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1

FABRICATION, WELDING AND TESTING OF 17-7 PH STAINLESS STEEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fabrication and heat treatment of a scroll, elbows, and transitions ; made from l7-7 PH stainless steel plate in thickhesses varying from one-quarter ; inch to three inches are reported. Inert gas-shielded tungsten-arc welding ; procedures for l7-7 PH stainless steel are presented in detail. The material ; handling and welding techniques necessary to achieve ultra-high quality multipass ;

1958-01-01

2

Cellular Precipitation at a 17-7 PH Stainless Steel Interphase Interface During Low-Temperature Nitridation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cellular precipitation of Cr-rich nitrides was observed at an austenite-ferrite interface in 17-7 PH stainless steel after low-temperature nitridation. Fine-scale lamellar rocksalt-structured nitride (MN1- x , M: randomly distributed Fe, Cr, and Al) was identified at the interfaces between austenite and ferrite by local-electrode atom-probe tomography and transmission electron microscopy. The small size and spacing of the nitride lamellae reflect the low mobility of substitutional atoms under the conditions of low-temperature nitridation. Nitrides of the same structure were formed within the ferrite grain as extremely small particles. The face-centered cubic nitride precipitates in the Bain orientation relationship with the ferrite.

Wang, Danqi; Ernst, Frank; Kahn, Harold; Heuer, Arthur H.

2014-07-01

3

Tensile Properties of 17-7 PH and 12 MoV Stainless-Steel Sheet under Rapid-Heating and Constant-Temperature Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of rapid-heating tests of 17-7 PH and 12 MoV stainless-steel sheet heated to failure at temperature rates from about 1 F to 170 F per second under constant-load conditions. Yield and rupture strengths obtained from rapid-heating tests are compared with yield and tensile strengths obtained from short-time elevated-temperature tensile tests (30-minute exposure). A rate-temperature parameter was used to construct master curves from which yield and rupture stresses or temperatures can be predicted. A method for measuring strain by optical means is described.

Manning, Charles R., Jr.; Price, Howard L.

1961-01-01

4

Irradiation effects on 17-7 PH stainless steel, A-201 carbon steel, and titanium-6-percent-aluminum-4-percent-vanadium alloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Irradiation effects on three materials from the NASA Plum Brook Reactor Surveillance Program were determined. An increase of 105 K in the nil-ductility temperature for A-201 steel was observed at a fluence of approximately 3.1 x 10 to the 18th power neutrons/sq cm (neutron energy E sub n greater than 1.0 MeV). Only minor changes in the mechanical properties of 17-7 PH stainless steel were observed up to a fluence of 2 x 10 to the 21st power neutrons/sq cm (E sub n greater than 1.0 MeV). The titanium-6-percent-aluminum-4-percent-vanadium alloy maintained its notch toughness up to a fluence of 1 x 10 to the 21st power neutrons/sq cm (E sub n greater than 1.0 MeV).

Hasse, R. A.; Hartley, C. B.

1972-01-01

5

Stress-Corrosion Cracking in Martensitic PH Stainless Steels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Precipitation-hardening alloys evaluated in marine environment tests. Report describes marine-environment stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) tests of three martensitic precipitation hardening (PH) stainless-steel alloys.

Humphries, T.; Nelson, E.

1984-01-01

6

A scanning tunneling microscopy study of PH 3 adsorption on Si(1 1 1)-7 × 7 surfaces, P-segregation and thermal desorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PH 3 adsorption on Si(1 1 1)-7 × 7 was studied after various exposures between 0.3 and 60 L at room temperature by means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). PH 3-, PH 2-, H-reacted, and unreacted adatoms can be identified by analyzing empty-state STM images at different sample biases. PH x-reacted rest-atoms can be observed in empty-state STM images if neighboring adatoms are hydrogen terminated. Most of the PH 3 adsorbs dissociatively on the surface, generating H- and PH 2-adsorbed rest-atom and adatom sites. Dangling-bonds at rest-atom sites are more reactive than adatom sites and the faulted half of the 7 × 7 unit cell is more reactive than the unfaulted half. Center adatoms are overwhelmingly preferred over corner adatoms for PH 2 adsorption. The saturation P coverage is ˜0.18 ML. Annealing of PH 3-reacted 7 × 7 surfaces at 900 K generates disordered, partially P-covered surfaces, but dosing PH 3 at 900 K forms P/Si(1 1 1)- 6?{3} surfaces. Si deposition at 510 K leaves disordered clusters on the surface, which cannot be reordered by annealing up to 800 K. However, annealing above 900 K recreates P/Si(1 1 1)- 6?{3} surfaces. Surface morphologies formed by sequential rapid thermal annealing are also presented.

Ji, Jeong-Young; Shen, T.-C.

2007-04-01

7

Aging kinetics of 17-4 PH stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of aging condition and the precipitation kinetics of 17-4 PH stainless steel (AISI 630) were studied in this paper. The effect of aging temperature and time in terms of tempering parameter on the strengthening behavior of this steel was modeled and analyzed by means of artificial neural networks (ANNs). The hardening, overaging and softening behaviors in accordance to

H. Mirzadeh; A. Najafizadeh

2009-01-01

8

Aging reactions in a 17-4 PH stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microstructural development and aging reactions in a commercial 17-4 PH (precipitation hardening) stainless steel have been investigated. It is found that after solution treatment, the steel produces a uniform matrix, which consists chiefly of lath martensite with micro-twins. The age-hardening behavior in the steel studied is similar to that in classical age-hardening alloys. The tempering of martensite has little effect

C. N. Hsiao; C. S. Chiou; J. R. Yang

2002-01-01

9

Production and aging of highly porous 17-4 PH stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes production of highly porous 17-4 PH stainless steel for biomedical implant applications by space holder-sintering\\u000a technique. 17-4 PH stainless steel powders were mixed with space holder and then compacted. For designing pore properties,\\u000a both spherical and irregular shaped carbamide with different particle size ranges were used as space holder and removed by\\u000a water leaching. Porous 17-4 PH

Ilven Mutlu; Enver Oktay

10

OBSERVATIONS ON CORROSION RESISTANCE OF HIGH STRENGTH STAINLESS STEELS FOR AIRCRAFT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steels of the precipitation hardening type are used ; extensively in airframe components. In this paper, compositions and properties ; of several of these alloys are described. The corrosion performances of the ; Armco 17-4 PH and 17-7 PH precipitation hardening alloys are compared with these ; of other hardenable stainless steels. The results of accelerated corrosion tests ;

J. Halbig; O. B. Ellis

1958-01-01

11

Microstructure and wear behavior of stellite 6 cladding on 17-4 PH stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the investigation of the microstructure and wear behavior of the stellite 6 cladding on precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel (17-4PH) using gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) method. 17-4 PH stainless steel is widely used in oil and gas industries. Optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were employed to study the microstructure

A. Gholipour; M. Shamanian; F. Ashrafizadeh

2011-01-01

12

Optimized postweld heat treatment procedures for 17-4 PH stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The postweld heat treatment (PWHT) procedures for 17-4 PH stainless steel weldments of matching chemistry was optimized vis-a-vis its microstructure prior to welding based on microstructural studies and room-temperature mechanical properties. The 17-4 PH stainless steel was welded in two different prior microstructural conditions (condition A and condition H 1150) and then postweld heat treated to condition H900 or condition

A. K. Bhaduri; S. Sujith; G. Srinivasan; T. P. S. Gill; S. L. Mannan

1995-01-01

13

Relationship of microstructure transformation and hardening behavior of type 17-4 PH stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the microstructure transformation of type 17-4 PH stainless steel and the aging hardening behavior was investigated. The results showed that, when 17-4 PH stainless steel aging at 595°C, the bulk hardness of samples attains its peak value (42.5 HRC) for about 20 min, and then decreases at all time. TEM revealed the microstructure corresponding with peak hardness

Jun Wang; Hong Zou; Cong Li; Ruling Zuo; Shaoyu Qiu; Baoluo Shen

2006-01-01

14

Optimized postweld heat treatment procedures for 17-4 PH stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

The postweld heat treatment (PWHT) procedures for 17-4 PH stainless steel weldments of matching chemistry was optimized vis-a-vis its microstructure prior to welding based on microstructural studies and room-temperature mechanical properties. The 17-4 PH stainless steel was welded in two different prior microstructural conditions (condition A and condition H 1150) and then postweld heat treated to condition H900 or condition H1150, using different heat treatment procedures. Microstructural investigations and room-temperature tensile properties were determined to study the combined effects of prior microstructural and PWHT procedures.

Bhaduri, A.K.; Sujith, S.; Srinivasan, G.; Gill, T.P.S.; Mannan, S.L. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Materials Development Div.

1995-05-01

15

Metal Injection Molding of PH 13-8 Mo Stainless Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powder metal injection molding has been used for fabrication of near net shape parts from a number of ferrous alloys including carbonyl steels and stainless steels in the 3XX series and PH 17-4. However, no work has been performed to-date on the metal injection molding of PH 13-8 Mo. Because of a special application, this alloy was injection molded and

Dianne Chong

1995-01-01

16

Physical and mechanical properties of cast 17-4 PH stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical and mechanical properties of an overaged 17-4 PH stainless steel casting have been examined. The tensile and compressive properties of cast 17-4 PH are only influenced to a slight degree by changing test temperature and strain rate. However, both the Charpy impact energy and dynamic fracture toughness exhibit a tough-to-brittle transition with decreasing temperature - this transition being

Rack

1981-01-01

17

Pitting Behavior of Type 17-4 PH Stainless Steel Weldments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical methods of measuring pitting potentials (E{sub pit}) were used to study the pitting resistance of type 17% Cr-4% Ni (17-4, UNS S17400) precipitation hardenable (PH) stainless steel (SS) weldments. The main objectives were to evaluate the pitting resistance of the base metal, the heat-affected zone (HAZ), and the weld metal portions of 17-4 PH SS welds welded autogenously using

K. S. Raja; K. P. Rao

1995-01-01

18

Effect of Applied Potentials on Environmental Cracking Behavior of 17-4 PH Stainless Steel Weldments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of anodic, cathodic, and open-circuit potentials (OCP) on the environmental cracking behavior of 17% Cr-4% Ni (17-4 [UNS S17400]) precipitation-hardenable (PH) stainless steel (SS) welds subjected to different thermal treatments were studied. Sheets of 17-4 PH SS 1.5 mm thick and in solution-treated condition were full-penetration welded autogenously using the gas tungsten arc welding process (GTAW). Weldments were

K. S. Raja; K. P. Rao

1995-01-01

19

Weldability of 17-4 PH stainless steel in centrifugal compressor impeller applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weldability of 17-4 PH stainless steel for centrifugal compressor impeller was considered. Welding tests were carried out on the precipitation-hardened steel of the 17-4 PH type. Possibilities of joining centrifugal compressor impeller parts as important elements of turbo machines were considered. Two means of welding (111) and (114), as well as following heat treatment have been considered. The best results:

J. Nowacki

2004-01-01

20

The characterization of small fatigue crack growth in PH13-8 molybdenum stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rotor hubs of Navy CH-46 helicopters have been made of 4340 steel and had extensive corrosion fatigue problems. Since these helicopters have to be used until the year 2020, the Navy decided to replace 4340 steel with PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel. Because the rotors are exposed to high frequency high cycle fatigue, small fatigue cracks are important in

Ohchang Jin

2000-01-01

21

Investigation of hydrogen sulfide stress corrosion cracking of PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slow displacement rate tensile tests were carried out in a saturated H2S solution to investigate the effect of hydrogen embrittlement on notched tensile strength (NTS) and fracture characteristics of aged PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel. Hydrogen diffusivity, permeation flux and apparent hydrogen solubility were determined by an electrochemical permeation method, and correlated with the inherent microstructure of the specimens. All

L. W. Tsay; M. Y. Chi; H. R. Chen; C. Chen

2006-01-01

22

Failure analysis of holding yokes made of investment cast 17-4 PH stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holding yokes made of investment cast 17-4PH stainless steel were too soft (below 20HRC). Optical microscopy of the parts showed that there is a high fraction of retained austenite after oil quench due to high amount of molybdenum found in parts as an impurity. Subzero treatment in liquid nitrogen after solution heat treating was used to convert retained austenite to

Ahmad Reza Etemadi; Peiman Behjati; Armin Emami; Sayyed Majd-al-Din Motiei; Saeed Mirsaeedi

2011-01-01

23

Failure of a 17-4 PH stainless steel sailboat propeller shaft  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a 17-4 PH precipitation hardening stainless steel propeller shaft failed in use when installed in a sailboat working in a marine environment. Failure analysis was conducted on the propeller shaft. Results indicate that the failure was caused by the fracture of the propeller shaft by torsional fatigue and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). SCC progressed transgranulary in the

C. Fahir Arisoy; Gokhan Ba?man; M. Kelami ?e?en

2003-01-01

24

SOLID-STATE DIFFUSION BONDING OF INCONEL ALLOY 718 TO 17-4 PH STAINLESS STEEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-state diffusion bonding of Inconel® alloy 718 to 17-4 PH® stainless steel was studied. Mechanical tests and metallographic examinations were used to evaluate the joint quality. The effect of bonding pressure on the joint integrity was assessed. In all joints, failure occurred nearly without plastic deformation. The thermal residual stress generated from cooling to room temperature was calculated by finite

Zhang Guoge; R. S. Chandel; H. P. Seow

2001-01-01

25

STRESS-CORROSION CRACKING OF 17-4 PH STAINLESS STEEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of 17-4 PH stainless steel to a simulated HWCTR environment ; indicates that this alloy is susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking when aged ; at 900 deg F, but is not susceptible when aged at 1100 deg F. (auth);

1962-01-01

26

Influence of initial heat treatment of 17-4 PH stainless steel on gas nitriding kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of the investigation of nitrided layers on 17-4 PH type precipitation hardening stainless steel are presented in this paper. The layers have been produced in the process of gas nitriding in a partly dissociated ammonia at temperatures between 410 and 570 °C. Hydrogen chloride admixture to active atmosphere was used as a surface activator. Structure of the nitrided layers were

P. Kochmanski; J. Nowacki

2008-01-01

27

Activated gas nitriding of 17-4 PH stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of the investigation of nitrided precipitation-hardened steel 17-4 PH surface have been presented. The layers have been created as a result of the gas nitriding process in a partly dissociated ammonia. Hydrogen chloride admixture to ammonia was used as a steel surface activator. The influence of the steel heat treatment before nitriding on the diffusive process has been considered.

P. Kochma?ski; J. Nowacki

2006-01-01

28

Compressive Strength of Stainless-Steel Sandwiches at Elevated Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental results are presented from crippling tests of stainless-steel sandwich specimens in the temperature range from 80 F to 1,200 F. The specimens included resistance-welded 17-7 PH stainless-steel sandwiches with single-corrugated cores, type 301 stainless-steel sandwiches with double-corrugated cores, and brazed 17-7 PH stainless-steel sandwiches with honeycomb cores. The experimental strengths are compared with predicted buckling and crippling strengths. The crippling strengths were predicted from the calculated maximum strength of the individual plate elements of the sandwiches and from a correlation procedure which gives the elevated-temperature crippling strength when the experimental room-temperature crippling strengths are known. Photographs of some of the tested specimens are included to show the modes of failure.

Mathauser, Eldon E.; Pride, Richard A.

1959-01-01

29

Electroless nickel plating on stainless steels and aluminum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures for applying an adherent electroless nickel plating on 303 SE, 304, and 17-7 PH stainless steels, and 7075 aluminum alloy was developed. When heat treated, the electroless nickel plating provides a hard surface coating on a high strength, corrosion resistant substrate.

1966-01-01

30

Hydrogen assisted cracking of palladium modified PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare the hydrogen assisted cracking resistance of wrought PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel alloyed with 0.4 to 1.0 wt.% palladium to the conventional alloy when aged to yield strengths of 1170--1250 MPa. Pd is found both in solid solution in the martensitic phase and also in the form of randomly distributed, incoherent PdAl precipitates in the modified alloy. Interfacial

J. R. Scully; J. A. Van Den Avyle; M. J. Cieslak; C. R. Hills

1989-01-01

31

Growth of small fatigue cracks in PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of small fatigue cracks in PH 13-8 Mo (H1050) stainless steel under constant amplitude loading at different mean\\u000a stresses (R=0.1 and ?1) under generally high cycle fatigue conditions was investigated. Small cracks were allowed to initiate naturally\\u000a at the root of a single edge notch specimen and were monitored using a surface replicating technique. It was found that

A. M. Patel; R. W. Neu; J. A. Pape

1999-01-01

32

The strength, fracture toughness, and low cycle fatigue behavior of 17-4 PH stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of microstructure on the strength, fracture toughness and low cycle fatigue behavior of 17-4 PH stainless steel\\u000a has been examined. Aging hardening involves initial formation of coherent copper-rich clusters which transform to incoherent\\u000a fee ?-copper precipitates upon further aging. The changes in strength level and strain hardening rates observed during aging\\u000a are consistent with previously suggested models for

H. J. Rack; David Kalish

1974-01-01

33

Microstructural evolution in a 17-4 PH stainless steel after aging at 400 °C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructure of 17-4 PH stainless steel at various stages of heat treatment, i.e., after solution heat treatment, tempering at 580 C, and long-term aging at 400 C, have been studied by atom probe field\\u000a ion microscopy (APFIM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The solution-treated specimen consists largely of martensite\\u000a with a small fraction of ?-ferrite. No precipitates are present

M. Murayama; K. Hono; Y. Katayama

1999-01-01

34

High-temperature fatigue crack growth behavior of 17-4 PH stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatigue crack growth (FCG) behavior was investigated for 17-4 PH stainless steels in three heat-treated conditions, i.e., unaged (condition A), peak-aged (condition H900), and overaged (condition H1150), at temperatures ranging from 300 C to\\u000a 500 C. The high-temperature fatigue crack growth rates (FCGRs) of condition H1150 were increased with an increase in temperature.\\u000a However, for conditions A and H900

Kuei-Chang Hsu; Chih-Kuang Lin

2004-01-01

35

Effect of hydrogen on the fracture toughness of 17-4 PH stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fracture toughness (K\\/sub c\\/) of 17-4 PH stainless steel decreased significantly with increased hydrogen test pressure for a variety of heat treatment conditions: solution annealed, underaged, peak-aged, and overaged. Minimum toughness (13 MPa..sqrt..m) was obtained with peak-aged samples tested in 69.5-MPa hydrogen; toughness was maximum (100 MPa..sqrt..m) for samples tested in helium. Aging treatments increased the hardness from 28 R\\/sub

Capeletti

1976-01-01

36

Sintering densification and microstructural evolution of injection molding grade 17-4 PH stainless steel powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Densification behavior is investigated by means of dilatometry for powder-injection-molded (PIM) and die-compacted 17-4 PH\\u000a stainless steel during sintering in pure H2 and H2 + N2. The corresponding microstructural evolution is examined by quenching in a vertical furnace at various stages of sintering.\\u000a The results show that in comparison with pure H2, the H2 + N2 atmosphere retards densification and

Yunxin Wu; Debby Blaine; Connie Schlaefer; Brian Marx; Randall M. German

2002-01-01

37

Characterisation of mechanically milled 17-4 PH gas atomized stainless steel powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory scale Szegvari type vertical mechanical alloying (MA)\\/mechanical milling (MM) attritor for research purposes was designed and constructed at Gazi University. By using this attritor, optimum processing parameters such as milling time, milling speed (rev\\/min), diameter and the amount of milling balls, milling atmosphere were determined when MM’ing of gas atomized 17-4PH stainless steel powders were carried out. After

Cemil Çetinkaya; Tayfun F?nd?k; Sedat Özbilen

2007-01-01

38

The rate of dynamic recrystallization in 17-4 PH stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hot working behavior of 17-4 PH stainless steel (AISI 630) was studied by hot compression test at temperatures of 950–1150°C with strain rates of 0.001–10s?1. The progress of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) was modeled by the Johnson–Mehl–Avrami–Kolmogorov (JMAK) kinetics equation. The flow softening was directly related to the DRX volume fraction and the DRX time was determined by strain rate.

H. Mirzadeh; A. Najafizadeh

2010-01-01

39

Embrittlement of laser surface-annealed 17-4 PH stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress corrosion cracking and fatigue crack growth behavior were determined in 17-4 PH stainless steel under various metallurgical conditions, including the H900 (482°C\\/1 h), H1025 (552°C\\/4 h) aging and laser surface annealing treatments. Peak-aged (H900) specimens locally irradiated by laser beam consisted of a portion of composite region (CR), in which comprised of soft laser-annealed (LA) zones on the outer

L. W Tsay; T. Y Yang; M. C Young

2001-01-01

40

Tensile and fatigue properties of 17-4 PH stainless steel at high temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tensile and high-cycle fatigue properties for 17-4 PH* stainless steels in three different conditions were investigated\\u000a at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 400 C. Results indicated that the yield strength and fatigue strength for\\u000a the three conditions at a given temperature took the following order: condition H900 > condition A> condition H1150. The yield\\u000a strength of each condition

Jui-Hung Wu; Chih-Kuang Lin

2002-01-01

41

Processing and properties of highly porous 17-4 PH stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly porous 17-4 PH stainless steel having porosities in the range of 39–82% with an average pore size of around 700 ?m\\u000a was successfully fabricated using space holder technique in powder metallurgy. Irregular carbamide particles were used as\\u000a a space holder material. The final porosity was directly related to the added fraction of carbamide. The specimens were sintered\\u000a at either 1300°C

I. Mutlu; E. Oktay

2011-01-01

42

Study of micropart fabrication via 17-4 PH stainless nanopowder injection molding.  

PubMed

Micropart fabrication via 17-4 PH stainless nanopowder injection molding was investigated. The nanopowder was mixed with a binder that was based on wax to produce a feedstock composed of 45% powder and binder (the powder load). Initially, the fit and proper test was done before the micropart was made by making some bars of green samples, which the properties were examined after the sintering process. The examination involved the mechanical properties such as the porosity, hardness, and some of metallurgical aspects, such as the second-phase formation and the final compound after the sintering. The results showed that utilizing 17-4 PH stainless nanopowder is promising for micropart fabrication since it can form a nearly full-density sintered sample with a low porosity and good toughness, and can provide a smooth surface finish. After this, the investigations followed with the injection of the feedstock into the PDMS micromold that was formed by the nickel pattern from the X-Ray LIGA process. The green samples successfully produced a high-aspect-ratio sample with a thickness of up to 1 mm and an aspect ratio of 15 in the microchannel part. Then the green samples were sintered at 1,300 degrees C for 2 h, since from the initial test, they showed optimum parameters with nearly full density, low porosity, and a high degree of hardness. The research shows the excellent results of the application of the 17-4 PH stainless nanopowder to micropart fabrication. PMID:21446435

Tirta, Andy; Prasetyo, Yus; Baek, Eung-Ryul; Choi, Chul-Jin

2011-01-01

43

A comparative study of the fretting fatigue behavior of 4340 steel and PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fretting fatigue behavior of two high strength structural steels, PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel and quenched and tempered 4340 steel, is investigated. Both were heat treated to a similar hardness (43-44 HRC), comparable to the condition used in structural components. Both materials experienced significant reductions in fatigue strength due to fretting, with PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel exhibiting a

J. A. Pape; R. W. Neu

2007-01-01

44

Effect of FeB additions on sintering characteristics of injection moulded 17-4PH stainless steel powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

High density sintering of precipitation hardening stainless steel such as 17-4 PH involves a combination of relatively high temperature (>1350°C) and extended sintering time. In this study, the effect of addition of FeB on sintering characteristics of 17-4 PH stainless steel was investigated. Addition of boron is promoted to get highly dense sintered steels. The amount of boron plays a

H. Ö. Gülsoy; S. Salman; S. Özbek

2004-01-01

45

Infrared brazing of Ti6Al4V and 17-4 PH stainless steel with a nickel barrier layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared brazing of Ti-6Al-4V and 17-4 PH stainless steel using the BAg-8 filler metal was performed in this study. A nickel\\u000a barrier layer 10 m thick was introduced on the 17-4 PH stainless steel before infrared brazing. For the specimen that was\\u000a infrared brazed at 800 C and 850 C for less than 300 seconds, the Ni layer served as

R. K. Shiue; S. K. Wu; C. H. Chan; C. S. Huang

2006-01-01

46

Hot-cracking mechanism in COâ laser beam welds of dissimilar metals involving PH martensitic stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autogenous COâ laser beam welds were made between Alloy HP 9-4-20 and both 15-5 PH and PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel. Small scale circular-patch test specimens revealed that the combination involving the Nb-bearing alloy, 15-5 PH, was far more crack susceptible than the combination involving the Nb-free alloy, PH 13-8 Mo. Analytical electron microscopy was used to identify an NbC\\/austenite

Cieslak

1987-01-01

47

Properties of cryogenically worked metals. [stainless steels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program was conducted to determine whether the mechanical properties of cryogenically worked 17-7PH stainless steel are suitable for service from ambient to cryogenic temperatures. It was determined that the stress corrosion resistance of the cryo-worked material is quite adequate for structural service. The tensile properties and fracture toughness at room temperature were comparable to titanium alloy 6Al-4V. However, at cryogenic temperatures, the properties were not sufficient to recommend consideration for structural service.

Schwartzberg, F. R.; Kiefer, T. F.

1975-01-01

48

Effect of pH and oxygen on stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel in reactor moderator service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intergranular cracking of Type 304 stainless steel outlet nozzles in reactor moderator service prompted a broad program of laboratory studies to determine the cause of the failures. It was demonstrated that sensitized and pickled Type 304 stainless steel is extremely susceptible to both intergranular and transgranular chloride stress corrosion cracking in hot water of pH 4.5 to 5.0 which contains

Rideout

1964-01-01

49

Hydrogen embrittlement behavior of palladium modified PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel as a function of age hardening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrogen embrittlement (HE) susceptibility of precipitation age hardened stainless steels (17-4 PH, PH 15-5, PH 13-8 Mo, and others) is well established in the literature. Susceptibility is a strong function of strength and hence lower aging temperatures produce alloys which are more prone to HE. Recently it was shown that uniformly distributed PdAl precipitates improve the HE resistance of

J. R. Scully; M. J. Cieslak; J. A. Van Den Avyle

1994-01-01

50

The Structure and Properties of Diffusion Assisted Bonded Joints in 17-4 PH, Type 347, 15-5 PH and Nitronic 40 Stainless Steels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diffusion assisted bonds are formed in 17-4 PH, 15-5 PH, type 347 and Nitronic 40 stainless steels using electrodeposited copper as the bonding agent. The bonds are analyzed by conventional metallographic, electron microprobe analysis, and scanning electron microscopic techniques as well as Charpy V-notch impact tests at temperatures of 77 and 300 K. Results are discussed in terms of a postulated model for the bonding process.

Wigley, D. A.

1981-01-01

51

Failure Maps for Rectangular 17-4PH Stainless Steel Sandwiched Foam Panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new and innovative concept is proposed for designing lightweight fan blades for aircraft engines using commercially available 17-4PH precipitation hardened stainless steel. Rotating fan blades in aircraft engines experience a complex loading state consisting of combinations of centrifugal, distributed pressure and torsional loads. Theoretical failure plastic collapse maps, showing plots of the foam relative density versus face sheet thickness, t, normalized by the fan blade span length, L, have been generated for rectangular 17-4PH sandwiched foam panels under these three loading modes assuming three failure plastic collapse modes. These maps show that the 17-4PH sandwiched foam panels can fail by either the yielding of the face sheets, yielding of the foam core or wrinkling of the face sheets depending on foam relative density, the magnitude of t/L and the loading mode. The design envelop of a generic fan blade is superimposed on the maps to provide valuable insights on the probable failure modes in a sandwiched foam fan blade.

Raj, S. V.; Ghosn, L. J.

2007-01-01

52

Characterization of 17-4PH stainless steel powders produced by supersonic gas atomization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

17-4PH stainless steel powders were prepared using a supersonic nozzle in a close-coupled gas atomization system. The characteristics of powder particles were carried out by means of a laser particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The results show that the mass median particle diameter is about 19.15 ?m. Three main types of surface microstructures are observed in the powders: well-developed dendrite, cellular, and cellular dendrite structure. The XRD measurements show that, as the particle size decreases, the amount of fcc phase gradually decreases and that of bcc phase increases. The cooling rate is inversely related to the particle size, i.e., it decreases with an increase in particle size.

Zhao, Xin-Ming; Xu, Jun; Zhu, Xue-Xin; Zhang, Shao-Ming; Zhao, Wen-Dong; Yuan, Guo-Liang

2012-01-01

53

Mechanical Properties of 17-4PH Stainless Steel Foam Panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rectangular 17-4PH stainless steel sandwiched foam panels were fabricated using a commercial manufacturing technique by brazing two sheets to a foam core. Microstructural observations and ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of the panels revealed large variations in the quality of the brazed areas from one panel to the next as well as within the same panel. Shear tests conducted on specimens machined from the panels exhibited failures either in the brazed region or in the foam core for the poorly brazed and well-brazed samples, respectively. Compression tests were conducted on the foam cores to evaluate their elastic and plastic deformation behavior. These data were compared with published data on polymeric and metallic foams, and with theoretical deformation models proposed for open cell foams.

Raj, S. V.; Ghosn, L. J.; Lerch, B. a.; Hebsur, M.; Cosgriff, L. M.; Fedor, J.

2007-01-01

54

Weldability, microstructure and properties of precipitation strenghtened martensitic stainless steels. [Custom 450; PH 13-8 Mo  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the influence of welding on the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of two precipitation strengthened martensitic stainless steels: Custom 450 and PH 13-8 Mo. The two alloys exhibited very good weld cracking resistance, although the formation of a low melting NbC eutectic constituent did cause some solidification cracking in Custom 450. The effects of aging temperature on

J. A. Brooks; W. R. Cieslak; W. M. Jr. Garrison

1986-01-01

55

Heat treatment of investment cast PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel: Part II. Isothermal aging kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hardening response of investment cast PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel has been evaluated by hardness measurements following aging in the temperature range normally specified for this alloy (510 °C to 593 °C). A new relationship between fraction transformed and hardness was developed, and analysis of the data in terms of the kinetics of precipitation, in a manner similar to

C. V. Robino; M. J. Cieslak; P. W. Hochanadel; G. R. Edwards

1994-01-01

56

On the correlation between fracture toughness and precipitation hardening heat treatments in 15-5PH Stainless Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the fracture toughness, Kq, and the yield strength of precipitation heat-treated Stainless Steel 15-5 PH was determined. Thirty six cylindrical tensile bars and eighteen compact tension C(T) specimens were tested. It was found that the high tolerance for solution heat treatment decreases the Kq value significantly, while the yield strength remains virtually unaltered.

M. Abdelshehid; K. Mahmodieh; K. Mori; L. Chen; P. Stoyanov; D. Davlantes; J. Foyos; J. Ogren; R CLARKJR; O. S. Es-Said

2007-01-01

57

Influence of nickel boride additions on sintering behaviors of injection moulded 17-4 PH stainless steel powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of nickel boride additions on sintering behavior of injection molded 17-4 PH stainless powder. With increases nickel boride amount, sintering time and temperature, relative density and mechanical properties of specimens increase. Sintering to full density was obtained with the addition of 1wt.% NiB at 1280°C for 45min.

H. Özkan Gülsoy

2005-01-01

58

Mitigation of FOD and Corrosion Fatigue Damage in 17-4 PH Stainless Steel Compressor Blades with Surface Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compressor blades of a military aircraft turbine engine made of 17 -4 PH stainless steel have been reported to have blade edge foreign object damage (FOD), corrosion pitting, and erosion damage that reduce fatigue life. This paper reports the findings of a comprehensive investigation of the effect of residual compressive stresses, imparted by various surface treatments, to improve leading edge

Paul S. Prevéy; N. Jayaraman; Ravi Ravindranath

59

LOW PLASTICITY BURNISHING (LPB) TREATMENT TO MITIGATE FOD AND CORROSION FATIGUE DAMAGE IN 17-4 PH STAINLESS STEEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benefits of applying low plasticity burnishing (LPB) to 17-4PH Stainless Steel (H1100) on both the fatigue and corrosion fatigue performance were compared with the shot peened (SP) and low stress ground (LSG) conditions. LPB treatment dramatically improved both the high cycle fatigue (HCF) performance and fatigue strength. The baseline LSG and SP treatments showed similar fatigue strengths of about

Paul S. Prevéy; N. Jayaraman

60

Pitting behavior of type 17-4 PH stainless steel weldments  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical methods of measuring pitting potentials (E{sub pit}) were used to study the pitting resistance of type 17% Cr-4% Ni (17-4, UNS S17400) precipitation hardenable (PH) stainless steel (SS) weldments. The main objectives were to evaluate the pitting resistance of the base metal, the heat-affected zone (HAZ), and the weld metal portions of 17-4 PH SS welds welded autogenously using the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. Effects of different preweld and postweld heat treatments (PWHT) and of the weld heat input on pitting resistance were studied. Results showed a solution-treated base metal had a relatively lower pitting resistance. In contrast, aging preceded by solution treatment improved pitting resistance. Direct peak aging after welding improved pitting resistance of the weld metals, but it decreased resistance of the HAZ. Welding with relatively lower weld heat input decreased the pitting resistance of the weld metals, but the reverse occurred in the case of the HAZ. Solution treatment followed by peak aging nullified effects of the weld heat input and the preweld heat treatments on pitting resistance of the different portions of the weldment. This heat treatment produced relatively higher pitting resistance in all portions of the weldment.

Raja, K.S. [EWAC Alloys Limited, Bombay (India); Rao, K.P. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering

1995-08-01

61

Alloy Shrinkage factors for the investment casting of 17-4PH stainless steel parts  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the alloy shrinkage factors were obtained for the investment casting of 17-4PH stainless steel parts. For the investment casting process, unfilled wax and fused silica with a zircon prime coat were used for patterns and shell molds, respectively. Dimensions of the die tooling, wax pattern, and casting were measured using a Coordinate Measurement Machine. For all the properties, the experimental data available in the literature did not cover the entire temperature range necessary for process simulation. A comparison between the predicted material property data measured property data is made. It was found that most material properties were accurately predicted over the most of the temperature range of the process. Several assumptions were made in order to obtain a complete set of mechanical property data at high temperatures. Thermal expansion measurements for the 17-4PH alloy were conducted at heating and cooling. As a function of temperature, the thermal expansion for both the alloy and shell mold materials showed different evolution at heating and cooling. Thus, one generic simulation were performed with thermal expansion obtained at heating and another one with thermal expansion obtained at cooling. The alloy dimensions were obtained from numerical simulation results of solidification, heat transfer, and deformation phenomena. As compared with experimental results, the numerical simulation results for the shrinkage factors were slightly over-predicted.

Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL

2008-01-01

62

Growth of small fatigue cracks in PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

The growth of small fatigue cracks in PH 13-8 Mo (H1050) stainless steel under constant amplitude loading at different mean stresses (R = 0.1 and {minus}1) under generally high cycle fatigue conditions was investigated. Small cracks were allowed to initiate naturally at the root of a single edge notch specimen and were monitored using a surface replicating technique. It was found that the initiation and growth of surface cracks up to 100 {micro}m encompassed 70 to 90 pct of the total fatigue life at stress amplitudes just above the fatigue limit. Cracks of length less than 100 {micro}m were subject to strong influences of the microstructure and exhibited stage 1 (shear-dominated) growth, which was manifested in oscillatory crack growth rates. The oscillations diminished as the crack transitioned to stage 2 growth. The higher stress ratio (R = 0.1) resulted in a more rapid transition from stage 1 to stage 2 growth in comparison to R = {minus}1. After transitioning to stage 2, the crack growth could be well characterized by conventional long crack tools even when the crack was still physically small. The small crack growth behavior is shown to be similar to that of a quenched and tempered AISI 4340 steel having a comparable strength.

Patel, A.M.; Neu, R.W.; Pape, J.A. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering

1999-05-01

63

Microstructural evolution in a 17-4 PH stainless steel after aging at 400 °C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructure of 17-4 PH stainless steel at various stages of heat treatment, i.e., after solution heat treatment, tempering at 580 °C, and long-term aging at 400 °C, have been studied by atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The solution-treated specimen consists largely of martensite with a small fraction of ?-ferrite. No precipitates are present in the martensite phase, while spherical fcc-Cu particles are present in the ?-ferrite. After tempering for 4 hours at 580 °C, coherent Cu particles precipitate in the martensite phase. At this stage, the Cr concentration in the martensite phase is still uniform. After 5000 hours aging at 400 °C, the martensite spinodaly decomposes into Fe-rich ? and Cr-enriched ??. In addition, fine particles of the G-phase (structure type D8 a , space group Fmbar 3m) enriched in Si, Ni, and Mn have been found in intimate contact with the Cu precipitates. Following spinodal decomposition of the martensite phase, G-phase precipitation occurs after long-term aging.

Murayama, M.; Hono, K.; Katayama, Y.

1999-02-01

64

Heat treatment of investment cast PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel: Part I. Mechanical properties and microstructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructure of investment cast PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel heat-treated to various conditions was studied using light and electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The mechanical properties were investigated by using uniaxial tensile testing, hardness testing, and Charpy impact testing. The Beta-NiAl strengthening precipitates, though detectable by electron diffraction, were difficult to resolve by transmission electron microscopy

P. W. Hochanadel; G. R. Edwards; C. V. Robino; M. J. Cieslak

1994-01-01

65

The influence of palladium on the hydrogen-assisted cracking resistance of PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare the hydrogen-assisted cracking resistance of wrought PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel alloyed with 0.4 to 1.0 wt pct\\u000a palladium to the conventional alloy when aged to yield strengths of 1170 to 1250 MPa. Intergranular hydrogen cracking is suppressed\\u000a with Pd in both static load and constant extension rate tests conducted with electrochemical hydrogen charging. These results\\u000a are analyzed

J. R. Scully; J. A. Van Den Avyle; M. J. Cieslak; A. D. Romig; C. R. Hills

1991-01-01

66

Heat treatment of investment cast PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel: Part I. Mechanical properties and microstructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructure of investment cast PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel heat-treated to various conditions was studied using light\\u000a and electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and M?ssbauer spectroscopy. The mechanical properties were investigated\\u000a by using uniaxial tensile testing, hardness testing, and Charpy impact testing. The?-NiAl strengthening precipitates, though detectable by electron diffraction, were difficult to resolve by transmission electron\\u000a microscopy (TEM)

P. W. Hochanadel; G. R. Edwards; C. V. Robino; M. J. Cieslak

1994-01-01

67

The influence of palladium on the hydrogen-assisted cracking resistance of PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare the hydrogen-assisted cracking resistance of wrought PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel alloyed with 0.4 to 1.0 wt pct palladium to the conventional alloy when aged to yield strengths of 1170 to 1250 MPa. Intergranular hydrogen cracking is suppressed with Pd in both static load and constant extension rate tests conducted with electrochemical hydrogen charging. These results are analyzed

J. R. Scully; J. A. van den Avyle; M. J. Cieslak; A. D. Romig; C. R. Hills

1991-01-01

68

Heat treatment of investment cast PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel: Part II. Isothermal aging kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hardening response of investment cast PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel has been evaluated by hardness measurements following\\u000a aging in the temperature range normally specified for this alloy (510 ?C to 593 ?C). A new relationship between fraction transformed\\u000a and hardness was developed, and analysis of the data in terms of the kinetics of precipitation, in a manner similar to

C. V. Robino; M. J. Cieslak; P. W. Hochanadel; G. R. Edwards

1994-01-01

69

POSTIRRADIATION EXAMINATION OF 17-4 PH STAINLESS STEEL CONTROL ROD DRIVE RACK FROM SM1 REACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A portion of the control rod drive system in the SM-1 Reactor, ; fabricated from l7-4 PH stainless steel, was examined at the Oak Ridge National ; Laboratory (ORNL) hot cells after successful operation in a pressurized-water ; environment for approximately three years. Examination included visual ; inspection, magnetic-particle tests, fluorescent penetrant tests, and ; metallography. No evidence of stress-corrosion

K. K. Klindt; A. E. Richt; W. C. Thurber

1961-01-01

70

Evaluation of thermal ageing conditions in 17-4 PH stainless steel by Fourier descriptor analysis of magnetic hysteresis loops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourier descriptor analysis of magnetic hysteresis loops has been used to assess the conditions of isothermal and isochronal ageing in quench-aged precipitation hardening 17-4 PH stainless steel. The Fourier descriptors (i.e. sine harmonic coefficients in the Fourier series expansion of the magnetic flux density as a function of current arc length value of the ascending branch of hysteresis loop) have

N. I. Shakshin; G. I. Deordiev; V. E. Scherbinin; V. Moorthy; T. Jayakumar; D. K. Bhattacharya; P. Kalyanasundaram; Baldev Raj

1996-01-01

71

Relationship between binder contents and mechanical properties of 17-4 ph stainless steel fabricated by PIM process and sintering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical properties and microstructures of 17-4 ph stainless steel parts produced using different binder contents (powder\\u000a loading) of powder injection molding (PIM) feedstock have been studied. The tensile and wear properties have been evaluated.\\u000a Wear tests were conducted by a pin-on-disk tribometer, without lubricant, at different loads and sliding distance. SEM examination\\u000a of the fracture sufaces revealed good particle bonding

K. A. Khalil; Sug Won Kim

2006-01-01

72

Influence of high temperature exposure on the mechanical behavior and microstructure of 17-4 PH stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical behavior and microstructural evolution of 17-4 PH stainless steels in three conditions, i.e. unaged (Condition A), peak-aged (H900) and overaged (H1150), exposed at temperatures ranging from 200 to 700°C were investigated. The high-temperature yield strength of each condition decreased with an increase in temperature from 200 to 400°C except for Condition A at 400°C with a longer hold

Jui-Hung Wu; Chih-Kuang Lin

2003-01-01

73

Dry sliding wear in injection molded 17-4 PH stainless steel powder with nickel boride additions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry sliding wear behavior of injection molded 17-4 PH stainless steel powder with nickel boride additions has been studied on a pin-on-disc wear tester using an alloy steel pin and disc of hardness 63 HRC. The PIM alloys in the as sintered as well as in the precipitate-hardened conditions were investigated for their wear behavior. Wear rate was found to

H. Özkan Gülsoy

2007-01-01

74

Effect of strain rate on high-temperature low-cycle fatigue of 17-4 PH stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of strain rate (10?2, 10?3 and 10?4s?1) on the low-cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior was investigated for 17-4 PH stainless steels in three different conditions at temperatures of 300–500°C. The cyclic stress response (CSR) for Condition A tested at 300 and 400°C showed cyclic hardening due to an influence of dynamic strain aging (DSA). An in situ precipitation-hardening effect

Jui-Hung Wu; Chih-Kuang Lin

2005-01-01

75

Simulation of the sintering densification and shrinkage behavior of powder-injection-molded 17-4 PH stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study simulates the sintering behavior of powder-injection-molded 17-4 PH stainless steel to predict the geometry of\\u000a the sintered components. Sintering is considered as the viscous deformation process of a porous body under the influence of\\u000a sintering stress. Consequently, modified constitutive equations applicable to linear viscous, compressible material, based\\u000a on a continuum-mechanics approach, were utilized in simulating the sintering kinetics,

Young-Sam Kwon; Yunxin Wu; Pavan Suri; Randall M. German

2004-01-01

76

Notch tensile properties of laser-surface-annealed 17-4 PH stainless steel in hydrogen-related environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slow displacement rate tensile tests were performed to determine the notched tensile strength (NTS) of 17-4 PH stainless steel with various microstructures in hydrogen-related environments. Solution-annealed (SA), peak-aged (H900), over-aged (H1025), and laser-annealed (LA) specimens were included in the study. Based on the results of NTS in air, the NTS loss in both gaseous hydrogen and H2S-saturated solution was used

L. W. Tsay; W. C. Lee; R. K. Shiue; J. K. Wu

2002-01-01

77

Effect of molybdenum on SCC of 17-4PH stainless steel under different aging conditions in chloride solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 17-4 PH martensitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steel, having a combination of high mechanical properties and\\u000a good corrosion resistance is widely used in aerospace, chemical, and petrochemical and food industries This alloy has a high\\u000a resistance to stress corrosion cracking but age hardening treatment, increases its sensitivity to stress corrosion cracking.\\u000a There are several works investigating the influence of different aging

M. Karaminezhaad; S. Sharafi; K. Dalili

2006-01-01

78

Influence of pH on the passivation behavior of 254SMO stainless steel in 3.5% NaCl solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potentiodynamic polarization measurement of 254SMO stainless steel (UNS 31254) was conducted in 3.5% NaCl solutions with pH ranging from 0.1 to 5. The results indicated that this stainless steel offered excellent pitting corrosion resistance in corrosive environments. Further, it also exhibited various features on the polarization curves in different pH solutions. The electrochemical constant-potential passivation treatment performed at different

C. T. Liu; J. K. Wu

2007-01-01

79

Use of the double-loop reactivation test to measure sensitization in aged and welded pH 13-8 Mo martensitic stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (EPR) testing provides quantitative detection of small degrees of sensitization. We have used double-loop (DL-EPR) testing, a method which has been characterized for use on austenitic stainless steels, to measure sensitization resulting from aging or from welding of PH 13-8 Mo martensitic stainless steel. Aging at either 500°C or 620°C results in an increase of the reactivation

W. R. Cieslak; M. J. Cieslak; C. R. Hills

1987-01-01

80

Effects of Temperature on Microstructure and Wear of Salt Bath Nitrided 17-4PH Stainless Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salt bath nitriding of 17-4 PH martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steels was conducted at 610, 630, and 650 °C for 2 h using a complex salt bath heat-treatment, and the properties of the nitrided surface were systematically evaluated. Experimental results revealed that the microstructure and phase constituents of the nitrided surface alloy are highly process condition dependent. When 17-4PH stainless steel was subjected to complex salt bathing nitriding, the main phase of the nitrided layer was expanded martensite (?'), expanded austenite (?N), CrN, Fe4N, and (Fe,Cr) x O y . In the sample nitrided above 610 °C, the expanded martensite transformed into expanded austenite. But in the sample nitrided at 650 °C, the expanded austenite decomposed into ?N and CrN. The decomposed ?N then disassembled into CrN and alpha again. The nitrided layer depth thickened intensively with the increasing nitriding temperature. The activation energy of nitriding in this salt bath was 125 ± 5 kJ/mol.

Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuanhua; Fan, Hongyuan; Zeng, Dezhi; Peng, Qian; Shen, Baoluo

2012-08-01

81

Hydrogen embrittlement of PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel-the effect of surface condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibility of precipitation hardening 13-8 Mo stainless steel to hydrogen embrittlement (HE) was measured by both post hydrogen charging tensile tests and by time to failure tests while being subjected to hydrogen charging and a static stress below the yield stress. In the former, it was found that the ductility was decreased substantially after only 30 min charging time.

G. T. Murray; H. H. Honegger; T. Mousel

1984-01-01

82

Infrared brazing of Ti–6Al–4V and 17-4 PH stainless steel with (Ni)\\/Cr barrier layer(s)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ti–6Al–4V and 17-4PH stainless steel (17-4PH SS) with (Ni)\\/Cr barrier layer(s) were infrared vacuum brazed using two silver-based braze alloys, 72Ag–28Cu and 63Ag–35.25Cu–1.75Ti (wt.%), respectively. Both Cr (15?m) and Ni (2?m)\\/Cr (15?m) coated 17-4PH SS plates were evaluated in the study. Introducing (Ni)\\/Cr barrier layer(s) can effectively inhibit the interfacial reaction between the 17-4PH SS and the molten braze during

R. K. Shiue; S. K. Wu; J. Y. Shiue

2008-01-01

83

The spinodal decomposition in 17-4PH stainless steel subjected to long-term aging at 350 deg. C  

SciTech Connect

The influence of aging time on the microstructure evolution of 17-4 PH martensitic stainless steel was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results showed that the martensite decomposed by a spinodal decomposition mechanism after the alloy was subjected to long-term aging at 350 deg. C. The fine scale spinodal decomposition of {alpha}-ferrite brought about a Cr-enriched bright stripe and a Fe-enriched dark stripe, i.e., {alpha}' and {alpha} phases, separately, which were perpendicular to the grain boundary. The spinodal decomposition started at the grain boundary. Then with prolonged aging time, the decomposition microstructure expanded from the grain boundary to interior. The wavelength of the spinodally decomposed microstructure changed little with extended aging time.

Wang Jun [School of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China) and National Key Laboratory for Nuclear Fuel and Materials, Nuclear Power Institute of China, P.O. Box 436, Chengdu, 610041 (China)], E-mail: srwangjun@163.com; Zou Hong; Li Cong; Qiu Shaoyu [National Key Laboratory for Nuclear Fuel and Materials, Nuclear Power Institute of China, P.O. Box 436, Chengdu, 610041 (China); Shen Baoluo [School of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China)

2008-05-15

84

Contribution of Solution pH and Buffer Capacity to Suppress Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking of Sensitized Type 304 Stainless Steel at 95?C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlling pH of high-temperature water to [approximately]pH 7 at 300 C by adding lithium hydroxide (LiOH) into the coolant system of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) successfully has been mitigating the corrosion of PWR component materials. The effects of solution pH and buffer capacity on intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of sensitized type 304 stainless steel ([SS] UNS S30400) was

S. Zhang; T. Shibata; T. Haruna

1999-01-01

85

An investigation into the effect of experimental parameters on powder grain size of the mechanically milled 17-4 PH stainless steel powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a Szegvari type vertical mechanical alloying\\/milling attritor was designed and constructed for research purposes. By using this attritor, optimum processing parameters such as milling time, milling speed (rpm), diameter and the amount of the milling balls, milling atmosphere and raw material properties were determined when mechanical milling of gas and water atomised 17-4 PH stainless steel powders.

Cemil Çetinkaya; Tayfun Findik; Sedat Özbilen

2007-01-01

86

45 CFR 17.7 - Retractions or corrections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...17.7 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA § 17.7 Retractions or corrections. Where the Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs finds that information...

2011-10-01

87

45 CFR 17.7 - Retractions or corrections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...17.7 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA § 17.7 Retractions or corrections. Where the Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs finds that information...

2012-10-01

88

45 CFR 17.7 - Retractions or corrections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...17.7 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA § 17.7 Retractions or corrections. Where the Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs finds that information...

2013-10-01

89

45 CFR 17.7 - Retractions or corrections.  

...17.7 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF ADVERSE INFORMATION TO NEWS MEDIA § 17.7 Retractions or corrections. Where the Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs finds that information...

2014-10-01

90

Solution quenched structure of wrought PH 13–8 Mo stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solution-quenched structure of wrought PH13-8Mo steel was investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Retained austenite and primary carbide were observed in the TEM. SANS measurements indicated microstructural inhomogeneities, comprising carbides and atom-clusters of elements having small scattering length, such as, Al, Si, S and P.

J. Mittra; G. K. Dey; D. Sen; A. K. Patra; S. Mazumder; P. K. De

2004-01-01

91

A pH Sensor Based on a Stainless Steel Electrode Electrodeposited with Iridium Oxide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple procedure to make an iridium oxide (IrO[subscript 2]) electrodeposited pH sensor, that can be used in a chemical, biomedical, or materials laboratory, is presented here. Some exercises, based on this sensor, that can be used to teach important concepts in the field of biomedical, biochemical, tissue, or materials engineering, are also…

Martinez, C. C. M.; Madrid, R. E.; Felice, C. J.

2009-01-01

92

TEM investigation of the tempering behaviour of the maraging PH 17.4 Mo stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PH 17-4 Mo steel (Z6 CND 17.04.02), used in the steam generator of nuclear reactors, was investigated in order to determine the structural evolution occurring during tempering carried out under various conditions of duration and temperature. The formation and growth of different types of carbides such as Mo2C, M23C6 and M7C3 and of Fe2Mo intermetallic compound were studied and

C. Servant; El H. Gherbi; G. Cizeron

1987-01-01

93

Influence of Stress and pH on Susceptibility of Copper-Containing Type 304 Stainless Steels to Stress Corrosion Cracking in Sulfuric Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress corrosion tests on type 304 (UNS S30400) stainless steels (SS) with 0.3 wt% or 1.3 wt% Cu addition were conducted in hot sulfuric acid-sodium hydroxide solutions under constant loads. Cracking susceptibility, corrosion morphology, average crack growth rate (CGR), and average uniform corrosion rate were examined as functions of pH, sulfate ion concentration, and applied stress. The steel with 0.3

M. Asawa; D. Minoda

1996-01-01

94

Powder injection molding of a 17-4 PH stainless steel and the effect of sintering temperature on its microstructure and mechanical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 17-4 PH stainless steel powders with average diameter of 10?m were injection-molded into plate-type tensile specimens. Sintering of the compacts was carried out at the various temperatures ranging from 900 to 1350°C after solution extraction and thermal decomposition. Sintering behavior of the powder injection-molded specimens and room temperature tensile properties of sintered specimens were investigated. With increase in the

Hwan-Jin Sung; Tae Kwon Ha; Sangho Ahn; Young Won Chang

2002-01-01

95

On the non-isothermal precipitation of copper-rich phase in 17-4 PH stainless steel using dilatometric techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of the precipitation of copper-rich phase in 17-4 PH stainless steel was studied in this paper by non-isothermal\\u000a dilatometric experiments. The dilatometric curve was analyzed and the conversion degree of the precipitates was associated\\u000a with the area under the derivative curve of the thermal expansion as a function of temperature. The apparent activation energy\\u000a associated with the formation

B. Rivolta; R. Gerosa

2010-01-01

96

The effect of 17-4PH stainless steel on the lifetime of a Pennzane lubricated Microwave Limb Sounder Antenna Actuator Assembly ball screw for the AURA spacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

During ground based life testing of a Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Antenna Actuator Assembly (AAA) ball-screw assembly, lubricant darkening and loss were noted when approximately 10% of required lifetime was completed. The MLS-AAA ball screw and nut are made from 17-4 PH steel, the nut has 440C stainless steel balls, and the assembly is lubricated with a Pennzane formulation containing

William R. Jones Jr.; Mark J. Jansen; Gun-Shing Chen; Jonathan Lam; Mark Balzer; John Lo; Mark Anderson; Joseph P. Schepis

2005-01-01

97

Ultrasonic measurement of elastic moduli of 17-4 pH stainless steel and uranium -2 molybdenum from -40°C to 800°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young's Modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio for 17-4 pH stainless steel and uranium -2 molybdenum are calculated from ultrasonic longitudinal and shear velocities determined from -40°C to 800°C. The ultrasonic velocities were determined at elevated temperatures using a through-transmission buffer rod arrangement. An indium-gallium slurry bond was used as an ultrasonic couplant between Cupernickel 10 alloy buffer rods and

Gieske

1980-01-01

98

Influence of hardness on the wear resistance of 17-4 PH stainless steel evaluated by the pin-on-disc testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present work aimed at investigating the wear resistance of AISI 630 (UNS S17400) or 17-4 PH stainless steel hardened by precipitation hardening or aging at various hardness levels. The PHs steels are an interesting family of steels for applying in highly stressed parts for its corrosion resistance and relative high hardness, attaining up to 49 HRC by low-temperature aging heat

J. D. Bressan; D. P. Daros; A. Sokolowski; R. A. Mesquita; C. A. Barbosa

2008-01-01

99

Effects of residual carbon content on sintering shrinkage, microstructure and mechanical properties of injection molded 17-4 PH stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon contamination from the thermoplastic binder is an inherent problem with the metal powder injection molding process. Residual carbon in the compacts after debinding has a strong impact on the sintering process, microstructure, and mechanical properties. In this study, injection molded 17-4 PH stainless steel was debound to two levels of residual carbon, 0.203 ± 0.014 wt% and 0.113 ±

Yunxin Wu; R. M. German; D. Blaine; B. Marx; C. Schlaefer

2002-01-01

100

Constituted oxides\\/nitrides on nitriding 304, 430 and 17-4 PH stainless steel in salt baths over the temperature range 723 to 923 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progressively developed oxides and nitrides that form on nitriding 304, 430 and 17-4 PH stainless steel are analysed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) in this study. The experimental results show that the Cr contents and matrix structures (ferrite, austenite and martensite) play an important role in forming FeCr2O4, Cr2O3 and Fe2O3 oxides as well as

Teng-Shih Shih; Yung-Sen Huang; Chi-Fan Chen

2011-01-01

101

Metallurgical Analysis of Crack Initiation of Wire-Cut Electrical Discharge-Machined Spline Actuators Made of 17-4 PH Stainless Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spline actuators made of investment cast 17-4 PH (precipitation hardening) stainless steel were found to contain micro-cracks.\\u000a The cracked actuators were subjected to optical and scanning electron microscopy and hardness testing, which revealed that\\u000a the failure occurred due to fatigue crack initiation and growth after electrical discharge machining (EDM). The rehardened\\u000a layer produced by the EDM remained after machining, and

Ahmad-Reza Etemadi; Bahram Fazel; Armin Emami

102

43 CFR 17.7 - Procedure for effecting compliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or National Origin § 17.7 Procedure for effecting compliance. (a) General. If there...

2011-10-01

103

43 CFR 17.7 - Procedure for effecting compliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or National Origin § 17.7 Procedure for effecting compliance. (a) General. If there...

2010-10-01

104

43 CFR 17.7 - Procedure for effecting compliance.  

...Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or National Origin § 17.7 Procedure for effecting compliance. (a) General. If there...

2014-10-01

105

43 CFR 17.7 - Procedure for effecting compliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or National Origin § 17.7 Procedure for effecting compliance. (a) General. If there...

2013-10-01

106

43 CFR 17.7 - Procedure for effecting compliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or National Origin § 17.7 Procedure for effecting compliance. (a) General. If there...

2012-10-01

107

Contribution of solution pH and buffer capacity to suppress intergranular stress corrosion cracking of sensitized type 304 stainless steel at 95 C  

SciTech Connect

Controlling pH of high-temperature water to [approximately]pH 7 at 300 C by adding lithium hydroxide (LiOH) into the coolant system of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) successfully has been mitigating the corrosion of PWR component materials. The effects of solution pH and buffer capacity on intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of sensitized type 304 stainless steel ([SS] UNS S30400) was examined at 95 C by slow strain rate technique (SSRT) with an in-situ cracking observation system. It was found that an increase in solution pH or buffer capacity increased crack initiation time and decreased mean crack initiation frequency, but exerted almost no effect on crack propagation. This inhibition effect on IGSCC initiation was explained as resulting from a retarding effect of solution pH and buffer capacity on the decrease in pH at crack nuclei caused by the hydrolysis of metal ions dissolved when the passive film was ruptured by strain in SSRT.

Zhang, S.; Shibata, T.; Haruna, T. (Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Processing)

1999-05-01

108

Effects of the Treating Time on Microstructure and Erosion Corrosion Behavior of Salt-Bath-Nitrided 17-4PH Stainless Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of salt-bath nitriding time on the microstructure, microhardness, and erosion-corrosion behavior of nitrided 17-4PH stainless steel at 703 K (430 °C) were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and erosion-corrosion testing. The experimental results revealed that the microstructure and phase constituents of the nitrided surface alloy are highly process condition dependent. When 17-4PH stainless steel was subjected to complex salt-bathing nitriding, the main phase of the nitrided layer was expanded martensite ( ?`), expanded austenite (S), CrN, Fe4N, and Fe2N. The thickness of nitrided layers increased with the treating time. The salt-bath nitriding improves effectively the surface hardness. The maximum values measured from the treated surface are observed to be 1100 HV0.1 for 40 hours approximately, which is about 3.5 times as hard as the untreated material (309 HV0.1). Low-temperature nitriding can improve the erosion-corrosion resistance against two-phase flow. The sample nitrided for 4 hours has the best corrosion resistance.

Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuanhua; Li, Mingxing; Fan, Hongyuan; Zeng, Dezhi; Xiong, Ji

2013-08-01

109

An investigation of the high-temperature and solidification microstructures of PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential thermal analysis (DTA), high-temperature water-quench (WQ) experiments, and optical and electron microscopy were\\u000a used to establish the near-solidus and solidification microstructures in PH 13-8 Mo. On heating at a rate of 0. 33 C\\/s, this\\u000a alloy begins to transform from austenite to ?-ferrite at ?1350 C. Transformation is complete by ?1435 C. The solidus is\\u000a reached at ?1447 C,

M. J. Cieslak; C. R. Hills; P. F. Hlava; S. A. David

1990-01-01

110

An investigation of the high-temperature and solidification microstructures of PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential thermal analysis (DTA), high-temperature water-quench (WQ) experiments, and optical and electron microscopy were used to establish the near-solidus and solidification microstructures in PH 13-8 Mo. On heating at a rate of 0. 33 °C\\/s, this alloy begins to transform from austenite to delta-ferrite at ≈1350 °C. Transformation is complete by ≈1435 °C. The solidus is reached at ≈1447 °C,

M. J. Cieslak; C. R. Hills; P. F. Hlava; S. A. David

1990-01-01

111

Microstructure and dry-sliding wear properties of DC plasma nitrided 17-4 PH stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt that the precipitation hardening steel 17-4PH was conducted by DC plasma nitriding (DCPN) is made to develop a kind of candidate material for nuclear reactor. Nitriding process performed at temperature?400°C takes effect on creation of the layers composed of S-phase (expanded austenite) and ?N? (expanded martensite). Up to the temperature of 420°C, the S-phase peaks disappear due to

Gui-Jiang Li; Jun Wang; Cong Li; Qian Peng; Jian Gao; Bao-Luo Shen

2008-01-01

112

THE EFFECT OF 17-4PH STAINLESS STEEL ON THE LIFETIME OF A PENNZANE® LUBRICATED MICROWAVE LIMB SOUNDER ANTENNA ACTUATOR ASSEMBL Y BALL SCREW FOR THE AURA SPACECRAFT  

Microsoft Academic Search

During ground based life testing of a Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Antenna Actuator Assembly (AAA) ball-screw assembly, lubricant darkening and loss w ere noted when approximately 10% of required lifetime was completed. The MLS-AAA ball screw and nut are made from 17-4 PH steel, the nut has 440C stainless steel balls, and the assembly is lubricated with a Pennzane ®

William R. Jones; Mark J. Jansen; Jonathan Lam; Mark Balzer; John Lo; Joseph P. Schepis; Mark Anderson

113

Influences of pH value, temperature, chloride ions and sulfide ions on the corrosion behaviors of 316L stainless steel in the simulated cathodic environment of proton exchange membrane fuel cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

316L stainless steel is in the passive state in a simulated cathodic environment, and the passivity of 316L SS is enhanced with increasing pH value, decreasing temperature, decreasing chloride ions and sulfide ions concentrations. Mott-Schottky plots show that the passive films appear a p-n heterojunction, and the donor and acceptor densities reach 1022 cm-3, showing a highly defective character of the passive film. The donor and acceptor densities increase with increasing temperature, increasing chloride ions and sulfide ions concentrations, while they decreased with increasing pH value. The decreased passivity and the increased doping density may be beneficial to the conductivity of the passive film, but they adversely affect the protectiveness of the passive film toward corrosion.

Li, D. G.; Wang, J. D.; Chen, D. R.; Liang, P.

2014-12-01

114

Quantitative measurement of fatigue crack initiation and propagation in 304 stainless steel as related to design and nondestructive evaluation. Ph.D. Thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initiation and propagation of short fatigue cracks in 304 stainless steel have been examined through replication techniques and through a mechanical vibration resonant frequency technique, which allows the measurement of elastic modulus and internal friction. Center hole and side notch specimens 6.3 mm thick were used for low cycles fatigue tests. The notches localize the crack initiation sites to

Mcguire

1993-01-01

115

Tool wear and tool life in end milling of 15–5 PH stainless steel under different cooling and lubrication conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the machining operations on stainless steel alloys are carried out with cutting fluid due to the poor machinability\\u000a of this kind of material. Tool wear mechanisms are directly influenced by the cooling and lubrication condition to which the\\u000a tool is exposed, especially in interrupted cutting processes. This work investigates tool wear mechanisms for an end milling\\u000a operation of

Aldo Braghini Junior; Anselmo Eduardo Diniz; Fernando Teixeira Filho

2009-01-01

116

Influence of interface microstructure on the mechanical properties of titanium\\/17-4 PH stainless steel solid state diffusion bonded joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, titanium was diffusion bonded to a type 17-4 precipitation hardening stainless steel in vacuum at different temperatures and times. Bonded samples were characterized using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction technique (XRD). The inter-diffusion of the chemical species across the diffusion interface was evaluated by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Up to 850°C for

S. Kundu; D. Roy; S. Chatterjee; D. Olson; B. Mishra

117

47 CFR 17.7 - Antenna structures requiring notification to the FAA.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna structures requiring notification to the...CONSTRUCTION, MARKING, AND LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Federal Aviation Administration Notification Criteria § 17.7 Antenna structures requiring notification to...

2014-10-01

118

47 CFR 17.7 - Antenna structures requiring notification to the FAA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna structures requiring notification to the...CONSTRUCTION, MARKING, AND LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Federal Aviation Administration Notification Criteria § 17.7 Antenna structures requiring notification to...

2013-10-01

119

47 CFR 17.7 - Antenna structures requiring notification to the FAA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna structures requiring notification to the...CONSTRUCTION, MARKING, AND LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Federal Aviation Administration Notification Criteria § 17.7 Antenna structures requiring notification to...

2010-10-01

120

47 CFR 17.7 - Antenna structures requiring notification to the FAA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna structures requiring notification to the...CONSTRUCTION, MARKING, AND LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Federal Aviation Administration Notification Criteria § 17.7 Antenna structures requiring notification to...

2012-10-01

121

47 CFR 17.7 - Antenna structures requiring notification to the FAA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna structures requiring notification to the...CONSTRUCTION, MARKING, AND LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Federal Aviation Administration Notification Criteria § 17.7 Antenna structures requiring notification to...

2011-10-01

122

Identification and characterization of Schistosoma mansoni p17.7, a cyclophilin.  

PubMed

Antibodies affinity purified against tegumental components of schistosomula were used to screen a Schistosoma mansoni lambda gt11 adult worm cDNA expression library. One of the reactive clones was determined by sequence analysis to encode a protein homologous to cyclophilins of other species, in particular cyclophilin A. The 0.8-kb cDNA clone contained an open reading frame of 483 nucleotides which corresponds to a translation product of 161 amino acids with a deduced molecular size of 17.7 kDa. We have chosen to designate this clone as S. mansoni p17.7 (Smp17.7). The overexpressed and purified recombinant Smp17.7 (rSmp17.7) was demonstrated to possess peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) or rotamase activity typical of cyclophilins. Western blot analysis of Nonidet P-40 and a total soluble extract of adult schistosomes probed with affinity-purified antisera to rSmp17.7, demonstrated the presence of this protein in the parasite. Immunofluorescence studies using the purified antisera indicates a localization in various tissues including the tegument and the gut. As cyclophilin is able to interact with cyclosporin A (CsA), which has been shown to be antischistosomal in mice infected with S. mansoni, the characterization of this S. mansoni cyclophilin homologue may allow a better understanding of the schistosomicidal nature of cyclosporin A and lead to a novel strategy of therapy for schistosomiasis. PMID:8919996

Kiang, D; El Ghazalie, N E; Medhat, A M; Abdel-Fattah, M; Karim, A M; LoVerde, P T

1996-01-01

123

Fatigue Crack Growth under High Pressure of Gaseous Hydrogen in a 15-5PH Martensitic Stainless Steel: Influence of Pressure and Loading Frequency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the effect of gaseous hydrogen pressure in relation with the loading frequency on the fatigue crack growth behavior of a precipitation-hardened martensitic stainless steel is investigated. It is found that increasing the hydrogen pressure from 0.09 to 9 MPa induces an enhancement of the fatigue crack growth rates. This enhancement is pronounced particularly at higher stress intensity factor amplitudes at 9 MPa. Meanwhile, decreasing the frequency from 20 to 0.2 Hz under 0.9 MPa of hydrogen reveals a significant increase in the crack growth rates that tends to join the curve obtained under 9 MPa at 20 Hz, but with a different cracking mode. However, it is shown that the degradation in fatigue crack growth behavior derives from a complex interaction between the fatigue damage and the amount of hydrogen enriching the crack tip, which is dependent on the hydrogen pressure, loading frequency, and stress intensity factor level. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations of the fracture surfaces are used to support the explanations proposed to account for the observed phenomena.

Sun, Z.; Moriconi, C.; Benoit, G.; Halm, D.; Henaff, G.

2013-03-01

124

Microstructural evolution and response to double-loop reactivation testing of heat-treated pH 13-8 Mo martensitic stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) test was used to investigate the intergranular and interlath corrosion susceptibility of pH 13-8 Mo as a function of heat treatment. Degree of sensitization was measured to the ratio of the peak current on a reverse (reactivation) scan to that on the forward anodic scan. Corrosion morphology was characterized by SEM, and microstructure

W. R. Cieslak; M. J. Cieslak; C. R. Hills

1987-01-01

125

Is stainless steel really "stainless"?  

PubMed

Initial purchase and replacement costs for surgical instrumentation are significant components in today's operating room budgets. OR staff and medical device reprocessing personnel work together as a team to ensure effective management of this valuable commodity. The purpose of this article is to discuss the composition of stainless steel surgical instruments, to identify processes to minimize damage to instruments caused by staining, corrosion, and pitting, and to utilize that information to describe effective measures to manage instrumentation in both the OR and reprocessing areas. PMID:21823503

Porteous, Joan

2011-06-01

126

17-4 PH and 15-5 PH  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

17-4 PH and 15-5 PH are extremely useful and versatile precipitation-hardening stainless steels. Armco 17-4 PH is well suited for the magnetic particle inspection requirements of Aerospace Material Specification. Armco 15-5 PH and 17-4 PH are produced in billet, plate, bar, and wire. Also, 15-5 PH is able to meet the stringent mechanical properties required in the aerospace and nuclear industries. Both products are easy to heat treat and machine, making them very useful in many applications.

Johnson, Howard T.

1995-01-01

127

Electrochemical behaviour of duplex stainless steels in caustic environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown that duplex stainless steels can be susceptible to general corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in high pH caustic environments. This difference in the corrosion resistance can be attributed to changes in the electrochemical behaviour of steels. The present study has shown that the corrosion rates of duplex stainless steels increase with an increase in temperature and

Ananya Bhattacharya; Preet M. Singh

2011-01-01

128

Chemisorption of 1,1-dichloroethene on the Si(1 1 1)-7 × 7 surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemisorption of 1,1-dichloroethene (Cl 2C dbnd CH 2) to a Si(1 1 1)-7 × 7 surface was studied by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation, recording chlorine 2p and carbon 1s spectra. For carbon 1s, spectral assignment of the chemisorbed species is based on quantum chemical calculations of chemical shifts in model compounds. The results confirm the identity of covalently bonded 1-chlorovinyl (-CCl dbnd CH 2) and vinylidene ( lbond2 C dbnd CH 2) adspecies. Upon chemisorption at room temperature it was found that about one-third of the molecules break one C-Cl bond while about two-thirds of the adsorbates break two C-Cl bonds. We do not, however, find evidence for isomerization of lbond2 C dbnd CH 2 to di-bonded vinylene (-CH dbnd CH-).

Andersen, T. H.; Zahl, M. G.; Svenum, I.-H.; Børve, K. J.; Borg, A.; Sæthre, L. J.

2007-12-01

129

In Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 17(7):855-869, 2004. CORRECTED VERSION: See Errata Section  

E-print Network

In Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 17(7):855-869, 2004. CORRECTED VERSION: See are rapidly becoming--indeed some would say have already become--so complex that maintaining them with human of preliminary progress with the bottom-up approach (see Section 7 for a thorough survey of related work

Whiteson, Shimon

130

Supertough Stainless Bearing Steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composition and processing of supertough stainless bearing steel designed with help of computer-aided thermodynamic modeling. Fracture toughness and hardness of steel exceeds those of other bearing steels like 440C stainless bearing steel. Developed for service in fuel and oxidizer turbopumps on Space Shuttle main engine. Because of strength and toughness, also proves useful in other applications like gears and surgical knives.

Olson, Gregory B.

1995-01-01

131

47 CFR 15.252 - Operation of wideband vehicular radar systems within the bands 16.2-17.7 GHz and 23.12-29.0 GHz.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operation of wideband vehicular radar systems within the bands 16.2-17.7 GHz and 23.12-29...Additional Provisions § 15.252 Operation of wideband vehicular radar systems within the bands 16.2-17.7 GHz and...

2014-10-01

132

47 CFR 15.252 - Operation of wideband vehicular radar systems within the bands 16.2-17.7 GHz and 23.12-29.0 GHz.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operation of wideband vehicular radar systems within the bands 16.2-17.7 GHz and 23.12-29...Additional Provisions § 15.252 Operation of wideband vehicular radar systems within the bands 16.2-17.7 GHz and...

2011-10-01

133

47 CFR 15.252 - Operation of wideband vehicular radar systems within the bands 16.2-17.7 GHz and 23.12-29.0 GHz.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operation of wideband vehicular radar systems within the bands 16.2-17.7 GHz and 23.12-29...Additional Provisions § 15.252 Operation of wideband vehicular radar systems within the bands 16.2-17.7 GHz and...

2013-10-01

134

47 CFR 15.252 - Operation of wideband vehicular radar systems within the bands 16.2-17.7 GHz and 23.12-29.0 GHz.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operation of wideband vehicular radar systems within the bands 16.2-17.7 GHz and 23.12-29...Additional Provisions § 15.252 Operation of wideband vehicular radar systems within the bands 16.2-17.7 GHz and...

2012-10-01

135

Stress corrosion cracking evaluation of martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The resistance of the martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steels PH13-8Mo, 15-5PH, and 17-4PH to stress corrosion cracking was investigated. Round tensile and c-ring type specimens taken from several heats of the three alloys were stressed up to 100 percent of their yield strengths and exposed to alternate immersion in salt water, to salt spray, and to a seacoast environment. The results indicate that 15-5PH is highly resistant to stress corrosion cracking in conditions H1000 and H1050 and is moderately resistant in condition H900. The stress corrosion cracking resistance of PH13-8Mo and 17-4PH stainless steels in conditions H1000 and H1050 was sensitive to mill heats and ranged from low to high among the several heats included in the tests. Based on a comparison with data from seacoast environmental tests, it is apparent that alternate immersion in 3.5 percent salt water is not a suitable medium for accelerated stress corrosion testing of these pH stainless steels.

Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

1980-01-01

136

PRECIPITATION-HARDENING STAINLESS STEELS IN WATER-COOLED REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study is made of the stress corrosion susceptibiity of unirradiated ; precipitation-hardening stainless steels. This study is made because of the ; failures encouatered with these materials in the Dresden and Vallecltos boiling ; water reactors. Service experience, static steam autoclave tests, and dynamic ; water and steam corrosion loop tests have demonstrated that 17-4 PH in the high-;

M. C. Rowland; W. R. Sr. Smith

1962-01-01

137

Method of forming dynamic membrane on stainless steel support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A suitable member formed from sintered, powdered, stainless steel is contacted with a nitrate solution of a soluble alkali metal nitrate and a metal such as zirconium in a pH range and for a time sufficient to effect the formation of a membrane of zirconium oxide preferably including an organic polymeric material such as polyacrylic acid.

Gaddis, Joseph L. (inventor); Brandon, Craig A. (inventor)

1988-01-01

138

MATERIALS ENGINEERING KEYWORDS: beryllium, stainless  

E-print Network

MATERIALS ENGINEERING KEYWORDS: beryllium, stainless steel, heat conductance EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT OF THE INTERFACE HEAT CONDUCTANCE BETWEEN NONCONFORMING BERYLLIUM AND TYPE 316 STAINLESS STEEL In fusion blanket designs that employ beryllium as a neutron multiplier, the interface conductance h plays

Abdou, Mohamed

139

Chromium-Makes stainless steel stainless  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chromium, a steely-gray, lustrous, hard metal that takes a high polish and has a high melting point, is a silvery white, hard, and bright metal plating on steel and other material. Commonly known as chrome, it is one of the most important and indispensable industrial metals because of its hardness and resistance to corrosion. But it is used for more than the production of stainless steel and nonferrous alloys; it is also used to create pigments and chemicals used to process leather.

Kropschot, S.J.; Doebrich, Jeff

2010-01-01

140

Stainless steel bipolar plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, a specific surface modification technology was developed for stainless steel bipolar plates to obtain a corrosion-resistant oxide film. The surface roughness was measured, and an electron spectroscopy analysis (ESCA) was conducted to verify the chemical composition of the surface layer. From the binding energy of the ESCA spectrum, the amounts of chemical shift were used to identify

Shuo-Jen Lee; Jian-Jang Lai; Ching-Han Huang

2005-01-01

141

Welding of Stainless Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It would appear that welds in some stainless steels, heat-treated in some practicable way, will probably be found to have all the resistance to corrosion that is required for aircraft. Certainly these structures are not subjected to the severe conditions that are found in chemical plants.

Bull, H; Johnson, Lawrence

1929-01-01

142

Sensitization of stainless steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this experiment is to determine the corrosion rates of 18-8 stainless steels that have been sensitized at various temperatures and to show the application of phase diagrams. The laboratory instructor will assign each student a temperature, ranging from 550 C to 1050 C, to which the sample will be heated. Further details of the experimental procedure are detailed.

Nagy, James P.

1990-01-01

143

On the ?? to ? transformation in maraging (grade 350), PH 13-8 Mo and 17-4 PH steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The martensite to austenite transformation during continuous heating was studied over a range of heating rates for 350 grade maraging steel (M350), PH 13-8 Mo, and 17-4 PH stainless steel using a programmable dilatometer. The ???? transformation splits into two steps at lower heating rates for the M350 and PH 13-8 Mo, whereas occurs in one step for 17-4 PH.

Rajeev Kapoor; I. S. Batra

2004-01-01

144

Effect of microstructure on pitting and corrosion fatigue of 17-4 PH turbine blade steel in chloride environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depending on its heat treatment, 17-4 PH stainless steel may contain significant levels of reformed austenite and untempered martensite in a matrix of tempered martensite. Shot peening can cause changes in the microstructure of the surface layers by transforming the austenite to untempered martensite. The effect of these microstructural varations on the resistance of 17-4 PH stainless steel to pitting

B. C. Syrett; R. Viswanathan

1982-01-01

145

Corrosion resistance of stressed NiTi and stainless steel orthodontic wires in acid artificial saliva.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the corrosion resistance of stressed NiTi and stainless steel orthodontic wires using cyclic potentiodynamic and potentiostatic tests in acid artificial saliva at 37 degrees C. An atomic force microscope was used to measure the 3-D surface topography of as-received wires. Scanning electron microscope observations were carried out before and after the cyclic potentiodynamic tests. The surface chemical analysis was characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy after the potentiostatic tests. The cyclic potentiodynamic test results showed that the pH had a significant influence on the corrosion parameters of the stressed NiTi and stainless steel wires (p < 0.05). The pitting potential, protection potential, and passive range of stressed NiTi and stainless steel wires decreased on decreasing pH, whereas the passive current density increased on decreasing pH. The load had no significant influence on the above corrosion parameters (p > 0.05). For all pH and load conditions, stainless steel wire showed higher pitting potential and wider passive range than NiTi wire (p < 0.001), whereas NiTi wire had lower passive current density than stainless steel wire (p < 0.001). The corrosion resistance of the stressed NiTi and stainless steel wires was related to the surface characterizations, including surface defect and passive film. PMID:12926035

Huang, Her-Hsiung

2003-09-15

146

Improvement of the thermal stability of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets by intergranular addition of Dy{sub 82.3}Co{sub 17.7}  

SciTech Connect

In this study, microstructure and magnetic properties of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets with addition of Dy{sub 82.3}Co{sub 17.7} (wt.?%) were investigated. By adding a small amount of Dy{sub 82.3}Co{sub 17.7}, the coercivity is improved greatly, and the irreversible loss is decreased sharply. The increase of Curie temperature suggests that Co atoms have entered into the 2:14:1 main phase. Microstructural analysis indicates that a well-developed core-shell structure was formed in the magnets with the addition of Dy{sub 82.3}Co{sub 17.7}. The improvement of magnetic properties can be attributed to the microstructural modification and the intrinsic properties' improvement.

Zhang, Xiaofeng; Guo, Shuai; Yan, Changjiang; Cai, Lingwen; Chen, Renjie; Yan, Aru, E-mail: aruyan@nimte.ac.cn [Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang (China); Lee, Don [University of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio 45469 (United States)

2014-05-07

147

An analysis of grain boundary cohesion in precipitation hardened stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

17-4 precipitation hardened (PH) stainless steel belongs to the family of precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel (AISI 630), containing 17%Cr, 4%Ni and 4%Cu as the main alloying elements; carbon content in the steel is normally maintained below about 0.05 wt.%. The authors have recently attempted an assessment of 17-4 precipitation hardened martensitic steel in terms of processing steps and heat

R. D. K Misra; R. Rao

1993-01-01

148

Low-chromium stainless steels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two modified stainless-steel formulations, with only two-thirds chromium content found in conventional type 304, have mechanical and chemical properties comparable to type 304. Low-chromium stainless steels have potential uses in heat exchangers, transfer lines for chemicals, automobile trim, and other applications.

Barrett, C. A.; Gyorgak, C. A.; Stephens, J. R.

1978-01-01

149

Duplex Stainless Steels Margaret Gorog  

E-print Network

resistance · Higher strength and hardness. This provides improved fatigue and wear resistance · Higher 2003 95 65 LDX2404 99 70 2205 95 65 2507 116 80 #12;11/14/2014 3 · Limitations · More difficult to weldL 2507 6% Mo Duplex Stainless Steel - Limitations plate cost Duplex Stainless Steel ­ Welding

Das, Suman

150

Stainless steel in bone surgery.  

PubMed

Today, stainless steel is one of the most frequently used biomaterials for internal fixation devices because of a favorable combination of mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and cost effectiveness when compared to other metallic implant materials. The biocompatibility of implant quality stainless steel has been proven by successful human implantation for decades. Composition, microstructure and tensile properties of stainless steel used for internal fixation is standardized in ISO and ASTM material specifications. Metallurgical requirements are stringent to ensure sufficient corrosion resistance, nonmagnetic response, and satisfactory mechanical properties. Torsional properties of stainless steel screws are different from titanium screws. Stainless steel bone screws are easier to handle because the surgeon can feel the onset of plastic deformation and this provides adequate prewarning to avoid overtorquing the screw. New nickel-free stainless steels have been recently developed primarily to address the issue of nickel sensitivity. These stainless steels also have superior mechanical properties and better corrosion resistance. The Ni-free compositions appear to possess an extraordinary combination of attributes for potential implant applications in the future. PMID:11270076

Disegi, J A; Eschbach, L

2000-12-01

151

An Approximate Solution for Ph/Ph/1 and Ph/Ph/1/N Queues  

E-print Network

An Approximate Solution for Ph/Ph/1 and Ph/Ph/1/N Queues Alexandre Brandwajn Baskin School approximation to assess the steady-state probabilities of the number of customers in Ph/Ph/1 and Ph/Ph/1/N for the Ph/Ph/1/N queue. The phase-type distributions considered are assumed to be acyclic. Our method

Begin, Thomas

152

Welding tritium exposed stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stainless steels that are exposed to tritium become unweldable by conventional methods due to buildup of decay helium within the metal matrix. With longer service lives expected for tritium containment systems, methods for welding on tritium exposed material will become important for repair or modification of the systems. Solid-state resistance welding and low-penetration overlay welding have been shown to mitigate helium embrittlement cracking in tritium exposed 304 stainless steel. These processes can also be used on stainless steel containing helium from neutron irradiation, such as occurs in nuclear reactors.

Kanne, W. R., Jr.

153

Brazing titanium to stainless steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Titanium and stainless-steel members are usually joined mechanically for lack of any other effective method. New approach using different brazing alloy and plating steel member with nickel resolves problem. Process must be carried out in inert atmosphere.

Batista, R. I.

1980-01-01

154

Welding tritium aged stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stainless steels exposed to tritium become unweldable by conventional methods due to He buildup within the metal matrix. With longer service lives expected for new weapon systems, and service life extensions of older systems, methods for welding/repair on tritium-exposed material will become important. Results are reported that indicate that both solid-state resistance welding and low-heat gas metal arc overlay welding are promising methods for repair or modification of tritium-aged stainless steel.

Kanne, W. R., Jr.

155

Electrochemical noise measurements on carbon and stainless steel reinforcing steels  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical noise measurements were performed on carbon steel and two stainless alloys exposed to a synthetic pore solution at various pH levels. The test results have confirmed the results of other initial research that stainless steel rebars are significantly more corrosion resistant compared with the carbon steel variety. The performance of the S3 1600 (UNS) alloy was, as expected, the best of the three alloys evaluated and this stainless steel withstood 16% Cl at a pH below 10 in these short term tests. Obviously, corrosive attack could be anticipated at longer test duration and these tests are essentially limited to a relative ranking of the alloys. The 12% Cr alloy also performed distinctly better than the carbon steel but was inferior to the more highly alloyed and costly S3 1600 grade. The electrochemical noise measurements appear to hold much promise for providing early warning of imminent rebar corrosion damage and are recommended for field use evaluation. A more complete picture of dynamic rebar corrosion processes is obtained from real-time data, compared with isolated once-off measurements.

Tullmin, M. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering; Hansson, C.M. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1998-12-31

156

Stainless steel bipolar plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, a specific surface modification technology was developed for stainless steel bipolar plates to obtain a corrosion-resistant oxide film. The surface roughness was measured, and an electron spectroscopy analysis (ESCA) was conducted to verify the chemical composition of the surface layer. From the binding energy of the ESCA spectrum, the amounts of chemical shift were used to identify the major chemical compositions. The thickness of the oxide film was analyzed by auger electron spectroscopy (AES). From the results of the ESCA and AES analyses, the effects of the surface modification on the integrity of the surface were evaluated. Uniform corrosion and localized corrosion tests were also conducted to investigate any improvement on the corrosion characteristics. A single cell was assembled for cell performance tests. The surface of the treated plates was bright and smooth. The ESCA and AES analyses showed that the treated plates had a much higher chrome content. The metallurgical structure was dense with substantially less defects. The chemical and electrochemical properties were more stable. The corrosion rates of the treated plates were also much improved, resulting in better electric conductivity, stable cell performance as well as longer cell life.

Lee, Shuo-Jen; Lai, Jian-Jang; Huang, Ching-Han

157

Corrosion and inhibition of stainless steel pitting corrosion in alkaline medium and the effect of Cl - and Br - anions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of carbonate anion on the pitting corrosion and inhibition behavior of stainless steel samples (304L SS and 316L SS) has been studied using potentiodynamic and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. The effect of concentration of CO 32- ions, pH, potential scanning rate and the composition of stainless steel are discussed. Additions of Cl - and Br - ions into the carbonate solution increase the anodic dissolution of stainless steel and decrease its pitting corrosion resistance. The effect of CO 32- anion on the inhibition of chloride and bromide pitting corrosion of the two stainless steel types has been studied also. Pitting corrosion decrease with the increasing of sodium carbonate concentration, i.e. increases the resistance of stainless steels towards the chloride and bromide pitting corrosion. This inhibition effect argued to formation of [Fe,Cr]CO 3 film caused by preferential adsorption of the CO 32- ion, leading to instantaneous repair of weak sites for pit nucleation.

Refaey, S. A. M.; Taha, F.; El-Malak, A. M. Abd

2005-03-01

158

Weld microstructure development and properties of precipitation-strengthened martensitic stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The weld microstructural evolution, mechanical properties and solidification cracking susceptibility of three precipitation-strengthened martensitic stainless steels--PH 13-8 Mo, Custom 450 and 15-5 PH--were investigated. Liquid tin quenching of gas tungsten arc welds revealed that all three welds solidified as single-phase ferrite with a high degree of microsegregation. However, during further solidification and cooling almost complete homogenization occurred as a result

J. A. Brooks; W. R. Jr. Garrison

1999-01-01

159

The corrosion of austenitic stainless steels under heat transfer in high temperature water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion of two 18\\/8 austenitic stainless steels under stress and ; boiling heat transfer in oxygen-free water at pH 11 and 280 C has been studied. ; On plane surfaces, heat transfer does not significantly increase corrosion in ; times up to 1000 hours. In crevices where heat transfer causes superheating and ; concentration of solutes, stress-corrosion cracking occurs.

J. N. Wanklyn; D. Jones

1959-01-01

160

STRESS-CORROSION CRACKING OF TYPE 347 STAINLESS STEEL AND OTHER ALLOYS IN HIGH TEMPERATURE WATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive study was conducted on the susceptibility of Type 347 ; stainless steel to stress-corrosion cracking in high temperature water over wide ; ranges of chloride concentration, temperature, oxygen concentration, and pH. No ; cracking was observed at a chloride concentration of 5 ppm, but cracks were ; observed at 10 ppm and higher at temperatures of 100 deg

P. D. Neumann; J. C. Griess

1963-01-01

161

Gaseous hydrogen embrittlement of PH 13-8 Mo steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, notched tensile and fatigue crack growth tests in gaseous hydrogen were performed on PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel specimens at room temperature. These specimens were susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement (HE), but at different degrees, depending on the aging conditions or the microstructures of the alloys. In hydrogen, the accelerated fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) usually accompanied a

Y. S. Ding; L. W. Tsay; M. F. Chiang; C. Chen

2009-01-01

162

Electrochemical Studies of Passive Film Stability on Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4 Amorphous Metal in Seawater at 90oCElectrochemical Studies of Passive Film Stability on Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4 Amorphous Metal in Seawater at 9  

SciTech Connect

An iron-based amorphous metal, Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4} (SAM2X5), with very good corrosion resistance was developed. This material was prepared as a melt-spun ribbon, as well as gas atomized powder and a thermal-spray coating. During electrochemical testing in several environments, including seawater at 90 C, the passive film stability was found to be comparable to that of high-performance nickel-based alloys, and superior to that of stainless steels, based on electrochemical measurements of the passive film breakdown potential and general corrosion rates. This material also performed very well in standard salt fog tests. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) provided corrosion resistance, and boron (B) enabled glass formation. The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal made it an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. This material and its parent alloy maintained corrosion resistance up to the glass transition temperature, and remained in the amorphous state during exposure to relatively high neutron doses.

Farmer, J C; Haslam, J; Day, S D; Lian, T; Saw, C K; Hailey, P D; Choi, J S; Rebak, R B; Yang, N; Payer, J H; Perepezko, J H; Hildal, K; Lavernia, E J; Ajdelsztajn, L; Branagan, D J; Buffa, E J; Aprigliano, L F

2007-04-25

163

Shrinkage Prediction for the Investment Casting of Stainless Steels  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the alloy shrinkage factors were obtained for the investment casting of 17-4PH stainless steel parts. For the investment casting process, unfilled wax and fused silica with a zircon prime coat were used for patterns and shell molds, respectively. Dimensions of the die tooling, wax pattern, and casting were measured using a Coordinate Measurement Machine in order to obtain the actual tooling allowances. The alloy dimensions were obtained from numerical simulation results of solidification, heat transfer, and deformation phenomena. The numerical simulation results for the shrinkage factors were compared with experimental results.

Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL

2007-01-01

164

Rapid screening of stainless steels for environmental cracking  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation of tubular materials for a new offshore oil and gas development was conducted. The project requirements were for an initial, preliminary assessment of materials with limited time. Slow strain rate testing was conducted in an aqueous environment containing 150,000 ppm Cl{sup {minus}} with 900 kPa carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and 10 kPa hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) at three levels of pH and temperature. Worst-case performance diagrams were developed that showed the utility of selected stainless steels.

Kane, R.D. [CLI International, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Joia, C.J.B.M. [Centro de Pesquisas da Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Small, A.L.L.T.; Ponciano, J.A.C. [Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica

1997-09-01

165

Sensitisation of Austenitic Stainless Steels  

E-print Network

applications in industry. These iron{based alloys contain a high level of chromium which forms a protective, making the steel `stainless'. However, carbide precipitation due to the welding process or heat treatment can cause the occurrence of chromium{depleted zones at the grain boundaries, leading to a phenomenon

Cambridge, University of

166

Corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel.  

PubMed

The corrosion of 2205 duplex stainless steel was compared with that of AISI type 316L stainless steel. The 2205 stainless steel is a potential orthodontic bracket material with low nickel content (4 to 6 wt%), whereas the 316L stainless steel (nickel content: 10 to 14 wt%) is a currently used bracket material. Both stainless steels were subjected to electrochemical and immersion (crevice) corrosion tests in 37 degrees C, 0.9 wt% sodium chloride solution. Electrochemical testing indicates that 2205 has a longer passivation range than 316L. The corrosion rate of 2205 was 0.416 MPY (milli-inch per year), whereas 316L exhibited 0.647 MPY. When 2205 was coupled to 316L with equal surface area ratio, the corrosion rate of 2205 reduced to 0.260 MPY, indicating that 316L stainless steel behaved like a sacrificial anode. When 316L is coupled with NiTi, TMA, or stainless steel arch wire and was subjected to the immersion corrosion test, it was found that 316L suffered from crevice corrosion. On the other hand, 2205 stainless steel did not show any localized crevice corrosion, although the surface of 2205 was covered with corrosion products, formed when coupled to NiTi and stainless steel wires. This study indicates that considering corrosion resistance, 2205 duplex stainless steel is an improved alternative to 316L for orthodontic bracket fabrication when used in conjunction with titanium, its alloys, or stainless steel arch wires. PMID:9228844

Platt, J A; Guzman, A; Zuccari, A; Thornburg, D W; Rhodes, B F; Oshida, Y; Moore, B K

1997-07-01

167

pH Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to measure the pH of water. Students use either a pH meter or pH paper to measure the pH. If using the pH meter, the meter needs to be calibrated with buffer solutions that have pH values of 4, 7, and 10.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2005-06-02

168

Crack initiation mechanisms for corrosion fatigue of austenitic stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion fatigue tests on annealed type 316 stainless steel showed the maximum stress level for failure in 0.5 M sodium chloride aqueous solution at pH = 4.2 was one-third lower than in air after a similar number of cycles. Crack initiation mechanisms of corrosion fatigue were studied by scanning electron microscopy of prepolished specimen surfaces. Fatigue tests were conducted at sufficiently high stresses to cause formation of intensive slip bands. Interaction of the acidic saline solution with the slip bands caused pitting corrosion along the slip bands. A mechanism for crack initiation resulting from pit formation and crack coalescence was suggested to explain the decrease in the maximum stress level for corrosion fatigue of austenitic SS, which exhibited passive behavior and generally good corrosion resistance in 0.5 M NaCl solution at pH = 4.2.

Qian, Y.R. [Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China); Cahoon, J.R. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)

1997-02-01

169

Comparative Study on the Corrosion Resistance of Fe-Based Amorphous Metal, Borated Stainless Steel and Ni-Cr-Mo-Gd Alloy  

SciTech Connect

Iron-based amorphous alloy Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4} was compared to borated stainless steel and Ni-Cr-Mo-Gd alloy on their corrosion resistance in various high-concentration chloride solutions. The melt-spun ribbon of this iron-based amorphous alloy have demonstrated a better corrosion resistance than the bulk borated stainless steel and the bulk Ni-Cr-Mo-Gd alloy, in high-concentration chloride brines at temperatures 90 deg. C or higher. (authors)

Lian, Tiangan; Day, Daniel; Hailey, Phillip; Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, 94550 (United States)

2007-07-01

170

Nickel release from stainless steels.  

PubMed

In 1994, a study of nickel release and allergic contact dermatitis from nickel-plated metals and stainless steels was published in this journal. It was shown that low-sulfur stainless steel grades like AISI 304, 316L or 430 (S < or = 0.007%) release less than 0.03 microgram/cm2/week of nickel in acid artificial sweat and elicit no reactions in patients already sensitized to nickel. In contrast, nickel-plated samples release around 100 micrograms/cm2/week of Ni and high-sulfur stainless steel (AISI 303-S approximately 0.3%) releases about 1.5 micrograms/cm2/week in this acid artificial sweat. Applied on patients sensitized to nickel, these metals elicit positive reactions in 96% and 14%, respectively, of the patients. The main conclusion was that low-sulfur stainless steels like AISI 304, 316L or 430, even when containing Ni, should not elicit nickel contact dermatitis, while metals having a mean corrosion resistance like a high-sulfur stainless steel (AISI 303) or nickel-plated steel should be avoided. The determining characteristic was in fact the corrosion resistance in chloride media, which, for stainless steels, is connected, among other factors, to the sulfur content. Thus, a question remained concerning the grades with an intermediate sulfur content, around 0.03%, which were not studied. They are the object of the study presented in this paper. 3 tests were performed: leaching experiments, dimethylglyoxime and HNO3 spot tests, and clinical patch tests; however, only stainless steels were tested: a low-sulfur AISI 304 and AISI 303 as references and 3 grades with a sulfur content around 0.03%: AISI 304L, AISI 304L added with Ca, AISI 304L+Cu. Leaching experiments showed that the 4 non-resulfurised grades released less than 0.5 microgram/cm2/week in acid sweat while the reulfurized AISI 303 released around or more than 0.5 microgram/cm2/week. This is explained by the poorer corrosion resistance of the resulfurized grade. Yet all these grades had the same reaction to the DMG test (negative result), which shows again its lack of sensitivity. In contrast, the HNO3 spot test distinguished AISI 303 from the non-resulfurized grades. Clinical patch tests again showed that some patients (4%) were intolerant to AISI 303, while none were intolerant to the other grades. Thus, this study confirms that non-resulfurized stainless steels (S < or = 0.03%) like Ni-containing 304 and 304L should not elicit Ni contact dermatitis, while the resulfurized grades (S > 0.1%) should be avoided. PMID:9330816

Haudrechy, P; Mantout, B; Frappaz, A; Rousseau, D; Chabeau, G; Faure, M; Claudy, A

1997-09-01

171

Thermal fatigue of stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two austenitic steels, 316 Stainless Steel and Alloy 800, have been examined under conditions of both isothermal low cycle fatigue (LCF) and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF). The TMF tests were conducted between 649 and 360°C with a carefully controlled triangular waveform. The LCF tests were performed at 649°C and both kinds of tests were subjected to a strain range of 0.5%.

W. B. Jones; R. J. Bourcier; J. A. Van Den Avyle

1987-01-01

172

Thermal fatigue of stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two austenitic steels, 316 Stainless Steel and Alloy 800, have been examined under conditions of both isothermal low cycle fatigue (LCF) and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF). The TMF tests were conducted between 649 abd 360°C with a carefully controlled triangular waveform. The LCF tests were performed at 649°C and both kinds of tests were subjected to a strain range of 0.5%.

W. B. Jones; R. J. Bourcier; J. A. Van Den Avyle

1987-01-01

173

Nickel: makes stainless steel strong  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nickel is a silvery-white metal that is used mainly to make stainless steel and other alloys stronger and better able to withstand extreme temperatures and corrosive environments. Nickel was first identified as a unique element in 1751 by Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, a Swedish mineralogist and chemist. He originally called the element kupfernickel because it was found in rock that looked like copper (kupfer) ore and because miners thought that "bad spirits" (nickel) in the rock were making it difficult for them to extract copper from it. Approximately 80 percent of the primary (not recycled) nickel consumed in the United States in 2011 was used in alloys, such as stainless steel and superalloys. Because nickel increases an alloy's resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand extreme temperatures, equipment and parts made of nickel-bearing alloys are often used in harsh environments, such as those in chemical plants, petroleum refineries, jet engines, power generation facilities, and offshore installations. Medical equipment, cookware, and cutlery are often made of stainless steel because it is easy to clean and sterilize. All U.S. circulating coins except the penny are made of alloys that contain nickel. Nickel alloys are increasingly being used in making rechargeable batteries for portable computers, power tools, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Nickel is also plated onto such items as bathroom fixtures to reduce corrosion and provide an attractive finish.

Boland, Maeve A.

2012-01-01

174

Nickel -- Makes stainless steel strong  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nickel is a silvery-white metal that is used mainly to make stainless steel and other alloys stronger and better able to withstand extreme temperatures and corrosive environments. Nickel was first identified as a unique element in 1751 by Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, a Swedish mineralogist and chemist. He originally called the element kupfernickel because it was found in rock that looked like copper (kupfer) ore and because miners thought that "bad spirits" (nickel) in the rock were making it difficult for them to extract copper from it. Approximately 80 percent of the primary (not recycled) nickel consumed in the United States in 2011 was used in alloys, such as stainless steel and superalloys. Because nickel increases an alloy's resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand extreme temperatures, equipment and parts made of nickel-bearing alloys are often used in harsh environments, such as those in chemical plants, petroleum refineries, jet engines, power generation facilities, and offshore installations. Medical equipment, cookware, and cutlery are often made of stainless steel because it is easy to clean and sterilize. All U.S. circulating coins except the penny are made of alloys that contain nickel. Nickel alloys are increasingly being used in making rechargeable batteries for portable computers, power tools, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Nickel is also plated onto such items as bathroom fixtures to reduce corrosion and provide an attractive finish.

Boland, Maeve A.

2012-01-01

175

THE DEVELOPMENT OF MICROSTRUCTURE IN DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL WELDS  

E-print Network

THE DEVELOPMENT OF MICROSTRUCTURE IN DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL WELDS by Naseem Issa Abdallah Haddad;The Development of Microstructure in Duplex Stainless Steel Welds Abstract Duplex stainless steels and thermomechan- ical history of

Cambridge, University of

176

Stainless Steel Bipolar Plates Deposited with Multilayer Films for PEMFC Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A chromium nitride (CrN, Cr2N)/chromium (Cr)/indium-tin-oxide (ITO) system and a gold (Au)/titanium (Ti) system were separately deposited using a sputtering method and an E-beam method, respectively, onto stainless steel 316 and 304 plates. The XRD patterns of the deposited stainless steel plates showed the crystalline phase of typical indium-tin oxide and of metallic phases, such as chromium, gold, and the metal substrate, as well as those of external chromium nitride films. The nitride films were composed of two metal nitride phases that consisted of CrN and Cr2N compounds. The surface morphologies of the modified stainless steel bipolar plates were observed using atomic force microscopy and FE-SEM. The chromium nitride (CrN, Cr2N)/chromium (Cr)/indium-tin-oxide (ITO) multilayer that was formed on the stainless steel plates had a surface microstructural morphology that consisted of fine columnar grains 10 nm in diameter and 60 nm in length. The external gold films that were formed on the stainless steel plates had a grain microstructure approximately 100 nm in diameter. The grain size of the external surface of the stainless steel plates with the gold (Au)/titanium (Ti) system increased with increasing gold film thickness. The electrical resistances and water contact angles of the stainless steel bipolar plates that were covered with the multilayer films were examined as a function of the thickness of the ITO film or of the external gold film. In the corrosion test, ICP-MS results indicated that the gold (Au)/titanium (Ti) films showed relatively excellent chemical stability after exposure to H2SO4 solution with pH 3 at 80 °C.

Cho, Hyun; Yun, Young-Hoon

2013-08-01

177

Effect of Plasma Nitriding and Nitrocarburizing on HVOF-Sprayed Stainless Steel Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the effects of plasma nitriding (PN) and nitrocarburizing on HVOF-sprayed stainless steel nitride layers were investigated. 316 (austenitic), 17-4PH (precipitation hardening), and 410 (martensitic) stainless steels were plasma-nitrided and nitrocarburized using a N2 + H2 gas mixture and the gas mixture containing C2H2, respectively, at 550 °C. The results showed that the PN and nitrocarburizing produced a relatively thick nitrided layer consisting of a compound layer and an adjacent nitrogen diffusion layer depending on the crystal structures of the HVOF-sprayed stainless steel coatings. Also, the diffusion depth of nitrogen increased when a small amount of C2H2 (plasma nitrocarburizing process) was added. The PN and nitrocarburizing resulted in not only an increase of the surface hardness, but also improvement of the load bearing capacity of the HVOF-sprayed stainless steel coatings because of the formation of CrN, Fe3N, and Fe4N phases. Also, the plasma-nitrocarburized HVOF-sprayed 410 stainless steel had a superior surface microhardness and load bearing capacity due to the formation of Cr23C6 on the surface.

Park, Gayoung; Bae, Gyuyeol; Moon, Kyungil; Lee, Changhee

2013-12-01

178

Effect of acetic NaF solution on the corrosion behavior of stainless steel orthodontic brackets.  

PubMed

This study assessed the effect of acetic NaF solutions on stainless steel orthodontic brackets. Acetic acid was added to a 0.1% NaF solution to make two solutions, one with pH 3.5 and the other with pH 6. For the two different stainless steel brackets (Tomy, Dentaurum) used in this study, they had a similar elemental composition--except with Mo (molybdenum) in the Tomy bracket. The brackets were then immersed in the prepared test solutions for three days and their responses evaluated. In terms of hydrofluoric acid (HF) concentration, the 0.1%/pH 3.5 solution showed a high HF concentration at 227 ppm, while that of 0.1%/pH 6 solution was very low at 7 ppm. In terms of color change and element release, only the Dentaurum brackets in 0.1%/pH 3.5 solution showed an appreciable color change (deltaE* = 4.0) and released a great amount of elements (Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn) after three days. Otherwise, regardless of pH value and product, only minor color change (deltaE* < 1.0) and negligible element release occurred. In terms of surface modification, no visible changes in surface morphology were observed in any product after immersion in test solutions. PMID:16916238

Jang, Hee-Song; Son, Woo-Sung; Park, Soo-Byung; Kim, Hyung-Il; Yong, Hoon Kwon

2006-06-01

179

pH  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab activity is designed to teach students how to test for pH and understand its relationship to them and their environment. They will learn what pH is, draw and label a pH scale, measure the pH of various items, and explain why it's important to understand pH, for example, the danger presented by substances having very high or low pH.

180

Diffusion brazing nickel-plated stainless steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To bond parts, sandwich assembly is made up of aluminum core, aluminum face sheet with brazing alloy interface, and nickel plated stainless steel part. Sandwich is placed between bottom and top glide sheet that is placed in stainless steel retort where assembly is bonded at 580 C.

Beuyukian, C. S.; Mitchell, M. J.

1976-01-01

181

Tensile behavior of borated stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borated stainless steel tensile testing is being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The goal of the test program is to provide data to support a code case inquiry to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section 3. The adoption by ASME facilitates a materials qualification for structural use in transport cask applications. The borated stainless steel being tested

J. J. Stephens; K. B. Sorenson

1990-01-01

182

Effect of variable intensity ultraviolet radiation on passivity breakdown of AISI Type 304 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ultraviolet illumination on passivity breakdown of a commercial grade (CG) of AISI Type 304 stainless steel and of a high purity heat (HPH) of the same material in neutral 0.5 M NaCl solution and in 0.025 M NaCl + 0.15 M H3BO3\\/0.007 M Na2B4O7, pH = 7.5, solution was experimentally studied. Passivity breakdown on the CG, as

Digby D. Macdonald; Donald F. Heaney

2000-01-01

183

Development of New Stainless Steel  

SciTech Connect

A new family of innovative martensitic stainless steels, 521-A, 521-B, and 521-C has been developed by Advanced Steel Technology, LLC (Trafford, PA) as high strength fastener (bolt) materials for use at moderate temperatures in turbine engines, including steam turbines, gas turbines, and aircraft engines. The primary objective of the development program was to create a martensitic stainless steel with high strength at moderate temperatures, and which could replace the expensive nickel-based superalloy IN 718 in some fasteners applications. A secondary objective was to replace conventional 12Cr steels such as AISI 422 used as blades, buckets and shafts that operate at intermediate temperatures in turbine engines with stronger steel. The composition of the new alloys was specifically designed to produce excellent mechanical properties while integrating heat treatment steps into production to reduce energy consumption during manufacturing. As a result, production costs and energy consumption during production of rolled bar products is significantly lower than conventional materials. Successful commercialization of the new alloys would permit the installed cost of certain turbine engines to be reduced without sacrificing high availability or operational flexibility, thereby enhancing the global competitiveness of U.S. turbine engine manufacturers. Moreover, the domestic specialty steel industry would also benefit through increased productivity and reduced operating costs, while increasing their share of the international market for turbine engine fasteners, blades, buckets and shafts.

Robert F. Buck

2005-08-30

184

Investigation on the adsorption of alkoxysilanes on stainless steel.  

PubMed

Alkoxysilanes, and mainly trialkoxysilanes, have been widely used as coupling agents on metallic surfaces. They are of interest mainly because they form a water-stable covalent bond with a surface composed of hydroxides. The grafting of these molecules should also give rise to the formation of a siloxane network at the substrate's surface. However, only a few studies examine stainless steel substrate, such as AISI 316L, for which the main difficulty is the low surface reactivity. In order to improve the silane anchoring, a prehydrolysis of the alkoxysilane was performed to transform the methoxy groups into silanol groups. This reaction happened in an aqueous medium and at a controlled pH, which impacted the prehydrolysis efficiency. Curing followed this step, which allows the grafting of the alkoxysilane on stainless steel's surface. Polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) was performed in order to identify the grafting of the silane molecules. Tests were made to compare the grafting of alkoxysilanes as a function of their functional groups and their prehydrolysis conditions. PM-IRRAS coupled with atomic force microscopy allowed the observation of the grafting of the studied alkoxysilanes. The nature of the remaining functional group (its ability to react with polymer, for example) of the alkoxysilane plays a major role in this process, since its chemical nature influences the grafting mechanism. PMID:24160883

Huser, Julien; Bistac, Sophie; Brogly, Maurice; Delaite, Christelle; Lasuye, Thierry; Stasik, Bernard

2013-11-01

185

A porous stainless steel membrane system for extraterrestrial crop production.  

PubMed

A system was developed in which nutrient flow to plant roots is controlled by a thin (0.98 or 1.18 mm) porous (0.2 or 0.5 microns) stainless steel sheet membrane. The flow of nutrient solution through the membrane is controlled by adjusting the relative negative pressure on the nutrient solution side of the membrane. Thus, the nutrient solution is contained by the membrane and cannot escape from the compartment even under microgravity conditions if the appropriate pressure gradient across the membrane is maintained. Plant roots grow directly on the top surface of the membrane and pull the nutrient solution through this membrane interface. The volume of nutrient solution required by this system for plant growth is relatively small, since the plenum, which contains the nutrient solution in contact with the membrane, needs only to be of sufficient size to provide for uniform flow to all parts of the membrane. Solution not passing through the membrane to the root zone is recirculated through a reservoir where pH and nutrient levels are controlled. The size of the solution reservoir depends on the sophistication of the replenishment system. The roots on the surface of the membrane are covered with a polyethylene film (white on top, black on bottom) to maintain a high relative humidity and also limit light to prevent algal growth. Seeds are sown directly on the stainless steel membrane under the holes in the polyethylene film that allow a pathway for the shoots. PMID:11537562

Koontz, H V; Prince, R P; Berry, W L

1990-06-01

186

Tritiated Water Interaction with Stainless Steel  

SciTech Connect

Experiments conducted to study tritium permeation of stainless steel at ambient and elevated temperatures revealed that HT converts relatively quickly to HTO. Further, the HTO partial pressure contributes essentially equally with elemental tritium gas in driving permeation through the stainless steel. Such permeation appears to be due to dissociation of the water molecule on the hot stainless steel surface. There is an equilibrium concentration of HTO vapor above adsorbed gas on the walls of the experimental apparatus evident from freezing transients. The uptake process of tritium from the carrier gas involves both surface adsorption and isotopic exchange with surface bound water.

Glen R. Longhurst

2007-05-01

187

Hydrogen compatibility handbook for stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

This handbook compiles data on the effects of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of stainless steels and discusses this data within the context of current understanding of hydrogen compatibility of metals. All of the tabulated data derives from continuing studies of hydrogen effects on materials that have been conducted at the Savannah River Laboratory over the past fifteen years. Supplementary data from other sources are included in the discussion. Austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, and precipitation hardenable stainless steels have been studied. Damage caused by helium generated from decay of tritium is a distinctive effect that occurs in addition to the hydrogen isotopes protium and deuterium. The handbook defines the scope of our current knowledge of hydrogen effects in stainless steels and serves as a guide to selection of stainless steels for service in hydrogen.

Caskey, G.R. Jr.

1983-06-01

188

Advantages in solution nitriding of stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steels are case-hardened with nitrogen instead of carbon to improve their resistance to pitting, wear, and cavitation.\\u000a The new heat treatment is industrially available and has gained numerous applications.

H. Berns

2007-01-01

189

Stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steels in caustic solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Duplex stainless steels (DSS) with roughly equal amount of austenite and ferrite phases are being used in industries such as petrochemical, nuclear, pulp and paper mills, de-salination plants, marine environments, and others. However, many DSS grades have been reported to undergo corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in some aggressive environments such as chlorides and sulfide-containing caustic solutions. Although stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steels in chloride solution has been investigated and well documented in the literature but the SCC mechanisms for DSS in caustic solutions were not known. Microstructural changes during fabrication processes affect the overall SCC susceptibility of these steels in caustic solutions. Other environmental factors, like pH of the solution, temperature, and resulting electrochemical potential also influence the SCC susceptibility of duplex stainless steels. In this study, the role of material and environmental parameters on corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steels in caustic solutions were investigated. Changes in the DSS microstructure by different annealing and aging treatments were characterized in terms of changes in the ratio of austenite and ferrite phases, phase morphology and intermetallic precipitation using optical micrography, SEM, EDS, XRD, nano-indentation and microhardness methods. These samples were then tested for general and localized corrosion susceptibility and SCC to understand the underlying mechanisms of crack initiation and propagation in DSS in the above-mentioned environments. Results showed that the austenite phase in the DSS is more susceptible to crack initiation and propagation in caustic solutions, which is different from that in the low pH chloride environment where the ferrite phase is the more susceptible phase. This study also showed that microstructural changes in duplex stainless steels due to different heat treatments could affect their SCC susceptibility. Annealed and water quenched specimens were found to be immune to SCC in caustic environment. Aging treatment at 800°C gave rise to sigma and chi precipitates in the DSS. However, these sigma and chi precipitates, known to initiate cracking in DSS in chloride environment did not cause any cracking of DSS in caustic solutions. Aging of DSS at 475°C had resulted in '475°C embrittlement' and caused cracks to initiate in the ferrite phase. This was in contrast to the cracks initiating in the austenite phase in the as-received DSS. Alloy composition and microstructure of DSS as well as solution composition (dissolved ionic species) was also found to affect the electrochemical behavior and passivation of DSS which in turn plays a major role in stress corrosion crack initiation and propagation. Corrosion rates and SCC susceptibility of DSS was found to increase with addition of sulfide to caustic solutions. Corrosion films on DSS, characterized using XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, indicated that the metal sulfide compounds were formed along with oxides at the metal surface in the presence of sulfide containing caustic environments. These metal sulfide containing passive films are unstable and hence breaks down under mechanical straining, leading to SCC initiations. The overall results from this study helped in understanding the mechanism of SCC in caustic solutions. Favorable slip systems in the austenite phase of DSS favors slip-induced local film damage thereby initiating a stress corrosion crack. Repeated film repassivation and breaking, followed by crack tip dissolution results in crack propagation in the austenite phase of DSS alloys. Result from this study will have a significant impact in terms of identifying the alloy compositions, fabrication processes, microstructures, and environmental conditions that may be avoided to mitigate corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of DSS in caustic solutions.

Bhattacharya, Ananya

190

Corrosion Resistance of Amorphous Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4 coating - a new criticality-controlled material  

SciTech Connect

An iron-based amorphous metal with good corrosion resistance and a high absorption cross-section for thermal neutrons has been developed and is reported here. This amorphous alloy has the approximate formula Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4} and is known as SAM2X5. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) were added to provide corrosion resistance, while boron (B) was added to promote glass formation and the absorption of thermal neutrons. Since this amorphous metal has a higher boron content than conventional borated stainless steels, it provides the nuclear engineer with design advantages for criticality control structures with enhanced safety. While melt-spun ribbons with limited practical applications were initially produced, large quantities (several tons) of gas atomized powder have now been produced on an industrial scale, and applied as thermal-spray coatings on prototypical half-scale spent nuclear fuel containers and neutron-absorbing baskets. These prototypes and other SAM2X5 samples have undergone a variety of corrosion testing, including both salt-fog and long-term immersion testing. Modes and rates of corrosion have been determined in various relevant environments, and are reported here. While these coatings have less corrosion resistance than melt-spun ribbons and optimized coatings produced in the laboratory, substantial corrosion resistance has been achieved.

Farmer, J C; Choi, J S; Saw, C K; Rebak, R; Day, S D; Lian, T; Hailey, P; Payer, J H; Branagan, D J; Aprigliano, L F

2007-03-28

191

Long-Term Corrosion Tests of Prototypical SAM2X5 (Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4) Coatings  

SciTech Connect

An iron-based amorphous metal with good corrosion resistance and a high absorption cross-section for thermal neutrons has been developed and is reported here. This amorphous alloy has the approximate formula Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4} and is known as SAM2X5. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) were added to provide corrosion resistance, while boron (B) was added to promote glass formation and the absorption of thermal neutrons. Since this amorphous metal has a higher boron content than conventional borated stainless steels, it provides the nuclear engineer with design advantages for criticality control structures with enhanced safety. While melt-spun ribbons with limited practical applications were initially produced, large quantities (several tons) of gas atomized powder have now been produced on an industrial scale, and applied as thermal-spray coatings on prototypical half-scale spent nuclear fuel containers and neutron-absorbing baskets. These prototypes and other SAM2X5 samples have undergone a variety of corrosion testing, including both salt-fog and long-term immersion testing. The modes and rates of corrosion have been determined in the various environments, and are reported here. While these coatings have less corrosion resistance than melt-spun ribbons and optimized coatings produced in the laboratory, substantial corrosion resistance has been achieved.

Farmer, J C; Choi, J S; Saw, C K; Rebak, R H; Day, S D; Lian, T; Hailey, P D; Payer, J H; Branagan, D J; Aprigliano, L F

2007-05-10

192

High Mn austenitic stainless steel  

DOEpatents

An austenitic stainless steel alloy includes, in weight percent: >4 to 15 Mn; 8 to 15 Ni; 14 to 16 Cr; 2.4 to 3 Al; 0.4 to 1 total of at least one of Nb and Ta; 0.05 to 0.2 C; 0.01 to 0.02 B; no more than 0.3 of combined Ti+V; up to 3 Mo; up to 3 Co; up to 1W; up to 3 Cu; up to 1 Si; up to 0.05 P; up to 1 total of at least one of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; less than 0.05 N; and base Fe, wherein the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni, and wherein the alloy forms an external continuous scale including alumina, nanometer scale sized particles distributed throughout the microstructure, the particles including at least one of NbC and TaC, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure that is essentially delta-ferrite-free and essentially BCC-phase-free.

Yamamoto, Yukinori (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Santella, Michael L (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Brady, Michael P (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Liu, Chain-tsuan (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

2010-07-13

193

Corrosion performance of martensitic stainless steel seamless pipe for linepipe application  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion performance of two types of weldable martensitic stainless steel seamless pipe for pipeline application is investigated. 11Cr steel pipe developed for sweet environment gives better resistance to CO{sub 2} corrosion than the 13Cr martensitic stainless steel for OCTG. 12Cr steel pipe developed for light sour environment shows good SSC resistance in a mild sour environment and superior CO{sub 2} corrosion resistance at high temperature and high CO{sub 2} partial pressure condition. The suitable condition for the 11Cr steel pipe and the 12Cr steel pipe in sweet environment, and the critical pH and H{sub 2}S partial pressure for the 12Cr steel pipe welded joint in sour environment are clarified. Both welded joints have superior resistance to hydrogen embrittlement under the cathodic protection condition in sea water.

Kimura, Mitsuo; Miyata, Yukio; Toyooka, Takaaki; Murase, Fumio [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Handa, Aichi (Japan)

1999-11-01

194

Analysis of Stainless Steel Sandwich Panels with a Metal Foam Core for Lightweight Fan Blade Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The quest for cheap, low density and high performance materials in the design of aircraft and rotorcraft engine fan and propeller blades poses immense challenges to the materials and structural design engineers. The present study investigates the use of a sandwich foam fan blade mae up of solid face sheets and a metal foam core. The face sheets and the metal foam core material were an aerospace grade precipitation hardened 17-4 PH stainless steel with high strength and high toughness. The resulting structures possesses a high stiffness while being lighter than a similar solid construction. The material properties of 17-4 PH metal foam are reviewed briefly to describe the characteristics of sandwich structure for a fan blade application. A vibration analysis for natural frequencies and a detailed stress analysis on the 17-4 PH sandwich foam blade design for different combinations of kin thickness and core volume are presented with a comparison to a solid titanium blade.

Min, James B.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Raj, Sai V.; Holland, Frederic A., Jr.; Hebsur, Mohan G.

2004-01-01

195

Passive film formation on 316L stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

The polarization behavior of 316L stainless steel has been studied in deaerated sodium sulfate solutions of various pH values. Potentiodynamic, potentiostatic and galvanostatic methods were used for a kinetic study of the formation and growth of passive films. For the film composition analysis, Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and ESCA techniques were also employed. Anodic polarization curves show that current increases as pH decreases and temperature increases. The activation energy for the reaction in the active region was determined to be 10.8 Kcal/mole. From potentiostatic experiments, three stages for passive film formation were observed: the initial active-passive transition, the logarithmic growth of the film and the parabolic growth of the film. The logarithmic relation is expressed and the parabolic relation written. The depth profile concentration of elements in the film by AES showed chromium enrichment at the surface except for the specimen treated at 0.9V (SCE), where iron was the dominant element in the film. The relative amount of Fe/sup 2 +/ and Fe/sup 3 +/ on the film surface analyzed by ESCA was not different for specimens anodized at 0.18V and 0.58V.

Lee, S.; Pitt, C.H.; Wadsworth, M.E.

1981-10-01

196

Ion-nitriding of austenitic stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

Although ion-nitriding is an extensively industrialized process enabling steel surfaces to be hardened by nitrogen diffusion, with a resulting increase in wear, seizure and fatigue resistance, its direct application to stainless steels, while enhancing their mechanical properties, also causes a marked degradation in their oxidation resistance. However, by adaption of the nitriding process, it is possible to maintain the improved wear resistant properties while retaining the oxidation resistance of the stainless steel. The controlled diffusion permits the growth of a nitrogen supersaturated austenite layer on parts made of stainless steel (AISI 304L and 316L) without chromium nitride precipitation. The diffusion layer remains stable during post heat treatments up to 650 F for 5,000 hrs and maintains a hardness of 900 HV. A very low and stable friction coefficient is achieved which provides good wear resistance against stainless steels under diverse conditions. Electrochemical and chemical tests in various media confirm the preservation of the stainless steel characteristics. An example of the application of this process is the treatment of Reactor Control Rod Cluster Assemblies (RCCAs) for Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactors.

Pacheco, O. [BW Fuel Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Hertz, D. [Framatome-Nuclear Fuel, Lyon (France); Lebrun, J.P. [Nitruvid, Argenteuil (France); Michel, H. [EMN/LSGS, Nancy (France)

1995-12-31

197

21 CFR 878.4495 - Stainless steel suture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4495 Stainless steel suture. (a) Identification. A stainless steel...

2010-04-01

198

21 CFR 878.4495 - Stainless steel suture.  

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4495 Stainless steel suture. (a) Identification. A stainless steel...

2014-04-01

199

21 CFR 878.4495 - Stainless steel suture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4495 Stainless steel suture. (a) Identification. A stainless steel...

2011-04-01

200

21 CFR 878.4495 - Stainless steel suture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4495 Stainless steel suture. (a) Identification. A stainless steel...

2012-04-01

201

21 CFR 878.4495 - Stainless steel suture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4495 Stainless steel suture. (a) Identification. A stainless steel...

2013-04-01

202

Casting Stainless-Steel Models Around Pressure Tubes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Survivability of thin-wall stainless-steel tubing increased to nearly 100 percent. Improves state of art in pressure-model castings and reduces cost associated with machining complete model from stainless-steel blank.

Vasquez, Peter; Micol, John R.

1992-01-01

203

Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday PH 1110 PH 1110  

E-print Network

Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday PH 1110 PH 1110 Muhammad Muhammad CS 1101 CS 1101 CS 1101 Mairaj Mairaj Mairaj Ph 1111 Ph 1111 PH 1111 Zhen Zhen Zhen CH 1010 CH 1010 Elisabeth Elisabeth MA 1023 MA 1021 MA 1023 MA 1021 Kushi Han Li Murtaza Jeffrey MA 1021 MA 1023 PH 1110 Han Li Murtaza Muhammad

Weekes, Suzanne L.

204

pH Calculation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pair of pH calculation programs serves as an excellent tool for anyone wishing to calculate the pH of a solution containing multiple acids and bases. These programs allow practitioners to predict the pH of simple and complex acid/base solutions and buffers. They may be downloaded free of charge via the website. Users are encouraged to carefully read the guides provided by the author.

Johansson, Stig

205

77 FR 64545 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and 731-TA-1201 (Final)] Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China Scheduling of...less-than-fair-value imports from China of drawn stainless steel sinks, provided for in subheading...the subject merchandise as ``drawn stainless steel sinks with single or multiple...

2012-10-22

206

Diffusion bonding of tantalum and stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an investigation of diffusion bonding of commercially pure tantalum and austenitic stainless steel SUS304 in a vacuum of 8 mPa at temperatures ranging between 600–1200°C. Direct bonding of tantalum and stainless steel results in extremely low joint strength and formation of intermetallic compounds, such as e.g. FeTa, Fe7Ta3, NiTa2, NiTa, Ni2Ta, Ni3Ta, Ni8Ta, and Cr2Ta in the

H. Masumoto; A. Asada; H. Hasuyama; K. Nishio; M. Kato; S. Mukae

1997-01-01

207

Stainless Steel Microstructure and Mechanical Properties Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

A nitrogen strengthened 21-6-9 stainless steel plate was spinformed into hemispherical test shapes. A battery of laboratory tests was used to characterize the hemispheres. The laboratory tests show that near the pole (axis) of a spinformed hemisphere the yield strength is the lowest because this area endures the least “cold-work” strengthening, i.e., the least deformation. The characterization indicated that stress-relief annealing spinformed stainless steel hemispheres does not degrade mechanical properties. Stress-relief annealing reduces residual stresses while maintaining relatively high mechanical properties. Full annealing completely eliminates residual stresses, but reduces yield strength by about 30%.

Switzner, Nathan T

2010-06-01

208

Ultralight Stainless Steel Urban Bus Concept  

SciTech Connect

While stainless steel buses are certainly not new, this study reveals opportunities for substantial improvements in structural performance.The objective of this project was to investigate the mass saving potential of ultra-high strength stainless steel as applied to the structure of a full size urban transit bus.The resulting design for a low floor,hybrid bus has an empty weight less than half that of a conventional transit bus.The reduced curb weight allows for a greater payload,without exceeding legal axle limits. A combination of finite element modeling and dynamic testing of scale models was used to predict structural performance.

J. Bruce Emmons; Leonard J. Blessing

2001-05-14

209

Hydrogen-assisted cracking in a precipitation-hardened stainless steel: effects of heat treatment and displacement rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility of PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel was evaluated using non-linear fracture mechanics methods. The initiation toughness, Ji, and the resistance to stable crack growth, dJ\\/da, were measured using precracked compact specimens. Specimens were electrochemically charged with hydrogen prior to fracture testing in air. After charging, a monotonically increasing load-line displacement was applied to produce the J-integral

L. M. Young; M. R. Eggleston; H. D. Solomon; L. R. Kaisand

1995-01-01

210

pH Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Test the pH of things like coffee, spit, and soap to determine whether each is acidic, basic, or neutral. Visualize the relative number of hydroxide ions and hydronium ions in solution. Switch between logarithmic and linear scales. Investigate whether changing the volume or diluting with water affects the pH. Or you can design your own liquid!

Simulations, Phet I.; Adams, Wendy; Barbera, Jack; Langdon, Laurie; Loeblein, Patricia; Malley, Chris

2008-07-01

211

Study of passive films formed on AISI 304 stainless steel by impedance measurements and photoelectrochemistry  

SciTech Connect

Moss-Schottky plots and photoelectrochemical measurements were made on films formed at different potentials on AISI 304 stainless steel in a borate/boric acid solution, pH 9.2. The results allowed the determination of the semiconductive properties and band structure of the films, which account for the existence of two kinds of films depending on the formation potential. For potentials below 0 V (SCE), the results point out for a film with an inverse spinel structure constituted by Cr-substituted magnetite with two donor levels. Above 0 V only one donor level is detected, which should be Fe{sup 2 +} on tetrahedral sites.

Simoes, A.M.P.; Ferreiro, M.G.S. (Dept. de Engenharia Quimica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1096 Lisboa Codex (PT)); Rondot, B.; Belo, M. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 94 - Vitry-sur-Seine (France). Centre d'Etudes de Chimie Metallurgique)

1990-01-01

212

Diffusion welding of aluminum to stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of Ag films evaporated from a hot hollow cathode source improves the diffusion welding of Al to stainless steel. High-strength metallurgical bonds were reliably achieved at 204°C and 117 MPa for 10 minutes. At ambient temperatures, bond integrity is of long duration. (DLC)

E. R. Naimon; J. H. Doyle; C. R. Rice; D. Vigil; D. R. Walmsley

1981-01-01

213

Materials data handbook: Stainless steel type 301  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of the materials property information for stainless steel type 301 is presented. The scope of the information includes physical and mechanical properties at cryogenic, ambient, and elevated temperatures. Information on material procurement, metallurgy of the alloy, corrosion, environmental effects, fabrication, and bonding is developed.

Muraca, R. F.; Whittick, J. S.

1972-01-01

214

Forming "dynamic" membranes on stainless steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Dynamic" zirconium polyacrylic membrane is formed directly on stainless steel substrate without excessive corrosion of steel. Membrane is potentially useful in removal of contaminated chemicals from solution through reversed osmosis. Application includes use in filtration and desalination equipment, and in textile industry for separation of dyes from aqueous solvents.

Brandon, C. A.; Gaddis, J. L.

1979-01-01

215

Copper metallization of stainless steels. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steel plates were vacuum metallized with pure copper films 0.004 inch thick. Prior to metallization the surfaces were cleaned with EPA-approved detergents. A thin layer of chromium was sputtered for improved adhesion followed by sputtering of the copper. Results showed excellent adhesion of the sputtered films to the substrates.

Rosenblum, B.Z.

1994-09-01

216

Proof Testing Of Stainless-Steel Bolts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes study of development of method for nondestructive proof testing of bolts made of A286 stainless steel. Based on concept that the higher load bolt survives, the smaller the largest flaw and, therefore, the longer its fatigue life after test. Calculations and experiments increase confidence in nondestructive proof tests.

Hsieh, Cheng H.; Hendrickson, James A.; Bamford, Robert M.

1992-01-01

217

Bondable Stainless Surface Coats Protect Against Rust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes tests conducted to assess use of bondable stainless surface (BOSS) coating materials to protect steel cases of solid-fuel rocket motors against corrosion and to provide surface microstructure and chemistry suitable for bonding to insulating material. Eliminates need to cover cases with grease to prevent corrosion and degreasing immediately prior to use.

Davis, G. D.; Shaffer, D. K.; Clearfield, H. M.; Nagle, D.; Groff, G.

1995-01-01

218

Austenitic stainless steels for cryogenic service  

SciTech Connect

Presently available information on austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni stainless steel plate, welds, and castings for service below 77 K are reviewed with the intent (1) of developing systematic relationships between mechanical properties, composition, microstructure, and processing, and (2) of assessing the adequacy of these data bases in the design, fabrication, and operation of engineering systems at 4 K.

Dalder, E.N.C.; Juhas, M.C.

1985-09-19

219

Durable nonslip stainless-steel drivebelts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two toothed stainless-steel drive belt retains its strength and flexibility in extreme heat or cold, intense radiation, or under high loading. Belt does not stretch or slip and is particularly suited to machinery for which replacement is difficult or impossible.

Bahiman, H.

1979-01-01

220

Silicon strain gages bonded on stainless steel using glass frit for strain sensor applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a steel pressure sensor using strain gages bonded on a 17-4 PH stainless steel (SS) diaphragm based on glass frit technology is proposed. The strain gages with uniform resistance are obtained by growing an epi-silicon layer on a single crystal silicon wafer using epitaxial deposition technique. The inorganic glass frits are used as the bonding material between the strain gages and the 17-4 PH SS diaphragm. Our results show that the output performances of sensors at a high temperature of 125 °C are almost equal those at room temperature, which indicates that the glass frit bonding is a good method and may lead to a significant advance in the high temperature applicability of silicon strain gage sensors. Finally, the microstructure of the cured organic adhesive and the fired glass frit are compared. It may be concluded that the defects of the cured organic adhesive deteriorate the hysteresis and repeatability errors of the sensors.

Zhang, Zongyang; Cheng, Xingguo; Leng, Yi; Cao, Gang; Liu, Sheng

2014-05-01

221

Granulate of stainless steel as compensator material.  

PubMed

Compensators produced with computer controlled milling devices usually consist of a styrofoam mould, filled with an appropriate material. We investigated granulate of stainless steel as filling material. This cheap, easy to use, clean and re-usable material can be obtained with an average granule diameter of 0.3 mm, enabling an accurate and reproducible filling. No wax or other sealing material is added. The density of the granulate is approximately 4.5 g/cm3, which allows an accurate production of compensators in a sufficiently wide transmission range without the compensators becoming too thick. Transmission and surface dose measurements show that the dosimetric properties of stainless steel granulate are suitable for use as compensator material. PMID:7792403

van Santvoort, J P; Binnekamp, D; Heijmen, B J; Levendag, P C

1995-01-01

222

Low temperature diffusion bonding of stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffusion bonding of stainless steel (SS) has been attempted in temperature range of 623–773 K using multiple inter-layers\\u000a of nickel, copper and silver. The intermediate layers were electro-deposited taking care to avoid oxidation at the interfaces.\\u000a The bonded area was examined for the formation of any intermetallic compound through electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA)\\u000a and nano-indentation technique. Results indicate the absence

P. S. Gawde; R. Kishore; A. L. Pappachan; G. B. Kale; G. K. Dey

2010-01-01

223

Hydrogen solubility in austenitic stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

The effects of thermomechanical treatment and surface condition on hydrogen solubility in Types 304L, 21-6-9, and modified A-286 austenitic stainless steels were determined. Three thermomechanical treatments were studied: annealed, 100% cold-worked, and high-energy rate forged (HERFed). Solubility in the modified Type A-286 was less in the HERFed specimens than in solution-annealed specimens. 8 refs.

Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Sisson, R.D. Jr.

1981-11-01

224

Thermophysical properties of stainless steel foils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evacuated panel superinsulations with very high center-of-panel thermal resistances are being developed for use in refrigerators\\/freezers. Attainment of high resistances relies upon the maintenance of low vacuum levels by the use of stainless steel vacuum jackets. However, the metal jackets also present a path for heat conduction around the high resistance fillers. This paper presents results of a study of

K. E. Wilkes; J. P. Strizak; F. J. Weaver; J. E. Besser; D. L. Smith

1997-01-01

225

Creep cavitation in 304 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creep cavitation in 304 stainless steel at 0.5 T\\/sub m\\/ was investigated. Two specially developed techniques were used to study the nucleation and growth of grain-boundary cavities. It was found that cavities nucleated heterogeneously throughout the creep history and those observed were well in their growth stage. Comparison of these observations with the theory for cavity nucleation requires that a

I. W. Chen; A. S. Argon

1981-01-01

226

Softened-Stainless-Steel O-Rings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In fabrication of O-ring of new type, tube of 304 stainless steel bent around mandril into circle and welded closed into ring. Ring annealed in furnace to make it soft and highly ductile. In this condition, used as crushable, deformable O-ring seal. O-ring replacements used in variety of atmospheres and temperatures, relatively inexpensive, fabricated with minimum amount of work, amenable to one-of-a-kind production, reusable, and environmentally benign.

Marquis, G. A.; Waters, William I.

1993-01-01

227

An analysis of grain boundary cohesion in precipitation hardened stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

17-4 precipitation hardened (PH) stainless steel belongs to the family of precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel (AISI 630), containing 17%Cr, 4%Ni and 4%Cu as the main alloying elements; carbon content in the steel is normally maintained below about 0.05 wt.%. The authors have recently attempted an assessment of 17-4 precipitation hardened martensitic steel in terms of processing steps and heat treatment with a view to obtain a rationale of the quantitative effects of grain boundary segregation processes. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) studies enabled an understanding of a striking variation in impact toughness as a function of carbon content to emerge on the basis of Nb-C-P interaction processes. In order to understand the factors responsible for the large variation in the impact toughness of the industrially important 17-4 PH stainless steel, a series of steels with varied % of carbon (0.02 to 0.09 wt %) but about the same levels of the Nb (0.28wt%) and P(0.03 wt%) was selected, since it was felt that Nb/C ratio may play a pivotal role in influencing the impact toughness. Two distinct regimes were delineated (a) a low toughness regime (Nb/C ratio > 6 but less than about 20) characterized by high grain boundary concentration of phosphorus and formation of NbC in the grain interior owing to strong Nb-C interaction, (b) a high toughness regime (Nb/C <6), where grain boundary P is displaced by C through site competition. In this paper the authors attempt thermodynamic analysis in terms of free energy of segregation for the aforementioned two regimes.

Misra, R.D.K (Defence Metallurgical Research Lab., Hyderabad (India)); Rao, R. (Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore (India))

1993-06-15

228

Decontaminating and Melt Recycling Tritium Contaminated Stainless Steel  

SciTech Connect

The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and several university and industrial partners are evaluating recycling radioactively contaminated stainless steel. The goal of this program is to recycle contaminated stainless steel scrap from US Department of Energy national defense facilities. There is a large quantity of stainless steel at the DOE Savannah River Site from retired heavy water moderated Nuclear material production reactors (for example heat exchangers and process water piping), that will be used in pilot studies of potential recycle processes. These parts are contaminated by fission products, activated species, and tritium generated by neutron irradiation of the primary reactor coolant, which is heavy (deuterated) water. This report reviews current understanding of tritium contamination of stainless steel and previous studies of decontaminating tritium exposed stainless steel. It also outlines stainless steel refining methods, and proposes recommendations based on this review.

Clark, E.A.

1995-04-03

229

Mouse inflammatory response to stainless steel corrosion products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion occurs regularly following long-term implantation of stainless steel. Little is known about the inflammatory and immunological potential of stainless steel corrosion products. AISI 316L stainless steel was anodically dissolved in a physiologically solution, HBSS, through a chronoamperometric process by imposing an external constant current of 0.5 mA. The solution, containing 245 µg of Fe, 112 µg of Cr, 75

R. B. Tracana; J. P. Sousa; G. S. Carvalho

1994-01-01

230

Characterization of thermal aging of duplex stainless steel by SQUID  

SciTech Connect

Thermal aging is a growing concern for long-term-aged duplex stainless steel piping in nuclear power plants. Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) was used for the detection of thermal aging of SUS329 rolled duplex stainless steel and SCS16 cast duplex stainless steel. It was found that the SQUID output signal pattern in the presence of AC magnetic field applied to the specimen was sensitive to the changes in electromagnetic properties due to thermal aging.

Isobe, Y.; Kamimura, A.; Aoki, K.; Nakayasu, F. [Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

1995-08-01

231

Ph.D. Manual PH.D. PROGRAM  

E-print Network

Ph.D. Manual 1 PH.D. PROGRAM IN SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY Manual of Policies and Procedures College://www.lehigh.edu/education/sp/phd_sp.html Approved: May 1985 Last Revision: July 2010 #12;Ph.D. Manual 2 Table of Contents Program Philosophy..................................................................................... 3 Differentiation of Ph.D. & Ed.S. Programs................................................... 8

Gilchrist, James F.

232

Characteristics of Interdiffusion between 17-4 PH Steel and Nickel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of interdiffusion between precipitation-hardened 17-4 PH grade stainless steel and nickel were studied in the temperature range of 900 °C to 1100 °C, using diffusion couples of these two materials. The diffusion coefficients of the major diffusing elements Fe, Ni, Cr, and Cu were evaluated for this multicomponent system. The diffusion paths plotted on the Fe-Ni-Cr isotherm showed

A. Laik; P. S. Gawde; K. Bhanumurthy; G. B. Kale

2008-01-01

233

Characteristics of Interdiffusion between 17-4 PH Steel and Nickel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of interdiffusion between precipitation-hardened 17-4 PH grade stainless steel and nickel were studied\\u000a in the temperature range of 900 °C to 1100 °C, using diffusion couples of these two materials. The diffusion coefficients\\u000a of the major diffusing elements Fe, Ni, Cr, and Cu were evaluated for this multicomponent system. The diffusion paths plotted\\u000a on the Fe-Ni-Cr isotherm showed a flat

A. Laik; P. S. Gawde; K. Bhanumurthy; G. B. Kale

2008-01-01

234

Stainless Steel Leaches Nickel and Chromium into Foods During Cooking  

PubMed Central

Toxicological studies show that oral doses of nickel and chromium can cause cutaneous adverse reactions such as dermatitis. Additional dietary sources, such as leaching from stainless steel cookware during food preparation, are not well characterized. This study examined stainless steel grades, cooking time, repetitive cooking cycles, and multiple types of tomato sauces for their effects on nickel and chromium leaching. Trials included three types of stainless steels and a stainless steel saucepan; cooking times of 2 to 20 hours, ten consecutive cooking cycles, and four commercial tomato sauces. After a simulated cooking process, samples were analyzed by ICP-MS for Ni and Cr. After six hours of cooking, Ni and Cr concentrations in tomato sauce increased up to 26- and 7-fold respectively, depending on the grade of stainless steel. Longer cooking durations resulted in additional increases in metal leaching, where Ni concentrations increased 34 fold and Cr increased approximately 35 fold from sauces cooked without stainless steel. Cooking with new stainless steel resulted in the largest increases. Metal leaching decreases with sequential cooking cycles and stabilized after the sixth cooking cycle, though significant metal contributions to foods were still observed. The tenth cooking cycle, resulted in an average of 88 ?g of Ni and 86 ?g of Cr leached per 126 g serving of tomato sauce. Stainless steel cookware can be an overlooked source of nickel and chromium, where the contribution is dependent on stainless steel grade, cooking time, and cookware usage. PMID:23984718

Kamerud, Kristin L.; Hobbie, Kevin A.; Anderson, Kim A.

2014-01-01

235

75 FR 67110 - Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International...on forged stainless steel flanges from India and Taiwan...on forged stainless steel flanges from India and Taiwan would be likely to lead to...

2010-11-01

236

75 FR 12199 - Stainless Steel Bar from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-533-810] Stainless Steel Bar from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...duty order on stainless steel bar from India. The period of review is February 1...stainless steel bar (``SSB'') from India. See Antidumping Duty Orders:...

2010-03-15

237

78 FR 21596 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Order  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [C-570-984] Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic...a countervailing duty order on drawn stainless steel sinks (``drawn sinks'') from...1\\ See Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's...

2013-04-11

238

75 FR 62624 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Final Antidumping Measures on Stainless...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...States--Final Antidumping Measures on Stainless Steel from Mexico AGENCY: Office of...States--Final Antidumping Measures on Stainless Steel from Mexico to a panel. The request...States--Final Antidumping Measures on Stainless Steel from Mexico. The...

2010-10-12

239

78 FR 7395 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Trade Administration [A-533-810] Stainless Steel Bar From India: Preliminary Results...review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar (SSB) from India. The period...Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Stainless Steel Bar from India'' dated...

2013-02-01

240

76 FR 28809 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium; Termination of Five-Year Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...701-TA-376 (Second Review)] Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium; Termination...concerning the countervailing duty order on stainless steel plate from Belgium (75 FR 30777...countervailing duty order concerning stainless steel plate from Belgium, finding...

2011-05-18

241

78 FR 13017 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Countervailing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [C-570-984] Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic...provided to producers and exporters of drawn stainless steel sinks (``SS sinks'') from...1\\ See Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks from the People's...

2013-02-26

242

76 FR 31585 - Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-533-809] Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India: Notice of...the antidumping duty order on forged stainless steel flanges from India. The period...the antidumping duty order on forged stainless steel flanges from India. See...

2011-06-01

243

77 FR 60673 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Investigation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-983] Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic...preliminarily determines that drawn stainless steel sinks (``drawn sinks'') from...scope of this investigation are drawn stainless steel sinks with single or multiple...

2012-10-04

244

78 FR 62583 - Welded Stainless Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-549-830, A-552-816] Welded Stainless Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and the...duty investigations of welded stainless pressure pipe from Malaysia, Thailand, and the...1\\ See Welded Stainless Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and...

2013-10-22

245

76 FR 17819 - Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of...circular welded austenitic stainless pressure pipe (``austenitic pipe'') from...Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe from the People's Republic...

2011-03-31

246

76 FR 43981 - Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of...circular welded austenitic stainless pressure pipe from the People's Republic of...Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic...

2011-07-22

247

78 FR 45271 - Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Preliminary)] Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...and Vietnam of welded stainless steel pressure pipe, provided for in subheading 7306...LTFV imports of welded stainless steel pressure pipe from Malaysia, Thailand, and...

2013-07-26

248

The pH Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity engages students in measurement of pH in water and soil samples, plants and other natural materials. By mixing different substances, they observe how pH changes, and become familiar with the pH of common household products. Through discussion, they learn how pH can be modified in the environment.

249

Surface-protein interactions on different stainless steel grades: effects of protein adsorption, surface changes and metal release.  

PubMed

Implantation using stainless steels (SS) is an example where an understanding of protein-induced metal release from SS is important when assessing potential toxicological risks. Here, the protein-induced metal release was investigated for austenitic (AISI 304, 310, and 316L), ferritic (AISI 430), and duplex (AISI 2205) grades in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) solution containing either bovine serum albumin (BSA) or lysozyme (LSZ). The results show that both BSA and LSZ induce a significant enrichment of chromium in the surface oxide of all stainless steel grades. Both proteins induced an enhanced extent of released iron, chromium, nickel and manganese, very significant in the case of BSA (up to 40-fold increase), whereas both proteins reduced the corrosion resistance of SS, with the reverse situation for iron metal (reduced corrosion rates and reduced metal release in the presence of proteins). A full monolayer coverage is necessary to induce the effects observed. PMID:23378148

Hedberg, Y; Wang, X; Hedberg, J; Lundin, M; Blomberg, E; Wallinder, I Odnevall

2013-04-01

250

Localized corrosion of 316L stainless steel in tritiated water containing aggressive radiolytic and decomposition products at different temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tritium is one of the more important radionuclides used in nuclear industry as plutonium and uranium. The tritium in tritiated water always causes difficulties in nuclear installations, including equipment corrosion. Moreover, with tritiated water there are, in addition, the radiolytic and decomposition products such as hydrogen peroxide formed during decay, chloride ions produced by degradation of organic seals and oils used for tightness and pumping, and acid pH produced by excitation of nitrogen in air by the ? - particle. Highly concentrated tritiated water releases energy and its temperature is about 80 °C, moreover heating is necessary in the tritium processes. These conditions highly facilitate the corrosion of stainless steels by pitting and crevice attack. Corrosion tests were performed by electrochemical analysis methods and by visual inspection of the surface of stainless steel.

Bellanger, G.

2008-02-01

251

pH optrode  

DOEpatents

A process is provided for forming a long-lasting, stable, pH-sensitive dye-acrylamide copolymer useful as a pH-sensitive material for use in an optrode or other device sensitive to pH. An optrode may be made by mechanically attaching the copolymer to a sensing device such as an optical fiber.

Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Langry, Kevin C. (Tracy, CA)

1993-01-01

252

Ph.D. shortage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The late 1990s will see a shortage of Ph.D. graduates, according to the Association of American Universities, Washington, D.C. AAU's new comprehensive study, “The Ph.D. Shortage: The Federal Role,” reports that competition for new Ph.D.s is already intense and can only intensify because demand is greater than supply in both academic and nonacademic markets.Doctoral education plays an increasingly important role in U.S. research and development programs. Students have a pivotal part in doing research and enriching it with new ideas. The AAU report says that graduate students are “major determinants of the creativity and productivity of U.S. academic research, the source of more than 50% of the nation's basic research.’ The market for doctoral education extends beyond the university. In 1985, about 43% of all Ph.D.s employed in this country were working outside higher education; the demand for doctorate recipients in nonacademic sectors continues to grow.

253

Gas Atomization of Stainless Steel - Slow Motion  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steel liquid atomized by supersonic argon gas into a spray of droplets at ~1800ºC. Atomization of metal requires high pressure gas and specialized chambers for cooling and collecting the powders without contamination. The critical step for morphological control is the impingement of the gas on the melt stream. The video is a black and white high speed video of a liquid metal stream being atomized by high pressure gas. This material was atomized at the Ames Laboratory's Materials Preparation Center http://www.mpc.ameslab.gov

None

2011-01-01

254

Heterogeneity effects of stainless steel subassembly walls in FBR blankets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neutron absorption in stainless steel in a fast reactor with fuel rods lumped into a hexagonal lattice surrounded by the subassembly wall, may be considerably less than that calculated from conventional homogeneous approximations. This is particularly the case for the softer neutron spectra of blanket regions. A methodology is developed to treat the heterogeneity effect of stainless steel subassembly

1989-01-01

255

6. DETAIL VIEW OF SPIN FORM FURNACE FOR STAINLESS STEEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. DETAIL VIEW OF SPIN FORM FURNACE FOR STAINLESS STEEL FABRICATION. STAINLESS STEEL WAS MACHINED IN SIDE A OF THE BUILDING, BEGINNING IN 1957. (4/24/78) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

256

Characterization of stainless steels melted under high nitrogen pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical properties of stainless steels increase with increasing nitrogen concentration. Currently, the maximum nitrogen concentration in commercial stainless steels is 0.8 wt pct. In this study, type 304 and 316 stainless steels were melted and cooled in a hot-isostatic-pressur(HIP) furnace using nitrogen as the pressurizing gas, producing alloys with nitrogen concentrations between 1 and 4 wt pct. These nitrogen levels exceeded the alloys’ solubility limits, resulting in the formation of nitride precipitates with several different microstructures. A new phase diagram for high nitrogen stainless steel alloys is proposed. Several properties of these nitrogen stainless steel alloys with chromium nitrides present were studied: tensile strength was proportional to the interstitial nitrogen concentration; hardness, wear, and elastic modules were proportional to the total nitrogen concentration.

Rawers, J. C.; Dunning, J. S.; Asai, G.; Reed, R. P.

1992-07-01

257

Adhesion measurements and chemical and microstructural characterization at interfaces of titanium nitride and titanium aluminum nitride coatings on stainless steel, inconel and titanium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the adhesion of nitride coatings on metal alloys, Ti 6Al-4V, 17-4 PH stainless steel and Inconel 718 alloy substrates were coated with titanium nitride (TiN) using both cathodic arc and electron beam evaporation. Titanium aluminum nitride ((Ti,Al)N) was also deposited using cathodic arc evaporation. X-ray photoelectron, Auger electron, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopies were used in tandem with

Robert Dallas James

1997-01-01

258

Use of Electrochemical Potential Noise to Detect Initiation and Propagation of Stress Corrosion Cracks in a 17-4 PH Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion potential transients were associated with nucleation and propagation of stress corrosion cracks in a 17-4 precipitation-hardenable (PH) martensitic stainless steel (SS) during slow strain rate tests (SSRT) at 90 C in deaerated sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions, Test solutions included 20 wt% NaCl at pH 3 and 7, similar to normal and faulted steam turbine environments, respectively. Time series were

J. G. Gonzalez-Rodriguez; V. M. Salinas-Bravo; E. G. Garca-Ochoa; A. Diaz-Sanchez

1997-01-01

259

Cast alumina forming austenitic stainless steels  

DOEpatents

An austenitic stainless steel alloy consisting essentially of, in terms of weight percent ranges 0.15-0.5C; 8-37Ni; 10-25Cr; 2.5-5Al; greater than 0.6, up to 2.5 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta; up to 3Mo; up to 3Co; up to 1W; up to 3Cu; up to 15Mn; up to 2Si; up to 0.15B; up to 0.05P; up to 1 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; <0.3Ti+V; <0.03N; and, balance Fe, where the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni, and wherein the alloy forms an external continuous scale comprising alumina, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure, the austenitic matrix being essentially delta-ferrite free and essentially BCC-phase-free. A method of making austenitic stainless steel alloys is also disclosed.

Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Brady, Michael P

2013-04-30

260

Citric Acid Passivation of Stainless Steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Passivation is a process for cleaning and providing corrosion protection for stainless steel. Currently, on Kennedy Space Center (KSC), only parts passivated with nitric acid are acceptable for use. KSC disposes of approximately 125gal of concentrated nitric acid per year, and receives many parts from vendors who must also dispose of used nitric acid. Unfortunately, nitric acid presents health and environmental hazards. As a result, several recent industry studies have examined citric acid as an alternative. Implementing a citric acid-based passivation procedure would improve the health and environmental safety aspects of passivation process. However although there is a lack of published studies that conclusively prove citric acid is a technically sound passivation agent. In 2007, NASA's KSC Materials Advisory Working Group requested the evaluation of citric acid in place of nitric acid for passivation of parts at KSC. United Space Alliance Materials & Processes engineers have developed a three-phase test plan to evaluate citric acid as an alternative to nitric acid on three stainless steels commonly used at KSC: UNS S30400, S41000, and S17400. Phases 1 and 2 will produce an optimized citric acid treatment based on results from atmospheric exposure at NASA's Beach Corrosion Facility. Phase 3 will compare the optimized solution(s) with nitric acid treatments. If the results indicate that citric acid passivates as well or better than nitric acid, NASA intends to approve this method for parts used at the Kennedy Space Center.

Yasensky, David; Reali, John; Larson, Chris; Carl, Chad

2009-01-01

261

Stainless steel 4003 in the transportation industry  

SciTech Connect

The world today sees a dramatic increase in the number of people and the quantities of articles and products which are to be transported. This results in an ever-increasing demand in the steels used in the transportation industry. Key factors are environmental regulations, safety, and life expectancy and product cost in determining which types steel to use. Especially the ferritic 12% chromium stainless steels has seen a significant development and usage in recent years. Compared to typical carbon steels high strength/low alloy steels and structural steels the 12% chromium steels offers improvement in corrosion and wear resistance and weldability outlining advantages in light weight construction and an overall saving. The paper presents the chemical composition and mechanical properties of grade 4003 which is increasingly used worldwide in areas of public transportation, rail transportation, mining industry and sugar industry, among others. The impact of corrosion and abrasion of this stainless steel versus the standard carbon grades and cost efficiency are discussed.

Kovacs, H. [Krupp Thyssen Nirosta GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany). Quality and Research Dept.; Stoeckl, M. [KruppHoesche Steel Products, Wayne, NJ (United States)

1998-12-31

262

Microstructure of Super-duplex Stainless Steels  

E-print Network

max. Si max. Cr Ni Othersa 201 0.15 7.5 b I. 00 16.00-8.00 3.50- 5.50 0.25 max. N 202 0.15 10.00c I. 00 17.00-19.00 4.00-6.00 0.25 max. N 205 0.25 15.50d 0.50 16.50-18.00 1. 00-1. 75 O.32/0 . 4 max. N 301 0.15 2.00 1. 00 16.00-18.00 G.00-8.00 302 0.15 2... . in type 316D. bMn range 4.40 to 7.S0. cI\\1n range 7.S0 to 10.00. dMn range 14.00 to 15.50. cSi range 2.00 to ~.OO. fs'1 rnnge 1. SO to 3.00. Table 1.6. Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steels after Schweitzer (1983). Stainless Form and Yield...

Sharafi, Shahriar

1993-12-07

263

Weldment for austenitic stainless steel and method  

DOEpatents

For making defect-free welds for joining two austenitic stainless steel mers, using gas tungsten-arc welding, a thin foil-like iron member is placed between the two steel members to be joined, prior to making the weld, with the foil-like iron member having a higher melting point than the stainless steel members. When the weld is formed, there results a weld nugget comprising melted and then solidified portions of the joined members with small portions of the foil-like iron member projecting into the solidified weld nugget. The portions of the weld nugget proximate the small portions of the foil-like iron member which project into the weld nugget are relatively rich in iron. This causes these iron-rich nugget portions to display substantial delta ferrite during solidification of the weld nugget which eliminates weld defects which could otherwise occur. This is especially useful for joining austenitic steel members which, when just below the solidus temperature, include at most only a very minor proportion of delta ferrite.

Bagnall, Christopher (Hempfield, PA); McBride, Marvin A. (Hempfield, PA)

1985-01-01

264

The effect of molybdenum on corrosion of low-temperature nitrided stainless steels in sulphate–chloride solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance of stainless steels to pitting corrosion is strongly enhanced by nitriding at 380–450°C. In this work, anodic behaviour of steels with 0.13, 2.1, 4.5 and 6.1 wt% Mo was studied before and after nitriding at 450°C for 30 h which gave 13.0–15.8 wt% N at the surface. Electrochemical measurements were carried out in 0.1 M Na2SO4 + 0.4 M NaCl at pH 3.0. Nitriding of

J. Flis; M. Kuczynska-Wydorska; I. Flis-Kabulska

2006-01-01

265

Experimental Study of Fouling and Cleaning of Sintered Stainless Steel Membrane in Electro-Microfiltration of Calcium Salt Particles  

PubMed Central

Sintered stainless steel (SSS) microfiltration membranes, which served as electrode directly, were used for the experiment of separating Alamin, a calcium salt and protein containing particles, found in dairy processing. Fouling and cleaning of the SSS membranes under the application of an external electric field were studied. The imposed electric field was found, diverging the pH of permeate and retentate. This in turn altered the solubility of the calcium salt and impacted the performance of electro microfiltration membrane. Using electric field as an enhanced cleaning-in-place (CIP) method in back flushing SSS membrane was also studied. PMID:24957615

Qin, Frank G. F.; Mawson, John; Zeng, Xin An

2011-01-01

266

ESCA and SIMS analysis of the composition of passive films formed on E-brite stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anodic oxide films were formed on E-brite 26% Cr-1% Mo stainless steel in 1.0M NaCl+H 2SO 4 solution (pH 3.3). ESCA and SIMS techniques have been used to determine the composition of the passive film. It was found by both techniques that molybdenum was present on the outermost part of the film, however, it was not detected by Auger electron spectroscopy as reported by other workers. The SIMS results showed that there was a chromium enrichment in the passive film.

Tjong, S. C.

267

78 FR 34644 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-423-808] Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...duty order on stainless steel plate in coils (steel plate) from Belgium, covering...order is certain stainless steel plate in coils. Stainless steel is alloy steel...

2013-06-10

268

76 FR 1599 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-351-825] Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...duty order on stainless steel bar from Brazil. The review covers one producer/exporter...order on stainless steel bar (SSB) from Brazil. See Stainless Steel Bar From...

2011-01-11

269

75 FR 39663 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-351-825] Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...order on certain stainless steel bar from Brazil. The review covers one producer/exporter...order on certain stainless steel bar from Brazil. See Stainless Steel Bar From...

2010-07-12

270

Esophageal pH monitoring  

MedlinePLUS

pH monitoring - esophageal; Esophageal acidity test ... to stay in the hospital for the esophageal pH monitoring. ... Esophageal pH monitoring is used to check how much stomach acid is entering the esophagus. It also checks how ...

271

The pH scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some animals tolerate broad changes in pH well while others do not. Human activities can create acid rain. Acid rain can change the pH of the environment and destroy entire ecosystems and habitats. For an ecosystem to function properly, its pH must be able to accommodate all of the organisms living in it.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-05-26

272

[Study on biocompatibility of MIM 316L stainless steel].  

PubMed

This study was aimed to evaluate the biocompatibility of metal powder injection molding (MIM) 316L stainless steel. The percentage of S-period cells was detected by flow cytometry after L929 cells being incubated with extraction of MIM 316L stainless steel, and titanium implant materials for clinical application were used as control. In addition, both materials were implanted in animals and the histopathological evaluations were carried out. The statistical analyses show that there are no significant differences between the two groups (P > 0.05), which demonstrate that MIM 316L stainless steel has good biocompatibility. PMID:17591253

Wang, Guohui; Zhu, Shaihong; Li, Yiming; Zhao, Yanzhong; Zhou, Kechao; Huang, Boyun

2007-04-01

273

Analysis of Stainless Steel Sandwich Panels with a Metal Foam Care for Lightweight Fan Blade Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The quest for cheap, low density and high performance materials in the design of aircraft and rotorcraft engine fan and propeller blades poses immense challenges to the materials and structural design engineers. Traditionally, these components have been fabricated using expensive materials such as light weight titanium alloys, polymeric composite materials and carbon-carbon composites. The present study investigates the use of P sandwich foam fan blade made up of solid face sheets and a metal foam core. The face sheets and the metal foam core material were an aerospace grade precipitation hardened 17-4 PH stainless steel with high strength and high toughness. The stiffness of the sandwich structure is increased by separating the two face sheets by a foam core. The resulting structure possesses a high stiffness while being lighter than a similar solid construction. Since the face sheets carry the applied bending loads, the sandwich architecture is a viable engineering concept. The material properties of 17-4 PH metal foam are reviewed briefly to describe the characteristics of the sandwich structure for a fan blade application. A vibration analysis for natural frequencies and P detailed stress analysis on the 17-4 PH sandwich foam blade design for different combinations of skin thickness and core volume %re presented with a comparison to a solid titanium blade.

Min, James B.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Raj, Sai V.; Holland, Frederic A., Jr.; Hebsur, Mohan G.

2004-01-01

274

50 CFR 17.7 - Raptor exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...a live migratory bird of the Order Falconiformes or the Order Strigiformes, other than a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) or a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos )] legally held in captivity or in a controlled environment...

2012-10-01

275

50 CFR 17.7 - Raptor exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...a live migratory bird of the Order Falconiformes or the Order Strigiformes, other than a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) or a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos )] legally held in captivity or in a controlled environment...

2010-10-01

276

50 CFR 17.7 - Raptor exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...a live migratory bird of the Order Falconiformes or the Order Strigiformes, other than a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) or a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos )] legally held in captivity or in a controlled environment...

2013-10-01

277

50 CFR 17.7 - Raptor exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...a live migratory bird of the Order Falconiformes or the Order Strigiformes, other than a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) or a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos )] legally held in captivity or in a controlled environment...

2011-10-01

278

Wear evaluation of high interstitial stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

A new series of high nitrogen-carbon manganese stainless steel alloys are studied for their wear resistance. High nitrogen and carbon concentrations were obtained by melting elemental iron-chromium-manganese (several with minor alloy additions of nickel, silicon, and molybdenum) in a nitrogen atmosphere and adding elemental graphite. The improvement in material properties (hardness and strength) with increasing nitrogen and carbon interstitial concentration was consistent with previously reported improvements in similar material properties alloyed with nitrogen only. Wear tests included: scratch, pin-on-disk, sand-rubber-wheel, impeller, and jet erosion. Additions of interstitial nitrogen and carbon as well as interstitial nitrogen and carbide precipitates were found to greatly improve material properties. In general, with increasing nitrogen and carbon concentrations, strength, hardness, and wear resistance increased.

Rawers, J.C.; Tylczak, J.H.

2008-07-01

279

Radiation resistant austenitic stainless steel alloys  

DOEpatents

An austenitic stainless steel alloy, with improved resistance to radiation-induced swelling and helium embrittlement, and improved resistance to thermal creep at high temperatures, consisting essentially of, by weight percent: from 16 to 18% nickel; from 13 to 17% chromium; from 2 to 3% molybdenum; from 1.5 to 2.5% manganese; from 0.01 to 0.5% silicon; from 0.2 to 0.4% titanium; from 0.1 to 0.2% niobium; from 0.1 to 0.6% vanadium; from 0.06 to 0.12% carbon; from 0.01% to 0.03% nitrogen; from 0.03 to 0.08% phosphorus; from 0.005 to 0.01% boron; and the balance iron, and wherein the alloy may be thermomechanically treated to enhance physical and mechanical properties.

Maziasz, Philip J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Braski, David N. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rowcliffe, Arthur F. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1989-01-01

280

Austenitic stainless steel and drill collar  

SciTech Connect

A non-magnetic austenitic stainless steel, and a drill collar fabricated therefrom solely by hot forging, the steel having a 0.2% yield strength of at least 85 ksi in the hot worked condition, high stress corrosion cracking resistance, good ductility, and low magnetic permeability even if cold worked, and consisting essentially of, in weight percent, from 0.12% to 0.20% carbon, 11% to 14% manganese, about 16% to about 19% chromium, 1.5% to 2.7% nickel, 0.30% to 0.45% nitrogen, 0.5% to 1.0% copper, about 0.75% maximum molybdenum, about 0.80% maximum silicon, about 0.04% maximum phosphorus, about 0.025% maximum sulfur, and balance essentially iron, with the carbon:nitrogen ratio not greater than 0.6:1.

Cordea, J. N.; Jasper, J. C.; Sheth, H. V.

1985-03-05

281

THE CLEANING OF 303 STAINLESS STEEL  

SciTech Connect

The sulfur found on the surfaces of stainless steel 303 (SS303) after nitric acid passivation originated from the MnS inclusions in the steel. The nitric acid attacked and dissolved these MnS inclusions, and redeposited micron-sized elemental sulfur particles back to the surface. To develop an alternative passivation procedure for SS303, citric and phosphoric acids have been evaluated. The experimental results show neither acid causes a significant amount of sulfur deposit. Thus, these two acids can be used as alternatives to nitric acid passivation for NIF applications. For SS303 previously passivated by nitric acid, NaOH soak can be used as a remedial cleaning process to effectively remove the sulfur deposits.

Shen, T H

2004-04-20

282

Stainless steel anodes for alkaline water electrolysis and methods of making  

DOEpatents

The corrosion resistance of stainless steel anodes for use in alkaline water electrolysis was increased by immersion of the stainless steel anode into a caustic solution prior to electrolysis. Also disclosed herein are electrolyzers employing the so-treated stainless steel anodes. The pre-treatment process provides a stainless steel anode that has a higher corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel anode of the same composition.

Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

2014-01-21

283

Kinetics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion to 304 and 316-L stainless steel: role of cell surface hydrophobicity.  

PubMed

Fifteen different isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used to study the kinetics of adhesion to 304 and 316-L stainless steel. Stainless steel plates were incubated with approximately 1.5 X 10(7) CFU/ml in 0.01 M phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4). After the plates were rinsed with the buffer, the number of adhering bacteria was determined by a bioluminescence assay. Measurable adhesion, even to the electropolished surfaces, occurred within 30 s. Bacterial cell surface hydrophobicity, as determined by the bacterial adherence to hydrocarbons test and the contact angle measurement test, was the major parameter influencing the adhesion rate constant for the first 30 min of adhesion. A parabolic relationship between the CAM values and the logarithm of the adhesion rate constants (In k) was established. No correlation between either the salt aggregation or the improved salt aggregation values and the bacterial adhesion rate constants could be found. Since there was no significant correlation between the bacterial electrophoretic mobilities and the In k values, the bacterial cell surface charge seemed of minor importance in the process of adhesion of P. aeruginosa to 304 and 316-L stainless steel. PMID:2107796

Vanhaecke, E; Remon, J P; Moors, M; Raes, F; De Rudder, D; Van Peteghem, A

1990-03-01

284

Kinetics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion to 304 and 316-L stainless steel: role of cell surface hydrophobicity.  

PubMed Central

Fifteen different isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used to study the kinetics of adhesion to 304 and 316-L stainless steel. Stainless steel plates were incubated with approximately 1.5 X 10(7) CFU/ml in 0.01 M phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4). After the plates were rinsed with the buffer, the number of adhering bacteria was determined by a bioluminescence assay. Measurable adhesion, even to the electropolished surfaces, occurred within 30 s. Bacterial cell surface hydrophobicity, as determined by the bacterial adherence to hydrocarbons test and the contact angle measurement test, was the major parameter influencing the adhesion rate constant for the first 30 min of adhesion. A parabolic relationship between the CAM values and the logarithm of the adhesion rate constants (In k) was established. No correlation between either the salt aggregation or the improved salt aggregation values and the bacterial adhesion rate constants could be found. Since there was no significant correlation between the bacterial electrophoretic mobilities and the In k values, the bacterial cell surface charge seemed of minor importance in the process of adhesion of P. aeruginosa to 304 and 316-L stainless steel. PMID:2107796

Vanhaecke, E; Remon, J P; Moors, M; Raes, F; De Rudder, D; Van Peteghem, A

1990-01-01

285

Stainless steel-zirconium alloy waste forms  

SciTech Connect

An electrometallurgical treatment process has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory to convert various types of spent nuclear fuels into stable storage forms and waste forms for repository disposal. The first application of this process will be to treat spent fuel alloys from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II. Three distinct product streams emanate from the electrorefining process: (1) refined uranium; (2) fission products and actinides extracted from the electrolyte salt that are processed into a mineral waste form; and (3) metallic wastes left behind at the completion of the electrorefining step. The third product stream (i.e., the metal waste stream) is the subject of this paper. The metal waste stream contains components of the chopped spent fuel that are unaffected by the electrorefining process because of their electrochemically ``noble`` nature; this includes the cladding hulls, noble metal fission products (NMFP), and, in specific cases, zirconium from metal fuel alloys. The selected method for the consolidation and stabilization of the metal waste stream is melting and casting into a uniform, corrosion-resistant alloy. The waste form casting process will be carried out in a controlled-atmosphere furnace at high temperatures with a molten salt flux. Spent fuels with both stainless steel and Zircaloy cladding are being evaluated for treatment; thus, stainless steel-rich and Zircaloy-rich waste forms are being developed. Although the primary disposition option for the actinides is the mineral waste form, the concept of incorporating the TRU-bearing product into the metal waste form has enough potential to warrant investigation.

McDeavitt, S.M.; Abraham, D.P.; Keiser, D.D. Jr.; Park, J.Y.

1996-07-01

286

In situ multielement XANES study of formation and reduction of the oxide film on stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of in situ multielement X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy for studying the passivation of alloys is demonstrated. By simultaneously windowing the appropriate K{sub a} fluorescence lines with a 13-element energy-dispersive germanium detector it is possible to measure concurrently the behavior of different alloying elements during electrochemical polarization. A thin film of stainless steel was stepped between {minus}1.5 and +0.4 V (MSE) (the transpassive region of chromium) in a pH 8.4 borate buffer. On the first oxidation, no metal was lost and Fe and Ni showed some oxidation. On reduction, significant Fe and a barely detectable quantity of Ni dissolved. During the second oxidation, some Cr and a smaller fraction of Ni dissolved.

Davenport, A.J.; Aldykiewicz, A.J. Jr.; Taube, M.; Vitus, C.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Sansone, M. [Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Annandale, NY (United States); Bardwell, J.A. [National Research Council, Ottawa (Canada)

1994-01-01

287

Nanotextured stainless steel for improved corrosion resistance and biological response in coronary stenting.  

PubMed

Nanosurface engineering of metallic substrates for improved cellular response is a persistent theme in biomaterials research. The need to improve the long term prognosis of commercially available stents has led us to adopt a 'polymer-free' approach which is cost effective and industrially scalable. In this study, 316L stainless steel substrates were surface modified by hydrothermal treatment in alkaline pH, with and without the addition of a chromium precursor, to generate a well adherent uniform nanotopography. The modified surfaces showed improved hemocompatibility and augmented endothelialization, while hindering the proliferation of smooth muscle cells. Moreover, they also exhibited superior material properties like corrosion resistance, surface integrity and reduced metal ion leaching. The combination of improved corrosion resistance and selective vascular cell viability provided by nanomodification can be successfully utilized to offer a cell-friendly solution to the inherent limitations pertinent to bare metallic stents. PMID:25436487

Mohan, Chandini C; Prabhath, Anupama; Cherian, Aleena Mary; Vadukumpully, Sajini; Nair, Shantikumar V; Chennazhi, Krishnaprasad; Menon, Deepthy

2015-01-14

288

Corrosivity of paper mill effluent and corrosion performance of stainless steel.  

PubMed

Present study relates to the corrosivity of paper mill effluent and corrosion performance of stainless steel (SS) as a construction material for the effluent treatment plant (ETP). Accordingly, immersion test and electrochemical polarization tests were performed on SS 304?L, 316?L and duplex 2205 in paper mill effluent and synthetic effluent. This paper presents electrochemical polarization measurements, performed for the first time to the best of the authors' information, to see the influence of chlorophenols on the corrosivity of effluents. The corrosivity of the effluent was observed to increase with the decrease in pH and increase in Cl(-) content while the addition of [Formula: see text] tends to inhibit corrosion. Mill effluent was found to be more corrosive as compared to synthetic effluent and has been attributed to the presence of various chlorophenols. Corrosion performance of SS was observed to govern by the presence of Cr, Mo and N contents. PMID:25188842

Ram, Chhotu; Sharma, Chhaya; Singh, A K

2015-03-01

289

Nanotextured stainless steel for improved corrosion resistance and biological response in coronary stenting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanosurface engineering of metallic substrates for improved cellular response is a persistent theme in biomaterials research. The need to improve the long term prognosis of commercially available stents has led us to adopt a `polymer-free' approach which is cost effective and industrially scalable. In this study, 316L stainless steel substrates were surface modified by hydrothermal treatment in alkaline pH, with and without the addition of a chromium precursor, to generate a well adherent uniform nanotopography. The modified surfaces showed improved hemocompatibility and augmented endothelialization, while hindering the proliferation of smooth muscle cells. Moreover, they also exhibited superior material properties like corrosion resistance, surface integrity and reduced metal ion leaching. The combination of improved corrosion resistance and selective vascular cell viability provided by nanomodification can be successfully utilized to offer a cell-friendly solution to the inherent limitations pertinent to bare metallic stents.

Mohan, Chandini C.; Prabhath, Anupama; Cherian, Aleena Mary; Vadukumpully, Sajini; Nair, Shantikumar V.; Chennazhi, Krishnaprasad; Menon, Deepthy

2014-12-01

290

Fatigue behavior of welded austenitic stainless steel in different environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fatigue behavior of welded austenitic stainless steel in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid and wet steam corrosive media has been investigated. The immersion time in the corrosive media was 30 days to simulate the effect on stainless steel structures/equipment in offshore and food processing applications and thereafter annealing heat treatment was carried out on the samples. The findings from the fatigue tests show that seawater specimens have a lower fatigue stress of 0.5 × 10-5 N/mm2 for the heat treated sample and 0.1 × 10-5 N/mm2 for the unheat-treated sample compared to the corresponding hydrochloric acid and steam samples. The post-welding heat treatment was found to increase the mechanical properties of the austenitic stainless steel especially tensile strength but it reduces the transformation and thermal stresses of the samples. These findings were further corroborated by the microstructural examination of the stainless steel specimen.

Yawas, D. S.; Aku, S. Y.; Aluko, S. O.

291

Steam oxidation of boron carbide-stainless steel liquid mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of nuclear reactor core meltdown accidents studies, the oxidation kinetics of boron carbide-stainless steel liquid mixtures exposed to argon/steam atmospheres was investigated at temperatures up to 1527 °C. A B-Cr-Si-O liquid protective layer forms on the surface of the mixtures in contact with steam. This protective layer gradually transforms into a Cr2O3-rich slag. Important quantities of liquid can be projected from the melt during oxidation. These projections are favoured by high B4C contents in the melt, high steam partial pressures and low temperatures. In addition to stainless steel-boron carbide melts, simpler compositions (pure 304L stainless steel, iron-boron, iron-boron carbide and stainless steel-boron) were studied, in order to identify the basic oxidation mechanisms.

Dominguez, C.

2012-08-01

292

Surface modified stainless steels for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates  

DOEpatents

A nitridation treated stainless steel article (such as a bipolar plate for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell) having lower interfacial contact electrical resistance and better corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel article is disclosed. The treated stainless steel article has a surface layer including nitrogen-modified chromium-base oxide and precipitates of chromium nitride formed during nitridation wherein oxygen is present in the surface layer at a greater concentration than nitrogen. The surface layer may further include precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide. The surface layer in the treated article is chemically heterogeneous surface rather than a uniform or semi-uniform surface layer exclusively rich in chromium, titanium or aluminum. The precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide are formed by the nitriding treatment wherein titanium and/or aluminum in the stainless steel are segregated to the surface layer in forms that exhibit a low contact resistance and good corrosion resistance.

Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Wang, Heli [Littleton, CO; Turner, John A [Littleton, CO

2007-07-24

293

Stress corrosion cracking evaluation of precipitation-hardening stainless steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accelerated test program results show which precipitation hardening stainless steels are resistant to stress corrosion cracking. In certain cases stress corrosion susceptibility was found to be associated with the process procedure.

Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

1970-01-01

294

Stainless-steel elbows formed by spin forging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large seamless austenitic stainless steel elbows are fabricated by spin forging /rotary shear forming/. A specially designed spin forging tool for mounting on a hydrospin machine has been built for this purpose.

1964-01-01

295

Utility chromium stainless steels in the transportation industry  

SciTech Connect

The advantages of stainless steel in the Transportation Industry have been well documented over the last two decades. Benefits have been based on fractional maintenance costs, improved operational efficiency, and favorable life cycle cost. The bus and coach industry, as well as rail and trucking industry applications have all exhibited excellent histories utilizing stainless steels. The introduction of the new generation utility ferrilic stainless steels (11%--12% Chromium, or Cr 12) has led to a new and major benefit, which is driving the use of stainless steels in the transportation industry to new heights. Application of these corrosion resistant, utility steels in coal hopper cars, bus underframes, truck bodies and chassis, and even some European car chassis, has reshaped the thinking of those interested in excellent life cycle costing.

Northart, J.F. [Reliance Steel and Aluminum, Colorado Springs, CO (United States). Reliance Metalcenter

1998-12-31

296

Eddy sensors for small diameter stainless steel tubes.  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to develop non-destructive, minimally disruptive eddy sensors to inspect small diameter stainless steel metal tubes. Modifications to Sandia's Emphasis/EIGER code allowed for the modeling of eddy current bobbin sensors near or around 1/8-inch outer diameter stainless steel tubing. Modeling results indicated that an eddy sensor based on a single axial coil could effectively detect changes in the inner diameter of a stainless steel tubing. Based on the modeling results, sensor coils capable of detecting small changes in the inner diameter of a stainless steel tube were designed, built and tested. The observed sensor response agreed with the results of the modeling and with eddy sensor theory. A separate limited distribution SAND report is being issued demonstrating the application of this sensor.

Skinner, Jack L.; Morales, Alfredo Martin; Grant, J. Brian; Korellis, Henry James; LaFord, Marianne Elizabeth; Van Blarigan, Benjamin; Andersen, Lisa E.

2011-08-01

297

Long-range (17.7 kb) allele-specific polymerase chain reaction method for direct haplotyping of R117H and IVS-8 mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene.  

PubMed

Genotyping of genetic polymorphisms is widely used in clinical molecular laboratories to confirm or predict diseases due to single locus mutations. In contrast, very few molecular methods determine the phase or haplotype of two or more mutations that are kilobases apart. In this report, we describe a new method for haplotyping based on long-range allele-specific PCR. Reaction conditions were established to circumvent the incompatibility of using allele-specific primers and a polymerase with proofreading activity. Haplotypes are determined by post-PCR analysis using different detection methods. The clinical application presented here directly determines the phase of two mutations separated by 17.7 kilobases in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene. Each mutation, the missense mutation R117H in exon 4 and the 5T polymorphism in intron 8 (IVS-8), have mild phenotypic effect unless they are present on the same chromosome (in cis). If an individual is heterozygous for both R117H and the IVS-8 5T variant, cis/trans testing is required to completely interpret results. The molecular method presented here bypasses the need to perform family studies to establish haplotypes. We propose use of this assay as a reflex clinical test for R117H- 5T-positive samples. PMID:15269305

Pont-Kingdon, Genevieve; Jama, Mohamed; Miller, Christine; Millson, Alison; Lyon, Elaine

2004-08-01

298

The influence of aging treatments on sulfide stress corrosion cracking of PH 13-8 Mo steel welds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slow displacement rate tensile tests were carried out to study sulfide stress corrosion cracking (SSCC) of PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel welds in a saturated H2S solution. The welds aged in the temperature range of 482–593°C were susceptible to SSCC; the fracture surfaces revealed mainly quasi-cleavage fractures after notched tensile tests. However, the SSCC susceptibility in terms of the percentage

L. W. Tsay; H. H. Chen; M. F. Chiang; C. Chen

2007-01-01

299

The partitioning of alloying elements in vacuum arc remelted, Pd-modified PH 13-8 Mo alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partitioning of alloying elements in as-solidified PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel containing up to 1.02 wt pct Pd has been\\u000a investigated. The as-solidified structure is composed of two major phases, martensite and ferrite. Electron probe microanalysis\\u000a reveals that Mo, Cr, and Al partition to the ferrite phase while Fe, Ni, Mn, and Pd partition to the martensite (prior austenite)

M. J. Cieslak; J. A. Vandenavyle; M. J. Carr; C. R. Hills; R. E. Semarge

1988-01-01

300

The partitioning of alloying elements in vacuum arc remelted, Pd-modified PH 13-8 Mo alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partitioning of alloying elements in as-solidified PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel containing up to 1.02 wt pct Pd has been investigated. The as-solidified structure is composed of two major phases, martensite and ferrite. Electron probe microanalysis reveals that Mo, Cr, and Al partition to the ferrite phase while Fe, Ni, Mn, and Pd partition to the martensite (prior austenite)

M. J. Cieslak; J. A. Vandenavyle; M. J. Carr; C. R. Hills; R. E. Semarge

1988-01-01

301

Tensions and deformations of WC–Co cermets and 17-4 PH steel vacuum brazed joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the properties of WC–Co cermets and precipitation hardening stainless steel of 17-4 PH type vacuum brazed joints has been presented. The joints are used in a large-dimension-spinning nozzle for polyethylene granulation in that considerable strength and ductility of the joints is required. The results of mechanical properties of the joint tests were a base for further numerical investigation.

Jerzy Nowacki; Micha? Kawiak

2003-01-01

302

Measurement of intergranular attack in stainless steel using ultrasonic energy  

DOEpatents

Ultrasonic test methods are used to measure the depth of intergranular attack (IGA) in a stainless steel specimen. The ultrasonic test methods include a pitch-catch surface wave technique and a through-wall pulse-echo technique. When used in combination, these techniques can establish the extent of IGA on both the front and back surfaces of a stainless steel specimen from measurements made on only one surface.

Mott, Gerry (Pittsburgh, PA); Attaar, Mustan (Monroeville, PA); Rishel, Rick D. (Monroeville, PA)

1989-08-08

303

Procedure for flaw detection in cast stainless steel  

DOEpatents

A method of ultrasonic flaw detection in cast stainless steel components incorporating the steps of determining the nature of the microstructure of the cast stainless steel at the site of the flaw detection measurements by ultrasonic elements independent of the component thickness at the site; choosing from a plurality of flaw detection techniques, one such technique appropriate to the nature of the microstructure as determined and detecting flaws by use of the chosen technique.

Kupperman, David S. (Oak Park, IL)

1988-01-01

304

Performance of a stainless steel membrane in membrane bioreactor process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steel membrane has recently emerged as a durable membrane for microfiltration. An aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) equipped with a tubular stainless steel membrane of pore size 0.3??m was submerged in a wastewater reactor to treat municipal wastewater of about 1,000?mg\\/L COD. The membrane operational performance was tested at three different permeate flux (7.5, 10 and 15?L\\/m?h [LMH]) for 2

Rupak Aryal; M. A. H. Johir; Saravanamuthu Vigneswaran; Jaya Kandasamy; Robert Sleigh

2012-01-01

305

X-ray attenuation properties of stainless steel (u)  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steel vessels are used to enclose solid materials for studying x-ray radiolysis that involves gas release from the materials. Commercially available stainless steel components are easily adapted to form a static or a dynamic condition to monitor the gas evolved from the solid materials during and after the x-ray irradiation. Experimental data published on the x-ray attenuation properties of stainless steel, however, are very scarce, especially over a wide range of x-ray energies. The objective of this work was to obtain experimental data that will be used to determine how a poly-energetic x-ray beam is attenuated by the stainless steel container wall. The data will also be used in conjunction with MCNP (Monte Carlos Nuclear Particle) modeling to develop an accurate method for determining energy absorbed in known solid samples contained in stainless steel vessels. In this study, experiments to measure the attenuation properties of stainless steel were performed for a range of bremsstrahlung x-ray beams with a maximum energy ranging from 150 keV to 10 MeV. Bremsstrahlung x-ray beams of these energies are commonly used in radiography of engineering and weapon components. The weapon surveillance community has a great interest in understanding how the x-rays in radiography affect short-term and long-term properties of weapon materials.

Wang, Lily L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berry, Phillip C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

306

Phase Transformations in Cast Duplex Stainless Steels  

SciTech Connect

Duplex stainless steels (DSS) constitute both ferrite and austenite as a matrix. Such a microstructure confers a high corrosion resistance with favorable mechanical properties. However, intermetallic phases such as {sigma} and {chi} can also form during casting or high-temperature processing and can degrade the properties of the DSS. This research was initiated to develop time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams of two types of cast duplex stainless steels, CD3MN (Fe-22Cr-5Ni-Mo-N) and CD3MWCuN (Fe-25Cr-7Ni-Mo-W-Cu-N), in order to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formation. The alloys were heat treated isothermally or under controlled cooling conditions and then characterized using conventional metallographic methods that included tint etching, and also using electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). The kinetics of intermetallic-phase ({sigma} + {chi}) formation were analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (MA) equation in the case of isothermal transformations and a modified form of this equation in the case of continuous cooling transformations. The rate of intermetallic-phase formation was found to be much faster in CD3MWCuN than CD3MN due mainly to differences in the major alloying contents such as Cr, Ni and Mo. To examine in more detail the effects of these elements of the phase stabilities; a series of eight steel castings was designed with the Cr, Ni and Mo contents systematically varied with respect to the nominal composition of CD3MN. The effects of varying the contents of alloying additions on the formation of intermetallic phases were also studied computationally using the commercial thermodynamic software package, Thermo-Calc. In general, {sigma} was stabilized with increasing Cr addition and {chi} by increasing Mo addition. However, a delicate balance among Ni and other minor elements such as N and Si also exists. Phase equilibria in DSS can be affected by local composition fluctuations in the cast alloy. This may cause discrepancy between thermodynamic prediction and experimental observation.

Yoon-Jun Kim

2004-12-19

307

Ph.D. Astronomy Program Ph.D. in Astronomy  

E-print Network

Ph.D. Astronomy Program Ph.D. in Astronomy Department(s) Physics and Astronomy College Sciences 1 physics at the graduate level 4. understand observational astronomy techniques 5. understand astrophysics strong background of knowledge and expertise in physics and astronomy #12;2. Curriculum Alignment

Hemmers, Oliver

308

Ph.D. Physics Program Ph.D. in Physics  

E-print Network

Ph.D. Physics Program Ph.D. in Physics Department(s) Physics and Astronomy College Sciences Program Assessment Coordinator Michael Pravica pravica@physics.unlv.edu 895-1723 Five-Year Implementation Dates (2010 for physics at the graduate level 4. understand statistical physics at the graduate level 5. perform

Hemmers, Oliver

309

NanoComposite Stainless Steel Powder Technologies  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating a new class of Fe-based amorphous material stemming from a DARPA, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency initiative in structural amorphous metals. Further engineering of the original SAM materials such as chemistry modifications and manufacturing processes, has led to the development of a class of Fe based amorphous materials that upon processing, devitrify into a nearly homogeneous distribution of nano sized complex metal carbides and borides. The powder material is produced through the gas atomization process and subsequently utilized by several methods; laser fusing as a coating to existing components or bulk consolidated into new components through various powder metallurgy techniques (vacuum hot pressing, Dynaforge, and hot isostatic pressing). The unique fine scale distribution of microstructural features yields a material with high hardness and wear resistance compared to material produced through conventional processing techniques such as casting while maintaining adequate fracture toughness. Several compositions have been examined including those specifically designed for high hardness and wear resistance and a composition specifically tailored to devitrify into an austenitic matrix (similar to a stainless steel) which poses improved corrosion behavior.

DeHoff, R.; Glasgow, C. (MesoCoat, Inc.)

2012-07-25

310

Austenitic stainless steel for high temperature applications  

DOEpatents

This invention describes a composition for an austenitic stainless steel which has been found to exhibit improved high temperature stress rupture properties. The composition of this alloy is about (in wt. %): 12.5 to 14.5 Cr; 14.5 to 16.5 Ni; 1.5 to 2.5 Mo; 1.5 to 2.5 Mn; 0.1 to 0.4 Ti; 0.02 to 0.08 C; 0.5 to 1.0 Si; 0.01 maximum, N; 0.02 to 0.08 P; 0.002 to 0.008 B; 0.004-0.010 S; 0.02-0.05 Nb; 0.01-0.05 V; 0.005-0.02 Ta; 0.02-0.05 Al; 0.01-0.04 Cu; 0.02-0.05 Co; 0.03 maximum, As; 0.01 maximum, O; 0.01 maximum, Zr; and with the balance of the alloy being essentially iron. The carbon content of the alloy is adjusted such that wt. % Ti/(wt. % C+wt. % N) is between 4 and 6, and most preferably about 5. In addition the sum of the wt. % P+wt. % B+wt. % S is at least 0.03 wt. %. This alloy is believed to be particularly well suited for use as fast breeder reactor fuel element cladding.

Johnson, Gerald D. (Kennewick, WA); Powell, Roger W. (Pasco, WA)

1985-01-01

311

77 FR 22561 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Correction to Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [C-570-984] Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic...Department'') published the notice Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks from the People's Republic...petition concerning imports of drawn stainless steel sinks from the People's...

2012-04-16

312

78 FR 34337 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011-2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Trade Administration [A-533-810] Stainless Steel Bar From India: Final Results...review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar from India (Preliminary Results...1\\ See Stainless Steel Bar from India: Preliminary...

2013-06-07

313

78 FR 21592 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Determination of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-983] Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks from the People's Republic...issuing an antidumping duty order on drawn stainless steel sinks (``drawn sinks'') from...1\\ See Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's...

2013-04-11

314

78 FR 72864 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-983] Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic...of the antidumping duty order on drawn stainless steel sinks (``drawn sinks'') from...1\\ See Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks from the People's...

2013-12-04

315

Stainless steel tube-based cell cryopreservation containers.  

PubMed

This study focused on increasing the freezing rate in cell vitrification cryopreservation by using a cryopreservation container possessing rigid mechanical properties and high heat-transfer efficiency. Applying a fast freezing rate in vitrification cryopreservation causes a rapid temperature change in the cryopreservation container and has a substantial impact on mechanical properties; therefore, a highly rigid cryopreservation container that possesses a fast freezing rate must be developed. To produce a highly rigid cryopreservation container possessing superior heat transfer efficiency, this study applies an electrochemical machining (ECM) method to an ANSI 316L stainless steel tube to treat the surface material by polishing and roughening, thereby increasing the freezing rate and reducing the probability of ice crystal formation. The results indicated that the ECM method provided high-quality surface treatment of the stainless steel tube. This method can reduce internal surface roughness in the stainless steel tube, thereby reducing the probability of ice crystal formation, and increase external surface roughness, consequently raising convection heat-transfer efficiency. In addition, by thinning the stainless steel tube, this method reduces heat capacity and thermal resistance, thereby increasing the freezing rate. The freezing rate (3399 ± 197 °C/min) of a stainless steel tube after interior and exterior polishing and exterior etching by applying ECM compared with the freezing rate (1818 ± 54 °C/min) of an original stainless steel tube was increased by 87%, which also exceeds the freezing rate (2015 ± 49 °C/min) of an original quartz tube that has a 20% lower heat capacity. However, the results indicated that increasing heat-transferring surface areas and reducing heat capacities cannot effectively increase the freezing rate of a stainless steel tube if only one method is applied; instead, both techniques must be implemented concurrently to improve the freezing rate. PMID:23993919

Shih, Wei-Hung; Yu, Zong-Yan; Wu, Wei-Te

2013-12-01

316

The pH Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a game that can be used to teach students about the acidity of liquids and substances around their school and enable them to understand what pH levels tell us about the environment. Students collect samples and measure the pH of water, soil, plants, and other natural material. (DDR)

Chemecology, 1996

1996-01-01

317

Jeanne Murhpy, PhD  

Cancer.gov

Jeanne Murphy, PhD, CNM is a postdoctoral Cancer Prevention Fellow in the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention. She comes to BGCRG with a PhD from Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing. She also completed a graduate certificate in Health Disparities and Health Inequality at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

318

PhDProgramS BIOENGINEERING  

E-print Network

through a strong interdisciplinary education in engineering, mathematics, medical and biological knowledge is complemented by an educational offer which proposes ad hoc advanced courses specifically projected for PhD audience. The courses are given at the Campus Leonardo. The Ph. D study track is organized in three years

319

Keiji TANAKA, Ph.D. Hitoshi OKAMOTO, M.D., Ph.D.  

E-print Network

Keiji TANAKA, Ph.D. Hitoshi OKAMOTO, M.D., Ph.D. Atsushi MIYAWAKI, M.D., Ph.D. Tadaharu TSUMOTO, M.D., Ph.D. Shin OHKOUCHI Masao ITO, M.D., Ph.D. Shun-ichi AMARI, D.Eng. Susumu TONEGAWA, Ph Committee Senior Advisor Charles YOKOYAMA, Ph.D. Neural Circuit Function Developmental Gene Regulation

Kazama, Hokto

320

Jacob Bernoulli, Ph.D. Erhard Weigel, Ph.D. Universitt Leipzig 1650  

E-print Network

Jacob Bernoulli, Ph.D. Erhard Weigel, Ph.D. Universität Leipzig 1650 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Dr. jur. Universität Altdorf 1666 Johann Bernoulli, Ph.D. 1694 Leonhard Euler, Ph.D. Universität Basel 1726 Joseph Louis Lagrange, Ph.D. Simeon Denis Poisson, Ph.D. Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier, Ph

Matta, Abraham "Ibrahim"

321

Persistence of spiromesifen in soil: influence of moisture, light, pH and organic amendment.  

PubMed

Persistence of spiromesifen in soil as affected by varying moisture, light, compost amendment, soil sterilization and pH in aqueous medium were studied. Degradation of spiromesifen in soil followed the first-order reaction kinetics. Effect of different moisture regimes indicated that spiromesifen dissipated faster in submerged soil (t 1/2 14.3-16.7 days) followed by field capacity (t 1/2 18.7-20.0 days), and dry soil (t 1/2 21.9-22.9 days). Dissipation was faster in sterilized submerged (t 1/2 17.7 days) than in sterilized dry (t 1/2 35.8 days). Photo spiromesifen metabolite was not detected under different moisture regimes. After 30 days, enol spiromesifen metabolite was detected under submerged condition and was below detectable limit (<0.001 ?g g(-1)) after 90 days. Soil amendment compost (2.5 %) at field capacity enhanced dissipation of the insecticide, and half-life value was 14.3 against 22.4 days without compost amendment. Under different pH condition, residues persisted in water with half-life values 5.7 to 12.5 days. Dissipation in water was faster at pH 9.0 (t 1/2 5.7 days), followed by pH 4.0 (t 1/2 9.7 days) and pH 7.2 (t 1/2 12.5 days). Exposure of spiromesifen to different light conditions indicated that it was more prone to degradation under UV light (t 1/2 3-4 days) than sunlight exposure (t 1/2 5.2-8.1 days). Under sunlight exposure, photo spiromesifen metabolite was detected after 10 and 15 days as compared to 3 and 5 days under UV light exposure. PMID:25616783

Mate, Ch Jamkhokai; Mukherjee, Irani; Das, Shaon Kumar

2015-02-01

322

76 FR 12044 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Preliminary Results of, and Partial Rescission of, the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-533-810] Stainless Steel Bar From India: Preliminary Results of, and Partial...stainless steel bar (``SS Bar'') from India for the period of review (``POR...Mukand, Ltd. (``Mukand''); India Steel Works, Limited (``India...

2011-03-04

323

76 FR 50495 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan Determinations...stainless steel plate from Belgium, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan would be likely...stainless steel plate from Belgium, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan. \\3\\...

2011-08-15

324

The hardening of Type 316L stainless steel welds with thermal aging  

E-print Network

Welded stainless steel piping is a component of boiling water reactors (BWRs). Reirculation and other large diameter piping are fabricated from Type 304 or 316 stainless steels. Delta ferrite is present in welds, because ...

Ayers, Lauren Juliet

2012-01-01

325

78 FR 31574 - Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-1210-1212 (Preliminary)] Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of...Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of welded stainless steel pressure pipe, provided for in in subheadings 7306.40.50 and...

2013-05-24

326

75 FR 70908 - Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Extension...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-930] Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Extension of the...antidumping duty order on circular welded austenitic stainless pressure pipe from the People's Republic of China. See...

2010-11-19

327

Machining-induced deformation in stepped specimens of PH 13-8 Mo, 18 nickel maraging steel grade 200T1 and grain-refined HP 9-4-20  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a study to evaluate the dimensional changes created during machining and subsequent cycling to cryogenic temperatures for three different metallic alloys are presented. Experimental techniques are described and results presented for 18 Ni Grade 200 maraging steel, PH-13-8 Mo stainless steel, and Grain-refined HP 9-4-20.

Wigley, D. A.

1985-01-01

328

PhET Simulation: Microwaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an interactive simulation on the topic of microwave radiation. Users adjust the frequency and amplitude of microwaves in an oven-shaped cavity and watch water molecules rotate, bounce, and behave as dipoles. They can view the microwave field as a wave, a single line of vectors, or the entire field. This item is part of a larger and growing collection by the Physics Education Technology Project (PhET). Each PhET resource was developed using principles from physics education research. SEE RELATED MATERIALS BELOW for an activity designed by the PhET team specifically for use with the Microwaves simulation.

2008-10-30

329

Thermal Induced Processes in Laminar System of Stainless Steel Beryllium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper reports on investigation of the laminar system ‘stainless steel 12Cr18Ni10Ti Be’ at thermal treatment. There have been determined sequences of phase transformations along with relative amount of iron-containing phases in the samples subjected to thermal beryllization. It has been revealed that thermal beryllization of stainless steel thin foils results in ??? transformation and formation of the beryllides NiBe and FeBe2. It has also been revealed that direct ???- and reverse ???-transformations are accompanied by, correspondingly, formation and decomposition of the beryllide NiBe. It is shown that distribution of the formed phases within sample bulk is defined by local concentration of beryllium. Based on obtained experimental data there is proposed a physical model of phase transformations in stainless steel at thermal beryllization.

Zhubaev, A. K.; Kadyrzhanov, K. K.; Rusakov, V. S.; Turkebaev, T. E.

2005-07-01

330

Anisotropic Properties of Stainless Steel—Clad Aluminum Sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of a stainless steel—clad aluminum sheet by the cold rolling process is a more efficient and economical approach compared with the other types of processes utilized for the production of such sheets. Because both the stainless steel and aluminum sheets show the highly anisotropic behavior, it is necessary to investigate anisotropic properties of clad sheets for the design of process. In this paper, to investigate the anisotropic properties of stainless steel—clad aluminum sheet, two kinds of clad sheets were considered: STS439/AA3003 and STS439/AA1050/STS304 clad sheets. The uni-axial tension tests at 0, 45 and 90 degrees for the rolling direction were performed to obtained yield stresses and R values. The strain ratio at balanced biaxial tension state was measured from compression disk test. In order to describe the anisotropic behavior of the clad sheet, nonquadratic anisotropic yield function Yld2000-2d was utilized.

Kim, Daeyong; Hwang, Bum Kyu; Lee, Young Seon; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Min-Joong

2010-06-01

331

Machinability of a Stainless Steel by Electrochemical Discharge Microdrilling  

SciTech Connect

Due to the chemical elements included in their structure for ensuring an increased resistance to the environment action, the stainless steels are characterized by a low machinability when classical machining methods are applied. For this reason, sometimes non-traditional machining methods are applied, one of these being the electrochemical discharge machining. To obtain microholes and to evaluate the machinability by electrochemical discharge microdrilling, test pieces of stainless steel were used for experimental research. The electrolyte was an aqueous solution of sodium silicate with different densities. A complete factorial plan was designed to highlight the influence of some input variables on the sizes of the considered machinability indexes (electrode tool wear, material removal rate, depth of the machined hole). By mathematically processing of experimental data, empirical functions were established both for stainless steel and carbon steel. Graphical representations were used to obtain more suggestive vision concerning the influence exerted by the considered input variables on the size of the machinability indexes.

Coteata, Margareta; Pop, Nicolae; Slatineanu, Laurentiu ['Gheorghe Asachi' Technical University of Iasi, Department of Machine Manufacturing Technology, Blvd. D Mangeron 59A, 700050 Iasi (Romania); Schulze, Hans-Peter [Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Institute of Fundamental Electrical Engineering and EMC Universitaetsplatz 2, D-39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Besliu, Irina [University 'Stefan cel Mare' of Suceava, Department of Technologies and Management, Str. Universitatii, 13, 720 229 Suceava (Romania)

2011-05-04

332

Aging properties of vanadium-bearing high manganese stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

Strengthening of austenitic ({gamma}) stainless steel is of great interest to utilization for the structural component. Strengthening of the steel is attained by a combination of following mechanisms such as solution strengthening, strengthening by grain size effect, strain hardening, and precipitation hardening. A selection for the strengthening of {gamma} steel is precipitation hardening due to carbides, nitrides, and intermetallic phases, by which both high strength and low permeability of {gamma} steel may be satisfied. Among Mo, Ti, V, and Nb carbides, it is known that vanadium carbide is considered to be potent contributor to hardening because it precipitates finely in the matrix and grow relatively slower. However, carbide precipitation hardening behavior of highly alloyed {gamma} stainless steel has not been much studied. In this paper, hardening behavior of the vanadium added, low permeability {gamma} stainless steel, Fe-Cr-6Ni-10Mn-V-C, was investigated focusing on the microstructural change and compositional aspects.

Haruna, Y. [Sanyo Special Steel Co., Ltd., Himeji (Japan). Technological Research Lab.] [Sanyo Special Steel Co., Ltd., Himeji (Japan). Technological Research Lab.; Yamamoto, A.; Tsubakino, H. [Himeji Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering] [Himeji Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1997-11-01

333

Shield design, analysis, and testing to survive stainless steel projectiles  

SciTech Connect

During the 3-year period of 1987 through 1989, the Advanced Shield Phenomenology Program included a research and development effort, with both experimental work and analytical support, to design a low weight, survivable shield against a stainless steel projectile at low earth orbit velocity. The specific threat used was a 1.75 gram, length to diameter ratio of one, stainless steel cylinder. The impact velocity was {approximately}7 km/s. Testing was performed at the Arnold Engineering Development Center, Arnold Air Force Base, Tullahoma, Tennessee. Sixteen shield configurations were tested. The Hull hydrocode was used for detailed analysis of five impact configurations. A successful shield was designed, which had a stainless steel front and back plate and 15.24 cm of carbon felt disrupter. The success of this configuration against the stainless steel threat was repeated. In comparison with the solid homogeneous aluminum shield necessary to stop the same threat, the layered shield developed has an areal density (mass per unit area) of 15.7% of the solid aluminum shield. Six conclusions of particular interest from the stainless steel work are summarized briefly as follows: the yaw angle of a cylindrical projectile at impact has a significant effect on shield survivability; areal density alone may not be enough to adequately model front plate behavior; thickness and material should be considered as separate variables; stainless steel very possibly is more damaging than can be accounted for by its density alone; a double-layer front plate produced no significant change in survivability; analytical results and test results are overall in excellent agreement; and hydrocode analysis is a useful tool in design and development of hypervelocity shields. 10 refs., 31 figs., 9 tabs.

Brewer, E.D.; Hendrich, W.R.; Thomas, D.G.; Smith, J.E.

1990-01-01

334

The influence of aging on the intergranular corrosion of 22 chromium-5 nickel duplex stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duplex stainless steels are widely used in severe corrosive environments because of their good corrosion performance. This paper deals with the influence of aging treatments on the intergranular corrosion (IGC) resistance of a commercial duplex stainless steel, SAF 2205. Duplex stainless steel was given aging treatments in the range 773–1173 K for time periods ranging from 6 min to 100

K. Ravindranath; S. N. Malhotra

1995-01-01

335

75 FR 54090 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-533-810] Stainless Steel Bar From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...stainless steel bar (``SSB'') from India for the period February 1, 2008, through...31, 2009. See Stainless Steel Bar From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

2010-09-03

336

Diffusion bonding of stainless steel to Zircaloy4 in the presence of a Ta intermediate layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffusion bonding of stainless steel to Zircaloy-4 in the presence of Ta as interlayer has been investigated using diffusion couples heat treated at 1150 °C under vacuum for 3 h. Different types of regions have been observed in stainless steel, Zircaloy-4 and Ta foil. A Cr rich layer formed in stainless steel is found to act as a diffusion barrier.

M. Ahmad; J. I. Akhter; Q. Zaman; M. A Shaikh; M. Akhtar; M. Iqbal; E. Ahmed

2003-01-01

337

76 FR 53882 - Continuation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders: Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Duty Orders: Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, the Republic of Korea...AD) orders on stainless steel plate in coils (SSPC) from Belgium, the Republic of...revoked. See Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa,...

2011-08-30

338

75 FR 81217 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Preliminary Results of Full Sunset Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...C-423-809] Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Preliminary Results of Full...order on certain stainless steel plate in coils from Belgium (``subject merchandise...the CVD order on stainless steel plate in coils (``SSPC'') from Belgium in...

2010-12-27

339

75 FR 64709 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-423-808] Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Notice of Rescission of...duty order on stainless steel plate in coils from Belgium for the period of review...duty order on stainless steel plate in coils from Belgium covering one...

2010-10-20

340

78 FR 79662 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-423-808] Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Final Results of Antidumping...administrative review on stainless steel plate in coils (steel plate) from Belgium.\\1\\ This...1\\ See Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Preliminary Results of...

2013-12-31

341

76 FR 31588 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...C-423-809] Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Rescission of Countervailing...order on stainless steel plate in coils from Belgium. See Antidumping or Countervailing...the CVD order on stainless steel plate in coils from Belgium covering the period...

2011-06-01

342

76 FR 18518 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-201-822] Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping...covering stainless steel sheet and strip in coils from Mexico. The period of review is July...order on stainless steel sheet and strip in coils from Mexico. See Antidumping or...

2011-04-04

343

76 FR 54207 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Italy: Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-475-822] Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Italy: Revocation of Antidumping...duty order on stainless steel plate in coils (SSPC) from Italy. See Initiation of...ITC Final and Stainless Steel Plate in Coils from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South...

2011-08-31

344

77 FR 18211 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Countervailing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Petition on drawn stainless steel sinks from the PRC and...exporters of drawn stainless steel sinks in the PRC receive...Guangdong Industry, Research, University Cooperating...8. Tax Offsets for Research and Development at FIEs...Electricity. 4. Stainless Steel Coils. F....

2012-03-27

345

75 FR 67689 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-351-825] Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...order on certain stainless steel bar from Brazil. The review covers one producer/ exporter...order on certain stainless steel bar from Brazil. See Antidumping Duty Orders:...

2010-11-03

346

75 FR 12514 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-351-825] Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...order on certain stainless steel bar from Brazil. The review covers one producer/ exporter...order on certain stainless steel bar from Brazil. See Antidumping Duty Orders:...

2010-03-16

347

78 FR 4383 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-351-825] Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...order on stainless steel bar (SSB) from Brazil. The period of review (POR) is February...Administrative Review: Stainless Steel Bar from Brazil'' dated concurrently with this...

2013-01-22

348

Stainless steel lined composite steel pipe prepared by centrifugal-SHS process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tension properties, thermal expansion coefficient, microstructure and the causes of crack formation of the stainless steel layer in the composite pipe made by centrifugal-SHS process were investigated. It was shown that the tensile strength is 316 MPa and the percentage elongation is 5–8%. The nonmetal inclusions make the stainless steel brittle. In the brittle stainless steel layer the crack

Wenjun Xi; Sheng Yin; Shiju Guo; Hoyi Lai

2000-01-01

349

Fabrication of high nitrogen austenitic stainless steels with excellent mechanical and pitting corrosion properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of high nitrogen austenitic stainless steels were successfully developed with a pressurized electroslag remelting furnace. Nitride additives and deoxidizer were packed into the stainless steel pipes, and then the stainless steel pipes were welded on the surface of an electrode with low nitrogen content to prepare a compound electrode. Using Si3N4 as a nitrogen alloying source, the silicon

Hua-bing Li; Zhou-hua Jiang; Yang Cao; Zu-rui Zhang

2009-01-01

350

77 FR 39467 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Final Results of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Trade Administration [A-533-810] Stainless Steel Bar From India: Final Results...review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar from India. The review covers...March 6, 2012, the Department published Stainless Steel Bar From India: Preliminary...

2012-07-03

351

76 FR 69292 - Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRC-2011-0256] Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated...ISG-2011-01, ``Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated...Report for the aging management of stainless steel structures and components...

2011-11-08

352

77 FR 39735 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Second Review)] Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and...antidumping duty orders on stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and...2012), entitled Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Italy, Malaysia,...

2012-07-05

353

Discontinuous surface cracks during stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel single crystal  

E-print Network

Discontinuous surface cracks during stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel single crystal L i n f o Article history: Received 27 March 2011 Accepted 16 June 2011 Available online 23 June 2011 Keywords: A. Stainless steel B. SEM C. Stress corrosion a b s t r a c t Single crystal 321 stainless steel

Volinsky, Alex A.

354

Metal-ceramic interfaces: joining silicon nitride-stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Joining of hot pressed silicon nitride using three types of stainless steel (AISI 304, 316 and 321) as interlayer was done by diffusion bonding at 1100 °C for 120 min. An extensive reaction zone of about 7 ?m was formed in the contact region, where Cr2N, FexSiy and ?-Fe were observed, outside that region the austenitic phase with precipitates of chromium nitride was observed. In the Mo-containing stainless steel (AISI 316) formation of Mo3Si was also detected. Moderate strengths were measured by shear testing for these joints.

Polanco, R.; De Pablos, A.; Miranzo, P.; Osendi, M. I.

2004-11-01

355

From flint to stainless steel: observations on surgical instrument composition.  

PubMed Central

Man's failure to extract deeply embedded thorns and arrowheads, with bare hands and teeth, stimulated 'instrument substitutes' mimicking these appendages. Evidence from primitive communities suggest animal, plant and mineral items were employed, both before and after metal became the standard material of today's armamentarium. Changing surgical instrument composition has mirrored concurrent technology and manufacturing methods both of which are reviewed. Particular significance is accorded flint, bronze, crucible steel, thermal sterilisation, nickel-plate, stainless steel and disposable plastics. The paper is based on an exhibition From Flint to Stainless Steel on display at the College. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8215156

Kirkup, J.

1993-01-01

356

David Cheresh, PhD  

Cancer.gov

Meetings & Events Home Agenda Speaker Biosketches Abstracts Logistics Contact Speaker Biosketches David Cheresh, PhD(University of California, San Diego) Dr. David Cheresh studies the mechanism of action of signaling networks that regulate

357

Philip Prorok, PhD  

Cancer.gov

Philip Prorok, PhD, mirum est notare quam littera gothica, quam nunc putamus parum claram, anteposuerit litterarum formas humanitatis per seacula quarta decima et quinta decima. Eodem modo typi, qui nunc nobis videntur parum clari, fiant sollemnes in futurum.

358

Electrochemical Studies of Passive Film Stability on Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4 Amorphous Metal in Seawater at 90oCElectrochemical Studies of Passive Film Stability on Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4 Amorphous Metal in Seawater at 9  

Microsoft Academic Search

An iron-based amorphous metal, Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4} (SAM2X5), with very good corrosion resistance was developed. This material was prepared as a melt-spun ribbon, as well as gas atomized powder and a thermal-spray coating. During electrochemical testing in several environments, including seawater at 90 C, the passive film stability was found to be comparable to

J C Farmer; J Haslam; S D Day; T Lian; C K Saw; P D Hailey; J S Choi; R B Rebak; N Yang; J H Payer; J H Perepezko; K Hildal; E J Lavernia; L Ajdelsztajn; D J Branagan; E J Buffa; L F Aprigliano

2007-01-01

359

Effect of nitrogen on corrosion behavior of 28Cr–7Ni duplex and microduplex stainless steels in air-saturated 3.5 wt% NaCl solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion behavior of 28Cr–7Ni–O–0.34N duplex stainless steels in air-saturated 3.5-wt% NaCl solution at pH 2, 7, 10 and 27 °C was studied by the potentiodynamic method. Two types of microstructures were investigated: the as-forged duplex and microduplex (average austenite grain size 5–16 ?m) structures. The austenite volume fractions of the tested steels were between 0.35 and 0.64. The nitrogen

G. Lothongkum; P. Wongpanya; S. Morito; T. Furuhara; T. Maki

2006-01-01

360

THE NATURE OF THE 475 EMBRITTLEMENT OF STAINLESS STEEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of chrome stainless steels to extended soaking at temperatares ; between 425 and 525 deg C results in the decrease of the plasticity, toughness, ; specific resistivity, and corrosion resistance of the metal. The nature of this ; socalled 475 deg C (885 deg F) embrittlement was investigated on a steel ; containing 27.80% Cr and 9.70% Ni by

Kopersak

1962-01-01

361

Solid state bonding of Zircaloy-2 with stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zircaloy-2 and stainless steel have been diffusion bonded together with titanium and iron as barriers. Electron microprobe and optical microscopy studies reveal that no intermetallic compound/intermediate phase forms at the interfaces involved. Layer growth kinetics of diffusion zones have also been studied and the absence of these intermediate phases have been discussed with respect to their nucleation and growth parameters.

Kale, G. B.; Bhanumurthy, K.; Ratnakala, K. C.; Khera, S. K.

1986-03-01

362

Diffusion bonding of titanium to 304 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffusion bonding between commercially pure titanium and an austenitic stainless steel (AISI 304) has been carried out in the temperature range of 850–950 °C for 2 h at uniaxial pressure of 3 MPa in vacuum. The microstructure of the diffusion zone has been analysed by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The interdiffusion of the diffusing species across the interface

M. Ghosh; K. Bhanumurthy; G. B Kale; J. Krishnan; S. Chatterjee

2003-01-01

363

Fabrication of stainless steel foil utilizing chromized steel strip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stainless steel foil has properties which are, in many respects, unmatched by alternative thin films. The high strength to weight ratio and resistance to corrosion and oxidation at elevated temperatures are generally advantageous. The aerospace and automotive industries have used Type 430 and 304 foil in turbine engine applications. Foil around 2 mils (5.1 × 10-3 cm) thick has been appropriate for the recuperator or heat exchanger and this product has also been used in honeycomb and truss-core structures. Further, such foil has been employed as a wrap to protect tool steel parts from contamination during heat treating. A large part of the high cost of producing stainless steel foil by rolling is due to the complicated and expensive rolling mill and annealing equipment involved. A method will be described which produces (solid) stainless steel foil from chromized (coated) steel which can be cheaper than the conventional processing stainless steel, such as Type 430, from ingot to foil. Also, the material is more ductile and less work hardenable during processing to foil and consequently intermediate annealing treatments are eliminated and scrap losses minimized.

Loria, Edward A.

1980-10-01

364

Simplified Estimation of Tritium Inventory in Stainless Steel  

SciTech Connect

An important part of tritium facility waste management is estimating the residual tritium inventory in stainless steel. This was needed as part of the decontamination and decommissioning associated with the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In particular, the disposal path for three, large tanks would vary substantially depending on the tritium inventory in the stainless steel walls. For this purpose the time-dependant diffusion equation was solved using previously measured parameters. These results were compared to previous work that measured the tritium inventory in the stainless steel wall of a 50-L tritium container. Good agreement was observed. These results are reduced to a simple algebraic equation that can readily be used to estimate tritium inventories in room temperature stainless steel based on tritium partial pressure and exposure time. Results are available for both constant partial pressure exposures and for varying partial pressures. Movies of the time dependant results were prepared which are particularly helpful for interpreting results and drawing conclusions.

Willms, R. Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States)

2005-07-15

365

1. Introduction Austenitic stainless steels have many applications in  

E-print Network

resistance and weldability. However, carbide precipitation induced by the welding process or heat treatment such as a typical stainless steel, is that the solutes have different diffusivities, and yet must reach, the interstitial-diffusion of carbon is much faster than that of substitutional elements. It is therefore

Cambridge, University of

366

Seismic retrofitting of framed structures with stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The appropriate use of special metals such as stainless steels (SSs) for structural applications in building systems provides possibilities for a more efficient balance between whole-life costs and in-service performance. The present paper assesses the feasibility of the application of SSs for seismic retrofitting of framed structures, either braced (CBFs) or moment resisting (MRFs) frames. In so doing, inelastic analyses

L. Di Sarno; A. S. Elnashai; D. A. Nethercot

2006-01-01

367

21 CFR 872.3350 - Gold or stainless steel cusp.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...steel cusp is a prefabricated device made of austenitic alloys or alloys containing 75 percent or greater gold and metals of the platinum group or stainless steel intended to provide a permanent cusp (a projection on the chewing surface of a tooth) to...

2010-04-01

368

Poly( ortho-ethoxyaniline) in corrosion protection of stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion protection of stainless steel (13% Cr) coated with poly(ortho-ethoxyaniline) (POEA) has been investigated. The layers of POEA were synthesised from sulphuric and phosphoric acid solutions by means of cyclic voltammetry. The protecting properties of the layers in supporting electrolytes were investigated by monitoring the open circuit potential (Eoc) vs. time, and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It was found

M. Kralji? Rokovi?; K. Kvastek; V. Horvat-Radoševi?; Lj. Dui?

2007-01-01

369

Stainless steel 301 and Inconel 718 hydrogen embrittlement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conditions and results of tensile tests of 26 Inconel 718 and four cryoformed stainless steel specimens are presented. Conclusions determine maximum safe hydrogen operating pressure for cryogenic pressure vessels and provide definitive information concerning flaw growth characteristics under the most severe temperature and pressure conditions

Allgeier, R. K.; Forman, R.

1970-01-01

370

Corrosion resistance of friction stir welded 304 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion properties were evaluated in a friction stir welded 304 stainless steel. The degree of the sensitization was small in the heat affected zone, but the advancing side of the stir zone was corroded significantly because of the formation of the sigma phase.

Seung Hwan C. Park; Yutaka S. Sato; Hiroyuki Kokawa; Kazutaka Okamoto; Satoshi Hirano; Masahisa Inagaki

2004-01-01

371

Fatigue Property of Stainless Steel FES Electrode in Hanks' Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue property of the wire rope with 19 strands used as an FES electrode was investigated. The wire rope was made of high manganese high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel. Fatigue life of the wire rope in Hanks' solution at 310 K was evaluated using a dual-driven rotating-bending fatigue machine. Each wire of the rope was worn out and the cross

Y. Iguchi; T. Narushima; K. Suzuki; S. Yoshida; M. Watanabe; T. Kinami; C. Ouchi

372

Bactericidal behavior of Cu-containing stainless steel surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stainless steels are one of the most common materials used in health care environments. However, the lack of antibacterial advantage has limited their use in practical application. In this paper, antibacterial stainless steel surfaces with different Cu contents have been prepared by plasma surface alloying technology (PSAT). The steel surface with Cu content 90 wt.% (Cu-SS) exhibits strong bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) within 3 h. Although the Cu-containing surface with Cu content 2.5 wt.% (CuNi-SS) can also kill all tested bacteria, this process needs 12 h. SEM observation of the bacterial morphology and an agarose gel electrophoresis were performed to study the antibacterial mechanism of Cu-containing stainless steel surfaces against E. coli. The results indicated that Cu ions are released when the Cu-containing surfaces are in contact with bacterial and disrupt the cell membranes, killing the bacteria. The toxicity of Cu-alloyed surfaces does not cause damage to the bacterial DNA. These results provide a scientific explanation for the antimicrobial applications of Cu-containing stainless steel. The surfaces with different antibacterial abilities could be used as hygienic surfaces in healthcare-associated settings according to the diverse requirement of bactericidal activities.

Zhang, Xiangyu; Huang, Xiaobo; Ma, Yong; Lin, Naiming; Fan, Ailan; Tang, Bin

2012-10-01

373

Short-range ordering kinetics in 316 austenitic stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ measurements are reported of electrical resistance changes in 316 austenitic stainless steel after abruptly raising or lowering temperature in the range from 440 °C to 550 °C subsequent to equilibration. These changes are found to be reproducible and have a magnitude roughly proportional to the temperature change. They are believed to be manifestations of approach toward a new

J. T. Stanley

1982-01-01

374

Failures of austenitic stainless steel components during storage: Case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies of failures of austenitic stainless steel components during storage are described. In all cases, stress corrosion cracking was the failure mode by the action of residual stress alone. However, the source of residual stress was different for each case. Case 1 was the failure of a sample tube header for a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR). In Case

B. K. Shah; P. K. Rastogi; A. K. Sinha; P. G. Kulkarni

1993-01-01

375

Reactor Material Program Fracture Toughness of Type 304 Stainless Steel  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the experimental procedure for Type 304 Stainless Steel fracture toughness measurements and the application of results. Typical toughness values are given based on the completed test program for the Reactor Materials Program (RMP). Test specimen size effects and limitations of the applicability in the fracture mechanics methodology are outlined as well as a brief discussion on irradiation effects.

Awadalla, N.G.

2001-03-28

376

Microstructure and transient creep in an austenitic stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dislocation substructures associated with normal and inverted transient creep in annealed and prestrained type 304 austenitic stainless steel were investigated using transmission electron microscopy. Normal primary creep was accompanied by subgrain formation, a process which was accelerated by pre-straining. A prolonged accelerating creep stage was observed under certain test conditions. The associated microstructures revealed that this type of transient

O. Ajaja; A. J. Ardell

1979-01-01

377

Failure Assessment Diagram for Brazed 304 Stainless Steel Joints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interaction equations were proposed earlier to predict failure in Albemet 162 brazed joints. Present study demonstrates that the same interaction equations can be used for lower bound estimate of the failure criterion in 304 stainless steel joints brazed with silver-based filler metals as well as for construction of the Failure Assessment Diagrams (FAD).

Flom, Yory

2011-01-01

378

Electroslag and submerged arc stainless steel strip cladding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steel strip cladding is a flexible and economical way of depositing a corrosion resistant, protective layer on a load-bearing mild or low alloy steel. Strip cladding is therefore widely used in the production of components for the chemical, petrochemical and nuclear industries, for example.

Susan Pak; Solveig Rigdal; Leif Karlsson; Ann-Charlotte Gustavsson

1998-01-01

379

Battery and fuel cell electrodes containing stainless steel charging additive  

DOEpatents

An electrode for use in electrochemical energy cells is made, comprising a hydrophilic layer and a hydrophobic layer, where the hydrophilic layer comprises a hydrophilic composite which includes: (i) carbon particles; (ii) stainless steel particles; (iii) a nonwetting agent; and (iv) a catalyst, where at least one current collector contacts said composite.

Zuckerbrod, David (Pittsburgh, PA); Gibney, Ann (Monroeville, PA)

1984-01-01

380

Heat Transport in a Stainless Steel at Very Low Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE thermal conductivity K was determined for two stainless steel tubes at several temperatures in the range 1 < T < 4° absolute. The identical specimens were of 5.50 and 6.00 +\\/- 0.01 mm internal and external diameters, respectively, and length 7 cm. Electrically introduced heat fluxes pass along the tubes (except for negligible losses by conduction, convection and radiation

Douglas Probert

1964-01-01

381

2012 ACCOMPLISHMENTS - TRITIUM AGING STUDIES ON STAINLESS STEELS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the research and development accomplishments during FY12 for the tritium effects on materials program. The tritium effects on materials program is designed to measure the long-term effects of tritium and its radioactive decay product, helium-3, on the structural properties of forged stainless steels which are used as the materials of construction for tritium reservoirs. The FY12 R&D accomplishments include: (1) Fabricated and Thermally-Charged 150 Forged Stainless Steel Samples with Tritium for Future Aging Studies; (2) Developed an Experimental Plan for Measuring Cracking Thresholds of Tritium-Charged-and-Aged Steels in High Pressure Hydrogen Gas; (3) Calculated Sample Tritium Contents For Laboratory Inventory Requirements and Environmental Release Estimates; (4) Published report on “Cracking Thresholds and Fracture Toughness Properties of Tritium-Charged-and-Aged Stainless Steels”; and, (5) Published report on “The Effects of Hydrogen, Tritium, and Heat Treatment on the Deformation and Fracture Toughness Properties of Stainless Steels”. These accomplishments are highlighted here and references given to additional reports for more detailed information.

Morgan, M.

2013-01-31

382

Mechanical properties of four RSP stainless steel alloys  

SciTech Connect

Four austenitic stainless steel alloys were processed by consolidating rapidly solidified gas atomized power using hot extrusion. These materials were characterized by measuring grain growth, hardness, tensile properties from 24 to 800{degrees}C, and creep-rupture at 600{degrees}C.

Korth, G.E.

1996-12-01

383

Gas Leak from Vinyl Taped Stainless Steel Dressing Jars  

SciTech Connect

The leak rates of nitrogen gas from stainless steel dressing jars taped with 2 inch vinyl tape were measured. These results were used to calculate hydrogen leak rates from the same jars. The calculations show that the maximum concentration of hydrogen buildup in this type of container configuration will beat least 3 orders of magnitude below the lower explosion limit for hydrogen in air.

Tim Hayes

1999-03-01

384

75 FR 67346 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils from South Korea: Correction to Final Results of the Expedited...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-580-831] Stainless Steel Plate in Coils from South Korea: Correction to Final...Certain Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Germany, Japan, the Republic of...Dumping Measures on Stainless Steel Plate in Coils and Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip...

2010-11-02

385

Characterization and corrosion behavior of injection molded 17-4 PH steel electrochemically coated with poly[ trans -dichloro(4-vinylpyridine)ruthenium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study describes preliminary results on the corrosion resistance of injection molded 17-4 PH stainless steel potentiostatically\\u000a coated with poly {trans-[RuCl2(vpy)4]}, where vpy (4-vinylpyridine) acts as a ligand. The coated electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy\\u000a and energy dispersive spectroscopy, as well as by electrochemical techniques. The microstructural analysis indicated that\\u000a the films reached up to 100??m thickness.

A. V. C. Sobral; W. Ristow Jr.; S. C. Domenech; C. V. Franco

2000-01-01

386

The dimensional stability analysis of seventeen stepped specimens of 18Ni 200 grade, PH13-8Mo and A-286  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the results of a dimensional stability analysis of seventeen stepped specimens that were used in the evaluation of factors influencing warpage in metallic alloys being used for cryogenic wind tunnel models. Specimens used in the analysis were manufactured from 18Ni 200 Grade Maaraging steel, PH13-8Mo, and A-286 stainless steel. Quantitative data are provided on the behavior of the specimens due to the effects of both machining and cryogenic cycling effects.

Wigley, D. A.

1983-01-01

387

Biomimetic PEG-catecholates for stabile antifouling coatings on metal surfaces: applications on TiO2 and stainless steel.  

PubMed

Trimeric catecholates have been designed for the stable immobilization of effector molecules on metal surfaces. The design of these catecholates followed a biomimetic approach and was inspired by natural multivalent metal binders, such as mussel adhesion proteins (MAPs) and siderophores. Three catecholates have been conjugated to central scaffolds based on adamantyl or trisalkylmethyl core structures. The resulting triscatecholates have been immobilized on TiO2 and stainless steel. In a proof of concept study we have demonstrated the high stability of the resulting nanolayers at neutral and slightly acidic pH. Furthermore, polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugates of our triscatecholates have been synthesized and were immobilized on TiO2 and stainless steel. The PEG coated surfaces showed excellent antifouling properties upon exposure to human blood and bacteria as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy, ellipsometry and a bacterial assay with Staphylococcus epidermidis. In addition, our PEG-triscatecholates showed no cytotoxicity against bone-marrow stem cells on TiO2. PMID:24632391

Khalil, Faiza; Franzmann, Elisa; Ramcke, Julian; Dakischew, Olga; Lips, Katrin S; Reinhardt, Alexander; Heisig, Peter; Maison, Wolfgang

2014-05-01

388

Corrosion-induced release of the main alloying constituents of manganese-chromium stainless steels in different media.  

PubMed

The main focus of this paper is the assessment of release rates of chromium, nickel, iron and manganese from manganese-chromium stainless steel grades of low nickel content. The manganese content varied between 9.7 and 1.5 wt% and the corresponding nickel content between 1 and 5 wt%. All grades were exposed to artificial rain and two were immersed in a synthetic body fluid of similar pH but of different composition and exposure conditions. Surface compositional studies were performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in parallel to correlate the metal release process with changes in surface oxide properties. All grades, independent of media, revealed a time-dependent metal release process with a preferential low release of iron and manganese compared to nickel and chromium while the chromium content of the surface oxide increased slightly. Manganese was detected in the surface oxide of all grades, except the grade of the lowest manganese bulk content. No nickel was observed in the outermost surface oxide. Stainless steel grades of the lowest chromium content (approximately 16 wt%) and highest manganese content (approximately 7-9 wt%), released the highest quantity of alloy constituents in total, and vice versa. No correlation was observed between the release rate of manganese and the alloy composition. Released main alloy constituents were neither proportional to the bulk alloy composition nor to the surface oxide composition. PMID:18728902

Herting, Gunilla; Wallinder, Inger Odnevall; Leygraf, Christofer

2008-09-01

389

PhET: Masses & Springs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation provides a realistic virtual mass-and-spring laboratory. Users can explore spring motion by manipulating stiffness of the spring and mass of the hanging weight. Concepts of Hooke's Law and elastic potential energy are further clarified through charts showing kinetic, potential, and thermal energy for each spring. This item is part of a larger collection of simulations developed by the Physics Education Technology project (PhET). The simulations are animated, interactive, and game-like environments in which students learn through exploration. All of the sims are freely available from the PhET website for incorporation into classes.

2008-07-29

390

Radka Stoyanova, PhD  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Radka Stoyanova, PhD has extensive background in developing approaches to best utilize imaging techniques in cancer research, diagnosis and treatment, as well as in developing approaches for the analysis, mining, and interpretation of "big data" generated by high-throughput approaches such as genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. She received her Masters Degree in Mathematics from the University of Sofia, Bulgaria. Dr. Stoyanova obtained her doctoral training and PhD degree at the Imperial College London, under the mentorship of Profs.

391

pH Meter Calibration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The North Carolina Community College System BioNetwork's interactive eLearning tools (IETs) are reusable chunks of training that can be deployed in a variety of courses or training programs. IETs are designed to enhance, not replace hands-on training. Learners are able to enter a hands-on lab experience better prepared and more confident. This particular IET delves into pH Meter Calibration, where visitors practice performing a three point calibration of a pH meter using buffer solutions.

392

Electrochemical treatment of dye-bath effluent by stainless steel electrodes: multiple response optimization and residue analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to maximize the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal, and simultaneously minimize the energy consumed per unit mass of COD removed for the treatment of dye-bath effluent (DBE) by electrochemical (EC) method using stainless steel (SS) electrode in a batch EC reactor. Response surface methodology involving central composite design was employed to optimize the multiple responses. The effects of operating parameters such as pH of DBE, and important process parameters such as current density, electrolysis time and inter electrode space were studied. At the optimized condition, 91.7% COD removal and 99.8% color removal was observed with energy consumption of 7.71 kWh/kg of COD removed. Finally, the thermogravimetric analysis of the EC scum and sludge has been done in oxidizing atmosphere so as to evaluate their disposal aspects. PMID:22871001

Mondal, Bhaskar; Srivastava, Vimal C; Mall, Indra D

2012-01-01

393

Accelerated corrosion of stainless steel in thiocyanate-containing solutions  

SciTech Connect

It is known that reduced sulfur compounds (such as thiocyanate and thiosulfate) can accelerate active corrosion of austenitic stainless steel in acid solutions, but before we started this project the mechanism of acceleration was largely unclear. This work combined electrochemical measurements and analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS), which provided a comprehensive understanding of the catalytic effect of reduced sulfur species on the active corrosion of stainless steel. Both the behavior of the pure elements and the steel were studied and the work focused on the interaction between the pure elements of the steel, which is the least understood area. Upon completion of this work, several aspects are now much clearer. The main results from this work can be summarized as follows: The presence of low concentrations (around 0.1 mM) of thiocyanate or tetrathionate in dilute sulfuric acid greatly accelerates the anodic dissolution of chromium and nickel, but has an even stronger effect on stainless steels (iron-chromium-nickel alloys). Electrochemical measurements and surface analyses are in agreement with the suggestion that accelerated dissolution really results from suppressed passivation. Even well below the passivation potential, the electrochemical signature of passivation is evident in the electrode impedance; the electrode impedance shows clearly that this pre-passivation is suppressed in the presence of thiocyanate. For the stainless steels, remarkable changes in the morphology of the corroded metal surface and in the surface concentration of chromium support the suggestion that pre-passivation of stainless steels is suppressed because dissolution of chromium is accelerated. Surface analysis confirmed that adsorbed sulfur / sulfide forms on the metal surfaces upon exposure to solutions containing thiocyanate or thiosulfate. For pure nickel, and steels containing nickel (and residual copper), bulk sulfide (visible as a black corrosion product) forms during anodic dissolution. The sulfide is electronically conductive, and gives an increase of several orders of magnitude in the electrode capacitance; the sulfide also causes anodic activation to persist after the pure metals and steels were removed from the thiocyanate-containing electrolyte and transferred to a thiocyanate-free electrolyte. The main practical implications of this work are that low concentrations of reduced sulfur compounds strongly affect anodic dissolution of stainless steels, and that selecting steels with elevated concentrations of chromium, nickel or molybdenum would serve to limit the anodic dissolution rate in the presence of reduced sulfur compounds.

Pistorius, P Chris; Li, Wen

2012-09-19

394

. , ..., PhD / : 30 1977,  

E-print Network

; . , ..., PhD 2010 2 BOOK CHAPTER (in press) Invited Book Chapter for the Book: "Modelling of Masonry and Damage Analysis in Masonry Arches, Vietnam Journal of Mechanics, 31(3-4) (2009) 185-190 Betti M of Failure of Masonry Arches, Comptes Rendus Mecanique, 336 (2008), 42-53 Drosopoulos G.A., Stavroulakis G

Stavroulakis, Georgios E.

395

Sashwati Roy, PhD  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Sashwati Roy is an Associate Professor of Surgery and Director of the Laser Capture Molecular Core at The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. In 1994 she received her PhD degree in Physiology and Environmental Sciences and later completed her postdoctoral training at the University of California, Berkeley. Dr.

396

Ph.D. Requirements Fall, 2009 and Forward Approved Ph.D. Training Requirements  

E-print Network

Ph.D. Requirements Fall, 2009 and Forward 1 Approved Ph.D. Training Requirements Requirements effective for Ph.D. programs enrolling students in Fall 2009 and forward Critical Outcomes of a Research-Oriented Ph.D. Program In terms of an overall vision of the Curry Ph.D. graduate, the aims include student

Acton, Scott

397

Temperature Profile and Imaging Analysis of Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Powder bed fusion is a laser additive manufacturing (LAM) technology which is used to manufacture parts layer-wise from powdered metallic materials. The technology has advanced vastly in the recent years and current systems can be used to manufacture functional parts for e.g. aerospace industry. The performance and accuracy of the systems have improved also, but certain difficulties in the powder fusion process are reducing the final quality of the parts. One of these is commonly known as the balling phenomenon. The aim of this study was to define some of the process characteristics in powder bed fusion by performing comparative studies with two different test setups. This was done by comparing measured temperature profiles and on-line photography of the process. The material used during the research was EOS PH1 stainless steel. Both of the test systems were equipped with 200 W single mode fiber lasers. The main result of the research was that some of the process instabilities are resulting from the energy input during the process.

Islam, M.; Purtonen, T.; Piili, H.; Salminen, A.; Nyrhilä, O.

398

Microbiological test results using three urine pretreatment regimes with 316L stainless steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three urine pretreatments, (1) Oxone (Dupont) and sulfuric acid, (2) sodium hypochlorite and sulfuric acid, (3) and ozone, were studied for their ability to reduce microbial levels in urine and minimize surface attachment to 316L stainless steel coupons. Urine samples inoculated with Bacillus insolitus and a filamentous mold, organisms previously recovered from the vapor compression distillation subsystem of NASA Space Station Freedom water recovery test were tested in glass corrosion cells containing base or weld metal coupons. Microbial levels, changes in pH, color, turbidity, and odor of the fluid were monitored over the course of the 21-day test. Specimen surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy at completion of the test for microbial attachment. Ozonated urine samples were less turbid and had lower microbial levels than controls or samples receiving other pretreatments. Base metal coupons receiving pretreatment were relatively free of attached bacteria. However, well-developed biofilms were found in the heat-affected regions of welded coupons receiving Oxone and hypochlorite pretreatments. Few bacteria were observed in the same regions of the ozone pretreatment sample.

Huff, Timothy L.

1993-01-01

399

Electrocoagulation of a real reactive dyebath effluent using aluminum and stainless steel electrodes.  

PubMed

Treatment of real reactive dyebath effluent comprising of an exhausted reactive dyebath and its sequential rinses with electrocoagulation (EC) using aluminum (Al) and stainless steel (SS) electrodes was investigated. The experimental study focused on the effect of applied current density (22-87 mA/cm(2); at an initial, optimum pH of 5.5) on decolorization and COD removal rates using Al and SS as electrode materials. Results have indicated that the treatment efficiency was enhanced appreciably by increasing the applied current density when Al electrodes were used for EC, whereas no clear correlation existed between current density and removal rates for EC with SS electrodes the treatment efficiency could only be improved when the applied current density was in the range of 33-65 mA/cm(2). It was established that EC with SS electrodes was superior in terms of decolorization kinetics (99-100% color removal after 10-15 min EC at all studied current densities), whereas EC with Al electrodes was more beneficial for COD removal in terms of electrical energy consumption (5 kWh/m(3) wastewater for EC with Al electrodes instead of 9 kWh/m(3) wastewater for EC with SS electrodes). PMID:17945416

Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Kabda?li, I?ik; Hanbaba, Deniz; Kuybu, Elif

2008-01-15

400

Hydrogen Embrittlement Mechanism in Fatigue of Austenitic Stainless Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic mechanism of the hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of stainless steels under fatigue loading is revealed as microscopic ductile fracture, resulting from hydrogen concentration at crack tips leading to hydrogen-enhanced slip. Fatigue crack growth rates in the presence of hydrogen are strongly frequency dependent. Nondiffusible hydrogen, at a level of 2 to approximately 3 wppm, is contained in ordinarily heat-treated austenitic stainless steels, but, over the last 40 years, it has been ignored as the cause of HE. However, it has been made clear in this study that, with decreasing loading frequency down to the level of 0.0015 Hz, the nondiffusible hydrogen definitely increases fatigue crack growth rates. If the nondiffusible hydrogen at O-sites of the lattice is reduced to the level of 0.4 wppm by a special heat treatment, then the damaging influence of the loading frequency disappears and fatigue crack growth rates are significantly decreased.

Murakami, Yukitaka; Kanezaki, Toshihiko; Mine, Yoji; Matsuoka, Saburo

2008-06-01

401

Failure Assessment of Stainless Steel and Titanium Brazed Joints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following successful application of Coulomb-Mohr and interaction equations for evaluation of safety margins in Albemet 162 brazed joints, two additional base metal/filler metal systems were investigated. Specimens consisting of stainless steel brazed with silver-base filler metal and titanium brazed with 1100 Al alloy were tested to failure under combined action of tensile, shear, bending and torsion loads. Finite Element Analysis (FEA), hand calculations and digital image comparison (DIC) techniques were used to estimate failure stresses and construct Failure Assessment Diagrams (FAD). This study confirms that interaction equation R(sub sigma) + R(sub tau) = 1, where R(sub sigma) and R(sub t u) are normal and shear stress ratios, can be used as conservative lower bound estimate of the failure criterion in stainless steel and titanium brazed joints.

Flom, Yury A.

2012-01-01

402

Electrochemical Corrosion Testing of Borated Stainless Steel Alloys  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has specified borated stainless steel manufactured to the requirements of ASTM A 887-89, Grade A, UNS S30464, to be the material used for the fabrication of the fuel basket internals of the preliminary transportation, aging, and disposal canister system preliminary design. The long-term corrosion resistance performance of this class of borated materials must be verified when exposed to expected YMP repository conditions after a waste package breach. Electrochemical corrosion tests were performed on crevice corrosion coupons of Type 304 B4 and Type 304 B5 borated stainless steels exposed to single postulated in-package chemistry at 60°C. The results show low corrosion rates for the test period

lister, tedd e; Mizia, Ronald E

2007-05-01

403

Fatigue Properties of DLC-Coated Stainless Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of DLC (diamond-like carbon) coating on fatigue properties of austenitic stainless steel SUS304. For the DLC coating, UBMS (unbalanced magnetron sputtering) equipment was used. The generated surface layer of about 2 ?m thickness was composed of both the DLC layer possessing high hardness and a very thin intermediate layer to improve adhesion force between the DLC layer and the substrate. DLC coating, which was carried out at a relatively low temperature, had no influence on the microstructure so that the mechanical properties of the stainless steel were unchanged by the coating. The results of the plane-bending fatigue test showed that the DLC coating improved fatigue strength by 18%. From the results of detailed observation conducted on the fatigue fracture surface, it was suggested that the improvement in fatigue strength resulted from the suppression of fatigue crack initiation due to the surface layer, which had high adhesion force and strength.

Morita, Tatsuro; Tomita, Kouta; Kagaya, Chuji; Kumakiri, Tadashi; Ikenaga, Masaru

404

Robustness of steel joints with stainless steel bolts in fire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The robustness of steel joints in fire is important for steel building structures because of the need to prevent progressive collapse. Stainless steel is widely used in building construction mainly because of its corrosion resistance, but it also possesses improved fire resistance compared with conventional non-alloy, fine grain structural steels. Extensive research performed on the robustness of steel joints in fire has revealed that failure at elevated temperature may be controlled by bolt shear for fin plate and web cleat connections. Hence, this study focussed on the use of stainless steel in experimental tests conducted on fin plate and web cleat connections at high temperatures. In addition, this study investigated the use of a component-based model to predict connection performance at elevated temperature.

Satheeskumar, N.; Davison, J. B.

2014-12-01

405

Investigation of Laser Peening Effects on Hydrogen Charged Stainless Steels  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen-rich environments such as fuel cell reactors can exhibit damage caused by hydrogen permeation in the form of corrosion cracking by lowering tensile strength and decreasing material ductility. Coatings and liners have been investigated, but there were few shot-peening or laser peening studies referenced in the literature with respect to preventing hydrogen embrittlement. The surface compressive residual stress induced by laser peening had shown success in preventing stress corrosion cracking (SCC) for stainless steels in power plants. The question arose if the residual stresses induced by laser peening could delay the effects of hydrogen in a material. This study investigated the effect of laser peening on hydrogen penetration into metal alloys. Three areas were studied: laser peening, hydrogenation, and hydrogen detection. This study demonstrated that laser peening does not reduce the hydrogen permeation into a stainless steel surface nor does it prevent hydrogen embrittlement. The effect of laser peening to reduce hydrogen-assisted fatigue was unclear.

Zaleski, T M

2008-10-23

406

Glow discharge cleaning of carbon fiber composite and stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper experimentally investigates and analyses the features and mechanisms of both of oxygen removal by deuterium glow discharge from CFC, pyrolytic graphite and stainless steel subjected to irradiation in oxygen contaminated plasma. It is shown that oxygen implanted in pyrolytic graphite (PG) perpendicular to basal plates is removed after sputtering the layer slightly thicker than oxygen stopping zone (?2 nm). Fast deuterium ions penetrating into CFC during GDC transfer the trapped oxygen atoms into the bulk. Thus, much thicker surface layer has to be removed (500-1000 nm) for oxygen release. Irradiation of stainless steel in plasma leads to formation of a barrier layer with thickness (2-4 nm) equal, or slightly higher than stopping range of oxygen ions. The layer accumulates the main fraction of implanted oxygen and prevents its penetration into the bulk. After barrier layer sputtering oxygen spreads into the bulk. Parameters and conditions of optimum GDC are discussed.

Airapetov, A.; Begrambekov, L.; Brémond, S.; Douai, D.; Kuzmin, A.; Sadovsky, Ya.; Shigin, P.; Vergasov, S.

2011-08-01

407

Robustness of steel joints with stainless steel bolts in fire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The robustness of steel joints in fire is important for steel building structures because of the need to prevent progressive collapse. Stainless steel is widely used in building construction mainly because of its corrosion resistance, but it also possesses improved fire resistance compared with conventional non-alloy, fine grain structural steels. Extensive research performed on the robustness of steel joints in fire has revealed that failure at elevated temperature may be controlled by bolt shear for fin plate and web cleat connections. Hence, this study focussed on the use of stainless steel in experimental tests conducted on fin plate and web cleat connections at high temperatures. In addition, this study investigated the use of a component-based model to predict connection performance at elevated temperature.

Satheeskumar, N.; Davison, J. B.

2014-11-01

408

Corrosion behavior of stainless steel-zirconium alloy waste forms  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steel-zirconium (SS-Zr) alloys are being considered as waste forms for the disposal of metallic waste generated during the electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The baseline waste form for spent fuels from the EBR-11 reactor is a stainless steel-15 wt.% zirconium (SS-15Zr) alloy. This article briefly reviews the microstructure of various SS-Zr waste form alloys and presents results of immersion corrosion and electrochemical corrosion tests performed on these alloys. The electrochemical tests show that the corrosion behavior of SS-Zr alloys is comparable to those of other alloys being considered for the Yucca Mountain geologic repository. The immersion tests demonstrate that the SS-Zr alloys are resistant to selective leaching of fission product elements and, hence, suitable as candidates for high-level nuclear waste forms.

Abraham, D.P.; Simpson, L.J.; DeVries, M.J.; Callahan, D.E.

1999-07-01

409

Corrosion testing of stainless steel-zirconium metal waste forms  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steel-zirconium (SS-Zr) alloys have been developed as waste forms for the disposal of metallic waste generated during the electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The waste forms incorporate irradiated cladding hulls, components of the alloy fuel, noble metal fission products, and actinide elements. The baseline waste form is a stainless steel-15 wt% zirconium (SS-15Zr) alloy. This article presents microstructures and some of the corrosion studies being conducted on the waste form alloys. Electrochemical corrosion, immersion corrosion, and vapor hydration tests have been performed on various alloy compositions to evaluate corrosion behavior and resistance to selective leaching of simulated fission products. The SS-Zr waste forms immobilize and retain fission products very effectively and show potential for acceptance as high-level nuclear waste forms.

Abraham, D.P.; Simpson, L.J.; Devries, M.J.; McDeavitt, S.M.

1999-07-01

410

Mechanical and physical properties of irradiated type 348 stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

A type 348 stainless steel in-pile tube irradiated to a fluence of 3 x 10/sup 22/ n/cm/sup 2/, E > 1 MeV (57 dpa), was destructively examined. The service had resulted in a maximum total creep of 1.8% at the high fluence. The metal temperature ranged between 623 and 652/sup 0/K, hence the thermal creep portion of the total was negligible. Total creep was greater than had been anticipated from creep data for austenitic stainless steels irradiated in other reactors. The objectives of the destructive examination were to determine the service-induced changes of mechanical and physical properties, and to assess the possibility of adverse effects of both these changes and the greater total creep on the prospective service life of other tubes.

Beeston, J.M.

1980-01-01

411

Electrochemical behavior of sintered oxide dispersion strengthened stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical behavior of powder metallurgy (P\\/M) oxide dispersion strengthened stainless steels (SS) (316L and 434L) have been compared with standard 430 and 316 wrought samples in 0.05 mol\\/l sulfuric acid. The effects of sintering temperature and yttria addition on the electrochemical behavior have been studied. The behaviour of the dispersion strengthened SS was comparable to that of the straight

J Shankar; A Upadhyaya; R Balasubramaniam

2004-01-01

412

DEVELOPMENT OF URANIUM NITRIDE-STAINLESS STEEL DISPERSION FUEL ELEMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In research in support of the GCRE, procedures for the fabrication of ; stainless steel-clad flat-plate fuel elements having a core of 28 w\\/o UN ; dispersed in an iron-18 w\\/o chromium--14 w\\/o nickel--2.5 w\\/o molybdenum matrix ; were developed. The preparation of UN and its compatibility with the components ; of the matrix alloy were studied. The UN for

S. J. Paprocki; D. L. Keller; G. W. Cunningham; A. K. Jr. Foulds

1959-01-01

413

Manganese-stabilized austenitic stainless steels for fusion applications  

DOEpatents

An austenitic stainless steel that is comprised of Fe, Cr, Mn, C but no Ni or Nb and minimum N. To enhance strength and fabricability minor alloying additions of Ti, W, V, B and P are made. The resulting alloy is one that can be used in fusion reactor environments because the half-lives of the elements are sufficiently short to allow for handling and disposal.

Klueh, Ronald L. (Knoxville, TN); Maziasz, Philip J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1990-01-01

414

Interface nanochemistry effects on stainless steel diffusion bonding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diffusion-bonding behavior of single-phase austenitic stainless steel depends strongly on the chemistry of the surfaces\\u000a to be bounded. We found that very smooth (0.5 nm root-mean-square (RMS) roughness), mechanically polished and lapped substrates\\u000a would bond completely in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) in 1 hour at 1000 °C under 3.5 MPa uniaxial pressure, if the native oxide\\u000a on the substrates was

M. J. Cox; R. W. Carpenter; M. J. Kim

2002-01-01

415

Diffusion bonding stainless steel to alumina using aluminium interlayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been conducted to identify the effects of fabrication temperatures pressures, times and other variables on the strengths of diffusion-bonded joints between alumina and BS321 stainless steel produced using aluminium foil interlayers. The strengths of the alumina-aluminium and steel-aluminium interfaces were found to be influenced differently by some fabrication parameters, thus increasing the fabrication temperature promoted alumina-aluminium bonding

M. G. Nicholas; R. M. Crispin

1982-01-01

416

Impulse pressuring diffusion bonding of titanium alloy to stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impulse pressuring diffusion bonding between a titanium alloy TA17 and an austenitic stainless steel 0Cr18Ni9Ti has been carried out in vacuum. Relationships between the bonding parameters and the tensile strength of the joints were investigated, and the optimum bond parameters were obtained: bonding temperature T=825 °C, maximum impulse pressure Pmax=50 MPa, minimum impulse pressure Pmin=8 MPa, number of impulses N=30, impulse frequency f=0.5 Hz.

X. J. Yuan; G. M. Sheng; B. Qin; W. Z. Huang; B. Zhou

2008-01-01

417

Diffusion bonds between a stainless steel and zirconia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extremely strong diffusion bonds can be made directly between Y[sub 2]O[sub 3]-stabilized TZP ZrO[sub 2] and Fe-18Cr-8Ni stainless steel above a critical joining temperature of about 1,100C. Fracture initiates at the metal\\/ceramic interface with plasticity occurring in the metal. Bonding is accompanied by a thin interfacial reaction layer which may possibly lead to local melting during the bonding cycle. This

Cai-Dong Qin; Brian Derby

1993-01-01

418

Evaluation of diffusion-bonded aluminum alloys to stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was made of the diffusion bonding of 316 stainless steel to two types of Al alloys (6061 (T6 condition) and 1100 (0 condition)) and pure Al metal. A 0.05-mm (0.002-in.) thick silver interface applied by hot hollow cathode plating served as the joining medium. The tensile strengths of bond with all three Al alloys decreased after aging at

Calderon

1983-01-01

419

Fatigue damage of stainless steel diffusion-bonded joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum diffusion bonding was carried out on 316L stainless steel. Metallographic inspections and micro-hardness testing were conducted near the interface of diffusion-bonded joints. Fatigue tests were performed to investigate the mechanical performance of diffusion-bonded joints under cyclic loading. Results indicate that, although the static strength of joints closes to that of base metal, fatigue life of the diffusion-bonded joint is

Shu-Xin Li; Fu-Zhen Xuan; Shan-Tung Tu

2008-01-01

420

Phase transformation diffusion bonding of titanium alloy with stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase transformation diffusion bonding between a titanium alloy (TA17) and an austenitic stainless steel (0Cr18Ni9Ti) has been carried out in vacuum. Relationships between the bonding parameters and the tensile strength of the joints were investigated, and the optimum bond parameters were obtained: maximum cyclic temperature=890 °C, minimum cyclic temperature=800 °C, number of cycles=10, bonding pressure=5 MPa and heating rate=30 °C\\/s.

B.. Qin; G. M. Sheng; J. W. Huang; B. Zhou; S. Y. Qiu; C. Li

2006-01-01

421

Superhard Nanocrystalline Homometallic Stainless Steel on Steel for Seamless Coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this work is to deposit nanocrystalline stainless steel onto steel substrates (homometallic) for enhanced wear and corrosion resistance. Homometallic coatings provide superior adhesion, and it has been shown that ultrafine-grained materials exhibit the increased hardness and decreased permeability desired for protective coatings. Nanocrystals will be produced by controlling nucleation and growth and use of an ion beam during deposition by e-beam evaporation or sputtering. Phase I is depositing 31 6L nanocrystalline stainless steel onto 31 6L stainless steel substrates. These coatings exhibit hardnesses comparable to those normally obtained for ceramic coatings such ZrO2, and possess the superior adhesion of seamless, homometallic coatings. Hardening the surface with a similar material also enhances adhesion, by avoiding problems associated with thermal and lattice mismatch. So far we have deposited nanocrystalline homometallic 316L stainless steel coatings by varying the ions and the current density of the ion beams. For all deposition conditions we have produced smooth, uniform, superhard coatings. All coatings exhibit hardness of at least 200% harder than that of bulk materials. Our measurements indicate that there is a direct relationship between nanohardness and the current density of the ion beam. Stress measurements indicate that stress in the films is increasingly proportional to current density of the ion beam. TEM, XPS, and XRD results indicate that the coated layers consist of FCC structure nanocrystallites with a dimension of about 10 to 20 nm. The Ni and Mo concentration of these coating are lower than those of bulk 316L but the concentration of Cr is higher.

Tobin, Eric J.; Hafley, R. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

422

Microstructure and mechanical properties of microwave sintered austenitic stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work is focused on understanding the effect of microwave heating on sintering of 316L powders. The stainless\\u000a steel samples were prepared from prealloyed powders of 316L. The powder samples were compacted at a pressure of 560 MPa and\\u000a sintered at 1300°C in a microwave furnace of 2.4 GHz and 2KW capacity in nitrogen atmosphere. The sintering

S. Kennedy; S. Kumaran; T. Srinivasa Rao

2011-01-01

423

Diffusion welding of SUS304L stainless steel to titanium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study are first to investigate the relationship between the diffusion welding parameters and quality of SUS304L stainless steel\\/titanium diffusion?welded joints, and second to develop a bonding method to obtain sound joints, by vacuum heat treatment for surface control. The equipment used consists of an ultra?high vacuum chamber and surface analysis chamber with Auger device.The strength of

O. O. Hashi; K. El; H. Irie

1996-01-01

424

Cerium hybrid silica coatings on stainless steel AISI 304 substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

AISI 304 Stainless Steel is widely used in different industrial fields because of its mechanical and corrosion properties.\\u000a However, its tendency to corrosion in presence of halide ions limits the applications. One strategy to improve the corrosion\\u000a resistance is the use of coatings barriers containing corrosion inhibitors in their formulation. The lanthanides present attractive\\u000a green and corrosion properties for the

A. Pepe; M. Aparicio; A. Durán; S. Ceré

2006-01-01

425

The electrochemistry of 13% chromium stainless steel in oilfield brines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemistry of a 13% Cr stainless steel (API5CT L80-13Cr) in 3% NaCl containing acetate and either acetic acid or carbon dioxide at 333K is explored using RDE voltammetry. The reduction of proton, carbonic acid and acetic acid occur simultaneously, immediately negative to the corrosion potential. Acetic acid gives a well formed reduction wave and the current densities increase with

Dmitry Sidorin; Derek Pletcher; Bill Hedges

2005-01-01

426

Market Opportunities for Austenitic Stainless Steels in SO2 Scrubbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent U.S. federal legislation has created new opportunities for SO2 scrubbers because all coals, even low-sulfur western coals, will probably require scrubbing to remove SO2 from gaseous combustion products. Scrubbing, the chemical absorption of SO2 by vigorous contact with a slurry—usually lime or limestone—creates an aggressive acid-chloride solution. This presents a promising market for pitting-resistant austenitic stainless steels, but there is active competition from rubber and fiberglass-lined carbon steel. Since the latter are favored on a first-cost basis, stainless steels must be justified on a cost/performance or life-cost basis. Nickel-containing austenitic alloys are favored because of superior field fabricability. Ferritic stainless steels have little utility in this application because of limitations in weldability and resulting poor corrosion resistance. Inco corrosion test spools indicate that molybdenum-containing austenitic alloys are needed. The leanest alloys for this application are 316L and 317L. Low-carbon grades of stainless steel are specified to minimize corrosion in the vicinity of welds. More highly alloyed materials may be required in critical areas. At present, 16,000 MW of scrubber capacity is operational and 17,000 MW is under construction. Another 29,000 MW is planned, bringing the total to 62,000 MW. Some 160,000 MW of scrubber capacity is expected to be placed in service over the next 10 years. This could translate into a total potential market of 80,000 tons of alloy plate for new power industry construction in the next decade. Retrofitting of existing power plants plus scrubbers for other applications such as inert gas generators for oil tankers, smelters, municipal incinerators, coke ovens, the pulp and paper industry, sulfuric acid plants, and fluoride control in phosphoric acid plants will add to this large market.

Michels, Harold T.

1980-10-01

427

37. REDUCTION PLANT DRYER Stainless steel screen cylinder, encased ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. REDUCTION PLANT - DRYER Stainless steel screen cylinder, encased within an outer steel shell (top half missing). As fish were tumbled by the rotating screen, they were cooked and dried by live steam piped into the dryer through overhead pipes. The dryer is mounted on a slight angle, aiding the process by moving the drying fish towards the exhaust end of the dryer. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

428

Challenges and Capabilities for Inspection of Cast Stainless Steel Piping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies conducted at the Pacific N¬orthwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, have focused on developing and evaluating the reliability of nondestructive examination (NDE) approaches for inspecting coarse-grained, cast stainless steel reactor components. The objective of this work is to provide information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) on the utility, effec¬tiveness and limitations of NDE techniques

Michael T. Anderson; Susan L. Crawford; Stephen E. Cumblidge; Aaron A. Diaz; Steven R

2007-01-01

429

Attack polish for nickel-base alloys and stainless steels  

DOEpatents

A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels. The chemical attack polish comprises Fe(NO.sub.3).sub.3, concentrated CH.sub.3 COOH, concentrated H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and H.sub.2 O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.

Steeves, Arthur F. (Schenectady, NY); Buono, Donald P. (Schenectady, NY)

1983-01-01

430

Method of polishing nickel-base alloys and stainless steels  

DOEpatents

A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels. The chemical attack polish comprises Fe(NO.sub.3).sub.3, concentrated CH.sub.3 COOH, concentrated H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and H.sub.2 O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.

Steeves, Arthur F. (Schenectady, NY); Buono, Donald P. (Schenectady, NY)

1981-01-01

431

Short-range ordering kinetics in 316 austenitic stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ measurements are reported of electrical resistance changes in 316 austenitic stainless steel after abruptly raising or lowering\\u000a temperature in the range from 440 C to 550 C subsequent to equilibration. These changes are found to be reproducible and\\u000a have a magnitude roughly proportional to the temperature change. They are believed to be manifestations of approach toward\\u000a a new

J. T. Stanley

1982-01-01

432

Fatigue Crack Initiation in Proton-Irradiated Austenitic Stainless Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of irradiation on slip band formation and growth and microcrack initiation behavior under low cycle fatigue in SUS316L austenitic stainless steel was investigated using accelerator-based proton irradiation and a low cycle fatigue test at room temperature in air. The mean space of the slip line in proton-irradiated specimens was 25–40% wider than that in unirradiated specimens under the

Shuhei NOGAMI; Yuki SATO; Akira HASEGAWA

2011-01-01

433

Overview: high-nitrogen alloying of stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-strength austenitic stainless steels can be produced by replacing carbon with nitrogen. Nitrogen has greater solid-solubility than carbon, is a strong austenite stabilizer, potent interstitial solid-solution strengthener, and improves pitting corrosion resistance. Although the solubility of nitrogen in liquid iron is very low, 0.045 wt.% at 1600 °C and atmospheric pressure, nitrogen levels above 1 wt.% can be obtained through

J. W. Simmons

1996-01-01

434

Marine prosthecate bacteria involved in the ennoblement of stainless steel.  

PubMed

Ennoblement, a phenomenon in which open-circuit potential is elevated to a noble value, triggers metal corrosion in the environment and is considered to be biologically catalysed. This study investigated the involvement of marine microorganisms in the ennoblement of stainless steel coupons in sea water pumped from Kamaishi Bay. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed significant attachment of prosthecate bacteria on the surfaces of stainless steel coupons in the course of ennoblement. In denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses of polymerase chain reaction-amplified bacterial 16S rDNA fragments, several major bands were detected from the surface of the ennobled coupons, including those affiliated with the alpha and gamma subclasses of the Proteobacteria. After these observations, bacterial strains were isolated from the surface of the ennobled coupon. The 16S rDNA analysis revealed that a bacterial isolate (designated PWB3) corresponded to a major DGGE band representing an alpha-Proteobacterial population; a database analysis showed that its closest relative was Rhodobium spp., albeit with low homology ( approximately 89%). SEM indicated that this bacterium was a prosthecate bacterium that was morphologically similar to those observed on the ennobled coupons. In pure culture of strain PWB3, stainless steel coupons were ennobled when the culture was supplemented with MnCl2. Manganese was recovered from the surface of the ennobled coupons after treatment with a reducing agent. These results suggest that the attachment of manganese-oxidizing prosthecate bacteria triggered the ennoblement of stainless steel in Kamaishi Bay sea water. PMID:14510846

Baker, Paul W; Ito, Kimio; Watanabe, Kazuya

2003-10-01

435

Phase transformations in a manganese-alloyed austenitic stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

The increasing demands placed on the corrosion resistance of stainless steels has led to the successive development of more highly alloyed materials. In this context nitrogen has shown considerable value as an alloying element but its use is restricted by a solubility limit of approximately 0.2 wt% in conventional austenitic stainless steel grades. Manganese increases the nitrogen solubility appreciably and for this reason there has also been an increased interest in its use as an alloying addition but numerous questions remain to be answered about the effect of both nitrogen and manganese on structural stability. Although much work has been published on the precipitation of secondary phases in CrNi(Mo) stainless steels, there is a relative paucity of information available on manganese-alloyed steels. Brandis et al. investigated precipitation in a 25Cr 17Ni 3Mo 6Mn 0.2Nb steel and found no manganese-enriched phases to occur. Sigma phase was the predominant intermetallic precipitate at low nitrogen contents while higher nitrogen contents retarded the onset of sigma phase precipitation but caused the appearance of chi phase. Boothby et al. investigated a 12Cr 11-35Ni (3Mo) steel in which the nickel was partially replaced by 20 or 30% manganese and found the precipitation of the intermetallic sigma, chi and Laves phases to be promoted by manganese, although again no manganese-enriched phases were observed. Fritscher demonstrated however the existence in the Fe-Cr-Ni system of a brittle ternary Y phase containing 30--60% manganese which was destabilized by nitrogen. The present work represents part of a study designed to gain greater understanding of the precipitation and sensitization behavior of highly alloyed austenitic stainless steels and concentrates on the influence of nitrogen additions up to 0.5wt% on precipitation of secondary phases in a 20Cr 18Ni 4.5Mo 10Mn steel.

Jargelius-Pettersson, R.F.A. (Swedish Inst. for Metals Research, Stockholm (Sweden))

1994-05-01

436

Recrystallization and Grain Growth of 316L Stainless Steel Wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recrystallization and grain growth behaviors of 316L stainless steel wires with a diameter of 12 µm were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction techniques. Heavily cold-drawn wires were isothermally held at temperatures from 1073 K to 1223 K (800 °C to 950 °C) for various holding times. Optical microscopy and TEM observations showed that recrystallization grains have irregular shape and that twins exist. The texture formed during drawing and annealing processes of the wires, as measured by X-ray methods, showed a fiber texture approximated by a <111> and a <100> component. The value of the grain growth exponent n was calculated, and the kinetic rates were plotted using the Arrhenius equation. Results show that the activation energy of the grain growth for 316L stainless steel wire was determined to be 407 kJ/mol, which was much higher than that of the bulk 316L stainless steel. The small wire diameter and the existence of texture played important roles in the increase of the activation energy for grain growth of the wire.

Zhao, Xiuyun; Liu, Yong; Wang, Yan; Feng, Ping; Tang, Huiping

2014-07-01

437

Proton-induced grain boundary segregation in stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique is developed which addresses the problem of irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking of stainless steels in light water reactors using high energy protons to induce grain boundary segregation. These results represent the first grain boundary segregation measurements in bulk produced by proton irradiation of stainless steel. The technique allows the study of grain boundary composition with negligible sample activation, short irradiation time, rapid sample turnaround and at minimal cost. Scanning Auger electron microscopy is used to obtain grain boundary composition measurements of irradiated and unirradiated samples of ultra high purity (UHP) type 304L stainless steel and UHP type 304L steels with the additions of phosphorus (UHP + P) and sulphur (UHP + S). Results show that irradiation of all three alloys causes significant Ni segregation to the grain boundary and Cr and Fe away from it. Irradiation of the UHP + P alloy also results in segregation of P at the grain boundary from 5.3 to 8.7 at %, over 80 times the bulk value. No radiation-induced grain boundary segregation of S was measured in the UHP + S alloy. Results also indicate that the presence of P or S may enhance radiation-induced segregation of major alloying elements at the boundary. Comparison of irradiated and unirradiated regions of the UHP + P alloy indicate that while a prior thermal treatment segregates P to the grain boundary to 5.3 at %, the major element concentrations at the grain boundary are completely different from those under irradiation.

Damcott, D. L.; Cookson, J. M.; Carter, R. D.; Martin, J. R.; Atzmon, M.; Was, G. S.

1991-12-01

438

Iodine susceptibility of pseudomonads grown attached to stainless steel surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pseudomonads were adapted to grow in phosphate-buffered water and on stainless steel surfaces to study the iodine sensitivity of attached and planktonic cells. Cultures adapted to low nutrient growth were incubated at room temperature in a circulating reactor system with stainless steel coupons to allow biofilm formation on the metal surfaces. In some experiments, the reactor was partially emptied and refilled with buffer at each sampling time to simulate a "fill-and-draw" water system. Biofilms of attached bacteria, resuspended biofilm bacteria, and reactor suspension, were exposed to 1 mg l-1 iodine for 2 min. Attached bacterial populations which established on coupons within 3 to 5 days displayed a significant increase in resistance to iodine. Increased resistance was also observed for resuspended cells from the biofilm and planktonic bacteria in the system suspension. Generally, intact biofilms and resuspended biofilm cells were most resistant, followed by planktonic bacteria and phosphate buffer cultures. Thus, biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces within water systems can result in significantly increased disinfection resistance of commonly-occurring water-borne bacteria that may enhance their ability to colonise water treatment and distribution systems.

Pyle, B. H.; McFeters, G. A.

1990-01-01

439

Austenitic stainless steel patterning by plasma assisted diffusion treatments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new concept of surface texturing or surface patterning on austenitic stainless steel by plasma assisted diffusion treatment is presented in this paper. It allows the creation of uniform micro or nano relief with regularly shaped asperities or depressions. Plasma assisted diffusion treatments are based on the diffusion of nitrogen and/or carbon in a metallic material at moderate to elevated temperatures. Below 420°C, a plasma assisted nitriding treatment of austenitic stainless steel produces a phase usually called expanded austenite. Expanded austenite is a metastable nitrogen supersaturated solid solution with a disordered fcc structure and a distorted lattice. The nitrided layer with the expanded austenite is highly enriched in nitrogen (from 10 to 35 at%) and submitted to high compressive residual stresses. From mechanical consideration, it is shown that the only possible deformation occurs in the direction perpendicular to the surface. Such an expansion of the layer from the initial surface of the substrate to the gas phase is used here for surface patterning of stainless steel parts. The surface patterning is performed by using masks (TEM grid) and multi-dipolar plasmas.

Czerwiec, T.; Marcos, G.; Thiriet, T.; Guo, Y.; Belmonte, T.

2009-09-01

440

Characterization of blasted austenitic stainless steel and its corrosion resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that the corrosion resistance of stainless steel is deteriorated by blasting, but the reason for this deterioration is not clear. A blasted austenitic stainless steel plate (JIS-SUS304) has been characterized with comparison to the scraped and non-blasted specimens. The surface roughness of the blasted specimen is larger than that of materials finished with #180 paper. A martensite phase is formed in the surface layer of both blasted and scraped specimens. Compressive residual stress is generated in the blasted specimen and the maximum residual stress is formed at 50 100 µm from the surface. The corrosion potentials of the blasted specimen and subsequently solution treated specimen are lower than that of the non-blasted specimen. The passivation current densities of the blasted specimens are higher those of the non-blasted specimen. The blasted specimen and the subsequently solution treated specimen exhibit rust in 5% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution, while the non-blasted specimen and ground specimen do not rust in the solution. It is concluded that the deterioration of corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steel through blasting is caused by the roughed morphology of the surface.

Otsubo, F.; Kishitake, K.; Akiyama, T.; Terasaki, T.

2003-12-01

441

Evaluation of manual ultrasonic inspection of cast stainless steel piping  

SciTech Connect

Two studies have attempted to determine the degree of inspectability of centrifugally cast stainless steel (CCSS) pipe. In one study, Westinghouse examined the reliability of ultrasonic test methods in the detection of mechanical fatigue cracks. The second study was an NRC-sponsored Pipe Inspection Round Robin (PIRR) test conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The Westinghouse study reported that 80% detection was achieved for mechanical fatigue cracks having 20% throughwall depth. The PNL study reported that less than 30% detection was achieved for thermal fatigue cracks ranging from 5% to 50% through-wall. A cooperative program between PNL and Westinghouse was conducted to resolve the differences between the two studies. The program was designed as a limited round robin. Detection experiments were performed on samples from both the PNL and Westinghouse studies. The data reported here indicate that flaw type (thermal fatigue versus mechanical fatigue) was a significant factor in detection. Mechanical fatigue cracks were more easily detected than thermal fatigue cracks. The data conclusively show that manual ultrasonic inspection cannot size flaws in cast stainless steel material. The study recommends that ultrasonic inspection of cast stainless steel pipe be continued because cracks caused by some failure mechanisms (i.e., mechanical fatigue cracks) have proven to be detectable.

Taylor, T.T.

1984-05-01

442

Corrosion Performance of Stainless Steels in a Simulated Launch Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the Kennedy Space Center, NASA relies on stainless steel (SS) tubing to supply the gases and fluids required to launch the Space Shuttle. 300 series SS tubing has been used for decades but the highly corrosive environment at the launch pad has proven to be detrimental to these alloys. An upgrade with higher alloy content materials has become necessary in order to provide a safer and long lasting launch facility. In the effort to find the most suitable material to replace the existing AISI 304L SS ([iNS S30403) and AISI 316L SS (UNS S31603) shuttle tubing, a study involving atmospheric exposure at the corrosion test site near the launch pads and electrochemical measurements is being conducted. This paper presents the results of an investigation in which stainless steels of the 300 series, 304L, 316L, and AISI 317L SS (UNS S31703) as well as highly alloyed stainless steels 254-SMO (UNS S32154), AL-6XN (N08367) and AL29-4C ([iNS S44735) were evaluated using direct current (DC) electrochemical techniques under conditions designed to simulate those found at the Space Shuttle Launch pad. The electrochemical results were compared to the atmospheric exposure data and evaluated for their ability to predict the long-term corrosion performance of the alloys.

Calle, Luz Marina; Vinje, Rubiela D.; MacDowell, Louis

2004-01-01

443

Gaseous hydrogen embrittlement of PH 13-8 Mo steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, notched tensile and fatigue crack growth tests in gaseous hydrogen were performed on PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel specimens at room temperature. These specimens were susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement (HE), but at different degrees, depending on the aging conditions or the microstructures of the alloys. In hydrogen, the accelerated fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) usually accompanied a reduced notched tensile strength (NTS) of the specimens, i.e., the faster the FCGR the lower the NTS. It was proposed that the same fracture mechanism could be applied to these two different types of specimens, regardless of the loading conditions. Rapid fatigue crack growth and high NTS loss were found in the H800 (426 °C under-aged) and H900 (482 °C peak-aged) specimens. The HE susceptibility of the steel was reduced by increasing the aging temperature above 593 °C, which was attributed to the increased amount of austenite in the structure. Extensive quasi-cleavage fracture was observed for the specimens that were deteriorated severely by HE.

Ding, Y. S.; Tsay, L. W.; Chiang, M. F.; Chen, C.

2009-04-01

444

Resistance of nitrogen-containing stainless alloys to corrosion in chloride media  

SciTech Connect

The pitting resistance of a series of experimental stainless steels with varying amounts of nickel, chromium, molybdenum, manganese and nitrogen and a number of commercial stainless steels and nickel based alloys has been studied in highly concentrated chloride media. The results show that nitrogen enhancer the pitting resistance of stainless steel and exceptional corrosion resistance is achieved with high levels of nitrogen in combination with suitable amounts of molybdenum and chromium.

Bandy, R.; van Rooyen, D.

1982-10-08

445

Evaluation of stainless steel cladding for use in current design LWRs. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The design of stainless steel-clad LWR fuel and its performance at steady-state, transient, and accident conditions were reviewed. The objective was to evaluate the potential benefits and disadvantages of substituting stainless steel-clad fuel for the currently used Zircaloy-clad fuel. For a large, modern PWR, the technology and the fuel-cycle costs of stainless steel- and Zircaloy-clad fuels were compared.

Strasser, A.; Santucci, J.; Lindquist, K.; Yario, W.; Stern, G.; Goldstein, L.; Joseph, L.

1982-12-01

446

Influence of sigma-phase formation on the localized corrosion behavior of a duplex stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of their austenitic-ferritic microstructures, duplex stainless steels offer a good combination of mechanical and corrosion\\u000a resistance properties. However, heat treatments can lower the mechanical strength of these stainless steels as well as render\\u000a them susceptible to intergranular corrosion (IGC) and pitting corrosion. In this study, a low-carbon (0.02%) duplex stainless\\u000a steel is subjected to various heat treatments at 450

K. M. Adhe; V. Kain; K. Madangopal; H. S. Gadiyar

1996-01-01

447

Influence of sigma-phase formation on the localized corrosion behavior of a duplex stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of their austenitic-ferritic microstructures, duplex stainless steels offer a good combination of mechanical and corrosion resistance properties. However, heat treatments can lower the mechanical strength of these stainless steels as well as render them susceptible to intergranular corrosion (IGC) and pitting corrosion. In this study, a low-carbon (0.02%) duplex stainless steel is subjected to various heat treatments at 450

K. M. Adhe; V. Kain; K. Madangopal; H. S. Gadiyar

1996-01-01

448

Particle Impact Ignition Test Data on a Stainless Steel Hand Valve  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the particle impact ignition test of a stainless steel hand valve. The impact of particles is a real fire hazard with stainless steel hand valves, however 100 mg of particulate can be tolerated. Since it is unlikely that 100 mg of stainless steel contaminant particles can be simultaneously released into this type of valve in the WSTF configuration, this is acceptable and within statistical confidence as demonstrated by testing.

Peralta, Stephen

2010-01-01

449

Chromium carbide laser-beam surface-alloying treatment on stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the resistance to wear, oxidation and corrosion of a stainless steel die, chromium carbide surface-alloying treatment was carried out on a 12 % Cr stainless steel using a CO2 laser. Cr3C2 powder slurry was coated on the stainless steel and then a 3 kW CO2 laser beam was used to irradiate the specimen. The thickness of

T. H. Kim; B. C. Kim

1992-01-01

450

Embedding metallic jacketed fused silica fibres into stainless steel using additive layer manufacturing technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal clad single mode optical fibres are successfully embedded into stainless steel using a layer by layer based additive manufacturing technology based on selective laser sintering of powered stainless steel material. The single mode fibre has been coated with a protective Ni metal layer to facilitate thermal protection and bonding to the stainless steel matrix. A loss of ~1 dB is observed after embedding which is attributed to micro bending in the embedded section.

Maier, Robert R. J.; Havermann, Dirk; MacPherson, William N.; Hand, Duncan P.

2013-05-01

451

Tool wear and machinability of HIPed P\\/M and conventional cast duplex stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, active wear and failure mechanisms of TiN-coated cemented carbide tools with internal coolant supply when drilling of HIPed P\\/M Duplok 27 and conventionally-produced duplex stainless steel ASTM A8190 1A have been investigated. Stainless steels are often considered as poorly machinable materials. In P\\/M-produced duplex stainless steels, there are more hard oxide particles causing machining difficulties from the

Jukka Paro; Hannu Hänninen; Veijo Kauppinen

2001-01-01

452

Tool wear and machinability of X5 CrMnN 18 18 stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, active wear and failure mechanisms of TiN-coated cemented carbide tools when machining X5 CrMnN 18 18 austenitic stainless steel have been investigated. By nitrogen alloying austenite is stabilised and the strength of austenitic stainless steel is increased and work hardening is promoted. Stainless steels are often considered as poorly machinable materials. High strength and work hardening rate

Jukka Paro; Hannu Hänninen; Veijo Kauppinen

2001-01-01

453

Richard Mazurchuk, PhD  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Richard Mazurchuk received a BS in Physics and MS and PhD in Biophysics from SUNY Buffalo. His research focused on developing novel multi-modality imaging techniques, contrast (enhancing) agents and methods to assess the efficacy of experimental therapeutics. He subsequently joined the faculty of SUNY Buffalo School of Medicine and Roswell Park Cancer Institute attaining the rank of Assoc Prof in the Departments of Diagnostic Imaging and Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry and Biophysics.

454

Christos Patriotis, PhD  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Christos Patriotis obtained his MSc in Biochemistry from the University of Sofia, Bulgaria in 1985 and his PhD in Molecular Biology from the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in 1990. Postdoctoral training focused on signal transduction and tumor cell biology. He joined the faculty at Fox Chase Cancer Center in 1998; his research was directed toward understanding mechanisms of breast and ovarian cancer pathogenesis and identification of biomarkers associated with the early stages of the two types of cancer.

455

Effect of Prior Processing on the Performance of PH 13-8 Mo Stainless Steel Helicopter Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the root cause of the differences noted in the fatigue test\\u000a data of main rotor spindle assembly retaining rods fabricated from three different vendors, as part of a “Second\\u000a Source” evaluation process. ARL performed dimensional verification, accessed overall workmanship, and\\u000a measured the respective surface roughness of the rods in an effort to

Marc S. Pepi; Scott M. Grendahl; Victor K. Champagne

2001-01-01

456

Stainless steel and silicon direct interface synthesis: Chemical bonding effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planar stainless steel/stainless steel interfaces, with and without a titanium interlayer and silicon/silicon interfaces have been produced in an ultra high vacuum (UHV) diffusion bonding/deposition instrument. Interface synthesis was accomplished by diffusion bonding two substrates after subjecting the substrate surfaces to a variety of pre-bonding treatments including heat treating, ion-beam sputter cleaning and thin film deposition. Chemical characterization was performed in situ by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) prior to deposition and/or bonding and ex situ by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Additionally, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to study interfaces before and after bonding. Diffusion bonding behavior of stainless steel depends strongly on the chemistry of the surfaces to be bonded. Very smooth, mechanically polished and lapped substrates would bond completely in UHV in 1 hour at 1000°C under 3.5 MPa uniaxial pressure, if the native oxide on the substrates was removed by ion beam cleaning. No voids were observed in these bonded interfaces as studied by TEM and the strength was equal to the unbonded bare material. When an electron beam deposited, 200 A titanium interlayer was added to the stainless steel interface, while bonding under the same conditions, mechanical tensile testing resulted in very low strength when compared with that of chemically clean stainless steel interfaces. Analytical inspection of the interfaces, performed with EELS, EDS, and convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) coupled with images from TEM and SEM, showed the reason for the significantly reduced strength is a result of limited contact area and delamination between titanium carbide particles precipitated in the interface. Silicon wafers bicrystals were synthesized by bonding two single-crystal substrates. Silicon wafers were plasma or ion cleaned, chemically treated, and UHV thermal desorption annealed in different combinations to find the best method for providing smooth, contamination free substrates that will produce an atomically flat, chemically clean silicon/silicon bonded interface. Plasma cleaned wafers which were subsequently HF and de-ionized water dipped resulted in a flat and void free wafer bonded interface that was structurally sharp on the atomic scale.

Cox, Michael J.

457

Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis study of corrosion films formed on manganese stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

Films formed on two grades of Mn stainless steels in 1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) freely exposed to air at different potentials were examined using electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). The Cr content of the film, which is related closely to corrosion resistance of the base alloys, was lower within the films formed on Mn stainless steels as compared to a normal type 304 (UNS S30400) stainless steels. The film also contained significant amounts of Mn, Ni, and Cu. It was proposed that the presence o higher amounts of Mn, an electrochemically active element, with Cu resulted in poor passivation behavior of the present high Mn stainless steels.

Raja, V.S.; Devasenapathi, A.; Veluchamy, P.; Minoura, H.

1999-12-01

458

Long-Term Corrosion Tests of Prototypical SAM2X5 (Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4) Coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

An iron-based amorphous metal with good corrosion resistance and a high absorption cross-section for thermal neutrons has been developed and is reported here. This amorphous alloy has the approximate formula Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4} and is known as SAM2X5. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) were added to provide corrosion resistance, while boron (B)

J C Farmer; J S Choi; C K Saw; R H Rebak; S D Day; T Lian; P D Hailey; J H Payer; D J Branagan; L F Aprigliano

2007-01-01

459

(August 29, 2014) Neuroscience Ph.D.  

E-print Network

HANDBOOK (August 29, 2014) Neuroscience Ph.D. Program Daniel Tranel, PhD Program Director Michael ...................................................................................................4 B. Neuroscience Program Graduate Research Assistantships .................................5 C ......................................................................................................................7 A. Required Core Neuroscience Courses

460

(November 20, 2014) Neuroscience Ph.D.  

E-print Network

HANDBOOK (November 20, 2014) Neuroscience Ph.D. Program Daniel Tranel, PhD Program Director Michael ...................................................................................................4 B. Neuroscience Program Graduate Research Assistantships .................................5 C ......................................................................................................................7 A. Required Core Neuroscience Courses

461

Ph.D. Assessment Form Student Name  

E-print Network

Ph.D. Assessment Form Student Name: Major Advisor: Date: Outcome 1: Graduates will be able to successfully design and conduct original research in their specialty areas. Criterion: Ph.D. candidates related disciplinary areas. Criterion: Ph.D. students will pass their initial preliminary examination

462

Inexpensive and Disposable pH Electrodes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inexpensive electrodes for the measurement of pH have been constructed using the ionophore tribenzylamine for sensing H[superscript +] concentrations. Both traditional liquid-membrane electrodes and coated-wire electrodes have been constructed and studied, and both exhibit linear, nearly Nernstian responses to changes in pH. Measurements of pH

Goldcamp, Michael J.; Conklin, Alfred; Nelson, Kimberly; Marchetti, Jessica; Brashear, Ryan; Epure, Emily

2010-01-01

463

University College Dublin PhD Scholarships  

E-print Network

University College Dublin PhD Scholarships UCD Michael Smurfit Graduate Business School invites excellent applications for a number of PhD scholarships starting in September 2014. This provides four years of support for full-time PhD study. The Scholarships are open to full-time EU and non-EU students

464

My PhD Plan Completed Work  

E-print Network

Background My PhD Plan Completed Work Planned Work Hierarchical Biped Control A Exam Matthew Kelly August 4, 2014 Matthew Kelly Hierarchical Biped Control 1 / 34 #12;Background My PhD Plan Completed Work Planned Work Table of Contents 1 Background 2 My PhD Plan 3 Completed Work 4 Planned Work Push Hold Free

Ruina, Andy L.

465

Soil pH and Fertilizers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site by the Mississippi State University Extension Service discusses why fertilizers are added to soils. The Web site begins by introducing the concept of the pH of the soil and how nutrients are affected by this pH level. Students can then learn about the pH logarithmic scale and about the factors that affect soil pH. At the end of the site, users will find a clear and concise table concerning different fertilizer materials characteristics including their speed of reaction and effect on pH in soils.

466

Soils - Part 4: Soil pH  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Soil pH is defined and its implications for crop production are described in this lesson. How are soil pH and buffer pH determined? How are these assessments used in lime recommendations? The factors that influence pH variations in soils, the chemistry involved in changing the pH of a soil, and the benefits associated with liming acid soils will be discussed.[This lesson, as well as the other nine lessons in the Soils series, is taken from the "Soils Home Study Course," published in 1999 by the University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension.

467

76 FR 62761 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the 2010...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-533-810] Stainless Steel Bar From India: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results...order on stainless steel bar from India, covering the period February...October 31, 2011. Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary...

2011-10-11

468

75 FR 65449 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-533-810] Stainless Steel Bar From India: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results...order on stainless steel bar from India covering the period February 1...October 31, 2010. Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary...

2010-10-25

469

75 FR 81966 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Trade Administration [C-423-809] Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...of the countervailing duty order on stainless steel plate in coils from Belgium, covering the period January 1, 2009,...

2010-12-29

470

The effect of thermal aging and boiling water reactor environment on Type 316L stainless steel welds  

E-print Network

The thermal aging and consequent embrittlement of materials are ongoing issues in cast stainless steels and duplex stainless steels. Spinodal decomposition is largely responsible for the well known "475°C" embrittlement ...

Lucas, Timothy R

2011-01-01

471

PhD in Sustainable Development PhD in Sustainable Development  

E-print Network

PhD in Sustainable Development PhD in Sustainable Development 2013-2014 Handbook John Colin Mutter................................................................................................ 39 #12;3 PhD in Sustainable Development I. About the Program The sustainability of development in the social, natural, engineering or health sciences. The PhD in Sustainable Development combines

Qian, Ning

472

Aging and Embrittlement of High Fluence Stainless Steels  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation of austenitic stainless steels results in the formation of dislocation loops, stacking fault tetrahedral, Ni-Si clusters and radiation-induced segregation (RIS). Of these features, it is the formation of precipitates which is most likely to impact the mechanical integrity at high dose. Unlike dislocation loops and RIS, precipitates exhibit an incubation period that can extend from 10 to 46 dpa, above which the cluster composition changes and a separate phase, (G-phase) forms. Both neutron and heavy ion irradiation showed that these clusters develop slowly and continue to evolve beyond 100 dpa. Overall, this work shows that the irradiated microstructure features produced by heavy ion irradiation are remarkably comparable in nature to those produced by neutron irradiation at much lower dose rates. The use of a temperature shift to account for the higher damage rate in heavy ion irradiation results in a fairly good match in the dislocation loop microstructure and the precipitate microstructure in austenitic stainless steels. Both irradiations also show segregation of the same elements and in the same directions, but to achieve comparable magnitudes, heavy ion irradiation must be conducted at a much higher temperature than that which produces a match with loops and precipitates. First-principles modeling has confirmed that the formation of Ni-Si precipitates under irradiation is likely caused by supersaturation of solute to defect sinks caused by highly correlated diffusion of Ni and Si. Thus, the formation and evolution of Ni-Si precipitates at high dose in austenitic stainless steels containing Si is inevitable.

gary Was; Zhijie Jiao; Anton Van der ven; Stephen Bruemmer; Dan Edwards

2012-12-31

473

Corrosion in stainless-steel and nickel-titanium files.  

PubMed

This study evaluated and compared the corrosion susceptibility of stainless-steel and nickel-titanium (NiTi) endodontic files immersed in sodium hypochlorite. For each of the stainless-steel files (Kerr K-Flex, Caulk Flex-O, and Union Broach Flex-R) plus the NiTi files (Union Broach NiTi and Tulsa NiTi), the cutting flutes of 24 ISO size 20 files were immersed into 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. Their open circuit potential (OCP) was recorded for 1 h on a strip chart with high impedance. The strip chart recording for each file was classified into a stability score: (i) stable, (ii) unstable, or (iii) erratic. The OCP was measured by a potentiostat and a standard calomel electrode reference. The OCP classification of unstable and erratic for the files evaluated were as follows: K-Flex (16%), Flex-R (12%), Flex-O (75%), Union Broach NiTi (62%), and Tulsa NiTi (0%). After OCP testing, each of the 120 files was inspected by light microscopy at x 25. The frequencies of visually observed corrosion were detected as follows: K-Flex (2/24), Flex-R (1/24), Flex-O (6/24), Union Broach NiTi (2/24), and Tulsa NiTi (0/24). There was a significant difference in corrosion frequency between brands when evaluated by OCP and light microscopy; however, there was no significant difference between stainless steel and NiTi. PMID:10196837

Stokes, O W; Fiore, P M; Barss, J T; Koerber, A; Gilbert, J L; Lautenschlager, E P

1999-01-01

474

Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior of Cast Stainless Steels  

SciTech Connect

Casting of austenitic stainless steels offers the possibility of directly producing large and/or relatively complex structures, such as the first wall shield modules or the diverter cassette for the ITER fusion reactor. Casting offers major cost savings when compared to fabrication via welding of quarter modules machined from large forgings. However, the strength properties of such cast components are typically considered inferior to those of conventionally forged and annealed components. To improve and validate cast stainless steel as a substitute for wrought stainless steel, a development and testing program was initiated, utilizing nitrogen and manganese additions to promote improved performance. This paper focuses on the response of the first set of developmental alloys to neutron-irradiation and susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking. These cast materials may also have applications for different components in light water reactors. Results showed that all steels exhibited irradiation-induced hardening and a corresponding drop in ductility, as expected, although there is still considerable ductility in the irradiated samples. The cast steels all exhibited reduced hardening in comparison to a wrought reference steels, which may be related to a larger grain size. Higher nitrogen contents did not negatively influence irradiation performance. Regarding stress corrosion cracking susceptibility, the large difference in grain size limits the comparison between wrought and cast materials, and inclusions in a reference and archive cast alloy tests complicate analysis of these samples. Results suggest that the irradiated archive heat was more susceptible to cracking than the modified alloys, which may be related to the more complex microstructure. Further, the results suggest that the modified cast steel is at least as SCC resistant as wrought 316LN. The beneficial effect of nitrogen on the mechanical properties of the alloys remains after irradiation and is not detrimental to SCC resistance.

Teysseyre, Sebastien [University of Michigan; Busby, Jeremy T [ORNL; Was, Gary [University of Michigan

2009-01-01

475

Biomonitoring of genotoxic exposure among stainless steel welders.  

PubMed

A biosurvey in the Danish metal industry measured the genotoxic exposure from stainless steel welding. The study comprised measurements of chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE), unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in peripheral lymphocytes and serum immunoglobulin G. Environmental monitoring of welding fumes and selected metal oxides, biomonitoring of chromium and nickel in serum and urine and mutagenic activity in urine, and evaluation of semen quality were also done. Manual metal arc (MMA) welding and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding were the dominant welding processes. A higher frequency of chromosomal aberrations, classified as translocations, double minutes, exchanges and rings, was observed in stainless steel welders than in non-welders. SCE was lower in welders working with both MMA and TIG welding than in reference persons. N-Acetoxy-N-acetylaminofluorene (NA-AAF)-induced UDS was lower in 23 never-smoking welders than in 19 unexposed never-smokers. Smoking was a confounding factor resulting in significantly higher CA, SCE, NA-AAF binding to DNA and mutagenic activity in urine. Age was also a confounder: CA, SCE, NA-AAF binding to DNA and UDS increased significantly with age. No significant correlation between SCE and CA or between CA and UDS was found. UDS decreased significantly with increasing lymphocyte count and a higher lymphocyte count was seen in MMA welders than in reference persons and in smokers than in non-smokers. Differences in the composition among lymphocytes in exposed persons compared with non-exposed are suggested. MMA welding gave the highest exposure to chromium, an increased number of chromosomal aberrations and a decrease in SCE when compared with TIG welding. Consequently improvements in the occupational practice of stainless steel welding with MMA is recommended. PMID:1375338

Knudsen, L E; Boisen, T; Christensen, J M; Jelnes, J E; Jensen, G E; Jensen, J C; Lundgren, K; Lundsteen, C; Pedersen, B; Wassermann, K

1992-05-16

476

Osteogenic ability of Cu-bearing stainless steel.  

PubMed

A newly developed copper-bearing stainless steel (Cu-SS) by directly immobilizing proper amount of Cu into a medical stainless steel (317L SS) during the metallurgical process could enable continuous release of trace amount of Cu(2+) ions, which play the key role to offer the multi-biofunctions of the stainless steel, including the osteogenic ability in the present study. The results of in vitro experiments clearly demonstrated that Cu(2+) ions from Cu-SS could promote the osteogenic differentiation by stimulating the Alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity and the osteogenic gene expressions (Col1a1, Opn, and Runx2), and enhancing the adhesion and proliferation of osteoblasts cultured on its surface. The in vivo test further proved that more new bone tissue formed around the Cu-SS implant with more stable bone-to-implant contact in comparison with the 317L SS. In addition, Cu-SS showed satisfied biocompatibility according to the results of in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo histocompatibility, and its daily released amount of Cu(2+) ions in physiological saline solution was at trace level of ppb order (1.4 ppb/cm(2) ), which is rather safe to human health. Apart from these results, it was also found that Cu-SS could inhibit the happening of inflammation with lower TNF-? expression in the bone tissue post implantation compared with 317L SS. In addition to good biocompatibility, the overall findings demonstrated that the Cu-SS possessed obvious ability of promoting osteogenesis, indicating a unique application advantage in orthopedics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014. PMID:25418073

Ren, Ling; Wong, Hoi Man; Yan, Chun Hoi; Yeung, Kelvin W K; Yang, Ke

2014-11-23

477

Use of duplex stainless steel castings in control valves  

SciTech Connect

Duplex stainless steels have enjoyed rapidly increasing popularity in recent years. For numerous reasons the availability of these alloys in the cast form has lagged behind the availability of the wrought form. Commercial demand for control valves in these alloys has driven development of needed information to move into production. A systematic approach was used to develop specifications, suppliers and weld procedures. Corrosion, stress corrosion cracking (SCC), sulfide stress cracking (SSC) and hardness results are also presented for several alloys including; CD3MN (UNS J92205), CD4MCu (UNS J93370) and CD7MCuN (cast UNS S32550).

Gossett, J.L. [Fisher Controls International, Inc., Marshalltown, IA (United States)

1996-07-01

478

Joining silicon carbide to austenitic stainless steel through diffusion welding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the thesis, the results are presented of a study dealing with joining silicon carbide to austenitic stainless steel AISI316 by means of diffusion welding. Welding experiments were carried out with and without the use of a metallic intermediate, like copper, nickel, and copper-nickel alloys at various conditions of process temperature, process time, mechanical pressure, and interlayer thickness. Most experiments were carried out in high vacuum. For reasons of comparison, however, some experiments were also carried out in a gas shielded environment of 95% vol. Ar and 5% vol. H2.

Krugers, J. P. H. M.

1993-01-01

479

Evidence of large magnetostructural effects in austenitic stainless steels.  

PubMed

The surprisingly low magnetic transition temperatures in austenitic stainless steels indicate that in these Fe-based alloys magnetic disorder might be present at room temperature. Using a first-principles approach, we have obtained a theoretical description of the stacking fault energy in Fe(100-c-n)Cr(c)Ni(n) alloys as a function of composition and temperature. Comparison of our results with experimental databases provides a strong evidence for large magnetic fluctuations in these materials. We demonstrate that the effects of alloying additions on the structural properties of steels contain a dominant magnetic contribution, which stabilizes the most common austenitic steels at normal service conditions. PMID:16605866

Vitos, L; Korzhavyi, P A; Johansson, B

2006-03-24

480

General and Localized Corrosion of Borated Stainless Steels  

SciTech Connect

The Transportation, Aging and Disposal (TAD) canister-based system is being proposed to transport and store spent nuclear fuel at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The preliminary design of this system identifies borated stainless steel as the neutron absorber material that will be used to fabricate fuel basket inserts for nuclear criticality control. This paper discusses corrosion test results for verifying the performance of this material manufactured to the requirements of ASTM A887, Grade A, under the expected repository conditions.

T.E. Lister; Ronald E. Mizia; A.W. Erickson; T.L. Trowbridge; B. S. Matteson

2008-03-01

481

Aluminum nanocomposites having wear resistance better than stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

Tribological behavior of alumina-particle-reinforced aluminum composites made by powder metallurgy process has been investigated. The nanocomposite containing 15 vol% of Al2O3 nanoparticles exhibits excellent wear resistance by showing significantly low wear rate and abrasive wear mode. The wear rate of the nanocomposite is even lower than stainless steel. We have also demonstrated that such excellent wear resistance only occurred in the composite reinforced with the high volume fraction of nanosized reinforcing particles. The results were discussed in terms of the microstructure of the nanocomposite.

An, Linan [University of Central Florida; Qu, Jun [ORNL; Luo, Jinsong [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Fan, Yi [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Zhang, Ligong [University of Central Florida; Liu, Jinling [University of Central Florida; Xu, Chengying [University of Central Florida; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL

2011-01-01

482

Vapor deposition of copper on stainless steel 304L  

SciTech Connect

Y-12 Plant is seeking to minimize the generation of hazardous wastes in its operations. The standard procedure for electroplating a thin layer of copper on type 304L stainless steel requires several aqueous pretreatment steps which generate Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous wastes. We have evaluated a more environmentally acceptable procedure. Copper was vacuum deposited onto 304L coupons under differing deposition conditions and properties of coatings produced, including microstructure and adhesive strength, were examined. Results indicated that a noncolumnar, fine grain copper coating with high adhesion can be produced using this environmentally more acceptable approach.

Vasofsky, R.W.

1993-08-17

483

Corrosion engineering aspects regarding MIC related failures on stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

There are several chemical plants along the river Rhine that use river water as coolant in once through-systems. Microbially Influenced Corrosion (MIC) failures occur on stainless steel pipes and also in heat exchanger tubes coming in contact with this cooling water. This paper presents results of failure analysis of three case histories suspected to be caused by MIC. Afterwards several important corrosion engineering aspects are presented and discussed with respect to practical observations. Finally, a summary of the case histories and also some practical recommendations for MIC prevention in water handling units are given.

Renner, M.H.W. [Bayer AG, Leverkusen (Germany)

1998-12-31

484

Low cycle fatigue behavior of aluminum/stainless steel composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composites consisting of an aluminum matrix reinforced with various volume fractions of stainless steel wire were fabricated by hot die pressing under various conditions of temperature, time, and pressure. The composites were tested in plane bending to complete fracture under cycle loading, and the results were analyzed on a computer to obtain a statistically valid mathematical relationship between the low-cycle fatigue life and the fiber volume fraction of the composite. The fractured surfaces of the composites were examined by scanning electron microscopy to identify the characteristic features of fatigue damage. Fatigue damage mechanisms are proposed and discussed.

Bhagat, R. B.

1983-01-01

485

Failures of austenitic stainless steel components during storage: Case studies  

SciTech Connect

Three studies of failures of austenitic stainless steel components during storage are described. In all cases, stress corrosion cracking was the failure mode by the action of residual stress alone. However, the source of residual stress was different for each case. Case 1 was the failure of a sample tube header for a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR). In Case 2, a heat exchanger shell failed during a hydrotest in a fertilizer plant. Cases concerned the cracking of type 304L plates used for spent fuel pool lining of a nuclear power station.

Shah, B.K.; Rastogi, P.K.; Sinha, A.K.; Kulkarni, P.G. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India))

1993-04-01

486

Isentropic compression of irradiated stainless steel on the Z accelerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed quasi-isentropic compression experiments on radiation-damaged stainless steel. The samples were dynamically loaded by Sandia National Laboratory's Z accelerator with a ramp compression wave. Sample/window interface velocities were recorded with VISAR. The velocity histories suggest a sudden volume reduction of the material above 40 kbar caused by the collapse of nanosized voids. This is predicted by a theoretical model of void collapse based on the emission of vacancy-type dislocations loops. We compare the results of these experiments to hydrodynamic calculations performed using a constitutive model which is derived from the atomistic void collapse mechanism.

Reisman, D. B.; Wolfer, W. G.; Elsholz, A.; Furnish, M. D.

2003-06-01

487

Difference in metallic wear distribution released from commercially pure titanium compared with stainless steel plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction Stainless steel and commercially pure titanium are widely used materials in orthopedic implants. However, it is still being controversially discussed whether there are significant differences in tissue reaction and metallic release, which should result in a recommendation for preferred use in clinical practice. Materials and methods A comparative study was performed using 14 stainless steel and 8 commercially pure

G. D. Krischak; F. Gebhard; W. Mohr; V. Krivan; A. Ignatius; A. Beck; N. J. Wachter; P. Reuter; M. Arand; L. Kinzl; L. E. Claes

2004-01-01

488

Hydrogen effects on stainless steel passive film fracture studied by nanoindentation , L.J. Qiao a,  

E-print Network

Letter Hydrogen effects on stainless steel passive film fracture studied by nanoindentation Y. Yao. Hydrogen absorption a b s t r a c t Hydrogen effects on the fracture stress of passive film formed on 316L stainless steel were studied by nanoindentation. Hydrogen accumulated primarily on the sample surface

Volinsky, Alex A.

489

A review on nickel-free nitrogen containing austenitic stainless steels for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

The field of biomaterials has become a vital area, as these materials can enhance the quality and longevity of human life. Metallic materials are often used as biomaterials to replace structural components of the human body. Stainless steels, cobalt-chromium alloys, commercially pure titanium and its alloys are typical metallic biomaterials that are being used for implant devices. Stainless steels have been widely used as biomaterials because of their very low cost as compared to other metallic materials, good mechanical and corrosion resistant properties and adequate biocompatibility. However, the adverse effects of nickel ions being released into the human body have promoted the development of "nickel-free nitrogen containing austenitic stainless steels" for medical applications. Nitrogen not only replaces nickel for austenitic structure stability but also much improves steel properties. Here we review the harmful effects associated with nickel and emphatically the advantages of nitrogen in stainless steel, as well as the development of nickel-free nitrogen containing stainless steels for medical applications. By combining the benefits of stable austenitic structure, high strength, better corrosion and wear resistance and superior biocompatibility in comparison to the currently used austenitic stainless steel (e.g. 316L), the newly developed nickel-free high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel is a reliable substitute for the conventionally used medical stainless steels. PMID:23910251

Talha, Mohd; Behera, C K; Sinha, O P

2013-10-01

490

Effect of white water chemistry on corrosion passivation behavior of 304L stainless steel  

E-print Network

, while sulfate has an inhibiting effect on pitting corrosion. Stainless steels rely on passive filmsEffect of white water chemistry on corrosion passivation behavior of 304L stainless steel What concentration in white water chemistry does not impact repassivation rate. Chloride promotes pitting corrosion

Das, Suman

491

77 FR 13270 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Preliminary Results and Partial Rescission of the Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-533-810] Stainless Steel Bar From India: Preliminary Results and Partial Rescission...order on stainless steel bar (SSBar) from India. The period of review (POR) is February...the antidumping duty order on SSBar from India. See Antidumping Duty Orders:...

2012-03-06

492

77 FR 3231 - Certain Stainless Steel Wire Rods From India: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Stainless Steel Wire Rods From India: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order...certain stainless steel wire rods from India would likely lead to continuation or recurrence...steel wire rods (``wire rods'') from India,\\1\\ pursuant to section 751(c)...

2012-01-23

493

Interface structure of diffusion bonded duplex stainless steel and medium carbon steel couple  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffusion bonding of duplex stainless steel to medium carbon steel was carried out with different temperatures for sound bonds. In the bonding process, relatively intermediate temperatures such as 750, 800, 850 and 900 °C were used with a bonding time of 30 min. In this study, microstructural changes and mechanical properties in the interface region of duplex stainless steel and medium carbon

Bulent Kurt; Adnan Çalik

2009-01-01

494

The interface morphology of diffusion bonded dissimilar stainless steel and medium carbon steel couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, a duplex stainless steel and an austenitic stainless steel were diffusion bonded to medium carbon steel. The differences of two dissimilar metal couples at the test temperature on microstructural developments across the joint region were investigated. After diffusion bonding, microstructural analysis including metallographic examination, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and shear strength tests were performed. From the

Bulent Kurt

2007-01-01

495

Arc furnace recycling of chromium--nickel from stainless steel wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Losses of alloying metals in furnace flue dusts, grinding swarfs, and mill scale produced during the manufacture of stainless steel are substantial. About 25 million lb Cr, 8.7 million lb Ni, and 150,000 lb Mo and other critical metals can be made available annually for recycling by a process developed by the Bureau of Mines. Stainless steel wastes pelletized with

P. G. Barnard; W. M. Dressel; M. M. Fine

1977-01-01

496

75 FR 973 - Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipes From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-580-810] Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipes From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary...duty order on certain welded stainless steel pipes (WSSP) from the Republic of Korea...The review covers one respondent, SeAH Steel Corporation (SeAH). We...

2010-01-07

497

Deposition studies of carbon particles on stainless steel surfaces from hydrocarbon media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption isotherms for carbon particles of about 200 nm size, in the presence of various combinations of a terminally functionalised (amine) polyisobutylene polymer and alkylpropoxylate\\/alkylbutoxylate surfactant molecules, on 7 ?m diameter stainless steel beads from isooctane solutions have been obtained. The deposition of carbon particles on stainless steel plates was achieved using a flow-cell and analysed using scanning electron

S. D Gurumayum Sharma; D Moreton; B Vincent

2002-01-01

498

Metallurgical investigation on fatigue failure of stainless steel chain in a continuous casting machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steels strips (chains) are used for the connection of dam blocks in belt casting machines. Thermal cycling and repetitive stressing under complex loading conditions due to tension and bending are the most frequent function modes during production. Samples from fractured stainless steel strips used for the connection of dam blocks in a copper rod continuous casting line, were sent

G. Pantazopoulos; A. Vazdirvanidis

2009-01-01

499

Transient current generation during wear of high-density polyethylene by a stainless-steel stylus  

E-print Network

Transient current generation during wear of high-density polyethylene by a stainless-steel stylus J force measurements as a stainless-steel stylus is drawn across a high-density polyethylene surface-related features at intervals consistent with the lateral force and current fluctuations. Although average charge

Dickinson, J. Thomas

500

Corrosion resistance of stainless steel coatings elaborated by solar cladding process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resistance to corrosion of stainless steel coatings deposited onto carbon steel substrate with a solar processing is analyzed. The solar cladding consists in melting the powder of stainless steel AISI 316 under a beam of concentrated solar energy, followed by a rapid solidification. A continuous scanning process is performed by moving the specimen at controlled speed, according to the

A. Ferriere; C. Sanchez Bautista; G. P. Rodriguez; A. J. Vazquez

2006-01-01