld metal coupons. Microbial levels, changes in pH, color, turbidity, and odor of the fluid were monitored over the course of the 21-day test. Specimen surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy at completion of the test for microbial attachment. Ozonated urine samples were less turbid and had lower microbial levels than controls or samples receiving other pretreatments. Base metal coupons receiving pretreatment were relatively free of attached bacteria. However, well-developed biofilms were found in the heat-affected regions of welded coupons receiving Oxone and hypochlorite pretreatments. Few bacteria were observed in the same regions of the ozone pretreatment sample.

Huff, Timothy L.

1993-01-01

492

LarkinPowell,Ph.D. Larkin Powell  

E-print Network

LarkinPowell,Ph.D. Larkin Powell is a professor of conservation bio logy and animal ecology in the Uni versity of Nebraska­ Lincoln's School of Natural Resources (SNR) since August 2001.He teaches on projects assessing grazing management,Farm Bill conservation programs, prescribed burning and other

Farritor, Shane

493

Andrew Terranova, Ph.D. Curriculum Vitae  

E-print Network

Courses Taught Additional Courses of Interest Introductory/General Psychology Psychology of Adjustment-based Sample of Boys and Girls. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. #12;CV ­ Andrew Terranova, Ph.D. Page 3 Professor Department of Psychology Stephen F. Austin State University Box 13046 ­ SFA Station Nacogdoches

Li, X. Rong

494

November 2013 Wilma Koutstaal, Ph.D.  

E-print Network

insight and non-insight problem solving with brief interventions. British Journal of Psychology, 104, 97. Recipient of the 2012 William James Book award from the American Psychological Association. ] Qin, X. A-1- November 2013 Wilma Koutstaal, Ph.D. Department of Psychology University of Minnesota S247

Koutstaal, Wilma

495

Soil pH and phosphatase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately twenty years before this study, a site that consisted of a mixed oak forest was harvested, cleared, and divided into three treatment areas consisting of approximately 20 acres each. The three areas were planted to oak (forest), grass (grassland) and corn (agricultural) respectively. The influence of pH on the rate of phosphatase activity was determined over a broad range

S. A. Herbien; J. L. Neal

1990-01-01

496

Jianlin Cheng, PhD Associate Professor  

E-print Network

Jianlin Cheng, PhD Associate Professor Computer Science Department Informatics Institute University / 4 groups #12;Group 1 · Badri Adhikari · Renzhi Cao · Chenfeng He · Jilong Li · Debswapna MWLKKFGINLLIGQSV... CCCCHHHHHCCCSSSSS... Cheng, Randall, Sweredoski, Baldi. Nucleic Acid Research, 2005 Neural

Cheng, Jianlin Jack

497

Monitoring fetal pH by telemetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Telemetry unit has been developed for possible use in measuring scalp-tissue pH and heart rate of unborn infant. Unit radius data to receiver as much as 50 ft. away. Application exists during hours just prior to childbirth to give warning of problems that might require cesarean delivery.

Blum, A.; Donahoe, T.; Jhabvala, M. D.; Ryan, W.

1980-01-01

498

Professions Shannon Anderson, Ph.D.  

E-print Network

230 Science Concepts (Intro Bio I) 1 Biol 240 Introductory Biology II & Lab 5 Sci 240 Science ConceptsHealth Professions at SFSU #12;Shannon Anderson, Ph.D. Instructor, Biology Department Health Assistant Nurse-Practitioner Dental Hygiene Veterinary Medicine Allied Health Careers #12;Sneak

499

CURRICULUM VITAE Birgitta Johnson, Ph.D.  

E-print Network

300.04, Cultural History of Rap (Spring 2012) --History of Music 400.01, African American Sacred Music, Ethnomusicology "`Oh, For a Thousand Tongues to Sing': Music and Worship in African American Megachurches of Los College, Atlanta, Georgia, Music Post-Ph.D. Employment (See Teaching Experience for course titles taught

Kovalev, Leonid

500

My PhD Plan Completed Work  

E-print Network

Ideas Motivation Matthew Kelly Hierarchical Biped Control 3 / 34 #12;Background My PhD Plan Completed Work Planned Work Zero Moment Point Capture Point Hybrid Zero Dynamics Other Ideas Motivation Why Work Zero Moment Point Capture Point Hybrid Zero Dynamics Other Ideas Background: Popular Ideas

Ruina, Andy L.