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1

Estrogenic Response in Male Bullfrog ( Rana catesbeiana ) Hepatocytes After Single or Combined Exposure to Cadmium (Cd) and 17beta-Estradiol (E2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination by heavy metals and sex hormones in a water environment is an important health issue. In this study, we investigated\\u000a the estrogenic effects of cadmium (Cd) administration alone and in combination with 17beta-estradiol (E2) on the hepatocytes\\u000a of male Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). Their vitellogenin (VTG) expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analyzed upon exposure to Cd alone or

Keun Woo LeeZiwei; Ziwei Chang; Beom-Seok Oh; Ming Lu; Jang-Su Park

2010-01-01

2

Diagnosis-specific serum 17 beta-estradiol (E2) upper limits for treatment with menotropins using a 125I direct E2 assay.  

PubMed

Statistical evaluation of 133 cycles of induction of ovulation using generalized linear models demonstrated that the occurrence and severity of ovarian hyperstimulation was influenced by the serum 17 beta-estradiol (E2) concentration (P less than 0.001), conception (P less than 0.001), and the endocrinologic diagnosis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO) or hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA) (P less than 0.01). When menotropins were administered between 5:00 P.M. and 8:00 P.M. and blood was drawn at 8:00 A.M., an upper limit for serum E2 in patients with HA of 2417 pg/ml or an upper limit for patients with PCO of 3778 pg/ml gave an approximate 5% risk of severe ovarian hyperstimulation in conception cycles and a 1.3% risk of severe hyperstimulation in nonconception cycles. Comparison of our E2 radioimmunoassay involving extraction and chromatography to the Pantex immunodirect Estradiol 125I kit (Pantex, Santa Monica, CA) demonstrated no detectable systematic error, allowing the use of these limits with either assay. The ovulating injection of human chorionic gonadotropin was given at 5:00 P.M. to 8:00 P.M. on the evening of blood drawing as soon as the first follicle reached an average diameter of 14 mm or greater. The ultrasound parameters allow the chance of pregnancy to be optimized and the chance of multiple gestation to be minimized. Serum E2 monitoring indicates when the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation is too great for human chorionic gonadotropin to be given. PMID:6437878

Haning, R V; Boehnlein, L M; Carlson, I H; Kuzma, D L; Zweibel, W J

1984-12-01

3

Retarding the senescence of human vascular endothelial cells induced by hydrogen peroxide: effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2) mediated mitochondria protection.  

PubMed

This study investigates the influence of 17beta-estradiol (E2) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced human vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC) senescence. HUVECs were divided into four groups, namely control group, H2O2 stimulation group, E2 intervention group and ICI182780 (ICI) intervention group. The aging-related ?-galactosidase activities, cytochrome C oxidase activities, intracellular ATP levels, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and phosphorylated Rb protein expressions were mainly observed. Of which, senescence-associated ?-galactosidase activities were detected using immunohistochemical staining, cytochrome C oxidase activities and intracellular ATP levels were detected using commercial kits, ROS levels were detected by fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence microplate reader, immunoblotting was used to quantitatively detect the expressions of phosphorylated Rb proteins. After continuous treatment of H2O2, the senescent phenotypes appeared in the HUVECs. The percentage of positive SA-?gal staining cells and the phosphorylated Rb expressions were significantly increased; intracellular ROS levels, cytochrome C oxidase activities and intracellular ATP levels were elevated. Compared with the H2O2 stimulation group, E2 intervention significantly decreased the positive rate of SA-?-gal staining, the phosphorylated Rb protein levels, the intracellular ROS levels, cytochrome C oxidase activities and intracellular ATP levels. Pretreatment of estrogen receptor blocker ICI182780 weakened the role of E2. These results indicated that H2O2 could induce HUVEC senescence; 17beta-E2 might relieve H2O2-induced mitochondrial damage through estrogen receptor and delay the vascular endothelial cell senescence. PMID:24938685

Ruan, Yunjun; Wu, Saizhu; Zhang, Li; Chen, Guodong; Lai, Wenyan

2014-08-01

4

Occurrence and pathways of manure-borne 17beta-estradiol in vadose zone water.  

PubMed

The hormone 17beta-estradiol (E2) can cause endocrine disruption in sensitive species at part per trillion concentrations. The persistence and transport pathways of manure-borne E2 in agricultural soils were determined by comparing its occurrence with the transfer of water and the transport of non-sorbing fluorobenzoic acid (FBA) tracers. This comparison was done using capillary wick lysimeters installed 0.61m beneath three corn (Zea mays L.) plots that receive swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) manure from various sources. An additional control plot was included that received no manure. Soil water transfer was modeled to compare actual versus predicted percolation. On average, lysimeters collected 61% of the expected percolation and 8% of the FBA. There were frequent E2 detections, where there were an average of 8 detections for the 11 sample events. The average detection was 21ngL(-1) and its range was 1-245ngL(-1). 17beta-Estradiol was detected before manure was applied and also in the control plot lysimeters. Furthermore, the average mass recovery of E2 in all the lysimeters was >50%, which was greater than the FBA tracer recovery. Results indicated that tracer was transported with precipitated water infiltrating into the soil surface and percolating down through the soil profile. There was substantial evidence for antecedent E2, which was persistent and mobile. The persistence and mobility of the E2 may result from its associations with colloids, such as dissolved organic matter. Furthermore, this antecedent E2 appeared to overwhelm any observable effect of manure management on E2 fate and transport. PMID:19394677

Thompson, Michael L; Casey, Francis X M; Khan, Eakalak; Hakk, Heldur; Larsen, Gerald L; Desutter, Thomas

2009-07-01

5

Low-dosage micronized 17 beta-estradiol prevents bone loss in postmenopausal women  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the use of a double-blind, randomized, dose-ranging design, we tested during an 18-month period the degree of protection against postmenopausal bone loss afforded by micronized 17 beta-estradiol in dosages of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg. All subjects received supplementation to ensure a minimum of 1500 mg calcium daily. Fifty-one subjects completed at least 1 year of follow-up bone density measurements by quantitative computed tomography and by single- and dual-photon absorptiometry. In the placebo group spinal trabecular bone density decreased 4.9% annually (p less than 0.001), whereas in those taking micronized 17 beta-estradiol bone density tended to increase (annual increases of 0.3% in the 0.5 mg micronized 17 beta-estradiol group, 1.8% in the 1.0 mg micronized 17 beta-estradiol group, and 2.5% in the 2.0 mg micronized 17 beta-estradiol group). After completing the double-blind phase, 41 subjects completed an additional 18 months of follow-up while taking 1.0 mg micronized 17 beta-estradiol. During this time one third of the subjects were randomly assigned to discontinue calcium supplements. Among those who previously received placebo, trabecular bone density increased 4.3% annually, whereas among those who had used micronized 17 beta-estradiol, trabecular bone density response was inversely related to the dosage previously used. Additionally and independently, the level of calcium intake showed a statistically significant correlation with the change in spinal trabecular bone density (r = 0.37, p = 0.02). We conclude that micronized 17 beta-estradiol has a continuous skeletal dose-response effect in the range of 0.5 to 2.0 mg and that calcium intake positively modifies the skeletal response to 1.0 mg micronized 17 beta-estradiol.

Ettinger, B.; Genant, H. K.; Steiger, P.; Madvig, P.

1992-01-01

6

A sensitive EIA for 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone in culture medium for oocyte in vitro maturation procedures.  

PubMed

A sensitive heterologous enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was validated to determine 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and progesterone levels, without previous extraction, in culture medium from rabbit oocytes matured in vitro with and without the addition of IGF-I. Polyclonal E2 (C902), and progesterone (C914) antibodies were raised in rabbits using 6-keto-17 beta-estradiol 6-carboxymethyloxime:BSA, and 11 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone 11 alpha-hemisuccinate:BSA. Horseradish peroxidase was used as label, conjugated to 17 beta-estradiol 3-hemisuccinate, and to progesterone 3-carboxymethyloxime. Standard dose response curves covered a range between 0 and 1 ng/well (100 microliters). The low detection limits of the technique were 1.99 pg/well for E2, and 13.21 pg/well for progesterone. Intra- and interassay coefficient of variation percentage (% CV) were < 6.3 and < 7.8 for E2 and progesterone, respectively (n = 10). The recovery rate of known E2 or progesterone concentrations added to a pool of culture maturation medium averaged 96.39%, and 98.65%, respectively. Compared with RIA, EIA values were in close agreement for E2 (n = 15, R = 0.96, P < 0.001), and progesterone (n = 15, R = 0.99, P < 0.001). Medium samples were obtained after oocyte maturation in vitro for 16 h. Use of IGF-I significantly elevated steroids production in the oocyte surrounded cumulus cells. The EIA described here is highly sensitive and specific assay, and provides a rapid, simple, inexpensive, and non-radiometric alternative to RIA for determining E2 and progesterone levels in oocyte culture medium. PMID:9442573

Lorenzo, P L; Illera, J C; Silván, G; Munro, C J; Rebollar, P G; Alvariño, J M; Illera, M J; Illera, M

1997-09-01

7

Influence factor of 17beta-estradiol photodegradation by heterogeneous Fenton reaction.  

PubMed

The photocatalytic degradation of 17beta-estradiol (E2), by Fenton like reaction was investigated as a function of E2 concentrations, organic co-solvents and co-existing estrogens, humic acid (HA) and other background anions. E2 degradation was effectively achieved by hydroxyl radicals that were generated in the heterogeneous photo-Fenton process. The degradation kinetics were fitted to Langmuir-Hinshelwood model with kr = 0.3140 microM/h and Kads = 2.2146L/micromol. The removal kinetics of E2 were initiated by a rapid decay and then followed by a much slower one in acetonitrile-water solutions while in methanol-water solutions they followed the first-kinetic model for the diffusion-control of hydroxyl radicals and competition between E2 and co-solvents. In addition, the lower level of co-existing substances did not significantly influence the oxidation efficiency of E2. The degradation rates of E2 were found to depend not only on the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and iron content as reported before but also on pH, E2 concentrations and composition of co-solvents. Thus it is very important to look for the optimum conditions for the purpose of most efficiently eliminating E2 from drinking water. PMID:20082022

Zhao, Yaping; Huang, Minsheng; Ge, Ming; Tang, Xiaochun; Liu, Lu

2010-01-01

8

17beta-Estradiol releases thyroxine from the thyroid follicles of a teleost, Channa gachua (Ham. )  

SciTech Connect

To observe a direct effect of 17beta-estradiol (E2) on thyroid activity, thyroid follicles were isolated from hypobranchial muscles of a freshwater murrel, Channa gachua. Thyroid follicles were incubated (5 X 10{sup 6} follicles/well) in vitro at 30{degree}C for 2 hr without hormone and then 3 hr with E2 or bovine thyroid-stimulating hormone (bTSH). Addition of 10 and 100 ng of E2 to thyroid follicles resulted in 2- and 3-fold increases in thyroxine (T4) release. When 100 ng of bTSH was added to check the isolated follicular function, it stimulated T4 release to more than 3-fold. Increasing doses of E2 from 1 to 100 ng caused a dose-dependent stimulation of T4 release, while a 1000-ng dose reduced T4 release compared to 100 ng. When thyroid follicles of this experiment were lysed by sonication and T4 content was determined, it corroborated the profile of T4 release in response to varied E2 doses. E2 was ineffective in increasing {sup 125}I uptake by the follicles, while bTSH elevated it by 45% over the control. Incubation of varied concentrations of ({sup 3}H)estradiol with cytosol and nuclear fractions of thyroid follicles in the presence of a 100-fold excess of diethylstilbestrol showed saturable specific binding of E2.

Bandyopadhyay, S.; Banerjee, P.P.; Bhattacharya, S. (Visva-Bharati Univ., West Bengal, (India))

1991-02-01

9

Sex differences in the effects of 17 beta-estradiol on vascular adrenergic responses.  

PubMed

The in vitro effects of 17 beta-estradiol on vascular responses to adrenergic nerve stimulation were studied in perfused tail arteries from age-matched male and female rats. Nerve stimulation resulted in vasoconstriction that was greater in male arteries. Addition of 17 beta-estradiol (3 x 10(-5) M) reduced the vasoconstrictor responses in both male and female arteries, but the reduction was significantly greater in the females. Gonadectomy of the animals for 1 month prior to the experiment did not alter the in vitro responses to 17 beta-estradiol in either males or females. 17 beta-Estradiol (10(-6) - 3 x 10(-5) M) also relaxed perfused tail arteries precontracted with KCl (50 mM); however the relaxation was not different between males and females, either intact or gonadectomized. Stimulation-evoked release of noradrenaline from adrenergic nerves of perfused tail arteries was measured, but no differences were found between males and females, nor was release modified by in vitro exposure to 17 beta-estradiol (10(-5) M). These results suggest that 17 beta-estradiol acts directly on postjunctional mechanisms to relax tail arteries of either sex. The effect of the hormone on arteries constricted by adrenergic nerve stimulation, however, is greater in females compared to males. PMID:8957256

García-Villalón, A L; Buchholz, J N; Krause, D N; Duckles, S P

1996-10-31

10

17beta-estradiol protects male mice from cuprizone-induced demyelination and oligodendrocyte loss.  

PubMed

In addition to regulating reproductive functions in the brain and periphery, estrogen has tropic and neuroprotective functions in the central nervous system (CNS). Estrogen administration has been demonstrated to provide protection in several animal models of CNS disorders, including stroke, brain injury, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, age-related cognitive decline and multiple sclerosis. Here, we use a model of toxin-induced oligodendrocyte death which results in demyelination, reactive gliosis, recruitment of oligodendrocyte precursor cells and subsequent remyelination to study the potential benefit of 17beta-estradiol (E2) administration in male mice. The results indicate that E2 partially ameliorates loss of oligodendrocytes and demyelination in the corpus callosum. This protection is accompanied by a delay in microglia accumulation as well as reduced mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). E2 did not significantly alter the accumulation of astrocytes or oligodendrocyte precursor cells, or remyelination. These data obtained from a toxin-induced, T cell-independent model using male mice provide an expanded view of the beneficial effects of estrogen on oligodendrocyte and myelin preservation. PMID:20347981

Taylor, Lorelei C; Puranam, Kasturi; Gilmore, Wendy; Ting, Jenny P-Y; Matsushima, Glenn K

2010-08-01

11

Modulation of ovine SBD-1 expression by 17beta-estradiol in ovine oviduct epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background Mucosal epithelia, including those of the oviduct, secrete antimicrobial innate immune molecules (AIIMS). These have bactericidal/bacteriostatic functions against a variety of pathogens. Among the AIIMs, sheep ?-defensin-1 (SBD-1) is one of the most potent. Even though the SBD-1 is an important AIIM and it is regulated closely by estrogenic hormone, the regulation mechanism of 17?-estradiol has not been clearly established. We investigated the effects of E2 and agonist or inhibitor on ovine oviduct epithelial cells in regard to SBD-1 expression using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). In addition, three different pathways were inhibited separately or simultaneously to confirm the effect of different inhibitors in the regulation mechanism. Results 17beta-estradiol (E2) induced release of SBD-1 in ovine oviduct epithelial cells. SBD-1 expression was mediated through G-protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) and Estrogen Receptors (ERs) activation in ovine oviduct epithelial cell. Inhibition of gene expression of protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) led to a decreased SBD-1 expression. Conclusions Taken together, E2-induced up-regulation of SBD-1 expressions were GPR30-dependent during prophase and ERs-dependent during later-stage in ovine oviduct epithelial cells, and we assume that the effect was completed by the PKA, PKC, and NF-?B pathways simultaneous.

2012-01-01

12

Binding site characteristics of 17beta-estradiol imprinted polymers.  

PubMed

The variety of applications utilizing molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) requires synthetic strategies yielding different MIP formats including films, irregular particles, or spheres, along with precise knowledge on the specific material characteristics, such as binding capacity and binding efficiency of these materials. In response to this demand, MIPs are prepared in different formats by variation of the polymerization methodology. It is commonly agreed that micro- and sub-microspheres are particularly advantageous MIP formats, due to their monodispersity and facile synthesis procedures in contrast to conventional imprinted polymers prepared by bulk polymerization. However, the differences in actual rebinding characteristics of different MIP formats based on molecular interactions under a variety of binding/rebinding conditions have not been studied in detail to date. Consequently, the present work details an analytical strategy generically applicable to MIP systems for rebinding studies including equilibrium binding, non-equilibrium binding, and release experiments enabling more profound understanding on the molecular interactions between the imprinted materials and the template molecules. In this study, three MIP formats were considered for the same template molecule, 17beta-estradiol: irregularly shaped particulate polymers prepared by bulk polymerization and grinding, microspheres, and sub-microspheres. The latter two formats were synthesized via precipitation polymerization using different processing strategies. The morphologies and porosities of the resulting imprinted materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, respectively. The obtained results indicate that microspheres prepared by precipitation polymerization provide superior rebinding properties during equilibrium binding in contrast to bulk polymers and sub-microspheres, and that the rebinding properties are different during equilibrium binding versus non-equilibrium binding. The median binding affinity constant determined during non-equilibrium rebinding is higher than the values obtained from equilibrium rebinding. Furthermore, the binding site distribution appears more homogeneous thief derived from non-equilibrium rebinding, as reflected in a heterogeneity index of m=0.725. Moreover, it is hypothesized that the specific interactions between template and monomers are related to the porosity of the imprinted polymers, which implies that the amount of binding sites and the pore sized distribution of the imprinted materials are a critical factor in achieving the desired MIP performance in various analytical applications. The BET results indicate that particles prepared with lower cross-linker-to-template ratio have a reduced surface area. Furthermore, it can be expected that there are less specific binding sites available at particles with reduced surface area and pore volume given similar distribution of the binding sites, as confirmed by the equilibrium binding isotherm studies. The pore size distribution results reveal that control of the pore size in the range of 100-180 A is essential to obtain the desired retention properties and Gaussian peak shape during HPLC analysis of small molecules. PMID:17540554

Wei, Shuting; Mizaikoff, Boris

2007-09-30

13

High concentrations of 17beta -estradiol attenuate the exercise pressor reflex in male cats.  

PubMed

Previously, intravenous injection of 17beta-estradiol in decerebrate male cats was found to attenuate central command but not the exercise pressor reflex. This latter finding was surprising because the dorsal horn, the spinal site receiving synaptic input from thin-fiber muscle afferents, is known to contain estrogen receptors. We were prompted, therefore, to reexamine this issue. Instead of injecting 17beta-estradiol intravenously, we applied it topically to the L(7) and S(1) spinal cord of male decerebrate cats. We found that topical application (150-200 micro l) of 17beta-estradiol in concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, and 1 micro g/ml had no effect on the exercise pressor reflex, whereas a concentration of 10 micro g/ml attenuated the reflex. We conclude that, in male cats, estrogen can only attenuate the exercise pressor reflex in concentrations that exceed the physiological level. PMID:12471049

Schmitt, Petra M; Kaufman, Marc P

2003-04-01

14

17Beta-estradiol attenuates PDGF signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells at the postreceptor level.  

PubMed

Estrogens are known to display significant vasoprotective effects in premenopausal women. PDGF is an important mediator of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation, and thus atherogenesis. We analyzed the effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2) on beta-PDGF receptor (beta-PDGFR) expression/activation and PDGF-dependent VSMC proliferation, migration, and downstream signaling events. Pretreatment of VSMCs with E2 (0.3 microM-0.1 mM) for 24 h concentration-dependently inhibited PDGF-induced proliferation and migration up to 85.5 +/- 15.8% and 79.4 +/- 9.8%, respectively (both P < 0.05). These effects were prevented by coincubation with the ER antagonist ICI-182780. E2 did not alter beta-PDGFR expression, nor did it impair the ligand-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the beta-PDGFR and consecutive binding of the receptor-associated signaling molecules Src homology region 2-containing phosphatase-2, PLC-gamma, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and RasGAP. Thus estrogens inhibited PDGF-induced cellular responses at the postreceptor level. Although stimulation of VSMCs with PDGF-BB led to a transient increase of rac-1 activity, pretreatment with E2 for 24 h concentration-dependently inhibited PDGF-induced rac-1 activation. Furthermore, inhibition of rac-1 by Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin or overexpression of dominant-negative rac-1 (rac-N17) significantly inhibited PDGF-induced VSMC migration, indicating that rac-1 activity is essential for PDGF-dependent cellular responses. E2 did not further reduce PDGF-induced migration in rac-N17-overexpressing cells, suggesting that it diminishes VSMC migration by altering rac-1 activity. We conclude that E2 attenuates PDGF-dependent cellular functions of VSMCs downstream of the beta-PDGFR via inhibition of rac-1. These observations offer a molecular explanation for the vasoprotective effects of estrogens. PMID:16227346

Kappert, Kai; Caglayan, Evren; Huntgeburth, Michael; Bäumer, Anselm T; Sparwel, Jan; Uebel, Manuela; Rosenkranz, Stephan

2006-02-01

15

The role of 17-beta estradiol in ischemic preconditioning protection of the heart  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The protective effects of 17-beta estradiol (E2) on cardiac tissue during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury have not yet been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To assess the protective effects of short- and long-term E2 treatments on cardiac tissue exposed to I/R, and to assess the effects of these treatments in combination with ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on cardiac protection from I/R injury. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to the following treatment protocols: control (no preconditioning); IPC (isolated hearts were subjected to two cycles of 5 min global ischemia followed by 10 min of reperfusion); E2 preconditioning (E2PC; isolated hearts were subjected to E2 pharmacological perfusion for 15 min); short-term in vivo E2 pretreatment for 3 h; long-term in vivo E2 pretreatment or withdrawal (ovariectomy followed by a six-week treatment with E2 or a placebo); combined IPC and E2PC; combined IPC and short- or long-term E2 pretreatments or withdrawal. All hearts were isolated and stabilized for at least 30 min before being subjected to 40 min of global ischemia followed by 30 min of reperfusion; left ventricular function and vascular hemodynamics were then assessed. RESULTS: IPC, E2PC and short-term E2 pretreatment led to the recovery of left ventricle function and vascular hemodynamics. Long-term E2 and placebo treatments did not result in any protection compared with untreated controls. The combination of E2PC or short-term E2 treatments with IPC did not block the IPC protection or result in any additional protection to the heart. Long-term E2 treatment blocked IPC protection; however, placebo treatment did not. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term treatment with E2 protected the heart against I/R injury through a pathway involving the regulation of tumour necrosis factor-alpha. The combination of short-term E2 treatment with IPC did not provide additional protection to the heart. Short-term E2 treatment may be a suitable alternative for classical estrogen replacement therapy.

Babiker, Fawzi A; Hoteit, Lamia J; Joseph, Shaji; Mustafa, Abu Salim; Juggi, Jasbir S

2012-01-01

16

Studies on the Novel Anticancer Agents Metabolically Formed from 17- Beta-Estradiol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

By using NMR and mass spectrometric analyses, we determined the structures of Xl and X2, two representative nonpolar estrogen metabolites, which were metabolically formed following multiple large-scale incubations of 17 beta- estradiol with human CYP3A4 a...

A. J. Lee

2003-01-01

17

The response to sex steroid hormones and vitamin D of cultured osteoblasts derived from ovariectomized mice with and without 17beta-estradiol pretreatment.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether 17beta-estradiol (E2) may have different effects on osteoblasts derived from estrogen-deficient ovariectomized (OVX) mice compared to sham-operated normal animals. We studied the specific effects of 17beta-estradiol on the differentiation and function of cultured osteoblasts derived from these groups of animals, with or without estrogen replacement treatment. One-month-old mice were ovariectomized or sham-operated, and treated (every second day) for 4 weeks with 0.5 mg/kg 17beta-estradiol or with vehicle alone. At the end of the experiment, bones were removed for primary osteoblast cultures or for morphological and chemical evaluation. In cells from untreated OVX animals, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) specific activity was reduced, while collagen production and mineralization were unchanged when compared to cells from controls. In vivo estrogen pretreatment of the OVX mice elevated ALP activity and mineralization of the cells, while collagen production was reduced. The addition of 17beta-estradiol to the culture medium increased ALP activity, collagen production, and mineralization by all cultured osteoblasts, except in those derived from sham-operated, estrogen-pretreated mice, where these features remained unchanged. Osteocalcin production was unchanged. Addition of testosterone or 1,25(OH)2D3 to the culture medium induced changes that differed among the groups depending on the source of the cultured cells. It seems that ovariectomy in mice prior to culture affected the phenotype of the cultured osteoblasts and their response to estradiol, testosterone, and 1,25(OH)2D3, depending on whether animals were pretreated with estradiol or not. These results imply that the animal's estrogen status prior to culture can influence the response to estrogens; this finding may have important implications for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women. PMID:16170471

Patlas, Natan; Zadik, Yehuda; Yaffe, Pirhya; Patlas, Michael; Schwartz, Zvi; Ornoy, Asher

2005-09-01

18

Effects of 17 beta-estradiol metabolites on cell cycle events in MCF-7 cells.  

PubMed

Different cell growth effects were observed in MCF-7 cells after six daily exposures to either 17 beta-estradiol (E2), 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2), or 2-methoxyestradiol (2-MeOE2) at 10 nM levels. 2-OHE2 enhanced cell growth significantly (P < 0.05) more than did the parent compound, whereas 2-MeOE2 inhibited cell growth. To identify the estrogen-affected cellular processes involved in cell cycle progression, hydroxy urea-synchronized MCF-7 cells were studied. No effects on DNA synthesis in mid-S-phase or on mitotic indices were observed after E2 or 2-OHE2 treatment. 2-MeOE2, however, significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited DNA synthesis and mitosis. Synchronized cells were exposed for 1 h to E2, 2-OHE2, or 2-MeOE2 before cAMP levels were determined in early S-phase and mid-S-phase, as well as during mitosis. E2 and 2-OHE2 had no effect, but 2-MeOE2 caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in cAMP concentration in early S-phase and a decrease during mitosis. Phosphorylation of S-phase proteins was also studied. [32P]Pi incorporation was significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced in many proteins in 2-MeOE2-exposed cells. Small proteins (M(r) < 25,000), as well as large proteins (M(r) > 220,000), were most prominently affected. In comparison, E2 and 2-OHE2 had little effect. We suggest that the enhanced 2-MeOE2-induced protein phosphorylation during S-phase may affect S-phase events, which subsequently causes inhibition of mitosis. Protein synthesis during G2/M transition was unexpectedly enhanced by 2-OHE2 and was not enhanced by E2. [35S]Methionine incorporation into proteins in the order of M(r) 32,000-46,000, 47,000-50,000, 58,000-67,000, and 83,000-89,000 was significantly (P < 0.05) increased. 2-MeOE2 had no effect. The results of this study indicate that 2-OHE2 may be the more potent mitogen, whereas 2-MeOE2 acts as a cytostatin. PMID:1327520

Lottering, M L; Haag, M; Seegers, J C

1992-11-01

19

Olanzapine plus 17-beta estradiol produce antidepressant-like actions in rats forced to swim.  

PubMed

Several combinations of effective treatments have been used in the search for higher response rates or more rapid responses than monotherapy to diminish treatment-resistant depression. One strategy is to combine olanzapine plus antidepressant drugs. In preclinical studies in male rats, olanzapine combined with fluoxetine produce antidepressant-like actions and increase the allopregnanolone levels in the brain. 17-beta estradiol also produces antidepressant-like actions by increasing allopregnanolone levels. However, the effects of combining olanzapine with 17-beta estradiol in the forced swimming test have not been tested before. Thus, systemic injections of vehicle plus olanzapine, or fluoxetine (20.0 mg/kg; 25.0 mg/kg) or 17-beta estradiol (10.0 microg/rat; 20.0 microg/rat) reduced immobility by increasing active behaviors, which were cancelled by finasteride (finasteride was used to block the endogenous production of allopregnanolone by the brain) in ovariectomized rats forced to swim. Subthreshold doses of olanzapine (2.5 mg/kg) combined with subthreshold doses of 17-beta estradiol (5.0 microg/rat) produced antidepressant-like actions, as did the combination subthreshold dose of olanzapine (2.5 mg/kg) plus the subthreshold dose of fluoxetine (15.0 mg/kg). Finasteride cancelled the antidepressant-like actions of the several combinations used. It is concluded that olanzapine alone or combined with fluoxetine or estradiol reduced immobility by increasing swimming. In conclusion, olanzapine produces antidepressant-like actions alone or in combination with estradiol. These antidepressant-like actions of this combination were cancelled by finasteride. PMID:19583976

Molina-Hernández, Miguel; Téllez-Alcántara, N Patricia; Olivera-Lopez, Jorge I; Jaramillo, M Teresa

2009-10-01

20

Trichomonas vaginalis: dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and 17beta-estradiol alter NTPDase activity and gene expression.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and 17beta-estradiol on NTPDase activity in fresh clinical (VP60) and long-term-grown (30236 ATCC) isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis followed by NTPDase gene transcriptional analysis. ATP hydrolysis was activated in vitro by 17beta-estradiol (0.01-1.0microM) in the VP60 isolate. Treatment for 2h with 17beta-estradiol (0.01-1microM) promoted an inhibition in nucleotide hydrolysis in the 30236 isolate whereas the 12h-treatment promoted an activation of nucleotide hydrolysis in both isolates. ADP hydrolysis was inhibited in vitro by 1.0-5.0microM DHEAS in the ATCC isolate. The treatment with DHEAS (0.01-1.0microM) for 2h inhibited ATP and ADP hydrolysis in VP60; however, during a 12h-treatment with DHEAS, nucleotide hydrolysis was inhibited in both isolates. Two NTPDase orthologous (NTPDaseA and NTPDaseB) were identified and the treatment with DHEAS for 12h was able to inhibit mRNA NTPDaseA transcript levels from the VP60. These findings demonstrate that NTPDase activity and gene expression pattern are modulated by exposure to steroids in T. vaginalis. PMID:20159012

Rückert, Caroline; Stuepp, Cristiane dos Santos; Gottardi, Barbara; Rosa, Jessica; Cisilotto, Julia; Borges, Fernanda Pires; Rosemberg, Denis Broock; Bogo, Mauricio Reis; Tasca, Tiana; De Carli, Geraldo Attilio; Bonan, Carla Denise

2010-07-01

21

Characterization of the stromal osteogenic cell line MN7: mRNA steady-state level of selected osteogenic markers depends on cell density and is influenced by 17 beta-estradiol.  

PubMed

The steady-state mRNA levels of different osteogenic markers and their modulation by 17 beta-estradiol in the murine osteogenic cell line MN7 during proliferation and differentiation in vitro were examined. mRNA of collagen type I, osteopontin, bone morphogenetic protein 2, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin were isolated from MN7 cultures grown for 7, 11, 14, and 17 days. Northern blot analysis revealed steady-state transcript levels depending on MN7 cell density. The order of appearance of Col I, OP, ALP, and OC resembled the pattern of gene expression observed during osteoblast maturation in vitro. Furthermore, PAI-1 steady-state transcript levels peaked during subconfluence (day 11) but BMP-2 RNA levels reached their maximum after the culture had become confluent. 17 beta-Estradiol showed a dose-dependent stimulation of the different osteoblast-related transcripts present in a subconfluent MN7 culture at the time of analysis. Furthermore, the effects of 17 beta-estradiol (17 beta E2) at different time points of MN7 growth varied according to cell density. 17 beta E2 added to subconfluent MN7 cultures modulated the transcript level in a negative way, but RNA levels of the investigated osteogenic markers in confluent cultures were stimulated with 100 nM 17 beta-estradiol. No effect of 17 beta-estradiol on proliferation was detected. The present studies have revealed differential osteoblast gene expression related to MN7 cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro and emphasize the importance of 17 beta E2 in the regulation of growth of this preosteoblastic cell line in vitro. PMID:8140931

Mathieu, E; Merregaert, J

1994-02-01

22

On the role of 17 alpha-estradiol and 17 beta-estradiol in the proliferation of MCF7 and T47D-A11 human breast tumor cells.  

PubMed

A comparative study of the proliferative effect of 17 beta-estradiol and 17 alpha-estradiol on human estrogen-sensitive cell lines was performed. When using charcoal-dextran stripped human female sera-supplemented media the administration of the hormones, 17 alpha-estradiol at 3 X 10(-10)M, and 17 beta-estradiol at 3 X 10(-11)M, resulted in a ten-fold increase in cell yield when compared with non-estrogen supplemented controls after cells were grown for periods between 10 to 14 days. No significant metabolization of 17 alpha-estradiol into 17 beta-estradiol occurred as measured by the E2 levels in the supernatants of the cell culture flasks. Increased concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol and 17 alpha-estradiol added to the media bathing C7MCF7-173 cells resulted in a triggering of a partially successful shut-off effect; this phenomenon was not observed with T47D-All cells. These results are compatible with predictions stemming from the indirect and direct negative working hypothesis for the regulation of cell proliferation. PMID:4066773

Papendorp, J T; Schatz, R W; Soto, A M; Sonnenschein, C

1985-12-01

23

Inhibitory effects of various beverages on the sulfoconjugation of 17beta-estradiol in human colon carcinoma Caco-2 cells.  

PubMed

To investigate the possible effects of different beverages in the gastrointestinal tract on the sulfation of estrogen, which is a major hormone and prototype substrate for the human sulfotransferases (SULT), we analyzed the effects of these substances upon the sulfate conjugation of 17beta-estradiol (E2) in the human colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2. Sulfoconjugation activity toward E2 was measured by incubating 20 nM E2 with Caco-2 cells in the presence (5% (v/v)) of each beverage. Among the 35 beverages analyzed, four (aronia, blueberry, coffee, and peppermint) exhibited strong inhibitory effects on E2 sulfation within Caco-2 cells IC50 values ranging from 1.9 to 4.4% (v/v)). These active beverages also strongly inhibited the cytosolic estrogen SULT activity of Caco-2 cells in vitro (IC50 values ranging from 0.18 to 0.3% (v/v)). These inhibitory activities were extractable with ethyl acetate but not hexane or n-butanol, indicating that the molecules responsible are moderately lipophilic. Coffee was found to be the most potent inhibitor but the major constituents of this beverage, caffeic acid, caffeine, and chlorogenic acid, did not show any effects on estrogen SULT activity. Kinetic analyses further indicated that the mode of inhibition by coffee is competitive. A possible relationship between the inhibition of estrogen SULT activity by coffee in the gastrointestinal tract and the reported reduction of colon cancer incidence in women who consume coffee is discussed. PMID:18981586

Saruwatari, Ayako; Isshiki, Marina; Tamura, Hiroomi

2008-11-01

24

Postischemic cerebral blood flow recovery in the female: effect of 17 beta-estradiol.  

PubMed

Female reproductive hormones are considered to be protective agents in atherosclerotic vascular disease and stroke. The present study determined if there are unique cerebrovascular responses in female animals to global cerebral ischemia and if 17 beta-estradiol is important to postischemic outcome in brain. Three groups of anesthetized, sexually mature rabbits were treated with normotensive four-vessel occlusion (6 min) and 3 h of reperfusion: females chronically instrumented with 17 beta-estradiol implants (EFEM; n = 8, plasma estradiol level = 365 +/- 48 pg/ml), untreated females (FEM; n = 8, estradiol = 13 +/- 3 pg/ml), and untreated males (M; n = 8, estradiol < limit of radioimmunoassay). CBF (microspheres) and somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) amplitude were measured during ischemia/reperfusion. Baseline hemispheric blood flow and regional flow distribution were not altered by chronic estradiol treatment. Hemispheric blood flow was equivalently reduced during ischemia in FEM and M (6 +/- 1 and 9 +/- 2 ml min-1 100 g-1, respectively); however postischemic hyperemia was greater in FEM than M (CBF = 257 +/- 27 and 183 +/- 27 ml min-1 100 g-1. However, EFEM experienced higher CBF during ischemia (e.g., 13 +/- 2 ml min-1 100 g-1) and less hyperemia (134 +/- 4 ml min-1 100 g-1 in hemispheres) in numerous brain regions than FEM. CBF at 3 h reperfusion was not different among the groups. Recovery of SEPs was incomplete and similar in all groups. We conclude that chronic exogenous 17 beta-estradiol treatment increases CBF during global incomplete ischemia and ameliorates postischemic hyperemia in the female animal. PMID:7790416

Hurn, P D; Littleton-Kearney, M T; Kirsch, J R; Dharmarajan, A M; Traystman, R J

1995-07-01

25

Molecularly imprinted micro and nanospheres for the selective recognition of 17beta-estradiol.  

PubMed

A one-step precipitation polymerization procedure for the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers selective for 17beta-estradiol yielding imprinted micro and nanospheres was developed in this study and compared to templated materials obtained by conventional bulk polymerization. The polymer particles prepared by precipitation polymerization exhibited a regular spherical shape at the micro and nanoscale with a high degree of monodispersity. Moreover, the influence of the polymerization temperature, and the ratio of functional monomer to cross-linker on the size of the obtained particles was investigated. The selectivity of the imprinted micro and nanospheres was evaluated by HPLC analysis and via radioligand binding assays. HPLC separation experiments revealed that the imprinted microspheres provide higher or similar affinity to the template in contrast to imprinted polymers prepared by conventional bulk polymerization or synthesized by multi-step swelling/polymerization methods. The dimensions of the imprinted nanospheres facilitate suspension in solution rendering them ideal for binding assay applications. Results from saturation and displacement assays prove that the imprinted nanospheres exhibit superior specific affinity to the target molecule in contrast to control materials. The binding properties of the nanospheres including binding isotherms and affinity distribution were studied via Freundlich isotherm affinity distribution (FIAD) analysis. Moreover, release experiments show that 70% of rebound 17beta-estradiol was released from the imprinted nanospheres within the first 2 h, while more intimately bound 17beta-estradiol molecules (approx. 16%) were released in the following 42 h. Fitting Brunnauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) multi-point adsorption isotherms to the obtained results indicated that the micro and nanospheres are characterized by a comparatively homogenous and narrow distribution of mesopores in contrast to the corresponding bulk polymers. PMID:16326090

Wei, Shuting; Molinelli, Alexandra; Mizaikoff, Boris

2006-04-15

26

17-beta-estradiol increases mitogenic activity of medium from cultured preadipocytes of massively obese persons.  

PubMed Central

Having reported that omental preadipocytes from massively obese persons release into the culture medium proteins mitogenic for preadipocytes, this study aimed to determine whether estrogens contribute to the production of these factors. Sub-cultured omental preadipocytes from 13 massively obese women were grown in the presence or absence of 17-beta-estradiol, and during the last 24 h the conditioned medium was prepared in the absence of serum. Media from cells of 8 of 13 subjects contained significantly higher mitogenic activity when grown in the presence of 17-beta-estradiol. 17-Alpha-estradiol was not effective. The bioassay system involved rat perirenal preadipocytes, since these have been well characterized. Partial purification by gel filtration chromatography indicated that the estrogen-dependent factors had Mr greater than 250,000 and approximately 30,000. Thus, estrogens might contribute to the development of massive obesity in genetically susceptible subjects by promoting the production of paracrine/autocrine principles by adipose cells.

Cooper, S C; Roncari, D A

1989-01-01

27

Effects of 17beta-estradiol and 4-nonylphenol on osmoregulation and hepatic enzymes in gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus).  

PubMed

Sexually immature Sparus auratus were injected intraperitoneally with coconut oil either alone (control) or containing 17beta-estradiol (E2, 10 microg/g body mass) or 4-nonyphenol (4-NP, 100 and 200 microg/g body mass) and sampled 10 days later. Gill and kidney Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activities, plasma levels of E2 and cortisol, plasma osmolites (osmolality, sodium and chloride) and metabolites (glucose, lactate, proteins and triglycerides) were examined. Livers were used for measuring hepatosomatic index (HSI) and determinations of the activities of antioxidant defences catalase (CAT) and total glutatione peroxidase (t-GPX), the CYP1A-dependent, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). HSI and plasma levels of E2 were significantly increased in E2 -treated fish. E2 treatment enhanced plasma osmolality, glucose, triglycerides and proteins, but had no effect on plasma cortisol, and gill and kidney Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activities. Hepatic activities of EROD, GST and CAT were significantly decreased after E2 administration, whereas t-GPX remained unaffected. Treatment with 200 microg/g 4-NP caused a slight increase in plasma E2 relative to the control group. Plasma glucose and protein levels were not affected by 4-NP, while triglycerides were increased. Fish treated with the higher dose of 4-NP displayed a clear reduction in kidney Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, together with increases in plasma osmolality, relative to the control group. High 4-NP also caused a significant decrease in EROD and an increase in GST activity. Our results confirm the regulation of the natural estrogen E2 and the weak xenoestrogen 4-NP on osmoregulation and biotransformation enzymes in a partially similar manner. The actions of xenoestrogens on critical physiological processes may have an ecological significance as it can reduce adaptability and capacity to metabolise xenobiotics under stressful conditions. PMID:17251064

Carrera, Erkuden Pérez; García-López, Angel; Martín del Río, María del Pilar; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Solé, Montserrat; Mancera, Juan Miguel

2007-03-01

28

Progesterone, but not 17beta-estradiol, increases TNF-alpha secretion in U937 monocytes.  

PubMed

The Women Health Initiative Clinical trial results suggest that post-menopausal women receiving estrogen + progesterone are at risk for heart disease compared with estrogen alone supplemented women. We examined the hypothesis that progesterone but not 17beta-estradiol (E) increases the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. U937 human monocytes were cultured with normal or high glucose in the presence and absence of estrogen or progesterone at 37 degrees C for 24 h. Results show that estrogen inhibits IL-6 but not TNF-alpha secretion (p < 0.05) in monocytes activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or high glucose. In addition, progesterone increased the TNF-alpha secretion in activated monocytes. Thus, progesterone supplementation along with estrogen may increase blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and thus risk of heart disease in post-menopausal women. PMID:15135803

Jain, Sumati K; Kannan, Krishnaswamy; Prouty, Leonard; Jain, Sushil K

2004-05-01

29

Two direct radioimmunoassays for 17 beta-estradiol evaluated for use in monitoring in vitro fertilization.  

PubMed

Two direct 125I radioimmunoassays for 17 beta-estradiol were evaluated by comparing results with those obtained by a comparison RIA involving extraction and chromatography (x) and with ultrasound parameters of ovarian activity. The correlation coefficients (R2) for the Immuchem Covalent-Coat Solid Phase 125I results (y1) and the Pantex Immuno-direct results (y2) with the comparison method results were 0.56 and 0.96, respectively, after log transformation of data (N = 42). Similar differences were observed in the correlations with the ultrasound parameters. We also evaluated the untransformed data by linear regression and obtained: y1 = 254 + 0. 410x (R2 = 0.65) and y2 = 48.2 + 0. 749x (R2 = 0.96). Between- and within-assay variations for a serum pool containing 17 beta-estradiol at 1278 pg/mL were respectively 9.0% and 9.4% for Immuchem , 3.3% and 6.7% for Pantex , and 7.3% and 9.4% for the comparison method; for the 267 pg/mL pool, these were 21.8% and 16.6% for Immuchem , 4.7% and 4.6% for Pantex , and 21.2% and 13.1% for the comparison method. Differences in the results obtained with the Pantex method and the comparison method were not clinically significant for monitoring superovulation for in vitro fertilization; the performance of the Immuchem method was less satisfactory. PMID:6713642

Haning, R V; Meier, S M; Boehnlein, L M; Gerrity, M; Shapiro, S S

1984-05-01

30

17beta-estradiol accelerates tumor onset and decreases survival in a transgenic mouse model of ovarian cancer.  

PubMed

Epithelial ovarian cancer is thought to be derived from the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) but often goes undetected in the early stages, and as a result, the factors that contribute to its initiation and progression remain poorly understood. Epidemiological studies have suggested that the female steroid hormones are involved in ovarian carcinogenesis and that women who use hormone replacement therapy are at increased risk of developing the disease. A novel transgenic mouse model of ovarian cancer (tgCAG-LS-TAg) was developed to examine the role of the female reproductive steroid hormones [17beta-estradiol (E(2)) and progesterone (P(4))] on the initiation, progression, and pathology of ovarian cancer. The mouse model uses the Cre-LoxP system to induce expression of the simian virus 40 large and small T antigens (SV40 TAg). After targeted induction of the oncogene in the OSE, mice develop poorly differentiated ovarian tumors, tumor dissemination to tissues within the abdominal cavity, and a subset develops hemorrhagic ascites. Treatment with P(4) had no impact on the disease, but E(2) altered the pathophysiology, resulting in an earlier onset of tumors, decreased overall survival time, and a distinctive papillary histology. Normal ovaries collected from mice treated with E(2), but lacking expression of SV40 TAg, displayed an increase in the areas of columnar and hyperplastic OSE cells compared to placebo-treated controls. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which E(2) alters the morphology of normal OSE cells and reduces survival in this mouse model may translate into improved prevention and treatment options for women using hormone replacement therapy. PMID:20056833

Laviolette, Laura A; Garson, Kenneth; Macdonald, Elizabeth A; Senterman, Mary K; Courville, Kerri; Crane, Colleen A; Vanderhyden, Barbara C

2010-03-01

31

A HOXA10 Estrogen Response Element (ERE) is Differentially Regulated by 17 Beta-estradiol and Diethylstilbestrol (DES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular mechanisms by which estrogens regulate developmental gene expression are poorly understood. While 17 beta-estradiol is normally present at high concentrations in pregnancy, exposure to the estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) in utero induces developmental anomalies of the female reproductive tract. HOX gene expression is altered by DES, leading to abnormal Müllerian duct differentiation. The mechanism of ligand-specific regulation of HOX

G Eda Akbas; Joon Song; Hugh S Taylor

2004-01-01

32

Fathead minnow vitellogenin: Complementary DNA sequence and messenger RNA and protein expression after 17{beta}-estradiol treatment  

SciTech Connect

Induction of vitellogenin (VTG) in oviparous animals has been proposed as a sensitive indicator of environmental contaminants that activate the estrogen receptor. In the present study, a sensitive ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) for VTG messenger RNA (mRNA) was developed for the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), a species proposed for routine endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) screening. The utility of this method was compared with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specific for fathead minnow VTG protein. Assessment of the two methods included kinetic characterization of the plasma VTG protein and hepatic VTG mRNA levels in male fathead minnows following intraperitoneal injections of 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) at two dose levels (0.5, 5.0 mg/kg). Initial plasma E2 concentrations were elevated in a dose-dependent manner but returned to normal levels within 2 d. Lover VTG mRNA was detected within 4 h, reached a maximum around 48 h, and returned to normal levels in about 6 d. Plasma VTG protein was detectable within 16 h of treatment reached maximum levels at about 72 h. and remained near these maximum levels for at least 18 d. While the RPA was about 1,000 times more sensitive than the ELISA, the ELISA appears superior for routine screening tests. The ELISA method is relatively simple to perform and, because males lack a clearance mechanism for VTG, the protein remains at relatively high concentrations in the plasma for an extended period of time. As part of the development of the RPA, the complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence for fathead minnow VTG was determined and the deduced amino acid sequence compared with VTG sequences for other fish species.

Korte, J.J.; Kahl, M.D.; Jensen, K.M.; Pasha, M.S.; Parks, L.G.; LeBlanc, G.A.; Ankley, G.T.

2000-04-01

33

Benzo[k]fluoranthene enhancement and suppression of 17beta-estradiol catabolism in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

It previously was shown that benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon frequently detected in environmental samples, increases catabolism of 17beta estradiol (E2) in human breast cancer cells. Data in the present paper demonstrate that BkF both increases and inhibits the catabolism of E2 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and that the in vitro BkF increase and inhibition are dependent on the concentration of BkF and the length of the incubation period. A radiometric assay was used to investigate the catabolism of [3H]E2 after exposure to 5 concentrations of BkF for 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, or 72 h. The concentration of BkF necessary for maximal increase in catabolism of E2 varied with the incubation period. At 6 h, a maximal increase was obtained with 0.01 and 0.1 microM, and at 48 h a maximal increase was obtained with 0.5 microM and 1 microM BkF. The increased rate of E2 catabolism was transient at lower concentrations of BkF but remained maximal at 72 h with 0.5 and 1 microM BkF. The highest concentration of BkF tested, 5 microM, was inhibitory at all time points. In contrast to BkF, fluoranthene (FL), another PAH frequently detected in environmental samples, did not significantly increase the catabolism of E2 at any of the concentrations or time points tested. Results showing that BkF inhibits the catabolism of E2 induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) suggest that the BkF inhibition of cellular E2 catabolism is due to competition between BkF and E2 for the TCDD-induced enzymes. Overall, results from these studies demonstrate that BkF both increases and inhibits the cellular catabolism of E2, and emphasize the importance of considering time as well as concentration when conducting short-term in vitro assays. PMID:10616190

Arcaro, K F; Yang, Y; Gierthy, J F

1999-12-10

34

17beta-estradiol potently suppresses cAMP-induced insulin-like growth factor-I gene activation in primary rat osteoblast cultures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a key factor in bone remodeling. In osteoblasts, IGF-I synthesis is enhanced by parathyroid hormone and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) through cAMP-activated protein kinase. In rats, estrogen loss after ovariectomy leads to a rise in serum IGF-I and an increase in bone remodeling, both of which are reversed by estrogen treatment. To examine estrogen-dependent regulation of IGF-I expression at the molecular level, primary fetal rat osteoblasts were co-transfected with the estrogen receptor (hER, to ensure active ER expression), and luciferase reporter plasmids controlled by promoter 1 of the rat IGF-I gene (IGF-I P1), used exclusively in these cells. As reported, 1 microM PGE2 increased IGF-I P1 activity by 5-fold. 17beta-Estradiol alone had no effect, but dose-dependently suppressed the stimulatory effect of PGE2 by up to 90% (ED50 approximately 0.1 nM). This occurred within 3 h, persisted for at least 16 h, required ER, and appeared specific, since 17alpha-estradiol was 100-300-fold less effective. By contrast, 17beta-estradiol stimulated estrogen response element (ERE)-dependent reporter expression by up to 10-fold. 17beta-Estradiol also suppressed an IGF-I P1 construct retaining only minimal promoter sequence required for cAMP-dependent gene activation, but did not affect the 60-fold increase in cAMP induced by PGE2. There is no consensus ERE in rat IGF-I P1, suggesting novel downstream interactions in the cAMP pathway that normally enhances IGF-I expression in skeletal cells. To explore this, nuclear extract from osteoblasts expressing hER were examined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay using the atypical cAMP response element in IGF-I P1. Estrogen alone did not cause DNA-protein binding, while PGE2 induced a characteristic gel shift complex. Co-treatment with both hormones caused a gel shift greatly diminished in intensity, consistent with their combined effects on IGF-I promoter activity. Nonetheless, hER did not bind IGF-I cAMP response element or any adjacent sequences. These results provide new molecular evidence that estrogen may temper the biological effects of hormones acting through cAMP to regulate skeletal IGF-I expression and activity.

McCarthy, T. L.; Ji, C.; Shu, H.; Casinghino, S.; Crothers, K.; Rotwein, P.; Centrella, M.

1997-01-01

35

17beta-estradiol, gender independently, reduces atheroma development but not neointimal proliferation after balloon injury in the rabbit aorta.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate anti-proliferative and anti-atherogenic properties of 17beta-estradiol in balloon injured female and male rabbit aortae. Thirty-two female and 32 male New Zealand White rabbits where gonadectomised. Vascular injury was performed with a balloon catheter in the lower abdominal aorta. Male and female rabbits were randomised into four groups of eight animals each. Only two of four groups received a 0.5% cholesterol-enriched diet. One cholesterol-diet group and one normal-diet group received intramuscular injections of estradiol valerate (1 mg/kg body weight/week). After 28 days, the denuded part of the abdominal aorta was excised and analysed by morphometry and immunohistochemistry. Estrogen treatment did not show an inhibitory effect on neointimal proliferation in normo-cholesterolemic male or female rabbits. A gender independent inhibitory effect of 17beta-estradiol was seen on atheroma development in cholesterol-fed female and male rabbits, while plasma total cholesterol levels were significantly reduced in male rabbits only. The 17beta-estradiol treatment was associated with a significantly decreased number of luminal endothelial cells in normo and hyper-cholesterolemic female rabbits, as evaluated by immunohistochemical staining for 'von Willebrand factor'. Staining for Ki-67-positive proliferating cells after 28 days showed a statistically significant increased proliferative activity in the neointima of hyper-cholesterolemic female rabbits. The neointimal content of macrophages increased significantly in all hyper-cholesterolemic rabbits. Under 17beta-estradiol treatment, the number of macrophages was increased in female and decreased in male rabbits by tendency. Additionally, the 'classical' vascular estrogen receptor was present in both female and male rabbit aortae without statistically significant differences. In conclusion, 17beta-estradiol did not reduce post-injury neointima formation in normo-cholesterolemic rabbits. However, in hyper-cholesterolemic rabbits, 17beta-estradiol reduced atheroma development gender independently. This effect cannot be explained by lowering of plasma cholesterol levels or endothelium-mediated pathways, and requires further investigation on, for example, antioxidative, antiproliferative or estrogen receptor mediated effects. PMID:11137081

Finking, G; Krauss, N; Römer, S; Eckert, S; Lenz, C; Kamenz, J; Menke, A; Brehme, U; Hombach, V; Hanke, H

2001-01-01

36

Local delivery of 17-beta-estradiol decreases neointimal hyperplasia after coronary angioplasty in a porcine model  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDNeointimal hyperplasia is an important mechanism of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Systemically administered estrogen is known to inhibit neointimal formation after arterial injury.OBJECTIVESWe sought to assess the efficacy of locally delivered 17-beta-estradiol (BE) in inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia after PTCA.METHODSEighteen juvenile farm pigs were studied. Coronary angioplasty was performed in all three coronary arteries of each animal. After

Baskaran Chandrasekar; Jean-François Tanguay

2000-01-01

37

Upregulation of estrogen receptor subtypes and vitellogenin mRNA in cinnamon clownfish Amphiprion melanopus during the sex change process: profiles on effects of 17beta-estradiol.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated the expression pattern of estrogen receptors (esr) and vitellogenin (vtg) mRNA in the gonads and liver during sex change in cinnamon clownfish by using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We divided gonadal development during the sex change from male to female into 3 stages (mature male, male at 90days after removing female, and mature female) and investigated esr and vtg mRNA expressions during the sex change. With female, the esr and vtg mRNA expressions increased. In western blot analysis, Esr1 protein was detected only in the ovaries of female cinnamon clownfish. Also, to understand the effect of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), we investigated the esr and vtg mRNA expression patterns in the gonads and liver, and the changes in plasma E(2) level after E(2) injection. E(2) treatment increased both mRNA expression levels of esr and vtg and plasma E(2) levels. The present study describes the molecular characterization of esr subtypes and the interactions between esr and vtg after E(2) treatment in cinnamon clownfish. PMID:20601066

Kim, Na Na; Jin, Deuk-Hee; Lee, Jehee; Kil, Gyung-Suk; Choi, Cheol Young

2010-10-01

38

Age-dependent changes in fecal 17beta-estradiol and progesterone concentrations in female spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi).  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate whether sex steroids decreased with age in female black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi). Fecal concentrations of 17beta-estradiol and progesterone (five samples/wk) and the number of ovulatory and anovulatory cycles were compared between adult (n=3) and aged females (n=2). All animals (regardless of age) had higher 17beta-estradiol concentrations during the fertile than the nonfertile phases. However, during the fertile phase, concentrations of this hormone were significantly higher in adult females. Conversely, progesterone concentrations varied normally throughout the menstrual cycle in both adult and aged animals, with no significant difference between age classes. Similarly, there was no significant effect of age on the number of ovulatory and anovulatory cycles. In conclusion, we inferred that the aged female spider monkeys did not reach menopause, instead they remained in a perimenopausal period characterized by changes in fecal concentrations of ovarian steroids and hypothalamus-hypophysis-ovary axis activity, as well as irregular menstrual flows, for prolonged intervals. PMID:19963259

Hernández-López, L; Cerda-Molina, A L; Chavira-Ramírez, R; Mondragón-Ceballos, R

2010-03-01

39

Ligninase-mediated removal of 17beta-estradiol from water in the presence of natural organic matter: efficiency and pathways.  

PubMed

Lignin peroxidase (LiP) is excreted by certain lignin-degrading fungi, such as white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, in natural environments and is thus widely present in the natural environment. We have found in our earlier studies that LiP mediates effective reactions of a few natural and synthetic estrogens to form oligomeric products via radical coupling. We in particular examined the identity and property of the products resulting from 17beta-estradiol (E2) in LiP-mediated oxidative coupling reactions, and the results suggest that such reactions hold great potential in water/wastewater treatment to remove E2 and estrogenicity. Herein, we report a further investigation to postulate possible reaction pathways of E2 with the assistance of ab initio molecular modeling and to more systematically examine the reaction behavior of E2 under sequenced reaction conditions and in systems containing natural organic matter (NOM) at different levels. Our molecular modeling suggested the coupling of E2 likely proceeded via covalent bonding between two E2 radicals at their unsubstituted carbons in phenolic rings. Results obtained from sequenced reagent feed experiments revealed that the coupling products tended to be consumed with increment enzyme treatments, suggesting that most E2 coupling products may still be LiP substrates that can undergo further coupling reactions under catalysis. Higher concentration of NOM present in the reaction system tended to reduce E2 transformation. NOM moieties seemed to couple to each other upon reaction with LiP, which was evidenced by the development of a characteristic absorbance band. PMID:20416920

Mao, Liang; Huang, Qingguo; Luo, Qi; Lu, Junhe; Yang, Xi; Gao, Shixiang

2010-06-01

40

Evidence to implicate early modulation of interleukin-1beta expression in the neuroprotection afforded by 17beta-estradiol in male rats undergone transient middle cerebral artery occlusion.  

PubMed

Neuroprotection exerted by 17beta-estradiol (17beta-E(2)) has been widely investigated in animal models of acute cerebral ischemia. Estrogens interact with intracellular receptors (ERalpha and ERbeta) to modulate the transcription of target genes, including those implicated in neuronal survival. Neuroprotection may also occur via interaction with ER-like membrane receptors mediating rapid, non-genomic, actions or via receptor-independent mechanisms. There is also evidence that blockade of inflammatory factors may represent an important mechanism involved in estrogenic neuroprotection. Here we investigate whether reduced brain damage by acute pharmacological treatment with 17beta-E(2) in male rats subjected to transient (2h) middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) involves modulation of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), a proinflammatory cytokine strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke. Administration of 17beta-E(2) (0.2mg/kg, i.p., 1h before tMCAo) results in significant reduction of brain infarct volume, and this is reverted by the ER antagonist ICI 182,780 (0.25mg/kg, i.p.) administered 1h before 17beta-E(2). Two hours MCAo followed by 2-h reperfusion results in a significant, threefold increase of IL-1beta levels in the cortical tissue ipsilateral to the ischemic damage. Interestingly, a pretreatment with a neuroprotective dose of 17beta-E(2) attenuates the cytokine elevation and this appears to occur through ER activation. In addition, neuroprotection by 17beta-E(2) is accompanied by reduced cytochrome c translocation both in the striatum and in the cortex as revealed by Western blotting 3h after reperfusion. In conclusion, we report the original observation that neuroprotection exerted by 17beta-E(2) in a rat model of transient focal brain ischemia is accompanied by reduced cytochrome c translocation to the cytosol and involves early modulation of IL-1beta production. PMID:17678971

Chiappetta, Olga; Gliozzi, Micaela; Siviglia, Elisa; Amantea, Diana; Morrone, Luigi A; Berliocchi, Laura; Bagetta, G; Corasaniti, M Tiziana

2007-01-01

41

17Beta-estradiol confers a protective effect against transforming growth factor-beta2-induced cataracts in female but not male lenses.  

PubMed

Transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-beta2) induces anterior subcapsular cataracts, with a marked increase in cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix proteins, such as alpha-smooth muscle actin (alphaSMA). It has been shown that 17beta-estradiol (E2) can prevent TGF-beta2-induced cataracts in lenses from ovariectomized female rats. The purpose of the current study was to extend this finding by testing whether E2 can prevent TGF-beta2-induced cataracts and inhibit the induction of alphaSMA gene expression in normal male and normal, non-ovariectomized female rats.Sex-specific differences were observed in 17-week-old rat lenses incubated in 0.15 ng ml(-1) TGF-beta2 and in 10(-8)M E2 plus TGF-beta2. TGF-beta2 induced approximately twice as many anterior subcapsular plaques and 1.5 times the level of alphaSMA transcripts in male lenses compared to female lenses. Notably, E2 inhibited plaque formation and the induction of alphaSMA transcripts in female rat lenses but not in male rat lenses. E2 also inhibited the induction of alphaSMA in TGF-beta2-incubated lenses from ovariectomized female rats.E2 prevented lens opacification and the induction of alphaSMA gene expression in female, but not male, lenses. This sex-specific difference may have implications for studies on the therapeutic use of estradiol for treatment of secondary cataract. PMID:14667828

Chen, Zhengguang; John, Molykutty; Subramanian, Saradha; Chen, Hong; Carper, Deborah

2004-01-01

42

17beta-estradiol, genistein, and 4-hydroxytamoxifen induce the proliferation of thyroid cancer cells through the g protein-coupled receptor GPR30.  

PubMed

The higher incidence of thyroid carcinoma (TC) in women during reproductive years compared with men and the increased risk associated with the therapeutic use of estrogens have suggested a pathogenetic role exerted by these steroids in the development of TC. In the present study, we evaluated the potential of 17beta-estradiol (E2), genistein (G), and 4-hydroxyta-moxifen (OHT) to regulate the expression of diverse estrogen target genes and the proliferation of human WRO, FRO, and ARO thyroid carcinoma cells, which were used as a model system. We have ascertained that ARO cells are devoid of estrogen receptors (ERs), whereas both WRO and FRO cells express a single variant of ERalpha that was neither transactivated, modulated, nor translocated into the nucleus upon treatment with ligands. However, E2, G, and OHT were able either to induce the transcriptional activity of c-fos promoter constructs, including those lacking the estrogen-responsive elements, or to increase c-fos, cyclin A, and D1 expression. It is noteworthy that we have demonstrated that the G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway mediate both the up-regulation of c-fos and the growth response to E2, G, and OHT in TC cells studied, because these stimulatory effects were prevented by silencing GPR30 and using the MEK inhibitor 2'-amino-3'-methoxyflavone (PD 98059). Our findings provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms through which estrogens may induce the progression of TC. PMID:16835357

Vivacqua, Adele; Bonofiglio, Daniela; Albanito, Lidia; Madeo, Antonio; Rago, Vittoria; Carpino, Amalia; Musti, Anna Maria; Picard, Didier; Andò, Sebastiano; Maggiolini, Marcello

2006-10-01

43

Characterization of the efflux transport of 17beta-estradiol-D-17beta-glucuronide from the brain across the blood-brain barrier.  

PubMed

The contribution of organic anion transporters to the total efflux of 17beta-estradiol-D-17beta-glucuronide (E(2)17betaG) through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was investigated using the Brain Efflux Index method by examining the inhibitory effects of probenecid, taurocholate (TCA), p-aminohippurate (PAH), and digoxin. E(2)17betaG was eliminated through the BBB with a rate constant of 0.037 min(-1) after the microinjection into the brain. Probenecid and TCA inhibited this elimination with an IC50 value of 34 and 1.8 nmol/0.5 microl of injectate, respectively, whereas PAH and digoxin reduced the total efflux to about 80 and 60% of the control value, respectively. The selectivity of these inhibitors was confirmed by examining their inhibitory effects on the transport via organic anion transporting polypeptide 1 (Oatp1), Oatp2, organic anion transporter 1 (Oat1), and Oat3 transfectants using LLC-PK1 cells as hosts. Digoxin specifically inhibited the transport via Oatp2 (K(i) = 0.037 microM). The K(i) values of TCA for Oatp1 and Oatp2 (11 and 39 microM, respectively) were about 20 times lower than those for Oat1 and Oat3 (2.8 and 0.8 mM, respectively). PAH did not affect the transport via the Oatp family, but had a similar affinity for Oat1 and Oat3 (85 and 300 microM, respectively). Probenecid had a similar affinity for these transporters (Oatp1, Oatp2, Oat1, and Oat3) examined in this study. Taking the selectivity of these inhibitors into consideration, the maximum contribution made by the Oatp2 and Oat family to the total efflux of E(2)17betaG from the brain appears to be about 40 and 20%, respectively. PMID:11408557

Sugiyama, D; Kusuhara, H; Shitara, Y; Abe, T; Meier, P J; Sekine, T; Endou, H; Suzuki, H; Sugiyama, Y

2001-07-01

44

Kynostatin and 17beta-estradiol prevent the apoptotic death of human neuroblastoma cells exposed to HIV-1 protease.  

PubMed

A significant number of adult male patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome develop cerebral atrophy and progressive brain disorders such as dementia complex and neuropsychiatric problems. Upon entering the brain via activated macrophages or microglias, the human immunodeficiency type 1 virus (HIV-1) may produce cytotoxic factors such as HIV-1 envelope protein (gp120) and protease. Owing to significant proteolysis of nonviral proteins, the protease derived from HIV-1 may be detrimental to brain cells and neurons. Our results revealed that HIV-1 protease, at nanomolar concentrations, was as potent as gp120 in causing neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma neurotypic SH-SY5Y cells. As shown by the Oncor ApopTag staining procedure, HIV-1 protease significantly increased the number of apoptotic cells over the serum-free controls. Moreover, HIV-1 protease-induced neurotoxicity was blocked by a selective protease inhibitor, kynostatin (KNI-272). Antioxidants such as 17beta-estradiol, melatonin, and S-nitrosoglutathione also prevented protease-induced neurotoxicity. These findings indicate that oxidative proteolysis may mediate HIV-1 protease-induced apoptosis and the degeneration of neurons and other brain cells. Centrally active protease inhibitors and antioxidants may play an important role in preventing cerebral atrophy and associated dementia complex caused by HIV-1. PMID:10545779

Hawkins, V; Shen, Q; Chiueh, C C

1999-01-01

45

Enhancement of genomic instability by 17beta-estradiol in minisatellite sequences of X-ray-transformed mouse 10T1/2 cells.  

PubMed

The female hormone 17beta-estradiol is involved in the development of breast cancer, an effect usually attributed to its capacity to stimulate the replication of preneoplastic and malignant cells. In this study, we report that 17beta-estradiol enhances the onset of genomic rearrangements, a type of genomic instability, in minisatellite sequences of malignant 10T1/2 mouse cells. Two malignant clones, X-ray-9 and F-17a, previously transformed in vitro by X-rays (600 cGys), and two non-transformed 10T1/2 mouse cell subclones (10T1/2b and 10T1/2c) were divided into two groups. The first group was incubated in the presence of 10(-5) M of 17beta-estradiol (dissolved in ethanol) for 5 days, while the second group was incubated for the same period in culture media containing 0.1% of ethanol. After the incubation both groups of cells were then subcloned, and their DNA was extracted and analyzed with the DNA fingerprinting assay using the probe M (core sequence: 5'-AGGC). A high frequency of genomic rearrangements was observed in the transformed subclones treated with 17beta-estradiol. Nine deletions or additions in minisatellite alleles were observed in six F-17a subclones, while 28 of those genomic rearrangements were found in the 12 X-ray-9 malignant subclones. On the other hand, for the non-transformed 10T1/2b and 10T1/2c cells, no genomic rearrangements were induced by the hormone. After the withdrawal of 17beta-estradiol from the transformed clone X-ray-9, no new genomic rearrangements were detected; while a second incubation with the hormone induced new deletions or additions in minisatellite alleles. This preferential enhancement of genomic instability in malignant 10T1/2 mouse cells suggests that 17beta-estradiol may accelerate the accumulation of mutations, and therefore may represent a mechanism by which the female hormone contributes to breast cancer development. PMID:8681435

Paquette, B

1996-06-01

46

The analysis of estrone and 17beta-estradiol by stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry: application to urine samples after oral administration of conjugated equine estrogens.  

PubMed

The development of a sensitive and solvent-free method for the measurement of estrone (E(1)) and 17beta-estradiol (17beta-E(2)) in human urine samples is described. The deconjugated estrogens were derivatized in situ with acetic acid anhydride and the derivatives were extracted directly from the aqueous samples using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). The compounds containing a secondary alcohol function are further derivatized by headspace acylation prior to thermal desorption and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A number of experimental parameters, including salt addition, temperature and time, were optimized to increase the recovery of E(1) and 17beta-E(2) by SBSE. The derivatization reactions were also optimized to obtain the highest yields of the acylated estrogens. Detection limits of 0.02 and 0.03 ng mL(-1) were obtained for E(1) and 17beta-E(2), respectively. The method was applied to determine the effect of conjugated equine estrogen intake on the excretion of E(1) and 17beta-E(2) in human urine samples. Increased levels of the endogenous estrogens were detected after administering a standard dose of Premarin to a female volunteer. Routine monitoring of estrogen levels is recommended to avoid a high urinary excretion of E(1) and 17beta-E(2), nowadays enlisted as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), during hormone replacement therapy. PMID:17581803

Stopforth, Adriana; Burger, Ben V; Crouch, Andrew M; Sandra, Pat

2007-09-01

47

Changing dose of progesterone results in sudden changes in frequency of luteinizing hormone pulses and secretion of 17 beta-estradiol in bovine females.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to elucidate the time course according to which changes in circulating concentrations of progesterone influence pulsatile secretion of LH and secretion of 17 beta-estradiol. Our working hypothesis was that changing the dose of progesterone would result in changes in frequency of LH pulses and secretion of 17 beta-estradiol within 72 h. Five days after behavioral estrus, thirty-three cows were randomly assigned to one of five groups: 1) control, no treatment (CONT, n = 5); 2) treatment with two progesterone-releasing intravaginal devices (PRIDs) for 11 days (2PRID, 5-6 ng/ml plasma progesterone, n = 7); 3) treatment with a 0.5 PRID for 11 days (0.5PRID, 1-2 ng/ml plasma progesterone, n = 7); 4) treatment with 2 PRIDs for 8 days followed by treatment with a 0.5 PRID for 3 days (2-0.5PRID, n = 7); and 5) treatment with a 0.5 PRID for 8 days followed by treatment with 2 PRIDs for 3 days (0.5-2PRID, n = 7). Cows subject to PRID treatments received injections of prostaglandin F2 alpha on Days 1 and 2 (Day 0 = day of initiation of PRID treatments, fifth day of the estrous cycle in CONT cows) to lyse the existing corpus luteum. Cows were bled for 12 h at 15-min intervals on Day 7.5 of the treatment period (twelfth day of the estrous cycle in CONT cows). The dose of progesterone was changed on Day 8 in cows that were assigned to the 2-0.5PRID and 0.5-2PRID groups, and blood collections continued an additional 72 h to characterize profiles of circulating concentrations of LH and 17 beta-estradiol. Cows treated with a 0.5 PRID had a greater (p < 0.05) number of LH pulses and higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol throughout the entire blood collection period than cows in the 2PRID and CONT groups. An increase in the number of LH pulses was detected within 6 h after the change from the high to the low dose of progesterone (2-0.5PRID), and frequency of LH pulses was similar to that of cows in the 0.5PRID group for the remainder of the period of blood collection. LH pulse frequency declined within 6 h after the shift from the low to the high dose of progesterone (0.5-2PRID) and was similar to that of cows in the 2PRID group by 12 h after the dose was changed. Within 6 h after the dose of progesterone was changed, circulating concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol increased (p < 0.05) in cows shifted from the high to low dose (2-0.5PRID) and declined (p < 0.05) after the dose of progesterone was changed from low to high (0.5-2PRID). We conclude that changing the circulating concentrations of progesterone concurrently affects frequency of pulsatile LH release and secretion of 17 beta-estradiol within 6-24 h. PMID:8835375

Bergfeld, E G; Kojima, F N; Cupp, A S; Wehrman, M E; Peters, K E; Mariscal, V; Sanchez, T; Kinder, J E

1996-03-01

48

Novel estrogens and their radical scavenging effects, iron-chelating, and total antioxidative activities: 17 alpha-substituted analogs of delta 9(11)-dehydro-17 beta-estradiol.  

PubMed

Antioxidant effects of N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine, p-cresol, and p-(hydroxy)thioanisol 17 alpha-substituted analogs of 17 beta-estradiol and their delta 9(11)-dehydro homologs were investigated using four different in vitro models: rat synaptosomal lipid peroxidation induced by Fenton's reagent, Fe(II)-chelating activities, the formation of superoxide anion radicals, and total antioxidative activity. Whereas the classical estrogen 17 beta-estradiol as well as selected phenolic compounds was only moderately inhibiting iron-dependent lipid peroxidation and stimulating total antioxidative activity, besides delta 9(11)-dehydro-17 beta-estradiol (J 1213), novel estrogens such as C-17-oriented side chain analogs of 17 beta-estradiol (J 843, J 872, and J 897) and delta 9(11)-dehydro homologs (J 844, J 864, and J 898) directly altered the iron redox chemistry and diminished the formation of superoxide anion radicals generated by a xanthine/xanthine oxidase-dependent luminescence reaction to a great extent. These results suggest that definite modifications in the chemical structure of 17 beta-estradiol, e.g., the introduction of a delta 9(11)-double bond and/or p-cresol as well as p-(hydroxy)thioanisol C-17 substitution, may result in substantial changes in their antioxidant behavior. These compounds may be drug candidates for treating pathologies related to free radical formation. PMID:9366006

Römer, W; Oettel, M; Menzenbach, B; Droescher, P; Schwarz, S

1997-11-01

49

Effects of o,p'-DDE, heptachlor, and 17beta-estradiol on vitellogenin gene expression and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I axis in the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus.  

PubMed

Effects of two endocrine disruptors, o,p'-DDE and heptachlor, and 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) on vitellogenin (Vg) and the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis were examined in male tilapia. In the first experiment, fish were given 5 weekly injections of either E(2), o,p'-DDE or heptachlor (5 microg/g). E(2) treatment increased plasma Vg and hepatic expression of three Vg genes (Vgs A, B, and C) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), while reducing plasma levels of IGF-I and suppressing the expression of IGF-I, the GH receptor (GHR2) and the putative somatolactin receptor (GHR1). Neither pesticide greatly affected the other parameters examined, except for a significant reduction in expression of GHR2 and increased plasma IGF-I. In the second experiment, fish were given a single injection of o,p'-DDE or heptachlor (100 microg/g), or E(2) (5 microg/g) and sacrificed 5 days post-injection. Treatment with E(2) stimulated expression of all three Vg genes. Both o,p'-DDE and heptachlor increased expression of VgB, whereas only o,p'-DDE increased VgA expression. There was no effect of o,p'-DDE or heptachlor on VgC expression or plasma Vg levels. Treatment with o,p'-DDE and heptachlor as well as E(2) increased ERalpha and ERbeta transcript levels. Similarly, both pesticides increased GHR1 and IGF-I expression, whereas no significant effect of E(2) was observed on GHR1, GHR2 or IGF-I expression. These results indicate that o,p'-DDE and heptachlor have varying temporal and dose effects on modulation of Vg and the GH/IGF-I axis that are distinct from E(2). PMID:19101654

Davis, Lori K; Visitacion, Nancy; Riley, Larry G; Hiramatsu, Naoshi; Sullivan, Craig V; Hirano, Tetsuya; Grau, E Gordon

2009-05-01

50

Up-regulation of PI3K/Akt signaling by 17{beta}-estradiol through activation of estrogen receptor-{alpha}, but not estrogen receptor-{beta}, and stimulates cell growth in breast cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Estrogen stimulates cell proliferation in breast cancer. The biological effects of estrogen are mediated through two intracellular receptors, estrogen receptor-{alpha} (ER{alpha}) and estrogen receptor-{beta} (ER{beta}). However, the role of ERs in the proliferative action of estrogen is not well established. Recently, it has been known that ER activates phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K) through binding with the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3K. Therefore, possible mechanisms may include ER-mediated phosphoinositide metabolism with subsequent formation of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP{sub 3}), which is generated from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate via PI3K activation. The present study demonstrates that 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) up-regulates PI3K in an ER{alpha}-dependent manner, but not ER{beta}, and stimulates cell growth in breast cancer cells. In order to study this phenomenon, we have treated ER{alpha}-positive MCF-7 cells and ER{alpha}-negative MDA-MB-231 cells with 10 nM E2. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with E2 resulted in a marked increase in PI3K (p85) expression, which paralleled an increase in phospho-Akt (Ser-473) and PIP{sub 3} level. These observations also correlated with an increased activity to E2-induced cell proliferation. However, these effects of E2 on breast cancer cells were not observed in the MDA-MB-231 cell line, indicating that the E2-mediated up-regulation of PI3K/Akt pathway is ER{alpha}-dependent. These results suggest that estrogen activates PI3K/Akt signaling through ER{alpha}-dependent mechanism in MCF-7 cells.

Lee, Young-Rae [Department of Biochemistry, Center for Healthcare Technology Development, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju 560-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jinny [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Cheju National University College of Medicine, Jeju 670-716 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Hong-Nu [Department of Biochemistry, Center for Healthcare Technology Development, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju 560-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Suk [Department of Biochemistry, Center for Healthcare Technology Development, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju 560-756 (Korea, Republic of); Youn, Hyun Jo [Department of Surgery, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju 560-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Sung Hoo [Department of Surgery, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju 560-756 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: shjung@chonbuk.ac.kr

2005-11-04

51

17 beta-estradiol-induced increases in glucose-regulated protein 78kD and 94kD protect human breast cancer T47-D cells from thermal injury.  

PubMed

Heat shock alters the susceptibility of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents. We conducted experiments to study the regulation of expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) in 17 beta-estradiol-treated T47-D cells, a human breast cancer cell line. Cells exposed to 17 beta-estradiol for 24-48 h displayed increased expression of glucose regulated protein 78kD (GRP-78) and 94kD (GRP-94), as shown by [35S]methionine incorporation and Western blotting experiments. The increase was time (5 h to 48 h)-dependent at 1 nM and 1 microM 17 beta-estradiol. Cells overexpressing GRP-78 and -94 after treatment with 17 beta-estradiol displayed resistance against heat shock (47 degrees C for 50 min)-induced death. Removal of external Ca2+ or treatment of cells with BAPTA (a Ca2+ chelator) did not alter the synthesis of GRP-78 and -94, suggesting that the 17 beta-estradiol effect on the synthesis of GRP-78 and -94 is Ca(2+)-independent. In addition, exposure of cells to 17 beta-estradiol up to 100 microM did not increase [Ca2+]i, which further supports the view that the estrogen-induced GRPs are not regulated by [Ca2+]i. Treatment with H89 (a protein kinase A inhibitor, 1 microM, 30 min) or GF-109203X (a protein kinase C inhibitor, 1 microM, 30 min) also did not change the GRP synthesis, indicating that protein kinase A and C are not involved in regulation of GRP synthesis. PMID:9551250

Kiang, J G; Gist, I D; Tsokos, G C

1997-12-31

52

Local and humoral immune responses against primary and repeat Neisseria gonorrhoeae genital tract infections of 17beta-estradiol-treated mice.  

PubMed

The 17beta-estradiol-treated mouse model is the only small animal model of gonococcal genital tract infection. Here we show gonococci localized within vaginal and cervical tissue, including the lamina propria, and high numbers of neutrophils and macrophages in genital tissue from infected mice. Infection did not induce a substantial or sustained increase in total or gonococcal-specific antibodies. Mice could be reinfected with the same strain and repeat infection did not boost the antibody response. However, intravaginal immunization of estradiol-treated mice induced gonococcal-specific primary and secondary serum antibody responses. We conclude that similar to human infection, experimental murine infection induces local inflammation but not an acquired immune response or immunological memory. PMID:18762223

Song, Wenxia; Condron, Sara; Mocca, Brian T; Veit, Sandra J; Hill, Dawn; Abbas, Asima; Jerse, Ann E

2008-10-23

53

Low 17beta-estradiol levels in CNR1 knock-out mice affect spermatid chromatin remodeling by interfering with chromatin reorganization.  

PubMed

The type 1-cannabinoid receptor, CNR1, regulates differentiation of spermatids. Indeed, we have recently reported that the genetic inactivation of Cnr1 in mice influenced chromatin remodeling of spermatids, by reducing histone displacement and then sperm chromatin quality indices (chromatin condensation and DNA integrity). Herein, we have studied, at both central and testicular levels, the molecular signals potentially involved in histone displacement. In particular, investigation of the neuroendocrine axis involved in estrogen production demonstrated down-regulation of the axis supporting FSH/estrogen secretion in Cnr1-knockout male mice. Conversely, Cnr1-knockout male mice treated with 17beta-estradiol showed a weak increase of pituitary Fsh-beta subunit mRNA levels and a rescue of sperm chromatin quality indices demonstrating that estrogens, possibly in combination with FSH secretion, play an important role in regulating chromatin remodeling of spermatids. PMID:23677985

Cacciola, Giovanna; Chioccarelli, Teresa; Altucci, Lucia; Ledent, Catherine; Mason, J Ian; Fasano, Silvia; Pierantoni, Riccardo; Cobellis, Gilda

2013-06-01

54

17beta-estradiol induces the translocation of the estrogen receptors ESR1 and ESR2 to the cell membrane, MAPK3/1 phosphorylation and proliferation of cultured immature rat Sertoli cells.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanisms involved in estrogen actions in cultured rat Sertoli cells. RT-PCR detected transcripts for the estrogen receptors ESR1 and ESR2 in cultured immature Sertoli cells and in the testis of 15-, 28-, and 120-day-old rats. The expression of ESR1 and ESR2 was confirmed in Sertoli cells by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Immunohistochemistry with cryosections of testes from immature and adult rats revealed that ESR1 is present in Sertoli, Leydig, and some peritubular myoid cells, and ESR2 is present in multiple cell types, including germ cells. Treatment of Sertoli cells with 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) induced a translocation of ESR1 and ESR2 to the plasma membrane and a concomitant phosphorylation of MAPK3/1. Both effects reached a maximum after 10 min and were blocked by PP2, an inhibitor of the SRC family of protein tyrosine kinases, and by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780 (ICI). MAPK3/1 phosphorylation was also decreased in the presence of AG 1478, an inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase, and in the presence of MAP2K1/2 inhibitor UO126. Treatment with E(2) for 24 h increased the incorporation of [methyl-(3)H]thymidine, which was blocked by ICI. These results indicate that E(2) activates an SRC-mediated translocation of estrogen receptors to the plasma membrane, which results in the activation of EGFR and the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. In addition, activation of ESR1 and/or ESR2 by E(2) is involved in proliferation of immature Sertoli cells. The estrogen actions in Sertoli cells might be a key step mediating cellular events important for spermatogenesis and fertility. PMID:17928626

Lucas, Thaís F G; Siu, Erica R; Esteves, Carlos A; Monteiro, Hugo P; Oliveira, Cleida A; Porto, Catarina S; Lazari, Maria Fatima M

2008-01-01

55

Effect of 17beta-estradiol and progesterone on vitellogenesis in the spotted ray Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810 (Elasmobranchii: Torpediniformes): studies on females and on estrogen-treated males.  

PubMed

The influence of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) on vertebrate vitellogenesis is well ascertained. The aim of the present paper is to study the involvement of E(2) and progesterone (P) in the induction and regulation of vitellogenesis in females and experimental E(2)-treated males of Torpedo marmorata. We analyzed females in various stages of the reproductive cycle and E(2) experimentally treated males. The presence of vitellogenin was investigated in the plasma and in the liver by western blot and immunohistochemistry; its site of synthesis was investigated by in situ hybridization. The steroid levels in the plasma were measured by Enzyme Immunoassay. In treated males, E(2) induces in the liver the synthesis of VTG which is then secreted into the bloodstream as a 205-kDa polypeptide, the same that is found in the plasma of non-pregnant vitellogenic females. In females, E(2) is naturally present in the plasma and its level is correlated with VTG synthesis in the liver and with the female reproductive cycle. Indeed, large amounts of E(2) are only found in mature vitellogenic females, whose liver is involved in VTG synthesis and secretion. By contrast, small amounts of E(2) are evident in juveniles whose ovaries are lacking in vitellogenic follicles and in females preparing for ovulation. Low titers are also found in gravid females, whose liver is not engaged in VTG synthesis. We show that P, which is absent in untreated males and juvenile females, is evident in the blood serum of E(2)-treated males and sexually mature females. Interestingly, in treated males P appears in the plasma just 24h after the first injection of E(2) and its titer increases; a week after the last injections, the P level is similar to that recorded in non-gravid vitellogenic females. Finally, it is noteworthy that the highest titer of P was recorded in pregnant females. We demonstrate that in Torpedo vitellogenin synthesis, as in other vertebrates, is under the control of E(2) but also that this synthesis is probably under the control of progesterone. PMID:18555067

Prisco, Marina; Marina, Prisco; Valiante, Salvatore; Salvatore, Valiante; Maddalena Di Fiore, Maria; Maria, Maddalena Di Fiore; Raucci, Franca; Franca, Raucci; Del Giudice, Giuseppina; Giuseppina, Del Giudice; Romano, Maurizio; Maurizio, Romano; Laforgia, Vincenza; Vincenza, Laforgia; Limatola, Ermelinda; Ermelinda, Limatola; Andreuccetti, Piero; Piero, Andreuccetti

2008-06-01

56

Modulation of the endocannabinoid system by focal brain ischemia in the rat is involved in neuroprotection afforded by 17beta-estradiol.  

PubMed

Endogenous levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide, and the activities of the synthesizing and hydrolyzing enzymes, i.e. N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D and fatty acid amide hydrolase, respectively, were determined in the cortex and the striatum of rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Anandamide content was markedly increased ( approximately 3-fold over controls; P < 0.01) in the ischemic striatum after 2 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion, but not in the cortex, and this elevation was paralleled by increased activity of N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D ( approximately 1.7-fold; P < 0.01), and reduced activity ( approximately 0.6-fold; P < 0.01) and expression ( approximately 0.7-fold; P < 0.05) of fatty acid amide hydrolase. These effects of middle cerebral artery occlusion were further potentiated by 1 h of reperfusion, whereas anandamide binding to type 1 cannabinoid and type 1 vanilloid receptors was not affected significantly by the ischemic insult. Additionally, the cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonist SR141716, but not the receptor agonist R-(+)-WIN55,212-2, significantly reduced (33%; P < 0.05) cerebral infarct volume detected 22 h after the beginning of reperfusion. A neuroprotective intraperitoneal dose of 17beta-estradiol (0.20 mg x kg(-1)) that reduced infarct size by 43% also minimized the effect of brain ischemia on the endocannabinoid system, in an estrogen receptor-dependent manner. In conclusion, we show that the endocannabinoid system is implicated in the pathophysiology of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced brain damage, and that neuroprotection afforded by estrogen is coincident with a re-establishment of anandamide levels in the ischemic striatum through a mechanism that needs to be investigated further. PMID:17666109

Amantea, Diana; Spagnuolo, Paola; Bari, Monica; Fezza, Filomena; Mazzei, Cinzia; Tassorelli, Cristina; Morrone, Luigi A; Corasaniti, Maria T; Maccarrone, Mauro; Bagetta, Giacinto

2007-09-01

57

Rainfall and tillage effects on transport of fecal bacteria and sex hormones 17beta-estradiol and testosterone from broiler litter applications to a Georgia Piedmont Ultisol.  

PubMed

Poultry litter provides nutrients for crop and pasture production; however, it also contains fecal bacteria, sex hormones (17beta-estradiol and testosterone) and antibiotic residues that may contaminate surface waters. Our objective was to quantify transport of fecal bacteria, estradiol, testosterone and antibiotic residues from a Cecil sandy loam managed since 1991 under no-till (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) to which either poultry litter (PL) or conventional fertilizer (CF) was applied based on the nitrogen needs of corn (Zea mays L) in the Southern Piedmont of NE Georgia. Simulated rainfall was applied for 60 min to 2 by 3-m field plots at a constant rate in 2004 and variable rate in 2005. Runoff was continuously measured and subsamples taken for determining flow-weighted concentrations of fecal bacteria, hormones, and antibiotic residues. Neither Salmonella, nor Campylobacter, nor antimicrobial residues were detected in litter, soil, or runoff. Differences in soil concentrations of fecal bacteria before and after rainfall simulations were observed only for Escherichia coli in the constant rainfall intensity experiment. Differences in flow-weighted concentrations were observed only for testosterone in both constant and variable intensity rainfall experiments, and were greatest for treatments that received poultry litter. Total loads of E. coli and fecal enterococci, were largest for both tillage treatments receiving poultry litter for the variable rainfall intensity. Load of testosterone was greatest for no-till plots receiving poultry litter under variable rainfall intensity. Poultry litter application rates commensurate for corn appeared to enhance only soil concentrations of E. coli, and runoff concentrations of testosterone above background levels. PMID:18571694

Jenkins, Michael B; Truman, Clint C; Siragusa, Gregory; Line, Eric; Bailey, J Stan; Frye, Jonathan; Endale, Dinku M; Franklin, Dorcas H; Schomberg, Harry H; Fisher, Dwight S; Sharpe, Ronald R

2008-09-15

58

Beneficial effect of 17{beta}-estradiol on hyperglycemia and islet {beta}-cell functions in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model  

SciTech Connect

The modulating effect of estrogen on glucose homeostasis remains a controversial issue at present. In this study, we sought to determine the beneficial effect of 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) on hyperglycemia and islet {beta}-cell functions in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected i.p. with STZ to induce a relatively mild diabetic condition. The rats were then treated with E{sub 2} orally at 500 {mu}g/kg body weight/day for 15 days to evaluate the modulating effect on hyperglycemia, insulin secretion, and islet {beta}-cell proliferation. E{sub 2} administration for 10 days significantly lowered plasma glucose levels, increased plasma insulin levels, and improved glucose tolerance by attenuating insulin response to oral glucose loading. These beneficial effects of E{sub 2} were accompanied by increases in islet number and volume, rate of islet cell proliferation, and the amount of insulin secreted. The growth-stimulatory effect of E{sub 2} on islet cells was linked to the functions of the estrogen receptor {alpha}. Notably, these protective effects of E{sub 2} on diabetic conditions were basically not observed when the STZ-treated rats had a more severe degree of islet damage and hyperglycemia. Taken together, we conclude that E{sub 2} can promote the regeneration of damaged pancreatic islets by stimulating {beta}-cell proliferation in diabetic rats, and this effect is accompanied by improvements in glucose tolerance and a decrease in plasma glucose levels. These findings suggest that oral administration of E{sub 2} may be beneficial in diabetic patients with an accelerated loss of islet {beta}-cells.

Yamabe, Noriko; Kang, Ki Sung; Zhu Baoting, E-mail: BTZhu@kumc.ed

2010-11-15

59

Pituitary function, ovarian follicular growth, and plasma concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone in prepubertal heifers during and after treatment with the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist deslorelin.  

PubMed

Pituitary function, ovarian follicle growth, and plasma steroid concentrations were determined in prepubertal heifers during and after treatment with the LHRH agonist deslorelin. Brahman heifers, 13 mo of age and 204 +/- 5 kg, were allocated to 4 groups with treatments as follows: group C (n = 6), control, received no treatment; group C + LHRH (n = 6), control, received LHRH tests at the same times as group D + LHRH below; group D (n = 6), received deslorelin (approximately 300 micrograms/day) for 28 days; group D + LHRH (n = 6), received deslorelin for 28 days were given LHRH tests (50 micrograms LHRH i.m.) on Day 28 of treatment and on Days 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 after treatment. Number and size of ovarian follicles were determined by rectal ultrasonography. Deslorelin induced an increase in plasma concentrations of LH within 2 h (p < 0.001); LH remained greater (p < 0.05) for heifers treated with deslorelin for 48 h, but from Day 4 to 28 of treatment, LH in treated and control heifers did not differ. Ovarian follicles of heifers treated with deslorelin were characterized by increased (p < 0.05) maximum size, and also tended to have a greater rate of growth, compared with those of control heifers. Heifers treated with agonist had greater (p < 0.05) plasma concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol from Day 0 to 28 of treatment, and 17 beta-estradiol in these heifers showed cyclical fluctuations that appeared to be related to cycles of growth and regression of ovarian follicles. After cessation of deslorelin treatment, plasma LH was similar for heifers in group C and group D. Heifers in group C + LHRH had significant (p < 0.05) LH responses to exogenous LHRH at all times. In contrast, heifers in group D + LHRH did not show an LH release in response to exogenous LHRH on Day 28 of treatment and also failed to have a significant (p < 0.05) release of LH until Day 12 after treatment. A significant increase in plasma 17 beta-estradiol after LHRH injection also occurred on Day 12 after treatment in heifers in group D + LHRH. The findings indicated that LHRH agonist treatment in prepubertal heifers is associated with an acute LH response followed by a return of LH to concentrations similar to those of control heifers. Size of the largest ovarian follicle is greater in heifers treated with LHRH agonist and is associated with increased plasma concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol. After cessation of agonist treatment, the pituitary remains desensitized to LHRH for approximately 12 days. This study is the first demonstration of enhanced ovarian follicular growth and increased 17 beta-estradiol secretion during treatment with an LHRH agonist. PMID:8924496

Bergfeld, E G; D'Occhio, M J; Kinder, J E

1996-04-01

60

Divergent effects of 17-{beta}-estradiol on human vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cell function diminishes TNF-{alpha}-induced neointima formation  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} augments neointimal hyperplasia in human saphenous vein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} induces detrimental effects on endothelial and smooth muscle cell function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estradiol exerts modulatory effects on TNF-induced vascular cell functions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The modulatory effects of estradiol are discriminatory and cell-type specific. -- Abstract: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a condition characterized by increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}). TNF-{alpha} can induce vascular endothelial cell (EC) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) dysfunction, central events in development of neointimal lesions. The reduced incidence of CHD in young women is believed to be due to the protective effects of estradiol (E2). We therefore investigated the effects of TNF-{alpha} on human neointima formation and SMC/EC functions and any modulatory effects of E2. Saphenous vein (SV) segments were cultured in the presence of TNF-{alpha} (10 ng/ml), E2 (2.5 nM) or both in combination. Neointimal thickening was augmented by incubation with TNF-{alpha}, an effect that was abolished by co-culture with E2. TNF-{alpha} increased SV-SMC proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner that was optimal at 10 ng/ml (1.5-fold increase), and abolished by E2 at all concentrations studied (1-50 nM). Surprisingly, E2 itself at low concentrations (1 and 5 nM) stimulated SV-SMC proliferation to a level comparable to that of TNF-{alpha} alone. SV-EC migration was significantly impaired by TNF-{alpha} (42% of control), and co-culture with E2 partially restored the ability of SV-EC to migrate and repair the wound. In contrast, TNF-{alpha} increased SV-SMC migration by 1.7-fold, an effect that was completely reversed by co-incubation with E2. Finally, TNF-{alpha} potently induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in both SV-EC and SV-SMC. However there was no modulation by E2 in either cell-type. In conclusion, TNF-{alpha} induced SV neointima formation, increased SMC proliferation and migration, impaired SV-EC migration and increased expression of adhesion molecules. E2 exerted distinct cell-type and function-specific modulation, the mechanisms underlying which are worthy of further detailed study.

Nintasen, Rungrat [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom) [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Center (MCRC), University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Department of Tropical Pathology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University (Thailand); Riches, Kirsten; Mughal, Romana S. [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom) [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Center (MCRC), University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Viriyavejakul, Parnpen; Chaisri, Urai; Maneerat, Yaowapa [Department of Tropical Pathology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University (Thailand)] [Department of Tropical Pathology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University (Thailand); Turner, Neil A. [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom) [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Center (MCRC), University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Porter, Karen E., E-mail: medkep@leeds.ac.uk [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Center (MCRC), University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

2012-04-20

61

The protective effects of 17beta-estradiol against ischemia-reperfusion injury and its effect on pacing postconditioning protection to the heart.  

PubMed

The role of pacing postconditioning (PPC) in the heart protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to investigated if 17-?-estradiol (estrogen, E2), endogenous atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), endogenous brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) are involved in PPC-mediated protection. Langendorff perfused female Wistar rat hearts were used for this study. Hearts challenged with regional ischemia for 30 min subjected to no further treatment served as a control. The PPC protocol was 3 cycles of 30 s pacing alternated between the right atrium and left ventricle (LV). Protection was assessed by recovery of LV contractility and coronary vascular-hemodynamics. Ischemia induced a significant (P?E2 treatment (E2 infusion at the beginning of reperfusion) significantly (P?E2 treatment post-ischemically afforded protection similar to that of PPC. However, long-term E2 substitution for 6 weeks completely attenuated the protective effects of PPC. Although no changes were noted in endogenous ANP levels, PPC significantly increased BNP expression level and decreased TNF-? in the cardiomyocyte lysate and coronary effluent compared to ischemia and controls. Our data suggested a protective role for short-term E2 treatment similar to that of PPC mediated by a pathway recruiting BNP and downregulating TNF-?. Our study further suggested a bad influence for long-term E2 substitution on the heart as it completely abrogated the protective effects of PPC. PMID:24037795

Babiker, Fawzi A; Joseph, Shaji; Juggi, Jasbir

2014-03-01

62

An inter-laboratory study on the variability in measured concentrations of 17Beta-estradiol, testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone in white sucker: implications and recommendations  

EPA Science Inventory

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances that can lead to impacts on the reproduction of fish sometimes by altering circulating concentrations of 17â-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). Common methods to measure steroids ...

63

Reconnaissance of 17 beta-estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, vitellogenin, and gonad histopathology in common carp of United States streams; potential for contaminant-induced endocrine disruption  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A reconnaissance of sex steroid hormones and other biomarkers in common carp was used to assess whether endocrine disruption may be occurring in fish in United States streams, to evaluate relations between endocrine disruption and contaminant levels, and to determine requirements for further studies. 17?-estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, vitellogenin, and gonadal histopathology were measured in adult carp (usually 10--15 for each sex) at 25 sites (647 fish), representing a wide range of environmental settings typical of major regions of the nation. Fish were collected during August--December 1994, a period of gonadal maturation after spawning. Contaminants evaluated were organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in tissue; phthalates, phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in bed sediment; and dissolved pesticides in water. Mean site concentrations of steroid hormones spanned two orders of magnitude for both sexes. No significant regional differences in steroid hormones were detected for males, but females from the Northern and Southern Midcontinent were significantly different from other regions of the country in one or both hormones. Within all regions there were significant differences between sites in one or both hormones for both sexes. Most correlation coefficients between biomarkers and contaminants were negative. Contaminants that had significant (a=0.05) correlations with biomarkers were organochlorine pesticides, phenols, and dissolved pesticides. The strongest pattern common to both males and females was a negative correlation between the hormone ratio (E2/11-KT) and dissolved pesticides. The significant site-to-site differences in biomarkers, and the presence of significant correlations between biomarkers and contaminants, are evidence that fish in some streams may be experiencing endocrine disruption. Improved information is needed to evaluate whether endocrine disruption is actually occurring and if there are reproductive effects on individual or populations of carp or other species. Future studies should shift to more intensive study of fewer sites, including reference and contaminated sites, in order to address these additional questions.

Goodbred, Steven L.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Gross, Timothy S.; Denslow, Nancy P.; Bryant, Wade B.; Schoeb, Trenton R.

1997-01-01

64

Environmental Technology Verification Report for Abraxis 17ß-Estradiol (E2) Magnetic Particle Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Test Kits  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) and its verification organization partner, Battelle, operate the Advanced Monitoring Systems (AMS) Center under ETV. The AMS Center recently evaluated the performance of the Abraxis 17(beta)-estradiol (E2) magnetic p...

65

Land-cover effects on the fate and transport of surface-applied antibiotics and 17-beta-estradiol on a sandy outwash plain, Anoka County, Minnesota, 2008–09  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A plot-scale field experiment on a sandy outwash plain in Anoka County in east-central Minnesota was used to investigate the fate and transport of two antibiotics, sulfamethazine (SMZ) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and a hormone, 17-beta-estradiol (17BE), in four land-cover types: bare soil, corn, hay, and prairie. The SMZ, SMX, and 17BE were applied to the surface of five plots of each land-cover type in May 2008 and again in April 2009. The cumulative application rate was 16.8 milligrams per square meter (mg/m2) for each antibiotic and 0.6 mg/m2 for 17BE. Concentrations of each chemical in plant-tissue, soil, soil-water, and groundwater samples were determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Soil-water and groundwater sampling events were scheduled to capture the transport of SMZ, SMX, and 17BE during two growing seasons. Soil and plant-tissue sampling events were scheduled to identify the fate of the parent chemicals of SMZ, SMX, and 17BE in these matrices after two chemical applications. Areal concentrations (mg/m2) of SMZ and SMX in soil tended to decrease in prairie plots in the 8 weeks after the second chemical application, from April 2009 to June 2009, but not in other land-cover types. During these same 8 weeks, prairie plots produced more aboveground biomass and had extracted more water from the upper 125 centimeters of the soil profile compared to all other land-cover types. Areal concentrations of SMZ and SMX in prairie plant tissue did not explain the temporal changes in areal concentrations of these chemicals in soil. The areal concentrations of SMZ and SMX in the aboveground plant tissues in June 2009 and August 2009 were much lower, generally two to three orders of magnitude, than the areal concentrations of these chemicals in soil. Pooling all treatment plot data, the median areal concentration of SMZ and SMX in plant tissues was 0.01 and 0.10 percent of the applied chemical mass compared to 22 and 12 percent in soil, respectively. Furthermore, areal concentrations of SMZ and SMX in plant-tissue samples were variable, and did not differ significantly between control and treatment plots within each land-cover type. SMZ was detected in 23 percent of soil-water samples and in 16 percent of groundwater samples collected between October 2008 and October 2009 in treatment plots, indicating that surface-applied SMZ leached below the rooting zone and reached groundwater. SMX was detected in only 1 percent of soil-water and groundwater samples during this same time period. In contrast to the antibiotics, 17BE was not reliably detected in soil samples. Additionally, ELISA-determined 17BE concentrations in plant-tissue, soil-water, and groundwater samples indicated the presence of chemicals that were not applied as part of this experiment [17BE from an external source or other chemical(s) that interfered with the 17BE ELISA kits].

Trost, Jared J.; Kiesling, Richard L.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Rose, Peter J.; Elliott, Sarah M.

2013-01-01

66

FATHEAD MINNOW VITELLOGENIN: CDNA SEQUENCE AND MRNA AND PROTEIN EXPRESSION AFTER 17 BETA-ESTRADIOL TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

In the present study, a sensitive ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) for VTG mRNA was developed for the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), a species proposed for routine endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) screening....

67

Effect of 17-beta estradiol on pre-existing atherosclerotic lesions: role of the endothelium.  

PubMed

The atheroprotective effects of estrogen during the process of atherogenesis is well documented, whereas limited information is available about the effect of estrogen on pre-existing atherosclerotic lesions. After bilateral ovariectomy, 24 New Zealand White rabbits were randomized into three groups of eight animals each and subsequently fed a 0.5% cholesterol diet. In group I, the vessels were excised at day 84, whereas in group II, the cholesterol diet was continued for a total of 168 days. In group III, the animals were first fed with a cholesterol diet for 84 days; in the second phase of the experiment, the cholesterol diet was continued for a further 84 days with a combined estrogen treatment (1 mg estradiol valerate per kg body weight per week intramuscularly). At the end of the experiment, the proximal aortic arch, right carotid artery, thoracical aorta and abdominal aorta of each animal were excised and prepared for histological and immunohistological examination. By day 168, morphometrical analysis displayed a significantly lower plaque development under estrogen therapy in the carotid artery (0.08+/-0.18 mm(2) vs. 0.60+/-0.39 mm(2)), the thoracic aorta (0.56+/-0.94 mm(2) vs. 3.63+/-2.06 mm(2)), and in the abdominal aorta (0.55+/-0.70 mm(2) vs. 1.71+/-1.05 mm(2)) in comparison with the corresponding 168 day control group. However, estrogen treatment has failed to reduce further atherosclerotic plaque development in the aortic arch (9.42+/-1.79 mm(2) vs. 11. 64+/-3.29 mm(2)). Immunohistological detection of the 'anti-human factor VIII related antigen', i.e. the 'von Willebrand factor' (vWF), showed a significantly lower number of luminal cells positive for vWF in the aortic arch in the 84-day cholesterol group, compared with the corresponding controls of normocholesterolemic rabbits (65. 9+/-12.4% vs. 83.1+/-6.2%; P<0.05). Estradiol was able to inhibit the further progression of atherosclerosis when moderate vessel wall alterations were present, whereas pre-existing severe atherosclerosis was associated with a failure of the anti-atherosclerotic estrogen action. As suggested by the in situ detection of vWF as a morphological marker for endothelial cells, an intact endothelial layer might play an important role in mediating the beneficial effect of estrogen in the process of atherosclerosis. PMID:10525133

Hanke, H; Kamenz, J; Hanke, S; Spiess, J; Lenz, C; Brehme, U; Bruck, B; Finking, G; Hombach, V

1999-11-01

68

Effect of 17-Beta-Estradiol on the Healing of Tibial Bone after Marrow Ablation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study has been undertaken to demonstrate the effect of 17?-estradiol on the healing of tibial bones after marrow ablation. Ninety-six 4-month-old female rats were divided into three experimental groups: group 1 was subjected to ablation in both tibiae and to injection of vehicle; group 2 to ablation in both tibiae and estradiol administration, and group 3 to estradiol

M. Th. Stoumboudi; Z. Schwartz; J. Sela; D. Goldstein; P. Yaffe; B. D. Boyan; A. Ornoy

1995-01-01

69

Inhibition of 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone activity in human breast and endometrial cancer cells by carbamate insecticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a combination of in vitro assays we have examined the capacities of contemporary-exposure chemicals to modulate human estrogen and human progesterone receptor (hER and hPR) activity in human breast and endometrial cancer cells. The carbamate insecticides aldicarb, Baygon (propoxur), bendiocarb, carbaryl, methomyl, and oxamyl were used in this study. The carbamates alone weakly activated estrogen- or progesterone-responsive reporter genes

Diane M. Klotz; Steven F. Arnold; John A. McLachlan

1997-01-01

70

Modulation of vitellogenin synthesis through estrogen receptor beta-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus) juveniles exposed to 17-beta estradiol and nonylphenol.  

PubMed

Many synthetic chemicals, termed xenoestrogens, have been shown to interact as agonists with the estrogen receptor (ER) to elicit biological responses similar to those of natural hormones. To date, the regulation of vitellogenesis in oviparous vertebrates has been widely used for evaluation of estrogenic effects. Therefore, Carassius auratus juveniles were chosen as a fish model for studying the effects of estradiol-17beta and different concentrations (10(-6) and 10(-7) M) of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on the expression of liver ERbeta-1 subtype; plasma vitellogenin and sex steroids (androgens and estradiol-17beta) were also evaluated together with the bioaccumulation process, through mass-spectrometry. C. auratus is a species widespread in the aquatic environment and, on the toxicological point of view, can be considered a good "sentinel" species. Juveniles of goldfish were maintained in tanks with only tap water or water with different concentrations (10(-6) and 10(-7) M) of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), or 10(-7) M of estradiol-17beta. After 3 weeks of treatment, animals were anesthetized within 5 min after capture, and blood was immediately collected into heparinized syringes by cardiac puncture and stored at -70 degrees C; the gonads were fixed, then frozen and stored at -70 degrees C; the whole fish, liver, and muscle tissues were harvested and immediately stored at -70 degrees C for molecular biology experiments and bioaccumulation measurements. The estrogenic effects of 4-NP were evidenced by the presence of plasma vitellogenin in juveniles exposed both to estradiol-17beta and the two doses of 4-NP; moreover, exposure to 4-NP also increased aromatization of androgens, as suggested by decreasing androgens and increasing estradiol-17beta plasma levels. The changes of these parameters were in agreement with the increasing transcriptional rate of ERbeta-1 mRNA in the liver, demonstrating that both estradiol-17beta and 4-NP modulate the vitellogenin rate through interaction with the ERbeta-1 subtype. The present study also suggests that 4-NP at the concentration of 10(-6) M bioaccumulates in the liver. PMID:15921715

Soverchia, L; Ruggeri, B; Palermo, F; Mosconi, G; Cardinaletti, G; Scortichini, G; Gatti, G; Polzonetti-Magni, A M

2005-12-15

71

17 beta-estradiol regulates and v-Ha-ras transfection constitutively enhances MCF7 breast cancer cell interactions with basement membrane.  

PubMed Central

The interaction of a line of human breast carcinoma cells (MCF7) with basement membrane components, particularly laminin, was altered by exposure of the cells to estrogen as well as by transfection of the cells with the v-Ha-ras oncogene. In both cases, the cells show a greater ability to attach to a laminin substrate, to migrate to laminin, to grow in the presence of a basement membrane matrix, and to cross barriers of reconstituted basement membrane. These responses were associated with an increase in the expression of laminin receptors. It is postulated that the increase in the invasive behavior of the cells treated with estrogen or transfected with v-Ha-ras is related to the increased number of laminin receptors and their interaction with laminin. Estrogen had no discernible effect on the v-Ha-ras transfected cells. It appears that in the MCF7 cells, the malignant phenotype is under hormonal control and that this control is bypassed after v-Ha-ras transfection.

Albini, A; Graf, J; Kitten, G T; Kleinman, H K; Martin, G R; Veillette, A; Lippman, M E

1986-01-01

72

Identification of two Isoforms of Vitelline Envelope Protein as Complementary Biomarkers to Vitellogenin in the Plasma of Rainbow Trout Exposed to 17beta-estradiol  

EPA Science Inventory

In the present study, protein markers of estrogenic exposure in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were isolated and identified using innovative sample preparation techniques followed by advanced MS and bioinformatics approaches. Juvenile trout were administered 17ß-estradiol t...

73

17beta-estradiol induced vitellogenesis is inhibited by cortisol at the post-transcriptional level in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to investigate stress effects on the synthesis of egg yolk precursor, vitellogenin (Vtg) in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). In particular the effect of cortisol (F) was determined since this stress hormone has been suggested to interfere with vitellogenesis and is upregulated during sexual maturation in teleosts. Arctic char Vtg was purified and polyclonal antibodies were produced

Hakan Berg; Carina Modig; Per-Erik Olsson

2004-01-01

74

Modulation of vitellogenin synthesis through estrogen receptor beta-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus) juveniles exposed to 17-{beta} estradiol and nonylphenol  

SciTech Connect

Many synthetic chemicals, termed xenoestrogens, have been shown to interact as agonists with the estrogen receptor (ER) to elicit biological responses similar to those of natural hormones. To date, the regulation of vitellogenesis in oviparous vertebrates has been widely used for evaluation of estrogenic effects. Therefore, Carassius auratus juveniles were chosen as a fish model for studying the effects of estradiol-17{beta} and different concentrations (10{sup -6} and 10{sup -7} M) of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on the expression of liver ER{beta}-1 subtype; plasma vitellogenin and sex steroids (androgens and estradiol-17{beta}) were also evaluated together with the bioaccumulation process, through mass-spectrometry. C. auratus is a species widespread in the aquatic environment and, on the toxicological point of view, can be considered a good 'sentinel' species. Juveniles of goldfish were maintained in tanks with only tap water or water with different concentrations (10{sup -6} and 10{sup -7} M) of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), or 10{sup -7} M of estradiol-17{beta}. After 3 weeks of treatment, animals were anesthetized within 5 min after capture, and blood was immediately collected into heparinized syringes by cardiac puncture and stored at -70 deg. C; the gonads were fixed, then frozen and stored at -70 deg. C; the whole fish, liver, and muscle tissues were harvested and immediately stored at -70 deg. C for molecular biology experiments and bioaccumulation measurements. The estrogenic effects of 4-NP were evidenced by the presence of plasma vitellogenin in juveniles exposed both to estradiol-17{beta} and the two doses of 4-NP; moreover, exposure to 4-NP also increased aromatization of androgens, as suggested by decreasing androgens and increasing estradiol-17{beta} plasma levels. The changes of these parameters were in agreement with the increasing transcriptional rate of ER{beta}-1 mRNA in the liver, demonstrating that both estradiol-17{beta} and 4-NP modulate the vitellogenin rate through interaction with the ER{beta}-1 subtype. The present study also suggests that 4-NP at the concentration of 10{sup -6} M bioaccumulates in the liver.

Soverchia, L. [Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale e Sanita Pubblica, Universita degli Studi di Camerino, via Scalzino 3, 62032 Camerino (Monaco) (Italy); Ruggeri, B. [Dipartimento di Scienze Morfologiche e Biochimiche Comparate, Universita degli Studi di Camerino, via Camerini 2, 62032 Camerino (Monaco) (Italy); Palermo, F. [Dipartimento di Scienze Morfologiche e Biochimiche Comparate, Universita degli Studi di Camerino, via Camerini 2, 62032 Camerino (Monaco) (Italy); Mosconi, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze Morfologiche e Biochimiche Comparate, Universita degli Studi di Camerino, via Camerini 2, 62032 Camerino (Monaco) (Italy); Cardinaletti, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze Morfologiche e Biochimiche Comparate, Universita degli Studi di Camerino, via Camerini 2, 62032 Camerino (Monaco) (Italy); Scortichini, G. [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise 'G. Caporale', Campo Boario, 64100 Teramo (Italy); Gatti, G. [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise 'G. Caporale', Campo Boario, 64100 Teramo (Italy); Polzonetti-Magni, A.M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Morfologiche e Biochimiche Comparate, Universita degli Studi di Camerino, via Camerini 2, 62032 Camerino (Monaco) (Italy)]. E-mail: alberta.polzonetti@unicam.it

2005-12-15

75

Activation of growth factor secretion in tumorigenic states of breast cancer induced by 17. beta. -estradiol or v-Ha-ras oncogene  

SciTech Connect

The MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line responds to estrogen stimulation in vitro by increased secretion of growth factors and proliferation and in vivo by tumor formation in the nude mouse. To test a possible role of growth factor secretion in expression of the tumorigenic phenotype, the authors stably transfected MCF-7 cells with the v-Ha-ras oncogene to produce the MCF-7ras cell line. The MCF-7ras cell line was tumorigenic in the absence of estrogens and secreted 3- to 5-fold elevated levels of a high molecular weight form of a type ..cap alpha.. transforming growth factor-like growth factor, type ..beta.. transforming growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor I. MCF-7ras cells, in contrast to MCF-7, were less sensitive to further growth stimulation by estrogen, type ..cap alpha.. transforming growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor I and showed little change in receptor levels for these hormones. Conditioned medium from MCF-7ras cells as well as two of its component growth factors replaced estrogen in stimulating MCF-7 colony formation in vitro. A coordinate increase in growth factor secretion by human breast cancer may contribute to its escape from estrogen dependence.

Dickson, R.B.; Kasid, A.; Huff, K.K.; Bates, S.E.; Knabbe, C.; Bronzert, D.; Gelmann, E.P.; Lippman, M.E.

1987-02-01

76

17beta-Estradiol and testosterone in drainage and runoff from poultry litter applications to tilled and no-till crop land under irrigation.  

PubMed

Thirteen million [corrected] metric tons of poultry litter are produced annually by poultry producers in the U.S. Poultry litter contains the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone, endocrine disruptors that have been detected in surface waters. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential impact of poultry litter applications on estradiol and testosterone concentrations in subsurface drainage and surface runoff in irrigated crop land under no-till and conventional-till management. We conducted an irrigation study in fall of 2001 and spring of 2002. Four treatments, no-till plus poultry litter, conventional-till plus poultry litter, no-till plus conventional fertilizer, and conventional-till plus conventional fertilizer, were evaluated. Flow-weighted concentration and load ha(-1) of the two hormones were measured in drainage and runoff. Soil concentrations of estradiol and testosterone were measured. Based on comparisons to the conventional fertilizer (and control) treatments, poultry litter did not add to the flow-weighted concentration or load ha(-1) of either estradiol or testosterone in subsurface drainage or surface runoff. Significant differences were, however, observed between tillage treatments: flow-weighted concentrations of estradiol were greater for no-till than conventional-till plots of the June irrigation; and runoff loads of both estradiol and testosterone were less from no-till than conventional-till plots for the November irrigation. Although the differences between no-till and conventional-tillage appeared to affect the hydrologic transport of both hormones, the differences appeared to have inconsequential environmental impact. PMID:19269082

Jenkins, Michael B; Endale, Dinku M; Schomberg, Harry H; Hartel, Peter G; Cabrera, Miguel L

2009-06-01

77

Pulsed estrogen therapy: pharmacokinetics of intranasal 17-beta-estradiol (S21400) in postmenopausal women and comparison with oral and transdermal formulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Pharmacokinetics of estradiol and estrone were assessed in postmenopausal women receiving S21400, a novel 17?-estradiol formulation\\u000a administered by nasal route; the results were compared with those obtained with oral and transdermal routes. Thirty six women\\u000a received three treatments: a specified dose of 17?-estradiol (100, 300 or 450 ?g) given once and as 2 doses, 12 h apart, using\\u000a three parallel

J-Ph. Devissaguet; N. Brion; O. Lhote; P. Deloffre

1999-01-01

78

PROMOTION BY 17&BETA;-ESTRADIOL AND &BETA;-HEXACHLOROCYCLOHEXANE OF HEPATOCELLULAR TUMORS IN MEDAKA, ORYZIAS LATIPES. AQUAT. (R828676C002)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

79

A Computational Model of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal Axis in Male Fathead Minnows Exposed to 17 | *alpha* | -ethinylestradiol and 17 | *beta* | -estradiol  

EPA Science Inventory

Estrogenic chemicals in the aquatic environment have been shown to cause a variety of reproductive anomalies in fish including full sex reversal, intersex, and altered population sex ratios. Two estrogens found in the aquatic environment, 17-ethinylestradiol and 17â-estradiol, h...

80

17beta Estradiol Inhibits Apoptosis in MCF7 Cells, Inducing bcl-2 Expression via Two Estrogen-Responsive Elements Present in the Coding Sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have found that 17b-estradiol induces bcl-2 transcription in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. To identify cis-acting elements involved in this regulation, we have analyzed hormone responsiveness of transiently transfected reporter constructs containing the bcl-2 major promoter (P1). Hormone inducibility was observed only when either of two sequences, located within the bcl-2 coding region and showing one and two mutations

BRUNO PERILLO; ANNARITA SASSO; CIRO ABBONDANZA; GIUSEPPE PALUMBO

2000-01-01

81

Estradiol Stimulates Tyrosine Phosphorylation of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor1 Receptor and Insulin Receptor Substrate1 in the Uterus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The signaling pathways associated with estrogen-induced proliferation of epithelial cells in the reproductive tract have not been defined. To identify receptor tyrosine kinases that are activated in vivo by 17beta -estradiol (E2), uteri from ovariectomized mice were examined for enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of various receptors and a receptor substrate following treatment with this hormone. Within 4 hr after hormone exposure,

R. Gregg Richards; Richard P. Diaugustine; Peter Petrusz; George C. Clark; Joseph Sebastian

1996-01-01

82

Estrogen removal from treated municipal effluent in small-scale constructed wetland with different depth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of estrone (E1), 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) in sewage treatment work (STW) effluent pose a potential risk to aquatic ecosystem. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of vertical-flow wetland as polishing step of conventional wastewater treatment in the removal of estrogens and to examine the effect of sand depth. The highest

Hai-Liang Song; Kazunori Nakano; Takashi Taniguchi; Munehiro Nomura; Osamu Nishimura

2009-01-01

83

Click synthesis of estradiol-cyclodextrin conjugates as cell compartment selective estrogens  

PubMed Central

Cyclodextrin (CD) is a well known drug carrier and excipient for enhancing aqueous solubility. CDs themselves are anticipated to have low membrane permeability because of relatively high hydrophilicity and molecular weight. CD derivatization with 17-beta estradiol (E2) was explored extensively using a number of different click chemistries and the cell membrane permeability of synthetic CD–E2 conjugate was explored by cell reporter assays and confocal fluorescence microscopy. In simile with reported dendrimer –E2 conjugates, CD–E2 was found to be a stable, extranuclear receptor selective estrogen that penetrated into the cytoplasm.

Kim, Hye-Yeong; Sohn, Johann; Wijewickrama, Gihani T.; Edirisinghe, Praneeth; Gherezghiher, Teshome; Hemachandra, Madhubani; Lu, Pei-Yi; Chandrasena, R. Esala; Molloy, Mary Ellen; Tonetti, Debra A.; Thatcher, Gregory R. J.

2010-01-01

84

E2Fs Regulate Adipocyte Differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

When preadipocytes reenter the cell cycle, PPAR? expression is induced, coincident with an increase in DNA synthesis, suggesting the involvement of the E2F family of cell cycle regulators. We show here that E2F1 induces PPAR? transcription during clonal expansion, whereas E2F4 represses PPAR? expression during terminal adipocyte differentiation. Using a combination of in vivo experiments with knockout and chimeric animals

Lluis Fajas; Rebecca L. Landsberg; Yolande Huss-Garcia; Claude Sardet; Jacqueline A. Lees; Johan Auwerx

2002-01-01

85

Contrasting Roles of E2F2 and E2F3 in Cardiac Neovascularization  

PubMed Central

Insufficient neovascularization, characterized by poor endothelial cell (EC) growth, contributes to the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease and limits cardiac tissue preservation and regeneration. The E2F family of transcription factors are critical regulators of the genes responsible for cell-cycle progression and growth; however, the specific roles of individual E2Fs in ECs are not well understood. Here we investigated the roles of E2F2 and E2F3 in EC growth, angiogenesis, and their functional impact on myocardial infarction (MI). An endothelial-specific E2F3-deficient mouse strain VE-Cre; E2F3fl/fl was generated, and MI was surgically induced in VE-Cre; E2F3fl/fl and E2F2-null (E2F2 KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates, VE-Cre; E2F3+/+ and E2F2 WT, respectively. The cardiac function, infarct size, and vascular density were significantly better in E2F2 KO mice and significantly worse in VE-Cre; E2F3fl/fl mice than in their WT littermates. The loss of E2F2 expression was associated with an increase in the proliferation of ECs both in vivo and in vitro, while the loss of E2F3 expression led to declines in EC proliferation. Thus, E2F3 promotes while E2F2 suppresses ischemic cardiac repair through corresponding changes in EC proliferation; and differential targeting of specific E2F members may provide a novel strategy for therapeutic angiogenesis of ischemic heart disease.

Zhou, Junlan; Wu, Min; Xu, Shiyue; Cheng, Min; Ding, Caizhi; Liu, Ye; Yan, Hongbin; Biyashev, Dauren; Kishore, Raj; Qin, Gangjian

2013-01-01

86

New applications of (e,2e) techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The flexibility of the (e,2e) technique in obtaining information on both structure and collision dynamics is demonstrated. Examples of structure information are electron momentum spectroscopy studies of laser excited Na atoms and amorphous carbon films. T...

E. Weigold

1991-01-01

87

Estradiol-induced enhancement of object memory consolidation involves hippocampal extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation and membrane-bound estrogen receptors.  

PubMed

The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is critical for various forms of learning and memory, and is activated by the potent estrogen 17beta-estradiol (E(2)). Here, we asked whether E(2) modulates memory via ERK activation and putative membrane-bound estrogen receptors (ERs). Using ovariectomized mice, we first demonstrate that intraperitoneal injection of 0.2 mg/kg E(2) significantly increases dorsal hippocampal levels of phosphorylated ERK protein 1 h after injection. Second, we show that E(2) administered intraperitoneally (0.2 mg/kg) or via intrahippocampal infusion (5.0 microg/side) immediately after training in an object recognition task significantly enhances memory retention, and that the beneficial effect of intraperitoneal E(2) is blocked by dorsal hippocampal inhibition of ERK activation. Third, using bovine serum albumin-conjugated 17beta-estradiol (BSA-E(2)), we demonstrate that E(2) binding at membrane-bound ERs can increase dorsal hippocampal ERK activation and enhance object memory consolidation in an ERK-dependent manner. Fourth, we show that this effect is independent of nuclear ERs, but is dependent on the dorsal hippocampus. By demonstrating that E(2) enhances memory consolidation via dorsal hippocampal ERK activation, this study is the first to identify a specific molecular pathway by which E(2) modulates memory and to demonstrate a novel role for membrane-bound ERs in mediating E(2)-induced improvements in hippocampal memory consolidation. PMID:18753366

Fernandez, Stephanie M; Lewis, Michael C; Pechenino, Angela S; Harburger, Lauren L; Orr, Patrick T; Gresack, Jodi E; Schafe, Glenn E; Frick, Karyn M

2008-08-27

88

The Astro-E2 Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Astro-E2 observatory is a rebuild of the original Astro-E observatory that was lost during launch in February 2000. It is scheduled for launch into low earth orbit on a Japanese M-V rocket in early 2005. The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, is developing the observatory with major contributions from the US. The three instruments on the observatory are the high-resolution x-ray spectrometer (the XRS) featuring a 30-pixel x-ray microcalorimeter array, a set of four CCD cameras (the XIS) and a combination photo-diode/scintillator detector system (the HXD) that will extend the band pass up to nearly 700 keV. A significant feature of Astro-E2 is that all of the instruments are coaligned and operated simultaneously. With its high spectral resolution and collecting area for spectroscopy above 1 keV, Astro-E2 should enable major discovery space and pioneer new technology for use in space. Prime areas for investigation are supernova remnants, active galaxies and the measurement of black hole properties via relativistically-broadened Fe-K emission galaxies. A number of enhancements have been made for the Astro-E2/XRS, including a higher resolution microcalorimeter array, ii mechanical cooler for longer cryogen life, and an improved in-flight calibration system. The Astro-E2/XIS has also been improved to include two back-side-illuminated CCDs to enhance the low energy response. Improvements have also been made to the x-ray mirrors used for both the XRS and XIS to sharpen the point spread function and reduce the effects of stray light. In this talk we will present the essential features of Astro-E2, paying particular attention to the enhancements, and describe the major scientific strengths of the observatory.

Kelley, Richard L.

2004-01-01

89

The E2F family and the role of E2F1 in apoptosis.  

PubMed

The E2F family of transcription factors plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation. Although the deregulation of E2Fs is considered an oncogenic event that predisposes immortalized cells to transformation, paradoxically, E2F1 is also equipped with an ability to induce apoptosis under certain cellular contexts. It has become evident that E2Fs, in particular E2F1, participate in many aspects of the apoptotic process, either by acting alone or in cooperation with other factors, such as p53, to protect organisms from tumor development in the face of oncogenic lesions. Given the frequent inactivation of p53 in human cancers, the E2F1-induced apoptosis pathway is rapidly gaining attention as a key mechanism to compensate the loss of p53 in human tumors. In this review, we will focus on the recent progress in our understanding of E2F1-mediated apoptosis and discuss how these discoveries can be translated into potential therapeutic intervention. PMID:19539777

Wu, Zhenlong; Zheng, Shunsheng; Yu, Qiang

2009-12-01

90

Methods to find out the expression of activated genes  

PubMed Central

This review deals with the methods of identifying genes that have been activated by inner or outer impulses. The activation and subsequent expression of a gene can be detected by its transcription into a corresponding messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). Principles of the methods for identification of individual activated genes, as well as groups of activated genes are described, the former methods being mostly based on subtractive hybridization and serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), the latter on microarrays. Examples of gene activation by the hormone 17beta-estradiol (E2) are given.

Cekan, Sten Z

2004-01-01

91

LEF-1 activates the transcription of E2F1  

SciTech Connect

LEF-1 and E2F are both transcription factors involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The present study shows for the first time that LEF-1 associates with E2F1 and further {beta}-catenin independently activates the E2F-responsive reporter gene by attenuating the interaction between E2F1 and Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), which indicates that LEF-1, except for its function in Wnt signaling, may play a distinct role via activating the transcription of E2F1.

Zhou Fangfang; Zhang Long; Gong Kai; Lu Guangyuan; Sheng Baiyang; Wang Aijun; Zhao Nanming; Zhang Xiufang [State Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gong Yandao [State Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: gongyd@tsinghua.edu.cn

2008-01-04

92

Interplay between Arabidopsis Activating Factors E2Fb and E2Fa in Cell Cycle Progression and Development1[W  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic E2Fs are conserved transcription factors playing crucial and antagonistic roles in several pathways related to cell division, DNA repair, and differentiation. In plants, these processes are strictly intermingled at the growing zone to produce postembryonic development in response to internal signals and environmental cues. Of the six AtE2F proteins found in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), only AtE2Fa and AtE2Fb have been clearly indicated as activators of E2F-responsive genes. AtE2Fa activity was shown to induce S phase and endoreduplication, whereas the function of AtE2Fb and the interrelationship between these two transcription factors was unclear. We have investigated the role played by the AtE2Fb gene during cell cycle and development performing in situ RNA hybridization, immunolocalization of the AtE2Fb protein in planta, and analysis of AtE2Fb promoter activity in transgenic plants. Overexpression of AtE2Fb in transgenic Arabidopsis plants led to striking modifications of the morphology of roots, cotyledons, and leaves that can be ascribed to stimulation of cell division. The accumulation of the AtE2Fb protein in these lines was paralleled by an increased expression of E2F-responsive G1/S and G2/M marker genes. These results suggest that AtE2Fa and AtE2Fb have specific expression patterns and play similar but distinct roles during cell cycle progression.

Sozzani, Rosangela; Maggio, Caterina; Varotto, Serena; Canova, Sabrina; Bergounioux, Catherine; Albani, Diego; Cella, Rino

2006-01-01

93

E2F transcription factor-1 regulates oxidative metabolism.  

PubMed

Cells respond to stress by coordinating proliferative and metabolic pathways. Starvation restricts cell proliferative (glycolytic) and activates energy productive (oxidative) pathways. Conversely, cell growth and proliferation require increased glycolytic and decreased oxidative metabolism levels. E2F transcription factors regulate both proliferative and metabolic genes. E2Fs have been implicated in the G1/S cell-cycle transition, DNA repair, apoptosis, development and differentiation. In pancreatic ?-cells, E2F1 gene regulation facilitated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Moreover, mice lacking E2F1 (E2f1(-/-)) were resistant to diet-induced obesity. Here, we show that E2F1 coordinates cellular responses by acting as a regulatory switch between cell proliferation and metabolism. In basal conditions, E2F1 repressed key genes that regulate energy homeostasis and mitochondrial functions in muscle and brown adipose tissue. Consequently, E2f1(-/-) mice had a marked oxidative phenotype. An association between E2F1 and pRB was required for repression of genes implicated in oxidative metabolism. This repression was alleviated in a constitutively active CDK4 (CDK4(R24C)) mouse model or when adaptation to energy demand was required. Thus, E2F1 represents a metabolic switch from oxidative to glycolytic metabolism that responds to stressful conditions. PMID:21841792

Blanchet, Emilie; Annicotte, Jean-Sébastien; Lagarrigue, Sylviane; Aguilar, Victor; Clapé, Cyrielle; Chavey, Carine; Fritz, Vanessa; Casas, François; Apparailly, Florence; Auwerx, Johan; Fajas, Lluis

2011-09-01

94

Rubella virus contains one capsid protein and three envelope glycoproteins, E1, E2a, and E2b.  

PubMed

We have analyzed the structure of rubella virus proteins labeled metabolically with [35S]methionine, [3H]mannose, and [3H]glucosamine or externally with [3H]borohydride after galactose oxidase treatment. Four structural proteins, with MrS of about 58,000 (E1), 47,000 (E2a), 42,000 (E2b), and 33,000 (C), were resolved on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. Tryptic peptide maps obtained from [35S]methionine-labeled proteins indicated that E1 and C were unrelated to each other and to E2a and E2b, whereas the latter two gave similar, if not identical, maps. E1, E2a, and E2b were associated with the envelope and were located externally on the virus particle, whereas the C protein was associated with the RNA in the nucleocapsid. Solubilization of the virus with Triton X-100, followed by removal of the nucleocapsid and the detergent, resulted in the formation of soluble envelope protein complexes (rosettes) containing E1, E2a, and E2b. Although external labeling with [3H]borohydride and metabolic labeling with [3H]glucosamine suggested that all three proteins were glycosylated, only E1 and E2b were efficiently labeled with [3H]mannose. It is thus possible that the difference in migration between E2a and E2b is due to differences in glycosylation. Analysis by immunoprecipitation and sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis of intracellular [35S]methionine-labeled structural proteins synthesized in the presence and absence of tunicamycin supported the conclusion that E1 and E2 are glycoproteins. Unglycosylated E1 and E2 had an Mr of about 53,000 and 30,000, respectively. PMID:6854740

Oker-Blom, C; Kalkkinen, N; Kääriäinen, L; Pettersson, R F

1983-06-01

95

The bovine papillomavirus P2443 promoter is E2 trans-responsive: evidence for E2 autoregulation.  

PubMed Central

The bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) P2443 promoter is located just upstream of the E2, E3, E4 and E5 open reading frames (ORFs) and is active in both transformed rodent cells and in productively infected warts. Analysis of viral RNA structures suggests that transcripts from this promoter encode the E2 transactivator as well as the E5 oncoprotein. To study expression of P2443, the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene was placed downstream of this promoter, deleting the E2 and E5 ORFs, in a plasmid which contained all BPV-1 upstream sequences including the long control region (LCR). By itself, this plasmid demonstrated a low level of activity in transient assays and could be transactivated to a high level by the full-length E2 product. Transactivation of P2443 expression by E2 required the LCR in cis in an orientation- and position-independent manner, suggesting that this transactivation was mediated through the E2 responsive enhancer elements (E2RE) located within the LCR. Primer extension analysis of the 5' ends of the viral transcripts from pooled cells expressing these P2443/CAT plasmids confirmed that E2 transactivation results in an increase in the steady-state levels of RNA initiated from the P2443 promoter. Furthermore, E2 transactivation of the P2443 promoter could be inhibited by the trans-repressor encoded by the 3' portion of the E2 ORF. Thus, expression of the E2 transactivator and the E5 oncoprotein is directly regulated by transcriptional factors encoded by the E2 ORF. Images

Hermonat, P L; Spalholz, B A; Howley, P M

1988-01-01

96

Neck and Back Pain in E-2C HAWKEYE Aircrew.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to determine select characteristics of neck and back symptoms among E-2C Hawkeye aircrew. One hundred eighty-five E-2C aircrew volunteered to complete a neck and back pain and symptoms survey. The mean (+- SD) age and flight ...

T. A. Loomis J. A. Hodgdon L. Hervig W. K. Prusacyzk

1999-01-01

97

Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2)  

Cancer.gov

The Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2) is an NCI-supported consortium dedicated to studying the etiology of this common cancer through collaboration among investigators. The overall objective of E2C2 is to build on resources from existing studies by combining data across studies in order to advance our understanding of the etiology of this disease.

98

The RB-E2F1 Pathway Regulates Autophagy  

PubMed Central

Autophagy is a protective mechanism that renders cells viable in stressful conditions. Emerging evidence suggests that this cellular process is also a tumor suppressor pathway. Previous studies showed that cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKI) induce autophagy. Whether retinoblastoma protein (RB), a key tumor suppressor and downstream target of CDKIs, induces autophagy is not clear. Here, we show that RB triggers autophagy and that the RB activators p16INK4a and p27/kip1 induce autophagy in an RB-dependent manner. RB binding to E2 transcription factor (E2F) is required for autophagy induction and E2F1 antagonizes RB-induced autophagy, leading to apoptosis. Downregulation of E2F1 in cells results in high levels of autophagy. Our findings indicate that RB induces autophagy by repressing E2F1 activity. We speculate that this newly discovered aspect of RB function is relevant to cancer development and therapy.

Jiang, Hong; Martin, Vanesa; Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria; Johnson, David G.; Alonso, Marta; White, Erin; Xu, Jing; McDonnell, Timothy J.; Shinojima, Naoki; Fueyo, Juan

2011-01-01

99

E2F1 apoptosis counterattacked: evil strikes back.  

PubMed

Resistance to genotoxic drugs is the major cause of cancer therapy failure. In the past, E2F1 was recognized as a key regulator of apoptosis, but the latest evidence reveals that this transcription factor is aberrantly high in late-stage cancers and instead of apoptosis promotes tumor invasion and metastasis. This newly discovered activity of deregulated E2F1 reflects a cell context-dependent loss of its death-inducing function. We highlight the role of E2F1 in drug resistance by focusing on recent advances in elucidating the molecular mechanisms that counteract E2F1-induced apoptosis signaling in damaged cells. These mechanisms explain the paradox of high E2F1 expression in advanced tumors, highlight potential loopholes for cancers to escape from conventional treatment, and imply novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:23219173

Pützer, Brigitte M; Engelmann, David

2013-02-01

100

Steroidogenic capacity of Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes.  

PubMed

American Trypanosomiasis is caused by the hemoflagellate Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) and affects millions of persons causing variable degrees of digestive and heart disturbances. As far as we concerned, T. cruzi capacity to synthesize steroid hormones has not been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the capacity of T. cruzi trypomastigotes to transform tritiated steroid precursors into androgens and estrogens. The T. cruzi Tulahuén strain was obtained from mice blood. The trypomastigotes were cultured for 6 and 24h in Dulbbeco's modified Eagle's medium plus FCS and antibiotics. Tritiated dehydroepiandrosterone or androstendione were added to the culture media and parasites were incubated for 6 or 24h. The cultures were centrifuged and ether extracted. The steroids were analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) in two solvent systems. After incubation with 3H-androstenedione, T. cruzi trypomastigotes synthesized 3H-testosterone (T), 3H-17beta-estradiol (E2) and 3H-estrone (E1). Metabolism of 3H-DHEA by the parasites yielded 3H-androstendione and 3H-androstendiol at 6h of incubation. The recrystallization procedure further demonstrated the 3H-androstendiol and 3H-17beta-estradiol syntheses. Results indicate for the first time that T. cruzi trypomastigotes produce androgens and estrogens when incubated in the presence of steroid precursors and suggest the presence of active parasite steroidogenic enzymes. PMID:18640275

Vacchina, P; Valdéz, R A; Gómez, Y; Revelli, S; Romano, M C

2008-09-01

101

Removal of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during sand filtration and ozonation at a municipal sewage treatment plant.  

PubMed

We investigated the efficiencies of removal of 24 pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during sand filtration and ozonation in an operating municipal sewage treatment plant (STP). The target compounds were 2 phenolic antiseptics (thymol, triclosan), 5 acidic analgesics or anti-inflammatories (ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, fenoprofen, mefenamic acid), 4 amide pharmaceuticals (propyphenazone, crotamiton, carbamazepine, diethyltoluamide), 7 antibiotics (sulfapyridine, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, azithromycin, erythromycin anhydride, clarithromycin, roxithromycin), 3 phenolic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) (nonylphenol:NP, octylphenol:OP, bisphenol A:BPA) and 3 natural estrogens (17 beta-estradiol:E2, estrone:E1, estriol:E3). Ozonation removed approximately 80% or more of the phenolic antiseptics, crotamiton, sulfonamide and macrolide antibiotics, and 17 beta-estradiol. Their removal is discussed in terms of chemical structure. The study ascertained the validity of ozonation mechanisms proposed by previous studies in an actually running STP. Compounds with a CC double bond or an aromatic structure with electron donors (e.g., phenol, alkyl, methoxy, or non-protonated amine) were susceptible to ozonation. Compounds with amide structures were resistant. Removal of the PhACs during sand filtration was generally inefficient, probably because of their low hydrophobicities. The combination of ozonation and sand filtration with activated sludge treatment gave efficient removal (>80%) of all the target compounds except carbamazepine and diethyltoluamide. Among all the steps in the plant, ozonation contributed substantially to overall removal of naproxen, ketoprofen, triclosan, crotamiton, sulfapyridine, macrolide antibiotics, and estrone. PMID:17632207

Nakada, Norihide; Shinohara, Hiroyuki; Murata, Ayako; Kiri, Kentaro; Managaki, Satoshi; Sato, Nobuyuki; Takada, Hideshige

2007-11-01

102

Structure of a ubiquitin E1-E2 complex: insights to E1-E2 thioester transfer  

PubMed Central

Summary Ubiquitin (Ub) conjugation is initiated by an E1 enzyme that catalyzes carboxy-terminal Ub adenylation, thioester bond formation to a catalytic cysteine in the E1 Cys domain and thioester transfer to a catalytic cysteine in E2 conjugating enzymes. How the E1 and E2 active sites come together during thioester transfer and how Ub E1 interacts with diverse Ub E2s remains unclear. Here we present a crystal structure of a Ub E1-E2(Ubc4)/Ub/ATP·Mg complex that was stabilized by inducing a disulfide bond between the E1 and E2 active sites. The structure reveals combinatorial recognition of the E2 by the E1 ubiquitin-fold domain (UFD) and Cys domain and mutational analysis, coupled with thioester transfer assays using E1, Ubc4 and other Ub E2s, show that both interfaces are important for thioester transfer. Comparison to a Ub E1/Ub/ATP·Mg structure reveals conformational changes in the E1 that bring the E1 and E2 active sites together.

Olsen, Shaun K.; Lima, Christopher D.

2013-01-01

103

E2F and its developmental regulation in Xenopus laevis.  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor E2F has been implicated in cell cycle control by virtue of its association with cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases, and pRb-related tumor suppressor gene products. Eggs and embryos from the frog Xenopus laevis have been used to investigate the characteristics of E2F-like molecules in the Xenopus cell cycle and throughout early development. We find multiple E2F species in Xenopus eggs, at least one of which is modified by phosphorylation. The vast majority of E2F remains in the free form throughout the very early embryonic cell cycle, and it also remains predominantly free until some time after the mid-blastula transition, the onset of zygotic transcription. At this time, E2F complexes significantly to pRb but not to cdk2, although cdk2 binding is found in tissue culture cells from a very advanced stage in embryogenesis. This suggests that the complexing of E2F to cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases, and tumor suppressor gene products may be controlled separately in early Xenopus development. Thus, the association of E2F with other molecules may not result solely from processes affecting cell cycle progression but may also reflect developmental and differentiation cues. Images

Philpott, A; Friend, S H

1994-01-01

104

Gamma-ray spectrometer onboard Chang'E-2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chang'E-2 gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) is included in the payload of Chinese second lunar mission Chang'E-2 that has been launched in October 2010. Specific objectives of the GRS are to map abundance of O, Si, Fe, Ti, U, Th, K, and, perhaps, Mg, Al, and Ca, to depth of about 20 cm. The energy resolution and detection efficiency were improved compared with Chang'E-1 GRS. We will describe the design of GRS, which used LaBr3 for its main detector, and present its performance in this paper. Moreover, the initial result of Chang'E-2 GRS is reported.

Ma, T.; Chang, J.; Zhang, N.; Jian, W.; Cai, M. S.; Gong, Y. Z.; Tang, H. S.; Zhang, R. J.; Wang, N. S.; Yu, M.; Mao, J. P.; Hu, Y. M.; Xu, A. A.; Zhu, M. H.

2013-10-01

105

Radiation hardness of COTS EPROMs and E2PROMs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines and compares the effects of exposing commercial, off the shelf erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM) and electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (E2PROM) components to gamma rays. Results obtained for CMOS-based EPROM (NM27C010) and E2PROM (NM93CS46) components provide evidence that EPROMs have a greater radiation hardness than E2PROMs. Moreover, the changes in EPROMs are reversible, and after erasure and reprogramming all EPROM components restore their functionality. On the other hand, changes in E2PROMs are irreversible. The obtained results are analyzed and interpreted on the basis of gamma ray interaction with the CMOS structure.

Vujisi?, Miloš; Stankovi?, Koviljka; Doli?anin, Edin; Osmokrovi?, Predrag

106

Sibling rivalry in the E2F family.  

PubMed

The E2F transcription factor family determines whether or not a cell will divide by controlling the expression of key cell-cycle regulators. The individual E2Fs can be divided into distinct subgroups that act in direct opposition to one another to promote either cellular proliferation or cell-cycle exit and terminal differentiation. What is the underlying molecular basis of this 'push-me-pull-you' regulation, and what are its biological consequences? PMID:11823794

Trimarchi, Jeffrey M; Lees, Jacqueline A

2002-01-01

107

Prostaglandin E2 and the bovine sphincter pupillae  

PubMed Central

1. The bovine isolated sphincter pupillae incubated in Krebs solution releases a biologically active substance tentatively identified as prostaglandin E2. 2. The prostaglandin did not appear to be of neural origin or to result merely from tissue degeneration. 3. The spontaneous release of prostaglandin E2-like material was related to the tone of the sphincter. Output increased as tone was acquired after setting up the tissue and fell when various procedures were used to reduce the tone. 4. Low concentrations of E and F-type prostaglandins produced slow, well-sustained contractions of the atonic sphincter, prostaglandin E2 being the most potent of those tested. The responses to prostaglandin E2 were antagonized selectively by a prostaglandin antagonist SC-19220 (a dibenzoxazepine derivative) which in higher concentrations caused dose-dependent relaxations of the preparation. 5. Prostaglandins did not appear to modulate transmission from nerve to muscle in the sphincter. 6. The hypothesis that prostaglandin E2 might be produced to act as a local hormone causing tonic contraction of the sphincter pupillae is discussed.

Posner, J.

1973-01-01

108

Estradiol prevents olfactory dysfunction induced by A-? 25-35 injection in hippocampus  

PubMed Central

Background Some neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer and Parkinson, present an olfactory impairment in early stages, and sometimes even before the clinical symptoms begin. In this study, we assess the role of CA1 hippocampus (structure highly affected in Alzheimer disease) subfield in the rats’ olfactory behavior, and the neuroprotective effect of 17 beta estradiol (E2) against the oxidative stress produced by the injection of amyloid beta 25–35. Results 162 Wistar rats were ovariectomized and two weeks after injected with 2 ?l of amyloid beta 25–35 (A-?25–35) in CA1 subfield. Olfactory behavior was evaluated with a social recognition test, odor discrimination, and search tests. Oxidative stress was evaluated with FOX assay and Western Blot against 4-HNE, Fluoro Jade staining was made to quantify degenerated neurons; all these evaluations were performed 24 h, 8 or 15 days after A-?25–35 injection. Three additional groups treated with 17 beta estradiol (E2) were also evaluated. The injection of A-?25–35 produced an olfactory impairment 24 h and 8 days after, whereas a partial recovery of the olfactory behavior was observed at 15 days. A complete prevention of the olfactory impairment was observed with the administration of E2 two weeks before the amyloid injection (A-?25–35 24 h?+?E2) and one or two weeks after (groups 8 A-? +E2 and 15 A-? +E2 days, respectively); a decrease of the oxidative stress and neurodegeneration were also observed. Conclusions Our finding shows that CA1 hippocampus subfield plays an important role in the olfactory behavior of the rat. The oxidative stress generated by the administration of A-?25–35 is enough to produce an olfactory impairment. This can be prevented with the administration of E2 before and after amyloid injection. This suggests a possible therapeutic use of estradiol in Alzheimer’s disease.

2013-01-01

109

Hepatitis C virus E2 envelope glycoprotein core structure.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a Hepacivirus, is a major cause of viral hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 mediate fusion and entry into host cells and are the primary targets of the humoral immune response. The crystal structure of the E2 core bound to broadly neutralizing antibody AR3C at 2.65 angstroms reveals a compact architecture composed of a central immunoglobulin-fold ? sandwich flanked by two additional protein layers. The CD81 receptor binding site was identified by electron microscopy and site-directed mutagenesis and overlaps with the AR3C epitope. The x-ray and electron microscopy E2 structures differ markedly from predictions of an extended, three-domain, class II fusion protein fold and therefore provide valuable information for HCV drug and vaccine design. PMID:24288331

Kong, Leopold; Giang, Erick; Nieusma, Travis; Kadam, Rameshwar U; Cogburn, Kristin E; Hua, Yuanzi; Dai, Xiaoping; Stanfield, Robyn L; Burton, Dennis R; Ward, Andrew B; Wilson, Ian A; Law, Mansun

2013-11-29

110

Building ubiquitin chains: E2 enzymes at work  

PubMed Central

The modification of proteins with ubiquitin chains can change their localization, activity and/or stability. Although ubiquitylation requires the concerted action of ubiquitin-activating enzymes (E1s), ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) and ubiquitin ligases (E3s), it is the E2s that have recently emerged as key mediators of chain assembly. These enzymes are able to govern the switch from ubiquitin chain initiation to elongation, regulate the processivity of chain formation and establish the topology of assembled chains, thereby determining the consequences of ubiquitylation for the modified proteins.

Ye, Yihong; Rape, Michael

2011-01-01

111

A Structurally Unique E2-Binding Domain Activates Ubiquitination by the ERAD E2, Ubc7p, Through Multiple Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Cue1p is an integral component of yeast endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) ubiquitin ligase (E3) complexes. It tethers the ERAD ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2), Ubc7p, to the ER and prevents its degradation, and also activates Ubc7p via unknown mechanisms. We have now determined the crystal structure of the Ubc7p-binding region (U7BR) of Cue1p with Ubc7p. The U7BR is a unique E2-binding domain that includes three ?-helices that interact extensively with the ‘backside’ of Ubc7p. Residues essential for E2 binding are also required for activation of Ubc7p and for ERAD. We establish that the U7BR stimulates both RING-independent and dependent ubiquitin transfer from Ubc7p. Moreover, the U7BR enhances ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1)-mediated charging of Ubc7p with ubiquitin. This is the first example where an essential component of E3 complexes both binds to E2 and enhances E2 loading with ubiquitin. These findings provide new insights into mechanisms of stimulating ubiquitination.

Metzger, Meredith B.; Liang, Yu-He; Das, Ranabir; Mariano, Jennifer; Li, Shengjian; Li, Jess; Kostova, Zlatka; Byrd, R. Andrew; Ji, Xinhua; Weissman, Allan M.

2013-01-01

112

Interpretation of High Energy (E,2E) Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recently (e,2e) experiments carried out with 8keV incident energy electrons have been reported. These experiments are characterized by the observation of a fast scattered electron at a fixed small scattering angle (3-15 deg.) in coincidence with a slow ej...

R. A. Bonham

1982-01-01

113

(e,2e) and (?,2e) experiments on C60  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The single and double ionization of C60 in gas phase has been studied by (e,2e) and (?,2e) experiments. Both the energy distribution of the singly and doubly charged ions and the coincidence angular correlation have been measured. The experimental results have been compared with calculations explicitly accounting for the two-electron correlations.

Bolognesi, P.; Pavlyukh, Y.; Schüler, M.; Berakdar, J.; Avaldi, L.

2014-04-01

114

E-2C Loads Calibration in DFRC Flight Loads Lab  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Objectives: a) Safely and efficiently perform structural load tests on NAVAIR E-2C aircraft to calibrate strain gage instrumentation installed by NAVAIR; b) Collect load test data and derive loads equations for use in NAVAIR flight tests; and c) Assist flight test team with use of loads equations measurements at PAX River.

Schuster, Lawrence S.

2008-01-01

115

Formulation of Ames 24E2 IR-Black Coating.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The formulation of Ames 24E2 IR-black coating and a rationale for the selection of its components are given. The objective was to make a very rough, very thick, and highly absorbing coating to attenuate the specular reflectance of telescope baffles at far...

S. M. Smith

1991-01-01

116

Decomposition of experimentally determined atomic (e,2e) ionization measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of previously measured helium (e,2e) coincidence ionization differential cross sections obtained over an exceptionally wide range of outgoing electron angles has been decomposed into tensorial angular components. A technique has been used which is familar in nuclear physics for the analysis of cascade decay correlations but which does not appear to have been applied previously to atomic scattering

A. J. Murray; F. H. Read; N. J. Bowring

1994-01-01

117

Novel exploration of the helium (e,2e) ionization process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absolute helium (e,2e) differential cross sections have been measured over a more general range of directions of the outgoing electrons than has previously been attempted and at an incident energy for which all the complexities of exchange and capture processes, incoming and outgoing channel distortions, and short- and long-range correlations are present.

A. J. Murray; F. H. Read

1992-01-01

118

Novel exploration of the helium ( e ,2 e ) ionization process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absolute helium ({ital e},2{ital e}) differential cross sections have been measured over a more general range of directions of the outgoing electrons than has previously been attempted and at an incident energy for which all the complexities of exchange and capture processes, incoming and outgoing channel distortions, and short- and long-range correlations are present.

A. J. Murray; F. H. Read

1992-01-01

119

Adsorbate wavefunction mapping by (e,2e) spectroscopy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of oxygen adsorption on the (e,2e) spectra of annealed carbon films has been investigated. There are two regions of extra intensity in the measured spectral momentum density. One at 31 eV below the vacuum level and a broad one near 11 eV. No di...

M. Vos S. A. Canney P. Storer I. E. McCarthy E. Weigold

1994-01-01

120

Investigation of Generalized Overlap Amplitudes Via (E,2E) Spectroscopy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The (e,2e) reaction has previously been shown to be an extremely direct and accurate measure of the overlap of the wave function of a target molecule with that of different resolved electronic states of the positive ion resulting from electron knockout. T...

G. R. J. Williams I. E. McCarthy E. Weigold

1976-01-01

121

Gonadal in vitro androstenedione metabolism and changes in some plasma and gonadal steroid hormones during sex inversion of the protandrous sea bass, Lates calcarifer.  

PubMed

Steroidogenesis in the gonad of the protandrous sea bass, Lates calcarifer, was examined in vitro in spermiating testis, previtellogenic ovary, and transitional gonads. Gonadal tissues were incubated with tritiated androstenedione. Metabolites were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, microchemical reactions, and crystallization to constant specific activity. 17 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 5 beta-reductase, and 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities were found in all of the sex types. On the other hand, 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 11 beta-hydroxylase activities were found only when testicular tissue was present, i.e., in testis and early transitional gonad. A low aromatase activity leading to estrone synthesis was detected in the previtellogenic ovary. In late transitional gonads, a major metabolite (metabolite X) was suggestively identified as a 3-ester of 17 beta-estradiol according to its chemical and immunological characteristics. Levels of 17 beta-estradiol (E2), the metabolite X, testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) were also measured by radioimmunoassay in plasma, before (January and February) and during (March and April) the sex inversion process. Plasma E2 was virtually undetectable (means below 25 pg/ml), although higher levels of metabolite X were found in transitional fish (485 +/- 432 pg/ml in March). Throughout this period, plasma levels of T and 11KT and the androgens/estrogens ratio were significantly higher in males than in transitional fish, where these levels decreased during the sex inversion period. The level of in vitro synthesis of metabolite X was high in transitional gonads, but their concentrations were very low (0.07 +/- 0.09 ng of equivalent E2/g in transitional gonads against 0.22 +/- 0.37 ng of equivalent E2/g in testes and 2.16 +/- 2.7 ng of equivalent E2/g in ovaries). PMID:8575651

Guiguen, Y; Jalabert, B; Benett, A; Fostier, A

1995-10-01

122

Developing a Biosensor for Estrogens in Water Samples: Study ofthe Real-time Response of Live Cells of the Estrogen-sensitive YeastStrain RMY/ER-ERE using Fluorescence Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Using a fluorescein di-{beta}-D-galactopyranoside (FDG) substrate we show that in live cells of an estrogen-sensitive yeast strain RMY/ER-ERE with human estrogen receptor (ER{alpha}) gene and the lacZ gene which encodes {beta}-galactosidase, the uptake of 17 {beta}-estradiol (E2) and the subsequent production of {beta}-galactosidase enzyme occur quite rapidly, with maximal enzyme-catalyzed product formation evident after about 30 minutes of exposure to E2. This finding which agrees with the well-known rates of enzyme-catalyzed reactions could have implications for shortening the duration of environmental sample screening and monitoring regimes using yeast-based estrogen assays, and the development of biosensors for environmental estrogens to complement quantification methods.

Wozei, E.; Hermanowicz, S.W.; Holman, H-Y.N.

2005-07-13

123

Formulation of Ames 24E2 IR-black coating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The formulation of Ames 24E2 IR-black coating and a rationale for the selection of its components are given. The objective was to make a very rough, very thick, and highly absorbing coating to attenuate the specular reflectance of telescope baffles at far-IR wavelengths. Application and curing instructions are also given. Outgassing measurements are quite low following a 24-hour radiative cure.

Smith, Sheldon M.

1991-01-01

124

Argyrophilic grain disease is associated with apolipoprotein E ?2 allele  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argyrophilic grain disease (AGD) is a distinct degenerative disorder of the human brain associated with the formation of\\u000a abnormally phosphorylated tau protein. AGD-related cytoskeletal changes are known to affect specific subsets of nerve cells\\u000a and oligodendrocytes. Here we demonstrate a remarkable association between the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ?2 allele and AGD.\\u000a Individuals afflicted with AGD (n = 48) reveal a

Estifanos Ghebremedhin; Christian Schultz; Giovannina Botez; Udo Rüb; Irena Sassin; Eva Braak; Heiko Braak

1998-01-01

125

Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC-E2) Characterization Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Testing has been conducted on Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs)-E2 at NASA Glenn Research Center in support of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) project. This testing has been conducted to understand sensitivities of convertor parameters due to environmental and operational changes during operation of the ASRG in missions to space. This paper summarizes test results and explains the operation of the ASRG during space missions

Williams, Zachary D.; Oriti, Salvatore M.

2012-01-01

126

Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC-E2) Characterization Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Testing has been conducted on Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC-E2) convertors at NASA Glenn Research Center in support of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) Project. This testing has been conducted to understand sensitivities of convertor parameters due to environmental and operational changes during operation of the ASRG in missions to space. This paper summarizes test results and explains in terms of operation of the ASRG during space missions.

Williams, Zachary D.; Oriti, Salvatore M.

2012-01-01

127

Formulation of AMES 24E2 IR-black coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formulation of Ames 24E2 IR-black coating and a rationale for the selection of its components are given. The objective was to make a very rough, very thick, and highly absorbing coating to attenuate the specular reflectance of telescope baffles at far-IR wavelengths. Application and curing instructions are also given. Outgassing measurements are quite low following a 24-hour radiative cure.

Smith, Sheldon M.

1991-07-01

128

Role of E2F-1 in Chemosensitivity1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 121 family of transcription factors, in partnership with DP pro teins, is thought to regulate transcription of genes that encode protein products that are required for DNA synthesis, which include important cancer chemotherapeutic targets such as thymidylate synthase and dihy- drofolate reducíase.This study was conducted to investigate the effects of overexpression of human E2F-1 cDNA on Chemosensitivity in a

Debabrata Banerjee; Barbara Schnieders; Jenny Z. Fu; Debasis Adhikari; Shi-Cheng Zhao; Joseph R. Bertino

129

ABB launches GT13E2 in Japanese market  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABB first announced the GT13E2 at the end of 1992 with an initial order book of four units, one of which was allocated to Kawasaki Heavy Industries (KHI) for a demonstration to Japanese utilities. That unit was installed in a specially-created research facility at Sodegaura, on Tokyo Bay, where it also doubles as a peaking set for Tokyo Electric Power

Jeffs

2009-01-01

130

Multicilin drives centriole biogenesis via E2f proteins.  

PubMed

Multiciliate cells employ hundreds of motile cilia to produce fluid flow, which they nucleate and extend by first assembling hundreds of centrioles. In most cells, entry into the cell cycle allows centrioles to undergo a single round of duplication, but in differentiating multiciliate cells, massive centriole assembly occurs in G0 by a process initiated by a small coiled-coil protein, Multicilin. Here we show that Multicilin acts by forming a ternary complex with E2f4 or E2f5 and Dp1 that binds and activates most of the genes required for centriole biogenesis, while other cell cycle genes remain off. This complex also promotes the deuterosome pathway of centriole biogenesis by activating the expression of deup1 but not its paralog, cep63. Finally, we show that this complex is disabled by mutations in human Multicilin that cause a severe congenital mucociliary clearance disorder due to reduced generation of multiple cilia. By coopting the E2f regulation of cell cycle genes, Multicilin drives massive centriole assembly in epithelial progenitors in a manner required for multiciliate cell differentiation. PMID:24934224

Ma, Lina; Quigley, Ian; Omran, Heymut; Kintner, Chris

2014-07-01

131

E2F-1 lacking the transcriptional activity domain induces autophagy  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor E2F-1 plays a crucial role in the control of cell proliferation. E2F-1 has tumor suppressive properties by inducing apoptosis and autophagy. In this study, E2F-1 and its truncated form (E2Ftr), lacking the transactivation domain (TAD), were compared for their ability to induce autophagy. In Gaussia luciferase-based assays, both E2F-1 and E2Ftr induced the proteolytic cleavage of the autophagic marker LC3. In addition, LC3 and autophagy protein 5 (Atg5) were upregulated by E2F-1 and E2Ftr. Likewise, both E2F proteins induced a punctate pattern of GFP-tagged LC3, indicating autophagosome formation. The presence of double-membrane autophagic vesicles induced by E2F-1 and E2Ftr was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The application of z-VAD-fmk, a caspase inhibitor, partially blocked both E2F-1 and E2Ftr-mediated cytotoxicity. Moreover, Atg5?/? cells were more resistant to the E2F-1 or E2Ftr-induced cell killing effect than Atg5 wt cells. The TAD of E2F-1 is not essential for induction of autophagy; apoptosis and autophagy cooperate for an efficient cancer cell killing effect induced by E2F-1 or E2Ftr. E2Ftr-induced autophagy is a promising approach to destroy tumors that are resistant to conventional treatments.

Garcia-Garcia, Aracely; Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Tseng, Michael T.; Montes de Oca-Luna, Roberto; Zhou, H. Sam; McMasters, Kelly M.; Gomez-Gutierrez, Jorge G.

2012-01-01

132

Comparative in vivo metabolism of apolipoproteins E2 and E4 in heterozygous apoE2\\/4 subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apolipoprotein E (apoE) exists in three common forms in humans: the wild-type apoE3 and two common genetic variants, apoE2 and apoE4. Although previous studies have examined the metabolism of the different apoE isoforms in human subjects, they have not involved direct comparison of two different isoforms in subjects heterozygous for the same two isoforms. We conducted this study to directly

Katsunori Ikewaki; Loren A. Zech; H. Bryan Brewer; Daniel J. Rader

2002-01-01

133

Astro-E2 Magnesium Diboride High Current Leads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recent discovery of superconducting properties in MgB_2 and rapid development of small diameter steel-clad wires has opened up the possibility of enhancing the design of the baseline Astro-E2 high current lead assembly. Replacing YBCO filaments with MgB_2 wires and modifying the heat sink location can give much higher margins against quench from temperature oscillations of the 4 K heat sink, although wih some overall thermal penalty. The design and performance of a new lead assembly during flight qualification is discussed, with emphasis on thermal, structural, and electrical test results.

Panek, J. S.; Tuttle, J. G.; Riall, S.; Mustafi, S.; Gray, A.; Edmonds, R.; Marrero, V.

2003-01-01

134

Novel link between E2F1 and Smac\\/DIABLO: proapoptotic Smac\\/DIABLO is transcriptionally upregulated by E2F1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deregulated expression of E2F1 not only promotes S-phase entry but also induces apoptosis. Although it has been well documented that E2F1 is able to induce p53-dependent apoptosis via raising ARF activity, the mechanism by which E2F induces p53-independent apoptosis remains unclear. Here we report that E2F1 can directly bind to and activate the promoter of Smac\\/DIABLO, a mitochondrial pro- apoptotic

Wei Xie; Peng Jiang; Lin Miao; Ying Zhao; Zhai Zhimin; Li Qing; Wei-guo Zhu; Mian Wu

2006-01-01

135

The First Human Epitope Map of the Alphaviral E1 and E2 Proteins Reveals a New E2 Epitope with Significant Virus Neutralizing Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundVenezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is responsible for VEE epidemics that occur in South and Central America and the U.S. The VEEV envelope contains two glycoproteins E1 (mediates cell membrane fusion) and E2 (binds receptor and elicits virus neutralizing antibodies). Previously we constructed E1 and E2 epitope maps using murine monoclonal antibodies (mMAbs). Six E2 epitopes (E2c,d,e,f,g,h) bound VEEV-neutralizing antibody

Ann R. Hunt; Shana Frederickson; Toshiaki Maruyama; John T. Roehrig; Carol D. Blair

2010-01-01

136

Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) alters E2F1/Rb pathways and utilizes the E2F1 transcription factor to express viral genes  

PubMed Central

E2F transcription factors play pivotal roles in controlling the expression of genes involved in cell-cycle progression. Different viruses affect E2F1/retinoblastoma (Rb) interactions by diverse mechanisms releasing E2F1 from its suppressor Rb, enabling viral replication. We show that in T cells infected with human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A), the E2F1 protein and its cofactor DP1 increased, whereas the Rb protein underwent massive degradation without hyperphosphorylation at three sites known to control E2F/Rb association. Although E2F1 and DP1 increased without Rb suppression, the E2F1 target genes—including cyclin A, cyclin E, and dihydrofolate reductase—were not up-regulated. To test whether the E2F1/DP1 complexes were used for viral transcription, we scanned the viral genome for genes containing the E2F binding site in their promoters. In the present work, we concentrated on the U27 and U79 genes known to act in viral DNA synthesis. We constructed amplicon-6 vectors containing a GFP reporter gene driven by WT viral promoter or by promoter mutated in the E2F binding site. We found that the expression of the fusion U27 promoter was dependent on the presence of the E2F binding site. Test of the WT U79 promoter yielded >10-fold higher expression of the GFP reporter gene than the mutant U79 promoter with abrogated E2F binding site. Moreover, by using siRNA to E2F1, we found that E2F1 was essential for the activity of the U79 promoter. These findings revealed a unique pathway in HHV-6 replication: The virus causes Rb degradation and uses the increased E2F1 and DP1 factors to transcribe viral genes.

Sharon, Eyal; Volchek, Ludmila; Frenkel, Niza

2014-01-01

137

Failed induction of labor despite sequential prostaglandin E2 therapy.  

PubMed

Preinduction cervical ripening with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is useful in minimizing the chances for a failed induction of labor. The lack of sufficient cervical dilation despite PGE2 and oxytocin therapy is uncommon. This investigation was undertaken to determine reasons for any failed inductions in pregnancies with pregel Bishop scores 4 or lower and requiring delivery within 24 hours. Fifteen (12.1%) of 124 eligible patients had failed inductions despite two 2.5 mg intravaginal doses. A finding in all the failures was a very unfavorable cervix (pregel Bishop score 0 to 2). The need for preterm delivery (33 to 37 weeks) was a common finding in the presence of a very unfavorable cervix. The data suggest that complicated pregnancies requiring delivery within 24 hours and failing to respond to sequential PGE2 therapy in the presence of a very unfavorable cervix may benefit from cesarean section without a prolonged induction. PMID:2006938

Karaiskakis, P T; Rayburn, W F; Smith, C V; Woods, R E

1991-03-01

138

Parametrization of a Spin-polarized (e,2e) Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the density matrix formalism to parametrize a spin-polarized (e,2e) experiment on xenon in which a p electron is ejected from a closed-shell system and the fine structure of the ion is resolved experimentally. This formulation allows a definition from general principles of the recently observed spin up-down asymmetry(X. Guo, J. Lower, J. Hurn, S. Mazevet, Y. Shen, E. Weigold, B. Granitza and I. E. McCarthy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76), 1228 (1996) due to the fine-structure effect(S. Jones, D. H. Madison, G. F. Hanne, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72), 2554 (1994) and the complete definition of potentially observable quantities such as the polarization of the fast- and slow emitted electron beams and the orientation of the ion beam after the collision. Calculations of these parameters will be presented for asymmetric kinematics and for an initial electron beam respectively unpolarized and polarized perpendicular to the scattering plane.

Mazevet, S.; McCarthy, I. E.; Weigold, E.

1998-05-01

139

Three body effects in low energy (e,2e) processes  

SciTech Connect

Within the last two years a number of highly refined measurements have been performed on H targets which have yielded accurate absolute data for a range of energies and geometries and it would appear that the experimental situation for this, the simplest of atomic targets is now resolved. The theoretical situation is however far from satisfactory and in this paper we will analysis some of the main approaches and characterize their strengths and their weaknesses. We have developed a numerical method which allows us to evaluate triple differential cross sections (TDCS) using the most complex position dependent analytic ansatz wave function and we will present results, using this for low energy (e,2e) processes. We will see that this approach fails when incident channel effects, such as target polarization are likely to be strong.

Rasch, J. [Institut de Physique, Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et des Collisions, Technopole Metz 2000, Rue Arago (France); Whelan, Colm T. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Silver Street, Cambridge, CB3 9EW (United Kingdom)

1999-06-10

140

Search for methyl carbamate in W51e2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex organic molecules containing up to 10 atoms have been detected in several hot molecular clouds such as Orion or SgrB2. Glycine (NH2CH2COOH), the simplest amino acid, has been extensively searched in hot cores and in molecular outflows but has not been firmly detected yet. Using the 30m IRAM antenna at Pico Veleta, we have searched for the methyl carbamate (NH2COOCH3), the isomere of glycine, in the hot molecular cloud W51e2 and in the intermediate mass protostar IRAS21391+58502. This molecule, if present in molecular clouds, should be more favorable to detect than glycine thanks to its strong dipole moment. This poster presents the results from these observations.

Demyk, Karine; Wlodarczak, Georges; Dartois, Emmanuel

2004-12-01

141

E2F mediates enhanced alternative polyadenylation in proliferation  

PubMed Central

Background The majority of mammalian genes contain multiple poly(A) sites in their 3' UTRs. Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation are emerging as an important layer of gene regulation as they generate transcript isoforms that differ in their 3' UTRs, thereby modulating genes' response to 3' UTR-mediated regulation. Enhanced cleavage at 3' UTR proximal poly(A) sites resulting in global 3' UTR shortening was recently linked to proliferation and cancer. However, mechanisms that regulate this enhanced alternative polyadenylation are unknown. Results Here, we explored, on a transcriptome-wide scale, alternative polyadenylation events associated with cellular proliferation and neoplastic transformation. We applied a deep-sequencing technique for identification and quantification of poly(A) sites to two human cellular models, each examined under proliferative, arrested and transformed states. In both cell systems we observed global 3' UTR shortening associated with proliferation, a link that was markedly stronger than the association with transformation. Furthermore, we found that proliferation is also associated with enhanced cleavage at intronic poly(A) sites. Last, we found that the expression level of the set of genes that encode for 3'-end processing proteins is globally elevated in proliferation, and that E2F transcription factors contribute to this regulation. Conclusions Our results comprehensively identify alternative polyadenylation events associated with cellular proliferation and transformation, and demonstrate that the enhanced alternative polyadenylation in proliferative conditions results not only in global 3' UTR shortening but also in enhanced premature cleavage in introns. Our results also indicate that E2F-mediated co-transcriptional regulation of 3'-end processing genes is one of the mechanisms that links enhanced alternative polyadenylation to proliferation.

2012-01-01

142

Nuclear localization of ?-tubulin affects E2F transcriptional activity and S-phase progression  

PubMed Central

We show that the centrosome- and microtubule-regulating protein ?-tubulin interacts with E2 promoter binding factors (E2Fs) to modulate E2F transcriptional activity and thereby control cell cycle progression. ?-Tubulin contains a C-terminal signal that results in its translocation to the nucleus during late G1 to early S phase. ?-Tubulin mutants showed that the C terminus interacts with the transcription factor E2F1 and that the E2F1–?-tubulin complex is formed during the G1/S transition, when E2F1 is transcriptionally active. Furthermore, E2F transcriptional activity is altered by reduced expression of ?-tubulin or by complex formation between ?-tubulin and E2F1, E2F2, or E2F3, but not E2F6. In addition, the ?-tubulin C terminus encodes a DNA-binding domain that interacts with E2F-regulated promoters, resulting in ?-tubulin-mediated transient activation of E2Fs. Thus, we report a novel mechanism regulating the activity of E2Fs, which can help explain how these proteins affect cell cycle progression in mammalian cells.—Höög, G., Zarrizi, R., von Stedingk, K., Jonsson, K., Alvarado-Kristensson, M. Nuclear localization of ?-tubulin affects E2F transcriptional activity and S-phase progression.

Hoog, Greta; Zarrizi, Reihaneh; von Stedingk, Kristoffer; Jonsson, Kristina; Alvarado-Kristensson, Maria

2011-01-01

143

Analysis of a model reaction system containing cysteine and (E)-2-methyl-2-butenal, (E)-2-hexenal, or mesityl oxide.  

PubMed

Cysteine conjugates, resulting from the addition of cysteine to alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds, are important precursors of odorant sulfur compounds in food flavors. The aim of this work was to better understand this chemistry in the light of the unexpected double addition of cysteine to two unsaturated aldehydes. These reactions were studied as a function of pH. When (E)-2-methyl-2-butenal (tiglic aldehyde, 4) was treated with cysteine in water at pH 8, the major product formed was the new compound (4R)-2-(2-[[(2R)-2-amino-2-carboxyethyl]thio]methylpropyl)-1,3-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (6). Under acidic conditions (pH 1), we also observed a double addition, but the second cysteine was linked by a vinylic sulfide bond to form the previously unreported major product, (2R,2'R,E)-S,S'-(2,3-dimethyl-1-propene-1,3-diyl)bis-cysteine (7). When (E)-2-hexenal (12) was treated with cysteine under acidic conditions, the major product was the novel (4R,2' 'R)-2-[2'-(2' '-amino-2' '-carboxyethylthio)pentyl]-1,3-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (13), and the formation of an vinylic sulfide compound analogous to 7 was not observed. Reduction of the acidic crude reaction mixture with NaBH(4) afforded 13 and the cysteine derivative (R)-S-[1-(2-hydroxyethyl)butyl]cysteine (14) in 14% yield. Treating (E)-2-hexenal with cysteine at pH 8 followed by NaBH(4) reduction yielded the new product (3R)-7-propylhexahydro-1,4-thiazepine-3-carboxylic acid (15). Addition of cysteine to mesityl oxide (16), at pH 8, followed by reduction with NaBH(4) furnished (R)-S-(3-hydroxy-1,1-dimethylbutyl)cysteine (3) and the new compound (3R)-hexahydro-5,7,7-trimethyl-1,4-thiazepine-3-carboxylic acid (18). PMID:14611186

Starkenmann, Christian

2003-11-19

144

RBF Binding to both Canonical E2F Targets and Noncanonical Targets Depends on Functional dE2F/dDP Complexes  

PubMed Central

The retinoblastoma (RB) family of proteins regulate transcription. These proteins lack intrinsic DNA-binding activity but are recruited to specific genomic locations through interactions with sequence-specific DNA-binding factors. The best-known target of RB protein (pRB) is the E2F transcription factor; however, many other chromatin-associated proteins have been described that may allow RB family members to act at additional sites. To gain a perspective on the scale of E2F-dependent and E2F-independent functions, we generated genome-wide binding profiles of RBF1 and dE2F proteins in Drosophila larvae. RBF1 and dE2F2 associate with a large number of binding sites at genes with diverse biological functions. In contrast, dE2F1 was detected at a smaller set of promoters, suggesting that it overrides repression by RBF1/dE2F2 at a specific subset of targets. Approximately 15% of RBF1-bound regions lacked consensus E2F-binding motifs. To test whether RBF1 action at these sites is E2F independent, we examined dDP mutant larvae that lack any functional dE2F/dDP heterodimers. As measured by chromatin immunoprecipitation-microarray analysis (ChIP-chip), ChIP-quantitative PCR (qPCR), and cell fractionation, the stable association of RBF1 with chromatin was eliminated in dDP mutants. This requirement for dDP was seen at classic E2F-regulated promoters and at promoters that lacked canonical E2F-binding sites. These results suggest that E2F/DP complexes are essential for all genomic targeting of RBF1.

Korenjak, Michael; Anderssen, Endre; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Whetstine, Johnathan R.

2012-01-01

145

VIP1, an Arabidopsis protein that interacts with Agrobacterium VirE2, is involved in VirE2 nuclear import and Agrobacterium infectivity  

PubMed Central

T-DNA nuclear import is a central event in genetic transformation of plant cells by Agrobacterium. This event is thought to be mediated by two bacterial proteins, VirD2 and VirE2, which are associated with the transported T-DNA molecule. While VirD2 is imported into the nuclei of plant, animal and yeast cells, nuclear uptake of VirE2 occurs most efficiently in plant cells. To understand better the mechanism of VirE2 action, a cellular interactor of VirE2 was identified and its encoding gene cloned from Arabidopsis. The identified plant protein, designated VIP1, specifically bound VirE2 and allowed its nuclear import in non-plant systems. In plants, VIP1 was required for VirE2 nuclear import and Agrobacterium tumorigenicity, participating in early stages of T-DNA expression.

Tzfira, Tzvi; Vaidya, Manjusha; Citovsky, Vitaly

2001-01-01

146

Prostaglandin E2 Prevents Disuse-Induced Cortical Bone Loss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The object of this study was to determine whether prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) can prevent disuse (underloaded)-induced cortical bone loss as well as add extra bone to underloaded bones. Thirteen-month-old retired female Sprague-Dawley breeders served as controls or were subjected to simultaneous right hindlimb immobilization by bandaging and daily subcutaneous doses of 0, 1, 3, or 6 mg PGE2/kg/d for two and six weeks. Histomorphometric analyses were performed on double-fluorescent labeled undecalcified tibial shaft sections (proximal to the tibiofibular junction). Disuse-induced cortical bone loss occurred by enlarging the marrow cavity and increasing intracortical porosity. PGE2 treatment of disuse shafts further increased intracortical porosity above that in disuse alone controls. This bone loss was counteracted by enhancement of periosteal and corticoendosteal bone formation. Stimulation of periosteal and corticoendosteal bone formation slightly enlarged the total tissue (cross-sectional) area and inhibited marrow cavity enlargement. These PGE2-induced activities netted the same percentage of cortical bone with a different distribution than the beginning and age related controls. These findings indicate the PGE2-induced increase in bone formation compensated for the disuse and PGE2-induced bone loss, and thus prevented immobilization induced bone loss.

Jee, Webster S. S.; Akamine, T.; Ke, Hua Zhu; Li, Xiao Jian; Tang, L. Y.; Zeng, Q. Q.

1992-01-01

147

Differential Stem and Progenitor Cell Trafficking by Prostaglandin E2  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY To maintain lifelong production of blood cells, hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are tightly regulated by inherent programs and extrinsic regulatory signals received from their microenvironmental niche. Long-term repopulating HSC (LT-HSC) reside in several, perhaps overlapping, niches that produce regulatory molecules/signals necessary for homeostasis and increased output following stress/injury 1–5. Despite significant advances in specific cellular or molecular mechanisms governing HSC/niche interactions, little is understood about regulatory function within the intact mammalian hematopoietic niche. Recently, we and others described a positive regulatory role for Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on HSC function ex vivo 6,7. While exploring the role of endogenous PGE2 we unexpectedly observed hematopoietic egress after nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) treatment. Surprisingly, this was independent of the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis. Stem and progenitor cells were found to have differing mechanisms of egress, with HSC transit to the periphery dependent on niche attenuation and reduction in the retentive molecule osteopontin (OPN). Hematopoietic grafts mobilized with NSAIDs had superior repopulating ability and long-term engraftment. Treatment of non-human primates and healthy human volunteers confirmed NSAID-mediated egress in higher species. PGE2 receptor knockout mice demonstrated that progenitor expansion and stem/progenitor egress resulted from reduced EP4 receptor signaling. These results not only uncover unique regulatory roles for EP4 signaling in HSC retention in the niche but also define a rapidly translatable strategy to therapeutically enhance transplantation.

Hoggatt, Jonathan; Mohammad, Khalid S.; Singh, Pratibha; Hoggatt, Amber F.; Chitteti, Brahmananda Reddy; Speth, Jennifer M.; Hu, Peirong; Poteat, Bradley A.; Stilger, Kayla N.; Ferraro, Francesca; Silberstein, Lev; Wong, Frankie K.; Farag, Sherif S.; Czader, Magdalena; Milne, Ginger L.; Breyer, Richard M.; Serezani, Carlos H.; Scadden, David T.; Guise, Theresa; Srour, Edward F.; Pelus, Louis M.

2013-01-01

148

Prostanoid signaling: dual role for prostaglandin E2 in neurotoxicity  

PubMed Central

The prostanoids, a naturally occurring subclass of eicosanoids, are lipid mediators generated through oxidative pathways from arachidonic acid. These cyclooxygenase metabolites, consisting of the prostaglandins (PG), prostacyclin and tromboxane, are released in response to a variety of physiological and pathological stimuli in almost all organs, including the brain. They are produced by various cell types and act upon targeted cells via specific G protein-coupled receptors. The existence of multiple receptors, cross-reactivity and coupling to different signal transduction pathways for each prostanoid, collectively establish their diverse effects. Notably, these effects can occur in functionally opposing directions within the same cell or organ. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is the most versatile prostanoid because of its receptors, E Prostanoid (EP) receptor subtypes 1 through 4, its biological heterogeneity and its differential expression on neuronal and glial cells throughout the central nervous system. Since PGE2 plays an important role in processes associated with various neurological diseases, this review focuses on its dual neuroprotective and neurotoxic role in EP receptor subtype signaling pathways in different models of brain injury.

Milatovic, Dejan; Montine, Thomas J.; Aschner, Michael

2011-01-01

149

STS-70 Launch - Nikon E-2 Digital Image  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This test image was taken with a Nikon E-2 Digital Imaging System camera and are provided courtesy of Nikon (GIF 450x450 JPEG 1280x1000): The second Shuttle launch in 16 days hurtles off the pad into a sweltering summer sky. The unstable weather typical to Florida in the summertime didn't have a chance to coalesce and impact this morning's launch window, and the Space Shuttle Discovery began its planned seven-day, 22-hour flight on Mission STS-70 from Launch Pad 39B at 9:41:55.078 a.m. EDT, just seconds off schedule. On board for Discovery's 21st spaceflight are a crew of five: Commander Terence 'Tom' Henricks; Pilot Kevin R. Kregel; and Mission Specialists Nancy Jane Currie, Donald A. Thomas and Mary Ellen Weber. The crew's primary objective during the 70th Shuttle flight is to deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS-G), which will join a constellation of other TDRS spacecraft already on orbit. TDRS-G is destined to become an on- orbit, fully operational 'ready reserve' satellite, available along with one other ready reserve TDRS spacecraft to back up the two primary TDRS satellites positions, TDRS East over the Atlantic Ocean and TDRS West over the Pacific. Assured capability of the TDRS communications network is essential for linking Earth-orbiting spacecraft such as the Shuttle and the Hubble Space Telescope with the ground.

1995-01-01

150

STS-70 Launch - Nikon E-2 Digital Image  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This test images was taken with a Nikon E-2 Digital Imaging System camera and are provided courtesy of Nikon (GIF 450x450 JPEG 1280x1000): The second Shuttle launch in 16 days hurtles off the pad into a sweltering summer sky. The unstable weather typical to Florida in the summertime didn't have a chance to coalesce and impact this morning's launch window, and the Space Shuttle Discovery began its planned seven-day, 22-hour flight on Mission STS-70 from Launch Pad 39B at 9:41:55.078 a.m. EDT, just seconds off schedule. On board for Discovery's 21st spaceflight are a crew of five: Commander Terence 'Tom' Henricks; Pilot Kevin R. Kregel; and Mission Specialists Nancy Jane Currie, Donald A. Thomas and Mary Ellen Weber. The crew's primary objective during the 70th Shuttle flight is to deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS-G), which will join a constellation of other TDRS spacecraft already on orbit. TDRS-G is destined to become an on- orbit, fully operational 'ready reserve' satellite, available along with one other ready reserve TDRS spacecraft to back up the two primary TDRS satellites positions, TDRS East over the Atlantic Ocean and TDRS West over the Pacific. Assured capability of the TDRS communications network is essential for linking Earth-orbiting spacecraft such as the Shuttle and the Hubble Space Telescope with the ground.

1995-01-01

151

MPN patients harbor recurrent truncating mutations in transcription factor NF-E2.  

PubMed

The molecular etiology of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) remains incompletely understood, despite recent advances incurred through the discovery of several different mutations in MPN patients. We have recently described overexpression of the transcription factor NF-E2 in MPN patients and shown that elevated NF-E2 levels in vivo cause an MPN phenotype and predispose to leukemic transformation in transgenic mice. We report the presence of acquired insertion and deletion mutations in the NF-E2 gene in MPN patients. These result in truncated NF-E2 proteins that enhance wild-type (WT) NF-E2 function and cause erythrocytosis and thrombocytosis in a murine model. NF-E2 mutant cells acquire a proliferative advantage, witnessed by clonal dominance over WT NF-E2 cells in MPN patients. Our data underscore the role of increased NF-E2 activity in the pathophysiology of MPNs. PMID:23589569

Jutzi, Jonas S; Bogeska, Ruzhica; Nikoloski, Gorica; Schmid, Corina A; Seeger, Thalia S; Stegelmann, Frank; Schwemmers, Sven; Gründer, Albert; Peeken, Jan C; Gothwal, Monika; Wehrle, Julius; Aumann, Konrad; Hamdi, Kamar; Dierks, Christine; Kamar Wang, Wei; Döhner, Konstanze; Jansen, Joop H; Pahl, Heike L

2013-05-01

152

MPN patients harbor recurrent truncating mutations in transcription factor NF-E2  

PubMed Central

The molecular etiology of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) remains incompletely understood, despite recent advances incurred through the discovery of several different mutations in MPN patients. We have recently described overexpression of the transcription factor NF-E2 in MPN patients and shown that elevated NF-E2 levels in vivo cause an MPN phenotype and predispose to leukemic transformation in transgenic mice. We report the presence of acquired insertion and deletion mutations in the NF-E2 gene in MPN patients. These result in truncated NF-E2 proteins that enhance wild-type (WT) NF-E2 function and cause erythrocytosis and thrombocytosis in a murine model. NF-E2 mutant cells acquire a proliferative advantage, witnessed by clonal dominance over WT NF-E2 cells in MPN patients. Our data underscore the role of increased NF-E2 activity in the pathophysiology of MPNs.

Jutzi, Jonas S.; Bogeska, Ruzhica; Nikoloski, Gorica; Schmid, Corina A.; Seeger, Thalia S.; Stegelmann, Frank; Schwemmers, Sven; Grunder, Albert; Peeken, Jan C.; Gothwal, Monika; Wehrle, Julius; Aumann, Konrad; Hamdi, Kamar; Dierks, Christine; Wang, Wei; Dohner, Konstanze; Jansen, Joop H.

2013-01-01

153

E2F-1 Potentiates Cell Death by Blocking Antiapoptotic Signaling Pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

The E2F family of transcription factors plays an essential role in promoting cell cycle progression, and one member of the family, E2F-1, is also capable of inducing apoptosis. We show here that E2F-1 can induce apoptosis by a death receptor–dependent mechanism, by downregulating TRAF2 protein levels and inhibiting activation of antiapoptotic signals including NF-?B. In this way, E2F-1 expression can

Andrew C Phillips; Mary K Ernst; Stewart Bates; Nancy R Rice; Karen H Vousden

1999-01-01

154

Polycomb protein EZH2 regulates E2F1-dependent apoptosis through epigenetically modulating Bim expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deregulation of the pRB\\/E2F pathway, which occurs frequently in human malignancy, is often associated with inappropriate proliferation and\\/or apoptosis. While the role of E2F1 in apoptosis induction has been well-established, it remains unclear how this pro-apoptotic activity is regulated in cancer. Here we describe EZH2, an oncogenic polycomb histone methyltransferase and an E2F1 target, as an important regulator of E2F1-dependent

Z L Wu; S S Zheng; Z M Li; Y Y Qiao; M Y Aau; Q Yu

2010-01-01

155

Tumor Induction and Tissue Atrophy in Mice Lacking E2F-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRB) is a transcriptional repressor that regulates gene expression by physically associating with transcription factors such as E2F family members. Although pRB and its upstream regulators are commonly mutated in human cancer, the physiological role of the pRB–E2F pathway is unknown. To address the function of E2F-1 and pRB\\/E2F-1 complexes in vivo, we have produced

Lili Yamasaki; Tyler Jacks; Roderick Bronson; Evelyne Goillot; Ed Harlow; Nicholas J Dyson

1996-01-01

156

In vivo delivery of bovine viral diahorrea virus, E2 protein using hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our work focuses on the application of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a combined delivery vehicle and adjuvant for vaccine applications. Here we present results using the viral protein, E2, from bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). BVDV infection occurs in the target species of cattle and sheep herds worldwide and is therefore of economic importance. E2 is a major immunogenic determinant of BVDV and is an ideal candidate for the development of a subunit based nanovaccine using mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Hollow type mesoporous silica nanoparticles with surface amino functionalisation (termed HMSA) were characterised and assessed for adsorption and desorption of E2. A codon-optimised version of the E2 protein (termed Opti-E2) was produced in Escherichia coli. HMSA (120 nm) had an adsorption capacity of 80 ?g Opti-E2 per mg HMSA and once bound E2 did not dissociate from the HMSA. Immunisation studies in mice with a 20 ?g dose of E2 adsorbed to 250 ?g HMSA was compared to immunisation with Opti-E2 (50 ?g) together with the traditional adjuvant Quillaja saponaria Molina tree saponins (QuilA, 10 ?g). The humoral responses with the Opti-E2/HMSA nanovaccine although slightly lower than those obtained for the Opti-E2 + QuilA group demonstrated that HMSA particles are an effective adjuvant that stimulated E2-specific antibody responses. Importantly the cell-mediated immune responses were consistently high in all mice immunised with Opti-E2/HMSA nanovaccine formulation. Therefore we have shown the Opti-E2/HMSA nanoformulation acts as an excellent adjuvant that gives both T-helper 1 and T-helper 2 mediated responses in a small animal model. This study has provided proof-of-concept towards the development of an E2 subunit nanoparticle based vaccine.Our work focuses on the application of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a combined delivery vehicle and adjuvant for vaccine applications. Here we present results using the viral protein, E2, from bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). BVDV infection occurs in the target species of cattle and sheep herds worldwide and is therefore of economic importance. E2 is a major immunogenic determinant of BVDV and is an ideal candidate for the development of a subunit based nanovaccine using mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Hollow type mesoporous silica nanoparticles with surface amino functionalisation (termed HMSA) were characterised and assessed for adsorption and desorption of E2. A codon-optimised version of the E2 protein (termed Opti-E2) was produced in Escherichia coli. HMSA (120 nm) had an adsorption capacity of 80 ?g Opti-E2 per mg HMSA and once bound E2 did not dissociate from the HMSA. Immunisation studies in mice with a 20 ?g dose of E2 adsorbed to 250 ?g HMSA was compared to immunisation with Opti-E2 (50 ?g) together with the traditional adjuvant Quillaja saponaria Molina tree saponins (QuilA, 10 ?g). The humoral responses with the Opti-E2/HMSA nanovaccine although slightly lower than those obtained for the Opti-E2 + QuilA group demonstrated that HMSA particles are an effective adjuvant that stimulated E2-specific antibody responses. Importantly the cell-mediated immune responses were consistently high in all mice immunised with Opti-E2/HMSA nanovaccine formulation. Therefore we have shown the Opti-E2/HMSA nanoformulation acts as an excellent adjuvant that gives both T-helper 1 and T-helper 2 mediated responses in a small animal model. This study has provided proof-of-concept towards the development of an E2 subunit nanoparticle based vaccine. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Desorption studies of Opti-E2 bound HMSA. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01202j

Mahony, D.; Cavallaro, A. S.; Mody, K. T.; Xiong, L.; Mahony, T. J.; Qiao, S. Z.; Mitter, N.

2014-05-01

157

Modulation of the E2F1-Driven Cancer Cell Fate by the DNA Damage Response Machinery and Potential Novel E2F1 Targets in Osteosarcomas  

PubMed Central

Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone cancer. Mutations of the RB gene represent the most frequent molecular defect in this malignancy. A major consequence of this alteration is that the activity of the key cell cycle regulator E2F1 is unleashed from the inhibitory effects of pRb. Studies in animal models and in human cancers have shown that deregulated E2F1 overexpression possesses either “oncogenic” or “oncosuppressor” properties, depending on the cellular context. To address this issue in osteosarcomas, we examined the status of E2F1 relative to cell proliferation and apoptosis in a clinical setting of human primary osteosarcomas and in E2F1-inducible osteosarcoma cell line models that are wild-type and deficient for p53. Collectively, our data demonstrated that high E2F1 levels exerted a growth-suppressing effect that relied on the integrity of the DNA damage response network. Surprisingly, induction of p73, an established E2F1 target, was also DNA damage response-dependent. Furthermore, a global proteome analysis associated with bioinformatics revealed novel E2F1-regulated genes and potential E2F1-driven signaling networks that could provide useful targets in challenging this aggressive neoplasm by innovative therapies.

Liontos, Michalis; Niforou, Katerina; Velimezi, Georgia; Vougas, Konstantinos; Evangelou, Konstantinos; Apostolopoulou, Kalliopi; Vrtel, Radek; Damalas, Alexandros; Kontovazenitis, Panayiotis; Kotsinas, Athanassios; Zoumpourlis, Vassilis; Tsangaris, George Th.; Kittas, Christos; Ginsberg, Doron; Halazonetis, Thanos D.; Bartek, Jiri; Gorgoulis, Vassilis G.

2009-01-01

158

E2F1 Regulates Cellular Growth by mTORC1 Signaling  

PubMed Central

During cell proliferation, growth must occur to maintain homeostatic cell size. Here we show that E2F1 is capable of inducing growth by regulating mTORC1 activity. The activation of cell growth and mTORC1 by E2F1 is dependent on both E2F1's ability to bind DNA and to regulate gene transcription, demonstrating that a gene induction expression program is required in this process. Unlike E2F1, E2F3 is unable to activate mTORC1, suggesting that growth activity could be restricted to individual E2F members. The effect of E2F1 on the activation of mTORC1 does not depend on Akt. Furthermore, over-expression of TSC2 does not interfere with the effect of E2F1, indicating that the E2F1-induced signal pathway can compensate for the inhibitory effect of TSC2 on Rheb. Immunolocalization studies demonstrate that E2F1 induces the translocation of mTORC1 to the late endosome vesicles, in a mechanism dependent of leucine. E2F1 and leucine, or insulin, together affect the activation of S6K stronger than alone suggesting that they are complementary in activating the signal pathway. From these studies, E2F1 emerges as a key protein that integrates cell division and growth, both of which are essential for cell proliferation.

Real, Sebastian; Meo-Evoli, Nathalie; Espada, Lilia; Tauler, Albert

2011-01-01

159

Efficiency of E2-p7 Processing Modulates Production of Infectious Hepatitis C Virus  

PubMed Central

Previous studies indicate that the processing of hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2-p7-NS2 precursor mediated by host signal peptidase is relatively inefficient, resulting in the accumulation of E2-p7-NS2 and E2-p7 precursors in addition to E2 in mammalian cells. In this study, we discovered that a significant inhibition of the processing at an E2-p7 junction site is detrimental for HCV production, whether it was caused by the mutations in p7 or by the strategic introduction of a mutation at a terminal residue of E2 to block the signal peptidase-mediated cleavage of this junction site. However, complete separation of E2 and p7 by inserting an encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES) between these two proteins also moderately inhibited virus production. These results indicate that optimal processing of the E2-p7 junction site is critical for efficient HCV production. We further demonstrated that disrupting E2-p7 processing inhibits both NS2 localization to the putative virus assembly sites near lipid droplets (LD) and NS2 interaction with NS3 and E2. However, the impact, if any, of the p7-NS2 processing efficiency on HCV production seems relatively minor. In conclusion, these results imply that effective release of E2 and p7 from the precursor E2-p7 promotes HCV production by enhancing NS2-associated virus assembly complex formation near LD.

Shanmugam, Saravanabalaji

2013-01-01

160

Efficiency of E2-p7 processing modulates production of infectious hepatitis C virus.  

PubMed

Previous studies indicate that the processing of hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2-p7-NS2 precursor mediated by host signal peptidase is relatively inefficient, resulting in the accumulation of E2-p7-NS2 and E2-p7 precursors in addition to E2 in mammalian cells. In this study, we discovered that a significant inhibition of the processing at an E2-p7 junction site is detrimental for HCV production, whether it was caused by the mutations in p7 or by the strategic introduction of a mutation at a terminal residue of E2 to block the signal peptidase-mediated cleavage of this junction site. However, complete separation of E2 and p7 by inserting an encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES) between these two proteins also moderately inhibited virus production. These results indicate that optimal processing of the E2-p7 junction site is critical for efficient HCV production. We further demonstrated that disrupting E2-p7 processing inhibits both NS2 localization to the putative virus assembly sites near lipid droplets (LD) and NS2 interaction with NS3 and E2. However, the impact, if any, of the p7-NS2 processing efficiency on HCV production seems relatively minor. In conclusion, these results imply that effective release of E2 and p7 from the precursor E2-p7 promotes HCV production by enhancing NS2-associated virus assembly complex formation near LD. PMID:23946462

Shanmugam, Saravanabalaji; Yi, MinKyung

2013-10-01

161

HPV16 E2-mediated potentiation of NF-?B activation induced by TNF-? involves parallel activation of STAT3 with a reduction in E2-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

Human papilloma virus is associated with cervical and other tumors, and several cellular conditions also play an important role in carcinogenesis. Human papilloma virus (HPV)-infected cells exhibit activation of NF-?B and STAT3 (mediators of inflammation), but little is known about their regulation by HPV. This study attempts to understand the role of HPV16 E2, an important early protein of HPV16, in the regulation of NF-?B and STAT3 by reporter assays, quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblotting. We demonstrate that E2 enhances NF-?B activation induced by TNF-?, a proinflammatory cytokine, in both non-tumor- and tumor-derived epithelial cell lines besides potentiating STAT3 transcriptional activity induced by TNF-? in HEK293 cells. E2 increases the expression of RelA and its transcriptional activation, and retention of E2 was observed in the nucleus with significant interaction with RelA (immunoprecipitation) upon TNF-? treatment. Transfection with shRNA-RelA or pretreatment with a STAT3 inhibitor had a negative effect on the ability of E2 to enhance TNF-?-induced NF-?B activation. Experiments with co-expression of a mutant of STAT3 with E2 also suggested that the activation of STAT3 is indispensible for TNF-?-induced NF-?B activation. Inhibition of STAT3 activation enhanced E2-induced apoptosis, whereas parallel activation of NF-?B and STAT3 by the combined action of E2 and TNF-? increased the expression of their common targets, cyclin-D1, c-Myc, survivin, and Bcl-2, leading to a decrease in E2-induced apoptosis (viability and cell cycle). Our results reveal novel mechanisms by which E2 may regulate NF-?B and STAT3 activation in the presence of TNF-? with implications on the survival of HPV-infected cells. PMID:24833467

Prabhavathy, Devan; Prabhakar, Bandaru Niranjana; Karunagaran, Devarajan

2014-09-01

162

E2 protein cage as a multifunctional nanoplatform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Caged protein systems such as viral capsids, heat shock proteins, and ferritin are spherical structures that occur naturally in living organisms and are a growing class of biomimetic templates used to create new materials in nanotechnology. Such systems have been proposed as general drug carriers since they form highly symmetric nanoscale architectures that offer the potential to be tailored according to the desired application. Within this framework, this dissertation focuses on the design and development of a new drug delivery nanoplatform based on the E2 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase protein from Bacillus stearothermophilus. This scaffold forms a 25-nm nanocapsule structure with a hollow cavity. We produced a variant of this protein consisting only of the structural core, and found the thermostability of this self-assembled scaffold to be unusually high, with an onset unfolding temperature of 81.1 +/- 0.9°C and an apparent midpoint unfolding temperature of 91.4 +/- 1.4°C. To evaluate the potential of this scaffold for encapsulation of guest molecules in the internal cavity, we made variants which altered the physicochemical properties of the hollow internal surface. These mutants, yielding up to 240 mutations within this cavity, assembled into correct architectures and exhibited high thermostability that was also comparable to the wild-type scaffold. To show the applicability of this scaffold we coupled two drug-like small molecules to the internal cavity. We also developed a new strategy for encapsulation of small hydrophobic drug molecules. This method is based on hydrophobic differences between the interior cavity and the external buffer to nucleate drug-like agents inside the protein cage. We demonstrate that internal mutations can introduce non-native functionality and enable molecular encapsulation within the cavity while still retaining the dodecahedral structure. Another surface amenable to modifications is the interface between subunits. Such a region was modified to introduce pH-dependent scaffold disassembly ability to assist drug release upon endocytosis inside the cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that modulation of the pH at which disassembly occurs can be achieved by modulation of electrostatic interactions through mutagenesis or changing ionic strength. Together, these results demonstrate the potential of our scaffold as a robust nanoscale platform for biomedical applications.

Dalmau Mallorqui, Merce

163

DNA Damage Signals through Differentially Modified E2F1 Molecules To Induce Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

E2F transcription can lead to cell proliferation or apoptosis, indicating that E2Fs control opposing functions. In a similar manner, DNA double-strand breaks can signal to induce cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Specifically, pRB is activated following DNA damage, allowing it to bind to E2Fs and block transcription at cell cycle promoters; however, E2F1 is simultaneously activated, leading to transcription at proapoptotic promoters. We examined this paradoxical control of E2F transcription by studying how E2F1's interaction with pRB is regulated following DNA damage. Our work reveals that DNA damage signals create multiple forms of E2F1 that contain mutually exclusive posttranslational modifications. Specifically, E2F1 phospho-serine 364 is found only in complex with pRB, while E2F1 phosphorylation at serine 31 and acetylation function to create a pRB-free form of E2F1. Both pRB-bound and pRB-free modifications on E2F1 are essential for the activation of TA-p73 and the maximal induction of apoptosis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that E2F1 phosphorylated on serine 364 is also present at proapoptotic gene promoters during the induction of apoptosis. This indicates that distinct populations of E2F1 are organized in response to DNA damage signaling. Surprisingly, these complexes act in parallel to activate transcription of proapoptotic genes. Our data suggest that DNA damage signals alter pRB and E2F1 to engage them in functions leading to apoptotic induction that are distinct from pRB-E2F regulation in cell cycle control.

Carnevale, Jasmyne; Palander, Oliva; Seifried, Laurie A.

2012-01-01

164

In vivo delivery of bovine viral diahorrea virus, E2 protein using hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Our work focuses on the application of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a combined delivery vehicle and adjuvant for vaccine applications. Here we present results using the viral protein, E2, from bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). BVDV infection occurs in the target species of cattle and sheep herds worldwide and is therefore of economic importance. E2 is a major immunogenic determinant of BVDV and is an ideal candidate for the development of a subunit based nanovaccine using mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Hollow type mesoporous silica nanoparticles with surface amino functionalisation (termed HMSA) were characterised and assessed for adsorption and desorption of E2. A codon-optimised version of the E2 protein (termed Opti-E2) was produced in Escherichia coli. HMSA (120 nm) had an adsorption capacity of 80 ?g Opti-E2 per mg HMSA and once bound E2 did not dissociate from the HMSA. Immunisation studies in mice with a 20 ?g dose of E2 adsorbed to 250 ?g HMSA was compared to immunisation with Opti-E2 (50 ?g) together with the traditional adjuvant Quillaja saponaria Molina tree saponins (QuilA, 10 ?g). The humoral responses with the Opti-E2/HMSA nanovaccine although slightly lower than those obtained for the Opti-E2 + QuilA group demonstrated that HMSA particles are an effective adjuvant that stimulated E2-specific antibody responses. Importantly the cell-mediated immune responses were consistently high in all mice immunised with Opti-E2/HMSA nanovaccine formulation. Therefore we have shown the Opti-E2/HMSA nanoformulation acts as an excellent adjuvant that gives both T-helper 1 and T-helper 2 mediated responses in a small animal model. This study has provided proof-of-concept towards the development of an E2 subunit nanoparticle based vaccine. PMID:24811899

Mahony, D; Cavallaro, A S; Mody, K T; Xiong, L; Mahony, T J; Qiao, S Z; Mitter, N

2014-05-29

165

Cloning, chromosomal location, and characterization of mouse E2F1.  

PubMed Central

E2F has been implicated in growth control because of its association with the retinoblastoma protein and the presence of E2F binding sites in the promoters of several growth-regulated genes. Proteins that bind to an E2F site have been cloned from human and mouse cells. However, these two proteins (human E2F1 and mouse DP-1) are quite different in sequence. We have now cloned a mouse cDNA encoding a protein 86% identical to the human E2F1 protein. The mouse E2F1 cDNA encodes a 430-amino-acid protein with a predicted molecular weight of 46,322 and detects mRNAs of 2.7 and 2.2 kb. Using primers complementary to sequences in the mouse E2F1 3' untranslated region, we mapped the mouse E2F1 gene to chromosome 2, near the Agouti and c-src loci. To understand the role of the different E2F family members in the growth of mouse NIH 3T3 cells, we examined the levels of E2F1 and DP-1 mRNAs in different stages of the cell cycle. Since the levels of E2F1 but not DP-1 mRNA correlated with changes in transcription from the dhfr promoter, we examined whether E2F1 could activate various growth-regulated promoters. We found that E2F1 could activate some (dhfr, thymidine kinase, and DNA polymerase alpha) but not all (thymidylate synthase, cad, and c-myc) of these promoters. On the basis of changes in levels of E2F1 and its ability to transactivate growth-regulated promoters, we propose that E2F1 may mediate growth factor-initiated signal transduction. Images

Li, Y; Slansky, J E; Myers, D J; Drinkwater, N R; Kaelin, W G; Farnham, P J

1994-01-01

166

Phosphorylation-Dependent SUMOylation of the Transcription Factor NF-E2  

PubMed Central

Nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2 (NF-E2), a heterodimer composed of p45 and p18, is a transcriptional activator in hematopoietic progenitors. The transcriptional activity of NF-E2 is not only upregulated by SUMOylation but also stimulated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). However, the relationship between SUMOylation and phosphorylation in the activation of NF-E2 is unclear. In the present studies, we have demonstrated that PKA enhances NF-E2 SUMOylation in an in vitro system using purified proteins, suggesting a possible mechanism for PKA-dependent activation of the NF-E2 transcription factor through SUMOylation.

Su, Yee-Fun; Shyu, Yu-Chiau; Shen, Che-Kun James; Hwang, Jaulang

2012-01-01

167

p27Kip1 induces an accumulation of the repressor complexes of E2F and inhibits expression of the E2F-regulated genes.  

PubMed Central

p27Kip1 is an inhibitor of the cyclin-dependent kinases and it plays an inhibitory role in the progression of cell cycle through G1 phase. To investigate the mechanism of cell cycle inhibition by p27Kip1, we constructed a cell line that inducibly expresses p27Kip1 upon addition of isopropyl-1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside in the culture medium. Isopropyl-1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside-induced expression of p27Kip1 in these cells causes a specific reduction in the expression of the E2F-regulated genes such as cyclin E, cyclin A, and dihydrofolate reductase. The reduction in the expression of these genes correlates with the p27Kip1-induced accumulation of the repressor complexes of the E2F family of factors (E2Fs). Our previous studies indicated that p21WAF1 could disrupt the interaction between cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (cdk2) and the E2F repressor complexes E2F-p130 and E2F-p107. We show that p27Kip1, like p21WAF1, disrupts cyclin/cdk2-containing complexes of E2F-p130 leading to the accumulation of the E2F-p130 complexes, which is found in growth-arrested cells. In transient transfection assays, expression of p27Kip1 specifically inhibits transcription of a promoter containing E2F-binding sites. Mutants of p27Kip1 harboring changes in the cyclin- and cdk2-binding motifs are deficient in inhibiting transcription from the E2F sites containing reporter gene. Moreover, these mutants of p27Kip1 are also impaired in disrupting the interaction between cyclin/cdk2 and the repressor complexes of E2Fs. Taken together, these observations suggest that p27Kip1 reduces expression of the E2F-regulated genes by generating repressor complexes of E2Fs. Furthermore, the results also demonstrate that p27Kip1 inhibits expression of cyclin A and cyclin E, which are critical for progression through the G1-S phases. Images

Shiyanov, P; Hayes, S; Chen, N; Pestov, D G; Lau, L F; Raychaudhuri, P

1997-01-01

168

E2F1 Responds to Ultraviolet Radiation by Directly Stimulating DNA Repair and Suppressing Carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

In response to DNA damage, the E2F1 transcription factor is phosphorylated at serine 31 (serine 29 in mouse) by the ATM or ATR kinases, which promotes E2F1 protein stabilization. Phosphorylation of E2F1 also leads to the recruitment of E2F1 to sites of DNA damage, where it functions to enhance DNA repair. To study the role of this E2F1 phosphorylation event in vivo, a knock-in mouse model was generated, in which serine 29 was mutated to alanine. The S29A mutation impairs E2F1 stabilization in response to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and doxorubicin treatment, but has little effect on the expression of E2F target genes. The apoptotic and proliferative responses to acute UV radiation exposure are also similar between wild-type and E2f1(S29A/) (S29A) mice. As expected, the S29A mutation prevents E2F1 association with damaged DNA and reduces DNA repair efficiency. Moreover, E2f1(S29A/) (S29A) mice display increased sensitivity to UV-induced skin carcinogenesis. This knock-in mouse model thus links the ability of E2F1 to directly promote DNA repair with the suppression of tumor development. Cancer Res; 74(12); 3369-77. ©2014 AACR. PMID:24741006

Biswas, Anup Kumar; Mitchell, David L; Johnson, David G

2014-06-15

169

EGFR Signaling Inhibits E2F1-Induced Apoptosis in Vivo: Implications for Cancer Therapy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (RB) restricts cell proliferation by regulating members of the E2F family of transcription factors. In human tumors RB is often inactivated, resulting in aberrant E2F-dependent transcription and uncontrolled proliferation. One of the E2F proteins, E2F1, can also induce apoptosis. The extent of E2F1-induced apoptosis is known to be tissue- and cell-specific, but until now, it has been unclear what variables determine cellular sensitivity to E2F1-induced apoptosis in vivo. A recent study reveals epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling to be one such variable, as EGFR signaling cooperates with RB in inhibiting E2F1-induced apoptosis. This finding raises the possibility that therapeutic manipulation of EGFR signaling may specifically trigger the death of cancer cells with inactive RB, thereby enabling "targeted" cancer treatments.

Doron Ginsberg (Bar Ilan University;Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Science REV)

2007-01-30

170

Nucleotide sequence and regulation of the adenovirus type 3 E2A early promoter.  

PubMed

The nucleotide sequence of the adenovirus serotype 3 E2A early promoter has been determined. In contrast to Ad2, the Ad3 E2A early promoter possessed only one TATA-like box and one nuclear transcription factor E2F binding site and lacked the silencer sequences; however, as in Ad2, the ATF binding site was present. Moreover, the Ad3 E2A promoter harbored a protein binding sequence recognized by the SP1 factor. By transient expression analysis in HeLa cells, we demonstrated that the E1A gene products of Ad3 and Ad2 stimulated Ad3 E2A transcription. In competition experiments, the Ad3 E2A promoter was used in preference to the Ad2 E2A promoter. PMID:1825252

Heysen, A; Verwaerde, P; D'Halluin, J C

1991-03-01

171

Contribution of the charged residues of hepatitis C virus glycoprotein E2 transmembrane domain to the functions of the E1E2 heterodimer.  

PubMed

The envelope glycoproteins of Hepatitis C virus (HCV), E1 and E2, form a heterodimer that is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The transmembrane (TM) domains play a major role in E1E2 heterodimerization and in ER retention. Two fully conserved charged residues in the middle of the TM domain of E2 (Asp and Arg) are crucial for these functions. Replacement of the Asp residue by a Leu impaired E1E2 heterodimerization, whereas the Arg-to-Leu mutation had a milder effect. Both Asp and Arg residues were shown to contribute to the ER retention function of E2. In addition, the entry function of HCV envelope glycoproteins was affected by these mutations. Together, these data indicate that the charged residues present in the TM domain of E2 play a major role in the biogenesis and the entry function of the E1E2 heterodimer. However, the Asp and Arg residues do not contribute equally to these functions. PMID:16186234

Ciczora, Yann; Callens, Nathalie; Montpellier, Claire; Bartosch, Birke; Cosset, François-Loïc; Op de Beeck, Anne; Dubuisson, Jean

2005-10-01

172

Coexpression of hepatitis C virus envelope proteins E1 and E2 in cis improves the stability of membrane insertion of E2.  

PubMed

The hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome encodes two envelope glycoproteins, E1 and E2. These proteins contain a large N-terminal ectodomain, and are anchored into membranes by their C-terminal transmembrane domain (TMD). The TMDs of HCV envelope proteins are multifunctional. In addition to their role as membrane anchors, they possess a signal sequence function in their C-terminal half, and play a major role in subcellular localization and assembly of these envelope proteins. In this work, the expression of full-length E2 led to secretion of a proportion of this protein, which is likely to be due to inefficient membrane insertion of a fraction of E2 expressed alone. However, when E1 and E2 were coexpressed from the same polyprotein, E2 was not secreted and remained tightly associated with membranes, suggesting that an early interaction between the TMDs of HCV envelope proteins improves the stability of membrane insertion of E2. These results reinforce the hypothesis that the TMDs of E1 and E2 are major factors in the assembly of the HCV envelope glycoprotein complex. PMID:11413374

Cocquerel, L; Meunier, J C; Op de Beeck, A; Bonte, D; Wychowski, C; Dubuisson, J

2001-07-01

173

dE2F2-Independent Rescue of Proliferation in Cells Lacking an Activator dE2F1?  

PubMed Central

In Drosophila melanogaster, the loss of activator de2f1 leads to a severe reduction in cell proliferation and repression of E2F targets. To date, the only known way to rescue the proliferation block in de2f1 mutants was through the inactivation of dE2F2. This suggests that dE2F2 provides a major contribution to the de2f1 mutant phenotype. Here, we report that in mosaic animals, in addition to de2f2, the loss of a DEAD box protein Belle (Bel) also rescues proliferation of de2f1 mutant cells. Surprisingly, the rescue occurs in a dE2F2-independent manner since the loss of Bel does not relieve dE2F2-mediated repression. In the eye disc, bel mutant cells fail to undergo a G1 arrest in the morphogenetic furrow, delay photoreceptor recruitment and differentiation, and show a reduction of the transcription factor Ci155. The down-regulation of Ci155 is important since it is sufficient to partially rescue proliferation of de2f1 mutant cells. Thus, mutation of bel relieves the dE2F2-mediated cell cycle arrest in de2f1 mutant cells through a novel Ci155-dependent mechanism without functional inactivation of the dE2F2 repressor.

Ambrus, Aaron M.; Nicolay, Brandon N.; Rasheva, Vanya I.; Suckling, Richard J.; Frolov, Maxim V.

2007-01-01

174

Pumilio facilitates miRNA regulation of the E2F3 oncogene.  

PubMed

E2F transcription factors are important regulators of cell proliferation and are frequently dysregulated in human malignancies. To identify novel regulators of E2F function, we used Drosophila as a model system to screen for mutations that modify phenotypes caused by reduced levels of dE2F1. This screen identified components of the Pumilio translational repressor complex (Pumilio, Nanos, and Brain tumor) as suppressors of dE2F1-RNAi phenotypes. Subsequent experiments provided evidence that Pumilio complexes repress dE2F1 levels and that this mechanism of post-transcriptional regulation is conserved in human cells. The human Pumilio homologs Pum 1 and Pum 2 repress the translation of E2F3 by binding to the E2F3 3' untranslated region (UTR) and also enhance the activity of multiple E2F3 targeting microRNAs (miRNAs). E2F3 is an oncogene with strong proliferative potential and is regularly dysregulated or overexpressed in cancer. Interestingly, Pumilio/miRNA-mediated regulation of E2F3 is circumvented in cancer cells in several different ways. Bladder carcinomas selectively down-regulate miRNAs that cooperate with Pumilio to target E2F3, and multiple tumor cell lines shorten the 3' end of the E2F3 mRNA, removing the Pumilio regulatory elements. These studies suggest that Pumilio-miRNA repression of E2F3 translation provides an important level of E2F regulation that is frequently abrogated in cancer cells. PMID:22345517

Miles, Wayne O; Tschöp, Katrin; Herr, Anabel; Ji, Jun-Yuan; Dyson, Nicholas J

2012-02-15

175

Pumilio facilitates miRNA regulation of the E2F3 oncogene  

PubMed Central

E2F transcription factors are important regulators of cell proliferation and are frequently dysregulated in human malignancies. To identify novel regulators of E2F function, we used Drosophila as a model system to screen for mutations that modify phenotypes caused by reduced levels of dE2F1. This screen identified components of the Pumilio translational repressor complex (Pumilio, Nanos, and Brain tumor) as suppressors of dE2F1-RNAi phenotypes. Subsequent experiments provided evidence that Pumilio complexes repress dE2F1 levels and that this mechanism of post-transcriptional regulation is conserved in human cells. The human Pumilio homologs Pum 1 and Pum 2 repress the translation of E2F3 by binding to the E2F3 3? untranslated region (UTR) and also enhance the activity of multiple E2F3 targeting microRNAs (miRNAs). E2F3 is an oncogene with strong proliferative potential and is regularly dysregulated or overexpressed in cancer. Interestingly, Pumilio/miRNA-mediated regulation of E2F3 is circumvented in cancer cells in several different ways. Bladder carcinomas selectively down-regulate miRNAs that cooperate with Pumilio to target E2F3, and multiple tumor cell lines shorten the 3? end of the E2F3 mRNA, removing the Pumilio regulatory elements. These studies suggest that Pumilio–miRNA repression of E2F3 translation provides an important level of E2F regulation that is frequently abrogated in cancer cells.

Miles, Wayne O.; Tschop, Katrin; Herr, Anabel; Ji, Jun-Yuan; Dyson, Nicholas J.

2012-01-01

176

Prostaglandin E2 after septostomy for simple transposition.  

PubMed

In simple transposition of the great arteries (sTGA), balloon atrial septostomy is performed prior to arterial switch to improve mixing of systemic and pulmonary circulations. Following septostomy, some patients are also given prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) until surgical repair. The aims of our study were to identify how often PGE2 is given after septostomy, the indications for starting PGE2, and the effect this has on postoperative outcome. The study was a retrospective review of infants born with sTGA between 2000 and 2005, who underwent arterial switch at Yorkhill Children's Hospital, Glasgow. Over a 5-year period, 26 infants (16 male) with sTGA underwent septostomy. There was a significant rise in mean oxygen saturation following septostomy (mean, 61.4 +/- 11.5% before, 81.5 +/- 9.4% after; p < 0.05). Four of 26 (15%) did not receive PGE2 at all (group 1) and 8 of 26 (30%) received PGE2 before but not after septostomy (group 2). A total of 14 of 26 infants (54%) were given PGE2 following septostomy. This comprised 11 who received PGE2 before and after septostomy (group 3) and 3 who did not receive PGE2 prior to septostomy but did after (group 4). Groups 2 and 3 were compared directly, as they both received PGE2 before septostomy. In group 3, oxygen saturations were lower when PGE2 was started compared with saturations immediately after septostomy (45 +/- 23.6% vs. 80 +/- 10.3%; p < 0.05). Groups 2 and 3 showed no difference in atrial gap after septostomy (9.4 +/- 3 vs. 8 +/- 1 mm; p > 0.05). Fifty percent of infants in group 3 underwent echocardiography prior to restarting PGE2, which revealed a patent arterial duct in all but one patient. Despite PGE2, Group 3 had lower saturations at arterial switch compared with Group 2 (71 +/- 14% vs. 82 +/- 8%; p < 0.05). No difference was observed between group 2 and group 3 with regard to length of cardiopulmonary bypass (group 2, 173 +/- 101.4 min, vs. group 3, 157.9 +/- 42.1 min; p > 0.05). However, the Intensive Care Unit stay was longer for patients who received PGE2 following septostomy (8.5 +/- 10.3 vs. 5 +/- 0.93 days; p < 0.05). Total postoperative stay was also longer for infants who received PGE2 after septostomy (26.8 +/- 14.3 vs. 16.8 +/- 6.3 days; p < 0.05). In conclusion, the use of pulse oximetry has led to an increase in the administration of PGE2 after septostomy. PGE2 administration was associated with a longer ICU stay. The association between administration of PGE2 and longer postoperative stay supports the approach of early surgical repair with minimal preoperative medical intervention. PMID:19083139

Beattie, Lynne Mary; McLeod, Karen A

2009-05-01

177

E2A suppresses invasion and migration by targeting YAP in colorectal cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background E2A gene, which encodes two basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factors E12 and E47, has been identified as regulator of B lymphoid hematopoiesis and suppressor of lymphoma. E47 protein was found to decrease E-cadherin expression and induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of E2A in colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis is still elusive. Methods qRT-PCR and semi-qRT-PCR were performed to determine mRNA level of E2A in CRC specimens and colorectal cancer cells. RNAi was employed to downregulate E2A expression and subsequent protein level change was evaluated by immunoblot. Cell invasion and migration capacity were detected by transwell assay using cell culture inserts with or without basement membrane matrix, respectively. Results E2A expression was decreased in metastatic CRC tissues. Invasion and migration assays showed downregulation of E2A increased metastatic capacity of CRC cells while forced expression of E12 or E47 could offset this effect. Both E12 and E47 suppressed EMT induced by E2A downregulation. Moreover, Yes-Associated Protein (YAP) was a downstream target of E2A and suppression of YAP inhibited the pro-migration/invasion of E2A deficiency. Conclusion Our results suggest that E2A suppresses CRC cell metastasis, at least partially if not all, by inhibiting YAP expression.

2013-01-01

178

E2F8 is essential for polyploidization in mammalian cells.  

PubMed

Polyploidization is observed in all mammalian species and is a characteristic feature of hepatocytes, but its molecular mechanism and biological significance are unknown. Hepatocyte polyploidization in rodents occurs through incomplete cytokinesis, starts after weaning and increases with age. Here, we show in mice that atypical E2F8 is induced after weaning and required for hepatocyte binucleation and polyploidization. A deficiency in E2f8 led to an increase in the expression level of E2F target genes promoting cytokinesis and thereby preventing polyploidization. In contrast, loss of E2f1 enhanced polyploidization and suppressed the polyploidization defect of hepatocytes deficient for atypical E2Fs. In addition, E2F8 and E2F1 were found on the same subset of target promoters. Contrary to the long-standing hypothesis that polyploidization indicates terminal differentiation and senescence, we show that prevention of polyploidization through inactivation of atypical E2Fs has, surprisingly, no impact on liver differentiation, zonation, metabolism and regeneration. Together, these results identify E2F8 as a repressor and E2F1 as an activator of a transcriptional network controlling polyploidization in mammalian cells. PMID:23064264

Pandit, Shusil K; Westendorp, Bart; Nantasanti, Sathidpak; van Liere, Elsbeth; Tooten, Peter C J; Cornelissen, Peter W A; Toussaint, Mathilda J M; Lamers, Wouter H; de Bruin, Alain

2012-11-01

179

The Mitotic Checkpoint Gene, SIL is Regulated by E2F1  

PubMed Central

The SIL gene expression is increased in multiple cancers and correlates with the expression of mitotic spindle checkpoint genes and with increased metastatic potential. SIL regulates mitotic entry, organization of the mitotic spindle and cell survival. The E2F transcription factors regulate cell cycle progression by controlling the expression of genes mediating the G1/S transition. More recently E2F has been shown to regulate mitotic spindle checkpoint genes as well. As SIL expression correlates with mitotic checkpoint genes we hypothesized that SIL is regulated by E2F. We mined raw data of published experiments and performed new experiments by modification of E2F expression in cell lines, reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Ectopic expression or endogenous activation of E2F induced the expression of SIL, while knockdown of E2F by shRNA, downregulated SIL expression. E2F activated SIL promoter by reporter assay and bound to SIL promoter in-vivo. Taken together these data demonstrate that SIL is regulated by E2F. As SIL is essential for mitotic entry, E2F may regulate G2/M transition through the induction of SIL. Furthermore, as silencing of SIL cause apoptosis in cancer cells, these finding may have therapeutic relevance in tumors with constitutive activation of E2F.

Erez, Ayelet; Chaussepied, Marie; Tina, Colaizzo-Anas; Aplan, Peter; Ginsberg, Doron; Izraeli, Shai

2009-01-01

180

Amplification of the E2F1 transcription factor gene in the HEL erythroleukemia cell line  

SciTech Connect

The E2F transcription factor plays an important regulatory role in cell proliferation, mediating the expression of genes whose products are essential for inducing resting cells to enter the cell cycle and synthesize DNA. To investigate the possible involvement of E2F in hematopoietic malignancies, we isolated genomic clones encompassing the human E2F1 gene. We then used fluorescence in situ hybridization to localize E2F1 to human chromosome 20q11, telomeric to the p107 locus, a gene whose product is related to the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb). This finding contrasts with the 1p36 and 6q22 chromosomal locations previously assigned E2F2 and E2F3, two additional members of the E2F family. Although deletions or structural rearrangements of E2F1 were not detected in 14 primary acute leukemia or myelodysplasia samples with structural abnormalities of chromosome 20q11, the gene was amplified and overexpressed in HEL erythroleukemia cells and translocated to other chromosomes in several established human leukemia cell lines. This study provides the first evidence of gene amplification involving a member of the E2F family of transcription factors. We propose that E2F1 overexpression in erythroid progenitors may stimulate abnormal cell proliferation by overriding negative regulatory signals mediated by tumor suppressor proteins such as pRb. 76 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Saito, M.; Valentine, M.B.; Look, A.T. [St. Jude Children`s Research Hosptial, Memphis, TN (United States)] [and others] [St. Jude Children`s Research Hosptial, Memphis, TN (United States); and others

1995-01-01

181

A novel E2F binding protein with Myc-type HLH motif stimulates E2F-dependent transcription by forming a heterodimer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human embryonal carcinoma cells NEC14 can be induced to differentiate morphologically by the addition of 10?2 M N, N?-hexamethylene-bis-acetamide and cease to grow in several days. Transcription factors of the E2F\\/DP family have been shown to be closely related to the regulation of cell proliferation. To analyse cellular proteins which interact with E2F in NEC14 cells, cDNA clones encoding

Mitsuhiro Suzuki; Satoshi Okuyama; Satoru Okamoto; Kenna Shirasuna; Takuma Nakajima; Takahisa Hachiya; Hiroshi Nojima; Souei Sekiya; Kinichiro Oda

1998-01-01

182

Structure of a RING E3 ligase and ubiquitin-loaded E2 primed for catalysis  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Ubiquitin modification is mediated by a large family of specificity determining ubiquitin E3 ligases. To facilitate ubiquitin transfer, RING E3 ligases bind both substrate and a ubiquitin E2 conjugating enzyme linked to ubiquitin via a thioester bond, but the mechanism of transfer has remained elusive. Here we report the crystal structure of the dimeric RING of RNF4 in complex with E2 (UbcH5a) linked by an isopeptide bond to ubiquitin. While the E2 contacts a single protomer of the RING, ubiquitin is folded back onto the E2 by contacts from both RING protomers. The C-terminal tail of ubiquitin is locked into an active site groove on the E2 by an intricate network of interactions, resulting in changes at the E2 active site. This arrangement is primed for catalysis as it can deprotonate the incoming substrate lysine residue and stabilise the consequent tetrahedral transition state intermediate.

Plechanovova, Anna; Jaffray, Ellis; Tatham, Michael H.; Naismith, James H.; Hay, Ronald T.

2012-01-01

183

[Sequencing of E2 gene and comparison analysis of four strains hog cholera virus (HCV)].  

PubMed

Four cDNA fragments of envelope glycoprotoin E2 gene of SM strain, HCLV strain, F03 strain and F07 strain were amplified respectively with RT-PCR method. The amplified E2 fragments of four HCV strains were all 1273 bp in length by agarose gel electrophoresis. Four E2 fragments were cloned respectively into pGEM-T easy vector. 1273 bp cDNA fragment of Four HCV E2 gene were sequenced and 381 residues amino acid sequence of E2 glycoprotein were deduced. The signal peptide sequence (WLLLVTGA) located in the N-terminal residues 683-690 and the transmenbrane region (TMR) sequence located in the C-terminal residues 1031-1063 of Four E2 gene were highly conserved and hydrophobic region. The conserved sequence among the E2 protein of pestiviruses, RYLASLH which located in the N-terminal residues 753-759 of domains B and C, was hydrophilic, and none of them were variable among the pestiviruses, and the greatest values of antigenic in all E2 antigenic domain. This suggest that the conserved sequence RYLASLH are involved in E2 epitopes. The number and locations of 15 cysteine residues in E2 are conserved among pestiviruses, suggesting that the structure of this glycoprotein is similar in pestiviruses and the first six cysteines are critical for the correct folding of E2 and essential for all identified epitopes. It is showed epitopes. between HCLV strains and field strains are not variable obviously by analysising the varintion of some main amino acid residuse substitutions of E2 major antigenic domains. PMID:12549086

Wang, Q; Li, B; Wang, Z; Qiu, H; Lang, H

2001-06-01

184

Amplification of the E2F1 transcription factor gene in the HEL erythroleukemia cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

The E2F transcription factor plays an important regulatory role in cell proliferation, mediating the expression of genes whose products are essential for inducing resting cells to enter the cell cycle and synthesize DNA. To investigate the possible involvement of E2F in hematopoietic malignancies, we isolated genomic clones encompassing the human E2F1 gene. We then used fluorescence in situ hybridization to

Midori Saito; Kristian Helin; Marcus B. Valentine; Barbara B. Griffith; Cheryl L. Willman; Ed Harlow; A. Thomas Look

1995-01-01

185

Distinct and redundant functions of cyclin E1 and cyclin E2 in development and cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The highly conserved E-type cyclins are core components of the cell cycle machinery, facilitating the transition into S phase through activation of the cyclin dependent kinases, and assembly of pre-replication complexes on DNA. Cyclin E1 and cyclin E2 are assumed to be functionally redundant, as cyclin E1-\\/- E2-\\/- mice are embryonic lethal while cyclin E1-\\/- and E2-\\/- single knockout mice

C ELIZABETH Caldon; Elizabeth A Musgrove

2010-01-01

186

Emerging roles of E2Fs in cancer: an exit from cell cycle control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations of the retinoblastoma tumour suppressor gene (RB1) or components regulating the RB pathway have been identified in almost every human malignancy. The E2F transcription factors function in cell cycle control and are intimately regulated by RB. Studies of model organisms have revealed conserved functions for E2Fs during development, suggesting that the cancer-related proliferative roles of E2F family members represent

Hui-Zi Chen; Shih-Yin Tsai; Gustavo Leone

2009-01-01

187

Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E7 Oncoprotein Associates with E2F6?  

PubMed Central

The papillomavirus life cycle is intimately coupled to the differentiation state of the infected epithelium. Since papillomaviruses lack most of the rate-limiting enzymes required for genome synthesis, they need to uncouple keratinocyte differentiation from cell cycle arrest and maintain or reestablish a replication-competent state within terminally differentiated keratinocytes. The human papillomavirus (HPV) E7 protein appears to be a major determinant for this activity and induces aberrant S-phase entry through the inactivation of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor and related pocket proteins. In addition, E7 can abrogate p21 and p27. Together, this leads to the activation of E2F1 to E2F5, enhanced expression of E2F-responsive genes, and increased cdk2 activity. E2F6 is a pRB-independent, noncanonical member of the E2F transcription factor family that acts as a transcriptional repressor. E2F6 expression is activated in S phase through an E2F-dependent mechanism and thus may provide a negative-feedback mechanism that slows down S-phase progression and/or exit in response to the activation of the other E2F transcription factors. Here, we show that low- and high-risk HPV E7 proteins, as well as simian virus 40 T antigen and adenovirus E1A, can associate with and inactivate the transcriptional repression activity of E2F6, thereby subverting a critical cellular defense mechanism. This may result in the extended S-phase competence of HPV-infected cells. E2F6 is a component of polycomb group complexes, which bind to silenced chromatin and are critical for the maintenance of cell fate. We show that E7-expressing cells show decreased staining for E2F6/polycomb complexes and that this is at least in part dependent on the association with E2F6.

McLaughlin-Drubin, Margaret E.; Huh, Kyung-Won; Munger, Karl

2008-01-01

188

E2F1 in gliomas: A paradigm of oncogene addiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer arises as a result of a stepwise accumulation of genetic changes. One of these changes, deregulation of the Rb\\/E2F1 pathway resulting from alterations in members of the pathway, is a hallmark of all human cancers. These mutations promote tumor development by deregulating the E2F family of transcription factors, which results in uncontrolled cell cycle progression. The E2F1 protein functions

Marta M. Alonso; Ramon Alemany; Juan Fueyo; Candelaria Gomez-Manzano

2008-01-01

189

The emerging role of E2F-1 in the DNA damage response and checkpoint control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genotoxic stress triggers a myriad of cellular responses including cell cycle arrest, stimulation of DNA repair and apoptosis. A central role for the E2F-1 transcription factor in the DNA damage response pathway is gaining support. E2F-1 is phosphorylated by DNA damage responsive protein kinases, which leads to E2F-1 accumulation and the induction of apoptosis. In addition, emerging information suggests that

Craig Stevens; Nicholas B. La Thangue

2004-01-01

190

TRANSCRIPTION: Chromatin Control--a Place for E2F and Myc to Meet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The transcription factor E2F switches on target genes during the early G1 phase of the cell cycle. In his Perspective, La Thangue discusses new findings (Ogawa et al.) that reveal the importance of an E2F family member, E2F-6, for silencing genes in quiescent cells in G0 of the cell cycle.

Nicholas B. La Thangue (University of Glasgow;Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences)

2002-05-10

191

mir-11 limits the proapoptotic function of its host gene, dE2f1  

PubMed Central

The E2F family of transcription factors regulates the expression of both genes associated with cell proliferation and genes that regulate cell death. The net outcome is dependent on cellular context and tissue environment. The mir-11 gene is located in the last intron of the Drosophila E2F1 homolog gene dE2f1, and its expression parallels that of dE2f1. Here, we investigated the role of miR-11 and found that miR-11 specifically modulated the proapoptotic function of its host gene, dE2f1. A mir-11 mutant was highly sensitive to dE2F1-dependent, DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Consistently, coexpression of miR-11 in transgenic animals suppressed dE2F1-induced apoptosis in multiple tissues, while exerting no effect on dE2F1-driven cell proliferation. Importantly, miR-11 repressed the expression of the proapoptotic genes reaper (rpr) and head involution defective (hid), which are directly regulated by dE2F1 upon DNA damage. In addition to rpr and hid, we identified a novel set of cell death genes that was also directly regulated by dE2F1 and miR-11. Thus, our data support a model in which the coexpression of miR-11 limits the proapoptotic function of its host gene, dE2f1, upon DNA damage by directly modulating a dE2F1-dependent apoptotic transcriptional program.

Truscott, Mary; Islam, Abul B.M.M.K.; Lopez-Bigas, Nuria; Frolov, Maxim V.

2011-01-01

192

Functional processing and secretion of Chikungunya virus E1 and E2 glycoproteins in insect cells  

PubMed Central

Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne, arthrogenic Alphavirus that causes large epidemics in Africa, South-East Asia and India. Recently, CHIKV has been transmitted to humans in Southern Europe by invading and now established Asian tiger mosquitoes. To study the processing of envelope proteins E1 and E2 and to develop a CHIKV subunit vaccine, C-terminally his-tagged E1 and E2 envelope glycoproteins were produced at high levels in insect cells with baculovirus vectors using their native signal peptides located in CHIKV 6K and E3, respectively. Results Expression in the presence of either tunicamycin or furin inhibitor showed that a substantial portion of recombinant intracellular E1 and precursor E3E2 was glycosylated, but that a smaller fraction of E3E2 was processed by furin into mature E3 and E2. Deletion of the C-terminal transmembrane domains of E1 and E2 enabled secretion of furin-cleaved, fully processed E1 and E2 subunits, which could then be efficiently purified from cell culture fluid via metal affinity chromatography. Confocal laser scanning microscopy on living baculovirus-infected Sf21 cells revealed that full-length E1 and E2 translocated to the plasma membrane, suggesting similar posttranslational processing of E1 and E2, as in a natural CHIKV infection. Baculovirus-directed expression of E1 displayed fusogenic activity as concluded from syncytia formation. CHIKV-E2 was able to induce neutralizing antibodies in rabbits. Conclusions Chikungunya virus glycoproteins could be functionally expressed at high levels in insect cells and are properly glycosylated and cleaved by furin. The ability of purified, secreted CHIKV-E2 to induce neutralizing antibodies in rabbits underscores the potential use of E2 in a subunit vaccine to prevent CHIKV infections.

2011-01-01

193

Estrogen controls vitamin D3-mediated resistance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by controlling vitamin D3 metabolism and receptor expression.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune, neurodegenerative disease with a rapidly increasing female gender bias. MS prevalence decreases with increasing sunlight exposure, supporting our hypothesis that the sunlight-dependent hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25-(OH)(2)D(3)) is a natural inhibitor of autoimmune T cell responses in MS. We found that vitamin D(3) inhibited experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in intact female mice, but not in ovariectomized females or males. To learn whether 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) is essential for vitamin D(3)-mediated protection, ovariectomized female mice were given E(2) or placebo and evaluated for vitamin D(3)-mediated EAE resistance. Diestrus-level E(2) implants alone provided no benefit, but they restored vitamin D(3)-mediated EAE resistance in the ovariectomized females. Synergy between E(2) and vitamin D(3) occurred through vitamin D(3)-mediated enhancement of E(2) synthesis, as well as E(2)-mediated enhancement of vitamin D receptor expression in the inflamed CNS. In males, E(2) implants did not enable vitamin D(3) to inhibit EAE. The finding that vitamin D(3)-mediated protection in EAE is female-specific and E(2)-dependent suggests that declining vitamin D(3) supplies due to sun avoidance might be contributing to the rapidly increasing female gender bias in MS. Moreover, declining E(2) synthesis and vitamin D(3)-mediated protection with increasing age might be contributing to MS disease progression in older women. PMID:19710457

Nashold, Faye E; Spach, Karen M; Spanier, Justin A; Hayes, Colleen E

2009-09-15

194

The E2F1-miRNA cancer progression network.  

PubMed

The transcription factor E2F1 exhibits dual properties, acting as a tumor suppressor and oncogene. Cellular stress such as DNA damage or mitogenic signaling leads to the activation of E2F1 as a mediator of apoptosis in the context of a conserved cellular anti-tumorigenic safeguard mechanism. However in highly aggressive chemoresistant tumors like malignant melanoma and prostate/bladder cancer it switches off this role and acts as promoter of cancer progression. Possible reasons for E2F1 mediated aggressiveness are defects in cell death pathways caused by epigenetic inactivation of important tumor suppressor genes, which often occur in late stage cancer and contribute to chemoresistance. Nevertheless exact mechanisms underlying E2Fs role in invasiveness and metastasis are largely unknown. Different reports hint towards the existence of feedback loops between E2F1 and microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs). MiRs are activated by E2F1 and either the transcription factor itself or cellular genes necessary for the growth regulating function of E2F1 are inhibited by different miRNAs. This mutual regulation possibly influences the balance between E2F1s proapoptotic versus prosurvival function. In the following we will summarize some miRNA-E2F1-interactions contributing to a complex regulatory network. PMID:23377972

Knoll, Susanne; Emmrich, Stephan; Pützer, Brigitte M

2013-01-01

195

In vitro effects of anandamide and prostamide e2 on normal and transformed nerve cells.  

PubMed

We studied the effects of endocannabinoid anandamide and its cyclooxygenase derivative prostamide E2 on cultured cerebellar granular cells and C6 glioma cells from rats. Prostamide E2 prevented apoptosis in cerebellar neurons induced by potassium deprivation of cultures, while anandamide had no neuroprotective properties. Prostamide E2 did not modulate the survival rate of glioma cells, while anandamide produced a cytotoxic effect. Our results indicate that cyclooxygenase transformation of anandamide is followed by the loss of antitumor activity of this agent. By contrast, prostamide E2 exhibited strong neuroprotective properties. PMID:22442796

Andrianova, E L; Genrikhs, E E; Bobrov, M Yu; Lizhin, A A; Gretskaya, N M; Frumkina, L E; Khaspekov, L G; Bezuglov, V V

2011-05-01

196

Atypical E2fs Control Lymphangiogenesis through Transcriptional Regulation of Ccbe1 and Flt4  

PubMed Central

Lymphatic vessels are derived from venous endothelial cells and their formation is governed by the Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VegfC)/Vegf receptor 3 (Vegfr3; Flt4) signaling pathway. Recent studies show that Collagen and Calcium Binding EGF domains 1 protein (Ccbe1) enhances VegfC-dependent lymphangiogenesis. Both Ccbe1 and Flt4 have been shown to be indispensable for lymphangiogenesis. However, how these essential players are transcriptionally regulated remains poorly understood. In the case of angiogenesis, atypical E2fs (E2f7 and E2f8) however have been recently shown to function as transcriptional activators for VegfA. Using a genome-wide approach we here identified both CCBE1 and FLT4 as direct targets of atypical E2Fs. E2F7/8 directly bind and stimulate the CCBE1 promoter, while recruitment of E2F7/8 inhibits the FLT4 promoter. Importantly, inactivation of e2f7/8 in zebrafish impaired venous sprouting and lymphangiogenesis with reduced ccbe1 expression and increased flt4 expression. Remarkably, over-expression of e2f7/8 rescued Ccbe1- and Flt4-dependent lymphangiogenesis phenotypes. Together these results identified E2f7/8 as novel in vivo transcriptional regulators of Ccbe1 and Flt4, both essential genes for venous sprouting and lymphangiogenesis.

Weijts, Bart G. M. W.; van Impel, Andreas; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; de Bruin, Alain

2013-01-01

197

HPV16 E2 protein promotes innate immunity by modulating immunosuppressive status.  

PubMed

The balance between active immune responses against human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV-induced immune escape regulates viral clearance and carcinogenesis. To understand the role of the early viral protein HPV16 E2 in host innate immune responses, the HPV16 E2-transfected murine squamous cell carcinoma cell line SCCVII (SCC/E2) was generated and anti-tumor responses in T-cell-depleted mice were evaluated. Tumor growth of SCC/E2 was markedly reduced. Cytotoxicity against the NK-sensitive targets YAC-1 and SCCVII was clearly enhanced in SCC/E2-inoculated mice. Despite the comparable ratio of NK cells, the proportion of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) was significantly decreased in SCC/E2-inoculated mice. The transcription of MDSC-related mediators such as inducible nitric oxide synthase, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, and heme oxygenase-1 was significantly impaired in the SCC/E2-inoculated tumor tissues on day 3. Our results suggest that HPV16 E2 promotes anti-tumor innate effector function by modulating immunoregulatory events mediated by MDSCs and their mediators. This report describes a new role for HPV16 E2 as a local immunomodulator at infected sites. PMID:24657154

Sunthamala, Nuchsupha; Pientong, Chamsai; Ohno, Tatsukuni; Zhang, Chenyang; Bhingare, Arundhati; Kondo, Yuta; Azuma, Miyuki; Ekalaksananan, Tipaya

2014-04-18

198

Functional impact of colorectal cancer-associated mutations in the transcription factor E2F4.  

PubMed

The transcription factor E2F4 plays a critical role in cell cycle progression of normal and cancerous intestinal epithelial cells. Contrary to other E2Fs, the coding region of the E2F4 gene contains a longer spacer segment of a CAG trinucleotide repeat sequence encoding 13 consecutive serine residues, which is highly vulnerable to frameshift mutations in situations of genetic instability. Mutations in this region of the E2F4 gene have been observed in colorectal tumors with microsatellite instability. However, the effect of these changes on its function in colorectal cancer cells is currently unknown. We generated E2F4(CAG)?? and E2F4(CAG)?? mutants and compared their activity to the E2F4 wild-type, E2F4(CAG)??. Luciferase assays with the thymidine kinase-luc reporter gene revealed that the mutants were more transcriptionally active than wild-type E2F4. The mechanism of increased activity of E2F4 was primarily related to protein stability, due to a significantly enhanced half-life of E2F4 mutants comparatively to that of wild-type E2F4. However, the association with the pocket protein p130/RBL2 did not account for this increased protein stability. Sequencing analysis of the endogenous E2F4 gene in a series of colorectal cancer cell lines showed that the microsatellite-unstable cell line SW48 exhibited a serine deletion in this gene. Accordingly, E2F4 half-life was much more elevated in SW48 cells in comparison to Caco-2/15, a microsatellite-stable cell line. Notably, in soft-agar assays, both mutants more potently increased anchorage-independent growth in comparison to wild-type E2F4. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that cancer-associated E2F4 mutations enhance the capacity of colorectal cancer cells to grow without anchorage, thereby contributing to tumor progression. PMID:24100580

Paquin, Marie-Christine; Leblanc, Caroline; Lemieux, Etienne; Bian, Benjamin; Rivard, Nathalie

2013-12-01

199

Distinct roles of E2F proteins in vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Intimal hyperplasia (IH) and restenosis limit the long-term utility of bypass surgery and angioplasty due to pathological proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) into the intima of treated vessels. Consequently, much attention has been focused on developing inhibitory agents that reduce this pathogenic process. The E2F transcription factors are key cell cycle regulators that play important roles in modulating cell proliferation and cell fate. Nonselective E2F inhibitors have thus been extensively evaluated for this purpose. Surprisingly, these E2F inhibitors have failed to reduce IH. These findings prompted us to evaluate the roles of different E2Fs during IH to determine how selective targeting of E2F isoforms impacts VSMC proliferation. Importantly, we show that E2F3 promotes proliferation of VSMCs leading to increased IH, whereas E2F4 inhibits this pathological response. Furthermore, we use RNA probes to show that selective inhibition of E2F3, not global inhibition of E2F activity, significantly reduces VSMC proliferation and limits IH in murine bypass grafts.

Giangrande, Paloma H.; Zhang, JianXin; Tanner, Alice; Eckhart, Andrea D.; Rempel, Rachel E.; Andrechek, Eran R.; Layzer, Juliana M.; Keys, Janelle R.; Hagen, Per-Otto; Nevins, Joseph R.; Koch, Walter J.; Sullenger, Bruce A.

2007-01-01

200

E2Fs up-regulate expression of genes involved in DNA replication, DNA repair and mitosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The E2F family of transcription factors plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cell proliferation in higher eukaryotes. We used DNA microarrays and cell lines containing either inducible E2F-1 or inducible E2F-3 to identify novel E2F target genes. Our data indicate that E2F up-regulates the expression of genes not previously described as E2F target genes. A number of these

Shirley Polager; Yael Kalma; Eli Berkovich; Doron Ginsberg

2002-01-01

201

E2 Conjugating Enzyme Selectivity and Requirements for Function of the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase CHIP*  

PubMed Central

The transfer of ubiquitin (Ub) to a substrate protein requires a cascade of E1 activating, E2 conjugating, and E3 ligating enzymes. E3 Ub ligases containing U-box and RING domains bind both E2?Ub conjugates and substrates to facilitate transfer of the Ub molecule. Although the overall mode of action of E3 ligases is well established, many of the mechanistic details that determine the outcome of ubiquitination are poorly understood. CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein) is a U-box E3 ligase that serves as a co-chaperone to heat shock proteins and is critical for the regulation of unfolded proteins in the cytosol. We have performed a systematic analysis of the interactions of CHIP with E2 conjugating enzymes and found that only a subset bind and function. Moreover, some E2 enzymes function in pairs to create products that neither create individually. Characterization of the products of these reactions showed that different E2 enzymes produce different ubiquitination products, i.e. that E2 determines the outcome of Ub transfer. Site-directed mutagenesis on the E2 enzymes Ube2D1 and Ube2L3 (UbcH5a and UbcH7) established that an SPA motif in loop 7 of E2 is required for binding to CHIP but is not sufficient for activation of the E2?Ub conjugate and consequent ubiquitination activity. These data support the proposal that the E2 SPA motif provides specificity for binding to CHIP, whereas activation of the E2?Ub conjugate is derived from other molecular determinants.

Soss, Sarah E.; Yue, Yuanyuan; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano; Chazin, Walter J.

2011-01-01

202

Cell Cycle Genes Are the Evolutionarily Conserved Targets of the E2F4 Transcription Factor  

PubMed Central

Maintaining quiescent cells in G0 phase is achieved in part through the multiprotein subunit complex known as DREAM, and in human cell lines the transcription factor E2F4 directs this complex to its cell cycle targets. We found that E2F4 binds a highly overlapping set of human genes among three diverse primary tissues and an asynchronous cell line, which suggests that tissue-specific binding partners and chromatin structure have minimal influence on E2F4 targeting. To investigate the conservation of these transcription factor binding events, we identified the mouse genes bound by E2f4 in seven primary mouse tissues and a cell line. E2f4 bound a set of mouse genes that was common among mouse tissues, but largely distinct from the genes bound in human. The evolutionarily conserved set of E2F4 bound genes is highly enriched for functionally relevant regulatory interactions important for maintaining cellular quiescence. In contrast, we found minimal mRNA expression perturbations in this core set of E2f4 bound genes in the liver, kidney, and testes of E2f4 null mice. Thus, the regulatory mechanisms maintaining quiescence are robust even to complete loss of conserved transcription factor binding events.

Thorne, Natalie P.; Wade, Elizabeth J.; Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L.; Wilson, Michael D.; Bhattacharjee, Arindam; Young, Richard A.; Tavare, Simon; Lees, Jacqueline A.; Odom, Duncan T.

2007-01-01

203

Cell cycle-related transformation of the E2F4-p130 repressor complex  

SciTech Connect

During G0 phase the p130, member of the pRb tumor suppressor protein family, forms a repressor complex with E2F4 which is inactivated in G1/S by hyperphosphorylation of the p130. The role of p130 after G1/S remains poorly investigated. We found that in nuclear extracts of T98G cells, the p130-E2F4-DNA (pp-E2F4) complex does not dissociate at G1/S transition, but instead reverts to the p130-E2F4-cyclin E/A-cdk2 (cyc/cdk-pp-E2F4) complex, which is detected in S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle. Hyperphosphorylation of the p130 at G1/S transition is associated with a decrease of its total amount; however, this protein is still detected during the rest of the cell cycle, and it is increasingly hyperphosphorylated in the cytosol, but continuously dephosphorylated in the nucleus. Both nuclear and cytosol cell fractions in T98G cells contain a hyperphosphorylated form of p130 in complex with E2F4 at S and G2/M cell cycle phases. In contrast to T98G cells, transformation of the p130 containing cyc/cdk-pp-E2F4 complex into the p130-pp-E2F4 repressor does not occur in HeLa cells under growth restriction conditions.

Popov, Boris [Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 4, Tikhoretsky Ave., St. Petersburg 194064 (Russian Federation) and Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43205-2696 (United States)]. E-mail: popov_478@hotmail.com; Chang, L.-S. [Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43205-2696 (United States); Serikov, Vladimir [Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 4, Tikhoretsky Ave., St. Petersburg 194064 (Russian Federation); Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, 5700 Martin Luther King Jr. Way, Oakland, CA 94609-1673 (United States)

2005-10-28

204

[A study of E2A gene in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia].  

PubMed

E2A gene rearrangements and E2A-PBX1 chimeric mRNA produced by t(1;19) were examined in 50 cases with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Nine of 10 ALL cases with t(1;19) showed the rearrangement by Southern blotting using the E2A gene probe when digested with Xba I, Bgl II, and Eco RI, and the remaining one having hyperdiploidy which was considered to be a sign of good prognosis, lacked E2A rearrangement. Six of 7 ALL cases with t(1;19) that were tested showed the predicted 164 bps band of E2A-PBX1 chimeric mRNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), while a case having t(1;19) without E2A rearrangement and 10 cases lacking t(1;19) did not. Three ALL cases tested did not have E2A-PBX1 mRNA at the time complete remission 4 months after diagnosis. Forty ALL cases lacking t(1;19), including 4 cases with t(11;19), did not reveal rearrangement of E2A. We conclude that t(1;19)-ALL can be molecularly diagnosed, and minimal residual disease could be detected by the RT-PCR method. PMID:8139107

Hayashi, Y; Kikuchi, A; Kobayashi, S; Shikano, T; Hanada, R; Yamamoto, K; Sotomatsu, M; Ishimoto, K; Sako, M; Yamamori, S

1994-01-01

205

A novel mitochondrial protein DIP mediates E2F1-induced apoptosis independently of p53.  

PubMed

The transcription factor E2F1 does not only induce cell proliferation but also shows the strongest proapoptotic effect of all E2F family members as part of an antitumor safeguard mechanism. We have recently identified KIAA0767 as a novel p53-independent target of E2F1. Here, we investigated the biological function of interaction. Overexpression studies of KIAA0767, termed D(eath)-I(nducing)-P(rotein), revealed its strong proapoptotic effect. DIP greatly reduced cell viability in several in vitro systems accompanied by typical apoptotic features such as caspase-3 activation and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase. Endogenous DIP levels increased following E2F1 activation. Yet, inhibition of endogenous DIP function by small interfering RNA rescued p53-negative cells from E2F1-induced apoptosis, indicating that DIP is an essential mediator of the p53-independent E2F1 death pathway. Localization studies showed that DIP localizes to the mitochondria, where endogenous DIP is upregulated following E2F1 induction. These results provide new insights to the incompletely understood regulatory mechanisms of E2F1-induced apoptosis. PMID:15565177

Stanelle, J; Tu-Rapp, H; Pützer, B M

2005-04-01

206

FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SINDBIS VIRUS E2 GLYCOPROTEIN BY TRANSPOSON LINKER-INSERTION MUTAGENESIS  

PubMed Central

The glycoprotein envelope of alphaviruses consists of two proteins, E1 and E2. E1 is responsible for fusion and E2 is responsible for receptor binding. An atomic structure is available for E1, but one for E2 has not been reported. In this study, transposon linker insertion mutagenesis was used to probe the function of different domains of E2. A library of mutants, containing 19 amino acid insertions in the E2 glycoprotein sequence of the prototype alphavirus, Sindbis virus (SINV), was generated. Fifty seven independent E2 insertions were characterized, of which more than half (67%) gave rise to viable virus. The wild type-like mutants identify regions that accommodate insertions without perturbing virus production and can be used to insert targeting moieties to direct SINV to specific receptors. The defective and lethal mutants give insight into regions of E2 important for protein stability, transport to the cell membrane, E1-E2 contacts, and receptor binding.

Navaratnarajah, Chanakha K.; Kuhn, Richard J.

2007-01-01

207

Nuclear factor-erythroid 2 (NF-E2) expression in normal and malignant megakaryocytopoiesis.  

PubMed

Although the transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2 (NF-E2) is known to be functionally linked to the megakaryocytic lineage, little is known about its role in malignant megakaryocytes. We used real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting to investigate expression of NF-E2 and its partner, MafG, in CD34-derived normal (five cases) and malignant megakaryocytes from essential thrombocythemia (ET) patients (eight cases) and in megakaryoblastic cell lines. We also quantitated the mRNA of the thromboxane synthase (TXS) gene, which is directly regulated by NF-E2. Although real-time RT-PCR showed that both a and f NF-E2 isoforms were significantly reduced with respect to the normal counterpart both in ET megakaryocytes and in cell lines (P < or = 0.01), western blotting revealed decreased NF-E2 protein expression only in the latter. However, both the NF-E2a/MafG mRNA ratio (P < or = 0.01) and TXS (P< or = 0.01) mRNA expression were significantly reduced in megakaryocytes from ET patients and cell lines with respect to healthy subjects. These two findings provide strong indirect evidence of altered activity of the a isoform of NF-E2 in malignant megakaryocytes, raising the possibility that NF-E2 could play a role in megakaryocyte transformation. PMID:12200693

Catani, L; Vianelli, N; Amabile, M; Pattacini, L; Valdrè, L; Fagioli, M E; Poli, M; Gugliotta, L; Moi, P; Marini, M G; Martinelli, G; Tura, S; Baccarani, M

2002-09-01

208

40 CFR Figure E-2 to Subpart E of... - Product Manufacturing Checklist  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Physical (Design) and Performance Characteristics of Reference Methods and Class I and Class II Equivalent Methods for PM 2.5 or PM 10-2,5 Pt. 53, Subpt. E, Fig. E-2 Figure E-2 to Subpart E of Part 53âProduct Manufacturing...

2013-07-01

209

Cell Cycle-Regulated Expression of Mammalian CDC6 Is Dependent on E2F  

Microsoft Academic Search

The E2F transcription factors are essential regulators of cell growth in multicellular organisms, controlling the expression of a number of genes whose products are involved in DNA replication and cell proliferation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the MBF and SBF transcription complexes have functions similar to those of E2F proteins in higher eukaryotes, by regulating the timed expression of genes implicated in

GUUS HATEBOER; ALBRECHT WOBST; BIRGIT OTZEN PETERSEN; LAURENT LE CAM; ELENA VIGO; CLAUDE SARDET; KRISTIAN HELIN

1998-01-01

210

Design and characterization of an enhanced repressor of human papillomavirus E2 protein  

PubMed Central

Papillomaviruses are causative agents of cervical and anogenital cancers. The viral E2 protein mediates viral DNA replication and transactivation of viral oncogenes and thus represents a specific target for therapeutic intervention. Short forms of E2, E2R, contain only the C-terminal dimerization domain, and repress the normal function of E2 due to formation of an inactive heterodimer. Using structure-guided design, we replaced conserved residues at the dimer interface to design a heterodimer with increased stability. One E2R mutant in which histidine was replaced by a glutamate residue showed preferential heterodimer formation in vitro, as well as an increase in plasticity at the interface, as a result of histidine-glutamate pair formation, as observed spectroscopically and in the crystal structure, determined to 2.2-? resolution. In addition, the enhanced E2R showed greater repression of transcription from E2-responsive reporter plasmids in mammalian cell culture. Recent advances in protein delivery into the cell raise the possibility of using exogenously added proteins as therapeutic agents. More generally, this approach may be used to target the subunit interfaces of any multisubunit protein having a similar mechanism of action.—Bose, K., Meinke, G., Bohm, A., Baleja, J. D. Design and characterization of an enhanced repressor of human papillomavirus E2 protein.

Bose, Kakoli; Meinke, Gretchen; Bohm, Andrew; Baleja, James D.

2011-01-01

211

Resolvin E2 formation and impact in inflammation-resolution1  

PubMed Central

Acute inflammation and its resolution are essential processes for tissue protection and homeostasis. In this context, specialized pro-resolving mediators derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids are of interest. Here, we report that resolvin E2 (RvE2) from eicosapentaenoic acid is endogenously produced during self-limited murine peritonitis in both the initiation and resolution phases. RvE2 (1–10 nM) carries potent leukocyte-directed actions that include 1) regulating chemotaxis of human neutrophils, and 2) enhancing phagocytosis and anti-inflammatory cytokine production. These actions appear to be mediated by leukocyte G-protein coupled receptors as preparation of labeled RvE2 gave direct evidence for specific binding of radiolabeled RvE2 to neutrophils (Kd 24.7 ± 10.1 nM) and RvE1 activation of recombinant GPCRs was assessed. In addition to the murine inflammatory milieu, RvE2 was also identified in plasma from healthy human subjects. RvE2 rapidly downregulated surface expression of human leukocyte integrins in whole blood and dampened responses to platelet-activating factor. Together, these results indicate that RvE2 can stimulate host-protective actions throughout initiation and resolution in the innate inflammatory responses.

Oh, Sungwhan F.; Dona, Maria; Fredman, Gabrielle; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Irimia, Daniel; Serhan, Charles N.

2012-01-01

212

E2F Inhibition Synergizes with Paclitaxel in Lung Cancer Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

The CDK/Rb/E2F pathway is commonly disrupted in lung cancer, and thus, it is predicted that blocking the E2F pathway would have therapeutic potential. To test this hypothesis, we have examined the activity of HLM006474 (a small molecule pan-E2F inhibitor) in lung cancer cell lines as a single agent and in combination with other compounds. HLM006474 reduces the viability of both SCLC and NSCLC lines with a biological IC50 that varies between 15 and 75 µM, but with no significant difference between the groups. Combination of HLM006474 with cisplatin and gemcitabine demonstrate little synergy; however, HLM006474 synergizes with paclitaxel. Surprisingly, we discovered that brief treatment of cells with HLM006474 led to an increase of E2F3 protein levels (due to de-repression of these promoter sites). Since paclitaxel sensitivity has been shown to correlate with E2F3 levels, we hypothesized that HLM006474 synergy with paclitaxel may be mediated by transient induction of E2F3. To test this, H1299 cells were depleted of E2F3a and E2F3b with siRNA and treated with paclitaxel. Assays of proliferation showed that both siRNAs significantly reduced paclitaxel sensitivity, as expected. Taken together, these results suggest that HLM006474 may have efficacy in lung cancer and may be useful in combination with taxanes.

Kurtyka, Courtney A.; Chen, Lu; Cress, W. Douglas

2014-01-01

213

Retinoblastoma protein (RB) interacts with E2F3 to control terminal differentiation of Sertoli cells.  

PubMed

The retinoblastoma protein (RB) is essential for normal cell cycle control. RB function depends, at least in part, on interactions with the E2F family of DNA-binding transcription factors (E2Fs). To study the role of RB in the adult testis, a Sertoli cell (SC)-specific Rb knockout mouse line (SC-RbKO) was generated using the Cre/loxP recombination system. SC-RbKO mice exhibited an age-dependent testicular atrophy, impaired fertility, severe SC dysfunction, and spermatogenic defects. Removal of Rb in SC induced aberrant SC cycling, dedifferentiation, and apoptosis. Here we show that E2F3 is the only E2F expressed in mouse SCs and that RB interacts with E2F3 during mouse testicular development. In the absence of RB, the other retinoblastoma family members p107 and p130 began interacting with E2F3 in the adult testes. In vivo silencing of E2F3 partially restored the SC maturation and survival as well as spermatogenesis in the SC-RbKO mice. These results point to RB as a key regulator of SC function in adult mice and that the RB/E2F3 pathway directs SC maturation, cell cycle quiescence, and RB protects SC from apoptosis. PMID:24901045

Rotgers, E; Rivero-Müller, A; Nurmio, M; Parvinen, M; Guillou, F; Huhtaniemi, I; Kotaja, N; Bourguiba-Hachemi, S; Toppari, J

2014-01-01

214

A Human Ubiquitin Conjugating Enzyme (E2)-HECT E3 Ligase Structure-function Screen*  

PubMed Central

Here we describe a systematic structure-function analysis of the human ubiquitin (Ub) E2 conjugating proteins, consisting of the determination of 15 new high-resolution three-dimensional structures of E2 catalytic domains, and autoubiquitylation assays for 26 Ub-loading E2s screened against a panel of nine different HECT (homologous to E6-AP carboxyl terminus) E3 ligase domains. Integration of our structural and biochemical data revealed several E2 surface properties associated with Ub chain building activity; (1) net positive or neutral E2 charge, (2) an “acidic trough” located near the catalytic Cys, surrounded by an extensive basic region, and (3) similarity to the previously described HECT binding signature in UBE2L3 (UbcH7). Mass spectrometry was used to characterize the autoubiquitylation products of a number of functional E2-HECT pairs, and demonstrated that HECT domains from different subfamilies catalyze the formation of very different types of Ub chains, largely independent of the E2 in the reaction. Our data set represents the first comprehensive analysis of E2-HECT E3 interactions, and thus provides a framework for better understanding the molecular mechanisms of ubiquitylation.

Sheng, Yi; Hong, Jenny H.; Doherty, Ryan; Srikumar, Tharan; Shloush, Jonathan; Avvakumov, George V.; Walker, John R.; Xue, Sheng; Neculai, Dante; Wan, Janet W.; Kim, Sung K.; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Raught, Brian; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano

2012-01-01

215

NRIP enhances HPV gene expression via interaction with either GR or E2  

SciTech Connect

We previously identified a gene, nuclear receptor-interaction protein (NRIP), which functions as a transcription cofactor in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and human papillomavirus E2 (HPV E2)-driven gene expression. Here, we comprehensively evaluated the role of NRIP in HPV-16 gene expression. NRIP acts as a transcription cofactor to enhance GR-regulated HPV-16 gene expression in the presence of hormone. NRIP also can form complex with E2 that caused NRIP-induced HPV gene expression via E2-binding sites in a hormone-independent manner. Furthermore, NRIP can associate with GR and E2 to form tri-protein complex to activate HPV gene expression via GRE, not the E2-binding site, in a hormone-dependent manner. These results indicate that NRIP and GR are viral E2-binding proteins and that NRIP regulates HPV gene expression via GRE and/or E2 binding site in the HPV promoter in a hormone-dependent or independent manner, respectively.

Chang, Szu-Wei; Lu, Pei-Yu; Guo, Jih-Huong [Graduate Institute of Microbiology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China)] [Graduate Institute of Microbiology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Tzung-Chieh [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, National Chiayi University, Chiayi 600-04, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, National Chiayi University, Chiayi 600-04, Taiwan (China); Tsao, Yeou-Ping [Department of Ophthalmology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei 104, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Ophthalmology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei 104, Taiwan (China); Chen, Show-Li, E-mail: showlic@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Microbiology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China)] [Graduate Institute of Microbiology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China)

2012-02-05

216

DEK Expression is controlled by E2F and deregulated in diverse tumor types.  

PubMed

Deregulation of the retinoblastoma (pRB) tumor suppressor pathway associated with aberrant activity of E2F transcription factors is frequently observed in human cancer. Microarray based analyses have revealed a large number of potential downstream mediators of the tumor suppressing activity of pRB, including DEK, a fusion partner of CAN found in a subset of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients carrying a (6; 9) translocation. Here we report that the expression of DEK is under direct control of E2F transcription factors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that the DEK promoter is bound by endogenous E2F in vivo. The DEK promoter is transactivated by E2F and mutation of E2F binding sites eliminates this effect. Expression levels of DEK in human tumors have been investigated by tissue micro array analysis. We find that DEK is overexpressed in many solid tumors such as colon cancer, larynx cancer, bladder cancer, and melanoma. PMID:16721057

Carro, Maria Stella; Spiga, Fabio Mario; Quarto, Micaela; Di Ninni, Valentina; Volorio, Sara; Alcalay, Myriam; Müller, Heiko

2006-06-01

217

Adenovirus E1A Directly Targets the E2F/DP-1 Complex?  

PubMed Central

Deregulation of the cell cycle is of paramount importance during adenovirus infection. Adenovirus normally infects quiescent cells and must initiate the cell cycle in order to propagate itself. The pRb family of proteins controls entry into the cell cycle by interacting with and repressing transcriptional activation by the E2F transcription factors. The viral E1A proteins indirectly activate E2F-dependent transcription and cell cycle entry, in part, by interacting with pRb and family members to free the E2Fs. We report here that an E1A 13S isoform can unexpectedly activate E2F-responsive gene expression independently of binding to the pRb family of proteins. We demonstrate that E1A binds to E2F/DP-1 complexes through a direct interaction with DP-1. E1A appears to utilize this binding to recruit itself to E2F-regulated promoters, and this allows the E1A 13S protein, but not the E1A 12S protein, to activate transcription independently of interaction with pRb. Importantly, expression of E1A 13S, but not E1A 12S, led to significant enhancement of E2F4 occupancy of E2F sites of two E2F-regulated promoters. These observations identify a novel mechanism by which adenovirus deregulates the cell cycle and suggest that E1A 13S may selectively activate a subset of E2F-regulated cellular genes during infection.

Pelka, Peter; Miller, Matthew S.; Cecchini, Matthew; Yousef, Ahmed F.; Bowdish, Dawn M.; Dick, Fred; Whyte, Peter; Mymryk, Joe S.

2011-01-01

218

Dietary Regulation of Glycolytic Enzymes. Viii. Dose and Time Response of Rat Jejunal Enzymes to Oral Sex Hormones.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The time and dose responses of oral 17 beta-estradiol and oral testosterone as reflected by changes in the activities of four enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism (phosphofructokinase, fructosediphosphatase, pyruvate kinase, and Fru-I, 6-P2 aldolas...

F. B. Stifel, N. S. Rosensweig, R. H. Herman

1970-01-01

219

Estrogen suppresses MLK3-mediated apoptosis sensitivity in ER+ breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Little knowledge exists about the mechanisms by which estrogen can impede chemotherapy-induced cell death of breast cancer cells. 17beta-Estradiol (E(2)) hinders cytotoxic drug-induced cell death in estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) breast cancer cells. We noted that the activity of the proapoptotic mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3) kinase was relatively higher in estrogen receptor-negative (ER(-)) breast tumors, suggesting that E(2) might inhibit MLK3 activity. The kinase activities of MLK3 and its downstream target, c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase, were rapidly inhibited by E(2) in ER(+) but not in ER(-) cells. Specific knockdown of AKT1/2 prevented MLK3 inhibition by E(2), indicating that AKT mediated this event. Furthermore, MLK3 inhibition by E(2) involved phosphorylation of MLK3 Ser(674) by AKT, attenuating the proapoptotic function of MLK3. We found that a pan-MLK inhibitor (CEP-11004) limited Taxol-induced cell death and that E(2) accentuated this limitation. Taken together, our findings indicate that E(2) inhibits the proapoptotic function of MLK3 as a mechanism to limit cytotoxic drug-induced death of ER(+) breast cancer cells. PMID:20145118

Rangasamy, Velusamy; Mishra, Rajakishore; Mehrotra, Suneet; Sondarva, Gautam; Ray, Rajarshi S; Rao, Arundhati; Chatterjee, Malay; Rana, Basabi; Rana, Ajay

2010-02-15

220

Responses of HDL subclasses, Lp(A-I) and Lp(A-I:A-II) levels and lipolytic enzyme activities to continuous oral estrogen-progestin and transdermal estrogen with cyclic progestin regimens in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

Seventy postmenopausal women took part in the study. Subjects received either continuous oral 17 beta-estradiol 2 mg/day combined with norethisterone acetate 1 mg/day (E2/NETA, Kliogest) or transdermal treatment consisting of 28 day cycles with patches delivering 17 beta-estradiol 50 micrograms/day (Estraderm) combined with cyclic medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg/day (E2/MPA, Provera), on days 17-28. At baseline the serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, composition and concentrations of high density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses, lipoprotein (Lp)(AI) and Lp(A-I:A-II) levels were comparable in the two groups. In the E2/NETA group, after 12 months hormone replacement therapy (HRT), the HDL2 cholesterol concentration decreased by 17% (P < 0.01) and the HDL3 cholesterol remained unchanged. The concentrations of HDL2b, HDL2a and HDL3a were reduced by 30, 26 and 15%, respectively, P < 0.001, and the cholesterol:triglyceride ratio decreased significantly in all HDL subclasses. Apolipoprotein (apo) A-I concentration decreased by 5% (P < 0.05), but apo A-II, Lp(A-I) and Lp(A-I:A-II) concentrations remained unchanged. In the E2/MPA group the HDL2 and HDL3 cholesterol levels were both reduced by 6% (P < 0.05) and the HDL3a, HDL3b and HDL3c concentrations decreased by 14, 12 and 17% during the E2/MPA phase compared with baseline (P < 0.01). No major changes in the composition of HDL subclasses occurred in the E2 MPA group during treatment. The apo A-I and Lp(A-I) levels were not changed, but apo A-II and Lp(A-I:A-II) concentrations decreased by 8 and 5%, P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively. At 12 months the postheparin plasma hepatic lipase (HL) activity decreased only in the E2/NETA group (by 12%, P < 0.05). The cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity was not affected by either HRT regimen. The results of our study show that the 2 HRT regimens have multiple effects on HDL particles and HRT induced changes in HDL are not associated with changes in activities of lipolytic enzymes or CETP. PMID:9105568

Tilly-Kiesi, M; Kahri, J; Pyörälä, T; Puolakka, J; Luotola, H; Lappi, M; Lahdenperä, S; Taskinen, M R

1997-03-21

221

Repression of Transcriptional Activity of C/EBP? by E2F-Dimerization Partner Complexes?†  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?) coordinates proliferation arrest and the differentiation of myeloid progenitors, adipocytes, hepatocytes, keratinocytes, and cells of the lung and placenta. C/EBP? transactivates lineage-specific differentiation genes and inhibits proliferation by repressing E2F-regulated genes. The myeloproliferative C/EBP? BRM2 mutant serves as a paradigm for recurrent human C-terminal bZIP C/EBP? mutations that are involved in acute myeloid leukemogenesis. BRM2 fails to repress E2F and to induce adipogenesis and granulopoiesis. The data presented here show that, independently of pocket proteins, C/EBP? interacts with the dimerization partner (DP) of E2F and that C/EBP?-E2F/DP interaction prevents both binding of C/EBP? to its cognate sites on DNA and transactivation of C/EBP target genes. The BRM2 mutant, in addition, exhibits enhanced interaction with E2F-DP and reduced affinity toward DNA and yet retains transactivation potential and differentiation competence that becomes exposed when E2F/DP levels are low. Our data suggest a tripartite balance between C/EBP?, E2F/DP, and pocket proteins in the control of proliferation, differentiation, and tumorigenesis.

Zaragoza, Katrin; Begay, Valerie; Schuetz, Anja; Heinemann, Udo; Leutz, Achim

2010-01-01

222

Oncogenic ETS fusions deregulate E2F3 target genes in Ewing sarcoma and prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Deregulated E2F transcription factor activity occurs in the vast majority of human tumors and has been solidly implicated in disturbances of cell cycle control, proliferation, and apoptosis. Aberrant E2F regulatory activity is often caused by impairment of control through pRB function, but little is known about the interplay of other oncoproteins with E2F. Here we show that ETS transcription factor fusions resulting from disease driving rearrangements in Ewing sarcoma (ES) and prostate cancer (PC) are one such class of oncoproteins. We performed an integrative study of genome-wide DNA-binding and transcription data in EWSR1/FLI1 expressing ES and TMPRSS2/ERG containing PC cells. Supported by promoter activity and mutation analyses, we demonstrate that a large fraction of E2F3 target genes are synergistically coregulated by these aberrant ETS proteins. We propose that the oncogenic effect of ETS fusion oncoproteins is in part mediated by the disruptive effect of the E2F-ETS interaction on cell cycle control. Additionally, a detailed analysis of the regulatory targets of the characteristic EWSR1/FLI1 fusion in ES identifies two functionally distinct gene sets. While synergistic regulation in concert with E2F in the promoter of target genes has a generally activating effect, EWSR1/FLI1 binding independent of E2F3 is predominantly associated with repressed differentiation genes. Thus, EWSR1/FLI1 appears to promote oncogenesis by simultaneously promoting cell proliferation and perturbing differentiation. PMID:23940108

Bilke, Sven; Schwentner, Raphaela; Yang, Fan; Kauer, Maximilian; Jug, Gunhild; Walker, Robert L; Davis, Sean; Zhu, Yuelin J; Pineda, Marbin; Meltzer, Paul S; Kovar, Heinrich

2013-11-01

223

A BIPOLAR OUTFLOW FROM THE MASSIVE PROTOSTELLAR CORE W51e2-E  

SciTech Connect

We present high-resolution images of the bipolar outflow from W51e2, which are produced from the Submillimeter Array archival data observed for CO(3-2) and HCN(4-3) lines with angular resolutions of 0.''8 x 0.''6 and 0.''3 x 0.''2, respectively. The images show that the powerful outflow originates from the protostellar core W51e2-E rather than from the ultracompact H II region W51e2-W. The kinematic timescale of the outflow from W51e2-E is about 1000 yr, younger than the age ({approx}5000 yr) of the ultracompact H II region W51e2-W. A large mass-loss rate of {approx}1 x 10{sup -3} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} and a high mechanical power of 120 L{sub sun} are inferred, suggesting that an O star or a cluster of B stars are forming in W51e2-E. The observed outflow activity along with the inferred large accretion rate indicates that at present W51e2-E is in a rapid phase of star formation.

Shi Hui; Han, J. L. [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A DaTun Road, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhao Junhui, E-mail: shihui@nao.cas.c, E-mail: hil@nao.cas.c, E-mail: jzhao@cfa.harvard.ed [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2010-08-01

224

Phosphorylation Regulates Binding of the Human Papillomavirus Type 8 E2 Protein to Host Chromosomes  

PubMed Central

The papillomavirus E2 proteins are indispensable for the viral life cycle, and their functions are subject to tight regulation. The E2 proteins undergo posttranslational modifications that regulate their properties and roles in viral transcription, replication, and genome maintenance. During persistent infection, the E2 proteins from many papillomaviruses act as molecular bridges that tether the viral genomes to host chromosomes to retain them within the host nucleus and to partition them to daughter cells. The betapapillomavirus E2 proteins bind to pericentromeric regions of host mitotic chromosomes, including the ribosomal DNA loci. We recently reported that two residues (arginine 250 and serine 253) within the chromosome binding region of the human papillomavirus type 8 (HPV8) E2 protein are required for this binding. In this study, we show that serine 253 is phosphorylated, most likely by protein kinase A, and this modulates the interaction of the E2 protein with cellular chromatin. Furthermore, we show that this phosphorylation occurs in S phase, increases the half-life of the E2 protein, and promotes chromatin binding from S phase through mitosis.

Sekhar, Vandana

2012-01-01

225

Oncogenic ETS fusions deregulate E2F3 target genes in Ewing sarcoma and prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Deregulated E2F transcription factor activity occurs in the vast majority of human tumors and has been solidly implicated in disturbances of cell cycle control, proliferation, and apoptosis. Aberrant E2F regulatory activity is often caused by impairment of control through pRB function, but little is known about the interplay of other oncoproteins with E2F. Here we show that ETS transcription factor fusions resulting from disease driving rearrangements in Ewing sarcoma (ES) and prostate cancer (PC) are one such class of oncoproteins. We performed an integrative study of genome-wide DNA-binding and transcription data in EWSR1/FLI1 expressing ES and TMPRSS2/ERG containing PC cells. Supported by promoter activity and mutation analyses, we demonstrate that a large fraction of E2F3 target genes are synergistically coregulated by these aberrant ETS proteins. We propose that the oncogenic effect of ETS fusion oncoproteins is in part mediated by the disruptive effect of the E2F–ETS interaction on cell cycle control. Additionally, a detailed analysis of the regulatory targets of the characteristic EWSR1/FLI1 fusion in ES identifies two functionally distinct gene sets. While synergistic regulation in concert with E2F in the promoter of target genes has a generally activating effect, EWSR1/FLI1 binding independent of E2F3 is predominantly associated with repressed differentiation genes. Thus, EWSR1/FLI1 appears to promote oncogenesis by simultaneously promoting cell proliferation and perturbing differentiation.

Bilke, Sven; Schwentner, Raphaela; Yang, Fan; Kauer, Maximilian; Jug, Gunhild; Walker, Robert L.; Davis, Sean; Zhu, Yuelin J.; Pineda, Marbin; Meltzer, Paul S.; Kovar, Heinrich

2013-01-01

226

p45 NF-E2 regulates expression of thromboxane synthase in megakaryocytes.  

PubMed Central

Transcription factor p45 NF-E2 is highly expressed in the erythroid and megakaryocytic lineages. Although p45 recognizes regulatory regions of several erythroid genes, mice deficient for this protein display only mild dyserythropoiesis but have abnormal megakaryocytes and lack circulating platelets. A number of megakaryocytic marker genes have been extensively studied, but none of them is regulated by NF-E2. To find target genes for p45 NF-E2 in megakaryopoiesis, we used an in vivo immunoselection assay: genomic fragments bound to p45 NF-E2 in the chromatin of a megakaryocytic cell line were immunoprecipitated with an anti-p45 antiserum and cloned. One of these fragments belongs to the second intron of the thromboxane synthase gene (TXS). We demonstrate that the TXS gene, which is mainly expressed in megakaryocytes, is indeed directly regulated by p45 NF-E2. First, its promoter contains a functional NF-E2 binding site; second, the intronic NF-E2 binding site is located within a chromatin-dependent enhancer element; third, p45-null murine megakaryocytes do not express detectable TXS mRNA, although TXS expression can be detected in other cells. These data, and the structure of the TXS promoter and enhancer, suggest that TXS belongs to a distinct subgroup of genes involved in platelet formation and function.

Deveaux, S; Cohen-Kaminsky, S; Shivdasani, R A; Andrews, N C; Filipe, A; Kuzniak, I; Orkin, S H; Romeo, P H; Mignotte, V

1997-01-01

227

OTUB1 Co-opts Lys48-Linked Ubiquitin Recognition to Suppress E2 Enzyme Function  

SciTech Connect

Ubiquitylation entails the concerted action of E1, E2, and E3 enzymes. We recently reported that OTUB1, a deubiquitylase, inhibits the DNA damage response independently of its isopeptidase activity. OTUB1 does so by blocking ubiquitin transfer by UBC13, the cognate E2 enzyme for RNF168. OTUB1 also inhibits E2s of the UBE2D and UBE2E families. Here we elucidate the structural mechanism by which OTUB1 binds E2s to inhibit ubiquitin transfer. OTUB1 recognizes ubiquitin-charged E2s through contacts with both donor ubiquitin and the E2 enzyme. Surprisingly, free ubiquitin associates with the canonical distal ubiquitin-binding site on OTUB1 to promote formation of the inhibited E2 complex. Lys48 of donor ubiquitin lies near the OTUB1 catalytic site and the C terminus of free ubiquitin, a configuration that mimics the products of Lys48-linked ubiquitin chain cleavage. OTUB1 therefore co-opts Lys48-linked ubiquitin chain recognition to suppress ubiquitin conjugation and the DNA damage response.

Juang, Yu-Chi; Landry, Marie-Claude; Sanches, Mario; Vittal, Vinayak; Leung, Charles C.Y.; Ceccarelli, Derek F.; Mateo, Abigail-Rachele F.; Pruneda, Jonathan N.; Mao, Daniel Y.L.; Szilard, Rachel K.; Orlicky, Stephen; Munro, Meagan; Brzovic, Peter S.; Klevit, Rachel E.; Sicheri, Frank; Durocher, Daniel (Mount Sinai Hospital); (UWASH)

2012-03-26

228

OTUB1 co-opts Lys48-linked ubiquitin recognition to suppress E2 enzyme function.  

PubMed

Ubiquitylation entails the concerted action of E1, E2, and E3 enzymes. We recently reported that OTUB1, a deubiquitylase, inhibits the DNA damage response independently of its isopeptidase activity. OTUB1 does so by blocking ubiquitin transfer by UBC13, the cognate E2 enzyme for RNF168. OTUB1 also inhibits E2s of the UBE2D and UBE2E families. Here we elucidate the structural mechanism by which OTUB1 binds E2s to inhibit ubiquitin transfer. OTUB1 recognizes ubiquitin-charged E2s through contacts with both donor ubiquitin and the E2 enzyme. Surprisingly, free ubiquitin associates with the canonical distal ubiquitin-binding site on OTUB1 to promote formation of the inhibited E2 complex. Lys48 of donor ubiquitin lies near the OTUB1 catalytic site and the C terminus of free ubiquitin, a configuration that mimics the products of Lys48-linked ubiquitin chain cleavage. OTUB1 therefore co-opts Lys48-linked ubiquitin chain recognition to suppress ubiquitin conjugation and the DNA damage response. PMID:22325355

Juang, Yu-Chi; Landry, Marie-Claude; Sanches, Mario; Vittal, Vinayak; Leung, Charles C Y; Ceccarelli, Derek F; Mateo, Abigail-Rachele F; Pruneda, Jonathan N; Mao, Daniel Y L; Szilard, Rachel K; Orlicky, Stephen; Munro, Meagan; Brzovic, Peter S; Klevit, Rachel E; Sicheri, Frank; Durocher, Daniel

2012-02-10

229

OTUB1 co-opts Lys48-linked ubiquitin recognition to suppress E2 enzyme function  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Ubiquitylation entails the concerted action of E1, E2 and E3 enzymes. We recently reported that OTUB1, a deubiquitylase, inhibits the DNA damage response independently of its isopeptidase activity. OTUB1 does so by blocking ubiquitin transfer by UBC13, the cognate E2 enzyme for RNF168. OTUB1 also inhibits E2s of the UBE2D and UBE2E families. Here we elucidate the structural mechanism by which OTUB1 binds E2s to inhibit ubiquitin transfer. OTUB1 recognizes ubiquitin-charged E2s through contacts with both donor ubiquitin and the E2 enzyme. Surprisingly, free ubiquitin associates with the canonical distal ubiquitin-binding site on OTUB1 to promote formation of the inhibited E2 complex. Lys48 of donor ubiquitin lies near the OTUB1 catalytic site and the C-terminus of free ubiquitin, a configuration that mimics the products of Lys48-linked ubiquitin chain cleavage. OTUB1 therefore co-opts Lys48-linked ubiquitin chain recognition to suppress ubiquitin conjugation and the DNA damage response.

Juang, Yu-Chi; Landry, Marie-Claude; Sanches, Mario; Vittal, Vinayak; Leung, Charles; Ceccarelli, Derek F.; Mateo, Abigail-Rachele F.; Pruneda, Jonathan N.; Mao, Dan; Szilard, Rachel K.; Orlicky, Stephen; Munro, Meagan; Brzovic, Peter S.; Klevit, Rachel E.; Sicheri, Frank; Durocher, Daniel

2012-01-01

230

E2-BRCA1 RING interactions dictate synthesis of mono- or specific polyubiquitin chain linkages.  

PubMed

An E3 ubiquitin ligase mediates the transfer of activated ubiquitin from an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme to its substrate lysine residues. Using a structure-based, yeast two-hybrid strategy, we discovered six previously unidentified interactions between the human heterodimeric RING E3 BRCA1-BARD1 and the human E2s UbcH6, Ube2e2, UbcM2, Ubc13, Ube2k and Ube2w. All six E2s bind directly to the BRCA1 RING motif and are active with BRCA1-BARD1 for autoubiquitination in vitro. Four of the E2s direct monoubiquitination of BRCA1. Ubc13-Mms2 and Ube2k direct the synthesis of Lys63- or Lys48-linked ubiquitin chains on BRCA1 and require an acceptor ubiquitin attached to BRCA1. Differences between the mono- and polyubiquitination activities of the BRCA1-interacting E2s correlate with their ability to bind ubiquitin noncovalently at a site distal to the active site. Thus, BRCA1 has the ability to direct the synthesis of specific polyubiquitin chain linkages, depending on the E2 bound to its RING. PMID:17873885

Christensen, Devin E; Brzovic, Peter S; Klevit, Rachel E

2007-10-01

231

Structural Insights into the Conformation and Oligomerization of E2~Ubiquitin Conjugates  

PubMed Central

Post-translational modification of proteins by ubiquitin (Ub) regulates a host of cellular processes including protein quality control, DNA repair, endocytosis and cellular signaling. In the ubiquitination cascade, a thioester-linked conjugate between the Ub C-terminus and the active site cysteine of a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) is formed. The E2~Ub conjugate interacts with a ubiquitin ligase (E3) to transfer Ub to a lysine residue on a target protein. The flexibly-linked E2~Ub conjugates have been shown to form a range of structures in solution. In addition, select E2~Ub conjugates oligomerize through a noncovalent “backside” interaction between Ub and E2 components of different conjugates. Additional studies are needed to bridge the gap between the dynamic monomeric conjugates, E2~Ub oligomers and the mechanisms of ubiquitination. We present a new 2.35 Å crystal structure of an oligomeric UbcH5c~Ub conjugate. The conjugate forms a staggered linear oligomer that differs substantially from the “infinite spiral” helical arrangement of the sole previously reported structure of an oligomeric conjugate. Our structure also differs in intra-conjugate conformation from other structurally characterized conjugates. Despite these differences, we find that the backside interaction mode is conserved in different conjugate oligomers and is independent of intra-conjugate relative E2/Ub orientations. We delineate a common intra-conjugate E2-binding surface on Ub. In addition, we demonstrate that an E3 ligase CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsp70 interacting protein) interacts directly with UbcH5c~Ub oligomers, not only with conjugate monomers. These results provide insights into the conformational diversity of E2~Ub conjugates and conjugate oligomers, and into their compatibility and interactions with E3 ligases, which have important consequences for the ubiquitination process.

Page, Richard C.; Pruneda, Jonathan N.; Amick, Joseph; Klevit, Rachel E.; Misra, Saurav

2012-01-01

232

Functional Identification of Api5 as a Suppressor of E2F-Dependent Apoptosis In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retinoblastoma protein and E2-promoter binding factor (E2F) family members are important regulators of G1-S phase progression. Deregulated E2F also sensitizes cells to apoptosis, but this aspect of E2F function is poorly understood. Studies of E2F-induced apoptosis have mostly been carried out in tissue culture cells, and the analysis of the factors that are important for this process has been restricted

Erick J Morris; William A Michaud; Jun-Yuan Ji; Nam-Sung Moon; James W Rocco; Nicholas J Dyson

2006-01-01

233

Structure of the CIAP2 Ring Domain Reveal Conformational Changes Associated With E2 Recruitment  

SciTech Connect

Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins are key negative regulators of cell death that are highly expressed in many cancers. Cell death caused by antagonists that bind to IAP proteins is associated with their ubiquitylation and degradation. The RING domain at the C terminus of IAP proteins is pivotal. Here we report the crystal structures of the cIAP2 RING domain homodimer alone, and bound to the ubiquitin-conjugating (E2) enzyme UbcH5b. These structures show that small changes in the RING domain accompany E2 binding. By mutating residues at the E2-binding surface, we show that autoubiquitylation is required for regulation of IAP abundance. Dimer formation is also critical, and mutation of a single C-terminal residue abrogated dimer formation and E3 ligase activity was diminished. We further demonstrate that disruption of E2 binding, or dimerization, stabilizes IAP proteins against IAP antagonists in vivo.

Mace, P.D.; Linke, K.; Feltham, R.; Schumacher, F.-R.; Smith, C.A.; Vaux, D.L.; Silke, J.; Day, C.L.

2009-05-19

234

260. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF PIER E2 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

260. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF PIER E-2 FROM TORPEDO ASSEMBLY BUILDING, FACING SOUTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

235

A role for E2F6 in distinguishing G1/S- and G2/M-specific transcription  

PubMed Central

E2F transcription factors play a critical role in the control of cell cycle progression, regulating the expression of genes involved in DNA replication, DNA repair, mitosis, and cell fate. This involves both positive-acting and negative-acting E2F proteins, the latter group including the E2F6 protein, which has been shown to function as an Rb-independent repressor of E2F-target gene transcription. In an effort to better delineate the context of E2F6 function, including the mechanisms of E2F6 functional specificity, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation assays to assess when and with what genes E2F6 associates during a cell cycle. We find that E2F6 associates specifically with the E2F target genes that are activated at G1/S; this interaction occurs during S phase of the cell cycle. In sharp contrast, E2F6 does not bind to E2F-regulated genes activated at G2/M. In the absence of E2F6, E2F4 can bind to the G1/S-regulated promoters and compensate for loss of E2F6 function. Indeed, inhibition of both E2F4 and E2F6 activity results in specific derepression of these genes during S phase. We conclude that E2F6 functions as a repressor of E2F-dependent transcription during S phase and given the specificity for the G1/S-regulated genes, we propose that E2F6 functions to distinguish G1/S and G2/M transcription during the cell cycle.

Giangrande, Paloma H.; Zhu, Wencheng; Schlisio, Susanne; Sun, Xin; Mori, Seiichi; Gaubatz, Stefan; Nevins, Joseph R.

2004-01-01

236

Bäcklund autotransformation for the equation u xt =e u ?e ?2u  

Microsoft Academic Search

The system of differential relations that arises in connection with the Bullough-Dodd-Zhiber-Shabat equationuxt=eu-e-2u is considered. The consistency of this system is established, and it is shown that the system realizes a Bäcklund autotransformation for the equationuxt=eu-e-2u. The associated three-dimensional dynamical systems, which are compatible on a two-dimensional invariant submanifold, are investigated, and a construction of their general solution, which gives

S. S. Safin; R. A. Sharipov

1993-01-01

237

Viral E1 and E2 Proteins Support Replication of Homologous and Heterologous Papillomaviral Origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have shown that E1 and E2 proteins of human papillomavirus type 11 (HPV-11) were essential to support the replication of the homologous viral origin (ori) in a transient replication assay, similar to reports on bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1). Unexpectedly, matched or even mixed combinations of E1 and E2 proteins from HPV-11 or BPV-1 replicated either ori in human,

Cheng-Ming Chiang; Mart Ustav; Arne Stenlund; Thau F. Ho; Thomas R. Broker; Louise T. Chow

1992-01-01

238

Identification of New Functional Regions in Hepatitis C Virus Envelope Glycoprotein E2?  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the structure of the envelope glycoproteins of hepatitis C virus (HCV). To identify new regions essential for the function of these glycoproteins, we generated HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp) containing HCV envelope glycoproteins, E1 and E2, from different genotypes in order to detect intergenotypic incompatibilities between these two proteins. Several genotype combinations were nonfunctional for HCV entry. Of interest, a combination of E1 from genotype 2a and E2 from genotype 1a was nonfunctional in the HCVpp system. We therefore used this nonfunctional complex and the recently described structural model of E2 to identify new functional regions in E2 by exchanging protein regions between these two genotypes. The functionality of these chimeric envelope proteins in the HCVpp system and/or the cell-cultured infectious virus (HCVcc) was analyzed. We showed that the intergenotypic variable region (IgVR), hypervariable region 2 (HVR2), and another segment in domain II play a role in E1E2 assembly. We also demonstrated intradomain interactions within domain I. Importantly, we also identified a segment (amino acids [aa] 705 to 715 [segment 705-715]) in the stem region of E2, which is essential for HCVcc entry. Circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance structural analyses of the synthetic peptide E2-SC containing this segment revealed the presence of a central amphipathic helix, which likely folds upon membrane binding. Due to its location in the stem region, segment 705-715 is likely involved in the reorganization of the glycoprotein complexes taking place during the fusion process. In conclusion, our study highlights new functional and structural regions in HCV envelope glycoprotein E2.

Albecka, Anna; Montserret, Roland; Krey, Thomas; Tarr, Alexander W.; Diesis, Eric; Ball, Jonathan K.; Descamps, Veronique; Duverlie, Gilles; Rey, Felix; Penin, Francois; Dubuisson, Jean

2011-01-01

239

Prostaglandin E2 and parathyroid hormone: Comparisons of their actions on the rabbit proximal tubule  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prostaglandin E2 and parathyroid hormone: Comparisons of their actions on the rabbit proximal tubule. Recent studies demonstrated that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) participates in the regulation of glomerular and distal tubular function. A functional role for PGE2 on the proximal tubule has only recently been explored. Thus, we reported that PGE2 antagonizes the phosphaturic effect of PTH in the dog, which

Jesus H Dominguez; Thomas O Pitts; Thomas Brown; Diane B Puschett; Frederick Schuler; Tai C Chen; Jules B Puschett

1984-01-01

240

17?-estradiol regulates giant vesicle formation via estrogen receptor-alpha in human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

A significant proportion of the genes regulated by 17-beta-estradiol (E2) via estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) have roles in vesicle trafficking in breast cancer. Intracellular vesicle trafficking and extracellular vesicles have important roles in tumourigenesis. Here we report the discovery of giant (3-42?m) intracellular and extracellular vesicles (GVs) and the role of E2 on vesicle formation in breast cancer (BC) cell lines using three independent live cell imaging techniques. Large diameter vesicles, GVs were also identified in a patient-derived xenograft BC model, and in invasive breast carcinoma tissue. ER?-positive (MCF-7 and T47D) BC cell lines demonstrated a significant increase in GV formation after stimulation with E2 which was reversed by tamoxifen. ER?-negative (MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468) BC cell lines produced GVs independently of E2 and tamoxifen. These results indicate the existence of both intracellular and extracellular vesicles with considerably larger dimensions than generally recognised with BC cells and suggest that the GVs are regulated by E2 via ER? in ER?-positive BC but by E2-independent mechanisms in ER-ve BC. PMID:24931391

Wright, Paul K; Jones, Sarah Bowen; Ardern, Nicholas; Ward, Rebecca; Clarke, Robert B; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P; Landberg, Goran; Lamb, Rebecca

2014-05-30

241

Exocytotic protein components in rat pituitary gland after long-term estrogen administration.  

PubMed

Recently, a set of proteins involved in the docking and fusion machinery of secretory organelles has been identified in anterior pituitary cells. In this study we analyzed, by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry, the expression of several proteins involved in exocytosis after long-term administration of 17beta-estradiol (E2) in Fischer 344 rats. No differences were observed in the amount of synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa, synaptobrevin 2, syntaxin 1, synaptotagmin I and Rab3a in total brain homogenates from treated rats after E2 administration. In striking contrast, the levels of all of these exocytotic proteins, including cellubrevin, were notably decreased in pituitary glands of E2-treated rats. In addition, no differences were observed in the in vitro basal and 8-Br-cAMP-induced prolactin (PRL) release between pituitary cells from control and E2-treated rats, whereas TRH-induced PRL release in anterior pituitary cells from E2-treated animals was higher than in control donors. In conclusion, this study shows that protein components of the exocytotic machinery are specifically down-regulated in the pituitary gland of E2-treated Fischer 344 rats. PMID:10320831

Majó, G; Lorenzo, M J; Blasi, J; Aguado, F

1999-05-01

242

Time course of the estradiol-dependent induction of oxytocin receptor binding in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus of the rat  

SciTech Connect

Oxytocin (OT) transmission is involved in the steroid-dependent display of sexual receptivity in rats. One of the biochemical processes stimulated by the ovarian steroid 17 beta-estradiol (E2) that is relevant to reproduction is the induction of OT receptor binding in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN). The purpose of these experiments was to determine if E2-induced changes in OT receptor binding in the VMN occur within a time frame relevant to cyclic changes in ovarian steroid secretion. OT receptor binding was measured in the VMN of ovariectomized rats implanted for 0-96 h with E2-containing Silastic capsules. The rate of decay of OT receptor binding was measured in another group of animals 6-48 h after capsule removal. Receptors were labeled with the specific OT receptor antagonist ({sup 125}I)d(CH2)5(Tyr(Me)2,Thr4,Tyr-NH2(9))OVT, and binding was measured with quantitative autoradiographic methods. In addition, plasma E2 levels and uterine weights were assessed in animals from each treatment condition. Significant increases in E2-dependent OT receptor binding and uterine weight occurred within 24 h of steroid treatment. After E2 withdrawal, OT receptor binding and uterine weight decreased significantly within 24 h. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that steroid modulation of OT receptor binding is necessary for the induction of sexual receptivity.

Johnson, A.E.; Ball, G.F.; Coirini, H.; Harbaugh, C.R.; McEwen, B.S.; Insel, T.R. (National Institute of Mental Health, Poolesville, MD (USA))

1989-09-01

243

Estradiol affects liver mitochondrial function in ovariectomized and tamoxifen-treated ovariectomized female rats  

SciTech Connect

Given the tremendous importance of mitochondria to basic cellular functions as well as the critical role of mitochondrial impairment in a vast number of disorders, a compelling question is whether 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) modulates mitochondrial function. To answer this question we exposed isolated liver mitochondria to E2. Three groups of rat females were used: control, ovariectomized and ovariectomized treated with tamoxifen. Tamoxifen has antiestrogenic effects in the breast tissue and is the standard endocrine treatment for women with breast cancer. However, under certain circumstances and in certain tissues, tamoxifen can also exert estrogenic agonist properties. We observed that at basal conditions, ovariectomy and tamoxifen treatment do not induce any statistical alteration in oxidative phosphorylation system and respiratory chain parameters. Furthermore, tamoxifen treatment increases the capacity of mitochondria to accumulate Ca{sup 2+} delaying the opening of the permeability transition pore. The presence of 25 {mu}M E2 impairs respiration and oxidative phosphorylation system these effects being similar in all groups of animals studied. Curiously, E2 protects against lipid peroxidation and increases the production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in energized mitochondria of control females. Our results indicate that E2 has in general deleterious effects that lead to mitochondrial impairment. Since mitochondrial dysfunction is a triggering event of cell degeneration and death, the use of exogenous E2 must be carefully considered.

Moreira, Paula I. [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Institute of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Custodio, Jose B.A. [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Nunes, Elsa [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Institute of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Moreno, Antonio [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Institute of Marine Research, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Seica, Raquel [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Institute of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Oliveira, Catarina R. [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Santos, Maria S. [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal) and Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal)]. E-mail: mssantos@ci.uc.pt

2007-05-15

244

The structure of human SULT1A1 crystallized with estradiol. An insight into active site plasticity and substrate inhibition with multi-ring substrates.  

PubMed

Human SULT1A1 belongs to the supergene family of sulfotransferases (SULTs) involved in the sulfonation of xeno- and endobiotics. The enzyme is also one of the SULTs responsible for metabolic activation of mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds and therefore is implicated in various cancer forms. Further, it is not well understood how substrate inhibition takes place with rigid fused multiring substrates such as 17beta-estradiol (E2) at high substrate concentrations when subcellular fractions or recombinant enzymes are used. To investigate how estradiol binds to SULT1A1, we co-crystallized SULT1A1 with sulfated estradiol and the cofactor product, PAP (3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate). The crystal structure of SULT1A1 that we present here has PAP and one molecule of E2 bound in a nonproductive mode in the active site. The structure reveals how the SULT1A1 binding site undergoes conformational changes to accept fused ring substrates such as steroids. In agreement with previous reports, the enzyme shows partial substrate inhibition at high concentrations of E2. A model to explain these kinetics is developed based on the formation of an enzyme x PAP x E2 dead-end complex during catalysis. This model provides a very good quantitative description of the rate versus the [E2] curve. This dead-end complex is proposed to be that described by the observed structure, where E2 is bound in a nonproductive mode. PMID:16221673

Gamage, Niranjali U; Tsvetanov, Sergey; Duggleby, Ronald G; McManus, Michael E; Martin, Jennifer L

2005-12-16

245

Astrocytes and microglia respond to estrogen with increased apoE mRNA in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed

This study examined the regulation of apolipoprotein E (apoE) by 17beta-estradiol (E2) in brain glia, using rats with regular ovulatory cycles as an in vivo model and cultured astrocytes and mixed glia as in vitro models. Two brain regions were examined which had demonstrated transient synaptic remodeling during the estrous cycle. In the hippocampal CA1 region and the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, apoE mRNA was elevated at proestrus when plasma E2 was high and synaptic density was increasing. Both astrocytes and microglia contributed to this increase in apoE mRNA. In vitro, E2 treatment had no effect on apoE mRNA levels in monotypic cultures of either astrocytes or microglia. In contrast, mixed glial cultures responded to E2 with increased apoE mRNA and protein, suggesting that heterotypic cellular interactions are important in the brain response to estrogens. In situ hybridization in combination with cell-specific markers showed that E2 increased apoE mRNA levels in both astrocytes and microglia. These results, which are the first evidence of apoE mRNA localization to microglia in vivo and the control of apoE expression in brain cells by estrogens, are discussed in terms of the possible protective role of E2 in Alzheimer's disease and prior findings that emphasize the expression of apoE mRNA in astrocytes within the brain. PMID:9056393

Stone, D J; Rozovsky, I; Morgan, T E; Anderson, C P; Hajian, H; Finch, C E

1997-02-01

246

17?-estradiol regulates giant vesicle formation via estrogen receptor-alpha in human breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

A significant proportion of the genes regulated by 17-beta-estradiol (E2) via estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) have roles in vesicle trafficking in breast cancer. Intracellular vesicle trafficking and extracellular vesicles have important roles in tumourigenesis. Here we report the discovery of giant (3-42?m) intracellular and extracellular vesicles (GVs) and the role of E2 on vesicle formation in breast cancer (BC) cell lines using three independent live cell imaging techniques. Large diameter vesicles, GVs were also identified in a patient-derived xenograft BC model, and in invasive breast carcinoma tissue. ER?-positive (MCF-7 and T47D) BC cell lines demonstrated a significant increase in GV formation after stimulation with E2 which was reversed by tamoxifen. ER?-negative (MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468) BC cell lines produced GVs independently of E2 and tamoxifen. These results indicate the existence of both intracellular and extracellular vesicles with considerably larger dimensions than generally recognised with BC cells and suggest that the GVs are regulated by E2 via ER? in ER?-positive BC but by E2-independent mechanisms in ER-ve BC.

Wright, Paul K; Jones, Sarah Bowen; Ardern, Nicholas; Ward, Rebecca; Clarke, Robert B; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P; Landberg, Goran; Lamb, Rebecca

2014-01-01

247

Structure-function relationship of estrogen receptor alpha and beta: impact on human health.  

PubMed

17Beta-estradiol (E2) controls many aspects of human physiology, including development, reproduction and homeostasis, through regulation of the transcriptional activity of its cognate receptors (ERs). The crystal structures of ERs with agonists and antagonists and the use of transgenic animals have revealed much about how hormone binding influences ER conformation(s) and how this conformation(s), in turn, influences the interaction of ERs with co-activators or co-repressors and hence determines ER binding to DNA and cellular outcomes. This information has helped to shed light on the connection between E2 and the development or progression of numerous diseases. Current therapeutic strategy in the treatment of E2-related pathologies relies on the modulation of ER trancriptional activity by anti-estrogens; however, data accumulated during the last five years reveal that ER activities are not only restricted to the nucleus. ERs are very mobile proteins continuously shuttling between protein targets located within various cellular compartments (e.g., membrane, nucleus). This allows E2 to generate different and synergic signal transduction pathways (i.e., non-genomic and genomic) which provide plasticity for cell response to E2. Understanding the structural basis and the molecular mechanisms by which ER transduce E2 signals in target cells will allow to create new pharmacologic therapies aimed at the treatment of a variety of human diseases affecting the cardiovascular system, the reproductive system, the skeletal system, the nervous system, the mammary gland, and many others. PMID:16914190

Ascenzi, Paolo; Bocedi, Alessio; Marino, Maria

2006-08-01

248

Mapping the Structure and Function of the E1 and E2 Glycoproteins in Alphaviruses  

PubMed Central

Summary The 9 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy map of Sindbis virus presented here provides structural information on the polypeptide topology of the E2 protein, on the interactions between the E1 and E2 glycoproteins in the formation of a heterodimer, on the difference in conformation of the two types of trimeric spikes, on the interaction between the transmembrane helices of the E1 and E2 proteins, and on the conformational changes that occur when fusing with a host cell. The positions of various markers on the E2 protein established the approximate topology of the E2 structure. The largest conformational differences between the icosahedral surface spikes at icosahedral 3-fold and quasi-3-fold positions are associated with the monomers closest to the 5-fold axes. The long E2 monomers, containing the cell receptor recognition motif at their extremities, are shown to rotate by about 180° and to move away from the center of the spikes during fusion.

Mukhopadhyay, Suchetana; Zhang, Wei; Gabler, Stefan; Chipman, Paul R.; Strauss, Ellen G.; Strauss, James H.; Baker, Timothy S.; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G.

2009-01-01

249

Orthogonal Ubiquitin Transfer through Engineered E1-E2 Cascades for Protein Ubiquitination  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Protein modification by ubiquitin (UB) controls diverse cellular processes. UB is conjugated to cellular proteins by sequential transfer through an E1-E2-E3 enzymatic cascade. The cross-activities of 2 E1s, 50 E2s and thousands of E3s encoded by the human genome make it difficult to identify the substrate proteins of a specific E3 enzyme in the cell. One way to solve this problem is to engineer an orthogonal UB transfer (OUT) cascade in which the engineered UB (xUB) is relayed by engineered E1, E2 and E3 enzymes (xE1, xE2, xE3) to modify the substrate proteins of a specific E3. Here, we use phage display and mutagenesis to construct xUB-xE1 and xE1-xE2 pairs that are orthogonal to the native E1 and E2 enzymes. Our work on engineering the UB transfer cascades will enable us to use OUT to map the signal transduction networks mediated by protein ubiquitination.

Zhao, Bo; Bhuripanyo, Karan; Zhang, Keya; Kiyokawa, Hiroaki; Schindelin, Hermann; Yin, Jun

2014-01-01

250

E2A transcription factors limit expression of Gata3 to facilitate T lymphocyte lineage commitment  

PubMed Central

The E2A transcription factors promote the development of thymus-seeding cells, but it remains unknown whether these proteins play a role in T lymphocyte lineage specification or commitment. Here, we showed that E2A proteins were required to promote T-lymphocyte commitment from DN2 thymocytes and to extinguish their potential for alternative fates. E2A proteins functioned in DN2 cells to limit expression of Gata3, which encodes an essential T-lymphocyte transcription factor whose ectopic expression can arrest T-cell differentiation. Genetic, or small interfering RNA-mediated, reduction of Gata3 rescued T-cell differentiation in the absence of E2A and restricted the development of alternative lineages by limiting the expanded self-renewal potential in E2A?/? DN2 cells. Our data support a novel paradigm in lymphocyte lineage commitment in which the E2A proteins are necessary to limit the expression of an essential lineage specification and commitment factor to restrain self-renewal and to prevent an arrest in differentiation.

Xu, Wei; Carr, Tiffany; Ramirez, Kevin; McGregor, Stephanie; Sigvardsson, Mikael

2013-01-01

251

Temperature Dependent E2 Raman Modes in the ZnCoO Ternary Alloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anharmonic properties of low and high frequency E2 modes of ZnO and Co doped ZnO were investigated using Raman scattering spectroscopy. We have determined the behavior of frequency, linewidths, and lifetime of E2 modes in the temperature range from 80 to 800 K. In the case of E2(high) mode the frequency shift towards the lower energy side was analyzed in light of the theory of anharmonic phonon-phonon interaction and thermal expansion of the lattice, and the linewidth behavior was analyzed in terms of anharmonic effect of three-phonon decay mechanism. But in the case of E2(low), the linewidth and frequency behaved practically harmonic with respect to temperature and independent of Co substitutions. It is found that the E2(high) phonon anharmonicity is higher for ZnCoO alloys than in pure ZnO and it increases with the compositional disorder. The low temperature lifetime of E2 phonon in ZnO, 1 % and 3% Co doped ZnO were found to be 1.S2, 1.74, and 1.54 ps, respectively.

Samanta, K.; Bhattacharya, P.; Katiyar, R. S.

2007-01-01

252

Structural and Antigenic Definition of Hepatitis C Virus E2 Glycoprotein Epitopes Targeted by Monoclonal Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the major cause of chronic liver disease as well as the major indication for liver transplantation worldwide. Current standard of care is not completely effective, not administrable in grafted patients, and burdened by several side effects. This incomplete effectiveness is mainly due to the high propensity of the virus to continually mutate under the selective pressure exerted by the host immune response as well as currently administered antiviral drugs. The E2 envelope surface glycoprotein of HCV (HCV/E2) is the main target of the host humoral immune response and for this reason one of the major variable viral proteins. However, broadly cross-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against HCV/E2 represent a promising tool for the study of virus-host interplay as well as for the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic approaches. In the last few years many anti-HCV/E2 mAbs have been evaluated in preclinical and clinical trials as possible candidate antivirals, particularly for administration in pre- and post-transplant settings. In this review we summarize the antigenic and structural characteristics of HCV/E2 determined through the use of anti-HCV/E2 mAbs, which, given the absence of a crystal structure of this glycoprotein, represent currently the best tool available.

Tarr, Alexander W.; Mancini, Nicasio; Clementi, Massimo

2013-01-01

253

[Application of orthogonal analysis to the optimization of HPV16 E2 protein expression].  

PubMed

This study was aimed to identify pET21b-HPV16E2/BL21(DE3) strain and to optimize the expression of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E2 protein by orthogonal analysis. Four influence factors on two levels were selected to increase the target protein quantity. The four factors were induction time, induction temperature, inductor concentration and cell density. The quantity of HPV16 E2 protein was used as the evaluation parameter. Induced by IPTG, HPV16 E2 protein was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western Blot. Target protein was analyzed by GIS imaging system to quantify the protein level. SPSS13. 0 software was applied to analyze the result. Data showed that the expression strain pET211rHPV16 E2/BL21(DE3) was identified correctly. HPV16 E2 protein expressed mainly at insoluble form. The 42KD protein band was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Orthogonal test was applied on influence factor analysis and expression optimization successfully. Main influence factors were inductor concentration and induction temperature. The optimimum condition of maximum expression quantity was 37 degrees C, 7h, 1.0 mmol/L IPTG and OD600 1.0. In this experiment, orthogonal test could not only be used to analyze the influential factors and promote the target protein expression, but also be used to provide a better experiment method for molecular biological study. PMID:22097269

Shang, Qinglong; Ma, Yanxiu; Guo, Zhiwei; Li, Liqun; Hao, Meili; Sun, Yuhui; Wei, Lanlan; Gu, Hongxi

2011-10-01

254

The E2 Ubiquitin-conjugating Enzymes Direct Polyubiquitination to Preferred Lysines  

PubMed Central

The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays a crucial role in many cellular processes by degrading substrates tagged by polyubiquitin chains, linked mostly through lysine 48 of ubiquitin. Although polymerization of ubiquitin via its six other lysine residues exists in vivo as part of various physiological pathways, the molecular mechanisms that determine the type of polyubiquitin chains remained largely unknown. We undertook a systematic, in vitro, approach to evaluate the role of E2 enzymes in determining the topology of polyubiquitin. Because this study was performed in the absence of an E3 enzyme, our data indicate that the E2 enzymes are capable of directing the ubiquitination process to distinct subsets of ubiquitin lysines, depending on the specific E2 utilized. Moreover, our findings are in complete agreement with prior analyses of lysine preference assigned to certain E2s in the context of E3 (in vitro and in vivo). Finally, our findings support the rising notion that the functional unit of E2 is a dimer. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic indication for the involvement of E2 enzymes in specifying polyubiquitin chain assembly.

David, Yael; Ziv, Tamar; Admon, Arie; Navon, Ami

2010-01-01

255

The HPV E2-Host Protein-Protein Interactions: A Complex Hijacking of the Cellular Network  

PubMed Central

Over 100 genotypes of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been identified as being responsible for unapparent infections or for lesions ranging from benign skin or genital warts to cancer. The pathogenesis of HPV results from complex relationships between viral and host factors, driven in particular by the interplay between the host proteome and the early viral proteins. The E2 protein regulates the transcription, the replication as well as the mitotic segregation of the viral genome through the recruitment of host cell factors to the HPV regulatory region. It is thereby a pivotal factor for the productive viral life cycle and for viral persistence, a major risk factor for cancer development. In addition, the E2 proteins have been shown to engage numerous interactions through which they play important roles in modulating the host cell. Such E2 activities are probably contributing to create cell conditions appropriate for the successive stages of the viral life cycle, and some of these activities have been demonstrated only for the oncogenic high-risk HPV. The recent mapping of E2-host protein-protein interactions with 12 genotypes representative of HPV diversity has shed some light on the large complexity of the host cell hijacking and on its diversity according to viral genotypes. This article reviews the functions of E2 as they emerge from the E2/host proteome interplay, taking into account the large-scale comparative interactomic study.

Muller, Mandy; Demeret, Caroline

2012-01-01

256

Lap2alpha expression is controlled by E2F and deregulated in various human tumors.  

PubMed

Deregulation of the retinoblastoma (pRB) tumor suppressor pathway is frequently observed in human cancer and associated with aberrant activity of E2F transcription factors. We have performed microarray based analysis with the aim of identifying potential downstream mediators of the tumor suppressing activity of pRB. Here we report that the expression of LAP2 (lamina-associated polypeptide 2) is under direct control of E2F transcription factors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that the LAP2 promoter is bound by endogenous E2F in vivo. The LAP2 promoter is transactivated by ectopically expressed E2F and mutation of E2F binding sites eliminates this effect. We studied the expression level of LAP2alpha in human tumors by tissue microarray analysis and found LAP2alpha over expression in a significant percentage of primary larynx, lung, stomach, breast, and colon cancer tissues. In agreement with its regulation by E2F, LAP2alpha over expression in primary tumors was found to be correlated with tumor proliferation rate. PMID:16760672

Parise, Paola; Finocchiaro, Giacomo; Masciadri, Barabara; Quarto, Micaela; Francois, Stefanie; Mancuso, Francesco; Muller, Heiko

2006-06-01

257

Nature of W51e2: Massive Cores at Different Phases of Star Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present high-resolution continuum images of the W51e2 complex processed from archival data of the Submillimeter Array (SMA) at 0.85 and 1.3 mm and the Very Large Array at 7 and 13 mm. We also made line images and profiles of W51e2 for three hydrogen radio recombination lines (RRLs; H26?, H53?, and H66?) and absorption of two molecular lines of HCN(4-3) and CO(2-1). At least four distinct continuum components have been detected in the 3'' region of W51e2 from the SMA continuum images at 0.85 and 1.3 mm with resolutions of 0farcs3 × 0farcs2 and 1farcs4 × 0farcs7, respectively. The west component, W51e2-W, coincides with the ultracompact H II region reported from previous radio observations. The H26? line observation reveals an unresolved hyper-compact ionized core (<0farcs06 or <310 AU) with a high electron temperature of 1.2 × 104 K, with the corresponding emission measure EM>7 × 1010 pc cm-6 and the electron density Ne >7 × 106 cm-3. The inferred Lyman continuum flux implies that the H II region W51e2-W requires a newly formed massive star, an O8 star or a cluster of B-type stars, to maintain the ionization. W51e2-E, the brightest component at 0.85 mm, is located 0farcs9 east from the hyper-compact ionized core. It has a total mass of ~140 M sun according to our spectral energy distribution analysis and a large infall rate of >1.3 × 10-3 M sun yr-1 inferred from the absorption of HCN. W51e2-E appears to be the accretion center in W51e2. Given the fact that no free-free emission and no RRLs have been detected, the massive core of W51e2-E appears to host one or more growing massive proto-stars. Located 2'' northwest from W51e2-E, W51e2-NW is detected in the continuum emission at 0.85 and 1.3 mm. No continuum emission has been detected at ?>= 7 mm. Along with the maser activities previously observed, our analysis suggests that W51e2-NW is at an earlier phase of star formation. W51e2-N is located 2'' north of W51e2-E and has only been detected at 1.3 mm with a lower angular resolution (~1''), suggesting that it is a primordial, massive gas clump in the W51e2 complex.

Shi, Hui; Zhao, Jun-Hui; Han, J. L.

2010-02-01

258

Inactivation of Rb and E2f8 Synergizes To Trigger Stressed DNA Replication during Erythroid Terminal Differentiation.  

PubMed

Rb is critical for promoting cell cycle exit in cells undergoing terminal differentiation. Here we show that during erythroid terminal differentiation, Rb plays a previously unappreciated and unorthodox role in promoting DNA replication and cell cycle progression. Specifically, inactivation of Rb in erythroid cells led to stressed DNA replication, increased DNA damage, and impaired cell cycle progression, culminating in defective terminal differentiation and anemia. Importantly, all of these defects associated with Rb loss were exacerbated by the concomitant inactivation of E2f8. Gene expression profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) revealed that Rb and E2F8 cosuppressed a large array of E2F target genes that are critical for DNA replication and cell cycle progression. Remarkably, inactivation of E2f2 rescued the erythropoietic defects resulting from Rb and E2f8 deficiencies. Interestingly, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) on E2F2 ChIPs indicated that inactivation of Rb and E2f8 synergizes to increase E2F2 binding to its target gene promoters. Taken together, we propose that Rb and E2F8 collaborate to promote DNA replication and erythroid terminal differentiation by preventing E2F2-mediated aberrant transcriptional activation through the ability of Rb to bind and sequester E2F2 and the ability of E2F8 to compete with E2F2 for E2f-binding sites on target gene promoters. PMID:24865965

Ghazaryan, Seda; Sy, Chandler; Hu, Tinghui; An, Xiuli; Mohandas, Narla; Fu, Haiqing; Aladjem, Mirit I; Chang, Victor T; Opavsky, Rene; Wu, Lizhao

2014-08-01

259

Plasma lipoproteins in familial dysbetalipoproteinemia associated with apolipoproteins E2(Arg158-->Cys), E3-Leiden, and E2(Lys146-->Gln), and effects of treatment with simvastatin.  

PubMed

Using a density-gradient ultracentrifugation technique, we analyzed in detail the plasma lipoprotein profiles of 18 patients with familial dysbetalipoproteinemia (FD) who had apolipoprotein (apo) E2(Arg158-->Cys) homozygosity (the E2-158 variant, n = 6), apoE3-Leiden heterozygosity (the E3-Leiden variant, n = 6), or apoE2(Lys146-->Gln) heterozygosity (the E2-146 variant, n = 6), with average plasma cholesterol concentrations of 8.99 +/- 1.34 mmol/L, 9.29 +/- 1.55 mmol/L, and 8.46 +/- 1.10 mmol/L, respectively. No significant differences in sex, age, body mass index, dietary habits, and standard laboratory tests between the three groups were observed. The lipoprotein profiles of all FD patients were characterized by higher concentrations of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) 1, VLDL2, and intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) and a higher cholesteryl ester content of VLDL1 and VLDL2 than in 6 normolipidemic control subjects with an average plasma cholesterol concentration of 5.90 +/- 0.53 mmol/L. Major differences between the plasma lipoprotein profiles of patients with the E2-158 variant, the E3-Leiden variant, and the E2-146 variant and the normolipidemic control subjects were in IDL cholesterol concentration (1.70 +/- 0.26, 1.50 +/- 0.26, 1.05 +/- 0.36, and 0.47 +/- 0.14 mmol/L, respectively), LDL cholesterol concentration (1.83 +/- 0.50, 3.09 +/- 0.32, 3.79 +/- 0.76, and 3.77 +/- 0.56 mmol/L, respectively), and the molar ratio of IDL cholesterol to LDL cholesterol (0.98 +/- 0.28, 0.48 +/- 0.04, 0.28 +/- 0.09, and 0.12 +/- 0.03, respectively). After 10 weeks of simvastatin treatment the concentrations of plasma cholesterol, VLDL2 cholesterol, IDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol in 3 patients with the E2-158 variant fell significantly, by 46%, 56%, 53%, and 48%, respectively; they also fell in 3 patients with the E3-Leiden variant, by 48%, 54%, 57%, and 52%, respectively, and in 3 patients with the E2-146 variant, by 38%, 55%, 46%, and 35%, respectively. Simvastatin therapy lowered plasma activity of cholesteryl ester transfer protein but had no significant effect on plasma activity of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase. It is concluded that patients with FD due to various apoE variants have different lipoprotein profiles, mainly with regard to IDL and LDL levels, although they have a number of similar features of dysbetalipoproteinemia. Simvastatin therapy effectively reduced the plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, VLDL2 cholesterol, IDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol in the three groups of patients studied. It is proposed that apoE-dependent defects of the conversion of IDL to LDL may be an important mechanism in the pathophysiology of FD. PMID:7947593

Zhao, S P; Smelt, A H; Van den Maagdenberg, A M; Van Tol, A; Vroom, T F; Gevers Leuven, J A; Frants, R R; Havekes, L M; Van der Laarse, A; Van 't Hooft, F M

1994-11-01

260

Ameliorative effects of Anoectochilus formosanus extract on osteopenia in ovariectomized rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine ameliorative effects of crude aqueous extract of Anoectochilus formosanus (AFE) on osteopenia in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. First, all of the rats were divided into sham and OVX groups. The OVX rats were allowed to lose bone for 6 weeks. At 6 weeks post-OVX, the OVX rats were divided into four groups treated with water, 17beta-estradiol (30 microg/kg, daily s.c. injection) or AFE (0.5, 2 g/kg, daily, orally) for 12 weeks. In OVX rats, the increases of body weight and serum total cholesterol were significantly decreased by AFE or 17beta-estradiol treatment. In OVX rats, atrophy of uterus and vagina was preserved by treatment with 17beta-estradiol, but not by AFE. The decreased weight of pituitary was increased by treatment with both 17beta-estradiol and AFE. There were decreases in bone density and calcium content including the right femur and the fourth lumbar vertebra, when compared with the sham control rats. Treatment with either 17beta-estradiol or AFE ameliorated these changes induced by OVX. In addition, ovariectomy increased serum alkaline phosphatase levels. The increases were suppressed by the treatment with 17beta-estradiol and AFE. Our results demonstrated that AEF could ameliorate ovariectomy-induced osteopenia. PMID:11535369

Shih, C C; Wu, Y W; Lin, W C

2001-10-01

261

Hp-41CV flight performance advisory system (FPAS) for the E-2c, E-2B, and C-2A aircraft. Final technical report Apr-Jun 82  

SciTech Connect

This report describes follow-on work performed under the auspices of AE 4900, Directed Studies in Aeronautical Engineering at the Naval Postgraduate School, to complement the original design of a Flight Performance Advisory System (FPAS) for the E-2C aircraft. The original design fulfilled the requirements of AE 3001, Aircraft Energy Conservation. AE 3001, offered in the Fall Quarter 1981, and conducted by Professor Allen E. Fuhs, was sponsored in part by the Naval Air Development Center (NADC). NADC desired to obtain the input of several fleet experienced aviators in order to design program code for the HP-41CV handheld, programmable calculator that would benefit pilots by providing them with fuel efficiency parameters in flight. Calculators were made available to the participants with the proviso that a completed and operable code for each aircraft be submitted by the end of the academic quarter, September 1981. Upon completion of the E-2C program, attempts were made to use the calculator in flight. One test was conducted informally in an E-2C at RVAW-110, NAS Miramar. Unfortunately, the voltage field induced in the cockpit by the main lobe of the radar passing over the cockpit caused the calculator to cease functioning. The need to devise shielding for the calculator, plus the desire to simplify and improve the existing code lead to this effort.

Ferrell, D.R.

1982-06-01

262

Characterization of human papillomavirus type 11 E1 and E2 proteins expressed in insect cells.  

PubMed Central

The study of human papillomavirus replication has been hampered by the lack of an in vitro system which reliably supports virus replication. Recent results from the bovine papillomavirus (BPV) system indicate that the E1 and E2 proteins are the only viral gene products required for replication. By analogy with simian virus 40 large T antigen, E1 is thought to possess ATPase and helicase activity, which may play a direct role in viral DNA replication. The precise role of E2 is unclear, but it may function in part to help localize E1 to the replication origin. We have initiated a study of replication in the human papillomavirus type 11 system which, by analogy to BPV, has focused on the E1 and E2 proteins of this virus. We have expressed the full-length E1 and E2 proteins in Sf9 insect cells by using a baculovirus expression vector. Both the 80-kDa E1 protein and the 42.5-kDa E2 protein are nuclear phosphoproteins. The E1 and E2 proteins form a heteromeric complex within the insect cells, and both proteins localize to a DNA fragment which contains the viral origin of replication. In addition, we have detected an E1-associated ATPase and GTPase activity, which is likely part of an energy-generating system for the helicase activity which is predicted for this protein. The human papillomavirus type 11 E1 and E2 proteins possess the same replication-associated activities exhibited by the corresponding BPV proteins, suggesting that the replication activities of these viruses are tightly conserved. Images

Bream, G L; Ohmstede, C A; Phelps, W C

1993-01-01

263

Characterization of the hematopoietic transcription factor NF-E2 in primary murine megakaryocytes.  

PubMed

Biochemical analysis of megakaryocytes, the precursors of blood platelets, is limited by their rarity in vivo, and studies on lineage-specific gene expression have been conducted exclusively in cell lines with limited megakaryocytic potential. Mice lacking the transcription factor NF-E2 display arrested megakaryocyte differentiation and profound thrombocytopenia. To study the heterodimeric NF-E2 protein in primary cells, we cultured mouse fetal livers with the c-Mpl ligand, obtained highly enriched megakaryocyte populations, and readily detected NF-E2 activity in nuclear extracts. As in erythroid cells, p45 NF-E2 is the only large subunit in primary megakaryocytes that dimerizes with distinct small Maf proteins to constitute a heterogeneous NF-E2 complex. Whereas p18/MafK is the predominant small Maf protein in erythroid cells, the related polypeptides MafG and/or MafF predominate in megakaryocytes. Although this represents the first example of differential small Maf protein expression among closely related blood lineages, the DNA-binding specificity of NF-E2 is similar in both cell types. Although the megakaryocyte protein preferentially binds an asymmetric AP-1-related motif, it also recognizes cAMP-responsive element-related sequences, albeit with lower affinity, and nucleotides outside the core sequence influence the DNA-protein interaction. These results demonstrate the feasibility of biochemical studies on primary murine megakaryocytes and provide a basis to dissect the critical functions of NF-E2 in megakaryocyte differentiation. PMID:9516460

Lecine, P; Blank, V; Shivdasani, R

1998-03-27

264

Prohibitin interacts with RNF2 and regulates E2F1 function via dual pathways.  

PubMed

Prohibitin, a tumor suppresser protein, plays an important role in the transcriptional regulation of various genes involved in cell-cycle control and proliferation. Recent studies have reported that the growth-suppressive property of the prohibitin protein is exhibited in its physical interaction with E2F family proteins and its subsequent repression of their transcriptional activity. Herein, we report that prohibitin interacts with RING finger protein 2 (RNF2), a member of the PcG (polycomb-group) family of proteins, and that the two proteins regulate the activity of E2F1 via dual pathways: the direct, prohibitin-mediated pathway and the indirect, p16-mediated pathway of E2F1 transcriptional regulation. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that endogenous prohibitin interacts with endogenous RNF2. Interestingly, the expressed amounts of RNF2 and prohibitin were interdependently affected at the post-translational level. Furthermore, the depletion of either endogenous RNF2 or prohibitin using the RNA interference technique increased the level of p16 protein expression, resulting in a decrease in the transcriptional activity of E2F1 via the p16-CDK4-Rb pathway. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that RNF2 was recruited to E2F1-response promoters along with prohibitin to inhibit the transcriptional activity of E2F1. Cell proliferation was also regulated by the prohibitin-RNF2 interaction. These results suggest that the RNF2-prohibitin complex regulates the activity of E2F1 via dual pathways. PMID:17873902

Choi, D; Lee, S-J; Hong, S; Kim, I-H; Kang, S

2008-03-13

265

GCN5 acetylates and regulates the stability of the oncoprotein E2A-PBX1 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  

PubMed

The t(1;19) translocation in pediatric pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) fuses the genes, which encode the transcriptional activator E2A and homeobox pre-B-cell leukemia transcription factor 1 (PBX1), resulting in expression of the chimeric transcription factor E2A-PBX1. E2A-PBX1 can promote cell transformation both in vitro and in vivo; however, the mechanisms by which E2A-PBX1 contributes to malignancy merit further investigation. In the current work we report, for the first time, a physical and functional interaction between the SPT3-TAFII31-GCN5L acetylase (STAGA) complex and E2A-PBX1. STAGA, and its acetyltransferase subunit GCN5, directly interacted with the E2A portion of E2A-PBX1. GCN5 acetylated E2A-PBX1 and increased the stability of E2A-PBX1 protein in cells. Moreover, the GCN5 inhibitor ?-methylene-?-butyrolactone 3 (MB-3) decreased E2A-PBX1 acetylation and E2A-PBX1 protein levels in leukemic cells, indicating that GCN5 inhibitors have potential value as therapeutic agents for ALL. In addition, we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase HDM2 potentiates the degradation of E2A-PBX1. We suggest that dynamic regulation of E2A-PBX1 protein levels in vivo has a fundamental role in ALL. PMID:23044487

Holmlund, T; Lindberg, M J; Grander, D; Wallberg, A E

2013-03-01

266

Characterization of hepatitis C virus recombinants with chimeric E1/E2 envelope proteins and identification of single amino acids in the E2 stem region important for entry.  

PubMed

The hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope proteins E1 and E2 play a key role in host cell entry and represent important targets for vaccine and drug development. Here, we characterized HCV recombinants with chimeric E1/E2 complexes in vitro. Using genotype 1a/2a JFH1-based recombinants expressing 1a core-NS2, we exchanged E2 with functional isolate sequences of genotypes 1a (alternative isolate), 1b, and 2a. While the 1a-E2 exchange did not impact virus viability, the 2a-E2 recombinant was nonviable. After E2 exchange from three 1b isolates, long delays were observed before spread of infection. For recovered 1b-E2 recombinants, single E2 stem region amino acid changes were identified at residues 706, 707, and 710. In reverse genetic studies, these mutations increased infectivity titers by ~100-fold, apparently without influencing particle stability or cell binding although introducing slight decrease in particle density. In addition, the 1b-E2 exchange led to a decrease in secreted core protein of 25 to 50%, which was further reduced by the E2 stem region mutations. These findings indicated that compensatory mutations permitted robust infectious virus production, without increasing assembly/release. Studies of E1/E2 heterodimerization showed no differences in intracellular E1/E2 interaction for chimeric constructs with or without E2 stem region mutations. Interestingly, the E2 stem region mutations allowed efficient entry, which was verified in 1a-E1/1b-E2 HCV pseudoparticle assays. A CD81 inhibition assay indicated that the mutations influenced a late step of the HCV entry pathway. Overall, this study identified specific amino acids in the E2 stem region of importance for HCV entry and for production of infectious virus particles. PMID:23152512

Carlsen, Thomas H R; Scheel, Troels K H; Ramirez, Santseharay; Foung, Steven K H; Bukh, Jens

2013-02-01

267

Joint anti-estrogenic effects of PCP and TCDD in primary cultures of juvenile goldfish hepatocytes using vitellogenin as a biomarker.  

PubMed

This work evaluated the joint anti-estrogenic effects of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) against 17beta-estradiol (E2) in juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus) hepatocyte cultures. The level of vitellogenin (VTG) as a biomarker was determined by exposing hepatocytes to individual E2, PCP and TCDD, as well as to E2 in the presence of PCP, TCDD or their mixtures of various concentrations. PCP and TCDD did not exhibit estrogenicity. Both chemicals reduced the estrogenicity of E2, indicating the anti-estrogenic effects of PCP and TCDD. Their anti-estrogenic EC(50) values were calculated. The joint anti-estrogenic effects against E2 increased with increasing the PCP-to-TCDD ratio of mixture. Marking's indices were <0, suggesting an antagonism in anti-estrogenic effects between PCP and TCDD. The anti-estrogenic effects of PCP appeared to result primarily from the competitive binding to estrogen receptor. While TCDD may undergo an indirect binding process for its anti-estrogenic effects, the accurate mechanisms remain to be understood. The observed antagonism in anti-estrogenic effects resulted apparently from the mutual inhibition by PCP and TCDD. PMID:16571359

Zhao, Bing; Yang, Jing; Liu, Zhengtao; Xu, Zhangfa; Qiu, Yuping; Sheng, Guangyao

2006-10-01

268

Functional Interactions between 17?-Estradiol and Progesterone Regulate Autophagy during Acini Formation by Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells in 3D Cultures  

PubMed Central

Mammary gland epithelium forms a network of ducts and alveolar units under control of ovarian hormones: 17-beta-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4). Mammary epithelial cells (MECs) cultured on reconstituted basement membrane (rBM) form three-dimensional (3D) acini composed of polarized monolayers surrounding a lumen. Using the 3D culture of BME-UV1 bovine MECs we previously demonstrated that autophagy was induced in the centrally located cells of developing spheroids, and sex steroids increased this process. In the present study we showed that E2 and P4 enhanced the expression of ATG3, ATG5, and BECN1 genes during acini formation, and this effect was accelerated in the presence of both hormones together. The stimulatory action of E2 and P4 was also reflected by increased levels of Atg5, Atg3, and LC3-II proteins. Additionally, the activity of kinases involved in autophagy regulation, Akt, ERK, AMPK, and mTOR, was examined. E2 + P4 slightly increased the level of phosphorylated AMPK but diminished phosphorylated Akt and mTOR on day 9 of 3D culture. Thus, the synergistic actions of E2 and P4 accelerate the development of bovine mammary acini, which may be connected with stimulation of ATGs expression, as well as regulation of signaling pathways (PI3K/Akt/mTOR; AMPK/mTOR) involved in autophagy induction.

Zielniok, Katarzyna; Motyl, Tomasz

2014-01-01

269

Physiological consequences of membrane-initiated estrogen signaling in the brain.  

PubMed

Many of the actions of 17beta-estradiol (E2) in the central nervous system (CNS) are mediated via the classical nuclear steroid receptors, ER(alpha) and ERbeta, which interact with the estrogen response element to modulate gene expression. In addition to the nuclear-initiated estrogen signaling, E2 signaling in the brain can occur rapidly within minutes prior to any sufficient effects on transcription of relevant genes. These rapid, membrane-initiated E2 signaling mechanisms have now been characterized in many brain regions, most importantly in neurons of the hypothalamus and hippocampus. Furthermore, our understanding of the physiological effects of membrane-initiated pathways is now a major field of interest in the hypothalamic control of reproduction, energy balance, thermoregulation and other homeostatic functions as well as the effects of E2 on physiological and pathophysiological functions of the hippocampus. Membrane signaling pathways impact neuronal excitability, signal transduction, cell death, neurotransmitter release and gene expression. This review will summarize recent findings on membrane-initiated E2 signaling in the hypothalamus and hippocampus and its contribution to the control of physiological and behavioral functions. PMID:21196248

Roepke, Troy A; Ronnekleiv, Oline K; Kelly, Martin J

2011-01-01

270

Physiological consequences of membrane-initiated estrogen signaling in the brain  

PubMed Central

Many of the actions of 17beta-estradiol (E2) in the central nervous system (CNS) are mediated via the classical nuclear steroid receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta, which interact with the estrogen response element to modulate gene expression. In addition to the nuclear-initiated estrogen signaling, E2 signaling in the brain can occur rapidly within minutes prior to any sufficient effects on transcription of relevant genes. These rapid, membrane-initiated E2 signaling mechanisms have now been characterized in many brain regions, most importantly in neurons of the hypothalamus and hippocampus. Furthermore, our understanding of the physiological effects of membrane-initiated pathways is now a major field of interest in the hypothalamic control of reproduction, energy balance, thermoregulation and other homeostatic functions as well as the effects of E2 on physiological and pathophysiological functions of the hippocampus. Membrane signaling pathways impact neuronal excitability, signal transduction, cell death, neurotransmitter release and gene expression. This review will summarize recent findings on membrane-initiated E2 signaling in the hypothalamus and hippocampus and its contribution to the control of physiological and behavioral functions.

Roepke, Troy A.; Ronnekleiv, Oline K.; Kelly, Martin J.

2011-01-01

271

E2-RING expansion of the NEDD8 cascade confers specificity to cullin modification  

SciTech Connect

Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs) are directed to targets by cascades of E1, E2, and E3 enzymes. The largest ubiquitin E3 subclass consists of cullin-RING ligases (CRLs), which contain one each of several cullins (CUL1, -2, -3, -4, or -5) and RING proteins (RBX1 or -2). CRLs are activated by ligation of the UBL NEDD8 to a conserved cullin lysine. How is cullin NEDD8ylation specificity established? Here we report that, like UBE2M (also known as UBC12), the previously uncharacterized E2 UBE2F is a NEDD8-conjugating enzyme in vitro and in vivo. Biochemical and structural analyses indicate how plasticity of hydrophobic E1-E2 interactions and E1 conformational flexibility allow one E1 to charge multiple E2s. The E2s have distinct functions, with UBE2M/RBX1 and UBE2F/RBX2 displaying different target cullin specificities. Together, these studies reveal the molecular basis for and functional importance of hierarchical expansion of the NEDD8 conjugation system in establishing selective CRL activation.

Huang, D.T.; Ayrault, O.; Hunt, H.W.; Taherbhoy, A.M.; Duda, D.M.; Scott, D.C.; Borg, L.A.; Neale, G.; Murray, P.J.; Roussel, M.F.; Schulman, B.A.; (SJCH)

2009-03-27

272

Identification of E2F1 as a positive transcriptional regulator for {delta}-catenin  

SciTech Connect

{delta}-Catenin is upregulated in human carcinomas. However, little is known about the potential transcriptional factors that regulate {delta}-catenin expression in cancer. Using a human {delta}-catenin reporter system, we have screened several nuclear signaling modulators to test whether they can affect {delta}-catenin transcription. Among {beta}-catenin/LEF-1, Notch1, and E2F1, E2F1 dramatically increased {delta}-catenin-luciferase activities while {beta}-catenin/LEF-1 induced only a marginal increase. Rb suppressed the upregulation of {delta}-catenin-luciferase activities induced by E2F1 but did not interact with {delta}-catenin. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses in 4 different prostate cancer cell lines revealed that regulation of {delta}-catenin expression is controlled mainly at the transcriptional level. Interestingly, the effects of E2F1 on {delta}-catenin expression were observed only in human cancer cells expressing abundant endogenous {delta}-catenin. These studies identify E2F1 as a positive transcriptional regulator for {delta}-catenin, but further suggest the presence of strong negative regulator(s) for {delta}-catenin in prostate cancer cells with minimal endogenous {delta}-catenin expression.

Kim, Kwonseop [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, 600 Moye Street, Greenville, NC 27834 (United States); College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Drug development, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Minsoo; Ki, Hyunkyoung [College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Drug development, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Wang Tao; Bareiss, Sonja [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, 600 Moye Street, Greenville, NC 27834 (United States); Fini, M. Elizabeth. [Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136 (United States); Li Dawei [Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 20115 (United States); Lu Qun [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, 600 Moye Street, Greenville, NC 27834 (United States)], E-mail: luq@ecu.edu

2008-05-02

273

Apolipoprotein E ?4 is superior to apolipoprotein E ?2 in predicting cognitive scores over 30 months  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to compare apolipoprotein E ?4 (Apo E ?4) and apolipoprotein E ?2 (Apo E ?2) as predictors of cognitive and functional trajectories over 30 months. Methods This prospective cohort study included 287 community-dwelling memory clinic patients with dementia, mild cognitive impairment, or no cognitive impairment. The Addenbrooke Cognitive Examination, Mini-Mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Delirium Index, and Nottingham Instrumental Activities of Daily Living tests were administered to each subject. Results One hundred and nine subjects (40%) carried Apo E ?4 and 48 (16.7%) carried Apo E ?2. One hundred and nine ?4-positive subjects differed significantly from 178 ?4-negative subjects in 19/52 comparisons (36.5%), whereas 46 Apo E ?2-positive subjects had 0/52 significant differences from 239 ?2-negative subjects (P < 0.0001). The variables most affected by ?4 were the Delirium Index and Mini-Mental State Examination. Instrumental Activities of Daily Living score and residence were unrelated to Apo E ?4 or ?2. Conclusion Apo E ?4 positivity predicted four cognitive scores measured every 6 months over 30 months. Apo E ?2 scores predicted none of 52 comparisons.

Regal, Paul; Nair, Balakrishnan; Hetherington, Eileen

2013-01-01

274

CK2 Phosphorylation Inactivates DNA Binding by the Papillomavirus E1 and E2 Proteins  

PubMed Central

Papillomaviruses have complex life cycles that are understood only superficially. Although it is well established that the viral E1 and E2 proteins play key roles in controlling viral transcription and DNA replication, how these factors are regulated is not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that phosphorylation by the protein kinase CK2 controls the biochemical activities of the bovine papillomavirus E1 and E2 proteins by modifying their DNA binding activity. Phosphorylation at multiple sites in the N-terminal domain in E1 results in the loss of sequence-specific DNA binding activity, a feature that is also conserved in human papillomavirus (HPV) E1 proteins. The bovine papillomavirus (BPV) E2 protein, when phosphorylated by CK2 on two specific sites in the hinge, also loses its site-specific DNA binding activity. Mutation of these sites in E2 results in greatly increased levels of latent viral DNA replication, indicating that CK2 phosphorylation of E2 is a negative regulator of viral DNA replication during latent viral replication. In contrast, mutation of the N-terminal phosphorylation sites in E1 has no effect on latent viral DNA replication. We propose that the phosphorylation of the N terminus of E1 plays a role only in vegetative viral DNA replication, and consistent with such a role, caspase 3 cleavage of E1, which has been shown to be necessary for vegetative viral DNA replication, restores the DNA binding activity to phosphorylated E1.

Schuck, Stephen; Ruse, Cristian

2013-01-01

275

Inhibition of human papilloma virus E2 DNA binding protein by covalently linked polyamides  

PubMed Central

Polyamides are a class of heterocyclic small molecules with the potential of controlling gene expression by binding to the minor groove of DNA in a sequence-specific manner. To evaluate the feasibility of this class of compounds as antiviral therapeutics, molecules were designed to essential sequence elements occurring numerous times in the HPV genome. This sequence element is bound by a virus-encoded transcription and replication factor E2, which binds to a 12 bp recognition site as a homodimeric protein. Here, we take advantage of polyamide:DNA and E2:DNA co-crystal structural information and advances in polyamide synthetic chemistry to design tandem hairpin polyamides that are capable of displacing the major groove-binding E2 homodimer from its DNA binding site. The binding of tandem hairpin polyamides and the E2 DNA binding protein to the DNA site is mutually exclusive even though the two ligands occupy opposite faces of the DNA double helix. We show with circular permutation studies that the tandem hairpin polyamide prevents the intrinsic bending of the E2 DNA site important for binding of the protein. Taken together, these results illustrate the feasibility of inhibiting the binding of homodimeric, major groove-binding transcription factors by altering the local DNA geometry using minor groove-binding tandem hairpin polyamides.

Schaal, Thomas D.; Mallet, William G.; McMinn, Dustin L.; Nguyen, Nam V.; Sopko, Michelle M.; John, Sam; Parekh, Bhavin S.

2003-01-01

276

Acetylation of Conserved Lysines in Bovine Papillomavirus E2 by p300  

PubMed Central

The p300, CBP, and pCAF lysine acetyltransferase (KAT) proteins have been reported to physically interact with bovine (BPV) and human (HPV) papillomavirus E2 proteins. While overexpression of these KAT proteins enhances E2-dependent transcription, the mechanism has not been determined. Using RNA interference (RNAi) to deplete these factors, we demonstrated that E2 transcriptional activity requires physiological levels of p300, CBP, and pCAF. Each protein appears to have a unique function in E2-dependent transcription, since overexpression of one KAT failed to compensate for RNAi knockdown of another KAT. Using an in vitro acetylation assay, we identified highly conserved lysines that are targeted by p300 for acetylation. The conservative changes of lysines at positions 111 and 112 to arginine were of particular interest. The K111R and the K111R/K112R mutants showed reduced transcriptional activity that was not responsive to p300 overexpression, while the K112R mutant retained activity. p300 and CBP were detected at the viral promoter; however, pCAF was not. We propose a model by which E2 transcriptional activity is controlled by p300-mediated acetylation of lysine 111. This model represents a novel mechanism regulating papillomavirus gene expression.

Quinlan, Edward J.; Culleton, Sara P.; Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Chiang, Cheng-Ming

2013-01-01

277

Membrane-initiated actions of estradiol (E2) in the regulation of LH secretion in ovariectomized (OVX) ewes  

PubMed Central

Background We demonstrated that E2 conjugated to BSA (E2BSA) induces a rapid membrane-initiated inhibition of LH secretion followed hours later by a slight increase in LH secretion. Whether these actions of E2BSA are restricted to the pituitary gland and whether the membrane-initiated pathway of E2BSA contributes to the up-regulation of the number of GnRH receptors during the positive feedback effect of E2 were evaluated here. We have shown that the suppression of LH secretion induced by E2 and E2BSA is the result of a decreased responsiveness of the pituitary gland to GnRH. In this study we further tested the ability of E2BSA to decrease the responsiveness of the pituitary gland to GnRH under the paradigm of the preovulatory surge of LH induced by E2. Methods For the first experiment GnRH and LH secretions were determined in samples of pituitary portal and jugular blood, respectively, in ewes treated with 12 mg E2BSA. In the second experiment, the number of GnRH receptors was quantified in ewes 12 h after administration of 25 micrograms E2 (the expected time for the increase in the number of GnRH receptors and the positive feedback effect of E2 in LH secretion) or 12 mg E2BSA. In the third experiment, the preovulatory-like surge of LH was characterized in ewes injected with 25 micrograms E2 alone or followed 8 h later (before the beginning of the LH surge) with 60 mg E2BSA. Results a) the decrease in LH secretion induced by E2BSA was not accompanied by changes in the pulsatile pattern of GnRH, b) E2BSA increased the number of GnRH receptors, and c) the presence of E2BSA in E2-treated ewes delayed the onset, reduced the length, and decreased the amount of LH released during the preovulatory surge of LH. Conclusions a) the rapid suppression of LH secretion induced by E2BSA is mediated only via a direct action on the pituitary gland, b) E2 acting via a membrane-initiated pathway contributes to increase the number of GnRH receptors and, c) administration of E2BSA near the beginning of the pre-ovulatory surge of LH delays and reduces the magnitude of the surge.

2010-01-01

278

HEB and E2A function as SMAD/FOXH1 cofactors  

PubMed Central

Nodal signaling, mediated through SMAD transcription factors, is necessary for pluripotency maintenance and endoderm commitment. We identified a new motif, termed SMAD complex-associated (SCA), that is bound by SMAD2/3/4 and FOXH1 in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and derived endoderm. We demonstrate that two basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) proteins—HEB and E2A—bind the SCA motif at regions overlapping SMAD2/3 and FOXH1. Furthermore, we show that HEB and E2A associate with SMAD2/3 and FOXH1, suggesting they form a complex at critical target regions. This association is biologically important, as E2A is critical for mesendoderm specification, gastrulation, and Nodal signal transduction in Xenopus tropicalis embryos. Taken together, E proteins are novel Nodal signaling cofactors that associate with SMAD2/3 and FOXH1 and are necessary for mesendoderm differentiation.

Yoon, Se-Jin; Wills, Andrea E.; Chuong, Edward; Gupta, Rakhi; Baker, Julie C.

2011-01-01

279

A novel peptide that inhibits E2F transcription and regresses prostate tumor xenografts  

PubMed Central

E2F-1, a key transcription factor necessary for cell growth, DNA repair and differentiation, is an attractive target for development of useful anticancer drugs in tumors that are E2F “oncogene addicted”. A peptide, isolated from phage clones, based on its binding to an E2F-1 consensus sequence, was cytotoxic against a wide range of cancer cell lines. The peptide was coupled to penetratin (PEP) and tested against prostate cancer cell lines. As the PEP was found to be relatively unstable in serum, it was encapsulated in PEGylated liposomes for in vivo studies. The peptide was cytotoxic against prostate cell lines at low micromolar concentrations. Treatment of mice bearing the human Du-145 human prostate tumor with the PEP encapsulated in PEGylated liposomes (PL-PEP) caused tumor regression without significant toxicity. The liposome encapsulated PEP has promise as an antitumor agent, alone or in combination with inhibitors of DNA synthesis.

Xie, Xiaoqi; Bansal, Nitu; Shaik, Tazeem; Kerrigan, John E.; Minko, Tamara; Garbuzenko, Olga; Abali, Emine Ercikan; Johnson-Farley, Nadine; Banerjee, Debabrata; Scotto, Kathleen W.; Bertino, Joseph R

2014-01-01

280

E2 strength in the radiative charmed baryon decay ? c? ? ? c?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiative decay ? Q? ? ? Q? can have both magnetic dipole (M1) and electric quadrupole (E2) components. In the heavy quark limit MQ ? ? the transition arises from the spin of the light degrees of freedom changing from sl = 1 to sl = 0 and hence the E2 contribution vanishes. We compute the leading contribution to the E2 strength in chiral perturbation theory and find that the amplitude is enhanced by a small energy denominator in the chiral limit. This enhancement essentially compensates for the {1}/{M c} suppression that is present in the charm system. We find a mixing ratio of order a few percent dependent upon the ? c-? c? spin symmetry breaking mass difference. The analogous quantity in the b-baryon sector is smaller by a factor of ? {M c}/{M b}.

Savage, Martin J.

1995-02-01

281

Collective E2 transitions of midshell Ba isotopes in the boson expansion theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collective E2 transitions of midshell Ba isotopes are studied by means of the boson expansion theory. The fermion Hamiltonian is comprised of the self-consistent QQ interaction with higher-order (many-body) terms, monopole- and quadrupole-pairing interactions in addition to the spherical limit of the Nilsson Hamiltonian. The Kishimoto-Tamura method of normal-ordered linked-cluster expansion of the modified Marumori boson mapping is applied to construct the microscopic boson image of the Hamiltonian and that of the E2 operator. It is shown that the marked increase of quadrupole collectivity, indicated by the enhancement of experimental B(E2), as neutron numbers approach the midshell value of N=66 can be reproduced naturally in terms of the microscopic boson expansion theory by using a standard value of the effective charge.

Sakamoto, H.

2001-08-01

282

Construction of recombinant swinepox viruses and expression of the classical swine fever virus E2 protein.  

PubMed

To explore the swinepox virus (SPV) as a potential live vector for immunization, a vector was developed for the construction of a recombinant SPV carrying foreign genes. In this system, a foreign gene placed under the strong vaccinia virus promoter P(11) can be inserted into the viral thymidine kinase (TK) gene, and the recombinant virus can be isolated in a non-selective medium by the co-expression of E. coli lacZ gene. Compared with the wild type virus, the TK(-)recombinant SPV showed a modest level of attenuation in porcine cells while more attenuation was observed in monkey or human cells. Using this system, a recombinant virus expressing the E2 glycoprotein of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) was produced. Engineered with the gX signal sequence of the pseudorabies virus, and transmembrane domain of E2, the E2 protein was expressed as a dimeric form in the cytoplasm of the infected cells. PMID:11311343

Hahn, J; Park, S H; Song, J Y; An, S H; Ahn, B Y

2001-04-01

283

Production and Actions of the Anandamide Metabolite Prostamide E2 in the Renal Medulla  

PubMed Central

Medullipin has been proposed to be an antihypertensive lipid hormone released from the renal medulla in response to increased arterial pressure and renal medullary blood flow. Because anandamide (AEA) possesses characteristics of this purported hormone, the present study tested the hypothesis that AEA or one of its metabolites represents medullipin. AEA was demonstrated to be enriched in the kidney medulla compared with cortex. Western blotting and enzymatic analyses of renal cortical and medullary microsomes revealed opposite patterns of enrichment of two AEA-metabolizing enzymes, with fatty acid amide hydrolase higher in the renal cortex and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) higher in the renal medulla. In COX-2 reactions with renal medullary microsomes, prostamide E2, the ethanolamide of prostaglandin E2, was the major product detected. Intramedullarily infused AEA dose-dependently increased urine volume and sodium and potassium excretion (15–60 nmol/kg/min) but had little effect on mean arterial pressure (MAP). The renal excretory effects of AEA were blocked by intravenous infusion of celecoxib (0.1 ?g/kg/min), a selective COX-2 inhibitor, suggesting the involvement of a prostamide intermediate. Plasma kinetic analysis revealed longer elimination half-lives for AEA and prostamide E2 compared with prostaglandin E2. Intravenous prostamide E2 reduced MAP and increased renal blood flow (RBF), actions opposite to those of angiotensin II. Coinfusion of prostamide E2 inhibited angiotensin II effects on MAP and RBF. These results suggest that AEA and/or its prostamide metabolites in the renal medulla may represent medullipin and function as a regulator of body fluid and MAP.

Li, Cao; Xia, Min; Poklis, Justin L.; Lichtman, Aron H.; Abdullah, Rehab A.; Dewey, William L.; Li, Pin-Lan

2012-01-01

284

Activation of the APC/C Ubiquitin Ligase by Enhanced E2 Efficiency.  

PubMed

The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a protein-ubiquitin ligase (E3) that initiates the final events of mitosis by catalyzing the ubiquitination and proteasomal destruction of securin, cyclins, and other substrates [1, 2]. Like other members of the RING family of E3s [3, 4], the APC/C catalyzes direct ubiquitin transfer from an E2-ubiquitin conjugate (E2-Ub) to lysine residues on the protein substrate. The APC/C is activated at specific cell-cycle stages by association with an activator subunit, Cdc20 or Cdh1, which provides binding sites for specific substrate sequence motifs, or degrons. Activator might also stimulate catalytic activity [5, 6], but the underlying mechanisms are not known. Here, we dissected activator function using an artificial fusion substrate in which the N-terminal region of securin was linked to an APC/C core subunit. This fusion substrate bound tightly to the APC/C and was ubiquitinated at a low rate in the absence of activator. Ubiquitination of this substrate was stimulated by activator, due primarily to a dramatic stimulation of E2 sensitivity (Km) and catalytic rate (kcat), which together resulted in a 670-fold stimulation of kcat/Km. Thus, activator is not simply a substrate adaptor, but also enhances catalysis by promoting a more efficient interaction with the E2-Ub. Interestingly, full E2 stimulation required activator interaction with degron motifs on the substrate. We conclude that formation of a complete APC/C-activator-substrate complex leads to a major enhancement of E2 efficiency, providing an unusual substrate-assisted catalytic mechanism that limits efficient ubiquitin transfer to specific substrates. PMID:24930963

Van Voorhis, Vanessa A; Morgan, David O

2014-07-01

285

Administration of estradiol (E2), trenbolone acetate (TBA), and TBA/E2 implants alters adipogenic and myogenic gene expression in bovine skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Twenty crossbred yearling steers (421 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of implanting with trenbolone acetate (TBA; 120 mg), estradiol-17? (E(2); 25.7 mg), and the combination (120 mg TBA and 24 mg E(2)) on adipogenic and myogenic mRNA concentrations. Animals were blocked by BW, and within each block, assigned to 1 of 4 treatments. Animals were housed and fed in individual pens with 5 animals per treatment. All animals were weighed weekly, and muscle biopsy samples were taken from the LM of each steer on d 0 (prior to implantation), d 7, d 14, and d 28. Total RNA was isolated from each sample and real-time quantitative PCR was used to measure the quantity of C/EBP?, PPAR?, stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD), myogenin, and 3 isoforms of bovine myosin heavy chain (MHC) mRNA. Total BW gain from the 28-d period was adjusted to d 0 by use of covariant analysis, and implant group tended (P = 0.09) to increase BW gain over non-implanted control (CON) steers. Analysis of the gene expression of MHC showed that neither implant nor day (P > 0.20) had a significant effect on the expression of type-I or -IIX MHC mRNA There was also no treatment effect on MHC-IIA and myogenin, but increasing days on feed increased (P = 0.05) the expression of MHC-IIA mRNA. Relative mRNA levels of C/EBP?, PPAR?, and SCD increased (P < 0.05) during days of feed but PPAR? decreased (P < 0.05) with the treatment of combined TBA/E(2) implant. Results of this study indicate that implanting with TBA, E(2), or both increased BW gain and decreased adipogenic gene expression of finishing steers without significantly affecting the concentration of type-I, -IIA, or -IIX MHC mRNA. Increasing days on feed increased both the levels of MHC-IIA and adipogenic gene expression in bovine skeletal muscle biopsy samples. We conclude that administration of steroidal implants had no effect on the proportion of the 3 different MHC mRNA isoforms but decreased C/EBP?, PPAR?, and SCD mRNA in bovine skeletal muscle. PMID:22147484

Chung, K Y; Baxa, T J; Parr, S L; Luqué, L D; Johnson, B J

2011-12-01

286

Arabidopsis E2FA stimulates proliferation and endocycle separately through RBR-bound and RBR-free complexes  

PubMed Central

Post-embryonic growth in plants depends on the continuous supply of undifferentiated cells within meristems. Proliferating cells maintain their competence for division by active repression of differentiation and the associated endocycle entry. We show by upregulation and downregulation of E2FA that it is required for maintaining proliferation, as well as for endocycle entry. While E2FB–RBR1 (retinoblastoma-related protein 1) complexes are reduced after sucrose addition or at elevated CYCD3;1 levels, E2FA maintains a stable complex with RBR1 in proliferating cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation shows that RBR1 binds in the proximity of E2F promoter elements in CCS52A1 and CSS52A2 genes, central regulators for the switch from proliferation to endocycles. Overexpression of a truncated E2FA mutant (E2FA?RB) lacking the RBR1-binding domain interferes with RBR1 recruitment to promoters through E2FA, leading to decreased meristem size in roots, premature cell expansion and hyperactivated endocycle in leaves. E2F target genes, including CCS52A1 and CCS52A2, are upregulated in E2FA?RB and e2fa knockout lines. These data suggest that E2FA in complex with RBR1 forms a repressor complex in proliferating cells to inhibit premature differentiation and endocycle entry. Thus, E2FA regulates organ growth via two distinct, sequentially operating pathways.

Magyar, Zoltan; Horvath, Beatrix; Khan, Safina; Mohammed, Binish; Henriques, Rossana; De Veylder, Lieven; Bako, Laszlo; Scheres, Ben; Bogre, Laszlo

2012-01-01

287

Effect of Igniter Gases on Wear-Reducing Additive in the 155mm XM201E2 Propelling Charge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The wear-reducing liner in the base-ignited XM201E2 charge failed to reduce the erosivity of the XM201E2 charge. When the clean-burning igniter (CBI) in the XM201E2 charge was replaced by black powder, the barrel life of 155mm howitzers firing the modifie...

J. R. Ward K. J. White

1978-01-01

288

Organization of the cores of the mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex formed by E2 and E2 plus the E3-binding protein and their capacities to bind the E1 and E3 components.  

PubMed

The subunits of the dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase (E2) component of mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex can form a 60-mer via association of the C-terminal I domain of E2 at the vertices of a dodecahedron. Exterior to this inner core structure, E2 has a pyruvate dehydrogenase component (E1)-binding domain followed by two lipoyl domains, all connected by mobile linker regions. The assembled core structure of mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex also includes the dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (E3)-binding protein (E3BP) that binds the I domain of E2 by its C-terminal I' domain. E3BP similarly has linker regions connecting an E3-binding domain and a lipoyl domain. The composition of E2.E3BP was thought to be 60 E2 plus approximately 12 E3BP. We have prepared homogenous human components. E2 and E2.E3BP have s(20,w) values of 36 S and 31.8 S, respectively. Equilibrium sedimentation and small angle x-ray scattering studies indicate that E2.E3BP has lower total mass than E2, and small angle x-ray scattering showed that E3 binds to E2.E3BP outside the central dodecahedron. In the presence of saturating levels of E1, E2 bound approximately 60 E1 and maximally sedimented 64.4 +/- 1.5 S faster than E2, whereas E1-saturated E2.E3BP maximally sedimented 49.5 +/- 1.4 S faster than E2.E3BP. Based on the impact on sedimentation rates by bound E1, we estimate fewer E1 (approximately 12) were bound by E2.E3BP than by E2. The findings of a smaller E2.E3BP mass and a lower capacity to bind E1 support the smaller E3BP substituting for E2 subunits rather than adding to the 60-mer. We describe a substitution model in which 12 I' domains of E3BP replace 12 I domains of E2 by forming 6 dimer edges that are symmetrically located in the dodecahedron structure. Twelve E3 dimers were bound per E248.E3BP12 mass, which is consistent with this model. PMID:14638692

Hiromasa, Yasuaki; Fujisawa, Tetsuro; Aso, Yoichi; Roche, Thomas E

2004-02-20

289

The E1/E2-preference of gastric H,K-ATPase mutants.  

PubMed

Gastric H,K-ATPase has, in the absence of ATP and added ions, a preference for the E(2) conformation. Mutations in the cation-binding pocket often result in a preference for the E(1)-conformation. This can be paralleled by the occurrence of K(+)-independent ATPase activity. These two phenomena could be separated by combined mutagenesis of several residues in and around the cation-binding pocket. Models of the three-dimensional structure of H,K-ATPase visualize the relationship between the E(1)/E(2) preference and the structure. PMID:12763793

De Pont, Jan Joep H H M; Swarts, Herman G P; Willems, Peter H G M; Koenderink, Jan B

2003-04-01

290

Enhanced 0g.s.+?21+ E2 transition strength in Sn112  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two consecutive Coulomb excitation experiments were performed to excite the 21+ states of Sn112,116 using a Ni58 beam. For Sn112 a B(E2?) value of 0.242(8) e2b2 has been determined relative to the known value of Sn116. The present value is more precise than previous measurements and shows a clear discrepancy from the expected parabolic dependence between the doubly magic nuclei Sn100 and Sn132. It implies that the reduced transition probabilities are not symmetric with respect to the midshell mass A=116.

Kumar, R.; Doornenbal, P.; Jhingan, A.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Muralithar, S.; Appannababu, S.; Garg, R.; Gerl, J.; Górska, M.; Kaur, J.; Kojouharov, I.; Mandal, S.; Mukherjee, S.; Siwal, D.; Sharma, A.; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Singh, R. P.; Wollersheim, H.-J.

2010-02-01

291

TGF{beta}-mediated formation of pRb-E2F complexes in human myeloid leukemia cells  

SciTech Connect

TGF{beta} is well known for its inhibitory effect on cell cycle G1 checkpoint kinases. However, its role in the control of pRb-E2F complexes is not well established. TGF{beta} inhibits phosphorylation of pRb at several serine and threonine residues and regulates the association of E2F transcription factors with pRb family proteins. Recent studies found that predominantly E2F-4, p130, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) are found to bind to corresponding E2F-responsive promoters in G0/G1 phase. As cells progress through mid-G1, p130-E2F4 complex are replaced by p107-E2F4 followed by activators E2F1, 2, and 3. pRb was not detectable in the promoters containing the E2F-responsive site in cycling cells but was associated with E2F4-p130 complexes or E2F4-p107 complexes during G0/G1 phase. In human myeloid leukemia cell line, MV4-11, TGF{beta} upregulated pRb-E2F-4 and p130-E2F-4, and downregulated p107-E2F-4 complexes. However, pRB-E2F1 and pRb-E2F3 complexes were found in proliferating cells but not in TGF{beta} arrested G1 cells. In addition, electrophoretic gel mobility shift assay (EMSA) could not detect pRb-E2F DNA-binding activities either in S or G1 phase but exhibited the existence of p107-E2F4 in proliferating cells and p130-E2F4 complexes in TGF{beta}-arrested G1 cells, respectively. Our data suggest that p107 and p130, but not pRb, and the repressor E2F, but not activator E2Fs, play a critical role in regulating E2F-responsive gene expression in TGF{beta}-mediated cell cycle control in human myeloid leukemia cells.

Hu Xiaotang [School of Natural and Health Science, Barry University, 11300 Northeast Second Avenue, Miami Shores, FL 33161 (United States)], E-mail: xthu@mail.barry.edu

2008-05-02

292

A Novel E2F-like Protein Involved in Transcriptional Activation of Cyst Wall Protein Genes in Giardia lamblia*  

PubMed Central

Giardia lamblia differentiates into resistant walled cysts for survival outside the host and transmission. During encystation, synthesis of cyst wall proteins is coordinately induced. The E2F family of transcription factors in higher eukaryotes is involved in cell cycle progression and cell differentiation. We asked whether Giardia has E2F-like genes and whether they influence gene expression during Giardia encystation. Blast searches of the Giardia genome database identified one gene (e2f1) encoding a putative E2F protein with two putative DNA-binding domains. We found that the e2f1 gene expression levels increased significantly during encystation. Epitope-tagged E2F1 was found to localize to nuclei. Recombinant E2F1 specifically bound to the thymidine kinase and cwp1–3 gene promoters. E2F1 contains several key residues for DNA binding, and mutation analysis revealed that its binding sequence is similar to those of the known E2F family proteins. The E2F1-binding sequences were positive cis-acting elements of the thymidine kinase and cwp1 promoters. We also found that E2F1 transactivated the thymidine kinase and cwp1 promoters through its binding sequences in vivo. Interestingly, E2F1 overexpression resulted in a significant increase of the levels of CWP1 protein, cwp1–3 gene mRNA, and cyst formation. We also found E2F1 can interact with Myb2, a transcription factor that coordinate up-regulates the cwp1–3 genes during encystation. Our results suggest that E2F family has been conserved during evolution and that E2F1 is an important transcription factor in regulation of the Giardia cwp genes, which are key to Giardia differentiation into cysts.

Su, Li-Hsin; Pan, Yu-Jiao; Huang, Yu-Chang; Cho, Chao-Cheng; Chen, Chia-Wei; Huang, Shao-Wei; Chuang, Sheng-Fung; Sun, Chin-Hung

2011-01-01

293

E2F1 induces MRN foci formation and a cell cycle checkpoint response in human fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deregulation of the Rb\\/E2F pathway in human fibroblasts results in an E2F1-mediated apoptosis dependent on Atm, Nbs1, Chk2 and p53. Here, we show that E2F1 expression results in MRN foci formation, which is independent of the Nbs1 interacting region and the DNA-binding domain of E2F1. E2F1-induced MRN foci are similar to irradiation-induced foci (IRIF) that result from double-strand DNA breaks

F M Frame; H A Rogoff; M T Pickering; W D Cress; T F Kowalik

2006-01-01

294

Hormone-regulated expression and distribution of versican in mouse uterine tissues  

PubMed Central

Background Remodeling of the extracellular matrix is one of the most striking features observed in the uterus during the estrous cycle and after hormone replacement. Versican (VER) is a hyaluronan-binding proteoglycan that undergoes RNA alternative splicing, generating four distinct isoforms. This study analyzed the synthesis and distribution of VER in mouse uterine tissues during the estrous cycle, in ovariectomized (OVX) animals and after 17beta-estradiol (E2) and medroxyprogesterone (MPA) treatments, either alone or in combination. Methods Uteri from mice in all phases of the estrous cycle, and animals subjected to ovariectomy and hormone replacement were collected for immunoperoxidase staining for versican, as well as PCR and quantitative Real Time PCR. Results In diestrus and proestrus, VER was exclusively expressed in the endometrial stroma. In estrus and metaestrus, VER was present in both endometrial stroma and myometrium. In OVX mice, VER immunoreaction was abolished in all uterine tissues. VER expression was restored by E2, MPA and E2+MPA treatments. Real Time PCR analysis showed that VER expression increases considerably in the MPA-treated group. Analysis of mRNA identified isoforms V0, V1 and V3 in the mouse uterus. Conclusion These results show that the expression of versican in uterine tissues is modulated by ovarian steroid hormones, in a tissue-specific manner. VER is induced in the myometrium exclusively by E2, whereas MPA induces VER deposition only in the endometrial stroma.

Salgado, Renato M; Capelo, Luciane P; Favaro, Rodolfo R; Glazier, Jocelyn D; Aplin, John D; Zorn, Telma MT

2009-01-01

295

The 4-hydroxyestrone: Electron emission, formation of secondary metabolites and mechanisms of carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

4-Hydroxyestrone (4-OHE(1)), a typical cancer-inducing metabolite, originating from 17beta-estradiol (17beta-E2), was chosen as a model for the studies. The aim was to get a deeper insight in the mechanisms of its ability to initiate cancer. It was found, that 4-OHE(1) can eject electrons (e(aq)(-)), when excited in the singlet state by monochromatic UV-light (lambda=254 nm) in polar media (water:ethanol=40:60 vol.%). The quantum yield Q(e(aq)(-)), determined for various 4-OHE(1) concentrations, is found to be as high as that previously observed for 17beta-E2. It decreases with increasing substrate concentration, but it is enhanced at higher temperature. The ability of 4-OHE(1) to eject as well as to consume and to transfer electrons to other biological systems, classifies it as an electron mediator, similar to 17beta-E2. The 4-OHE(1) transients resulting of the electron emission process are leading to the formation of secondary metabolites. Surprisingly, it was established that the secondary metabolites possess likewise the ability to eject as well as to consume electrons. Hence, they behave similar like 17beta-E2. However, the structure of the secondary formed metabolites, which determinates their biological properties and carcinogenity, depends on the nature of the available reaction partners involved in their formation. A probable reaction mechanism explaining the subject matter is discussed. PMID:19926488

Getoff, Nikola; Gerschpacher, Marion; Hartmann, Johannes; Huber, Johannes C; Schittl, Heike; Quint, Ruth Maria

2010-01-21

296

Dietary sources of lignans and isoflavones modulate responses to estradiol in estrogen reporter mice.  

PubMed

Dietary phytoestrogens, such as the lignan metabolite enterolactone (ENL) and the isoflavone genistein (GEN), are suggested to modulate the risk of estrogen-dependent disease (e.g., breast cancer) through regulation of estrogen signaling. However, the effects of complex food items containing lignans or isoflavones on estrogen receptor (ER) transactivation have not been assessed so far. In this study, the modulation of ER-mediated signaling by dietary sources of lignans (cereals and flaxseed) and isoflavones (soy) was studied in vivo. Adult ovariectomized 3 x ERE-luciferase (luc) reporter mice received isocaloric diets supplemented with flaxseed, rye, wheat, or soy for 40 h or two weeks, and an additional group of mice was challenged with 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) following the two-week dietary intervention. In non-E(2)-treated mice, soy diet induced luc expression in liver, mammary gland, and pituitary gland while the other diets had no effects. Interestingly, all diets modulated the E(2)-induced luc expression. In particular rye diet efficiently reduced E(2)-induced luc expression as well as uterine growth, the hallmark of estrogen action in vivo. It is concluded that dietary sources of lignans and isoflavones can modulate estrogen signaling in vivo. The results suggest intriguing possibilities for the modulation of the risk of estrogen-dependent diseases by dietary means. PMID:19603405

Penttinen-Damdimopoulou, Pauliina E; Power, Krista A; Hurmerinta, Teija T; Nurmi, Tarja; van der Saag, Paul T; Mäkelä, Sari I

2009-08-01

297

Oral feeding with ethinyl estradiol suppresses and treats experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in SJL mice and inhibits the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the central nervous system.  

PubMed

There is much interest in the possible ameliorating effects of estrogen on various autoimmune diseases. We previously established the protective effects of 17 beta-estradiol (E2) on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In the current study we investigated the effectiveness of oral treatment with ethinyl estradiol (EE) on EAE and the mechanisms involved. Ethinyl estradiol is a semisynthetic estrogen compound found in birth control pills, and its chemical structure allows this compound to retain activity when given orally. We found that oral EE, like E2, drastically suppressed EAE induced by proteolipid protein 139-151 peptide when given at initiation of EAE. However, unlike E2, EE reduced clinical severity when given after the onset of clinical signs. Treatment with EE significantly decreased the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-6) by activated T cells as well as the expression of a key matrix metalloproteinase, disease-mediating chemokines/receptors, and IgG2a levels, but increased the expression of TGF-beta 3 in the CNS. The absence of infiltrating lymphocytes together with the suppression of cytokines, matrix metalloproteinase, and chemokines/receptors suggests that EE, like E2, protects mice from EAE by inhibiting the recruitment of T cells and macrophages into the CNS. These results suggest that oral ethinyl estradiol might be a successful candidate as therapy for multiple sclerosis. PMID:12538720

Subramanian, Sandhya; Matejuk, Agata; Zamora, Alex; Vandenbark, Arthur A; Offner, Halina

2003-02-01

298

Removal of selected natural and synthetic estrogenic compounds in a Canadian full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant.  

PubMed

The effect of a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and each of the treatment units within the stream on the removal of endocrine-disrupting compounds was evaluated by tracking 17-beta-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), and 17-alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2). The overall performance of the WWTP compared well with other plants, as 90.5% removal of E1+E2 and 74.9% removal of EE2 were observed. A larger fraction of EE2 entered the plant in particulate form than E1 and E2, while a lower fraction of EE2 left the plant in particulate form than soluble form. The activated sludge units reduced the concentration of E1+E2 and EE2 in the liquid phase by 88.2% and 44.6%, respectively. The UV treatment process did not reduce the amount of estrogens. The aqueous phase of the tertiary lagoon solids contained higher levels of estrogens compared with the lagoon influent. PMID:17710924

Cicek, Nazim; Londry, Kathleen; Oleszkiewicz, Jan A; Wong, Denny; Lee, Yoomin

2007-07-01

299

Is there an association between exposure to environmental estrogens and breast cancer?  

PubMed Central

It was initially reported that levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or p,p'-DDE were elevated in breast cancer patients (serum or tissue) versus controls. These results, coupled with reports that selected environmental estrogens decreased 17beta-estradiol (E2) 2-hydroxylase activity and increased the ratio of 16alpha-hydroxyestrone/2-hydroxyestrone metabolites in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, have led to the hypothesis that xenoestrogens are a preventable cause of breast cancer. More recent studies and analysis of organochlorine levels in breast cancer patients versus controls show that these contaminants are not elevated in the latter group. Moreover, occupational exposure to relatively high levels of PCBs and DDT/DDE are not associated with an increased incidence of breast cancer. A reexamination of the radiometric E2 2-hydroxylase assay in MCF-7 cells with diverse estrogens, antiestrogens, and carcinogens showed that the mammary carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene induced this response and the antiestrogen ICI 164,384 decreased E2 2-hydroxylase activity. Thus, E2 2-hydroxylase activity and the 16alpha-hydroxyestrone/2-hydroxyestrone metabolite ratio in MCF-7 cells does not predict xenoestrogens or mammary carcinogens.

Safe, S H

1997-01-01

300

Modulation of the cytosolic androgen receptor in striated muscle by sex steroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of orchiectomy (GDX) and of subsequent administration of testosterone propionate (TP) or 17(beta)-estradiol (E2) on the maximum binding (Bmax) and apparent Kd of the cytosolic androgen receptor in levator ani (LA) and skeletal muscles of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats are investigated experimentally. The results are presented in graphs and discussed. In LA, BMAX is found to rise from a control level of 2.5 fmol/mg protein to 280, 600, 478, and 133 percent of control at 12 h, 14 d, 30 d, and 44 d after GDX, respectively, while Kd increased only insignificantly (from 680 to 960 fM); Bmax is held at control levels for 6 h by cycloheximide given at GDX, is unaffected by TP given at 30 d, and is further increased (by 480 percent at 44 d) by administration of E2 at 30 d. Bmax in skeletal muscles is found to increase to 139, 212, 220, and 158 percent of control at 12 h, 14 d, 30 d, and 44 d, respectively; Bmax is returned to control at 44 d by TP at 30 d but is not affected by E2. The effect of E2 in LA is attributed to either induction of the cytosolic receptor or a decreased rate of receptor degradation.

Rance, N. E.; Max, S. R.

1984-01-01

301

Intramolecular diffraction in (e, 2e) reactions of CX4 (X=F, Cl, Br)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remarkable discrepancies between the experimental momentum distributions and the calculated distributions within the plane wave impulse approximation (PWIA) were observed in (e, 2e) reaction of CF4, CCl4, and CBr4. The discrepancies evidently depend on the impact energy of electrons. One possible explanation is the intramolecular diffraction.

Ning, Chuangang; Zhu, Jingsheng; Deng, Jingkang; Miao, Yurun

2014-04-01

302

Crystal structure of glycoprotein E2 from bovine viral diarrhea virus  

PubMed Central

Pestiviruses, including bovine viral diarrhea virus, are important animal pathogens and are closely related to hepatitis C virus, which remains a major global health threat. They have an outer lipid envelope bearing two glycoproteins, E1 and E2, required for cell entry. They deliver their genome into the host cell cytoplasm by fusion of their envelope with a cellular membrane. The crystal structure of bovine viral diarrhea virus E2 reveals a unique protein architecture consisting of two Ig-like domains followed by an elongated ?-stranded domain with a new fold. E2 forms end-to-end homodimers with a conserved C-terminal motif rich in aromatic residues at the contact. A disulfide bond across the interface explains the acid resistance of pestiviruses and their requirement for a redox activation step to initiate fusion. From the structure of E2, we propose alternative possible membrane fusion mechanisms. We expect the pestivirus fusion apparatus to be conserved in hepatitis C virus.

Li, Yue; Wang, Jimin; Kanai, Ryuta; Modis, Yorgo

2013-01-01

303

Antibegomoviral activity of the agrobacterial virulence protein VirE2.  

PubMed

Mungbean yellow mosaic geminivirus (MYMV) causes severe yellow mosaic disease in blackgram, mungbean, Frenchbean, pigeonpea, soybean and mothbean. We attempted to induce resistance against this virus using the transcriptional activator protein gene deleted in the C-terminal activation domain (TrAP-?AD) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens virE2. MYMV is known to replicate in agroinoculated tobacco leaf discs. Three transgenic tobacco plants which harboured a truncated MYMV transcriptional activator protein gene and two tobacco plants transformed with the octopine type A. tumefaciens virE2 gene were agroinoculated with an A. tumefaciens strain which harboured the partial dimers of both DNA A and DNA B of MYMV. The level of viral DNA accumulation in leaf discs of transgenic plants correlated inversely to the level of the MYMV TrAP-?AD transcript. Two VirE2-transgenic plants, which complemented tumorigenesis of a virE2 mutant A. tumefaciens strain, effectively reduced MYMV DNA accumulation in the leaf disc agroinoculation assay. PMID:21842234

Sunitha, Sukumaran; Marian, Dolly; Hohn, Barbara; Veluthambi, Karuppannan

2011-12-01

304

Calculation of B(E2) for the exp 18 F.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A detailed calculation of the reduced probability of transition B(E2) for exp 18 F, utilizing a simple model and the nucleon-nucleon interaction matrix given by Kuo-Brown is presented. In spite of the simplicity of the model, the results are satisfactory ...

F. I. A. Almeida N. Carlin Filho Y. T. Chen M. M. Coimbra H. Takai

1982-01-01

305

LXCXE-independent chromatin remodeling by Rb/E2f mediates neuronal quiescence.  

PubMed

Neuronal survival is dependent upon the retinoblastoma family members, Rb1 (Rb) and Rb2 (p130). Rb is thought to regulate gene repression, in part, through direct recruitment of chromatin modifying enzymes to its conserved LXCXE binding domain. We sought to examine the mechanisms that Rb employs to mediate cell cycle gene repression in terminally differentiated cortical neurons. Here, we report that Rb loss converts chromatin at the promoters of E2f-target genes to an activated state. We established a mouse model system in which Rb-LXCXE interactions could be induciblely disabled. Surprisingly, this had no effect on survival or gene silencing in neuronal quiescence. Absence of the Rb LXCXE-binding domain in neurons is compatible with gene repression and long-term survival, unlike Rb deficiency. Finally, we are able to show that chromatin activation following Rb deletion occurs at the level of E2fs. Blocking E2f-mediated transcription downstream of Rb loss is sufficient to maintain chromatin in an inactive state. Taken together our results suggest a model whereby Rb-E2f interactions are sufficient to maintain gene repression irrespective of LXCXE-dependent chromatin remodeling. PMID:23574720

Andrusiak, Matthew G; Vandenbosch, Renaud; Dick, Fred A; Park, David S; Slack, Ruth S

2013-05-01

306

The E2 Domains of APP and APLP1 Share a Conserved Mode of Dimerization  

SciTech Connect

Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is genetically linked to Alzheimer's disease. APP is a type I membrane protein, and its oligomeric structure is potentially important because this property may play a role in its function or affect the processing of the precursor by the secretases to generate amyloid {beta}-peptide. Several independent studies have shown that APP can form dimers in the cell, but how it dimerizes remains controversial. At least three regions of the precursor, including a centrally located and conserved domain called E2, have been proposed to contribute to dimerization. Here we report two new crystal structures of E2, one from APP and the other from APLP1, a mammalian APP homologue. Comparison with an earlier APP structure, which was determined in a different space group, shows that the E2 domains share a conserved and antiparallel mode of dimerization. Biophysical measurements in solution show that heparin binding induces E2 dimerization. The 2.1 {angstrom} resolution electron density map also reveals phosphate ions that are bound to the protein surface. Mutational analysis shows that protein residues interacting with the phosphate ions are also involved in heparin binding. The locations of two of these residues, Arg-369 and His-433, at the dimeric interface suggest a mechanism for heparin-induced protein dimerization.

S Lee; Y Xue; J Hulbert; Y Wang; X Liu; B Demeler; Y Ha

2011-12-31

307

Antiproton-Nucleus Interaction and Nuclear E2 Resonance Effect in Molybdenum and Neodymium Isotopes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Antiprotonix X-radiation from /sup 92/Mo, /sup 94/Mo, /sup 95/Mo, /sup 98/Mo, /sup 100/Mo and /sup 146/Nd, /sup 148/Nd was measured with Ge detectors at the LEAR (CERN). The nuclear E2 resonance effect (configuration mixing by dynamic electric quadrupole ...

W. Kanert

1986-01-01

308

Survivin repression by p53, Rb, and E2F2 in normal human melanocytes  

PubMed Central

The inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) protein Survivin is a dual mediator of apoptosis resistance and cell cycle progression, and is highly expressed in cancer. We have previously shown that Survivin is upregulated in melanoma compared to normal melanocytes, is required for melanoma cell viability, and that melanocyte expression of Survivin predisposes mice to UV-induced melanoma and metastasis. The mechanism(s) of Survivin upregulation in the course of melanocyte transformation, and its repression in normal melanocytes, however, has not been clearly defined. We show here that p53 and Rb, at basal levels and in the absence of any activating stimuli, are both required to repress survivin transcription in normal human melanocytes. Survivin repression in melanocytes does not involve alterations in protein stability or promoter methylation. p53 and Rb (via E2Fs) regulate Survivin expression by direct binding to the survivin promoter; p53 also affects Survivin expression by activating p21. We demonstrate a novel role for E2F2 in the negative regulation of Survivin expression. In addition, we identify a novel E2F-binding site in the survivin promoter and show that mutation of either the p53- or E2F-binding sites is sufficient to increase promoter activity. These studies suggest that compromise of either p53 or Rb pathways during melanocyte transformation leads to upregulation of Survivin expression in melanoma.

Raj, Deepak; Liu, Tong; Samadashwily, George; Li, Fengzhi; Grossman, Douglas

2008-01-01

309

Influence of HPV16 E2 and its localisation on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9.  

PubMed

Infection with the high-risk HPV types 16 and 18 is the major cause of cervical cancer and plays a role in the development of certain head and neck and skin cancers. We have previously demonstrated that the Early Protein 2 of the Cottontail Rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV), required for skin carcinogenesis in a rabbit model, is able to induce the expression of a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9); a protease known to play a key role in invasion and metastasis. However, as of now we do not understand the underlying mechanism of activation nor relevance for the human system. Here, we report that high-risk human papillomavirus HPV16 E2 similar to our previously reported results on CRPV E2 activates the human MMP-9 promoter predominantly via the MEK1-ERK1/2-AP-1-signaling pathway. In addition this activation is associated with a nuclear sub-localisation of HPV16-E2 suggesting a nuclear protein-protein or protein-DNA interaction of E2 as the underlying mechanism of activation. PMID:20596661

Mühlen, Sabrina; Behren, Andreas; Iftner, Thomas; Simon, Christian

2010-08-01

310

17 CFR 270.6e-2 - Exemptions for certain variable life insurance separate accounts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...c)(1) of this Rule 6e-2, and advances made by the life insurance company which...and (viii) of this Rule, the postmark date...containing the variable life insurance contract...When used in this rule: (1) Variable life insurance...

2013-04-01

311

Prostaglandin E2 Inhibits Specific Lung Fibroblast Functions via Selective Actions of PKA and Epac1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Via their capacitiesfor proliferation and synthesisof matrix proteins such as collagen, fibroblasts are key effectors in the pathogenesis of fibrotic disorders such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Prostaglan- din E2 (PGE2) potently inhibits these functions in lung fibroblasts through receptor ligation and production of the second messenger cAMP, but the downstream pathways mediating such actions have not been fully characterized. We

Steven K. Huang; Scott H. Wettlaufer; Jooho Chung; Marc Peters-Golden

2008-01-01

312

Stuck in the middle: drugging the ubiquitin system at the e2 step.  

PubMed

The discovery of a small-molecule allosteric inhibitor of the CDC34 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) by Ceccarelli et al. raises the possibility that it will be generally feasible to selectively inhibit ubiquitin transfer at this central step in the ubiquitin pathway. PMID:21703444

Harper, J Wade; King, Randall W

2011-06-24

313

LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Near-threshold doubly-symmetric (e, 2e) measurements in helium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron-impact ionization of helium has been studied in the energy range from 3 - 10 eV above the ionization threshold by measuring (e, 2e) angular correlations over a wide range of scattering angles from the coplanar to the perpendicular plane geometry. In these measurements the two outgoing electrons are observed at symmetric scattering angles and with equal energies.

N. J. Bowring; A. J. Murray; F. H. Read

1997-01-01

314

Parametrization of low-energy symmetric (e, 2e) differential cross section measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symmetric (e, 2e) experimental studies on helium over a very wide range of scattering geometries at energies from 1 to 50 eV above the ionization threshold are parametrized in terms of a set of universal irreducible tensorial angular functions. Measurements from the Manchester and Paris experimental groups are used in this parametrization, which provides a complete picture of the symmetric

A. J. Murray; F. H. Read; N. J. Bowring

1997-01-01

315

Decomposition of experimentally determined atomic ([ital e],2[ital e]) ionization measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of previously measured helium ([ital e],2[ital e]) coincidence ionization differential cross sections obtained over an exceptionally wide range of outgoing electron angles has been decomposed into tensorial angular components. A technique has been used which is familar in nuclear physics for the analysis of cascade decay correlations but which does not appear to have been applied previously to

A. J. Murray; F. H. Read; N. J. Bowring

1994-01-01

316

The flux gate magnetic field experiment E2 in HELIOS A and B: Technical description  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic features of the three axis vector magnetometer used on HELIOS space probes for the E2 experiment are described with emphasis on the sensor and electronic system. The experiment includes not only continuously observing the interplanetary magnetic field, but also measuring its spiral structure and discontinuous appearance. The analog-digital conversion of the measured voltages, the flipper, the time average

G. Musmann

1979-01-01

317

XM511E2 Shipping and Storage Container Saddle Liner Material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A number of barrier materials for use as an XM511E2 shipping and storage container saddle liner were tested. The saddle liner is required to prevent adhesion between the container rubber saddle-cushioning material and the XM234 warhead section during stor...

E. S. Farbanish

1974-01-01

318

Recent (e,2e) studies: laser excited atoms, autoionization, Auger processes, and thin films.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The (e,2e) process, in which the kinematics of the electrons involved in an ionizing collision are completely determined, is capable of revealing a rich variety of information. Depending on the kinematics employed, it is possible to investigate in detail ...

E. Weigold

1990-01-01

319

Context-Dependent Requirement for dE2F during Oncogenic Proliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hippo pathway negatively regulates the cell number in epithelial tissue. Upon its inactivation, an excess of cells is produced. These additional cells are generated from an increased rate of cell division, followed by inappropriate proliferation of cells that have failed to exit the cell cycle. We analyzed the consequence of inactivation of the entire E2F family of transcription factors

Brandon N. Nicolay; Maxim V. Frolov

2008-01-01

320

An Agrobacterium VirE2 channel for transferred-DNA transport into plant cells  

PubMed Central

Transferred DNA (T-DNA) transfer from Agrobacterium tumefaciens into eukaryotic cells is the only known example of interkingdom DNA transfer. T-DNA is a single-stranded segment of Agrobacterium's tumor-inducing plasmid that enters the plant cell as a complex with the bacterial virulence proteins VirD2 and VirE2. The VirE2 protein is highly induced on contact of A. tumefaciens with a plant host and has been reported to act in late steps of transfer. One of its previously demonstrated functions is binding to the single-stranded (ss) T-DNA and protecting it from degradation. Recent experiments suggest other functions of the protein. A combination of planar lipid bilayer experiments, vesicle swelling assays, and DNA transport experiments demonstrated that VirE2 can insert itself into artificial membranes and form channels. These channels are voltage gated, anion selective, and single-stranded DNA-specific and can facilitate the efficient transport of single-stranded DNA through membranes. These experiments demonstrate a VirE2 function as a transmembrane DNA transporter, which could have applications in gene delivery systems.

Dumas, Fabrice; Duckely, Myriam; Pelczar, Pawel; Van Gelder, Patrick; Hohn, Barbara

2001-01-01

321

Tumor suppressor TAp73 gene specifically responds to deregulated E2F activity in human normal fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Discrimination of oncogenic growth signals from normal growth signals is crucial for tumor suppression. The transcription factor E2F, the main target of pRB, plays central role in cell proliferation by activating growth-promoting genes. E2F also plays an important role in tumor suppression by activating growth-suppressive genes such as pro-apoptotic genes. The regulatory mechanism of the latter genes is not known in detail, especially in response to normal and oncogenic growth signals. E2F is physiologically activated by growth stimulation through phosphorylation of pRB. In contrast, upon dysfunction of pRB, a major oncogenic change, E2F is activated out of control by pRB, generating deregulated E2F activity. We show here that the tumor suppressor TAp73 gene, which can induce apoptosis independently of p53, responds to deregulated E2F activity, but not to physiological E2F activity induced by growth stimulation in human normal fibroblasts. We identified E2F-responsive elements (ERE73s) in TAp73 promoter that can specifically sense deregulated E2F activity. Moreover, RB1-deficient cancer cell lines harbored deregulated E2F activity that activated ERE73s and the TAp73 gene, which were suppressed by re-introduction of pRB. These results underscore the important role of deregulated E2F in activation of the TAp73 gene, a component of major intrinsic tumor suppressor pathways. PMID:22702391

Ozono, Eiko; Komori, Hideyuki; Iwanaga, Ritsuko; Tanaka, Tatsuya; Sakae, Takahiro; Kitamura, Hodaka; Yamaoka, Shoji; Ohtani, Kiyoshi

2012-08-01

322

An Intronic microRNA Links Rb/E2F and EGFR Signaling  

PubMed Central

The importance of microRNAs in the regulation of various aspects of biology and disease is well recognized. However, what remains largely unappreciated is that a significant number of miRNAs are embedded within and are often co-expressed with protein-coding host genes. Such a configuration raises the possibility of a functional interaction between a miRNA and the gene it resides in. This is exemplified by the Drosophila melanogaster dE2f1 gene that harbors two miRNAs, mir-11 and mir-998, within its last intron. miR-11 was demonstrated to limit the proapoptotic function of dE2F1 by repressing cell death genes that are directly regulated by dE2F1, however the biological role of miR-998 was unknown. Here we show that one of the functions of miR-998 is to suppress dE2F1-dependent cell death specifically in rbf mutants by elevating EGFR signaling. Mechanistically, miR-998 operates by repressing dCbl, a negative regulator of EGFR signaling. Significantly, dCbl is a critical target of miR-998 since dCbl phenocopies the effects of miR-998 on dE2f1-dependent apoptosis in rbf mutants. Importantly, this regulation is conserved, as the miR-998 seed family member miR-29 repressed c-Cbl, and enhanced MAPK activity and wound healing in mammalian cells. Therefore, the two intronic miRNAs embedded in the dE2f1 gene limit the apoptotic function of dE2f1, but operate in different contexts and act through distinct mechanisms. These results also illustrate that examining an intronic miRNA in the context of its host's function can be valuable in elucidating the biological function of the miRNA, and provide new information about the regulation of the host gene itself.

Truscott, Mary; Islam, Abul B. M. M. K.; Lightfoot, James; Lopez-Bigas, Nuria; Frolov, Maxim V.

2014-01-01

323

Structure of the Human FANCL RING-Ube2T Complex Reveals Determinants of Cognate E3-E2 Selection  

PubMed Central

Summary The combination of an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme with an E3 ubiquitin-ligase is essential for ubiquitin modification of a substrate. Moreover, the pairing dictates both the substrate choice and the modification type. The molecular details of generic E3-E2 interactions are well established. Nevertheless, the determinants of selective, specific E3-E2 recognition are not understood. There are ?40 E2s and ?600 E3s giving rise to a possible ?24,000 E3-E2 pairs. Using the Fanconi Anemia pathway exclusive E3-E2 pair, FANCL-Ube2T, we report the atomic structure of the FANCL RING-Ube2T complex, revealing a specific and extensive network of additional electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Furthermore, we show that these specific interactions are required for selection of Ube2T over other E2s by FANCL.

Hodson, Charlotte; Purkiss, Andrew; Miles, Jennifer Anne; Walden, Helen

2014-01-01

324

E2F1 plays a direct role in Rb stabilization and p53-independent tumor suppression  

PubMed Central

To better understand the role of E2F1 in tumor formation, we analyzed spontaneous tumorigenesis in p53?/?E2F1+/+ and p53?/?E2F1?/? mice. We show that the combined loss of p53 and E2F1 leads to an increased incidence of sarcomas and carcinomas compared to the loss of p53 alone. E2F1-deficient tumors show wide chromosomal variation, indicative of genomic instability. Consistent with this, p53?/?E2F1?/? primary fibroblasts have a reduced capacity to maintain genomic stability when exposed to S-phase inhibitors or genotoxic drugs. A major mechanism of E2F1’s contribution to genomic integrity lies in mediating stabilization and engagement of the Rb protein.

Palacios, Gustavo; Talos, Flaminia; Nemajerova, Alice; Moll, Ute M.; Petrenko, Oleksi

2013-01-01

325

E2F1 plays a direct role in Rb stabilization and p53-independent tumor suppression.  

PubMed

To better understand the role of E2F1 in tumor formation, we analyzed spontaneous tumorigenesis in p53(-/-)E2F1(+/+) and p53(-/-)E2F1(-/-) mice. We show that the combined loss of p53 and E2F1 leads to an increased incidence of sarcomas and carcinomas compared to the loss of p53 alone. E2F1-deficient tumors show wide chromosomal variation, indicative of genomic instability. Consistent with this, p53(-/-)E2F1(-/-) primary fibroblasts have a reduced capacity to maintain genomic stability when exposed to S-phase inhibitors or genotoxic drugs. A major mechanism of E2F1's contribution to genomic integrity lies in mediating stabilization and engagement of the Rb protein. PMID:18583939

Palacios, Gustavo; Talos, Flaminia; Nemajerova, Alice; Moll, Ute M; Petrenko, Oleksi

2008-06-15

326

PPAR? Regulates Liver Regeneration by Modulating Akt and E2f Signaling  

PubMed Central

The current study tests the hypothesis that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) has a role in liver regeneration due to its effect in regulating energy homeostasis and cell proliferation. The role of PPAR? in liver regeneration was studied using two-third partial hepatectomy (PH) in Wild-type (WT) and PPAR?-null (KO) mice. In KO mice, liver regeneration was delayed and the number of Ki-67 positive cells reached the peak at 60 hr rather than at 36–48 hr after PH shown in WT mice. RNA-sequencing uncovered 1344 transcriptomes that were differentially expressed in regenerating WT and KO livers. About 70% of those differentially expressed genes involved in glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis pathways failed to induce during liver regeneration due to PPAR? deficiency. The delayed liver regeneration in KO mice was accompanied by lack of activation of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1)/Akt. In addition, cell proliferation-associated increase of genes encoding E2f transcription factor (E2f) 1–2 and E2f7–8 as well as their downstream target genes were not noted in KO livers 36–48 hr after PH. E2fs have dual roles in regulating metabolism and proliferation. Moreover, transient steatosis was only found in WT, but not in KO mice 36 hr after PH. These data suggested that PPAR?-regulated PDK1/Akt and E2f signaling that controls metabolism and proliferation is involved in the normal progression of liver regeneration.

Liu, Hui-Xin; Fang, Yaping; Hu, Ying; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Fang, Jianwen; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

2013-01-01

327

Single Cell Analysis to locate the Restriction Point with respect to E2F Expression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The restriction point is a G1-phase checkpoint that regulates passage through the cell cycle and is misregulated in all known types of cancer. The Rb-E2F switch is thought to be one of the most relevant molecular mechanisms which regulate the restriction point in mammalian cells. However, recent experiments have brought the timing of the restriction point into question. In previous studies, cells were analyzed as populations and this prevented an accurate determination of the restriction point. By creating and analyzing an E2F-GFP reporter in single cells, we can pinpoint the timing of E2F activation and determine whether it coincides with the restriction point. Using calcium phosphate and Fugene,we transfected human embryonic kidney (293T) cells with a CMV-GFP plasmid and an E2F-GFP reporter. Based on our results, it appears that calcium phosphate is more effective than Fugene at transfecting mammalian cells. The calcium phosphate transfection had 9.59% more fluorescent cells than Fugene. However, this result only occurred with the CMV-GFP plasmid and not the E2F-GFP reporter, which was not properly expressed in human embryonic kidney (293T) cells. We will continue troubleshooting to fix this reporter as we proceed with our research. Once the reporter is properly cloned, we will transfect it into retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE1-hTERT) cells using the calcium phosphate method. RPE1-hTERT cells are an immortalized with telomerase and are more close to normal cells than tumor-derived cell lines. Through this research we will better comprehend commitment to the mammalian cell cycle.

Pimienta, R.; Johnson, A.

2011-12-01

328

E2F3b over-expression in ovarian carcinomas and in BRCA1 haploinsufficient fallopian tube epithelium.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that the E2F3 oncogene is up-regulated as part of a "preneoplastic expression profile" in fallopian tube epithelium (FTE) of women with BRCA1 mutations. We studied E2F3 expression in FTE and carcinomas of women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations or wildtype for both genes. Significantly more foci of TP53 positive cells in histologically normal FTE from women with BRCA1 mutations but not in wildtype or BRCA2 mutated individuals had E2F3 protein overexpression relative to adjacent normal FTE, which occurred in the context of focally increased proliferation, potentially explaining the increased neoplastic potential of tubal TP53 foci in women with BRCA1 mutations. To assess mechanisms of E2F3 deregulation in ovarian or tubal carcinogenesis, we studied E2F3 and its two isoforms E2F3a and E2F3b in wild-type ovarian carcinomas and ovarian carcinomas associated with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. The expression of E2F3b, but not E2F3a, was correlated with the expression of BRCA1 in all three genetic groups. In primary cultures of FTE from women with BRCA1 mutation or wildtype for BRCA1 and BRCA2, siRNA-induced BRCA1 deficiency led to increased E2F3b but not E2F3a expression. Our results suggest that E2F3b and BRCA1 are functionally connected, and BRCA1 haploinsufficiency in normal FTE may lead to up-regulation of E2F3b and increased proliferation before the development of intraepithelial neoplasia. These data support that E2F3b up-regulation is an important preneoplastic event in FTE from BRCA1 mutation carriers. PMID:22887716

Smith, Na Lu; Welcsh, Piri; Press, Joshua Z; Agnew, Kathy J; Garcia, Rochelle; Swisher, Elizabeth M

2012-11-01

329

Production of classical swine fever virus envelope glycoprotein E2 as recombinant polyhedra in baculovirus-infected silkworm larvae.  

PubMed

Although, classical swine fever virus (CSFV) envelope glycoprotein E2 subunit vaccine has been developed using the baculovirus expression system, the expression of viral antigens in baculovirus-infected insect cells is often ineffective. Therefore, an alternative strategy to the traditional baculovirus expression system is needed that is more productive and effective. Here, we report a novel strategy for the large-scale production of a CSFV E2 in the larvae of a baculovirus-infected silkworm, Bombyx mori. We constructed a recombinant B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) that expressed recombinant polyhedra together with the N-terminal 179 amino acids of CSFV E2 (E2?C). BmNPV-E2?C-infected silkworm larvae expressed native polyhedrin and approximately 44-kDa fusion protein that was detected using both anti-polyhedrin and anti-CSFV E2 antibodies. Electron and confocal microscopy both demonstrated that the recombinant polyhedra contained both the fusion protein and native polyhedrin were morphologically normal and contained CSFV E2?C. The CSFV E2?C antigen produced in BmNPV-E2?C-infected silkworm larvae reached 0.68 mg/ml of hemolymph and 0.53 mg/larva at 6-days post-infection. Six-week-old female BALB/c mice that were immunized with the E2?C protein purified from solubilized recombinant polyhedra elicited CSFV E2 antibodies, which indicated that the CSFV E2?C protein from recombinant polyhedra was immunogenic. The virus neutralization test showed that the serum from mice that were treated with E2?C protein from recombinant polyhedra contained significant levels of virus neutralization activity. These results demonstrate that this strategy can be used for the large-scale production of CSFV E2 antigen. PMID:21706129

Lee, Kwang Sik; Sohn, Mi Ri; Kim, Bo Yeon; Choo, Young Moo; Woo, Soo Dong; Yoo, Sung Sik; Je, Yeon Ho; Choi, Jae Young; Roh, Jong Yul; Koo, Hyun Na; Jin, Byung Rae

2012-03-01

330

Dose-dependent regulation of the early promoter of human papillomavirus type 18 by the viral E2 protein.  

PubMed Central

The activity of the E6/E7 promoter of genital human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is positively and negatively modulated by a complex interplay between a variety of cellular transcription factors and the virally encoded E2 protein. The long control region of genital HPVs contains four E2 binding sites in conserved positions, two of which are very close to the TATA box. Binding of E2 to these two sites has been shown to repress the promoter. To carefully analyze the effect of E2 on the activity of the early promoter P105 of HPV18, we used an in vitro transcription system, which allowed titration of the amount of E2 protein. We found that low amounts of HPV18 E2 stimulated the promoter, whereas increasing amounts resulted in promoter repression. When the affinity was analyzed, it became obvious that E2 bound with highest affinity to E2 binding site 4 (BS-4), located 500 bp upstream of the promoter. The promoter most proximal binding site (BS-1) was the weakest site. Transient transfection assays confirmed that small amounts of HPV type (HPV18) E2 and also of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1) E2 were able to activate the P105, which was dependent on an intact BS-4. The positive role of BS-4 was also obvious at higher E2 concentrations, since mutation of BS-4 enhanced repression. In contrast to HPV18 E2, BPV1 E2 bound better to BS-1 and, in correlation, was able to more strongly repress the P105 in vivo. Our results suggest a dose-dependent regulation of the HPV18 E6/E7 promoter by E2 due to variable occupancy of its binding sites, which have antagonizing effects on the activity of the E6/E7 promoter.

Steger, G; Corbach, S

1997-01-01

331

4-hexylresorcinol stimulates the differentiation of SCC-9 cells through the suppression of E2F2, E2F3 and Sp3 expression and the promotion of Sp1 expression.  

PubMed

The dormancy-inducing factors of bacteria inhibit tumor cell growth. In the present study, we evaluated the antitumor effects of the dormancy-inducing factor 4-hexylresorcinol (4-HR) using real-time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES) in SCC-9 cells (tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells). Treatment with 4-HR suppressed the growth of SCC-9 cells in a dose-dependent manner. We used a DNA microarray to identify genes that showed a significant change in expression upon 4-HR administration in SCC-9 cells. Among the differentially expressed genes, the protein expression of several cell proliferation related factors, including E2F1, E2F2, E2F3, E2F4, E2F5, E2F6, Sp1 and Sp3, were determined by western blot analyses. Treatment with 4-HR strongly suppressed E2F2 and slightly suppressed E2F3 but did not change the expression of E2F1, E2F4, E2F5 and E2F6 relative to no treatment. Furthermore, 4-HR increased Sp1 expression in a dose-dependent manner and decreased Sp3 expression. Therefore, the ratio of Sp1 to Sp3, an important driving force of epithelial cell differentiation, was drastically increased. Consistent with this observation, 4-HR increased the expression of the epithelial cell differentiation markers involucrin and keratin 10. Together, our results indicate that 4-HR induces the differentiation of SCC-9 via the modulation of the E2F-mediated signaling pathway. PMID:22664654

Kim, Seong-Gon; Kim, An-Sook; Jeong, Jae-Hwan; Choi, Je-Yong; Kweon, Haeyong

2012-08-01

332

E2F7 represses a network of oscillating cell cycle genes to control S-phase progression  

PubMed Central

E2F transcription factors are known to be important for timely activation of G1/S and G2/M genes required for cell cycle progression, but transcriptional mechanisms for deactivation of cell cycle-regulated genes are unknown. Here, we show that E2F7 is highly expressed during mid to late S-phase, occupies promoters of G1/S-regulated genes and represses their transcription. ChIP-seq analysis revealed that E2F7 binds preferentially to genomic sites containing the TTCCCGCC motif, which closely resembles the E2F consensus site. We identified 89 target genes that carry E2F7 binding sites close to the transcriptional start site and that are directly repressed by short-term induction of E2F7. Most of these target genes are known to be activated by E2Fs and are involved in DNA replication, metabolism and DNA repair. Importantly, induction of E2F7 during G0-G1/S resulted in S-phase arrest and DNA damage, whereas expression of E2F7 during G2/M failed to disturb cell cycle progression. These findings provide strong evidence that E2F7 directly controls the downswing of oscillating G1/S genes during S-phase progression.

Westendorp, Bart; Mokry, Michal; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J.A.; Holstege, Frank C.P.; Cuppen, Edwin; de Bruin, Alain

2012-01-01

333

E2-25K/Hip-2 regulates caspase-12 in ER stress-mediated A? neurotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Amyloid-? (A?) neurotoxicity is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously we found that E2-25K/Hip-2, an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, mediates A? neurotoxicity. Here, we report that E2-25K/Hip-2 modulates caspase-12 activity via the ubiquitin/proteasome system. Levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–resident caspase-12 are strongly up-regulated in the brains of AD model mice, where the enzyme colocalizes with E2-25K/Hip-2. A? increases expression of E2-25K/Hip-2, which then stabilizes caspase-12 protein by inhibiting proteasome activity. This increase in E2-25K/Hip-2 also induces proteolytic activation of caspase-12 through its ability to induce calpainlike activity. Knockdown of E2-25K/Hip-2 expression suppresses neuronal cell death triggered by ER stress, and thus caspase-12 is required for the E2-25K/Hip-2–mediated cell death. Finally, we find that E2-25K/Hip-2–deficient cortical neurons are resistant to A? toxicity and to the induction of ER stress and caspase-12 expression by A?. E2-25K/Hip-2 is thus an essential upstream regulator of the expression and activation of caspase-12 in ER stress–mediated A? neurotoxicity.

Song, Sungmin; Lee, Huikyong; Kam, Tae-In; Tai, Mei Ling; Lee, Joo-Yong; Noh, Jee-Yeon; Shim, Sang Mi; Seo, Soo Jung; Kong, Young-Yun; Nakagawa, Toshiyuki; Chung, Chul-Woong; Choi, Deog-Young; Oubrahim, Hammou; Jung, Yong-Keun

2008-01-01

334

Api5 Contributes to E2F1 Control of the G1/S Cell Cycle Phase Transition  

PubMed Central

Background The E2f transcription factor family has a pivotal role in controlling the cell fate in general, and in particular cancer development, by regulating the expression of several genes required for S phase entry and progression through the cell cycle. It has become clear that the transcriptional activation of at least one member of the family, E2F1, can also induce apoptosis. An appropriate balance of positive and negative regulators appears to be necessary to modulate E2F1 transcriptional activity, and thus cell fate. Methodology/Principal Findings In this report, we show that Api5, already known as a regulator of E2F1 induced-apoptosis, is required for the E2F1 transcriptional activation of G1/S transition genes, and consequently, for cell cycle progression and cell proliferation. Api5 appears to be a cell cycle regulated protein. Removal of Api5 reduces cyclin E, cyclin A, cyclin D1 and Cdk2 levels, causing G1 cell cycle arrest and cell cycle delay. Luciferase assays established that Api5 directly regulates the expression of several G1/S genes under E2F1 control. Using protein/protein and protein/DNA immunoprecipitation studies, we demonstrate that Api5, even if not physically interacting with E2F1, contributes positively to E2F1 transcriptional activity by increasing E2F1 binding to its target promoters, through an indirect mechanism. Conclusion/Significance The results described here support the pivotal role of cell cycle related proteins, that like E2F1, may act as tumor suppressors or as proto-oncogenes during cancer development, depending on the behavior of their positive and negative regulators. According to our findings, Api5 contributes to E2F1 transcriptional activation of cell cycle-associated genes by facilitating E2F1 recruitment onto its target promoters and thus E2F1 target gene transcription.

Garcia-Jove Navarro, Marina; Basset, Celine; Arcondeguy, Tania; Touriol, Christian; Perez, Guillaume; Prats, Herve; Lacazette, Eric

2013-01-01

335

Estrogens and menopause: pharmacology of conjugated equine estrogens and their potential role in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's.  

PubMed

Menopause marks the start of a new phase in a woman's life that is associated with a decrease in circulating estrogen levels. Although the average age of women has increased from 50 to nearly 85 years, the average age at menopause has remained essentially constant at 50 years. Thus, women now spend nearly a third of their lives in an estrogen deficient state. This normal aging process in women is associated with increasing health problems such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) has been shown to play an important beneficial role in the health and well being of postmenopausal women. Several estrogen preparations are available and among these conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) are most frequently used. The drug CEE, is a complex natural urinary extract of pregnant mare's urine and contains at least 10 estrogens in their sulfate ester form and these are the ring B saturated estrogens: estrone (E(1)), 17beta-estradiol (17beta-E(2)), 17alpha-estradiol (17alpha-E(2)), and the ring B unsaturated estrogens equilin (Eq), 17beta-dihydroequilin (17beta-Eq), 17alpha-dihydroequilin (17alpha-Eq), equilenin (Eqn), 17beta-dihydroequilenin (17beta-Eqn), 17alpha-dihydroequilenin (17alpha-Eqn), and Delta(8)-estrone (Delta(8)-E(1)). All of these estrogens in their unconjugated form are biologically active and can interact with recombinant human estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta) with 17beta-estradiol and 17beta-dihydroequilin having the highest affinity for both receptors. A number of the ring B unsaturated estrogens had nearly twofold higher affinity for the ERbeta. The pharmacokinetics of these estrogens in postmenopausal women indicate that the unconjugated estrogens compared to their sulfated forms are cleared more rapidly. The 17-keto estrogens are metabolized to the more potent 17beta-reduced products which are cleared at a slower rate. In postmenopausal women, the extent of 17beta-activation is much higher with the ring B unsaturated estrogens than with ring B saturated estrogens. Oxidized LDL and oxidative stress are thought to contribute to both atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative disorders. Neurons in particular are at a high risk from damage resulting from oxidative stress. In vivo and in vitro studies indicate that the oxidation of LDL isolated from postmenopausal women was inhibited differently by various estrogens and other antioxidants. The unique ring B unsaturated estrogens were the most potent while the red wine component t-resveratrol was the least potent. Studies were designed to explore the cellular and molecular mechanisms that may be involved in the neuroprotective effects of CEE components. The data indicate that the neurotoxic effects of oxidized LDL and glutamate can be inhibited by various estrogens, with the ring B unsaturated estrogens being the most active. These effects are involved in the inhibition of DNA fragmentation and up-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and down-regulation of pro-apoptotic protein Bax. These combined data suggest that some of the neuroprotective benefits associated with long-term estrogen therapy may occur by the above mechanism(s). Because estrogens such as the Delta(8)-estrogens are relatively less feminizing than the classical estrogen 17beta-estradiol, they may be important in the development of more neuro-specific estrogens that will be useful in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson disease, in both men and women. PMID:12943738

Bhavnani, Bhagu R

2003-06-01

336

Modeling method and preliminary model of Asteroid Toutatis from Chang'E-2 optical images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shape modeling is fundamental to the analysis of dynamic environment and motion around asteroid. Chang'E-2 successfully made a flyby of Asteroid 4179 Toutatis and obtained plenty of high-resolution images during the mission. In this paper, the modeling method and preliminary model of Asteroid Toutatis are discussed. First, the optical images obtained by Chang'E-2 are analyzed. Terrain and silhouette features in images are described. Then, the modeling method based on previous radar model and preliminary information from optical images is proposed. A preliminary polyhedron model of Asteroid Toutatis is established. Finally, the spherical harmonic coefficients of Asteroid Toutatis based on the polyhedron model are obtained. Some parameters of model are analyzed and compared. Although the model proposed in this paper is only a preliminary model, this work offers a valuable reference for future high-resolution models.

Li, Xiang-Yu; Qiao, Dong

2014-05-01

337

Astro-E2 mission: the third X-ray observatory in the 21st century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astro-E2 will be the fifth in a series of Japanese X-ray astronomy satellites, following Hakucho, Tenma, Ginga and ASCA. This mission is a re-challenge of the Astro-E mission, which the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) failed to place on a stable orbit on February 10, 2000, and the Astro-E2 satellite will be basically identical to the Astro-E satellite. It will be an international X-ray astronomy observatory characterized by the superior energy resolution of the X-ray micro-calorimeter (XRS) placed at the focal plane of the X-ray telescope (XRT) and by the wide band spectroscopy with the CCD cameras (XIS) + XRTs system and the hard X-ray detector (HXD). It is now being developed in an extensive collaboration between scientists from Japan and the United States.

Inoue, Hajime

2003-03-01

338

Second-order Born calculation of coplanar symmetric (e, 2e) process on Mg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The second-order distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) method is employed to investigate the triple differential cross sections (TDCS) of coplanar doubly symmetric (e, 2e) collisions for magnesium at excess energies of 6 eV–20 eV. Comparing with the standard first-order DWBA calculations, the inclusion of the second-order Born term in the scattering amplitude improves the degree of agreement with experiments, especially for backward scattering region of TDCS. This indicates that the present second-order Born term is capable to give a reasonable correction to DWBA model in studying coplanar symmetric (e, 2e) problems of two-valence-electron target in low energy range.

Zhang, Yong-Zhi; Wang, Yang; Zhou, Ya-Jun

2014-06-01

339

Mutational analysis of a virulence locus in the E2 glycoprotein gene of Sindbis virus.  

PubMed

The substitution of arginine for serine at position 114 of glycoprotein E2 in several biological and recombinant Sindbis virus mutants was shown previously to attenuate the virus for neonatal mice and also to accelerate virus penetration into BHK cells. To further examine the genetically linked effects on both virus penetration into cultured cells and pathogenesis in vivo, mutants containing each of 16 different amino acid coding changes at this position were generated by site-directed mutagenesis of a full-length cDNA clone of the Sindbis virus genome. Viable virus was recovered following transfection of RNA transcripts from 14 of the clones. Phenotypic analysis of these virus mutants revealed that specific amino acid residues affected either the pathogenesis or penetration phenotype independently or both phenotypes simultaneously. Thus, both the position of a mutation within the E2 sequence and the particular amino acid encoded at that position are important determinants of the mutant phenotypes. PMID:1656101

Polo, J M; Johnston, R E

1991-11-01

340

Estrogen maintains trabecular bone volume in rats not only by suppression of bone resorption but also by stimulation of bone formation.  

PubMed Central

Estrogen is generally considered to maintain bone mass through suppression of bone resorption. We have previously demonstrated that administration of pharmacologic doses of estrogen increases bone formation in ovary-intact rats. To assess the effects of physiological concentrations of estrogen on bone formation, estrogen was administered to ovariectomized rats in which bone resorption was suppressed by the bisphosphonate 3-amino-1-hydroxypropylidene-1-bisphosphonate (AHPrBP). Animals receiving exogenous 17 beta-estradiol (E2) (1, 10, and 100 micrograms/kg daily for 17 d) showed a dose-dependent increase in trabecular bone volume of 1.9, 25.8, and 43.6%, respectively, compared with those rats treated with AHPrBP alone. The increase in bone volume was associated with an increase in bone formation in E2-treated animals, in which bone resorption had been almost completely suppressed by AHPrBP. Neither ovariectomy, AHPrBP, nor E2 treatment had a significant effect on the volume or rate of formation of cortical bone. Thus, the increased bone resorption, which is a consequence of estrogen-deficiency, entrains increased bone formation, which masks a simultaneous reduction in estrogen-dependent bone formation. Therefore, in addition to the nonspecific effect of estrogen to depress formation via coupling, we have identified a specific effect of estrogen to increase formation independent of coupling. Thus it appears that estrogen maintains bone volume not only through inhibition of bone resorption, but also through stimulation of bone formation. Images

Chow, J; Tobias, J H; Colston, K W; Chambers, T J

1992-01-01

341

Reproductive and thyroid hormone profiles in captive Western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) after a period of brumation.  

PubMed

Seasonal fluctuation in serum concentrations of sex steroid (testosterone [T] and 17beta-estradiol [E(2)]) and thyroid (triiodothyronine [T(3)] and thyroxine [T(4)]) hormones was determined in captive Western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis). Samples were collected from male and female breeding pairs weekly for a 4-month period after their emergence from artificial brumation. Circulating levels of E(2) corresponded with the expected vitellogenic and ovulatory cycles in females, and surprisingly, E(2) in males followed a similar pattern, indicating a possible role in breeding behavior. Serum T was elevated in male lizards for the first 6 weeks after emergence from brumation, possibly related to an increase in the onset of active spermatogenesis. Thyroid hormones showed little cyclical activity throughout the breeding period, with the exception of small increases of T(3) at weeks 8 and 16, possibly implying an active role of this hormone with ovulation in females. Overall, these baseline hormone data are not only useful in developing this animal as a laboratory reptile model for assessment of endocrine-mediated toxicity, but also of value for understanding herpetological endocrinology and for application in the conservation of threatened species. Zoo Biol 27:36-48, 2008. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19360602

Brasfield, Sandra M; Talent, Larry G; Janz, David M

2008-01-01

342

Histopathology as a tool for the evaluation of endocrine disruption in zebrafish (Danio rerio).  

PubMed

The importance of histology as a tool in the evaluation of endocrine disruption in fish depends on the choice and interpretation of appropriate endpoints, as is illustrated by the analysis of the effects of exposure to the estrogen 17beta-estradiol (E2) and the nonaromatizable androgen 17-methyldihydrotestosterone (MDHT). The E2 led to the disappearance of vitellogenic oocytes in the ovary and an increased area of relatively large, eosinophilic cells in the testis, which were identified as spermatogonia under high-power magnification; this was a relative increase, as was shown by histomorphometry, because of a decreased size of spermatogenic cysts and a relative decrease of spermatocyte cysts. The E2 also induced an accumulation of acidophilic fluid in vessels and interstitial spaces, confirmed by immunohistochemistry as vitellogenin, and basophilia in the liver also associated with the production of vitellogenin. The MDHT induced activation of Sertoli cells in the testis and a decreased presence of vitellogenic oocytes and a reduced growth of previtellogenic oocytes in the ovary. These observations indicate the advantages of examining multiple organ systems on whole-body sections and the application of adequate magnifications. Inclusion of additional techniques such as morphometry and immunohistochemistry is valuable to further uncover insidious effects of endocrine disruptors. PMID:12685728

van der Ven, Leo T M; Wester, Piet W; Vos, Jeff G

2003-04-01

343

G1\\/S Transition and the RbE2F Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The G1\\/S transition appears central to the commitment to further cell division or differentiation\\u000a in eukaryotic cells. The highly regulated G1\\/S transition requires the concerted action of specific cyclin-CDK\\u000a kinases on specific target proteins. In plants as in animals, the Rb-E2F pathway represents the major target,\\u000a its activation triggers transcription of a battery of genes involved in cell cycle control, DNA

Wen-Hui Shen

344

Influence of divalent metal ions on E2-induced ER pathway in goldfish ( Carassius auratus) hepatocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal ions existing in the environment could influence the estrogen pathway in aquatic animal, but the detailed mechanism is still delusive. We here showed that in male Carassius auratus hepatocytes, copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd), did not directly induce vitellogenin (VTG) expression. Interestingly, co-exposure with Cd2+ (or Cu2+) and 17-?-estradiol (E2) greatly increased the VTG level, comparing with single treatment

Ziwei Chang; Ming Lu; Keun Woo Lee; Beom-Seok Oh; Min-Ji Bae; Jang-Su Park

2011-01-01

345

Inhibition of Cancer Cell Proliferation and Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis by Scutellaria Baicalensis1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scutellaria baicalensis is a widely used Chinese herbal medicine that has been used historically in anti-inflammatory and anticancer therapy. The purpose of this study is to verify its anticancer activity on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in vitro and in vivo and to investigate its effect on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and

David Y. Zhang; Josephine Wu; Fei Ye; Li Xue; Shiquan Jiang; Jizu Yi; Wandi Zhang; Huachen Wei; Max Sung; Wayne Wang; Xiaoping Li

2003-01-01

346

Prostaglandin-E2 Is a Potent Inhibitor of Human Interleukin 12 Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary During human immunodeficiency virus infection and allergic diseases, characterized by a dominant T helper (Th) 2 response, overproduction of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is observed. In this paper we studied the effect of PGE2 on interleukin (IL)-12 synthesis, because this cytokine has been described to be essential in induction of Thl responses. IL-12 synthesis was induced in monocytes that were

Leonie C. M. Boeije; Ruud J. T. Smeenk; John Wijdenes; Lucien A. Aarden; Boulevard A-Fleming

1995-01-01

347

E2/M1 ratio of the N to Delta transition in a modified Skyrme model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I use a chiral effective Lagrangian to find the E2/M1 ratio. This ratio is a measure of the deformation of the nucleon. The Lagrangian is a modified Skyrme model (1). Its construction is guided by chiral symmetry and the symmetries of QCD, which dictates the addition of the Wess-Zumino term. The current is quantized using collective coordinates (2). I find the ratio to be - .118%, which is smaller than most other models.

Back, Anthony Randolph

1997-08-01

348

Subdivision of the PestivirusGenus Based on Envelope Glycoprotein E2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventionally, the genusPestivirusof the familyFlaviviridaehas been divided into bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), and border disease virus (BDV). To date, BDV and BVDV have been isolated from different species, whereas CSFV seems to be restricted to swine. Pestiviruses are structurally and antigenically closely related. Envelope glycoprotein E2 is the most immunogenic and most variable protein

P. A. van Rijn; H. G. P. van Gennip; C. H. Leendertse; C. J. M. Bruschke; D. J. Paton; R. J. M. Moormann; J. T. van Oirschot

1997-01-01

349

E2F Repression by C\\/EBP? Is Required for Adipogenesis and Granulopoiesis In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The C\\/EBP? transcription factor is required for differentiation of adipocytes and neutrophil granulocytes, and controls cellular proliferation in vivo. To address the molecular mechanisms of C\\/EBP? action, we have identified C\\/EBP? mutants defective in repression of E2F-dependent transcription and found them to be impaired in their ability to suppress cellular proliferation, and to induce adipocyte differentiation in vitro. Using targeted

Bo T. Porse; Thomas Å. Pedersen; Xiufeng Xu; Bo Lindberg; Ulla M. Wewer; Lennart Friis-Hansen; Claus Nerlov

2001-01-01

350

Electrophile-Modified Lipoic Derivatives of PDC-E2 Elicits Anti-mitochondrial Antibody Reactivity  

PubMed Central

Our laboratory has hypothesized that xenobiotic modification of the native lipoyl moiety of the major mitochondrial autoantigen, the E2 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2), may lead to loss of self-tolerance in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). This thesis is based on the finding of readily detectable levels of immunoreactivity of PBC sera against extensive panels of protein microarrays containing mimics of the inner lipoyl domain of PDC-E2 and subsequent quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). Importantly, we have demonstrated that murine immunization with one such mimic, 2-octynoic acid coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA), induces antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) and cholangitis. Based upon these data, we have focused on covalent modifications of the lipoic acid disulfide ring and subsequent analysis of such xenobiotics coupled to a 15mer of PDC-E2 for immunoreactivity against a broad panel of sera from patients with PBC and controls. Our results demonstrate that AMA-positive PBC sera demonstrate marked reactivity against 6,8-bis(acetylthio)octanoic acid, implying that chemical modification of the lipoyl ring, i.e. disruption of the S-S disulfide, renders lipoic acid to its reduced form that will promote xenobiotic modification. This observation is particularly significant in light of the function of the lipoyl1oiety in electron transport of which the catalytic disulfide constantly opens and closes and, thus, raises the intriguing thesis that common electrophilic agents, i.e. acetaminophen or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may lead to xenobiotic modification in genetically susceptible individuals that results in the generation of AMAs and ultimately clinical PBC.

Naiyanetr, Phornnop; Butler, Jeffrey D.; Meng, Liping; Pfeiff, Janice; Kenny, Thomas P.; Guggenheim, Kathryn G.; Reiger, Roman; Lam, Kit; Kurth, Mark J.; Ansari, Aftab. A.; Coppel, Ross L.; Lopez-Hoyos, Marcos; Gershwin, M. Eric; Leung, Patrick S.C.

2011-01-01

351

Electrophile-modified lipoic derivatives of PDC-E2 elicits anti-mitochondrial antibody reactivity.  

PubMed

Our laboratory has hypothesized that xenobiotic modification of the native lipoyl moiety of the major mitochondrial autoantigen, the E2 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2), may lead to loss of self-tolerance in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). This thesis is based on the finding of readily detectable levels of immunoreactivity of PBC sera against extensive panels of protein microarrays containing mimics of the inner lipoyl domain of PDC-E2 and subsequent quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). Importantly, we have demonstrated that murine immunization with one such mimic, 2-octynoic acid coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA), induces anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) and cholangitis. Based upon these data, we have focused on covalent modifications of the lipoic acid disulfide ring and subsequent analysis of such xenobiotics coupled to a 15mer of PDC-E2 for immunoreactivity against a broad panel of sera from patients with PBC and controls. Our results demonstrate that AMA-positive PBC sera demonstrate marked reactivity against 6,8-bis(acetylthio)octanoic acid, implying that chemical modification of the lipoyl ring, i.e. disruption of the S-S disulfide, renders lipoic acid to its reduced form that will promote xenobiotic modification. This observation is particularly significant in light of the function of the lipoyl moiety in electron transport of which the catalytic disulfide constantly opens and closes and, thus, raises the intriguing thesis that common electrophilic agents, i.e. acetaminophen or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may lead to xenobiotic modification in genetically susceptible individuals that results in the generation of AMAs and ultimately clinical PBC. PMID:21763105

Naiyanetr, Phornnop; Butler, Jeffrey D; Meng, Liping; Pfeiff, Janice; Kenny, Thomas P; Guggenheim, Kathryn G; Reiger, Roman; Lam, Kit; Kurth, Mark J; Ansari, Aftab A; Coppel, Ross L; López-Hoyos, Marcos; Gershwin, M Eric; Leung, Patrick S C

2011-11-01

352

Prostaglandin e 2 : actions on the circular and longitudinal contractions of the canine colon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 on the circular and longitudinal contractions of the canine colon was studied in chronic conditions. A mechanical transducer\\u000a capable of recording simultaneously the variations of length in two perpendicular directions at 90° to each other was developed\\u000a and implanted on the canine colon 10 cm distal to the ileocaecal junction. The recording sessions started

T. Wittmann; O. Sanches; A. Lambert; G. Buliard; J. F. Grenier

1997-01-01

353

Homometallic and Heterometallic Complexes of (E)-2-(E)-3-(hydroxyimino)butan-ylidene)hydrazinecarbothioamide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coordination characteristic of diacetylmonoxime thiosemicarbazone {IUPAC name (E)-2-(E)-3-(hydroxyimino)butan-2- ylidene)-hydrazinecarbothioamide} (H2L) towards Ag(I), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) individually and in combination with Ag(1) has been studied. The prepared complexes are characterized by microanalysis, thermal, magnetic and spectral (IR, H NMR, ESR, and electronic) studies. Ag(1) plays an important role in the complex formation. The ligand chelates as: i) neutral

Ahmed A. El-Asmy; M. A. Abdallah; Sh. A. Mandour; K. M. Ibrahim

2010-01-01

354

Patients with adenomatous polyps and carcinomas have increased colonic mucosal prostaglandin E2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colorectal carcinoma in humans and animal models is associated with increased synthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). PGE2 synthesis was measured in normal and neoplastic human colorectal mucosa to investigate its role in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Paired mucosal biopsy specimens for PGE2 synthesis and histological examination were obtained during 39 diagnostic colonoscopies. Twelve control patients in whom colonoscopies and histology were

S Pugh; G A Thomas

1994-01-01

355

Modulation of pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures by prostaglandin E 2 receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) facilitates the seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), but the role of PGE2 receptors (EPs) in the development of seizures has not been evaluated to date. In the current study we investigated whether selective EP ligands alter PTZ-induced seizures in adult male Wistar rats by electrographic methods. Selective antagonists for EP1 (SC-19220, 10 nmol,

M. S. Oliveira; A. F. Furian; L. M. Rambo; L. R. Ribeiro; L. F. F. Royes; J. Ferreira; J. B. Calixto; C. F. Mello

2008-01-01

356

Consistent interpretation of B(E2) values and g factors in deformed nuclei  

SciTech Connect

A simple phenomenological model is discussed that simultaneously accounts for the saturation of B(E2; 0{sub 1}{sup +}{yields} 2{sub 1}{sup +}) values and the newly recognized near constancy of g(2{sub 1}{sup +}) factor values in deformed nuclei. The model invokes reduced effective contributions to these observables from the valence neutrons and protons. Empirical evidence supporting this ansatz comes from recently extracted proton-neutron interaction strengths.

Zhang Jingye [Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Casten, R.F.; McCutchan, E.A. [Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Wolf, A.; Berant, Z. [Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Nuclear Research Center Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Cakirli, R.B. [Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey); Zamfir, N. V. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

2006-03-15

357

Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC-E2) Performance Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been supporting development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) since 2006. A key element of the ASRG Project is providing life, reliability, and performance testing of the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC). For this purpose, four pairs of ASCs capable of operating to 850 C and designated with the model number ASC-E2, were delivered by Sunpower of Athens, OH, to GRC in 2010. The ASC-E2s underwent a series of tests that included workmanship vibration testing, performance mapping, and extended operation. Workmanship vibration testing was performed following fabrication of each convertor to verify proper hardware build. Performance mapping consisted of operating each convertor at various conditions representing the range expected during a mission. Included were conditions representing beginning-of-mission (BOM), end-of-mission (EOM), and fueling. This same series of tests was performed by Sunpower prior to ASC-E2 delivery. The data generated during the GRC test were compared to performance before delivery. Extended operation consisted of a 500-hour period of operation with conditions maintained at the BOM point. This was performed to demonstrate steady convertor performance following performance mapping. Following this initial 500-hour period, the ASC-E2s will continue extended operation, controller development and special durability testing, during which the goal is to accumulate tens of thousands of hours of operation. Data collected during extended operation will support reliability analysis. Performance data from these tests is summarized in this paper.

Oriti, Salvatore; Wilson, Scott

2011-01-01

358

Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC-E2) Performance Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been supporting development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) since 2006. A key element of the ASRG Project is providing life, reliability, and performance testing of the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC). For this purpose, four pairs of ASCs capable of operating to 850 C and designated with the model number ASC-E2, were delivered by Sunpower of Athens, Ohio, to GRC in 2010. The ASC-E2s underwent a series of tests that included workmanship vibration testing, performance mapping, and extended operation. Workmanship vibration testing was performed following fabrication of each convertor to verify proper hardware build. Performance mapping consisted of operating each convertor at various conditions representing the range expected during a mission. Included were conditions representing beginning-of-mission (BOM), end-of-mission (EOM), and fueling. This same series of tests was performed by Sunpower prior to ASC-E2 delivery. The data generated during the GRC test were compared to performance before delivery. Extended operation consisted of a 500-hr period of operation with conditions maintained at the BOM point. This was performed to demonstrate steady convertor performance following performance mapping. Following this initial 500-hr period, the ASC-E2s will continue extended operation, controller development and special durability testing, during which the goal is to accumulate tens of thousands of hours of operation. Data collected during extended operation will support reliability analysis. Performance data from these tests is summarized in this paper.

Oriti, Salvatore; Wilson, Scott

2011-01-01

359

Cardiovascular effects of prostaglandin F 2 a and prostaglandin E 2 in Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known of the cardiovascular functions of prostaglandins in non-mammalian vertebrates. There are indications that prostaglandins may have a function in haemostasis by constricting blood vessels in filament arteries in the fish gill after injury. Our aim was to examine the cardiovascular effect of the prostaglandins F2! (PGF2!) and E2 (PGE2) with emphasis on branchial circulation. Intra-arterial injections of

K.-O. Stensløkken; L. Sundin; G. Nilsson

2002-01-01

360

Cardiovascular effects of prostaglandin F2a and prostaglandin E2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known of the cardiovascular functions of prostaglandins in non-mammalian vertebrates. There are indications that prostaglandins may have a function in haemostasis by constricting blood vessels in filament arteries in the fish gill after injury. Our aim was to ex- amine the cardiovascular effect of the prostaglandins F2a (PGF2a )a nd E 2 (PGE2) with emphasis on branchial circulation.

L. Sundin